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Title: Wild Flowers of Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks and Cedar Breaks National Monument
Author: Jepson, Carl Elmer, Allen, Leland Francis
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Wild Flowers of Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks and Cedar Breaks National Monument" ***

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                         Zion and Bryce Canyon
                             NATIONAL PARKS
                              Cedar Breaks
                           NATIONAL MONUMENT

                     Text and Color Photographs by
                             CARL E. JEPSON
                         Chief Park Naturalist
                            LELAND F. ALLEN
                            Park Naturalist

    [Illustration: NATIONAL PARK SERVICE]

                          Published and Copyright 1958
                        in cooperation with the
                         NATIONAL PARK SERVICE


    [Illustration: Mount Zion]

In these areas of Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks and Cedar Breaks
National Monument, four life zones are found extending from low
elevations of near 3,600 feet to extremes of over 11,300 feet. The area
within elevations from the lowest point to 4,000 feet is the Lower
Sonoran Zone; above that to 7,000 feet is the Upper Sonoran Zone; from
7,000 to 8,500 feet is the Transition Zone; above that to 10,000 feet is
the Canadian Zone; and from 10,000 feet to the highest point on Brian
Head Peak is the Hudsonian Zone.

Native plants typical of desert, mesa and mountain grow within these
extremes of elevation and include a wide variety of species. Of the
three areas featured, Cedar Breaks National Monument contains the
greatest variety, and frequently exhibits marvelous displays, depending
on the amount of rainfall from year to year.

The purpose of this booklet is to help visitors in their enjoyment of
the flowers they find along the roadways and trails—flowers they
observe, appreciate and probably photograph but leave UNPICKED for the
pleasure of others.

Through the mediums of color photography and color lithography one
hundred and six species of wild flowers and plants most commonly seen
are presented in closeup detail as an aid to identification. Brief
descriptions of size, habitat, blooming period, use, economic value and
other details are given.

The flowers have been arranged in a general order of families, except
that occasionally, for the convenience of preparing the color plates,
flowers of similar color or density have been grouped on a page although
they are not in the same family nor closely related.

The Standardized Plant Names of the American Joint Committee on
Horticultural Nomenclature has been followed as the guide. In case of
locally used common names, such has been indicated in the text.

History Association in cooperation with the National Park Service. The
Association has for its objective the fuller interpretation of the
scenic, scientific, aesthetic and historic values of these National
Parks, to the end that park visitors are provided with such information,
audio and visual aids as will help them gain a better understanding and
greater appreciation of the phenomena they find in them.

It is hoped that this brief treatise on the flora may prove helpful to
many visitors in learning more about some of the important species of
plant life that they may discover during their visits to the Zion and
Bryce Canyon National Parks and Cedar Breaks National Monument.

    [Illustration: Badlands]

Credit for the photographic work goes to several individuals, all
members of the interpretive staffs of these areas during the past few
years. Park Naturalists Carl E. Jepson and Leland F. Allen have prepared
the descriptive information given for each flower.

The printing and color processing by the Wheelwright Lithographing
Company, 975 So. West Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah.

1. SEGOLILY MARIPOSA                                         Lily Family
                        _Calochortus nuttallii_

The Segolily Mariposa was chosen as the State Flower of Utah probably
because of the important use early pioneers made of the root bulbs of
this plant in supplementing their meager diets during the early
settlement period. The name “Sego” (pronounced see-go) is of Shoshonean
origin, and this flower was sacred in Indian legend long before the
arrival of Utah pioneers in 1847.

This plant is found in rather dry, rocky soils and puts on a very showy
display during May and June. It is more commonly known as the Mariposa
Lily in other sections of the country, but in Utah it is called the

There are three species in color of white, pink and yellow found in the
Zion Region.

    [Illustration: Segolily Mariposa]

2. YELLOW MARIPOSA                                           Lily Family
                  _Calochortus nuttallii var. aureus_

Found only in the petrified forest of the Coalpits Wash section of Zion
National Park, this plant is not very abundant and probably suffered
from overgrazing by livestock during the settlement period before Zion
became a National Park.

Mariposa in Spanish means butterfly.

This species with bright-yellow flowers is associated with a specific
geologic stratum—the Petrified Forest member of the Chinle formation. It
is found in great abundance in the Petrified Forest National Monument
near Holbrook, Arizona.

    [Illustration: Yellow Mariposa]

3. PRAIRIE SPIDERWORT                                  Spiderwort Family
                      _Tradescantia occidentalis_

In the sandy areas at elevations above 4,000 feet you may find this
pretty, three-petaled, deep-blue flower on its slender stalk about a
foot or more in height blooming early in June. The flowers bloom at
night, so are not easily found except early in the mornings. The plant
is fairly abundant along the Narrows Trail, the East Rim Trail and near
the East Entrance Station of Zion National Park.

Indians used the entire plant for food.

    [Illustration: Prairie Spiderwort]

4. BLUEDICKS                                                 Lily Family
                       _Dichelostemma pulchellum_

This bright-blue flower, on its long, slender stalk, has a number of
common names, such as Wild Hyacinth, Grass Nuts and Spanish Lily. The
bulb of this plant has a nutty flavor. It was gathered by the Indians
and early pioneers for food in some sections of the country. It is found
sparingly in good soil areas.

    [Illustration: Bluedicks]

5. PURPLESPOT FRITILLARY                                     Lily Family
                       _Fritillaria atropurpurea_

A rather rare lily sometimes called Leopard Lily or Bronze Bell. Its
drooping flowers on fairly tall stems are found growing in the Sagebrush
areas or in alpine meadows. As they are not very conspicuous, they are
often overlooked by visitors. The petals, with their mottled effect in
brown, yellow and purple spots, present a remarkable pattern of beauty
when observed closely. The odor of the plant is not pleasing to humans,
but is no doubt attractive to insects.

    [Illustration: Purplespot Fritillary]

6. FINELEAF YUCCA                                            Lily Family
                          _Yucca angustissima_

The name “Our Lord’s Candlestick” was given to this tall, conspicuous
plant of the desert by the early Spanish Padres, who were the first
white men to see this region of Southern Utah. During May and June the
waxy-white flowers bloom on tall stalks and soon mature into rather
large seed pods.

Indians made very good use of all parts of the plant. Its fiber was used
for making sandals and clothing, the seeds provided food, and the roots
were used for making soap. The Navajo Indian called it Yaybi-tsa-si,
which means literally “Yucca of the Gods.”

    [Illustration: Fineleaf Yucca]

7. MOUNTAIN DEATHCAMAS                                       Lily Family
                          _Zigadenus elegans_

An onion-like plant with a long, loose cluster of small, creamy-white
flowers. Its root is shaped much like that of the onion, but is
odorless. The plant is poisonous to man and beast. Deathcamas is found
mostly in meadows or wet places on the plateaus where it presents a
serious danger to grazing cattle and sheep. At Cedar Breaks it blooms
during July and August and is fairly common in the alpine meadows.

    [Illustration: Mountain Deathcamas]

8. WILD BUCKWHEAT                                       Buckwheat Family
                         _Eriogonum umbellatum_

Wild Buckwheat is commonly associated with Sagebrush and arid regions of
the West. Many species of the genus are found blooming throughout the
summer season.

The spreading branches grow close to the ground and help reduce erosion,
and the yearly accumulation of leaves adds humus to the soil. The flower
head at the top of single stalks, with its many-branched, dense cluster
in a lacy pattern, makes a fine floral display of yellow. The flowers
are important to the honey bee, and the ripened seeds are diligently
sought by the chipmunks, other rodents and several birds.

    [Illustration: Wild Buckwheat]

9. GREEN EPHEDRA                                         Jointfir Family
                           _Ephedra viridis_

Not a very showy plant with its pale-green stems, very small leaves and
inconspicuous flowers. It is probably of greatest interest because of
the use made of the plant by early pioneers in brewing a tea, which
served as a tonic for various ailments. It was commonly called Brigham
Tea, Squaw Tea or, more generally, Mormon tea.

The plant is a relative of the Pines and Firs and is very able to
withstand drouth. It is found fairly abundantly in the Sagebrush and
Saltbush areas of the Upper Sonoran Zone.

The drug ephedrine is obtained from some of the species of Ephedra found
in China.

    [Illustration: Green Ephedra]

10. FOURWING SALTBUSH                                   Goosefoot Family
                          _Atriplex canescens_

A silvery-green, profusely branched shrub growing two to five feet high
with conspicuous clusters (in late summer) of four-winged seeds about
the same color as the leaves. It is very common in the Sonoran Zones and
abundant in the alkaline flats of the Great Basin of Utah. In the lower
portion of Zion Canyon it is abundant and often taken to be Sagebrush,
which it resembles to some extent.

This plant is of value as forage for livestock, and deer feed upon it to
a limited extent.

    [Illustration: Fourwing Saltbush]

11. CALYPSO ORCHID                                         Orchid Family
                           _Calypso bulbosa_

If you travel to the mountains early in June or July, you may be lucky
enough to find this beautiful flower, the dainty Calypso or Fairy
Slipper Orchid, as it blooms in the dense woods of Spruce and Pine or in
the deep canyons along shady streams at elevations above 6,000 feet. The
flowers grow singly on stems 4 to 6 inches high and have only one large
leaf. The plant takes part of its food from decaying wood or other
organic matter.

