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Title: Historical Record of the 4th, or the King's Own, Regiment of Foot from 1680 to 1839
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^{x}, for example Esq^{re}.

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[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.
  _and under the Patronage of_
  Her Majesty the Queen.

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,
  _OF THE_
  British Army

  _Comprising the_
  _History of every Regiment_
  _IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE_.

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant General's Office, Horse Guards._

  London.

  _Printed by Authority._]



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

HIS MAJESTY has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars: _viz._,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
'London Gazette,' from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by MR. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to every thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the
valiant,--the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilised people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen,--our brothers--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit, or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror, consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways;
in every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty
"_shot_;" the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe
men, and thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590, was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen, in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of
the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers; and
the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the musket
then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the company for
skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number of companies
into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently amounted
to three thousand men; but each company continued to carry a
colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes, from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men; he
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandaliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but, so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the king added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those at
present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the Second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the seven
years' war. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crècy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarch, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British army
under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world; and
if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory of
persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons of the
present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities
which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of the brave
men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in Egypt
in 1801, under the brave Abercrombie, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crècy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with an halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign, have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to ensure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence, which Great
Britain has attained among the nations of the world, have in a
great measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to
persons, who have the welfare of their country at heart, the
records of the several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


1838.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
       20     20     20     30    2|0     30     20     20     20

  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.       Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10 of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25 of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his discourse on war, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt, to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield--that no circumstances can appal--and that will
ensure victory when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE FOURTH,

  OR THE

  KING'S OWN, REGIMENT OF FOOT:

  CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF

  THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT IN 1680,

  AND OF

  ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1839.


  _ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES._


  PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, ORME, AND CO.,
  PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON;
  AND BY W. CLOWES AND SONS,
  _14, Charing Cross_;

  AND TO BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS.


  1839.



  HISTORICAL RECORDS

  OF THE

  BRITISH ARMY.


  PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.


  THE FOURTH,

  OR

  THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT OF FOOT.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  14, Charing Cross.



  THE

  FOURTH,

  OR

  THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON ITS COLOURS, AS A REGIMENTAL BADGE,

  _THE LION OF ENGLAND_;

  WITH THE FOLLOWING INSCRIPTIONS,

  "CORUNNA," "BADAJOZ," "SALAMANCA,"
  "VITTORIA," "ST. SEBASTIAN,"
  "NIVE," "PENINSULA," "BLADENSBURG,"
  "WATERLOO."



CONTENTS.


  Anno                                                           Page

  1680  The origin of the regiment                                  1

  ----  Designated the _Second Tangier Regiment_                    3

  ----  Embarks for Tangier in Africa                               5

  1684  Returns to England                                          7

  ----  Designated _Her Royal Highness the Duchess
          of York and Albany's regiment_                           --

  1685  Styled _The Queen's regiment_                               8

  ----  Battle of Sedgemoor                                         9

  ----  Twelve new colours presented to the regiment               10

  1688  The Revolution                                             12

  1690  Embarks for Ireland                                        15

  ----  Battle of the Boyne                                        --

  ----  Returns to England                                         16

  ----  Embarks with the forces under the Earl of Marlborough
          for Ireland                                              17

  ----  Sieges of Cork and Kinsale                                 --

  1691  Siege of Limerick                                          18

  ----  Returns to England                                         19

  1692  Embarks for the Netherlands                                --

  ----  Battle of Steenkirk                                        --

  1693  Relief of Furnes                                           20

  ----  Battle of Landen                                           21

  1694  Covering the siege of Huy                                  22

  1695  Siege of Namur                                             23

  1696  Returns to England                                         25

  1697  Embarks for the Netherlands                                26

  ----  Returns to England                                         --

  1702  Expedition to Cadiz and destruction of the French
          and Spanish shipping at Vigo                             28

  1703  Constituted a corps of _Marines_                           30

  1703  Embarks on board the fleet                                 32

  1704  Attempt on Barcelona                                       --

  ----  Capture of Gibraltar                                       33

  ----  Defence of Gibraltar                                       34

  1709}  Returns to England                                        38
  1710}

  1711  Ceases to be a corps of _Marines_                          --

  ----  Expedition to Canada                                       --

  1715  Obtains the title of _The King's Own_                      41

  1725  Proceeds to Scotland                                       43

  1731  Returns to England                                         --

  1736  Proceeds to Scotland                                       --

  1737  Returns to England                                         --

  1744  Embarks for the Netherlands                                44

  1745  Returns to England                                         --

  ----  Marches to Scotland                                        --

  1746  Battle of Falkirk                                          45

  ----  --------- Culloden                                         46

  1747  Returns to England                                         48

  1751  Colours, and regimental distinctions                       --

  1754  Embarks for Minorca                                        49

  1756  Defence of Fort St. Philip                                 50

  ----  Returns to England, and augmented to two battalions        53

  1758  The second battalion constituted the sixty-second
          regiment                                                 --

  ----  Embarks for the West Indies                                --

  1759  Attack on Martinico                                        --

  ----  Capture of Guadaloupe                                      54

  1761  ---------- Dominico                                        57

  1762  ---------- Martinico                                       58

  ----  ---------- Grenada, St. Vincent, and St. Lucie             59

  ----  ---------- The Havannah                                    --

  1764  Returns to England                                         60

  1768  Proceeds to Scotland                                       --

  1773  Returns to England                                         60

  1774  Embarks for North America                                  --

  1775  Actions at Concord and Lexington                           62

  ----  Battle of Bunkers Hill                                     64

  1776  Proceeds to Nova Scotia                                    65

  ----  ----------- Staten Island                                  --

  ----  Capture of Long Island                                     --

  ----  Proceeds to New York                                       66

  ----  Skirmishes at Pell's Point and White Plains                --

  ----  Capture of Fort Washington                                 67

  1777  Expedition to Danbury                                      --

  ----  -------- against Philadelphia                              69

  ----  Action at Chad's Ford                                      --

  ----  --------- Germantown                                       70

  ----  --------- White Marsh                                      71

  1778  Retreat to New York                                        72

  ----  Proceeds to the West Indies                                --

  ----  Capture of St. Lucie                                       73

  1780  Returns to England                                         74

  ----  Proceeds to Ireland                                        --

  1787  Embarks for Nova Scotia                                    --

  1793  Capture of Miquelon and St. Pierre                         75

  1794  Proceeds to Lower Canada                                   --

  1797  Returns to England--One transport captured by
          a French privateer                                       76

  1799  Augmented to three battalions                              --

  ----  Embarks for Holland                                        77

  ----  Battle of Egmont-op-Zee                                    78

  ----  Returns to England                                         79

  1802  Second and third battalions disbanded                      --

  1803  Preparations to repel the French invasion                  80

  1804  A second battalion added to the regiment                   88

  1805  Embarks for Hanover                                        89

  1806  Returns to England                                         90

  1807  Expedition to Copenhagen                                   --

  ----  Returns to England                                         91

  1808  Embarks for Sweden                                         91

  ----  Returns to England                                         --

  ----  Proceeds to Portugal                                       92

  ----  Advances into Spain                                        --

  ----  Retreats to the coast                                      --

  1809  Battle of Corunna                                          93

  ----  Returns to England                                         94

  ----  Expedition to Walcheren                                    95

  1810  Second battalion proceeds to Gibraltar                     --

  ----  First battalion proceeds to Portugal                       96

  ----  Lines of Torres Vedras                                     --

  1811  Battle of Sabugal                                          --

  ----  Skirmish near Barba del Puerco                             97

  1812  Covering the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo                       98

  ----  Storming of Badajoz                                        99

  ----  Battle of Salamanca                                       105

  ----  Siege of Burgos                                           106

  ----  Skirmish near the Carion                                   --

  1813  Battle of Vittoria                                        108

  ----  Siege of St. Sebastian                                    109

  ----  Passage of the Bidassoa                                   112

  ----  Battle of the Nivelle                                     113

  ----  ------------- Nive                                         --

  1814  Blockade of Bayonne                                       114

  ----  Embarks for the West Indies                               116

  ----  Expedition to the Chesapeake                              117

  ----  Battle of Bladensburg                                     118

  ----  Capture of Washington                                     119

  ----  Expedition against Baltimore                              121

  ----  Battle of Godly Wood                                       --

  ----  Returns to the West Indies                                123

  ----  Expedition against New Orleans                            124

  1815  Capture of Fort Bowyer                                    128

  ----  Returns to England                                         --

  1815  Embarks for Flanders                                      129

  ----  Battle of Waterloo                                         --

  ----  Advances to Paris                                         130

  ----  Second battalion disbanded                                131

  1816  Forms part of the army of occupation in  France            --

  1818  Returns to England                                        133

  1819  Embarks for the West Indies                                --

  1826  Returns to England                                        137

  ----  Embarks for Portugal                                      138

  1828  Returns to England                                        139

  ----  Proceeds to Scotland                                       --

  1829  Embarks for Ireland                                        --

  1830  Returns to England                                         --

  1831}  Embarks by detachments for New South Wales               140
  1832}

  1837}  -------------------------- the East Indies                --
  1838}

  1839  The Conclusion                                             --



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.


  Anno                                                           Page

  1680  Charles Earl of Plymouth                                  142

  ----  Piercy Kirke                                               --

  1682  Charles Trelawny                                          144

  1688  Sir Charles Orby                                          146

  ----  Charles Trelawny                                           --

  1692  Henry Trelawny                                             --

  1702  William Seymour                                            --

  1717  Hon. Henry Berkeley                                       147

  1719  Charles Cadogan                                            --

  1734  William Barrell                                           148

  1749  Robert Rich                                                --

  1756  Alexander Duroure                                          --

  1765  Hon. Robert Brudenell                                     149

  1768  Studholme Hodgson                                          --

  1782  John Burgoyne                                             150

  1792  George Morrison                                           151

  1799  John Earl of Chatham                                      152

  1835  John Hodgson                                               --


LIST OF PLATES.

  The Regimental Colours to follow the Regimental title page.

  The landing at Gibraltar, to face                           page 34

  Fourth (or King's Own) Regiment of Foot, to face           page 141


[Illustration: Colours of the 4th Regiment of Foot.]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE FOURTH,

OR

THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT OF FOOT.


[Sidenote: 1680]

The city of TANGIER on the coast of the kingdom of Fez, in Africa,
having been ceded in 1661, by Portugal, to King Charles II., as
part of the marriage portion of the Infanta, Donna Catherina,
this fortress, with a portion of the adjoining territory, had
constituted a part of the possessions of the British crown for a
period of nearly twenty years, when circumstances occurred, which
gave rise to the formation of the REGIMENT which is the subject of
this memoir, for service in that part of His Majesty's dominions.

This ancient and renowned city had been successively in the power
of the Phœnicians, Romans, Vandals, Saracens, Portuguese, and
Spaniards, and it had been the scene of armed contentions and
sanguinary wars, in remote ages as well as in modern times. It had
formerly been celebrated as one of the most splendid cities in that
quarter of the world, but had fallen from its ancient power and
magnificence; and when it came into the possession of the British
crown, fragments of ruins were all that remained to indicate
its former grandeur. It had been much strengthened and improved
by the English after their possession of it; detached forts had
been constructed, and large sums of money had been granted by the
parliament for improving the harbour and enlarging the defences.
Much opposition had, however, been met with from the native chiefs,
who availed themselves of all the means within their power for
exterminating the Christian occupants of this part of Africa. The
garrison had already resisted many attempts of its daring and
inveterate enemies, particularly in the time of Gaylan, the usurper
of Fez; but in 1680 the city was besieged by an immense force, and
the Moors had the advantage of having several European renegades
in their army, by whom they had been taught the art of mining and
of carrying on approaches under ground. Not only the national
honour and the credit of His Majesty's arms were concerned in the
preservation of this fortress, but, in the event of its capture by
the Moors, the Levant trade was likely to suffer some interruption
from its harbour becoming the resort of pirates.

King Charles II., therefore, sent thither a battalion of foot
guards and sixteen companies of Dumbarton's regiment, (now first
royals,) and issued, in July, 1680, warrants for raising six
independent troops of horse and a regiment of foot, to augment the
garrison, and to enable it to chase from under the walls the native
forces by which it was menaced.

The first troop of horse was raised by Major-General the Earl of
Ossory, who was nominated governor of His Majesty's possessions
in Africa; and the others by Lieut.-Colonel Sir John Lanier, and
Captains Robert Pulteney, John Coy, Charles Nedby, and Thomas
Langston.

The regiment of foot was ordered to consist of sixteen companies of
sixty-five private men each, besides officers and non-commissioned
officers; and the colonelcy was conferred on CHARLES FITZ-CHARLES,
EARL OF PLYMOUTH, a daring aspirant to military fame, who had
already distinguished himself against the Moors in the character
of a volunteer, and was serving at TANGIER at the time the regiment
was raised.

The royal authority for raising this regiment was given on the 13th
of July, 1680, and the sixteen companies of which it was composed,
were raised by the following officers; Lieut.-Colonel Piercy
Kirke,[6] Major Charles Trelawny, and Captains Zachariah Tiffin,
Henry Trelawny, Edward Hastings, Charles Fox, Edward Griffin,
John Strode, Edward Saville, Roger Pope, Walter Fitzgerard, John
Grimes, Robert Ansley, Arthur Cheffors, and John Southcote, and
the captain-lieutenant of the colonel's company. Eight companies
were raised in London and in its vicinity under the immediate
superintendence of Lieut.-Colonel Kirke, and had their general
rendezvous in Clerkenwell; and the other eight companies were
raised in the west of England, with their general rendezvous at
Plymouth, under the superintendence of Major Trelawny.

The corps thus raised obtained the title of the SECOND TANGIER
REGIMENT,[7] and after serving the British crown in various parts
of the world, through the eventful period of one hundred and
fifty-eight years, it continues a distinguished corps, and bears
the designation of the FOURTH, OR THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT OF FOOT.
Although the particulars of its origin and formation have been
distinctly given, yet it was in some measure connected with another
corps, of whose services a few words are introduced into this
record.

On the breaking out of the war between England and Holland in the
early part of 1672, a regiment of foot was raised, of which JAMES
DUKE OF MONMOUTH was appointed colonel. This regiment was sent to
France, and taken into the pay of Louis XIV.; it served during the
campaigns of 1672 and 1673, under the Duke of Monmouth, in the
Netherlands, and during the four succeeding years it served with
the French army in Alsace and on the Rhine, together with Douglas's
or Dumbarton's regiment, now first royals, Churchill's, and
Hamilton's. In these campaigns MONMOUTH'S regiment distinguished
itself on several occasions under Marshals Turenne, De Crequi, and
Luxemburg. In 1678 it was ordered to return to England, and after
the peace of Nimeguen it was disbanded.

When the EARL OF PLYMOUTH'S regiment was raised, many of
the officers of MONMOUTH'S late regiment were appointed to
commissions in this new corps, through whose influence many of
the non-commissioned officers and soldiers, who had served in the
Netherlands, France, and Germany, were induced to enter the same
regiment. By these means, and by the aid of a few men from the
_Holland regiment_, now third foot, or the buff's, the EARL OF
PLYMOUTH'S, or SECOND TANGIER REGIMENT, was completed in numbers,
equipped,[8] instructed in the simple exercises practised at the
time, and ready to embark for foreign service in less than four
months after the order for its being raised was issued.

The service for which these forces were raised being urgent,
three of the troops of cavalry (Langston's, Nedby's, and Coy's)
were provided with horses from the life guards and royal regiment
of horse guards, and sailed as soon as possible; the EARL OF
PLYMOUTH'S regiment also embarked with all possible expedition, and
sailed in November.

In the mean time the garrison of TANGIER had overpowered the
Moorish army in a sharp action under the walls, and a truce had
been agreed upon for six months; and when information of this event
arrived in England, the other three troops of horse (viz. Ossory's,
Lanier's, and Pulteney's) were disbanded.

This truce was in operation when the EARL OF PLYMOUTH'S regiment
arrived at TANGIER; and the officers and men learned that their
colonel had died a few weeks previously of dysentery. He was
succeeded in the colonelcy by the lieut.-colonel, PIERCY KIRKE, who
was also appointed commander-in-chief of the garrison.

Shortly afterwards an ambassador from the court of Fez arrived,
and made his public entry into the city of Tangier on the 2nd
of December; his reception is thus described in the London
Gazette:--"Colonel Kirke, our commander-in-chief, went out
to meet him between eleven and twelve. Four troops of horse
marched first;--after them fifty chosen grenadiers of the Earl of
Dumbarton's regiment; then thirty gunners with their linstocks;
followed by thirty negros in painted coats, with their brown-bills
(a sort of battle-axe); and after these rid Colonel Kirke,
surrounded with twenty gentlemen well mounted, and having six men
of the tallest stature, with long fusils, on each side of his
horse; in which order, having proceeded a good distance beyond
Fountain Fort, the party of Moors, which was about two hundred
horse with their lances, being now within musket shot of us, made
a halt. The ambassador with about thirty persons advanced towards
Colonel Kirke, who received him with those compliments which are
customary. Colonel Kirke then went to make his salutations to the
alcaid, Aley Benanbdala, vice roy of those countries, who remained
at the head of the Moorish party; which being ended, the alcaid
and the ambassador with each of their parties began a skirmish, it
being their manner of rejoicing and expressing their satisfaction.
Having shown their horsemanship and skill in managing their lances
and fusils, they parted, the alcaid going off with his men, and
the ambassador with his train proceeding with Colonel Kirke to the
town; where all the regiments in garrison were formed up to augment
the splendour of his public entry."

[Sidenote: 1681]

In the succeeding year Colonel Kirke proceeded on an embassy to the
court of the vice-roy of Fez, and also to that of the Emperor of
Morocco, and a treaty of peace between the English and Moors was
concluded. A diary of Colonel Kirke's journey, with a description
of his reception, and of the court of the African potentate, was
published at the time, and appears more like an airy vision of
the imagination, or a few pages from an eastern romance, than a
narrative of facts.

[Sidenote: 1682]

After the decease of Sir Palmes Fairborne (who was killed in an
engagement with the Moors on the 24th of September, 1680), Colonel
Kirke was removed to the colonelcy of the first Tangier (now
the second or queen's royal) regiment, and was succeeded by the
lieut.-colonel, Charles Trelawny, by commission dated the 23d of
April 1682.

The improved military system of the Moors, introduced by the
employment of European renegades, having rendered it necessary to
maintain a much stronger garrison at TANGIER than formerly, His
Majesty brought the subject before parliament; but the people of
England were more alarmed at the prospect of a popish successor to
the throne than at the danger of losing this fortress, which they
considered as an asylum for popish recusants, and consequently no
further grant was voted.

[Sidenote: 1683]

A free intercourse had been established with the Moors, and a
traffic by barter was carried on to the benefit of the town; but
all the advantages expected to be derived from the possession of
this fortress had not been realized, and King Charles II. was
unwilling to bear, without any pecuniary aid from parliament, the
expense of the fortifications and troops. He accordingly sent,
towards the end of 1683, Admiral Lord Dartmouth with a fleet,
to destroy the fortifications, and to bring away the British
inhabitants and garrison.

[Sidenote: 1684]

The regiment arrived in England from Tangier in February, 1684, and
was placed in garrison at Portsmouth, where it remained upwards of
twelve months; and its establishment was reduced from sixteen to
twelve companies.

In the autumn of this year His Majesty conferred upon the regiment
the title of HER ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUCHESS OF YORK AND ALBANY'S
REGIMENT. What its distinguishing colour, or _livery_ (which is now
called _facing_), was on its formation, has not been ascertained;
but in October of this year it was YELLOW. This appears to have
been a favourite colour of the Duke of York, (afterwards James
II.) as his troop of life guards had _yellow_ horse furniture,
belts covered with _yellow_ velvet, _yellow_ ribands on the horses'
heads and tails, and also _yellow_ ribands in the men's hats; and
his marine regiment, called the Admiral's Regiment, was clothed in
yellow.

The colours of the regiment were of _yellow_ silk, with the red
cross of St. George bordered with white; the rays of the sun
issuing from each angle of the cross, or; and Her Royal Highness's
cypher in the centre.

[Sidenote: 1685]

On the 6th of February, 1685, King Charles II. died, and was
succeeded by his brother, James Duke of York; and the Duchess of
York having become Queen of England, this regiment was styled THE
QUEEN'S REGIMENT OF FOOT: the first Tangier regiment had previously
been styled the _Queen's_, and was now designated the _Queen
Dowager's_ regiment.

The much dreaded event--the accession of a papist to the
throne--had now occurred; but the minds of the people were
partially set at ease by the King's declaration of his
determination to maintain the protestant religion as by law
established. This did not, however, prevent several rash
adventurers from urging James Duke of Monmouth, to make an attempt
to gain the throne. This nobleman was the illegitimate son of the
late king,--was of prepossessing appearance and address,--a steady
advocate for the protestant religion,--had gained a reputation for
military virtues,--and had become a favourite with the people.
Being urged to this enterprise by his desperate associates, he
raised the standard of rebellion in the west of England in June,
1685; and, having been joined by a number of miners and other
persons, proclaimed himself king.

THE QUEEN'S REGIMENT OF FOOT was reposing in quarters at Portsmouth
and performing the duties of the garrison, when the news of
Monmouth's rebellion produced an electric sensation throughout the
country. The regular army was augmented; the militia was called
out; and this regiment was ordered to recruit its numbers to one
hundred men per company. Soon afterwards five companies, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Charles Churchill, were ordered
to march in charge of a train of artillery, consisting of seven
field-pieces, to join the army under the command of Lieut.-General
the Earl of Feversham, which was assembling to oppose the rebels.

The five companies of the QUEEN'S REGIMENT having joined the other
forces with the artillery, the army advanced to the village of
Weston, and the infantry encamped on SEDGEMOOR, the two Tangier
regiments taking the left of the line. The rebel army lay at
Bridgewater, and during the night of the 5th of July the Duke of
Monmouth advanced with the view of surprising the King's troops
in their camp; but his approach was discovered, and the camp was
alarmed by the cavalry out-guards. The rebels, however, rushed
forward, and a fierce conflict of musketry ensued in the dark.
The first attack was made against the royals on the right; and
extending along the front to the left, the companies of the QUEEN'S
REGIMENT became sharply engaged, and "performed good service." Soon
after day-break the King's cavalry charged the flanks of the rebel
army and put it into confusion. An entire rout ensued, and the
insurgents were pursued across the moor and adjoining fields with
great slaughter; many were taken prisoners; and their leader, the
Duke of Monmouth, was captured two days afterwards near Ringwood,
in Hampshire, and was removed to London, and beheaded.

After the suppression of the rebellion, the five companies of the
QUEEN'S REGIMENT returned to Portsmouth: their conduct was highly
approved by his Majesty, and soon afterwards the regiment was
presented with a set of new colours--_one to each company_; and it
continued to display TWELVE COLOURS for several years from that
period. Two of the new colours were presented by the Queen, and the
other ten by his Majesty: of the expense of the former no account
has been met with; but some idea may be formed of the splendid
appearance of these colours, from the fact that the ten presented
by the King cost upwards of twenty pounds each.[9] A copy of the
bill, amounting to £206 5_s._ 6_d._, is preserved in the official
records in the War Office. A copy of the royal warrant, dated 21st
of August, 1686, for the payment of this sum, is inserted below.[10]

During the summer ten companies of the regiment were ordered to
proceed from Portsmouth to Taunton in Somersetshire, to attend the
Lord Chief Justice Jeffreys, who was appointed by King James II. to
try the prisoners taken at the battle of Sedgemoor, and a number of
other persons who were charged either with being concerned in the
rebellion, or with countenancing or aiding the ill-fated duke and
his adherents. The narrative of the proceedings of the Lord Chief
Justice, and of the painful duties which the troops who attended
on him had to perform, forms one of the black pages of the history
of this country; and the remorseless and sanguinary character of
the judge has occasioned him to be held up to deserved execration.
Colonel Kirke and his regiment have also been charged with acts
of cruelty, although the accounts may have been exaggerated; but
the conduct of the ten companies of the QUEEN'S REGIMENT escaped
censure, as their services appear to have been limited to the
guarding of prisoners, and the preserving of order at executions,
which were so numerous that these were termed the BLOODY ASSIZES.

[Sidenote: 1686]

[Sidenote: 1687]

The QUEEN'S REGIMENT remained in extensive cantonments in the
western counties until the spring of 1686, when it was ordered to
march to Plymouth, where it passed the succeeding twelve months.
It was withdrawn from Devonshire in March, 1687, and was stationed
a short time at Salisbury and Wilton, from whence it marched to
Hounslow in June of the same year, and pitched its tents on the
heath. After having been twice reviewed by King James II., the
regiment struck its tents on the 5th of August, and marched to
Bristol, Bath, and Keynsham.

[Sidenote: 1688]

In the spring of 1688, the regiment proceeded to Portsmouth, and
passed the summer months in that garrison; but in September it was
ordered to march to London.

The short period during which King James II. had occupied the
throne, had been pregnant with events of a most alarming character
to the nation, and every evil which the people had feared would
follow the accession of a popish prince to sovereign power,
appeared on the eve of transpiring. The rebellion of the Duke of
Monmouth had furnished the King with a pretext for augmenting the
regular army, which he continued on a high establishment, and
increased, from time to time, without the consent of parliament.
The troops were embodied by the authority of the crown only, and
were paid, either from the civil list, or by diverting moneys,
intended for other objects, to that purpose; and the King
even appeared to have formed the design of governing without
parliaments, of rendering himself absolute, and of subverting
the reformed religion. His Majesty's principal dependence for
the success of his unconstitutional projects was placed in the
devotedness of his troops; but his conduct disgusted the military
as well as his other subjects; and the cheers of the soldiers on
Hounslow Heath at the acquittal of the bishops, whom the King had
imprisoned and brought to trial for opposing his measures, proved
that he had entirely lost their sympathy, and could no longer trust
to them for support.

The King's proceedings having filled the nation with alarm and
consternation, the Prince of Orange, who was the King's nephew and
son-in-law, and a zealous advocate for the Protestant interest,
was solicited to come to England with a body of troops to assist
the nobility and gentry in opposing the proceedings of the court.
At the same time, many of the superior officers of the English
army, who were most zealous for the welfare of the kingdom and the
preservation of the reformed religion, seeing the danger to which
the constitution in church and state was exposed, formed themselves
into a secret association, and engaged not to fight in the cause
of papacy and arbitrary power, but to further the objects of the
Prince of Orange; and Brigadier-General Charles Trelawny, Colonel
of the QUEEN'S regiment of foot, was one of the members of this
association.

When the Prince of Orange had landed at Torbay (5th of November)
the regiment proceeded by forced marches to Salisbury, and
afterwards to Warminster, which was the most advanced post of the
King's army, and was occupied by the third troop of life guards,
the Queen's, and Major-General Werden's regiments of horse, the
Queen's regiment of dragoons, with two battalions of the royals,
and the Queen Dowager's and QUEEN CONSORT'S regiments of foot,[11]
commanded by Major-General Kirke and Brigadier-Generals Trelawny
and Maine.

The King arrived at Salisbury on the 20th of November, and on
the 21st reviewed his forces stationed in and near that city;
and a number of officers and soldiers having already deserted to
the Prince of Orange, His Majesty addressed the troops on the
subject, and gave liberty to all who were unwilling to serve him,
to depart without molestation. This appeal to their loyalty was
followed with such shouts and assurances of attachment, that the
King's confidence, which had been much shaken, was in a great
measure restored. On the following day His Majesty designed to have
visited the advanced post at Warminster, but was prevented by a
bleeding at the nose, to which he was constitutionally subject.
The Duke of Berwick states in his memoirs,--"The King intended to
go from Salisbury in my coach to visit the quarter commanded by
Major-General Kirke; but was prevented by a prodigious bleeding
of the nose, which seized him on a sudden, and it is said, that
a scheme was laid and measures taken by Churchill and Kirke, to
deliver up the King to the Prince of Orange; but this accident
frustrated the design." Brigadier-General Trelawny is also charged
with participating in this design; but no direct proof on the
subject has been adduced by any historian.

The number of desertions increasing, the King ordered the army
to retire towards London, when the cavalry was withdrawn from
Warminster by Brigadier-General Maine of the third troop of life
guards; and orders were sent to Major-General Kirke to march with
the infantry to Devizes, but he refused, and was placed in arrest
and sent under a guard to London. Brigadier-General Trelawny,
expecting a similar fate, withdrew, with his lieut.-colonel,
Charles Churchill, and about thirty non-commissioned officers
and soldiers, and joined the Prince of Orange. The King sent
Lieut.-General the Earl of Dumbarton to Warminster with two
squadrons of horse, and he brought off the remaining officers and
men of the four battalions without interruption.

After Brigadier-General Trelawny had joined the Prince of Orange,
the King gave the colonelcy of the QUEEN'S regiment of foot to Sir
Charles Orby from the commission of lieut.-colonel in the third
troop of life guards. But His Majesty, finding the army, on which
he had depended, would not be subservient to his designs, fled from
London with the view of escaping to France; the Prince of Orange
assumed the reins of government, and ordered the regiment to march
to Hertford and Ware; and His Highness restored Brigadier-General
Trelawny to the colonelcy, and promoted Lieut.-Colonel Charles
Churchill to the command of the Holland regiment, now the third
foot.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The regiment continued to occupy quarters in the south of England
after the accession of William and Mary, and passed the winter of
1689 at Exeter.

[Sidenote: 1690]

In the mean time Ireland had become the scene of conflict between
the Roman Catholics and Protestants, and King James, having
proceeded thither with a body of French troops, had reduced the
greater part of that kingdom under his sway, and had maltreated
the Protestants in various ways. In 1689 King William sent Duke
Schomberg, with a body of troops, to aid the Protestants, and in
1690 His Majesty resolved to take the field in person. The QUEEN'S
regiment of foot was selected to form part of the army in Ireland,
and having embarked from Barnstaple in the middle of April, put
to sea, but was driven by severe weather to Pembroke. Here the
regiment remained about a week, and having again put to sea on the
30th of April, landed at Belfast on the 2d of May. King William
arrived in Ireland on the 14th of June, and placing himself at the
head of the army, advanced to the banks of the _Boyne_, on the
opposite side of which river King James's army was formed in order
of battle.

