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Title: Civilization of the Indian Natives - or, a Brief View of the Friendly Conduct of William Penn - Towards Them in the Early Settlement of Pennsylvania
Author: Jackson, Halliday
Language: English
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[Transcriber’s Note:

The corrections in the errata on page 120 have been incorporated into
the original.]



CIVILIZATION

OF THE

INDIAN NATIVES;

OR,

A Brief View

OF THE FRIENDLY CONDUCT

OF

WILLIAM PENN

TOWARDS THEM

IN THE EARLY SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA;

_The subsequent care of the Society of Friends in endeavouring to
promote peace and friendship with them by pacific measures_;

AND

_A concise narrative of the proceedings of the Yearly Meeting of
Friends, of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and parts adjacent, since the
year 1795, in promoting their improvement_

AND GRADUAL CIVILIZATION.

BY HALLIDAY JACKSON.

“And they shall build the old wastes, they shall raise up the former
desolations, and they shall repair the waste cities, the desolations of
many generations.”--_Isaiah_ lxi. 4.

[Illustration]

_PHILADELPHIA_: MARCUS T. C. GOULD, No. 6, NORTH EIGHTH STREET.

_NEW YORK_; ISAAC T. HOPPER, No. 420, PEARL STREET.

1830



ADVERTISEMENT.


Our readers have, no doubt, perused with satisfaction the numbers which
have appeared from time to time in this periodical, respecting the
Seneca Indians--their habits, superstitions, &c. The facts which these
articles embraced, were rendered the more interesting, by the late
difficulties which had been manifested between the United States, and
several southern and western tribes, upon the subject of their lands,
and the right by which they held them in possession.

Since the conclusion of these interesting numbers, we have been
favoured by the writer with a more enlarged and particular narration,
respecting the situation of the Indians, in the early settlement of
this country--in which a concise view is presented of the proceedings
of William Penn, in relation to them at the period of the first
settlement of Pennsylvania. A very particular description is also given
of the proceedings of the Yearly Meeting of Friends of Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, &c. touching the means adopted to increase their happiness,
and improve their moral and physical condition. Many speeches, highly
characteristic and beautiful, delivered by distinguished chiefs, in
council, will be found interspersed through the narrative.

Having concluded, in our last number, the works of WILLIAM SHEWEN, we
think we cannot better occupy, for a few weeks, the pages heretofore
devoted to that work, than by appropriating them to the interesting
subject, of which the above is an outline, and which the writer has
kindly given us permission to publish. It may then be preserved in the
same manner as the works just completed, and will form a small but
valuable book for all classes.



PREFACE.


Believing that some account of the measures pursued by the Society of
Friends, towards the Indian natives, may prove an auxiliary in the
cause of humanity, and probably interest the serious and benevolent
mind in behalf of the aborigines of our country, whom we consider as
children of one universal parent, who is no respecter of persons, but
regards with equal care all nations, whether of a fair complexion or
a tawny skin; I am, therefore, induced to believe that every thing
relating to their history may prove interesting to posterity, when they
shall be told that such a race of men, who may then have passed away,
once inhabited this populous country. And having acquired considerable
knowledge of some of the Indian tribes, and of the progress some of
them have made in the arts of civilized life, I am induced to offer a
concise view of the friendly intercourse that has subsisted between
the society of Friends and the aborigines of our country, from the
time the illustrious William Penn, and some of his cotemporaries first
landed on the American shores, and exhibited to the world, the singular
spectacle of establishing a new model of government, amidst a mixture
of persons of different nations, and different civil and religious
opinions, surrounded by savage tribes of Indians, without recourse to
any coercive measures--which has since been the wonder and admiration
of mankind.

His great treaty, too, with the Indians, was also made without the
solemnity of an oath, and has been immortalized as the only treaty, so
made, that has never been broken.

In most of the histories, in which we can trace the character of the
Indian nations, we find them to abound either with romantic tales, or
scenes of cruelty and barbarity, calculated to excite prejudice in
the mind of the reader; but in this will be found the conciliating
language of peace and mutual friendship, and a disposition on the part
of the Indians, to exchange the tomahawk and scalping knife, for the
plough and the hoe, and peacefully betake themselves to the innocent
employments of the pastoral and agricultural life.

Although the author has spent but a small portion of time in a personal
residence among this people, in comparison with many others, yet he can
acknowledge, that the short time devoted to that service embraced some
of the happiest moments of his early life. For, although deprived of
the social comforts of society, and far removed from all the near and
tender connexions of his youthful days, yet from a full conviction of
the rectitude of the work, and the incalculable good, under the divine
blessing, that might finally result to that people, the wilderness was
often made as it were an Eden, and the desert as the garden of the
Lord. “Joy and gladness was found therein, thanksgiving, and the voice
of melody.”

During the author’s residence among the natives, as well as on several
visits since that period, he had a fair opportunity of noticing the
gradual improvement of the Indians, in some of the arts of civilized
life, by which he is enabled to furnish, he trusts, well authenticated
accounts of the benefits which have resulted to that people from the
benevolent exertions of the society of Friends. And, although these
exertions may appear to be limited in their operation towards a reform,
yet when we take into view the numerous tribes of Indians within and
circumjacent to the United States, there is reason to hope, that the
instruction already afforded to several tribes, and the advancement
they have made in some of the most useful arts of civilized life, will
have a stimulating influence on their more distant brethren.



A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE INDIANS, &c.


The benign spirit of the gospel, operating upon the benevolent mind of
that eminently distinguished character William Penn, induced him, at
the very commencement of the settlement of Pennsylvania, to cultivate,
by the exercise of gentleness, kindness, and the love of peace, a good
understanding with the natives; and in all his transactions with them,
by scrupulously adhering to the law of universal righteousness, which
dispenses justice to all, and infringes on the natural rights of none,
he pursued the best means of establishing harmony between them and the
new settlers, and thereby ensured their confidence and friendship.

In a letter which he sent them by his deputy, previous to his arrival
in America, dated Eighth month, 1681, he called their attention to
the existence of a supremely good, ALL-WISE BEING, and to his law
written in the heart, by which men are taught to love, help, and do
good, one to another; and briefly informed them respecting his grant
from the king, and assured them that he desired to enjoy it with their
love and consent, that they might always live together as neighbours
and friends. Then, in allusion to some of the other settlements on
this continent, which in too many instances having been marked with
injustice and oppression, were followed by melancholy and distressing
circumstances, he proceeded more at length to unfold to the natives
the motives and principles, by which he was actuated towards them,
adding: “The people I send are of the same mind, and if in any thing
any shall offend you, or your people, you shall have a full and speedy
satisfaction for the same, by an equal number of just men on both
sides, that by no means you may have just occasion of being offended
against them.”

In the year 1682, William Penn first arrived in this country, and
began to purchase land of the Indians, exemplifying the sincerity of
his previous declarations, by giving them full satisfaction for every
grant, accompanied with the best advice for promoting their comfort and
happiness.

Thus began that firm and lasting friendship with the natives, which
continued during the life of William Penn, and with the religious
society of which he was a member, for the space of seventy years; that
is, as long as the society retained sufficient influence, effectually
to interpose between the natives and the other inhabitants, so as to
prevent misunderstandings, or to redress such grievances as occurred.
A friendship which to this day remains unobliterated between the
society of Friends and the Indians who have knowledge of them, and is
a standing proof that the gentle and upright conduct inculcated by
the gospel, as exemplified in the practice of William Penn, is a far
more effectual means of preserving treaties inviolate, and insuring
the permanent enjoyment of reciprocal benefits, than the system of
violence, fraud, and oppression too frequently resorted to, on such
occasions.

By this memorable treaty between William Penn and the natives, the
parties mutually engaged to live together in peace and concord, as
brethren of the same universal parent; and according to Indian customs,
ratified the same by the usual token of a chain of friendship, which
was not to be broken, so long as the sun and moon endure.

William Penn had also many other conferences with the Indians, during
his residence in the country, some of which were of a religious nature;
and his conduct towards them was in general so engaging, the advice he
gave them so evidently for their advantage, and his regard to justice
so conspicuous, that he became greatly endeared to them: hence, the
name of Onas, by which they distinguished him, (and still do the
society of Friends,) has been transmitted from father to son, with much
veneration and esteem. That such was the fact, much might be advanced
as proof, which, with other circumstances in the subsequent behaviour
of this people, demonstrate not only their sense of gratitude, but
the extensive influence which justice, tempered by love, may have on
the untutored mind. It may, however, be proper to state, that in the
early settlement of Pennsylvania, when the country was almost an entire
wilderness, and producing little for human sustenance but a scanty
supply of natural fruits, and the wild animals of the forest, the new
settlers were exposed to much hardship and difficulty in obtaining
food--but their sufferings and difficulties in these respects, were
much alleviated by the attention and kindness of the natives, in
supplying their necessities; not only extending their beneficence to
those of the society of Friends, but generally to such as were under
the patronage of William Penn--thereby evincing towards them the
genuine spirit of hospitality--frequently visiting them in their houses.

In the course of events, the society of Friends becoming mostly
excluded from the proprietory agency to which the management of
Indian affairs had been chiefly committed, the trade with the Indians
became corrupted, and they were frequently imposed on in the sale of
their lands. Hence arose jealousies and a spirit of resentment in
some of the tribes, situated north-westward of the settled parts of
Pennsylvania. Hostilities ensued, and many of the inhabitants suffered,
in consequence of a war which continued for several years. But
notwithstanding the diminished influence which the society of Friends
now possessed in public transactions, and the negotiations of treaties
with the Indians, they did not relax their endeavours to improve every
opportunity of cultivating a friendly intercourse with them, and
promoting a peaceable disposition; for which purpose they formed an
association among themselves, denominated the “friendly association for
gaining and preserving peace with the Indians by pacific measures.”

To carry these benevolent views into operation, contributions to
the amount of several thousand pounds were raised, which (with the
governor’s permission) they applied in presents, and otherwise, in such
a discreet and well timed manner, as, together with their conciliating
demeanour and candour, which the Indians had often experienced, to have
a happy effect in disposing them to hearken to terms of peace; which
desirable event took place in 1775.

About the year 1791, at which time a contest subsisted between the
United States and several of the Indian tribes, a committee of the
Yearly Meeting of Friends, held in Philadelphia, appointed for the
purpose of representing the society during the recess of the Yearly
Meeting, believed it right to address congress on the occasion,
thereby showing the expediency of pursuing pacific measures, which had
heretofore been found salutary and effectual, in securing peace and
friendship with the original owners of the soil for the settlement
of existing differences: at the same time, suggesting that if their
religious instruction and civilization were rightly promoted, it
might essentially contribute to conciliate the minds of the Indians,
and restore harmony between the contending parties. Although the
representation was well received, the measures recommended were not
then adopted, and the calamities of war still continuing to prevail on
the western frontiers of the states, the Yearly Meeting held in 1792,
appointed a large committee to unite with the former, (commonly called
the meeting for Sufferings,) to deliberate on the momentous subject,
and, if practicable, to recommend such measures as would be most likely
to promote peace and friendship with the Indian tribes, and thereby
prevent the further effusion of human blood.

In the spring of 1793, deputies from several Indian nations visited
Philadelphia, with a view of forwarding an accommodation with the
United States, and government having agreed that a treaty should be
held in the Indian country near Detroit, the summer following, these
Indian deputies repeatedly urged, in several conferences, that some
Friends should attend the negotiations, stating, “that the nations they
represented had a special confidence in them as a people, who, from
their first settlement in America, had manifested a steady adherence
to the maintenance of peace and friendship with the natives.” In
accordance with the desire the society had long felt to promote peace,
the proposition was acceeded to, and six Friends were deputed to
accompany the commissioners appointed by government on this occasion,
after having obtained the president’s approbation.

These Friends were present at several interviews with the
commissioners, and about thirty Indian chiefs deputed from a grand
council composed of a numerous body of Indians, made up of many
different nations. They used what endeavours they could to prepare the
minds of the Indians for a calm and deliberate consideration of the
several subjects in controversy. But the Indians not being satisfied
with the conditions held out by the commissioners as the terms of
peace, the treaty proved abortive, and Friends were disappointed in
having an interview with the Indians in general council. They had,
however, reason to believe the Indians were generally made acquainted
with their friendly motives and sentiments, and that their ancient
attachment to the society was measurably renewed.

Again, in the summer of 1794, Friends were invited by the
representatives of the Six Nations to attend a treaty to be held at
Canandaigua, in the state of New York, and government approving the
same, four Friends were deputed for that service, by whom a suitable
address was sent, accompanied by some presents, as “a token (in
the language of the address,) for you the descendants of the first
inhabitants of this land of America, whom our forefathers found here
after they had crossed the great waters.”

About sixteen hundred Indians were assembled on this occasion,
and these Friends had an opportunity in their public councils, of
endeavouring to impress their minds with a sense of the advantages to
be derived from living in peace with one another, and with all men,
and with the expediency of living a more sober and quiet life, that
they might draw down the divine blessing upon them. These Indians still
retained a lively remembrance of the just and friendly treatment their
forefathers met with from the first founder of Pennsylvania, continued
to distinguish him by the name of Onas, and considered Friends as his
descendants, expressing that if _we_ deceived them they should no more
place confidence in mankind.

The disputed matters were now brought into a train of amicable
adjustment, and a firm peace (it was hoped) was about to be established
between these nations and the United States.

During this visit, many of the difficulties and sufferings to which the
Indians were subjected, were brought into view, and their situation
appeared loudly to claim the sympathy of those who had grown opulent
on the former inheritance of these poor declining people. Hence these
Friends suggested the propriety of the society of Friends, pursuing
some plan of rendering them more essential service than had hitherto
been rendered.

Again in 1795, a treaty was held with some of the western tribes of
Indians, and, although Friends did not send a deputation to attend
it, they nevertheless, forwarded a suitable address, calculated to
evince their love of peace, and ardent desire for the restoration of
harmony between the Indians and the government of the United States.
This letter was accompanied by suitable presents, directed to the
care of General Anthony Wayne, who informed Friends that they were
gratefully received by the Indians, and also, that there now was the
fairest prospect of a lasting peace and friendly intercourse between
the citizens of the United States, and the aborigines of America.

Peace accordingly once more took place between the United States
and the Indians, after many years of war and devastation; but this
cessation of hostilities was purchased, on behalf of the Indians, by
the relinquishment of a large tract of their country north-west of the
river Ohio, and they were also otherwise left in a poor and destitute
situation.

Previous to this period, several of the Indians’ chiefs had, in a
pathetic manner, applied to the society of Friends to remember them in
their distressed situation, and also to instruct them in the modes of
civilized life.

The following speech, from Gay-us-hu-ta, an ancient chief of the Seneca
nation, on the borders of Pennsylvania, is worthy of preserving on
record:

“Brothers, the sons of my beloved brother Onas--When I was young and
strong, our country was full of game, which the great spirit sent for
us to live upon. The lands which belonged to us, were extended far
beyond where we hunted. I, and the people of my nation, always had
plenty to eat, and always something to give to our friends when they
entered our cabins, and we rejoiced when they received it from us.
Hunting was then not tiresome. It was diversion--it was a pleasure.

“Brothers, when your fathers asked land of my nation, we gave it to
them--Gay-us-hu-ta was always among the first to say, “Give land to our
brother Onas, for he wants it--and he has always been a friend to Onas
and his children.”

“Brothers, your fathers saw Gay-us-hu-ta when he was young, when he had
not even thought of old age or of weakness--but you are too far off to
see him now--he is grown old, he is very old and feeble, and he wonders
at his own shadow, it has become so little. He has no children to take
care of him, and the game is driven away by the white people, so that
the young men must hunt all day to get game for themselves to eat--they
have nothing left for Gay-us-hu-ta. And it is not Gay-us-hu-ta only
that is become old and feeble; there yet remains about thirty men of
your old friends, who, unable to provide for themselves, or to help one
another, are become poor, and are hungry and naked.

“Brothers, Gay-us-hu-ta sends you a belt, which he received long ago
from your fathers, and a writing which he received but as yesterday
from one of you; by these you will remember him and the old friends of
your father’s in this nation. Look on this belt and this writing, and
if you remember the old friends of your fathers, consider their former
friendship and their present distress, and if the good spirit shall put
it into your hearts to comfort them in their old age, do not disregard
his counsel. We are men, and therefore need only tell you, that we
are old and feeble, and hungry, and naked, and that we have no other
friends but you, the children of our beloved brother Onas.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The following is an extract from a letter addressed by Cornplanter, a
chief of the same nation, to Friends in the year 1791.

“Brothers, the Seneca nation see that the great spirit intends they
should not continue to live by hunting, and they look round on every
side and inquire, who it is that shall teach them what is best for them
to do. Your fathers dealt honestly with our fathers, and they have
engaged us to remember it: we wish our children to be taught the same
principles by which your fathers were guided.

“Brothers, we have too little wisdom among us, and we cannot teach our
children what we perceive their situation requires them to know. We
wish them to be taught to read and write, and such other things as you
teach your children, especially the love of peace.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Two Friends visited some of the Indians of the Delaware nation near
Muskinghum, in the year 1793. The following is a speech of one of their
chiefs named Neet-wot-willimon, on the occasion.

“Brothers, we are glad, and rejoice in our hearts to see our brothers,
the Quakers, speaking before us--we feel the grace that is in your
hearts conveyed to us, and we wish to be of the same religion, but
we are poor, and weak, and not capable of judging for ourselves--we
hope you will have pity upon us, and instruct us how to gain a more
comfortable living--and, also, how we may come to obtain everlasting
happiness: when we think of our poor children, our hearts are affected
with sorrow--we hope you will send us teachers.”

These circumstances, together with the remembrance of the kindness
of the natives to the early settlers in this country, continued to
interest the feelings of the society of Friends in their behalf, and
from motives of religious obligation, the Yearly Meeting, held in
Philadelphia in the Ninth month, 1795, appointed a large committee
for the special purpose of promoting the improvement and gradual
civilization of the Indian natives, in such a way and manner, as would
best tend to meliorate their condition; and to render an account
annually to the Yearly Meeting of their progress therein. This
committee promoted liberal subscriptions through the society--appointed
a clerk and treasurer, and held stated meetings to deliberate on such
measures, as, under the divine blessing, might best promote the real
welfare of these inhabitants of the wilderness.

In order more fully to learn the disposition of the several tribes of
Indians bordering on the state of Pennsylvania, it was an early object
with the committee, to address to them a circular letter, informing
them of the objects the society had in view for their benefit--and also
therein communicating much salutary advice and counsel; which letter
was also accompanied by one from Timothy Pickering, then secretary of
state, in which he expresses a hearty co-operation with the views and
plans of the committee, and the necessity of the Indians’ gradually
declining their former modes of procuring sustenance, and betaking
themselves to the cultivation of the soil, and raising domestic animals.

In his letter he says--

“Now, Brothers, I have the great pleasure to inform you, that your
good friends, the Quakers, have formed a wise plan to show your young
men and boys the most useful practices of the white people. They will
choose some prudent, good men to instruct them. These good men will
do this, only from the love they bear to you, their fellow men, and
children of the Great Spirit whom they desire to please, and who will
be pleased with the good they do to you.

“The Quakers, and the good men they employ, will ask nothing from
you, neither land, nor money, nor skins, nor furs, for all the good
they will render to you. They will request only your consent, and the
attention of the young men and boys to learn what will be so useful.

“Brothers, if this first attempt succeed, the way will be open in which
your young people may learn other useful practices of the white people,
so as to enable them to supply all their own wants; and such as choose
it, may learn to read and write.

“Having thus explained to you the plan of your friends the Quakers, I
conclude, with heartily recommending it to your adoption, as better
calculated to procure lasting and essential benefits to your nation,
than any plan ever before attempted.

“Wishing it great success, I remain your friend and brother,

  “TIMOTHY PICKERING.

“_Philadelphia, February 15, 1796._”

       *       *       *       *       *

Timothy Pickering also wrote to the superintendent of the six nations,
and to the interpreter for the United States, requesting them to
prepare the minds of the Indians for the intended plan formed by the
society of Friends, to introduce among them some of the necessary
arts of civil life. Those letters were explained to various tribes of
Indians, who generally expressed their approbation of the measures
proposed.

The Oneidas, however, and those Indians settled on the Oneida
reservation, comprehending the Stockbridges--and a part of the
Tuscaroras, near the sources of the Mohawk river, in the state of New
York, were most solicitous to co-operate with Friends in the intended
experiment for a reform in the Indian mode of life.

In the spring of the year 1796, three young men, who offered their
services to spend some time in the instruction of the natives, were
accompanied by four of the committee into the Oneida country, and
provided with implements of husbandry, carpenters’ and smiths’ tools,
and other necessary accommodations. The Indians received them with
joyful countenances, and gave them a hearty welcome to their villages.
Their first council was held with the Stockbridges. These Indians
are not of the six nations. They were said to consist of about sixty
families, and three hundred individuals; and possessed upwards of
twenty-three thousand acres of land, which had been given to them
by the Oneida nation. They had a saw-mill, three carts, three pair
of good working oxen, and some other things, which they enjoyed in
common; but, in general, possessed their improvements and other fruits
of their industry as private property; and little appeared to be
wanting, but a spirit of industry, frugality, and sobriety, to make
their situation comfortable. After giving them such advice as their
situation required, Friends held a general council with the Oneidas,
about four miles distant from the Stockbridge settlement. Here they
fully explained the nature of their embassy, and endeavoured to
impress the Indians with the necessity of a change in their manner of
life, and the means whereby it might be accomplished, if they became
industrious, cultivated their land, and raised cattle, sheep, and other
domestic animals--also, that their women should learn to spin, knit,
and manufacture their clothing.

The Indians appeared well satisfied with the offer that had been made
them, and the prospect of the young men staying among them to assist
them. The women, especially, who had great reason to coincide with
the views of Friends in this business, appeared to be well satisfied;
for in proportion to the rude and uncultivated state of these people,
are the hardships of their women increased; they having most of the
drudgery to perform; such as hoeing corn, chopping wood, carrying
burthens, &c. while their men are sporting with their bows and arrows,
and other similar diversions.

It was supposed the Oneidas at this time possessed about two hundred
and forty square miles of land. They were, in number, about six
hundred and twenty. They had a saw-mill, built by government, and a
considerable number of cattle, horses, and some working oxen. With
these, and their annuities from the government, they might, with a
proper application on their part, have become good livers, abounding
in the necessary comforts of life. But such were their excessive
indolence, want of economy, and love of strong drink, that instead of
improving the means in their power to make themselves comfortable, they
were poor and wretched; and many of them, a great part of the year,
almost reduced to a state of starvation. The little corn and other
produce the women raised with their hoes, were frequently bartered
for strong drink. The evil effects of this practice, Friends were
particularly concerned to remark, in their councils; and some exertions
were said to have been used by their chiefs, to prevent strong liquor
from being sold in their villages.

Friends also had a council with the Brotherton Indians, about nine
miles from the Stockbridges, composed of fifty-six families, and
possessed of about nine thousand nine hundred acres of land. They also
had a saw-mill, and a considerable number of cattle and other animals.
They also had an interview with a smaller tribe of the Tuscaroras,
who lived on the Oneida’s land, and furnished them with some goods,
and implements of husbandry, encouraging them to industry, and sober
habits, whereby they might partake plentifully of the blessings of
the Great Spirit. They had further satisfactory interviews with the
Stockbridge Indians, and in addition to the implements of husbandry
they had given them, presented them with a set of smiths’ tools. At
the close of their communications, an old chief replied to them as
follows:--

“Brothers, I am glad to see you, in my heart, and to hear your good
words--you use us just like a father--I am old--have lost all my
family--and cannot live many days--but all this spring, I think the
Great Spirit will send me some comfort in my trouble--but nobody say
any thing to me, till now, you are come,--I wish I was young, then I
would do what you say--I will go and see your young men at Oneida,
every two or three days, and tell our young men how you do.”

The principal chief of the nation, on behalf of the rest, expressed
much satisfaction for the kind offers Friends had made them, especially
for the smiths’ tools; stating that they had suffered much for the want
of them, having had to go many miles, and sometimes lose many days, to
get one link of a chain mended.

The committee who accompanied the young men, now having spent near a
month in the Indian country, and having obtained a house to accommodate
them, and got satisfactory arrangements made between them and the
Indians, set out homewards. On their way, about thirty miles westward
of Oneida, they called to see a small tribe of the Onondaga Indians.
They were about one hundred and thirty-five in number, and possessed
about twelve thousand eight hundred acres of good land, but were in
a poor and miserable condition, spending their time in idleness, and
much given to intemperance; even pawning the blankets they received
from government, for liquor, before they got them home. Friends had an
interview with them, and endeavoured to impress them with the necessity
of a change in their manner of life, and the advantage that would arise
from habits of industry and sobriety; letting them know that they were
willing to help them a little, but that their main object was to get
them to help themselves.

They also visited a small tribe of the Cayuga Indians, about seventy
miles westward from Oneida, said to be about sixty in number, in a
similar situation to the Onondagas. To these the committee promised to
send some implements of husbandry, which were afterwards furnished them.

The three young men now stationed at Oneida, began to set before the
natives an example of industry, and to use endeavours to promote in
them a like disposition; but they, being unaccustomed to labour, and
naturally averse to habits of industry, continued in their former
pursuits. Friends then improved a piece of land, without assistance
from the natives, hoping some of them would be induced to follow their
example. They also repaired and worked a saw-mill, belonging to the
Oneidas, and instructed several of the Indians in the knowledge of
sawing.

In the fall of this year, one of the young men returned home, and
another who offered his services, went forward to that station.

The ensuing winter, Friends opened a school for the instruction of the
children, and an Indian, qualified by an education in New England,
taught the Stockbridge children, and was allowed a salary by Friends
for several years.

In the year 1797, but little improvement was made by the Oneida
Indians. Sickness prevailed among them, which Friends did not wholly
escape. One of the young men went to distribute some implements of
husbandry, &c. among the Onondaga, and Cayuga Indians, and to encourage
them to apply themselves to the use of them, earnestly recommending
them to sobriety and industry, as the only means of promoting
their happiness. For while they remained in habits of idleness and
drunkenness, they would be poor and miserable. They were grateful for
the presents received, and promised to apply themselves to the use of
them; but said, that “drinking rum, and getting drunk they were not
able to keep from, because it was running all round them; that they
lived on an island, and the white people gave them drams, and then they
craved more, so that they thought it was impossible to leave it off,
they had been so long accustomed to it; but they were in hopes the
young people would learn better.”

In the fore part of this summer, the Oneida Indians, as was their
usual custom, (to supply themselves with food, being urged thereto by
necessity,) went on an expedition, about twenty miles, to the other
side of the Oneida lake, after young pigeons. These they caught in
great abundance, and after salting them in bark troughs, brought them
home to their villages.

In the Ninth month, this year, another of the young men returned from
the Oneida settlement, by whom the principal chiefs of that nation
addressed a letter to the committee, expressive of their gratitude for
the favours received, and their satisfaction with the conduct of the
young man who had resided among them.

The Sachems of the Stockbridge nation also sent a letter, from which
the following is extracted:

“Brothers and friends, attend. We the Sachems and counsellors of the
Mohikonick or Stockbridge nation, send our voice to you. We feel
rejoiced that the great, good Spirit, has put such light and love in
your hearts, and influenced your minds to such a degree, as to have
compassionate feelings towards us, the natives of this island. We ever
have felt the gladness on our hearts, to find and see with our own
eyes, that you have not only spoke good words from your lips, but have
been doers of the good work--you have extended your charity towards
us in this wilderness. You have taken the pains to come up, year ago
last summer--you have sat with us in council, you have given us many
good councils--you have raised our heads which were hung down--you have
directed our eyes to see the good path of life--you have put tools on
our hands--you have hung a good kettle by the side of our fire-place,
whereby our food may be cooked without any trouble--you have even put
a good staff into the hands of our children--that they may be enabled
to learn the path that leads to good life, and indeed you have done
much good for us. By these means we have been enabled to avoid many
difficulties--our young men are greatly encouraged, and our old men
comforted.

“Brothers, we hope that in a future day, you will rejoice, that what
you have done for us was not in vain. The kindness which you have
done to us is by this time sounded in the ears of our allies, the
different nations towards the setting sun; for it was the custom of our
forefathers, when any thing was done for them by the white people--all
their friends and allies must know of it.”

  Signed by six Chiefs.

_Dated New Stockbridge, 9th mo. 1797._

       *       *       *       *       *

A desire was expressed by the Indians, that some of their daughters
might be brought into the neighbourhood of Philadelphia to receive
instruction. Accordingly six girls, aged from nine to eighteen years
were received, and placed in the families of Friends in Chester county,
to be instructed in school-learning, and the usual branches of
housewifery and domestic economy, where some of them remained several
years.

In the spring of the year 1798, (in order to induce the Indians to
labour,) a proposition was made to hire some of them to assist in
improving the land allotted for a farm; but they were so irregular in
working, that the plan was abandoned. Some days nearly thirty would
come to work, and on other days, scarcely one was to be had. They
therefore engaged a number of lads and young men whom they boarded, and
allowed a reasonable compensation for their services.

At this time some improvement had taken place. Many of the Indian men
would assist their wives in working their little lots of land; but they
experienced some difficulty from the want of a blacksmith, to make and
repair their tools. A Friend, however, well qualified to instruct them
in this business, offered his services, who, with his wife, and another
female, desirous of spending some time in the instruction of the Indian
women, proceeded to that settlement, and were usefully engaged in the
benevolent object of improving the condition of the natives.

In the Seventh month, this year, this settlement was visited by two
of the committee, who assisted the Friends there, in making some
arrangements with the Indians relative to the smith’s business, and
otherwise imparting suitable encouragement to them in regard to the
cultivation of their land.

About this time, and for some time previous, (probably instigated by
the evil insinuations of some designing white men,) some of the Indians
had manifested suspicions of the sincerity of Friends’ views. They knew
that the improvement made on their land, and the various tools and
implements of husbandry furnished them by Friends, must have cost a
great deal of money, and they had not been witnesses of any instance,
where white people had come forward in such a manner to assist Indians,
but, sooner or later an interested motive discovered itself--therefore,
some had fear that it was intended to make a permanent establishment,
and lay claim to a part of their land. And indeed when we advert to
the many impositions practised upon this much injured people, by those
who have gone among them, under the character of missionaries, and
religious instructors, we cannot much marvel that this should be the
case.

Friends, however, expostulated with them on various subjects, relative
to their improvement, and reminded them of their ungrateful surmises
and whisperings in this respect--and told them, that they had never
asked any of their land--they never should--nor would they take it,
if offered to them--and that they had no other inducement for staying
among them, spending their time and their money, but their own good.

In their reply to Friends, the Indians, by way of apology,
mention--“There are some had people, who have spoke against you, that
you had a design to take away our land; and sometimes when our minds
were not right, we believed such talk--and this made us feel very
ugly--but now we are convinced, and sorry we believed such things. We
are satisfied that you are a true people, and we will continue to be of
that mind.”

This visit seemed (to use the Indian term,) to brighten the chain of
friendship; and the prospect of improvement assumed a more encouraging
appearance. A comfortable dwelling house and barn were built this
year, and the Indian lads and young men were usefully employed in
cultivating the farm. A large quantity of grain, hay, and vegetables
were raised--affording ample proof to the natives, of the beneficial
effects of cultivating the soil.

