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Title: Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne - Taken from Original Sources
Author: Ashton, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Social Life in Queen Anne's Reign

The Daily Courant.

Wednesday, March 11, 1702.

From the Harlem Courant, Dated March 18. N. S.

_Naples_, Feb. 22.

On Wednesday last, our New Viceroy, the Duke of Escalona, arriv'd here
with a Squadron of the Galleys of Sicily. He made his Entrance drest
in a French habit; and to give us the greater Hopes of the King's
coming hither, went to Lodge in one of the little Palaces, leaving the
Royal One for his Majesty. The Marquis of Grigni is also arriv'd here
with a Regiment of French.

_Rome_, Feb. 25. In a Military Congregation of State that was held
here, it was Resolv'd to draw a Line from Ascoli to the Borders of the
Ecclesiastical State, thereby to hinder the Incursions of the
Transalpine Troops. Orders are sent to Civita Vecchia to fit out the
Galleys, and to strengthen the Garrison of that Place. Signior Casali
is made Governor of Perugia. The Marquis del Vasto, and the Prince de
Caserta continue still in the Imperial Embassador's Palace; where his
Excellency has a Guard of 50 Men every _Night in Arms_. The King of
Portugal has desir'd the Arch-Bishoprick of Lisbon, vacant by the
Death of Cardinal Sousa, for the Infante his second Son, who is about
11 Years old.

_Vienna_, Mar. 4. Orders are sent to the 4 Regiments of Foot, the 2 of
Cuirassiers, and to that of Dragoons, which are broke up from Hungary,
and are on their way to Italy, and which consist of about 14 or 15000
Men, to hasten their March thither with all Expedition. The 6 new
Regiments of Hussars that are now raising, are in so great a
forwardness, that they will be compleat, and in a Condition to march
by the middle of May. Prince Lewis of Baden has written to Court, to
excuse himself from coming thither, his Presence being so very
necessary, and so much desir'd on the Upper-Rhine.

_Francfort_; Mar. 12. The Marquiss d'Uxelles is come to Strasburg, and
is to draw together a Body of some Regiments of Horse and Foot from
the Garisons of Alsace; but will not lessen those of Strasburg and
Landau, which are already very weak. On the other hand, the Troops of
His Imperial Majesty, and his Allies, are going to form a Body near
Germeshein in the Palatinate, of which Place, as well as of the Lines
at Spires, Prince Lewis of Baden is expected to take a View, in three
or four days. The English and Dutch Ministers, the Count of Frise, and
the Baron Vander Meer; and likewise the Imperial Envoy Count
Lowenstein, are gone to Nordlingen, and it is hop'd that in a short
time we shall hear from thence of some favourable Resolutions for the
Security of the Empire.

_Liege_, Mar. 14. The French have taken the Cannon de Longie, who was
Secretary to the Dean de Mean, out of our Castle, where he has been
for some time a Prisoner, and have deliver'd him to the Provost of
Maubeuge, who has carry'd him from hence, but we do not know whither.

_Paris_, Mar. 13. Our Letter from Italy say, That most of our
Reinforcements were Landed there; that the Imperial and Ecclesiastical
Troops seem to live very peaceably with one another in the Country of
Parma, and that the Duke of Vendome, as he was visiting several Ports,
was within 100 Paces of falling into the Hands of the Germans. The
Duke of Chartres, the Prince of Conti, and several other Princes of
the Blood, are to make the Campaign in Flanders under the Duke of
Burgundy; and the Duke of Maine is to Command upon the Rhine.

From the Amsterdam Courant, Dated Mar. 18.

_Rome_, Feb. 25. We are taking here all possible Precautions for the
Security of the Ecclesiastical State in this present Conjuncture, and
have desir'd to raise 3000 Men in the Cantons of Switzerland. The Pope
has appointed the Duke of Berwick to be his Lieutenant-General, and he
is to Command 6000 Men on the Frontiers of Naples: He has also settled
upon him a Pension of 6000 Crowns a year during Life.

From the Paris Gazette, Dated Mar. 18. 1702.

_Naples_, Febr. 17. 600 French Soldiers are arrived here, and are
expected to be follow'd by 3400 more. A Courier that came hither on
the 14th. has brought Letters by which we are assur'd that the King of
Spain designs to be here towards the end of March; and accordingly
Orders are given to make the necessary Preparations against his
Arrival. The two Troops of Horse that were Commanded to the Abruzzo
are posted at Pescara with a Body of Spanish Foot, and others in the
Fort of Montorio.

_Paris_, March. 18. We have Advice from Toulon of the 5th instant,
that the Wind having long stood favourable, 22000 Men were already
sail'd for Italy, that 2500 more were Embarking, and that by the 15th
it was hoped they might all get thither. The Count d'Estrees arriv'd
there on the Third instant, and set all hands at work to fit out the
Squadron of 9 Men of War and some Fregats, that are appointed to carry
the King of Spain to Naples. His Catholick Majesty will go on Board
the _Thunderer_, of 110 Guns.

We have Advice by an Express from Rome of the 18th of February, That
notwithstanding the pressing Instances of the Imperial Embassadour,
the Pope had Condemn'd the Marquis del Vasto to lose his Head and his
Estate to be confiscated, for not appearing to Answer the Charge
against him of Publickly Scandalizing Cardinal Janson.


It will be found from the Foreign Prints, which from time to time, as
Occasion offers, will be mention'd in this Paper, that the Author has
taken Care to be duly furnish'd with all that comes from Abroad in any
Language. And for an Assurance that He will not, under Pretence of
having Private Intelligence, impose any Additions of feign'd
Circumstances to an Action, but give his Extracts fairly and
Impartially; at the beginning of each Article he will quote the
Foreign Paper from whence 'tis taken, that the Publick, seeing from
what Country a piece of News comes with the Allowance of that
Government, may be better able to Judge of the Credibility and
Fairness of the Relation: Nor will he take upon him to give any
Comments or Conjectures of his own, but will relate only Matter of
Fact; supposing other People to have Sense enough, to make Reflections
for themselves.

_This Courant (as the Title shews) will be Publish'd Daily; being
design'd to give all the Material News as soon as every Post arrives:
and is confin'd to half the Compass, to save the Publick at least half
the Impertinences, of ordinary News-Papers._

LONDON. Sold by _E. Mallet_, next Door to the _King's-Arms_ Tavern at











From the time of Dean Swift downwards to our own days many Political
Histories of the Reign of Queen Anne have been written, but its Social
Life we have been left to gather mainly from the efforts of novelists,
who have been more or less conscientious, according to their
knowledge, in placing it before us.

No doubt the drudgery of the work, the wading through all the
newspapers, and reading all the literature of the time, has deterred
many from attempting what, in its execution, has proved a very
pleasant task; for in doing it, one has got to be thoroughly
identified with the age--its habits and customs--which, being taken
from the very words of the people, then living, writing for living
people, who could contradict their statements, if false or
exaggerated, a charm was lent to the task, which fully compensated for
its labour.

All history, unless it is contemporary, must necessarily, if honest,
be a compilation, and my idea is, that it should honestly be avowed as
such, and the authorities given for all facts; and this I have done,
even at the risk of proving wearisome.

In compiling it, my task has been similar to one who, having a
necklace of old beads, finds it broken, and the beads scattered
hither and thither. His business, naturally, is to gather them
together, and string them so as to satisfy criticism. He may not pick
them all up, and he may not please everyone's taste in his
arrangement, but his course is clear--he should not add new beads of
his own to supply deficiencies, but should confine himself to putting
together all he can find in the best manner he possibly can.

The almost total absence of domestic news in the newspapers has
compelled me to draw largely on the essays and descriptive books of
the time, and in one or two instances I have ventured to transcribe
(as in the case of Misson) from works published, or written, two or
three years before Anne actually reigned--but the facts were precisely
the same as then obtained, so that much has been gained thereby.

The Illustrations might, undoubtedly, have been made more artistic and
unreal--but I have carefully taken them from contemporary prints, and
prefer to present them in all their uncouthness and reality.

                                                          JOHN ASHTON.





     The Duke of Gloucester -- The Queen's refusal to marry again  --
     Treatment of children after birth -- Baptismal feasts -- A
     christening -- 'Daffy's Elixir' -- Treatment of infantile
     diseases -- The nursery -- Toys -- Children's books -- Horn-books
     -- Private tuition -- Boarding and day schools -- Free schools  --
     Classical education -- School-books -- Penmanship -- Runaway boys
     -- College education -- Charity schools                         1



     Boarding schools -- Town and country educations -- Pastry schools
     -- Dancing -- Toasts -- 'The Little Whig' -- Madame Spanheim   17



     Eloping with heiresses -- Marriage between children -- Tax on
     bachelors -- Valentines -- Marriage settlements -- Pin money  --
     Posies -- Drummers -- Private marriages -- Irregular marriages  --
     Fleet parsons -- Marriage Act -- Facility of marriage  --
     Liability of husbands -- Public marriages -- Marriage customs  --
     Bride's garters -- Throwing the stocking -- The Posset  --
     Honeymoon                                                      22



     Longevity -- Undertakers' charges -- Costliness of funerals  --
     Mourning -- Burial in woollen -- Burial Societies -- Burial by
     night -- A cheat -- Mourning rings -- Funeral pomp -- Monuments
     -- Description of a funeral -- A Roman Catholic funeral  --
     Widows                                                         35



     'Queen Anne' houses -- Vanbrugh's house -- Real 'Queen Anne'
     houses -- Hangings and wall papers -- Letting and rent  --
     Prevention of fire -- A fire -- Insurance companies -- Water
     supply -- Thames Water Works -- New River -- Coals -- Furniture
     -- China -- Bedsteads                                          46



     Number of servants -- Footmen -- Wages -- Liveries -- 'How d'ye'
     -- The Upper Gallery -- Footmen's Parliament -- Accomplishments
     -- White slaves from Barbary -- Negro slaves -- Runaways  --
     Apprentices                                                    58



     Out-of-door amusements -- A holiday -- Hatred of French fashions
     -- Beaus' oaths -- Kissing -- Fops: their daily life           63



     Receiving in bed -- A lady's life -- A fine lady's diary  --
     Walking -- Visiting -- Tea-table scandal -- Shopping  --
     Daily church -- Pets -- Dancing -- Books on ditto -- A
     dancing-master                                                 68



     Games at cards -- Curious cards -- Price -- Tax on cards  --
     Female passion for gambling -- The Groom Porter's -- Gaming
     houses -- Gamesters -- Noted gamesters -- Debts of honour  --
     Speculation -- Life insurances -- Marine and other insurances  --
     Shopkeepers' lotteries -- Government lotteries -- Prizes and
     winners                                                        78



     Astrologers -- Their advertisements -- Their tricks -- Witchcraft
     -- Cases of witchcraft                                         89



     Habit of snuff-taking -- Perfumes -- Charles Lillie -- List of
     Scents -- Soaps -- Wash-balls -- 'Complections' -- Tooth powder
     -- Hair-dye -- Spectacles                                      95



     The penny post -- Dockwra's vindication of himself -- Abolition
     of penny post -- Post days and rates -- Halfpenny post -- Method
     of doing business -- The Exchange -- Description of frequenters
     -- Bankers -- Curious advertisement of Sir Richard Hoare's     99



     A beau -- An inventory of him -- Hats -- Wigs: their price:
     varieties -- Hair powder -- Robbery of wigs -- Natural hair  --
     Neck-cloths -- Shirts -- Open waistcoats -- Colonel Edgworth  --
     Coats -- Cheap clothiers -- Stockings -- Boots and shoes  --
     Shoeblacks and blacking -- Handkerchiefs -- Muffs -- Swords  --
     Walking-sticks -- Watches -- Overcoats -- Night-caps  --
     Night-gowns                                                   104



     The Commode -- Description of ladies' dress -- The Petticoat  --
     The Bodice -- A costly wardrobe -- Underlinen -- Dressing like
     men -- Scents -- Patches -- Patching Whig and Tory -- Masks  --
     The hood -- High-crowned hats -- Furs -- Umbrellas -- Pattens  --
     The fan -- Mobs -- Shopping -- Stuffs -- List of Indian stuffs  --
     Lace -- Linens -- Tallymen -- Jewellery -- Diamonds -- Plate  --
     Children's jewellery                                          123



     English fare -- Time of dining -- Pontack's -- Other ordinaries
     -- Books on cookery -- Receipts -- Pudding -- Fish -- Oysters  --
     Poultry -- Assize of bread -- Markets -- Vegetables -- Lambeth
     gardeners -- Fruit -- Dried fruit                             141



     Beer -- Hard drinking -- 'Whetters' -- Wines -- List of French
     and Spanish wines -- Wines of other countries -- Duties on wines
     -- Spirits -- Liqueurs -- Homemade wines -- Prices of tea  --
     Adulteration -- Price of coffee -- Chocolate -- Its price  --
     Duty on                                                       150



     Habit of smoking -- Women and children smoking -- Prices of
     tobacco -- Customs duty -- Origin of snuff-taking -- The Vigo
     expedition -- Snuff-rasps -- Ladies taking snuff -- Proper use of
     the snuff-box -- Use of a spoon -- Prices of snuffs -- List of
     ditto -- Duty on snuff                                        156



     Universal use of coffee-houses -- Their convenience -- Company  --
     First coffee-house -- Number of them -- Anecdote of Bishop
     Trelawney -- Description of interior -- The news -- Advance in
     price -- Chocolate-houses -- Famous coffee-houses -- Button's
     Lion -- Lloyd's -- Sales by candle -- Jenny Man -- Don Saltero's
     collection -- Taverns -- Noblemen frequenting them -- Drinking
     own wine -- Purl houses -- List of old taverns                161



     Origin -- October Club -- Calves' Head Club -- Kit Cat Club  --
     Other clubs -- Suggested clubs                                179



     Royal visits to the City -- Lord Mayor's show -- The lions at the
     Tower -- The Armoury -- Tombs at Westminster -- Bartholomew Fair
     -- Description -- Shows -- Tight-rope dancing -- Natural
     curiosities -- Theatrical performances, etc. -- Abolition -- May
     Fair -- Lady Mary -- Pinkethman -- Shows -- Visit to -- Abolition
     -- Southwark Fair -- Its Shows                                185



     The Lincolnshire ox -- The large hog -- The whale -- Monkeys and
     wild beasts -- 'The Lest Man and Hors in the World' -- Performing
     horse Dwarfs and giants -- Human curiosities -- Helen and Judith
     -- Conjurers -- Posture masters -- Mr. Clinch -- Waxwork -- Mrs.
     Salmon, etc. -- Westminster Abbey wax-figures -- Powell's puppets
     -- Moving pictures -- Glass-blowing -- Miraculous fountain  --
     Winstanley -- His waterworks -- The four Indian chiefs        201



     Bear-baiting -- Bear-gardens -- Bull-baiting -- Description  --
     Extraordinary bull-bait -- Cock-fighting -- Cock-pits -- Value
     of matches -- Training                                        223



     The Queen's love of racing -- Visit to Newmarket -- Queen's
     plates -- Value of matches -- Race meetings -- Tregonwell
     Frampton -- His horse Dragon -- The Queen's love of hunting  --
     Sir Roger de Coverley -- Fox-hunting -- Stag-hunting  --
     Hare-hunting -- Coursing -- Packs of hounds -- Fishing -- Hawking
     -- Netting -- The Game Act -- Shooting sitting and flying  --
     Match shooting -- Archery                                     228



     Challenges -- The stakes -- The combatants -- Description of
     fights -- General combativeness -- Boxing -- Cudgel-playing  --
     Pedestrianism -- Tennis -- Cricket -- Football -- Skating  --
     Billiards -- Country wakes -- Bowling -- Bowling greens -- Formal
     gardening -- Clipping trees -- Books on gardening -- Trees and
     Flowers -- Town and country life -- Country labourers         237



     The theatres -- Dorset Gardens -- Its demolition -- Performances
     -- Lincoln's Inn Fields -- Theatre Royal, Drury Lane -- Its
     company -- Mrs. Tofts -- The Queen's Theatre, Haymarket -- Its
     foundation stone -- Its operas -- Pinkethman's theatre at
     Greenwich -- The Queen and the stage -- Her reforms -- Strolling
     players -- Behaviour at the theatre -- Orange wenches -- Stage
     properties -- Actors -- Betterton -- Verbruggen -- Cave Underhill
     -- Estcourt -- Dogget -- Colley Cibber -- Wilks -- Booth  --
     Pinkethman -- Minor Actors -- Actresses -- Mrs. Barry  --
     Mrs. Bracegirdle -- Mrs. Oldfield -- Mrs. Verbruggen -- The
     ballet                                                        243



     Introduction of Italian opera -- Its rapid popularity -- Mixture
     of Languages -- Handel -- His operas, and visit here -- Singers
     -- Abel -- Hughs -- Leveridge -- Lawrence -- Ramondon -- Mrs.
     Tofts -- Her madness -- Foreign singers -- Margherita de l'Epine
     -- Nicolino Grimaldi -- Isabella Girardeau -- Composers -- Dr.
     Blow -- Jeremiah Clarke -- Dean Aldrich -- Tom D'Urfey -- Henry
     Carey -- Britton, the small coal man -- His concerts -- His death
     -- Concerts and concert rooms -- Gasparini, the violinist --
     Musical instruments -- Musical scores                         268



     Wollaston -- Murray -- Hugh Howard -- Lewis Crosse -- Luke
     Craddock -- Charles Jervas -- Richardson -- Sir James Thornhill
     -- Sir Godfrey Kneller -- Closterman -- Pelegrini -- Sebastian
     Ricci -- Vander Vaart -- Laguerre -- Dahl -- Boit -- Class of
     pictures in vogue -- Water Colours -- Drawings -- Engravings --
     Sculpture -- Grinling Gibbons -- Architects: Sir C. Wren --
     Vanbrugh                                                      279



     Its infancy -- Virtuosi -- Gresham College -- Visit to the Royal
     Society's Museum -- Their curiosities -- Their new house --
     Geology -- Experimental philosophy -- Courses of chemistry --
     Mathematics -- List of patents -- Hydraulic machinery -- Savery's
     steam-engine -- Description                                   286



     Authors -- Public libraries -- Their condition -- George
     Psalmanazar -- Hack writers -- Poverty of authors -- Their
     punishment -- The Press -- _Daily Courant_ -- List of newspapers
     -- _London Gazette_ -- _Postboy_ -- _Postman_ -- _Dawk's News
     Letter_ -- _Dyer's_ -- Evening papers -- Dearth of domestic news
     -- Amenities of the press -- Roper and Redpath -- Tutchin -- His
     trial -- Press remuneration -- Mrs. Manley -- 'The Essay Papers'
     -- The half-penny stamp -- Its effect -- Advertising -- Almanacs
     -- List of them -- Moore's -- 'The Ladies' Diary' -- 'Poor
     Robin's Almanack' -- 'Merlinus Liberatus' -- The Essayists and
     Partridge -- His false death -- His elegy and epitaph -- An
     amateur magazine                                              293



     List of diseases -- Quackery -- Bleeding, etc. -- Physicians --
     Surgeons -- Apothecaries -- Dissension between the physicians and
     apothecaries -- The Dispensary -- Pharmacopœias -- Some
     nostrums -- Prescriptions -- Cupping -- Treatment of lunatics --
     Physicians' carriages -- Dr. Radcliffe -- Sir Samuel Garth -- Sir
     Hans Sloane -- Dr. Mead -- His duel with Woodward -- Study of
     anatomy -- Surgical instruments -- Oculists -- Sir William Read
     -- Roger Grant -- The Queen touching for the evil -- Description
     of the ceremony -- Quack remedies -- Quacks' harangues        313



     Bath -- Manners of the company there -- Description of Bath --
     Its gaieties -- Sale of the water -- Tunbridge -- Epsom --
     Hampstead -- Other spas -- Turkish baths -- Controversy on hot
     and cold bathing -- The Hummums -- Description of a Turkish bath
     -- Other bagnios -- Cold bathing and baths                    329