At day-break on the morning of the 1st of July, the regiment was
under arms, every man displaying a green branch in his hat, to
distinguish him from the enemy, who wore pieces of white paper
in their hats, and the cheerful countenances of the musketeers,
pikemen, and grenadiers seemed to give presage of victory. About
six o'clock the regiment, with the remainder of Brigadier-General
Trelawny's brigade, forming part of the force under Count Schomberg
and Lieut.-General Douglas, filed to the right, and having marched
about two miles up the river, forded the stream between the
King's camp and Slane bridge. Sir Neal O'Neal's regiment of Irish
dragoons, in the service of King James, offered some opposition;
but was speedily routed and its commanding officer was mortally
wounded. After passing the river, Trelawny's brigade halted a
short time until additional forces arrived; then advancing through
corn fields, over deep ditches, and across a difficult bog, drove
the enemy's left wing from its ground in a spirited manner, and
forced it to make a precipitate retreat towards Duleek. When the
enemy's left flank was thus turned, King William passed the river
with the other divisions of his army, and King James's forces were
overpowered and chased from the field. Thus a decisive victory was
gained, and the troops halted during the night near Duleek.

The regiment advanced with the army upon Dublin, and at the review
at Finglass, on the 7th and 8th of July, it mustered (according
to the official rolls) five hundred and fifty-three private men,
besides officers and non-commissioned officers. The enemy having
fled from Dublin, the regiment was stationed several weeks in
garrison in that city, of which its colonel was appointed governor.

Meanwhile the combined English and Dutch fleets, commanded by Lord
Torrington and Admiral Evertsen, had engaged (30th of June) the
French fleet under the Count de Tourville, off the Beachy, and
the Dutch, being in the van, suffered so severely, that the enemy
not only claimed the victory, but actually gained the ascendancy
at sea, and menaced England with an invasion. A body of French
landed on the western coast, and destroyed a village, and this
event having produced considerable alarm, King William ordered this
regiment and several other corps to return to England.[12]

After its arrival in England the regiment was encamped on Southsea
common, near Portsmouth, and in the autumn, the danger of foreign
invasion having passed away, it was selected to form part of an
expedition to Ireland under the Earl of Marlborough, (afterwards
the great Duke of Marlborough.) The troops employed on this
service[13] embarked about the middle of September, and arrived
in Cork roads on the 21st of that month. The fleet entered the
harbour on the following day, and the co-operation of part of the
army on shore having been secured, the troops landed on the 23d
and besieged the city of _Cork_. A breach having been made, four
English regiments, under Brigadier-General Churchill and a body of
Danes, passed the river on the 28th of September, wading up to the
arm-pits to the east marsh, in order to storm the city wall on that
side. The grenadiers under Lord Colchester led the attack, and,
while advancing, the Duke of Grafton, who accompanied the storming
party in the character of a volunteer, received a mortal wound.
Before the storming party gained the breach, the enemy hung out a
white flag, and agreed to surrender.

_Kinsale_ was afterwards besieged, and the enemy immediately
vacated the town and retired into the Old and New Forts. The Old
Fort was taken by storm on the 2d of October; and a breach having
been made in the New Fort, the garrison surrendered on the 15th of
October.

After the capture of these fortresses the regiment was placed in
garrison in Cork, where it remained during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1691]

In the spring of 1691, when the army took the field under General
De Ginkell, (afterwards Earl of Athlone,) this regiment was left in
reserve in the county of Cork, to secure the garrisons, and to keep
in check the bands of armed Roman Catholic peasantry, who prowled
about the country committing every description of depredation; and,
while employed in this service, detachments of the regiment had
occasional encounters with the enemy's parties. After the overthrow
of the Irish and French forces at Aughrim, the regiment was ordered
to march from the county of Cork, and it joined the main army in
the wild and desolate part of the country called Shalley. Advancing
from thence to _Limerick_, it was engaged in the siege of this
place, which was terminated by the surrender of the garrison in
September, on condition of being permitted to proceed to France.
Indemnity was also granted to the Roman Catholics who had engaged
in this contest, and the power of King James was finally suppressed
in Ireland.

After so many of the Irish regiments as were willing had proceeded
to France, where they were taken into the service of Louis XIV.,
the other Irish corps which had fought in King James's cause were
disbanded, and the regiment which forms the subject of this memoir
returned to England, and immediately commenced recruiting its
numbers.

[Sidenote: 1692]

On the 1st of January, 1692, the colonelcy was conferred on
the lieut.-colonel, Henry Trelawny, vice Major-General Charles
Trelawny, who was appointed Governor of Plymouth.

The regiment was allowed but a short period for the purpose of
recruiting, before it was ordered to hold itself in readiness to
proceed to the Netherlands, and having embarked at Portsmouth,
sailed on the 31st of March, 1692; contrary winds, however, forced
the transports to anchor in the Downs until the middle of April,
when they sailed to Ostend. After landing, the regiment went into
cantonments among the Belgic peasantry, and subsequently took the
field with the army commanded by King William in person.

The regiment took part in the operations of the main army and in
the advance to relieve the siege of Namur, which was frustrated by
heavy rains. On the 29th of June, it was reviewed by King William
and the Elector of Bavaria at the camp on the undulating grounds
between Genappe and the forest of Soignies.

It was also present at the battle of _Steenkirk_, fought on the
24th of July, when the army of King William was repulsed in an
attempt to force the position occupied by the French under Marshal
Luxemburg. This regiment formed part of the main body, and, owing
to the narrow and difficult defiles which lay between the two
armies, it was not brought into action, and consequently had no
opportunity of distinguishing itself. A detachment of the regiment,
sent forward on the preceding evening, joined the advance-guard,
and was sharply engaged. The loss on both sides was nearly equal.

THE QUEEN'S regiment of foot formed part of a detachment of ten
battalions sent from the main army on the 22d of August, under
Lieut.-General Talmash, to join a body of troops which had
arrived at Ostend from England, under the orders of the Duke
of Leinster. These forces were afterwards joined by a body of
cavalry, and, having summoned between two and three thousand of
the country people with spades and shovels, took and repaired the
fortifications of Furnes, a small town situated upon the canal, two
leagues from Nieuport and five from Dunkirk. After placing this
town in a condition to resist an assault, the troops proceeded
to Dixmude, and fortified and garrisoned the town. The regiment
subsequently marched to Bruges, and went into cantonments in the
villages near the banks of the canal between that place and Ghent;
but the French having advanced to Charleroi, the regiment quitted
its village cantonments and joined the main army at Drongen. The
French Marshal, Boufflers, bombarded the lower town of Charleroi,
and afterwards retreated, when this regiment returned to its former
quarters.

[Sidenote: 1693]

During the winter a detachment was ordered to advance to the
relief of _Furnes_, which was besieged by a French force under
Marshal Boufflers; but the roads were so bad from heavy rains
that, according to D'Auvergne, "several soldiers sunk almost to
the middle in mud, and several horses remained stuck in it." This
occasioned some delay, and the garrison surrendered on the 4th of
January, 1693. The Dutch garrison at Dixmude, being alarmed at
having the enemy so near them, withdrew from the place.

The detachment afterwards returned to its quarters, and in May
the QUEEN'S regiment took the field with the army, and was posted
in the second line at the celebrated position of Parck camp, the
possession of which enabled King William to defeat the enemy's
designs on Brabant.

In the movements which preceded the battle of _Landen_, which was
fought on the 19th of July, 1693, the regiment also took part;
and on the night before the battle it was posted in the village
of Neer-Landen, on the left of the position; but on the following
morning, when the French columns were seen advancing to the attack,
the QUEEN'S and Prince George of Denmark's (now third) regiments
were withdrawn from Neer-Landen, and ordered to take post in the
village of Laér, to reinforce Brigadier-General Ramsay's brigade.

Scarcely had the regiment gained its post, when the glistening of
bayonets and pikes, perceived at intervals above the undulations,
gave indication of the approaching enemy; a cloud of light
musketeers and grenadiers soon cleared the intervening space and
attacked the village with great fury; and the defenders opened a
most galling and destructive fire on their assailants. The enemy,
by continually reinforcing the corps engaged, succeeded, after a
severe struggle, in gaining some advantage; but the British troops
renewed the conflict and regained their lost ground. Again the
enemy brought forward his rallied forces, and a brigade of dragoons
dismounting and joining in the attack, the village of Laér was
carried. Brigadier-General Ramsay rallied his brigade, and after
a short address, led the regiments to the attack. The French were
exulting in their success, when suddenly a loud British huzza burst
like a clap of thunder on their astonished ears, and the next
moment the charging Britons broke through all opposition, forced
the village, and in a short time cleared it of opponents.

The enemy, by his great superiority of numbers, was enabled to
bring forward fresh troops, and he eventually succeeded in forcing
the position at the village of Neer-Winden. The village of Laér was
then no longer tenable, and the regiments were forced to retire,
fighting, across the river Gheet. The King ordered the army to make
a retrograde movement, which was not effected without considerable
confusion and loss. The QUEEN'S regiment had Captain Crofts and
Lieutenant Woodstock killed; Captain Wharton wounded; and Captain
Carroll and Lieutenant Cole wounded and taken prisoners: of its
loss in non-commissioned officers and private men, no account
appears to have been preserved.

The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was so great that he derived
little advantage from the victory.

THE QUEEN'S regiment continued with the main army until the autumn,
when it marched into garrison at Malines.

[Sidenote: 1694]

The regiment marched out of Malines in May 1694, and pitched
its tents near the cloister of Terbank, where three English and
thirty-six Dutch battalions were encamped. During the campaign
of this year two magnificent armies manœuvred on the plains
of Flanders and Brabant, but no general engagement occurred.
In September the QUEEN'S regiment of foot formed part of the
covering army during the siege of _Huy_, which place was taken by
capitulation, and the regiment subsequently marched to its former
station at Malines.

[Sidenote: 1695]

In 1695 the regiment again took the field, and was employed in
the movements which preceded the siege of the important fortress
of _Namur_. The attack of this city excited universal attention
throughout Europe. The strength of the place both by nature and
art,--the extent of the castle, situated on a rock, with the works
by which it was surrounded,--the number of veteran troops in the
town,--the character of their commander (Marshal Boufflers),--the
fact that this was one of the most important of the French king's
conquests, and consequently strenuous exertions would be used for
its preservation,--with the immense armies employed in covering and
carrying on the siege, or in attempting to relieve the garrison,
gave an important character to this undertaking, which produced a
lively feeling of interest throughout Christendom; and the QUEEN'S
was one of the regiments which had the honor of taking part in the
enterprise.

When NAMUR was first invested, this regiment remained with the
covering army under the veteran Prince of Vaudemont; but it formed
part of the force detached on the 24th of June under Lord Cutts,
and joined the besieging troops on the 1st of July. During the
night of the 8th of that month a detachment from the grenadier
company was engaged in storming the covered way which the enemy had
constructed on the hill of Bouge, in which service Captain Selby
was wounded, and several private men were killed and wounded.

The regiment was on duty in the trenches on the 9th, and also
on the 13th of July; on the 17th the grenadiers were engaged in
storming the counterscarp. The assaulting party of 500 grenadiers
was commanded by Colonel Collingwood, with Major Carryle of the
Queen's regiment second in command. The attack was made about five
o'clock in the evening; the enemy defended their post with great
bravery; every inch of ground was disputed; but the counterscarp
was eventually carried. The regiment lost many men on this
occasion; Captain Carter (son of Rear-Admiral Carter who was killed
at Barfleur) was killed in the covered-way, and Major Carryle was
wounded.

On the night of the 23rd of July a detachment of the regiment was
engaged in extending the lodgement on the right of the bastion of
St. Roche, and had Ensign Nuby killed; also Captain Mitchell and
Lieutenant Cole wounded. On the succeeding day the batteries kept
up an incessant fire, and preparations were made for a general
assault; but this was prevented by the enemy agreeing to surrender
the town, which they vacated on the 25th, and retired into the
castle.

This regiment having sustained considerable loss during the siege
of the town, marched from the lines of circumvallation on the
27th of July towards Brussels, forming part of the division under
Lieut.-General Count Nassau, sent to reinforce the covering army
under the Prince of Vaudemont, to enable him to oppose the immense
French army commanded by Marshal Villeroy. The enemy advanced to
Brussels and bombarded the city, and subsequently marched towards
Namur; when this regiment was withdrawn from its camp between
Genappe and Waterloo, and advanced to oppose the enemy's design of
relieving the castle of Namur. The position which the army took up
before Namur frustrated the purposes of the French marshal; and
on the 20th of August, a detachment of the regiment was engaged
under Lord Cutts in storming the counterscarp and breach of Terra
Nova, in which service it had Lieutenant D'Arneau and several men
killed. Preparations were subsequently made for a second assault
on the castle; when Marshal Boufflers agreed to surrender on
honourable terms, and thus this stupendous fortress was captured;
the achievement reflected glory on the British arms and those of
the several nations composing the army commanded by King William.
The most brilliant feature in this enterprise, however, derived its
lustre from the fact, that other monarchs had made conquests for
themselves, to oppress their neighbours, or to raise a powerful
monarchy out of the ruins of other states; but the King of England
waged war for the good of Europe, and to establish liberty and
peace upon a lasting foundation. After the damage done to the works
of Namur had been repaired, the regiment returned to its former
quarters at Malines.

[Sidenote: 1696]

The King of France finding that not only had an effectual stop
been given to his arms, but that he was likely to lose many of
his conquests, endeavoured to weaken the confederates by causing
England to become the theatre of civil war. A party favourable
to the Stuart dynasty still remained in England; the Duke of
Berwick and several French officers were sent across the Channel
to persuade the friends of King James to rise in arms; at the same
time a plot for the assassination of King William was formed; and a
French army marched to the coast to be in readiness to embark with
King James for England.

Information of these events having been obtained, the QUEEN'S
regiment of foot was suddenly ordered from its cantonments in
the city of Malines to embark for England. It marched to Sas
Van Ghent, where it went on board of transports, and sailed to
Flushing, from whence a convoy of Dutch men-of-war accompanied
the fleet to England. In the mean time the conspirators had been
discovered, a British fleet was sent to blockade the French ports,
and the designs of Louis XIV. were frustrated. The greater part
of the forces which were ordered home on this occasion returned to
Flanders without landing in England; but the QUEEN'S was one of the
corps which disembarked at Gravesend, and was selected to remain on
home service that year.

[Sidenote: 1697]

In the summer of 1697 the regiment again embarked for the
Netherlands; and having joined the army commanded by King William
near Brussels on the 14th of July, was reviewed by His Majesty on
the 16th. Soon afterwards the King had the satisfaction of seeing
his exertions in behalf of the liberties of, and balance of power
in, Europe, crowned with a treaty of peace, which was concluded at
Ryswick in September; and in the succeeding month this regiment
was ordered to return to England. It landed in the beginning of
December at Woolwich; from whence it marched to Plymouth and
Penryn, where its establishment was reduced from nine hundred and
twenty-five to five hundred and seventy-two officers and soldiers.

[Sidenote: 1698]

The danger arising from the exercise of so unconstitutional a
prerogative as the raising of troops and the maintaining of a
large army on the authority of the Crown only, as practised in the
reign of King James II., was provided against at the Revolution.
In the Bill of Rights, the raising or keeping of a standing army
within the kingdom, in time of peace, unless with the consent of
parliament, was declared to be contrary to law, and from that
period to the present time the army has been maintained under the
authority of an Act, annually renewed, called an "Act for punishing
mutiny and desertion, and for the better payment of the army and
their quarters." This Act specifies the number of soldiers to
be kept up; the conditions under which they are enlisted, paid,
billeted, &c.; and lays down a system of martial law for their
government. Owing to the jealousy with which a standing army was
regarded, and the cost of its maintenance, it was confined, after
the peace of Ryswick, within very narrow limits; and in 1699 it
was reduced, in opposition to the most obvious considerations
of expediency, and in despite of the efforts of the King, to so
few as seven thousand men. These troops were limited to "His
Majesty's natural born subjects," and King William, who had been
the instrument, under Divine Providence, of establishing a free
government in these realms, and of fixing the balance of power
in Europe, was obliged to submit to the mortification, which
he felt most acutely, of dismissing his favourite regiments of
Dutch guards and French refugees. When this reduction took place,
the establishment of the QUEEN'S regiment was decreased to ten
companies of thirty-six private men each. It continued to occupy
Plymouth and Penryn, with one company detached to the Isle of
Scilly.

[Sidenote: 1701]

The success which had attended the exertions of King William to
prevent the aggrandizement of France by conquest, and to establish
the balance of power in Europe upon an apparently solid foundation,
was suddenly countervailed by the accession of the Duke of Anjou,
grandson of Louis XIV., to the throne of Spain; and two years had
scarcely elapsed, before the signs of approaching war appeared,
and the short-sighted policy of placing the army upon so low an
establishment proved a source of great inconvenience.

[Sidenote: 1702]

The strength of the QUEEN'S regiment of foot was again increased
to twelve companies, and in February, 1702, King William conferred
the colonelcy on Brigadier-General William Seymour from the
twenty-fourth regiment.

His Majesty having died in the following month, was succeeded by
Queen Anne,[14] who declared war against France; and the first
service in which the QUEEN'S regiment of foot was called upon to
engage in this reign, was the expedition to the coast of Spain
under the command of General the Duke of Ormond, a nobleman more
remarkable for generosity and personal bravery, than for ability as
commander-in-chief of an army.

Information had been received in England that the garrison of
the city of _Cadiz_ was weak in numbers, the fortifications out
of repair, and that the inhabitants of that part of Spain were
favourable to the house of Austria. This fortress had been captured
by a British armament in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,[15] and, in
the anticipation of a similar result, an expedition was fitted out,
and the QUEEN'S (now fourth) regiment of foot embarked[16] from
Plymouth (mustering upwards of eight hundred men) to join in the
enterprise.

When the fleet arrived on the Spanish coast, some delay was
occasioned by the Admiral, Sir George Rooke, on pretence of seeking
for information; but the troops landed in the middle of August, and
dispersed a body of Spanish cavalry which was drawn up to oppose
them, on which occasion the grenadier company of this regiment was
engaged.

After landing, the QUEEN'S regiment took part in the operations by
which the capture of the towns of _Rota_ and _Port St. Mary's_,
and also _Fort St. Catherine_, was effected; it also took part in
the siege of the fort of _Matagorda_; but the delay in landing had
given the Spaniards time to recover from their first surprise, and
Cadiz was found better prepared for resistance than was expected.
The expedition proving too weak for the capture of this fortress,
the troops retired to Rota, where they re-embarked, and afterwards
sailed for England.

Nothing gives rise to more painful feelings in the breasts of
British soldiers than the failure of an attempt of this nature.
Though their honour and fame were untarnished, and their personal
bravery had been conspicuous throughout, yet their fondly cherished
hopes and sanguine expectations were blighted; the palm of
victory and glory of conquest, which had appeared almost within
their grasp, had vanished, and they were returning to England
(where the anticipations of the people had been incautiously
heightened by paragraphs in the Gazette expressive of the certainty
of success) without having achieved anything to answer the
expectations of their sovereign and country. The remembrance of
their disappointment, however, suddenly vanished on the receipt of
information of the arrival of a Spanish fleet from the West Indies,
under a French convoy, at the harbour of _Vigo_ in Gallicia. The
prospect of capturing this prize gave new life to the seamen and
troops, and the squadron immediately bent its course thither.

The French Admiral, M. Chateaurenaud, had placed his shipping and
the galleons within a narrow passage, the entrance to which was
defended by a castle on one side, and by platforms mounted with
cannon on both sides of the river; and a strong boom was laid
across the entrance. These obstructions, instead of daunting the
British and Dutch, raised their energies and gave new vigour to
their movements. The fleet passed Vigo under a heavy cannonade from
the works, and anchored within four miles of Rondendella. The Duke
of Ormond landed with two brigades, in one of which was the QUEEN'S
regiment of foot, in a sandy bay on the south side of the river,
two leagues from Vigo; and captured the platforms and castle by
storm in a most intrepid and gallant manner; while the fleet forced
the boom, and bore down upon the enemy's men-of-war and galleons,
which were all captured or destroyed. In this brilliant enterprise
the troops had only two officers and forty men killed, and four
officers and thirty men wounded; among the latter was Colonel
Seymour of the QUEEN'S regiment.

The Duke of Ormond took possession of the town of Rondendella, and
being inspired with confidence from this success, he was desirous
of capturing Vigo, and of passing the winter with the troops in
Spain, in order to follow up the advantage he had acquired in the
spring; but the admiral could only supply the troops with two
months' provision, and could not leave more than six frigates
on the coast; the design was consequently laid aside and the
expedition returned to England with its booty. Queen Anne went in
state to St. Paul's cathedral to return thanks for this success,
and each of the regiments of infantry received £561 10_s._ prize
money.

[Sidenote: 1703]

After its return to England, the regiment was again stationed at
Plymouth with four detached companies in village cantonments; a
thirteenth company was added to its establishment, and in the
summer of 1703 the nature of its services was changed, and it
became a corps of MARINES.

A corps was raised for SEA service by King Charles II., in 1664,
and designated the admiral's regiment; and during this reign
battalions for sea service were formed as the occasions of the
state required, of drafts from the land forces, and embarked
on board the fleet. In 1689 King William III. incorporated the
admiral's regiment in the second foot guards, and two marine
regiments were established for service on board the fleet. These
regiments were disbanded in 1698; but on the breaking out of the
war of the Spanish succession, six regiments of marines were
raised, and six regular regiments of foot were placed on the
establishment of the navy for sea service.[17] In May, 1703, the
QUEEN'S regiment, commanded by Colonel Seymour, was constituted a
corps of MARINES; and its colonel was appointed to the care and
command of Her Majesty's marine forces.

The uniform of the regiment underwent some alteration on this
occasion, and the three-cornered cocked hats, worn by the officers
and men, were replaced by high-crowned leather caps, covered
with cloth of the same colour as the facing of the regiment, and
ornamented with devices, the same as the caps worn at this period
by the grenadiers.[18]

The first service in which the QUEEN'S (now fourth) regiment was
called upon to engage after it was constituted a corps of MARINES,
was embarking on board the fleet commanded by Admiral Sir George
Rooke, for the purpose of conducting to Portugal the Archduke
Charles of Austria, who had been acknowledged by the British,
Dutch, Imperial, and Portuguese governments as sovereign of Spain
by the title of Charles III., an event which excited a lively
interest at the time, and from which most important results were
anticipated.

His Catholic Majesty arrived at Portsmouth on the 26th of December,
and was received by the fleet and town with the honours paid to
crowned heads; after visiting Queen Anne at Windsor, he went on
board, and put to sea, but was driven back by a storm.

[Sidenote: 1704]

The fleet again set sail on the 12th of February, 1704, arrived at
Lisbon on the 25th of that month, and was followed by transports
having a British and Dutch force on board under the command of Duke
Schomberg, which force was designed to assist King Charles in his
attempt to gain the throne of Spain.

It was customary at this period to employ marines occasionally
in the field; but this regiment did not land. It remained on
board the fleet, which, having put to sea, proceeded to the city
of _Barcelona_, and expecting the Catalonians would declare in
favour of King Charles III. as soon as they should be assured of
protection and support, the governor was required to surrender;
but he refused to receive the summons. Although the fleet was not
prepared to capture the place, yet a body of MARINES was landed,
and the town was bombarded. This producing no alteration in the
governor's resolution, and the people exhibiting no marks of
attachment to the house of Austria, the MARINES were re-embarked.
The British and Dutch squadron subsequently proceeded in quest of
the French fleet under the Count of Thoulouse, and, although the
latter had the advantage in point of numbers and other particulars,
yet the French admiral avoided an engagement.

Being unable to force the enemy to fight, the British and Dutch
admirals resolved to make a sudden attempt on _Gibraltar_, and the
QUEEN'S REGIMENT OF MARINES, now the FOURTH OR KING'S OWN REGIMENT
OF FOOT, had the proud distinction of taking part in the capture
of this stupendous fortress, a conquest from which the kingdom has
probably derived as much advantage as from any previous achievement
of the British arms, and which remains a monument of the national
glory. The combined fleet arrived in the bay of _Gibraltar_ on
the 21st of July; a body of English and Dutch MARINES were landed
on the neck of land northward of the town under the orders of
the Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt, to cut off the communication of
the garrison with the country, and the governor was summoned to
surrender the fortress for His Catholic Majesty King Charles III.
This being refused, a heavy cannonade was opened on the 23d, by
which the Spaniards were driven from their guns at the head of the
south mole. The boats were manned, a body of men from the fleet,
climbing up the difficult acclivity, with signal gallantry captured
the fortifications on the mole, but had two lieutenants and forty
men killed, and sixty wounded, by the explosion of a mine. Another
body of men landed, and, urged forward by their innate valour and
thirst for glory, captured a detached bastion between the mole
and the town; and the governor, having been again summoned, agreed
to surrender on condition of being permitted to march out with
all the honours of war. On taking possession of the fortress, the
seamen and MARINES were astonished at their own success; and they
viewed, with a mixed feeling of wonder and delight, fortifications
which a comparatively small number of men might have defended
against a numerous army. The capture of _Gibraltar_ gave rise to
new hopes and expectations to the friends of the house of Austria,
and it derived additional interest from the fact that it preceded,
but a very few days, the glorious victory gained by the Duke of
Marlborough at Blenheim.

The loss of _Gibraltar_ disconcerted the measures of Philip II.,
and his grandfather Louis XIV. Eight thousand men, under the
Marquis de Villadarias, were immediately detached from the Spanish
army to retake the fortress; and the French admiral received orders
to engage the British and Dutch fleet, and to co-operate in the
re-capture of Gibraltar.

At this period the French monarch possessed a naval force of
considerable magnitude, and his fleet under the Count of Thoulouse
exceeded in numbers and power the combined British and Dutch
squadron. The hostile fleets engaged on the 24th of August, about
eleven leagues south of _Malaga_, and, after both sides had
suffered severely, they were separated in the night.

[Illustration: Landing of the British and Dutch troops at Gibraltar
on the 21st July, 1704.           [To face page 34, in 4th Foot.
]

The Marquis de Villadarias, having been joined by four thousand
French from the fleet, commenced the siege of _Gibraltar_ on the
22d of October; and part of the QUEEN'S REGIMENT OF MARINES, being
in garrison, had now the honour of defending that magnificent
fortress which they had so nobly assisted to capture. The garrison
was weak in numbers; but Sir John Leake and Rear-admiral Vander
Dussen arrived in the bay from Lisbon, with thirteen English and
six Dutch men-of-war, and, thus securing the besieged from an
attack from the sea, gave them an opportunity to direct all their
energies to the repulsing of the attacks from the land side.

During the night of the 11th of November, five hundred of the enemy
contrived, by means of rope-ladders and other inventions, to ascend
the mountain by a way which was deemed impracticable, and were
supported by another body of three thousand men. The men engaged
in this daring enterprise were, however, soon discovered, and
were charged by five hundred of the MARINES in garrison with such
resolution, that two hundred of the enemy were killed on the spot,
upwards of two hundred were taken prisoners, and the remainder,
endeavouring to escape, fell down the rock and were dashed to
pieces.

The fire of the enemy's batteries having damaged the works, a body
of men was landed from the fleet to assist in the defence, and
Brigadier-General Fox with several other officers and a number of
men having been killed, (5th of December, 1704,) aid was solicited
from the army in Portugal. Meanwhile the enemy had made several
breaches, and the garrison was held in constant readiness to resist
an attack on the works by storm. British courage and endurance were
now sternly proved. The governor, the Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt,
spent his days in the works, and the greatest part of every night
in the covered way, and his example produced so good an effect,
that the conduct of the troops exceeded all expectation, and
"THE ENGLISH MARINES GAINED IMMORTAL HONOUR."[19] New works were
constructed within those already damaged, mines were prepared, and
every means used to give the French and Spaniards a warm reception
if they attempted to assault the fortress. In the midst of these
preparations the garrison was reinforced by a battalion of foot
guards, part of the English regiments of Barrymore (thirteenth
foot) and Donegal (thirty-fifth foot), and of the Dutch regiment of
Waes; and during the night of the 22d of December, a body of men
issued from the fortress in the dark, forced the Spanish lines,
routed a body of cavalry, levelled part of the works, burnt the
fascines and gabions, and retired with little loss. The success
which attended this display of British intrepidity, with the
discovery of a conspiracy which several residents in the garrison
had entered into with the enemy, disconcerted the measures of the
besiegers and retarded their operations.

[Sidenote: 1705]

The siege was, however, prosecuted with vigour, and the Marquis of
Villadarias, having received a considerable reinforcement, attacked
the round tower in the beginning of February, 1705. On this
occasion a chosen band of French grenadiers climbed the rock with
hooks in one hand and their swords in the other, but were repulsed
with loss.

A second attempt was made about four days afterwards. Six hundred
select French and Walloon grenadiers, supported by a large body of
Spaniards, ascended the hill with great silence during the night,
and concealed themselves in the cliffs and hollow grounds until
day-break. When the night-guard had been withdrawn from the breach
near the round tower, they made a sudden rush at the wall, and
with a shower of hand-grenades drove the ordinary guard from its
post. At the same time two hundred French grenadiers attacked the
round tower by storm. The troops in garrison were soon alarmed.
CAPTAIN FISHER of the QUEEN'S REGIMENT OF MARINES, an officer of
a most daring and heroic spirit, charged the enemy at the head of
seventeen men; but his small party was soon overpowered and himself
taken prisoner. Major Moncall, of Lord Barrymore's regiment,
rushed to the scene of the conflict at the head of four hundred
men, and being seconded by Colonel Rivett of the foot guards,
who had climbed the rock on the right of the covered way with
twenty grenadiers, he charged the enemy sword in hand, retook the
round tower, and liberated CAPTAIN FISHER of the QUEEN'S MARINES.
Additional troops were brought forward, and the French and Walloon
grenadiers were chased from the works with the loss of more than
half their numbers; but the gallant CAPTAIN FISHER, being foremost
in the pursuit, was again made prisoner.

The French and Spaniards continued their attempts against this
fortress with unavailing assiduity, until their formidable army
was half ruined, and towards the end of March, 1705, they raised
the siege, and retired. "And thus," observes the author of the
Annals of Queen Anne, "the siege of that important place, after
six months' toil and fruitless attempts, was at last raised, _by
the obstinate and valiant defence of our brave Englishmen_;" and
the QUEEN'S MARINES had their share in the glory of this brilliant
success. The importance of _Gibraltar_ occasioned the siege to
become a subject of great interest throughout Christendom, but
especially in England; the result gave rise to the most lively
feelings of joy and exultation; and the conduct of the British
troops was the subject of merited commendation.