Several of them, also, acquired considerable knowledge of the
blacksmith’s business, and many of their young women and girls received
instruction in spinning, knitting, sewing, and other domestic affairs,
and some progress was made in their school learning.

In the spring of 1799, a more encouraging prospect of success, in
improving the condition of the Indians, was apparent. Several of the
Indian men improved lots of land for their own benefit, which they
sowed with wheat, and other grain. The smith’s business continued to
be attended to by them, and Friends, with the aid of the Indians,
continued to work their farms; nor were their exertions, either this
or any former year, confined to their immediate residence; but as
opportunities for usefulness presented, they extended their labours to
the various parts of the Indian settlements, and afforded assistance in
as many ways, as the necessities of the natives required.

As the Indians at this place had now obtained sufficient instruction to
enable them, by proper application, to procure a comfortable living,
it was concluded by Friends, that the time was drawing near, when it
might be right to withdraw from them, and to convince the Indians of
their disinterested motives, by leaving all their improvements, tools,
and implements of husbandry for their own use and benefit; and with
a view of making this arrangement, four of the committee visited the
settlement in the Ninth month this year. After viewing the progress
made by the Indians in the agricultural art, and also finding that two
of them had acquired the knowledge of the blacksmith’s business, so
fully as to be likely to answer all the work the natives might stand in
need of, and others having applied themselves to the use of carpenter’s
tools, so as to be capable of building good houses, barns, and making
ploughs, harrows, and many other implements of husbandry, it appeared
that very little was wanting but application on their part, to put
themselves in a way of living comfortably, and of procuring or raising
in a plentiful degree, most of the necessaries of life.

Friends now had a free and open conference with the Indians, on the
subject of relinquishing that settlement, and told them, as they had
at the first, that they came not among them to make them presents that
would soon slide away, but to teach them some of the useful practices
of the white people; that they had now set before them a clear example,
and showed them what a great deal of produce for the support of life,
might be raised from a small piece of land; and expressed a hope they
would take their advice, and follow the example they had set before
them, informing them that there were a great many more of their Indian
brethren that stood in need of assistance and instruction--and hoped
they would be satisfied with what was already done for them.

To the communications of Friends on this occasion, an ancient chief,
Skenandoah, made the following reply, on behalf of the nation:--

“Brother Onas attend. We know you told us you came not amongst us to
make us presents that would soon wear away, but to stay some time--to
instruct us how to gain a comfortable living, by tilling the ground, as
the white people do. Now you have staid the time you proposed, and have
fulfilled all your engagements to our nation, and we shall follow the
good example you have set before us, which we know would be of lasting
benefit to us; and we thankfully acknowledge your kindness, having
never heard of any people who have done so much for Indians, without
any view of advantage to themselves--which is a convincing proof to us
that you are our real friends. And we are glad the good spirit has put
it into your minds to assist others of our Indian brethren, in learning
the same good way of living, for which we also thank you, as well as
for the good advice you gave us about strong drink; and we will try all
we can to persuade our young men to do better.

“And now Brothers, if we have done any thing that displeases you, we
wish you would tell us, that our friendship may remain bright; for now
we know you are a true people, and we will keep this writing and tell
our young men and children every year, that they may always remember
your friendship.”

Near the close of the year, the Friends at Oneida having made the
necessary arrangements about the distribution of the property, which
consisted of between two and three hundred bushels of grain, a quantity
of hay, a cow, a number of hogs, a cart, ploughs, harrows, carpenter’s
and smith’s tools, household and kitchen furniture, all for the benefit
of the Indians, they had a parting conference with them, when they
presented them with the following address in writing.

“Brothers of the Oneida nation. We are now about to leave you, and
return to our respective homes. We desire to speak to you in a few
words. You know it is more than three years since your friends, the
people called Quakers, have been endeavouring to assist and instruct
you how to gain a comfortable living, by cultivating your land, and
some of us who are here, have left our near connexions and friends in
order to be useful to your nation.

“Now, Brothers, we have set before you a clear example, how to till
your land, so as to raise plenty of wheat, and other good things for
your support. We wish you, therefore, to improve the opportunity, by
which means you may come to live happy and plentifully by the fruits of
your own industry and care. We have often told you that we want nothing
from you for all our trouble and expense, but the improvement of your
nation.

“Brothers, you have now the advantage of having most of your smith
work done by your own people, which is not the case with any of your
brethren to the westward. If you do not improve the advantages you
have, you must blame yourselves for your poverty and distress. We
entreat you, therefore, to be wise for your own interest, and leave
off the practice of drinking strong drink, (for you know it has been
the cause of most of your difficulties,) and try to pursue a sober,
industrious course of life. Then we believe the good spirit will bless
you with lasting benefits; and as we have endeavoured to live in peace
among you, we wish you to live in peace one with another, that your
good example may be a blessing to your children--always remembering,
that your welfare and happiness as well as the improvement of your
children will depend much on your sobriety and industry.

“Brothers, we now leave you, hoping your good understanding will
incline you to pursue the way we have endeavoured to point out to you.
We now bid you farewell.”

The Indians, both of the Oneida and Stockbridge tribes, made replies
of considerable length to our friends on this parting opportunity, in
which they expressed their sense of gratitude for the many services
Friends had rendered them; and, among other things, stated, that “they
would endeavour to pursue the path Friends had pointed out to them,”
and further added:--

“Brothers, it is now a long time since the white people have lived on
this island. They have frequently told us they loved us--but none of
them have ever tried to instruct us in cultivating our land before. We
now see, brothers, that your society has manifested more regard for the
welfare of the Indians, than any other people, for which we thank you.
We also thank the Great Spirit that he has put it into your hearts to
love and regard Indians.”

These Friends arrived in Philadelphia in the First month, 1801.--It
was hoped that the labour bestowed upon those Indians would eventually
prove a blessing to them, and that the spirit of industry that had
been discovered in individuals, would gradually progress from family
to family, and have a powerful and beneficial influence on many of the
adjacent tribes-and, in time, also, on those more remote.

In the autumn of this year, the Stockbridge girls, who had been placed
among Friends in the fall of 1797, were returned to their parents.
They had acquired a considerable knowledge of school learning, and of
spinning, knitting, sewing, and the different branches of housewifery.

To show a specimen of their improvement in school learning, I will here
give a copy of a letter written by one of them, the following spring
after their arrival among Friends, in which time she had acquired so
much of the English language, as to enable her to convey her ideas by
writing:

       *       *       *       *       *

  _New Garden, Third mo. 10th, 1798._

“My dear mother: I will try to let thee know how I do so far from
thee--I have been well ever since I left thee. I would be glad to see
thee mother--I want to see thee, and brothers and sisters, and all
Stockbridge friends--I want to see father--I like to live in this
country pretty well--and dear friends clever--me live in clever house,
very good man, make clocks--make porringers and spoons--me like to
see him--I can knit stockings and spin--I have made sampler--I know
how to mark my clothes, then I know my own--three girls make bonnets
and do all work--I work a little, play a little--go to meeting a
little--sometimes walk--sometimes ride on horseback, when roads are
muddy--the girls’ mother very good old woman--I love her--she learns me
to work.

  MARY PETERS.

       *       *       *       *       *

My dear Brother--Me live well at very good house. I love thee, and
sisters, and mother--I want see you all--Friends say, may be we all go
back to Stockbridge before next winter--I think I have told thee all I
can now, so bid thee farewell.

  MARY PETERS.

N. B. This letter my own hand writing, so you may see I learn write.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The following is an extract of a letter written by one of the Indian
girls after her return home, dated the Ninth month, 1803, to one of
the women Friends who had engaged in the instruction of the natives at
Oneida.

“I have spun some flax and wool since I come home, and made some cheese
to show our Indians how to make cheese--they be very much pleased to
know how to make cheese--some said they never thought Indians could
make cheese so well. They began to try to keep cows ever since to make
cheese and butter. Some of them began to sow some flax, and good many
of our Indians got sheep--meat good to eat, and wool good for cloth. I
hope we will do better every year. Good many have left off drinking,
and some of them drink very hard yet. I have been to see Oneidas not
long ago--they improve very much since thee come away--good many have
new frame houses and frame barns--they improve very much ever since
they left off drinking. I believe three hundred of men and women left
off drinking this sometime past--I hope they will keep their words
good.”

By some information received afterwards, it appears some of these
young women married soon after their return and settled themselves to
industry, lived well, and some Friends calling to see them, were kindly
received and hospitably entertained by them.

After the committee of the Yearly Meeting of Pennsylvania withdrew
their attention from the Oneidas, and those Indians in the vicinity,
they came more particularly under the notice of Friends of the Yearly
Meeting of New York, who had formed similar plans for the improvement
and civilization of the Indian natives.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Friendly intercourse between the Society of Friends, and various
nations of Indians._

It seems necessary, in this place, to go back a little in the order
of time, and give some account of the interviews with the chiefs and
others, of various nations of Indians, who at different times visited
Philadelphia.

As the minds of Friends were attentively opened to the great object
of the concern, in promoting the well-being and gradual improvement
of the Indian natives, every opportunity was embraced of cultivating
a friendly intercourse with them, and of giving such counsel and
encouragement as seemed to be adapted to their situation, accompanied
with some such aid in implements of husbandry and other things, as
their necessities demanded.

In the Ninth month, 1796, Benjamin Hawkins superintendent of the
Creek nation, settled in the interior of Georgia, was introduced to
the committee on Indian affairs. He brought with him four lads of
that nation to be educated; two of whom were placed with Friends,
where they remained several years, and were instructed in school
learning. He also suggested the propriety of furnishing those Indians
with some mechanical tools, which were procured and forwarded to
them, accompanied by a suitable address, from which the following is
extracted:

“Brothers, we feel it in our hearts to tell you that the great and good
spirit, made all people with a design that they should live in peace
and good will, and that it is for this end he hath placed his law in
the hearts of all men, which, if carefully attended to, would keep them
in love and friendship--and teach them to avoid every thing that would
lead them to hurt and destroy one another.

“Brothers, are you not sensible that when you are quarrelsome, or have
done any bad action, that you are made sorrowful and uneasy, and that
on the contrary when you are serious, and do good actions, your minds
feel easy, pleasant, and comfortable? This is from the good spirit,
who is all love, and who hath placed his law in our hearts, to give us
peace and comfort when we do well, and make us sad and uneasy when we
do evil.

“Brothers, we are glad in believing that the good spirit has influenced
the hearts of our great men to do the Indians good; and we earnestly
desire, that you may be so wise as to follow their good advice in
trying to improve your fertile land by farming, and raising cattle,
sheep, and hogs; so that you may have food and clothing for yourselves,
your wives, and your children.”

About the beginning of the year 1797, Friends had satisfactory
interviews with deputies from various nations, among whom were some of
the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians, inhabiting the
northern and western parts of Georgia; and the Shawanees, Chippewas,
and Pottawattamies, living on the waters of the Wabash river, and
bordering on lakes Michigan and Superior.

To these Indians suitable presents were made to a considerable amount.
In divers conferences had with them, Friends informed them of the
nature and effect of their peaceable principles, and testimony against
wars and fightings--their care of the society in first settling
Pennsylvania, under the patronage of William Penn, whom the Indians
called brother Onas, not to settle on lands that were not fairly
purchased and paid for to the satisfaction of the natives, with whom
friendship, harmony, and mutual kind offices long subsisted. They
also informed them of their continued desire to maintain this amity,
by exerting their best endeavours and influence for the healing of
differences between white people and Indians. They endeavoured to
explain to their understandings how much the attainment of this happy
end depends upon cherishing, in ourselves, the benevolent disposition
inseparable from the true spirit and practice of real Christianity.
They also recommended them to instruct their youth in modes of living
more conformable thereto, than had heretofore been customary with
them, and especially warned them against the pernicious effects of
using spirituous liquors.

A number of the chiefs expressed great satisfaction with these
interviews. Some of them said they remembered to have heard of
such a people as the Quakers; but the account remained with them
an uncertainty, until now they had witnessed its reality; that the
sentiments and advice communicated, was such as they had never heard
before; that it had sunk deep into their hearts, and that they wished
it conveyed to their people more extensively by personal visits from
some of the Quakers. One of them remarked particularly on the counsel
imparted not to revenge injuries, and gave repeated assurances, “that
although he had heard of two of his people being killed, he was
determined not to retaliate, but to adhere to peace.”

An ancient chief of the Creek nation, among many other things said,
“Brothers, I am an old man, yet I have travelled much this year to
promote peace. I went many hundred miles to the treaty on the frontiers
of Georgia, held by the commissioners of the United States, and of the
State of Georgia, with my nation, where several matters were adjusted
to my satisfaction. I then returned home, but in a short time, came
by invitation to this city, to make the chain of friendship still
brighter. On my way, and since coming here, I have met with nothing
unpleasant; nor do I regret all the toil and fatigue of a long journey
to establish a firm peace. I believe the Great Spirit above made both
white and red men; but I suppose it is because we are red men, that the
white men impose upon us, and try to get our land, which we do not want
to part with.

“Brothers, I am glad to find there are a people who love peace, and
give such good advice to red men. I was a stranger to you, till since
my coming here. You kindly took notice of me. A few days ago one of
your women delivered a talk which I have hid deep in my heart. I never
heard such an one before. I want to tell it to my nation, after I get
home--and for fear I should forget some of it, I should like to have it
in print that it might be fully explained to them.”

In the First month, 1798, the Little Turtle, a chief of the
Miami nation, and some other western Indians, were introduced
to the committee by a letter from General James Wilkinson, then
commander-in-chief of the army of the United States, to his
brother-in-law, Owen Biddle, of Philadelphia. In this letter, he wrote
as follows, “When we contemplate the fortunes of the aborigines of our
country, the bosom of philanthropy must heave with sorrow. What would
not that man, or that community merit, who reclaims the untutored
Indian--opens his mind to sources of happiness unknown, and makes him
useful to society--since it would be in effect to save a whole race
from extinction? For, surely, if these people are not brought to
depend for sustenance on their fields instead of their forests, it will
be found impossible to reclaim their present habits; and the seeds of
their extinction already sown, must be matured.

“The bearer of this letter, the Little Turtle, is forcibly impressed
with these truths, and is anxious to co-operate in a fair experiment on
his tribe. It is with this view that I introduce him particularly to
you, in hopes you may think proper to recommend him to the patronage of
the benevolent society of which you are a member.”

Friends had satisfactory interviews with these Indians, and suitable
presents were given to them. The Little Turtle expressed a strong
desire for the improvement of his people, and hoped Friends would use
their endeavours to promote the work of civilization among them.

The committee embraced this opportunity of addressing a general letter
to the Miami Indians, and other nations united with them, in which they
reminded them of the ancient friendship that subsisted between their
forefathers and Friends, in the early settlement of this country--that
the chain of friendship had been kept bright for more than one hundred
years, by mutual acts of kindness to each other, and that while Friends
had the chief direction of public affairs in Pennsylvania, there was
no war between the white people and Indians in that state: but since
those times of brotherly kindness, some men had given way to the
power of the bad spirit in their hearts, so as to become desperately
wicked, coveting their neighbours’ goods, and even thirsting for blood.
This had caused wars and fightings, and produced much misery in the
world--and that the society of Friends were concerned to persuade their
rulers to do justly, and maintain peace with the Indians, and with all
men--and were also very desirous that the Great overruling Spirit of
love, might so influence and direct the councils of the Indian nations,
and so dispose their hearts to peace, that the sound of war might no
more be heard in their land.

They were, also, in this address, especially warned against the
pernicious effects of spirituous liquors, which concern may be
understood to have been particularly attended to in most of their
communications to the Indians.

In the summer of this year, Friends received a letter from the Little
Turtle, giving them an account of the safe arrival of the articles sent
to his nation. They also received one from the Creek nation, giving
an account of the reception of the implements of husbandry forwarded
to them, for which they expressed a sense of gratitude for the great
benefit to that nation.

In the Twelfth month, this year, Friends had a satisfactory interview
in Philadelphia, with two chiefs of the Ottawa nation, two chiefs
of the Pottawattamies, and the principal chief of the Chippewa
nation, who were accompanied by Jonathan Sheffelin, agent and Indian
interpreter, being then on an embassy to the president of the United
States.

At the conclusion of a speech made by Kekis, (the Sun) the principal
chief of the Pottawattamies, on behalf of the three nations, he
presented six strings of white wampum as a token of brotherly regard
for the society of Friends.

Among other things, in his speech, he says--

“Brothers, we are an ignorant people, and don’t know what is right as
well as you do. We have often been persuaded by the white people to
join in their wars against one another. A great while ago, the French
set us against the English. They should have taught us better things.
I hope, however, our hearts will become as white as the wampum in my
hand. The Great Spirit above has made us, as well as you; though we are
not of one colour. He has put it into our hearts to live in peace with
the white people. I believe it is his will that we should meet together
in the centre of this great island. I am sensible your hearts are good
towards your brothers the red people.

“Brothers, when you came to see us at Detroit,[1] we wanted to see you;
but other people would not suffer us to take you by the hand. If they
had been of our minds, you would have had us round you then, as you are
now round us. Colonel M’K.[2] prevented us. We return you thanks for
the good you came for. Our wives and children shed tears because they
could not come to you. When they said we will go, he said, you will
be disappointed, they will not give you so much as a needle full of
thread. We believed it--our dependence was on them.

“Brothers, we hope you will continue your friendship to us, and help us
to keep our lands. I speak from my heart. We know you are not capable
of giving bad advice. The Great Spirit hears what we say, and it will
be known among our people, so long as red men shall remain upon this
island.

“Brothers, these six strings of wampum, in the sight of the Great
Spirit, are to sweep all the bad things away from between us.

“If the white people should want to spill our blood again, we hope you
will use your endeavours to preserve peace.”

These Indians also presented a large belt of ten strings of white
wampum from the Delaware nation, with a speech of considerable length
in writing, from which we extract the following.

After acknowledging the kindness of Friends, and the good advice
communicated in the speech which they had received by the hands of the
Miami chief, the Little Turtle, they say--

“Brothers, you strongly recommend peace--we are much inclined to peace.
The war axe is long since buried deep in the bottom of the great
lake--so very deep, that we hope the evil Spirit will never be able
to take it up again. There we hope it will ever remain, and never be
thought of by any of us. We hope that the master of life, who disposes
of all things according to his will and pleasure, may also so dispose
the hearts and minds of his white brethren, as they used to be at that
time when our forefathers first met on this great island, and smoked
the pipe of peace with your grandfather Onas, (Penn) on the very same
spot where your great village (Philadelphia) now stands.

“Brothers, at that time the hearts and minds of men were white and
good. The evil spirit who works in the inside of the bodies of men, had
then no power over them. Our villages were peaceful, and our paths,
at that time, were covered with flowers, and we knew nothing of war.
But soon after, the bad spirit fixed himself deep in the hearts and
minds of our white brethren. They made war against each other, and
soon taught us to be as wicked as themselves, and, like themselves,
cruel and unjust. It was them who took the pipe of peace out of our
hands, and it was them who put the destructive war axe into our hands,
to strike against their white brethren and their helpless women
and children. They only are the cause of all our misfortunes--the
destruction of our villages, the death of our young warriors and
helpless women and children--the loss of our lands and our happiness.

“Brothers, we are told by you, in your speech to us, that you wish
to know our situation, and in what manner you could be of service to
us--we are poor and pitiful indeed--destructive war has caused many
of our families to be scattered abroad in the wilderness, insomuch,
that we can scarcely find their places of residence. Our once peaceful
villages exist no more. Our paths, which once were covered with
flowers, are now full of thorns, and stained with the blood of our
young warriors and our helpless women and children. We have almost
considered ourselves as last men, and thrown our bodies away, but by
the advice of our brother, Jonathan Shefflin, and the assistance of
the Great Spirit, we will now assemble ourselves together, and form an
extensive village on the plains of the White river. Speeches are this
day sent to our brethren for that purpose, and we hope that by the next
summer, we shall all be assembled at that place, when we will point out
the means of your assisting us.

“Brothers, may the great regulator of all things, he who knows the
hearts and minds of all men, so dispose the hearts and minds of our
Quaker brethren, that they may never be induced to withdraw their
friendship and counsel from men who by their ignorance, are easily led
astray by the songs of the bad birds--men who are real objects of pity,
and who require the protection of their white brethren more at this
time than ever.”

Signed by Buckingeheles, and six other Chiefs of the Delaware nation.

       *       *       *       *       *

These Indian chiefs, before alluded to, were presented with suitable
presents previous to their leaving Philadelphia, as a token of
brotherly regard entertained for the natives of the land,--and some
time after the committee wrote to the Delaware nation, strongly
recommending them to betake themselves to the cultivation of the earth
to procure sustenance, and in allusion to the time of their first
intercourse with Friends in the early settlement of the country, they
say:

“Brothers, at that time the white inhabitants were few and inclined
to peace; since then, they have increased to a great number, amongst
whom we and our brethren are but as a handful. Yet the good Spirit who
taught our forefathers to cultivate peace with the Indians and all men,
still teaches us the same; therefore, we can take no part in the war
with any people, and our influence in the great councils of our nation
is very small--but we use our endeavours to persuade men to live in
peace, and have brotherly love towards each other.”

In the First month, 1802, the Little Turtle and several other chiefs of
the Miami and Pottawattamie nations, again visited Philadelphia, when
Friends had satisfactory conferences with them, in which the Little
Turtle renewed in a pathetic manner his request for some assistance to
be given his nation, to accelerate their improvement in civilization.
Suitable advice was given them on this subject, accompanied with some
presents: but these nations lived more within the vicinity of Friends
of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, who had formed similar plans to improve
the condition of the Indian natives; it was therefore concluded by
their committee, to extend aid to some of the nations north-west of the
river Ohio--of which some account may be given hereafter.

Early in the spring of 1802, a number of the Indians of the Delaware
and Shawaneese nations came to Philadelphia, and in their conferences
with Friends, renewed their requests for assistance in procuring some
necessary articles, and particularly that they might be furnished with
a schoolmaster in their towns to instruct their children.

These people, being the immediate descendants from those tribes who
were very friendly and kind to our ancestors in the early settlement of
Pennsylvania, seemed to have a special claim upon Friends. Accordingly,
they were furnished with a considerable amount in money, and goods
adapted to their wants. Suitable advice was given them, encouraging
them to cultivate their land, and raise cattle, hogs, and other useful
animals. They lived at so remote a distance, that Friends had no
expectation of any one of their people going among them in the capacity
of schoolmaster.

In the conclusion of their reply to Friends, they say:

“May the great good Spirit above protect you for the favours you
have shown us. The present you have made us will put us in grateful
remembrance of you for ever.”

Thus we see, in this short account of the correspondence with the
Indians, of various and distant nations to the westward, (of which much
more might have been said,) not only their strong attachment to the
society of Friends, but their determination to live in peace with the
people of the United States. We also may discover their destitute and
miserable situation, in consequence of the ravages of war, and the wide
field of labour that opens for the benevolent and philanthropic mind
to extend the empire of civilization and knowledge, to these untutored
sons of the forest. It was a pleasing reflection, at that time, that
the benign influence of the prince of peace had so softened the hearts
of men, that measures were contemplated by the rulers of our land
to extend the blessings of civilization to these aborigines of our
country; to reclaim them from their savage habits and induce them to
adopt the innocent employments of the pastoral and agricultural life.
But alas! the subsequent policy of the general government, combined
with the interested motives of individual states, too sorrowfully
demonstrate that their fate is inevitably fixed--the decree has gone
forth--they must recede before the giant march of white population; and
however strong their attachment to their native soil, and reluctant to
abandon the homes of their fathers, be compelled to retreat further and
further into the dreary abodes of an unknown wilderness, and to seek an
asylum among more savage and barbarous tribes, towards the setting sun.

We cannot but express an ardent desire, that the great controller
of human affairs may yet so dispose the hearts of the rulers of our
country to feelings of humanity, towards the miserable remnants of
the Indian tribes, yet within the state governments--that they may
preserve inviolate the _faith_ of the United States, solemnly pledged
at the formation of the federal constitution, to protect them in their
unalienable rights and privileges, as the aboriginal owners of the
soil; for it is an incontrovertible truth, “that national evils will
produce national calamities.”

       *       *       *       *       *

I shall now resume the narrative of the proceedings of Friends in
improving the condition of the Indians which has been progressing under
the direction of the committee of the Yearly Meeting, for more than
thirty years, among the Seneca nation.


_First settlement of Friends among the Seneca nation of Indians._

The noted chief Cornplanter, having, as we have already stated, opened
the way for the introduction of the agricultural arts among his tribe,
in the spring of the year 1798, three young men, who offered themselves
to go and instruct them, accompanied by two of the committee, proceeded
to his settlement. After a long journey, and much of the way through
(then) a wilderness country, they arrived at Cornplanter’s village,
on the Alleghany river, the seventeenth of the Fifth month. The chief
having previous knowledge of their coming, expressed his thankfulness
to the Great Spirit for their preservation on the way and safe arrival
among them. They were kindly invited into his house, and inquired of
whether they could eat Indian’s provisions, and being answered in the
affirmative, they were hospitably entertained with the best he could
offer them; but made a very temperate meal.

This village, (which was called in their language) Jenuchshadago,
(which means burnt house,) stood on the bank of the Alleghany river,
about four miles south of the northern boundary of Pennsylvania. The
land had a rich bottom, and appeared favourable for cultivation.
The village contained about thirty or forty houses and bark cabins,
scattered along the margin of the river, without any regard to
a regular arrangement. The venerable chief appeared to live in
patriarchal style; his house was not distinguished from any of the rest
by any tokens of magnificence, except by being somewhat larger--near
it stood a wooden image of a man, round which at stated times they
performed their religious ceremonies and sacrifices.

The image was about seven feet in height, elevated on a pedestal, of
the same block, and being painted a variety of colours, it altogether
exhibited a wild appearance.

The Indians had, perhaps, from two to three hundred acres of land,
inclosed with a sort of fence round the town, in which inclosure many
of their women were industriously engaged in clearing off the rubbish
and planting small patches of corn and beans, while the men were
standing in companies sporting themselves with their bows and arrows
and other trifling amusements, but none of them were seen assisting
their women in the labours of the field.

The Indians appeared to live poor and dirty, and it was said to be
a time of scarcity among them, and the greater part of them under
Cornplanter’s superintendence, estimated at about four hundred, had
deserted their old settlements up the river, and come to live with
their chief in this place.

As it was necessary for Friends to have a general council with the
Indians, in order to explain their views and the object of their coming
among them, the day after their arrival, they assembled in council
at the chief’s house, about forty of their principal men, with many
others. Cornplanter opened the council by a short speech, expressing
his thankfulness for the safe arrival of Friends, and the joy he felt
when he saw them come out of the bushes the day before, to see their
Indian brothers, who were poor and living in bad houses, covered with
bark; and they were not able to build them better.

Friends now made them fully acquainted with the nature of their
mission, that it was in order to improve the condition of the Indian
natives, and to teach them the ways of good and honest white people,
that they, with their wives and children, might be enabled to live
more comfortably, and be relieved from the distresses and difficulties
to which they had been subjected by their old habits and modes of
living--that these young men had concluded to leave their friends and
comfortable dwellings, and remain for a time in the Indian country, in
order to instruct them in the cultivation of their land, in the raising
and managing of cattle, and also to example them in a life of sobriety
and industry. They were also informed, that Friends had a variety
of farming utensils, carpenters’ tools, &c. coming up the river, in
a boat, which were intended for their benefit, in a hope, that the
Indians, with Friends’ instruction, would diligently apply themselves
to the use of them, that by so doing they might come to reap the
plentiful fruits of industry; and that this was the sole object Friends
had in view, having no desire for their lands, their skins, their furs,
or any other part of their substance.

To these propositions the Indians seemed to express a general assent;
but took the subjects under serious consideration, until next day,
when near evening they admitted Friends again to the council house,
when Cornplanter on behalf of the natives made a reply, from which we
extract the following.

“Brothers, the Quakers, listen now to what I am going to say to you.
You know, brothers, the red people are poor; they are not like the
white people. The Great Spirit has made them of another language, so
that it is very hard for us to understand one another plainly, as we
have no good interpreter.

“Brothers, we suppose the reason you came here was to help the poor
Indians in some way or other, and you wish the chiefs to tell their
warriors not to go on so bad as they have done heretofore, and you also
wish us to take up work like the white people, and cultivate our land.
Now brothers, some of our sober men will take up work and do as you
say, and if they do well, then will your young men stay longer amongst
us, but some others will not mind what you say.

“Brothers, we cannot say a word against you. It is the best way to
call Quakers brothers. You never wished our lands, therefore we are
determined to learn your ways, and these young men may stay here two
years, and then if they like it and we like it, your young men may stay
longer.”

In reply they were informed, that the young men would want some house
to live in, and a piece of land to work, in order to set the Indians
an example and raise something for themselves to live upon; but that
the land should still be the Indians’, and all the improvements they
put upon it should be theirs, when Friends left it. They were also
informed that the tools and implements of husbandry which were intended
for their use, would be under the care of the young men, to lend to
such Indians as wanted to use them, rather than to distribute them
among them as presents; offering this reason, “that if they were given
to them some of them might barter them away for whiskey,” as divers
instances of intoxication had been noticed among them.

On the twenty-first of the Fifth month, Friends, with Cornplanter in
company, and several other Indians, passed up the river about nine
miles in canoes, in order to look out for a settlement. They came to an
ancient village called Genesinguhta, which was nearly deserted by the
Indians--only three or four families remaining. The bottoms along the
river side appeared fertile, though much grown over with bushes, and
covered with abundance of fallen timber. Yet it was considered the most
eligible place for Friends to settle, in order to be of benefit to the
Indians, as it was on the land belonging to the nation, and where they
intended to have a reservation located of forty-two square miles.

This conclusion being proposed to Cornplanter, and he queried with,
“whether he was willing Friends should start their fence at the river
side,” and enclose a piece of land they pointed out to him--to which he
replied, “I told you, brothers, the land was all before you, to choose
where you please; but he thought that was the best place for Friends
to settle, and this man, said he, (in whose house they then were) is
very glad you are going to settle so near him--he is very sober man,
he is like you, he drinks no whiskey.” He was then inquired of whether
Friends might have liberty to cut timber in the woods for the use of
the farm, to which he replied, “I wish you would cut all the trees
down, and I will give you another liberty, if you see a deer you may
shoot him, and you may catch fish in the river.”

The place being finally agreed upon, several old Indian cabins were
included in it, and one occupied by a family, which was well situated
to accommodate Friends; the owners of it were amply compensated. The
family immediately moved out their goods and chattels, which (though
apparently some of their best livers,) consisted chiefly in homony
blocks and pounders, a brass, kettle or two, some wooden bowls, and
ladles, a leathern sack of bear’s oil, a basket of corn, some blankets,
and a few deer skins.

On the twenty-third of the month, Friends settled in their new
habitation and made some preparations for a garden. The women of
Cornplanter’s village, to show their hearty and good will in the
undertaking, had previously made a collection of some seed--corn,
potatoes, beans, squashes, and a variety of other garden seeds which
they presented as a present to Friends, observing “that it was very
hard to come so far and have nothing to begin with.”