     Inactivity of the Church -- Dulness of Sunday -- Contempt of the
     clergy -- Low estimation of a chaplain -- Dress of the clergy --
     Church furniture -- Traffic in benefices -- Forged Orders -- Dr.
     Sacheverell -- 'The Modern Champions' -- Queen Anne's Bounty --
     Its history -- Fifty new churches -- Protestant tone of Church
     feeling -- The effigies on Queen Elizabeth's birthday --
     Oppression of Roman Catholics -- Religious sects -- Eminent
     Nonconformists -- Daniel Burgess -- Dislike to Quakers --
     Examples -- William Penn                                      337



     The different branches of the law -- Briefless barristers --
     Green bags -- Forensic wigs -- Attorneys -- Knights of the Post
     -- Lord Somers -- Lord Cowper -- His abolition of New Year's
     gifts                                                         353



     Use as a highway -- River slang -- Rates of watermen --
     Description of wherries -- Pleasure parties and barges -- The
     Folly -- Its frequenters -- Gravesend tilt boat -- Fares at the
     Horse Ferry -- The Fleet Ditch                                356



     Size of London -- Pall Mall -- London in wet weather -- Early
     morning -- Street cries -- A list of them -- Roguery in the
     streets -- Orderly regulations -- State of the roads -- Rule of
     the road -- Street signs -- Description of the streets --
     Milkmaids on May Day -- Hyde Park -- Its regulations -- Lighting
     the streets -- The streets at night                           362



     Smithfield -- Horse coursers -- Waggons -- Stage coaches --
     Travelling in them described -- Bad roads -- Posting -- Hackney
     coaches -- Their fares -- Hackney coachmen -- State coaches --
     Other carriages -- Suburban drives -- Mechanical coach --
     Mourning coaches -- Harness -- Sedan chairs -- Chairmen       372



     Scourers, etc. -- Bully Dawson -- Two outbreaks -- That in 1712
     -- Hawkubites -- Exploits of the Mohocks -- Sir Roger de Coverley
     -- Swift's fear of them -- Emperor of the Mohocks -- Gog and
     Magog -- The Queen's proclamation -- Decline of the scare --
     Constables and watchmen                                       382



     Its prevalence -- Bullying -- Fielding's duels -- Favourite
     localities -- Its illegality -- Col. Thornhill and Sir Cholmley
     Dering -- Their quarrel and duel -- Duke of Hamilton and Lord
     Mohun -- Story of their duel                                  390



     Sale of commissions -- General practice -- Its illegality --
     Arrears of pay -- Descriptions of officers -- Army chaplains --
     The rank and file -- Description of them -- Irregularity of pay
     -- Rations -- Recruiting -- Bounty -- Gaol birds -- Vagrants --
     Desertions -- Story of seditious drummers -- Train bands -- The
     navy -- Its deeds -- Unpopularity of the service -- Pressing --
     Desertion -- Rewards for capture -- Pay -- Description of
     Admiralty -- Mercantile marine                                396



     Capital punishment -- Its frequency -- An execution described --
     Behaviour on the scaffold and way to execution -- Revival after
     hanging -- 'Peine forte et dure' -- Hanging in chains --
     Highwaymen -- Claude du Val lying in state -- Ned Wicks and Lord
     Mohun -- Their swearing match -- A highwayman hanged --
     Highwaymen in society -- Highway robberies -- Footpads --
     Burglars -- John Hall -- Benefit of clergy -- Coining --
     Pickpockets -- Robbery from children -- Perjury -- Sharpers --
     Begging impostors -- Gipsies -- Constables -- Private detectives
     -- Commercial frauds -- 'Society for the Reformation of Manners'
     -- Statistics of their convictions -- The pillory -- Ducking
     stool                                                         407



     Dreadful condition of prisons -- Bridewell -- Description of --
     Flogging -- Houses of Correction -- Compters -- Description of
     the Poultry Compter -- 'Garnish' -- Newgate -- Description of --
     Marshalsea -- Queen's Bench -- Fleet and Ludgate -- Poor Debtors
     -- Kidnappers -- Country prisons -- Bankrupts                 425



     The London Workhouse -- Life therein -- Bedlam -- Its building --
     Regulations -- Description of interior -- Governors --
     Bartholomew Hospital -- St. Thomas's -- Almshouses            435


     Lilli-Burlero                                                 439

     Hunt the Squirll                                              439

     Moll Peatley                                                  440

     A List of all the Persons to whom Rings and Mourning were
     presented upon the occasion of Mr. Pepys's Death and Burial   441

     Lord Mayor's Delight                                          444

     Walsingham                                                    445

     The Children in the Wood                                      445

     A List of some of the Coffee-houses in London during Queen
     Anne's Reign, 1702-14                                         448

     Chocolate-houses                                              453

     Sir Roger de Coverley                                         453

     Roger of Coverly                                              453

     Christ Church Bells in Oxon                                   454

     Cheshire Rounds                                               455

     The Nightingale                                               455

     INDEX                                                         459



  THE 'DAILY COURANT,' March 11, 1702                   _Frontispiece_

  THE NURSERY (Steele's 'Ladies' Library,' ed. 1714)                 8

  'TROOPE, EVERY ONE' (Lauron's 'Habits and Cryes of the City of
  London,' ed. 1709)                                                 9

  A RAREE SHOW ('Cris de Paris,' 1700. Print Room, B. M.)           10

  'OH, RAREE SHOW!' (Lauron)                                        10

  'RIPE STRAWBERRYES!' (Lauron)                                     11

  'SIX PENCE A POUND FAIR CHERRYES' (Lauron)                        11

  A CORPSE (Undertaker's Bill, Harl. MSS. 5931, 129)                36

  INVITATION TO A FUNERAL (Harl. MSS. 5931, 186)                    37

  LYING IN STATE (Fletcher's 'The Tamer Tamed,' ed. 1711)           43

  A WIDOW ('Ladies' Library')                                       45

  A FIRE ('Verses of John Hall, Bellman of Canterbury,' 1708)       51

  'NEW RIVER WATER!' (Lauron)                                       52

  'SMALL COALE!' (Lauron)                                           55

  FIREPLACE AND UTENSILS (Harl. MSS. 5961, 220)                     56

  A BED (Harl. MSS. 5961, 180)                                      58

  'THE MERRY FIDLER' (Lauron)                                       65

  MEN KISSING (from a Contemporary View of Marlborough
  House--Guildhall)                                                 67

  A TEA PARTY (Satirical Prints, No. 1555. 1710? B. M.)             72

  A LADY AND FOOTMAN (View of Marlborough House--Guildhall)         74

  RIDING PILLION (From a View of Whitehall--1713--Guildhall)        76

  A BOURÉE AND A CONTRETEMPS (Weaver's 'Orchesography')             77

  A SISSONE (Siris' translation of Feuillet's book on Dancing)      77

  A CARD TABLE (Mrs. Centlivre's 'Basset Table,' ed. 1706)          79

  A GAMBLING SCENE (Lucas's 'Memoirs, &c., of the most famous
  Gamesters, &c.,' ed. 1714)                                        81

  A LOTTERY (Steele's 'A Good Husband for Five Shillings,'
  ed. 1710)                                                         88

  AN ASTROLOGER (Harl. MSS. 5931, 12)                               92

  '4 PAIRE FOR A SHILLING, HOLLAND SOCKS!' (Lauron)                115

  A JACK-BOOT                                                      117

   SHOE-BLACK ('Cris de Paris')                                    118

  A WATCH RIBAND (Harl. MSS. 5961, 222)                            121

  'OLD CLOAKS, SUITS, OR COATS!' (Lauron)                          122

  'OLD SATIN, OLD TAFFETY OR VELVET!' (Lauron)                     122

  A COMMODE (Anna Sophia of Hanover--Playing Cards, 1707, B. M.)   124

  COIFFURE (Princess Royal of Prussia--Playing Cards, 1707, B. M.) 128

  PATCHING (Lauron)                                                129

  A MASK OR VIZARD (Harl. MSS. 5996, 3)                            131

  AN UMBRELLA (Gay's 'Trivia,' 1st ed.)                            132

  COSTUME OF A LADY                                                140

  'FOUR FOR SIXPENCE, MACKERELL!' (Lauron)                         144

  'TWELVE PENCE A PECK, OYSTERS!' (Lauron)                         146

  A COFFEE HOUSE ('Vulgus Britannicus,' 1710)                      162

  THE LION AT BUTTON'S (Ireland's 'Graphic Illustrations of
  Hogarth')                                                        169

  A TAVERN SCENE (Satirical Prints, No. 1582. B. M. 1712)          176

  A LEOPARD (Harl. MSS. 5961, 327)                                 203

  'THE LEST MAN AND HORS IN THE WORLD' (Harl. MSS. 5996, 1)        206

  HUNGARIAN YOUTH (Harl. MSS. 5931, 280)                           209

  A POSTURE MASTER (Harl. MSS. 5961, 5)                            211

  PORTRAIT OF POWELL (from 'A Second Tale of a Tub,' ed. 1715)     215

  GLASS-BLOWING (Harl. MSS. 5961, 224)                             218

  WONDERFUL FOUNTAIN (Harl. MSS. 5961, 331)                        220

  THE FOUR INDIAN KINGS (Hand Bill, B. M. 816. m. 19/26)           222

  BILLIARDS (Cotton's 'Compleat Gamester,' ed. 1709)               243

  SAVERY'S STEAM ENGINE (from 'The Miner's Friend,' 1702)          291

  A PRINTING PRESS (Harl. MSS. 5915, 215)                          296

  'LONDON GAZETTES HERE!' (Lauron)                                 298

  A NEWS MAN ('Cris de Paris')                                     301

  NEWSPAPER STAMP (Newspapers of and after 1 Aug. 1712)            307

  PARTRIDGE AND BICKERSTAFF (Harl. MSS. 5931, 10)                  310

  SIR WILLIAM READ OPERATING (Handbill B. M. 778. K. 15/13)        324

  A QUACK (Harl. MSS. 5931, 147)                                   327

  A CLERGYMAN'S WALKING COSTUME (Satirical Prints, B. M. No.
  1546--A.D. 1702)                                                 341

  A BISHOP'S WALKING COSTUME (Satirical Prints, B. M. No.
  1546--A.D. 1702)                                                 342

  A PREBEND'S WALKING COSTUME (Satirical Prints, B. M. No.
  1546--A.D. 1702)                                                 342

  'THE MODERN CHAMPIONS' (Banks' Collection, B. M. 1890 _e_)       344

  A NONCONFORMIST MINISTER (Lauron)                                350

  A QUAKERS' MEETING ('The Quaker's Art of Courtship,' 1710)       351

        Ditto.    (Satirical Prints, B. M. No. 1554, by Heemskirk,
  A.D. 1710)                                                       352

  'THE FOLLY ON THE THAMES' (View of White Hall--Guildhall)        360

  A STREET SCENE (Gay's 'Trivia,' 1st ed.)                         363

  MILKMAID ON MAY DAY (Lauron)                                     369

  HACKNEY COACH (View of Westminster Abbey--Guildhall)             375

  A STATE COACH (Thanksgiving at St. Paul's for Peace, July 7,
  1713--Guildhall)                                                 377

  Ditto (Thanksgiving at St. Paul's for Peace, July 7,
  1713--Guildhall)                                                 378

  A SEDAN CHAIR (Vue du Palais Royall de White Hall--Guildhall)    381

  THE WATCH (Bell Man's Verses, 1708)                              388

  A CONSTABLE (WARD'S 'Nuptial Dialogues')                         389

  A DUEL (Playing Cards, 1707, B. M.)                              391

  Prints, B. M. 1712)                                              394

  SOLDIERS (Historical Prints, B. M. 1709)                         400

  AN ADMIRAL                                                       404

  'PEINE FORTE ET DURE' ('Newgate Chronicle'--Wm. Spigott,
  Pressed 1721)                                                    411

  BEATING HEMP (Bell Man's Verses, 1708)                           428

  FLOGGING A WOMAN (_ibid_)                                        428

  'REMEMBER THE POOR PRISONERS!' (Lauron)                          433







     The Duke of Gloucester -- The Queen's refusal to marry again --
     Treatment of children after birth -- Baptismal feasts -- A
     christening -- 'Daffy's Elixir' -- Treatment of infantile
     diseases -- The nursery -- Toys -- Children's books -- Horn books
     -- Private tuition -- Boarding and day schools -- Free schools --
     Classical education -- School books -- Penmanship -- Runaway boys
     -- College education -- Charity schools.

In all climes, and in all ages, since Man's creation, he has been
subject to the same conditions, modified only by circumstances. He has
been born--has had to receive some education (if only taught to fish
and hunt for his subsistence), which was to fit him for the position
he was to occupy in this life. This was absolutely necessary, for it
is scarcely possible to imagine a more helpless being than an infant.
In most cases he married, and so helped to preserve his species, and
most certainly he died.

The scheme of existence in Queen Anne's time was no exception to the
normal state of things--only, as the ways of people then were not
exactly similar to ours, it will be interesting to note the
differences attending childhood, education, marriage, and death. The
Queen herself had more than once been a mother;[1] but only one child,
the Duke of Gloucester, lived any length of time, and in his infancy
he was indebted for his life to a young Quakeress, who acted as his
wet nurse. Poor little fellow! his brief stay on earth was not a
pleasant one. He suffered from hydrocephalus (water on the brain), and
his head was so big that at five years of age his hat was large
enough for an ordinary man. He could hardly toddle about, and felt
himself unable to go upstairs without being led. His father and mother
seemed to think that this assistance was not necessary; and, shutting
themselves in a room with the poor little boy, Prince George gave him
such a severe thrashing with a birch rod, that sheer pain made him
move, and from that time he managed to get up and down stairs without
help. Coddled by the women, and with somewhat rough playmates of his
own sex, he amused himself by drilling his company of boy soldiers,
even reviewing them on his eleventh birthday, the day before he
sickened with scarlet fever, of which he speedily died. His mother
grieved sorely for him, but never had another child to supply his

          [Footnote 1: Seventeen times, in fact.]

On her accession to the throne, the succession (failing her issue) was
unsettled, and most anxious was the whole nation that she should yet
be the mother of their future sovereign. In 'The form of prayer with
thanksgiving to Almighty God to be used in all churches and chapels
within this realm, every year upon the eighth day of March (being the
day upon which Her Majesty began her happy reign),' in the prayer at
the Communion service, immediately before the reading of the epistle,
'for the Queen as supreme Governor of this Church,' was the following
petition: 'And that these Blessings may be continued to after Ages,
make the Queen, we pray thee, an happy Mother of Children, who being
Educated in Thy true Faith and Fear may happily succeed Her in the
Government of these Kingdoms.' Her husband, Prince George, died
October 28, 1708; and it was not until January 13 of the next year,
that the Council struck out this portion of the service, some one
evidently remembering that the 8th of March was approaching. On
January 28, 1709, both Houses of Parliament petitioned Her Majesty to
marry again; but her wounds were too recent and too sore. She replied
that the provision she had made for the Protestant succession would
always be a proof of her hearty concern for the happiness of the
nation; but that the subject of their address was of such a nature
that she was persuaded they did not expect a particular answer.[2]

          [Footnote 2: _The Chronological Historian_, &c., by W. Toone
          ed. 1826.]

Ignorantly as the little Duke of Gloucester was treated, what was the
condition of ordinary babies? Let a contemporary tell the tale.
Steele,[3] writing as if his familiar Pacolet was speaking, and giving
an experience of his sensations, says: 'The first thing that ever
struck my senses was a noise over my head of one shrieking; after
which, methought I took a full jump, and found myself in the hands of
a sorceress, who seemed as if she had been long waking, and employed
in some incantation. I was thoroughly frightened, and cried out; but
she immediately seemed to go on in some magical operation, and
anointed me from head to foot. What they meant I could not imagine:
for there gathered a great crowd about me, crying, "An heir! an
heir!" upon which I grew a little still, and believed this was a
ceremony only to be used to great persons, and such as made them what
they called heirs.

          [Footnote 3: _Tatler_, No. 15.]

'I lay very quiet, but the witch, for no manner of reason or
provocation in the world, takes me, and binds my head as hard as
possibly she could; then ties up both my legs, and makes me swallow
down an horrid mixture. I thought it an harsh entrance into life, to
begin with taking physic; but I was forced to it, or else must have
taken down a great instrument in which she gave it to me. When I was
thus dressed, I was carried to a bedside, where a fine young lady (my
mother, I wot) had liked to have hugged me to death. From her they
faced me about, and there was a thing with quite another look from the
rest of the company, to whom they talked about my nose. He seemed
wonderfully pleased to see me; but I know since, my nose belonged to
another family.

'That into which I was born is one of the most numerous among you;
therefore crowds of relations came every day to congratulate my
arrival; amongst others, my cousin Betty, the greatest romp in nature;
she whisks me such a height over her head, that I cried out for fear
of falling. She pinched me and called me _squealing chit_, and threw
me into a girl's arms that was taken in to tend me. The girl was very
proud of the womanly employment of a nurse, and took upon her to strip
and dress me anew, because I made a noise, to see what ailed me; she
did so, and stuck a pin in every joint about me. I still cried; upon
which she lays me on my face in her lap; and to quiet me, fell to
a-nailing in all the pins, by clapping me on the back, and screaming a
lullaby. But my pain made me exalt my voice above hers, which brought
up the nurse, the witch I first saw, and my grandmother. The girl is
turned downstairs, and I stripped again, as well to find what ailed me
as to satisfy my granam's farther curiosity. This good woman's visit
was the cause of all my troubles. You are to understand that I was
hitherto bred by hand, and anybody that stood next me gave me pap if I
did but open my lips; insomuch, that I was grown so cunning as to
pretend myself asleep when I was not, to prevent my being crammed.

'But my grandmother began a loud lecture upon the idleness of this
age, who, for fear of their shapes, forbear suckling their own
offspring; and ten nurses were immediately sent for; one was whispered
to have a wanton eye, and would soon spoil her milk; another was in a
consumption; the third had an ill voice, and would frighten me instead
of lulling me to sleep. Such exceptions were made against all but one
country milch-wench, to whom I was committed and put to the breast.
This careless jade was perpetually romping with the footman, and
downright starved me; insomuch that I daily pined away, and should
never have been relieved had it not been that on the thirtieth day of
my life a Fellow of the Royal Society,[4] who had writ upon "Cold
Baths," came to visit me, and solemnly protested I was utterly lost
for want of that method; upon which he soused me head and ears into a
pail of water, where I had the good fortune to be drowned.'

          [Footnote 4: Probably Sir John Floyer, who wrote several
          books on the wonderful cures made by cold-water bathing.]

After its birth the babe was soon baptized, but there does not seem to
have been a great social fuss made about the event. That most
entertaining and observant traveller Henri Misson, who visited England
at the very close of the seventeenth century, and whose book was
translated into English in 1719,[5] says, 'The custom here is not to
make great feasts at the birth of their children. They drink a glass
of wine and eat a bit of a certain cake, which is seldom made but upon
these occasions.'

          [Footnote 5: _M. Misson's Memoirs and Observations in his
          Travels over England_, &c., translated by Ozells, 1719.]

Ward,[6] however, has left us a humorous description of a private
christening. He was asked by a relation to stand Godfather to his
newborn Child, and 'I, wanting ill-Nature enough to resist his
Importunities, submitted to his Requests; and engag'd for once to
stand as a _Tom Doodle_ for an hour or two, to be banter'd by a
Tittle-Tattle Assembly of Female Gossips. The time appointed for the
Solemnisation of this Ancient piece of Formality being come, after I
had put on a clean Band, and bestow'd Two Penniworth of Razorridge on
the most Fertile part of my Face, whose Septuary Crop requir'd Mowing,
away I Trotted towards the Joyful Habitation of my Friend and Kinsman,
but with as aking a Heart as a Wise Man goes to be Married, or a
Broken Merchant comes near the Counter.... As soon as we came into the
Room, and had bow'd our Backs to the old Cluster of Harridans, and
they in return had bent their knees to us, I sneak'd up to the
Parson's Elbow, and my Partner after me ... whilst Old Mother Grope
stood rocking of the Bantling in her Arms, wrap'd up in so Rich a
Mantle as if both _Indias_ had club'd their utmost Riches to furnish
out a Noble covering for my little Kinsman, who came as callow into
the world as a Bird out of an Eggshell.

          [Footnote 6: _The London Spy_, ed. 1703.]

