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Title: Historical Record of The 46th or South Devonshire Regiment of Foot
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE FORTY-SIXTH,

  OR

  THE SOUTH DEVONSHIRE,

  REGIMENT OF FOOT:

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN 1741
  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1851.


  COMPILED BY
  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.,
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.

  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.

  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30, CHARING CROSS.

  M DCCC LI.


  LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET,
  FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836._

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of
doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals
who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the
British Army shall be published under the superintendence and
direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall
contain the following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of
  Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the
  Enemy, specifying the place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers,
  and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honorable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in
future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and
abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little
or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of
individual bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us,--will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted
and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and, owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers: half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers,
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with
hand grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets, similar to those
at present in use, were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the Seven
Years' War. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates, in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to insure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world, have in a great
measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons
who have the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
      20     20     20     30     2|0     30     20      20     20
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.        Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] _Vide_ the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves: and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  THE FORTY-SIXTH,

  OR

  THE SOUTH DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON THE REGIMENTAL COLOUR AND APPOINTMENTS

  THE WORD "DOMINICA,"

  AS A DISTINGUISHING MARK

  OF THE GOOD CONDUCT AND EXEMPLARY VALOUR

  DISPLAYED BY THE REGIMENT

  IN THE DEFENCE OF

  THE ISLAND OF DOMINICA,

  AGAINST A VERY SUPERIOR FRENCH FORCE,

  ON THE 22nd OF FEBRUARY, 1805.



THE

FORTY-SIXTH,

OR,

THE SOUTH DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT,

ORIGINALLY

THE FIFTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT.


CONTENTS

OF THE

HISTORICAL RECORD.

  Year                                                         Page

  1739  Introduction                                              1

  ----  War declared against Spain                                -

  1741  Formation of the regiment                                 -

  ----  Colonel John Price appointed to the colonelcy.            -

  ----  Numbered the 57th regiment                                -

  1742  Stationed at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, proceeded to
          Berwick, and thence to Scotland                         3

  1743  Appointment of Colonel Hon. Thomas Murray
          to the colonelcy in succession to Colonel
          Price, removed to the 14th foot                         -

  1744  War declared between Great Britain and France             -

  1745  Battle of Fontenoy                                        -

  ----  Prince Charles Edward, the eldest son of the
          Pretender, landed in the Highlands of Scotland          4

  1745  The King's forces, under Lieut.-General Sir
          John Cope, assembled at Stirling, and advanced
          to Inverness                                            4

  ----  The rebel forces, under Prince Charles, proceeded
          to Perth and Dundee, and thence to Edinburgh,
          which surrendered to him                                5

  ----  The Prince, James Francis Edward, proclaimed
          at the High Cross, Edinburgh, as King of
          Great Britain and Ireland                               -

  ----  The Royal forces marched from Inverness to
          Aberdeen, embarked for Dunbar, advanced
          towards Edinburgh, and encamped near
          _Preston-Pans_                                          -

  ----  Regiments which composed the Royal Army                   6

  ----  Defeat of the Royal forces by the Highland
          Insurgents                                              -

  ----  Loss sustained by the Royal forces, including the
          57th regiment, in killed, wounded, and prisoners        7

  ----  The Duke of Cumberland returned from the
          continent, and assumed the command of the
          Royal army                                              -

  ----  The Prince Charles captured Carlisle, and proceeded
          as far as Derby, from whence he afterwards
          retreated to Scotland                                   -

  ----  The Duke of Cumberland, after capturing the
          rebel garrison of Carlisle, returned to
          London, leaving the command of the army to
          Lieut.-General Hawley                                   -

  1746  The Prince Charles invested Stirling, and
          Lieut.-General Hawley marched to its relief             -

  ----  Action at Falkirk                                         -

  ----  The Duke of Cumberland resumed the command
          of the army, and entered Stirling                       -

  1746  The Duke of Cumberland obtained a complete
          victory over the Rebel forces at _Culloden_, four
          miles from Inverness                                    8

  ----  The 57th regiment marched from Berwick towards
          London                                                  -

  ----  Strength of the Royal army at the battle of
          Culloden                                                -

  1747  The rebellion suppressed, and the Prince Charles
          escaped to France                                       9

  ----  The 57th regiment embarked for Jersey                     -

  ----  Several regiments, which had been brought from
          the continent to aid in suppressing the rebellion,
          returned to Flanders                                    -

  ----  The Duke of Cumberland returned to Flanders
          and engaged the French at Laffeld, or Val               -

  1748  The Allies took the field in the summer, but
          hostilities were terminated by the treaty of
          Aix-la-Chapelle, in October                             -

  ----  Disbandment of the 43rd regiment, and of ten
          marine regiments, from the 44th to the 53rd
          regiment                                               10

  ----  The numerical title of the 57th regiment changed
          to the FORTY-SIXTH regiment                            --

  1749  The FORTY-SIXTH regiment proceeded to Ireland            --

  1751  Royal Warrant of 1st July issued for regulating
          the clothing, standards, and colours, and the
          numerical titles and rank of regiments                 --

  1756  Capture of the Island of Minorca by the French           11

  ----  War declared against France                              --

  1757  The FORTY-SIXTH regiment embarked from Cork
          for Nova Scotia                                        --

  1758  Expedition under Major-General James Abercromby
          against Ticonderoga                                    --

  ----  Brigadier-General the Viscount Howe (55th Regiment)
          killed at Ticonderoga                                  --

  1758  Attack on Fort Ticonderoga abandoned                     12

  ----  Loss of officers sustained by the FORTY-SIXTH
          regiment                                               --

  1759  Plan of the campaign in Canada                           13

  ----  Brigadier-General Prideaux (55th regiment)
          killed at Fort Niagara                                 --

  ----  Capture of Fort Niagara                                  15

  ----  Operations of the troops under Lieut.-General
          Amherst and Major-General Wolfe                        --

  ----  Siege of Ticonderoga                                     --

  ----  Occupation of Crown Point                                --

  ----  Battle on the Heights of Abraham; death of
          Major-Gen. Wolfe; and capture of Quebec                --

  1760  The French attempted to regain Quebec, and the
          battle of Sillery was fought                           16

  ----  Surrender of Fort Levi on L'Isle Royale                  --

  ----  Attack and surrender of the garrison of Montreal         17

  ----  The conquest of Canada completed                         --

  1761  The regiment embarked for Barbadoes                      --

  1762  Proceeded with an armament against the Island
          of Martinique, which surrendered to the
          British Crown                                          --

  ----  The surrender of Grenada, St. Lucia, and St.
          Vincent                                                18

  ----  War declared against Spain                               --

  ----  The regiment joined the armament against the
          Havannah                                               --

  ----  Capture of the Moro Fort, and town of Havannah           19

  ----  Negotiations for peace signed at Fontainebleau           --

  1763  The Treaty of Fontainebleau concluded at Paris,
          and peace proclaimed in London                         --

  ----  Conditions of the treaty of peace between Great
          Britain, France, and Spain                             --

  ----  The regiment returned to North America                   --

  1764  Colonel Hon. William Howe appointed to the
          colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General
          Hon. Thomas Murray, deceased                           20

  1767  Regiment returned from North America and
          stationed in Ireland                                   --

  ----  Disputes arose between the colonists of North
          America and the British Government                     --

  1775  Hostilities commenced with the colonists in North
          America by the action at Lexington                     --

  ----  Appointment of Colonel Hon. John Vaughan to
          the colonelcy in succession to Major-General
          Hon. William Howe                                      --

  ----  The battle of Bunker's Hill                              --

  1776  The regiment embarked from Ireland for North
          America                                                21

  ----  Joined the expedition against Charleston                 --

  ----  Proceeded to Staten Island                               --

  ----  The declaration of Independence by the American
          Congress                                               --

  ----  The regiment landed on Long Island                       --

  ----  Action at Brooklyn                                       22

  ----  The reduction of Long Island accomplished                --

  ----  The capture of New York took place                       --

  ----  Action at White Plains                                   --

  ----  The reduction of Fort Washington                         --

  ----  The regiment occupied winter-quarters at Amboy           --

  1777  Proceeded with a body of troops from New
          York, and destroyed magazines, barracks, &c.,
          at Peek's Hill, and returned to New York               23

  ----  Joined an expedition against the city of Philadelphia    --

  ----  Battle at Brandywine                                     --

  ----  The American troops, under General Wayne
          surprised by the British, under Major-Gen.
          Grey                                                   24

  1777  The FORTY-SIXTH regiment gained the distinction
          of wearing _Red Feathers_ for its conduct in
          this action                                            24

  ----  The British army took possession of Philadelphia,
          and occupied a position at Germantown                  25

  ----  Action at Germantown                                     --

  1778  General Hon. Sir William Howe returned to
          England, and General Sir Henry Clinton assumed
          the command of the army                                --

  ----  Action at Monmouth Court-House                           --

  ----  The British army marched from Philadelphia to
          New York, the King of France having engaged
          to aid the Americans                                   --

  ----  A powerful French armament arrived off the
          Port of New York and proceeded against
          Rhode Island                                           --

  ----  Expedition against Bedford, on the Accushnet
          river, and against Martha's Vineyard                   26

  ----  Returned to New York                                     --

  ----  Proceeded with other regiments to the West Indies        --

  ----  Attack upon the island of St. Lucia                      27

  ----  Repelled several attacks made by the French              --

  ----  The flank companies of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment
          distinguished themselves at La Vigie,
          and received the thanks of Major-General
          James Grant commanding the troops                      28

  ----  Surrender of the Island of St. Lucia to the
          British troops                                         --

  1779  The courts of Spain and Holland joined in hostilities
          against Great Britain                                  --

  1782  The regiment returned to England                         29

  ----  County titles conferred upon the regiments of
          Infantry, and the FORTY-SIXTH directed to
          assume the designation of _South Devonshire_
          regiment                                               --

  1782  Treaty of peace signed at Paris between Great
          Britain and the United States of America               29

  1783  Treaties of peace between England, France,
          Spain, and Holland                                     --

  1784  The regiment proceeded from Plymouth to
          Ireland                                                30

  1792  Embarked for Gibraltar                                   --

  1794  Proceeded from Gibraltar to the West Indies              --

  1795  Engaged in suppressing the insurrection of the
          Caribs in the Island of St. Vincent                    --

  ----  Actions at Dorsetshire Hill                              32

  ----  Loss sustained by the regiment                           --

  ----  Assault and capture of the post of the Caribs on
          the Vigie                                              33

  ----  Major-General James Henry Craig appointed to
          the colonelcy of the regiment in succession to
          Lieut.-General Hon. Sir John Vaughan, K.B.
          deceased                                               --

  ----  Reinforcements arrived from England in order
          to assist in the suppression of the Caribs             --

  1796  Further reinforcements arrived under Lieut.-General
          Sir Ralph Abercromby, K.B.                             --

  ----  After a conflict of some hours the Caribs surrendered
          prisoners of war                                       34

  ----  Several hundreds of Caribs escaped to the woods,
          but were afterwards forced to submit, and
          were removed from St. Vincent                          --

  ----  The FORTY-SIXTH regiment having sustained
          considerable loss by their numerous engagements
          with the Caribs, returned to England                   --

  1799  The regiment embarked for Ireland                        --

  1802  Treaty of peace with France concluded at Amiens          --

  1803  War renewed with France                                  --

  1804  Appointment of Lieut.-General John White
          to the colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General
          Sir James Henry Craig                                  35

  1804  Embarked from Cork for the West Indies, and
          proceeded to Dominica                                  35

  1805  Defence of Dominica against an attack of a numerous
          French force                                           --

  ----  Official Reports from Lieut.-General Sir William
          Myers, and Brigadier-General George Prevost
          of the conduct of the troops engaged in the
          defence of Dominica                                    --

  ----  The Royal authority granted for the FORTY-SIXTH
          regiment to bear the word "_Dominica_"
          on the regimental colour and appointments.             44

  1806  Detachments embarked for the capture of two
          French vessels                                         45

  ----  The officers and men received the thanks of the
          Commander of the Forces in the West Indies,
          and of the Major-General commanding in the
          Island of Dominica                                     --

  1809  Capture of the French island of Martinique               46

  1810  Capture of the French island of Guadaloupe               --

  1811  The regiment returned to England and marched
          into Devonshire                                        47

  1812  The regiment proceeded from Plymouth to Jersey           48

  1813  Embarked from Jersey for Portsmouth, and proceeded
          to the Isle of Wight                                   --

  ----  Embarked for New South Wales                             49

  1814  Arrived at New South Wales, and inspected by
          Major-General Macquarie                                --

  1815  Certain non-commissioned officers and privates
          received pecuniary rewards for having suppressed
          gangs of bushrangers                                   50

  1816  Appointment of Lieut.-General Henry Wynyard
          to the colonelcy in succession to General
          Whyte, deceased                                        --

  ----  Detachments employed against the hostile black
          natives, and received an expression of thanks
          for their conduct on this duty                         51

  1817  Embarked at Sydney Cove for Madras                       52

  1818  Arrived at Vellore, and proceeded thence to
          Fort St. George                                        --

  ----  Received the approbation of the Commanding
          Officer of the Troops at Vellore for its interior
          arrangement and discipline                             --

  1820  Marched to Bellary, and thence to the Mahratta
          country                                                53

  1824  Engaged in suppressing an insurrection at the
          Fort of Kittoor                                        --

  ----  Inspected by Major-General Hall commanding
          at Bellary, and received his approbation for
          its very efficient state                               54

  1825  Proceeded to Cannanore                                   55

  1826  Marched from Cannanore to Secunderabad                   56

  1829  Reduction of the Establishment                           --

  1832  Proceeded to Masulipatam, and received orders
          to prepare for embarkation for England                 57

  1833  Received the approbation of its conduct during
          the period of its service in India, from the
          Right Hon. the Governor in Council                     --

  ----  Embarked at Madras, arrived at Margate, and
          marched to Canterbury                                  58

  ----  Received official intimation respecting the continuance
          of the use of the _Red ball tuft_ by the
          Light Company for its gallant conduct in the
          surprise of Gen. Wayne in America in 1777              59

  1834  Embarked for Ireland                                     --

  1837  Formed into six service, and four depôt companies;
          the service companies embarked for Gibraltar           60

  1838  Appointment of Lieut.-General Sir John Keane,
          K.C.B., to the colonelcy, in succession to General
          Wynyard, deceased                                      --

  ----  Depôt companies embarked from Ireland for
          Plymouth                                               --

  1839  Appointment of Lieut.-General John Ross to the
          colonelcy, in succession to Lieut.-General Sir
          John Keane                                             60

  ----  Depôt companies embarked at Plymouth for
          Jersey                                                 --

  1841  Depôt companies proceeded to Ireland                     --

  1842  Service companies embarked at Gibraltar for
          Barbadoes                                              --

  1843  Appointment of General the Earl of Stair to
          the colonelcy in succession to Lieut.-General
          Ross, deceased                                         61

  1845  The service companies collected at Barbadoes,
          and embarked for Nova Scotia                           --

  ----  Embarked for Canada                                      --

  1847  Proceeded from Quebec to Nova Scotia                     62

  1848  Embarked for England                                     --

  ----  Arrived at Dover, and joined by the depôt
          companies from Guernsey                                --

  1850  Proceeded from Liverpool to Hull                         --

  1851  The Conclusion                                           63



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE FORTY-SIXTH,

OR

THE SOUTH DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT:

ORIGINALLY NUMBERED

THE FIFTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT.


  Year                                                         Page

  1741  John Price                                               67

  1743  Honorable Thomas Murray                                  68

  1764  William Viscount Howe, K.B.                              --

  1775  Honorable Sir John Vaughan, K.B.                         69

  1795  Sir James Henry Craig, K.B.                              70

  1804  John Whyte                                               71

  1816  Henry Wynyard                                            --

  1838  Sir John (afterwards Lord) Keane, G.C.B. & G.C.H.        73

  1839  John Ross, C.B.                                          75

  1843  John, Earl of Stair, K.T.                                76


PLATES.

  Costume of the Regiment                              _to face_  1

  Colours of the Regiment                                        66


[Illustration: FORTY-SIXTH REGIMENT.

_For Cannons Military Records_

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE FORTY-SIXTH,

OR THE

SOUTH DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT;

ORIGINALLY NUMBERED

THE FIFTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT.


[Sidenote: 1739]

The claim of the Spanish Government to the right of search, and
the aggressions committed by that power on the commerce of Great
Britain, in the West Indies, by the _guarda-costas_, and other
ships acting by authority of the King of Spain, contrary to the
existing treaties, led to a convention between the two Crowns,
which was concluded on the 14th of January, 1739. This convention
stipulated, that compensation should be made by Spain to the
English Government, in reparation for the hostilities committed on
the British subjects in the American seas. The Court of Madrid,
however, violated the convention, and ultimately war was proclaimed
against Spain on the 23rd of October, 1739.

Augmentations were accordingly made in the army and navy; ten
regiments of Marines were raised in this and the following year;
these corps were embarked on board the fleets under Admirals
Vernon and Sir Chaloner Ogle, which proceeded against the Spanish
possessions in South America.