Previous to the two Friends of the committee leaving this station,
another council was had with the Indians, in which they were strongly
recommended to industry, and reminded of the unreasonableness of their
present practice of letting their women work all day in the fields and
woods, either in cultivating with the hoe, all that was raised for
their sustenance, or in cutting firewood and bringing it home on their
backs from a considerable distance, while they themselves were spending
their time in idleness, amusing themselves with their bows and arrows,
and other useless practices. They were also particularly expostulated
with on various subjects relative to their civil and moral conduct, and
especially in regard to their excessive use of strong drink, to which
Friends in many instances had been eye witnesses. Cornplanter again
replied to the communications of Friends, and at a subsequent parting
opportunity, told the two Friends of the committee, that “They might
make their minds perfectly easy about their young men, for although he
could not answer for sickness or death, he should look upon it his duty
to be their friend, and that they might depend upon him as such, and no
harm should happen to them from any of his people.”

On the thirty-first of the month, the boat arrived from Pittsburgh
with the goods and implements of husbandry; and notwithstanding the
late season for planting, and the ground being to clear of abundance
of old logs and rubbish, Friends were enabled to get a small patch of
corn and potatoes planted, and a variety of garden vegetables. The land
being fertile, they soon had a pleasing prospect of the fruits of their
labour, as well as of showing the natives the beneficial effects of
their mode of cultivation.

The Indians were much pleased to see the ground so much easier prepared
for seed by the plough, than in their usual way of hoeing. Great
numbers of them came flocking about Friends, especially the women, who
appeared kind and respectful, frequently supplying them with venison,
fish, strawberries, and such other delicacies, as their country
afforded--and Friends distributed among them a variety of useful
articles, such as needles, thread, scissors, combs, spectacles, &c.
which were sent for that purpose, and were received by the natives
with lively marks of gratitude. These presents had a powerful effect in
gaining their confidence, and keeping up a friendly intercourse, which
frequently afforded suitable opportunities of giving them instruction.

A number of the Indians also borrowed carpenters’ tools, to enable them
to build better houses, and also some farming utensils, with a view of
using them.

From the little experience Friends already had, it was evident the
ruinous effects of spirituous liquors among the Senecas, together with
the natural propensity of the men to an indolent and improvident life,
would operate as a serious discouragement in the view of Friends,
towards ameliorating their condition. Therefore every suitable
opportunity was embraced to impress upon the minds of their chiefs the
necessity of prohibiting altogether, the introduction of spirituous
liquors into their villages, as the first effectual step towards
their improvement in the domestic arts. This counsel was in a good
degree carried into effect; and by the exertions of their chiefs in a
little time, such prohibition took place as evidently tended to their
advantage, and the great encouragement of Friends in their arduous
undertaking. A hope was entertained that, although their improvement,
at first was small, yet as they come to taste the sweets of industry,
and enjoy the benefit of their labours, they would gradually relinquish
their former pursuits, and follow the example Friends were setting
before them.

Divers of the Indians early manifested a disposition to have better
houses to live in; and being furnished with the necessary tools, they
were also afforded the requisite assistance and instruction. Several
of them constructed in the course of this summer, much better houses
than they had been accustomed to, and manifested a considerable share
of ingenuity in the use of the carpenter’s tools. And while Friends
were employed on their farm, the Indians would frequently come about
them, and sometimes take hold of their tools and work a little--some of
the lads were pleased with driving the horses, and every opportunity
was embraced to prevail on them to love labour; but their natural
proneness to idleness and trifling diversions soon evinced, that
patience and perseverance on the part of Friends, were essentially
necessary to inculcate in the minds of the natives, just ideas of
civilized life, the great stimulus thereto being yet wanting, as they
had not sufficiently acquired ideas of distinct propriety, nor tasted
the sweets resulting therefrom.

In the course of this summer, divers reports were propagated among
the Indians that Friends had a selfish motive, and in the end meant
to defraud them of their land. This to a people who had long been
subjected to suffering by the intrigue of designing men, could not fail
of making impressions on the minds of some who were rather unfriendly
to civilization, and to induce them to scrutinize very narrowly the
conduct of Friends towards them. These groundless reports, however,
were contradicted, and Friends were enabled to satisfy the Indians
generally, that no such design was contemplated; and it rather had the
effect to increase their confidence in us.

Besides attending to the business of the farm, and the various and
frequent calls of the Indians, the young men were enabled to build for
themselves a comfortable house, two stories high, with a cellar under
it. Being the first of the kind, perhaps some of the natives had ever
seen, it excited great admiration among them.

The Indian women had raised, in their usual way, a considerable
quantity of corn this summer, in small patches, interspersed among the
bushes, wherever they found the most favourable spot to cultivate. In
the fall, they were busily employed in collecting it with their other
produce of vegetables, and carrying it home to their dwellings, where
it was carefully laid by for use.

One of the Friends opened a school at Cornplanter’s village, and
remained there through the winter. At times, nearly twenty children
attended, and made some progress in learning to spell and read; but
as their parents had but little control over them, they were very
irregular in their attendance, and no great progress in learning was
made. The Friend was at times otherwise usefully engaged in aiding and
assisting the Indians of that village.

In the Twelfth month, after a considerable snow had fallen, most of the
Indians retired to the woods to their hunting grounds, many of them
taking their families with them. Game was now plentiful. Some of their
best hunters killed near one hundred deer, and some even more than that
number; taking off the skins and leaving much of the meat scattered
about in the woods. What was collected to their camps, was through much
hardship and fatigue to their poor women, whose task it was to carry it
on their backs through deep snows, and often over hills and mountains.

About the middle of the First month, they generally came home to their
villages from their hunting excursions, when they made a feast, and
performed their religious ceremonies and sacrifices.

In the course of this winter, a chief of the Cattaraugus village,
another branch of the Seneca nation about forty-five miles distant,
called on Friends at Alleghany. They had a favourable opportunity of
impressing his mind with the advantages that would result to his people
by cultivating their land, as they possessed a country so favourable
for agriculture, and raising cattle and other useful animals. He
informed Friends, they were very anxious to have a saw-mill built on
their land, and wished to have somebody to instruct them how to go on
with their business; that when they saw and heard what improvements
were making at Alleghany, it made them anxious to go to work.

Soon after his return home, Friends received a written speech from the
council at Cattaraugus, signed by six chiefs, in which they strongly
solicited instructors to be sent among them, and also that they might
be furnished with a set of saw-mill irons. This address being forwarded
to the committee at Philadelphia, together with an account of their
situation, it was concluded to furnish them with a set of saw-mill
irons, whenever they should be ready to make use of them.

Early in the spring of 1799, more of a spirit of industry seemed to
exhibit itself among some of the Indians, and several who were settled
near Friends began to work at splitting rails, and fencing in lots of
land, as they saw Friends fence in theirs. Some who inclined to work,
that had no families, were employed at the business of the farm, and
seemed capable of doing as much in a day as the generality of white
people.

The use of whiskey and other strong drink had considerably decreased
among the Indians, in the course of the last year, and many of their
chiefs seemed desirous of preventing its introduction into their
village. Notwithstanding which, as many of them went down the river
in the spring to Pittsburgh and other places, to dispose of their
skins, furs, &c. which they had taken during the late winter, they
brought in return for their peltry, kegs full of this destructive
article--although Friends had cautioned them against it, previous
to their going away--with this many of them were for a considerable
time intoxicated, so that little could be done in promoting their
improvement while the liquor lasted.

It was believed expedient, from this affecting circumstance, to have
their chiefs and principal men collected in council, and to remonstrate
against such conduct as well as to encourage them to avail themselves
of the present opportunity of gaining instruction in the cultivation of
their land.

At this interview, Friends seriously expostulated with them on
various subjects relative to their moral conduct, and endeavours
were used seriously to impress on their minds the evil consequences
of introducing so much strong liquor into their villages, and that
it greatly obstructed their improvement in agriculture, because for
it they bartered away their money and other articles with which they
ought to purchase horses, and cattle, and implements of husbandry, to
enable them to till their land; and that this operated as a serious
discouragement to Friends in their arduous undertaking to instruct them.

The Indians appeared seriously attentive in this council, being
convicted in their minds of the truth of what had been declared to
them, and in a few days after, they met in council again, and informed
Friends that they had seriously considered the subjects proposed to
them, and that their chiefs had come to a resolution not to permit, for
the future, any of their people to bring liquor into their villages to
sell to one another; that they had appointed two young chiefs to watch
over the rest, and to endeavour to promote good order among them--and
they desired Friends to be easy in their minds respecting them, for
they were determined to take their advice and try to do better; that
they had made inquiry among themselves, and could find no fault in
Friends, or discover any fraud in any of their actions, but on the
contrary, that the fault and bad conduct had all been on their own
side, but now they were determined to quit those bad practices, and to
assist their women in the labours of the field.

A set of smith’s tools was procured, and a smith shop erected at
Friends’ settlement this season, which was found useful in repairing
the Indians’ tools. In the course of this summer, divers of the men
assisted their women in the labours of the field. Their crops of corn
were larger than they had been before; but as yet, none of them had
attempted to use the plough for themselves, though Friends had ploughed
some small lots for them with which they were much pleased, and a hope
was entertained that the next year some of them would take hold of the
plough and commence farming. A school house was built at Cornplanter’s
village, and the Friend stationed there, continued through the summer,
instructing the children, and otherwise affording aid and counsel
to the Indians--and two Friends at Genesinguhta, besides setting
the Indians a proper example in the improvement of their own farm,
afforded them assistance and instruction in many ways, as convenient
opportunities presented, and many of the Indians by this time had built
good log houses, and generally covered them with shingles. Cornplanter
had a saw-mill of his own, worked on the shares by a white man; this
afforded the Indians an opportunity of procuring boards to complete
their houses.

In the Ninth month this year, the settlement was visited by four of the
committee, one of whom had been there when the settlement was first
formed, and was the better qualified to judge of the improvement made
by the Indians.

They had a council with the Indians, and encouraged them to persevere
in the attempt they had already made to become farmers; and expressed
the satisfaction it afforded them, to see the improvement they had
made, and that their stock of cattle was increased, and especially,
with the wise resolution they had formed, to prevent strong drink from
being brought into their villages. The Indians were also informed, that
the young man who resided at Cornplanter’s village, was desirous of
leaving them and returning home to his friends before winter--and it
was hoped another would come forward and supply his place.

Cornplanter, on behalf of the Indians replied, in substance, that when
Friends first settled among them, some of his chiefs were averse to
it; but they had had this summer several councils among themselves,
respecting the young men, and all the chiefs seeing their good conduct,
and readiness to assist Indians, were now well satisfied. He hoped that
several of his young men would do more at farming than heretofore, and
that Friends would not get discouraged, because so little was done;
but exercise patience towards them, as it was hard for them to make
much change from their ancient customs. He regretted the loss of the
Friend who was about to leave them, and said he had been useful to him
in keeping whiskey and other strong liquor out of their town; that they
now drank much less than formerly, but he feared when the Friend went
away, he should not be able to prevent its use so well as he had lately
done.

The deputation from the committee went from this place to Cattaraugus,
the residence of those Indians who had requested a set of saw-mill
irons, and other aid; but the chiefs being generally from home, they
were addressed by a letter, giving them suitable advice on various
subjects, relative to their improvement.

In the latter end of the Tenth month, Cornplanter accompanied the
Friend who had lived at his village, on his way as far as Canandaigua,
where the superintendent of Indian affairs resided. At this place, he
dictated a letter to one of the committee; the superintendent wrote it,
and Cornplanter signed it with his mark. The following is extracted
from it.

“I thank the _Great Spirit_ for his protection in preserving me and
my friend whom I have accompanied to this place. I hope the Great
Spirit will still preserve my friend on his journey to Philadelphia,
and every evening when night shall overtake him, that the Great Spirit
will spread over him the curtain of safety,--that he may again meet
the society that sent him among us, for the purpose of teaching us the
useful arts of the white people; and that he may return to them my
kind thanks, for the kind offices which they are disposed to bestow on
us. I cannot omit this favourable opportunity to inform Friends that
I believe the young men placed at the Alleghany, have discharged the
trust committed to them, in endeavouring to do the best they could for
our advantage.

“Dear friends, when I first heard your voice, and learned your kind
offers to us, I was pleased; as I thought we were apt to transgress
the good rules of the Great Spirit, and by the aid and advice of your
people, the Great Spirit would lend us his aid, by which we might
become a better people. I hope you will not be discouraged, in still
aiding us, although we make slow progress in the arts of the white
people.”

The two Friends at Alleghany were enabled this fall, for the first
time, to sow several acres of wheat and rye, and several of the Indians
manifested a disposition to labour, by aiding them in gathering in
their summer crops.

Near the close of this year, the two Friends residing among the Indians
received a letter from the chiefs at Cattaraugus, expressive of their
great satisfaction, for the advice contained in the letter which had
been left for them last fall, and the great joy that they felt at the
prospect of receiving instruction and assistance from the Quakers.

These Indians were much addicted to intemperance, and although much
more favourably situated than the Alleghany Indians, to make progress
in the agricultural arts, yet they were in a poor and destitute
situation, and did not appear to make use of the advantages within
their power, to assist themselves. It was, therefore, believed right,
in reply to their letter, to urge the necessity of their abstaining
from intemperate practices, and of making use of the means in their
power to better their condition.

       *       *       *       *       *

Therefore the two Friends wrote to them nearly as follows:

“Brothers, we are glad to hear that you have come to a resolution to
lay up so much of your money, to buy cattle and other useful articles,
and that you seem determined to quit drinking whiskey, and not to allow
traders to sell it on your ground. Now brothers, this is a very wise
resolution, and we hope you will be sincere and keep to it. We hope
that some of you have got your eyes open, to see that whiskey and other
strong drink have been the cause of much evil and wickedness among you,
and that these pernicious things have taken much of your money, your
skins, and your furs, which the Great Spirit has favoured you with, and
with which you might buy clothing, and oxen, and axes, hoes, and other
useful articles to assist you in tilling the field, and we fear, in
time past, it has taken some of the corn your poor women have worked
hard at raising, with their hoes.

“Brothers, you know there are many white people who love money, and
they know that you love whiskey, and this is the way they take to get
your money and property from you. But if you keep to your resolution
not to drink it, then there will be no danger. You may then have oxen
and ploughs, with which you may plough your ground and raise a great
deal of corn, and you may also buy axes and hoes, and other useful
implements of husbandry to farm with. And then when your friends the
Quakers see that you are trying to help yourselves, and that you make
good use of your money, it will encourage them to help you more.

“Brothers, we desire you often to think upon the Great Spirit, and
pray to him in your hearts, and then he will show you what is good and
what is evil. And we want you to take up work like the white people,
for your land is very good, and would produce a great deal of grain if
properly managed--and if you get plenty of cattle and sheep, and swine,
they will afford you plenty of meat, and be much more certain than the
elk, the deer, and the bear. Then will your old men, your wives and
your children be happy, and enjoy the comforts of life, and you can
look on your flocks and your fields with contentment and pleasure.”

These Indians, in addition to the set of saw-mill irons before
promised, were furnished with some axes, hoes, and a set of plough
irons, to encourage them in farming.

A school was kept at Genesinguhta, this winter, by one of the Friends,
where a number of children attended, and made some progress in
learning--also a grown person who was debilitated in body, resided with
Friends throughout the winter, and being able to converse a little in
the English language, acquired so much learning as to enable him to
read and write, and afterwards to procure a living, by trading among
the Indians.

In the spring of 1800, the Indians appeared somewhat animated, and more
of them made preparation for farming, by scattering more from their
villages, fencing in lots and clearing land; but not yet having working
animals to plough their ground, Friends ploughed some small lots for
them, which operated as a stimulus to them; and one Indian took hold
of the plough, and began to manage it himself, which was viewed as a
matter of some surprise, and excited great curiosity in the beholders.

In the Fifth month, this spring, two of the Friends who had left the
Oneida settlement the preceding winter, as before stated, being willing
to spend some more time among the Indians, proceeded to Alleghany, to
unite with Friends there in promoting the welfare of the natives.

Soon after their arrival, the Indians at Cattaraugus requested Friends
at Alleghany to give them some advice and assistance, about planning
a saw-mill. Accordingly two Friends proceeded to that settlement,
and gave such advice on the occasion as seemed to be requisite; the
millwrights having already arrived, and commenced the building of a
saw-mill.

As these Indians will in the sequel constitute an interesting part of
the narrative of this concern, it seems proper in this place to give a
more particular account of their situation. The Senecas here possess a
reservation of forty-two square miles, part of it bounded by lake Erie.
It is generally composed of land of a superior quality. The bottoms
along the Cattaraugus river produce black and white walnut and sugar
maple of a superior size. The higher land, abounds with white oak,
white pine, bass, poplar, hickory, and other timber. There are, also,
exclusive of the Indians’ corn fields, large openings like natural
meadows, containing many hundred acres of excellent land, covered
with abundance of grass and herbage, affording abundance of food for
cattle. The Senecas at this place were said to be about one hundred and
sixty in number. Their houses were made in the usual Indian style, and
covered with bark, and their situation, in general, as to habits and
living, much similar to those at Alleghany, when Friends first settled
among them. About a mile from the Seneca village was a town of the
Delawares, (more frequently called Munsies) about one hundred and sixty
in number, who lived on sufferance on the Seneca Indians’ land.

These Indians, as well as the Senecas, had a considerable number of
cattle, some horses, and abundance of poultry and swine. They had small
enclosures round their villages, in which they kept their stock during
the corn season, and sometimes the poor animals had but a scanty supply
of fodder, notwithstanding the abundance of grass on their lands, from
which, for want of a little labour to fence off their corn lots, they
had little or no benefit during the summer.

Previous to leaving them, the two Friends had an interview with a
number of their chiefs, and principal men and women, in which they were
encouraged to industry, and to put in practice their good resolutions.
Being informed by one of the Friends present, that he was shortly going
to leave their country and return to his friends, one of the chiefs
replied, “You may tell your old friends, the Quakers at Philadelphia,
when you go home, that we are exceedingly thankful for the kindness you
have shown us, and the assistance you have already given us. We are now
determined to follow your advice as far as we are able, and to spill
all the whiskey traders bring among us for sale. You must not think we
are offended at you for trying to make us sensible of our weaknesses;
for even our young men and young women rejoice to hear it, and are in
hopes their hands will grow stronger, that they may be able to overcome
their weaknesses. We are determined to try to help ourselves, and to
lay up money to purchase useful articles to go to farming with. We pity
our poor women, and see it is too hard for them to work in the hot
sun, and do all the labours of the field. And although we cannot ask
any more favours of you, yet one thing in particular we desire you to
remember; that is, that we are a poor, ignorant people, and for want of
learning, in the course of our dealings with the white people, we have
been greatly wronged, and lost much of our property--we want some of
our children instructed, that they may be able to do the business of
our nation.”

On the fourteenth of the Sixth month, Friends had a council with the
Indians at Alleghany, in which the two Friends lately came into their
country, were introduced to them, and also informed that one of the
Friends who had now been more than two years among them, was about to
return home to his friends. Several matters were opened to encourage
them to persevere in habits of industry, and to be strong in their
resolutions against the use of spirituous liquors, over which they had,
by this time, gained a great conquest.

A few days after this, Cornplanter and several other chiefs, called
to see the Friend who was leaving them set out on his journey, and
sent three of their people to accompany him on his way through the
wilderness.

In their parting conference, Cornplanter expressed many thanks for
the Friend’s services among them, and desired the Great Spirit might
conduct him safely home to his relations, and that on his arrival he
might inform his old friends, the Quakers in Philadelphia, that he
was very thankful for their kind endeavours to instruct his people in
a life of civilization, and he believed the Great Spirit above was
pleased with it.

During the summer of 1800, the Indians made some further improvements,
and seemed more disposed to relinquish their old habits. A yoke of
oxen, which they purchased, were found very useful in drawing their
firewood, and thereby relieving some of their women from heavy
burthens; several of them procured cows. By this time many of the
Indians had built themselves more comfortable houses, and began to
assist their women in their agricultural labours, so that a gradual
improvement was evident among them in the habits of civilized life.

In the following winter, Red Jacket, a Seneca chief, residing at
Buffalo creek, with several other chiefs of the Seneca nation, visited
Philadelphia, with whom Friends had a satisfactory interview. Suitable
presents were given them, among which, was a set of saw-mill irons,
which were particularly requested by Red Jacket.

In the spring of 1801, a greater spirit of industry seemed to manifest
itself among the Indians. Divers more of them fenced in lots, and
procured moreover, some working animals; their increasing attention to
raising cattle and hogs, afforded a pleasing prospect; and was a strung
inducement for them to scatter more from their villages, and realize
the advantages of settling on separate tracts of land.

Circumstances, however, occurred among the Indians, which claimed the
particular attention of the committee, and three Friends were deputed
to visit the settlement. They proceeded there in the Ninth month,
accompanied by a young Friend, a blacksmith, who offered his services
to instruct some of the Indians in his useful occupation.

Previous to giving a detail of this interview, it seems necessary
to observe, that some extraordinary ideas respecting witchcraft had
prevailed among the natives for sometime, which were principally
insinuated among them by an infirm old man named Connediu, a half
brother to Cornplanter, who had the appearance of a simple man, and had
been from his youth very intemperate. He had no influence in the nation
till about three years before, when, after a long time of sickness,
he was supposed by the Indians to be several times in a trance. After
he had recovered therefrom, he asserted that he had seen angels, who
communicated to him such things as the Great Spirit designed should
be imparted to the Indians--that they must all quit drinking whiskey
and other strong liquors--that they must revive the custom of their
forefathers in eating dog’s flesh, and have frequent dances--performing
their religious ceremonies, &c. This to a people naturally prone to
superstition, was like oracles delivered from the _Great Spirit_, and
to use their own language, “was the manner in which _He_ was revealing
his mind and will to the Indians.” Connediu had actually some of his
imaginary interviews with the inhabitants of the spiritual world
committed to writing, that they might keep it in remembrance, as the
will of the Great Spirit concerning them.

Connediu frequently asserted that these heavenly messengers continued
to favour him with frequent interviews, and he succeeded in propagating
a belief among the natives, that most of their bodily afflictions
and disorders arose from witchcraft, and undertook to point out the
individuals who had the power of inflicting these evils. He was said
to have wholly declined the practice of drinking to excess, and by an
artful exercise of his pretended knowledge, he acquired considerable
influence in the nation, so as to be appointed high priest and chief
Sachem in things civil and religious.

Some of Cornplanter’s family being in a declining state of health,
Connediu, (whom they now esteemed a great doctor, as well as a
prophet,) was applied to for counsel. In his wild reveries he alleged
that some of the Delaware Indians who lived at Cattaraugus possessed
the power of witchcraft, and were the cause of their illness.

This brought on a quarrel between the two tribes, and some of the
Delawares were taken prisoners, and threatened with death if they did
not remove the disorder.

During the contention, Cornplanter wrote to the governor of
Pennsylvania on the occasion, and the committee on Indian affairs
being made acquainted with the circumstances, letters both from the
committee and government were addressed to both tribes of Indians on
the subject. A council was called between the contending parties,
and Friends, with some other well disposed people on the frontier
settlements, used their influence to have an amicable adjustment, and
endeavoured to obliterate from the Indians’ minds, those superstitious
ideas of witchcraft which appeared to have been the ground of their
uneasiness. The result was, that the Delawares were acquitted, and
all disputes buried between them and the Senecas. Cornplanter told
them “that he had swept their beds clean, that they might lie down
in peace--that he had swept their houses clean, that they might live
comfortably in them--that he had swept clean before their doors, that
they might go out and in, without molestation.”

About the time that Friends of the committee arrived at Genesinghuta,
the Indians generally were met in council, about these matters; and
although Connediu had advised them to quit drinking whiskey, he was
otherwise endeavouring to propagate notions very inimical to the
concern in which Friends were engaged, by recommending them to follow
their old customs, and not allow their children to learn to read and
write; that they might farm a little, and build houses, but must not
sell any thing which they raised on their land, but give it away to one
another, and especially to their old people; and, in short, enjoy all
things in common.

With this doctrine several of the young chiefs and others were not
satisfied; and one of them judiciously observed, “they had better
hold councils about fencing in fields, and clearing land, than about
witchcraft, and other strange notions of Connediu.”

The committee, who now visited the settlement, were pleased, on passing
down the river, with the view of fences, where not long before there
were none to be seen; and instead of the bark cabins, that formerly
stood in clusters along its banks, there were now good houses, with
shingled roofs; and the tinkling of cow bells, which they heard in
various directions, denoted an increase of cattle, and had a cheering
effect on their minds. It was in the spring of 1801, that the Indians
first began to use the plough for themselves. They took a very cautious
method of determining whether it was likely to be an advantageous
change to them or not. Several parts of a large field were ploughed,
and the intermediate spaces prepared by their women with the hoe,
according to former custom. It was all planted with corn; and the
parts ploughed, (besides the great saving of labour,) produced much
the heaviest crop; the stalks being more than a foot higher, and
proportionably stouter than those on the hoed ground. The corn was now
gathered in, and as their stock of cattle had much increased, instead
of leaving their corn fodder to perish, as formerly, they preserved
it for their cattle in winter--and several had mown grass, and made
small stacks of hay. They had made a fence, about two miles long, which
enclosed the lower town, and a large body of adjacent land fronting on
the river, and several other fences were made within it, to separate
the corn from the pasture ground.

With the exception of houses and fences, the improvements at the
lower town, (Jenuchshadaga) did not bear a comparison with the upper
settlement, where the Indians lived more detached from each other.
Their thus separating, was evidently more to their advantage, than
crowding together in villages. A chief, who was not ashamed to be seen
at work by the women of his own family, would probably have been much
mortified when discovered by a number of other females, who on such
occasions do not always refrain from ridicule. Yet this false shame on
the part of the men, and ridicule of the women, gradually wore away as
they became familiarized to each others’ assistance, in their little
agricultural labours.

The Indians now became very sober, generally refraining from the use of
strong liquor, both at home and when abroad among the white people. One
of them observed to Friends, “no more bark cabins, but good houses--no
more get drunk here, now, this two year.”

The blacksmith was introduced to the Indians with a request that two
of their young men would learn his business, so as to be qualified to
do their own work; as it was not very likely he should stay long. But
before they would agree to this proposition, they queried with Friends,
“whether they would at any future time want land or money for the
services which they had done, and were doing for them? They wished to
know very clearly in writing about it. Also, whether they would leave
the tools for the young men, who might learn the blacksmiths’ trade,
when the smith left them, or whether they would take them away?” To
which the following answer was given in writing:--

“Brothers, we tell you now, plainly, as we told you before, that your
brothers, the Quakers, do not want any of your land, or any of your
money, or any of your skins, for any thing they have done for you; and
they never will bring a charge against you, for any of these things.
And we give you this writing, to keep forever, to make your minds
perfectly easy on this account. About the smiths’ tools we cannot say
much; but think we shall leave them with you, if some of your young men
will learn the trade.”

At a subsequent interview, Cornplanter made a reply to Friends, in
which he stated, “We understand the writing which you gave us very
well, and our minds are now quite easy. Two of our young men will learn
the smiths’ trade; one from the lower town, and one from the upper.”

Friends again opened the business respecting the schooling of their
children, which had for sometime past been impeded by the system of
Connediu. The chiefs were particularly desired to take this subject
under consideration, and let Friends know when they were ready.

It was supposed that the quantity of corn raised this year by the
natives, was nearly tenfold what it was when the settlement was first
formed, and a few of the Indians made the first attempts to raise
wheat; but those who did something at farming, occasionally went out a
hunting; and many of the men still adhered to their ancient customs,
and left the women of their families to cultivate with the hoe, what
corn and vegetables were necessary for their sustenance.

As one of the young men, who had been there from the time of first
opening the settlement, was about to return home with the committee,
Cornplanter expressed the great regard he had for him; saying, “that,
although he had been so long amongst them, not one of them was able to
say a word against him, ever since he had been there--that his words
and his conduct had been altogether good, and agreeable to them; and
he hoped the Good Spirit would preserve him on his way home to his
friends.”

The committee, also, on this visit, had an interview with the Indians
of Cattaraugus. They arrived at a time when the Indians were performing
their religious ceremonies--concerning which, the chief warrior,
Waun-dun-guh-ta, made the following remark to Friends.

“Brothers, you have come at a time which has by us been set apart for
performing worship to the Good Spirit, after our ancient customs. It is
our way of worship, and, to us, solemn and serious, and not to be made
light of, however different it may be from your mode. It is the manner
our forefathers have taught us. We hope you will excuse us for not
being so attentive to you as we should, had we not been thus engaged.”

They had now their saw-mill completed, and one of the Friends from
Alleghany remained sometime with them, instructing some of the Indians
in the sawing business.

The spring of 1802, furnished greater marks of improvement, than had
heretofore been discovered among the natives. Eighteen or twenty
thousand rails were split, and put up into fences by the Indians, and
thirteen or fourteen new lots enclosed, most of which were cleared
this spring. Several families who had not any when this settlement was
first formed, had got six or seven head of cattle, and other useful
animals. Whiskey was not knowingly suffered to be brought into the
settlement; and if any were found out to have been intoxicated, when
they were out in the white settlements, they were sharply reproved by
the chiefs on their return, which had nearly the same effect among
Indians, as committing a man to the workhouse among white people. The
Indians opened a good road for about five miles up the river from
Friends’ settlement, where before it was very difficult to travel,
even on horseback. Several of them sowed spring wheat--and a gradual
improvement was apparent during this season.

The benefits derived by the Senecas at Alleghany, from their attention
to agriculture, encouraged other branches of the nation to apply for
assistance. The chief of the Tonewanta village, about one hundred
miles distant from Friends’ settlement at the Alleghany, in a pathetic
speech, applied to Friends to assist them with saw-mill irons, farming
utensils, &c. which request was granted, with the addition of a yoke of
oxen, and chains.

The young man who went out as a blacksmith, returned home this fall;
two of the Indians having acquired such knowledge of his business as to
answer their necessities.

Although the improvements at this place were gradually progressing,
obstructive causes at times occurred, difficult to combat. This
induced Friends, among them, to believe that a change made in their
situation, so as to render them more independent of the natives,
might subject them to less difficulty in the further prosecution of
the concern. The improvement heretofore made on their own land, for a
time, had a good effect; but their ideas were weak, and for want of
more sensibility in some of the intentions of Friends towards them,
it had led to a dependence, which evidently impeded their progress
in civilization. This dependence seemed to increase, as they saw the
increase of produce from the land that Friends cultivated. Some of the
Indians had increased their stock of cattle faster than the means of
supporting them through a long and rigorous winter. When their hay and
other fodder become reduced, they applied to Friends to give them some.
These requests could not be complied with, to an extent proportioned
to their necessity, without reducing Friends to alike state of want;
and fearing, least in future winters, a renewal of similar requests,
without the means of supplying them, might disturb that harmony which
had hitherto subsisted between Friends and the Indians, it was thought
adviseable by the committee to embrace an opportunity which now
presented, of purchasing from a company of white people, an adjoining
tract of land, in order to make such improvements thereon, as might
accommodate a family or more, of such, who from time to time, might
feel desirous to assist in the instruction of the Indians, and thus by
making it a more permanent establishment, entirely independent of the
natives, be enabled to extend more efficient aid to other branches of
the Seneca nation.