'At last the Babe was put into my hands to deliver, tho' not as my Act
and Deed, to the Parson, who having consecrated some _New River water_
for his purpose, wash'd away Original Sin from my new Nephew, and
brought him amongst us Christians into a state of Salvation. But when
my froward Godson felt the Cold Water in his face, he threaten'd the
Priest with such a parcel of Angry Looks, that if he had been strong
enough I dare swear he would have serv'd him the same Sauce, and under
the same Ignorance would have return'd him but little thanks for his
Labour. After we had joined together in a Petition for the good of the
infant Christian, the Religious part was concluded.... As soon as the
Parson had refreshed his Spirits with a bumper of Canary, dedicated to
the Mother; and the Clerk had said Amen to his Master's good Wishes,
after the like manner, each of 'em accepted of a Paper of Sweetmeats
for his Wife or his Children, and away they went, leaving the Company
behind.' They then seem to have drunk a full quantity of wine, and the
women having eaten, drank, and gossiped sufficiently, were each
presented with 'a Service of Sweetmeats, which every Gossip carried
away in her Handkerchief.... Having now struggled through every
difficult part of these Accustomary Formalities, I had nothing to do
but to Thank them for our Liberal Entertainment, Wish the Women well
again, and both much Happiness in their Male Offspring, and so take my
Leave, which I did accordingly; and was as greatly overjoyed when I
got out of the House as ever Convict was that had broke Gaol or
Detected Pick Pocket that had Escaped a Horse Pond.'

Having launched our baby thus far in life, we will see how he was
treated when suffering from any of the numerous ailments which infancy
is subject to. The marvel is that so many grew up. It was eminently
'the survival of the fittest.' Sanitary arrangements were extremely
rudimentary; little care being taken either as to the purity of the
water supply, or the efficiency of drainage. Fever was always in their
midst, and, neither inoculation nor vaccination being known, or
practised, smallpox was rampant, and spared no class, from the Queen
(Mary) to the beggar. Was the child fretful, there was that cordial
dear to old nurses of the Gamp school--Daffy's Elixir. This remedy,
which has survived as a popular nostrum to our own time, was not new
in Queen Anne's reign. It must even then have been a profitable
property, for rivals could afford to quarrel over it, as the following
advertisements show:--



          [Footnote 7: _Harl._ 5931, 336.]

The Finest now expos'd to Sale, prepar'd from the best Druggs,
according to Art, and the Original Receipt, which my Father Mr. Thomas
Daffy, late Rector of _Redmile_, in the Valley of _Belvoir_, having
experienc'd the Virtue of it, imparted to his Kinsman Mr. _Anthony
Daffy_, who publish'd the same to the Benefit of the Community, and
his own great Advantage. This Very Original Receipt is now in my
possession, left to me by my Father aforesaid, under his own Hand. My
own Brother Mr. _Daniel Daffy_, formerly Apothecary in _Nottingham_,
made this ELIXIR from the same Receipt, and Sold it there during his
Life. Those who know me will believe what I Declare; and those who do
not may be convinc'd that I am no counterfeit, by the Colour, Tast,
Smell, and just Operation of my ELIXIR. To be had at the _Hand and
Pen_ in _Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London_; and many other Places in
Town and Country.'

_Primâ facie_, the lady would seem to have made out her case; but
there were other aspirants to fame--as the following notice[8] will

          [Footnote 8: _Ibid._ 121.]


     'Forasmuch as Mrs. _Elizabeth Daffy_ has lately Published an
     Advertisement containing Invidious Reflections upon me, in
     relation to my _Elixir Salutis_, I should be wanting to my Self
     if I should not obviate them in the like public manner, to let
     the World see they are Malicious, unreasonable, and false.

     'In the first place she charges me with Clandestinely taking the
     House in _Prugeon's Court_; which, by her leave, is equally
     absurd and unjust; for the House was to be Lett a long time
     before I took it (nor had she any lease of the House, or any
     Power to Lett it), so consequently any one else might have taken
     the same. As for my pretending to have been her Husband's
     Assistant in preparing the _Elixir_, I will only say this is just
     as true as the former Story; and I challenge her to produce one
     single Evidence of Refutation to prove her Assertion: nor had I
     need of any such trifling pretence, having known the Secret some
     time before the Death of his Father Dr. _Anthony Daffy_; which I
     presume was before the said _Elias Daffy_ was privy to the
     preparing of the said _Elixir_ (he being then a _Cambridge_
     scholar), and the same was communicated to me in the year 1684,
     at the time I was going to travel beyond Sea, where, in divers
     Countries, considerable Quantities of my _Elixir_ has been taken
     by Persons of the greatest Rank, Quality, and Note, to their
     great Satisfaction.

     'And whereas the said Mrs. Daffy is pleased to call my _Elixir_
     Spurious, and Insinuates as if it were hazardous to the Lives of
     Men; the numerous Instances of Good it has done, both here and
     abroad, do manifestly evince the Contrary. And I appeal to all
     who have taken it in this City, or elsewhere, whether they have
     not found at least as much Benefit from This as from any Thing of
     the like Nature they have ever taken; insomuch that I am well
     assured that those who have tried mine will apply themselves to
     nobody else for _Elixir Salutis_.

                                                       'JOHN HARRISON.

     'From my House in Prujean's Court in the Great Old Baly (The
     Original and famous Elixir Salutis) being wrote in Golden
     Characters over the Door fronting the Court Gate. March the 31st,

One doctor at least (John Pechy) made the diseases of infants and
children his study, and wrote upon the subject. I have been unable to
get his book, but a few remedies from the medical works then in vogue
will show how these diseases were then treated. Here is a recipe for a
child's cough.[9]

          [Footnote 9: _Collectanea Medica_, by Wm. Salmon, M.D.]

Horehound, ℥ix; Liquorice, Maidenhair, Hyssop, Wild Thyme,
Coltsfoot, Penny royal, ana ℥iij. Aniseeds and Fennel seeds ana
℥iss. Raisins of the Sun ℥vj. Figs, Jujubes ana ℥iv.
Elecampane ℥ij, boil all in lb. vj. of water to 1/2. Strain,
and add Honey, Sugar, ana lb. j. Boil to a Syrup; and when almost cold
add Orrice, Woodlice, both in fine powder, ana ℥j.'

This mixture might not have been bad, but why add powdered _woodlice_?

Worms in children were to be treated with 'Prevotius's Oyl to kill
Worms.[10] Take--Wormwood, Carduus, Scordium, Tobacco, ana Mj, Roots
of Sow bread ℥fs, Coloquintida, ℥ij, Oyl, Vinegar, ana lb.
j: boil to the consumption of the vinegar, then add Myrrh in powder
℥j; mix, and boil to the dissolution of the Myrrh. The Title
shows the Virtues, anoint it upon the Stomach and Belly.' If this was
not effective, the child might be given some lozenges made as
follows--'Take Rhubarb, Citron seeds husked, Worm seeds, seeds of
Purslain, of Coleworts, Broom finely powdered, ana ʒiij
☿ dulcis ʒij, White Sugar ʒxvj, all being in fine pouder; mix
and incorporate with mucilage of Gum Tragacanth, made with Orange-flower
water, of which Past make Lozenges each weighing ʒj. They kill all
Worms in the Stomach and Bowels, and you may give one or two of the
lozenges at a time to a Child in the Morning fasting, but some suppose
that the best time is the last three days of the Moon.'

          [Footnote 10: _Collectanea Medica._]

The Measles were simply treated--the patient only had a draught to
soothe any cough, 'Let the sick keep their bed two days after the
first coming forth of the spots.'[11]

          [Footnote 11: _The Family Physitian_, by Geo. Hartman.]

In teething, a child should be soothed every four hours with a
spoonful of black cherry water, in which two, three, or four drops of
Spirits of Hartshorn have been mixed.[12]

          [Footnote 12: _Ibid._]

There is[13] 'An experimented Remedy for the Rickets. Take roots of
Smallage, Parsly, Fennel, and Angelica Roots, slice and boil them in
distilled water of Angelica, unset Hyssop and Coltsfoot, of each one
part, till they are tender, then strain it, and boil it up to a syrup,
with white Honey. Then take a stick of Liquorice, scrape it, and
bruise one end of it, and give the Child with it of the syrup one
spoonful in the Morning, at four of the Afternoon, and at night.'

          [Footnote 13: _Ibid._]

There was also advertised 'A necklace that cures all sorts of Fits in
children occasioned by Teeth or any other Cause; as also all fits in
Men and Women. To be had at Mr. Larance's in Somerset Court, near
Northumberland House in the Strand; price 10_s._ for 8 days, though
the cure will be performed immediately;' and there was a palatable
medium for the little ones in 'the so-much approved Purging Sugar

Of the Nursery we know very little; indeed children are very seldom
mentioned. It is most likely that, in well-to-do families, they were
relegated to the nursery, and the care of their mothers, until they
were of fit age to go to school. The accompanying illustration, taken
from 'The Ladies' Library,' ed. 1714, by Steele, gives us an
excellent view of the nursery.

[Illustration: The Nursery.]

The very babies were amused much as now--for Addison, _Spectator_, No.
1, speaking of his natural gravity, says, 'I threw away my rattle
before I was two Months old, and would not make use of my Coral till
they had taken away all the Bells from it.' Some of these corals were
very beautiful and costly, even being made of gold.

We know how, from the earliest ages, a doll has been the favourite toy
with girls, and the reign of 'Good Queen Anne' was no exception to the
general rule--but they were not then called Dolls, but 'Babies'; so,
indeed, were Powel's Marionettes--as also the milliner's models. 'On
Saturday last, being the 12th instant, there arrived at my House in
King Street, Covent Garden, a French Baby for the year 1712' &c. Some
were made of wax, but these were, of course, of the expensive sort, as
must also have been those in Widow Smith's raffle--'large joynted
dressed Babies.' Probably, dolls were the girls' only playthings. As
to the boys, history records very little of their amusements. Give a
boy in the nursery a whip, or a stick, to beat somebody, or something,
he generally is content. How superlatively happy, however, must he
have been in the possession of one of these wonderful
horses?--warranted chargers--troop horses, every one! They also had
card-board windmills on the end of sticks. We hear nothing of marbles,
tops, or any other toys; but, doubtless, children's ingenuity supplied
any defects that way, then as now, and made shift to play, and amuse
themselves, until the time of enfranchisement came, and the boy could
wander in the streets and see the marvels of the raree show, and buy
'hot baked wardens--hot,' or some of old 'Colly Molly Puffe's'
pastry--or, should his tastes be simpler, there were 'Ripe
Strawberryes,' or 'Sixpence a pound fair Cherryes.'

[Illustration: 'Troope, Every One.']

These little folk, however, had their special literature. For there
was compiled and printed 'A Play book for Children, to allure them to
read as soon as they can speak plain; composed of small Pages so as
not to tire children; printed with a fair and pleasing Letter, the
Matter and Method plainer and easier than any yet extant.' The price
of this was fourpence, and it must have been a favourite, for it is
advertised as being in its second edition in 1703. Certainly, the
little ones then lacked many advantages in this way that ours
possess--but, on the other hand, so much was not required of them.
There was no dreaded 'Exam.' to prepare for--no doing lessons all day
long, and then working hard at night to get ready for the next day's
toil. They were not taught half a dozen languages, and all the
ologies, whilst still in the nursery; but, were the suggestions and
advice given to 'the Mother' in Steele's 'Lady's Library' thoroughly
carried out, they would grow up good men and women.

[Illustration: A Raree Show.]

The boys, however, had strong meat provided for them in such tales as
'Jack and the Giants,' &c. Steele, in _Tatler_ 95, says, speaking of a
little boy of eight years old, 'I perceived him a very great historian
in "Æsop's Fables," but he frankly declared to me his mind "that he
did not delight in that learning, because he did not believe they were
true," for which reason I found he had very much turned his studies
for about a twelvemonth past unto the lives and adventures of Don
Bellianis of Greece, Guy of Warwick, the Seven Champions, and other
historians of that age.... He would tell you the mismanagements of
John Hickerthrift, find fault with the passionate temper in Bevis of
Southampton, and loved Saint George for being the champion of
England.... I was extolling his accomplishments, when his mother told
me that the little girl who led me in this morning was in her way a
better scholar than he. "Betty," says she, "deals chiefly in Fairies
and Sprights; and sometimes in a winter night will terrify the maids
with her accounts, until they are afraid to go up to bed."'

[Illustration: 'Oh, Raree Show.']

In all probability the child learned his letters in the first instance
from a 'Hornbook,' such as were then commonly used and sold--as the
following excerpt from an advertisement shows: 'Joseph Hazard at the
Bible, in Stationers Court, near Ludgate, sells ... Spelling books,
Primers, _Hornbooks_, &c.' Hornbooks are now very scarce indeed, and
the man lucky enough to possess a genuine one must feel proud of his
rarity. It consisted of a small sheet of paper, generally about 4 in.
× 3 in. or so--sometimes smaller--on which was printed the alphabet,
both in capitals and small text, the vowels, and a few simple
combinations, such as ab, eb, ib, ob, ub,--ba, be, bi, bo, bu, &c.,
and the Lord's Prayer. This was laid on a flat piece of board with a
roughly shaped handle, and covered with a thin plate of horn, fastened
to the board by copper tacks driven through an edging of thin copper.
It therefore would stand a vast amount of rough usage before it would
be destroyed--a fact of great importance in elementary education.

[Illustration: 'Ripe Strawberryes!']

[Illustration: 'Six Pence a Pound Fair Cherryes!']

Private tuition existed then as now. 'A Grave Gentlewoman of about 50
years of age desires to be Governess to any Gentleman's Children; she
can give a very good account of herself,' and 'Whereas in this
degenerate Age Youth are kept for so many Years in following the Latin
Tongue, and many of them are quite discourag'd, Mr. Switterda (who was
formerly recommended to the late King William, and well known by their
Excellences my Lord Sparkein and my Lord Methuen) offers a very easy
and delightful Method, by which any Person of tolerable Capacity, who
can but spare time to be twice a Week with him, and an Hour at a Time,
nay, Children of ten Years of Age, may in one Year learn to speak
Latin and French fluently, according to the Grammar rules, and to
understand a Classical Author; and if they are not compleat in that
time, he will teach them without any farther Charge, provided they
will be manag'd.' Another gentleman, living in Abchurch Lane, offered
to do the same, and, moreover, 'he offereth to be bound to every one
for the performance thereof, and to give a Month's trial.'

But a Day School was the normal institution for a boy, although there
were Boarding Schools. Judging by the advertisements, these must have
been but few in the beginning of the reign, as they gradually become
more numerous towards its close. A record of one or two will suffice
to show what kind of education they gave. 'At the upper end of Knights
Bridge, near the Salutation, there is a Boarding School for young
Gentlemen, where, besides French, are carefully taught, after the best
English method, Latin, Greek, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, &c.' And
again, 'At Lady Day next will be open'd a Boarding School for young
Gentlemen at Kensington Gravel Pits, by Richard Johnson, A.M., author
of the Grammatical Commentaries.... There will be taught also French,
Writing, Arithmetick, and Mathematicks;' whilst another takes a wider
range: 'A boarding School will be open'd after Easter, at Chertsey ...
for the Instruction of Youth in the English, French, Latin, Greek, and
Hebrew Tongues, besides Geography, History, Mathematicks, Writing, and
Accompts; to fit 'em either for the University, Study of the Law, or
other Business.'

In London, too, were many free schools. There were Westminster,
Merchant Taylors', Paul's, Greyfriars, Christ's Hospital, and St.
Olave's, Southwark. There were three free schools in Westminster
besides the Queen's School; these were, Palmer's in Tuttlefields,
Almery School, and Hill's School. Besides which were Lady Owen's
School, Islington, and Bunhill School--and there were free schools in
Cherrytree Alley, Castle Street (Tennyson's), Great Queen Street,
Parker's Lane, Church Entry, Old Jewry, Whitechapel, Ratcliffe, Foster
Lane, Hoxton, St. Saviour's, Southwark, Plough Yard, Rotherhithe, and
East Smithfield--and this probably is not an exhaustive list.

Although French, High Dutch, and Italian were taught, it was a
Classical age, and every gentleman was bound to be a fair, if not a
good, classical scholar; indeed, other branches of education were
neglected for this, as Steele complains (_Spectator_, No. 147) that
boys at school, 'When they are got into Latin, they are looked upon as
above English, the reading of which is wholly neglected, or at least
read to very little purpose.' We might look a long time now-a-days for
an advertisement such as the following: 'At Hogarth's[14] Coffee House
in St. John's Gate, the mid-way between Smithfield Bars and
Clerkenwel, there will meet every day at 4 o'clock some Learned
Gentlemen who speak Latin readily, where any Gentleman that is either
skilled in that Language, or desirous to perfect himself in speaking
thereof, will be welcome. The Master of the House, in the absence of
others, being always ready to entertain gentlemen in the Latin
Tongue.' It is much to be doubted if that literary society, the Urban
Club, which till lately held its meetings at the same place, St.
John's Gate, could do the same.

          [Footnote 14: Father of the celebrated painter.]

Let us glance at a few of the school books then in vogue. First of all
is one of the immortal Cocker, 'according to' whom all correct
calculations should be made. Although he had been long dead (since
1677), his works lived after him; and there were also other works on
Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, and the use of the Globes. (By the
way, a pair of 9-in. diam. globes only cost a guinea.) There were
Latin Dictionaries, Lilly's Latin Grammar, and an abridgment of it for
the use of Blackheath School. There was that English Grammar which
'Isaac Bickerstaff' (Steele) puffed up so: 'That as grammar in general
is on all hands allow'd the foundation of all arts and sciences, so it
appears to me that this grammar of the English tongue has done that
justice to our language which, 'till now, it never obtained;' and
there was 'A Guide to the English Tongue, by Thos. Dyche, schoolmaster
in London,' the second edition of which was published in 1710, but
which has been so popular that a revised edition of it was published
as late as 1816; and there were any quantity of books on
writing--notably the 'Paul's Scholar's Copy Book, by John Rayner,'
immortalised in _Tatler_ 138. The writing of the age was very
good--and many are the specimens of elaborate caligraphy in the
'Bagford Collection': for unassuming and yet good writing, perhaps,
however, the best are in Harl. MS. 5995, 211, &c.[15] In the
eighteenth century penmanship was held in higher estimation than now,
and in 1763 W. Massey published 'The Origin and Progress of Letters,'
in which he gave the lives of the most famous writing masters during
the preceding hundred years. He mentions some half-dozen or more, as
living in Anne's reign, but Charles Snell seems to have been the most

          [Footnote 15: _Harl. MSS._, British Museum.]

As may be supposed, when so much pains was taken in writing, there
were many curiosities of caligraphic art. Here is one: 'A piece of
close Knotting, viz. 2 Boys holding Circles in their Hands, either
being less than a Silver Penny, in which are perspicuously wrote the
Lords Prayer in Latin and English. Invented and perform'd by John
Dundas (who will shortly publish a Copy book with about 50 new
Fancies).... N.B. Any Gentleman or Lady that desires small Writing for
a Ring, Locket, or other Curiosity, may be furnished by the Author.'

That pens other than quill were in use is evidenced by an
advertisement _re_ a lost pocket-book, which contained 'a Brass Pen.'

Stenography was practised somewhat extensively, to judge by the
numerous advertisements; but William Mason, living at the Hand and
Pen, in the Poultry, claimed to be 'the Author and Teacher of the
shortest Shorthand extant.'

And yet, with all these scholastic advantages, some boys would not be
happy; but, as boys have done ever since boarding schools have been
invented, they sometimes ran away. _Vide_ the following
advertisements: 'A Gentleman's only Child is run from School; he is
about 12 years of Age, with light Cloaths lin'd with red, a well
favour'd brisk Boy, with a fair old Wig: speaks a little thro' the
Scots, his Name Alex Mackdonald: he has been in Spain and Portugal,
which makes his Parents fear that some Ship may entertain him.'
Whoever captured this lad was to be 'sufficiently rewarded,' whilst
the next runaway was only valued at 'half a guinea and charges,'
although he was dressed so smartly: 'A little slim, fair hair'd
handsome English Boy, who speaks French very well, between 11 and 12
Years of Age, with a sad colour, coarse Kersay Coat trim'd with flat
new Gilded Brass Buttons, with a whitish Calla-manca Waistcoat with
round Plate Silver Buttons, and a little Silver Edging to his Hat,
with fine white Worsted rowl'd Stockings, and with Silver Plate
Buttons to his sad colour Sagathy Stuff Britches: went away from
School on Thursday, the 6th Inst. Supposed to be gone towards Wapping,
Rotherif, Greenwich, or Gravesend, he having been seen near the Thames
Side asking for a Master to go to sea.' Curious how, in every century
since Elizabeth's time, the runaway English boy naturally flies to the
water. Always the same tale: ran away and went to sea. Here were two
well-nurtured lads, more than ordinarily accomplished, yet they were
bitten by this same tarantula.