Thoughtless picking of this flower has made it very rare and in danger
of becoming extinct. Please do your part to help save the Fairy Slipper

    [Illustration: Calypso Orchid]

12. FOUR-O’CLOCK                                     Four-O’Clock Family
                         _Mirabilis multiflora_

Closely resembling the cultivated variety of Four-O’Clock, this plant,
with its abundance of brilliant magenta-colored flowers, is one of the
spectacular sights in May or early June. It is a sturdy perennial with
thick, glossy-green leaves spreading low over the ground. The
south-facing slopes in the Sonoran Zones are its most common habitat,
but it is also found in the broken lava fields. Being a night bloomer,
the flowers close during the bright daylight hours and open at about
four o’clock in the afternoon. Its blooming season is generally brief,
about two or three weeks, but it sometimes blooms twice in the same

    [Illustration: Four-O’Clock]

13. SPRINGBEAUTY                                         Purslane Family
                         _Claytonia lanceolata_

Found abundantly at Cedar Breaks during May and early June and also in
the shady canyons of Zion in the Transition Zone. Each plant has two
narrow leaves near the base, each about 2 inches long, above which are
four to five practically leafless branches with a single flower at the
top of each. The plant is rarely over 6 inches high; more commonly it is
flat to the ground. Flowers vary in color from white to pink or
sometimes the white blossoms have pink veins or stripes which tend to
accentuate their beauty. Usually one of the early blooming flowers of
the high plateaus, along with the Indianpotato and Buttercup.

    [Illustration: Springbeauty]

14. BITTERROOT                                          Portulaca Family
                           _Lewisia rediviva_

This beautiful, dwarfed plant, never more than an inch or two high, is
found during May mostly on the lava fields of the Transition Zone in
Zion National Park. Its flower of white petals with pink veins is about
2 inches in diameter.

The Bitterroot was discovered in 1805 by the Lewis and Clark expedition
while passing through western Montana. It was later named _Lewisia
rediviva_ by the botanist Pursh.

The plant is of economic importance to the Northwestern Indians, who
discovered that the bitter, parsnip-shaped roots possess a nutritious
heart of starch, which cooking reduces to a pasty mass, palatable, at
least, to Indian taste.

    [Illustration: Bitterroot]

15. MARSHMARIGOLD                                       Buttercup Family
                          _Caltha leptosepala_

A plant of the high elevations, generally above 9,000 feet, and found
abundantly at Cedar Breaks, where it comes into bloom almost as soon as
the first patches of bare ground appear. Coming out usually in April or
May, depending on the season, Marshmarigolds are among the earliest
blooming flowers of the high elevations and often carpet the alpine
meadows with a spread of white blossoms.

The white sepals, that make up the showy flower, are often mistaken for
petals, which are absent. The mass of anthers of the stamens give the
flower its brilliant yellow center.

    [Illustration: Marshmarigold]

16. BUTTERCUP                                           Buttercup Family
                            _Ranunculus sp._

A number of species of Buttercups bloom in these areas in early April or
May on the Plateaus and later in the shady canyons. In their respective
areas they are often the first flowers of Spring and are followed
closely by the Springbeauties or sometimes preceded by the tiny white
Indianpotato of the Parsnip Family.

A thrilling sight is to find the waxy flowers of the early Buttercups at
the very edge of the receding snowbanks. The blooming season for
Buttercups is very brief, as a general rule, but the different species
come into bloom successively.

    [Illustration: Buttercup]

17. COLUMBINE                                           Buttercup Family
                            _Aguilegia sp._

These beautiful flowers are well known because of their wide
distribution and common use as cultivated species in flower gardens.
They have conspicuously shaped petals with long, hollow spurs, which
contain honey and thereby attract certain insects and especially the
hummingbirds. Columbines are probably the most beautiful of the native
flowers of Zion, Bryce Canyon and Cedar Breaks, as they bring forth very
attractive displays during the summer months. The White Columbine at
Cedar Breaks is extremely large.

    [Illustration: Columbine]

18. LARKSPUR                                            Buttercup Family
                            _Delphinium sp._

Larkspurs are found abundantly at Cedar Breaks during July and August in
the alpine meadows of the Monument. The leaves are very similar to those
of the Monkshood, but the flowers differ in color and shape. The single
spur of one of the sepals is the marked feature of the Larkspur. Color
and size vary greatly for the different species; but the most common
variety at Cedar Breaks is 2 to 3 feet tall, and the flowers are a
purplish blue.

    [Illustration: Larkspur]

19. MONKSHOOD                                           Buttercup Family
                         _Aconitum columbianum_

Found abundantly at Cedar Breaks in the more open forested areas where
there is partial shade and plenty of moisture. The purple Monkshood rank
almost as high as their cousins the Columbines and Larkspurs in charm
and beauty, with a quaintness and individuality all their own. The
flower features a modified sepal shaped like a hood or helmet that
protects the stamens. Extracts from the thick, turnip-shaped root are
used medicinally in the treatment of certain heart diseases.

    [Illustration: Monkshood]

20. WESTERN BANEBERRY                                   Buttercup Family
                            _Actaea arguta_

This plant may be found in the shady forest of good moisture. It is
about one to two feet tall with handsome leaves but rather inconspicuous
heads of creamy-white flowers. The conspicuous bright-red or waxy-white
berries about the size of peas in a dense cluster make a very attractive
display in late summer. The berries are somewhat poisonous, hence the
name Baneberry.

    [Illustration: Baneberry]

21. SAND BUTTERCUP                                      Buttercup Family
                        _Ranunculus juniperinus_

One of the very early blooming plants in Zion in the Transition or Upper
Sonoran Zone, which often appears from mid-February to April, in bare
sandy places among the Junipers and Pinyons, is the Sand Buttercup.
Along the trail to the Canyon Overlook above the Great Arch is perhaps
the best place to find this plant in Zion.

The flowers, a pinkish white, are found on short stems or spreading
branches close to the ground. As the plants are rather small and not
very showy, it takes careful searching to find them.

    [Illustration: Sand Buttercup]

22. OREGON GRAPE                                         Barberry Family
                           _Berberis repens_

Because of its hollylike leaves, this dwarf shrub is sometimes called
the Holly Grape, but it is more commonly known as the Oregon Grape. A
rather prostrate growth form accounts for a third common name; namely,
Creeping Barberry.

This plant is found sparingly scattered over the areas and is probably
more abundant in Zion than in Bryce Canyon or Cedar Breaks. The fruit
looks very much like a cluster of grapes and is often gathered for the
making of jellies or wine. The woody stems were used by the Indians in
making a yellow dye.

The plants are helpful in holding the soil, as they spread close to the

    [Illustration: Oregon Grape]

23. FREMONT BARBERRY                                     Barberry Family
                          _Berberis fremontii_

This rather tall shrub of the Sonoran Zones puts on a remarkable display
in April and May with its bright yellow flowers. It is most commonly
seen along the highway leading to Zion National Park from the west.

Since the plant is a secondary host of the Blackstem Rust of cereals, it
is not cultivated as an ornamental shrub.

Indians used the wood of this shrub for various implements or tools.
They utilized the root, which contains berberine, for a tonic, and they
also made from it a brilliant-yellow dye.

    [Illustration: Fremont Barberry]

24. ELK THISTLE                                         Sunflower Family
                           _Cirsium foliosum_

This Thistle is widely scattered in these areas but is not very
abundant. It is a stout plant, 2 to 3 feet tall, with large, prickly
leaves. Its freshly budding flowers in deep pink are very attractive
during the early summer. Hummingbirds and numerous insects gather food
from its colorful flower head made up of many individual flowers. Some
Thistles are very obnoxious and detrimental to agriculture.

    [Illustration: Elk Thistle]

25. CONEFLOWER                                          Sunflower Family
                        _Rudbeckia occidentalis_

At Cedar Breaks and in the high elevations of Zion and Bryce Canyon you
can find this rank-growing plant in fair abundance. Its thimblelike,
dark-brown flower head has numerous, inconspicuously small, yellow
flowers that come out progressively up the cone from its base. The
dark-brown cones, towering above the foliage of the plant, make a
spectacular display against the deep-blue sky. The ripened seeds are
very much sought after by rodents and numerous birds.

    [Illustration: Coneflower]

26. DESERT PRINCESPLUME                                   Mustard Family
                           _Stanleya pinnata_

During the months of May and June this very conspicuous plant in Zion
Canyon and throughout the Sonoran Zones may be found sending up its tall
spikes of lemon-yellow flowers. On the same stalk can be found the
ripened and opened seed pods (siliques), fresh-blooming flowers and
unopened buds all at the same time. It has tall, stout stems, rather
woody at the base, and differs from many plants in that it is tolerant
of soils containing gypsum.

    [Illustration: Desert Princesplume]

27. STONECROP                                           Stonecrop Family
                          _Sedum stenopetalum_

Found mostly in very dry, rocky soil, these small plants, with smooth,
fleshy leaves and starry-yellow flowers, are fairly conspicuous as they
bloom during the early summer months. These plants have the ability to
store up moisture in their fleshy leaves and stems. They are, therefore,
well adapted to withstanding long periods of drouth. The plants are
sometimes gathered for treatment of certain ailments.

    [Illustration: Stonecrop]

28. PRICKLYPOPPY                                            Poppy Family
                         _Argemone platyceras_

You can find this plant, with its large, white flowers, most frequently
along the road cuts or in abandoned fields where it has taken over as a
weed. Its showy display is most abundant during midsummer or in July and
August. The large, white flower, with its conspicuous yellow center, is
sometimes called “The Cowboy’s Fried Egg.” The prickly leaves and stems
account for another common name, Thistlepoppy. The plants are drought
resistant and unpalatable to livestock. The seeds contain a narcotic
drug more potent than opium.