[Sidenote: 1706]

[Sidenote: 1707]

[Sidenote: 1708]

In the subsequent actions during this war, the regiments of MARINES
gained additional honour. They had their share of the glory
acquired in the capture of _Barcelona_ in the autumn of 1705, and
in the gallant defence of that city in 1706; they fought at the
unfortunate battle of _Almanza_ in 1707; took part in the capture
and defence of several fortified towns in Spain, and in the capture
of the island of _Minorca_ in 1708. In some of these services,
detachments of the QUEEN'S MARINES were probably engaged; but,
after the defence of Gibraltar, the regiment appears to have been
employed, generally, on board the fleet.

[Sidenote: 1709]

[Sidenote: 1710]

Six companies of the regiment, having landed from on board the
fleet, were stationed, during the winter of 1709, in Devonshire,
and after reposing a few months in quarters, were removed, in
March, 1710, to garrison duty at Plymouth. In July of the same
year, the other seven companies, having arrived at Spithead, landed
on the Isle of Wight, where they encamped until September, and
afterwards proceeded to Portsmouth.

About this period the regiment was removed from the establishment
of the navy, its title of MARINES was discontinued, and it
resumed its station among the regular regiments of infantry; it
was, however, included in the estimate for 1711, in the list of
regiments for sea-service; but this did not prevent its being
employed on other duties.

[Sidenote: 1711]

In January, 1711, the six companies at Plymouth having been
relieved by Colonel Andrew Windsor's (now twenty-eighth) regiment,
marched to Portsmouth; and on the 23d of that month the regiment
received orders to hold itself in readiness to proceed to Portugal;
but its destination was soon afterwards changed.

During the nine years which this war had been raging in Europe,
British blood and treasure had been expended in making conquests
for the house of Austria. The only advantage which had accrued
to Great Britain was, that the power of the house of Bourbon had
been diminished and that of Austria augmented: even Gibraltar and
Minorca, though subsequently ceded to Great Britain, had been
captured for the house of Austria. The new ministry chosen by Queen
Anne in 1710 resolved to act upon a different principle. Colonel
Nicholson having made a successful attack on Port Royal in Nova
Scotia, on his return to England he submitted to the government a
plan for the reduction of Placentia and _Quebec_, as a preparatory
measure in order to secure Canada to the British Crown, to drive
the French out of Newfoundland, and regain the fishery.

Canada is stated to have been discovered by the famous Italian
adventurer, Sebastian Cabot, who sailed under a commission from
Henry VII., and as the English monarch did not make any use of the
discovery, the French soon attempted to derive advantage from it.
Several small settlements were established, and in the early part
of the seventeenth century the city of _Quebec_ was founded for
the capital of the French possessions in this part of the world.
Although the colony continued in a very depressed state for some
time, and the settlers were often in danger of being exterminated
by the Indians, yet, in the beginning of the eighteenth century,
it had become of such importance, that its capture was considered
one of the best means of weakening the power of the ambitious Louis
XIV. An expedition was placed under the orders of Brigadier-General
Hill, with a naval force under Commodore Sir Hovenden Walker; and
the QUEEN'S regiment was selected to take part in this enterprise.
On arriving at North America the fleet called at Boston for a
supply of provisions, and the troops landed and encamped a short
time on Rhode Island; but on the 20th of July they re-embarked,
and, having been joined by two regiments of provincial troops,
sailed on the intended expedition.

While the brave men who adopt the profession of arms are engaged
in the service of their sovereign and country, they are exposed to
numerous dangers; their hopes of conquest and prospects of fame
are often suddenly terminated by adverse fortune, and such was the
case in the expedition to Quebec. As the fleet was proceeding up
the river St. Lawrence, it became enveloped in a thick fog, and
encountered a severe gale of wind; and the veterans who had fought
the battles of their country found themselves in the dangerous
navigation of this immense river, in a dark and stormy night, with
inexperienced men collected on a sudden to act as pilots. Eight
transports crowded with men were dashed upon the rocks, and a
number of officers and soldiers, who but a few hours before had
meditated scenes of conquest, victory, and glory, were entombed
in the deep. At the head of the list of officers and men lost by
the regiment which forms the subject of this memoir, is MAJOR
FISHER,[20] who is probably the same officer who displayed such
heroism in the defence of Gibraltar. The other officers lost by the
QUEEN'S regiment were,--Brevet Major Walker; Captains Stringer and
Bush; Captain-Lieutenant L'Hulle; Ensigns Hyde, Hawker, Richardson,
and Loggan; Quartermaster Redix; and Surgeon Jones; with ten
serjeants, eighteen corporals, thirteen drummers, one hundred and
sixty-seven private soldiers, and twenty women. This lamentable
disaster occasioned all thoughts of prosecuting the enterprise
to be laid aside. The fleet returned to England, and the QUEEN'S
regiment, having landed at Portsmouth on the 10th of October,
marched into dispersed quarters in Hampshire, and commenced
recruiting its diminished numbers.[21]

[Sidenote: 1712]

In the autumn of 1712 the regiment was removed from country
quarters to garrison duty at Portsmouth and Plymouth, where it
passed the succeeding year.

[Sidenote: 1713]

From Portsmouth the regiment proceeded in September, 1713, to the
islands of Jersey, Guernsey, and Scilly, with two companies at
the town of Pendennis. A treaty of peace having been concluded at
Utrecht, its establishment was reduced to ten companies of three
officers, two serjeants, two corporals, one drummer, and thirty-six
private men, each; but after several of the newly-raised corps had
been disbanded, its numbers were augmented to forty private men per
company.

[Sidenote: 1714]

While the regiment occupied these stations Her Majesty Queen Anne
died, and was succeeded by King George I., on the 1st of August,
1714.

[Sidenote: 1715]

[Sidenote: 1716]

In the autumn of 1715 the regiment was withdrawn from the islands
of Jersey, Guernsey, and Scilly, and proceeded to the town of
Windsor, and the adjacent villages; and for several months it
furnished the guard at Windsor Castle. While on this duty His
Majesty was graciously pleased to confer upon it the title of THE
KING'S OWN, an honorary distinction which it has continued to bear
to the present time. The regiment occupied these quarters during
the rebellion of the Earl of Mar, and in July, 1716, marched into
garrison at Portsmouth.

[Sidenote: 1717]

The regiment remained at Portsmouth until May, 1717, when it
proceeded to Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Wight; with two
companies detached, one to Windsor, and one to Hampton Court. These
companies were, however, relieved from duty at the residence of
their Sovereign in November, by the foot guards, and joined the
head-quarters at Jersey in the same month.

Lieut.-General William Seymour, after commanding the regiment
nearly sixteen years, was succeeded by Colonel the Hon. Henry
Berkeley, third son of Charles second Earl of Berkeley, by a
commission dated the 25th of December, 1717.

[Sidenote: 1718]

[Sidenote: 1719]

The KING'S OWN remained at the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, and
the Isle of Wight during the succeeding year, and in the spring of
1719 they were removed to Plymouth. While at this station, their
Colonel, the Hon. Henry Berkeley, was removed to the second, or
Scots, troop of horse grenadier guards; and was succeeded by the
Hon. Charles Cadogan, afterwards Lord Cadogan, Baron of Oakley, by
commission dated the 21st of April, 1719.

[Sidenote: 1720]

[Sidenote: 1721]

[Sidenote: 1722]

In June of the same year the regiment was removed from garrison
duty at Plymouth, and marched to Exeter; and it occupied various
stations in the south and west of England until the summer of 1722,
when, the government having received information that the friends
of the Stuart dynasty were conspiring to effect the elevation of
the Pretender to the throne, it formed part of a body of troops
encamped on Salisbury Plain, to be in readiness to act on any
emergency. It was reviewed with the other forces encamped on the
plain, by King George I. and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales
(afterwards George II.) on the 30th of August, and in September
struck its tents and marched into quarters at Exeter.

[Sidenote: 1723]

[Sidenote: 1724]

[Sidenote: 1725]

In the following summer the KING'S OWN were encamped near Newbury;
and in 1724 they occupied quarters at Newbury and Reading; from
whence they occasionally furnished detachments for duty at Windsor
Castle and Hampton Court Palace. In the summer of 1725 they marched
to Berwick, and from thence proceeded to Perth, and were placed
under the orders of the commander-in-chief in North Britain.

[Sidenote: 1731]

[Sidenote: 1732]

[Sidenote: 1733]

Returning to England in 1731, the regiment was stationed that year
at Bristol: from whence it marched in July, 1732, to Exeter. In
1733, and the two succeeding years, it furnished detachments on
coast duty in Sussex, and also in Cornwall.

[Sidenote: 1734]

In the summer of 1734 Lord Cadogan was removed from the KING'S
OWN to the sixth or Inniskilling regiment of dragoons, and
was succeeded by Brigadier-General William Barrell from the
twenty-second regiment of foot, by commission dated the 8th of
August, 1734.

[Sidenote: 1736]

[Sidenote: 1737]

Having called in its detachments, the regiment marched to the north
of England in May, 1736; and after halting two months at Newcastle
and Durham, proceeded to Edinburgh; but returned to England in
July, 1737, and was stationed at York.

[Sidenote: 1739]

[Sidenote: 1740]

The regiment continued to be employed on home service: its
establishment in this year was seven hundred and five officers and
men; and in 1739 it was augmented to eight hundred and fifteen
officers and men; at which number it continued until after the
decease of Charles VI., Emperor of Germany, in 1740, when a war
broke out between the Archduchess Maria Theresa and the Elector
of Bavaria, respecting the kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungaria, and
England became involved in the contest. During the summer of that
year the regiment was encamped near Newbury, and in the autumn
marched into quarters in Lancashire and Cheshire.

[Sidenote: 1741]

[Sidenote: 1742]

[Sidenote: 1744]

France took part with the Elector of Bavaria, and Great Britain
with the house of Austria, and in 1742 a British army proceeded
to Flanders; but the KING'S OWN were employed on home service
until June, 1744, when they embarked for Flanders, and joined the
allied army at its camp near the banks of the Scheldt. The regiment
served the campaign of this year under Field-Marshal Wade, and was
employed in several operations; but no general engagement occurred,
and it had no opportunity of distinguishing itself.

[Sidenote: 1745]

In the following year, when the French besieged Tournay, and the
allied army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland
advanced to the relief of the town, the KING'S OWN were left in
garrison at Ghent, and were consequently not at the battle of
Fontenoy. The Duke of Cumberland, having failed in his attempt to
relieve Tournay, retreated; and the KING'S OWN were relieved by one
of the regiments which suffered severely at Fontenoy, and joined
the army at its camp on the plains of Lessines on the 21st of May.

The KING'S OWN remained in Flanders until the rebellion broke out
in Scotland, and Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender,
advanced at the head of several highland clans and captured
Edinburgh. The regiment was then ordered to return to England, and
it formed part of the army under the veteran Field-Marshal Wade,
which was assembled in Yorkshire.

When the young Pretender and his adherents penetrated into
England, this regiment was employed in covering Yorkshire, and,
after the retreat of the rebel army from Derby, the regiment
marched in pursuit of the enemy towards Scotland, and arrived at
Newcastle-on-Tyne on the 26th of December.

[Sidenote: 1746]

The KING'S OWN were afterwards ordered to march to Edinburgh, where
they arrived on the 10th of January, 1746, and the appearance of
the royal forces at that city was hailed with illuminations and
public rejoicings.

The rebels undertook the siege of Stirling Castle, and a detached
party of Highlanders under Lord George Murray advanced to
Linlithgow, from whence they were driven on the 13th of January by
a body of troops under Major-General Huske. On the following day
the Buffs, KING'S OWN, and Pulteney's (now thirteenth) regiment,
advanced to Barrowstownness; and on the 16th, these troops having
pitched their tents near _Falkirk_, were joined by the remainder of
the army under Lieut.-General Hawley.

On the 17th of January, as the King's troops were at dinner in the
camp, the advance of the enemy was discovered; the royal forces
seized their arms, and proceeded along some rugged and difficult
grounds to a large moor, where the rebel army appeared in order of
battle.

Success or failure in the hour of battle has sometimes been found
to depend upon accidental circumstances over which the commanders
of armies have no control. Such was the case at the battle of
_Falkirk_, where a tempest of wind and rain beat so violently in
the faces of the royal forces at the moment when they engaged
their adversaries, that the ammunition was spoiled in the act of
loading; the soldiers could not see their opponents, and several
regiments gave way. The KING'S OWN, however, evinced the same
valour and intrepidity which were so successfully displayed at the
fortress of Gibraltar; they were formed in brigade with Price's
(now fourteenth) regiment under the orders of Brigadier-General
Cholmondeley, and these two corps withstood the fury of the
charging Highland host with a firmness which redounded to their
honour.[22] Having been joined by the Royals, Buffs, and Ligonier's
(now forty-eighth), these five regiments repulsed one wing of the
rebel army, and continued on the field of battle until night, when
they returned to the camp, and subsequently proceeded to Edinburgh.

The KING'S OWN formed part of the army under His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland which advanced from Edinburgh, on the 31st of
January, towards Stirling, when the Highlanders made a precipitate
retreat. The royal forces followed in pursuit, but were delayed in
their advance by severe weather. The KING'S OWN formed part of the
advance-guard under Major-General Bland which proceeded to Inverary
on the 12th of March, and on the 17th advanced towards Strathsbogie
to attack a thousand rebel foot and sixty hussars, posted at that
place under Roy Stewart; but the enemy fled on the approach of the
King's troops, and were pursued for several miles: the Marquis of
Granby, Colonel Conway, Captain Holden, and several other officers,
displayed their zeal for the royal cause by the spirited manner in
which they pursued the Highlanders.

On the 12th of April the army crossed the river Spey, and on the
16th of that month the KING'S OWN were engaged in the action with
the rebels on _Culloden Moor_. The regiment was posted on the
left of the front line of the royal army. After a sharp cannonade
several select clans of mountaineers sprang forward, and with
shouts and dismal yells attacked the King's forces sword in hand.
This regiment had to bear the brunt of the furious onset of
the clans: for a moment it was disordered by the weight of the
attacking column, and the men staggered; but only for a moment: two
battalions advanced to sustain them, and recovering, they rushed
upon their kilted adversaries with a resolution and valour which
proved they were not unworthy of their distinguished title of the
KING'S OWN. A furious conflict ensued; the Highlanders with their
swords and targets were unable to withstand the ruthless charge
of the royal forces; the carnage was dreadful, and the ground was
literally covered with slaughtered rebels.[23] A decisive victory
was gained; and the rebellion was effectually suppressed. When the
news of this event reached England, the nation was transported
with joy; both houses of parliament addressed His Majesty on the
subject, and passed a vote of thanks to the Duke of Cumberland and
the brave troops who had fought under his orders.

The regiment lost in this action Captain Lord Robert Kerr and
seventeen men killed; and had Lieut.-Colonel Rich, Captain Romer,
Lieutenant Edmonds, Ensigns Campbell and Brown, and one hundred and
eight non-commissioned officers and private men, wounded.

[Sidenote: 1747]

After halting a short time at Inverness, the army advanced into the
highlands, and encamped in the gloomy valley surrounded by rugged
precipices near Fort Augustus, from whence detachments were sent
out to search for arms, and for persons who had been engaged in the
rebellion, and also to execute summary punishment on the guilty
clans. This regiment afterwards marched back to Stirling; and it
was employed in home duties for a period of eight years.

[Sidenote: 1749]

Lieut.-General Barrell died on the 9th of August, 1749; and
King George II. conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on the
lieut.-colonel, Robert Rich, who highly distinguished himself at
the battle of Culloden, where he was wounded.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In 1751 a warrant was issued regulating the clothing and colours of
the regiments of the line. In this warrant the regiment is styled
the "FOURTH, OR THE KING'S OWN ROYAL REGIMENT;" and the facing is
directed to be blue; the King's Own are also authorized to bear--

"In the centre of their colours the King's cipher on a red ground
within the garter, and crown over it; in the three corners of their
second colour the LION OF ENGLAND,[24] being their ancient badge.

"On the grenadier caps the King's cypher, as on the colours, and
crown over it; white horse and motto on the flap.

"The drums and bells of arms to have the King's cypher painted on
them, in the same manner, and the rank of the regiment underneath."

[Sidenote: 1754]

The regiment remained in Great Britain until the year 1754, when
it proceeded to the island of Minorca to relieve the thirty-third
regiment, which returned to England.

[Sidenote: 1755]

[Sidenote: 1756]

The island of _Minorca_, at which the KING'S OWN were stationed,
and where they were eventually called upon to perform most arduous
and trying services, is the second of the Balearic islands,
situated in the Mediterranean near the coast of Spain. This island
had fallen successively under the dominion of the Carthaginians,
the Romans, the Vandals, the Moors, the Arragonese, and the
Castilians, and in 1708 it was captured by the British for the
house of Austria; but at the peace of Utrecht, when the Austrian
family was excluded from the throne of Spain, it was ceded to
Great Britain; it had remained a part of the possessions of the
British crown, and was garrisoned by a company of artillery and
four regiments of foot. In this small island, which is diversified
with hills and valleys, and in some parts rich in vegetation and
abounding with the necessaries and many of the luxuries of life,
the KING'S OWN passed two years, during which time a dispute
between the governments of France and England, respecting the
extent of their possessions in North America, had occasioned a war
between the two kingdoms, and in the early part of 1756 the French
made preparations at Toulon and Marseilles for the capture of
Minorca.

At this period the KING'S OWN occupied extensive quarters in the
several towns on the island, and their regimental head-quarters
were at Ciudadella, the capital. The other corps were at
_Port-Mahon_, which is stated to be one of the finest harbours in
the world, and at _Fort St. Philip_; and the brave Lieut.-General
Blakeney was lieut.-governor and commander-in-chief on the
island. The regiments on the island were not discouraged at the
preparations making in France; on the contrary, an officer, in a
letter published at the time, observed,--"Our spirits are so good,
our garrison so hearty, and our supplies so ample, that if our
works do not defend us, and we defend our works until we can be
relieved by a strong hand, we deserve to be buried in their ruins."

The French armament, commanded by Marshal Duke de Richelieu,
arrived at Minorca in the middle of April, and effected a landing
at Ciudadella on the 18th of that month; and as no part of the
island was fortified to resist so powerful a force, excepting _Fort
St. Philip_, situate on a rocky promontory at the entrance to the
harbour of Port Mahon, the KING'S OWN were withdrawn from the
interior, and effected their retreat to the fort with the loss of
one corporal taken prisoner by the enemy.

Preparations were made for a vigorous defence of the fort, and
the French commander encountered so gallant and determined a
resistance, that he was obliged to send for additional forces.
The perseverance and endurance of the garrison became the subject
of much admiration, and the vigilance and bravery of the officers
inspired the troops with confidence. On the 19th of May the British
fleet was descried bearing towards the island, and the men having
become much exhausted by hard duty, looked forward for the expected
relief with anxiety; but were disappointed: Admiral Byng, after
skirmishing with the French squadron, retired, and was afterwards
brought to trial for his conduct and shot. Lieut.-General Thomas
Fowke, then commanding at Gibraltar, was also brought to trial for
not sending a reinforcement from that garrison to Minorca, and was
sentenced to be suspended from his appointment for one year. King
George II. confirmed the sentence, but directed Lieut.-General
Fowke to be dismissed from the service.

Although abandoned to their fate, Lieut.-General Blakeney and
the four regiments under his orders defended their post with
great gallantry; the men were nearly worn out with incessant duty
and watching, so that they frequently fell asleep under a heavy
cannonade; yet they persevered with astonishing resolution. About
midnight on the 27th of June, a general assault was made at several
different points; the garrison met the assailants with great
courage, and repulsed them several times with much slaughter; many
of the sick and wounded men came out of the hospital to join in the
defence. Though repulsed at several points, the enemy, after much
hard fighting, gained three of the out-works. Upon this subject a
military historian observes,--"So many attacks made at one time
against so small a body of men, who had such a variety of works
to defend, it is rather a matter of surprise that the enemy were
repulsed at so many, and succeeded at so few places."[25]

On the following day conditions of capitulation were tendered.
"Thus did four regiments, and one company of artillery, maintain
the fort against such numbers of the enemy by sea and land for
such a length of time as can, perhaps, scarcely be paralleled in
history. The terms on which the fort was at last surrendered by
a handful of men, so distressed, so shattered, and so neglected,
remain a lasting monument to their honour."[26]

The following is an extract from the articles of capitulation.

"The noble and vigorous defence which the English have made,
having deserved all the marks of esteem and veneration which every
military man ought to show to such actions, and Marshal Richelieu,
being desirous also to show to General Blakeney the regard due to
the defence he has made, grants to the garrison all the honours
of war they can enjoy under the circumstances of going out for an
embarkation; to wit, firelock on their shoulders, drums beating,
colours flying, twenty cartridges each man, and also lighted match.
He consents also that General Blakeney and his garrison carry away
all the effects that belong to them."

During the period the KING'S OWN were engaged in the defence of
Fort St. Philip, the colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on
Alexander Duroure from the thirty-eighth regiment, by commission
dated the 12th of May, 1756.

The regiment embarked from Minorca immediately after the surrender
of Fort St. Philip, and proceeded to Gibraltar, where it remained
a few weeks, and subsequently embarked for England. It landed at
Torbay in November, and immediately on its arrival it was augmented
to two battalions.

[Sidenote: 1758]

On the 21st of April, 1758, the SECOND BATTALION of the KING'S OWN
was constituted the SIXTY-SECOND REGIMENT, under the command of
Colonel William Strode.

The war with France being continued, an armament was fitted out
in the autumn of 1758 for the attack of the French settlements
in the West Indies; the KING'S OWN were selected to take part in
this service, and embarked nine hundred strong under the command
of Lieut.-Colonel Crump, an officer of distinguished merit, whose
services proved of great value to his king and country: the land
forces were under the orders of Major-General Hopson, and the navy
under Captain Hughes.

This expedition sailed from England in November, and arrived at
Carlisle bay in the island of Barbadoes in the beginning of the
following year.

[Sidenote: 1759]

In the middle of January, 1759, the fleet arrived off the French
island of _Martinico_, and a landing was effected between the bay
of Cas des Navieres and Point Negro; but numerous difficulties were
experienced; the enemy had ten thousand men, including the militia,
to oppose an invading army of about four thousand five hundred men,
and the nature of the ground facilitated the defence.

On the 17th of January, the grenadiers, under the command of
Colonel Crump of the KING'S OWN, attacked a large body of the
enemy, who retired into a thick wood, from whence the colonel could
not force them. The sixty-first regiment (late second battalion of
the third foot) advanced to support the grenadiers; but the trees
and bushes afforded such excellent cover, that after repeated
attempts, it was found impracticable to dislodge the enemy.

The numerous obstructions occasioned the KING'S OWN and other
corps to be re-embarked; and the fleet subsequently bent its
course to _Guadaloupe_, one of the Caribbee or Leeward islands,
settled by the French in 1635. Basse Terre, the capital of the
island, with the batteries near the shore, having been destroyed
by the fleet, the KING'S OWN and other troops landed on the 24th
of January: the French governor, M. Nadan D'Etreil, abandoned the
citadel, and trusting to the natural strength of the country and
the unwholesomeness of the climate, retired to the mountains,
and summoned the militia of the island, with all the settlers
and their armed negroes, to join him. An irregular warfare of
detachments followed, in which the British troops were usually
victorious; but they purchased every advantage at an immense
sacrifice of life. At length Major-General Hopson died, and the
command devolved on Major-General Barrington, who embarked the
troops on board of transports, (excepting the sixty-third regiment,
late second battalion of the eighth foot, and a detachment of
artillery left in garrison,) to attack other parts of the island.

Colonel Crump of the KING'S OWN landed, and took _St. Anne_ and
_St. François_, and reduced both towns to ashes; and the strong
post of Gosier was carried by another part of the army.

The KING'S OWN having afterwards re-embarked, were detached, with
other forces, under the command of Brigadier-Generals Clavering
and Crump, to a bay near _Arnonville_, where they landed without
opposition; the enemy retiring to a very strong position behind the
river _Le Corn_. This post covered the whole country to Bay Mahaut,
where provisions were landed for the inhabitants from St. Eustatia,
and it was strengthened by every means the enemy could devise,
though its situation was such as to require little assistance from
art. The river, on account of a morass covered with mangroves,
was only accessible at two narrow passes, and those places were
occupied with a redoubt, and well-pallisaded entrenchments,
defended with cannon, and all the militia of that part of the
island.

The KING'S OWN, and a battalion of Highlanders, advanced to attack
this difficult post with coolness and resolution, and the intrepid
bearing of the two corps intimidated the enemy, who abandoned the
first entrenchment after a few vollies; the Highlanders and part of
the KING'S OWN rushed forward and chased their adversaries into
the redoubt, and the post was eventually carried.

The KING'S OWN, and Highlanders, afterwards advanced against
another fortified post at _Petit Bourg_; the enemy kept about
two hundred yards in front, and setting fire to the sugar canes,
obliged the troops occasionally to leave the road to avoid
accidents to their ammunition. Arriving at the river _Lezard_, the
enemy was found strongly entrenched behind the ford; but the troops
having procured two canoes, a body of men passed the river in the
night, and advanced at daybreak to attack the enemy in flank, while
the remainder prepared to attack the front, and the enemy instantly
fled in dismay.

Pursuing their adversaries to _Petit Bourg_, the KING'S OWN there
encountered fortified lines, and a redoubt filled with cannon; but
the regiment diverging to the right and left to gain the heights
round the lines, the enemy fled from the post.

Two days afterwards the lieut.-colonel of the KING'S OWN was
detached with seven hundred men against _Bay Mahaut_, and he took
the batteries and town, which he reduced to ashes, and rejoined the
division on the following day.

From Petit Bourg the KING'S OWN advanced with their division
against _St. Maries_, where the enemy had collected their whole
force, and had thrown up entrenchments and constructed barricades
on the road; but from these works the British troops forced their
opponents to retire, and also from the town; and the army entered
a part of the island said to be the most rich and beautiful of any
part of the West Indies.

The inhabitants, being convinced of the superior bravery and
discipline of the British troops, and seeing the best part of
their country on the point of being given up to fire and sword,
capitulated, and their possessions, with their civil and religious
privileges, were granted them.

Thus this valuable island came into the possession of the British
crown in May, 1759; and throughout these arduous and trying
services the KING'S OWN and other corps forming the expedition,
evinced all the qualities of good soldiers. The commanding officer
of the KING'S OWN signalized himself on various occasions, and was
appointed governor of the island; his conduct, which reflected
honour on his corps, is thus spoken of by Major-General Barrymore
in his public despatch.

"I have appointed Colonel Crump to the government, who, since
governor Haldane left us, I have made act as a brigadier; his merit
is very great, both as a soldier and a man of judgment; he is of
this part of the world; understands the trade, customs, and genius
of the people; and as he thinks nobly and disinterestedly, he would
not have accepted of the government, but in hopes of advancing
himself in the army by that means. I cannot express how very useful
he has proved, and how much our successes are owing to his good
conduct and great zeal."

[Sidenote: 1760]

[Sidenote: 1761]

After the reduction of Guadaloupe the regiment was stationed at
that island; and in 1761 a detachment was employed under Colonel
Lord Rollo in the capture of _Dominico_. The troops landed on the
6th of June on the beach near Roseau, under cover of the guns
of the fleet, and while part of the army took possession of the
town, the grenadier companies of the KING'S OWN and twenty-second
regiments seized a flanking battery and part of an adjoining
entrenchment. During the night the grenadiers, supported by the
battalion companies, stormed and carried with the bayonet the
entrenchments on the heights above the town, and took the governor
and several of the principal inhabitants prisoners. The whole
island immediately submitted; and Captain Robert Douglas of the
KING'S OWN was the bearer of the news of this conquest to England.
The detachment of this regiment afterwards returned to Guadaloupe.

[Sidenote: 1762]

The British government having resolved to make a powerful attack
upon such of the West India islands as still remained subject to
the French monarch, four companies of the KING'S OWN were selected
to take part in the enterprise, and proceeded for this purpose
from Guadaloupe to the general rendezvous of the expedition at
Barbadoes; where the several corps were assembled under the orders
of Major-General Monckton. The armament sailed from Carlisle
bay on the 5th of January, 1762, and another attack was made on
_Martinico_, which place was settled by the French about the year
1635. This island is extremely mountainous in the centre, from
whence issue numerous streams of water, which, in the hurricane
months, are swelled to violent torrents; these have, in their way
to the sea, worn deep channels, so that the country is intersected
with a great number of deep ravines, with steep rocky sides,
having water running at the bottom; and these ravines are rendered
difficult to pass from the number of stones which the torrents
have rolled from the sides of the mountains. Thus, in attacking
the island, difficulties almost insurmountable are met with in
transporting cannon, ammunition, and stores across the country.
With these obstructions the army had to contend; but they were
overcome by British skill, discipline and valour.

After several attempts on other parts of the island, a landing was
effected on the 16th of January in Cas des Navieres bay, and the
troops pitched their tents on the heights above the landing place.
Advancing from thence through a country fortified by nature, an
attack was made on the heights of _Morne Tortenson_ on the 24th of
January, and the four companies of the KING'S OWN had the glory of
taking part in the capture of these formidable works; also in the
capture of _Morne Garnier_ on the 27th of that month; and in the
reduction of the citadel of _Fort Royal_, which surrendered on the
4th of February: these captures were followed by the surrender of
the opulent city of St. Pierre, and the submission of the whole
island to the British crown.

The capture of Martinico was succeeded by that of _Grenada_,
_St. Lucie_, and _St. Vincent_; and the acquisition of these
islands gave additional honour to the expedition of which the four
companies of the KING'S OWN formed part.

These achievements were followed by another enterprize of a most
important character, in which a detachment of the KING'S OWN had
the honour to share; namely, the reduction of the _Havannah_, a
wealthy and important city in the island of Cuba.

The island of Cuba was first discovered by the celebrated Columbus,
but was not conquered by the Spaniards until the early part of the
sixteenth century, from which period it had continued rising in
wealth and importance. St. Jago was the capital; but the city of
_Havannah_ held the first place in point of wealth and commerce.
During the early part of this war, Spain had continued neutral;
but in 1762 His Catholic Majesty united his interests with France,
and war was declared between Great Britain and Spain. This was
immediately followed by a resolution of the British government
to attack the important city of Havannah, and an expedition was
prepared for this purpose under the orders of General the Earl of
Albemarle.