Let the _Spectator_ describe the rising generation of that time after
they had finished their academic career and had gone to the
university. In No. 54, attributed to Steele, speaking of Cambridge, he
says, 'Now for their manner of living: and here I shall have a large
field to expatiate in; but I shall reserve particulars for my intended
discourse, and now only mention one or two of their principal
exercises. The elder proficients employ themselves in inspecting
_mores hominum multorum_, in getting acquainted with all the signs and
windows in the town. Some have arrived to so great knowledge, that
they can tell every time a butcher kills a calf, every time any old
woman's cat is in the straw; and a thousand matters as important. One
ancient philosopher contemplates two or three hours every day over a
sun-dial; and is true to the dial.

  As the dial to the sun,
  Although it be not shone upon.

Our younger students are content to carry their speculation as yet no
further than bowling greens, billiard tables, and such like places.'

Of the reading men, he says, 'They were ever looked upon as a people
that impaired themselves more by their strict application to the rules
of their order than any other students whatever. Others seldom hurt
themselves any further than to gain weak eyes, and sometimes
headaches; but these philosophers are seized all over with a general
inability, indolence, and weariness, and a certain impatience of the
place they are in, with an heaviness in removing to another.

'The loungers are satisfied with being merely part of the number of
mankind, without distinguishing themselves from amongst them. They may
be said rather to suffer their time to pass than to spend it, without
regard to the past or prospect of the future. All they know of life is
only in the present instant, and do not taste even that. When one of
this order happens to be a man of fortune, the expense of his time is
transferred to his coach and horses, and his life is to be measured by
their motion, not his own enjoyments or sufferings. The chief
entertainment one of these philosophers can possibly propose to
himself is to get a relish of dress. This, methinks, might diversify
the person he is weary of, his own dear self, to himself. I have known
these two amusements make one of these philosophers make a tolerable
figure in the world; with variety of dresses in public assemblies in
town, and quick motion of his horses out of it, now to Bath, now to
Tunbridge, then to Newmarket, and then to London, he has, in process
of time, brought it to pass, that his coach and his horses have been
mentioned in all these places.' And this description, with a little
alteration, would pass as a fair reflex of modern undergraduate
existence at either Oxford or Cambridge.

Before closing the question of male education, we must not forget that
in Queen Anne's time was inaugurated that system of charity schools
which has played so prominent a part in our national system of
education, and which has not yet been superseded by our Board Schools.
Steele (_Spectator_, 380) notices this movement--

                                           'St. Bride's, May 15, 1712.

     'Sir,--'Tis a great deal of Pleasure to me, and I dare say will
     be no less Satisfaction to you, that I have an Opportunity of
     informing you that the Gentlemen and others of the Parish of St.
     Brides have raised a Charity School of fifty Girls as before of
     fifty Boys. You were so kind to recommend the Boys to the
     Charitable World, and the other Sex hope you will do them the
     same Favour in Fridays _Spectator_ for Sunday next, when they are
     to appear with their humble Airs at the Parish Church of St.
     Brides. Sir, the Mention of this may possibly be serviceable to
     the Children: and sure no one will omit a good Action attended
     with no expence.

     'I am, Sir,
           'Your very humble Servant,
                                                         'THE SEXTON.'

At the public thanksgiving for peace in 1713,[16] the charity children
were placed in rising rows of seats in the Strand to see the
procession pass, and the Queen go to St. Paul's to return thanks--and
bitter must have been the disappointment of the little ones at the
Queen's absence, on account of illness.

          [Footnote 16: There is a very large and beautiful engraving
          of this scene, from which are taken the illustrations of
          carriages, _post_.]

A contemporary account of this festival says: 'Upon the Thanksgiving
day for the Peace, about Four Thousand Charity Children (Boys and
Girls), new Cloath'd, were placed upon a Machine in the Strand, which
was in Length above 600 Foot, and had in Bredth Eight Ranges of seats
one above another, whereby all the Children appear'd in full View of
both Houses of Parliament, in the solemn Procession they made to St.
Paul's upon that joyful Occasion, and who, by their singing Hymns of
Prayer and Praise to God for her Majesty, as well as by their
Appearance, contributed very much to adorn so welcome a Festival; and
gave great Satisfaction to all the Spectators, not without some
Surprize to Foreigners who never had beheld such a glorious Sight. The
Trustees of the several Charity Schools in and about London and
Westminster readily agreed upon Measures for placing the Children in
the expected View of Her Majesty, as a Testimony of their great Duty
and Humble Thankfulness to Her Majesty for the particular Countenance
and Encouragement Her Majesty hath always vouchsafed to give to the
Charity Schools,[17] whereby She may be truly stiled their Patron and
Protector. Her Majesty not being present, the Hymns were both sung and
repeated during the whole Procession, which lasted near Three Hours;
and for the Satisfaction and Entertainment of the Publick they are
printed as follows:--

          [Footnote 17: The Queen recommended the design of charity
          schools to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, in a
          letter dated August 20, 1711: 'And forasmuch as the pious
          Instruction and Education of Children is the surest Way of
          preserving and propagating the Knowledge and Practice of
          true Religion, it hath been very acceptable to US to hear,
          that for the Attaining these good Ends, many _Charity
          Schools_ are now Erected throughout the Kingdom, by the
          liberal Contributions of OUR Good subjects; WE do therefore
          earnestly recommend it to you, by all proper Ways, to
          encourage and promote so excellent a Work, and to
          countenance and assist the Persons principally concerned in
          it, as they shall always be sure of Our Protection and

  'Hymns to be sung by the Charity Children upon the 7th of July,
  1713, being the Thanksgiving Day for the PEACE.

'As Her MAJESTY goes to St. Paul's--

      Lord give the QUEEN Thy saving Health,
        Whose Hope on Thee depends:
      Grant Her Increase of Fame and Wealth,
        With Bliss that never ends!
  Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah!
  Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah!

       For Her our fervent Vows aspire,
        Our Praises are Address'd;
      Thou hast fulfill'd Her Heart's Desire
        And granted Her Request.
            Allelujah, &c.

      A Nursing Mother to Thy Fold,
        Long, long may She remain,
      And then with Joy Thy Face behold,
        And with Thee ever Reign.
            Allelujah, &c.

As Her MAJESTY returns from St. Paul's--

  Glory to GOD who Reigns on High,
    Whom Saints and Angels praise;
  Who from His Throne above the Sky,
    The Sons of Men surveys.
        Allelujah, &c.

  PEACE, His best Gift, to Earth's return'd,
    Long may it here remain;
  As we too long its Absence mourn'd,
    Nor sigh'd to Heav'n in vain.
        Allelujah, &c.

  Good Will, Fair Friendship (Heavenly Guest!)
    And Joy and Holy Love,
  Make all Mankind completely bless'd,
    Resembling Those above.
        Allelujah, &c.




     Boarding schools -- Town and country educations -- Pastry
     schools -- Dancing -- Toasts -- 'The Little Whig' -- Madame

Girls were not all educated at home--though, doubtless, the majority
of them were, with the exception of their dancing lessons--but had
boarding schools of their own; and the schoolmistresses seem always to
have been harassed by malicious reports. For instance: 'Whereas it is
reported that Mrs. Overing who keeps a Boarding School at Bethnal
Green near Hackney, is leaving off; this is to give Notice that the
said Report is false, if not Malicious. And that she continues to take
sober young Gentlewomen to board, and teaches whatsoever is necessary
to the Accomplishment of that Sex.' Take another: 'Mrs. Elizabeth
Tutchin[18] continues to keep her School at Highgate, notwithstanding
Reports to the contrary. Where young Gentlewomen may be soberly
Educated, and taught all sorts of Learning fit for young Gentlewomen.'
Observe the stress that was then laid on the _sobriety_ inculcated in
these establishments. Read the plays--read the essays of the time--and
then, if they are to be taken at all as a just standard of feminine
conduct, you will, undoubtedly, come to the conclusion that sobriety
of conduct was just the very quality that required instilling into the
heads of the maidenhood of the time. Pert little hoydens--ogling the
men, flirting their fans, their thoughts always running on a
husband--the schoolmistresses of that time must have had hard work to
keep them serious, and need of most dragon-like guardianship. They
were not taught much, these girls; 'the Needle, Dancing, and the
French tongue,' says one--'a little Music, on the Harpsichord, or
Spinet, to read, write, and cast accounts in a small way'--this was
the sum of their education. Essentially were they to be housekeepers.
Here is the description an exceptionally accomplished young lady gives
of her own education:[19] 'You know my father was a tradesman, and
lived very well by his traffick; and I, being beautiful, he thought
nature had already given me part of my portion, and therefore he would
add a liberal education, that I might be a complete gentlewoman; away
he sent me to the boarding school; there I learned to dance and sing,
to play on the bass viol, virginals, spinet, and guitar. I learned to
make wax work, japan, paint upon glass, to raise paste, make
sweetmeats, sauces, and everything that was genteel and fashionable.'
Here we see the best obtainable education of the town-bred lady. What
was a girl's education in the country like?[20]

          [Footnote 18: She was sister of Tutchin, of the

          [Footnote 19: _The Levellers_, a dialogue between two young
          ladies concerning matrimony, &c.]

          [Footnote 20: _The Scowrers_, by Shadwell.]

     _Priscilla._ Did she not bestow good breeding upon you there?

     _Eugenia._ Breeding! what, to learn to feed Ducklings, and cram

     _Clara._ To see Cows milk'd, learn to Churn, and make Cheese?

     _Eugen._ To make Clouted cream, and whipt Sillabubs?

     _Clara._ To make a Caraway Cake and raise Py Crust?

     _Eugen._ And to learn the top of your skill in Syrrup,
     Sweetmeats, _Aqua mirabilis_, and Snayl water.

     _Clara._ Or your great Cunning in Cheese cakes, several Creams
     and Almond butter.

     _Prisc._ Ay, ay, and 'twere better for all the Gentlemen in
     England that Wives had no other breeding, but you had Musick and

     _Eugen._ Yes, an ignorant, illiterate, hopping Puppy, that rides
     his Dancing Circuit thirty Miles about, lights off his tyred
     Steed, draws his Kit[21] at a poor Country Creature, and gives
     her a Hich in her Pace, that she shall never recover.

          [Footnote 21: A pocket violin.]

     _Clara._ And for Musick an old hoarse singing man riding ten
     miles from his Cathedral to Quaver out the Glories of our Birth
     and State, or it may be a Scotch Song more hideous and barbarous
     than an Irish Cronan.

     _Eug._ And another Musick Master from the next town to Teach one
     to twinkle out _Lilly burlero_[22] upon an old pair of Virginals,
     that sound worse than a Tinker's Kettle that he cries his work

          [Footnote 22: See Appendix. 'Lilli burlero' and 'Bullen a
          lah' are said to have been the watchwords used by the Irish
          Papists in their massacre of the Protestants in 1641. The
          ballad to this tune was written in 1686, when James II. made
          the Earl of Tyrconnel, a bigoted papist, Lieutenant of
          Ireland. The words are nonsensical, but the tune is
          catching, and became very popular. This song is said to have
          contributed greatly in bringing about the Revolution of

We saw that even the accomplished town young lady was taught how to
raise paste, &c.; indeed that was a regular branch of a girl's
education, and all housewifely gifts were thoroughly appreciated.

     _Niece._ Good madam, don't upbraid me with my Mother _Bridget_,
     and an excellent housewife.

     _Aunt._ Yes, I say, she was, and spent her time in better
     Learning than ever you did. Not in reading of Fights and Battels
     of Dwarfs and Giants; but in writing out receipts for Broths,
     Possets, Caudles and Surfeit Waters, as became a good Country

          [Footnote 23: _The Tender Husband_ (Steele).]

But, if girls could not learn pastry-making at home, or wanted a
higher class of education therein, there were the forerunners of our
'Schools of Cookery' in the shape of 'Pastry Schools,' where the
professor demonstrated. Here is one of them. 'To all Young Ladies at
Edw. Kidder's Pastry School in little Lincoln's Inn Fields, are taught
all Sorts of Pastry and Cookery, Dutch hollow works, and Butter Works,
on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays in the Afternoon, and on the same
days, in the Morning, at his School in Norris Street in St. James's
Market, and at his School in St. Martin's Le Grand, on Monday, Tuesday
and Wednesday in the Afternoon. And at his School at St. Mary Overies
Dock, Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesday mornings from 9 to 12.'

But one branch of a girl's education seems never to have been
neglected--her dancing. Steele says,[24] 'When a girl is safely
brought from her nurse, before she is capable of forming one simple
notion of anything in life, she is delivered to the hands of her
dancing master, and with a collar round her neck, the pretty wild
thing is taught a fantastical gravity of behaviour, and forced to a
particular way of holding her head, heaving her breast, and moving
with her whole body; and all this under pain of never having a
husband, if she steps, looks or moves awry.'

          [Footnote 24: _Spectator_, 66.]

He gives a humorous description of the dancing master:[25] 'There was
Colonel Jumper's Lady, a Colonel of the Train Bands, that has a great
Interest in her Parish; she recommends Mr. Trott for the prettiest
Master in Town, that no Man teaches a Jigg like him, that she has seen
him rise Six or Seven Capers together with the greatest Ease
imaginable, and that his Scholars twist themselves more ways than the
Scholars of any Master in Town; besides there is Madam Prim, the
Alderman's Lady, recommends a Master of her Own Name, but she
declares he is not of their Family, yet a very extraordinary Man in
his Way; for, besides a very soft Air he has in Dancing, he gives them
a particular Behaviour at a Tea-Table, and in presenting their Snuff
Box: to twirl, flip or flirt a Fan, and how to place Patches to the
best advantage, either for Fat or Lean, Long or Oval Faces.

          [Footnote 25: _Ibid._, 376.]

Indeed, dancing was much thought of as an accomplishment, and more
will be said of it in its place among the social habits of the time.
One book alone, 'The Dancing Master' for 1713, 15th ed., contains 358
different figures and tunes for country dances. It got to be a fine
art, and books were written on 'Chorography' and 'Orchesography,'
illustrated with wonderful and most perplexing diagrams. A
contemporary sketch of a dancing academy is interesting. It is by
Budgell.[26] 'I am a Man in Years, and by an honest Industry in the
World have acquired enough to give my Children a liberal Education,
tho' I was an utter Stranger to it myself. My eldest Daughter, a Girl
of Sixteen, has for some time past been under the Tuition of Monsieur
_Rigadoon_, a Dancing Master in the City; and I was prevailed upon by
her and her Mother to go last Night to one of his Balls. I must own to
you, Sir, that having never been at any such Place before, I was very
much pleased and surprized with that Part of his Entertainment which
he called _French Dancing_. There were several young Men and Women,
whose limbs seemed to have no other Motion but purely what the Musick
gave them. After this Part was over, they began a Diversion which they
call _Country Dancing_, and wherein there were also some things not
disagreeable, and divers _Emblematical Figures_, compos'd, as I guess,
by Wise Men for the Instruction of Youth.

          [Footnote 26: _Spectator_, 67.]

'Amongst the rest, I observed one, which I think they call[27] _Hunt
the Squirrel_, in which while the Woman flies, the Man pursues her;
but as soon as she turns, he runs away, and she is obliged to follow.

          [Footnote 27: See Appendix.]

'The Moral of this Dance does, I think, very aptly recommend Modesty
and Discretion to the Female Sex.

'But as the best Institutions are liable to Corruptions, so, Sir, I
must acquaint you, that very great Abuses are crept into this
Entertainment. I was Amazed to see my Girl handed by, and handing
young Fellows with so much Familiarity; and I could not have thought
it had been in the Child. They very often made use of a most impudent
and lascivious Step called _Setting_, which I know not how to describe
to you, but by telling you that it is the very reverse of _Back to
Back_. At last an impudent young Dog bid the Fiddlers play a Dance
called _Mol Patley_,[28] and after having made two or three Capers,
ran to his Partner, locked his Arms in hers, and whisked her round
Cleverly above Ground in such manner that I, who sat upon one of the
lowest Benches, saw further above her Shoe than I can think fit to
acquaint you with. I could no longer endure these Enormities;
wherefore, just as my Girl was going to be made a Whirligig, I ran in,
seized on the Child, and carried her home.'

          [Footnote 28: See Appendix.]

Poor Budgell! what would have been his feelings could he have but seen
a galop, or a valse _à deux temps_?

We may now consider the girl's education complete, and, as she may be
'sweet seventeen' or so, she naturally would be, if either pretty or
witty, 'a TOAST' among her male friends. This peculiar institution has
its rise in Queen Anne's time, and is aptly described[29] as 'a new
name found out by the Wits, to make a lady have the same effect, as
burridge in the glass when a man is drinking.' Pope, even, could
hardly make it out.

          [Footnote 29: _Tatler_, 31.]

  Say why are beauties prais'd and honour'd most,
  The wise man's passion, and the vain man's toast?
  Why deck'd with all that land and sea afford,
  Why angels call'd, and angel-like adored?

It was an old English custom to put a toast, a roasted pippin or so,
in a hot drink, such as a tankard of spiced ale, or of sack; and this
is whimsically applied as the derivation of the word used to express
the slavish adulation and worship of the fair sex, as embodied in this
custom. [30]'Many of the Wits of the last age will assert that the
word, in its present sense, was known among them in their youth, and
had its rise from an accident at the town of Bath, in the reign of
Charles the Second. It happened that, on a public day, a celebrated
beauty of those times was in the Cross Bath, and one of the crowd of
her admirers took a glass of the water in which the fair one stood and
drank her health to the Company. There was in the place a gay fellow
half fuddled, who offered to jump in, and swore, though he liked not
the liquor, he would have the Toast. He was opposed in his resolution;
yet this whim gave foundation to the present honour which is done to
the lady we mention in our liquors, who has ever since been called a
TOAST. Though this institution had so trivial a beginning, it is now
elevated into a formal order; and that happy virgin, who is received
and drunk to at their meetings, has no more to do in this life but to
judge and accept of the first good offer. The manner of her
inauguration is much like that of the choice of a Doge in Venice: it
is performed by balloting; and when she is so chosen, she reigns
indisputably for that ensuing year; but must be re-elected anew to
prolong her empire a moment beyond it. When she is regularly chosen,
her name is written with a diamond on a drinking glass. The
hieroglyphic of the diamond is to shew her that her value is
imaginary; and that of the glass to acquaint her, that her condition
is frail, and depends on the hand which holds her.' Many of the
members of the 'Kit Cat Club'--Lords Halifax, Wharton, Lansdowne, and
Carbury, Mr. Maynwaring and others--thus immortalised their Toasts.
One, by Lord Lansdowne, will amply serve as an illustration--

          [Footnote 30: _Ibid._, 24.]

  Love is enjoyn'd to make his favourite toast,
  And HARE'S the goddess that delights him most.