    [Illustration: Pricklypoppy]

29. ROCKY MOUNTAIN BEEPLANT                                 Caper Family
                           _Cleome serrulata_

Along the roadsides of Southern Utah near these areas of Zion, Bryce
Canyon and Cedar Breaks you may find this pleasing floral display of
orchid or purple presented by fields of the Rocky Mountain Beeplant.

It is probably an exotic that has been brought in during recent years.
Because of the unpleasant odor of crushed herbage, this plant is
sometimes called skunk weed. The flowers are an important source of
honey, and the seeds are eaten by a number of birds, especially the

    [Illustration: Rocky Mountain Beeplant]

30. YELLOW SPIDERFLOWER                                     Caper Family
                             _Cleome lutea_

The plants of this genus are often called Beeplants. There are two
species of Spiderflower in these areas. Yellow Spiderflower is not quite
as common as the purplish-pink species commonly known as the Rocky
Mountain Beeplant.

Both species are conspicuous roadside flowers in June and July. Although
they are important sources of honey, they are not very sweet scented to
humans. No doubt the odor helps attract insects to the flowers.

    [Illustration: Yellow Spiderflower]

31. ELDER                                             Honeysuckle Family
                          _Sambucus racemosa_

This red-berried Elder is found the most abundantly at Cedar Breaks. It
is also common along the highways through forested areas of the region.

The clusters of small white flowers that come on usually in June or July
give way to bright-red berries in August and present a most attractive

Most Elders are edible and are eaten by birds and rodents. Some people
gather the berries for wines and jellies. This species, however, is
considered poisonous, and cases of poisoning have been reported from
eating the berries, flowers, roots and bark.

The stalks of some Elders are pithy and fairly easily hollowed out.
Indians used the stalks for making flutes.

    [Illustration: Elder]

32. LITTLELEAF MOUNTAINMAHOGANY                              Rose Family
                        _Cercocarpus intricatus_

This low-growing shrub is fairly important as winter browse for deer and
other browsing animals. The leathery leaves are evergreen, rather
narrow, pointed at both ends and curled backwards from the sides. The
flowers are very small and inconspicuous, but the fruits, with their
long plumes, present an interesting display. The dead wood of this shrub
is very useful to campers, as it burns with extremely hot flame and
gives off very little smoke.

    [Illustration: Littleleaf Mountainmahagony]

33. STANSBURY CLIFFROSE                                      Rose Family
                         _Cowania stansburiana_

In Zion this shrub is usually found at elevations above 4,000 feet, and
it generally grows to be 6 to 8 feet high. During May and June its
creamy-white flowers are suggestive of the Wild Rose. The habitat of the
Cliffrose is the warm, dry slopes among the Pinyon and Juniper. Its
twigs and evergreen leaves are browsed extensively by deer and other
animals. The fragrance of this plant in bloom is remarkable and reminds
one of Orange blossoms. The fruits are achenes and have pale,
silky-haired tails 2 or more inches in length, which at times are very

    [Illustration: Stansbury Cliffrose]

34. ANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH                                     Rose Family
                          _Purshia tridentata_

This shrub looks much like the Cliffrose, except for size. It is lower
growing, has smaller pale-yellow flowers and its fruits are not plumed.
The stubby, fan-shaped leaves are three pointed like those of the Big

Bitterbrush is found most commonly on the warm, dry slopes above 4,000
feet, where it provides valuable year-round browse for deer and other
animals. It is also known as Antelopebrush and Quininebush.

    [Illustration: Antelope Bitterbrush]

35. BLACKBRUSH                                               Rose Family
                         _Colegyne ramosissima_

A member of the Rose Family found mostly in the Sonoran Zones of Zion
National Park. Several plants may be seen near the South Entrance
Station. It is well named, as it has a burned and dead appearance during
much of the year; however in late April and May it puts out minute
grey-green leaves and creamy-yellow flowers made up of four sepals and
no petals. The stamens are numerous. The Cliffrose, Bitterbrush and
Mountain-mahogany are closely related to the Blackbrush.

    [Illustration: Blackbrush]

36. BUSH CINQUEFOIL                                          Rose Family
                         _Potentilla fruticosa_

Found most commonly at Cedar Breaks, this member of the Rose Family puts
on a very showy display for a brief period of the summer, generally in
July or earlier at lower elevations. It is a shrub commonly 2 to 3 feet
high with leaves that are five-parted, hence the name Cinquefoil. The
shrub is often dotted all over with rose-like flowers, about an inch
across, with clear-yellow petals and deeper yellow anthers. The plant is
common in the mountains, across the continent, up to altitudes of 10,000
feet or more.

    [Illustration: Bush Cinquefoil]

37. PRAIRIESMOKE                                             Rose Family
                     _Geum triflorum var. ciliatum_

This graceful plant, with its nodding, bell-shaped, pink-colored
flowers, is found fairly abundantly in the alpine meadows of Cedar
Breaks National Monument.

The plant has a number of common names such as: China Bells,
Oldman-Whiskers, and Grandfather’s-beard. The silvery, plumose tails of
the fruit present an attractive display, especially as the sun’s rays
light the waving plumes in late afternoon or early morning.

Prairiesmoke plants are considered good forage for several animals, and
the bumblebees gather its pollen for honey.

    [Illustration: Prairiesmoke]

38. WILD ROSE                                                Rose Family
                               _Rosa sp._

There are two species of the Wild Rose in Zion and two other species in
Bryce Canyon, three of which are found at Cedar Breaks National

Wild Roses are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere and are too
familiar to need much description. The flowers are fairly fragrant and
have bright-pink petals with a large cluster of yellow stamens. The
fruit of the rose, shaped like a small apple, turns a deep-red color
late in the season and adds beauty to this plant during autumn.

    [Illustration: Wild Rose]

39. SERVICEBERRY                                             Rose Family
                        _Amelanchier alnifolia_

One of the very early blooming shrubs or small trees in Zion Canyon, and
often seen in March or April as conspicuous white masses on the canyon
walls among the Pinyon and Juniper trees, is the Serviceberry.

The white flowers occur in clusters and look much like a fruit tree in
bloom. The berry is shaped like a very small apple, insipid to the
taste, but nevertheless used extensively by the Indians and early
settlers for food. The plant has a variety of common names, including
the following: Juneberry, Shadbush, Saskatoon, Sarviceberry and

    [Illustration: Serviceberry]

40. CHOKECHERRY                                              Rose Family
                          _Prunus virginiana_

Chokecherry bushes or small trees are fairly common at elevations around
6,000 feet in these areas. Early in May, and sometimes even earlier, the
white and fragrant blossoms present a pleasing sight. In July or August
the ripened cherries supply food for humans, many birds and small

The first autumn colors are often the Chokecherry leaves as they turn
scarlet, brown and red.

These shrubs are browsed heavily by cattle and some by deer, especially
if other forage is scarce.

    [Illustration: Chokecherry]

41. HONEY MESQUITE                                            Pea Family
                          _Prosopis juliflora_

A low-growing tree of the Lower Sonoran Zone. Uncommon in Zion but
fairly abundant in the desert area adjacent to the park. In early spring
during March and April bright-green leaves cover the tree, and often it
is laden with catkinlike clusters of greenish-yellow flowers, which
attract myriads of insects including the honey bees.

The wood of this tree was used extensively by early settlers for fuel,
building corrals and in making furniture and utensils. The fruit of the
Mesquite, resembling a string bean, is used for food by many animals.
Indians also made wide use of it by grinding the beans into a meal
called “Pinole.”

    [Illustration: Honey Mesquite]

42. LUPINE                                                    Pea Family
                             _Lupinus sp._

There are so many varieties of Lupine that it is most difficult to
identify the numerous species. In this area they are found abundantly on
the high plateaus, being especially plentiful at Cedar Breaks, where
they fill whole meadows with a mass of blue color in midsummer.

The Lupines range in color from pale pink to deep purple, with some
white, cream or yellow, but most of them are blue. Like other plants of
the Pea Family, Lupines add nitrogen to the soil and thereby improve the
land on which they grow. The seeds of a few species contain alkaloids
which are poisonous to livestock, especially sheep.

    [Illustration: Lupine]

43. LOCO                                                      Pea Family
                            _Astragalus sp._

This very large genus of plants ranges from the hottest parts of the
desert to high mountain peaks and far to the North. More than a dozen
species are found in the Zion Region.

Some of the species contain a poisonous constituent causing, the often
fatal, loco disease of livestock, particularly in horses.

Loco is a Spanish word meaning “Crazy.” Other species known as
Poisonvetch, prefer soils rich in selenium, and take up enough of that
toxic mineral to make them poisonous to livestock, especially sheep. The
harmless species are called Milkvetch.

Nearly all the species are colorful and spectacular when in blossom, but
some of them have a rank, disagreeable odor.

    [Illustration: Loco]

44. POISONVETCH                                               Pea Family
                         _Astragalus sabulonum_

This showy species of Astragalus is locally called Rattleweed because,
when it is in fruit, its large, bladder-like, thin-walled pods become
very brittle and give a distinct rattling sound when shaken. The pods
are about one and a half inches long and heavily mottled reddish-brown
in color.

The genus of Astragalus has been divided into three groups: Loco,
Milkvetch and Poisonvetch. The species poisonous to livestock are
commonly called Loco Weeds.

    [Illustration: Poisonvetch]

45. NEW MEXICO LOCUST                                         Pea Family
                         _Robinia neomexicana_

This shrub or small tree is fairly common in Zion Canyon. It was
probably brought in by the early settlers. Its large, showy flower grows
in clusters at the ends of slender branches. The blooming season is
during May and June.