On this occasion the KING'S OWN were left in garrison at
Guadaloupe, excepting a detachment of two hundred and twenty-five
men under the command of Captain Kennedy, which joined the
expedition at Martinico, and formed part of Brigadier-General
Grant's brigade. In the landing five leagues eastward of the
_Havannah_ on the 6th of June, in the advance upon the city, in the
siege and capture of the _Moro_ Fort, and in the other operations
by which the final reduction of this wealthy settlement was
accomplished, and twelve men-of-war captured in the harbour, the
detachment of the KING'S OWN had the honour to take part. The loss
of the detachment on this service, including the killed and those
who died from fatigue and the effects of climate, was two officers
and twenty-four men.

[Sidenote: 1763]

After the completion of this conquest, the detachment returned to
Guadaloupe, and the regiment remained in the Leeward Islands until
the peace of Fontainbleau, when these acquisitions were restored to
the French and Spanish monarchs.

[Sidenote: 1764]

In the spring of 1764 the regiment quitted the West Indies, arrived
in England in July of that year, and commenced recruiting its
diminished numbers.

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1768]

After the decease of Lieut.-General Duroure, King George III.
conferred, on the 23d of January, 1765, the colonelcy of the
regiment on the Hon. Robert Brudenell, from the sixteenth foot;
who was succeeded, on the 7th of November, 1768, by Lieut.-General
Studholme Hodgson, from the fifth foot.

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1774]

In 1768, the KING'S OWN proceeded to Scotland, where they were
stationed during the four succeeding years, but returned to England
in the spring of 1773, and remained on home service until the
following year, when they were again ordered to hold themselves in
readiness to proceed abroad.

The war in which the regiment was about to engage was of a most
important character, involving the destinies of millions, and was
followed by the construction of a new and powerful state in the
world. As the population of the British North American colonies
increased, and the inhabitants beheld their own rising power and
importance, the idea of their country eventually becoming a great
and independent empire would doubtless frequently occur; and while
contemplating such an event, men would naturally become impatient
of their condition: hence the delight produced by the anticipation
of future greatness would prepare the minds of men for a change.
That these states should become independent so early as the
eighteenth century could, however, scarcely have been expected; but
this event was hastened by the system of policy pursued towards the
colonies by the British government, which alienated the affections
of the inhabitants from the mother country. The disputes which
resulted from these proceedings, and the spirit which the colonists
evinced to resist the acts of the British parliament for raising
a revenue in their country, took a most serious turn in the years
1773 and 1774; a body of troops was in consequence sent to Boston,
the place which had been the scene of the greatest outrages, and
the KING'S OWN, being one of the corps selected to proceed to North
America, embarked for that service on the 17th of April, 1774.

After landing at Boston the KING'S OWN were encamped for some time
near the town; and the violent revolutionary spirit which many of
the colonists displayed, occasioned a detachment of the regiment
to be sent during the winter to Marshfield, for the protection
of a number of the friends of the government in that town and
neighbourhood.

[Sidenote: 1775]

The hostile feelings to the British government previously evinced
by the Americans appeared to increase during the winter and
succeeding spring; and the preparations which they made for open
resistance indicated a design to make a speedy appeal to arms.
General Gage, who commanded the troops at Boston, sent the flank
companies of the KING'S OWN, and other regiments under his orders,
up the country to _Concord_, to destroy a quantity of military
stores which the inhabitants were collecting at that place. This
circumstance occasioned the first blood to be shed in the contest.

The flank companies were placed under the orders of Lieut.-Colonel
Francis Smith, of the tenth foot, and having embarked on the
night of the 18th of April, in the boats of the men-of-war in the
harbour, proceeded to the entrance of the Cambridge River, where
they landed, and afterwards advanced up the country. While on the
march, the troops heard the ringing of bells, firing of guns, and
other sounds of alarm spreading over the country; and when the
light companies, which were in advance, arrived at the village
of _Lexington_, they descried a body of provincials formed upon
the green. These men fired several shots at the soldiers, who
immediately retaliated, and the Americans were dispersed with the
loss of about ten men killed, and several wounded.

The troops continued their march to _Concord_, and while the search
for military stores was taking place, the light companies of the
KING'S OWN and tenth regiment were posted on some heights in the
vicinity of a bridge beyond the town. Meanwhile armed countrymen
were assembling in crowds on the high grounds near the town, and a
large body proceeding towards the bridge, the light companies of
the KING'S OWN and tenth regiment descended from the heights and
joined the troops posted at the bridge. The provincials advanced
in great numbers, and firing on the troops, killed three men, and
wounded several others; the fire was returned, and the detached
companies joined the main body in the town.

After destroying three pieces of ordnance, burning a number
of carriage-wheels, and throwing a quantity of gunpowder and
musket-balls into the river, the troops commenced their march back
to Boston. On emerging from the town, the soldiers were fired upon
from the walls, fences, trees, barns, &c., on both sides of the
road; the country appeared swarming with armed men, and the troops
were engaged fighting and retreating until they were exhausted,
and had expended nearly all their ammunition; at the same time
the numbers of their antagonists were constantly increasing.
Fortunately, they were met at Lexington by the battalion companies
of the KING'S OWN, twenty-third and forty-ninth regiments, with a
party of marines and two field-pieces, under the command of Colonel
Earl Percy of the fifth foot. The fire of the field-pieces checked
the Americans; Earl Percy formed his brigade into a square, with
the exhausted flank companies in the centre, and after the men had
rested a short time, commenced his march for Boston. The Americans
hung upon his rear in crowds, and kept up a constant fire; but the
troops continued their march in excellent order to Charlestown,
from whence they crossed the river in boats to Boston, under the
cover of the guns of a man-of-war stationed near the ferry. The
loss of the KING'S OWN on this occasion was Lieutenant Knight
and seven private men killed; Lieutenant Gould wounded and taken
prisoner; three serjeants, one drummer, and twenty-one private men
wounded; and eight men missing.

This was the commencement of open hostilities; the whole country
round Boston was in the utmost agitation, and multitudes of
countrymen equipped for battle repaired to Cambridge and Roxburg,
and there threw up entrenchments. All intercourse between the
garrison of Boston and the adjacent country was cut off, and the
town was completely blocked up on the land side.

Soon after this event the party of the KING'S OWN stationed at
Marshfield was withdrawn, and rejoined the regiment at Boston.

The rapid and judicious movements of the Americans appeared to
be the result of a preconcerted plan, and having a very great
superiority of numbers, they meditated driving the King's troops
out of Boston. During the night of the 16th of June an immense
body of provincials proceeded to the heights on the peninsula
of Charlestown called _Bunker's Hill_, and commenced throwing
up entrenchments with great diligence. General Gage resolved to
dislodge the enemy from this post immediately, and a body of
troops, of which the grenadier and light companies of the KING'S
OWN formed part, was embarked in boats for this purpose about
mid-day on the 17th of June.

About three o'clock in the afternoon the attack commenced, and
in this contest British valour and discipline were eminently
displayed. The Americans were in great force, strongly posted, and
entrenched up to the teeth. The King's troops had to advance in a
hot summer's day, in the face of a sharp and well-directed fire,
and to ascend a steep hill covered with grass reaching to their
knees, and intersected with walls and fences of various enclosures:
twice they were stopped, and twice they returned to the charge,
and by their undaunted resolution and steady perseverance they
eventually triumphed over thrice their own numbers, and carried
the heights at the point of the bayonet. This proved one of the
most sanguinary battles on record, and the superiority of the
British troops was pre-eminently displayed. The two flank companies
of the KING'S OWN had one serjeant and thirteen rank and file
killed; Captains Balfour and West, Lieutenants Baron and Brown, one
serjeant, one drummer, and twenty-nine rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 1776]

Although the valour and discipline of the small British force in
North America were so conspicuous as to excite the admiration and
applause of their country, yet the circumstances in which the army
at Boston was eventually placed rendered it impossible for these
excellent qualities to be exercised with the prospect of ultimate
success. The immense superiority of numbers of the enemy, the
great strength of the works thrown up on Phipp's farm, Dorchester
heights, and other places, with the want of provisions, induced the
commander of the troops, Lieut.-General Sir William Howe, to vacate
the town, and proceed with the army to Halifax, in Nova Scotia.
This resolution was carried into effect in the middle of March,
1776; and on their arrival at Halifax several regiments were landed.

A reinforcement being expected from England, and the general being
anxious to commence operations against the revolted Americans as
early as possible, the fleet sailed from Halifax on the 12th of
June, arrived at Sandy Hook on the 29th of that month, and on the
3d of July landed on Staten Island, near New York. Here the troops
were disposed in cantonments for refreshment, and the head-quarters
were established at Richmond.

Additional troops having arrived, a landing was effected at
Utrecht, on _Long Island_, on the 22d of August; and after dusk on
the evening of the 26th, the KING'S OWN, commanded by MAJOR JAMES
OGILVIE, forming part of the first brigade under Major-General
Pigot, moved across the country to seize a pass in the heights
extending from east to west along the middle of the island, to
turn the enemy's left flank at _Flat Bush_. This pass was taken
possession of on the following morning; the main body of the army
advanced, and the Americans were driven from their position with
considerable loss. In this day's skirmish the battalion companies
of the regiment did not sustain any loss; but the flank companies,
being formed in grenadier and light infantry battalions, had
several men killed and wounded.

The Americans retreated to their lines at _Brooklyn_; but, fearing
the consequences of an attack, they quitted their post during the
night of the 28th of August, and crossed the East River in boats to
New York; thus the reduction of Long Island was effected in a few
days with trifling loss.

After this success the army was embarked in flat-bottomed boats,
and crossed the East River to York Island, and the KING'S OWN were
engaged in the movements by which General Washington was forced to
abandon New York; which city was immediately taken possession of by
the British.

General Washington having taken up a position in another
part of the country, the British troops were again embarked
in flat-bottomed boats and landed near West-Chester; thence
re-embarking on the 18th of October, passed Frogs-neck and landed
at _Pell's-point_, at the mouth of Hutchinson's river. Advancing
from thence, the troops encountered a detachment of provincials;
a sharp skirmish ensued, in which several men were killed and
wounded; and the KING'S OWN lost a most valuable and gallant
officer, Captain W. Granville Evelyn, who was mortally wounded, and
whose fall was much regretted.

In the subsequent operations of the army, by which the Americans
were forced to evacuate their lines on _White Plains_, the KING'S
OWN took part, but did not sustain any loss; they were also present
at the siege and capture of _Fort Washington_, in which service
they lost only one man: and they passed the succeeding winter in
quarters in the city of New York.

[Sidenote: 1777]

During the winter the Americans were engaged in collecting
stores and forming magazines for the ensuing campaign, which
they were careful to place as far as possible out of the reach
of His Majesty's land and sea forces. Extensive depôts had been
established at the town of _Danbury_, and other places on the
borders of Connecticut, contiguous to Courland Manor; and the
KING'S OWN were withdrawn from the city of New York to form part
of a detachment under the command of Major-General Tyron, for the
destruction of these stores.

The detachment sailed from New York in transports, passed through
the Sound, and on the evening of the 25th of April, 1777, arrived
off Norwalk, a town in the province of Connecticut, about twenty
miles south of Danbury. As the troops were quite unexpected, they
landed without opposition, and by ten o'clock that night began
their march for Danbury, where they arrived about two in the
afternoon of the following day; on their approach the American
troops fled, and gave the alarm to the country people, who took
arms, and made preparations to cut off the retreat of the British
detachment.

As no carriages could be procured to bring off any part of the
magazines, Major-General Tyron was under the necessity of setting
them on fire, and in the progress of the flames the town was
unavoidably burnt. The magazines having been all destroyed, the
detachment commenced its march back early on the morning of the
27th of April; a body of Americans under General Wooster hung upon
its rear, and at every eminence a corps of militia was found ready
to oppose its march; but the British troops attacked and routed
their adversaries, and in one of these skirmishes General Wooster
was killed.

Arriving at _Ridgefield_, a strong force under General Arnold was
found posted at that place, and busily employed in throwing up
entrenchments; these were instantly attacked by the artillery, and
the British troops rushing forward to the charge with their native
valour and intrepidity, the Americans were driven from their ground.

The British halted at _Ridgefield_ during the night, and resumed
their march on the following day. The enemy having collected
additional forces and some field-pieces, harassed the detachment
exceedingly during its march, which brought on several skirmishes.
Arriving at the _Hill of Compo_, contiguous to the place of
embarkation, the Americans renewed their attack with greater
determination and spirit than ever; the British troops, facing
about, fired a volley, and then charged with the bayonet with
such impetuosity and courage, that the enemy, unable to withstand
the shock, retreated. The detachment afterwards embarked without
molestation, and returned to New York.

The KING'S OWN lost two men in this enterprise; and had Captain
Thorne, one serjeant, and fifteen rank and file wounded.

The regiment afterwards formed part of the army assembled in the
Jerseys, and was engaged in the movements designed to bring on
a general engagement; but the enemy keeping close in his strong
position in the mountains, an expedition against the populous and
wealthy city of Philadelphia was resolved upon. The KING'S OWN were
employed in this enterprise, and formed, with the twenty-third,
twenty-eighth, and forty-ninth regiments, the first brigade of the
army.

Having embarked from Sandy Hook, the troops sailed to Chesapeake
Bay, and landed on the 25th of August on the northern shore of the
Elk River; from whence they advanced on the 28th, in two columns,
to Elk Head. The enemy having taken up a position at Brandywine,
the royal army advanced on the 11th of September to give their
opponents battle, and the KING'S OWN formed part of the force
selected to attack the American troops posted at _Chad's Ford_.
After a sharp cannonade the troops advanced to the charge; the
KING'S OWN commanded by LIEUT.-COLONEL JAMES OGILVIE, and supported
by the fifth foot, led the attack in gallant style, and rushing
through the stream with fixed bayonets, overpowered all opposition
and captured three brass field-pieces, and a five and a half inch
howitzer.[27] The regiment pressed upon the retiring enemy, but
darkness coming on before the troops could reach the heights, the
action ceased. The loss of the regiment on this occasion was two
rank and file killed; and Captain Rawdon and twenty rank and file
wounded.

The victory at Brandywine was followed by the flight of the
American troops from Philadelphia, which city was taken possession
of by a British force of which the grenadier company of the KING'S
OWN formed part. The remainder of the army took up a position at
_Germantown_, and the KING'S OWN were encamped on the right flank.
The Americans attacked this post on the morning of the 4th of
October, and drove in the piquets of the right wing. The FOURTH
were moved forward to support the light infantry, and the assault
was sustained with such determined bravery, that the enemy could
make no impression at this point of attack. After the Americans
had been repulsed at other parts of the field, Major-General
Grant moved the forty-ninth regiment, and four pieces of cannon,
to the left of the KING'S OWN, and then advancing with the right
wing, forced the enemy's left to give way. The Americans were
afterwards pursued four or five miles through a woody country of
difficult access. The light company of the regiment, forming part
of the first light infantry battalion, highly distinguished itself
on this occasion, and had Lieutenant Champaigne wounded; also
several private men killed and wounded. The battalion companies
also acquired new laurels; and had one serjeant and eight rank and
file killed; Captain Thorne, Lieutenants Arbuthnot and Kemble,
Ensigns Dickson, Shoen, Hadden, and Blemen, with Adjutant Hunt, two
serjeants, and forty-six rank and file wounded; also three rank
and file missing. When the action commenced, the grenadier company
marched, with the remainder of its battalion, out of Philadelphia
with all possible expedition, and arrived at the scene of contest
at the moment when the enemy was giving way, and consequently
was not engaged. Lieut.-General Sir William Howe, speaking of
these actions in his public despatch, observes,--"In the several
engagements, the successes attending them are far better vouchers
than any words can convey, of the good conduct of the general
officers, and the bravery of the other officers and soldiers. The
fatigues of a march exceeding one hundred miles, supported with
the utmost cheerfulness by all ranks, without tents, and with very
little baggage, will, I hope, be esteemed as convincing proofs of
the noble spirit and emulation prevailing in the army to promote
His Majesty's service."[28]

While the army commanded by Sir William Howe was victorious
in Pennsylvania, another British force under the orders of
Lieut.-General Burgoyne penetrated the United States from the
frontiers of Canada; but the difficulties encountered by this
army were so great, that its commander concluded a convention
with the American General Gates, who was thus enabled to detach
a body of troops to reinforce General Washington. On the arrival
of these forces the American army advanced nearer Philadelphia,
and encamped at _White Marsh_. The British general moved forward,
and took post on the morning of the 5th of December on Chestnut
Hill, with the view of inducing the enemy to offer battle, or of
finding a vulnerable part in their fortified camp. A sharp skirmish
occurred on the same day, between two British battalions and a
thousand Americans, who were routed in a short time. On the 7th
of December another action occurred on Edgehill, a mile from the
enemy's left, on which occasion the native intrepidity and firmness
of the British were conspicuous. Several other skirmishes also
took place; and in every instance the Americans were defeated; but
their position was found so strong with entrenchments, _abbatis de
bois_, and other defences, that the army returned to Philadelphia
on the 8th of December, without venturing to attack it. The KING'S
OWN lost in these skirmishes, two men killed; and Lieutenant West,
three serjeants, and nine rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The regiment passed the winter in comfortable quarters in the city
of Philadelphia, while the Americans lay in huts in the woods near
Valley Forge. Immediately on the return of spring a succession of
detachments ranged the country for many miles round Philadelphia
and the province of Jersey, and opened communications for bringing
in supplies of provision and forage.

Meanwhile the French monarch had acknowledged the independence
of the revolted provinces, and had concluded a treaty with them;
thus the nature of the contest was so completely changed, that
Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton, who had succeeded to the command
of the troops at Philadelphia, was ordered to vacate that city and
retire to New York. The KING'S OWN underwent with the remainder of
the army the fatigues of this long and toilsome journey, crossing
rivers, traversing a wild and woody country, overcoming numerous
difficulties, and repulsing the enemy's attempts to interrupt the
progress of the march, with signal gallantry, particularly on the
28th of June; and arrived at New York in the beginning of July.

The French monarch having sent a powerful armament to sea, some
danger was apprehended to the West Indian colonies; a body of
troops, of which the KING'S OWN formed part, was sent from
North America to the island of Barbadoes, under the command of
Major-General Grant; and the land and sea commanders at that
station being in a condition to act offensively, resolved to
attack the French island of _St. Lucie_. The grenadiers of the
KING'S OWN, under the orders of Captain West, formed part of the
grenadier battalion under the command of Major Harris of the
fifth; and the light company under Captain Thorne was in the
light infantry battalion commanded by Major Sir James Murray
of the FOURTH, and these battalions formed part of the reserve
commanded by Brigadier-General Medows, which landed on the 13th
of December, forced some heights with signal intrepidity, and
captured a field-piece and a four-gun battery. The remainder of
the troops having landed, the strong post of Morne Fortunè, with
the governor's house, the hospital, barracks, stores and magazines
were captured, and although the passes were remarkably strong and
difficult of access, yet with such impetuosity did the troops
advance, that the French governor was obliged to retire from post
to post, after doing all in his power to defend them. Scarcely
were the enemy's colours struck, and the British head-quarters
established at the governor's house, when the approach of a
powerful French fleet was descried. The soldiers, already fatigued
with a hard day's service, immediately commenced strengthening the
posts they had won, with cheerful alacrity; and the naval force was
disposed in line of battle across the entrance of the Cul de Sac.
The island of St. Lucie presents no regular face, but a succession
of confused steep and abrupt hills scattered among greater
mountains, everywhere intersected by narrow winding valleys, long
defiles, and deep ravines; and by unremitting labour during one
night the troops and shipping were placed in such admirable order
as to be enabled to withstand the repeated attacks of a very
superior force.

In a naval action fought on the 15th of December, which has been
regarded as one of the most brilliant displays of British skill
and valour on record, the enemy was twice repulsed with serious
loss; and being unable to force the line of battle, nine thousand
French troops, commanded by M. de Bouillé and Lavendahl, landed
and attacked the post of La Vigie, where the grenadier and light
companies of the KING'S OWN were stationed. The attack was made
with that impetuosity for which the French are distinguished; the
British reserved their fire until their adversaries were mounting
the trenches, when they threw in a volley, and instantly charging
with the bayonet, the enemy was broken and driven back with a
fearful slaughter. Three furious attacks having been repulsed,
the enemy re-embarked and quitted the island, and the governor
surrendered immediately afterwards.

[Sidenote: 1779]

[Sidenote: 1780]

Soon after the surrender of St. Lucie, the KING'S OWN proceeded to
the island of Antigua, where they remained during the succeeding
year; and having become much reduced in numbers by their service
in North America and the West Indies, they returned to England in
1780, and shortly afterwards proceeded to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1782]

General Hodgson having been removed in the summer of 1782 to the
command of the fourth Irish horse, now seventh dragoon guards, the
colonelcy of the KING'S OWN was conferred on Lieut.-General John
Burgoyne, his commission bearing date the 7th of June, 1782.

[Sidenote: 1787]

The regiment remained in Ireland seven years, and on the 24th of
May, 1787, embarked for Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; and served in
various parts of these islands until the breaking out of the French
revolutionary war.

[Sidenote: 1792]

In 1792 General Burgoyne died, and was succeeded in the colonelcy
of the regiment on the 8th of August, 1792, by Lieut.-General
Morrison.

[Sidenote: 1793]

The violent spirit of republicanism which was exhibited in France
at this period, having led to confusion, anarchy, and a dreadful
catalogue of crimes of the most cruel and inhuman character,
including the murder of the King, which was followed by that of
the queen, war was declared against the regicide government of
that country; and the capture of _Miquelon_ and _St. Pierre_, two
islands in the Atlantic Ocean near the south coast of Newfoundland,
used by the French as stations for curing and drying fish, was
resolved upon. A detachment of the royal artillery and three
hundred and ten rank and file of the Fourth and sixty-fifth
regiments, commanded by Brigadier-General Ogilvie, sailed on this
enterprise on the 7th of May, 1793, from Newfoundland, and having
landed on the 14th of that month in the Ance-à-Savoyard, advanced
upon the principal town, when the governor immediately surrendered
at discretion. Although no opportunity occurred for the troops
to distinguish themselves in action, their conduct elicited the
commendations of the commander of the expedition in his public
despatch, and to their great credit not one act of depredation was
committed on the inhabitants. Major Peregrine Francis Thorne of the
KING'S OWN was appointed commandant of the two islands, but the
detachment of the regiment returned to its former stations.

[Sidenote: 1794]

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

[Sidenote: 1797]

From Nova Scotia and Newfoundland the regiment was removed in 1794
to Canada, and was stationed in garrison at Quebec; in the early
part of 1796 it proceeded up the country and occupied St. John's,
Chambly, and Isle-aux-Noix, and in November it was ordered to
Montreal, in which garrison it passed the succeeding winter: in
June, 1797, it proceeded down the river to Quebec. The regiments
in Canada being very weak in numbers, the FOURTH, fifth, and
first battalion of the sixtieth, were ordered to transfer their
serviceable men to the twenty-fourth, twenty-sixth, and second
battalion of the sixtieth regiments. The men of the KING'S OWN were
transferred to the twenty-sixth; and the officers, serjeants, and
drummers, embarked at Quebec on the 24th of September, and sailed
on the following day for England. When near the land's end the
transport having on board twelve officers, including the commanding
officer, (Lieut.-Colonel Hodgson,) the staff, colours, serjeants,
and drummers, was chased by a French privateer (La Vengeance);
several officers and men were wounded in endeavouring to defend the
ship, and when from the superior metal and power of the enemy, no
hope of escape remained, the regimental colours were sunk in the
sea, and the transport surrendered. This portion of the regiment
was afterwards conveyed to France, and detained in that country
above a year before it was exchanged.

[Sidenote: 1798]

In May, 1798, such of the officers of the regiment as had arrived
safe in England, received at Chatham barracks a draft of between
three and four hundred Irish youths, and in July following
proceeded to Botley; where they were joined in the beginning of
the succeeding year by the officers, serjeants, and drummers from
France.

[Sidenote: 1799]

Leaving Botley in April, 1799, the regiment proceeded to Worcester,
and from thence to Horsham barracks in July; in the following month
it marched to the camp on Barham downs.

The militia being permitted this year to transfer their services to
the regular regiments, two thousand seven hundred men volunteered
to the KING'S OWN, in consequence of which the regiment was
formed into three battalions; Major-General the Earl of Chatham
was appointed colonel commandant of the second battalion, and
Major-General Lord Charles Somerset colonel commandant of the third
battalion.

On the 3d of September the Prince of Wales was pleased to present
a pair of new colours to the first battalion on Barham downs; the
regiment was formed in a square, and His Royal Highness addressed
the officers and men as follows:--

"It affords me the highest satisfaction to have the honour of
presenting this gallant and distinguished corps with their colours.
Nothing but a blameless accident could have deprived you of those
you possessed before, and I now replace them, under the firmest
conviction that there is not a regiment in His Majesty's service
that will ever support and defend its colours with more valour
and gallantry than the FOURTH, or THE KING'S OWN. It considerably
enhances the pleasure I feel on this occasion that the ceremony
has happened on a day when every British heart must be filled
with gladness at the tidings which have just been received of the
heroic actions our brave countrymen have achieved in endeavouring
to rescue Holland from the detestable tyranny of France, and I
perceive with true pride that every countenance I now behold
partakes of this noble ardour, and that every heart is panting to
share in their laurels and glory."

In a few days after the presentation of the new colours the
regiment was ordered to proceed on foreign service: it embarked at
Deal, and after landing in Holland joined the Anglo-Russian army
commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of York: when the three
battalions of the KING'S OWN, and the thirty-first regiment, were
formed in brigade under the orders of Major-General the Earl of
Chatham.

This brigade formed part of the column under Lieut.-General
Dundas, in the attack of the enemy's position near Bergen and
_Egmont-op-zee_, on the 2d of October. The KING'S OWN were engaged
among the sand-hills, and evinced the same intrepidity and firmness
for which the regiment had been distinguished on former occasions;
the enemy was driven from his positions, and the troops received
the thanks and approbation of the commander-in-chief. The regiment
had three men killed; Ensign Carruthers, one serjeant, and eight
private men wounded; one serjeant and six men missing.

In the attack of the enemy's position between _Beverwyck_, and
Wyck-op-zee, on the 6th of October, the three battalions of the
KING'S OWN were sharply engaged; the action was most severe, and
was continued with sanguinary obstinacy until night, when the enemy
retreated leaving the allies masters of the field. The KING'S OWN
had Lieut.-Colonel Dickson, Lieutenant Forster, and twenty-five men
killed; Major-General the Earl of Chatham, Lieut.-Colonel Hodgson,
Captain Palmer, Ensigns Johnston, Carruthers, Nichols, Highmore,
and Archibald, with four serjeants, and one hundred and eight rank
and file wounded; Majors Wynch and Horndon, Captain Gillmour,
Lieutenants Deare and Wilson, wounded and taken prisoners;
Lieut.-Colonel Cholmondeley, Major Pringle, Captains Archdall,
Brodie, and Chaplain, Lieutenants Gazeley and Wilbraham, Ensigns
Browne, Ellis, Hill, Anderson, M'Pherson, and Tyron, with twelve
serjeants, one drummer, and five hundred and two rank and file
prisoners of war and missing.

Several circumstances having occurred to render further operations
in Holland unadvisable, the army re-embarked and returned to
England. The three battalions of the KING'S OWN landed at Yarmouth
and marched to Ipswich, where they passed the winter.

After the decease of General Morrison, the colonelcy of the
regiment was conferred on Major-General the Earl of Chatham, by
commission dated the 5th of December, 1799.

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1801]

In the summer of 1800 the KING'S OWN were encamped on Swinley
downs, near Windsor, where they were reviewed by King George III.
They passed the succeeding winter and summer at Winchester; in
September, 1801, the first and second battalions proceeded to
Horsham barracks, and the third battalion to Lewes. This year the
cocked hats were replaced by caps.

In the mean time great alterations had taken place in the affairs
of Europe; while several states which in former periods had nobly
fought for their civil and religious liberties, were seen crouching
beneath the iron rule of republican despotism, the British troops
had triumphed in Egypt and the West Indies, and the conditions of
a treaty of peace were taken into consideration. The men of the
KING'S OWN having been engaged to serve only during the war, they
were offered a farther bounty to enlist for unlimited service, and
upwards of nine hundred volunteered an extension of their services,
and were constituted the _first_ battalion.

[Sidenote: 1802]

In April, 1802, the second and third battalions proceeded to
Portsmouth, and in May the first was removed to Chatham. The treaty
of Amiens having been concluded, the third battalion was disbanded
at Portsmouth on the 24th of May, and the second at Winchester in
October of that year. In November the regiment marched to Dover
Castle.

[Sidenote: 1803]

The short respite from the horrors of war ceded to Europe by the
treaty of Amiens proved, like the calm which precedes a storm,
the harbinger of a mighty struggle which shook the basis of the
constitution of the states of Christendom. The ambitious designs of
Bonaparte, first consul of France, were ripening for execution, and
hostile preparations were secretly made under the deceptive cloak
of pacific designs. The conditions of the peace were evaded, and,
while Britain was reducing the numbers of her land and sea forces,
and cultivating amicable relations, Bonaparte was preparing, under
the pretence of colonial purposes, a gigantic naval and military
power with which he designed to crush, by one mighty effort,
the British people, who appeared as a barrier to his schemes of
aggrandizement, and were ever ready to oppose his progress.

The formidable preparations carried on in the ports of France
and Holland, pending the discussion of an important negociation,
occasioned the British government to adopt means of preservation,
and King George III., actuated by a concern for the security and
welfare of his subjects, exercised the power vested in him by act
of parliament, and issued on the 11th of March, 1803, warrants
for calling out and embodying the MILITIA. The establishment of
the regiments of the regular army was also augmented, the amount
of levy money for recruits was increased, and vigorous measures
were adopted for completing the numbers of the several corps. In
May the negociations with France terminated, the King's ambassador
was recalled from Paris, hostilities recommenced, and Bonaparte
made public declaration of his intention to invade this kingdom,
and assembled an army near Boulogne which was insultingly termed,
_L'armée d'Angleterre_.