There were two very famous toasts in Queen Anne's time; one in
particular was Lady Sunderland, a daughter of the Duke of Marlborough,
who was known by the sobriquet of 'The Little Whig.' She was the toast
of her party, and her nickname was so well known that it is said the
first stone of Sir John Vanbrugh's theatre in the Haymarket had
'Little Whig' cut upon it. The other was Mademoiselle Spanheim, the
daughter of Baron Spanheim, Ambassador Extraordinary from the Court of
Prussia. She was very lovely; indeed, her good looks were proverbial,
as the current expression, 'as beautiful as Madam Spanheim,' shows.
She was married early in the year 1710 to the Marquis de Montandre.
Her father died here in November of the same year, aged 81; and the
Queen presented the Marchioness de Montandre with a thousand guineas,
which was the usual present then given to an ambassador on taking his



     Eloping with heiresses -- Marriage between children -- Tax on
     bachelors -- Valentines -- Marriage settlements -- Pin money --
     Posies -- Drummers -- Private marriages -- Irregular marriages --
     Fleet parsons -- Marriage Act -- Facility of marriage --
     Liability of husbands -- Public marriages -- Marriage customs --
     Bride's garters --Throwing the stocking -- The posset --

We will suppose our toast to escape the perils to which her position
exposed her, and not forcibly carried off by some bold knight, as had
been known in this reign[31]--'Same evening Sir Alexander Cumming,
Knight of the Shire for Aberdeen, carried off from the Ring in Hyde
Park madam Dennis and married her; she is said to be worth about
£16,000.' Probably his position stood him in good stead, for it fared
differently with one Haagen Swendsen,[32] who was, in 1702, convicted
and executed for stealing Mrs. Rawlins, an heiress. Nowadays, he would
have been unhesitatingly acquitted, even if he had ever been
prosecuted, as there was no real case against him, and Mrs. Rawlins
married him of her own free will.

          [Footnote 31: _Luttrell's Diary_, Sept. 12, 1710.]

          [Footnote 32: British Museum, 515, l. 2, 196.]

That people could be married young enough is rendered sufficiently
evident by the very painful case of Sir George Downing and Mary
Forester, which excited much interest in the last year of Anne's
reign. It is very lucidly put as a case for counsel's opinion.[33]

          [Footnote 33: _The Counsellor's Plea for the Divorce of Sir
          G. D. and Mrs. F._, 1715.]

               'THE CASE.

'1. G. D. without the Knowledge and Consent of his Father (then alive,
but accounted not of sound Judgment) was at the Age of Fifteen, by the
Procurement and Persuasion of those in whose Keeping he was, Marry'd,
according to the Church form, to M. F. of the Age of Thirteen.

'2. This young Couple was put to Bed, in the Day time, according to
Custom, and continu'd there a little while, but in the Presence of the
Company, who all testify they touched not one the other; and after
that, they came together no more;--the young Gentleman going
immediately Abroad, the young Woman continuing with her Parents.

'3. G. D., after Three or Four Years Travel, return'd home to England,
and being sollicited to live with his lawful Wife, refus'd it, and
frequently and publickly declar'd he never would compleat the

'4. Fourteen Years have pass'd since this Marriage Ceremony was
perform'd, each Party having (as is natural to think) contracted an
incurable Aversion to each the other, is very desirous to be set at
liberty; and accordingly Application is made to the Legislative power
to dissolve this Marriage, and to give each Party leave, if they think
fit, to Marry elsewhere.

     'The Reasons against such Dissolution are:--

     'First. That each Party was Consenting to the Marriage, and was
     Old enough to give such Consent, according to the known Laws of
     the Kingdom; the Male being Fifteen Years Old, the Female
     Thirteen; whereas the Years of Consent are, by Law, Fourteen and

     'Secondly. They were actually Marry'd according to the Form
     prescrib'd by the Church of England; the Minister pronouncing
     those solemn Words us'd by our Saviour, _Those whom God has
     joyn'd let no Man put asunder_. They are therefore Man and Wife
     both by the Laws of God and of the Land; and, since nothing but
     Adultery can dissolve a Marriage, and no Adultery is pretended
     here, the Marriage continues indissoluble.'

And, in the course of some very able pleading, the author says, 'My
Lords, the Years of Consent are not fix'd to Fourteen or Twelve either
by _Nature_, _Reason_, or _any Law of God_; but purely and meerly by
the positive Laws of the Land, which may change them to Morrow;[34]
and if they were chang'd to Day, no Man in England would, I dare
affirm it, be dissatisfy'd; it seems so senseless and unreasonable to
give our Children the Power of disposing of their _Persons_ for ever,
at an Age when we will not let them dispose of Five Shillings without
Direction and Advice.'

          [Footnote 34: But it never has been changed, and is now in

However, no pleading could prevail against the actual law, and this
singularly married couple remained, legally, man and wife.

In 1690 there was a pamphlet issued by 'A Person of Quality,'[35]
advocating a tax on bachelors, and on April 22, 1695, William III.
gave his assent to an Act intituled 'An Act for granting his Majesty
certain Rates and Duties upon Marriages, Births, and Burials, and upon
Batchelors and Widowers for the term of five years, for carrying on
the War with Vigour.'

          [Footnote 35: _Marriage Promoted_, &c.]

                                                             £   _s.   d._
  For the Burial of every person                             0    4    0
       "         of a Duke (above the 4_s._)                50    0    0
       "         of a Marquess, &c. &c., in proportion.
       "         of every person having a real estate £50
       "           per annum or upwards, or a personal
       "           estate of £600 or upwards                 1    0    0
       "         of the Wife of such person having such
                   estate                                    0   10    0
  For and upon the Birth of every person and Child, except
    the children of those who receive Alms                   0    2    0
  For and upon the birth of the eldest son of a Duke        30    0    0
           "             of a Marquess and so forth.
  Upon the Marriage of every person                          0    2    6
        "           of a Duke                               50    0    0
        "            "   Marquess                           40    0    0
        "            "   Earl                               30    0    0
                         and so forth.
  Bachelors above 25 years old, yearly                       0    1    0
  Widowers above 25 years old, yearly                        0    1    0
  A Duke being Bachelor or Widower, yearly                  12   10    0
  A Marquess      "           "       "                     10    0    0

By the Act 8 & 9 Will. III., 'For making good the Deficiencies of
Several Funds therein mentioned,' these taxes were kept on, and were
to be paid until Aug. 1, 1706, so that they were in force during four
years of Anne's reign.

In a most amusing tract[36] this Act is alluded to as a law
discouraging marriage, and proposes to make bachelors of 24 and
widowers of 50 pay 20_s._ per annum, and estimates that a revenue of
2-1/2 millions sterling would accrue.

          [Footnote 36: _The Levellers._]

There was every freedom of intercourse allowed between the young of
both sexes: they visited, and we have seen that they mixed in the
dancing academies. There was also the custom of valentines, now become
obsolete and unmeaning. Misson describes it well, as indeed he did
everything he saw in England: 'On the Eve of the 14th of Feb., St.
Valentine's Day, a Time when all living Nature inclines to couple, the
Young Folks in England, and Scotland too, by a very ancient Custom,
celebrate a little Festival that tends to the same End. An equal
Number of Maids and Batchelors get together, each writes their true or
some feign'd Name upon separate Billets, which they Roll up, and draw
by way of Lots, the Maids taking the Men's Billets, and the Men the
Maids; so that each of the Young Men lights upon a Girl that he calls
his Valentine, and each of the Girls upon a young Man which she calls
hers: By this means each has two Valentines; but the Man sticks faster
to the Valentine that is fallen to him, than to the Valentine to whom
he is fallen. Fortune having thus divided the Company into so many
Couples, the Valentines give Balls and Treats to their Mistresses,
wear their Billets several Days upon their Bosoms or Sleeves, and this
little Sport often ends in Love. There is another kind of Valentine;
which is the first young Man or Woman that Chance throws in your Way
in the Street, or elsewhere, on that Day.'

The whole of the literature of the day speaks of the tendency of young
men to avoid the trammels of matrimony. Most probably the wild blood
engendered in Charles the Second's time had not yet cooled down, and
the licence then habitual, had hardly been superseded by decorum; but
there were other causes, one of which was the introduction of marriage
settlements. These were comparatively new. Steele calls attention to
it:[37] 'Honest Coupler, the Conveyancer, says "He can distinguish,
upon sight of the parties before they have opened upon any point of
their business, which of the two has the daughter to sell." Coupler is
of our Club, and I have frequently heard him declaim upon this
subject, and assert "that the Marriage Settlements, which are now
used, have grown fashionable even within his memory."'

          [Footnote 37: _The Tatler_, 199.]

When the theatre, in some late reigns, owed its chief support to those
scenes which were written to put matrimony out of countenance and
render that state terrible, then it was that pin money first
prevailed; and all the other articles were inserted, which create a
diffidence, and intimate to the young people that they are very soon
to be in a state of war with each other; though this has seldom
happened, except the fear of it had been expressed. Coupler will tell
you also 'that jointures were never frequent until the age before his
own; but the women were contented with the third part of the estate
the law allotted them, and scorn'd to engage with men whom they
thought capable of abusing their Children.' He has also informed me
'that those who are the oldest Benchers when he came to the Temple
told him, the first Marriage Settlement of considerable length was the
invention of an old Serjeant, who took the opportunity of two testy
fathers, who were ever squabbling, to bring about an alliance between
their Children. These fellows knew each other to be knaves, and the
Serjeant took hold of their mutual diffidence, for the benefit of the
Law, to extend the _Settlement_ to _three skins_ of parchment.' This
was undoubtedly the substance of a genuine conversation with a
lawyer, and is further referred to in a subsequent paper. Nor did
Steele like pin money: he not only declaims against it in his essays,
but in his dramatic works--in 'The Tender Husband,' where two fathers
are squabbling over settlements. One, Sir Harry Gubbin, says--

     Look y', Mr. Tipkin, the main Article with me is that Foundation
     of Wives Rebellion--that cursed Pin Money--Five hundred Pounds
     _per annum_ Pin Money.

     _Tipkin._ The Word Pin Money, Sir Harry, is a Term----

     _Sir H._ It is a Term, Brother, we never had in our Family, nor
     ever will. Make her Jointure in Widowhood accordingly large, but
     Four hundred Pounds a Year is enough to give no account of.

     _Tipkin._ Well, Sir Harry, since you can't swallow these Pins, I
     will abate to Four Hundred Pounds.

     _Sir H._ And to Mollifie the Article, as well as Specifie the
     Uses, we'll put in the Names of several Female Utensils, as
     Needles, Knitting Needles, Tape, Thread, Scissors, Bodkins, Fans,
     Playbooks, with other Toys of that Nature.

Addison, too, must needs have a fling at it, and wrote a whole essay
on pin money,[38] and, in a letter therein, gives a doleful case. 'The
education of these my Children, who, contrary to my expectation, are
born to me every Year, straightens me so much that I have begged their
Mother to free me from the Obligation of the above mentioned Pin
Money, that it may go towards making a Provision for her family. This
Proposal makes her Noble Blood swell in her Veins, insomuch, that
finding me a little tardy in her last Quarter's Payment, she threatens
every Day to arrest me: and proceeds so far as to tell me, that if I
do not do her Justice, I shall die in a Jayl. To this she adds, when
her Passion will let her argue calmly, that she has several Play Debts
on her Hand, which must be discharged very suddenly, and that she
cannot lose her Money as becomes a Woman of her Fashion, if she makes
me any Abatements in this Article.'

          [Footnote 38: _Spectator_, 295.]

Supposing the vexed question of settlements or no settlements disposed
of, a thing of primary importance before marriage was to provide the
ring, and that, according to the custom of the day, must have a posy
on it.[39] 'He has likewise promised me to get the measure of his
Mistress's marriage finger, with a design to make a posy in the
fashion of a ring which shall exactly fit it.' The posy was mostly a
couplet--and as not much sentiment or poetry can be compressed into
two lines, the posies, as far as we can judge, are not very brilliant
efforts of genius. The appended examples are all genuine of the time,
as they are taken from the newspaper advertisements of things lost.

          [Footnote 39: _Ibid._ 59.]

  Two made one
  By God alone.

  God's Providence
  Is our Inheritance.

  God decreed
  Our Unity.

  This in Love
  Join our Hearts
  To God Above.

  Vertuous love
  Will never remove.

And now a word or two as to the Marriages of those times, and one is
fairly surprised at the very little fuss that was generally made about
them. On the Stage, a clergyman coupled the pair presently, or the
young people just left the room and came back in a few minutes, duly
married. And this really was somewhat like real life, and not a
travesty. 'Aunt, Aunt, run for Doctor Dromedary, and let us be Married
before the Sun reposes,'[40] was a not unnatural request for a young
lady to make. A custom had grown up to avoid the noise and riot of a
public wedding, which, besides, was very expensive--open house being
but a small part of it; so it used to be, that the young people would
get married with just sufficient legal witness, and with the full
consent of the parents. Even the middle class were glad to get rid of
the noise of drums, etc. (which still survives in the marrow bones and
cleavers--the rough music of a lower-class wedding).

          [Footnote 40: _Tunbridge Walks_, by Thos. Baker, 1703.]

  Here Rows of Drummers stand in Martial File,
  And with their Vellom Thunder shake the Pile,
  To greet the new made Bride;[41]

          [Footnote 41: _Trivia_, by Gay.]

and in one of Steele's _Spectators_ (364) is a letter commencing 'I
was marry'd on Sunday last, and went peaceably to Bed; but, to my
Surprize, was awaken'd the next Morning by the Thunder of a Set of
Drums.' For this noise the unfortunate bridegroom had to pay pretty

These private marriages had their inconveniences, as the following
advertisement[42] shows: 'Whereas, for several Reasons, the Marriage
of Mrs. Frances Herbert to Capt. James Price, Son to Brigadier Price
of Ireland, was kept private for some time, which has occasioned some
insolent People to censure her Virtue; to prevent which Censures for
the future, it is thought proper to give this Publick Notice that she
was marry'd to the said Capt. James Price on the 18th Day of June last
at the Parish Church of St. Bennet's, Pauls Wharf, London, by License
and before Witnesses.'

          [Footnote 42: _Post Boy_, May 24/27, 1712.]

Misson adverts to this custom of private marriage as being very
common. 'In England, a Boy may marry at fourteen Years old, and a Girl
at twelve, in spight of Parents and Guardians, without any Possibility
of dissolving their Marriage, tho' one be the Son of a Hog-driver, and
the other a Duke's Daughter.[43] This often produces very whimsical
Matches. There is another thing in it odd enough; for those Children
by this means not only become their own Masters, but obtain this
Advantage at a very easy Rate. If to be marry'd it were necessary to
be proclaim'd three Times in a full Congregation, their Friends would
be inform'd of the Matter, and might find a Way to disswade a little
Girl, that had taken it into her Head to have a Husband, by giving
her fine Cloaths, pretty Babies, and every Thing else that might amuse
her; but the Wedding is clapp'd up so privately, that People are
amaz'd to see Women brought to Bed of legitimate Children, without
having heard a Word of the Father. The Law, indeed, requires that the
Bans should be publish'd; but the strange Practice of a dispensing
Power makes the Law of no Manner of Use. To proclaim Bans is a Thing
no Body now cares to have done; very few are willing to have their
Affairs declar'd to all the World in a publick Place, when for a
Guinea they may do it _Snug_, and without Noise; and my good Friends
the Clergy, who find their Accounts in it, are not very zealous to
prevent it. Thus, then, they buy what they call a Licence, and are
marry'd in their Closets, in Presence of a couple of Friends, that
serve for Witnesses; and this ties them for ever: Nay, the Abuse is
yet greater, for they may be marry'd without a Licence in some
Chappels, which have that Privilege.... Hence comes the Matches
between Footmen and young Ladies of Quality, who you may be sure live
no very easy Life together afterwards: Hence, too, happen Polygamies,
easily conceal'd, and too much practised.'

          [Footnote 43: There was a law against marrying the heiress
          of a noble family before the age of twenty-one years without
          the consent of her guardians.]

Sometimes they were married at a tavern.[44] 'Whereas a Couple was
marryed at the Ship Tavern without Temple Barr, London, in March,
1696. The Parson, or any other that was then Present, is desired to
come or send to the Publisher of this Paper, and give an account of
the said Marriage, and shall be satisfied for their charges of coming
or sending, and loss of time.'

          [Footnote 44: _Postman_, August 28/31, 1703.]

The irregular marriages were a crying evil of the times--in spite of
legislative efforts to stop them. There was an Act passed, 6 and 7 Wm.
III. cap. 7, sec. 52, for the better levying the 5_s._ duty on
licences, and imposing a penalty of 100_l._ for marrying without
one--and the 7 and 8 Wm. III. cap. 35 recites this Act, and says it
was ineffectual, because the penalty of 100_l._ was not extended to
every offence of the same parson--because the parsons employed poor
and indigent ministers, without benefices, or settled habitations, and
because many ministers, being in prison for debt or otherwise, married
persons for lucre and gain.

There have been certain churches and chapels[45] exempted from the
visitation of the ordinary--and the ministers of such, usually married
without licence or banns--and these were called 'lawless churches.' In
Anne's reign there was one famous one, St. James', Duke's Place, by
Aldgate. Another was Holy Trinity, Minories, which exercised the same
privilege. The Savoy had not yet been much heard of, and they did a
good business. In the former case, privilege was claimed, because the
Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London were lords of the manor and
patrons of the church, and therefore set up an exemption from the
jurisdiction (in matters ecclesiastical) of the Bishop of London. In
the latter, it was pleaded that the living was held direct from the
Crown, in whose gift it was, and that the minister held the same by an
instrument of dotation, under the Great Seal of England, and that it
was neither a rectory nor vicarage institutive. However, the arm of
the ecclesiastical law did once reach Adam Elliott, rector of St.
James', and on Feb. 17, 1686, he was suspended for three years, _ab
officio et beneficio_, for having married, or having suffered persons
to be married, at the said church, without banns or licence. He was,
however, reinstituted on May 28, 1687, after having petitioned the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners; but he began his old trade very shortly
afterwards, in fact the next day, as appears in the marriage register
of the church--'There were no marriages from the tenth of March till
y{e} 29 day of May' 1687.

          [Footnote 45: Judging by the 8th and 9th Wm. III. cap. 26,
          which took away their pretended privileges, these were White
          Friars, the Savoy, Salisbury Court, Ram Alley, Mitre Court,
          Fuller's Rents, Baldwin's Gardens, Montague Close, the
          Minories, Mint and Clink or Dead Man's Place; but there were
          many others.]

People could be, and were, married without licence, both in the Fleet
and Queen's Bench Prisons. It is probable that prisoners there were
duly and properly married by banns in the prison chapel, long before
1674, which is the date of the earliest illicit Fleet Register in the
Bishop of London's registry; for, in a letter, Sept. 1613, we
read:[46] 'Now I am to enform you that an ancyentt acquayntance of
y{rs} and myne is yesterday maryed in the Fleette, one Mr. Georg
Lestor, and hath maryed M{ris} Babbington, Mr. Thomas Fanshawe
mother-in-lawe. It is sayed she is a woman of good wealthe so as nowe
the man wylle able to lyve and mayntayn hymself in prison, for hether
unto he hath byne in poor estate.' But, at all events, the law was set
at nought in Anne's reign, as it was for many a long year afterwards.
In 1702 the chaplain was Robert Elborough, who married but few without
banns or licence, 'but under a colour doth allow his clerk Bartholomew
Basset to do what he pleases,' and in 1714 Mr. John Taylor filled the
same office, but he does not seem to have solemnised matrimony at the
Fleet. There was, however, a low clergyman, named John Gaynam,
otherwise Doctor Gaynam, who did a large trade there in marriages,
from 1709 to 1740. A little anecdote of him, though not in Queen
Anne's time, may not be amiss. He was giving evidence at the Old
Bailey on the trial of Robert Hussey for bigamy, in 1733.

          [Footnote 46: Lansdowne MSS., 93-17.]

     _Dr. Gainham._ The 9th of September, 1733, I married a couple at
     the Rainbow Coffee House, the corner of Fleet Ditch, and entered
     the marriage in my register, as fair a register as any church in
     England can produce. I showed it last night to the foreman of the
     jury, and my Lord Mayor's Clerk, at the London Punch House.

     _Counsel._ Are you not ashamed to come and own a clandestine
     marriage in the face of a court of justice?