In the spring of 1803, this proposal of a removal of Friends’
settlement was communicated to the Indians, and they generally
coincided with it, provided the move should not be far up the river.
They had several councils on the occasion, and communicated to Friends
their views; and although their prophet, Connediu, had, in time back,
been somewhat opposed to the views of Friends in changing the customs
of the Indians, he was now entirely friendly, and strongly recommended
industry and perseverance in the plans which Friends had recommended
to them. The following paragraphs from one of his speeches on this
occasion, may be worthy of notice.

       *       *       *       *       *

“My friends, Quakers, attend.--It is now a long time since you first
came amongst us. It has even exceeded the time that was first proposed.
I now speak the united voice of our chiefs and warriors to you, of
our women also, and of all our people. Attend, therefore, to what I
say. We wish you to make your minds perfectly easy--we are all pleased
with your living amongst us, and not one of us wants you to leave our
country. We find no fault with you in any respect, since you come
amongst us; neither have we any thing to charge you with. You have
lived peaceably and honestly with us, and have been preserved in
health, and nothing has befallen you. This we think is proof, also,
that the Great Spirit is pleased with you living here, and with what
you have done for us.”

“Friends, Quakers--we now all agree to leave you at full liberty,
either to remain where you now are, on our land, or to remove up the
river and settle on land of your own, only that you settle near us,
that you may extend further assistance and instruction. For although we
have received much benefit from you, and some of our people have made
considerable advancement in useful labour, yet we remain very deficient
in many things, and numbers of us are yet poor.”

       *       *       *       *       *

As the important change proposed to be made in conducting the affairs
at Alleghany, required serious consideration, four of the committee
proceeded to that settlement, and on conferring with Friends there,
were satisfied of the propriety of a removal from their present
station, to one more independent of the Indians, and less subject to
their control.

A tract of land adjoining the Indians’ reservation on Tunesassa creek,
which empties into the river on the east side, about two miles above
Genesinghuta, was agreed upon, and afterwards purchased, as the most
eligible place for a settlement; inasmuch as it furnished an ample
situation for water works, and much of the tract was covered with
excellent pine timber. The tract included about seven hundred acres.

Friends had free and open conferences with the Indians on the subject
of their removal, and various other matters; and satisfactory
arrangements were made respecting the old settlement, the Indians
insisting on Friends’ occupying the farm until they got suitable
accommodations, and provender for their stock, at their new settlement.

In one of their conferences, Cornplanter observed:

“Brothers, when your friends first came amongst us, and for a long
time after, the white people told us, ‘keep a good watch on those
Quakers--they are a cunning, designing people; and under pretence
of doing something for you, want to get hold upon you, to make an
advantage of you some way or other;’ but of late, finding that all was
straight, and no advantage was attempted to be taken, they have left
off talking about it.

“Brothers, your young men do not talk much to us, but when they do they
speak what is good, and have been very helpful in keeping us from using
spirituous liquors.”

Here it may be proper to remark, that in the spring of 1798, an Indian
lad of the Tuscarora nation, from near the falls of Niagara, had been
taken to Philadelphia, and placed with a Friend in Chester county,
to learn the blacksmiths’ business, where he continued till the last
spring;--and having acquired a competent knowledge of his trade, and
made considerable proficiency in school learning, the Friend with whom
he had been instructed, felt such an interest in his welfare, that he
accompanied him home to his Indian friends, staid several weeks with
him, to see him set up in his business, and assisted him therein.

This Friend, on his return, had now been several weeks at Alleghany,
affording the two Indian blacksmiths there, some further instruction in
that art. They were very desirous he should tarry longer with them; and
an old chief observed, “Friends had now sent on a blacksmith, the best
they had ever seen--he knows how to make all things we want.”

Considerable improvement among the Indians at this time was observable,
more particularly up the river. Several families had settled about two
miles higher up, than where they formerly resided, and had cleared and
fenced in about sixty acres of land. Seventeen new houses with shingled
roofs, were observed neatly built, with square logs, most of them two
stories high, with stone chimneys and glass windows. They had about one
hundred head of cattle, thirty horses, and several hundred hogs. And
the Indians had opened a road, about twenty miles along the river, and
much of it through heavy timber; which was a great work for them.

The committee proceeded from thence to Cattaraugus, and noticed
considerable improvement in that settlement. Several of them were
building good houses. Their crops of corn were good, and their stock of
cattle increased; and, generally speaking, they had declined the use
of strong drink. They had divers requests to make to Friends, some of
which were granted; especially one, for a set of smith tools and plough
irons. While Friends were sitting with the chief warrior, he seemed
in a pensive mood, and said he wished to ask them a question, but
hesitated. They desired him to say on--It was, “_Do the Quakers keep
any slaves?_”--He was answered in the negative. He said he was very
glad to hear it; for if they did, he could not think so well of them as
he now did--that he had been at the city of Washington last winter, on
business of the nation, and found that many white people kept blacks in
slavery, and used them no better than horses.

The committee on their way home had interviews with the Buffalo and
Tonewanta Indians, and gave them such advice and encouragement as their
situation required. It was satisfactory to observe, from the account of
Red Jacket and others of their chiefs, that some improvement was taking
place among those Indians.

Our friends at Alleghany built a temporary house at their new
settlement this fall, to which they removed, which we shall hereafter
call Tunesassa. The land being heavily timbered, much exertion and
labour were necessary, to make their situation tolerably comfortable
during the first winter.

In the spring of 1804, the Indians generally removed from the lower
town, and settled higher up the river; several of them not far from
Tunesassa. This removal subjected them to some inconveniences, the
first year, but eventually proved much to their advantage; especially
to those who were detached from their little towns.

As it was believed much benefit would result to the Indians from the
erection of a grist mill on Friends’ farm, there being none nearer
than about forty miles, measures were adopted to have grist and
saw-mills erected this summer; and they were so far completed, as to
be in operation the ensuing winter, when the Indians had considerable
grinding done, and were much pleased to see the grain reduced to meal
so much quicker than by pounding it in wooden mortars.

An Indian man, after having a grist of wheat of his own raising ground
and bolted, said with animation, “I think this will make the Indians
see day-light.”

In the course of this season, some dissentions took place among the
Indians with regard to their chiefs. Several young men of considerable
influence in the nation, and who were anxious to assume the reigns of
government, became disaffected to Cornplanter, and taking measures to
subvert his authority, artfully prevailed with the Indians to confer
on themselves the dignified title of chiefs. This, among men whose
rulers only hold their authority during the good will of the people,
was not difficult to effect. In the mean time, Connediu, who had some
time before been promoted to the highest title in the nation, continued
(as he said) his imaginary interviews with the inhabitants of the
spiritual world, so that his fame spread abroad, and visits were paid
to him from distant tribes. He also travelled to distant parts himself,
and promulgated his doctrines, (which happily were now become more
innocent,) throughout the Seneca nation.

In the latter end of the winter and spring of 1805, the Indians
experienced much damage to their infant settlements, by some unusual
freshets in the Alleghany river. Nearly all their fences were swept
away; but instead of being discouraged by their losses, they joined
together very spiritedly, and soon repaired them; and in the end
appeared to have been benefitted; for by this exertion, they gradually
became more accustomed to labour--a thing, to them, of the greatest
consequence.

As it was believed the time had now come when it would be right to take
some measures to instruct the Indian women in the various branches
of housewifery, and domestic economy, and as this could not be done
without female aid, a suitable family were sought for, and a man and
his wife offering for that service, as well as a single female, who had
before been at the Oneida settlement, they proceeded to Tunesassa in
the early part of summer; and the natives expressed much satisfaction
on their arrival among them.

The arrival of the females was no less satisfactory to the Friends
residing at Tunesassa--for as from the first settlement to this
time, in addition to the various calls of the Indians, and their
out-door labours, they had all their domestic and culinary services to
perform,--except some little aid received at times, by hiring some of
the Indian women.

Although many of the Indians had constructed comfortable houses, very
few of their women took any pains to keep them clean and in neat order.
They manufactured none of their own clothing, except the mockasins they
wore on their feet. They had no knowledge of making soap, and of course
their clothes could not be very clean--and very little improvement in
domestic affairs had as yet taken place among the Indian families.
In proportion, however, as the men became more accustomed to labour,
it released the women from their former drudgery; and having now the
opportunity of getting all their grain ground, which before they had to
pound in wooden mortars, it would afford them more time to turn their
attention to the business of the house, and the concerns more properly
allotted to females, in all civilized societies.

To aid and assist them in accomplishing this, was the object of our
female friends; and some of the Indian girls pretty soon began to show
a willingness to be instructed in knitting and spinning. A house of
employment was built at a little distance from Friends’ dwelling,
and particularly allotted to their use; but for want of the necessary
materials, not much could be done at these useful employments the first
season. Our women Friends were, however, enabled to instruct many
of them in the art of making soap, which enabled them to keep their
clothes and persons more cleanly; and also by frequently visiting them
in their families, had opportunities of instructing and encouraging
them in habits more assimilated to civilized life. The Indian women,
also, made frequent visits to them, and by observing their industry,
economy, and superior mode of living, an inclination began soon
to manifest itself, even among these uncultivated females of the
wilderness, to imitate the more useful and rational economy of our
women Friends.

In the course of this summer, Friends had got about thirty acres of
land cleared on their farm--their spring crops were productive, and
they sowed fourteen or fifteen acres with winter grain. The grist
and saw-mills were kept in operation, and found to answer a valuable
purpose.

In the spring of 1806, the Indians were much engaged in clearing land,
splitting rails, and carrying on various improvements. One of the more
sagacious observed to Friends, “Our Indians are getting to have more
sense, very fast.”

They continued strongly opposed to the use of spirituous liquors, and
seldom held a council without some animadversions on their baneful
effects--and nothing excited more wonder among the surrounding white
people, than to find them entirely refuse liquor when offered to them.
The Indians said, that when the white people urged them to drink
whiskey, they would ask for bread or provisions in its stead.

In the course of this summer, a company of Indians from Alleghany, with
Connediu (whom they called their prophet,) at their head, paid a visit
to several villages of their brethren, near the Genessee river, in
order to dissuade them from the use of strong drink, and to encourage
them in habits of industry.

In the Ninth month, this year, the settlement was again visited by
three of the committee. The writer being one of the number, and
having resided more than two years among them at the first opening
of the settlement, was afforded a full opportunity of judging of the
improvements the Indians had made. A council was held with the Indians
at Cold Spring, which was a new town the Indians had built on the west
side of the river, a few miles above Tunesassa. Various subjects were
discussed in this council, relative to the Indians’ improvement, and
much advice communicated relative to their moral conduct, and long
replies again made by the Indians, which the limits prescribed for this
narrative will not admit in detail. One thing, however, not heretofore
noticed, was earnestly pressed upon them; to live in peace and harmony
with their wives, and not to let trifling matters part them, as was
sometimes their practice; but to consider them as companions for life:
and also to live in peace and friendship one with another, which would
enable them to make a greater progress in the good work Friends were
endeavouring to promote among them.

Our Friends at Tunesassa had now got about fifty acres of land
cleared, well enclosed, and in good order. They had built a large and
commodious dwelling house and barn, which, together with the mills
and improvements generally, gave it the appearance of a desirable
settlement.

It was believed the Indians had built about one hundred new houses
since the committee visited them three years before. Most of them were
put up with hewn logs very neatly notched at the corners; many of
them were covered with shingles, and some had pannel doors and glass
windows. The carpenter work was chiefly done by the Indians. Scarcely a
vestige remained of the cabins they occupied when Friends first settled
among them. Their farms, which were of different dimensions, were
enclosed with good fences, and much more detached from each other than
formerly. A much greater proportion of corn was planted this season
than had been known before, and generally looked well. Many of them
had raised wheat and oats, and several had raised flax and buckwheat,
besides potatoes and turnips in abundance. Their stock of cattle and
horses was increased, and they had a good many working oxen, which they
found very advantageous to them. Sheep were not yet introduced, owing
to the danger of their being destroyed by wolves.

Upon the whole, it was evident their improvements rather exceeded, in
divers respects, those made in some new settlements of white people on
the frontiers, in the same length of time.

Several of the young women had this year learned to spin and knit a
little; but although the improvement among the females was yet small,
it was, nevertheless evident, a change in this respect had taken place
for the better, since our women Friends came among them. Their persons
and apparel, as well as their houses, appeared in more neat and cleanly
order. And as Friends approached some of their habitations, a pleasing
mark of neatness discovered itself among some of their women, who
would immediately begin to sweep their houses, and appear somewhat
disconcerted, if Friends entered their doors before they got their
apartments in good order.

After spending near a week at Alleghany, the committee proceeded to
Cattaraugus, and had a very satisfactory interview with the Seneca
Indians at that place. Various matters were opened to them in a written
communication, tending to incite them to industry, and to encourage
them in a life of sobriety. A great reform had taken place among
those Indians in this respect. The chief warrior in his reply said,
“He believed the Great Spirit was better pleased with them when they
took hold of the axe and the hoe and went to work, than when they were
pursuing their former bad practices of drinking, &c.” “And he was very
glad Friends had given them their speech upon paper, that they would
not only advise their young people themselves, but would have that
speech to apply to, to strengthen their minds.”

Although a considerable change had taken place for the better at this
settlement within three years past, their stock of cattle and horses
having considerably increased, (and instead of confining them as
formerly in small enclosures round their villages, they had, since
enclosing their cornfields, the advantage of pasturing them on the
large plains,) yet they appeared very far behind their brethren at
Alleghany, in agricultural improvements, as well as in buildings and
cleanliness of living.

In the year 1807, no very important change took place among the Indians
at Alleghany, except that divers of the young women and girls applied
themselves to spinning in the course of the winter, under the direction
of our women Friends, and succeeded so far as to have a piece of linen
spun and wove into cloth, besides manufacturing a quantity of sewing
thread with which many of the Indians were well pleased.

Some evil disposed persons, and doubtless opposed to the advancement
of the Indians in civilization, took every opportunity of creating
suspicions in their minds, of the views of Friends, and artfully
insinuated that Friends’ saw-mill was erected to accumulate an interest
out of them, notwithstanding that Friends had given them many thousand
feet of boards, and also their grain at the grist-mill was then ground
free of toll.

In order, therefore, to settle the minds of the Indians, to counteract
the suspicions in circulation, and as a convincing evidence of the
disinterested views of Friends,--believing also, that it might redound
to the Indians’ advantage, they offered to assist them in building a
saw-mill for themselves; and three hundred dollars, in addition to a
set of saw-mill irons, were granted for that purpose.

This fall Cornplanter was again restored to his former station of
chief; and from the disposition he had always manifested to the object
of Friends, there was reason to expect his renewed influence in their
councils would be useful.

The family at Tunesassa, experienced a great trial by the removal of
the Friend’s wife residing there, who, after about two weeks illness
was taken from this transitory scene. She had by her prudent and
obliging conduct very much endeared herself to the natives, many of
whom attended her funeral, and a number of them called to see the
family some days afterwards, and desired them to make their minds
easy, seeing it was the will of the Great Spirit, and what must happen
to all mankind; and they were come to sympathize with them, and to wipe
away their tears that they might sorrow no more.

In the following winter, a number of the Indian women and girls were
engaged at spinning, and a disposition to industry and manufacturing
their own clothing, seemed to be gaining ground. A loom was provided,
and several pieces of their own spinning were made into cloth.

1808. As Friends for sometime past, had been desirous of rendering more
essential service to the Indians at Cattaraugus, it was now believed
expedient to purchase a tract of land adjoining their reservation, and
have a family stationed there, that would more effectually accelerate
their improvement.

Accordingly a large tract of land was agreed for, on Clear creek, which
furnished a good seat for water-works, within four or five miles of the
Indian town. The land being heavily timbered, the Indians were engaged
in opening a road from their villages to it; and considerable advances
were made towards opening a settlement this season, superintended by
some of the Friends from Tunesassa.

The Indians at Alleghany got their saw-mill completed this fall so as
to be in operation, and the Friends at Tunesassa were joined by another
family, a Friend with his wife, a single female who accompanied them,
and several children; the parents offering their services to spend some
time in the instruction of the Indian natives.

Near the close of this year, and through the succeeding winter,
very considerable progress was made among the women and girls in
learning to spin; several purchased wheels and commenced spinning at
their own houses; and an aged female, of the first influence, named
O-yong-go-gas, resided sometime with Friends, to be instructed in this
employment, and made an unexpected progress. Her attention to assist
in encouraging and superintending the younger women and girls, was a
favourable circumstance, and tended to promote their improvement. On
hearing that Friends at Tunesassa were about writing to the committee,
she delivered the following address, desiring it might be sent also.

“Brothers, attend--I wish to speak a few words to you. Since your women
came here, I have frequently had a prospect of learning to spin; but as
I was an ancient woman, I was afraid to make a beginning, lest I should
not make out, and would then have to decline it, without accomplishing
any thing. I at length concluded to try, and have learned so much as to
be able to spin flax and tow pretty well.

“Brothers, I am very happy that I have the satisfaction to inform you
a little of my progress, and also that I can now with more assurance,
impress the necessity of this valuable improvement on the minds of our
young women, and I intend in future to recommend it as a most necessary
employment.

“For my own part, I intend to pursue it as long as my eye-sight will
continue, and I hope yet to be able to spin wool for a blanket, if
the Good Spirit will continue my sight. I am very thankful for the
knowledge I have acquired of your women Friends.

“Brothers, I hope this may find you all well, and I wish the Great
Spirit may bless you.”

In the spring of 1809, a Friend, who had spent many years among the
natives, returned again to his former station at Tunesassa, and being
acquainted with the weaving business, he was usefully employed in
manufacturing into cloth the yarn which the Indian women had spun in
the last winter, and the industry of several of them procured them
sufficient specimens of domestic manufactures, to stimulate them to
further exertions.

This spring four of the Friends resident at Tunesassa proceeded to
Cattaraugus, in order to carry on the improvements at this new station,
and to instruct the Indians in that settlement.

The Indians at Alleghany continued to make a satisfactory progress in
their agricultural labours, seven or eight families sowed flax this
spring, and other marks of improvement were observable. The settlement
was visited again by a deputation from the committee, and the situation
of the Indians fully inspected, and much advice and counsel were
communicated to them relative to their moral conduct, as well as in
regard to their temporal concerns.

They were particularly warned of the iniquity of men and their wives
separating, (a practice which was too common among them,) and marrying
again with others; the natural consequence of which was, leaving their
children in poverty and distress, besides being attended with a variety
of other evils.

The communications of Friends appeared to be well received, and in the
replies which the Indians made, among many other things, Cornplanter
remarked, “We are sensible that it is displeasing to the Great Spirit
for men and their wives to separate, and I am very happy that you have
now mentioned it, when so many of our young warriors are present who
have the opportunity of hearing; and I hope they will attend to the
good counsel you have given us.”

This deputation from the committee also visited Cattaraugus settlement,
and had satisfactory interviews with those Indians, encouraging them to
industry and sobriety, and to avail themselves of the opportunity they
now had of receiving instruction from our Friends, who had lately come
to settle near them.

In their replies to Friends, the chief warrior observed:--“You still
continue to speak the same language to our nation, and we believe your
views towards us are the effects of pure friendship, and a desire for
our welfare; and although we have fallen short in fulfilling your
former advices, we are still encouraged to follow your counsel, and
to pursue the path you have set before us. We hope you will continue
to have patience towards us, as Indians cannot adopt all these habits
that you recommend at once; but we are convinced that industry in
cultivating our lands, is the only method by which we can receive
lasting benefits, and we are determined to pursue it--and we hope we
shall still continue to make a gradual advancement.”

During the winter and spring of 1810, the Indian women at Alleghany
gave increasing attention to spinning. Some elderly females, who had
acquired sufficient knowledge, and being anxious to promote this
valuable art, took the superintendence of the young girls, and this
season they spun sufficient to make one hundred and twenty yards, part
of which was woollen, and manufactured into blankets.

Some small premiums were offered to such of the men as should sow
spring wheat, which had a stimulating effect; and sixteen or seventeen
individuals availed themselves of the offer.

The Indians purchased four yoke of oxen, which enabled them to do more
ploughing--and during the course of the season many of the young men
inclined to hire to work for other Indians, a practice which had not
been common among them. This, however, was in part produced by the
embargo system which was now in operation, and had an effect to reduce
the price of skins and furs, so as to render hunting not worth pursuing
as an object of profit.

Red Jacket, and three other chiefs of the Seneca nation, visited
Philadelphia this year, and Friends had a satisfactory interview with
them. Red Jacket in his remarks, stated:

“I am unable to express the thankfulness I feel for the many acts of
kindness your society have shown to us; particularly when that old
gentleman, (pointing to an elderly Friend present,) and many others now
no more, attended at our treaties. And I am happy in observing your
disposition to pursue the same track of conduct your fathers observed
towards Indians, now they are removed to the world of spirits.”

Some implements of husbandry were furnished to the Tuscarora Indians,
residing on the Seneca reservation near Buffalo; and the situation of
the Delaware Indians residing on the Cattaraugus reservation claiming
the sympathy of Friends, as being the remnant of a scattered tribe
who formerly inhabited the parts along the river Delaware, and who
for many years lived on terms of sincere friendship and reciprocal
acts of kindness with the early settlers, while the country was then a
wilderness; it was believed right to make them an offer of purchasing
a tract of land in the neighbourhood of Cattaraugus, provided they
would live on, and occupy it. Although the offer was not accepted they
gratefully acknowledge the kindness of Friends, and their answer on
this occasion strongly excites our sympathy for the destiny of this
once great and powerful nation.

“Our nation, say they, seem as if they were scattered over the whole
world; and we have been desirous, for many years past, of getting
together, and have now fully concluded to leave the country of the
Senecas. The land you propose giving us here, if we could take it on
our backs and set it down in the neighbourhood of our nation to the
westward, we should be very thankful for; but we don’t feel satisfied
to remain in this country, and have concluded certainly to leave it as
soon as we can.”

Considerable progress was made this season by the Cattaraugus Indians.
Many of them enclosed fields separately, and had plentiful crops of
corn; and as an incitement to this plan of farming, small premiums had
been offered by Friends. And as a further encouragement, to accommodate
the Indians, preparations were made to erect grist and saw-mills on
the tract of land belonging to Friends, whereby they could have their
grinding done, and be furnished with boards to enable them to build
better houses.

In the beginning of the year 1811, the Indian women at Alleghany
manifested a much earlier attention to the spinning business; and
before the time they usually began, had sufficient spun for one
hundred and sixty yards of cloth. Near one half of their women by this
time, had acquired some knowledge of this business; and though they
had heretofore, for the most part, attended to it at the house of
employment, many of them now procured wheels of their own, and attended
to it at their own houses. Four of them within two years had spun yarn
for about one hundred and twenty-five yards; and two others, in the
last season, had spun and wove themselves twenty-one yards of linsey.

The instruction of their children in school learning, had for several
years past, been but little attended to, owing to the impediments the
Indians themselves had thrown in the way--but this year it was again
revived; and a young man, qualified for that purpose, kept a school
among them, at their request.

The Indians at Cattaraugus were also making satisfactory improvement
this season. The saw-mill was in operation this fall, and the grist
mill in a considerable state of forwardness.

The progress of improvement had, for many years past, exhibited an
encouraging prospect--affording a comfortable hope, that the desirable
object would be effected, of reclaiming at least a portion of the
Indians from a savage and rambling life, to enjoy in a plentiful
manner, and in undisturbed security, the productions of the fruitful
field. Yet it now seems our painful task to record some circumstances,
which for a time much unsettled the minds of the Indians, and retarded
their progress in civilization.

By a company of individuals, claiming what they called the pre-emption
right, an attempt was now made to purchase from the Seneca nation,
all their land which they held in the state of New York, and under a
specious show of benevolence, to give them a large tract of country far
to the westward, where they might enjoy their native forest, away from
the intrusions of white people.

The peculiar situation of their land--being generally of an excellent
quality, and an increasing white population fast settling round
it--made it an object very desirable to this company, who, it is
probable, paid a large sum of money for this pre-emption right.

From the best information I have received respecting this claim, it
appears, by the original charter, that the state of Massachusetts had
this pre-emption right, or privilege of purchasing the Indians’ land
in this part of the territory; and to satisfy this claim, in 1787, the
state of New York ceded to Massachusetts the right of soil--reserving
to itself the jurisdiction thereof. The state of Massachusetts, in
1792, again sold their right of purchase to an individual, who, in the
year 1797, at a treaty held at Genessee river, in the state of New
York, purchased of the Indians a large tract of country, as has been
already stated--the Indians “_nevertheless and always reserving_” out
of this grant and conveyance, such reservations as were therein agreed
upon; “_to remain the property of the said Seneca Indians, in as full
and ample a manner_,” as if the said sale had not been made. This
purchase again passed into other hands, and finally the pre-emption
right to the Indians’ reservations into the hands of the company now
claiming them.

Notwithstanding these were the only persons who had a legal right to
purchase, it was only when the Indians were disposed to sell: and
always to be understood, as the original owners of the soil, they had
the right to refuse to sell, as guaranteed in the most solemn manner by
the president of the United States.

But notwithstanding their indubitable title to the soil, the attempt
thus made, in an artful manner, to obtain their land, had the effect to
produce great commotion and disturbance among them. Nor was it to be
doubted, but that means, too frequently practised on such occasions,
would be resorted to. These were, to offer rewards to the chiefs or
principal men of the nation, to gain their influence, in order to bring
about the object they had in view.

The Indians, however, at this time, did not accede to the proposals
that had been held out to them, as may be seen from the following
extracts of a speech of Red Jacket to an agent, who, it seems, was
employed by the primitive holders to negotiate this business.

“Brother, we opened our ears to the talk you lately delivered to us, at
our council fire. In doing important business, it is best not to tell
long stories, but to come to it in a few words--we shall therefore not
repeat your talk, which is fresh in our minds. We have well considered
it, and the advantages and disadvantages of your offers--we request
your attention to our answer, which is not from the speaker alone, but
from all the sachems and chiefs now round our council fire.

“Brother, your application for the purchase of our lands is, to our
minds, very extraordinary. It has been made in a crooked manner.
You have not walked in the straight path, pointed out by the Great
Council of your nation. You have no writing from our Great Father
the president. We have looked back, and remembered how the Yorkers
purchased our lands in former times. They bought them, piece after
piece, for a little money, paid to a few men in our nation, and not to
all our brethren,--until our planting and hunting grounds have become
very small; and if we should sell these, we know not where to spread
our blankets.

“Brother, you tell us your employers have purchased of the council of
Yorkers, a right to buy our lands. We do not understand how this can
be. The lands do not belong to the Yorkers. They are ours, and were
given to us by the Great Spirit.

“Brother, you want us to travel with you, and look for other lands. If
we should sell our lands, and move off into a distant country, towards
the setting sun, we should be looked upon, in the country to which we
go, as foreigners and strangers, and be despised by the red, as well as
the white men. We should soon be surrounded by the white people, who
would there also kill our game, come upon our lands, and try to get
them from us.

“Brother, we are determined not to sell our lands, but to continue on
them. They are fruitful, and produce us corn in abundance, for the
support of our women and children, and grass and herbs for our cattle.

“Brother, the white people buy and sell false rights to our lands; and
your employers, you say, have paid a great price for their right. They
must have plenty of money to spend it buying and selling false rights
to lands belonging to Indians. The loss of it will not hurt them, but
our lands are of great value to us; and we wish you to go back to your
employers, and tell them and the Yorkers, that they have no right to
buy and sell false rights to our lands.”

Although the inducements held out to Indians at this time were
rejected, yet the scheme, on the part of the applicants, was by no
means abandoned; and as a measure like this, so inimical to the cause
in which Friends were engaged, could not fail of exciting considerable
alarm, it was reasonable to suppose, their influence would interpose
to prevent the adoption of a measure so pregnant of evil to the poor
Indians. Accordingly, an appropriate address was presented to the
Seneca nation, strongly recommending them to a diligent improvement of
their land, and to keep strong in their resolution not to part with
it--for if they should sell and remove to a distant country, it was
not likely Friends would go with them, or assist them, as they had
heretofore done.

The minds of the Indians appeared to be quieted for the present, and
they were peculiarly pleased with the communications of Friends on this
occasion. One of their chiefs observed in council--“Your words reached
our hearts, and as though they had been handed down from the Great
Spirit above, they have satisfied our minds.”

The spring of 1812, commenced with very encouraging prospects of
improvement at both the settlements. The women were engaged in their
spinning business, and the men in their agricultural pursuits, which
relieved the women of much of their former hardships and burthens in
procuring a livelihood. The measures adopted for their improvement had
now been in operation at the Alleghany settlement for fourteen years,
and the advantages resulting therefrom were more sensibly felt, and
clearly distinguished by the Indians than at any former period. The
progress of the Indians at Cattaraugus, considering the infant state
of the establishment of Friends there, afforded the most sanguine
prospect, that, by a steady perseverance, in the course of a few years
more, a very important change would be effected in their situation
and manner of life. But a reverse of circumstances, in the course of
events, again took place, which it seems proper now to mention.

It was in the Sixth month, this year, that war was proclaimed by
the United States against Great Britain, and her dependencies. This
circumstance created very considerable alarm amongst the Indians, and
to use their own expressions, “seemed to turn the world upside down.”

Their situation was peculiarly trying. War was a circumstance replete
with many evils, which would inevitably involve them in serious
difficulties. Their money, for which they had sold their land in 1797,
was in the hands of the government. Their remaining lands were nearly
all within the boundaries of the state of New York, and lying near to
the British lines, which it was probable would become the seat of war,
and therefore they would be liable to be much harassed by either party,
even should they remain neutral. In the next place, there were several
tribes of their confederates of the Six Nations, whom they had always
considered as brethren, who resided within the British dominions, and
called upon to fight their battles; and it was probable they would be
called upon by the United States to assist in the contest, and thus
they would be reduced to the sad dilemma, of either being considered,
in case of a refusal, as enemies to the United States, or otherwise be
under the necessity of raising the hatchet against their own flesh and
blood, who had not given the slightest cause of offence or provocation.

Nor were these all the evils that seemed to threaten their repose. They
were generally represented, in war, as a ferocious, unrelenting people;
and hence it was natural to conclude, that jealousies would exist among
their surrounding white neighbours, and prejudices be excited, which it
would be difficult to remove.

Their fears were not groundless in this respect; for soon after war was
proclaimed, many of the surrounding inhabitants became very uneasy, and
divers left their settlements, and removed to places more remote from
the natives. This circumstance caused some alarm among the Indians.
They apprehended that their sincerity and friendly dispositions were
suspected; in consequence whereof, a council was held between them
and their white neighbours, to endeavour to eradicate the fears and
jealousies which existed between them. The result of this was, that the
Indians promised to take no part in the war, and the whites agreed not
to molest them in their peaceable possessions.