This proceeding was met by the British government with suitable
measures; the SUPPLEMENTARY MILITIA was embodied; an Act was passed
to enable his Majesty to assemble an additional military force,
called the ARMY OF RESERVE; also an act for indemnifying persons
who might suffer in their property from the measures it might be
found necessary to adopt; and an Act to enable his Majesty more
effectually and speedily to exercise his ancient and undoubted
prerogative in requiring the military aid of his liege subjects in
case of invasion of the realm, called the LEVY-EN-MASSE ACT. The
captain-general of the army, Field-Marshal His Royal Highness the
Duke of York, was also active in making the necessary preparations.
The country was divided into military districts; general and staff
officers were appointed to each district, and arrangements were
made, and regulations issued, for the conduct of all ranks in the
event of an invasion taking place.

The moment the enemy landed, all the regulations of civil
government and restraint of forms were to cease in that part of
the country, and everything was to give way to the supplying and
strengthening of the army; the troops were directed to move in the
lightest manner, and without baggage; the enemy was to be attacked
at the moment of landing, and when his numbers became too great for
any chance of success, the troops were to withdraw a short distance
to give time for the forces of the country to assemble; correct
intelligence was to be circulated; the inhabitants were to withdraw
with their cattle, horses, and provision; and all provision tardy
in its removal was to be destroyed; the roads were to be broken
up, and the country driven and abandoned on the line of the enemy's
route.

As soon as the invading army quitted the coast, the troops were
to hover on its front, flanks, and rear; it was to be obliged
to fight for every article of sustenance; advantage was to be
taken of the intricate and enclosed nature of the country; every
inch of ground, every field, was to be to a degree disputed even
by inferior numbers; should the enemy enter the strong woodland
countries, trees were to be felled on the roads for miles around to
impede his progress; incessant attacks were to be kept up by night
with corps of various description and strength; the men were never
to fire but when they had a good mark and a decided aim, and to
use the national weapon, the bayonet, as much as possible, while
every individual with a pike or pitchfork in his hand was required
to unite his efforts to overwhelm and extirpate the unprincipled
invaders, who, spurning at those generous modes of warfare
established between civilized and rival countries, openly avowed
their design to be the utter destruction of Great Britain as a
nation. Against such an enemy the people were called upon to become
more ferocious than himself, and their indignation being raised to
the highest pitch would hurl back upon him that terror which he
had struck into weak and degraded nations which had not the same
liberty, renown, and constitution to contend for as Great Britain.

The measures of the government were nobly seconded by the people;
the British spirit was roused; a sudden burst of patriotic
enthusiasm pervaded the country; it animated the nobility, gentry,
yeomanry,--all orders and conditions of men,--all felt alike on
this momentous occasion; the danger was great, and it was met with
corresponding resolution and exertions; the whole country, from
the throne to the cottage, was animated with a determination to
crush the French army, if it should dare to invade the British
territory;--the Act for the LEVY-EN-MASSE was rendered unnecessary
by their spontaneous zeal; the designs of the government were
anticipated; voluntary associations were formed; loyal meetings
took place in the metropolis and in the principal towns throughout
the country; and large subscriptions were raised to bear the
expenses of the volunteer corps. The unanimity and harmony which
pervaded all ranks were astonishing; every city, town, and village,
from the Lands-end to the Orkney Islands, poured forth its
volunteer legions in defence of their country, and of their king;
it was difficult to say, whether the people were more liberal in
offering their persons, or their property, in defence of a country
and constitution so dear to their affections; and the British
monarch stood in a situation glorious and unexampled on the surface
of the earth: he was not defended by mercenaries always sparing of
their blood, not supported by tributary states impatient of their
yoke, not assisted by allies envious of his prosperity, (Europe
stood aloof leaving Britain to her own resources at the time of her
utmost need); but in the moment of danger, his Majesty saw himself
protected by the united efforts of all his people, by the persons
of those who were able to wield a weapon, by the prayers of the
aged and of the sick, by the purses of the rich, and by the hearts
of all: the people knew for whom, and for what, they were preparing
to fight; they knew they were not conscripts driven in chains to be
sacrificed on the altar of an ambitious leader, but loyal subjects
voluntarily engaging to encounter danger for a beloved sovereign,
for the preservation of that limited monarchy which they viewed as
the primary source of all the blessings they enjoyed as members
of civil society. They were not preparing to fight from the base
motive of desire to plunder other men's property, but to defend
their own; not to fight ingloriously to subvert the liberties
of others, but to prevent the yoke of slavery being fastened
round their own necks; not in contempt of national character, in
despite of the civil order of the world, in derision of religion,
or in mockery of heaven; but to preserve their happy land from
atheism, despotism, and anarchy, from that moral contamination of
principle and practice which outrages the very nature of mankind.
Actuated by such sentiments the aged, who had become indifferent
to professional emolument and to professional ambition, appeared
with renewed vigour ready for active service; and the youth stood
forward in crowds ready to shed their blood for the good of their
country. Thus exertions unknown in the history of this country, and
unprecedented in the most illustrious nations of antiquity, were
made, and Britain exhibited to the world the glorious spectacle
of a nation rising simultaneously to assert its freedom and
independence.

While the din of hostile preparation resounded throughout the
country, the regiment which forms the subject of this memoir had
the honour of forming part of an advanced-corps to the forces
selected to cover the coast opposite Boulogne where Bonaparte was
expected to land; for this purpose it was encamped at Shorncliffe,
and was brigaded with the fifty-second, fifty-ninth, and seventieth
regiments and five companies of the rifle corps, under the command
of that distinguished officer, Major-General (afterwards Sir John)
Moore. This corps was conspicuous for a high state of discipline;
and the officers and men felt a degree of honest pride at being
selected to commence the attack of the invaders whenever they
appeared.

The noble attitude which the nation assumed, the strength[29] and
energy it evinced while breathing defiance to the gigantic military
power by which it was menaced, caused the spirit even of Napoleon
to quail, and his legions did not venture to cross the British
channel.

Thus the daring project of subjugating Britain, a project suited
to that spirit of enterprise and ambition which characterized the
martial leader of the French nation, was defeated by the vigour
and promptitude of the government, and of the people, at the only
period when it was likely to prove successful. If Bonaparte could
have assembled in the ports of France and Holland a naval armament
for the transport of one hundred thousand men across the channel,
before the British fleets had been manned, the militia called out,
and the people arranged in military array, the mischief he might
have effected is incalculable. The immense preparations which were
made on the opposite side of the Channel, particularly at Boulogne,
the assembling of a large army in that quarter, the construction
of vessels calculated to cross the Channel and approach near
the shore, and his utter disregard of the loss of men, so that
he accomplished his designs, prove beyond doubt Bonaparte's
determination of invading the British territory; but the unanimous
and glorious resolution evinced by the people to preserve their
country, their freedom, and their privileges from the contamination
of republicanism, and to shed their blood in the defence of what
they valued above life, deterred him from carrying the threats he
had so often repeated into execution.

The KING'S OWN remained encamped at Shorncliffe; Martello towers
were constructed along the shore, and batteries were raised to
command the important points; and the soldiers, imbibing the spirit
of their distinguished commander, calmly awaited the arrival of
their vaunting adversaries. The Right Honourable William Pitt, who
was at this period warden of the Cinque Ports, raised two regiments
of a thousand men each; he frequently rode over to Shorncliffe,
and Major-General Moore explained to this great statesman all his
plans. On one occasion Mr. Pitt observed,--"Well, Moore, but as on
the very first alarm of the enemy's coming I shall join you with my
Cinque Porte regiments, you have not told me where you will place
us?" "Do you see," said Moore, "that hill? you and yours shall be
drawn up on it, where you will make a most formidable appearance
to the enemy, while I with the soldiers shall be fighting on the
beach." Mr. Pitt was exceedingly amused with this reply. On the
28th of November, the KING'S OWN proceeded into the newly-built
barracks at Hythe.

[Sidenote: 1804]

In 1804 the preparations for invasion were augmented; the KING'S
OWN were again encamped at Shorncliffe, and were brigaded with the
forty-third, fifty-second, fifty-ninth, and five companies of the
rifle corps, commanded by Major-General Moore. The nation preserved
the attitude of defence and defiance to the power of Bonaparte;
the several corps were regularly exercised, and inspected, and
kept ready for active service; and the KING'S OWN, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Brinley, attained so high a state of discipline
and efficiency as to excite the special notice and approbation of
his Royal Highness the Duke of York, who reviewed the regiment,
with the remainder of its brigade, on the 24th of August.[30]
Bonaparte's army remained inactive at Boulogne, consuming his
resources; but he obtained from the French nation the dignity of
EMPEROR. Another season passed away without an invasion; and on the
2d of November, the FOURTH proceeded to the barracks at Hythe; a
second battalion was added to its establishment, and the officers
who had eminently distinguished themselves by their zeal and
attention to the good of the service, were rewarded with promotion.

[Sidenote: 1805]

The regiment left Hythe on the 9th of March, 1805, for Canterbury,
and while stationed at this place Colonel Brinley was appointed
quartermaster-general in the West Indies. On his leaving the
regiment, the officers evinced their esteem for him by inviting him
to an entertainment prepared for the occasion, and by presenting
him with a sword valued at fifty guineas.[31]

During the summer of this year both battalions were encamped
on Beachy Head, where they were reviewed in brigade, with the
twenty-third regiment, commanded by Major-General the Honourable
Edward Paget, by their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and
Duke of York.

Bonaparte, after having been crowned King of Italy, and having
added Genoa to his empire, proceeded to Boulogne and reviewed his
army; and immediately afterwards marched against the forces of
Russia and Austria, to crush at once the coalition forming against
his interests, in which the British cabinet was taking a decided
part. At the same time the French troops were withdrawn from
Hanover, which country they had seized on soon after the resuming
of hostilities in 1803. On the 21st of October the glorious victory
at Trafalgar was won by the fleet, which gave Great Britain the
uncontrolled sovereignty of the sea: and on the 27th of that month
the first battalion of the KING'S OWN embarked at Ramsgate for
Hanover. Having landed at Cuxhaven on the 19th of November, it
marched up the country and was cantoned at Blumenthal, where it
was formed in brigade with the twenty-third and twenty-eighth
regiments under Major-General Honourable E. Paget; the British
troops in Hanover designed to co-operate with the continental
powers being under the orders of Lieut.-General Lord Cathcart.
Meanwhile the Austrians had been overpowered by Bonaparte, who
had taken possession of Vienna; and the united Austrian and
Russian armies were defeated in the beginning of December at
Austerlitz, which established the preponderance of French power. In
a subsequent treaty concluded at Vienna, it was stipulated, that
Hanover should be occupied by the Prussians, and the British troops
under Lord Cathcart retreated to Bremen and embarked for England.

[Sidenote: 1806]

The first battalion of the KING'S OWN landed at Yarmouth in
February, 1806, and marched to Woodbridge barracks; from whence it
proceeded in May to Colchester: the second battalion was quartered
at Chelmsford.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The influence of French councils at the court of Denmark, with the
expectation that its navy would be employed by Bonaparte against
Great Britain, occasioned the British court to resolve to obtain
possession of the Danish fleet either by treaty or force, and to
retain it until the conclusion of the war. An armament was fitted
out for this service, and the first battalion of the KING'S OWN
embarked at Harwich on the 25th of July, to form part of the land
force under the orders of Lieut.-General Lord Cathcart. The Danish
government not acceding to the proposed conditions, the army
landed on the island of Zealand, and took up a position before
_Copenhagen_, the KING'S OWN being formed in brigade with the
twenty-third regiment, under the orders of Major-General Grosvenor.
After a bombardment of three days the city surrendered, and the
fleet was given up. The KING'S OWN, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Wynch, occupied the citadel, where Lord Cathcart fixed his
head-quarters. On the evacuation of Copenhagen, the KING'S OWN
re-embarked, and after landing at Deal on the 6th and 7th of
November, marched to Colchester. The second battalion had, in the
mean time, proceeded to Jersey.[32]

[Sidenote: 1808]

Although the forces of Russia and Prussia had been defeated, and
a most humiliating peace concluded at Tilsit, yet Sweden still
resisted the power of Bonaparte; and the first battalion of the
FOURTH, or KING'S OWN, after receiving the thanks of parliament for
its conduct at Copenhagen, was selected to form part of a body of
troops placed under the command of Lieut.-General Sir John Moore,
to support the Swedish monarch. The KING'S OWN, having embarked at
Harwich on the 28th of April, 1808, arrived at Gottenburg; but, to
the surprise of the troops, they were interdicted landing by the
decree of the King of Sweden, who, though desirous of obtaining
British aid (like his predecessor, the Great Gustavus Adolphus, who
in 1632 had eighteen British regiments in his army), yet he proved
so imbecile of mind, and purposed to employ his British auxiliaries
in so absurd a manner, that the expedition returned to England.

Meanwhile important events had transpired in the Peninsula.
Bonaparte, after reducing to submission to his inexorable will
all Germany, and forcing Russia to accede to his decrees, was
prompted by his restless ambition to attempt the subjugation of
Spain and Portugal. Having resolved to commence with the latter,
he compelled Spain to join in the enterprise; and when Portugal
was subdued, he seized on the Spanish monarchy. The inhabitants
revolted against his authority. A British force, commanded by
Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, proceeded to their aid: and on
the return of the KING'S OWN from Gottenburg, they were immediately
ordered to proceed to the Peninsula. Having landed in Maceira
Bay, in Portugal, on the 25th of August, they advanced on Lisbon,
and after the French army capitulated and vacated Portugal, they
encamped within two leagues of Lisbon.

When Lieut.-General Sir John Moore was appointed to the command
of the British troops in Portugal, and directed to advance to
the assistance of the Spaniards, the KING'S OWN, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Wynch, were formed in brigade with the twenty-eighth
and forty-second regiments, under the orders of Major-General
Lord William Bentinck; the FOURTH led the right column in the
march through Portugal into Spain, and arrived at Salamanca on the
14th of November. Although the Spanish forces, which were to have
co-operated with Sir John Moore, were defeated and dispersed, and
Bonaparte had three hundred thousand men in Spain, yet the British
general, with that intrepidity which marked his character, advanced
with his army into the heart of Spain, braved the numerous legions
of the enemy, and produced a diversion favourable to the Spanish
cause. When Napoleon directed eighty thousand men and two hundred
cannon against Sir John Moore, he marched towards the coast; and
by superior skill escaped from the overwhelming numbers by which
he was menaced. Great privation and suffering were endured by the
troops during this retreat of two hundred and fifty miles, in the
depth of winter, over mountains and rivers, exposed to snow-storms
and heavy rains, and pursued by an enemy of superior numbers.
During the retreat the KING'S OWN preserved their efficiency, and
their grenadier company, commanded by Captain Faunce, did not lose
a man.

[Sidenote: 1809]

At length the army arrived at _Corunna_, and the war-worn British
soldiers obtained shelter, warm food, and a short repose, at the
town and neighbouring villages, where their wasted strength was
recruited, and their damaged arms were exchanged for new, while
they awaited the arrival of shipping to transport them to England.

The shipping arrived, and while arrangements were making for the
embarkation, the British troops, amounting to fourteen thousand
five hundred men, were in position on an inferior range of heights
in front of _Corunna_; and the FOURTH were on the right of
Lieut.-General Sir David Baird's division, behind the village of
Elvina.

On the 16th of January, 1809, twenty thousand French troops
assembled on the opposite hills; about two in the afternoon a heavy
battery opened its fire; and three columns of the enemy, covered by
clouds of skirmishers, descended the mountains, and drove in the
British piquets. The first column carried the village of Elvina;
then dividing, attempted to turn the right of Lieut.-General Sir
David Baird's division by the valley, and to break its front;
at the same time the second column advanced against the British
centre; and the third attacked the left at the village of Palavia
Abaxo. The brunt of the battle on the right was sustained by
the FOURTH, forty-second, and fiftieth regiments, commanded by
Major-General Lord William Bentinck, and this brigade resisted
the furious onset of the enemy with a firmness which proved the
unconquerable spirit and excellent discipline of the troops. The
enemy's attempt to turn the right flank by the valley occasioned
the right wing of the FOURTH to be thrown back, and the regiment
opening a heavy flanking fire with terrible effect, it forced its
opponents back in confusion; while the forty-second and fiftieth
attacked those breaking through the village of Elvina. Sir John
Moore watching this manœuvre with care, saw the noble exhibition of
valour made by the KING'S OWN, and the repulse of the enemy by the
flanking fire, with feelings of exultation, and called out, "_That
is exactly what I wanted to be done. I am glad to see a regiment
there in which I have so much confidence_:" but in a short time
afterwards this distinguished commander was mortally wounded by a
cannon-ball, and died regretted by the army. Eventually the French
were defeated on all sides, and they sought refuge on the high
ridge of hills from which they had descended. Thus ended a conflict
which was glorious to the British arms; the army having repulsed
its adversaries, embarked during the night and succeeding day, and
returned to England.

The KING'S OWN had their commanding officer, Lieut.-Colonel Wynch,
with Captain John Williamson, Lieutenant Vere Hunt, Ensigns J.
P. Jameson and Reardon, wounded; Ensign Reardon died of his
wounds. Lieut.-Colonel Wynch was rewarded with a medal; and
the distinguished conduct of the regiment procured for it the
honourable privilege of bearing the word CORUNNA on its colours.

Having landed at Portsmouth on the 31st of January, the KING'S OWN
marched to Colchester Barracks, where the second battalion, which
had returned from Jersey, was also stationed. The militia being
again allowed to extend their services to the line, upwards of
seven hundred volunteered for the FOURTH, and the establishment of
the first battalion was raised to twelve hundred, and the second to
a thousand men.

An attack on Holland by a body of troops commanded by General
the Earl of Chatham having been resolved upon, both battalions
of the KING'S OWN,--the first commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Wynch,
and the second by Lieut.-Colonel Espinasse, marched for Deal and
embarked on the 16th of July; they were formed in brigade with the
twenty-eighth regiment, under Major-General the Earl of Dalhousie.
This brigade formed part of the reserve under Lieut.-General Sir
John Hope, and landed on the 1st of August on the island of South
Beveland, where it was stationed during the attack and capture of
Flushing, on the island of Walcheren. Some delay taking place in
the naval arrangements, the enemy had time to make preparations for
a powerful resistance; at the same time a severe epidemic fever
broke out among the English troops, and the attack on Antwerp was
relinquished.

In September the regiment was withdrawn from South Beveland, and
having landed at Harwich on the 16th of that month, returned to
Colchester Barracks much reduced in numbers by the Walcheren fever.

[Sidenote: 1810]

The second battalion left Colchester in January, 1810, embarked
at Portsmouth for Gibraltar, and was subsequently stationed in
garrison at Ceuta.

In the autumn the first battalion was again called upon to
transfer its services to the Peninsula, where the war continued
to rage, and Marshal Massena was advancing with a powerful army
to complete the conquest of Portugal. Having embarked at Harwich
on the 24th of October on board the Agincourt, of 64 guns, and
Brune frigate, the KING'S OWN, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Wynch,
sailed for Portugal; they landed at Lisbon on the 4th of November,
and advancing up the country to join the army commanded by Lord
Wellington, then in the lines of _Torres Vedras_, were brigaded
with the second battalions of the thirtieth and forty-fourth
regiments, commanded by Major-General Dunlop, in the fifth
division, under the orders of Major-General James Leith, and were
stationed at Alcoentra, from whence they proceeded in December to
Torres Vedras.

[Sidenote: 1811]

Colonel Wynch was appointed to command a brigade in the light
division; but, unfortunately for the service, and to the deep
regret of all who knew him, this excellent and distinguished
officer died at Lisbon on the 6th of January following, of a
fever, caught in the discharge of his duty at the advanced-posts
of the army. Lieut.-Colonel Bevan succeeded to the command of the
first battalion, and Major Brooke was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-colonel, and appointed to the second battalion.

The KING'S OWN remained at Torres Vedras until the French army,
having been reduced by sickness and other causes, retreated towards
Spain;--the regiment then moved forward in pursuit, and the enemy's
rear was harassed and attacked with varied success.

On the 2d of April the FOURTH marched through Guarda; on the
following day they passed the Coa with their division by the bridge
of _Sabugal_; and the enemy, having been previously attacked by the
light division, was forced to make a precipitate retreat, and he
fell back upon Alfayates.

The French having retreated on Ciudad Rodrigo, the allied army
stood triumphant on the confines of Portugal, from whence the
KING'S OWN advanced into Spain, and were cantoned at Aldea de Bispo
from the 9th of April to the beginning of May.

When Marshal Massena advanced to the relief of Almeida, the allied
army went into position to oppose his progress, and the fifth
division taking post near Fort Conception, on the left of the line,
was not attacked; the FOURTH regiment was consequently not engaged
in the action at Fuentes d'Onor.

After the repulse of the French army, the garrison of Almeida lost
all hope of assistance, and the commandant made preparations for
destroying the works, and for vacating the place. At midnight,
on the 10th of May, he exploded the mines, and sallying forth
in a compact column, broke through the blockading force; but
was followed by a few men collected on the instant, and by the
thirty-sixth regiment. Early on the following morning, as the
KING'S OWN were on the march to _Barba del Puerco_, they heard the
firing of musketry at a distance, and hastened towards the scene
of conflict. The enemy was on the march; but the British soldiers,
throwing off their knapsacks, followed at such a pace, that they
overtook the rear of the column in the act of descending the deep
chasm of Barba del Puerco. Many were killed and wounded, and three
hundred were taken; but the remainder escaped. The KING'S OWN had
two rank and file killed, and one lieutenant and ten rank and file
wounded.

On the 15th of June the regiment was stationed at Nava de Aver,
in Portugal, where it remained three weeks, forming part of the
four divisions of infantry left behind the Agueda to observe the
movements of the French army under Marshal Marmont during the time
the second siege of Badajoz was undertaken. When the enemy moved
southwards, the regiment directed its march by Castello Branco for
the Alentejo; and went into position on the Caya, being hutted
near the wood and town of Aronches until the 2d of July, when it
proceeded to Portalegre.

While at this station the FOURTH had the misfortune to lose their
commanding officer, Lieut.-Colonel Bevan, who died on the 8th of
July, and was buried with military honours in the castle-yard,
all the officers of the division attending. He was succeeded
by Lieut.-Colonel Brooke, and brevet Lieut.-Colonel Faunce was
appointed lieutenant-colonel in the regiment and placed at the head
of the second battalion.

The regiment left its quarters in Portalegre on the 21st of July,
and was hutted near that town seven days, when it proceeded into
cantonments at Castel de Vide. When Lord Wellington moved towards
the Agueda with the view of rescuing Ciudad Rodrigo from the power
of the enemy, the FOURTH crossed the Tagus by the bridge of boats,
and proceeding by Castello Branco, entered Spain on the 11th of
August at Navas Frias. After passing seven days in huts near St.
Payo, they proceeded into cantonments at Pena Parda; but returned
to their huts on the 26th of August, and back to quarters on the
2d of September, where they remained until the 26th of that month:
meanwhile Ciudad Rodrigo was blockaded, and Lord Wellington's
head-quarters were at Fuentes Guinaldo. When Marshal Marmont
advanced to relieve this fortress, the FOURTH remained with their
division at St. Payo, watching the passes from Estremadura. In
the subsequent manœuvres they were not brought into action with
the enemy; and after the retreat of the French army, they were
stationed at Guarda, in Portugal.

[Sidenote: 1812]

The enemy being deceived by the seemingly careless winter attitude
of the allied army, left _Ciudad Rodrigo_ to the protection of its
garrison; and the British commander, profiting by this omission,
commenced the siege of this important fortress in the early part
of January, 1812 with four divisions; the KING'S OWN remained
in quarters at Bobadela, where they had proceeded on the 7th of
December. On the receipt of intelligence that Marshal Marmont was
collecting his forces to succour the place, the whole army was
brought forward and posted in the villages on the Coa, ready to
cross the Agueda and give battle. Ciudad Rodrigo was captured by
storm during the night of the 19th of January; and the FOURTH were
cantoned in the suburbs of that fortress from the 20th of January
to the 23d of February.

In consequence of the great difficulty experienced in procuring
land carriage for the supplies of the army, many of the regiments
had to proceed a considerable distance for their clothing, and
the KING'S OWN marched for that purpose from Ciudad Rodrigo to
Penacova, where the clothing arrived by water from Coimbra; that in
use having been in wear during two years of hard service.

Meanwhile the fifth division was proceeding towards the Alentejo
to engage in the siege of _Badajoz_, and the regiment joined its
brigade at Campo Mayor on the 24th of March. On the 30th of that
month it proceeded to Elvas; on the 4th of April it bivouacked
near the city of Badajoz, and three breaches, which were deemed
practicable, having been made, the regiment was formed on the
evening of the 6th ready to take part in the storming of this
strong fortress. On this occasion the fifth division was directed
to make a false attack on the Pardaleras, and a real assault on the
bastion of San Vincente; the KING'S OWN, headed by Lieut.-Colonel
Brooke, led the assault of the bastion.

The division advanced in silence from its bivouac-ground towards
the remote side of the town; the sky was clouded and the air thick
with watery exhalations, and as the troops approached the lofty
fortress, a low murmur was heard in the trenches, lights were
seen passing to and fro along the ramparts, and the loud voices
of the French sentinels proclaimed that all was well in Badajoz.
The garrison watching from its lofty station the approach of
its adversaries, stood prepared with every means of destruction
which art could devise, and each soldier had three loaded muskets
beside him, that the first fire might be quick and fatal. As the
British soldiers approached the fortress with ladders and weapons,
the sight of the formidable works and towering walls awakened
in their resolute hearts an eagerness for the assault, and they
advanced with audacity to meet that fiery destruction which their
adversaries were prepared to pour down upon them. Major-General
Walker's brigade, led by the KING'S OWN, having gained the bank
of the Guadiana, advanced along the margin of the river, and
the sound of their footsteps being rendered inaudible by the
rippling of the waters, they reached the French guard-house at
the barrier-gate of the Olivença road undiscovered; but at that
moment an explosion took place at the breach, and the moon emerging
from behind the clouds, the French discovered the column and gave
the alarm. The glacis was mined, the ditch deep, the scarp thirty
feet high, and the parapet lined with bold troops; yet the British
soldiers springing forward under a sharp fire commenced hewing
down the wooden barrier at the covered way. The Portuguese, being
panic-stricken, threw down the scaling-ladders, but others snatched
them up again, and having forced the barrier, jumped into the
ditch. The guiding engineer was killed, and the ladders were found
too short, for the walls were generally above thirty feet high; at
the same time a mine was sprung beneath the soldiers' feet, beams
of wood and live shells were rolled over on their heads, showers
of grape swept the ditch, and man after man dropped dead from the
ladders. At length three ladders were reared against a corner of
the bastion, where the scarp was only twenty feet high, and one
man climbing an embrasure which had no gun, and was only stopped
by a gabion, was pushed to the top by his comrades; he drew others
after him until many had gained the summit; and although the French
opened a sharp fire against them from both flanks, and from a house
in front, yet their numbers increased and they could not be driven
back. Half the KING'S OWN regiment entered the town to dislodge the
enemy from the houses, while the others pushed along the ramparts,
and, by hard fighting, won three bastions. Major-General Walker,
leading the attack of the last bastion, fell covered with wounds;
and several of the soldiers observing a lighted match on the
ground, cried out, "A mine." The troops retiring hastily for fear
of an explosion, were at that moment attacked by a French reserve,
and driven back with great loss as far as the San Vincente, where
the pursuing enemy was destroyed by the fire of a battalion of
the thirty-eighth, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Nugent, posted in
reserve. The storming party rallied, and, returning to the attack,
once more charged along the breaches, and were engaged with the
enemy.

In the meantime, the men of the KING'S OWN who had entered the
town, finding the streets empty, the houses illuminated with lamps,
and no appearance of opposition, excepting a few shots fired by
the Spaniards from underneath the doors, they advanced with bugles
sounding towards the great square of the town, capturing in their
progress several mules laden with ammunition proceeding towards
the breaches. Arriving at the square, it was found empty as the
streets, the houses decorated with lamps; a low whispering was
heard, and the lattices were occasionally opened and shut, but no
troops appeared to be in the buildings. The castle had been won by
the British troops; but at the breaches the fight was still raging,
and dreadful sounds like the deep tones of distant thunder echoed
through the town; the KING'S OWN rushed to the scene of conflict
to attack the garrison in reverse, but were assailed by a heavy
fire of musketry and forced back by superior numbers. At length the
garrison was forced from the breaches, partial actions afterwards
took place in various quarters, and eventually the governor,
finding all lost, escaped with part of his garrison to the fort
of St. Christoval, on the opposite side of the river, where he
surrendered.

In the storming of Badajoz the FOURTH had Captain H. T. Bellingham
and Lieutenant Francis Staveley killed; Lieutenants William
Sheppard and Martin Dane died of their wounds; Major Alured W.
Faunce, Captains John Williamson, G. W. Wilson, Robert Anwyl, and
Thomas Burke, with Lieutenants W. S. L. Alley, J. Salvin, Patrick
Conroy, John Browne, John Craster, Hygat Boyd, and Ensigns Robert
Arnold and Edward Rawlings, wounded: the regiment also sustained a
loss of two hundred and thirteen serjeants, drummers, and rank and
file, killed and wounded.

The excellent conduct of the brigade was mentioned in Lord
Wellington's despatch; and Lieut.-Colonel Brooke, who commanded the
regiment, was also spoken of in terms of commendation.

During the assault, Private George Hatton, of the light company
of the KING'S OWN, bayonetted the officer who carried the colours
of the regiment of Hesse d'Armstadt, in the French service, and
captured the colours, which he had the honour of presenting on the
following day to Lord Wellington, who rewarded him with a present
of money, and desired that he might be promoted.

The KING'S OWN acquired by its gallantry on this occasion the
honour of the royal permission to bear the word BADAJOZ on its
colours.

Shortly after the capture of Badajoz the FOURTH marched with
the army towards the Agueda; on the 14th of May, the second
battalion joined from Ceuta; and the brigade, consisting of
the two battalions of the KING'S OWN, and second battalions
of the thirtieth and forty-fourth regiments, was commanded by
Major-General Pringle; Major-General Walker having returned to
England in consequence of his wounds received at the storming of
Badajoz.