[Sidenote: 1740]

While the war was being carried on between Great Britain and
Spain, Charles the Sixth, Emperor of Germany, died on the 20th of
October, 1740; and the succession of his daughter, the Archduchess
Maria Theresa, to his hereditary dominions, being disputed by
the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, also by the Kings of Prussia
and Spain, a continental war was the result, in which England
and France, acting in the first instance as auxiliaries, finally
became principals in the contest, which has since been known as the
"_War of the Austrian Succession_." The King of France, Louis XV.,
supported the Elector of Bavaria, while King George II., adhering
to the "_Pragmatic Sanction_,"[6] to which nearly all the powers of
Europe had been parties, supported the claims of the Archduchess
Maria Theresa.

[Sidenote: 1741]

In January, 1741, seven additional regiments[7] were raised for
the regular Infantry, and were numbered in succession to the ten
regiments of marines, from the _Fifty-fourth_ to the _Sixtieth_
regiment.

The FIFTY-SEVENTH was one of these seven regiments, and the command
of the corps was conferred by King George II. on Colonel John
Price, from the First Foot Guards, whose commission was dated the
13th of January, 1741. The regiment consisted of ten companies,
of three serjeants, three corporals, two drummers, and seventy
privates each; and its numbers, including officers, amounted to
eight hundred and fifteen.

[Sidenote: 1742]

In March, 1742, the FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment was stationed at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

In May, 1742, several regiments were embarked for Flanders under
Field Marshal the Earl of Stair, to support Maria Theresa, the
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; but the FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment
remained in Great Britain.

The FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment was afterwards stationed at Berwick, and
in October received orders to proceed to North Britain.

[Sidenote: 1743]

On the 23rd of June, 1743, Colonel the Honorable Thomas Murray,
from the Third Foot Guards, was promoted Colonel of the
FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment, in succession to Colonel John Price,
removed to the fourteenth foot.

In the meanwhile King George II. had joined the army at
Aschaffenberg, and on the 27th of June gained a victory over the
French army, under Marshal Noailles at _Dettingen_.

[Sidenote: 1744]

France and Great Britain, from auxiliaries, now became principals
in the contest. On the 20th of March, 1744, France declared
war against England, and on the 29th of that month a counter
declaration was made by Great Britain, in which the French monarch
was accused of violating the "_Pragmatic Sanction_," and of
assisting the son of the Pretender in his designs on the British
throne.

The operations of the British army in Flanders during the year 1744
were confined to the defensive, and no general engagement occurred.

[Sidenote: 1745]

After the battle of _Fontenoy_, fought on the 11th of May, 1745,
Louis XV. revived the claims of the Pretender[8] to the throne of
Great Britain. Prince Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender,
arrived in the Highlands of Scotland towards the end of July, where
he was joined by several clans.

The FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment at this period formed part of the force
in Scotland, and Lieut.-General Sir John Cope, the Commander
in Chief in North Britain, assembled all the troops under his
orders at Stirling, which consisted of about fourteen hundred
men. He afterwards advanced towards the great road called the
Chain, leading through the Highlands to Inverness, and after a
laborious march, arrived at Dalwhinny on the 25th of August.
Here intelligence was received that the rebels were posted at
Corryarrack, seventeen miles distant, upon which Lieut.-General
Sir John Cope continued his march through Badenoch to Inverness,
so that the south of Scotland was left unprotected, and the young
Pretender improved this unexpected advantage, and accordingly
entered the county of Athol, seized the Castle of Blair, proceeded
afterwards to Perth and Dundee, proclaiming his Father by new
magistrates of his own appointment, levying the public money,
and assuming other acts of royalty. The number of the rebels had
increased to four thousand men, and on the 11th of September the
young Chevalier marched from Perth, passed the Forth on the 13th,
and on the 16th of that month, at night, arrived in the vicinity
of Edinburgh. At five o'clock on the following morning the city
was unaccountably surrendered to him without resistance. He then
made his public entry, attired in Highland costume, and occupied
the royal palace of Holyrood House. General Guest, who commanded
the garrison of Edinburgh Castle, removed the bank, and the effects
of the principal inhabitants into that fortress, which greatly
disappointed the young Prince, who expected to gain possession
of the treasure. His Father was afterwards proclaimed with great
ceremony at the High Cross, as King of Great Britain and Ireland.

Lieut.-General Sir John Cope, in the meanwhile, had marched with
his troops from Inverness to Aberdeen, where they took shipping,
and landed at Dunbar, twenty-seven miles east of Edinburgh, on the
18th of September, when he was reinforced by Brigadier-General
Fowke, with two regiments of dragoons, from Edinburgh. The next day
he advanced towards that city to observe the disposition of the
rebels, who were now increased to upwards of five thousand men.

On the 20th of September Lieut.-General Sir John Cope encamped in
the neighbourhood of _Preston-Pans_,[9] near the sea, and seven
miles from Edinburgh. His army consisted of the following
regiments:--

  Gardiner's (13th) and Hamilton's (14th) dragoons   567

  Two companies of Guise's (6th) and eight of
    Lascelles' (47th) foot                           570

  Five companies of Lee's (44th) regiment            291

  Murray's (now 46th) regiment                       580

  Highlanders                                        183
                                                   -----
        Total                                      2,191
                                                   -----

Information being received of the approach of the enemy, Sir John
Cope drew up his army at _Gladsmuir Heath_, between the hamlets of
_Preston-Pans_ and Cockenzie. About three o'clock on the morning
of the 21st of September, large bodies of rebel Highlanders were
in motion, and before daybreak a chosen band of these hardy
mountaineers advanced with great celerity and intrepidity to attack
the royalists. As they drew near, they raised a fearful yell, fired
a volley, threw down their muskets, and rushed sword in hand upon
the troops which guarded the artillery. The sudden advance of the
Highlanders in the dark, their superior numbers, and peculiar mode
of fighting, dismayed the two hundred soldiers appointed to guard
the artillery on the right, who saw themselves assaulted by more
than three times their own numbers, and as they caught the gleam of
steel flashing in their faces, gave way and fled. The two hundred
and fifty dragoons on the right, seeing the artillery lost, became
disheartened; they advanced to charge a large mass of Highlanders,
but observing the disparity of numbers, they were seized with a
panic and galloped from the field.

This inauspicious commencement of the action damped the spirits
of the infantry, and the panic spread from rank to rank; several
companies made resistance, and feats of valour were displayed
by individuals and small parties; all semblance of order was,
however, soon lost, and a confused rout ensued.

About four hundred of the royal forces were killed or wounded, and
the prisoners, who amounted to nearly twelve hundred men, were
removed to Edinburgh, and afterwards to the Highlands.

The FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment had the following officers taken
prisoners: Lieut.-Colonel Clayton, Major Talbot, Captains Reid,
John Cochran, Scot, Thomas Leslie, and Blackes; Lieutenants Thomas
Hay, Cranston, Disney, Wale, Wry, and Simms; Ensigns Sutherland,
Lucey, Holdane, Birnie, and L'Estrange; and Adjutant Spencer.

This successful commencement of the rebellion caused numerous
adherents to flock to the Prince's standard; several regiments were
recalled from the continent in October, and His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland proceeded to take the command of the royal army.
The young Pretender, elated with the capture of Carlisle, marched
as far as Derby, from whence, however, he commenced his retreat to
the north on the 6th of December, as he found but few partisans in
England to join him in his expedition.

The Duke of Cumberland, after capturing the rebel garrison of
Carlisle, returned to London, leaving the command of the army to
Lieut.-General Hawley.

[Sidenote: 1746]

In January 1746, Stirling was closely invested by the young
Chevalier, and Lieut.-General Hawley marched to its relief. An
engagement occurred at _Falkirk_ on the 17th of January, in which
the Prince was again victorious. The Duke of Cumberland now
proceeded to Edinburgh, reassumed the command of the army, and on
the 2nd of February entered Stirling.

Fortune no longer favored the young Chevalier, who fixed his
head-quarters at Inverness. The inclemency of the season having
abated, the Duke of Cumberland, on the 8th of April, advanced
towards the enemy, and gained a complete victory over him on
the 16th of April, near _Culloden House_, four miles east of
Inverness.[10]

By official documents it appears, that on the 22nd of March, 1746,
the FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment was stationed at Berwick, and on the
16th of April following, the date of the Battle of _Culloden_, the
subjoined letter was addressed to the officer commanding the first
division of the regiment, then at Tuxford, in Nottinghamshire,
which indicates that the corps had commenced its march towards
London:--

  "_War Office, 16th April, 1746._

  "SIR,

  "I am commanded to signify to you it is His Majesty's pleasure,
  that you cause the regiment of Foot under your command to
  continue its march in two divisions, with the utmost expedition,
  and without halting.

  "I am, &c.
  (Signed)    "W. YONGE.

  "_Officer Commanding in Chief the first division
  of Colonel Murray's regiment, at Tuxford._"

Prince Charles, after enduring many hardships, succeeded in
escaping to France in September. In the following month the
FIFTY-SEVENTH regiment embarked at Portsmouth for Jersey.

[Sidenote: 1747]

The rebellion being suppressed, several regiments returned to
Flanders, and on the 2nd of July, 1747, the Duke of Cumberland
engaged the French at _Laffeld_, or _Val_, where the Allies
suffered severely from the misconduct of the Dutch troops.

[Sidenote: 1748]

The Allies again took the field in the summer of 1748, but
hostilities were at length terminated by the treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle, which was signed on the 7th of October, 1748.
By it all the great treaties, from that of Westphalia in 1648,
which first recognised the principle of a balance of power in
Europe, to that of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed.
Prussia retained Silesia, and the Empress-Queen Maria Theresa was
guaranteed in the possession of her hereditary dominions, according
to the Pragmatic Sanction. France surrendered her conquests in
Flanders, and England those in the East and West Indies; all
therefore Great Britain gained by the war was the glory of having
supported the German sovereignty of Maria Theresa, and of having
adhered to former treaties.

Several regiments were disbanded in consequence of the
termination of the war. On the disbandment of Colonel Spotswood's
(afterwards Gooche's) American Provincial Corps, then numbered
the _forty-third_ regiment, and of the ten Marine regiments from
the _forty-fourth_ to the _fifty-third_, the numerical titles of
six of the seven regiments raised in 1741, were changed, and the
_fifty-seventh_ became the FORTY-SIXTH regiment.[11]

[Sidenote: 1749]

In the year 1749 the FORTY-SIXTH regiment proceeded to Ireland,
where it remained for eight years.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In the Royal Warrant, dated the 1st of July, 1751, for ensuring
uniformity in the clothing, standards, and colours of the army,
and regulating the number and rank of regiments, the facings of
the FORTY-SIXTH regiment were directed to be yellow. The first,
or King's colour, was the Great Union; the second, or Regimental
colour, was of yellow silk, with the Union in the upper canton; in
the centre of the colour the number of the rank of the regiment, in
gold Roman characters, within a wreath of roses and thistles on the
same stalk.

[Sidenote: 1756]

While the regiment was stationed in Ireland, the peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle was interrupted by the aggressions of the French
on the British territory in North America, and early in 1756 the
King of France prepared a powerful armament for the capture of
the island of Minorca. In consequence of this attack on Minorca,
hostilities became inevitable on the part of Great Britain, and on
the 18th of May war was declared against France.

[Sidenote: 1757]

On the 7th of May 1757, the FORTY-SIXTH, and other regiments,
embarked at Cork, for Nova Scotia, being intended to form part of
an expedition under Major-General the Earl of Loudoun, for the
attack upon Cape Breton, an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. On
arriving at Halifax, the seventeenth, forty-second, FORTY-SIXTH,
and the second battalion of the sixtieth regiments were formed in
brigade under Major-General James Abercromby; but the French at
Louisburg having been reinforced, the expedition was deferred until
the following year, and the regiment remained in Nova Scotia during
the winter.

[Sidenote: 1758]

While the expedition under Lieut.-General (afterwards Lord) Amherst
proceeded in May, 1758, against Cape Breton,[12] the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment was ordered to join the body of troops under Major-General
James Abercromby, selected to attack the fort of _Ticonderoga_.
This force, which comprised the twenty-seventh, forty-second,
forty-fourth, FORTY-SIXTH, and fifty-fifth regiments, embarked on
Lake George on the 5th of July, and landed on the following day
near the extremity of the lake, from whence the troops marched
through a wild and thickly-wooded country, in four columns, upon
_Ticonderoga_; the guides mistook the route through the trackless
woods, and on the 6th of July, a skirmish ensued with a body of
French troops, in which Brigadier-General George Augustus Viscount
Howe (of the fifty-fifth regiment) was killed. With this exception
the British sustained but small loss, while the enemy had three
hundred killed, and one hundred and forty-eight taken prisoners. On
the 8th of July, the British appeared before the fort, which was
situated on a tongue of land, projecting into Lake Champlain, and
was built by the French in 1756. It could only be approached on one
side, which was strongly fortified; the other three sides being
surrounded by water. Felled trees, with their branches outward,
were spread before the works, which were defended by between four
and five thousand men.

The engineer having reported that the entrenchment might be forced
by musketry alone, Major-General Abercromby, unfortunately,
determined to attack the place without waiting for the artillery,
which, on account of the badness of the ground, could not be
easily brought up. A rumour also that the French were about to be
reinforced with three thousand men, confirmed the General in his
resolution. Although the troops behaved with the utmost gallantry
in the attack on fort _Ticonderoga_, on the 8th July, it was found
impossible to succeed in the undertaking, and after many unavailing
efforts, during a desperate contest of upwards of four hours,
Major-General Abercromby gave orders to withdraw, and the British
returned to their camp on the south of Lake George, where they
arrived on the following evening.[13]

[Sidenote: 1759]

The following officers belonging to the FORTY-SIXTH regiment were
killed on this occasion: Lieut.-Colonel Samuel Beaver, Captains
George Needham and Edward Wynne; Lieutenants Jacob Laulhé and
Arthur Lloyd; Ensign George Crofton, and Quarter-Master Thomas
Carbonell.

In the year 1759, it was proposed to attack the French in all
their strong posts in Canada at once, so as to fall as nearly as
possible at the same time upon Crown Point, Niagara, and the forts
to the south of Lake Erie, while a great naval armament, and a
considerable body of land forces under Major-General James Wolfe,
should attempt Quebec by the river St. Lawrence.

Lieut.-General Amherst, who commanded the British forces in
America, was to attack Ticonderoga and Crown Point, by Lake George;
the reduction of these forts would command the Lake Champlain,
where having established a sufficient naval force, he was by the
river Sorel, which forms the communication between this lake and
the river St. Lawrence, to proceed to Quebec, and effect a junction
with Major-General Wolfe.

The third of the grand operations was against _Fort Niagara_, near
the celebrated falls of that name, a place of great consequence.
The reduction of this place was committed to Brigadier-General John
Prideaux (fifty-fifth regiment), under whom Sir William Johnson
commanded the provincials of New York, and several Indians of the
Five Nations, who were engaged in the British service, by the
credit that gentleman had obtained among their tribes. It was to
this portion of the army that the FORTY-SIXTH regiment was attached.

The troops which had been appointed to proceed to Niagara, arrived
at the fort in July. This was a very important post, and was
situated at the entrance of a strait by which Lake Ontario is
joined to Lake Erie. A little above the fort is the cataract of
Niagara, the most remarkable in the world, for the quantity of
water, and the greatness of the fall. The siege of the place had
not been long formed, before Brigadier-General Prideaux was killed
in the trenches, by the bursting of a cohorn. This occurred on
the 20th of July, and the accident threatened to throw a damp on
the operations; but Sir William Johnson, upon whom the command
devolved, omitted nothing to continue the vigorous measures of his
predecessor, and added to them everything his own genius could
suggest.

The French were alarmed for the safety of the fort, and collected
all the troops they could draw from their posts about the lakes,
and to these were joined a large body of Indians; the whole
advanced to raise the siege, and they amounted in all, to seventeen
hundred men.

It was on the 23rd of July, that Sir William Johnson received
intelligence of the approach of the enemy to relieve the fort,
and instantly made a disposition to defeat their designs. The
guard of the trenches was commanded by Major John Beckwith, of
the forty-fourth regiment, and, lest the garrison should sally
out, and either attempt to surprise or overpower that guard, by
which the British would have been hemmed in between two fires, the
forty-fourth regiment, under Lieut.-Colonel William Farquhar, was
posted in such manner as to be able to sustain Major Beckwith.

The road on the left of the line, which led from the cataract to
the fort, was occupied by the light infantry, and piquets of the
army, on the evening of the 23rd of July; early next morning these
were reinforced by the grenadiers and part of the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment, the whole commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Eyre Massey, of
the FORTY-SIXTH, to whose good conduct in the distribution of
the troops, and the steadiness with which he received the enemy
in front, while the Indians in British pay, attacked them on the
flanks, the honor of the day was in a great degree attributable.
The French were completely defeated, and all their officers were
made prisoners, among whom were Monsieur Aubry, De Lignery, Marin,
and Repentini.

This action sealed the fate of _Fort Niagara_, which surrendered on
the following day (25th of July), and Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
in his despatch to Lieut.-General Amherst, of that date, thus
alluded to the conduct of the troops:--

  "Permit me to assure you, in the whole progress of the siege,
  which was severe and painful, the officers and men behaved with
  the utmost cheerfulness and bravery."