The tree is very thorny and has the habit of sprouting from roots or
stumps and of forming dense thickets which are valuable in controlling
erosion. The foliage serves as food for browsing animals, especially the

    [Illustration: New Mexico Locust]

46. DESERTBEAUTY DALEA                                        Pea Family
                            _Dalea johnsoni_

Sometimes confused with the Desert Sage or more commonly called the
Purple Sage, which it resembles to some extent, this small shrub with
light-gray bark, small, gray-green leaves and terminal spikes of
brilliant-purple flowers is one of the most pleasing sights in early

In Zion it is found mostly in the Coalpits Wash and Shunes Creek areas
and blooms generally during May. Desertbeauty is a close relative of the
“Smoke Tree” of the Desert.

    [Illustration: Desertbeauty Dalea]

47. FREMONT GERANIUM                                     Geranium Family
                          _Geranium fremontii_

This beautiful, midsummer-blooming plant, growing about two feet high,
is common on the plateaus and in the cool canyons.

The pink, veined petals, deeply lobed leaves and characteristic geranium
odor help identify this plant. Some species have white flowers, but they
are not common in this area. The flowers are perfect with five sepals,
five petals, and five to ten stamens. The fruit is a long capsule and
has given rise to the common name Cranesbill.

Cultivated Geraniums are really Pelargoniums from South Africa.

    [Illustration: Fremont Geranium]

48. ALFILERIA                                            Geranium Family
                          _Erodium cicutarium_

This low-growing plant, spreading close to the ground, with its finely
divided leaves and small, starry-pink flowers, puts on a remarkable
display in the open meadows of the large canyons. It is one of the
earliest blooming species in Zion Canyon, and in seasons of abundant
rain it often presents the appearance of a pale-purple lawn.

On ripening, the seed capsules split open and shoot out the seeds—each
with a tiny hook in its nose and a tail with successive tight coils like
a corkscrew. The seed is apparently screwed into the ground by
alternating moisture and dryness which winds and unwinds the seed plume.

    [Illustration: Alfileria]

49. LEWIS FLAX                                               Flax Family
                            _Linum lewisii_

Here in Zion during May and June, growing along the trails on the
plateaus and in cool canyons, you will find the beautiful and delicate
blue flowers of the Wild Flax. The flower is nearly an inch across and
has five sepals and five petals borne at the top of a slender stem
having narrow leaves. At Bryce Canyon this plant is more abundant than
at Zion or Cedar Breaks.

Wild Flax was named in honor of Captain Meriwether Lewis, who first
discovered it, near the continental divide, during the famed Lewis and
Clark expedition of 1804-1806.

    [Illustration: Lewis Flax]

50. CREOSOTEBUSH                                          Caltrop Family
                          _Larrea tridentata_

Probably the most characteristic shrub of the arid valleys and mesas of
the Southwest is the Creosotebush, which is sometimes erroneously called

At times this plant fills the air with a peculiar pungent aroma that
gives rise to the common name Creosotebush. Mexicans call it
“Hediondilla” the (Little Bad Smeller.)

A sticky resin on the leaves is used as a poultice for bruises and
sores. A resinous gum or lac deposited by scale insects on the branches
is used by the Indians as a cement for fixing arrow points and mending
of pottery.

    [Illustration: Creosotebush]

51. WHITEMARGIN EUPHORBIA                                  Spurge Family
                       _Euphorbia albomarginata_

This low-growing plant with abundant small, round or oval leaves and
tiny white flowers is commonly called Carpetweed because of the manner
in which it spreads over the ground.

Found mostly in the dry sandy soils, this plant serves as an excellent
soil binder and is very helpful in preventing erosion.

The milky juice of this species is considered toxic and may cause
dermatitis in susceptible persons. It is also known as Rattlesnake Feed
and popularly supposed to be efficacious in treating snake bite.

    [Illustration: Whitemargin Euphorbia]

52. SCARLET GLOBEMALLOW                                    Mallow Family
                         _Sphaeralcea coccinea_

Very commonly found along the roadsides and especially prominent in the
campgrounds or other disturbed areas. This member of the Mallow Family
presents a lovely coral-red display as early as May, and it continues
blooming throughout much of the summer.

Cotton belongs to this large and important family, which also contains
such ornamental plants as the Hollyhock. Extensive fields of this flower
present brilliant displays of orange.

    [Illustration: Scarlet Globemallow]

53. DESERT GLOBEMALLOW                                     Mallow Family
                         _Sphaeralcea ambigua_

Found most commonly along the roads and trails, this member of the
Mallow Family is known by a variety of common names such as: Rose of
Sharon, False Mallow and Wild Hollyhock. It generally blooms in late
summer, especially in the Cedar Breaks region. The plants sometimes grow
to be 4 to 5 feet tall and have a great profusion of pink-colored
flowers, really a very colorful and attractive display.

    [Illustration: Desert Globemallow]

54. FIREWEED                                     Evening-primrose Family
                       _Epilobium angustifolium_

This tall, willowy plant, called Fireweed, is frequently the first plant
to come in after a forest fire. Its colorful bloom gives new life to the
blackened ground. Fireweed is one of the world’s most widely
disseminated wild flowers, being found throughout much of northern North
America, Europe and parts of Asia. Its seeds are scattered by the wind.
In these areas it is found mostly on the high plateaus.

    [Illustration: Fireweed]

55. WOODLAND PINEDROPS                                Indian Pipe Family
                        _Pterospora andromedea_

In the rich soil of the Ponderosa Pine forest of the high plateaus you
may occasionally see this peculiar plant called Pinedrops. It has a
single reddish-brown stalk (no green parts at all) about a foot or two
high, apparently without leaves (they are mere scales), and numerous
round or bell-shaped blossoms or seed pods hanging from short stems. The
stalk is generally sticky with a material much like the pitch of the
pine trees. It is a parasite that lives on the roots of pine trees.

    [Illustration: Woodland Pinedrops]

56. YELLOW VIOLET                                          Violet Family
                           _Viola praemorsa_

There are five different species of Violets in Zion, two of them with
yellow flowers and the others with white or purple. They are found
blooming in May or June on the high plateaus or sometimes later in the
wet meadows of Cedar Breaks or in shady canyons. Violets are closely
related to the cultivated Pansies. The flowers are irregular, as one
petal has a saclike spur which contains nectar. They have five sepals,
five petals and five stamens. This species is found most commonly in the
shady forest, while the purple and white species are more common in the
very moist and cool areas of the shady canyons.

    [Illustration: Yellow Violet]

57. DESERT BLAZINGSTAR                                      Loasa Family
                         _Mentzelia multiflora_

Blazingstars, sometimes called “Stickleaf” because of their rough, hairy
leaves, are plants well suited to the drought conditions of this area,
as they adapt well to dry, rocky soil. They are often found in roadside
cuts or other newly disturbed soils and are found blooming usually in
July and August. They are conspicuous with their yellow flowers
consisting of five long petals and a large number of stamens almost as
long as the petals that attract the eye as they blaze forth in the
bright sunlight of midsummer. These plants are found mostly in the
Transition Zone.

    [Illustration: Desert Blazingstar]

58. A HEDGEHOG CACTUS                                      Cactus Family
                        _Echinocereus coccineus_

This family is well represented in Zion, where ten prominent species are
found, six of which are illustrated in this booklet. This species is
sometimes called the Cucumber Cactus. It is found blooming in bright-red
clumps as early as April or on occasion in March when the winters are
not severe. Its favorite habitat appears to be the rocky slopes of the
lava fields below 5,000 feet.

As cactus flowers mature into fruit, they form bulb-like bodies called
tunas. The fruits of this species are about an inch or more in diameter
and serve as important food for many rodents.

    [Illustration: A Hedgehog Cactus]

59. PURPLETORCH CACTUS                                     Cactus Family
                       _Echinocereus engelmannii_

Found mostly on the rocky slopes in the Lower Sonoran Zone, this cactus
is fairly common and distinguished chiefly by its waxy and brilliantly
colored purple flowers. The stems of this species are similar to those
of the Cucumber Cactus except for being generally taller. The fruits are
also similar, but the flowers differ as they are much larger and bright
purple instead of red in color. They bloom generally during the month of

    [Illustration: Purple Torch Cactus]

60. A PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS                                  Cactus Family
                          _Opuntia rhodantha_

The most common cactus in Zion is this species of the Prickly Pear. It
is found in a great variety of habitats, even at the higher elevations.
The flowers, large and spectacular in various shades of red, salmon or
yellow, bloom late in May to July. Because of its long blooming season,
this species is more often found in flower than any other cactus in the
park. Its pear-shaped fruit, red to purple in color, is eaten by many
animals as well as by the native peoples.

    [Illustration: A Prickly Pear Cactus]

61. BEAVERTAIL CACTUS                                      Cactus Family
                          _Opuntia basilaris_

One species of cactus that at first sight does not seem to be a cactus
is the Beavertail, for it is lacking the long spines characteristic of
most cacti. Upon close examination, however, you will find that it is
protected by numerous, fine spines. The name of this species is derived
from its flat stems shaped somewhat like a small beaver’s tail. The
conspicuous magenta flowers mark this species as one of the most
beautiful in the park. The fruit of this species is important as animal
food, especially for chipmunks and ground squirrels.

    [Illustration: Beavertail Cactus]

62. BUCKHORN CHOLLA CACTUS                                 Cactus Family
                         _Opuntia acanthocarpa_

The Cholla (pronounced Choya) Cactus is the only “tree” cactus found in
Zion. It is fairly common in the Lower Sonoran Zone, especially in
Coalpits Wash. Strangely enough this plant is a favorite nesting place
of some desert birds, including sparrows, wrens and finches. The
spreading branches seem to reach out and grab the careless hiker, and
the barbed spines stick so fast in the flesh that the joint of the plant
is separated from the main stem before the spines can be withdrawn.
Cholla blossoms come in many shades of color with the accent on yellows
and reds.