The FOURTH advanced with the army to Salamanca, and this city
being rescued from the power of the enemy, exhibited a scene of
tumultuous joy and rejoicing; the houses were illuminated, and the
people, shouting and singing, welcomed their deliverers; while the
army took up a position on the mountain of St. Christoval a few
miles in advance; but the FOURTH remained behind the Tormes, and
the forts which the enemy occupied at Salamanca were besieged.
Marshal Marmont advancing on the 20th of June, to succour the
forts, the regiment crossed the Tormes and was formed with the army
in order of battle on the top of the mountain. After the capture of
the forts, the enemy retired towards the Douro, and the regiment
descended the heights and followed the French army, which took up a
new position near Tordesillas.

The KING'S OWN bivouacked in front of Tordesillas from the 2d to
the 9th of July, and at Nava del Rey until the 16th; the weather
being fine, the country rich, rations regularly supplied, and
wine abundant, the soldiers fared luxuriously; but the enemy
having passed the Douro and the Trabancos, turned the left of
the allies, and marched on the 18th of July towards the Guarena,
when the British retired. The two armies directing their march
towards the Guarena as to one common goal, and important results
depending on which should first pass the stream, a strife of speed
arose. Several of the hostile columns, proceeding in parallel
lines a distance of ten miles, within musket-shot of each other,
marched impetuously towards the stream in perfect order, while
clouds of dust arose, and a most interesting spectacle presented
itself; for the officers on each side, being strangers alike to
malice and to fear, were seen pointing with their swords, touching
their caps, or waving their hands in courtesy as they urged their
course towards the river. The British gained the stream first;
the soldiers being tormented with thirst, many of them drank as
they marched, and others halting in the river a few moments, were
saluted with a shower of bullets; but they passed on, and the
French marshal's designs were frustrated. He, however, passed the
river on the 20th of July higher up, turned the right flank of the
allied army, and gained a new range of hills; when Lord Wellington
made a corresponding movement, and an evolution similar to that on
the 18th was repeated, and it ended in the British resuming their
position on the heights of St. Christoval. The KING'S OWN forded
the Tormes on the following day, and were posted in position with
the army near _Salamanca_.

These bold manœuvres of the enemy were watched by the British
commander, who waited patiently for an opportunity to strike a
decisive blow, and this occurring on the 22d of July, a sanguinary
battle was fought. In the early part of the day the KING'S OWN were
posted on the slope of one of the heights, called the Arapiles,
where they remained until the afternoon, when they moved to the
rear of the village of Arapiles; Lord Wellington having detected
a fault in his adversaries' movements, ordered his divisions
forward, and the battle commenced. In this action the fifth
division, commanded by Major-General Sir James Leith, attacking
the enemy in front, distinguished itself; and the KING'S OWN,--the
first battalion being commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Brooke, and the
second by Major David Williamson--had their share in the glories
of the day. During the action the first battalion made a brilliant
charge on a considerable body of the enemy, and nobly sustained
its reputation. The skill of the British commander was bravely
seconded by the resolute valour and discipline of the troops; the
action lasted until dark, a decisive victory was gained over the
enemy, and eleven pieces of cannon, two eagles, and six colours
were captured. The gallantry evinced by the KING'S OWN was
afterwards rewarded by the privilege of bearing the word SALAMANCA
on their colours; the commanding officers of both battalions were
rewarded with medals; Major David Williamson was also promoted to
the rank of lieutenant-colonel on the occasion. Major Piper, who
succeeded to the command of the first battalion during the action
in consequence of Lieut.-Colonel Brooke[33] being called upon to
take the command of the brigade, was likewise rewarded with a
medal and the rank of lieutenant-colonel; and Major Alured Faunce,
who commanded the light infantry companies of the brigade, also
received a medal. The regiment had Major O'Halloran wounded, and
forty-eight serjeants and rank and file killed and wounded.

The troops pursued the flying enemy on the following day, and
after numerous marches and evolutions, the first battalion of the
KING'S OWN proceeded with the army to Madrid, where the British
were received with acclamations of joy. Meanwhile the second
battalion was in cantonments at Cuellar, with the sixth division
under Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton; but in September the two
battalions were united in front of _Burgos_ during the siege of the
castle.

When the concentration of the enemy's forces and the failure of the
attack on Burgos rendered a retrograde movement necessary, the army
withdrew in the night, and the French following in full career,
several skirmishes occurred. On the 24th of October the army was in
position behind the _Carion_, and the KING'S OWN were bivouacked
near Villa Muriel. The position was attacked on the following day,
and a French column having passed the river, took some prisoners
at the village and lined the bed of a canal; the brigade under
Major-General Pringle's orders was directed to clear the canal, and
the FOURTH advanced against their adversaries. The French troops
were driven back, the village was re-occupied in force, and the
canal was lined by the allied troops; but the army withdrew before
day-break on the 26th and the retreat was resumed.

The army took up positions from time to time to retard the advance
of the enemy; and having crossed the Douro and the Tormes, it was
posted behind the latter river until the middle of November; when
a further retreat to Ciudad Rodrigo took place. The KING'S OWN
having entered Portugal went into winter quarters at the villages
of Valdigeen and Saude, in the vicinity of Lamego.

Both battalions having sustained considerable loss during this
campaign, the second transferred its private men fit for duty to
the first battalion on the 24th of December, and, proceeding to
England, was stationed in Colchester barracks, where it was shortly
afterwards recruited in numbers by volunteers from the militia.

The second battalions of the thirtieth and forty-fourth regiments
being also reduced in numbers were sent to England, and the first
battalion of the KING'S OWN remaining in cantonments on the
northern frontiers of Portugal, was united in brigade with the
second battalions of the forty-seventh and fifty-ninth regiments,
under the orders of Major-General F. P. Robinson.

[Sidenote: 1813]

The campaign of 1813 was opened in May, when the army, entering
Spain, advanced against the enemy; the FOURTH formed part of the
force which traversed the mountainous country of Tras-os-Montes,
turned the enemy's position on the Douro, and forced him to
retreat; the rear of the retiring army was closely followed in its
retrograde movement; and the enemy, having blown up the castle of
Burgos, took a position on the Ebro, from which he was forced by a
flank movement.

The KING'S OWN, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Brooke, shared in
the privations and fatigues consequent upon a march of several
hundred miles, sometimes traversing romantic mountain scenery,
ascending rugged precipices, or crossing rivers; on the 20th of
June, they were bivouacked at Margina, from whence they advanced
on the following day to attack the French army commanded by Joseph
Bonaparte in its position in front of _Vittoria_.

The regiment formed part of the force under Lieut.-General Sir
Thomas Graham, which advanced against the right of the French
army by the Bilboa road, and having taken possession of Gamara
Minor, the FOURTH, forty-seventh, and fifty-ninth regiments
were sent forward in columns of battalions, with the heroic
Major-General Robinson at their head, to storm the village of
_Gamara Major_, which was occupied as a tête-de-pont to the bridge
across the Zadora. Supported by two guns of Major Lawson's brigade
of artillery, the three regiments advanced with a determined
countenance; the French artillery opened a destructive fire, and
volleys of musquetry assailed the brigade in front; yet, undismayed
by the storm of bullets which rent chasms in the ranks, the British
regiments bore down upon their adversaries with fixed bayonets,
drove the enemy from the village with great slaughter, and captured
three guns.

This success was followed by an attack on the village of Abechuco,
by the first division. Meanwhile the French made great efforts
to repossess themselves of Gamara Major; but were repulsed, and
Abechuco was carried.

The possession of these villages enabled the troops to attack the
bridges across the Zadora; but these bridges were commanded by
a division of the enemy posted on the heights beyond the river.
Here the KING'S OWN, led by the gallant Lieut.-Colonel Brooke,
had another opportunity of displaying their native valour; they
charged three times across the bridge of Gamara Major; and when the
centre columns of the British army had penetrated to the vicinity
of Vittoria, the enemy vacated the heights, the river was passed,
and the retreat of the French army by the high road to France was
intercepted. Finally the French army was thrown into confusion,
and driven from the field with the loss of its artillery,
ammunition-waggons, and all its baggage and equipages.

The FOURTH had Lieutenant George Thorne, and Lieutenant and
Adjutant Thomas Barker killed; with Captains John Williamson, John
E. Kipping, James Ward, Charles James Edgell, and Ensign John
M'Crohon, wounded; also seventy-five non-commissioned officers and
soldiers killed and wounded. Their gallant conduct was afterwards
rewarded with the honour of bearing the word VITTORIA inscribed on
their colours.

After this victory the KING'S OWN were detached, with the remainder
of the left column, towards Bilboa, with the view of intercepting a
body of French under General Foy, who retreated on Bayonne. After
the enemy was driven beyond the frontiers of Spain, the regiment
was engaged in the siege of the strong and important fortress of
_St. Sebastian_, and supported the unsuccessful assault of the
works on the 25th of July: it also had the honour of taking a
conspicuous and important part in storming the breach on the 31st
of August.

When the assaulting party, led by the KING'S OWN, filed out of the
trenches, it was saluted with a tempest of shells and grape-shot
which blazed in the air, tore up the ground, and menaced the
brigade with instant destruction; yet, urged forward by their
native ardour and thirst for glory, the soldiers rushed through
this dreadful storm of bullets towards the breach, where they
encountered difficulties almost insuperable. Many of the KING'S
OWN, evincing their inborn valour and contempt of danger, rushed
up the breach and perished; others following, shared the same
fate. Every exertion and device which the most determined bravery
could inspire were repeatedly tried in vain, no man outliving the
attempt to gain the ridge. Lieutenant LE BLANC of the FOURTH, who
led the light infantry company of the regiment immediately after
the forlorn hope, particularly distinguished himself, and was the
only surviving officer of the advance. At length the British heavy
guns were turned against the curtain, and the bullets, which passed
a few feet only above the heads of the soldiers at the breach,
having produced some effect, another strenuous effort was made to
gain the high ridge. The officers and soldiers rushing forward with
enthusiastic gallantry, were favoured by the explosion of a mine,
and the breach was forced. The town was immediately captured, and
the citadel surrendered a few days afterwards.

The gallant behaviour of the KING'S OWN on this occasion is set
forth in the following copy of a letter from Major-General Robinson
to the colonel of the regiment.

  "_St. Sebastian, 5th September, 1813._

  "MY LORD,

  "I feel it my duty to inform your lordship of the gallant conduct
  of the first battalion of the KING'S OWN at the attack of the
  breach of these works on the 31st August. The first attack was
  the exclusive duty of the second brigade, consisting of the
  FOURTH, forty-seventh, and fifty-ninth, with a company of
  Brunswick Oels sharp-shooters; or rather of a thousand men of the
  brigade; the remainder, to the amount of two hundred and fifty,
  were in the trenches and waited further orders.

  "The FOURTH led, and perhaps in the whole history of war there
  cannot be found a stronger instance of courage and obedience to
  orders, for the instructions were to make a lodgement on the
  breach only; there to wait support. The lodgement was effected
  under the most tremendous fire of grape and musquetry that can be
  imagined, and our loss was dreadful, that of the FOURTH only is
  twelve officers, nineteen serjeants, and two hundred and thirty
  rank and file killed and wounded. The other regiments emulated
  the FOURTH, and called forth the acclamations of the generals,
  and thousands who were looking on. It was not until after three
  hours hard fighting that the lodgement was certain, after which,
  by the premature springing of one of the enemy's mines, the town
  was soon carried.

  "This action, so soon after that of Vittoria, requires that I
  should report the conduct of the regiment in the warmest manner
  to your lordship, and I feel it but justice to a few individuals,
  who from accidental causes had opportunities of doing more than
  others, to mention their names. Captain Williamson commanded the
  regiment, and was twice wounded after he had reached the top of
  the breach. Captain Jones succeeded, not only to the command of
  the regiment, but on my being obliged to quit the field, to that
  of the brigade, and acquitted himself most admirably. My acting
  aide-de-camp, Captain Wood, left me at my request, and by his
  judgment and example contributed materially to the success of the
  daring attempt. The three are excellent officers, and will ere
  long, I hope, prove themselves equal to the duties of a higher
  station.

  "I have, &c.
  "F. P. ROBINSON,
  "_Major-general, commanding second brigade,_
  _fifth division_.

  "_To General the Earl of Chatham, &c._"

This brilliant display of British valour and heroism by the second
brigade, was attended with the loss of two majors, eight captains,
twenty-six lieutenants, twelve ensigns, forty-seven serjeants, six
drummers, and five hundred and eighty-nine rank and file killed
and wounded; among whom were the following officers of the KING'S
OWN:--Lieutenants Francis Maguire, Jonas Fawson, W. S. A. Carrol,
J. P. Jameson, and Ensign Charles Montford killed; with Brevet
Lieut.-Colonel John Piper, Captains John Williamson, John Wynne
Fletcher, Lieutenants Francis Le Blanc, George Heywood, William
Clarke, and Frederick Hyde, wounded.

By their gallantry on this occasion the KING'S OWN acquired the
honour of bearing the word ST. SEBASTIAN inscribed on their colours.

The regiment advanced from St. Sebastian to the frontiers of
France; and on the 7th of October forded the _Bidassoa_ at low
water for the purpose of driving the enemy from the mountain of
La Rhune. A body of Spaniards and Portuguese co-operated on this
occasion with the first and fifth divisions; and the French had
scarcely formed in line before they were driven from their works,
with the loss of several guns.

Thus, after chasing the boasted invincible legions of Bonaparte
from the gates of Lisbon to the utmost limits of the Spanish
boundary; after rescuing millions from the grasp of the oppressor,
and after restoring the affrighted inhabitants of the Peninsula to
their homes in peace and safety, the British soldiers had burst the
barriers of the Pyrenees and planted their triumphant ensigns in
France; where additional laurels awaited them.

On the 10th of November the battle of the _Nivelle_ was fought;
the fifth division being on the left, was not seriously engaged,
and the KING'S OWN had no opportunity of signalizing themselves in
action: they had Lieutenant Salvin and several men wounded.

After its retreat from Nivelle, the French army occupied an
entrenched position in front of Bayonne; the allies passed the
_Nive_ on the 9th of December, and the enemy having been dislodged
from a post at Ville Franque, withdrew his out-posts to Bayonne.
But issuing from thence on the following day, he attacked a
Portuguese brigade stationed on the high road from Bayonne to St.
Jean de Luz. The KING'S OWN, and other regiments of the second
brigade of the fifth division, advancing to the assistance of the
Portuguese, were sharply engaged, and evinced great bravery and
steadiness in action. Major-General Robinson was wounded, and the
French gained some advantage; but they were eventually driven back
and suffered severely. The attempt was renewed, but the attacking
columns were repulsed, and night closed on the combatants.

The enemy again attacked the division on the 11th of December, but
was repulsed; in the afternoon of the 12th there was also some
sharp skirmishing; and the KING'S OWN acquired, by their intrepid
bearing and gallantry in action, the honour of bearing the word
NIVE on their colours.

At the passage of the Nive, on the 9th of December, the regiment
had one man killed; Brevet Major Robert Anwyl, Lieutenant Fraser,
and nine rank and file wounded: Lieutenant Fraser died of his
wounds. On the 10th of December one serjeant and five rank and
file were killed; Brevet Major Timothy Jones, Lieutenants Edward
Guichard and Frederick Hyde, with five serjeants, one drummer, and
thirty-nine rank and file wounded; and twenty-two rank and file
missing. On the 11th of December the KING'S OWN had six rank and
file killed; Brevet Lieut.-Colonel John Piper, Lieutenants John
Staveley, C. H. Farrington, William Clarke, Edward Rawlins, John
Sutherland, James Marshal, and Ensign James Gardner, with eight
serjeants, and ninety rank and file wounded.

During the winter additional honours were conferred on the officers
who had commanded regiments in the late actions; and Lieut.-Colonel
BROOKE, of the KING'S OWN, obtained a cross inscribed BADAJOZ,
SALAMANCA, VITTORIA, and ST. SEBASTIAN. Brevet Lieut.-Colonel
PIPER, two clasps inscribed ST. SEBASTIAN and NIVE. Captain
KEPPING, who succeeded to the command of the regiment after
Lieut.-Colonel Piper was wounded, on the 11th of December, received
the brevet rank of MAJOR, and a medal inscribed NIVE.

[Sidenote: 1814]

Severe weather obliged the allied army to keep in its cantonments
during the month of January and part of February, 1814; and
operations having recommenced in the middle of February, after
several movements the KING'S OWN were employed in the blockade of
_Bayonne_, in which service they were engaged upwards of six weeks.

Meanwhile important events had taken place in other parts of
Europe, and the officers and soldiers of the British army, who had
received the blessings of the unoffending nations whom they had
delivered from the power of their enemies, and had transferred
to France the calamities of domestic war, had the delight of
witnessing the conflicts, toils, and sufferings they had endured
for the good of Europe, followed by the enjoyments of peace.

The KING'S OWN were afterwards rewarded with the word PENINSULA, as
an additional honorary inscription for their colours; but, although
tranquillity was restored to Europe, they were allowed only a few
days of repose before they were called upon to transfer their
services to another scene of conflict, and were destined to fight
the battles of their country beyond the Atlantic ocean.

During the Peninsular War, the decrees of Bonaparte to destroy the
commerce of Great Britain were followed by regulations designed to
counteract the enemy's plans. These regulations, with the pressing
of British seamen on board of American ships, brought on a war
between Great Britain and the United States. When the KING'S OWN
were separated from the second brigade of the fifth division, in
order to embark for America, Major-General Robinson addressed the
following letter to Major Faunce, who then commanded the regiment:--

  "_Lower Anglet, near Bayonne, 14th May, 1814._

  "SIR,

  "The event of the KING'S OWN being about to be separated from the
  second brigade, brings strongly to my recollection the many and
  great obligations I am under to the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and privates, for repeated instances of such gallant
  conduct in the field, as never failed to draw forth the
  unqualified approbation of the higher ranks of this army.

  "The excellent system of discipline maintained in the regiment,
  and the attention paid by each individual to its reputation, is
  also a source of real satisfaction.

  "Impressed deeply with these sentiments, let me request you
  will do me the honour to make my most sincere thanks acceptable
  to all, with assurances of my warmest wishes for their future
  welfare and prosperity; and may I add, I shall feel myself
  peculiarly fortunate if I should ever again be united with them
  on service.

  (Signed)       "F. P. ROBINSON,
  "Major-General commanding second brigade
  "fifth division.

  "_To Major Faunce_,
  "_Fourth, or King's Own Regiment_."

Marching through Bayonne on the 15th of May, the regiment proceeded
to Bourdeaux, embarked on the 29th at Pauillac on the river
Garonne, under the command of Major Alured D. Faunce, and quitted
the coast of France in the early part of June. The expedition
consisted of the fourth and forty-fourth, about eight hundred
bayonets each; the eighty-fifth, about six hundred bayonets; with
a brigade of artillery and a detachment of sappers and miners:
the whole under the command of that very gallant and experienced
leader, Major-General Patrick Ross: the navy, consisting of one
seventy-four, two sixty-fours, five frigates, and two bomb-vessels,
was under the orders of Rear-Admiral Malcomb.

After twenty days' sailing, the fleet approached the Azores,
and the high land of St. Michael's appeared like a blue cloud
rising out of the water: as the shipping drew near, the troops
were delighted with the view of the numerous villages, seats,
and convents which ornamented the beach, and the lofty mountains
adorned with groves of orange trees and green pasturage rising
behind. After remaining a short time at this pleasant island to
take in provisions, the fleet again put to sea, and anchored on the
evening of the 24th of July opposite the tanks in the island of
Bermuda in the West Indies, where the expedition was joined by the
twenty-first fusiliers, mustering nine hundred bayonets.

The fleet remained at Bermuda, taking in stores, and establishing
a magazine for the future supply of the expedition, until the
3d of August, when it once more put to sea, and directing its
course towards North America, entered the bay of Chesapeake, where
reinforcements joined, and Rear-Admiral Cockburn took charge of the
navy. On the arrival of this squadron, a powerful American flotilla
fled for refuge up the Patuxent river, and was followed by the
British fleet. In order to insure the destruction of the enemy's
vessels, the troops were directed to land: on the 19th of August
the stream was suddenly covered with boats crowded with soldiers,
and by three o'clock in the afternoon the army was in position
about two miles above the village of St. Benedict, on the right
bank of the Patuxent. The troops were divided into three brigades;
the first, consisting of the eighty-fifth regiment, with the light
companies of the FOURTH, twenty-first, and forty-fourth, a company
of marines, and a party of disciplined negroes, was commanded
by Colonel Thornton; the second, consisting of the FOURTH and
forty-fourth regiments, was commanded by Colonel Brooke; and the
third, consisting of the twenty-first fusiliers, and a battalion
of marines, was commanded by Colonel Patterson; for want of horses
only one six-pounder, and two small three-pounders were brought on
shore.

The army remained in position near St. Benedict until four
o'clock on the afternoon of the following day, when the bugles
sounded, the regiments turned out in marching order, and proceeded
in the direction of Nottingham, a town on the banks of the
Patuxent, which was found deserted, while the appearance of the
furniture, and in some places the bread left in the ovens, showed
it had been abandoned in haste. On the 22d the army proceeded
to the delightful village of Upper Marlborough, situate in a
well-cultivated valley about two miles broad; and during the march
loud explosions were heard, which proved to be the enemy destroying
his flotilla to prevent its falling into the hands of British
seamen.

The object of the expedition had thus been accomplished; but, as
the army had advanced within sixteen miles of Washington, and
the enemy's force was ascertained to be such as would authorize
an attempt to carry the capital, the troops moved forward on
the 23d of August. They had scarcely proceeded three miles when
the advance-guard encountered a party of American riflemen, who
maintained a sharp contest before they gave way; and arriving
at a point where two roads meet, the one leading to Washington
and the other to Alexandria, twelve hundred Americans and some
artillery appeared on the slope of a height opposite. The army
turned along the road leading towards Alexandria, and the Americans
fled before the detachment sent against them. Having deceived the
enemy respecting the real design of the expedition, the route was
changed, and the troops proceeded in the direction of Washington.

About noon on the 24th a heavy cloud of dust was seen to arise
at a distance, and the British troops turning a sudden angle in
the road and passing a small cluster of trees, discovered above
eight thousand American infantry, with a numerous artillery and
three hundred dragoons, commanded by General Winder, occupying a
formidable position beyond the village of _Bladensburg_, where they
were awaiting the advance of their opponents.

The British, though not half so numerous as their adversaries,
advanced boldly to the attack; on entering the village the enemy's
artillery opened a tremendous fire, and as the light brigade
traversed the bridge across the eastern branch of the Potomac
river, from whence a strait road ran through the enemy's position
to the capital, numbers fell before a heavy fire of musketry and
artillery. The survivors having gained the opposite side of the
stream, carried a fortified house which commanded the bridge, then
dashed into the thickets on the right and left of the road, and
drove back the American riflemen, who fled with such precipitation
that they threw their first line into disorder, and it fell back
in confusion, leaving two guns on the road. The British light
infantry, throwing off their knapsacks, pushed forward in extended
order to attack the enemy's second line; but a heavy fire of
musketry and artillery checked the assailants, and the Americans
advancing in force to recover the lost ground, drove the first
brigade back to the thickets on the brink of the river, where an
obstinate fight was maintained. Meanwhile the second brigade passed
the river; the forty-fourth moving to the right, turned the enemy's
left flank; and the FOURTH, emulating their gallant companions,
advanced in firm array, preceded by a flight of rockets, to charge
the enemy's right, which was broken and driven from the field: many
of the American sailors who acted as gunners were bayoneted, and
eight guns were captured. The American infantry fled in dismay, and
diving into the recesses of the forests, were quickly beyond the
reach of their pursuers; and their cavalry turned their horses'
heads and galloped off: thus in one hour the battle was won, and
the third brigade, which had formed the reserve, pushed forward at
a rapid rate for _Washington_.

The three British regiments which had thus defeated about nine
thousand adversaries (three times their own number) halted a short
time on the field of battle to reform their ranks. The loss of the
KING'S OWN was Lieutenant Thomas Woodward, killed; Lieutenants
E. P. Hopkins, J. K. Mackenzie, John Staveley, Peter Bowlby, and
Frederick Field, with Ensigns J. A. Buchanan, and William Reddock,
wounded; also seventy-nine serjeants and rank and file killed and
wounded.

After a short halt, the KING'S OWN, with the remainder of the
first and second brigades, moved towards Washington, where the
third brigade had already arrived and had commenced destroying the
arsenal, docks, magazines, and other public property. The sun had
set, and as the two brigades approached the American capital, the
conflagration of buildings, ships, and stores illuminated the sky,
while the exploding of magazines shook the city, and threw down
houses in their vicinity, and the scene exhibited the awful reality
of the horrors of war, from which Great Britain has happily been
preserved by the enterprise and gallantry of her army and navy.

As it was not the intention of the British government to attempt
permanent conquests in this part of America, and as it was
impossible for this small body of troops to establish themselves
in the enemy's capital, the destruction of the public property,
which by the customs of war is the just spoil of the conqueror,
was completed; and the army marched back to St. Benedict, where it
re-embarked without molestation. The conduct of the KING'S OWN was
commended by Major-General Ross in his public despatches, and they
were rewarded with the honour of displaying the word BLADENSBURG on
their colours.

After remaining a few days in the Patuxent river, the fleet weighed
anchor; the coast was menaced at several points, and the shipping
approached so near the shore at Annapolis, that the inhabitants
were discovered flying from their houses, waggons loaded with
furniture were seen hurrying along the roads, alarm guns were
fired, beacons were blazing, and the people were apparently
oppressed with all the horrors of doubt and apprehension.
_Baltimore_ was, however, selected as the point of attack, and
towards the river upon which that town is built the fleet hastened
under a heavy press of sail. During the night of the 11th of
September the troops cooked three days' provision, and each man
received eighty rounds of ammunition; at three o'clock on the
following morning the boats were lowered; a landing was effected
at North Point, thirteen miles from Baltimore, and the army moving
forward, a division of Americans fled from an entrenched position
they were preparing across a neck of land towards which the troops
were advancing. About two miles beyond this post the country was
closely wooded, and the enemy's riflemen opening a sharp fire from
behind the trees, Major-General Ross rode forward to ascertain the
disposition and numbers of the opposing force, and mingling with
the skirmishers, he was mortally wounded. "Thus fell at an early
age one of the brightest ornaments of his profession; one who,
whether at the head of a regiment, a brigade, or a corps, had alike
displayed the talents of command; who was not less beloved in his
private, than enthusiastically admired in his public character;
and whose only fault, if it may be so deemed, was an excess of
gallantry, enterprise, and devotion to the service."

The command devolved on Colonel Brooke; and the army moving
forward, found itself in a few moments in front of a strong
position, near Nip Church in _Godly wood_, occupied by six
thousand adversaries, with six pieces of artillery and a corps of
cavalry. The light brigade immediately extended, and driving in
the American skirmishers, menaced the whole front of their army;
the forty-fourth, a party of seamen, and the marines of the fleet
formed line behind the light infantry; the twenty-first, and the
second battalion of marines formed column in reserve; and the
soldiers rested themselves on the ground, while the KING'S OWN,
led by Major Faunce, moved to the right along some hollow ways
and woodlands, and gained, unperceived, a thicket on the enemy's
left flank. Meanwhile the deep tones of the artillery echoed in
the woods; and the instant the FOURTH gained the thicket, the
charge was sounded and repeated by every bugle in the army; the
soldiers started from the ground, and moving forward with a firm
and resolute tread, in the face of a shower of grape and canister
shot, approached their adversaries, who raised a loud shout, and
afterwards opened a heavy fire of musketry. This was answered
with a British huzza,--a volley of small arms, and a rush forward
at double-quick time with the bayonet; and when the Americans
saw the ranks of gleaming steel draw near, they faced about and
fled in dismay into the thick woods, leaving two pieces of cannon
behind them. Fifteen minutes had sufficed to decide the fortune of
the day; several hundreds of killed and wounded adversaries lay
scattered over the field, a number of fugitives was intercepted and
made prisoners, and many of the American riflemen being discovered
in the trees, which they had climbed, to be enabled to take sure
aim and escape danger, the British soldiers called this _unfair_,
and shot them on their perches. The KING'S OWN had twenty-one men
killed and wounded in this action.

Halting on the field of battle, the bivouac fires were lighted,
and the victorious army reposed a short time under the canopy of
heaven. Two hours after midnight the soldiers were again under
arms; as the first glimmering of dawn appeared, they resumed their
march, and arrived in the evening at the foot of the range of hills
in front of Baltimore, where the grand American army of upwards
of fifteen thousand men appeared occupying a chain of pallisaded
redoubts connected by a breast-work, and defended by a numerous
train of artillery. Trusting to the innate valour and excellent
discipline of his little army, which did not amount to one-third of
the number of the opposing host, Colonel Brooke made arrangements
for storming the hills after dark; but having received intimation
from the commander of the naval forces that the entrance of the
harbour was closed up by vessels sunk for that purpose, and that
a naval co-operation against the town and camp was impracticable,
the enterprise was abandoned. The troops retreated three miles on
the 14th of September, and then halted to see if the Americans
would venture to descend from the hills; but though so superior
in numbers, they had no disposition to quit their entrenchments,
and the British forces retired leisurely to their shipping and
re-embarked.

The KING'S OWN were commended in the public despatches for their
excellent conduct and discipline; and their commanding officer.
Major Faunce, was included among the officers who distinguished
themselves.

The armament remained a short time on the American coast, and
information having been received of the formation of an American
camp a few miles from the Potomac river, the KING'S OWN, with the
remainder of the second and third brigades, landed on the night of
the 4th of October, and pushed forward to attack the enemy, who,
however, had notice of the movement and fled. The regiment returned
on the 5th, and the season having arrived when active operations
could no longer be continued in the Chesapeake, the fleet sailed
for the West Indies, and anchored in Port Royal harbour, Jamaica,
on the 31st of October, the troops remaining on board, while the
vessels took in a supply of provisions, &c.

While in the West Indies, reinforcements arrived; Major-General
John Keane joined and took the command of the expedition; and
Lieut.-Colonel Brooke of the KING'S OWN arrived from England, where
he had been absent on account of ill health.