This conclusion, however, did not stand long, on the part of the
Indians. They were called upon by the United States to engage in
the contest, and to take up arms against their brethren in Canada,
who were, no doubt, excited to this unnatural war, by the British
government. Some of the young warriors, who had never before seen
the dreadful effects of such a conflict, were anxious to try their
valour, and gain themselves a name; while many of their elderly people,
who retained some knowledge of former wars, were more disposed to
remain quiet at home. But as it is not the design of this work to
give a history of the war, in all its bearings on the Indians, it is
sufficient to say, that during the period the war lasted, they were at
times engaged therein by parties; and in proportion to the part they
acted on this occasion, their advancement in civilization was impeded.

In the autumn of this year, two of the committee visited the
settlements at Tunesassa and Cattaraugus, by whom a suitable address
was sent to the Indians. But they found them in a very unsettled
situation, on account of the war; and said “they could not, at present,
attend to their improvements--for, look which way they would, they saw
nothing but war.”

As the situation of the Friends stationed among the Indians was also
trying at this period, they were left at liberty either to leave them,
and return home, or to remain, as they felt best satisfied to do.

In the year 1813, although frequent alarms continued to pervade the
Indians’ borders, our Friends did not apprehend it sufficient cause to
abandon their residence, or to relax their endeavours to establish the
Indians in a more permanent advantage from the soil. The Indians, too,
appeared to have a special confidence in Friends, and often consulted
them on account of their own safety, stating “that if Friends removed
from them, they would become uneasy, and flee also.”

Although some of the Indians attended to their business, yet the
continual alarms, and frequent calls on them to assist in the invasion
of Canada, very much diverted their attention from their domestic
concerns; and their war excursions had a demoralizing effect, by
exposing them again to the use of intoxicating liquors, which gained an
ascendency over some.

Towards the close of this season, at the time Buffalo was attacked and
burned by the British, the Indians became exceedingly agitated. Those
of Cattaraugus, lying more contiguous to the scene of action, moved a
great part of their property to the south side of the river, in order
to flee in case of an attack. The consternation that prevailed among
the inhabitants generally, in that country, had a tendency to increase
their fears; and probably a consciousness of their having taken up arms
against their brethren in Canada, naturally created apprehensions,
that, if their enemies proved victorious they would have to suffer a
retaliation.

The alarm, however, subsided, as there was no attack made on them, and
they were permitted to remain quiet the succeeding winter, and attend
somewhat to their necessary concerns.

In the fall of 1814, the settlements were visited again by four of the
committee. They arrived at Cattaraugus the thirteenth of the Ninth
month, and had a council on the fifteenth with the Indians. Many of
them were then absent, being engaged in the war, and more were about
going. But when they heard of Friends’ arrival, they concluded to stay
at home.

They stated the many difficulties which they laboured under, on account
of the war, and the great obstruction it was to their improvement. They
said the officers often called on them to go to war, and if they staid
at home, they were not satisfied--and they did not know whether they
were safe or not.

“Brothers, said they, the war has continued for three summers past. We
have still had time to provide a little for our families; but this year
we scarcely get home, before another express comes for us. We have been
in hopes these troubles would subside; but from the present commotions,
and noise of the great guns on the lines, we have entertained doubts
how or when it will end.”

At the conclusion of the council, they remarked the great satisfaction
they felt, that the Friends who lived beside them had remained so
steady with them through their difficulties, that although the great
guns had roared so loud as to shake the ground whereon they stood, yet
they remained quiet; which convinced them that they must be under the
protection of the Great Spirit.

Notwithstanding the various interruptions the Indians had met with
on account of the war, they had made very considerable advances in
agricultural improvements, at this settlement. The author, being one of
the deputation who now visited them, had an opportunity of observing
the great contrast in their situation, since Friends came to settle
among them. They had enclosed with good fences, and cultivated several
hundred acres of good land, within three or four years past; a great
proportion of which was planted with corn and potatoes, or sowed with
oats, &c. and generally looked well. Many families had raised wheat,
and were preparing to sow more in the fall. Several had raised flax,
and about twenty-five of their women had learned to spin. Their women,
also, appeared more neat and cleanly, in their dress and houses. But
three or four families remained in their old village, having found
it much to their advantage to settle more detached from each other.
They were now scattered along, on the rich bottoms, for several miles.
Considerable improvement had also taken place in the mode of building.
Many had good houses, and some had barns, and scarcely any of the old
cabins were seen standing. The Indians had procured a number of wagons
and carts, with other farming utensils, as well as several yoke of
oxen. Their stock of cattle, in general, was much increased; and the
Indians said, in council, there were but one or two families but had
cows or horses.

The committee also visited the settlement at Alleghany, and held a
general council with the Indians at Cold Spring, where they were
encouraged to perseverance in the path they had for many years been
pointing out to the Indians, and in which good way they had made
considerable progress. But it was observed, that they were deficient in
several respects, and had not made so much improvement as was desirable
for the opportunity they had had. In their replies, they acknowledged
the very great benefit they had received in time past, from the advice
and instruction of Friends, but said they had made less improvement
since the war commenced; that they were frequently called upon by the
officers to go to war, and this kept them uneasy, so that they could
not attend to their business. Some of their people had, also, during
the war, got into habits of intemperance--and this tended to retard
their advancement in the modes of civilized life.

The old chief, Cornplanter, not having attended this council, several
of the company paid him a visit at his own house, about eleven miles
distant from Tunesassa. About five or six families remained with the
old chief, at his settlement, mostly his connexions. The old town of
Jenuchshadaga, where all the first councils between Friends and the
Indians were held, was entirely deserted, and so overgrown with young
timber, as almost to conceal the place where it stood. This strange
mutation of things at this place, was principally owing to the land
being Cornplanter’s private property, and to the disposition of the
other Indians to move higher up the river, and settle on land belonging
to the nation, where they would have a greater security for the
improvements they should make.

Cornplanter expressed his great satisfaction at once more seeing his
friends in his own house, and that he was still preserved alive to
talk with them. He acknowledged the advice of Friends had always been
good, and that in consequence of many of the Indians adhering to it,
their situation had been much improved, but that in consequence of the
miseries of war, some of his people had again become intemperate.

The too common practice of men and their wives parting, having been
animadverted upon at the late council, the old chief observed, that he
also reprobated it, as being attended with many evil effects; and that
he had often seen children, who had been thus neglected, when young,
in consequence of their parents’ separation, reflect on their parents,
when they got old, and charge them with neglect of duty; it being
generally the practice where separations take place, for the mother to
take charge of the children, and provide for them as well as she can.

“The liquor, said he, has been introduced among us by white people; but
this evil practice has grown up among ourselves. Our young people are
too fond of diversions, and not serious enough, in forming connexions.
I have often advised them to more sobriety and regular conduct, and
spent much of my time in serving the nation.”

The Indians, generally, on the Alleghany river, continued to increase
their stock of cattle, horses, and swine, quite equal to their means
of supporting them through the winter; although in other respects,
since the commencement of the war, they had made but little progress
in agriculture. Many of the women, however, had given considerable
attention to spinning--especially in the winter season. They appeared
more cleanly in their persons and houses than they formerly did; and
their manners, and general deportment, appeared to be rising from that
degraded state in which they had formerly lived, and becoming more
assimilated to the modes and practices of white people.

The spring of 1815, was ushered in with the welcome and consoling news
of peace, to the poor Indians; an accommodation having taken place
between the United States and Great Britain in the preceding winter.
Not only could the Seneca nation participate in the blessings of
peace, by having their prospects to pursue their agricultural labours
again brightened, but many of the surrounding tribes, who had been
more extensively engaged in the late contest, could now lay down the
hatchet, which had often been stained with the blood of their enemies.

But although peace had now taken place, and hostilities ceased
between the contending parties, it was doubtful whether the Seneca
nation would be conciliated, and immediately restored to that mutual
friendship, which previous to the war had subsisted between them and
their confederate tribes in Canada, who had, under the banner of Great
Britain, taken up arms against the United States. It was, therefore,
believed expedient by the committee at this critical juncture to send
them a suitable address on the occasion, from which the following is
extracted.

“Brothers, since it has pleased the Great Spirit to restore to our
country the blessing of peace, we have felt our minds concerned to
address you, in order to encourage you to pursue the path we have long
been pointing out to you; and likewise to call your attention to the
great advantages resulting from living in peace with all men.

“Brothers, we are sensible that there are two spirits at work in
the minds of men. The one produces in us a disposition of love and
good will towards all men, and is a comforter for all good actions.
The other excites evil thoughts and desires, and influences to bad
actions, such as lying, swearing, drunkenness, pride, envy, hatred,
gaming, and many other evils, which, if given way to, often create war
between nations. So we believe it is in our power to resist the evil
spirit, and conquer all the evil propensities of our nature, by obeying
the Good Spirit, and by daily watching, and prayer to him. If we so
conduct, he will deliver us from evil.

“Brothers, our fathers, and we their children, who profess the same
principles by which they were guided, have always believed that wars
and fightings are displeasing to the Great Spirit, who is all love,
and who made of one blood all nations of men, that they should live in
peace and love with each other. For this cause, he hath placed his law
in our hearts, and in the hearts of all men, teaching, not only to love
one another, but also to forgive injuries, and even to love and do good
to our enemies.

“Brothers, where people live in this disposition, and trust in the
Great Spirit for protection, it has a powerful effect in producing the
same disposition in the minds of those who wish to do them an injury;
and instead of hatred, it will produce in their minds love and good
will. For you must be sensible, brothers, that when a man is angry with
another, and uses many threatening expressions, if the other returns
mild answers, and endeavours to pacify him by acts of kindness and good
will, it is more likely to restore the angry man to a sober and right
state of mind, than if he were to quarrel and fight with him--and this
would be overcoming evil with good, which is always pleasing to the
Great Spirit.

“Brothers, we are sensible that the late war must have brought you into
great difficulty and distress--and we are thankful for the return of
peace. We hope the Great Spirit will preserve you from again feeling
the miseries of war. We also wish you to be reanimated, to pursue your
farming, and the improvement of your land, under the instruction of
our friends who reside among you, as this is the only sure method we
can recommend to you to obtain a comfortable living for yourselves
and families; and the most likely means, as you are industrious and
become sensible of the value of your property, of securing you in the
permanent possession of your land.

“Brothers, our desires continue as strong at the present day, as ever
they were, to promote your happiness in this life, and in that which is
to come. But this happy state we know can only be attained, by having
our minds drawn to the Great Spirit, by imploring his protection,
and by beseeching him that he would preserve us in love towards all
mankind. If we are sincere in our desires for his assistance, and
attentive to the voice of his spirit in our hearts, we shall have
reason to hope for his blessing upon our labours, which is our desire
for ourselves, for our Indian brethren, and for all men.”

The Indians were also strongly reminded in this address, of the
dangerous tendency of introducing strong liquor again into their
villages, as the late war had exposed them to the use of it more than
they had been for many years previous--and if they now become so unwise
as to fall again in love with it, it would prove their ruin.

This communication had a stimulating effect upon the Indians at both
the settlements. Those of Alleghany sent a written address to the
committee, signed by six of their chiefs, in which they expressed in
a high degree, their sense of gratitude for the continued care of
the society of Friends over them, and the great advantages they had
received from their instruction. They also renewed their request that
they might be furnished with a schoolmaster, as but little attention
had been given to their improvement in school learning for some time
past, owing to the general disinclination of the Indians to have their
children thus instructed.

At the request of the Indians, also, in the summer of 1816, four lads,
two from Buffalo, and two from Alleghany, were brought into Chester
county, within forty miles of Philadelphia, and placed with suitable
persons under the care of the committee, to be instructed in school
learning, and some of the mechanic arts.

In the Eighth month this year, a Friend who had formerly devoted many
years to the instruction of the natives, proceeded again with his wife
to the Alleghany settlement, accompanied by a young man in the capacity
of a schoolmaster; and the family who had resided there for some
years past returned from thence. The school was again opened at Cold
Spring town, in the Tenth month, where about twenty different scholars
attended, in an irregular manner, owing, in part, to the scarcity of
provisions. This scarcity of food was occasioned by unusually early
frost, which destroyed more than half their corn, and likewise many
other vegetables. This calamity was felt through all that part of the
country bordering on the lakes.

Although the Indians had had the fairest prospect of a plentiful
supply, yet, from the foregoing circumstance, many of them were
compelled to resort to their former source of dependence, and with
their families, retire to the woods and hunting encampments, where they
remained a great part of the winter.

The Indians at Cattaraugus were conspicuous sufferers by this calamity;
many of them having their crops of corn entirely cut off, while they
had as yet scarcely recruited from their sufferings during the late
war. Friends duly considered their distressed situation, and granted
five hundred dollars to be applied in supplying them with provisions,
and three hundred more to be administered to the necessities of
those on the Alleghany reservation. These donations were gratefully
received by the Indians, and were peculiarly useful in enabling them,
the following spring, more generally to attend to their agricultural
pursuits, without being compelled from necessity to retire to their
hunting grounds. It was said five hundred and twelve individuals at
Alleghany, and three hundred and ninety at Cattaraugus, partook of this
timely donation of Friends.

In the spring of 1817, the fears of the committee were strongly excited
for the safety of the Indians, from the various concurring accounts,
that plans were again devising to induce a removal of many of them in
the state of New York, from their present seat, to one very remote
among the western tribes. A measure of this kind would not only tend
to unsettle the Indians in their agricultural pursuits, but if carried
into effect, would entirely frustrate the plan of their civilization,
and render of little avail the labours of Friends for twenty years
past, and the expenditure of more than forty thousand dollars in
promoting their advancement toward a civilized state.

The committee, therefore, being fully impressed with the great loss
the Indians would inevitably sustain by a removal to a distant clime,
communicated their views by a written address; and with a view of
setting them in a more permanent possession of the soil, recommended a
division of their land into lots, suitable to accommodate each family,
to be held under such regulations, that it might descend from parent
to children, and other near connexions; and under such restrictions as
would debar individuals from selling, leasing, or transferring it, in
any way, to white people.

This measure being of an important character in the disposition of
Indian affairs, it was believed expedient, by the committee, to present
a memorial to the President of the United States, in their behalf,
by which he was fully made acquainted with the plan proposed to the
Indians for a division of their land; and being visited, also, by a
deputation from the committee, and furnished with various documents, it
opened the way for a free communication of sentiment on the subject,
and the president gave assurance of attentively perusing and duly
considering the documents and memorial.

In the Ninth month this year, the settlements of Tunesassa and
Cattaraugus were again visited by four of the committee, who spent
several weeks among the Indians, in attending to the various services
of their appointment. They inspected, particularly, the state of
improvement at both the settlements, and also had divers interviews
with the Indians in council, at both places.

With respect to the improvements at Cattaraugus, the author being one
of the deputation now visiting them, had a fair opportunity of judging
of the advances they had made in three years past. Their settlements
at this place were now extended about ten miles in length--and they
had fenced in many fields and laid out their farms much more detached
from each other--and were gradually advancing in agriculture. It
was supposed they had more than two hundred acres of corn growing,
(and it generally looked well,) besides one hundred acres more under
cultivation; spring wheat, oats, potatoes, and a great variety of
garden vegetables. Their stock of cattle and horses was much increased,
and divers of them had enclosed lots of grass on which they gathered
hay for winter. Many of the women had made considerable progress in
spinning, so as, in the course of the last year, to make about one
hundred and seventy yards of cloth.

The Alleghany settlement was said to consist of about seventy families,
all of whom, except four, had horned cattle, amounting in the whole to
upwards of four hundred.

They had more horses than was any advantage to them. Their corn, oats,
and buckwheat, were in a prosperous condition, and promised to afford
them a plentiful supply. And it was pleasing to find, that they had
generally refrained from the use of spirituous liquors. The women,
also, continued their attention to spinning and manufacturing their
clothing.

The school taught by the Friend at this place was also in a more
prosperous condition than had hitherto been evidenced among those
Indians. Nearly twenty lads attended, divers of whom could write and
read the English language, and had otherwise made satisfactory progress
in learning. The cleanliness of their persons, their order in the
school, and general deportment, appeared to be encouraging.

A prominent object in this visit was, to encourage the Indians to
make the experiment of dividing their land into lots, and holding it
as private property, under certain restrictions. This was suggested
to them, in separate councils with the different tribes, as the most
eligible plan by which they could continue to possess the good land
which they and their fathers had so long enjoyed, and which of late
years they had improved so much, that “this land, with its valuable
improvements, might pass to their children, and be inherited by them as
long as the Alleghany and Cattaraugus rivers should continue to run,
and the grass and corn to grow.”

The Indians in their several settlements, took this matter under
serious consideration; and, in consequence of an arrangement made for
the purpose, Friends met the principal chiefs, and many others of
the Seneca nation, in a general council at Cattaraugus, among whom
was the noted chief, Red Jacket, and several others from Buffalo. In
this general council, the subject of dividing their land into lots,
was again proposed to the Indians, as the most eligible means of
accelerating their civilization, and securing them more permanently
in the possession of the remnant of the land they yet occupied; and
that these lots should be of adequate dimensions to accommodate each
family with a farm, and be held under such restrictions, that they
could not be alienated, or leased to any other than their own people,
but in such manner as to secure to the individuals respectively, the
land, with the improvements thereon, which should be appropriated to
each. It was believed the adoption of this measure would prove an
additional stimulus to their industry and care, in the prospect it
presented, of the benefits which might result from their agricultural
labours descending to, and being enjoyed by, their children, and
posterity more remote. This important subject occupied the deliberate
attention of the Indians for several days. The result was, a resolution
that an experiment should be made on the Alleghany reservation by the
Indians residing thereon, many of whom had for a considerable time been
desirous of possessing their property more distinct from each other
than had heretofore been the case.

On the morning Friends were about to proceed on their way homewards,
a number of the chiefs called to see them, and expressed their
great satisfaction with the conclusions that had resulted at the
late council. One of them named Blue-eyes, said, “Brothers, we want
you to continue your endeavours to strengthen us, that we may not
become a lost people, but that by persevering in the right path, we
may experience preservation. We believe it is owing to the favourable
disposition of the United States, that the Six Nations yet exist. And
we are of the opinion, from the representations that have been made,
that we owe much to you--and we trust to an overruling providence, who
has thus favoured us, that we may yet experience preservation.”

Notwithstanding the repeated refusals of the Indians to dispose of any
more of their land, renewed applications were made by those holding the
pre-emption right in the beginning of the year 1818; and at a general
council, held at Buffalo, about this time, they again determined not to
sell; and with a view of making the President of the United States more
particularly acquainted with their situation, and with the difficulties
to which they were subjected, by these repeated applications for land,
they sent forward a talk for that purpose, signed by twenty-one chiefs
of the Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondago tribes, which was published in the
Niagara Patriot, and from which, for its simple, natural, impassioned,
and pathetic eloquence, we shall present to the reader a few extracts.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Father, from the fatherly care the presidents of the United States
have exercised towards their red children, we speak to our father in
confidence, believing he will not turn away his ears from his red
children. We are alarmed lest we lose our seats. Those men who say
they have a right to purchase our lands, have been distressing us for
a number of years with their plans to possess our lands--offering us
in exchange lands to the westward. We declare to you, we desire you to
publish to all our white brothers, that it is our fixed and determined
purpose to live and die on our present land. It is sealed to us by
the bones of our fathers--they obtained it by their blood. Our bones
shall lie beside theirs--it is the heritage of the Almighty--he gave it
us--he it is must take it from us.”

“We mean no threat by this--we know we are in the hands of our white
brethren--they can destroy us with ease--but they need not think to
persuade us to part with our lands--as free men we claim the right to
choose between being killed outright, or a lingering execution, by
being driven a thousand miles into the wilderness.

“Where, father, where would our white brothers have us to go? The
Indian claim to land is put out for more than a thousand miles to the
west--except little spots for particular nations.

“We have confidence in you. You cannot see your red children, with
their little ones, driven off by stealth and fraud--leaving the
sepulchres of their fathers, their farms, their farming tools, and
their cattle, and dying by families on the road, through hardships
and privation--exchanging all their advances in civilization and its
comforts, for the hardships of the chase--without house or friend.

“Father, we have confidence in you, that if you see any device formed
against us, you will frustrate it, and succour your red children. We
have deceived no man--we have wronged no man--our language has been
one--we choose not to part with our land. If we have been needlessly
alarmed, you will pity our ignorance, and forgive our childish fears.

“We trust that you will pardon the multitude of our words. Let none
deceive you in saying that this is the voice of a few individuals, and
not the voice of the Six Nations. It is the voice of the Six Nations in
the state of New York. The chiefs of Buffalo, Cattaraugus, Genessee,
and Onondago, are now in council. We have the message of Oneida
and Alleghany with us, desiring we should speak to our father the
president--intreating him to consider and help us. Speak, father--speak
to your children, that their minds may be at rest. Speak to our council
fire at this place, and let us hear your own words; send them by safe
hands.

“May the Great Spirit preserve you many years a blessing to all your
children.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The Indians also sent a copy of the foregoing talk to the governor of
New York, accompanied with a short address, from which we make the
following extracts:

“Father, we thank you that you feel anxious to do all you can to the
perishing ruins of your red children. We hope, Father, you will make a
fence strong and high around us, that wicked white men may not devour
us at once, but let us live as long as we can. We are persuaded you
will do this for us, because our field is laid waste and trodden down
by every beast--we are feeble and cannot resist them.”

“Father, we are persuaded you will do this for the sake of our white
brothers, lest God, who has appeared so strong in building up white
men and pulling down Indians, should turn his hand and visit our white
brothers for their sins, and call them to an account for all the wrongs
they have done them, and all the wrongs they have not prevented, that
it was in their power to prevent, to their poor red brothers, who have
no helper.

“Father, would you be the father of your people and make them good and
blessed of God, let not the cries of his red children ascend into his
ears against you.”

Without further comment on these impressive communications of the
Indians, we shall leave the reader to his own reflections, after
stating, that whatever impressions they might have made on the rulers
to whom they were addressed, it did not prevent the renewed and
persevering applications of the pre-emption holders, to obtain the
Indians’ land, which, although they as often refused to sell, had the
effect to keep them in a state of agitation and unsettlement; for
although they had been repeatedly told that their lands were their
own, and that they could not be compelled to dispose of them without
their consent, and that President Washington had fully assured them
that the United States would protect them in the remainder of their
lands, which they had not legally conveyed away at public treaties,
yet there appeared to be a degree of jealousy existing with some, as
to the sincerity of these professions, and a fear lest they might, at
some time, be compelled to relinquish their rightful possessions and be
removed to another clime.

The Indians at Alleghany, therefore, sent a message to the committee,
in which they expressed a wish that Friends would endeavour to obtain
for them a written instrument from the President of the United States,
to strengthen, as they said, their title to their land, so that they
might be easy themselves, and their children after them. And as it had
been concluded in the last fall, to divide the Alleghany reservation
into lots, they also wished to know whether this plan was agreeable to
the President.

In consequence of this request of the Alleghany chiefs, as also with
a view of making the executive department of government more fully
acquainted with their situation, various documents were prepared and
committed to the charge of four of the committee, to present to the
secretary of war, and such other officers of government as seemed to
be requisite. These documents were calculated to explain the views of
Friends in the interesting and benevolent design of ameliorating the
condition, and promoting the civilization of the Indians, and also to
impress the public mind with the peculiarly distressed situation of the
aborigines of our country generally.

A surveyor being furnished by Friends, some essay was made, in the
course of this year, towards dividing the Alleghany reservation into
lots, as had previously been concluded on in general council. But
difficulties occurred among the Indians respecting it, which they were
not at that time able to reconcile; as the division lines would in many
instances interfere with their present improvements; and their local
attachments having, in a considerable degree, been increased since they
become more detached in their settlements and applied themselves to the
pursuits of an agricultural life, the plan of division was abandoned
for the present.

It may here be proper to state, that in their former practice of
locating the land they wished to cultivate, they never interfered with
each other’s boundaries. There was land sufficient for them all. Each
family possessed the spot upon which they settled, without interruption
from others; and if they wished to relinquish it, and remove to
another, they might sell their improvements to other Indians. It is,
therefore, not surprising, that in effecting so radical a change from
their former customs, as the one contemplated, difficulties should
occur--and it will require time for local prejudices, gradually to give
way to the more enlightened views of civilization, and for more correct
ideas of distinct property to be realized.

Notwithstanding the state of unsettlement, considerable improvement in
divers respects, was apparent this year, especially at the Cattaraugus
settlement. A school for the first time was opened at that place, by a
young man who offered for that service, and was attended by a number of
children, with as much regularity as could reasonably be expected.

In the year 1819, and for some time previous, the Indians on the
Alleghany river had got much in the practice of cutting and rafting
pine timber down the river, and selling to white people, which was
rather an injury to them than otherwise, as it opened an intercourse
with some of the most profligate of the whites, and exposed them more
to the use of intoxicating liquors than when at home, engaged in their
agricultural labours. It also had a tendency to frustrate the plan of
dividing their land into lots, as they now had liberty to range at
large in the woods and get timber where they pleased, while the land
remained as common stock to the nation.

In the spring of this year, an Indian, who was a lad when Friends
first settled amongst them, and who had since been instructed in the
blacksmith business, dictated a letter to the author, in reply to one
sent to him sometime before, from which, to show his own views of the
improvement he had made, we make the following extracts.

       *       *       *       *       *

“I received thy letter of the eighteenth of last month, much to my
satisfaction. I was glad to hear that my old friend W---- was well, and
thou may inform him that I have usual health also. I well remember the
counsel of my friends, the Quakers. I see they want to do me good--I
feel strong about it. They told me to work at my trade, and to plough,
and sow, and raise grain and grass. All this is very good advice. I
now have plenty of corn, and some other grain, and hay. I have worked
at my trade so as to earn ninety dollars, and received my pay from our
agent. Besides this, about thirty dollars for other smithing, done last
year. I feel glad the Quakers live so near me. I do their smithing.
They have ploughed several days for me. I have good corn in the land
they ploughed, and some good wheat, potatoes, and other things, so that
I have plenty. All this comes from my friends the Quakers’ advice.

“Thee mentions about running out our land into lots, and that an evil
bird has sung us a bad song. We are in hopes that the good bird will
begin to sing, and in hopes that by next spring, his song will be for
our good. I want he should sing a good song for us. I myself cannot say
much, but I want the land divided into lots. Some say they do not want
it, and are putting it by. I am glad thee has wrote thy mind on paper
to me on this subject, and sent it here--I think I can see more light
by it. I wish thee to make thy mind easy. I will do what I can, and
speak what I know is for our good. I am in hopes to see my friend H----
here, whom I remember when I was a boy. I intend to keep thy letter by
me, that I may see what it says in time to come, that I may not forget
thy advice. Farewell.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Notwithstanding the repeated assurances, from time to time, given to
the Indians, that Friends were acting towards them from disinterested
motives, and would never bring any charge against them, yet there
were still individuals among them, probably instigated by the enemies
of Friends among white people, who continued to excite jealousies
and surmises, that Friends would at some future day, bring a charge
against them. In order, therefore, to make their minds entirely easy
on this _subject_, a writing was drawn up on parchment, containing the
same assurances heretofore given, that Friends _never would bring any
charge against them for their services_. This, as also a communication
obtained from the President of the United States, respecting the
division of their land, and sanctioning the plan of Friends, was
forwarded to them, and seemed for the present to have a conciliating
effect.

During this summer, an increasing improvement was manifested by
several of the Indians, clearing themselves new farms, distinct from
their former fields, and preparing to put in their crops, which they
accomplished in due season.

In the summer of 1820, circumstances again requiring a visit from the
committee to the Indian settlements, two other Friends and the writer,
were deputed for that service. They proceeded to Tunesassa in the Ninth
month; and after inspecting into the situation of the Indians, and
their state of improvement, they found, that, although many had made
considerable advances in agriculture and the modes of civilized life,
yet there were individuals who probably being instigated by designing
white men, or from a perverse disposition in themselves, had become
inimical to their abandoning their former habits, and pursuing the
mode of life in which Friends had for many years been endeavouring to
instruct them. This created jealousy and party spirit in some degree
among them at this period.

To meet these circumstances, and to endeavour to reconcile the minds of
the Indians, a council was called, which their chiefs generally, and
many others of their people, attended, to the number of about seventy.

The following is extracted from the address of Friends, delivered to
them on this occasion.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, by the permission of the Great and Good Spirit who made the
world, and is acquainted with all the actions of men, we are permitted
to meet in council, and we desire that he may help us to come to right
conclusions.

“Brothers, it is now a long time since the Seneca nation became
sensible that if they continued to exist as a people, they must change
their mode of living from the hunter state, and engage in agricultural
pursuits. They were very desirous that their brothers, the Quakers,
would assist them. They believed it pleasing to the Great Spirit, that
men should assist and help each other, and that Friends came amongst
them for that purpose.

“Brothers, when our Friends first came among you, you had no good
houses--very few cattle--very little land cultivated--your numbers
were decreasing, and it appears certain to us, and to yourselves, that
unless a change were made, you would fast dwindle away, and the Seneca
nation become as it were dead.

“Brothers, some of our friends have been engaged in instructing
you for more than twenty years. You have been taught to build more
comfortable houses--you have enclosed and cultivated fields--you have
much increased your stock of cattle, and other useful animals. Some of
your men have been instructed in useful trades. Many of your women have
learned to spin, and some of your children have been taught to read and
write.

“Brothers, we love you, and therefore we feel bound to speak plainly to
you. We hope our words may sink deep into your minds. It is the voice
of your old and true friends, who have never deceived you. You must
endeavour to improve in the habits of civilized life, until you arrive
at the state of some of the best of the white people, or you will
gradually go back until you lose what you have gained--your friends
with mournful hearts will give you up--your lands will go from you--and
the very name of the Seneca nation, like many that have gone before
you, will only be known in history.

“Brothers, a man in the habit of taking strong drink to excess sets
a bad example to his neighbours, and his family, and brings his poor
wife and innocent children to poverty and distress. This conduct is
offensive to the Great Spirit; and unless he changes, he becomes one
of the most wretched of men. We wish you, therefore, to endeavour to
reclaim such of your people as have fallen into this evil practice, and
to warn those who may be in danger of contracting the habit.

“Brothers, we desire to stimulate you to increased industry. The
industrious man is always the most comfortable. Labour is good for
health; it makes the mind cheerful; and by steadily attending to
business, we have the satisfaction to see every thing improving around
us. What appeared hard, by perseverance becomes easy.

“Brothers, the greatest kindness a man can do to his children, is to
begin early, to learn them to be industrious, and to engage them in
business suitable to their years. The boys ought to help their fathers
in the fields--the mothers and daughters to be engaged in spinning--in
making clothes, in cooking victuals, and in all the business that is
suitable to their sex--their houses, their beds, their clothes, and
every thing about them, should be kept clean and in good order.

“Brothers, it is consistent with the will of the Great Spirit, that men
and women should be connected in marriage. It is an engagement of great
importance, and we should not enter into it, until we are of sufficient
age to think and judge for ourselves; and when marriage is contracted,
the parties are bound to help and love each other--to care for, and
instruct their children--and while families live in love and harmony
together, it is very comfortable and very good;--but when division
gets in, and differing, it is the work of the evil spirit--and if man
and wife separate and marry others, it produces confusion, and must be
displeasing in the Divine sight, and no people can prosper and grow
strong who are in such practices.