In the meantime the siege of _Ticonderoga_ was prosecuted with
vigour by the troops under Lieut.-General Amherst, and on the
25th of July the garrison blew up the fort, and sailed to _Crown
Point_, another fort on Lake Champlain, which place the French also
abandoned, and retired down the lake to _Isle aux Noix_; _Crown
Point_ was occupied by the British on the 4th of August following.

The operations against Quebec by the troops under Major-General
James Wolfe, caused the year to end in a most triumphant manner
to the British Arms. The battle fought on the 13th of September,
1759, on the Heights of _Abraham_, in which the Major-General was
killed, led to the surrender of Quebec, which capitulated five days
afterwards.

While the above operations were being performed, Lieut.-General
Amherst found that the command of Lake Champlain was still an
object of some difficulty, although the retreat of the French from
Crown Point and Ticonderoga had left him master of Lake George. In
October the troops embarked in boats, and proceeded a considerable
distance along the lake, but the season became too advanced for
operations, which were postponed to the following year, and the
force returned to Crown Point and Ticonderoga for winter-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1760]

The French endeavoured to regain possession of Quebec, and after
the battle of _Sillery_ fought before that place on the 28th of
April, 1760, in which, from their superiority in numbers they had
the advantage, trenches were immediately opened by them before the
town. The arrival of the English fleet in May dissipated all fears
for the safety of Quebec, and nothing now remained to cloud the
prospect of the reduction of Canada, by the united efforts of three
British armies, which, by different routes, were marching to attack
those parts of the country that remained in the power of France.

A large army was collected at Oswego by Lieut.-General Amherst,
which the FORTY-SIXTH regiment joined in the afternoon of the 6th
of August. The whole army embarked on the 10th of August, and the
grenadiers, amounting to about six hundred men, were embodied,
and placed under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Eyre Massey of the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment. Dispositions were afterwards made for the
attack of _Fort Levi_, on _L'Isle Royale_, and after two days'
sharp firing, the fort surrendered on the 25th of August, of which
Lieut.-Colonel Massey, with three companies of grenadiers, took
possession.

After spending some days in repairing this post, and in fitting out
the vessels for passing the troops down the river St. Lawrence,
the most difficult part of which was now to be encountered;
notwithstanding all precautions, nearly ninety men were drowned in
passing the dangerous falls, and a great number of vessels broke
to pieces. After a tedious voyage the British came in sight of the
Island of Montreal on the 6th of September.

The troops were immediately landed, and all dispositions were made
for attacking the place, and so excellently was the plan concerted,
that Brigadier-General the Honorable James Murray landed from
Quebec on that very day, and Colonel Haviland with his force from
Isle-au-Noix on the following day.

The Marquis of Vaudreuil, the French Governor-General, saw himself
entirely enclosed, and was compelled to surrender the garrison of
Montreal on the 8th of September; thus was completed the _Conquest
of Canada_, which vast country has since continued under the
dominion of Great Britain.

[Sidenote: 1761]

The regiment remained in North America until October 1761, when it
embarked for Barbadoes, where an armament was being assembled for
the attack of the French West India Islands, and the land forces
were placed under the orders of Major-General the Honorable Robert
Monckton.

[Sidenote: 1762]

The armament sailed from Carlisle Bay, in Barbadoes, on the 5th of
January, 1762, and proceeded against the island of _Martinique_,
which was settled by the French about the year 1635. After menacing
the coast at several points, a landing was effected in the middle
of January in Cas des Navières Bay; many difficulties were
encountered from the rugged surface of the country, and from the
formidable heights occupied by the enemy, but these were overcome
by British skill, discipline, and valour; the heights of _Morne
Tartenson_ were carried on the 24th of January, and of _Morne
Garnier_ on the 27th; _Fort Royal_ surrendered on the 4th of
February, and these successes were followed by the submission of
the island to the British Crown.

Major-General the Honorable Robert Monckton commended the conduct
of the troops in his despatch, and added,--"The difficulties they
had to encounter in the attack of an enemy, possessed of every
advantage that art or nature could give them, were great. Their
perseverance in surmounting these obstacles furnishes a noble
example of British spirit:" and in alluding to the conduct of the
three divisions of grenadiers, one division of which was commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel the Honorable John Vaughan, at this period
Lieut.-Colonel commandant of the ninety-fourth (since disbanded),
but who was appointed to the FORTY-SIXTH regiment in November
following, added, that "they had particularly distinguished
themselves, the warmest part of the service having fallen to their
lot."

The capture of _Martinique_ was followed by the submission of
_Grenada_, _St. Lucia_, and _St. Vincent_.

War had in the interim been declared against Spain, and the
FORTY-SIXTH joined the armament under General the Earl of
Albemarle, destined to proceed against the wealthy Spanish
settlement of the _Havannah_, in the Island of Cuba. On the 7th
of June a landing was effected, and on the 9th the troops took
up a position between Coximar and the Moro Fort. Extraordinary
difficulties were encountered in making the approaches, and
carrying on the siege, while a severe sickness prevailed amongst
the seamen and soldiers. Every obstacle was, however, overcome by
the unanimity which existed between the land and sea forces. The
_Moro_ fort, which protected the harbour, and was regarded as
almost impregnable, was captured by storm on the 30th of July; on
the 11th of August a series of batteries opened so well-directed
a fire on the defences of the town, that the guns of the garrison
were soon silenced, and flags of truce were hung out. On the 13th
of August the town of the Havannah, with all its dependencies,
and the ships of war in the harbour, surrendered, and the British
troops took possession of this valuable settlement. Negociations
for peace were shortly afterwards commenced, and the preliminary
articles were signed at Fontainebleau by the Duke of Bedford on the
3rd of November, 1762.

[Sidenote: 1763]

The treaty of Fontainebleau was concluded at Paris on the 10th of
February, 1763, the ratifications were exchanged on the 10th of
March, and peace was proclaimed in London on the 22nd of that month.

By this treaty the whole of Canada, part of Louisiana, together
with Cape Breton, and the other islands in the Gulf of St.
Lawrence, were ceded to Great Britain. In the West Indies, the
islands of Tobago, Dominica, St. Vincent, and Grenada, were
retained by Great Britain; but Martinique, Guadaloupe, Marigalante,
and St. Lucia, were restored to France. In the East Indies, the
French obtained the restitution of their settlements, but agreed
not to erect any fortifications in Bengal. Minorca was restored to
England in exchange for Belle-Isle, which had been captured by the
British in 1761, and it was stipulated that the fortifications of
Dunkirk should be demolished. Spain ceded East and West Florida
to Great Britain, in return for the restitution of the Havannah,
Manilla, and all the places which Spain had lost since the
commencement of the war.

[Sidenote: 1764]

In the meanwhile the FORTY-SIXTH regiment had returned to North
America, where it remained for the four following years.

Colonel the Honorable William Howe was appointed by His Majesty
King George III. from the fifty-eighth to the colonelcy of the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment on the 21st of November, 1764, in succession
to Lieut.-General the Honorable Thomas Murray, deceased.

[Sidenote: 1767]

In the autumn of the year 1767 the FORTY-SIXTH regiment returned to
Great Britain, and was stationed in Ireland for eight years.

Serious disputes had, in the meantime, arisen, on the subject
of taxation, between the colonists in North America and the
British Government. The passing of the Stamp Act, in 1764, was
the first cause of irritation, but the spirit of discontent was
partially allayed by its repeal in 1766. This feeling was again
aroused, in the following year, by the Bill for levying duties
on certain articles imported from England, which was repealed in
1770, with the exception of the duty on tea, which was retained
as an assertion of the right of taxation inherent in the British
Legislature. After the cargoes of tea sent to Boston in 1773 had
been emptied into the sea, an Act of Parliament was passed in the
year 1774 for closing that port.

The colonists adopted retaliatory measures, and subsequently made
preparations for an appeal to arms.

[Sidenote: 1775]

On the 19th of April, 1775, the first hostile collision took place
at _Lexington_, between His Majesty's troops and the Colonists in
the unhappy contest, which was soon to assume a most formidable
character.

Upon Major-General the Honorable Sir William Howe, K.B., being
removed to the colonelcy of the twenty-third Royal Welsh Fusiliers,
on the 11th of May, 1775, Brevet Colonel the Honorable John
Vaughan was appointed to the vacant colonelcy of the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment.

The conflict at Lexington was followed by the battle of _Bunker's
Hill_, which was fought on the 17th of June, 1775.

[Sidenote: 1776]

These events caused several regiments to be embarked for America
early in the year 1776; the FORTY-SIXTH embarked from Ireland at
this period, and arrived on the coast of North Carolina early in
April, when Major-General Henry Clinton, who was serving with the
local rank of General in America, assumed the command. The men
landed at Cape Fear to refresh themselves after the voyage, and
returning on board the transports, sailed on the 1st of June with
the expedition against _Charleston_. After passing Charleston
bar, the troops landed on one of the islands; but the armament
proved of insufficient strength for the capture of the capital of
South Carolina, and the troops re-embarked and proceeded to Staten
Island, where the main body of the British forces had assembled
under Major-General the Honorable Sir William Howe, K.B., who was
serving with the local rank of General in America. The seventeenth,
fortieth, FORTY-SIXTH, and fifty-fifth regiments were here formed
in brigade under Major-General James Grant.

On the 4th of July, 1776, the American Congress issued their
declaration of independence, abjuring their allegiance to the Crown
of Great Britain, and all hope of accommodation failed.

A landing was effected by the British on _Long Island_ on the
22nd of August, and in the evening of the 26th the army was put
in motion to pass a range of woody heights, which intersect the
island, and to attack the American force in position beyond
the hills. The column under Major-General Grant, of which the
FORTY-SIXTH formed part, was directed to advance along the coast,
with ten pieces of cannon, to draw the enemy's attention to that
quarter. Moving forward at the appointed hour, this column fell
in with the advanced parties of the Americans about midnight, and
at daybreak on the following morning, encountered a large body of
troops formed in an advantageous position, defended by artillery.
Skirmishing and cannonading ensued, and were continued until the
Americans discovered by the firing at _Brooklyn_, that the left of
their army had been turned and forced, when they retreated in great
confusion through a morass. The American army, being driven from
its positions with severe loss, made a precipitate retreat to their
fortified lines at _Brooklyn_.

The Americans quitted their fortified lines during the night of the
28th of August, and retired across the East River, in boats, to
New York; the reduction of _Long Island_ was accomplished in a few
days, with little loss.

The regiment shared in the operations by which the capture of
_New York_ was accomplished: also in the movements by which the
Americans were driven from _White Plains_, and in the reduction of
_Fort Washington_.

After the reduction of Fort Washington, and of Fort Lee on the
opposite side of the North, or Hudson's River, the regiment
continued the pursuit of the enemy across the Jerseys, by Elizabeth
Town, Raway, &c. towards Philadelphia, and remained during the
following winter at Amboy.

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment occupied an old transport ship as a
barrack, and being actively employed during the winter in constant
escorts of ammunition, was continually attacked between that
place and New Brunswick, on the way to Trenton, Princetown, and
Burlington, where the advance of the British army had taken up
winter quarters.

During the winter, General Washington suddenly passed the Delaware
river, and succeeded in surprising and making prisoners a corps
of Hessians at Trenton, but he afterwards made a precipitate
retreat. Being reinforced, he again crossed the river, and took up
a position at Trenton.

[Sidenote: 1777]

Information having been received that the Americans were forming
magazines at _Peek's Hill_, about fifty miles up the North River,
the FORTY-SIXTH regiment was detached against that post, with a
body of troops, which sailed from New York on the 22nd of March,
1777, and as they approached Peek's Hill, the Americans set fire
to the stores, and retreated. The British landed, completed the
destruction of the magazines, barracks, &c., and subsequently
returned to their former quarters at New York.

Afterwards taking the field with the army in the Jerseys, the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment was engaged in the operations designed to
bring the enemy to a general engagement; but the Americans kept
close in their fortified lines in the mountains; an expedition
against the populous and wealthy city of _Philadelphia_ was next
undertaken.

Embarking from Sandy Hook, the army, of which the FORTY-SIXTH
formed part, proceeded to the Chesapeake, and landed on the
northern shore of the Elk river on the 25th of August. The American
army took up a position at _Brandywine_, to oppose the advance, and
on the 11th of September the Royal forces moved forward to engage
their opponents. The action proved decisive; the enemy was driven
from his position, and forced to make a precipitate retreat. The
FORTY-SIXTH sustained but trifling loss on this occasion.

In order to harass the Royal forces, General Washington posted
several detachments in such a manner as to command all the roads
and avenues to their encampment. He seized every opportunity of
drawing detached parties into ambuscades, which was the more
readily effected, as the country was in his interest, and the
provincial army abounded with persons fully acquainted with all its
local advantages.

A very considerable detachment employed in this manner, lay
concealed in the depth of a forest at a short distance behind the
British camp; it consisted of fifteen hundred men, commanded by
General Wayne.

General Sir William Howe, upon receiving this intelligence,
despatched Major-General Charles (afterwards Earl) Grey with a body
of troops in the middle of the night of the 20th of September to
surprise the detachment of the enemy.

The light company of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment was engaged in
this enterprise, which was conducted with singular address and
intrepidity. The troops advanced in profound silence to the
outposts of the enemy, which were surprised and secured without
the least noise. It was then between twelve and one. The main
body of the American army, unapprised of its danger, had retired
to rest. Directed by the light of the camp fires, the party
under Major-General Grey proceeded undiscovered to the enemy's
encampment, and rushed upon the foe with their bayonets. Three
hundred Americans were killed and wounded, and a great number taken
prisoners, with most of their arms and baggage. Obscurity saved
those that escaped, as it had before at Brandywine Creek. The
British had only one officer, one serjeant, and one private soldier
killed, and a few men wounded, in this attack.

It was this affair which gave the FORTY-SIXTH regiment _Red
Feathers_, which it has ever since worn. The origin of the
distinction is as follows:--

The Americans having vowed vengeance for the above attack, and that
they would give no quarter, the soldiers of the _light battalion_
on this declared, that to prevent any one not engaged in the action
from suffering on their account, they had stained their feathers
_red_, as a distinguishing mark.

The British army advanced upon Philadelphia, took possession of
that city, and occupied a position at _Germantown_. The Americans
attempted to surprise the British troops early on the morning of
the 4th of October, and at first gained some advantage, but were
speedily repulsed with severe loss.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The regiment passed the winter in quarters at Philadelphia, and
in the spring of 1778, it furnished several detachments, which
ranged the country in various directions to open communications
for obtaining provisions. At this period General the Honorable Sir
William Howe had returned to England, and resigned the command of
the army to General Sir Henry Clinton, K.B. The regiment also took
part in the fatigues and difficulties of the march of the army
from Philadelphia, through the Jerseys, in order to return to New
York, and the flank companies were engaged on the 28th of June in
repulsing the attack of the enemy on the rear of the column at
_Monmouth Court-House_, near _Freehold_, in New Jersey.

The army had marched from Philadelphia to New York in consequence
of the King of France having engaged to aid the Americans, which
circumstance changed the character of the war. Shortly after
the arrival of the British army at New York a powerful French
armament appeared off that port. The enemy had a great superiority
of numbers; but the enthusiasm in the British navy and army was
unbounded, and the hour of contest was looked forward to with
sanguine expectations. The enemy did not, however, venture to
hazard an attack; but proceeded against Rhode Island; a numerous
body of Americans co-operated in the enterprise, and besieged
Newport. The British fleet put to sea, and the thirty-third,
forty-second, FORTY-SIXTH, and sixty-fourth regiments embarked,
under Major-General Grey, to join the fleet at the east end of Long
Island.

When the transports were about to sail, information was received
of the departure of the French fleet from Rhode Island, and while
at sea, news arrived of the Americans having raised the siege
of Newport. The troops were then directed to proceed against
_Bedford_, on the Accushnet river, a noted place for American
privateers. On the evening of the 5th of September the troops
landed,--overcame all opposition,--destroyed seventy privateers
and other ships,--demolished the fort and artillery,--blew up the
magazine,--destroyed an immense quantity of naval stores, &c., and
returned on board the transports at noon on the following day. The
troops afterwards proceeded against Martha's Vineyard,--destroyed
the defences,--took three hundred and eighty-eight stand of arms
from the militia,--obliged the inhabitants to deliver up three
hundred oxen, ten thousand sheep, and a thousand pounds sterling
collected by the Congress. After this success the regiment returned
to New York.

A powerful French armament menacing the British possessions in
the West Indies, the FORTY-SIXTH, and other regiments, sailed
from North America, early in November, for Barbadoes, under
Major-General James Grant.

Upon the arrival of the reinforcements at Barbadoes, the British
naval and military commanders resolved to attack the French
island of _St. Lucia_. On this occasion the FORTY-SIXTH regiment
was formed in brigade with the fifteenth, twenty-eighth, and
fifty-fifth regiments, under Major-General Prescott.