     _Dr. Gainham_ (bowing). _Video meliora, deteriora sequor._

The same practice was followed by others during this reign. Wm. Wyatt,
who moved from the Two Sawyers, at the corner of Fleet Lane, to the
Hand and Pen near Holborn Bridge, married from 1713 to 1750. John
Floud, who was for some years a prisoner in the Fleet, married from
1709 to 1729. John Mottram, from 1709 to 1725. He was convicted, in
1716, in the Consistory Court, for marrying illegally, and was
suspended from his ministerial functions for three years. Jerome
Alley, from 1681 to 1707, when he left off marrying 'for some other
preferment.' Draper, from 1689 to 1716. John Evans, from 1689 to 1729.
Henry Gower, 1689 to 1718. Thos. Hodgkins, 1674 to 1728. Ed. Marston,
1713 to 1714. Oswald, 1712. Nehemiah Rogers, a prisoner, but rector of
Ashingdon, Essex, married between 1700 and 1703. He seems to have been
a specially bright specimen of the Fleet parson. 'He is a Prisoner,
but goes at larg to his P. Living in Essex, and all places else; he is
a very wicked man as lives, for drinking, whoring, and swearing, he
has struck and boxed y{e} bridegroom in y{e} Chapple, and damned like
any com'on soldier, he marries both within and without y{e} Chapple
like his brother Colton.' This was James Colton, who had been deprived
of his living for evil practices, and married from 1681 to 1721. Benj.
Bynes, 1698 to 1711. Walter Stanhope, 1711. Jo. Vice, 1689 to 1713;
and J. Wise, in 1709.

The Queen's Bench was not behind its brother of the Fleet, but there
even greater abuses existed--laymen officiating.[47] ''Tis expected
that a Bill to prevent clandestine Marriages, under a severe Corporal
Penalty, will be brought in very early next Session of Parliament. For
which 'tis said too just Occasion has been given by a Discovery lately
made that Laymen have been suffer'd to marry at the Queen's Bench; and
that John Sarjeant, who now acts there again as Clerk, has forg'd
Certificates of pretended Marriages, for which he keeps Register
books, with large blanks almost in every Page, whereby very
mischievous Frauds are practicable. For preventing whereof, the late
Chaplain labour'd hard with the most proper Person to command the said
books out of the Clerk's Custody, and not prevailing, resign'd his
Office, which he had discharg'd among the Prisoners, both in the House
and in the Rules, above five years, charitably, having never receiv'd
one Farthing of the Fees thereto annexed.--WILLIAM TIPPING.'

          [Footnote 47: The _Postboy_, October 13/16, 1711.]

This evidently refers to the Marriage Act of Queen Anne (10 Anne, c.
19), which received the royal assent on May 22, 1712. This was a short
Act smuggled in in a long money bill about duties on 'Sope' and paper,
linen, silks, calicoes, stampt vellom, &c. It renewed, from June 24,
1712, the penalty of 100_l._ attaching to the performance of illegal
matches, giving half the penalty to the informer, and, 'if any gaoler
or keeper of any prison shall be privy to, or knowingly permit, any
marriage to be solemnised in his said prison, before publication of
banns, or license obtained as aforesaid, he shall for every such
offence forfeit the sum of one hundred pounds to be recovered and
distributed as aforesaid.' There, then, was an extra duty of 5_s._
imposed upon every marriage licence, or certificate of marriage.

Marriages were made easy. You could go a country walk and pop in and
get married. A newly built church at Hampstead thus[48] advertises:
'As there are many weddings at Sion Chapel, Hampstead, five Shillings
only is required for all the Church fees of any Couple that are
married there, provided they bring with them a license or Certificate,
according to the Act of Parliament. Two Sermons are continued to be
preached in the said Chapel every Sunday, and the place will be given
to any Clergyman that is willing to accept of it, to be approved of.'
Early in George the First's time, in 1716, they offered 'that all
persons, upon bringing a licence, and who shall have their wedding
dinner in the gardens, may be married in the said Chapel, without
giving any fee or reward whatsoever.'

          [Footnote 48: The _Postboy_, April 18/20, 1710.]

Whilst on the subject of curious marriages, the following may well be
noticed, extracted from the Parish Register: 'John Bridmore and Anne
Sellwood, both of Chiltern All Saints, were married October 17, 1714.

'The aforesaid Anne Sellwood was married in her Smock, without any
clothes or head gier on.'

This is not uncommon, the object being, according to a vulgar error,
to exempt the husband from the payment of any debts his wife may have
contracted in her ante-nuptial condition. This error seems to have
been founded on a misconception of the law, as it is laid down[49]
that 'the husband is liable for the wife's debts, _because_ he
acquires an absolute interest in the personal estate of the wife,'
etc. An unlearned person from this might conclude, and not
unreasonably, that if his wife _had no estate whatever_, he could not
incur any liability.

          [Footnote 49: _Bacon's Abridgment_, Tit. Baron and Feme.]

Anyhow, after marriage they were liable, as the following gentlemen
knew: 'Whereas Elizabeth Stephenson, Wife of George Stephenson, late
of Falken Court, near the Queen's Bench, in Southwark, hath Eloped
from her said Husband, and since hath contracted several Debts with a
design to Ruin her said Husband. These are therefore to give notice to
the Publick, That the said George Stephenson will not on any Account
whatever Pay or allow of any Debt so Contracted by the said Elizabeth
Stephenson, either before or since her elopement.' 'Whereas Isabella
Goodyear, the Daughter of Rich. Cliffe of Brixhome in the County of
Devon, and Wife of Aaron Goodyear of London, Merchant, about 18 months
since abandon'd and forsook the Bed and since the Board of Aaron her
said Husband, carrying with her in Goods, Plate, and other Goods to
the value of £200 and upwards, and whereas the said Isabella hath as
well been sollicited by the said Aaron her Husband, as also by several
of his acquaintance, to return to and Cohabit with him, under all
assurances of being civilly receiv'd and maintain'd according to his
quality and circumstances, which the said Isabella hath, and still
doth obstinately refuse. These are therefore to give notice to all
Traders, and all other persons whatsoever, that from and after this
present Notice they do not maintain, sustain, or detain the said
Isabella from the said Aaron her Husband, or any of his Goods or Plate
carryed off by the said Isabella, either by lending her Money or
Selling her Goods, or by any other ways whatsoever, under penalty of
the law, and forfeiture of the credit, if any, given to the said
Isabella from the Notice hereof.'

Having discussed the private hole-and-corner, and clandestine
marriages, it may be well to inquire the reasons why these were
preferred to the more ceremonious ones. Mainly on the score of
expense, and to get rid of the uproarious and senseless festivities
which accompanied them. Let Misson describe what one was like: 'One of
the Reasons that they have for marrying secretly, as they generally do
in England, is that thereby they avoid a great deal of Expence and
Trouble.... Persons of Quality, and many others who imitate them, have
lately taken up the Custom of being marry'd very late at Night in
their Chamber, and very often at some Country House.[50] They increase
their Common Bill of Fare for some Days; they dance, they play, they
give themselves up for some small Time to Pleasure; but all this they
generally do without Noise, and among very near Relations. Formerly in
France they gave _Livrées de Nôces_, which was a knot of Ribbands, to
be worn by the Guests upon their Arms; but that is practised now only
among Peasants. In England it is done still among the greatest
Noblemen. These Ribbands they Call Favours,[51] and give them not only
to those that are at the Wedding, but to five hundred People besides;
they send them about, and distribute them at their own houses....
Among the Citizens and plain Gentlemen (which is what they call the
_Gentry_) they sometimes give these Favours; but it is very Common to
avoid all Manner of Expence as much as Possible. When those of a
middling Condition have a mind to be so extravagant as to marry in
Publick (which very rarely happens) they invite a Number of Friends
and Relations; every one puts on new Cloaths,[52] and dresses finer
than ordinary; the Men lead the Women, they get into Coaches, and so
go in Procession, and are marry'd in full Day at Church. After
Feasting and Dancing, and having made merry that Day and the next,
they take a Trip into the Country, and there divert themselves very
pleasantly. These are extraordinary Weddings. The Ordinary ones, as I
said before, are generally incognito. The _Bridegroom_, that is to
say, the Husband that is to be, and the _Bride_, who is the Wife that
is to be, conducted by their Father and Mother, or by those that serve
them in their room, and accompany'd by two Bride men and two Bride
maids, go early in the Morning with a Licence[53] in their Pocket and
call up Mr. Curate and his Clerk, tell him their Business; are marry'd
with a low Voice, and the Doors shut; tip the Minister a Guinea, and
the Clerk a Crown; steal softly out, one way, and t'other another,
either on Foot or in Coaches; go different Ways to some Tavern at a
Distance from their own Lodgings, or to the House of some trusty
Friend, there have a good Dinner, and return Home at Night as quietly
as Lambs. If the Drums and Fiddles have notice of it they will be sure
to be with them by Day break, making a horrible Racket, till they have
got the Pence; and, which is worst of all, the whole Murder will come
out. Before they go to bed they take t other Glass, &c., and when
Bedtime is come the Bride men pull off the Bride's Garters, which she
had before unty'd that they might hang down, and so prevent a Curious
Hand coming too near her knee. This done, and the Garters being
fastened to the Hats of the Gallants, the Bride maids carry the Bride
into the Bed chamber, where they undress her,[54] and lay her in Bed.
The Bridegroom, who by the Help of his Friends is undress'd in some
other Room, comes in his Night-gown as soon as possible to his Spouse,
who is surrounded by Mother, Aunt, Sisters, and Friends, and without
any farther Ceremony gets into Bed. Some of the Women run away, others
remain, and the Moment afterwards they are all got together again.[55]
The Bridemen Take the Bride's Stockings, and the Bridemaids the
Bridegroom's; both sit down at the Bed's Feet and fling the Stockings
over their Heads, endeavouring to direct them so as that they may fall
upon the marry'd Couple. If the Man's stockings, thrown by the Maids,
fall upon the Bridegroom's Head, it is a Sign she will quickly be
marry'd herself; and the same Prognostick holds good of the Woman's
Stockings thrown by the Man. Oftentimes these young People engage with
one another upon the Success of the Stockings, tho' they themselves
look upon it to be nothing but Sport. While some amuse themselves
agreeably with these little Follies, others are preparing a good
_Posset_, which is a kind of Cawdle, a Potion made up of Milk, Wine,
Yolk of Eggs, Sugar, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, etc. This they present to the
young Couple, who swallow it down as fast as they can to get rid of
so troublesome Company; the Bridegroom prays, scolds, entreats them to
be gone, and the Bride says ne'er a Word, but thinks the more. If they
obstinately continue to retard the Accomplishment of their Wishes, the
Bridegroom jumps up in his Shirt, which frightens the Women, and puts
them to Flight. The Men follow them, and the Bridegroom returns to the

          [Footnote 50: Usually at the father's or guardian's of the

          [Footnote 51: This custom partially survives, and originated
          in a division among the guests of the ribbons worn by the
          bride and bridegroom. These favours were worn for some weeks
          in the hat, and were made of a pretty large knot of ribbons
          of various colours--gold, silver, carnation, and white.]

          [Footnote 52: This was absolutely necessary, and mourning
          was also temporarily left off, unless for a very near
          relation recently deceased.]

          [Footnote 53: The licence was generally shown the clergyman
          the day before the wedding, and an appointment made for the

          [Footnote 54: There was then, and may be now, a curious
          superstition that every pin about the bride must be thrown
          away and lost. There would be no luck if one remained. Nor
          must the bridesmaid keep one, for should she do so she
          certainly would not be married before Whitsuntide.]

          [Footnote 55: Pepys tells of a frolic Lady Castlemaine and
          the beautiful Frances Terese Stuart (the original of the
          Britannia on the copper coinage) had: 'That they two must be
          married--and married they were--with ring and all other
          ceremonies of Church service, and ribbands, and a sack
          posset in bed, and flinging the stocking.']

'They never fail to bring them another Sack Posset next Morning, which
they spend in such Amusements as you may easily imagine. The young
Woman, more gay and more contented than ever she was in her Life, puts
on her finest Cloaths (for she was married only in a Mob[56]), the
dear Husband does the same, and so do the young Guests; they laugh,
they dance, they make merry; and these Pleasures continue a longer or
shorter time, according to the several Circumstances of Things.'

          [Footnote 56: A mob was a _déshabillé_ dress, scarcely ever
          mentioned in terms of commendation.]

There was no going away for the honeymoon for the newly married
couple. That trying season was spent at home, in a somewhat stately
manner--receiving company, and must have been excessively irksome, as
the following amusing account of a citizen's honeymoon shows:[57] 'I
have lately married a very pretty body, who being somewhat younger and
richer than myself, I was advised to go a wooing to her in a finer
suit of clothes than ever I wore in my life: for I love to dress
plain, and suitable to a man of my rank. How ever, I gained her heart
by it. Upon the wedding day I put myself, according to custom, in
another suit, fire new, with silver buttons to it. I am so out of
Countenance among my neighbours, upon being so fine, that I heartily
wish my clothes well worn out. I fancy every body observes me as I
walk the street, and long to be in my own plain geer again. Besides,
forsooth, they have put me in a Silk Night gown and a gaudy fool's
cap, and make me now and then stand in the window with it. I am
ashamed to be dandled thus, and cannot look in the glass without
blushing to see myself turned into such a pretty little master. They
tell me I must appear in my wedding suit for the first month at least;
after which I am resolved to come again to my every day's clothes, for
at present every day is Sunday with me.... I forgot to tell you of my
white gloves, which they say, too, I must wear all the first month.'

          [Footnote 57: _Guardian_, No. 113.]

I am afraid some of these good gentlemen beat their wives sometimes;
and even the gallant Sir Richard Steele says:[58] 'I cannot deny but
there are perverse Jades that fall to Men's Lots, with whom it
requires more than common Proficiency in Philosophy to be able to
live. When these are joined to Men of warm Spirits, without Temper or
Learning, they are frequently corrected with Stripes; but one of our
famous Lawyers is of opinion, That this ought to be used sparingly.'
On the other hand, we hear much of hen-pecked men--so that it is
probable, so far as matrimonial jars were concerned, the world wagged
then much as now--without the facility for separation and divorce
which now exists.

          [Footnote 58: _Spectator_, 479.]



     Longevity -- Undertakers' charges -- Costliness of funerals --
     Mourning -- Burial in woollen -- Burial societies -- Burial by
     night -- A cheat -- Mourning rings -- Funeral pomp -- Monuments
     -- Description of a funeral -- A Roman Catholic funeral --

That some lived to a good old age there can be no doubt; but a
patriarch died in this reign at Northampton, April 5, 1706:[59] 'This
Day died John Bales of this Town, Button Maker Aged 130 and some
Weeks; he liv'd in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth, King James the
First, King Charles the First, Oliver, King Charles the Second, King
James the Second, King William the Third, and Queen Anne.'

          [Footnote 59: _Daily Courant_, April 9, 1706.]

And this brings us--

  Where the brass knocker, wrapt in flannel band,
  Forbids the thunder of the footman's hand;
  Th' upholder, rueful harbinger of death,
  Waits with impatience for the dying breath;
  As vultures o'er a camp, with hovering flight,
  Snuff up the future carnage of the fight.[60]

          [Footnote 60: _Trivia._]

Nay, if Steele is to be believed, they even feed heavily for early
information of death.[61]

          [Footnote 61: This and the following quotations are from
          _The Funeral or Grief à la Mode_, by Steele, ed. 1702.]

     _Sable._ You don't consider the Charges I have been at already.

     _Lord Brampton._ Charges? For what?

     _Sable._ First, Twenty Guineas to my Lady's Woman for notice of
     your Death (a Fee I've, before now, known the Widow herself go
     halfs in), but no matter for that. In the next place, Ten Pounds
     for watching you all your long Fit of Sickness last Winter.

     _Lord B._ Watching me? Why I had none but my own Servants by

     _Sable._ I mean attending to give notice of your Death. I had all
     your long fit of Sickness last Winter, at Half a Crown a day, a
     fellow waiting at your Gate, to bring me Intelligence, but you
     unfortunately recovered, and I Lost all my Obliging pains for
     your Service.

This, of course, is exaggeration, but although, as we have seen,
people were sparing in expense over births or marriages, they were
absolutely _lavish_ over funerals, and the undertaker could well
afford to disgorge some of his gains. Was it the funeral of a rich
man, the corpse must straightway be embalmed, roughly though it may
be. 'Have you brought the Sawdust and Tar for embalming? Have you the
hangings and the Sixpenny nails for my Lord's Coat of Arms?' The
hatchment must be put up, and mutes must be stationed at intervals
from the hall door to the top of the stairs. 'Come, you that are to be
Mourners in the House, put on your Sad Looks, and walk by Me that I
may sort you. Ha you! a little more upon the Dismal. This Fellow has a
good Mortal look, place him near the Corps; That Wanscoat Face must be
o' top of the Stairs: That Fellow's almost in a Fright (that looks as
if he were full of some strange misery) at the Entrance of the Hall.
So!--but I'll fix you all myself. Let's have no Laughing now on any
Provocation; Look Yonder, at that Hale, Well looking Puppy! You
ungrateful Scoundrel, Did not I pity you, take you out of a Great
Man's Service, and show you the Pleasure of receiving Wages? Did not I
give you Ten, then Fifteen and Twenty Shillings a Week to be
Sorrowful? and the more I give you, I think the Glader you are!'

[Illustration: A Corpse.]

The undertaker issued his handbills--gruesome things, with grinning
skulls and shroud-clad corpses, thigh bones, mattocks and pickaxes,
hearses, and what not. 'These are to Notice, that Mr. John Elphick,
Woollen Draper, over against St. Michael's Church in Lewes, hath a
good Hearse, a Velvet Pall, Mourning Cloaks, and Black Hangings for
Rooms to be Lett at Reasonable Rates.

'He also Sells all sorts of Mourning and Half Mourning, all sorts of
Black Cyprus for Scarfs and Hatbands, and White Silks for Scarfs and
Hoods at Funerals; Gloves of all sorts and Burying Cloaths for the

'He sells likewise all sorts of Woollen Cloth Broad and Narrow, Silks
and Half Silks, Worsted Stuffs of all Sorts, and Prices of the Newest
Fashions, and all sorts of Ribbons, Bodies and Hose, very good Penny

'Eleazar Malory, Joiner at the Coffin in White Chapel, near Red Lion
Street end, maketh Coffins, Shrouds, letteth Palls, Cloaks, and
Furnisheth with all other things necessary for Funerals at Reasonable

The dead were then buried in woollen, which was rendered compulsory
by the Acts 30 Car. II. c. 3 and 36 ejusdem c. 1. The first Act was
entitled 'An Act for the lessening the importation of Linnen from
beyond the Seas, and the encouragement of the Woollen and Paper
Manufactures of the Kingdome.' It prescribed that the curate of every
parish shall keep a register, to be provided at the charge of the
parish, wherein to enter all burials and affidavits of persons being
buried in woollen; the affidavit to be taken by any justice of the
peace, mayor, or such like chief officer in the parish where the body
was interred; and if there be no officer, then by any curate within
the county where the corpse was buried (except him in whose parish the
corpse was buried), who must administer the oath, and set his hand

[Illustration: Invitation to a Funeral.

           MEMENTO MORI


     You are desired to Accompany the Corps of Mr. _Thomas
     Newborough_, from his late Dwelling-House in St. _Paul's_
     Church-Yard, to the Burial-place of St _Gregory's_, on
     _Wednesday_ the _29th_ of this Instant _January, 1704_
     at Five of the Clock in the Afternoon.]

No affidavit to be necessary for a person dying of the plague. It
imposed a fine of 5_l._ for every infringement, one half to go to the
informer, and the other half to the poor of the parish.

This Act was only repealed by 54 Geo. III. c. 108, or in the year

The material used was flannel, and such interments are frequently
mentioned in the literature of the time, and Luttrell mentions in his
diary (Oct. 9, 1703) that the Irish Parliament had just brought in
bills 'for encouraging the linnen manufacture, and to oblige all
persons to bury in woollen.'

  'Odious! in woollen! 'twould a saint provoke,'
  Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke;
  'No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace
  Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face:
  One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead--
  And, Betty, give this cheek a little red.'[62]

          [Footnote 62: Pope's _Moral Essays_, Epistle i. This is said
          to refer to Mrs. Oldfield, the famous actress of Anne's
          reign, who (_vide Gentleman's Magazine_ for March 1731) 'was
          buried in Westminster Abby, in a Brussels lace Head dress, a
          Holland Shift, with Tucker and double Ruffles of the same
          Lace, and a Pair of new Kid Gloves.' 'Betty' was her old and
          faithful servant, Mrs. Saunders, herself an actress, taking
          widows' and old maids' parts.]