    [Illustration: Buckhorn Cholla Cactus]

63. ENGLEMANN PRICKLYPEAR CACTUS                           Cactus Family
                         _Opuntia engelmannii_

As one of the largest of the flat-jointed or Pricklypear Cacti of Zion,
this species is fairly abundant in Zion Canyon and is probably the most
frequently observed species because of its dense growth in certain
habitats and its fairly immense size as well as its colorful display of
blossoms. It is locally called Elephant Ear Cactus. In June in produces
large yellow flowers, very waxy in texture.

(See Figure 64 for information concerning the fruit of this cactus.)

    [Illustration: Engelmann Pricklypear Cactus]

64. CACTUS FRUIT                                           Cactus Family
                         _Opuntia engelmannii_

The fruit of the Engelmann Pricklypear Cactus is similar to the fruits
of many other species of cacti; it is conspicuous, being deep red in
color and about the size of a large Crab Apple. It is called Tuna or
locally “Cactus Apple” and ripens as early as June but more abundantly
during July.

Indians of the Southwest use this fruit as an important item of their
diet. Many people living in the desert have come to learn that this
cactus fruit makes excellent jellies and candies. It is also feasted
upon by several rodents, especially the Antelope Ground Squirrel.

    [Illustration: Cactus Fruit]

65. ROUNDLEAF BUFFALOBERRY                               Oleaster Family
                       _Shepherdia rotundifolia_

A low, evergreen shrub with small, oval leaves that appear to have been
painted with a thin coat of aluminum paint through which the green shows
faintly. It is most common in the Upper Sonoran Zone and may be found
along the Canyon Overlook and Emerald Pool Trails in Zion National Park.

The pale-yellow flowers, not much over ¼ inch across, are often hidden
by the leaves. They bloom early in April or sometimes in March. The
fruit of a similar shrub has a tart berry that was gathered by the early
pioneers and used as a sauce on Buffalo steaks, hence the name

    [Illustration: Roundleaf Buffaloberry]

66. WHITE EVENING-PRIMROSE                       Evening-primrose Family
                         _Oenothera caespitosa_

This member of the Evening-primrose Family, with its fragrant, large
white flowers, bloom early in the evening and lasts only a few hours the
next day, as it turns pink and wilts.

The flowers grow close to the ground on stemless plants. They have long,
slender and hairy calyx tubes that resemble stems. This plant is found
mostly in very rocky and dry habitats, which are often devoid of all
other plants.

    [Illustration: White Evening-primrose]

67. YELLOW EVENING-PRIMROSE                      Evening-primrose Family
                          _Oenothera strigosa_

You will find this plant most commonly in the road cuts or in places
where the soil has been disturbed. This species and other members of
this family have very showy flowers with four broad, thin petals.
Generally they bloom at night but sometimes in the daytime if growing in
deep shade.

The Evening-primroses are among the comparatively few flowers blooming
in Zion Canyon during the heat of midsummer, and many of them are
usually found on sandy or rocky soil in the Upper Sonoran Zone.

    [Illustration: Yellow Evening-primrose]

68. PORTER LIGUSTICUM                                     Parsley Family
                          _Ligusticum porteri_

Locally called “Wild Parsley,” this fairly tall plant, with its fernlike
leaves, is very common at Cedar Breaks National Monument. It grows at
very high elevations. Other plants in this family, useful as food, are
the carrot, parsnip, dill and anise. However, one member of the family,
the Water Hemlock, is very poisonous.

    [Illustration: Porter Ligusticum]

69. GREENLEAF MANZANITA                                     Heath Family
                        _Arctostaphylos patula_

Many people are attracted to this plant by its bright mahogany-red bark.
Its oval-shaped leaves are a bright green throughout the year. The
flowers grow in clusters and sometimes are very numerous on the shrub.
The fruit resembles a tiny apple, and the name Manzanita is Spanish for
“Little Apple.” Indians use the berries for food and for making a
pleasant, sour drink.

    [Illustration: Greenleaf Manzanita]

70. GREEN GENTIAN                                         Gentian Family
                           _Frasera speciosa_

Found in the open meadows of the Cedar Breaks highlands and on the high
plateaus of Zion and Bryce Canyon. The tall stalks, with their
intermixture of pale-green leaves and similarly colored flowers, present
a rather conspicuous sight as they tower to heights of 5 feet. The
flowers have four sepals and four petals and nectar glands that attract
many insects. The petals are flecked with brown and purple.

    [Illustration: Green Gentian]

71. PARRY PRIMROSE                                       Primrose Family
                            _Primula parryi_

This outstanding member of the Primrose Family is found only at high
elevations, generally above 10,000 feet. In this region it grows fairly
abundantly on Brian Head Peak but is found sparingly at Cedar Breaks.
Its brilliant display of rose-red flowers is a remarkable and rewarding
sight for those who gain the high places and see this alpine beauty. The
smooth, thick leaves, which are quite long, all grow in a rosette at the
base of the plant. The fragrance of this flower is disappointing, for it
does not match its splendid color.

    [Illustration: Parry Primrose]

72. INDIANPOTATO                                          Parsnip Family
                        _Orogenia linearifolia_

As the snow melts on the plateaus, at elevations above 7,000 feet, you
may find one of the very first flowers of spring. This member of the
Parsnip Family often carpets the alpine meadows with a mass of tiny
white flowers never more than an inch or two high.

The root bulb was eaten by the Indians and gives rise to the common name
Indianpotato. Another common name is Salt and Pepper Plant because of
the speckled appearance of the flowers.

The blooming period of this plant is very brief, and soon after the
flowers have faded the leaves disappear and the plant lies dormant
during most of the year.

    [Illustration: Indianpotato]

73. SHOOTINGSTAR                                         Primrose Family
                       _Dodecatheon pauciflorum_

Shootingstars are one of the early blooming flowers in the alpine
meadows of Cedar Breaks and on the high plateaus. They also come on very
early in the moist canyons of Zion. Along with the Columbine and
Monkeyflower they are the predominant plants of the Hanging Gardens
found on many of the Canyon Walls.

The basal leaves spread close to the ground, while the flowers in a
variety of colors, white, pink or purple grow on stems 6 to 8 inches
high. The down-pointed stamens of the flower center and the reflexed or
turned-back petals gives the flower its common name Shootingstar.

    [Illustration: Shootingstar]

74. FRINGED GENTIAN                                       Gentian Family
                          _Gentiana thermalis_

One of the most beautiful of all mountain flowers, the Fringed Gentian
is commonly found in the moist meadows of Cedar Breaks at elevations
near or above 10,500 feet. The flower stalks are generally 6 to 10
inches tall, and each bears a handsome flower about two inches long with
four fringed petals. At times the Fringed Gentian carpets the alpine
meadows with a waving mass of deep-blue color. This species is the Park
Flower of Yellowstone National Park.

    [Illustration: Fringed Gentian]

75. BUTTERFLY MILKWEED                                   Milkweed Family
                          _Asclepias tuberosa_

There are four fairly common species of Milkweed in Zion, but the one
pictured is the most common. This variety is found in the dry places
above 4,000 feet and is especially abundant in Birch Creek Canyon.

The conspicuous orange flowers grow on fairly tall stalks about two feet
in height and make this plant very easy to find. The stems are quite
hairy, leafy and contain a milky juice. As the fruits develop in large
boat-shaped pods, the seeds burst forth bearing long, silky hairs that
assist the wind in scattering them over wide areas.

    [Illustration: Butterfly Milkweed]

76. PINK PHLOX                                              Phlox Family
                           _Phlox canescens_

Four kinds of phlox are common in Zion, and other species are found at
Cedar Breaks and Bryce Canyon. The plants are generally small, but the
flowers are fairly showy with their five bright, pink-colored petals.
They are found generally in dry, rocky soils and bloom mostly in early
summer or during May and June. Sometimes Phlox will cover extensive
areas with a bright carpet of pink or white. A special display of Phlox
may be found on the summit of Brian Head Peak near Cedar Breaks. These
plants are very helpful in holding the soil and in preventing erosion.

    [Illustration: Pink Phlox]

77. SKYROCKET GILIA                                         Phlox Family
                           _Gilia aggregata_

This plant is found most commonly in the Ponderosa Pine belt of these
areas where its star-shaped, scarlet flower adds a bit of brilliance to
the scene. The individual flowers, with their long, tubular corollas and
star-shaped petals, are masterpieces of beauty. Their shape and color
have given rise to such common names as Trumpet Phlox and Scarlet Gilia.

In their search for nectar, hummingbirds are noticeably attracted to the
flowers of the plant. Birds and insects in taking the nectar, help in
the pollination of many flowers.

    [Illustration: Skyrocket Gilia]

78. MOUNTAIN BLUEBELLS                                     Borage Family
                          _Mertensia ciliata_

A fairly tall perennial growing to be from 2 to 3 feet high and found
only in moist places at high elevations of the plateaus. It is common at
and near Cedar Breaks along the streams or in the swampy meadows. The
small clusters of drooping, delicate-blue flowers come mostly in May and
June or even later at the higher elevations of Brian Head Peak near
Cedar Breaks. Before maturing the flowers may be pinkish to white in

    [Illustration: Mountain Bluebells]

79. NARROWLEAF PUCCOON                                     Borage Family
                         _Lithospermum incisum_

This member of the Borage Family is well adapted to the dry habitats.
The plants are commonly found in clumps, but they are generally widely
scattered rather than in dense growths as in the case of the Bluebells
or Mertensias that belong to the same Family. Its showy trumpetlike
yellow flowers attract many insects as they bloom during April and May.
The seeds are hard, white and shiny, hence the name Lithospermum,
meaning stone seed.