The expedition sailed from Carlisle Bay on the 12th of December,
a landing was effected at _St. Lucia_ on the following day, and
on the 14th the French troops were driven from several important
posts. In the meantime a French armament of very superior numbers
approached the island, and the British took up positions to repel
the enemy. The French fleet made a desperate attack on the British
naval force, but was repulsed.

A numerous body of the enemy landed, and, on the 18th of
December, stormed the post of _La Vigie_, which was occupied by
the grenadiers and light infantry (of which the flank companies
of the FORTY-SIXTH formed part), and the fifth regiment, under
Brigadier-General Medows. The enemy amounted to nine thousand
men, commanded by Monsieur D'Estaing, the Marquis de Bouillé,
and M. Lavendahl, and advanced in three columns; their first two
attacks were made, to quote the words of Major-General Grant's
despatch, "with the impetuosity of Frenchmen, and repulsed with the
determined bravery of Britons." The French made a third attempt,
but were soon broken, and were forced to re-embark, leaving the
ground covered with killed and wounded.[14]

The flank companies of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment had an opportunity
of distinguishing themselves on this occasion, and Lieutenant
William Gomm was wounded.

The loss of the French amounted to about four hundred killed
and eleven hundred wounded, while the killed on the side of
the British was only ten, and one hundred and thirty wounded.
The sense Major-General Grant entertained of the services of
Brigadier-General Medows and the detachment under his command, was
expressed in the following letter, dated from _Morne Fortunée_, the
19th of December, 1778:--

  "SIR,

  "I cannot express how much I feel obliged to you, and the troops
  under your command, for repulsing, with so much spirit and
  bravery, so great a body of the enemy, and own it was just what
  I expected from you and them; and I am sure, under your command,
  they will always behave in such a manner as to do honor to you,
  themselves, their King, and their country; and I must beg of you
  to express my gratitude.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)      "JAMES GRANT,
                "_Major-General_.

  "_Brigadier-General Medows_, _&c., &c., &c._"

Immediately after the departure of the French armament, the
governor surrendered the island of _St. Lucia_ to the British
troops, the capitulation being signed on the 30th of December.

[Sidenote: 1779]

In 1779 the Court of Spain commenced hostilities against Great
Britain, and this example was followed by the Dutch.

[Sidenote: 1782]

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment remained in the West Indies until the year
1782, when it returned to England.

A letter, dated the 31st of August, 1782, conveyed to the regiment
His Majesty's pleasure, that County Titles should be conferred
on the Infantry, and the FORTY-SIXTH was directed to assume the
designation of the SOUTH DEVONSHIRE regiment, in order that a
connexion between the regiment and that part of the county should
be cultivated, which might be useful in promoting the success of
the recruiting service.

On the 30th of November, 1782, the preliminary Articles of Peace
were signed at Paris between Great Britain and the United States of
America, and the treaty was concluded in the ensuing February.

[Sidenote: 1783]

The preliminaries of the treaties between England, France, and
Spain, were signed at Versailles on the 20th of January, 1783. _St.
Lucia_ was restored to France, also the settlements on the river
Senegal and the city of Pondicherry in the East Indies. France
relinquished all her West India conquests, with the exception
of Tobago; Spain retained Minorca (which had surrendered to the
combined French and Spanish forces in the previous year), and West
Florida; East Florida was ceded in exchange for the restitution of
the Bahamas to Great Britain.

On the 2nd of September, 1783, were signed the preliminary Articles
of Peace with Holland, the treaty with that country having been
postponed in consequence of the Dutch claiming an indemnification
for the expenses of the war, and the restoration of Trincomalee, in
Ceylon, which had been captured from the Dutch by the English in
January of the previous year, and retaken by the French in August
following. The place was, however, restored to Holland at the
general peace.

[Sidenote: 1784]

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment proceeded from Plymouth to Ireland on the
21st of February, 1784, and continued in that country during the
eight following years.

[Sidenote: 1792]

In February, 1792, the regiment proceeded from Ireland to Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: 1794]

While the FORTY-SIXTH regiment was stationed at Gibraltar, the
French revolutionary war commenced, and in the year 1794, the
islands of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guadaloupe were captured
by the British. The French republican government fitted out an
expedition for the recovery of these islands, and some success
attended their efforts. This occurrence occasioned an order to be
given for the FORTY-SIXTH regiment to be embarked from Gibraltar
to reinforce the British troops in the West Indies. The regiment
accordingly embarked in November, 1794, and arrived in the
following month at the island of Martinique.

[Sidenote: 1795]

The republican emissaries employed by France having organized an
insurrection in the island of _St. Vincent_, where the native
Caribs, and several of the French inhabitants were in arms against
the British government, occasioned the FORTY-SIXTH regiment to be
ordered to St. Vincent.

At Dorsetshire Hill, the Caribs hoisted the tri-coloured flag, and
burnt every plantation in their power. The loyal inhabitants of the
island assembled at Kingston, and in the fort, and every means of
defence which the colony afforded, were used by Governor Seton.

It being determined to storm _Dorsetshire Hill_, Governor Seton
selected a force for this enterprise, of which a company of the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment, which had arrived from Martinique, under the
command of Captain Dugald Campbell, formed part. Shortly after
twelve o'clock, on the night of the 14th of March, the troops
mounted the steep and rugged path in regularity and silence. They
ascended within eighty yards of the main post, when they were
discovered by the enemy's sentry, who challenged and fired. The
Caribs, undismayed by the surprise, shouted, and opened a smart
fire of musketry on the British. As soon as the troops were within
twenty yards of the enemy, orders were given to fire a volley and
charge, which were obeyed with the greatest alacrity. While a
portion of the British force mounted the bank at one place, the
detachment of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, under Captain Campbell,
ascended another part of the bank. The buildings which sheltered
the enemy were stormed, but many escaped through the darkness of
the night. Chatoye, the Carib king, was killed with several of his
adherents, and the enemy's two pieces of cannon were captured.

_Dorsetshire Hill_ being too extensive a position, was abandoned
early on the following morning, and the British returned to Sion
Hill.

The remainder of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment having arrived, enabled
the governor to make a second attack upon the enemy on the 10th
of April, when the Caribs were driven from their positions with
considerable loss on their side, but small on the part of the
British.

On the 7th of May, the enemy appeared on the height above
_Calliaqua_, in the vicinity of which was situated the estate
belonging to Sir William Young, whose buildings had been previously
consumed by the Caribs, who had received reinforcements from
Guadaloupe.

Governor Seton, considering that some attempt would be made against
Kingston, sent on the 7th of May, a party, under Captain John Hall,
of the FORTY-SIXTH, consisting of a subaltern and thirty-three
rank and file of that regiment, forty militia, and forty of the
corps of rangers, with five of the royal artillery, and a fourteen
pound field-piece, to take possession of _Dorsetshire Hill_. About
one o'clock in the morning of the 8th of May, the party under
Captain Hall was attacked by a force of three hundred French and
Caribs, and after a vigorous resistance, was compelled to withdraw
to the post on Sion Hill, in consequence of the enemy's great
superiority in numbers, leaving the field-piece spiked.

Kingston would inevitably have been destroyed, if the enemy had
kept possession of Dorsetshire Hill, and sixty rank and file of
the FORTY-SIXTH, under Captain William Cooper Forster, of that
regiment, were immediately detached with other troops to attack the
foe at daybreak.

The Caribs, with great dexterity, found means to clear the
field-piece of the spike during the short time they had it in
their possession, and had been joined by upwards of a hundred
French and others of their party immediately after the retreat of
Captain Hall's party. The British, however, attacked them with
great spirit, and, in less than half an hour, they retook the
field-piece, and obtained possession of the hill, the enemy flying
on all sides.

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment had three rank and file killed, and nine
wounded. Captain William Cooper Forster and Ensign Michael Lee,
were also wounded.

On the 12th of June the troops under Lieut.-Colonel Baldwin
Leighton, of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, carried by assault, the
enemy's post on the Vigie, on which occasion Captains John Law and
William Cooper Forster, of that regiment, were wounded:--after this
success the Lieut.-Colonel advanced into the Carib country, and
took up a position on Mount Young.

On the 1st of August, 1795, Major-General James Henry Craig was
appointed Colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, in succession to
Lieut.-General the Honorable Sir John Vaughan, K.B., deceased.

In September, 1795, reinforcements arrived from England, consisting
of the fortieth, fifty-fourth, and fifty-ninth regiments, and
Major-General Paulus Æmilius Irving assumed the command. The enemy,
apprised of the arrival of fresh troops, retired from his position
on Fairbane's Ridge, during the night of the 30th of September.

At three o'clock on the morning of the 2nd of October, the troops
advanced against the _Vigie_, and after a severe action, the Caribs
abandoned that post, of which possession was taken by the British.

[Sidenote: 1796]

After this action the British remained on the defensive, but
several attacks were made by the enemy. Major-General Peter Hunter,
after an action fought on the 8th of January, 1796, evacuated the
New Vigie, in order to provide for the safety of Fort Charlotte and
Kingston. The party from Morne Ronde was also withdrawn.

On the 8th of June further reinforcements arrived under
Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, K.B., and on the following
day the troops marched in one column, by the right, as far as
Stubbs, about eight miles from Kingston; each division halted that
evening opposite to their respective points of attack. The post of
_New Vigie_, an eminence on which the enemy had constructed four
redoubts, stronger by the natural difficulties of the approach,
than by the art displayed in their formation, was attacked on the
10th of June, and after a conflict of seven hours' duration, the
Caribs surrendered prisoners of war; but about six hundred broke
the capitulation, and escaped to the woods, where they joined their
friends at the farther end of the island.

In this attack the FORTY-SIXTH had two rank and file killed, and
one wounded.

Troops were also despatched to _Mounts Young_ and _William_, where
a number of brass ordnance, and a quantity of ammunition, &c., were
taken.

A desultory warfare was carried on until September, when the Caribs
were forced to submit, and they were afterwards removed from the
island of St. Vincent.

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment, which had been engaged with the Caribs,
together, and in detachments, on _thirteen_ occasions, and in
eight months had sustained a loss of four hundred men out of five
hundred and twenty, afterwards returned to England, and arrived at
Portsmouth in November, 1796.

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1799]

While stationed in England the regiment was successively quartered
at Doncaster, York, Henley-upon-Thames, Warminster, Poole, and
Plymouth, from which port it embarked for Ireland, towards the end
of the year 1799.

[Sidenote: 1800]

In the beginning of the year 1800, the regiment arrived at Cork,
and was subsequently stationed at Fermoy, Limerick, and Cork.

[Sidenote: 1802]

While the regiment was stationed in Ireland, a treaty of peace was
signed on the 27th of March, 1802, at Amiens, but the ambitious
designs of the French ruler occasioned the war to be renewed in
May, 1803.

[Sidenote: 1804]

On the 5th of January, 1804, His Majesty King George III.,
appointed Lieut.-General John Whyte, from the First West India
regiment, to be colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, in succession
to Lieut.-General Sir James Henry Craig, who was removed to the
eighty-sixth regiment.

The FORTY-SIXTH regiment embarked at Cork for the West Indies,
and arrived at Barbadoes in April. In June following the regiment
proceeded to _Dominica_.[15]

[Sidenote: 1805]

In February, 1805, the island of Dominica was attacked by the
French, and the gallant conduct of the FORTY-SIXTH on that occasion
cannot be better recorded than by the insertion of the following
despatch, addressed to Earl Camden, K.G., one of His Majesty's
principal Secretaries of State, by Lieut.-General Sir William
Myers, Bart., commanding the troops in the Windward and Leeward
Islands:--

  "_Barbadoes, March 9th, 1805._

  "My LORD,

  "I have the honor to enclose to your Lordship, a copy of a
  despatch from Brigadier-General Prevost, dated Dominica, 1st
  of March, 1805. The details contained therein are so highly
  reputable to the Brigadier-General, and the small portion of
  troops employed against so numerous an enemy, that I have great
  satisfaction in recommending that their gallant exertions may be
  laid before His Majesty.

  "The zeal and talent manifested by the brigadier-general
  upon this occasion, it is my duty to present for the royal
  consideration, and at the same time I beg to be permitted to
  express the high sense I entertain of the distinguished bravery
  of His Majesty's troops, and the militia of the colony, employed
  on that service.

  "The vigorous resistance which the enemy have experienced, and
  the loss which they have sustained in this attack, must evince to
  them, that however inferior our numbers were on this occasion,
  British troops are not to be hostilely approached with impunity;
  and had not the town of Roseau been accidentally destroyed by
  fire, we should have little to regret, and much to exult in.

  "Your Lordship will perceive by the returns, that our loss in
  men, compared to that of the enemy, is but trifling; but I have
  sincerely to lament that of Major Nunn, of the First West India
  regiment, whose wound is reported to be of a dangerous kind; he
  is an excellent man, and a meritorious officer.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)     "W. MYERS.
               "_Lieut.-General._"


  "_Head Quarters, Prince Rupert's,
  Dominica, March 1st, 1805._

  "SIR,

  "About an hour before the dawn of day on the 22nd ultimo, an
  alarm was fired from Scots Head, and soon after a cluster of
  ships was discovered off Roseau. As our light increased, I made
  out five large ships, three frigates, two brigs, and small craft
  under British colours, a ship of three decks carrying a flag
  at the mizen. The frigates ranging too close to Fort Young,
  I ordered them to be fired on, and soon after nineteen large
  barges, full of troops, appeared coming from the lee of the
  other ships, attended and protected by an armed schooner, full of
  men, and seven other boats carrying carronades. The English flag
  was lowered, and that of the French hoisted.

  "A landing was immediately attempted on my left flank, between
  the town of Roseau and the post of Cachecrow. The light infantry
  of the First West India regiment were the first on the march to
  support Captain Smart's company of militia, which, throughout the
  day, behaved with great gallantry; it was immediately supported
  by the grenadiers of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment. The first boats
  were beat off, but the schooner and one of the brigs coming
  close on shore, to cover the landing, compelled our troops to
  occupy a better position, a defile leading to the town. At this
  moment I brought up the grenadiers of the St. George's regiment
  of militia, and soon after the remainder of the FORTY-SIXTH
  regiment, and gave over to Major Nunn these brave troops,
  with orders not to yield to the enemy one inch of ground. Two
  field-pieces (an amuzette and a six-pounder), were brought into
  action for their support, under the command of Serjeant Creed
  of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, manned by additional gunners and
  sailors. These guns, and a twenty-four pounder from Melville
  battery, shook the French advancing column by the execution they
  did.

  "I sent two companies of St. George's militia, under the command
  of Lieut.-Colonel Constable, and a company of the FORTY-SIXTH,
  to prevent the enemy from getting into the rear of the position
  occupied by Major Nunn.

  "On my return I found the "Majestueuse" of 120 guns, lying
  opposite to Fort Young, pouring into the town and batteries her
  broadsides, followed by the other seventy-fours and frigates
  doing the same.

  "Some artillery, several captains of merchantmen with their
  sailors, and the militia artillery, manned five twenty-four
  pounders, and three eighteens, at the fort, and five twenty-fours
  at Melville battery, and returned an uninterrupted fire; from the
  first post red-hot shot were thrown. At about ten o'clock, A.M.,
  Major Nunn, most unfortunately for His Majesty's service, whilst
  faithfully executing the order I had given him, was wounded; I
  fear mortally.

  "This did not discourage the brave fellows. Captain O'Connell, of
  the First West India regiment, received the command and a wound
  almost at the same time; however, the last circumstance could not
  induce him to give up the honor of the first, and he continued
  on the field animating his men, and resisting the repeated
  charges of the enemy, until about one o'clock, when he obliged
  them to retire from their position with great slaughter. It is
  impossible for me to do justice to the merit of that officer; you
  will, I doubt not, favorably report his conduct to His Majesty,
  and at the same time that of Captain James, who commanded the
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment, and Captain Archibald Campbell, who
  commanded the grenadiers of that corps.

  "Foiled and beat off on the left, the right flank was attempted,
  and a considerable force was landed near Morne Daniel. The
  regulars not exceeding two hundred, employed on the left in
  opposing the advance of three columns, consisting of upwards
  of two thousand men, could afford me no reinforcement; I had
  only the right wing of the St. George's regiment of militia to
  oppose them, of about a hundred men. They attacked with spirit,
  but unfortunately the frigates had stood in so close to the
  shore to protect this disembarkation, that after receiving a
  destructive fire, they fell back and occupied the heights of
  Woodbridge estate. Then it was that a column of the enemy marched
  up to Morne Daniel, and stormed the redoubt defended by a small
  detachment, which, after an obstinate resistance they carried. On
  my left Captain O'Connell was gaining ground, notwithstanding a
  fresh supply of troops and several field-pieces, which had been
  brought on shore by the enemy. I now observed a large column
  climbing the mountains to get in his rear.