“Brothers, it is the duty of parents to have their children educated.
The Great Spirit has given us minds capable of improvement, and by
education children become more capable of learning the various trades,
which will add to their comfort and happiness; and we believe it is
right that the girls should be taught as well as the boys.

“Brothers, we have been desirous that the lands belonging to you might
remain firm in your hands, that your children and children’s children
might possess them. For this end, we advised you to divide to every
family a farm, so that they might say, “this is mine,” and improve it
for their own benefit. And although changes are at first subject to
some difficulties, yet we believe those difficulties may be overcome.

“Brothers, on this subject you wished to have the mind of your
father, the President of the United States, to strengthen you in the
conclusion you had come to in general council, to divide the Alleghany
reservation. You requested your friends in Philadelphia to go to the
President, and obtain his opinion. One of us, who are now present, with
some others, took a journey to Washington, for the purpose of complying
with your request, and we found the President fully impressed with the
necessity of such a measure, and he gave us a paper, in strong words,
sealed with the great seal of the United States, and directed to the
Alleghany chiefs, advising and urging that you might carry the business
into effect, which paper was sent to you.

“Brothers, we hope you will keep your minds strong on this subject,
for we shall hardly know how to go again to the President, and make
requests on your behalf, if, when they are granted, they are not
proceeded in.

“Brothers, our talk has been long. Circumstances seemed to require it;
we hope you will consider it well. We love and desire the prosperity of
you all; and although you may differ in opinion in some matters, yet we
desire that the Good Spirit may unite your minds in love, and that you
may all join in endeavours to promote education and improvement.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The Indians took these matters into serious consideration, and promised
to make a reply the day following--and when they assembled for that
purpose, it was evident they were divided into two parties, and divers
of them had become opposed to their children’s being instructed in
school learning, giving this as a reason, “that they were more liable
to be corrupted by bad white people.”

Much the greater part, however, continued to manifest an attachment to
Friends, and, in their replies, gave hearty assurances of attending
to their advice. They appeared to be fully sensible that remaining on
their land, and pursuing the plan that Friends had pointed out to them,
were the only means by which they could continue to be a nation. The
chief sachem, named _Blue-Eyes_, in the course of his speech, remarked,
“If we go from here we are a lost people. Look to the east, west,
north, or south; all is filled up, and there is no place for us.”

On the subject of dividing their land, they appeared to be discouraged,
owing to their divided state, and the opposition met with from
some individuals, who no doubt were influenced by interested and
_designing men_; as this great object would be the most likely means
of settling the Indians in a permanent possession of the soil, and
thereby frustrate _the avaricious designs_ of speculators. The secret
insinuations of this class of the white people added much to the
difficulties of Friends in pursuing their plans of civilization; nor
was it to be wondered at, that individuals, among a people who had
long been a prey to designing white men, should become alienated from
Friends, and cease to follow their counsel.

At the close of this council, they were, however, reminded of the
dangers to which they were exposing themselves, and the advantages that
might be taken by their enemies, of their divided state, and especially
by those who wished to obtain their lands. They were told that, “we
still considered them as brethren--that we were not divided in our good
wishes for them--that we had always desired, and continued to desire,
the welfare of all Indians, and that, on bidding them farewell, on the
present occasion, we still hoped the Great Spirit might incline their
minds to unite together in love as brethren, and that they would yet
join in promoting the education of their children, and in advancing
in all the improvements that were necessary for the comfort and real
benefit of man.”

From Alleghany the committee proceeded to the Cattaraugus settlement,
and spent some time in viewing the improvements of the Indians at that
place. They found that considerable progress had been made within three
years past, in building houses, and enclosing more land on the rich
fiats, which was cultivated with corn, oats, potatoes, turnips, and
other vegetables of various kinds, affording a prospect of a plentiful
supply of provisions.

A council was held with the Indians, and after an introductory speech
from the chief warrior, which is customary on all such occasions, the
following address was delivered to them.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, having been preserved through a long journey, we are now,
by the favour of the Great Spirit, enabled once more to meet you in
council.

“Brothers, in passing through your land, we are glad to see that you
are situated on a rich and fruitful soil, where, by reasonable care and
industry, every thing necessary for a comfortable subsistence may be
readily obtained.

“Brothers, it affords us satisfaction to observe the improvements you
have already made--your well fenced fields, your corn, and other grain,
and your cattle--and we feel, as your old and true friends, a strong
desire that you may be stirred up to increased industry.

“Brothers, by perseverance and daily attention to business, the
industrious man prospers, and is able to make a comfortable provision
for his family; and it is not only our duty to labour for their
support, but to train our children to assist in all the business they
are capable of--to begin with them young, and thus, while they are
useful to their parents, it adds greatly to their own real comfort.

“Brothers, by the united exertions of a family, much may be done.
The house may be made more comfortable. Out houses may be erected to
shelter the cattle. Barns may be built to store the grain and hay,
to prevent injury from the weather. While the boys are engaged in
assisting their fathers in these things, the girls ought to help their
mothers in keeping the house clean, in spinning, in making clothes, in
cooking victuals, and every business that is suitable for their sex.

“Brothers, by thus uniting in promoting improvements, you would soon
make your farms to equal some of the best of your white neighbours; and
if you would fully make the experiment, you would find that what we
tell you is true.

“Brothers, it is good that parents tenderly love their children. It is
also the duty of children to love and serve their parents. Families
should live together in harmony; and when men and their wives differ
and part, and marry to others, it is wrong--it is an injury to their
children, and displeasing to the Great Spirit. We wish you seriously to
think of these things, and to discourage so injurious a practice.

“Brothers, you have often been told by your friends, that the use of
spirituous liquors is hurtful. We must again repeat it--we wish you to
keep your minds strong on this subject, and often advise such of your
people as are in the use of it to decline the practice.

“Brothers, we think it our duty to caution you not to listen to every
voice that would divide you into parties. It will make you weak in your
councils. Your enemies may take advantage of it, and by this means, the
very land that you own may slide from you.”

       *       *       *       *       *

To the foregoing communication, the chief warrior made a short reply,
but intimated that they must confer together on the subject of Friends’
communication, and wished to meet them again in council, in two days,
when they would reply more particularly.

At the close of this interview, which appeared to be solemn, one of
the Friends present communicated some sentiments on the subject of
religion, and the nature of true worship to the Great Spirit--stating
that it might be performed while engaged in their fields, on the road,
or while sitting with their families by their firesides. This they
appeared fully to comprehend; and the chief warrior replied, “it was
his religion, and the only one with which he was acquainted.”

This short though sincere confession of faith, from a native Indian,
was a corroborating evidence that they were not destitute of the
divine principle operating in the heart of man, which teaches him
what constitutes the true worship of God, and requires not the aid of
men or books to accomplish it, but is performed according to Christ’s
testimony “in spirit and in truth,” arising from the sincere homage of
a devout heart.

It appeared that the Indians at this place were also divided into
parties, which prevented that free intercourse and conference with
each other, which in former councils, were manifest, in forming their
replies to Friends--and without a design to impeach the sincere natives
of any religious sect of professing Christians, I may here state, from
the observations made, and the information received on this visit, that
the introduction of these, under the character of missionaries, on
their land at Buffalo, where the chief councils of the nation are held,
had created great uneasiness among them, and was a prominent cause
of their present difficulties, and conflicting opinions. Some of the
Indians had attached themselves to the missionary system, and joined
in their modes of worship, singing, &c. and these were looked upon as
converted to the Christian faith. Hence the others, who were opposed
to the missionary plans, were branded with the epithet of pagans, a
term hateful to Indians, and which they did not fully understand.
Thus a spirit of jealousy was excited between the parties, and a fear
entertained by some, that the introduction of missionaries on their
land was designed to obtain a permanent possession, and eventually to
dispossess them of it.

At the appointed time to meet them again in council, Friends attended,
when the Indians of each party made replies to the former communication
of Friends, which, for novelty of opinions, and to show the dilemma in
which the Indians were involved, the reader will indulge me to give at
considerable length.

The chief warrior’s son, on behalf of the one part, opened the council
in the following manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, the Great Spirit has blessed us, and enabled us once more to
meet in council, with our brothers, the Quakers. We feel thankful that
the Great Spirit has preserved our friends in health who have come to
see us.

“Brothers, we want you not to be displeased, if we of this party open
our minds to you. We are going to tell you our situation. Some of us
pay attention and observe the sabbath day--others do not. We wish you
now, brothers, to give us suitable advice, and make our difficulties
straight, as you understand how to remove difficulties.

“Brothers, you know the cause of our difficulties. You know the reason
we are divided. The young men who sit here (pointing to four or five
who sat near him,) think different from the old ones. Our old men
observe the sabbath, or First day. We are not prepared for it. We wish
you to tell us which is best. Whether to do as our old men do, or
follow our old customs.

“Brothers, we have heard from the Quakers, that it is a bad thing
for a nation to divide, and you wished us to be of one mind as one
man--and now we want you to tell us which is the best plan for us to
pursue--whether white people’s customs, or our old ones. On the other
hand, you have been well acquainted, from old time, with our ancient
customs. We meet three times in the year to worship the Great Spirit;
and we want you now to put us right about it, and give us your advice
on this subject, whether we shall keep the sabbath, or continue to
adhere to our former practice of worshipping the Great Spirit.

“Brothers, it is now many years since you have taken us by the hand,
and have yearly given us advice. We intend to follow the advice we have
heard from you; but some of our old men have been drawing towards the
_missionaries_, and keeping the First-day.

“Brothers, we hope you fully understand what we have said, and wish the
chain of friendship still may be kept bright between us and you--and
that you will not be displeased at what we have said to you.”

       *       *       *       *       *

A chief, named Strong, of the opposite party, then spoke nearly as
follows:

“Brothers, yesterday we deliberated among ourselves, and we wanted to
have our minds made up and united. When our younger brother proposed
the foregoing questions to be put to our brothers the Quakers, we were
glad; hoping they would make the thing straight among us.

“Brothers, I will now tell you our minds about it, and the reason why
we have undertaken to keep the First-day of the week. Last season we
went to a council at Buffalo, our agent P----, showed us a paper which
came from the President, which stated that he wanted his brothers, the
Indians, to take hold of improvements, and also to keep the First-day
of the week. He also wanted our children to learn their books. He told
us that Congress had made an appropriation for the purpose of improving
the condition of the Indians, and he wished to know whether they would
accept it. We told the agent we had the Quakers living beside us, with
whom we were satisfied; and if any help came from the President, we
wished it to come through the Quakers. Our agent told us, the Quakers,
he knew were friends to us; they have property of their own to help
you. Congress has also appropriated money to assist you, and you should
leave it to the President to dispose of that, as he thinks best for
your benefit. We, therefore, concluded to pay attention to both the
Quakers and the President, and have friends of both. We saw that many
of the different nations of Indians were becoming civilized, and that
the Seneca nation still remained in their old habits. We saw that the
Quakers and the ministers, (meaning missionaries,) both observed the
First-day. We concluded, as they did so, it must be an appointment
of the Great Spirit to keep that day holy. We then thought, that as
he had appointed it we must observe it also. Some of our people were
wicked. They stole, and committed many bad actions. We thought we
would endeavour to have our children instructed, while young, which
would be better for them. We have been told, the world had been made a
long time, when the Great Spirit sent his son, who brought light into
the world, and wished that knowledge might be spread among mankind.
Your brothers have often told us, there was but one God over all--we,
therefore, thought our friends would be pleased if we should endeavour
to christianize our children. We then inquired among our people who
were prepared for keeping First-day. Many of them were pleased with it,
and prepared to observe it, and others were not. And after a while,
a minister came along, and wanted to know if they wished to hear
him preach. We consulted among ourselves, and concluded that when a
minister came of his own accord, if he was a good man, he ought to be
heard, but if he wanted to come and live amongst us and preach to us
steadily, we would not accept him, or have a minister that our children
could not understand. But we rather concluded to have some of our own
people to give good advice to our children, on First-day, that they
might improve and grow better. Some of our people have often heard of
the accounts given in the Bible, and we thought it was right for us to
keep First-day and hear good advice, or be read to, out of the Bible.
The ministers who come here are different from our friends the Quakers.
They are only travellers. Our friends the Quakers have given us a
writing on parchment, stating that they would never bring any charge
against us for what they have done.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Friends, in their former council, had impressed upon the Indians the
necessity of having their children instructed in school learning, and
offered to supply them with a teacher, provided they would erect a
school house, and send their children. The chief warrior, in reply,
stated, that on consulting among themselves, both parties were willing
to have their children instructed, and would endeavour to procure a
house for that purpose. He also made some remarks on the advantages
they had already received from the instruction of Friends, and among
other things said,

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, in your good advices, you have cautioned us against the use
of strong drink. There is a great alteration among us in that respect,
and many of us are much improved both in this, and in industrious
habits. Long ago we had no fences, no cattle, and were destitute of
many other things which we now enjoy. We see a great difference in our
people. We think we shall get along, though perhaps it may be slowly.

“Brothers, this village is divided into three or four districts, in
each of which there are persons appointed to endeavour to have your
advices put in practice. When they see any disorders, they are to treat
with their brothers in order to reclaim them.”

       *       *       *       *       *

They were then informed, that as the day was far spent, Friends would
retire a few minutes to consult together, and return them an answer. In
about half an hour, Friends returned again to the council house, and
after informing them that (although they were divided in some things,)
they were glad they were of one mind about the education of their
children; and as soon as they got their house in readiness, they might
inform Friends of it, and they would endeavour to furnish them with a
teacher.

They were then presented with the following observations in writing, as
the best advice that Friends could give them in their present divided
and critical situation.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, when your friends the Quakers came among you, their design
was to improve your condition--to teach you to build more comfortable
houses, to cultivate your land, to raise more grain, so as to enable
you to raise and support more cattle--to educate your children, and to
advance in all the useful habits of civilized life.

“Brothers, we believe that men ought to live, so as to seek for the
assistance of the Good Spirit, to enable them to love and worship
him--and although it is our practice to meet together to worship
him, yet we do not wish to force upon you any of our performances in
religion. We think it right that every man should follow the teachings
of the Good Spirit, in his own heart, which, if attended to, would
always lead him in the right path.

“Brothers, we beseech you not to let any thing divide you into parties,
and make you feel enmity one against another. It would put you back in
your improvements, it will make you weak--it is contrary to all right
religion, and displeasing to the Great Spirit.”

  Signed, SAMUEL BETTLE.
          WILLIAM NEWBOLD.
          HALLIDAY JACKSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Several of the chiefs seemed desirous of having a more decided reply
to the question they had urged upon us, with regard to the observation
of the First-day of the week; and although they well knew the practice
of Friends in meeting together for public worship on that day, yet it
was believed most expedient, under their present circumstances, not to
enforce it upon them. They were again recommended to attend strictly
to the one, unerring guide, the voice of the Good Spirit in their own
hearts, which was sufficient to direct them in the right path, without
the teachings of any man; and that as they were obedient to this
principle, it would gradually enlighten their understandings, and by
degrees they would come to see more light.

This council concluded, with a hearty farewell by Friends, who informed
them that they parted with them in as sincere friendship as they had
ever done; having the same regard for one party as for the other.

From what transpired in this council, it was very evident that
their difficulties and divisions arose from the introduction of the
missionary system. By enforcing the observation of the Sabbath, so
called, and inculcating doctrines and dogmas, which the Indians could
not comprehend, and were not prepared to adopt, their ideas with regard
to religion had become confused. Hence some were disposed to make the
observation of the Sabbath and some formal ceremonies, essential and
fundamental points,--while others, jealous of the encroachments of
missionaries on their land, and fearing they might have some sinister
motives in view, were disposed to lay aside all ideas of imitating the
whites in the practice of religion and worship, and adhere only to
their old Indian customs, in this respect.

From Cattaraugus, Friends again returned to Alleghany, and had some
further interviews with their chiefs respecting the schooling of their
children, and although a few of them continued to be opposed to having
a school on their land, yet the greater part were anxious for it, and
expressed strong desires that a school might again be established among
them.

While the committee remained at Alleghany, they were visited by the
son of the ancient _Guy-us-hu-ta_, mentioned in the early part of this
narrative. He had learned the blacksmith business--was fifty-six years
of age, and had lived with his present wife thirty-four years, and
never had any other. A chief of the same age, who accompanied him, had
twelve children by one wife, with whom he still lived.

These circumstances, among all their depravity in this respect, may be
noted to their credit.

Although these Indians were not yet prepared to make a division of
their land into lots, so as for each to have his distinct property,
yet the practice of buying and selling each other’s improvements was
becoming more frequent among them. In several instances they had
applied to Friends to value them, and this circumstance, it was hoped,
would open their ideas more to the advantage of individual possessions,
and in time, Induce them to adopt the plan that had been recommended,
of dividing their land.

The young man, in the capacity of a schoolmaster, again commenced
teaching their children, and devoted a part of his time to visiting
them in their houses, in a more familiar way, and also affording them
instruction in the labours of the field. It was evident, that those who
had the most frequent intercourse with Friends, had made the greatest
progress in the arts of civilized life.

In the spring of 1821, an Indian lad, (the son of one of their
principal chiefs) who had been brought to the neighbourhood of
Philadelphia, instructed in school learning, and taught the shoemaker’s
trade, returned to his father at Alleghany, and immediately commenced
his business, which promised to be advantageous to him, as well as a
great accommodation to the Indians.

The frequent solicitations of the pre-emption holders, continued to be
a source of uneasiness to the Indians--as _they_ urged the necessity of
having surveys and drafts made of their different reservations of land,
to be divided and kept by the pre-emption holders, in order that when
the Indians were disposed to sell, each one might know the quantity as
well as the quality of such reservation, as they were about to purchase.

In the Twelfth month, this year, the following statistical account
of the Indians at Alleghany was furnished to the author by the
schoolmaster, who resided among them, which will exhibit the
improvements made by about thirty-five families, though it is cause
of regret that the account was not completed--there being about forty
families more, which were not included.

The dates affixed to the names of individuals, is the time the account
was taken.

Big John, Tenth month 23, 1820.--Has about twenty acres of cleared
land, raised eight acres of corn, three of oats, one of potatoes--about
forty apple-trees, several of which are bearing fruit--three cows, four
calves, one steer, one yoke of oxen, four horses, eighteen pigs, one
plough, and one wagon.

William Platt, 30 years of age.--Fifteen acres of cleared land--a
considerable quantity of corn, three acres of oats, half an acre of
potatoes, one yoke of oxen, and twenty pigs.

Levi Halftown, blacksmith.--Nine and a half acres of land cleared--one
yoke of oxen, two cows, one calf, two horses, one plough and ox chains,
seven hogs and eight pigs.

Long John, Tenth month 25, 48 or 50 years of age.--Has twelve children
by one wife, with whom he still lives--twenty acres of cleared land,
seven acres of corn, four of oats, a quantity of potatoes, two yoke of
oxen, three cows, one heifer, three calves, twelve hogs, and a number
of pigs; one wagon, and ploughs.

Stephen, a blacksmith, 56 years old, and son of the ancient
Guy-us-hu-ta.--Eight acres of corn, four of oats, one of potatoes, four
of mowing grass, one yoke of oxen, five cows, six calves, fifteen hogs
and pigs, and one plough.

John Jemison, 24 years old.--Fifteen acres of cleared land, four acres
of oats, one of buckwheat, four of corn, potatoes, and beans; sixteen
hogs and several pigs, two horses, two cows, one heifer, one calf, one
yoke of oxen, one steer. Ploughed last spring about thirty acres of
land, twenty-one of which was hired by other Indians at two dollars per
acre--has put up a new barn fifty feet long--made new fence to enclose
six acres of land the present season.

Big Jacob, 50 years old.--Eight or ten acres of cleared land, five
acres of corn, four of oats, one of potatoes, one yoke of oxen, three
yoke of steers, four cows, one calf, five hogs and near twenty pigs;
has sown one bushel of wheat this fall.

Moses Pierce, aged 32.--Twenty acres and a half of land, two and a half
of corn, three and a half of oats, quarter of potatoes, one and a half
of hay, one yoke of oxen, two cows, three young steers, one calf, five
hogs and seven pigs; makes ploughs, sleighs, and does carpenter work.

John Pierce, Eleventh month 3, aged 56.--Twenty acres of cleared land,
raised five acres of corn, one and a half of potatoes, four of oats,
four of grass, has eight head of cattle, fifteen hogs and pigs.

Eli Jemison, twenty-seven years old.--Has begun a new improvement in
the woods, and has about three acres cleared--parted with his old
field, which contained six acres, raised three acres of corn, half
an acre of potatoes, and one acre of turnips, five hogs, one yoke of
steers, one cow, one heifer, one plough and wagon.

Simon Pierce, Eleventh month 16, 26 years old.--Fourteen acres of land,
five acres of corn, three of oats, half an acre of potatoes, two of
wheat, three and a half of meadow, two cows, two heifers, two steers,
one ox, four hogs and ten pigs.

Billy, 50 years old.--Raised fifty bushels of corn, half an acre of
potatoes, one cow, one calf, and three hogs.

William Johnson, Twelfth month 2, 50 years old.--Eleven acres of land,
raised six acres of corn, half an acre of potatoes, quantity of beans,
one yoke of oxen, two cows, two heifers, twelve hogs and pigs.

Morris Halftown, First month 31, 1821, 26 years old.--Eighteen acres of
land, raised last year three and a half acres of corn, six of oats, one
and a half of potatoes, two and a half of hay, one yoke of oxen, two
cows, three steers, one calf, one horse, four pigs, and three hogs.

Israel Jemison, Second month 2, 30 years of age.--Fourteen acres of
land cleared, and four more part cleared, three and a half acres of
corn, three of oats, two of buckwheat, half an acre of peas, one of
potatoes, one of wheat, two and a half of meadow, two yoke of oxen, two
cows, one yoke of steers, six hogs, fourteen pigs; killed in the fall
five hogs--one plough, one cart and log chains.

John Dick, Third month 29, 65 or 70 years old.--Had last year two acres
of spring wheat, four of oats, three horses, and one hog.

Jemison, a blacksmith, 54 years old.--Ten and a half acres of land,
three horses, two cows, three calves, three hogs and four pigs, and
killed three hogs for pork; five acres of corn, one of potatoes, three
of oats, half an acre of peas, one plough, and harness for horses.

Jacob Taylor, Fifth month 10, 40 years old.--Five and a half acres
of land, one yoke of steers, one heifer, four hogs,--corn, oats, and
potatoes, quantity not mentioned.

James Robeson, Seventh month 1, 48 years of age.--Thirteen and a half
acres of land, planted five acres of corn, half an acre of potatoes,
two acres of spring wheat, three and a half of oats, two and a half of
meadow, nine head of cattle, seven hogs, one plough, one harrow, chains
and sled.

Blue Eyes.--Twelve acres of land, quantity of corn, one acre of wheat,
three and a half of oats, sowed half a bushel of flaxseed, two and a
half acres of meadow, one yoke of oxen, five cows, three calves, four
hogs, twenty-two pigs, five horses, plough, chains, &c.

John Watt, 35 years old.--Three acres of corn, half an acre of
potatoes, four hogs, twenty-six pigs.

Jonathan Titus, 55 years old.--Three acres of land, two cattle, and
three pigs.

Jacob Snow, Seventh month 8, 50 years old.--Five acres of land, three
acres of corn, one and a half of potatoes, one-third of an acre of
beans, and four hogs.

Jacob Thomas, 28 or 30 years old.--Eight acres of land, three of corn,
two of oats, three-fourths of an acre of peas, some potatoes, seven
cattle, seven hogs, and seven pigs.

Big John, Seventh month 23, 53 years old.--Fourteen acres of land, five
acres of corn, one of potatoes, five of oats, three of meadow, sixteen
head of cattle, four horses, and thirteen hogs.

William Halftown, aged 26.--Fourteen and a half acres of land, ten
of which he lately had cleared, for which he paid fourteen dollars
per acre for clearing; one acre of corn, two of oats, two and a half
meadow, one yoke of oxen, one cow, one horse, plough, sled, and some
bearing apple-trees.

John Bone, 33 years old.--Three acres of corn, two of oats, two of
meadow, four cattle, one plough.

George Silverheels, 43 years old.--Ten and a half acres of land, eight
head of cattle, eleven hogs, five acres of corn, one of potatoes,
one of oats, one and a half of meadow--has lately commenced a new
improvement.

John Lewis, Eighth month 4, 21 years of age.--Five acres of land,
mostly in with corn, one yoke of steers, one heifer, and eight hogs.

Bucktooth, 55 years old.--Ten acres of land enclosed, six acres of
corn, three horses, one heifer, and eleven hogs.

Jacob Strong, Eighth month 14, 32 years old.--Eleven acres of land,
three of corn, one and half of potatoes, one and half of oats, one
and a half of meadow, one cow, two heifers, one calf, ten hogs, one
plough--has put up a good house with stone chimneys up and down stairs.

Jacob Jemison, Ninth month 3, 30 years of age.--Four acres of corn, one
and a half of oats, three-fourths meadow, one yoke of oxen, one cow,
about twenty head of swine, one plough and chains.

David Halftown.--Five acres of corn, one of buckwheat, two of oats, one
of potatoes, two of beans and other vegetables, one yoke of oxen, two
cows, one yoke of steers, five hogs, one plough and chains.

Fight Thompson, 34 years of age.--Three acres of corn, half an acre of
potatoes, one patch of turnips, one yoke of oxen, one calf, five hogs,
and one plough.

William Patterson, Tenth month 1, 28 years old.--Four acres of corn,
two of oats, two cows, and nine hogs, which he is fattening.

       *       *       *       *       *

From the foregoing account of thirty-five families, it appears they had
about four hundred and forty acres of cleared land, one hundred and
fifteen of which was cultivated with corn, seventy-one with oats, nine
with wheat, seventeen with potatoes, and thirty-two in meadow ground.
They possessed twenty-six horses, twenty-two yoke of oxen, one hundred
and fifty-five other cattle, and nearly four hundred head of swine. But
little account is given of their improvements in building--this having
been heretofore noticed in this work.

In the spring of 1822, a school was opened on the land owned by
Friends, for the instruction of the Indian children at the Alleghany
settlement; the schools hitherto kept for their instruction, having
been mostly on the Indians’ land. This school was continued for several
years, under the care of a teacher who had devoted many years of his
time to the instruction of the natives. In 1823, it was attended by
an average number of about twenty children, most of whom were in the
rudiments of their learning, but made considerable progress for the
time they had attended, and their general deportment gave satisfactory
evidence of an improvement in other respects. Another Friend, who
resided among them at this period, afforded them instruction in some
of the mechanic arts; and through this, and the succeeding year,
notwithstanding the existence of various difficulties in relation to
the prosecution of this desirable object, a spirit of industry and
attention to business continued to be apparent with many of the natives.

In 1825, the school continued to be attended by about twenty children,
whose conduct and improvement were satisfactory. Many of the natives
had become increasingly sensible of the need they had of further
instruction, especially in those branches of domestic economy in which
females are commonly engaged.

The Friend and his wife, who had long resided at this settlement,
having withdrawn therefrom, for a considerable time, another Friend,
with his wife and a single female, offered their services, and
proceeded to that settlement in the summer of this year, to unite with
the two Friends there, in their arduous and interesting service. A
school was established for the instruction of young females, and in
1826 the accounts were encouraging, of the progress made by the Indian
girls in their studies, as well as in knitting, spinning, and other
employments adapted to their sex. The school for the boys was also
regularly attended, and their conduct satisfactory. Between school
hours, they were employed on the farm at agricultural labours, or
otherwise in the shop at some mechanical business; and the regular
industrious habits thus encouraged and inculcated among the youth, it
was evident, would have a beneficial effect in the formation of their
future character.

From a more particular investigation into the state of the Indians
at the Alleghany settlement, about this period, it appeared that
eighty families, composed of four hundred and thirty-nine individuals,
possessed four hundred and seventy-nine head of cattle, fifty-eight
horses, three hundred and fifty hogs, and six hundred and ninety-nine
acres of improved land, in which seventy acres of meadow were included;
two hundred and thirty-nine acres were the last season planted with
corn, forty-two with potatoes, thirty-eight sown with wheat, and one
hundred and sixteen with oats, besides a quantity of buckwheat, and
divers sorts of vegetables. But notwithstanding these encouraging
circumstances in agricultural pursuits, and the prosperous state of the
schools of both sexes, affording strong ground to believe, that this
people might be essentially and permanently benefitted by the labour of
Friends, yet their situation, at this period, was particularly trying,
and critical, from the great liability to be dispossessed of their
possessions. The continued applications in various ways of _those_
claiming the pre-emption right, and the evident influence _they_ were
gradually making on the minds of some of the Indians, gave uneasiness
to others more considerate and reflecting among them, and their fears
in this respect soon became realized; for the Seneca nation, finally,
were induced to part with large bodies of their lands in different
places to the pre-emption holders. These sales (the amount of which
I have not ascertained) were parts of the Cattaraugus, Buffalo, and
Tonewanta reservations, and some smaller reservations near the Genessee
river. The reservation at Alleghany, where the greatest improvements
in agriculture were made, remained in the hands of the Indians; and
could this avaricious disposition on the part of the whites to obtain
their land be here restrained, and the natives left in the undisturbed
possession of their _rightful inheritance_, the Seneca nation have yet
a sufficiency of land to accommodate their numbers, and with industry
and care, in pursuing their agricultural labours, they might obtain all
the necessary comforts of life.

The progress made by the Indians at the Cattaraugus settlement, and
the favourable situation of their land for cultivation, with proper
attention on their part, had induced Friends to withdraw their aid
for several years past, as it regarded an instructor among them. And
the settlement, having been now continued among the Indians at the
Alleghany for about thirty years, it was believed the time was nearly
come to withdraw from them; and, accordingly, the Friends residing at
Tunesassa, returned home in the year 1828, and left the Indians to
improve on the instructions already received from the long and arduous
labours of the society of Friends.

Having no official means at command, of obtaining correct information
of their real situation at present, I am not able to bring this account
to as satisfactory a close as would be desirable; but from the best
information I can obtain on the subject, it appears, that the Indians
continue to progress in agricultural pursuits, and in some of the
mechanic arts; and some of their own people have kept schools for the
instruction of the youth.

But it is also said, that the constant pressure upon them to obtain
their land, affords strong ground to fear, that their former sales were
only a prelude to their parting with the remainder, at no very distant
period.

It is, however, a consoling reflection to the society of Friends, that
they have extended a benevolent hand to this poor, degraded, and much
injured people; and even should they finally be induced to part with,
and relinquish the remnants of their present possession, and migrate
to a more distant clime, the instruction they have already received in
the mechanic arts, together with their knowledge of agriculture, will
greatly contribute to their happiness and comfort, in the land in which
they may settle, and not only so, but the benefits resulting from their
knowledge of civilized habits be extended to more distant and savage
tribes.

In concluding this account of the proceedings of Friends of the
Yearly Meeting of Philadelphia, it may be proper to state, that many
individuals, both male and female, from an apprehension of duty,
have, at different periods, devoted many years of their time to the
instruction of the natives, and have had the consoling evidence of
peace for their labours. But as this benevolent work could not be
accomplished, without very considerable expense to the society,
voluntary subscriptions were raised, at different periods, to a large
amount, in which it is but just to acknowledge, that the society of
Friends in England, feeling a lively interest in this righteous work,
liberally contributed to a fund for that purpose, which the Yearly
Meeting of New York and Baltimore partook of, for the purpose of aiding
them in extending their benevolent views, in promoting civilization
among various tribes, and of whose proceedings therein, a short account
will be here subjoined.