    [Illustration: Narrowleaf Puccoon]

80. DESERT SAGE                                              Mint Family
                            _Salvia carnosa_

Although looking very much like a clump of Sagebrush, this small shrub
is a member of the Mint Family and not closely related to the Common
Sagebrush. The clusters of bright purple flowers, as they come on in May
or June, certainly add brilliant adornment to this sage-green plant. It
is fairly common in the Sonoran Zones and well scattered throughout much
of the Southwest. This is the plant referred to in the storied Land of
the Purple Sage. One of the best places to look for this plant is along
the Emerald Pool Trail in Zion National Park.

    [Illustration: Desert Sage]

81. MULLEIN                                               Figwort Family
                          _Verbascum thapsus_

This rather unusual-appearing plant is not a native but rather an
introduced species from Europe that has spread over most of Western
America. It is fairly common along the roads and trails.

The Hopi Indians are said to dry and smoke the leaves, and this is
thought to cure people who are mentally unbalanced.

Early Greeks and Romans dipped dried mullein stalks in tallow to make
lampwicks. The English named it “Torchweed” and the Spanish called it

    [Illustration: Mullein]

82. ROYAL PENSTEMON                                       Figwort Family
                         _Penstemon speciosus_

This species, also known as Purple Penstemon, is found in much the same
habitats as the Blue Penstemon. It is generally abundant along roadsides
at elevations above 4,500 feet. It is fairly common at Cedar Breaks and
at Bryce Canyon. The flowers vary in color from deep blue to dark
purple, and the stalks vary in height from 12 to 20 inches.

    [Illustration: Royal Penstemon]

83. EATON PENSTEMON                                       Figwort Family
                           _Penstemon eatoni_

Found mostly in the cool canyons, this plant is sometimes confused with
the Skyrocket Gilia or the Western Cardinalflower, which it resembles
somewhat. Penstemon usually has a greater number of blooms on each
flower stalk than do these flowers that appear like it. This variety is
not nearly as common as many other Penstemons in these areas. It is far
more brilliantly colored, however, which accounts for such common names
as Scarlet Bugler and Scarlet Penstemon.

    [Illustration: Eaton Penstemon]

84. THICKLEAF PENSTEMON                                   Figwort Family
                        _Penstemon pachyphyllus_

The penstemons are sometimes called Wild Snapdragons because of the
close resemblance to related cultivated species. They are also called
Beardstongue because one of the five stamens is covered with numerous
hairs. This blue variety, Thickleaf Penstemon, is found mostly at higher
elevations or on the plateaus where they bloom during June and July.

    [Illustration: Thickleaf Penstemon]

85. PALMER PENSTEMON                                      Figwort Family
                          _Penstemon palmeri_

This is one of the very beautiful and conspicuous flowers of Zion
National Park. The flowers are borne on tall spikes and are brightly
colored. This is the largest and most common Penstemon found along the
trails and roadways of Zion below 6,000 feet. It is especially common in
freshly disturbed soils as the road cuts. The leaves are grey-green, and
each pair with the exception of the lower ones is joined at the base,
creating the impression that it is one leaf with the stem growing
through the center. The fairly large flowers, which are pale lavender in
color, begin blooming in May and are found in bloom throughout most of
the summer.

    [Illustration: Palmer Penstemon]

86. SACRED DATURA                                          Potato Family
                          _Datura meteloides_

A conspicuous plant with very large, white, sometimes lavender-tinted
flowers that open at night and wilt in the bright morning sunlight. A
single plant may have as many as 100 blooms at one time. Datura is one
of the few plants that blooms during the hot summer in Zion Canyon. Many
different names are locally applied to it, and include the following:
Zion Lily, Moon Lily, Jimson Weed and Thornapple. The plant is poisonous
to eat, especially the seeds, and was used by several Indian tribes to
induce stupor and dreams as a part of a widespread religious cult. It
contains a deadly narcotic principle akin to atropine.

    [Illustration: Sacred Datura]

87. MONKEYFLOWER                                          Figwort Family
                          _Mimulus cardinalis_

One of the very beautiful flowering plants along the Zion Narrows Trail
and in cool, damp places of the shady canyons is this Crimson
Monkeyflower with its orange-red blossoms and deep-green leaves. Its
flowers are 1 to 2 inches long and the wide-toothed leaves are 3 to 5
inches long. It is the largest Monkeyflower in the park. Some plants are
found blooming throughout much of the summer season, especially along
the canyon walls where there are seeps of water most of the year.

    [Illustration: Monkeyflower]

88. INDIAN PAINTBRUSH                                     Figwort Family
                         _Castilleja coccinea_

From early March until May the warm hillsides below 6,000 feet are made
brilliant by clumps of deep-red flowers often found next to patches of
Mountain Mahogany. They are the Dwarf Indian Paintbrush and are by far
the most conspicuous early spring flower in Zion. Found very abundantly
along the park road from the East Entrance to the Zion Tunnel, they
present a most pleasing sight early in the season. Other species are
very plentiful at Cedar Breaks and often carpet the meadows in showy
orange or red. Several species are also found at Bryce Canyon National

    [Illustration: Indian Paintbrush]

89. SNOWBERRY                                         Honeysuckle Family
                       _Symphoricarpos utahensis_

This low, spreading shrub is recognized by its shreddy bark, small,
oval, opposite leaves on very short petioles, and in late summer or fall
by its white berries. The small, pinkish flowers are not at all
conspicuous and are often overlooked. The plant is browsed by deer and
other animals and is sometimes called Buckbrush. It is found mostly in
the high plateaus of Zion and is fairly common at Cedar Breaks and Bryce
Canyon. The fruit, although very showy, is not very tasty.

    [Illustration: Snowberry]

90. BEARBERRY HONEYSUCKLE                             Honeysuckle Family
                         _Lonicera involucrata_

This member of the Honeysuckle Family has a number of common names such
as Twinberry Honeysuckle, Ink-berry and Pigeon-bush.

The flowers, which are yellow and always come in pairs, are very
attractive to the hummingbirds. Mature fruits are black berries about
the size of peas and are partially enclosed by reddish bracts. The
plants are unpalatable and browsed very slightly, but the fruits are
eaten by birds and chipmunks.

    [Illustration: Bearberry Honeysuckle]

91. ELEPHANTHEAD PEDICULARIS                              Figwort Family
                       _Pedicularis groenlandica_

You will find this strange-looking plant in the wet meadows of the
alpine areas of Cedar Breaks and on the Plateaus of the Kolob Section
and the Horse Pasture Plateau of Zion National Park. Its blooming season
is July and August. The peculiarly modified petals of the corolla
resemble the forehead, ears and waving trunk of an elephant, hence the
common name Elephanthead.

    [Illustration: Elephanthead Pedicularis]

92. AMERICAN HAREBELL                                  Bellflower Family
                        _Campanula rotundifolia_

In the drier habitats of the alpine regions around Cedar Breaks and
generally along the roadsides in large clumps you may find this
beautiful blue flower. The lovely deep-blue flowers, drooping on their
hairlike stems, have such perfect shape and simple grace. The Harebell
is very wide spread, being found in Scotland, Northern Europe and Asia
as well as over much of North America.

    [Illustration: American Harebell]

93. WESTERN CARDINALFLOWER                                Lobelia Family
                          _Lobelia splendens_

A pleasant surprise to many park visitors is to find this spectacular
flower, with its abundant scarlet blooms on long stalks, presenting a
colorful display during the late summer when most plants have ceased
blooming. This colorful species, known also as Scarlet Lobelia, is very
abundant along the Narrows Trail of Zion Canyon and also along water
courses of other shady canyons. The long, tubular corollas and pointed
petals arranged in irregular pattern of two and three identify this
plant from the Scarlet Penstemon which it resembles.

    [Illustration: Western Cardinalflower]

94. RABBITBRUSH                                         Sunflower Family
                          _Chrysothamnus sp._

Rabbitbrush is fairly common along roadways and trails in the arid
regions. Because rabbits find this plant a favorite shelter, it has been
named Rabbitbrush. Indians boil the plant for yellow dye, and white man
found certain species of Chrysothamnus to contain rubber.

Consideration was given to the production of rubber from Rabbitbrush
during the First World War and up until the discovery of synthetic

    [Illustration: Rabbitbrush]

95. CURLYCUP GUMWEED                                    Sunflower Family
                         _Grindelia squarrosa_

An exotic plant probably brought into the area by vehicles, as it is
found most commonly along the roadways or in cultivated fields. Once
started it spreads very rapidly along the highways or in cultivated

The plant is suspected to be toxic to livestock, but is rarely eaten. It
is used in the treatment of asthma in humans. In addition, external use
is made of it to relieve the irritation caused by Poison Ivy.

The plants have probably migrated to this area from the central plains

    [Illustration: Curlycup Gumweed]

96. PURPLE ASTER                                        Sunflower Family
                              _Aster sp._

The Asters and Fleabanes are sometimes confused, but they can generally
be recognized by the difference in the number of ray flowers. That is,
Asters have only about half as many ray flowers as do the Fleabanes.

Species of Purple Aster form an important part of the late summer floral
display at Cedar Breaks and Bryce Canyon. They come on after the Lupine,
Columbine, Indian Paintbrush and other early bloomers have faded.