  "The town, which had been for some time in flames, was only
  protected by a light howitzer and a six-pounder to the right,
  supported by part of the light company of the St. George's
  regiment. The enemy's large ships in Woodbridge Bay, out of the
  reach of my guns, my right flank gained, and my retreat to Prince
  Rupert's almost cut off, I determined on one attempt to keep
  the sovereignty of the island, which the excellent troops I had
  warranted. I ordered the militia to remain at the posts, except
  such as were inclined to encounter more hardships and severe
  service; and Captain O'Connell, with the FORTY-SIXTH regiment,
  under the command of Captain James, and the light company of
  the First West India regiment, were directed to make a forced
  march to Prince Rupert's. I then allowed the President to enter
  into terms for the town of Roseau; and then demanded from the
  French General that private property should be respected, and
  that no wanton or disgraceful pillage should be allowed; this
  done, only attended by Brigade Major Prevost, and Deputy Quarter
  Master-General Hopley, of the militia forces, I crossed the
  island, and in twenty-four hours, with the aid of the inhabitants
  and the exertions of the Caribs, I got to this garrison on
  the 23rd. After four days' continued march, through the most
  difficult country, I might almost say existing, Captain O'Connell
  joined me at Prince Rupert's, himself wounded, and bringing in
  his wounded, with a few of the royal artillery, and the precious
  remainder of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, and the First West India
  light company.

  "I had no sooner got to the fort, than I ordered cattle to be
  driven in, and took measures for getting a store of water from
  the river in the bay. I found my signals to Lieut.-Colonel
  Charles Broughton, of the First West India Regiment, made from
  Roseau soon after the enemy had landed, had been received, and
  that, in consequence, he had made the most judicious arrangements
  his garrison would allow for the defence of this important post.

  "On the 25th I received the letter of summons I have now the
  honor to transmit, from General of Division La Grange, and
  without delay sent the reply you will find accompanying it.

  "On the 27th the enemy's cruisers hovered about the head,
  however, the "Centaur's" tender (Vigilante) came in, and was
  saved by our guns. I landed Mr. Henderson, her commander, and
  crew, to assist in the defence we were prepared to make.

  "As far as can be collected, the enemy had about four thousand
  men on board, and the whole of their force was compelled to
  disembark before they gained one inch of ground.

  "I entrust this despatch to Captain O'Connell, to whom I beg to
  refer you; his services entitle him to consideration. I am much
  indebted to the zeal and discernment of Fort Adjutant Gualy, who
  was very accessary to the due execution of my orders.

  "I cannot pass unnoticed the very soldier-like conduct of
  Lieutenant Wallis of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, to whom I had
  entrusted the post of Cachecrow, or Scots Head: on perceiving
  our retreat he spiked his guns, destroyed his ammunition, and
  immediately commenced his march to join me at Prince Rupert's
  with his detachment: nor that of Lieutenant Schaw of the same
  corps, who acted as an officer of artillery, and behaved with
  uncommon coolness and judgment, while on the battery, and great
  presence of mind in securing the retreat of the additional
  gunners belonging to the FORTY-SIXTH regiment. On the 27th, after
  levying a contribution on Roseau, the enemy reimbarked, and
  hovered that day and the next about this post. This morning the
  French fleet is seen off the south end of Guadaloupe, under easy
  sail.

  "Our loss, you will perceive by the returns I have the honor to
  transmit, was inconsiderable, when compared with that of the
  enemy, which included several officers of rank, and about three
  hundred others.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)     "GEO. PREVOST.

  "_Lieut.-General Sir William
  Myers, Bart., &c. &c. &c._"

  "P.S. As I find I cannot spare Captain O'Connell from the duty
  of this garrison, I must refer you to the master of a neutral
  vessel, who has engaged to deliver this despatch."


(TRANSLATION.)

  "From the General of Division La Grange, &c., to his Excellency
  General Prevost, &c.

  "_Head Quarters at Roseau,
  the 5th Ventôse, Year 13th, Feb. 25th, 1805._

  "The General of Division La Grange, Grand Officer of the
  Legion of Honor, Inspector-General of the Gendarmerie,
  Commander-in-Chief of the troops of the expedition to the Leeward
  Islands:

  "GENERAL,--

  "Before I commence any military operations against the fort,
  into which it appears that you have retired, I shall fulfil a
  preliminary duty authorised and practised by civilized nations.
  You are aware, no less than myself, of the nature of your
  position, and of the entire inutility of occasioning any further
  effusion of blood. You witnessed with grief the melancholy fate
  of the town of Roseau; my first endeavours on entering it were to
  issue orders for stopping the progress of the conflagration; but,
  unfortunately, considerable destruction had already taken place.

  "The want of necessaries is ever attended with the most cruel
  consequences, the evils of which can easily be calculated; this
  consideration alone is more than sufficient, without reference to
  the particular circumstances in which you are placed, to induce
  you to accept the honorable conditions that I am ready to grant
  you, and thus to preserve the interesting inhabitants of this
  colony from fresh calamities, which are inseparable from the
  occurrences of war.

  "I beg you, General, to make me an early communication of your
  answer, and in the meantime to receive the assurance of the high
  esteem which I entertain for you.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)    "LA GRANGE."


(ANSWER.)

  "_Head Quarters, Prince Rupert's
  February 25th, 1805._

  "SIR,

  "I have the honor to say I received your letter. My duty to my
  King and country is so superior to every other consideration,
  that I have only to thank you for the observations you have been
  pleased to make, on the often inevitable consequences of war.
  Give me leave, individually, to express the greatest gratitude
  for your humanity and kind treatment of my wife and children; and
  at the same time to request a continuance thereof, not only to
  her and them, but towards every other object you may meet with.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)     "GEO. PREVOST."

  Return of the killed and wounded in the actions of the 22nd of
  February, 1805, at Point Michael, Morne Daniel, and Roseau, in
  the Island of Dominica.

  Royal Artillery;--three rank and file wounded; one captain, one
  serjeant, and six rank and file taken by the enemy.

  FORTY-SIXTH regiment;--one serjeant, one drummer, and ten rank
  and file killed; one captain, and seven rank and file wounded.

  First West India regiment;--nine rank and file killed; one field
  officer, one captain, and eight rank and file wounded.

  _Total killed_;--one serjeant, one drummer, and nineteen rank and
  file.

  _Total wounded_;--one field officer, two captains, and eighteen
  rank and file.

  Taken by the enemy;--one captain, one serjeant and six rank and
  file.


  _Names of Officers Wounded._

  Captain Colin Campbell, FORTY-SIXTH regiment; Major Nunn and
  Captain O'Connell, First West India regiment.

  N. B. Three sailors wounded, exclusive of the militia, from which
  no return has been received, but whose loss was considerable.

  (Signed)     JAMES PREVOST.
               _Major of Brigade._

The Royal authority was afterwards received for the FORTY-SIXTH to
bear the word "DOMINICA" on the regimental colour and appointments,
"as a distinguished mark of the good conduct and exemplary valour
displayed by that regiment in the defence of the Island of
Dominica, against a very superior French force, on the 22nd of
February, 1805."

[Sidenote: 1806]

In the beginning of May, 1806, the "Dominica" armed sloop was
cut from her anchorage by her own crew, and taken from Dominica
into Guadaloupe: early on the morning of the 6th of May, a large
schooner, a row-boat full of troops, and the "Dominica" sloop, were
discovered making out from the land, and Major-General Stair Park
Dalrymple perceiving they were suspicious, and evidently enemy's
vessels, ordered detachments from the FORTY-SIXTH regiment to be
instantly embarked on board the "Duke of Montrose" packet, Captain
Dynely, who had volunteered his services, and another on board a
small colonial sloop. Lieutenant James Wallis, of the FORTY-SIXTH,
was appointed to take command of the first detachment, and under
him Lieut. Benjamin Forster and forty men; Lieutenant Andrew
Hamilton commanded the second detachment on board the sloop. Both
were successful; the "Duke of Montrose" chased the schooner from
ten A.M. until four P.M., when she engaged within musket-shot for
three-quarters of an hour. The schooner then hove up, and again
endeavoured to escape. On the packet's overhauling fast, and being
about to board her, she surrendered. The schooner proved to be the
French national schooner _L'Impérial_, having on board General
Dumareau and eighty soldiers, and carried one large gun amidships,
which was well served during the action. Lieutenant Andrew Hamilton
also proved successful in capturing the row-boat.

For these services the officers and men received the unqualified
approbation of Lieut.-General Henry Bowyer, commanding the forces
in the West Indies, and of Major-General Dalrymple, for having
so handsomely supported the honor of their corps by their zeal,
courage, and steady discipline.

[Sidenote: 1808]

In 1808 an expedition was assembled at Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, for
the reduction of the French island of _Martinique_,[16] and the
flank companies of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment were selected to form
part of the expedition. The land forces were under Lieut.-General
George Beckwith, and the navy was commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir
Alexander Cochrane, K.B.

[Sidenote: 1809]

The fleet left Carlisle Bay on the 28th of January, 1809, and
arrived off the island of _Martinique_ in two days. On the 30th,
the troops landed in two divisions; the first division at Bay
Robert under Lieut.-General Sir George Prevost, and the second
division, commanded by Major-General Maitland, near St. Luce and
Point Solomon. Both divisions were actively engaged in operations
for the reduction of the island. St. Pierre surrendered on the 8th
of February, to Lieut.-Colonel Edward Barnes of the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment, who commanded a brigade in the army employed in this
expedition.

The flank companies of the FORTY-SIXTH composed part of the flank
battalion under Major Richard Payne, of the regiment, at the siege
of _Fort Royal_.

The reduction of _Fort Desaix_ (or Fort Bourbon) by the first
division of the army, which was effected on the 24th of February,
completed the reduction of _Martinique_, and the flank companies
rejoined the regiment at Dominica.

[Sidenote: 1810]

In 1810, the flank companies of the regiment were selected to form
part of an expedition under Lieut.-General Sir George Beckwith,
K.B., against the island of _Guadaloupe_, which had been restored
to the French at the Peace of Amiens. The expedition arrived before
the island in January, 1810.

The grenadiers composed part of the First Grenadier Battalion,
and the light company that of the Second Light Battalion. On the
3rd of February the grenadiers were engaged in the attack on the
enemy's post at _Bellair_, on the heights of Saint Louis, on
which occasion the following report was made in the despatches
of Brigadier-General George Harcourt to Lieut.-General Sir George
Beckwith, commanding the forces in the West Indies.

  "_Post Bellair, Morne St. Louis,
  7th February, 1810._

  "Where all deserve so much praise, it is difficult to
  discriminate, but the good fortune of the grenadiers of the
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment, under Captain Alexander Ogilvie, and of
  the First Light Infantry Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel David
  Stewart, brought their merits conspicuously forward. They in
  truth behaved most admirably.

  (Signed)     "G. HARCOURT,
               "_Brigadier-General_,
               "_Commanding Second Division._"

The regiment had three rank and file killed, and one serjeant and
eight rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 1811]

The FORTY-SIXTH having been much reduced in numbers during
the arduous services of the regiment in the West Indies, the
head-quarters embarked on board the "Earl" transport, on the 13th
of November, 1811, for England, and arrived at Liverpool on the
13th of December, from whence they marched to Kingsbridge, in
Devonshire.[17]

Four companies of the regiment, about two hundred strong,
continued to serve in the West Indies after the departure of the
head-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1812]

On the 18th of March 1812, the FORTY-SIXTH regiment embarked on
board the "Nautilus" transport at Plymouth for Jersey, and arrived
in St. Aubin's Bay on the 11th of April, when it marched to
Grouville, in the eastern division of the island, the head-quarters
being stationed at Mont Orgueil Castle.

In June 1812, the four companies which had been left in the West
Indies, arrived at Portsmouth in the "Shipley" transport, and
proceeded, without landing, to Jersey. A few officers and men, who
came home from the West Indies in the "John Tobin" merchantman,
arrived in the same month at Liverpool, and proceeded to the
regiment at Jersey.

[Sidenote: 1813]

On the 11th of June 1813, the regiment embarked on board the
"Preston" transport for Portsmouth, and after its arrival at
Spithead, received orders to proceed to Cowes, in the Isle of
Wight. It disembarked at that place on the 16th of the same month,
and proceeded to Sandown barracks, where the regiment remained
until August following, when it received orders to proceed to New
South Wales.

The regiment embarked on the 23rd of August 1813, on board the
"Wyndham," "Three Bees," and "General Hewitt" transports, and
arrived at New South Wales in February 1814.

[Sidenote: 1814]

On the 31st of May 1814, the regiment was inspected by
Major-General Lachlan Macquarie, who expressed his satisfaction at
its appearance in General Orders, dated--

  "_Head-Quarters, Sydney,
  31st May, 1814._

  "The Commander of the Forces having inspected His Majesty's
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment, commanded by Colonel Molle, this forenoon,
  is happy to express publicly his approbation of the clean and
  soldier-like appearance of that corps under arms, as well as the
  uniformity of dress, both of officers and men.

  "The advance of the corps in line was excellent, and the
  distances in formation were well preserved, and had the weather
  permitted of movements, the Major-General doubts not they would
  have been equally well performed.

  "L. MACQUARIE,
  "_Major-General_."

The regiment was again inspected by Major-General Macquarie on
the 21st of November following, when its appearance and movements
elicited the Major-General's commendation.

[Sidenote: 1815]

In May 1815, Serjeant Robert Broadfoot and six privates were sent
from the detachment of the regiment stationed at Hobart Town,
Van Diemen's Land, into the interior of the colony, in order to
suppress a gang of bushrangers, which infested that settlement, and
had by their atrocious deeds become the terror of the inhabitants.
The party succeeded in taking two of the principals, named Maguire
and Burne, who were tried and executed. The serjeant and his party
received the sum of one hundred pounds sterling, and the thanks of
Lieut.-Governor Davy for their conduct on the occasion.

In May and October 1815, the regiment was inspected by
Major-General Macquarie, who again expressed his entire approval of
its appearance and movements.

While the regiment was stationed in New South Wales, the war, in
which the European powers had been engaged, was ended by the defeat
of Napoleon Bonaparte on the plains of WATERLOO, and a lengthend
period of peace has been the result of that victory.

[Sidenote: 1816]

Early in February 1816, Corporal Justin McCarthy and seven privates
were sent in pursuit of bushrangers, and on the 5th of April
following, they succeeded in taking two of them, both of whom were
executed.

Lieut.-General Henry Wynyard was appointed Colonel of the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment on the 1st of April 1816, in succession to
General John Whyte, deceased.

In the early part of April 1816, the flank companies of the
regiment were detached into the interior of New South Wales, and
received in General Orders the thanks of Major-General Macquarie,
Commanding the Forces, for their arduous services in pursuing into
the interior, and reducing the aborigines to a state of obedience.
Captain Schaw commanded the light company, and Captain Wallis the
grenadiers.

  "_Head Quarters, Sydney,
  Tuesday, 7th May, 1816._

  "GENERAL ORDERS.

  "Captains Schaw and Wallis having returned to head-quarters,
  with the detachments of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment under their
  respective commands, recently employed against the hostile black
  natives, and having executed the service they were thus employed
  on to the entire approbation of His Excellency the Governor and
  Commander of the Forces, he requests Captains Schaw and Wallis
  will accept his best thanks for their zealous exertions, and
  strict attention to the fulfilling of the instructions on this
  delicate but very important service.

  "The Commander of the Forces also requests that Captains Schaw
  and Wallis will convey to the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and privates of their respective detachments, his best
  thanks for their zeal and activity, and for the patience with
  which they endured a great deal of marching and fatigue, through
  a very rough and intricate country during the said service.

  (Signed)      "L. MACQUARIE,
                "_Major-General_."

In July 1816, Serjeant Broadfoot, and sixteen rank and file were
detached from the head-quarters of the corps at Sydney into the
interior of the country, to protect the inhabitants from the
natives, and were employed on this service until December of the
same year, during which period their conduct was such as to call
forth the thanks of Major-General Macquarie, from whom Serjeant
Broadfoot received a certificate approving of his "_zeal and
activity during his services against the natives_."

After chasing the bushrangers for six months, Corporal McCarthy
and his party, in July, came up with the main body, consisting of
eleven desperate characters, and headed by a deserter from the
seventy-third regiment, named Geary. They were all armed, each with
a musket and a brace of pistols, and well supplied with ammunition.
The corporal and his men, now reduced to five, engaged them for an
hour and a half, when the leader of the bushrangers being mortally
wounded, his followers endeavoured to escape; two, however, were
taken, tried, and executed. The corporal and his men received one
hundred pounds for Geary, and twenty-five pounds for each of the
other two, and were highly recommended by Lieut.-Governor Sorrell
for their zeal, courage, and perseverance.

On the 10th of August following, this small party again came up
with the remainder of the banditti. Their leader was shot during
the action, and another of his followers was wounded, and made
prisoner.

[Sidenote: 1817]

On the 8th of September, 1817, the regiment embarked in three
divisions at Sydney Cove on board the "Matilda," "Lloyd," and
"Dick" transports, and arrived at Madras on the 16th of December
following. On the 29th of that month the regiment marched for
Vellore.

[Sidenote: 1818]

The regiment arrived at Vellore on the 8th of January, 1818, and on
the 26th of September following proceeded from thence _en route_ to
the Presidency of Madras, and arrived at Fort Saint George on the
12th of October.

Previously to the FORTY-SIXTH quitting Vellore an Order was issued
by Colonel Hall, commanding the troops at that garrison, in which
he stated "that during the period the regiment had been in the
garrison, he had not had occasion to confine or pass a censure
on any rank," and then added, "that a stronger proof cannot be
offered of the excellent interior arrangement and discipline of the
corps."