    _A brief account of the proceedings of Friends of the Yearly
    Meeting of New York, in promoting civilization among the Indians,
    residing in that state._

It will be seen in the early part of this narrative, that Friends of
the Yearly Meeting of Pennsylvania, first promoted a settlement among
the Oneida nation living near the Mohawk river, in the state of New
York. They also extended some aid to the Stockbridges, and some other
tribes in that quarter. This attention was continued from the spring
of 1796, till about the close of the year 1799, when Friends withdrew
from them; and the Yearly Meeting of New York, being actuated by the
same benevolent motives to improve the condition of the aboriginal
inhabitants, appointed a committee for that special purpose, who
sent instructors among them, and continued to aid and assist them in
agricultural pursuits, in some of the mechanic arts, and in school
learning, for many years. But as I have not at command the means
of furnishing a particular account of the gradual advancement made
in the civilized arts among those Indians, I can only say, that in
the prosecution of the work, Friends have had many difficulties to
encounter; and the Indians have frequently been disturbed and harassed,
by the same covetous spirit, that so frequently annoyed the Seneca
nation, in order to dispossess them of their land. In consequence of
this many of the tribes have been induced to sell and remove far to the
westward.

By the kindness of a Friend in New York, I have been furnished with
an account of some of the more recent transactions of the society of
Friends, towards the Indians. He states some of the difficulties to
which the Indians are subjected, by the officious interference of a
_proselyting spirit_, which has much agitated several of the tribes,
and created parties and animosities among them. The ultimate object
appears to be, to unsettle them in their present possessions, and
eventually to induce them to abandon the rightful inheritance of their
fathers.

It appears from the account, that the Onondaga tribe are the only
Indians at present under the care of the Yearly Meeting of New York;
and the only tribe in that state united among themselves, and exempt
from a party under the influence of a blind missionary zeal--desirous
to relinquish their present possessions and emigrate. But a few years
ago the Onondaga’s were an indolent, drunken people, and desirous of
moving to the westward, but as they have in a good degree embraced
the counsel of Friends, become industrious, and availed themselves of
their local advantages, and tasted the sweets of their labour from the
produce of the soil, a radical change has been effected among them.

This tribe has for seven or eight years past been under the particular
care and superintendence of Adin T. Corey, as agent for the committee
of the Yearly Meeting; and being well qualified for the important
trust, and feeling his mind devoted to it, the Indians have reposed
great confidence in him, and distinguished him by the name of ‘Oatnus,’
and consider him as their benefactor, as will be seen in the following
speech.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Onondaga, Fourth mo. 27, 1829.
  “To the committee of the Yearly Meeting of New York, on Indian
  concerns._

“Brothers--Oatnus, our brother, told us he was going to New York to
attend the great council--and we thought good to send you a talk, to
let you know our minds. First, we thank you for all your goodness in
giving us the many useful things you have given us, for our benefit,
and we thank the Great Spirit, who in his unspeakable mercy put it into
your hearts to take us by the hand, and pity our condition; but most
of all, that he put it into your hearts and the heart of our brother
Oatnus, to come and live amongst us.

“Brothers, he has been a wall about us, that in a great measure has
fenced out the encroachments of our white neighbours. When he speaks,
the white people hear, and they do not cheat us as they used to do.

“Brothers, he has improved our condition much every way. When he
came among us, we were hungry and almost naked, but now we are more
comfortable. Our lands lay common, and were running up with bushes--now
there are many of them fenced and well cultivated, yielding an
abundant supply of food for our people. Our young men, women, and
children were running about doing no good--now, most of them are
diligently and profitably employed. One of our young men has learned
to work pretty well at blacksmithing--three lads have learned to make
good shoes--our young women, most of them, can spin, knit, and sew,
and some of them can weave. Oatnus has also transacted most of our
business--made many bargains, and handled much of our money, and done
all well--not one shilling sticks in his pocket--he has fed our hungry
children, clothed our naked, and helped us when we were sick--when he
came we were divided, now we are united--when there is war he makes
peace--when he speaks our young men hear and keep mostly out of bad
company--our farming begins to flourish, and although we have made much
improvement, we still want a head--we cannot go alone, and if you leave
us now, it will be like making us a very valuable present, and taking
it away again.

“Brothers, remember, when our brother Oatnus come, we were wild and
ignorant respecting business, and it must necessarily take a good while
to tame a whole nation.

“Brothers, our brother told us, our school was so thinly attended, he
thought it would be best to drop it till winter, but we are unwilling
it should stop, for fear our children will go back--we wish you to
keep it going--some of us have been negligent in sending our children,
but we will endeavour to be more diligent in the future, if we can be
favoured with it.

“Brothers, our very tried brother is growing old, and through abundance
of labour and fatigue has grown feeble, having been sick a good deal,
and cannot do as he used to do, yet we are not willing to part with
him, we want him to stay enough with us, to oversee our business,
manage our affairs, and sit with us in council.

“Brothers, we still want to go on in improvement, and as our young
man that has learned to work at smithing, has taken to farming in the
summer season, we therefore want to get a sober goodly man, to come
and set up his trade among us, and take some of our boys and learn
them the trade. We also want a wagon maker, and a cooper of the above
description, and for the same purpose, and we believe it might be done
with very little expense to our brothers, if Oatnus stays with us a
part of the time, and has the management of our affairs; for we have
abundance of materials to carry on the two last mentioned trades, and
part of the first; and our circumstances are very different now from
what they were when he first came amongst us.

“Brothers, we have concluded to build a saw-mill this season, among
ourselves.

“Brothers, it makes our hearts sick when we look abroad and see our
Oneida and Seneca brethren, who have got the blackcoats and hungry
mouths among them--for there is nothing but contention, spite, and
animosity, and no business that is profitable--and we thank the Great
Spirit that has sent us peace--sweet peace and no blackcoats.

“Brothers, may the Great Spirit preside over your councils--make
you love one another, remember your real brethren and do much good.
Farewell.”

  Signed by the chiefs and some of the warriors.

       *       *       *       *       *

To the foregoing speech the committee on Indian affairs made the
following reply:

“Brothers, we have received by the hands of brother Oatnus your
communication to us, and it has made our hearts glad; and, that our
brothers and sisters of the Great council might hear it, we gave it
to them to read, and it made their hearts glad also, and greatly
to rejoice, to hear from you and to hear that Oatnus did well with
you--and that you listened to his voice.

“Brothers, we cannot tell you how much we want you to improve in all
things--we know you cannot do every thing at once, but we want you to
hearken to our counsel--we love you--we desire your good, and that you
may increase and leave a good name behind you, when the Great Spirit
shall take you away.

“Brothers, remember we can only counsel you for good--if you take our
counsel the Great Spirit will help you.

“Brothers, you have now witnessed a little of the rewards of the
Good Spirit, in taking our counsel and the counsel of our brother
Oatnus--our counsel to you is, that you continue to improve as you have
begun.

“Brothers, be sober, be industrious--love to improve yourselves, and
the Great Spirit will bountifully assist you.

“Brothers, we want you to mind the Great Spirit, to be industrious--to
try to learn yourselves--to keep out of bad company--to avoid strong
drink--to counsel with brother Oatnus, who will never deceive you, but
counsel you for your good.”

  Signed, &c.

_Fifth mo. 29, 1828._


       *       *       *       *       *

By a report of the committee on Indian affairs dated the twenty-seventh
of the Fifth-month, 1830, and presented to the Yearly Meeting held in
the same month, it appears that during the past year, the Onondaga
tribe have received their care and attention as heretofore, and that
those Indians are realizing in an unprecedented manner, the fruits of
their own industry, being stimulated and encouraged, by the care which
Friends have extended towards them, for a few years past, which affords
great cause for encouragement. There is a striking contrast between
their situation now, and what it was seven years ago, when their only
buildings were two small barns, and a few inferior huts. The lands
which they then had cleared, were very imperfectly cultivated, and the
state and quality as well as quantity of their stock, as also teams
and utensils of husbandry of every kind, were correspondent. Since
that time, they have greatly increased their quantity of cleared land;
this season they had about three hundred acres of wheat--their crops
are more abundant, furnishing more than a supply for their people. The
fencing and arrangement of their fields are farmer-like and judicious.
The number of their barns is increased to about twenty--their teams
of horses and oxen, are numerous and efficient--they are pretty well
supplied with wagons, harness, ploughs, and other farming utensils,
and these articles are kept in tolerable repair. Many of their present
dwellings, though small, are comfortable frame buildings, and their
household furniture consists mostly of useful and plain articles--such
as are used in civilized life.

On a good mill stream within their territory, which consists
of a reservation of about ten thousand acres, the committee’s
superintendent, during the past year, aided by the individual labour of
the Indians, raised a substantial dam, and by a discreet dispensation
of their resources, and by a general economy introduced among them, has
collected about five hundred dollars, which defrayed the expenses of
erecting a good saw-mill, which the Indians find to be highly useful
and productive.

As the same stream furnished an eligible site for a grist-mill, at no
great distance from those improvements, and as the reducing of their
grain into meal for this tribe, was performed by the manual labour of
the women in a great measure, the committee were encouraged to believe,
that as they duly appreciated the benefits resulting from their newly
erected saw-mill, and from the increased display of mechanical genius,
industry, and method among them, the time was not far distant when
further and more useful improvements will be made by themselves,
calculated to raise their habits in domestic and civilized life, and
elevate their minds to a steady pursuit of their more substantial
happiness and welfare.

The committee not having been able to comply with the Indians’ request,
made in their speech two years ago, for a blacksmith, wagon maker, and
cooper to be placed among them, as no suitable persons had offered
for that purpose, and also the school having been dropped, that had
formerly been kept, and in a flourishing condition among them, partly
for want of sufficient funds to continue a permanent teacher, these
subjects were again suggested to the Yearly Meeting, with an earnest
wish to inspire in the minds of Friends a feeling that might prove
beneficial in promoting these desirable objects.

Notwithstanding this concern, to meliorate the condition of the
Indians, has been prosecuted for many years by the committee, with at
times, but little evidence of good resulting to these people, from
their labours, yet from more recent developments evinced from the
latter experience and research of the committee, though the prospect
is an arduous one, it presents encouragement, and the field of labour
is brightening, as the hidden causes of past obstructions present
themselves.

The committee say in their report, “It appears that many associations
are formed in this country, and some of them under the denomination
of benevolent and religious; all apparently well disposed, and even
anxious to promote the good and the happiness of these original
proprietors of the soil. Yet unhappily for these, the means resorted
to, to advance their prosperity, have (in too many instances) been
elevated above their comprehensions, and not adapted to their wants,
their habits, and their religious views. From a zeal beyond knowledge,
to benefit these people, agents and missionaries have been settled
among them, patronized by these associations, little qualified to
inspire their confidence and respect, and in their zealous pretensions
to christianize, previous to properly instructing in the arts of
civilized life, they produce discouragement and incalculable injury,
divisions and dissentions; and in the language of the Indians
themselves, ‘quarrelling and contention, spite and animosity, and no
business that is profitable.’

“Since the Onondaga tribe has been under the care of the committee,
the missionaries have been inclined to leave them to the care of
Friends. And this tribe, which a few years ago was divided and full of
dissention, is restored to union and harmony, and there is a laudable
feeling springing up among them, and an increased desire to become
introduced into, and firmly fixed in the habits of civilization.”

The committee, in time past, having extended some care to several
tribes of the Seneca nation west of the Genessee river, are of the
opinion that essential and lasting good might, by that care being
further extended, result to those people. To show the desire of the
Indians herein, the following speech of a principal chief, on behalf of
a large majority of the Indians, in the state of New York, presented in
the last winter, was laid before the Yearly Meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _New York, January_ 20, 1830.

“_To the society of Friends of the city of New York._

“At the treaty of Philadelphia with William Penn and the Six Nations,
we considered William Penn as a friend to us, not wishing to cheat
us out of our lands, but to pay us a full value for them. Since that
time, the society of Friends have treated us very kindly--they have
never shown a disposition to wrong us out of our lands, but seemed to
wish to cultivate friendship with us, and to let us have our rights
and privileges--and to enjoy our own religion. But there are certain
persons residing among us, at present, who we believe have a different
object. They say they have been sent by the Great Spirit, but we do not
think the Great Spirit would send people among us, to cheat us out of
our lands, and to cause disturbance to arise amongst us, which has made
a division in our nation. No, we do not think the Great Spirit sent the
blackcoat’s among us for any such purpose. There is at present five
thousand of our people and upwards, who wish the society of Friends to
send a suitable person among us, to teach our young men how to till
the ground, and our young women the art of domestic manufactures, and
our children to read and write. If our friends feel disposed to comply
with our wishes, we shall be happy to receive them, and will cause all
necessary buildings to be erected for their use--we think by having
this plan carried into effect, the nation once more would be united,
and become a happy people.”

  Your friend,
             his
  Signed, Red X Jacket.
             mark

       *       *       *       *       *

Although the way has not yet opened to comply with the request in the
foregoing communication, the committee were encouraged to persevere in
their services the present year, in rendering such aid for the benefit
of this poor afflicted people, as the limited means within their power
would, under the direction of best wisdom enable them to do.


_Some account of the proceedings of Friends of Baltimore Yearly
Meeting._

This concern for improving the condition of our red brethren, having
been opened and spread in the Yearly Meeting of Baltimore, in the fall
of 1795, and the minds of Friends being much united, and actuated by
benevolent motives to promote this desirable object, referred the same
to a special committee, to proceed therein as way might open, to render
essential service to these aboriginal inhabitants. Accordingly their
attention was turned to some of the Indian tribes north-west of the
river Ohio, and a deputation was delegated to visit the Shawaneese,
Delawares, Wyandots and such other natives in those parts as they might
find practicable. They proceeded thereon, in the summer of 1796, after
having first obtained the approbation of the general government.

When they arrived at the forks of the Muskingum river, where they
had been informed a considerable number of Indians were collected,
they found to their great disappointment, that the chiefs and hunters
were dispersed: and it not appearing practicable to convene them at
that time, to have a suitable conference with them, they returned
without accomplishing the object of their visit. They, however, saw
divers hunters and others, who appeared well disposed to receive the
instruction and assistance which Friends proposed to furnish them.

In the spring of 1797, three Friends again proceeded to that country on
an embassy, to inquire into the real situation of the Indian tribes; in
the course of which visit, having passed by a number of their hunting
camps and several of their towns, they had a large opportunity of
discovering their destitute condition, often exposed to the inclemency
of the weather, with a very precarious, and often a very scanty supply
of food and clothing. They suffered all the miseries of extreme
poverty, in a country which from its great fertility, would, with but
little cultivation, supply them abundantly with all the necessaries of
life.

These Friends had opportunities with some of the chiefs and hunters of
the Wyandot and Delaware nations, in which they informed them of the
views of the society of Friends, relative to their improvement; and
endeavoured to impress on their minds the advantages they would derive,
from permitting to be introduced among their people, a knowledge of
agriculture, and some of the most useful mechanic arts.

The Indians were attentive to their communications, and promised to lay
these matters before their grand council, and inform Friends of their
conclusions on the subject.

As no way opened during the year 1798, for carrying the object of the
Yearly Meeting into effect, but little was done, more than furnishing
a few implements of husbandry, and some assistance to a few Indian
families, situated upon the branches of the Tuskarawee’s river.

In the Second month 1799, the committee received a speech and belt
of wampum, from Tarhie, the principal chief of the Wyandot nation,
delivered at Detroit, in the Ninth month preceding, of which the
following is an extract.

“Brethren Quakers--you remember we once met at a certain place. When we
had there met, a great many good things were said, and much friendship
was professed between us.

“Brothers, you told us at that time that you not only took us by the
hand, but that you held us fast by the arm; that you then formed a
chain of friendship. You said that it was not a chain of iron; but that
it was a chain of precious metal, a chain of silver that would never
get rusty; and that this chain would bind us in brotherly affection for
ever.

“Brethren, listen. We have often heard that you were a good and a
faithful people--ever ready to do justice, and good to all men without
distinction of colour--therefore, we love you the more sincerely,
because of the goodness of your hearts, which has been talked of among
our nation long since.

“Brethren, listen. You have informed us that you intended to visit us.
Yes, that even in our tents and cabins you will take us by the hand.
You, brethren, cannot admit a doubt, but that we would be very happy to
see you.

“Brethren, listen. It is but proper to inform you at this time, that
when you do come forward to see us, you will no doubt pass by my place
of residence, at Sandusky. I will then take you not only by the hand,
but by the arm, and will conduct you safe to the _grand council fire_
of our great Sasteretsey, where all good things are transacted, and
where nothing bad is permitted to appear. When in the grand council of
our Sasteretsey we will then sit down together in peace and friendship,
as brethren are accustomed to do, after a long absence, and remind
each other, and talk of those things that took place between our good
grandfathers, when they first met upon our lands--upon this great
island.

“Brethren, may the Great Spirit, the master of light and life, so
dispose the hearts and minds of all our nations and people, that the
calamities of war may never more be felt or known by any of them--that
our roads and paths may never more be stained with the blood of our
young warriors--and that our helpless women and children may live in
peace and happiness.”

       *       *       *       *       *

On considering the foregoing communication, some Friends were deputed
to make them a visit, and to afford such assistance as they might be
enabled to render. They accordingly proceeded with an intention of
being at their general council, and arrived on the third of the Sixth
month at upper Sandusky, the principal village of the Wyandots, where
they were received by Tarhie (the crane,) and others of that nation.

On their arrival there, it appeared a mistake had been made in the
translation of the speech the Indians had sent to Friends, respecting
the time of opening their great council, to which Friends had been
invited. They were now informed that it began annually at the full
moon in the Sixth month.

Finding it would be difficult to procure food for themselves and
horses there, until that time, the committee concluded it best to
have a conference with Tarhie and other chiefs who were then in the
neighbourhood of Sandusky, which was accordingly agreed to. At the time
appointed they met at Tarhie’s house, with several other chiefs, and a
number of hunters, when they had a full opportunity with them, on the
subject of their visit.

Their communication appeared to be received with great satisfaction by
the Indians, and in their answer, delivered on some strings of wampum,
they expressed the gratitude they felt for the care and friendship,
which their beloved brethren the Quakers had always manifested for
the Indians, and promised as soon as the grand council met, that they
should communicate fully to it, respecting the concern which the
society felt for their improvement, and inform Friends by a written
speech of their conclusion thereon.

Whilst these Friends were at Sandusky and other villages, their minds
were deeply affected under the sorrowful considerations of the baneful
effects of spirituous liquors upon the Indians, who were at that time
supplied with it in almost every village, by Canadian traders, residing
amongst them--and they were confirmed in the opinion, that unless these
traders could be restrained from furnishing them with this destructive
article, in exchange for their skins and furs, they could not easily
be persuaded to turn their minds towards agriculture and the mechanic
arts. Notwithstanding which discouragement, the great affection they
have for the society of Friends, manifested on all occasions whilst
the committee were with them, induced them to hope that Friends would
endeavour to keep under the weight of the concern, and be prepared to
proceed in the benevolent work whenever way might open, for further
service amongst them.

In the year 1800 and 1801, no personal interview was had by Friends
with those Indians. In the year 1802, the Little Turtle, Five Medals,
and several other principal chiefs of the Miami and Pottawatomie
nations passed through Baltimore, on their way to visit the President
of the United States, when the committee had a conference with them, in
which the view’s of Friends were fully opened, and they were informed
of the great discouragement Friends had met with, in carrying their
benevolent designs into effect, from the intemperate and destructive
use of spirituous liquor amongst the Indians, which was found to be the
greatest obstacle in the way of their profiting by the aid which the
society had been desirous of giving them.

The Little Turtle in reply, made a very pathetic and impressive speech
upon this subject, from which the following is extracted.

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers and friends--When our forefathers first met on this island,
your red brethren were very numerous. But since the introduction of
what you call spirituous liquors amongst us, and what we think may
justly be called _poison_, our numbers are greatly diminished. It has
destroyed a great part of your red brethren.

“My brothers and friends--we plainly perceive that you see the very
evil which destroys your red brethren; it is not an evil of our own
making; we have not placed it amongst ourselves; it is an evil placed
amongst us by the white people. We look to them to remove it out of
our country. We tell them, brethren, fetch us useful things, bring
goods that will clothe us, our women and our children, and not this
evil liquor that destroys our reason--that destroys our health--that
destroys our lives. But all we can say on this subject is of no
service--it gives no relief to your red brethren.

“My brothers and friends--I rejoice to find that you agree in opinion
with us, and express an anxiety to be, if possible, of service to us in
removing this great evil out of our country; an evil which has had so
much room in it, and has destroyed so many of our lives, that it causes
our young men to say, ‘we had better be at war with the white people;
this liquor which they introduce into our country, is more to be feared
than the gun and the tomahawk. There are more of us dead since the
treaty of Grenville, than we lost by the six years war before. It is
all owing to the introduction of this liquor amongst us.’

“Brothers, when our young men have been out hunting and are returning
home loaded with skins and furs, on their way, if it happens that they
come along where some of this liquor is deposited, the white man who
sells it, tells them to take a little drink. Some of them will say no,
I do not want it; they go on till they come to another house, where
they find more of the same kind of drink; it is there offered again;
they refuse, and again the third time; but finally the fourth or fifth
time, one accepts of it, and takes a drink, and getting one he wants
another, and then a third, and a fourth, till his senses have left him.
After his reason comes back again to him, when he gets up and finds
where he is--he asks for his peltry--the answer is, ‘You have drank
them’--Where is my gun? ‘It is gone’--Where is my shirt? ‘You have sold
it for whiskey!’ Now brothers, figure to yourselves what condition this
man must be in. He has a family at home--a wife and children who stand
in need of the profits of his hunting. What must be their wants, when
he himself is even without a shirt.”

These chiefs appeared to be much rejoiced at the assistance Friends
proposed to render them, and in reply to that part of their
communication, observed, ‘that it was their anxious wish to engage in
the culture of their lands, for although the game was not so scarce but
that they could get enough to eat, yet they were sensible it was daily
diminishing, and that the time was not far distant, when they would be
compelled to take hold of such tools, as they saw in the hands of the
white people.’

The committee, from their former experience, being of the judgment,
that no great progress could be made in the civilization of the
Indians while they were so abundantly supplied with distilled spirits,
concluded to address congress on the subject. Their memorial was
favourably received, and a law passed, which in some measure provided
a remedy for the evil.

As it now appeared to the committee, that the principal obstruction
to agriculture amongst the Indians was removed, they were encouraged
to proceed in their undertaking. They accordingly provided a number
of implements of husbandry, such as ploughs, hoes, axes, &c. &c.
which were forwarded and immediately distributed, as a present from
the society of Friends. These things were thankfully received by the
Indians.

A letter in the summer of 1803, from the agent for Indian affairs at
Fort Wayne, informed, that ‘since there had been no spirituous liquor
in the Indian country, they appeared very industrious, and turned
their attention to raising stock.’ This agent also expressed as his
opinion, “that the suppression of spirituous liquors in that country,
was the most beneficial measure which had ever been adopted for them,
by the United States--that there had not been one Indian killed in
that neighbourhood for a year--and that in no preceding year since the
treaty of Grenville, had there been less than ten killed, and in some
years as many as thirty.” The agent further added, “that the Indians
appeared very desirous of procuring for themselves, the necessaries
of life, _in our way_, but say they do not know how to begin. Some of
their old men say, “the white people want for nothing.” We wish them to
show us how to provide the many good things we see amongst them, if it
is their wish to instruct us in their way of living as they tell us it
is, we wish them to make haste and do it, for we are old and must die
soon; but we wish to see before we die, our women and children in that
path, that will lead them to happiness.

At the same time, a letter was received from the Little Turtle, and
Five Medals, in which they expressed a wish that some Friends would
visit their country. The committee, therefore, deputed some of their
number for that purpose. They were authorized to procure one or more
suitable persons to reside amongst the Indians, for the purpose of
teaching them agriculture and other useful knowledge, as far as it
should appear practicable.

In Second month 1804, two of the deputation proceeded to Fort Wayne,
accompanied by Philip Dennis, who had offered his services to go with
them, and remain with the Indians during the summer, for the purpose
of instructing them in husbandry. They took with them two horses to be
employed in ploughing, &c.

They arrived at Fort Wayne in the latter end of the Third month, and
soon after, convened several of their chiefs in a council with them; a
future day was fixed upon for the committee to meet them, with as many
of their old men, and their women and children as could be assembled.
Their chiefs previously requested, that whatever matter Friends might
have to communicate to the Indians, should be written down, in order
that they might lay it before the grand council in the Sixth month
following, to the attendance of which, they pressingly invited the
committee.

On the day appointed, being met by a considerable number of the
natives, the committee presented them with a written address, from
which, though all excellent, and well calculated to impress the
Indians’ minds with the importance of adhering to their counsel, we
shall, for brevity, content ourselves with extracting some of the most
material parts, as follows:

       *       *       *       *       *

“Brothers, our hearts are filled with thankfulness to the Great Spirit,
that he has brought us safely to the country of our red brethren, and
protected us through our journey. We also rejoice, that he has given us
this opportunity of seeing you and of taking you by the hand.

“Brothers, we had for some time entertained apprehensions that the
many changes that were taking place in circumstances, must greatly
change the situation of our red brethren, and that the time was fast
approaching when it would be necessary for them to alter their mode of
living.

“Brothers, after our talk with the chiefs, (alluding to the Little
Turtle and others whom we have just mentioned,) we were fully convinced
that the time was come, in which our red brethren ought to begin to
cultivate their lands. That they ought to raise corn and other grain,
also horses, cows, sheep, hogs, and other animals. We then proposed to
afford them some assistance. They appeared to be glad of the proposal,
and informed us, that many of their people were disposed to turn their
attention to the cultivation of the earth--they also expressed a desire
to be assisted by their brothers of Baltimore.

“Brothers, it is for this purpose that we have now come, and we again
repeat, we rejoice that we have this opportunity of seeing you, and
taking you by the hand.

“Brothers, in coming into the country of our red brethren, we have come
with our _eyes open_. And although we are affected with sorrow, in
believing that many of the red people suffer much for the want of food
and clothing, yet our hearts have been made glad, in seeing that it
has pleased the Great Spirit to give you a rich and valuable country.
Because we know, that it is out of the earth that food and clothing
come. We are sure, brothers, that with but little labour and attention,
you may raise much more corn and other grain than will be necessary for
yourselves, your women and children; and that you may also with great
ease, raise many more horses, cows, sheep, hogs and other valuable
animals, than will be necessary for your own use. We are also confident
that if you will pursue our method in the cultivation of your land, you
will live in much greater ease and plenty, and with much less fatigue
and toil, than attend hunting for a subsistence.

“Brothers, it will lead you to have fixed homes--you will build
comfortable dwelling houses for yourselves, your women and children,
where you may be sheltered from the rain, the frost and the snow, and
where you may enjoy in plenty, the rewards of your labour.

“Brothers, we will here mention, that the time was, when the forefather
of your brothers, the white people, lived beyond the great water, in
the same manner that our red brethren now live. The winters can yet be
counted when they went almost naked, when they procured their living by
fishing, and by the bow and arrow in hunting--and when they lived in
houses no better than yours. They were encouraged by some who came from
towards the sun rising, and lived amongst them to change their mode of
living. They did change--they cultivated the earth, and we are sure the
change was a happy one.

“Brothers and friends, we are not ashamed to acknowledge that the time
was, when our forefathers rejoiced at finding a wild plum tree, or
at killing a little game, and that they wandered up and down, living
on the uncertain supplies of fishing and hunting. But brothers, for
your encouragement we now mention that by turning their attention to
the cultivation of the earth instead of the plum tree, they soon had
orchards of many kinds of fruit--instead of the wild game they soon
had large numbers of cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, and other valuable
animals--and in many places instead of their forests they had large
fields of corn, and other grain--also many other valuable productions
of the earth.

“Brothers, we have spoken plainly, we desire to speak plain--we will
now tell you that we have not come merely to _talk_ with you. We have
come prepared to render you a little assistance. Our beloved brother,
Philip Dennis, who is now present, has come along with us. His desire
is, to cultivate for you, a field of corn, and also to show you how to
raise some of the other productions of the earth--he knows how to use
the plough, the hoe, the axe, and other implements of husbandry.

“Brothers, he has left a farm--he has left a wife and five small
children who are very dear to him--he has come, from a sincere desire
to be useful to our red brethren. His motives are pure--he will ask no
reward from you for his services--his greatest reward will be, in the
satisfaction he will feel, in finding you inclined to take hold of the
same tools he takes hold of--to receive from him instruction in the
cultivation of your lands, and pursue the example he will set you.

“Brothers, we hope you will make the situation of our brother as
comfortable as circumstances will admit. We hope, also, that many of
your young men will be willing to be taught by him, to use the plough,
the hoe, and other implements of husbandry--for we are sure, brothers,
that as you take hold of such tools as are in the hands of the white
people, you will find them to be to you, like having additional hands.
You will also find that by using them they will enable you to do many
things, which without them, cannot be performed.

“Brothers, the white people, in order to get their land cultivated,
find it necessary that their young men should be employed in it--and
not their women--women are smaller than men--they are not as strong as
men. It is the business of our women to be employed in our houses--to
keep them clean--to sow, knit, spin, and weave--to dress food for
themselves and families--to make clothes for the men and the rest of
their families, to keep the clothing of their families clean, and to
take care of their children.

“Brothers, we are fully convinced that if you will turn your attention
to the cultivation of the earth, to raising the different kinds of
grain--to building comfortable dwelling houses for your families--to
raising useful animals--amongst others, sheep for the advantage of the
wool, in making clothing--to raising flax and hemp for your linen--and
your women learn to spin and weave--your lives will be much easier
and happier than at present--and your numbers will increase, and not
continue to diminish. As we before observed, brothers, your land is
good--it is far better than the land which the white people near the
great waters, cultivate. We are persuaded that your land will produce
double the quantity of any kind of grain, or flax, or hemp, with the
same labour necessary near the great water.

“Brothers, we shall now end what we had to say, with informing you,
that all the corn and other productions of the earth which Philip
Dennis may raise, we wish our red brethren to accept as a token of our
friendship. And it is our desire that the chiefs of the Pottawattamie
and Miami nations who are now present, added to our brothers the Five
Medals, Tuthinipee, and Philip Dennis, make such a distribution thereof
as they may think proper.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The Indians manifested great decorum, and were very attentive during
the delivery of this address--in reply to which, the Little Turtle
delivered a speech on behalf of the council, from which we extract the
following:

“Brothers and friends--we rejoice that the Great Spirit has appointed,
that we should meet this day, for we believe this meeting will be of
the utmost consequence to your red brethren.

“Brothers, the things which you have said to us, require our greatest
attention: it is really necessary that we should deliberate upon them.
In order to do so, we must beg you to leave the paper, upon which they
are written, that we may communicate them to our chiefs, when they
assemble in grand council.