Funeral invitations were sent out--ghastly things, such as the

Elegies, laudatory of the deceased, were sometimes printed and sent to
friends: these were got up in the same charnel-house style. Indeed, no
pains were spared to make a funeral utterly miserable and expensive.
Hatbands were costly items. 'For the encouragement of our English silk
called Alamodes, His Royal Highness the Prince of Denmark, the
Nobility, and other persons of Quality appear in Mourning Hatbands
made of that Silk, to bring the same in fashion, in the place of
Crapes, which are made in the Pope's Country where we send our Money
for them.' Gloves, of course, had to be given to every mourner. Indeed
it is refreshing among the universal spoiling of the deceased's
survivors to find that one man advertises cheap mourning and funeral
necessaries. 'For the good of the Publick, I Edward Evans, at the Four
Coffins in the Strand, over against Somerset House; Furnish all
Necessaries for all sorts of Funerals, both great and small. And all
sorts of set Mourning both Black and Gray and all other Furniture
sutable to it, fit for any person of Quality. Which I promise to
perform 2_s._ in the Pound cheaper than any of the Undertakers in Town
or elsewhere.'

Of course these remarks do not apply to the poor: they had already
started burial clubs or societies, and very cheap they seem to have
been. 'This is to give Notice, that the Office of Society for Burials,
by mutual Contribution of a Halfpenny or Farthing towards a Burial,
erected upon Wapping Wall, is now removed into Katherine Wheel Alley
in White Chappel, near Justice Smiths, where subscriptions are taken
to compleat the number, as also at the Ram in Crucifix lane in Barnaby
Street, Southwark; to which places notice is to be given of the death
of any Member, and where any Person may have the Printed Articles
after Monday next. And this Thursday about 7 o'clock Evening will be
Buried by the Undertakers the Corpse of J. S., a Glover over against
the Sun Brewhouse, in Golden Lane; as also a Child from the Corner of
Acorn Alley in Bishopsgate Street, and another Child from the Great
Maze Pond, Southwark.'

We see in the invitation to Mr. Newborough's funeral that it was to
take place on an evening in January. This probably was so arranged by
the Undertaker (indeed, the custom was general) to increase his costs,
for then the mourners were furnished with wax tapers. These were
heavy, and sometimes (judging from the illustrations to undertakers'
handbills) were made of four tapers twisted at the stem and then
branching out. That these wax candles were expensive enough to excite
the thievish cupidity of a band of roughs the following advertisement
will show: 'Riots and Robberies. Committed in and about Stepney Church
Yard, at a Funeral Solemnity, on Wednesday the 23rd day of September;
and whereas many Persons, who being appointed to attend the same
Funeral with white Wax lights of a considerable Value, were assaulted
in a most violent manner, and the said white Wax lights taken from
them. Whoever shall discover any of the Persons, guilty of the said
Crimes, so as they may be convicted of the same, shall receive of Mr.
William Prince, Wax Chandler in the Poultry, London, Ten Shillings for
each Person so discover'd,' &c.[63]

          [Footnote 63: _Daily Courant_, Sept. 30, 1713.]

We get a curious glimpse of the paraphernalia of a funeral in the Life
of a notorious cheat, 'The German Princess' who lived, and was hanged,
in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and the same funeral
customs therein described obtained in Anne's time. She took a lodging
at a house, in a good position, and told the landlady that a friend of
hers, a stranger to London, had just died, and was lying at 'a pitiful
Alehouse,' and might she, for convenience sake, bring his corpse
there, ready for burial on the morrow. The landlady consented, and
'that Evening the Corps in a very handsome Coffin was brought in a
Coach, and plac'd in the Chamber, which was the Room one pair of
Stairs next the street and had a Balcony. The Coffin being cover'd
only with an ordinary black Cloth, our Counterfeit seems much to
dislike it; the Landlady tells her that for 20_s._ she might have the
Use of a Velvet Pall, with which being well pleas'd, she desir'd that
the Landlady would send for the Pall, and withal accommodate the Room
with her best Furniture, for the next Day but one he should be bury'd;
thus the Landlady perform'd, getting the Velvet Pall, and placing on a
Side-Board Table 2 Silver Candlesticks, a Silver Flaggon, 2 Standing
gilt Bowls, and several other Pieces of Plate; but the Night before
the intended Burial, our counterfeit Lady and her Maid within the
House, handed to their Comrades without, all the Plate, Velvet Pall,
and other Furniture of the Chamber that was Portable and of Value,
leaving the Coffin and the suppos'd Corps, she and her Woman descended
from the Balcony by Help of a Ladder, which her Comrades had brought
her.' It is needless to say that the coffin contained only brickbats
and hay, and a sad sequel to this story is, that the undertaker sued
the landlady for the loss of his pall, which had lately cost him

Another very costly item in funerals was the giving of mourning
rings. We see[64] the number of rings given at Pepys' funeral in
1703, and their value, 20_s._ and 15_s._, especially when we consider
the extra value of the currency at that period, must have been a sore
burden to the survivors. Thoresby[65] shows to what a prodigal extent
this custom might be carried. 'Afternoon, at the Funeral of my
excellent and dear friend, Dr. Thomas Gale, Dean of York, who was
interred with great solemnity: lay in state, 200 rings (besides scarfs
to bearers and gloves to all) given in the room where I was, which yet
could not contain the company.'

          [Footnote 64: Appendix.]

          [Footnote 65: _Diary of Ralph Thoresby_, April 15, 1702.]

Naturally, a great many must have come to a man in the course of his
life, as we may see by the contents of a box lost out of a waggon
between Stamford and London: '3 Hair Rings, 6 with a Death's Head,
about 2 penny weight apiece the Posie (Prepared be to follow me); 3
other mourning rings with W. C. ob. 18 Dec. 1702; 1 Ennamelled Ring, 3
Pennyweight twelve grains. W. Heltey, ob. 5 July, Æt. 61.' And their
value may be guessed from 'Lost on Thursday, the 8th Instant one of
the late Lord Huntingdon's Funeral Rings. Whoever brings it to Mr.
White's at the Chocolate House in St. James's shall have two Guineas

Besides the rings, hatbands, scarves, and gloves, there was another
tax; for Evelyn,[66] noting Pepys' death and burial, says, 'Mr. Pepys
had been for neare 40 years so much my particular friend that Mr.
Jackson sent me _compleat mourning_, desiring me to be one to hold up
the pall at his magnificent obsequies, but my indisposition hinder'd
me from doing him this last office.'

          [Footnote 66: _Diary_, May 26, 1703.]

The pomp of funerals was outrageous. Gay, observant as he always was,
notes this in 'Trivia,' book 3:--

  Why is the Herse with 'Scutcheons blazon'd round,
  And with the nodding Plume of Ostrich crown'd?
  No, the Dead know it not, nor profit gain:
  It only serves to prove the Living vain.
  How short is Life! how frail is human Trust!
  Is all this Pomp for laying Dust to Dust?

No wonder he exclaimed against these mortuary extravagances. Take an
alderman's funeral as an example: 'On Wednesday last the Corps of Sir
William Prichard, Kt., late Alderman, and sometime Lord Mayor of the
City of London, (Who died Feb. 18) having lain some days in State, at
his House in Highgate, was convey'd from thence in a Hearse,
accompanied by several Mourning Coaches with 6 Horses each, through
Barnet and St. Albans to Dunstable; and the next day through Hockley
(where it was met by about 20 Persons on Horseback) to Woburn and
Newport Pagnel, and to his seat at Great Lynford (a Mile farther) in
the county of Buckingham: Where, after the Body had been set out, with
all Ceremony befitting his Degree, for near 2 hours, 'twas carried to
the Church adjacent in this order, viz. 2 Conductors with long
Staves, 6 Men in Long Cloaks two and two, the Standard 18 Men in
Cloaks as before, Servants to the Deceas'd two and two, Divines, the
Minister of the Parish and the Preacher, the Helm and Crest, Sword and
Target, Gauntlets and Spurs, born by an Officer of Arms; the Surcoat
of arms born by another Officer of Arms, both in their rich Coats of
Her Majesty's Arms embroider'd; the Body, between 6 Persons of the
Arms of Christ's Hospital, St. Bartholomew's, Merchant Taylors'
Company, City of London, empaled Coat and Single Coat; the Chief
Mourner and his 4 Assistants, follow'd by the Relations of the
Defunct, &c. After Divine Service was perform'd and an excellent
Sermon suitable to the Occasion, preach'd by the Reverend Lewis
Atterbury, LL.D., Minister of Highgate aforesaid, the Corps was
interr'd in a handsome large Vault, in the Ile on the North side of
the Church, betwixt 7 and 8 of the clock that Evening.'[67]

          [Footnote 67: _Daily Courant_, March 5, 1705.]

But there was one thing they did not spend so much money upon as their
forefathers did, _i.e._ on monumental statuary, &c. In this age the
bust, or 'busto,' was used in preference to the recumbent, or
half-figures, of the previous century; but by far the greater number
of mortuary memorials took the form of mural tablets, more or less
ornate, according to the taste and wealth of the parties concerned. As
a rule the epitaph was in Latin--this classical age, and the somewhat
pedantic one that followed, could brook no meaner tongue in which to
eulogise its dead; and their virtues were pompously set forth in that
language which is common to the whole of the civilised world.

No account of the funerals of this age would be complete without
seeing what Misson says on the subject:--'As soon as any Person is
dead, they are oblig'd to give Notice thereof to the Minister of the
Parish, and to those who are appointed to visit dead Bodies. This
Custom of visiting dead Bodies was establish'd after the dreadful
Plague that ravag'd London in 1665, to the Intent that it might be
immediately known if there was any Contagious Distemper, and proper
Methods taken to put a Stop to it. They are generally two Women that
do this. The Clerk of the Parish receives their Certificate, and out
of these is form'd an Abridgment that is publish'd every Week. By this
Paper you may see how many Persons of both Sexes dy'd within that
Week, of what Distemper, or by what Accident.

'There is an Act of Parliament which ordains, That the Dead shall be
bury'd in a Woollen Stuff, which is a Kind of a thin Bays, which they
call _Flannel_; nor is it lawful to use the least Needleful of Thread
or Silk. (The Intention of this Act is for the Encouragement of the
Woollen Manufacture.) This Shift is always White; but there are
different Sorts of it as to Fineness, and consequently of different
Prices. To make these Dresses is a particular Trade, and there are
many that sell nothing else; so that these Habits for the Dead are
always to be had ready made, of what Size or Price you please, for
People of every Age and Sex. After they have wash'd the Body
thoroughly clean, and shav'd it, if it be a Man, and his Beard be
grown during his Sickness, they put it on a Flannel Shirt, which has
commonly a Sleeve purfled about the Wrists, and the Slit of the Shirt
down the Breast done in the same Manner. When these Ornaments are not
of Woollen Lace, they are at least edg'd, and sometimes embroider'd
with black Thread. The Shirt shou'd be at least half a Foot longer
than the Body, that the Feet of the Deceas'd may be wrapped in it as
in a Bag. When they have thus folded the End of the Shirt close to the
Feet, they tye the Part that is folded down with a Piece of Woollen
Thread, as we do our Stockings; so that the End of the Shirt is done
into a Kind of Tuft.

'Upon the Head they put a Cap, which they fasten with a very broad
Chin Cloth, with Gloves on the Hands, and a Cravat round the Neck, all
of Woollen. That the Body may ly the softer, some put a Lay of Bran,
about four inches thick, at the Bottom of the Coffin. Instead of a
Cap, the Women have a Kind of Head Dress, with a Forehead Cloth. The
Body being thus equipp'd and laid in the Coffin (which Coffin is
sometimes very magnificent), it is visited a second time, to see that
it is bury'd in Flannel, and that nothing about it is sowed with
Thread. They let it lye three or four Days in this Condition; which
Time they allow, as well to give the dead Person an Opportunity of
Coming to Life again, if his Soul has not quite left his Body, as to
prepare Mourning, and the Ceremonies of the Funeral.

'They send the Beadle with a List of such Friends and Relations as
they have a Mind to invite; and sometimes they have printed Tickets,
which they leave at their Houses. A little before the Company is set
in Order for the March, they lay the Body into the Coffin upon two
Stools, in a Room where all that please may go and see it; they then
take off the Top of the Coffin, and remove from off the Face a little
square Piece of Flannel, made on Purpose to cover it, and not fastened
to any Thing; Upon this Occasion the rich Equipage of the Dead does
Honour to the Living. The Relations and chief Mourners are in a
Chamber apart, with their more intimate Friends; and the rest of the
Guests are dispersed in several Rooms about the House.

[Illustration: Lying in State.]

'When they are ready to set out, they nail up the Coffin, and a
Servant presents the Company with Sprigs of Rosemary: Every one takes
a Sprig and carries it in his Hand 'till the Body is put into the
Grave, at which Time they all throw their Sprigs in after it. Before
they set out, and after they return, it is usual to present the Guests
with something to drink, either red or white Wine, boil'd with Sugar
and Cinnamon, or some such Liquor. Butler, the Keeper of a Tavern,[68]
told me there was a Tun of Red Port drank at his Wife's Burial,
besides mull'd White Wine. Note, no Men ever go to Women's burials,
nor the Women to the Men's; so that there were none but Women at the
drinking of Butler's Wine. Such Women in England will hold it out with
the Men, when they have a Bottle before them, as well as upon t'other
Occasion, and tattle infinitely better than they.

          [Footnote 68: The Crown and Sceptre in St. Martin's Street.]

'The Parish has always three or four Mortuary Cloths of different
Prices,[69] to furnish those who are at the Charge of the interment.
These Cloths, which they Call Palls, are some of black Velvet, others
of Cloth with an edge of white Linnen or Silk, a foot broad, or
thereabouts; For a Batchellor or Maid, or for a Woman that dies in
Child Birth, the Pall is white. This is spread over the Coffin, and is
so broad that the Six or Eight Men that carry the Body are quite hid
beneath it to their Waste, and the Corners and Sides of it hang down
low enough to be born by those[70] who, according to Custom, are
invited for that purpose. They generally give Black or White Gloves
and black Crape Hatbands to those that carry the Pall; sometimes also
white Silk Scarves.

          [Footnote 69: The handsomest was let out on hire for
          twenty-five or thirty shillings.]

          [Footnote 70: Called Pall-bearers--some six friends or
          so--and accounted a special honour.]

'Every Thing being ready to move (it must be remember'd that I always
speak of middling People, among whom the Customs of a Nation are most
truly to be learn'd), one or more Beadles march first, each carrying a
long Staff, at the End of which is a great Apple or Knob of Silver.
The Minister of the Parish, generally accompany'd by some other
Minister, and attended by the Clerk, walks next; and the Body carry'd
as I said before, comes just after him. The Relations in close
Mourning, and all the Guests two and two, make up the rest of the
Procession. The Common Practice is to carry the corpse thus into the
Body of the Church, where they set it down upon two Tressels, while
either a Funeral Sermon is preach'd, containing an Eulogium upon the
deceased, or certain Prayers said, adapted to the Occasion. If the
Body is not bury'd in the Church, they carry it to the Church Yard
belonging to the same, where it is interr'd in the Presence of the
Guests, who are round the Grave, and they do not leave it 'till the
Earth is thrown in upon it. Then they return Home in the same order
that they came, and each drinks two or three Glasses more before he
goes Home. Among Persons of Quality 'tis customary to embalm the Body,
and to expose it for a Fortnight or more on a Bed of State. After
which they carry it in a Sort of a Waggon[71] made for that Purpose,
and cover'd with black Cloth, to the Place appointed by the Deceased.
This Cart is attended by a long train of Mourning Coaches belonging to
the Friends of the Dead Person.'

          [Footnote 71: A hearse.]

A notice of a Roman Catholic funeral must conclude this subject. It is
taken from the will of 'Mr. Benjamin Dod, Citizen and Linnen Draper,
who fell from his Horse, and dy'd soon after.'[72] 'I desire Four and
Twenty Persons to be at my Burial ... to every of which Four and
Twenty Persons ... I give a pair of white Gloves, a Ring of Ten
Shillings Value, a Bottle of Wine at my Funeral, and Half a Crown to
be spent at their Return that Night, to drink my Soul's Health, then
on her Journey for Purification in order to Eternal Rest. I appoint
the Room, where my Corps shall lie, to be hung with Black, and four
and twenty Wax Candles to be burning; on my Coffin to be affixed a
Cross, and this Inscription, _Jesus, Hominum Salvator_. I also appoint
my Corps to be carried in a Herse drawn with Six white Horses, with
white Feathers, and followed by Six Coaches, with six Horses to each
Coach, to carry the four and twenty Persons.... Item I give to Forty
of my particular Acquaintance, not at my Funeral, to every one of them
a Gold Ring of Ten Shillings Value.... As for Mourning I leave that to
my Executors hereafter nam'd; and I do not desire them to give any to
whom I shall leave a legacy.' Here follows a long list of legacies. 'I
will have no Presbyterian, Moderate Low Churchmen, or Occasional
Conformists, to be at or have anything to do with my Funeral. I die in
the Faith of the True Catholic Church. I desire to have a Tomb stone
over me, with a Latin Inscription, and a Lamp, or Six Wax Candles, to
burn Seven Days and Nights thereon.'

          [Footnote 72: _The Flying Post and Medley_, July 27, 1714.]

[Illustration: A widow.]

Widows wore black veils, and a somewhat peculiar cap, and had long
trains--allusions to which are very frequent in the literature of the
time. That they were supposed to seclude themselves for six weeks, and
debar themselves of all amusement for twelve months, is shown by the
two following extracts from Steele's 'Funeral, or Grief à la Mode.'

'But, Tatty, to keep house 6 weeks, that's another barbarous Custom.'

'Oh, how my head runs my first Year out, and jumps to all the joys of
widowhood! If, Thirteen Months hence, a Friend should haul one to a
Play one has a mind to see!'



     'Queen Anne' houses -- Vanbrugh's house -- Real 'Queen Anne'
     houses -- Hangings and wall papers -- Letting and rent --
     Prevention of fire -- A fire -- Insurance companies -- Water
     supply -- Thames Water Works -- New River -- Coals -- Furniture
     -- China -- Bedsteads.

Although for the purpose of this work it is necessary to say somewhat
of the houses of the period, it is not worth while discussing the
so-called revival of the architecture of Queen Anne's time. The modern
houses are quaint and pretty, but they are innocent of any close
connection with her reign. Artists' and architects' holiday rambles in
Holland are provocative of most of them; 'sweet little bits' having
been brought home in sketch-books from Dordrecht and kindred happy
hunting-grounds for the picturesque. The style was not even adopted
for mansions--_vide_ Marlborough House and Blenheim; and the exterior
of the ordinary town houses, even of the better class, was singularly
unpretentious. Hatton[73] is struck with admiration of Queen Square
(now Queen Anne's Gate), and says it is 'a beautiful New (tho' small)
Square, of very fine Buildings.' If he could thus eulogise its
architecture, what must have been the plainness of the exterior of
ordinary houses! It was not that there was a lack of good architects,
for Wren and Vanbrugh were alive, but the houses and furniture were in
conformity with the spirit of the times--very dull, and plain, and
solid. We must never forget that during nearly the whole of this
queen's reign a cruel war exhausted the people's finances, that trade
was circumscribed, and that there were no mushroom _parvenus_, with
inflated fortunes made from shoddy or the Stock Exchange, to spend
their wealth lavishly on architecture or art in any shape.

          [Footnote 73: _A New View of London_, 1708.]

A dull mediocrity in thought and feeling prevailed, and if any
originality in architecture was attempted, it would certainly have
been satirised, as it was in the very little-known poem of 'The
History of Vanbrugh's House.'[74]

          [Footnote 74: See _Meditations upon a Broomstick and
          Somewhat Beside_, Swift, ed. 1710.]

  When Mother Clud[75] had rose from Play,
  And call'd to take the Cards away;
  VAN Saw, but seem'd not to regard,
  How MISS pickt ev'ry Painted Card;
  And Busie both with Hand and Eye,
  Soon Rear'd a House two Story high;
  VAN's _Genius_ without Thought or Lecture,
  This hugely turn'd to _Architecture_.
  He view'd the Edifice, and smil'd,
  Vow'd it was pretty for a Child;
  It was so perfect in its Kind,
  He kept the _Model_ in his Mind.