[Sidenote: 1820]

On the 1st of July, 1820, the regiment commenced its march from
Fort Saint George for Bellary, in the Ceded Districts, and arrived
at that station on the 10th of August following.

A detachment of the regiment, consisting of two captains, five
lieutenants, two ensigns, one assistant surgeon, twenty serjeants,
four drummers, and four hundred rank and file, marched from
Bellary, for Belgaum, on field service in the Doab, on the 1st of
October, 1820, and arrived at its destination on the 23rd of that
month.

[Sidenote: 1821]

[Sidenote: 1823]

During the years 1821, 1822, and 1823, the head-quarters of the
regiment continued to be stationed at Bellary.

[Sidenote: 1824]

On the 31st of October, 1824, a detachment of the regiment,
consisting of one captain, four lieutenants, eight serjeants, nine
corporals, two drummers, and a hundred and forty-four privates,
under the command of Captain Charles Dawe, proceeded from Bellary
towards the southern Mahratta country, and was joined on the 10th
of November by a second detachment of the FORTY-SIXTH from Belgaum,
under the command of Captain William Nairn, consisting of one
captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, five serjeants and one hundred
rank and file.

The remainder of the detachment from Belgaum, under the command
of Major (Brevet-Lieut. Colonel) Thomas Willshire, joined the
above, on the 2nd of December, before the Fort of _Kittoor_, which
place was in a state of insurrection. The fort being reduced, the
detachment from Belgaum returned to that station on the 15th of
December, leaving the detachment under Captain Dawe before Kittoor.

On the 16th of December, 1824, the following Division Order was
issued by Major-General Hall, commanding the ceded districts, on
his inspecting the regiment:--

  "_Head Quarters, Ceded Districts,
  Bellary, 16th December, 1824._

  "The recent review and inspection of His Majesty's FORTY-SIXTH
  regiment has afforded Major-General Hall an opportunity of
  witnessing the very efficient state of that corps, and of
  expressing his unqualified satisfaction with the result of his
  enquiries, the whole of which tend greatly to the credit of the
  commanding officer, Major Wallis.

  "The Major-General will have a pleasing part of his duty
  to perform in reporting the present state of His Majesty's
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment.

  "By order of Major-General Hall,
  (Signed)     "B. MCMASTER,
               "_Acting Brigade Major, Ceded Districts_."

[Sidenote: 1825]

On the 7th of February 1825, the grenadier company, and
head-quarters of the regiment, marched from Bellary for Cannanore,
under the command of Major James Wallis, leaving two companies at
Bellary. The detachment under Captain Dawe marched on the same
day from Kittoor to Belgaum, where it was joined by two other
companies, and proceeded from Belgaum to Vengoolah on the 16th
of February, the whole under the command of Captain Alexander
Campbell, and embarked at that port for Cannanore, where they
arrived on the 28th of that month. The head-quarters of the
regiment arrived at Cannanore on the 17th of March, under the
command of Major Wallis, Lieut.-Colonel Archibald Campbell (the
senior Lieut.-Colonel), having been appointed to the command of the
provinces of Malabar and Canara.

The remainder of the regiment marched from Belgaum under the
command of Major (Brevet Lieut.-Colonel) Willshire, for Bellary,
and arrived at that station on the 18th of March, 1825.

[Sidenote: 1826]

The following Provincial Order was issued by Lieut.-Colonel
Campbell, commanding the provinces of Malabar and Canara, on the
inspection and review of the regiment at Cannanore on the 31st of
May, 1826:--

  "_Head Quarters, Malabar and Canara,
  Cannanore, 31st May, 1826._

  "Lieut.-Colonel Campbell cannot permit the present half-yearly
  inspection and review of His Majesty's FORTY-SIXTH regiment to
  pass over without expressing to Major Wallis, and the officers
  and men under his command, the high sense he entertains of the
  improved state of discipline and order of the regiment, in every
  respect, of which he will not fail to make the most favorable
  report.[18]

  "It is with heartfelt regret the Lieut.-Colonel has learnt, that
  the FORTY-SIXTH regiment is likely soon to lose the valuable
  services of Major Wallis, who has ever been enthusiastic in doing
  all which could contribute to the advantage and credit of the
  corps, and whose ability, zeal, and talents in command of it, are
  evinced by the perfection to which he has brought the regiment
  in the revised system of discipline, and the excellent state of
  its interior economy.

  "After an intimate friendship of twenty-three years, as a brother
  officer, Lieut.-Colonel Campbell trusts he may be permitted thus
  publicly to express his sentiments of Major Wallis's merits
  and worth, and to lament the loss which he, individually, must
  sustain, when deprived of the cordial, zealous, and able support
  that has invariably been afforded to him by this meritorious
  officer.

  "When Major Wallis withdraws from the active duties of his
  profession, he will be accompanied in his retirement by the most
  fervent wishes of Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell for his future
  welfare, happiness, and prosperity.

  "By order,
  (Signed)     "A. H. COLBERG, _Captain_,
               "_Major of Brigade_."

The detached wing of the regiment, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Willshire, marched from Bellary on the 22nd of July,
1826, and arrived at Secunderabad on the 21st of August following.

The head-quarters, under the command of Captain William Mallet,
marched from Cannanore on the 2nd of November, 1826, and arrived at
Secunderabad on the 12th of January, 1827.

[Sidenote: 1827]

The regiment remained at Secunderabad during 1827, and the five
following years.

[Sidenote: 1829]

On the 24th of June 1829, instructions were received for reducing
the establishment of the regiment, from the 25th of the previous
December, to the following numbers; namely, forty-five serjeants,
fourteen drummers, and seven hundred and forty rank and file.

[Sidenote: 1832]

Arrangements having been made for the relief of the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment, a General Order was issued permitting the soldiers to
volunteer to other corps serving in India. The volunteering was
opened at Secunderabad on the 9th of November, and was finally
closed on the 17th of December, 1832, when two hundred and
thirty-seven men had volunteered their services to other regiments
of His Majesty's service stationed in the Madras Presidency.

[Sidenote: 1833]

The regiment afterwards proceeded to Masulipatam, where it arrived
on the 17th of January 1833, and while on the march the following
General Order by the Right Honorable the Governor in Council was
received:

  "_Fort Saint George,
  4th December, 1832._

  "The Right Honorable the Governor in Council cannot permit His
  Majesty's FORTY-SIXTH regiment to embark for England, without
  expressing his approbation of its conduct during the period which
  it has been employed on this establishment.

  "To Colonel Campbell, C.B., Aide-de-camp to the King, the Right
  Honorable the Governor in Council considers himself particularly
  indebted, for the temper and judgment with which he has exercised
  the several important commands which have been entrusted to him
  by Government, and he attributes, in a great measure, to the
  example of Colonel Campbell, and the officers of His Majesty's
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment, the cordiality and good feeling which has
  at all times prevailed between the several branches of the army
  at stations where the regiment has been employed.

  "By order of the Right Honorable
  "The Governor in Council,
  (Signed)     "ROBERT CLERK,
               "_Secretary to Government_."

Four companies of the regiment, consisting of one captain,
two lieutenants, two ensigns, one assistant surgeon, thirteen
serjeants, four drummers, and one hundred and sixty-seven rank
and file, under the command of Captain Donald Stuart, embarked
at Madras, on board the "Red Rover" on the 4th of March 1833,
disembarked at Gravesend on the 25th of August 1833, and marched to
Canterbury barracks, where they arrived on the 28th of August, and
were consolidated with the depôt company.

The head-quarters of the regiment, consisting of two captains,
four lieutenants, one paymaster, one quartermaster, one assistant
surgeon, twenty-three serjeants, seven drummers, and two hundred
and sixteen rank and file, under the command of Captain Robert
Martin, embarked at Masulipatam on the 5th of March 1833,
disembarked at Margate and Whitstable on the 6th and 7th of
September, from whence they marched to Canterbury.

Colonel Archibald Campbell, C.B., being in command of the Hyderabad
Subsidiary Force, was not relieved from that duty in time to
proceed with the regiment, but embarked at Madras on the 18th
of March 1833, and arrived at Portsmouth on the 18th of August
following.

One company of the regiment, consisting of two lieutenants, four
serjeants, two drummers, and sixty-eight rank and file, under the
command of Lieutenant James Taylor, embarked at Madras on the 27th
of May 1833, disembarked at Gravesend on the 28th of September, and
marched from thence to join the head-quarters of the regiment at
Canterbury.

On the 12th of November the following letter was addressed by
the Adjutant-General to Colonel Campbell, in reference to the
distinction of _Red Feathers_, conferred upon the light company for
its share in the attack upon General Wayne on the 20th of September
1777, as narrated at page 24.

  "_Horse Guards,
  12th November, 1833._

  "SIR,

  "I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter
  of the 1st instant, and to signify to you that, under all the
  circumstances stated, the General Commanding-in-Chief will
  undertake to recommend to His Majesty, that the distinction
  mentioned may be continued to the light company of the
  FORTY-SIXTH regiment, and will, accordingly, submit that the
  company be allowed to wear a _Red Ball Tuft_.

  "I have, &c.,
  (Signed)    "JOHN MACDONALD,
              "_Adjutant-General_.

  "_Colonel Campbell_,
  "FORTY-SIXTH _regiment_."

[Sidenote: 1834]

On the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd of April 1834, the regiment proceeded
from Canterbury to Weedon, where it arrived in the beginning of May.

In September following, the regiment marched from Weedon to
Liverpool for embarkation for Ireland, and arrived at Dublin on the
3rd of October. The regiment subsequently proceeded to Newry.

[Sidenote: 1835]

The head-quarters marched on the 30th of January 1835, from Newry
for Belfast, where they arrived on the 2nd of February. While
stationed at Belfast, the regiment furnished several detachments to
aid the civil power.

[Sidenote: 1836]

The regiment, under the command of Colonel Archibald Campbell,
C.B., marched from Belfast for Enniskillen on the 16th of May 1836,
and was again ordered to furnish detachments in aid of the civil
power. In October following, the regiment marched from Enniskillen
for Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1837]

Orders having been received to hold the FORTY-SIXTH regiment in
readiness for foreign service, it was formed into six _service_
and four _depôt_ companies. The service companies, under the
command of Colonel Archibald Campbell, C.B., proceeded to Cork in
September 1837, and the head-quarters embarked at the Cove of Cork,
on the 26th of that month, on board the "Prince Regent" transport.
The remaining three companies, under the command of Major Robert
Garrett, embarked on the 5th of October on board the "Arab"
transport; the former arrived at Gibraltar on the 18th of October,
and the latter in November.

[Sidenote: 1838]

On the 6th of April 1838, Lieut.-General Sir John Keane, K.C.B.,
was removed from the sixty-eighth to the Colonelcy of the
FORTY-SIXTH regiment, in succession to General Henry Wynyard,
deceased.

In June 1838, the depôt companies embarked at Kinsale for England,
and arrived at Plymouth on the 27th of that month.

[Sidenote: 1839]

On the 1st of August 1839, Lieut.-General John Ross was appointed,
from the ninety-eighth, to be Colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment,
in succession to Lieut.-General Sir John Keane, who was removed to
the forty-third regiment.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The depôt companies embarked at Plymouth for Jersey on the 5th of
August 1839; and in June 1841 proceeded to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1842]

On the 20th of January 1842, the service companies embarked at
Gibraltar for Barbadoes, in the "Java" transport, and arrived at
their destination on the 25th of February. They were afterwards
encamped on the Savannah until the 18th of April. Upon the
embarkation of the fifty-second regiment, the FORTY-SIXTH moved
into the Stone Barracks, but, on the fever breaking out, encamped
on the 2nd of December at the Naval Hospital.

[Sidenote: 1843]

On the 15th of January, 1843, the head-quarters, under the command
of Captain Child, embarked on board the "Dee" steamer for St.
Vincent, where they arrived on the 16th of that month, and marched
to Fort Charlotte. The other companies were stationed at St. Lucia,
Dominica, and Berbice.

The grenadier company at Berbice suffered severely from yellow
fever, and also the head-quarters, which were compelled to leave
Fort Charlotte, and encamp at Townan's-pasture, about three miles
distant.

Her Majesty was pleased to appoint General the Earl of Stair, from
the ninety-second, to be Colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, on
the 31st of May, 1843, in succession to Lieut.-General John Ross,
C.B., deceased.

[Sidenote: 1844]

On the 15th of October, 1844, the head-quarters sailed from St.
Vincent for Barbadoes, where the grenadier company had also
arrived. The companies from Dominica and St. Lucia arrived at
Barbadoes in December.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The regiment embarked on the 3rd of February, 1845, on board the
"Resistance" for Nova Scotia, and disembarked at Halifax on the
25th of that month, when it was quartered in the South Barracks.

On the 7th of July, 1845, the regiment embarked, on board the troop
ship "Apollo," for Canada East, and anchored at Quebec on the 20th,
when it was transhipped into the "Canada" steamer on the 22nd,
and arrived at Montreal on the 23rd of July; the regiment then
proceeded in the "Prince Albert" steamer for La Prairie, about nine
miles from Montreal.

[Sidenote: 1846]

The regiment, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Garrett, K.H.,
proceeded on the 9th of October, 1846, to Kingston, in Canada West,
and occupied the _Tête-de-Pont_ Barracks.

[Sidenote: 1847]

On the 25th of September, 1847, the head-quarters of the regiment,
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Garrett, K.H., proceeded from
Kingston in the "Highlander" steamer, and was followed on the next
day by the second division, under the command of Major Robert
Campbell, in the "Passport" steamer, for Montreal, on passage for
Quebec, where, on arrival, the regiment was immediately transhipped
to the "Belle-Isle," and proceeded to Nova Scotia, where it arrived
on the 16th of October.

[Sidenote: 1848]

The service companies of the regiment, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Garrett, K.H., embarked on board the ship
"Herefordshire," for England, on the 8th of April, 1848, and
arrived at Portsmouth on the 8th of May. The service companies
proceeded to Dover, where they were joined by the depôt companies
from Guernsey, under Major John Maclean.

In July, 1848, the regiment proceeded to Liverpool, and afterwards
marched into camp at Everton. On the 29th of September the
head-quarters were removed to Chester, and in December proceeded to
Liverpool.

[Sidenote: 1850]

[Sidenote: 1851]

On the 16th of April, 1850, the head-quarters and four companies
proceeded from Liverpool to Hull, where the regiment, under the
command of Lieut.-Colonel Robert Garrett, K.H., was stationed on
the 1st of April, 1851, the date to which the present record has
been continued.



CONCLUSION.


The scene of the principal active services of the FORTY-SIXTH
regiment, from its formation in 1741, until the present period, has
been limited to _North America_ and the _West India Islands_.

After the unsuccessful attach on _Fort Ticonderago_ in July,
1758, the regiment shared in the capture of _Fort Niagara_ on the
25th of July, 1759, and of other forts in Canada, which led to
the surrender of _Montreal_ on the 8th of September, 1760; and
thus completed the conquest of that country,--_Quebec_ having
been acquired, in September of the preceding year, by the troops
detached under Major-General Wolfe.

In February, 1762, the regiment shared in the capture of
_Martinique_, which was followed by the reduction of _Grenada_,
_St. Lucia_, and _St. Vincent_; and in August following was present
at the conquest of the _Havannah_, which last acquisition was
restored to Spain at the Peace of 1763.

The regiment embarked in 1776, for _North America_, and shared in
several actions of the war with the United States until November,
1778, when it proceeded to the _West Indies_, and participated in
the capture of _St. Lucia_ in December following.

During the years 1795 and 1796, the regiment was employed in
the campaign against the Caribs in _St. Vincent_, a severe and
harassing service.

While other regiments had the opportunity of encountering the
French legions in other parts of the world, the FORTY-SIXTH was
employed in protecting the colonial possessions of Great Britain;
how efficiently this duty was performed is testified by the word
"DOMINICA," conferred by Royal authority, for the gallant defence
made by the regiment against a very superior French force on the
22nd of February, 1805. The language of Lieut.-General Sir John
Hope, when reporting the battle of _Corunna_, is alike applicable
to the conduct of the troops at _Dominica_, for there, as at the
former place,--

  "The enemy has been taught, that whatever advantages of position,
  or of _numbers_ he may employ, there is inherent in the
  British officers and soldiers, a bravery that knows not how to
  yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will ensure
  victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any human
  means."

The flank companies of the FORTY-SIXTH formed part of the troops
which reduced _Martinique_ in February, 1809, and thus the services
of the regiment were a _second_ time connected with the conquest of
that island.

In 1810, the flank companies of the regiment shared in the
reduction of _Guadaloupe_, and were honorably mentioned in the
despatches.

In 1811, the regiment arrived in England from the _West Indies_,
and in 1813 embarked for New South Wales, from which country it
proceeded, in 1817, to the East Indies, and returned to Great
Britain in 1833.

The regiment embarked for Gibraltar in 1837; proceeded to the
_West Indies_ in 1842, and to _North America_ in 1845, whence it
returned, in 1848, to England.

Services of the foregoing description, combined with excellent
conduct in quarters at home and abroad, during a period of upwards
of a century, have deservedly acquired for the regiment the
approbation of the Sovereign, and the confidence of the Nation.