“Brothers, you have been very particular in pointing out to us the
duties of our women, and you have told us that in adopting your mode of
living, our numbers would increase and not continue to diminish. In all
this I certainly agree with you, and I hope my brother chiefs will also
agree with you.

“Brothers, assure your people who sent you here--tell your old chiefs
that we are obliged to them for their friendly offers to assist us in
changing our present mode of living. Tell them it is a great work that
cannot be done immediately; but that we are favourably disposed, and
hope it will take place gradually.”

       *       *       *       *       *

These Friends remained several weeks amongst the Indians, during which
time they visited a number of their towns and villages, at all of
which, they were received in the most friendly and hospitable manner.

In the course of their journey, they passed by a settlement of the
Wyandots at Brownstown or the rock. They found that the Indians at this
place, had, since the visit made by Friends to their nation in the year
1799, advanced considerably, in agriculture, many of them having built
comfortable houses, and acquired a considerable number of cattle, hogs,
and other domestic animals. The Wyandots residing at Sandusky and the
Shawaneese, on the Auglaize river, had likewise, since that visit,
turned their attention very much towards the cultivation of their
lands; Friends had, therefore, the satisfaction to remark, that the
communication from the committee to these nations, and the exertions
which had been made to turn their attention to agriculture, although
limited in their effect, had not been altogether unavailing.

They also visited the place fixed upon for the settlement of Philip
Dennis, on the Wabash river, about forty miles south-west of Fort
Wayne, and found its situation to be very advantageous for farming;
the soil appeared to be equal in fertility to any land in the western
country.

Soon after the return of the Friends, a letter was received by the
committee, from the Indian agent at Fort Wayne, informing that the
Indians had held their grand council in the Sixth month, agreeably
to expectation, at which eight hundred and seventy-four of them
attended, when the written address of Friends delivered at Fort Wayne
in the previous spring, was produced--read and interpreted to all the
different nations present. In reply to which, divers of their chiefs
expressed great satisfaction, and amongst others Toethteboxie on behalf
of the _Delawares_ said, ‘For many years before I came into the world,
the white people have been offering to do for us what is now mentioned,
and it appears that our eyes were never opened until this time; we will
now take hold of it and receive it. I am an old man and want to see it
before I die; if I once see it, I will die in peace, to think I have
left my women and children in comfort.’

On the return of Philip Dennis, who remained in the Indian country
during most of the year 1804, and spent his time agreeably with the
natives--he informed that he had raised about four hundred bushels
of corn, besides a quantity of turnips, potatoes, and a quantity of
other garden vegetables, which he directed to be divided amongst the
Indians on their return from their hunting camps. He left with the
Indians, with whom he had resided, upon the farm he had cultivated,
twenty-three hogs and pigs, seven of which were in good order to kill;
and he engaged the agent to attend to killing and salting them. They
were small when they were brought to the farm in the spring, and had no
other food than what they gathered in the woods.

With some assistance which he obtained from Fort Wayne, he cleared and
enclosed under a substantial fence twenty acres of ground, and built
a house thirty-two feet long, and seventeen wide, a story and a half
high, with floors and partitions.

The Indians who remained with him had been very industrious, and
attended to his directions. The young women wished to work in preparing
the ground and in tending the corn; from this he dissuaded them, and
as some spinning wheels had just arrived at Fort Wayne, which had been
sent on by government--he encouraged them to go there, and learn to
spin and knit, of a white woman who was at that place;--this they did,
and soon learned both to spin and knit; and when he came away, he left
them knitting yarn of their spinning.

The Indians were very desirous of Friends continuing their care towards
them, and that they should send a person to take the place of Philip
Dennis, but as no suitable Friend offered for that purpose, it was
believed best to request the agent of government residing at Fort
Wayne, (and who appeared to be friendly disposed towards the views of
Friends,) to procure and employ the most suitable person he could, in
that country, to plough the land cultivated by Philip Dennis, the last
season, and plant it in corn, and to endeavour to enlist the service
of the Indians in the labour of tending it; also to prepare a garden
of the most useful vegetables for the Indians’ use, which they might
afterwards easily manage.

In reply to this request, Friends received an account from the agent,
stating that he would lose no time in complying with their request,
and that he was ready at all times, to put in execution the benevolent
designs of Friends towards the Indians, as far as it was in his power.

He also mentioned, that at that time, ‘a spirit of industry existed
amongst the Indians generally, and that as several of the tribes had
requested of government to have a part of their annuities expended in
the employment of men to split rails and make fences for them, the
Delawares had twenty-three thousand rails put up into fences the last
winter; and that forty thousand more would be made into fences for the
Miami and Eel river Indians, by the first of the Sixth month--that
ten families of the Miamis had settled adjoining the place cultivated
by Philip Dennis, and that four men were employed in making rails to
fence in forty acres for them; also, that three persons more were at
work for the Eel river Indians, half a mile below Dennis’s station;
that they had twenty-five acres cleared and ready for the plough, and
expected to have fifty or sixty fenced in by the first of the Sixth
month. He expected at least twenty-five families would remove to reside
at that place the present season, and was confident the settlement
would increase very fast. The Indian who worked with Philip Dennis
during the last season, was about building himself a comfortable house,
had cleared two acres more of ground, and was ploughing the field
previously cleared by Philip Dennis. The hogs which were left there
with him had increased to one hundred in number.’

The agent further informed, 'that there would be one hundred acres of
land under good fence at the Little Turtle’s town, (eighteen miles
north of Dennis’s station,) by the first of the Sixth month, where they
had also obtained a large number of hogs and some cows, and he doubted
not, the Indians would soon see that it was easier to raise food, than
to procure it by hunting.' He also added, ‘that Friends may see from
the great progress they have made in civilization since Philip Dennis
was with them, that they only want good and suitable men to reside
among them, and teach them how to work.’

In the fall of the year 1805, the agent at Fort Wayne informed the
committee by letter, that agreeably to their directions, he had
employed a man to assist the Indians in cultivating the field on the
Wabash, which was cleared and cultivated by Philip Dennis, the last
year. The Indians with this man’s assistance, had raised, it was
supposed, at least six hundred bushels of good corn from this one
field, exclusive of what they had raised from ground of their own
clearing.

“Many of the oldest of the Eel River and Weas Indians had removed and
settled at that place, where they would be followed by the younger
branches of their tribes in the ensuing spring.”

He further adds, “Believing as I do that the society of Friends are
desirous of ameliorating the situation of their red brethren in the
country, I will take the liberty to observe, that the present is a
favourable time to put in execution their benevolent views towards
the distressed natives of the land; and that much good may be done on
the Wabash by sending one or two suitable men to reside amongst the
Indians, and teach them how to raise stock, and cultivate the earth.
Witness what Philip Dennis effected amongst them the last year, at
a station where he had every thing to begin. There are now at least
four hundred hogs, and twenty cows, and the Indians at no village
in this country live so comfortably as those at that place. If this
spirit of industry is kept alive for a few years, it will certainly
have a powerful influence upon the minds of the Indians in many of the
neighbouring villages.”

An account published by the committee of Baltimore Yearly Meeting,
about this period, has enabled me to furnish so many interesting
particulars of their proceedings, that I have already exceeded the
bounds I had prescribed to myself, in this narrative. I shall,
therefore, only add, that the Yearly Meeting of Baltimore continued
for many years to extend aid and instruction, to the Indians in that
quarter, by personal visits, and by teachers frequently stationed among
them; and continued to have satisfactory proofs of the benefits derived
to this people, from their benevolent labours. Their progress, however,
in this laudable work was interrupted by the war of 1812, which much
agitated, not only those tribes of Indians, but the white people
generally, bordering on the Indian territory--this continued while the
war lasted. And many of the white inhabitants, it was said, went into
block houses, the better to secure themselves.

It may, however, be noted, that Friends on the frontiers, generally
remained in their habitations, at least with a few exceptions, and
the Indians seemed to repose an unlimited confidence in them, and
frequently visited them. The author having visited a settlement of
the Indians, (called Lewis’ settlement) in the year 1816, had some
opportunity of judging of the high estimation in which the Indians held
the society of Friends, on the frontiers of that country. He also had
an account from one of the Friends who first settled in those parts
(near Mad river,) about the year 1800. He said the Indians manifested
much kindness to them, when the country was all a wilderness, by
frequently visiting them, and administering to their wants, while they
were first opening a settlement and preparing something to subsist upon.

I may also here relate another evidence of the Indians’ kindness and
hospitality to the whites. A surveyor who lived in Chilicothe informed
me, when at his house in 1816, that being employed by government the
summer previous, to survey some land in the Michigan territory, he
and his company composed of seven or eight persons, running scant of
provisions, were put to their allowance of a spoonful of meal a day,
for each person, on which, with some little meat they procured from
the forest, they had subsisted for twenty-three days together. But
setting out at length towards the settlements in search of provisions,
they met with an Indian going on a journey very smartly. They made him
understand they were very hungry and had nothing to eat. He looked on
them with compassion--pointed towards his cabin, and making signs to
them to follow him, struck off in a direction towards it. They pursued
his track, often having to stop him, to wait for them, and after about
eight miles travelling, arrived at his solitary abode, where he kindly
treated them to all the provision at his command, which, though coarse,
was to them a delicious dainty.

But to return from this digression, it may be proper to state, that
about the year 1813, a Yearly Meeting of Friends was established in the
state of Ohio, and being composed of part of the members previously
constituting the Yearly Meeting of Baltimore, they also become, as a
body, enlisted in the same concern, to improve the condition of the
Indian natives; and appointed a committee to carry their views into
execution. Friends of this Yearly Meeting living more contiguous to
the Indian settlements, unitedly agreed with the Yearly Meeting of
Baltimore, to make it a joint concern, as it regarded the requisite
pecuniary aid for promoting the object in view. Friends in Ohio,
however, became more actively engaged in personal visits, and sending
instructors among the Indians.

When peace took place, and the minds of the Indians became
somewhat settled, the settlement which had previously been made at
Waughpaughkannatta was again resumed, and another promoted at captain
Lewis’, and considerable advancement made by the Indians in some of the
arts of civilized life.

About the years 1817 and 1818, considerable sales of their lands were
made to the United States--and in the north-western parts of the
state of Ohio, which much unsettled the minds of the Indians, and in
consequence thereof, many of them removed further to the westward.

In the rapid settlement of the states of Ohio and Indiana, and the
emigration of Friends further to the westward, it became necessary to
establish a Yearly Meeting in Indiana, which event took place about
the year 1820 or 1821. This Yearly Meeting, also as a body, feeling
the same deep interest, in the welfare of the aboriginal inhabitants,
appointed a committee to unite with Ohio Yearly Meeting in promoting
their civilization and improvement.

Having but scanty means within my reach, of ascertaining the progress
made by those Yearly Meetings of latter years, I can only state, that
the concern still continues to engage their attention, and from a
report to the Yearly Meeting of Indiana, in 1826, it appears, that
the committee had continued their attention to the object of their
appointment. “Soon after our last Yearly Meeting,” say they, “the
school for the education of the Indian children was resumed, and
continued about two months, to the satisfaction both of the Indians
and the committee. The children conducted themselves orderly, and
made reasonable progress in learning. But towards the latter part of
winter the Indians became unsettled in their minds, and it was found
impracticable to continue the school to advantage. It was, therefore,
dismissed, and soon after Isaac Harvey and wife, in consequence of his
indisposition, returned to their former residence. They took with them
an Indian lad who remained about three months, during which time he was
at school.

“About two hundred of the Indians who resided on the Waughpaughkonnatta
reserve, have removed, and are now on their way to join those of their
nation settled west of the Mississippi; and it is yet uncertain,
whether those that remain will shortly be in a situation to receive
instruction. However that may be, we feel satisfied that the labour
heretofore bestowed on them will not all be lost. They have obtained
a sufficient knowledge of agriculture, to enable them to supply their
more pressing wants, and many of them have acquired habits of industry,
which we believe they will retain. And should they all eventually
remove to join their nation in the west, we apprehend the advantages
they are deriving from the change in their manner of life, will be
sufficient to prevent them from returning to their former habits.”

It appears also, that soon after the Yearly Meeting held in Indiana, in
the year 1827, “a deputation from the committee in company with a like
deputation of the committee of Ohio Yearly Meeting, visited Friends’
establishment, near Waughpaughkonnatta, who found the farm in good
order, and the school progressing to satisfaction.”

The minutes of the last Indiana Yearly Meeting of the society of
Friends, held at Miami, also show, that they continue a committee, to
act in conjunction with the Yearly Meetings of Ohio and Baltimore, and
to proceed in the further prosecution of this concern as way may open.

Thus the society of Friends constituting the Yearly Meetings of
Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore, have, for more than thirty
years, and those of Ohio, and Indiana, since their first establishment,
been engaged in endeavouring to reclaim from savage life, and to
meliorate the condition of various tribes, of the interesting but
much injured aborigines of our country; and they have succeeded in
instructing many of them in agriculture, in school learning, in
many of the most useful mechanic arts, and the raising of domestic
animals, whereby their lives are rendered more comfortable, and their
domestic engagements increased, as well as their moral condition
improved--and, could the Indians have been permitted to remain quiet
in the possession of their land, and to enjoy the fruits of their
labours, without interruption from the whites, there is reason to
believe, that by a continuation and extension of this care towards
them, a radical change in their character would in a short time have
been effected; and instead of migrating by families and tribes, far
to the westward, and traversing the dreary regions of an unknown
wilderness, in quest of a home, and in search of food, they might have
become useful citizens of the community, contributing to the wealth,
the happiness, and national character of the United States. For truly
it must be acknowledged, that there are among these native sons of the
forest, men of deep reflection--men of extraordinary talents--men of
superior powers of mind, and men who, considering the means of their
menial improvement, might rank with the ancient orators of Greece and
Rome. Added to this, there is sufficient evidence, that they believe
in the principle operating within them, a measure of which, or the
grace of God, according to the apostle’s doctrine, is given to every
man to profit withal, whether Jew or Gentile, bond or free. And they
acknowledge in all important transactions, the overruling providence
and superintending care of one all-wise, omnipotent, and omnipresent
Being, who governs the universe; and they believe that they will be
rewarded in a future state, according as their actions have been in
this life, either good or evil. Why then should not the policy of the
government be directed to the protection and preservation of these
people, and not to their extermination from their native soil? Is it
not a doctrine sanctioned by the general consent of Christians, that
all nations are equally free? That one nation has no right to infringe
upon the freedom of another?

Let us then fulfil the golden rule--let us then, my fellow citizens,
exercise that kind of policy towards them, that we would they should
have done to us, if they had landed on our shores with a superiority
of strength. Why should not things be equal on both sides? Or is the
balance of power always to decide the balance of justice, and rob the
weak and defenceless of their lawful rights--shall a nation professing
_christianity_, and having pledged itself in the most solemn manner to
_protect the Indians in all their rights_, be guilty of such injustice?
Or what part of the gospel will they plead in extenuation of such a
crime? In what part of the earth did the apostles or first promulgators
of the gospel assume, to extirpate from their country, or to claim
a right over the freedom and the substance of the Gentiles? What a
strange method this would be, of propagating the gospel of peace. And
can it be expected the natives of America, those keen-eyed observers of
the actions of men, will be brought to embrace the christian religion
by such a policy as this! And, while injustice is practised towards
them instead of the government redressing their wrongs, will they not
be induced to say as an Indian chief once did, to a missionary, on a
certain occasion, “We find the christians much more depraved in their
morals than we are, and we judge of _their doctrine_ by the badness of
their lives.”

    _Since the foregoing was prepared for the press, the following,
    taken from a Pittsburg Gazette, has been forwarded by a friend,
    and as it gives some recent account of the noted and ancient
    chief, Cornplanter, as well as other of the Seneca Indians, it
    may prove an interesting addition to this work._

It appears a trip was performed up the Alleghany river in the Fifth
month last, as high as Olean, in the state of New York, by a new
steamboat, and as it was the first that had ever ascended that river,
as far as the Indian towns, it excited some astonishment. The account
states, that “On the thirteenth of May, at nine o’clock, she arrived
opposite the village of Cornplanter. Here a deputation waited on
that ancient and well known Indian king or chief, and invited him on
board this new, and to him wonderful visiter, a steamboat. We found
him in all his native simplicity of dress and manner of living, lying
on his couch, made of rough pine boards, and covered with deer skins
and blankets. His habitation, a two story log house, is in a state
of decay, without furniture, except a few benches, and wooden bowls
and spoons to eat out of. This convinced us of his determination to
retain old habits and customs. This venerable old chief was a lad in
the first French war, in 1744, and is now nearly one hundred years of
age. He is a smart active man, seemingly possessed of all his strength
of mind, and in perfect health, and retains among his nation all that
uncontrolled influence he has ever done.

“He, with his son Charles, sixty years of age, and his son-in-law, came
on board, and remained until she had passed six miles up, and then they
returned home in their own canoe, after expressing great pleasure.
His domain is a delightful bottom of rich land, two miles[3] square,
nearly adjoining the line between Pennsylvania and New York. On this,
his own family, about fifty in number, in eight or ten houses reside.
Cornplanter’s wife, and her mother, one hundred and fifteen years of
age, are in good health.

The lands of this tribe being forty miles long and half a mile wide
on each side of the river, lie just above, but all in the state of
New York. They have a number of villages, and are about seven hundred
in number, scattered all along this reserve. Many of them have good
dwellings, and, like the whites, some are intelligent, industrious, and
useful--while others are the reverse. On the whole they are becoming
civilized and christianized, as fast as can be expected. The natives
appeared in great numbers, (we counted four hundred) who were attracted
to view this unexpected sight on their waters. Their lands terminate
eight miles below Olean.”

       *       *       *       *       *


_A vocabulary of some of the most familiar words and phrases in the
Seneca language, and the English, in alphabetical order._

  All                                Cock _way_ go
  All gone                           Ono, cock _way_ go
  Any where, any thing, &c.          Te caw a _noo_ we
  A quiet mind                       _Ska_ no _sa_ na to nee
  Axe                                At _too_ ga
  Boy or child                       Uc _shaw_
  Brother                            _Ho_gh _gee_
  Blood                              Ot _quoon_ sah
  Board                              Con _nish_ ta
  Bear                               _U qui_
  Black                              _Gis_ taa
  Beaver                             Te _con_ ne a ga
  Big lake                           Con nu _di_ go _wan_ nee
  Birds                              Ge _daa_
  Bread                              _Wagh_ qua
  Beans                              Ci _daw_
  Beyond                             _Shee qua_
  Both                               De _jall_
  Book                               Ki _au_ dau shaw
  Blanket                            Ee _yuse_
  Bed                                Con _noch_ ta
  Barrel or tub                      Con _noch_ qua
  Blacksmith                         Cow _wish_ to nee
  Bad                                _Toos_ coss
  Cold                               Hit _too_ a
  Cow                                Tus _quan_
  Cat                                Dac _coos_
  Child                              Uc _shaw_
  Cousin                             _Kaa_ say
  Chief                              Shin e _wan_ nee
  Cannon                             Ca _u_ da _go_ aw
  Coat                               Ja dau _wis_ a
  Chest                              _Count_ sah
  Cup                                Cow _wish_ ta
  Candle                             Ogish to _taugh_ qua
  Canoe                              _Cau_ waugh
  Chocolate                          Nig a _di_ u
  Crane                              Jo _a_ sah
  Deer                               Nea _yu_ ka
  Duck                               Se _wack_
  Dead                               A _way_ yu
  Devil                              Nishe _o_ nee
  Dog                                _Gee ah_
  Dish                               _Cud gee_
  Day                                U_daugh_
  Drink                              _Nig_ ge ah
  Dark                               U _dagh_ sin _di_ go
  Do you want it                     _Ees_ no wees
  Earth                              U en _jau_ dy
  Elk                                Je _naun_ de
  Eel                                Con _taa_ na
  Eat                                _Sutte_ coo nee
  Eye                                _Ka haa_
  Ear                                _Woun_ tah
  Evening, or sun down               _Ono_ gagh qua
  Father                             _Hau_ nee
  Field                              K ion _to_
  Farmer                             E _yeant_ has
  Fox                                O nung _quat_ qua
  Fish                               Kin _jugh_
  Fire                               O _gish_ ta
  Flour or meal                      Tee _sah_
  Fruit                              O _yah_
  Flea                               Te _was_ en _tas_
  Fine day                           O _we see_ ah
  Fire-fly                           Gish te _noch_ qua
  God, or Great Spirit               How _wau_ ne au
  Grandmother                        Uc _sute_
  Good                               Scoss
  Grist-mill                         Cau _thish_ e _o_ ne
  Gnat                               O gaw _whont_
  Gun                                Ca _u_ da
  Greedy                             _Dus_ ki hau sy
  Gift                               _Ska_ no
  House                              Con ne _sute_
  Horse                              Con _don_ nah que
  Hungry                             A _dus_ swa dau nee
  High                               _Eait_ kah
  Here in this place                 _Nich_ hooh
  Him or her                         Au _whau_
  Hear                               Gut _hoon_ dy
  Happy                              _Ska_ no _so_ ne _to_ nee
  Hat or cap                         Kah _e quay_
  Hand                               Kas _chuch_ tah
  Half                               Sut te _wau so_ nee
  How many                           _Ton_ ne yu
  How many miles                     _Ton_ ne _yute_ cot ho
  Hawk                               _Swin_ go _dau_ ge au
  Have you any, &c.                  _Goih_ yah
  Indians                            A _gue_ o we
  Indian corn                        O ne _ah_
  If                                 Cow a _nee_
  I myself                           Ee
  I don’t know                       Te _quaw_
  I think                            E _we_
  Island                             _Cow_ we _naut_
  Iron                               Con ne _u sah_
  Ice                                O _we_ sa
  I don’t understand                 Te _gunk_ hau
  I want it                          _Ic_ no wees
  I am going now                     _Ono_ se _gogh_ tan dee
  Iron pot                           Te _quosh_ e naute
  King                               _Co_ wa _co_ a
  Kettle                             Can _naun_ jau
  Knife                              Ka _gun_ ne au sau
  Land                               _U_ aun _ja_
  Louse                              _Gee_ no _e_
  Lonesome                           A _goon_ date
  Lake, or sea                       Con nu _di_
  Lie                                Sun noo _aunt_
  Large                              Go _wau_ nee
  Long ago                           O _nuch_ chee
  Little, or small                   Nee _wau_, or _wis_ too
  Little while ago                   _Wau_ gee
  Linen                              Con ne _ga_ un sah
  Like this                          _Sau_ gat
  Log                                Can _hagh_ tau
  Man or male                        Can _gee_ nah
  Mother                             _No_ yegh
  Many                               Con _nong_ gee
  Much                               We _sue_
  Meat                               Au _wagh_
  Mosquito                           Ge ne _au_ da sa
  Mush                               _Gis_ qua
  Mountain                           Non on _dau_ dee
  Mile                               _Yute_ cot hoo
  Money                              O _wish_ ta
  Merry, or pleased                  _Oon dut_ ca dee
  Milk                               _Nung_ qua
  Moon                               Gagh qua
  Mouth                              Kish e _gaen_
  Morning                            Se _tugh_ ge au
  Make it                            _Shish_ she _o_ ne
  New town                           Can na da _say_
  Noon                               Gick ne _gah_ quaw
  No                                 Tah
  Now                                Nay _wau_
  Not many                           _Tanty_ co _nong_ gee
  Not much                           _Tanty_ we _sue_
  Not                                Tanty
  Nose                               Ka kan _dah_
  Nonsense, trifling, &c.            _Gish_ nit
  One month                          _Swa_ no dock
  Owl                                _E he_
  Old                                Caw _cuch_ gee
  Over the river                     Ska _hoon_ dee
  On this side                       Caw _oo_
  Philadelphia                       Ca ne _di_ an go au
  Pittsburg                          Taun _too_ ga
  Pig                                _Quees_ quees
  Provisions                         A _den_ a sah
  Potatoes                           _Non_ nun dau
  Plenty                             Con _nong_ gee
  Pipe                               Se _guah_ ta
  Pretty                             We _u_
  Pheasant                           _Chuc_ que _a_ ne
  Pigeons                            _Jah_ go au
  Presently                          A ge _quash_
  People                             _Ung_ que
  Rain                               Us _taun_ dee
  River                              Ka _hone_ dee
  Racoon                             Jo _ah_ qua
  Rattlesnake                        So _quant_
  Right, or proper                   Ty wi _ye_ a
  Raining, or stormy                 Onish wy _ate_ kah
  Sea, or ocean                      _Ska_ ne la te _co_ ne
  Shoes, or sandals                  At _tagh_ qua
  Sun                                _Gagh_ qua
  Squashes, &c.                      O _nuch_ sha
  Sheep                              _Te_ de ne _gen_ do
  Stone                              Cos _quagh_
  Spinning wheel                     See in _yeah_ ta
  Saw mill                           Con _nish_ te o nee
  Sick                               _Nonk_ ta nee
  Strong                             Cau _haus_ tee
  Star                               O _gish_ un da
  Sit down                           Sut _tee_
  Snow                               Cun ne _i_
  Snow falling                       U _gaun_ dee
  Spoon                              At te _quot_ sa
  See, or look                       _Sut_ cot _hoo_
  Silver                             O _wish_ ta _no_ e a
  Shut the door                      Se ho _tong_ goo
  Snipe                              Te _ith_ to we
  Shoemaker                          At _taugh_ qua _nee_
  Susquehanna                        _Cau_ wa ne _wy_ ne _i_ ne
  Turkey                             Os soo _aunt_
  Thief                              _Nus qus_
  Turnips                            _Uc_ te au
  Town                               _Con_ na da _go_
  Tobacco                            _Yaun_ gwa
  Turtle                             Cun ne _wau_
  This                               _Nick_ hoo
  Thou                               Eece
  Tooth, or teeth                    Ca _noo_ jah
  Tell it                            _Sat_ hu e
  Talk                               _Gish_ nee
  True, or truth                     _To gas_
  To-morrow                          U _haut_
  Uncle                              _Auh_ no ze
  Ugly                               _Wy ate_ u
  Verily, or very true               _To_ gas _neh_ hue
  Very large                         _Agos_ go _wan_ nee
  Very far                           _Way_ uh
  Winter                             Ka _unch_ neh
  Water                              _Nick_ a _noos_
  Woods                              Ca ha _da_ go
  Wheat                              O _naun_ jah
  Weeds                              We _aah_ ta
  Wolf                               Ty _o_ nee
  Wild geese                         Hung _gawk_
  Watch                              Gah que _shawk_ ta
  White people                       Hit _teen_ yah
  Warm                               _Di_ u
  Warm day                           Con _naa_ no
  Woman                              _Yee_ uh
  Wife                               _Yeak_ nee
  Wind                               _Ga haa_
  Work                               Sutte ye _dott_
  Want. I want it, &c.               _Ick_ no _eece_
  Where                              _Cong_ gwa
  Yonder                             _Ho_ quaw
  You                                _Eece_ de jal
  Yes                                Naye
  You want it                        _Eece_ no wees
  Year                               _Tush shate_
  Yesterday                          _Tay_ day


_Names of some of the Indians, and their signification._

  Ki on _twa_ ky                     Cornplanter
  Te _ki_ on da                      A wager, or money staked
  Con ne _di_ u                      Hansom lake
  Neh ta _go_ a                      A large pine tree
  _Waun_ dung _guh_ ta               Passed by
  Sa go e _wah_ ta                   Keeper arise
  O _gish_ quat ta                   Dried mush
  _Tak_ e wau sah                    Go to war
  _Twa_ de ac                        Broken gun
  _Yeang_ gwa haunt                  Chew tobacco
  _Ki_ an _gwah_ ta                  Smoke


_Numerical terms, &c._

  One                                Scote
  Two                                _Tick_ nee
  Three                              Shaugh
  Four                               Keah
  Five                               Wush
  Six                                Yeah
  Seven                              Chaw tawk
  Eight                              Tick _yugh_
  Nine                               Tugh tah
  Ten                                _Wush_ hau
  Twenty                             Te _was_ hau
  Thirty                             Sha ne _was_ hau
  Forty                              Kea ne _was_ hau
  Fifty                              _Wush_ ne was hau
  Sixty                              Yea ne _was_ hau
  Seventy                            Chaw tawk ne _was_ hau
  Eighty                             Tick yaugh ne _was_ hau
  Ninety                             Tugh ta ne _was_ hau
  One hundred, that is,              Wush haw ne _was_ haw, or scote
      ten times ten                      de _wy_ ne _i_
  Two hundred                        Te non de _wy_ ne _i_
  Three hundred                      Sha non de _wy_ ne _i_
  Four hundred                       Keah non de _wy_ ne _i_, &c. &c.
  One dollar                         _Scow_ wish taut
  Two dollars                        Te gaw _wish_ tau gay
  Three dollars                      Sha ne gaw _wish_ tau gay
  Four dollars                       Kea ne gaw _wish_ tau gay, &c.
  One penny                          Quin nish
  One shilling                       _Sco_ ti on _shate_
  Two shillings                      Te _gash_ e on se gay
  Three shillings                    Sha ne _gash_ e on se gay
  One yard                           Tu we _naut_
  Two yards                          _Tic_ ne ju we _non_ gay
  Three yards                        _Sha_ ne ju we _non_ gay
  One pound                          Cau _goon_ sate
  Two pounds                         Tich ne cou _goon_ se ga
  Three pounds                       Sha ne cou _goon_ se ga
  One quart                          Cus _saa_ dee
  Two quarts                         Tick ne cus _say_ dee
  Three quarts                       Shane cus _say_ dee
  One day                            Onish _shate_
  Two days                           Te ne wa _nish_ a gay
  Three days                         Sha ne wa _nish_ a gay
  One month                          _Swa_ ne dock
  Two months                         Te _wa_ ne da gay
  Three months                       Sha ne wau ne da gay
  One year                           Tush _shate_
  Two years                          Te _ush_ a gay
  Three years                        Sha ne _ush_ a gay, &c.


    _The author not having an opportunity of examining the proof
    sheets, some typographical errors have occurred, especially in
    the Indian words--the following errata will be observed by the
    reader._

Page 5, line 20 from top, before motives, insert the words _natives
the_.

Page 8, line 18 from bottom, for retaining read _retained_.

Page 9, line 18 from top, read the following _speech_ from.

Page 29, line 14 from top, read Je _nuch_ sha _da_ go.

Page 40, line 13 from top, for Memsies read _Munsies_.

Page 42, line 6 from top, for Connedin read Co ne _di_ u; and so
through the book.

Same page, line 4 from bottom, for government read _governor_.

Page 47, line 7 from bottom, for Junesassa read _Tunesassa_; and so
through the book.

Page 54, line 20 from bottom, for nation read _natives_.

Page 80, line 19 from bottom, read the chief warrior’s _son_.

Page 110, line 16 from top, for nations read _natives_.

Same page, line 3 from bottom, for in, read _to_ the United States.

Page 111, line 20 from top, for Harkey read _Harvey_.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] Alluding to an ineffectual attempt made during the war in 1793,
when six Friends, as before stated, attended with the commissioners of
the United States.

[2] A British agent for Indian affairs resident in Canada.

[3] I apprehend there is some mistake in the account given, of the
quantity of land possessed by Cornplanter. By the act of assembly, it
appears six hundred acres was the quantity located at that place.--ED.


Transcriber’s Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.





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