    [Illustration: Purple Aster]

97. FLEABANE                                            Sunflower Family
                          _Erigeron speciosus_

There are numerous species of Fleabane in this region. Some particular
kind may be found at any time of the growing season, for certain species
bloom very early and others continue late in autumn.

Some species of Fleabane grow in dense masses and, in early spring,
carpet the meadows and roadsides. The ray flowers of the Fleabanes are
generally twice as numerous per head as are the ray flowers of the
Asters. The plants are quite similar in other respects.

    [Illustration: Fleabane]

98. MOUNTAIN SUNFLOWER                                  Sunflower Family
                        _Helianthella uniflora_

Sunflowers abound in these parks during the late summer. As the early
summer flowers, mostly in blues and purples, fade, the yellow and red
flowers come on. This is especially true in the alpine meadows of Cedar
Breaks in August when the predominant species are the Sunflowers.

The seeds of the Sunflowers supply abundant food for many birds and
small mammals.

    [Illustration: Mountain Sunflower]

99. COMMON SUNFLOWER                                    Sunflower Family
                          _Helianthus annuus_

The very large flowers of these plants sometimes present a colorful
display as they take over the roadways or abandoned fields. Members of
this group are generally considered weeds because of their habit of
crowding out the more desirable species. Certain species of Sunflowers
are now being developed for commercial purposes and produce oil for
cooking and meal for livestock feed. Indians in some areas of North
America cultivated sunflowers for food and for trade.

    [Illustration: Common Sunflower]

100. GAILLARDIA                                         Sunflower Family
                          _Gaillardia parryi_

This handsome and conspicuous plant is found growing in the Sonoran
Zones of Zion. It has a slender, rough stalk, about a foot tall, and
stiff, rather hairy, dull-green leaves growing mostly from the root. The
beautiful flowers, about three inches across, have golden-yellow rays
which are three pointed. The center of the flower is a shaded maroon and
yellow, very velvety, and becoming an attractive fuzzy, round, purplish
head when the rays drop off. This plant blooms mostly in May and June.

    [Illustration: Gaillardia]

101. DESERT MARIGOLD                                    Sunflower Family
                         _Baileya multiradiata_

These golden-yellow flowers, measuring about three inches across, are
fairly common along the trails and roadways of Zion Canyon and in other
low-elevation areas of the park. They bloom during May and June. The ray
flowers become bleached and papery as they mature, thus accounting for
the name Paper Daisy. This attractive composite is also known as Desert
Baileya. In California this plant is cultivated for the flower trade. It
has been found poisonous to sheep, although horses crop the flower
heads, apparently without harmful effects.

    [Illustration: Desert Marigold]

102. WESTERN YARROW                                     Sunflower Family
                          _Achillea lanulosa_

Western Yarrow is very widespread and can be found in much of Western
America. It is more common at elevations above 5,000 feet in these
areas. It grows to be 12 to 20 inches high, and the fernlike leaves,
which have a pungent odor when crushed, and the umbrella-shaped clusters
of flowers are characteristics of this plant that help to identify it.

Since ancient times the plant has been highly regarded for its healing
properties. Legend ascribed the discovery of this virtue to Achilles, in
whose honor the plant is named.

    [Illustration: Western Yarrow]

103. HEARTLEAF ARNICA                                   Sunflower Family
                          _Arnica cordifolia_

A common flower in the Pine and Spruce forest of Cedar Breaks and the
alpine areas of Zion and Bryce Canyon is the Heartleaf Arnica. The
yellow ray flowers are few, while the disk or central flowers of the
flower head are numerous. The flowers measure about three inches across
and are often mistaken for sunflowers. The heart-shaped leaves help
distinguish this flower from its close relatives.

Tincture of arnica is obtained from certain species of Arnica.

    [Illustration: Heartleaf Arnica]

104. MEADOW SALSIFY                                     Sunflower Family
                         _Tragopogon pratensis_

This interesting plant, known also as Oyster Plant, has been naturalized
from Europe and is now quite common in the West. It has a smooth, stout
hollow stem about 2 feet tall, rather dark-green, smooth leaves clasping
at the base, and handsome flowers from 2 to 4 inches across. The flowers
open early in the morning, closing at midday, to remain closed until the
next morning.

Meadow Salsify is most commonly found along the roadways or in other
places where the native soil has been disturbed.

See Figure 105 for description of the seed of this flower.

    [Illustration: Meadow Salsify]

105. MEADOW SALSIFY                                     Sunflower Family
                         _Tragopogon pratensis_

This habitat view of the Meadow Salsify illustrates one of the important
ways in which plants scatter their seeds about. As the flower matures
into seeds in a conspicuous and very large, dandelion-like head, each
seed is equipped with a perfect parachute of silky fibers. Winds often
sweep these flight-equipped seeds for many miles and result in wide
dissemination of this species, which was introduced into this country
from Europe not very long ago.

The seeds of many plants are scattered about in various ways—some by
wind, others by water and many by the birds and animals.

    [Illustration: Meadow Salsify Fruit]

106. ARROWLEAF BALSAMROOT                               Sunflower Family
                        _Balsamorhiza sagittata_

This plant, with its large, showy yellow flowers, is often found on the
southern exposures of steep hillsides or in the Sagebrush flats. It was
first discovered by Lewis and Clark on their expedition across the
continent in 1804-1806.

The rind of the root contains a turpentiny balsam, but the heart of the
root is edible and was used by the Indians and early pioneers. The plant
is called Mormon Biscuit in Utah. The seeds of the plant were used by
the Indians to make “Pinole” or meal, and the stems and leaves were
eaten as greens.

    [Illustration: Arrowleaf Balsamroot]

107. WESTERN WALLFLOWER                                   Mustard Family
                          _Erysimum capitatum_

There are two kinds of Wallflowers in Zion National Park. Their
bright-yellow flowers, which grow on stalks taller than those of most
other mustards, make them among the most attractive members of this
family. They are usually found on rather dry slopes in the Upper Sonoran
and Transition Zones.

Notice how the petals are arranged as a cross which is a characteristic
of all members of the Cruciferae or Mustard Family.

    [Illustration: Western Wallflower]

108. BITTERCRESS                                          Mustard Family
                          _Cardamine hirsuta_

You may find this plant blooming during April and May in the Sonoran
Zones of Zion National Park. Its habitat is generally the dry sandy
hillsides rather than the deep canyons.

The wide-spreading, circular, doom-shaped clumps present an attractive
display in pure white flowers. The petals of four are arranged like a

Being a perennial, the clumps seem to expand from year to year and often
reach a spread of four to five feet across. The plants are useful in
building soil and in preventing erosion.

    [Illustration: Bittercress]

109. HUMMINGBIRD TRUMPET                         Evening-primrose Family
                        _Zauschneria garrettii_

One of the late blooming plants in Zion National Park is the Hummingbird
Trumpet, also called Fire-chalice, or sometimes the Wild Fushia. It can
often be found on the Canyon Overlook Trail or on the West Rim Trail at
elevations near 6,000 feet.

It can be identified by the narrow oval leaves pointed and toothed, and
the fushialike flowers, narrowly funnel-shaped, with the pistil and
stamens extending beyond the petals.

The brilliant scarlet of this flower in fairly dense clusters makes a
very attractive display in late August and September.

    [Illustration: Hummingbird Trumpet]


          Common Name                   Scientific Name         Figure

 Alfilera                      Erodium circutraium                   48
 American Harebell             Campanula rotundifolia                92
 Antelope Bitterbrush          Purshia tridentata                    34
 Arnica, Heartleaf             Arnica cordifolia                    103
 Arrowleaf Balsamroot          Balsamorhiza sagittata               106
 Aster, Purple                 Aster sp.                             96


 Balsamroot, Arrowleaf         Balsamorhiza sagittata               106
 Baneberry, Western            Actaea arguta                         20
 Bearberry Honeysuckle         Lonicera involucrata                  90
 Beavertail Cactus             Opuntia basilaris                     61
 Bitterbrush, Antelope         Purshia tridentata                    34
 Bittercress                   Cardamine hirsuta                    108
 Bitterroot                    Lewisia rediviva                      14
 Blackbrush                    Coleogyne ramosissima                 35
 Blazingstar, Desert           Mentzelia multiflora                  57
 Bluebells, Mountain           Mertensia ciliata                     78
 Bluedicks                     Dichelostemma pulchellum               4
 Buckhorn Cholla Cactus        Opuntia acanthocarpa                  62
 Buckwheat, Wild               Eriogonum umbellatum                   8
 Buffaloberry, Roundleaf       Shepherdia rotundifolia               65
 Bush Cinquefoil               Potentilla fruticosa                  36
 Buttercup, Sand               Ranunculus juniperinus                21
 Buttercup                     Ranunculus sp.                        16
 Butterfly Milkweed            Asclepias tuberosa                    75


 Cactus Fruit                  Opuntia engelmannii 64
 Calypso Orchid                Calypso bulbosa                       11
 Cardinalflower, Western       Lobelia splendens                     93
 Cinquefoil, Bush              Potentilla fruticosa                  36
 Chokecherry                   Prunus virginiana                     40
 Cliffrose, Stansbury          Cowania stansburiana                  33
 Columbine                     Aquilegia sp.                         17
 Coneflower                    Rudbeckia occidentalis                25
 Creosotebush                  Larrea tridentata                     50
 Curlycup Gumweed              Grindelia squarrosa                   95


 Deathcamas, Mountain          Zigadenus elegans                      7
 Desertbeauty Dalea            Dalea johnsoni                        46
 Desert Blazingstar            Mentzelia multiflora                  57
 Desert Globemallow            Sphaeralcea ambigua                   53
 Desert Marigold               Baileya multiradiata                 101
 Desert Princesplume           Stanleya pinnata                      26
 Desert Sage                   Salvia carnosa                        80