  ------
   1851
  ------


FOOTNOTES:

[6] The "_Pragmatic Sanction_" was published by the Emperor
Charles the Sixth on the 17th of April, 1713, whereby, in case
of his having no male issue, his daughters were to succeed to
his hereditary dominions, in preference to the sons of his late
brother, Joseph the First.

[7] The _ten_ regiments of Marines took rank in the regular Army,
and were numbered from the _Forty-fourth_ to the _Fifty-third_
regiment:--The _seven_ additional regiments of Infantry, raised
in January 1741, were numbered from the _Fifty-fourth_ to the
_Sixtieth_ regiment.

[8] _James Francis Edward_, "_The Pretender_," son of _James II._,
and of _Mary_, his second wife, daughter of the Duke of Modena, was
born on the 10th June, 1688. He married, in 1719, Mary Clementina,
daughter of Prince James Sobieski, and granddaughter of John
Sobieski, King of Poland. He died on the 1st June, 1766, (aged 78
years), leaving issue two sons:--

1. _Charles Edward Louis Cassimir_, termed in England "_The Young
Pretender_;" born on the 30th November, 1720, who married the
Princess Stohlberg of Germany, and died at Rome, without issue, on
the 31st January, 1788.

2. _Henry Benedict_, called _The Cardinal York_; born on the 24th
March, 1725. When the last grand effort for the restoration of his
family, in 1745, proved abortive, he took holy orders, and was
elevated to the purple by Pope Benedict XIV. in 1747, and died at
Rome in 1807. The Cardinal was the last male branch of the House of
Stuart.

[9] _Preston_, contracted from _Priests' town_, the early
proprietors of the soil being the monks of Holyrood and Newbattle,
who erected on the sea-shore _pans_ for the manufacture of salt,
from which circumstance it received the name of _Preston-Pans_.

[10] _Return of the Officers and Men in each regiment of Infantry
on the day of the Battle of Culloden_:--

                                                           Serjeants,
                                                 Officers.  Drummers,
                                                            and Rank
                                                            and File.

  Royal Scots                       now 1st Foot     26         455
  Lieut.-General Howard's regiment   "  3rd   "      16         448
         "       Barrell's    "      "  4th   "      20         353
  Major-General  Wolfe's      "      "  8th   "      22         352
         "       Pulteney's   "      "  13th  "      22         352
  Brigadier-General Price's   "      "  14th  "      23         336
         "          Bligh's   "      "  20th  "      20         447
  Major-General Campbell's    "      "  21st  "      19         393
  Brig.-General Lord Semple's "      "  25th  "      23         392
  Major-General Blakeney's    "      "  27th  "      20         336
  Brig.-General Cholmondeley's       "  34th  "      24         435
         "      Fleming's     "      "  36th  "      26         389
  Colonel Battereau's         "      " (disbanded)   27         396
    "     Dejean's            "      "  37th regt.   23         468
    "     Conway's            "      "  48th  "      24         362
                                                    ---       -----
                                      Total         335       5,914
                                                    ---       -----

[11] The _seven_ regiments, raised in 1741, were numbered as shown
in the following list, and the _Numerical titles_ of six of them,
which have since been retained on the establishment of the army,
were changed after the Peace of 1748, as specified, viz.:--

  54th regt.,  com. by Col. Thomas Fowke, now the  43rd regt.
  55th   "          "       James Long      "      44th   "
  56th   "          "       D. Houghton     "      45th   "
  57th   "          "       John Price      "      46th   "
  58th   "          "       J. Mordaunt     "      47th   "
  59th   "          "       J. Cholmondeley "      48th   "
  60th   "          "       H. De Grangue disbanded in 1748.


[12] Cape Breton was captured by the troops under Lieut.-General
Amherst, on the 26th of July, 1758.

[13] _Ticonderoga_, or _Ticonderago_, was the name of a fort
built, in 1756, by the French in Canada, on the north side of a
peninsula, for communication between Lakes George and Champlain.
The fort afterwards became a heap of ruins, and formed an appendage
to a farm. Its name is derived from a word in the Indian language,
signifying _Noisy_. In 1759, the fort was captured by the British,
and in 1775 it was surprised by the Americans, but was retaken by
Major-General Burgoyne in July 1777.

[14] It was in this action at St. Lucia that the fifth foot
acquired the privilege of wearing a _white plume_ in the cap,
instead of the red and white tuft worn by the other regiments
of the line: the FORTY-SIXTH regiment had already obtained the
distinction of _red feathers_, under the circumstances stated at
page 25.

[15] The island of Dominica was reduced by a British armament in
June 1761, and was retained by Great Britain by the conditions of
the Treaty of Peace which was concluded at Paris on the 10th of
February, 1763. Dominica was taken by the French in September 1778,
but was restored to Great Britain at the Peace of 1783.

[16] Martinique was captured by the British in 1762, but was
restored to France by the Peace of Fontainebleau, concluded in the
following year. It was again captured in 1794, but was restored
to France at the Peace of Amiens in 1802. Martinique was captured
in 1809 for the third time, and was again restored to the French
nation at the Peace of 1814.

[17] Captain Archibald Campbell, on his return from the West
Indies in 1811, obtained the permission of His Royal Highness the
Duke of York to proceed to Portugal, for the purpose of offering
his services to Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford, which being
accepted, he served from September 1811 until 1814 with the
Portuguese troops in the fifth division of the British army; and
was, in 1812, promoted to the rank of major. He was present in the
battles of _Salamanca_ and _Vittoria_; in the latter of which he
commanded the advance of his brigade, consisting of every third
file; when he, and two captains, under his command, were severely
wounded; his conduct on the occasion was mentioned in the orders
issued after the action by Major-General Spry, who commanded the
brigade. Major Archibald Campbell commanded the 15th Portuguese
infantry in the affairs of crossing the _Bidassoa_ into France,
forcing the enemy's lines on the _Nive_, on the 9th, 10th, and 11th
of December 1813, on which occasion he was promoted for his conduct
to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Portuguese service, and
his name was mentioned in General Orders by Marshal Beresford; he
was honored with a medal by his Sovereign, and on his return to
England was promoted, on the 17th of February, 1814, to the rank of
Lieut.-Colonel in the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, with which his earlier
services were connected. He was subsequently appointed a Companion
of the Order of the Bath, and was appointed extra aide-de-camp to
His Majesty King William IV. on the 6th of May 1831, with the rank
of colonel in the army. He retired from the FORTY-SIXTH regiment
on the 11th of October 1839. The decease of Colonel Archibald
Campbell, C.B., occurred at the Isle of Mull, on the 16th of
November, 1840.

[18] The remark here made by Lieut.-Colonel Campbell is in allusion
to the new system of drill, prescribed by the General Order of the
10th of March, 1824, according to the improvements introduced by
Major-General Sir Henry Torrens, K.C.B., Adjutant-General of the
Forces.


[Illustration: FORTY-SIXTH REGIMENT.

_For Cannons Military Records_

_Madeley lith 3 Wellington S^t Strand_]



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE FORTY-SIXTH,

OR

THE SOUTH DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT,

ORIGINALLY NUMBERED

THE FIFTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT.


JOHN PRICE.

_Appointed 13th January, 1741._

MR. JOHN PRICE obtained a commission of ensign in a regiment of
foot in 1706; and subsequently rose to the rank of Captain and
Lieut.-Colonel in the First Foot Guards. In January, 1741, he was
promoted to the colonelcy of the FIFTY-SEVENTH (now FORTY-SIXTH)
regiment, which was then being raised. In June, 1743, Colonel Price
was removed to the fourteenth regiment of foot, and was promoted
to the rank of Brigadier-General on the 6th of June, 1745. During
the campaign of 1747, he commanded a brigade of infantry in the
Netherlands, under His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, and
highly distinguished himself at the battle of Val, or Laffeld, near
Maestricht, on the 2nd of July of that year. His brigade was posted
in the village of Val, and his gallantry during the action was
commended by the Duke of Cumberland in his public despatch. He died
in November following at Breda, in Holland.


THE HONORABLE THOMAS MURRAY.

_Appointed 23rd June, 1743._

This Officer was promoted by His Majesty King George II. from
the Third Foot Guards to be colonel of the FIFTY-SEVENTH (now
FORTY-SIXTH) regiment, upon Colonel Price being removed to the
fourteenth foot in June, 1743. Colonel the Honorable Thomas Murray
was promoted to the rank of major-general on the 1st of April,
1754, and to that of lieut.-general on the 19th of January, 1758.
His decease occurred in November, 1764.


WILLIAM VISCOUNT HOWE, K.B.

_Appointed 21st November, 1764._

This distinguished officer was the fifth son of Emanuel Scrope
Viscount Howe, and commenced his military career as a cornet in
the Duke of Cumberland's regiment of light dragoons, in which he
was promoted to a lieutenancy on the 21st of September, 1747.
The regiment was disbanded in 1749, shortly after the conclusion
of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was signed in October of
the preceding year. He was promoted to the rank of captain in the
twentieth regiment on the 1st of June, 1750, and to that of major
in the sixtieth (afterwards fifty-eighth) regiment on the 4th of
January, 1756. On the 17th of December, 1757, he was promoted to
the lieutenant-colonelcy of the fifty-eighth regiment. During the
"_Seven Years' War_," he served in America under Major-General
Wolfe with great reputation, and was advanced to the brevet rank
of colonel on the 19th of February 1762. Colonel the Honorable
William Howe was appointed by King George III. to the colonelcy of
the FORTY-SIXTH regiment on the 21st of November 1764. His Majesty
also advanced him to the rank of major-general on the 25th of May,
1772. Major-general the Honorable William Howe was appointed to
succeed General Gage in the chief command of the British Forces in
America shortly after the commencement of the War of Independence,
and arrived at Boston with Major-Generals Clinton and Burgoyne in
May, 1775. Major-General the Honorable Sir William Howe, K.B., was
appointed by His Majesty, colonel of the twenty-third Royal Welsh
Fusiliers, from the FORTY-SIXTH regiment, on the 11th of May, 1775.
He commanded at the attack on Bunker's Hill on the 17th of June
following, was besieged in Boston during the winter, evacuated that
town in the spring of 1776, and retired to Halifax, in Nova Scotia.
On the 1st of January, 1776, he received the local rank of General
in North America. In June he arrived at Staten Island, where he
was joined by his brother Admiral Richard Lord Howe. The brothers
here informed the American Congress, that they had received
full power to grant pardon to such as should return to their
obedience; but the Commissioners appointed by that body declined
the proposition as unworthy of attention. In August, he defeated
the Americans at Long Island, and took possession of New York in
September, 1776. After the campaign in the Jerseys, in 1777, Sir
William Howe sailed from Sandy Hook and entered Chesapeake Bay.
Having previously secured the command of the Schuylkill, he crossed
it with his army, and defeated the Americans at Brandywine on
the 11th of September, and at Germantown on the 4th of October,
1777. On the 29th of August, 1777, His Majesty advanced him to
the rank of lieut.-general. In the spring of 1778, he returned to
England, having resigned the command of the army to General Sir
Henry Clinton. On the 21st of April, 1786, Sir William Howe was
removed to the colonelcy of the nineteenth (late twenty-third)
Light Dragoons, which he retained until his decease. On the 12th
of October, 1793, Sir William Howe was promoted to the rank of
general. In 1799, he succeeded to the Irish peerage held by his
brother Richard Earl Howe, the celebrated Admiral; and in 1805 he
was appointed Governor of Plymouth. General William Viscount Howe
died on the 12th of July, 1814, in the eighty-fifth year of his age.


THE HONORABLE SIR JOHN VAUGHAN, K.B.

_Appointed 11th May, 1775._

LIEUT.-COLONEL Commandant the Honorable John Vaughan, who
distinguished himself at the capture of Martinique in February,
1762, was appointed from the ninety-fourth, Royal Welsh Volunteers
(since disbanded) to be lieut.-colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment
on the 25th of November, 1762, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel
John Young, who retired. Lieut.-Colonel the Honorable John Vaughan
was promoted to the rank of colonel in the army on the 25th of
May, 1772, and His Majesty King George III. appointed him to the
colonelcy of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment on the 11th of May, 1775,
upon Major-General the Honorable Sir William Howe, K.B., being
removed to the twenty-third, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Colonel Vaughan
embarked with his regiment for North America in the beginning of
the year 1776, and, for his services during the American war, was
promoted to the rank of major-general on the 29th of August, 1777,
and was advanced to that of lieut.-general on the 20th of November,
1782. In 1792 His Majesty conferred upon him the dignity of a
Knight of the Order of the Bath. Lieut.-General the Honorable Sir
John Vaughan died on the 30th of June, 1795, at which period he was
Commander in Chief of the troops stationed in the Leeward Islands.


SIR JAMES HENRY CRAIG, K.B.

_Appointed 1st August, 1795._

JAMES HENRY CRAIG was appointed ensign in the thirtieth foot, in
1763, and served with his regiment at Gibraltar: in 1771 he was
promoted to captain in the forty-seventh regiment, with which
corps he served several campaigns in America; and in 1777 he was
promoted to the majority, and in 1781 to the lieut.-colonelcy, of
the eighty-second regiment, from which he was removed, in 1783, to
the sixteenth. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1790, and
to that of major-general in 1794; in August, 1795, he was nominated
to the colonelcy of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment; he was advanced to
the rank of lieut.-general in 1801, and removed to the eighty-sixth
in 1804. He commanded an expedition to the Mediterranean, in
1805, with the local rank of general, and the dignity of a Knight
of the Bath; the troops under his orders landed at Naples, and
subsequently took possession of the island of Sicily. In 1806
he was removed to the twenty-second regiment; and in 1807 he was
appointed Governor of Upper and Lower Canada, with the local rank
of General in America; in 1809 he was removed to the seventy-eighth
Highlanders. He was also appointed Governor of Blackness Castle. He
died on the 12th of January, 1812.


JOHN WHYTE.

_Appointed 5th January, 1804._

This officer commenced his military career, in 1761, as an ensign
in the Thirty-eighth regiment, and was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant in the fifty-sixth regiment on the 9th of February,
1762, and to that of captain on the 25th of March, 1771. He was
promoted from the fifty-sixth to be major in the eighty-third
regiment (afterwards disbanded) on the 23rd of December, 1777.
Major Whyte was promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel in the
sixth regiment of foot on the 3rd of April, 1782, and received the
brevet rank of colonel on the 12th of October, 1793. On the 26th
of February, 1795, he was promoted to the rank of major-general,
and on the 24th of April following, His Majesty King George III.
appointed him to the colonelcy of the First West India regiment.
Major-General Whyte was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general
on the 29th of April, 1802, and on the 5th of January, 1804, he
was appointed colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment. On the 1st of
January, 1812, he was advanced to the rank of general. The decease
of General John Whyte occurred on the 30th of March, 1816.


HENRY WYNYARD.

_Appointed 1st April, 1816._

The early services of this officer are connected with the first
regiment of foot guards, in which he was appointed ensign on the
6th of June, 1778, and in which he rose to the rank of captain
on the 4th of June, 1781. In February, 1793, he embarked with
the brigade of guards for Holland, and advanced with the army
through Flanders. In May following he returned to England, having
been promoted to a company with the rank of lieut.-colonel in the
preceding month. In November, 1794, he rejoined the British army in
the neighbourhood of Arnheim, and after the retreat of that winter,
he embarked for England. On the 3rd of May, 1796, he received the
brevet rank of colonel; and early in 1798 was appointed to the
command of a flank battalion, formed from the grenadiers of the
brigade of guards, and in August, 1799, landed at the Helder under
General Sir Ralph Abercromby. Colonel Wynyard was present in every
action during that expedition except the last; in that of the 19th
of September near _Bergen_ he was wounded. On the 29th of April,
1802, he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in May,
1803, was placed upon the staff of Great Britain, being appointed
to the command of a brigade of guards in the Southern District. In
September, 1806, Major-General Wynyard embarked with a brigade of
guards and other troops destined for Sicily, in which Island he
was placed in command upon the southern coast. In January, 1808,
he arrived in England, and was again placed upon the staff in the
Southern District. On the 25th of April, 1808, he was advanced to
the rank of lieut.-general, and in June was appointed to the staff
of Ireland, which he held until the 24th of January, 1812. On the
15th of September, 1808, His Majesty King George III. conferred
upon him the colonelcy of the sixty-fourth regiment, from which
he was appointed colonel of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment on the 1st
of April, 1816. Lieut.-General Wynyard commanded the forces in
North Britain from the 28th of July, 1812, to the 24th of April,
1816, and on the 12th of August, 1819, was advanced to the rank
of general. General Wynyard was also a member of the Consolidated
Board of General Officers, and a Groom of the Bedchamber to His
Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, now King of Hanover. General
Wynyard died on the 3rd of April, 1838, after a lengthened service
of sixty years.


SIR JOHN (afterwards LORD) KEANE, G.C.B., & G.C.H.