The next enterprise undertaken was of a most difficult character,
namely, an attempt on _New Orleans_, a town of some note, standing
on the eastern bank of the great river Mississippi, one hundred
and ten miles from the gulph of Mexico, and so situated that the
approach of an hostile force was almost impossible. The fleet
having put to sea, anchored on the 10th of December off the coast
of Louisiana, opposite the Chandeleur Islands, where the troops
were removed into light vessels, and entering Lake Borgne on the
13th, five of the enemy's large cutters, mounting eleven guns
each, were captured by a flotilla of launches and ships' barges.
Having proceeded a short distance along the lake, all the vessels
ran aground; the soldiers were then conveyed twenty miles in open
boats, during a heavy rain, to a barren spot called Pine Island,
which consisted of a swamp with a piece of firm ground at one
end. Here the regiments remained without tents or huts, exposed
to heavy rains by day, and to frost by night, until the 22d of
December, when the KING'S OWN, eighty-fifth, and five companies of
the ninety-fifth, embarked in open boats, and proceeding up the
lake a distance of more than fifty miles, were so cramped up in
the boats, drenched with a heavy rain during the day, and exposed
to a sharp frost in the night, that the men were almost deprived
of the use of their limbs. On the following morning they landed,
unobserved by the enemy, on a desert spot on the verge of a large
morass about eight miles from New Orleans, and when the men had
regained the use of their benumbed limbs, they advanced along an
indistinct path on the bank of a ditch or canal, their movements
being concealed by the tall reeds of the morass. After passing
several streams by bridges constructed at the moment, the troops
entered a cultivated region where the fields were found covered
with the stubble of the sugar-cane, and groves of orange trees were
numerous. About noon the regiments entered a green field on the
banks of the Mississippi, where they halted to await the arrival of
the remainder of the army.

Late in the evening, while many of the men were cooking, and others
were asleep, a large vessel was seen stealing quietly up the river
until she arrived opposite the bivouac fires, and before it was
ascertained whether she was British or American a broadside of
grape-shot swept down many soldiers in the camp. Having no means
of attacking this formidable adversary, the soldiers took shelter
behind a bank: the night was dark, and the only light to be seen
was the flashes of the enemy's guns, as he continued to pour
showers of shot into the camp. At length a firing was heard from
the advance posts, and before the import of this was known a loud
shout, followed by a semicircular blaze of musketry, proved that
the piquets were surrounded by a very superior enemy. The KING'S
OWN were instantly ordered to form in column behind the camp, while
the eighty-fifth, and five companies of the ninety-fifth, flew to
the support of the piquets. The enemy had brought forward about
five thousand men, thinking to overwhelm this solitary brigade in
the dark; but the British, regardless of the superior numbers of
their antagonists, rushed upon the opposing legions and fought,
bayonet to bayonet, and sword to sword, with a degree of energy and
resolution impossible to describe. Some of the soldiers having lost
their bayonets in the strife, laid about them with the butt-ends
of their firelocks; numerous feats of individual gallantry were
performed, and the Americans eventually gave way before this
furious and desperate charge, and fled with the loss of many men
killed, wounded, and prisoners. The KING'S OWN had Captain Francis
Johnston and Lieutenant John Sutherland killed; also Lieutenant
Thomas Moody severely wounded; and a number of private men killed
and wounded.

Notwithstanding this victory, the troops were unable to return
to their camp, as it was completely commanded by the fire of the
American schooner, and no provision could be procured. Meanwhile
the other brigades arrived from Pine Island, and the whole were in
position before dark on the 24th of December. Major-General the
Hon. Sir Edward Pakenham also joined to take the command, and he
was accompanied by Major-General Gibbs.

[Sidenote: 1815]

During the night a battery was constructed, and opening a fire of
red-hot shot, it destroyed the American schooner; but when the
troops proceeded towards the town, they encountered so many local
difficulties, were opposed by such immense bodies of Americans,
with extensive fortified lines and batteries, and armed vessels
on the river, that the advance was checked and considerable loss
sustained. Attempts were made to overcome these difficulties; the
canal from Bayo de Catiline was cleared out, widened, and opened to
the river, to admit the boats from the lake; and while the soldiers
were labouring at this work Major-General Lambert joined with two
additional regiments. Arrangements were made for attacking the
enemy's fortified lines at day-break on the morning of the 8th
of January, 1815. The boats were to be brought along the canal
in the night, part of the army was to embark, and proceeding up
the river with muffled oars, to gain the flank and rear of the
works unperceived; and simultaneous attacks were to be made on
different parts of the enemy's fortified position. This plan was,
however, partly disconcerted by the tardy arrival of the boats;
and at the moment of attack the scaling ladders and fascines had
to be sent for. Day-light arriving, the troops were visible to
the enemy, who opened a tremendous fire, with dreadful execution.
Under these disadvantages, the British rushed forward to storm the
position in front. A detachment of the KING'S OWN, twenty-first,
and ninety-fifth, captured a three-gun battery, and advanced to
attack a body of Americans who were forming for its recovery; but
having to pass a deep ditch by a single plank, they were repulsed;
and the enemy forcing his way into the battery, re-captured it with
immense slaughter. Meanwhile the remainder of the KING'S OWN were
exposed to a dreadful fire, and the regiment was nearly annihilated
by the tempest of bullets by which it was assailed. Major-General
Pakenham having galloped to the front to encourage the men, was
shot on the top of the glacis. Major-Generals Gibbs and Keane were
borne from the field dangerously wounded; and success being found
impracticable, the troops withdrew from the unequal contest. The
KING'S OWN had upwards of four hundred men killed and wounded in
this desperate service: also, Lieutenant Edward Field, and Ensign
William Crowe, killed; and Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Brooke,
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonels Alured D. Faunce, and Timothy Jones,
Brevet Major John Williamson, Captains John Wynne Fletcher, Robert
Erskine, and David S. Craig, Lieutenants J. P. Hopkins, Jeffrey
Salvin, W. H. Brooke, Benjamin Martin, George Richardson, Peter
Bowlby, George H. Hearne, William Squires, C. H. Farrington, James
Marshall, Henry Andrews, and Adjutant William Richardson, with
Ensigns Arthur Gerard, Thomas Benwell, J. L. Fernandez, and Edward
Newton, wounded.

The capture of New Orleans appearing impracticable, a temporary
road was constructed through the morass, and the regiments having
reached the lake by a night march, embarked in boats and returned
to the fleet.

An attack on Mobile was afterwards resolved on, and the KING'S
OWN were engaged in the siege of _Fort Bowyer_, which commanded
the entrance to the harbour; this place surrendered on the 12th
of February, and the second American regiment of the line having
marched out with the honours of war, delivered its arms and colours
to the KING'S OWN.

Further hostilities against the Americans were, however, prevented
by a treaty of peace, and the FOURTH being ordered to return to
England, arrived on the 16th of May at Portsmouth, from whence they
sailed to the Downs; and having landed on the 18th, were stationed
in Deal barracks.

On the extension of the Order of the Bath, in the beginning of this
year, Lieut.-Colonel FRANCIS BROOKE and Brevet Lieut.-Colonels
JOHN PIPER and ALURED DODSWORTH FAUNCE, of the KING'S OWN, were
nominated Companions of that Order.

On the arrival in England of the surviving officers and men of
the KING'S OWN from these difficult enterprises in America, they
found Europe involved in another war. Bonaparte had violated the
treaty of 1814; he had quitted Elba; had invaded France with a few
guards; had been received with acclamations by the French army; and
while Louis XVIII. fled to Flanders, Napoleon had re-ascended the
throne of France. The nations of Europe declared war against the
usurper; and the KING'S OWN were immediately ordered to proceed to
Flanders to engage in the approaching contest. The effective men of
the second battalion were added to the first battalion, which again
embarked for foreign service on the 10th of June, and having landed
at Ostend on the 12th, proceeded up the country. Bonaparte attacked
the advanced-posts of the army commanded by Field-Marshal His Grace
the Duke of Wellington in the middle of June; and the KING'S OWN,
by forced marches, arrived at the position in front of the village
of _Waterloo_ on the morning of the 18th of June, about an hour
before the battle commenced.

The regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Brooke, and being
formed in brigade with the twenty-seventh and fortieth regiments,
under the orders of Major-General Lambert, took part in the
gigantic contest which followed. On this occasion the stern valour
and undaunted character of the British troops were pre-eminently
displayed; whether assailed by the thunder of artillery, volleys
of musketry, the bayonets of infantry, or the furious charges of
the French cavalry, the British regiments stood firm, and repulsed
with sanguinary perseverance the legions of Bonaparte, and drove
them back in confusion. After resisting the attacks of the superior
numbers of the enemy for many hours, the Prussians arrived to
co-operate; when the allied army assumed the offensive, and by a
general charge of the whole line, overthrew the French host, and
drove it from the field with dreadful slaughter, and the loss of
its artillery, ammunition waggons, &c.

The KING'S OWN had one hundred and thirty-four men killed and
wounded in this hard-contested and glorious battle; also the
following officers wounded,--Brevet Major G. D. Willson, Captain
James Charles Edgell, Lieutenants John Brown, B. M. Collins, Hygat
Boyd, George Richardson, William Squire, Arthur Gerard, Adjutant
William Richardson, and Ensign W. M. Matthews.

The honour of bearing the word WATERLOO on the colours was
conferred on the regiment; every officer and man present received
a silver medal; and Major Willson, being second in command, was
promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel, and nominated a companion
of the Order of the Bath.

The FOURTH advanced with the army in pursuit of the enemy, and
were present at the surrender of _Paris_ on the 7th of July. They
were afterwards encamped at Neuilly; on the 27th of October they
went into quarters at St. Germain-en-Laye; and being selected to
form part of the British contingent of the army of occupation
appointed to remain in France, they were formed in brigade with the
fifty-second and seventy-ninth regiments, under Major-General Sir
Denis Pack. On this occasion the Duke of Wellington observed in
general orders:--

"Upon breaking up the army which the field marshal has had the
honour of commanding, he begs leave again to return thanks to the
general officers, and the officers and troops, for their uniform
good conduct. In the late short but memorable campaign they have
given proofs to the world that they possess in an eminent degree
all the good qualities of soldiers; and the field marshal is happy
to be able to applaud their regular good conduct in their camps
and cantonments, not less than when engaged with the enemy in the
field. Whatever may be the future destination of those brave troops
of which the field marshal now takes his leave, he trusts that
every individual will believe that he will ever feel the deepest
interest in their honour and welfare, and will be happy to promote
either."

Major-General Lambert, also, in taking leave of the FOURTH,
expressed his approbation of their conduct, particularly at
the "ever memorable battle of WATERLOO, which afforded him an
opportunity of personally observing that the high character the
KING'S OWN always bore in the field has been most justly merited."

In consequence of a reduction in the army, the second battalion
transferred its private men to the first, and was disbanded at Deal
on the 25th of December, 1815.

[Sidenote: 1816]

In January, 1816, the regiment was quartered at Franquemberg and
adjacent villages in the Pas de Calais, where it was presented with
a new pair of colours. In August it encamped near St. Omer, and was
reviewed on the 7th of September by the Duke of Wellington, who
expressed his approbation of its appearance and discipline.

On the 15th of October, the FOURTH quitted the vicinity of St.
Omer, and encamping near Mastaing, was reviewed on the 22d with the
remainder of the British, Danish, and Saxon forces, on the plain
of St. Denain, by their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Kent and
Cambridge; the regiment afterwards returned to Franquemberg, &c.;
and its establishment was reduced to forty officers, forty-five
serjeants, twenty-two drummers, and eight hundred rank and file.

[Sidenote: 1817]

The regiment again pitched its tents in July, 1817, near St.
Omer, where it was reviewed on the 5th of August by Lieut.-General
Lord Hill; on the 3d of September it encamped on the glacis of
Valenciennes, and on the 6th it was reviewed with the remainder
of the army commanded by the Duke of Wellington, by the King of
Prussia.

Having been again reviewed by Lord Hill on the 20th of September,
and having received the expressions of his lordship's approbation,
the regiment went into barracks at Valenciennes; but it was again
encamped in October, near St. Denain, and reviewed, with the
remainder of the British, Saxon, Danish, and Hanoverian troops in
France, by his grace the Duke of Wellington, on which occasion all
the evolutions of an engagement were performed in presence of a
number of distinguished personages. The KING'S OWN subsequently
returned to their former winter quarters at Franquemberg, &c.

[Sidenote: 1818]

On the 4th of June, 1818 the FOURTH were again encamped near St.
Omer, and received the thanks of Lord Hill for their appearance
and correct discipline at the review on the 24th of June; also the
expression of the Duke of Wellington's approbation at the review on
the 31st of July: they were subsequently encamped on the horn-work
of Valenciennes; they formed a guard for the Duke of Kent during
his residence at that city, and were reviewed on the 10th of
September, with the remainder of the army commanded by his grace
the Duke of Wellington, in presence of their Royal Highnesses the
Duke and Duchess of Kent; when a number of evolutions were gone
through, and during the manœuvres the army crossed the Scheldt by
pontoon bridges.

The KING'S OWN having returned to Valenciennes on the 21st of
October, furnished guards of honour for the Emperor of Russia,
King of Prussia, Prince of Orange, and Grand Dukes Constantine
and Michael, who reviewed the Russian, British, Danish, Saxon, and
Hanoverian contingents of the army of occupation, on the 23d of
October. This force amounted to between fifty and sixty thousand
men; the evolutions of a mock engagement were gone through, and two
rivers were passed by pontoon bridges.

The Emperor of Russia was so well pleased with the conduct of the
KING'S OWN, that on quitting Valenciennes he presented one hundred
and nineteen Napoleons (pieces of twenty francs each) to be divided
among the men of the grenadier company composing his guard; also
ten Napoleons each to the two serjeants who were his orderlies;
and directed the aide-de-camp to give them his feather to keep in
remembrance of the Emperor's regard for the corps. The King of
Prussia also gave money to the men of the light company of the
KING'S OWN forming his guard.

On the breaking up of the army of occupation in France, the
KING'S OWN received, with the other corps, the expressions of the
approbation of the Duke of Wellington, in general orders; also of
Lieut.-General Lord Hill in general orders to the two divisions
under his command; of Lieut.-General Sir Charles Colville in
division orders; and of Major-General Sir Denis Pack in brigade
orders.

The regiment embarked at Calais on the 29th of October, landed
at Dover on the following morning, and proceeding from thence to
Winchester barracks, was immediately afterwards ordered to hold
itself in readiness to embark for the West Indies; at the same
time the establishment was reduced to seven hundred and forty-six
officers and men.

[Sidenote: 1819]

In the early part of January, 1819, the regiment marched to
Cumberland fort; on the 1st of February it embarked at Portsmouth,
and having landed at Barbadoes on the 5th of April, was reviewed
by Lieut.-General Lord Combermere on the same day, and afterwards
returned on board the transports. His lordship expressed in general
orders his approbation of the appearance and discipline of the
regiment.

On the following day six companies sailed for Grenada
(head-quarters) under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Piper; two
companies to Trinidad under Lieut.-Colonel Faunce; and two to
Tobago under Captain Fletcher.

At the half-yearly inspection in July, Major-General Sir Frederick
Robinson expressed in brigade orders "the very high satisfaction
he had enjoyed in the military appearance and the report of the
good conduct of the KING'S OWN regiment, which he perceives has not
lost any of its former character,--hitherto a subject for praise
and admiration with officers of the highest rank and military
reputation."

[Sidenote: 1820]

The two companies at Tobago suffered very severely from fever, and
having lost four officers and eighty-four serjeants and rank and
file, the remaining one officer, four serjeants, two drummers, and
thirty-five rank and file were relieved in September 1820 by the
twenty-first regiment, and sent to Barbadoes, from whence they were
removed to Grenada.

[Sidenote: 1821]

A general change of quarters took place among the troops stationed
in the Windward and Leeward Islands in March 1821, when the KING'S
OWN proceeded to Barbadoes. On leaving Grenada Major-General Riall
expressed in brigade orders his approbation of the conduct of the
KING'S OWN, and the satisfaction he experienced at hearing from the
magistrates and principal inhabitants of the island their esteem
for the corps, and their regret at its departure.

The loss from disease during the short period the regiment had been
in the West Indies was great. Quarter-Master Thomas Richards and
fifty-four men had died at Grenada; Lieutenant William Blagrave,
Ensign Robert Gamble, and seven men at Trinidad, which had proved
a comparatively healthy station, the two companies having occupied
the barracks at St. Joseph's and the hospital had frequently been
without a patient; at Tobago, Lieutenants John Westby, Frederick
P. Robinson, and Isaac Beer, with Ensign Frederick Clarke, and
eighty-four men, had fallen victims to the climate; Captain Charles
James Edgell died on the passage, near Barbadoes: the total loss
of life in one year and eleven months was eight officers and one
hundred and forty-five soldiers.

The regiment was, however, still in an efficient state, and having
been inspected by Lieut.-General Sir Henry Warde on the 27th of
August, an order was issued on the same day, expressing "the great
satisfaction felt by the lieut.-general at the appearance of that
old and respectable corps under arms, as well as the steadiness of
the regiment, the correct advance in line, and the close firing,
which evince that great attention has been paid to its discipline,
and is highly creditable to Lieut.-Colonel Piper and to the
officers generally."

In October the establishment was reduced to eight companies, making
a total of thirty-three officers and six hundred and seventeen men.

[Sidenote: 1822]

[Sidenote: 1823]

Lieut.-Colonel Piper died at Barbadoes soon afterwards, and was
succeeded in January, 1822, by Brevet Lieut.-Colonel A. D. Faunce.
In the following year this officer obtained permission to return
to England for the benefit of his health, on which occasion
Lieut.-General Sir Henry Warde observed in general orders--"He
was aware that no encomium of his could add lustre to the already
well-established and high military character of Lieut.-Colonel
Faunce, yet the particularly exemplary state of discipline, in
every respect, which the FOURTH or KING'S OWN regiment has attained
since he assumed the command, calls loudly on the lieut.-general,
as an imperious duty to the service, to express his warmest praise
and thanks to Lieut.-Colonel Faunce, for the truly able and
unremitted attention which he has daily and hourly paid to his
regiment, the effect of which confers on him the highest credit
and honour as its commander, and at the same time reflects them
strongly on every individual, both officer and private, composing
the corps under his command."

In December the regiment was withdrawn from Barbadoes, and
proceeded,--four companies and head-quarters to the Ridge at
Antigua, three to Brimstone-hill, St. Kitt's, and one to Montserrat
and Nevis. Previous to its embarkation Lieut.-General Sir Henry
Warde expressed in general orders his "high approbation of the
conduct of the corps." During the two years and nine months it
was stationed at Barbadoes, it was in a healthy state, excepting
towards the end of 1821, when a fever carried off Lieut.-Colonel
John Piper, Ensigns H. N. Shipton, and H. J. Loraine, with
Quarter-Master Doran, and Assistant-Surgeon Morrow; its total loss
in serjeants and rank and file was fifty-eight.

[Sidenote: 1824]

The detachment at Nevis suffered from the unhealthy situation
of the barracks, and lost seventeen men out of thirty; it was
subsequently withdrawn. In October, 1824, the regiment lost Brevet
Major John Wynne Fletcher.[34]

[Sidenote: 1825]

In April, 1825, the regiment was augmented to ten companies, and
the total establishment to eight hundred and thirty-six officers
and men.

[Sidenote: 1826]

The regiment was relieved from duty at Antigua, St. Kitt's, and
Montserrat, in February, 1826, by the ninety-third, and sailed for
England. The first division landed at Gosport on the 16th of March,
the second on the 1st of April, and the last on the 6th of April.

During the seven years the regiment was in the West Indies its
total loss was sixteen officers, twenty-one serjeants, one drummer,
and two hundred and forty-five rank and file. It brought home four
hundred and twenty rank and file, (without leaving a sick man
behind;) and on the 25th of April sent out thirteen recruiting
parties, twelve to different parts of England, and one to Ireland.

On the 8th of August the Adjutant-General of the Forces,
Major-General Sir Henry Torrens, inspected the regiment, and
expressed his approbation of its appearance and discipline,
adding that he should make a most favourable report to His Royal
Highness the Duke of York. In the autumn it quitted Winchester,
and proceeding to Portsmouth, was employed in the duty of that
garrison. At the half-yearly inspection, Major-General Sir James
Lyon expressed his perfect approbation of its appearance and
discipline.

The regiment was soon afterwards called upon to transfer its
services to the Peninsula, the scene of many of its toils and
triumphs. After Spain and Portugal had been delivered by British
skill and valour from the power of Bonaparte, these kingdoms
became convulsed by opposing interests, one party striving for the
liberties possessed by other nations, and another for a return to
ancient usages; and the granting of a constitution to Portugal,
which conferred on the people privileges previously unknown in that
country, was followed by internal commotions; at the same time the
kingdom was menaced with an invasion from Spain. The Portuguese
government applied for the aid of a body of British troops; six
companies of the KING'S OWN formed part of a force of five thousand
men, commanded by Lieut.-Gen. Sir William H. Clinton, ordered
for this service, and embarking from Portsmouth on the 15th of
December, arrived at Lisbon towards the end of that month.

[Sidenote: 1827]

Having landed on the 1st of January, 1827, the KING'S OWN occupied
the barracks of Valle de Pereiro, and were formed in brigade with
the tenth, twenty-third, and first battalion of the sixtieth
rifles, under the command of Major-General Sir Edward Blakeney. The
brigade having been inspected by Sir William Clinton on the 14th
of January, advanced up the country nine stages to Coimbra, and
was quartered in convents, the KING'S OWN occupying the convent of
St. Bernard. On the advance of the British, the Spaniards withdrew
from the frontiers, and declared a friendly disposition towards
the Portuguese government; a mutiny in the Portuguese army was also
suppressed; and there being no further occasion for the British
troops, they marched back to Lisbon, where the KING'S OWN arrived
on the 12th of July, and occupied the barracks of La Lippe at
Belem. Three companies of the regiment were subsequently stationed
at Oeiras, a small town on the right bank of the Tagus, two leagues
from Lisbon, and the other three at Feitovia barracks, near Fort
St. Julian.

[Sidenote: 1828]

In these quarters the KING'S OWN remained until the spring of
1828, when the British troops were withdrawn from Portugal; the
six companies having received the expressions of the approbation
of Major-General Sir Edward Blakeney in brigade orders, for their
exemplary conduct, embarked from Belem stairs on the 31st of March,
and on their arrival at Portsmouth, they were ordered to proceed to
Scotland: they landed at Leith on the 26th and 29th of April, and
proceeded to Edinburgh Castle, where the remainder of the regiment
had previously arrived.

The regiment marched in July to Glasgow, where it received a
new pair of splendid regimental colours, which cost £150, with
belts which cost £21, and a richly-mounted staff, &c., for the
drum-major; which were presented by the colonel, General the Earl
of Chatham.

[Sidenote: 1829]

From Glasgow, the regiment embarked, in July, 1829, in
steam-vessels for Ireland, and after landing at Belfast in the
early part of August, marched to Newry, with detached companies at
Cavan and Clones.

[Sidenote: 1830]

In June, 1830, the regiment marched to Dublin, and occupied
Richmond-barracks; in September it embarked from Dublin, and
having landed at Liverpool, the two flank companies remained
there a short time to attend on the occasion of the opening of
the railroad from that town to Manchester, while the battalion
companies proceeded to Stockport, Bolton, and Oldham; the flank
companies arrived at Stockport on the 18th of September.

[Sidenote: 1831]

In January, 1831, the head-quarters were at Ashton-under-Lyne; in
March at Northampton; and in April at Chatham.

Part of the regiment embarked in this year for New South Wales, in
detachments, as guards to convict-ships.

[Sidenote: 1832]

The head-quarters, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel M'Kenzie,
embarked for the same destination at Deptford, on board the Clyde,
on the 14th of April, 1832, and arrived on the 30th of August.

[Sidenote: 1833]

[Sidenote: 1834]

The regiment remained at New South Wales five years; its
head-quarters being established at Paramatta until June, 1833, when
they were removed to Sydney; but returned to Paramatta in June,
1834; where they remained upwards of twenty months.

[Sidenote: 1835]

On the decease of General the Earl of Chatham the colonelcy of
the KING'S OWN was conferred on Lieut.-General John Hodgson, by
commission dated the 30th of September, 1835.

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 1837]

In March, 1836, the head-quarters were again removed to Sydney; and
in August of the following year two divisions embarked for the East
Indies. One division landed at Madras on the 30th of September,
1837; the head-quarters arrived on the 7th of October, and were
stationed at Fort St. George.

[Sidenote: 1838]

The third and last division embarked from New South Wales on the
26th of December, 1837, and arrived at Madras on the 9th of April,
1838.

[Sidenote: 1839]

Thus, after serving a period of nearly one hundred and sixty years,
in every quarter of the globe, this celebrated corps, which has so
often triumphed over foreign enemies in fields of conflict, has
been appointed to guard the colonial possessions of its country in
the distant clime of India, where it has remained to the beginning
of 1839, which brings this record to a conclusion.

1839

[Illustration: Fourth (or King's Own) Regiment of Foot.
                                               [To face page 141.
]


FOOTNOTES:

[6] Piercy Kirke held the commission of captain-lieutenant of the
Earl of Oxford's troop in the royal regiment of horse guards, at
the time he was appointed lieut.-colonel of this regiment, and for
several months afterwards.

[7] The _first Tangier regiment_ was raised in 1661, and is now the
second, or queen's royal regiment of foot.

[8] The expense of equipping the regiment was estimated at the
following rates.

           CLOTHING.                           APPOINTMENTS.
                          £. _s.  d._ |                        £. _s.  d._
  Coat and breeches       1   16   0  | Waist belts            0    4   6
  Serjeant's ditto        4   10   0  | Swords                 0    4   6
  Hats                    0    7   0  | Pikemen's Swords       0    5   0
  Serjeant's ditto        0   15   0  | Grenadier hangers      0    6   6
  Grenadier caps          0    9   6  | Serjeant's Swords      0   10   0
  Neckcloths              0    1   0  | Collars or Bandaliers  0    5   6
  Serjeant's ditto        0    2   0  | Cartouch boxes         0    2   6
  Shirts                  0    3   6  | Match boxes            0    1   0
  Serjeant's shirt        0    6   0  | Grenade bags           0    6   0
  Shoes, per pair         0    4   6  | Knapsacks              0    1   6
  Stockings, per pair     0    2   0  |
  Serjeant's ditto        0    6   0  |
  Sashes for the Pikemen  0    2   6  |

[9] The usual charge for regimental colours, was from £6 to £10
each.

[10]

  JAMES R.

  For £206 5_s._ 6_d._ to
  Thomas Holford for
  Ten Colours for The
  Queen's Regiment of
  Foot.

"Our will and pleasure is, That out of such moneys as shall come
into your hands for the pay and contingent uses of Our guards and
garrisons, you pay to Thomas Holford the sum of Two Hundred and
Six Pounds Five Shillings and Six Pence, for Ten Colours made and
provided by him for Our dearest Consort, The Queen's Regiment of
Foot, and for so doing this, together with the acquittance of the
said Thomas Holford, shall be your warrant and discharge.

"Given at Our Court at Windsor this 21st day of August 1686.

  "By His Majesty's command,

  "To Our Trusty and well-beloved          }
  Cousin and Councillor Richard            }
  Earl of Ranelagh, Our Paymaster-General, }    "W. BLATHWAYT."
  &c. &c. &c.                              }

[11]

  Third troop of life guards; disbanded in 1746.
  Queen's horse; now first dragoon guards.
  M. G. Warden's horse; disbanded in 1690.
  Queen's dragoons; now third light dragoons.
  Royals; now first foot.
  Queen Dowager's; now second foot.
  Queen Consort's; now fourth foot.

[12] The following corps were sent to England on this occasion:--

  First troop of life guards; now first regiment of life guards.
  Count De Schomberg's horse; now seventh dragoon guards.
  Royal Dragoons; now first, or royal dragoons.
  The Queen's regiment of foot; now fourth, or King's Own.
  Hastings'; now thirteenth foot.

[13] The Earl of Marlborough's force consisted of the following
corps:--

  The Queen's regiment; now fourth, or King's Own.
  Royal fusiliers; now seventh foot.
  Princess Anne's; now eighth foot.
  Hastings'; now thirteenth foot.
  Hales's, afterwards disbanded.
  Sir David Collier's, ditto.
  Fitz-patrick's, ditto.
  100 men of the Duke of Bolton's, ditto.
  200 of the Earl of Monmouth's, ditto.
  Lord Torrington's marine regiment, ditto.
  Lord Pembroke's, ditto.

[14] On the accession of Queen Anne, the eighth foot, which had
been designated the Princess Anne's regiment from the time of its
formation in 1685, obtained the title of the _Queen's regiment_,
the Fourth also continued to be distinguished by the same title;
and during this reign _two_ regiments were designated _Queen's
regiments_.

[15] Vide the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or Buffs.

[16] The embarkation return of the regiment is preserved among the
Harleian MSS. No. 7025.

[17] The six regiments of marines were:--

  Colonel Thomas Saunderson's; now thirtieth foot.
  Colonel George Villiers'; now thirty-first foot.
  Colonel Edward Fox's; now thirty-second foot.
  Colonel Harry Mordaunt's; disbanded.
  Colonel Henry Holt's; disbanded.
  Colonel Viscount Shannon's; disbanded.

The six regiments of foot for sea service were:--

  Colonel Ventris Columbine's; now sixth foot.
  Colonel Thomas Earl's; now nineteenth foot.
  Colonel Gustavus Hamilton's; now twentieth foot.
  Colonel Lord Lucas's; now thirty-fourth foot.
  Colonel Earl of Donegal's; now thirty-fifth foot.
  Colonel Lord Charlemont's; now thirty-sixth foot.

[18] The grenadiers, on their institution in 1678, wore fur caps
with high crowns; these were soon afterwards replaced by leather
caps covered with cloth and ornamented with regimental devices,
which were continued until the adoption of bear skin caps in the
reign of George III.

[19] Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne.

[20] In some accounts this officer's name is stated to be Fish, in
others Fisher.

[21] The following regiments were employed on this expedition,
viz.:--

  Kirke's     regiment, now second foot.
  The Queen's    "       "  fourth foot.
  Hill's         "       "  eleventh foot.
  Desney's       "       "  thirty-sixth foot.
  Windress's     "       "  thirty-seventh  foot.
  Clayton's      "      disbanded in 1712.
  Kane's         "          "        1713.
  Churchill's Marines       "
  Walton's } North American militia, joined the expedition
  Vetch's  } at Boston.