 Eaton Penstemon               Penstemon eatoni                      83
 Elder, Red-berried            Sambucus racemosa                     31
 Elephanthead Pedicularis      Pedicularis groenlandica              91
 Elk Thistle                   Cirsium foliosum                      24
 Engelmann Pricklypear Cactus  Opuntia engelmannii                   64
 Ephedra, Green                Ephedra viridis                        9
 Euphorbia, Whitemargin        Euphorbia albomarginata               51
 Evening-primrose, White       Oenothera caespitosa                  66
 Evening-primrose, Yellow      Oenothera strigosa                    67


 Fineleaf Yucca                Yucca angustissima                     6
 Firechalice                   Zauschneria garrettii                109
 Fireweed                      Epilobium angustifolium               54
 Flax, Lewis                   Linum lewisii                         49
 Fleabane                      Erigeron speciosus                    97
 Four-O’Clock                  Mirabilis multiflora                  12
 Fourwing Saltbush             Atriplex canescens                    10
 Fremont Geranium              Geranium fremontii                    47
 Fremont Barberry              Berberis fremonti                     23
 Fringed Gentian               Gentiana thermalis                    74
 Fritillary, Purplespot        Fritillaria atropurpurea               5


 Gaillardia                    Gaillardia parryi                    100
 Gentian, Fringed              Gentiana thermalis                    74
 Gentian, Green                Frasera speciosa                      70
 Geranium, Fremont             Geranium fremontii                    47
 Gilia, Skyrocket              Gilia aggregata                       77
 Globemallow, Scarlet          Sphaeralcea coccinea                  52
 Globemallow, Desert           Sphaeralcea ambigua                   53
 Green Ephedra                 Ephedra viridis                        9
 Green Gentian                 Frasera speciosa                      70
 Greenleaf Manzanita           Arctostaphylis patula                 69
 Gumweed, Curlyleaf            Grindelia squarrosa                   95


 Harebell, American            Campanula petiolata                   92
 Heartleaf Arnica              Arnica cordifolia                    103
 Hedgehog Cactus               Echinocereus coccineus                58
 Honey Mesquite                Prosopis juliflora                    41
 Honeysuckle, Bearberry        Lonicera involucrata                  90
 Hummingbird Trumpet           Zauschneria garrettii                109


 Indianpotato                  Orogenia linearifolia                 72
 Indian Paintbrush             Castilleja coccinea                   88


 Larkspur                      Delphinium sp.                        18
 Lewis Flax                    Linum lewisii                         49
 Ligusticum, Porter            Ligusticum porteri                    68
 Littleleaf Mountainmahogany   Cercocarpus intricatus                32
 Loco                          Astragalus sp.                        43
 Locust, New Mexico            Robinia neomexicana                   45
 Lupine                        Lupinus sp.                           42


 Manzanita, Greenleaf          Arctostaphylis patula                 69
 Mariposa, Segolily            Calochortus nuttallii                  1
 Mariposa, Yellow              Calochortus nuttallii var. aureus      2
 Marigold, Desert              Baileya multiradiata                 101
 Marshmarigold                 Caltha leptosepala                    15
 Meadow Salsify                Tragopogon pratensis             104-105
 Mesquite, Honey               Prosopis juliflora                    41
 Milkweed, Butterfly           Asclepias tuberosa                    75
 Monkeyflower                  Mimulus cardinalis                    87
 Monkshood                     Aconitum columbianum                  19
 Mountain Bluebells            Mertensia ciliata                     78
 Mountain Deathcamas           Zigadenus elegans                      7
 Mountainmahogany, Littleleaf  Cercocarpus intricatus                32
 Mountain Sunflower            Helianthella uniflora                 98
 Mullein                       Verbascum thapsus                     81


 New Mexico Locust             Robinia neomexicana                   45


 Oregon Grape                  Berberis repens                       22
 Oysterplant - Meadow Salsify  Tragopogon pratensis             104-105


 Palmer Penstemon              Penstemon palmeri                     85
 Parry Primrose                Primula parryi                        71
 Penstemon, Eaton              Penstemon eatoni                      83
 Penstemon, Palmer             Penstemon palmeri                     85
 Penstemon, Royal              Penstemon speciosus                   82
 Penstemon, Thickleaf          Penstemon pachyphyllus                84
 Phlox, Pink                   Phlox canescens                       76
 Pinedrops, Woodland           Pterospora andromedea                 55
 Poisonvetch                   Astragalus sabulosus                  44
 Porter Ligusticum             Ligusticum porteri                    68
 Prairiesmoke                  Geum triflorum var. ciliatum          37
 Prairie Spiderwort            Tradescantia occidentalis              3
 Pricklepoppy                  Argemone platyceras                   28
 Pricklypear Cactus            Opuntia rhodantha                     60
 Princesplume, Desert          Stanleya pinnata                      26
 Puccoon, Narrowleaf           Lithospermum incisum                  79
 Purplespot Fritillary         Fritillaria atropurpurea               5
 Purple Torch Cactus           Echinocereus engelmanii               59


 Rabbitbrush                   Chrysothamnus sp.                     94
 Rocky Mountain Beeplant       Cleome serrulata                      29
 Rose, Wild                    Rosa sp.                              38
 Roundleaf Buffaloberry        Shepherdia rotundifolia               65
 Royal Penstemon               Penstemon speciosus                   82


 Sacred Datura                 Datura meteloides                     86
 Sage, Desert                  Salvia carnosa                        80
 Saltbush, Fourwing            Atriplex canescens                    10
 Sand Buttercup                Ranunculus juniperinus                21
 Scarlet Globemallow           Sphaeralcea coccinea                  52
 Segolily Mariposa             Calochortus nuttalli                   1
 Serviceberry                  Amelanchier alnifolia                 39
 Shootingstar                  Dodecatheon pauciflorum               73
 Skyrocket Gilia               Gilia aggregata                       77
 Spiderflower, Yellow          Cleome lutea                          30
 Snowberry                     Symphoricarpos utahensis              89
 Spiderwort, Prairie           Tradescantia occidentalis              3
 Springbeauty                  Claytonia lanceolata                  13
 Stansbury Cliffrose           Cowania stansburiana                  33
 Stonecrop                     Sedum stenopetalum                    27
 Sunflower, Common             Helianthus annuus                     99
 Sunflower, Mountain           Helianthella uniflora                 98


 Thickleaf Penstemon           Penstemon pachyphyllus                84
 Thistle, Elk                  Cirsium foliosum                     107


 Violet, Yellow                Viola praemorsa                       56


 Western Baneberry             Actaea arguta                         20
 Western Cardinalflower        Lobelia splendens                     93
 Western Wallflower            Erysimum capitatum                   107
 Western Yarrow                Achillea lanulosa                    102
 Whitemargin Euphorbia         Euphorbia albomarginata               51
 Wild Buckwheat                Eriogonum umbellatum                   8
 Wild Rose                     Rosa sp.                              38
 Woodland Pinedrops            Pterospora andromedea                 55


 Yarrow, Western               Achillea lanulosa                    102
 Yellow Mariposa               Calochortus nuttallii var. aureus      2
 Yellow Spiderflower           Cleome lutea                          30
 Yellow Violet                 Viola praemorsa                       56
 Yucca, Fineleaf               Yucca angustissima                     6


Arnberger, Leslie P. (Drawings by Jeanne R. Janish)

_Flowers of the Southwest Mountains_. Southwestern Monuments Assoc.,
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Armstrong, Margaret

_Field Book of Western Wild Flowers_. G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915.

Bailey, H. E. and Bailey, V. L.

_Woody Plants of the Western National Parks_. The University Press,
Notre Dame, Indiana, 1949.

Benson, Lyman

_The Cacti of Arizona_. University of New Mexico Press, 1950.

Clements, Frederic E. and Clements, Edith S.

_Rocky Mountain Flowers_. The H. W. Wilson Co., New York, 1928.

Coulter, John M. and Nelson, Aven

_New Manual of Botany of the Central Rocky Mountains_. American Book
Company, New York, 1919.

Dodge, Natt N. (Drawings by Jeanne R. Janish)

_Flowers of the Southwest Deserts_. Southwestern Monuments Association,
Globe, Arizona, 1954.

Jaeger, Edmund C.

_Desert Wild Flowers_. Stanford University Press, Revised Edition, 1944.

Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature

_Standardized Plant Names_. Second Edition 1942. J. Horace McFarland Co.

Kearney, Thomas H. and Pebble, Robert H.

_Arizona Flora_. University of California Press, 1951.

McDougal, W. B. and Baggley, Herma A.

_Plants of Yellowstone National Park_. Revised Edition, Yellowstone
Library and Museum Association, 1956.

McDougal, W. B. and Sperry, Omar E.

_Plants of Big Bend National Park_. Government Printing Office, 1951.

McDougal, W. B.

_Checklist of Plants of Grand Canyon National Park_. Bulletin No. 10.
Grand Canyon Natural History Association, 1947.

Patraw, Pauline M. (Drawings by Jeanne R. Janish)

_Flowers of the Southwest Mesas_. Southwestern Monuments Association,
Globe, Arizona, 1954.

Presnall, C. C. and Patraw, Pauline M.

_Plants of Zion National Park_. Bulletin No. 1. Zion-Bryce Natural
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_Rocky Mountain Trees_. The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1947.

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_Flora of Utah and Nevada_. Government Printing Office, 1925.

                          SALT LAKE CITY UTAH

    [Illustration: Mountain meadow]

                              Transcriber’s Notes

—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by

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