_Appointed 6th April, 1838._

This officer entered the army at an early age, and on the 12th
of November 1794, was promoted to the rank of captain in the
hundred-and-twenty-fourth regiment, afterwards disbanded. Captain
Keane was placed on the half-pay of the seventy-third regiment on
the 11th of March 1795, and on the 7th of November 1799 he was
removed to the forty-fourth regiment, which he joined at Gibraltar.
During the campaign in Egypt, Captain Keane served as aide-de-camp
to Major-General Lord Cavan, and was present in the actions near
Alexandria, on the 13th and 21st of March 1801. On the 27th of
May 1802, he was promoted to the rank of major in the sixtieth
regiment; he remained in the Mediterranean on the staff until
March 1803, when he returned to England. Major Keane was promoted
to the rank of lieut.-colonel in the thirteenth foot on the 20th
of August 1803, which regiment he joined at Gibraltar early in
1804. Lieut.-Colonel Keane afterwards served under Lieut.-General
George Beckwith, in the expedition against Martinique in 1809, and
was present at the siege of Fort Desaix, which surrendered on the
24th of February, of that year, and completed the capture of the
island. In January 1812, he received the brevet rank of colonel,
and on the 25th of June following, he was removed to the sixtieth
regiment. His reputation was then such that immediately on his
arrival at Madrid, he was appointed to command a brigade in the
third division of the army under the Marquis of Wellington, in
which he served until the end of the war with France, in 1814, and
was present at the battles of Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Nivelle and
Orthes; the action at Vic Bigorre, battle of Toulouse, besides
other minor actions. For his services he was promoted to the rank
of major-general on the 4th of June 1814, and was appointed a
Knight Commander of the Bath. The honors which Major-General Keane
had now acquired were the Egyptian Medal, and a cross and two
clasps for Martinique, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Orthes, and
Toulouse. In August 1814, he was appointed to a command ordered for
particular service, and on his arrival at Jamaica, being senior
officer, he assumed the command of the military force destined to
co-operate with Vice-Admiral the Honorable Sir Alexander Cochrane
for the attack on New Orleans and the province of Louisiana. On
the morning of the 23rd of December, Major-General Keane effected
a landing within nine miles of New Orleans, and the same night,
with only eighteen hundred bayonets on shore, repulsed a serious
attack of five thousand of the enemy, assisted by three large
armed vessels on their flank. He held the command until the 25th
of December, when Major-General Sir Edward Pakenham arrived, and
assumed the command of the entire army. Major-General Keane was
then appointed to the third brigade, and was present in the affairs
of the 28th of December and 1st of January, as also at the assault
made in the enemy's fortified lines on the morning of the 8th of
January 1815, when he was severely wounded in two places. Sir
John Keane afterwards passed eight years in Jamaica (from 1823 to
1831), as major-general commanding the forces in that island; and,
during a year and a half of the time, he administered the civil
government likewise. The colonelcy of the ninety-fourth regiment
was conferred upon him on the 18th of April 1829, and on the 22nd
of July 1830, he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general; on the
13th of April, 1831, he was appointed colonel of the sixty-eighth
regiment; and in the year 1833, he succeeded Lieut.-General Sir
Colin Halkett in the command of the army at Bombay: on the 6th of
April 1838, Lieut.-General Sir John Keane was appointed colonel
of the FORTY-SIXTH regiment. After nearly six years' service in
the Bombay presidency, on the 29th of October 1838, he received
authority from the government of India to organise and lead into
Scinde a force intended to co-operate with the army then on the
north-west frontier of India, under the command of General Sir
Henry Fane. In December following Sir Henry Fane forwarded his
resignation to head-quarters, and the command of the combined
forces devolved upon Sir John Keane, who was now called upon to
lead a considerable army, and to conduct operations requiring much
discretion, delicacy, and tact in dealing with those half-friendly
powers, whose existence is one of the greatest difficulties in the
government of a semi-civilized land. After penetrating the Bolan
Pass, the troops arrived on the 27th of April 1839 at Candahar,
from whence they proceeded to Ghuznee, which was captured by
their gallant exertions on the 23rd of July following. This
completed the conquest of Affghanistan; and Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk,
after an exile of many years, was restored to the throne of his
ancestors. Lieut.-General Sir John Keane, K.C.B., was removed
from the FORTY-SIXTH to the forty-third regiment on the 1st of
August 1839. For his services during the expedition to Cabool,
Lieut.-General Sir John Keane was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of
the Most Honorable Military Order of the Bath, and on the 11th of
December, was raised to the peerage as Baron Keane, of Ghuznee in
Affghanistan, and of Cappoquin, county of Waterford, and obtained
a pension of two thousand pounds a-year for his own life and that
of his two immediate successors in the peerage, added to which he
received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, of the Court of
Directors of the East India Company, and other marks of public
approbation. These honors were not long enjoyed by Lieut.-General
Lord Keane, who died in the sixty-fourth year of his age, at Burton
Lodge, Hampshire, on the 26th of August 1844.


JOHN ROSS, C.B.

_Appointed 1st of August, 1839._

LIEUT.-GENERAL ROSS commenced his military career as an ensign in
the thirty-sixth regiment, his commission being dated 2nd of June
1793; was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the fifty-second
regiment on the 8th of May 1796, and to that of captain on the 11th
of January 1800. Captain Ross served with the expedition against
Ferrol under Lieut.-General Sir James Pulteney in August following,
and was engaged with the enemy. On the 15th of August 1804, he was
promoted to the rank of major in the fifty-second regiment, and
obtained the rank of lieut.-colonel in the army on the 28th of
January 1808, and was promoted lieut.-colonel in the fifty-second
regiment on the 18th of February following. Lieut.-Colonel Ross
commanded the second battalion of the fifty-second regiment at
the battle of Vimiera, on the 21st of August 1808, for which he
received a medal; and also during the campaign in Spain under
Lieut.-General Sir John Moore, which ended by the battle of Corunna
on the 16th of January 1809. Lieut.-Colonel Ross in July following
commanded five companies of the fifty-second regiment, which
formed part of the force under Lieut.-General the Earl of Chatham,
employed in the expedition to the Scheldt. Lieut.-Colonel Ross
subsequently proceeded to the Peninsula, and commanded the first
battalion of the fifty-second at the actions of Pombal, Redinha,
Miranda de Corvo, Foz d'Arronce and Sabugal, and at the battle of
Fuentes d'Onor. On the 18th of July 1811, he was removed to the
sixty-sixth regiment, and in August following he was appointed
Deputy Adjutant-General to the forces in Ceylon, from whence he
returned to Europe in June 1814 for the benefit of his health; was
promoted to the brevet rank of colonel on the 4th of that month;
and was subsequently appointed Deputy Adjutant-General in Ireland.
In June 1815, he was nominated a Companion of the Order of the
Bath, and on the 12th of August 1819, Colonel Ross was appointed
Commandant of the Depôt at the Isle of Wight. On the 27th of May
1825, he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and on the 14th
of August 1828, was appointed Lieut.-Governor of Guernsey, which
he held until the 31st of March 1837. His Majesty King William IV.
appointed Major-General Ross to be colonel of the ninety-eighth
regiment on the 30th of May 1836; on the 28th of June 1838, he
was advanced to the rank of lieut.-general. In August 1839,
Lieut.-General Ross was removed to the FORTY-SIXTH regiment. The
decease of Lieut.-General Ross, C.B., occurred at Southampton on
the 17th of May 1843.


JOHN EARL OF STAIR, K.T.

_Appointed from the Ninety-second regiment on the 31st of May,
1843._


London: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For
Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



APPENDIX

  BRITISH AND HANOVERIAN ARMY AT WATERLOO,
  _as formed in Divisions and Brigades on the 18th of June, 1815_.


CAVALRY.


Commanded by Lieut.-General the EARL OF UXBRIDGE, G.C.B.

_1st Brigade._--Commanded by Major-General LORD EDWARD SOMERSET,
K.C.B.

  1st Life Guards                  Lieut.-Colonel Ferrier.
  2nd      "                             "   the Hon. E. P. Lygon.
  Royal Horse Guards, Blue               "       Sir Robert Hill.
  1st Dragoon Guards                     "       Fuller (Colonel).


_2nd Brigade._--Major-General SIR WILLIAM PONSONBY, K.C.B.

  1st or Royal Dragoons.           Lieut.-Colonel A. B. Clifton.
  2nd or Royal North British             "        J. J. Hamilton.
  Dragoons
  6th or Inniskilling Dragoons           "        J. Muter (Colonel).


_3rd Brigade._--Major-General W. B. DOMBERG.

  23rd Light Dragoons              Lieut.-Colonel the Earl of Portarlington
                                                         (Colonel).
  1st       "       King's               "        J. Bulow.
                  German Legion
  2nd       "        "                   "        C. de Jonquiera.


_4th Brigade._--Major-General SIR JOHN O. VANDELEUR, K.C.B.

  11th Light Dragoons              Lieut.-Colonel J. W. Sleigh.
  12th       "                           "        the Honorable F. C.
                                                    Ponsonby (Colonel).
  16th       "                           "        J. Hay.


_5th Brigade._--Major-General SIR COLQUHOUN GRANT, K.C.B.

  7th Hussars                      Colonel Sir Edward Kerrison.
  15th  "                          Lieut.-Colonel L. C. Dalrymple.
  2nd   " King's German Legion.          "        Linsingen.


_6th Brigade._--Major-General SIR HUSSEY VIVIAN, K.C.B.

  10th Royal Hussars.              Lieut.-Colonel Quentin (Colonel).
  18th Hussars.                          "        _Hon._ H. Murray.
  1st   " King's German Legion.          "        A. Wissell.


_7th Brigade._--Colonel SIR FREDERICK ARENSCHILDT, K.C.B.

  13th Light Dragoons.             Lieut.-Colonel Doherty.
  3rd Hussars King's German              "        Meyer.
  Legion.


Colonel ESTORFF.

  Prince Regent's Hussars.         Lieut.-Colonel Kielmansegge.
  Bremen and Verden Hussars.       Colonel Busche.


INFANTRY.


FIRST DIVISION.--Major-General G. COOKE.

_1st Brigade._--Major-General P. MAITLAND.

  1st Foot Guards, 2nd Batt.       Major H. Askew (Colonel).
          "        3rd   "           "   the Honorable W. Stewart
                                           (Colonel).

_2nd Brigade._--Major-General J. BYNG.

  Coldstream Guards, 2nd Batt.     Major A. G. Woodford (Colonel).
  3rd Foot Guards,         "         "   F. Hepburn (Colonel).


SECOND DIVISION.--Lieut.-General SIR H. CLINTON, G.C.B.

_3rd Brigade._--Major-General F. ADAM.

  52nd Foot, 1st Batt.             Lieut.-Colonel Sir John Colborne,
                                                    K.C.B. (Colonel).
  71st  "          "                         "    T. Reynell (Col.)
  95th  "    2nd   "   } Rifles.   Major J. Ross (Lieut.-Colonel).
  95th  "    3rd   "   }           Major A. G. Norcott (Lieut.-Col.)


_1st Brigade, King's German Legion._--Colonel DU PLAT.

  1st Line Batt., King's           Major W. Robertson.
                  German Legion.
  2nd      "           "             "   G. Muller.
  3rd      "           "           Lieut.-Colonel F. de Wissell
  4th      "           "           Major F. Reh.


_3rd Hanoverian Brigade._--Colonel HUGH HALKETT.

  Militia Batt. Bremervorde.       Lieut.-Colonel Schulenberg.
  Duke of York's 2nd Batt.         Major Count Munster.
        "        3rd   "             "   Baron Hunefeld.
  Militia Batt. Salzgitter.          "   Hammerstein.


THIRD DIVISION.--Lieut.-General Baron ALTEN.

_5th Brigade._--Major-General SIR COLIN HALKETT, K.C.B.

  30th Foot, 2nd Batt.             Major W. Bailey (Lieut.-Colonel).
  33rd  "                          Lieut.-Colonel W. K. Elphinstone.
  69th  "    2nd Batt.                   "        C. Morice (Col.)
  73rd  "    2nd Batt.                   "        W. G. Harris (Colonel).


_2nd Brigade._--King's German Legion.--Colonel BARON OMPTEDA.

  1st Light Batt., K.G.L.          Lieut.-Colonel L. Bussche.
  2nd       "        "             Major G. Baring.
  5th Line  "        "             Lieut.-Colonel W. B. Linsingen.
  8th  "    "        "             Major Schroeder (Lieut.-Colonel).


_1st Hanoverian Brigade._--Major-General COUNT KIELMANSEGGE.

  Duke of York's 1st Batt.         Major Bulow.
  Field Batt. Grubenhagen.         Lieut.-Colonel Wurmb.
        "         Bremen.                "        Langrehr.
        "         Luneburg.              "        Kleucke.
        "         Verden.          Major De Senkopp.


FOURTH DIVISION.--Lieut.-General SIR CHARLES COLVILLE, K.C.B.

_4th Brigade._--Colonel MITCHELL.

  14th Foot, 3rd Batt.             Major F. S. Tidy (Lieut.-Col.)
  23rd   "   1st   "               Lieut.-Colonel Sir Henry W.
                                                  Ellis, K.C.B.
  51st   "         "                     "        H. Mitchell (Colonel).


_6th Brigade._--Major-General JOHNSTONE.

  35th Foot, 2nd Batt.             Major C. M'Alister.
  54th   "                         Lieut.-Col. J. Earl of Waldegrave.
  59th   "   2nd Batt.                   "     H. Austin.
  91st   "   1st   "                     "     Sir W. Douglas, K.C.B.,
                                                 (Colonel).

_6th Hanoverian Brigade._--Major-General LYON.

  Field Batt., Calenberg.          ------
         "     Lanenberg.          Lieut.-Colonel Benort.
  Militia Batt., Hoya.                   "        Grote.
         "       Nieuberg.         ------
         "       Bentheim.         Major Croupp.


FIFTH DIVISION.--Lieut.-General SIR THOMAS PICTON, K.C.B.

_5th Brigade._--Major-General SIR JAMES KEMPT, K.C.B.

  28th Foot, 1st Batt.             Major R. Nixon (Lieut.-Colonel).
  32nd   "       "                   "   J. Hicks (Lieut.-Colonel).
  79th   "       "                 Lieut.-Colonel Neil Douglas.
  95th Rifles    "                       "        Sir A. F. Barnard,
                                                    K.C.B., (Colonel).

_9th Brigade._--Major-General SIR DENIS PACK, K.C.B.

  1st Foot, 3rd Batt.              Major C. Campbell.
  42nd  "   1st   "                Lieut.-Colonel Sir Robert Macara, K.C.B.
  44th  "   2nd   "                      "        J. M. Hamerton.
  92nd  "   1st   "                Major Donald McDonald.


_5th Hanoverian Brigade._--Colonel VINCKE.

  Militia Batt., Hameln.           Lieut.-Colonel Kleucke.
         "       Hildesheim.       Major Rheden.
         "       Peina.            Major Westphalen.
         "       Giffhorn.         Major Hammerstein.


SIXTH DIVISION.--_10th Brigade._--Major-General J. LAMBERT.

  4th Foot, 1st Batt.              Lieut.-Colonel F. Brooke.
  27th  "         "                Captain Sir J. Reade (Major).
  40th  "         "                Major F. Browne.
  81st  "   2nd   "                  "   P. Waterhouse.


_4th Hanoverian Brigade._--Colonel BEST.

  Militia Batt., Luneburg.         Lieut.-Colonel De Ramdohr.
         "       Verden.           Major Decken.
         "       Osterode.           "   Baron Reden.
         "       Minden.             "   De Schmidt.


_7th Brigade._--Major-General M'KENZIE.

  25th Foot, 2nd Batt.             Lieut.-Colonel A. W. Light.
  37th   "         "                     "        S. Hart.
  78th   "         "                     "        M. Lindsay.


      Cavalry        8,883
      Infantry      29,622
      Artillery      5,434
                    ------
           Total    43,939
                    ======


LONDON: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For Her
Majesty's Stationery Office.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  In the Appendix section, all occurrences of 'Battalion' have been
  abbreviated to 'Batt.' to conserve space in these tables.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  favour, favored; honour, honors; head quarters, head-quarters;
  negociations; despatches.

  Pg xxxii, page number '4 ' replaced by '44'.
  Pg xxxv, 'Viscount Ho weK.B' replaced by 'Viscount Howe, K.B.'.
  Pg 9, Sidenote '1747' was moved down two paragraphs.
  Pg 19, 'for Belleisle' replaced by 'for Belle-Isle'.
  Pg 21, Sidenote '1776' was moved down two paragraphs.
  Pg 22, 'this columm fell' replaced by 'this column fell'.
  Pg 30, Sidenote '1784' was moved down one paragraph.
  Pg 32, 'on the Virgie' replaced by 'on the Vigie'.
  Pg 46, Sidenote '1809' was moved down one paragraph.
  Pg 51, 'approvng of his' replaced by 'approving of his'.
  Pg 55, 'of the regigiment' replaced by 'of the regiment'.
  Pg 60, 'in readines for' replaced by 'in readiness for'.
  Pg 64, Sidenote '1848' was removed (no other Sidenotes
         appear in this Conclusion section).
  Footnote [13], 'peninsula, or' replaced by 'peninsula, for'.
  Footnote [13], 'Its is derived' replaced by 'Its name is derived'.





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