[22] "The behaviour of the officers in general was very brave,
nor are some regiments unworthy of great praise; viz., Barrell's
(KING'S OWN), Price's, and some others."--_General Advertizer._

"The regiments which distinguished themselves were Barrell's
(KING'S OWN) and Ligonier's foot."--_Ibid._

[23] "General Barrell's regiment (the KING'S OWN) gained the
greatest reputation imaginable at the late engagement, the best of
the clans having made their strongest efforts to break them, but
without effect; for the old Tangiereenes bravely repulsed those
boasters with a dreadful slaughter, and convinced them that their
broad sword and target are unequal to the musket and bayonet when
in the hands of veterans who are determined to use them. After the
battle there was not a bayonet of this regiment but was either
bloody or bent."

"The battle was so desperate that the soldiers' bayonets were
stained with blood to the muzzles of their musquets."

"There was scarce an officer or soldier of Barrell's (KING'S OWN)
and that part of Munro's (now thirty-seventh) which engaged,
who did not kill one or two men each with their bayonets,"
&c.--_Particulars of the Battle of Culloden published at the time._

[24] The exact time when the regiment obtained the LION OF ENGLAND
for its badge has not been ascertained. A tradition has long
existed in the corps that it was conferred by King William III., in
consequence of its being the first corps which joined him after he
landed at Torbay, in November, 1688; but on searching the details
of the events which occurred at that period, it appears that this
was _not_ the _first_ regiment which joined his Majesty; that only
the colonel, lieut.-colonel, a few other officers, and about thirty
soldiers, joined King William; and that the regiment adhered to
King James until he vacated the throne. It is probable, however,
that this distinguished badge was conferred by King William III.
for the attachment which the regiment evinced to his person and
government and to the protestant cause.

[25] Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs.

[26] Return of regiments in garrison at Minorca, 1756--

  Key:
  A = Officers
  B = Serjeants
  C = Corporals
  D = Drummers
  E = Privates
  F = Killed
  G = Wounded
  H = Died

  +----------------+-------------------------+------------------------+
  |                |                         |         Loss.          |
  |   Corps.       |      Strength at the    +------------------------+
  |                |      commencement of    |   During     | At the  |
  |                |         the siege.      |  the siege.  | general |
  |                |                         |              | assault.|
  |                +----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |                |  A |  B |  C |  D |   E |  F |  G |  H |  F |  G |
  +----------------+----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |Fourth, or      |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |  King's Own    | 25 | 28 | 27 | 18 | 616 | 14 | 68 |  8 |  7 |  7 |
  |                |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |Twenty-third,   |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |  or Royal Welsh|    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |  Fusiliers     | 24 | 24 | 26 | 17 | 615 | 19 | 83 |  7 |  9 |  7 |
  |                |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |Twenty-fourth   |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |  Regiment      | 25 | 23 | 27 | 16 | 623 |  6 | 61 |  6 | .. |  7 |
  |                |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |Thirty-fourth   |    |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |    |    |
  |  Regiment      | 26 | 29 | 29 | 19 | 650 | 12 | 77 |  9 |  1 |  3 |
  |                +----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+----+
  |   Total        |100 |104 |109 | 70 |2504 | 51 |289 | 30 | 17 | 24 |
  +----------------+----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+----+----+

      OFFICERS KILLED.
  Fourth, or King's Own, --Lieut. Whitehead.
  Thirty-fourth regiment,--Captain Hobby.
       "           "       Lieut. Armstrong.

      OFFICERS WOUNDED.
  Twenty-third regiment, --Lieut. Young.
  Twenty-fourth regiment,--Major Godfrey.
       "           "       Lieut. Francis.
  Thirty-fourth regiment,--Capt. Sir Hugh Williams.
  Engineer,--Major Cunningham.

[27] "Major-General Grant crossed the ford with the Fourth and
fifth regiments, and the FOURTH REGIMENT, passing the ford first,
drove the enemy from an entrenchment and battery, and took from
them three brass field-pieces and a 5½ inch howitzer."--_London
Gazette._

[28] London Gazette.

[29] The effectives of the British army in 1803 were as follows:--

  +---------------------------+---------+---------+----------+---------+
  |                           |   In    |         |    On    |         |
  |                           |  Great  |    In   |  Foreign |  Total. |
  |                           | Britain.| Ireland.| Stations.|         |
  |                           +---------+---------+----------+---------+
  |Cavalry                    |  10,436 |  3,466  |    2,263 |  16,165 |
  |Artillery and engineers    |   9,000 |  2,000  |    3,000 |  14,000 |
  |Foot guards                |   6,916 |    ..   |      ..  |   6,916 |
  |Infantry of the line       |  44,981 |  21,790 |   42,951 | 109,722 |
  |Militia                    |  66,189 |  18,508 |      ..  |  84,697 |
  |                           |---------+---------+----------+---------+
  |                           | 137,522 |  45,764 |   48,214 | 231,500 |
  |                           +=========+=========+==========+=========+
  |Yeomanry and volunteers:-- |         |         |          |         |
  |  Cavalry                  |  29,000 |  10,000 |      ..  |  39,000 |
  |  Artillery                |   7,000 |    ..   |      ..  |   7,000 |
  |  Infantry                 | 290,000 |  65,000 |      ..  | 355,000 |
  |                           +---------+---------+----------+---------+
  |     General Total         | 463,522 | 120,764 |   48,214 | 632,500 |
  |                           |         |         |          |         |
  +---------------------------+---------+---------+----------+---------+

The above numbers of "Fighting men" are exclusive of the Royal Navy
and Marines.

[30]

  _A "Horse Guards, 5th September, 1804._

"MY DEAR LORD,

"I have been so extremely occupied since my return from my tour
through the southern district that I have never been able, till
this day, to write to you, and to express to you, in the warmest
manner possible, the thorough satisfaction I experienced at the
appearance and state of discipline of the KING'S OWN regiment,
which does the highest credit to the commanding officer, and every
individual in it. I beg your lordship to convey these sentiments
from me to the regiment, and at the same time to be assured
that I shall, in consequence, recommend to his Majesty to allow
a greater promotion to take place in the KING'S OWN upon the
present occasion, than has been allowed to other regiments, the
fifty-second excepted. I shall therefore be happy to receive any
recommendations that your lordship may think proper to make."

  (Signed)      "FREDERICK."


  "_To Lieut.-General the Earl of Chatham._

"Lieut.-General the Earl of Chatham has the greatest pleasure
in communicating to the KING'S OWN regiment the distinguished
approbation which his Royal Highness the commander-in-chief has
been pleased to convey to him of their soldierlike appearance and
high state of discipline when his Royal Highness lately saw them
at Shorncliffe camp. Lord Chatham desires to offer his particular
thanks to Lieut.-Colonel Brinley, as well as to the officers,
non-commissioned officers, and privates, for their conduct and
unremitted exertions, so well attested by the superior appearance
of the regiment, and he trusts that a perseverance in the same
exemplary conduct, will ensure to them a continuance of his Royal
Highness's favourable opinion.

"Lord Chatham assures the regiment that it is with the warmest
satisfaction he has seen a corps, whose zeal and whose bravery it
has been his good fortune to witness in the field, attain that
degree of discipline, correctness, and precision, which when
combined must ever render British soldiers invincible."

[31] After dinner Colonel Brinley was addressed by Major Dales as
follows:--

"The KING'S OWN have directed me to inform you that, while they
rejoice at your promotion, they feel much distressed at parting
with an officer whose whole time has been so zealously and
successfully employed for the general welfare of the corps. It is
their intention to beg your acceptance of a small mark of their
universal esteem, and it naturally suggested itself to them that
a SWORD was the most appropriate token; and, while it will keep
alive your attachment to them, opportunities will probably occur
when it will be drawn in defence of the best of Kings and best of
governments."

To which the colonel replied:--"I beg leave to express in the
warmest terms, how much I feel the marked attention showed me by
this very elegant entertainment. I return you a thousand thanks for
the testimony of your attachment, esteem, and regard, manifested
by the proposed present of a superb sword, which I shall wear
with pride, and I hope with honour to the end of my life. To your
assistance alone, during the three years I have had the honour to
command you, am I indebted for enabling me to bring the KING'S OWN
regiment to its present state of perfection; and I attribute the
recent mark of favour which his Majesty has been graciously pleased
to confer on me, to your generous aid."

[32] In 1808 the officers' lace, epaulettes, and buttons, were
directed to be changed from silver to gold.

[33] Lieut.-General Leith was wounded during the action, when
Major-General Pringle assumed the command of the fifth division,
and Lieut.-Colonel Brooke that of the brigade.

[34] Brevet Major John Wynne Fletcher was senior captain of the
regiment, in which he had served most zealously twenty-five years,
and he was sincerely lamented by his brother officers. He was
aide-de-camp to Lieut.-General Sir Henry Warde, K.C.B., commander
of the forces in the Windward and Leeward Islands, who followed
his remains to the grave, and directed a marble tablet, with the
following inscription, to be placed in the church at Bridgetown;--

  SACRED TO THE MEMORY

  of a good Christian, a gallant soldier, and an honest man,
  in life beloved and in death lamented.

  Near this spot rest the mortal remains of Brevet Major

  JOHN WYNNE FLETCHER,

  Captain in the Fourth, or the King's Own Regiment of Foot,
  And Aide-de-camp to Lieut.-General Sir Henry Warde,
  Who departed this life on the 24th of October, 1824,
  Aged 39 years.



  SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

  OF

  THE FOURTH,

  OR THE

  KING'S OWN REGIMENT OF FOOT.


CHARLES EARL OF PLYMOUTH.

_Appointed 13th July, 1680._

CHARLES FITZ-CHARLES, natural son of King Charles II., by
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Pegg, Esq., of Yeldersley, in
Derbyshire, was advanced to the peerage in July, 1675, by the
titles of Baron Dartmouth, Viscount Totness, and EARL OF PLYMOUTH.
Being a sprightly youth, and an aspirant to military fame, he
obtained permission of the king, his father, to proceed in the
character of a volunteer to the city of Tangier, in Africa, where
he was initiated in the first rudiments of war. Having been
educated abroad, he was familiarly styled Don Carlos, and in
the printed narratives of several skirmishes with the Moors he
is spoken of in terms of commendation. While he was engaged in
the defence of this fortress the SECOND TANGIER, now KING'S OWN,
regiment of foot was raised in England, of which his lordship was
appointed colonel. During the siege he was attacked with a severe
dysentery, of which he died in October, 1680, in the twenty-third
year of his age. He was a very promising officer, of good natural
abilities, affable, generous, and brave, and his death was much
regretted by his companions in arms, also by the king, his father.
His body was embalmed, sent to England, and interred in Westminster
Abbey.


PIERCY KIRKE.

_Appointed 27th November, 1680._

PIERCY KIRKE is represented by historians as an adventurous
soldier of fortune, distinguished for personal bravery and gross
immorality. He entered the army soon after the suppression of
the insurrection of the Millenarians (or fifth-monarchy men) in
1661, and was many years an officer in the royal regiment of
horse guards. During the Dutch war he obtained permission of King
Charles II. to proceed to France to join the Duke of Monmouth's
regiment of foot,--then in the service of Louis XIV. With this
corps he served under the Duke of Monmouth at the siege of
Maestricht in 1613; and in the two succeeding campaigns with the
French army on the Rhine, commanded by the celebrated Marshal
Turenne, under whose orders the English regiments of Monmouth and
Churchill, and the Scots regiments of Douglas (now first royal)
and of Hamilton, highly distinguished themselves. These corps also
acquired additional laurels under Marshal Luxemburg, in 1676; and
under Marshal De Crequi, in 1677; but the loose discipline which
prevailed in the French army in Germany occasioned the troops to
contract licentious habits, from which KIRKE was never afterwards
thoroughly reclaimed. On the formation of the SECOND TANGIER, now
KING'S OWN, regiment, he was appointed to the lieut.-colonelcy,
and in November he succeeded the Earl of Plymouth in the command
of the corps; he was also appointed commander of the forces at
Tangier, and he subsequently performed the duties of governor of
that colony. While at Tangier, he was employed on an embassy to the
Emperor of Morocco; he is said to have contracted a friendship with
several Moorish chiefs, and an interchange of civilities took place
between him and the emperor: his connexion with these barbarians,
among whom internal feuds and the exercise of cruel propensities
were frequent, was not calculated to soften the rugged traits of
his character. In 1682 he was removed to the first Tangier (now
second or queen's royal) regiment; which corps he commanded at
the battle of Sedgemoor, where the rebel army under the Duke of
Monmouth was overthrown. He was afterwards directed to attend with
his regiment Lord Chief Justice Jeffries and four other judges, who
were appointed to try the rebel prisoners; and while employed on
this service he is said to have executed a number of wounded rebels
in a barbarous manner, and he was also charged with the commission
of numerous acts of wanton cruelty, for which he afterwards pleaded
the express orders of the king and of Lieut.-General the Earl of
Feversham. Brigadier-General Kirke certainly did not exhibit on
this occasion the traits of a humane disposition, yet no doubt can
exist but that the barbarities said to have been committed by him
have been much exaggerated. The secretary-at-war summoned him to
appear at court and explain his proceedings, which he did to the
satisfaction of the king. He afterwards joined the association in
favour of the Prince of Orange; this was, however, not suspected by
James II., who promoted him to the rank of major-general on the 8th
of November, 1688, and placed him at the head of the van-guard of
the army appointed to oppose the Prince. KIRKE is reported to have
formed the design of seizing the king's person at Warminster, and
of delivering him into the hands of the Prince of Orange; but this
plot was frustrated by the king's being prevented visiting that
quarter in consequence of an excessive bleeding at the nose, to
which his Majesty was subject. Major-General KIRKE was afterwards
arrested and sent under a guard to London; but the flight of the
king to France, and the elevation of the Prince of Orange to
the throne, following in rapid succession, he was liberated and
received into the favour of his new sovereign. In 1689 he was
sent with two regiments of foot to the relief of Londonderry, in
which service he succeeded; but he was accused of cruelty to the
inhabitants, and of augmenting their miseries unnecessarily. He
evinced ability and personal bravery in several skirmishes with
King James's forces; he served under King William at the battle
of the Boyne, and at the siege of Limerick, and on the 24th of
December, 1690, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general.
He was subsequently appointed to the staff of King William's army
in the Netherlands, and he died at Breda on the 31st of October,
1691.


CHARLES TRELAWNY.

_Appointed 23rd April, 1682._

CHARLES TRELAWNY was the fourth son of Sir Jonathan Trelawny,
baronet, of an ancient family, which derived its name from the
lordship of Trelawny, in Alternon, in the county of Cornwall;
he obtained a commission in the Duke of Monmouth's regiment of
foot, raised in England in 1672, for the service of the King of
France against the Dutch. In his first campaign he was engaged in
the invasion of Holland; in 1673 the famous city of Maestricht
was besieged and captured; and during the four succeeding years
he served on the Rhine under Marshals Turenne, Luxemburg, and
De Crequi, and having acquired the character of a brave and
meritorious officer, he was promoted to the majority of his corps.
When Monmouth's regiment was disbanded in 1679, he was placed on
half-pay; but in the summer of 1680 he was appointed major of
the SECOND TANGIER regiment, for which corps he raised a company
of sixty-five men in Devonshire, &c. Soon after his arrival in
Africa he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy, and in 1682 he
succeeded Colonel Kirke in the colonelcy of the regiment. He took
an important part in bringing about the Revolution in 1688; and
having joined the association formed in favour of the Prince of
Orange, he induced his brother, the Bishop of Bristol, to engage
in the same cause. In November, 1688, he was promoted to the rank
of brigadier-general; after he had joined the Prince of Orange,
King James deprived him of his regiment; but it was restored by
the Prince on the 31st of December. He distinguished himself at
the head of a brigade of infantry at the battle of the Boyne; and
he was subsequently appointed governor of Dublin. His conduct
while in charge of the metropolis of Ireland, was marked by zeal
for the public good, and by the ability with which he performed
the duties of his government. On the 2nd of December, 1690, he was
promoted to the rank of major-general; and in 1691 he retired from
his regiment, and was appointed to the government of Plymouth.
The following character is given of this distinguished officer in
history:--

"General Charles Trelawny was a gentleman of an ancient and
honourable family, which he also ennobled by his actions. He served
under the famous TURENNE, and his gallantry and experience spoke
him worthy of so great a master. His public actions in several
instances redounded to his honour, but his modesty was too delicate
to admit of his reciting them. He served with the troops which
Charles II. sent to the assistance of France, when they and their
country gained the greatest reputation, by covering the retreat
of the French and repulsing the Germans, an action of such signal
importance that it procured the thanks of Louis XIV.; and this may
be said to his and the nation's honour, that the armies of France
have been protected as well as conquered by the English. Nor did
he shine less in his private than his active life; the reputation
he acquired in public services he adorned with affability,
tenderness, and charity to all about him; the bravery of the
soldier being tempered with the politeness of the accomplished
gentleman. In short, so generous and noble a spirit attended his
whole course of life, and so much patience and resignation in
his last illness, that he appeared in both equally the hero, and
died great as he had lived." His decease occurred on the 24th of
September, 1731.


SIR CHARLES ORBY.

_Appointed 11th December, 1688._

This officer was a stanch adherent to the Roman Catholic cause;
he was lieut.-colonel of the third troop of life guards and
deputy adjutant-general, and King James II. rewarded him with
the colonelcy of the QUEEN'S regiment of foot, from which he was
removed by the Prince of Orange.


CHARLES TRELAWNY.

_Re-appointed 31st December, 1688._


HENRY TRELAWNY.

_Appointed 1st January, 1692._

HENRY TRELAWNY, seventh son of Sir Jonathan Trelawny, and brother
of General Charles Trelawny, raised a company of foot in the summer
of 1680, for the SECOND TANGIER regiment, in which corps he was
appointed captain, and he served three years in Africa. In 1685,
he was at the battle of Sedgemoor; and in December, 1688, he was
promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. He served under
King William in Ireland, and was appointed colonel of the regiment
on the 1st of January, 1692. He was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general in 1696; and retired from the regiment in 1702.


WILLIAM SEYMOUR.

_Appointed 12th February, 1702._

WILLIAM SEYMOUR obtained a commission in the royal regiment of
fusiliers (now seventh foot) when that corps was raised in the
summer of 1685; and two years afterwards he commanded a company.
In 1691 he was appointed major, and in 1692 lieut.-colonel of the
second regiment of foot guards. He served under King William in
the Netherlands, and was wounded at the battle of Landen in 1693.
In the following year he succeeded Lord Cutts in the colonelcy
of one of the regiments of foot raised in 1689. After the peace
of Ryswick his regiment was disbanded; and on the 1st of March,
1701, he succeeded Louis Marquis of Puizar in the colonelcy of a
regiment, now the twenty-fourth foot, from which he was removed in
1702 to the QUEEN'S, now KING'S OWN, regiment, and promoted to the
rank of brigadier-general. He commanded a brigade before Cadiz in
1702, and was wounded at Vigo. He was subsequently appointed to
the command of the six regiments of marines; was promoted to the
rank of major-general in 1704, to that of lieut.-general in 1707,
retired from the regiment in 1717, and died in 1727.


THE HONOURABLE HENRY BERKELEY.

_Appointed 25th December, 1717._

HENRY BERKELEY, third son of Charles second Earl of Berkeley,
was page of honour to the Duke of Gloucester, son of Queen Anne;
and after his Royal Highness's decease, he was page of honour to
her Majesty Queen Anne. He obtained a commission in the army in
December, 1709; in June, 1717, he was appointed first commissioner
for executing the office of master of the horse to King George I.;
and in December following he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
KING'S OWN, from which he was removed in 1719, to the Scots troop
of horse grenadier guards. He was one of the King's equerries, and
a member of parliament for the county of Gloucester; and died at
Bath in May, 1736.


CHARLES CADOGAN.

_Appointed 21st April, 1719._

CHARLES CADOGAN entered the army in 1706, and served in Flanders
under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. He was a member
of parliament for the borough of Reading, also for Newport
in Southamptonshire. In 1715 he was appointed captain and
lieut.-colonel in the second foot guards; and in 1719 he purchased
the colonelcy of the KING'S OWN regiment. He succeeded, on the
decease of his brother, the celebrated William Earl Cadogan,
in 1726, to the dignity of LORD CADOGAN, Baron of Oakley; and
in 1734 he was removed to the Inniskilling dragoons. In 1739
he was promoted to the rank of major-general; in 1742 he was
appointed colonel of the second troop (now second regiment) of
life guards, which gave him the privilege of taking the court
duty of gold stick; and in 1745 he was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-general. The government of Sheerness was conferred upon
his lordship in 1749, that of Gravesend and Tilbury in 1752, and
in 1761 he was promoted to the rank of general. His lordship was a
fellow of the Royal Society, and one of the trustees of the British
Museum; he died in 1776.


WILLIAM BARRELL.

_Appointed 8th August, 1734._

This officer entered the army in the reign of William III.; he
obtained the rank of captain in 1698, and his distinguished conduct
in the wars of Queen Anne was rewarded with the brevet rank of
colonel on the 1st of January, 1707. In 1715 he was promoted to
the colonelcy of the twenty-eighth foot; in 1727 he was appointed
brigadier-general; in 1730 he was removed to the twenty-second
regiment, and in 1734 to the KING'S OWN. In the following year
he was promoted to the rank of major-general; in 1739 to that of
lieut.-general; and he was also appointed governor of Pendennis
castle. He died on the 9th of August, 1749.


ROBERT RICH.

_Appointed 22nd August, 1749._

ROBERT RICH, second son of Sir Robert Rich, baronet, a
distinguished officer in the wars of Queen Anne, was promoted by
King George II. to the lieut.-colonelcy of the KING'S OWN, at the
head of which corps he distinguished himself at the battle of
Culloden and was wounded; and in 1749 he succeeded Lieut.-General
Barrell in the colonelcy of the regiment, which he held seven
years. In 1758 he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in
1760 to that of lieut.-general; he also held the appointments of
governor of Londonderry and Culmore-fort in Ireland; and in 1768
he succeeded, on the decease of his father, to the dignity of a
BARONET. He died in 1785.


ALEXANDER DUROURE.

_Appointed 12th May, 1756._

This officer was promoted on the 27th of February, 1751, from the
lieut.-colonelcy of the twenty-fourth, to the colonelcy of the
thirty-eighth regiment; and was removed in 1756 to the KING'S OWN.
In 1758 he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1760
to that of lieut.-general. He died in 1765.


THE HONORABLE ROBERT BRUDENELL.

_Appointed 23rd January, 1765._

ROBERT BRUDENELL, third son of George Earl of Cardigan, was many
years a member of parliament for Marlborough, also groom of the
bedchamber to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, whose train he
bore at the coronation of George III. He was appointed captain and
lieut.-colonel in the third foot guards in 1758; was promoted to
the colonelcy of the sixteenth foot in 1763; and removed to the
KING'S OWN in 1765. He died at Windsor in October, 1768.


STUDHOLME HODGSON.

_Appointed 7th November, 1768._

STUDHOLME HODGSON, after serving several years in the army, was
appointed, in 1745, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumberland, whom
he attended at the battles of Fontenoy and Culloden. He obtained
the command of a company, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel
in the first foot guards, on the 22d of February, 1747; and on
the 30th of May, 1756, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
fiftieth foot. He obtained the rank of major-general on the 25th
of June, 1759; and was removed to the colonelcy of the fifth
foot in October of the same year. In 1761 he was advanced to the
rank of lieutenant-general, and he commanded the land forces of
a successful expedition against Belle Isle in the same year,
for which he obtained the approbation of the king, and received
the expression of the "warm sense of the great service he had
done his king and country;" also the congratulation, "on the
completion of so important and critical an operation which must
ever be remembered to his honour," from the secretary of state,
the celebrated William Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham. He was
appointed in 1765, governor of Forts George and Augustus. In 1768
he was removed to the KING'S OWN; in 1778 he was promoted to the
rank of general; and in 1782 he was removed to the colonelcy of
the fourth Irish horse, now seventh dragoon guards. He was again
removed, in 1789, to the eleventh light dragoons, and on the 30th
of July, 1796, he was promoted to the rank of field-marshal. He
enjoyed this elevated rank two years, and died in the autumn of
1798, at the advanced age of ninety years.


JOHN BURGOYNE.

_Appointed 7th June, 1782._

JOHN BURGOYNE was a distinguished cavalry officer in the reign of
George II. On the 10th of May, 1758, he was promoted from captain
in the eleventh dragoons to captain-lieutenant and lieut.-colonel
in the second foot guards; and his talents and experience
occasioned him to be selected, in the following year, to form
and discipline a corps of light cavalry, (now the sixteenth, or
the Queen's lancers,) of which he was appointed lieut.-colonel
commandant. Previous to this period light cavalry was little known
in the British army, the value of that _arme_ had, however, become
appreciated; and the discipline, dexterity, and efficiency of
BURGOYNE'S horsemen soon attracted admiration, and he received from
his sovereign repeated and conspicuous testimonies of his royal
approbation. In 1762 he was sent with his regiment to Portugal,
where he served as brigadier-general, and he acquired distinction
under the Count La Lippe and the Earl of Loudoun, whose despatches
bore testimony of his gallantry and zeal for the service, in the
warmest terms. He was appointed in 1763 colonel of his regiment,
which was honoured with the title of the _Queen's light dragoons_;
and in 1772 he was promoted to the rank of major-general; he was
also appointed governor of Fort William. When the British colonies
in North America revolted against the mother country, he was placed
on the staff of the army in America, and he joined the troops at
Boston a short time before the battle of Bunker's Hill. In 1776 he
served under Lieut.-General Carlton in Canada, and in the autumn of
that year he was promoted to the local rank of lieut.-general in
America.

In 1777 he was appointed to the command of an army destined to
proceed by Lakes Champlain and George to Hudson's River, with
the view of forcing its way to Albany. An erroneous idea of the
loyalty of the majority of the inhabitants of this part of North
America appears to have been prevalent; and the difficulties to be
encountered in this enterprise from the wooded and but partially
inhabited country, through which the army had to march, with
the state of the roads, and other causes, appear to have been
overlooked. After a series of hard toil, incessant effort, and
severe privation, the Indian warriors who formed part of the army,
and whose predatory habits and disposition to use the tomahawk
and scalping-knife had been restrained, all deserted; many of the
Canadians and provincials followed this example, while others
were deterred from performing their duties by fear; and after
several stubborn engagements, in which the British regiments
fought gallantly against an immense superiority of numbers, the
lieut.-general found himself on the banks of the Hudson's River,
with an army of three thousand five hundred men, reduced in
physical power by incessant toil and want of provision, invested
by an army of sixteen thousand Americans, disappointed of the hope
of timely co-operation from other armies, without provisions; and
under these dismal circumstances he concluded a convention with
the American General Gates at Saratoga, in which he agreed that
the troops should lay down their arms on condition of being sent
to England, and not serving in America during the remainder of
the war. These articles were, however, violated by the American
government, on frivolous pretences, and the gallant men who had
fought so bravely, and who did not submit until surrounded by five
times their own number, were detained in America. Lieut.-General
Burgoyne was exposed to the fate which usually attends unsuccessful
commanders, and his conduct was censured; he defended himself in
parliament with great warmth, and courted investigation; this was
followed by altercation with the members of the government, which
ended in his resigning, in 1779, the colonelcy of the Queen's light
dragoons, also his appointment on the staff of the army in America,
and the government of Fort William; but he retained his rank of
lieut.-general in order to be amenable to a court martial. He was
afterwards restored to royal favour; appointed commander-in-chief
in Ireland; and in 1782 he was appointed colonel of the KING'S
OWN regiment of foot; he was also a member of the privy council,
and represented the town of Preston in parliament. He was an
accomplished gentleman; also an able scholar, and author of a much
celebrated comedy called "The Heiress;" and his character was
further adorned with benevolence. He died on the 4th of August,
1792, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.


GEORGE MORRISON.

_Appointed 8th August, 1792._

This officer was appointed lieut.-colonel in the army, in 1761,
he also held the appointment of deputy quarter-master-general,
and in 1763 he was placed at the head of that department, where
he remained many years. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in
1772, to that of major-general in 1777, lieut.-general in 1782, and
general in 1796. He obtained the colonelcy of the seventy-fifth
foot in 1779; was removed to the seventeenth foot in 1782; and to
the KING'S OWN, in 1792. He died in 1799.


JOHN EARL OF CHATHAM.

_Appointed 5th December, 1799._

JOHN PITT succeeded, in 1778, to the dignity of EARL OF CHATHAM. He
served as a subaltern with the thirty-ninth foot at Gibraltar and
in 1779 he was appointed captain in the eighty-sixth, or Rutland
regiment, which was disbanded at the termination of the American
war. In 1782 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel, and
in 1788 he was appointed first lord of the admiralty, which
he held six years. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in
1793, and to that of major-general in 1795, and in 1796 he was
appointed president of the council. When the KING'S OWN regiment
was augmented, in 1799, to three battalions, he was appointed
commandant of the second battalion; he proceeded in the same year
to Holland, and commanded a brigade under the Duke of York in
the actions of the 2nd and 6th of October, when he was wounded.
In December he succeeded General Morrison in the colonelcy of
the KING'S OWN. In 1801 he was appointed master-general of the
ordnance, which he held five years; in 1802 he was promoted to
the rank of lieut.-general, and, in 1827, he was re-appointed
master-general of the ordnance, which he held three years. His
lordship was nominated in 1809 to the command of an expedition
against Walcheren and Antwerp, which failed from the numerous
delays which occurred in conducting the enterprise. In 1812 he was
promoted to the rank of general. He was subsequently honoured with
the dignity of knight of the garter; and, in 1820, he was appointed
governor of Gibraltar. He died in 1835.


JOHN HODGSON.

_Appointed 30th September, 1835._



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  daybreak, day-break; sea-service, sea service; vice-roy, vice roy;
  bandalier; devotedness; musquetry.

  Pg viii, '1806  Returns to England' replaced by '----  Returns to
           England'.
  Pg x, In List of Plates, added 'Fourth (or King's Own) Regiment of Foot,
           to face page 141'.
  Pg 55, 'well-pallisadoed' replaced by 'well-pallisaded'.
  Pg 55, 'forward aud chased' replaced by 'forward and chased'.
  Pg 126, 'with the but-ends' replaced by 'with the butt-ends'.
  Footnote [26], 'Welsh Fusileers' replaced by 'Welsh Fusiliers'.
  Footnote [27], 'bowitzer' replaced by 'howitzer'.





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