  But when he found the Boys at Play,
  And Saw 'em dabling in their Clay;
  He stood behind a Stall to lurk,
  And mark the Progress of their Work;
  With true Delight observ'd 'em All
  Raking up _Mud_ to build a Wall;
  The Plan he much admir'd, and took
  The _Model_ in his Table-Book;
  Thought himself now exactly skill'd,
  And so resolv'd a _House_ to build.
  A _real House_, with _Rooms_ and _Stairs_,
  Five Times at least as big as Theirs;
  Taller than MISS'S by two Yards;
  Not a sham Thing of Clay, or Cards;
  And so he did: For in a while,
  He built up such a monstrous Pile,
  That no two Chairmen cou'd be found,
  Able to lift it from the Ground;
  Still at _White Hall_ it Stands in View,
  Just in the Place where first it grew;
  There all the little School Boys run,
  Envying to see themselves outdone.

  From such deep Rudiments as these,
  VAN is become by due Degrees,
  For Building Fam'd, and justly Reckon'd
  At Court, _Vitruvius_ the _Second_;[76]
  No wonder, since wise _Authors_ show,
  That _Best Foundations_ must be Low;
  And now the Duke has wisely ta'en him
  To be his _Architect_ at Blenheim:
  But Railery for once apart,
  If this Rule holds in ev'ry Art;
  Or, if his Grace was no more Skill'd in
  The Art of Batt'ring Walls, than Building,
  We might expect to find next Year
  A _Mouse trap_ Man, Chief Engineer.

          [Footnote 75: The same lady satirised in _The Reverse_.]

          [Footnote 76: Vanbrugh was Comptroller General of Works.]

But should any reader wish to see good specimens of real Queen Anne's
houses, I would recommend a visit to Nos. 10 and 11 Austinfriars. They
are undoubtedly genuine (mark the date 1704 on the waterspout); and
the staircase of No. 10, with its beautifully turned and carved
balusters, and boldly yet easily carved soffits, is a real treat to
see; and were it to be cleansed from its many coats of paint, and
appear in its original state, it would be an almost matchless specimen
of the domestic building of the time. The ceiling, too, at the top of
the staircase is very beautifully painted, and was most probably the
work either of Laguerre or Thornhill. It is good enough for either of
them. No. 11 is inferior to No. 10, but were its neighbour away it
would be looked upon as a very good type of a house in the reign of
Queen Anne. See also an old house, now used as a Ward School, formerly
the residence of Sir C. Wren, in a courtyard in Botolph Lane,

But a good plan is to judge of the houses by contemporary evidence and
description. 'To be Let, a New Brick House, Built after the Newest
Fashion, the Rooms wainscotted and Painted, Lofty Stories, Marble Foot
paces to the Chimneys, Sash Windows, glaised with fine Crown Glass,
large half Pace Stairs, that 2 People may go up on a Breast, in a new
pleasant Court planted with Vines, Jesamin, and other Greens, next
Door to the Crown near the Sarazen's Head Inn in Carter Lane, near St.
Paul's Church Yard, London.' So we see even as late as 1710 that a
staircase capable of accommodating two people abreast was a novelty,
only to be found in 'the last thing out' in houses. The windows of
these houses were long but narrow; the smallness of the panes being
rendered necessary by the fact that no large size could be made in
window-glass, it being only of late years that the manufacture has
improved to that extent. Here is another house described, _temp._
1712. 'To be Lett, near Cheapside, A large new-built House that fronts
two Streets of great Trade: The Shop is lined with Deal all round, and
is about 60 Foot deep one way. There is under the Shop a very good dry
Warehouse that is brickt at Bottom. Joyce and boarded over it, the
Sides and Top is lined with Deal, it is 9 foot between Floor and Top.
There is above Stairs 4 Rooms on a Floor, almost all Wainscotted, and
a large Staircase all Wainscotted. All the Flat is covered with very
thick Lead, with Rails and Bannisters round the Leads and a large
Cupolo on the Top. Inquire of Mr. Richard Wright at the Perriwig in
Bread Street.'

This must have been an extra good house, for they were mostly roofed
with tiles, a fact which has practical demonstration, for after the
terrible storm of Nov. 26, 1703, which damaged London alone to the
extent of a million sterling, and cost us many men-of-war, the loss of
over 1,500 sailors of the navy, and an unnumbered quantity of merchant
seamen, the price of tiles rose tremendously. On Dec. 7 'there is to
be sold Plain Tiles 50_s._ a Thousand, and Pan Tiles for 6_l._ a
Thousand.' The plain tiles went still higher, for on Dec. 24 they were
65_s._ a thousand.

As a rule the rooms were fairly lofty, and the walls of the better
class were mostly wainscotted with oak, walnut, chestnut, or cedar,
and sometimes beautifully carved, and in the lower-class houses with
deal, painted. But wall papers were coming in.[77] 'At the Blue Paper
Warehouse in Aldermanbury (and nowhere else) in London, are sold the
true sorts of figur'd Paper Hangings, some in pieces of 12 yards long,
others after the manner of real Tapistry, others in imitation of Irish
Stitch, flower'd Damasks, Sprigs and Branches; others yard Wide, in
imitation of Marble and other coloured Wainscoats; others in yard
wide, Emboss'd work, and a curious sort of Flock work in imitation of
Caffaws, and other Hangings of curious figures and colours. As also
Linnen Cloath, Tapestry Hangings, with a variety of Skreens and
Chimney pieces, and Sashes for Windows, as transparent as Sarconet.'
And another advertisement in next year gives 'imitation of Marbles and
other Coloured Wainscoats, which are to be put in Pannels and
Mouldings made for that purpose, fit for the Hanging of Parlours,
Dining Rooms, and Stair Cases; and others in Yard wide Emboss'd work,
in imitation of Gilded Leather.' The old style of hangings did not go
out at once, for in 1704 was advertised 'Three Suites of Hanging: one
of Forrest Tapistry, one of clouded Camlet, and one of blue Printed
Linsey; the 2 first very good, scarce the worse for wearing--to be
sold very reasonable.'

          [Footnote 77: _Postman_, December 10/12, 1702.]

Stained glass was not used, generally, for decorative purposes, save
for coats of arms; indeed, the art seems to have been in a bad way,
judging from the following advertisement:[78] 'Whereas the ancient Art
of Painting and Staining Glass has been much discouraged, by reason of
an Opinion generally received, That the Red Colour (not made in Europe
for many Years) is totally lost; These are to give Notice, That the
said Red, and all other Colours are made to as great a Degree of
Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages by William and Joshua Price,
Glasiers and Glass Painters near Hatton Garden in Holborn, London,
where any Gentlemen, who have the Curiosity, may be convinc'd by
Demonstration, there being a large Window just now finished for his
Grace the Duke of Leeds, which will be sent into the Country in a few

          [Footnote 78: The _London Gazette_, June 14/18, 1705.]

Houses were not always let by Agreement, but the leases were sold; and
it is by means of such advertisements that we are able to get at the
rents, which seem to have been very low--even reckoning the difference
of value in money. Certainly they had none of our modern appliances
and conveniences, which add so considerably to the cost of buildings,
nor do they seem to have been saddled with exorbitant ground rents.
'To be sold a lease of 33 years to come in 5 Houses standing together
on the North side of the Pall Mall, whereon 25_l._ per Ann. Rent is
reserved. The Houses are let at 200_l._ a year.' 'A Gentleman has
occasion for a lightsome fashionable House in some Genteel part of the
Town, or very nigh the Town, and if accommodated with Coach House and
Stables it will be better lik'd, of about 30_l._, 40_l._, or 50_l._ a
year Rent.'

A little way out of town rents were even cheaper than this. Here
would be a boon for rowing men. 'To be let at Barns adjoyning to
Mortlack, fronting the River Thames, is a convenient little New House,
2 rooms on a floor, so well situated that it may be shut up, and the
Furniture Safe. The benefit of the air may be had at pleasure, for
6_l._ 10_s._ per Ann.' 'Also another House for more private Dwelling,
well accommodated with a Garden, River Water, etc., well situated for
a Gentleman belonging to the Custom, East India, or African House, or
Navy or Victualling Office, and the rent but 10_l._ per Annum. Also a
Brick House in the Country, 2 Miles off, standing pleasantly in a good
Air, and but 5_l._ per Annum to be Lett.' These instances clearly
prove that house rent was cheap in those days, which makes the price
paid for apartments seem rather high. When Swift came to London in
1710, he says:[79] 'I lodge in Bury Street, where I removed a week
ago. I have the first floor, a dining room and bed chamber, at eight
shillings a week; plaguy deep, but I spend nothing on eating,' etc.
When he removed to Chelsea he had to pay more. 'I got here in the
stage coach with Patrick and my portmantua for sixpence, and pay six
shillings a week for one silly room, with confounded coarse
sheets.'[80] On one of Ralph Thoresby's visits from Leeds to
London[81] he 'was surprised with the old gentlewoman's (Mr. Atkin's
mother) demand of 4_s._ per week for my lodgings;' but then that could
only have been a bedroom, for the old gentleman was always out the
whole day.

          [Footnote 79: _Journal to Stella_, letter 4.]

          [Footnote 80: _Ibid._ letter 21.]

          [Footnote 81: _Diary of Ralph Thoresby_, August 22, 1712.]

It is needless to say that there was more danger of fire then than
now; and the inhabitants of London, very many of whom must have had a
vivid remembrance of that awful fire in 1666, were not altogether
neglectful of their interests in this matter. In 1710 an Act was
passed amending an Act made in the sixth year of Anne's reign, 'for
the better preventing of Mischiefs that may happen by Fire.' This Act
dealt with parochial fire-engines, rewards, rates for water supply and
maintenance of same, the thickness of party walls,' etc., and
contained one very useful little clause. 'It is further enacted, That
there shall be left at the House, upon which there is a Notice of a
Fire Plug, a Key to open the Stop Cock, and also a Pipe for the Water
to come thereout, to be made use of as Occasion shall require.'

They were also fully alive to the necessity of keeping life-saving
appliances in their houses. 'This is to give Notice, That the Rope
Ladders and other Ropes, so useful for preserving whole Families from
the dismal Accidents of Fire, are to be sold,' etc.

There were three fire insurance companies, whose leaden badges used to
be nailed on to the houses, to show they were insured, and in what
office; and a reward was offered by the Friendly Society on July 14,
1705, for the discovery of persons who had stolen some of them.

These three insurance companies were: first, the Phœnix, which was
at the Rainbow Coffee House, Fleet Street, and also by the Royal
Exchange, established about the year 1682, and the assurers in 1710
numbered about 10,000. The system was to pay 30_s._ down, and insure
100_l._ for seven years. Second, the Friendly Society, in Palsgrave
Court, without Temple Bar, which was the first (in 1684) that insured
by mutual contribution, where you could insure 100_l._ for seven years
by paying 6_s._ 8_d._ down, and an annual subscription of 1_s._ 4_d._
In 1710 the number of assured was 18,000. And thirdly, the Amicable
Contributors, at Tom's Coffee House in St. Martin's Lane (commenced
about 1695). Here a payment of 12_s._ would insure 100_l._ for seven
years, at the expiration of which time 10_s._ would be returned to the
assured--who in 1710 numbered over 13,000. This society seems to have
changed its name to the Hand-in-Hand Fire Office, who gave up their
two establishments at Tom's Coffee House and the Crown Coffee House,
behind the Exchange, for more suitable premises in Angel Court, Snow
Hill, and notified the change in the _Gazette_ of Jan. 1, 1714.

[Illustration: A Fire.]

All these employed several men in liveries, and with badges on their
arms, to extinguish fire. The accompanying contemporary illustration
is very rude, but it gives a vivid representation of a fire at that

Gay gives the following graphic description of a fire, so that we may
almost fancy we see the firemen at work.

  But hark! Distress with Screaming Voice draws nigh'r,
  And wakes the slumb'ring Street with Cries of Fire.
  At first a glowing Red enwraps the Skies,
  And borne by Winds the scatt'ring Sparks arise;
  From Beam to Beam, the fierce Contagion spreads;
  The Spiry Flames now lift aloft their Heads,
  Through the burst Sash a blazing Deluge pours,
  And splitting Tiles descend in rattling Show'rs.
  Now with thick Crouds th' enlighten'd Pavement swarms,
  The Fire-man sweats beneath his crooked Arms,
  A leathern Casque his vent'rous Head defends,
  Boldly he climbs where thickest Smoak ascends;
  Mov'd by the Mother's streaming Eyes and Pray'rs,
  The helpless Infant through the Flame he bears;
  With no less Virtue, than through hostile Fire,
  The _Dardan_ Hero bore his aged Sire.
  See forceful Engines spout their levell'd Streams,
  To quench the Blaze that runs along the Beams;
  The grappling Hook plucks Rafters from the Walls,
  And Heaps on Heaps the smoaky Ruine falls.
  Blown by strong Winds the fiery Tempest roars,
  Bears down new Walls, and pours along the Floors:
  The Heav'ns are all a blaze, the Face of Night
  Is cover'd with a sanguine dreadful Light.
  Hark! the Drum thunders! far, ye Crouds retire;
  Behold the ready Match is tipt with Fire,
  The Nitrous Store is laid, the smutty Train
  With running Blaze awakes the barrell'd Grain;
  Flames sudden wrap the Walls; with sullen Sound,
  The shatter'd Pile sinks on the smoaky Ground.

The sanitary arrangements of these houses were very defective, and the
streets at night time must have been anything but pleasant walks.

'We had not walk'd the usual distance between a _Church_ and an
_Alehouse_, but some Odoriferous _Civet Box_ perfum'd the Air, and
saluted our Nostrils with so refreshing a Nosegay, that I thought the
whole City (_Edenborough-like_) had been over-flow'd with an
inundation of Surreverence.'[82]

          [Footnote 82: _The London Spy._]

The water supply, too, was not good. Old-fashioned wells and pumps,
sunk in a crowded city full of cesspools and graveyards, could not
have furnished a healthy supply. Of course there was the water brought
by the city from Highgate and Hampstead, and there was the New River,
but it evidently was not sufficient for the use of the inhabitants, or
it would not have been hawked about.

[Illustration: 'New River Water!']

More was furnished by the Thames Water Works by means of a huge
water-wheel, which worked many force-pumps, and which was erected by a
Dutchman named Peter Morrice, in 1582. This occupied a position on the
old bridge, similar to its being placed close to the stairs by
Fishmongers' Hall at the present time. Although the river was
infinitely purer than at present, yet, being tidal, and the supply
being taken from in shore, it could not have been good for drinking
purposes. There was a new company formed to work this machine, and in
the _London Gazette_, Oct. 28/ Nov. 1, 1703, is an advertisement:
'This is to give Notice to such Persons as have subscribed for Shares
in the Thames Water, That the Transfers of the said Shares will be
ready to be made to the respective Subscribers to-morrow the 2nd
Instant, being the last day limited in the Contract, at Mr. Nicholas
Opie's in Bartholomew Lane, where the said Contract or Subscription
Roll now lies.'

Hatton says in his 'New View of London' that 'besides the old work
erected by Mr. _Morris_, the New placed in the 4th Arch of the Bridge
consists of 2 Wheels with 7 Engines set up about the Year 1702, so
there are in all 13 Engines.

'They are the contrivance of that great English Engineer Mr.
_Sorocold_, whereby the _Thames_ Water is raised from the N. end of
the Bridge to a very great altitude, by which means many parts of the
City &c. are served with the _Thames_ Water. The Flux and Reflux of
the Water worketh the Engine. Here are several Proprietors who serve
Houses for the most part at 20_s._ _per Ann._ paid quarterly, and they
have proportionately more from Brewhouses, &c., according to what they
Consume. To this Company also belongs the Works at _Broken Wharf_ and
the City Conduit Water.

'The Old Stock was 500 Shares, and valued at 500_l._ a Share, since
which those Shares were divided into 1,500 Shares, each valued at
about 100_l._ _per Share_. They pay the City 700_l._ _per Ann._ for
the Conduit Water, and about 10_l._ _per Ann._ for the Bridge; Also
300_l._ to Sir _Benj. Ayloff_ or his Assignees for the _Broken Wharf_,
to which place 2 of the Engines at the Bridge do Work, and there are
also at that Wharf 2 Horse Works.

'They chiefly serve _Goodman's Fields_, _Minories_, _Houndsditch_,
_White Chapel_, and _Birchin Lane_.

'_Merchant's Water Works_ are in _Hart's Horn Lane_.[83] He serves
with the _Thames_ Water by Horse Work and Engines. His Rates are
20_s._ _per Ann._

          [Footnote 83: Afterwards Northumberland Street, Strand.]

'_Mill Bank Water_ is raised and laid into Houses in the Parish of
_St. Margaret's, Westminster_, from the _Thames_. The Water House is
situate on the E. side of _Mill Bank_, for which the Proprietors, who
are in Number 5, had a Patent granted them by K. Charles 2 about the
Year 1673. Their Stock and Income is divided into 8 Shares. Rates are
at least 10_s._ _per Ann._, but commonly 20_s._, and for Brewers and
extraordinary Occasions more than so many Pounds.'

The water was supplied in primitive pipes of wood, some being of the
very small bore of one inch. 'The Governor and Company of the New
River, being inclined to contract for Wooden Pipes of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6,
and 7 Inches Diameter in the Bore, to be delivered at any Place within
the Bills of Mortality, as occasion shall require, do hereby give
notice, that they shall be ready to receive proposals for that
purpose, any Thursday, at their Office at Puddle Dock.'[84]

          [Footnote 84: _London Gazette_, Feb. 27/Mar. 1, 1714.]

An adventurer's share in the New River Water Company was then worth
4,500 guineas; and Hatton, in his 'New View of London,' says: 'They
now Let the Water to most Houses without Fine or Lease, according as
they Consume Water, to none less than 22_s._ 8_d._ per Ann., but to
some Brewers, &c., for 40_l._ per Ann., which, and all common Cocks,
they Let by Lease and Fine.'

The river was scoured out twice a year, and a staff was kept of '12
Walkers between _Ware_ and _London_ (who daily take care that no
Infectious or other thing be thrown into the River that might in any
way prejudice it, whereby it is kept Sweet and Wholesome).'

The following advertisement appears in the _London Gazette_, April
20/May 3, 1703: 'The Governor and Company of the _New River_ brought
from _Chadwell_ and _Amwell_ to _London_, having from time to time
made several Orders and Regulations for the Ease and Benefit of those
who make use of their Water; but being informed, that several
Misrepresentations are Industriously spread abroad to their Prejudice,
they have thought fit to publish the following Orders, which have been
made from time to time since at several Courts. Viz:

'_Ordered._ That no Private Family that is served with the Water of
the _New River_, shall be required to take a Lease of the said Water;
but that what Rent shall be agreed on with the Collectors to be paid,
shall be received by them without the Charge of a Lease.

'Whereas Strict Charge hath been given to the Collectors, and all
other Officers of the said _New River_, That they behave themselves
Civilly and Respectfully to such as use the said Water: If any do

'_Ordered_. That upon any Complaints to the Meetings of the Company
every _Thursday_ at Three in the Afternoon, at their Office at _Puddle
Dock_, Reparation shall forthwith be made to the Party grieved.

'_Ordered._ That any Tenant may employ their own Plummer to do their
Work in mending, or laying any Branch, such Plummer first acquainting
the Collector, and making use of the Company's Paviour of that Walk to
dig the same.'

The leaden cisterns for holding the family supply were often very
artistically and elaborately ornamented, either with flowers or
classical subjects, and are nearly all dated. The few now spared in
London are of course extremely curious, as being exemplars of the art
manufactures of the time.

The houses were principally heated by coals, except in the bedrooms,
and, coals being all sea-borne, prices were sometimes very high; thus,
latter end of April 1702--'Coals are at 33_s._ per Chaldron in the
Pool, because of the great Impress. No Ships are to sail till the
Fleet is compleatly mann'd.' Besides this there was a tax of 2_s._ per
chaldron, 'to be applyed towards finishing St. Paul's Cathedrall,'
which was, on Nov. 26, 1702, ordered to be continued till after the
year 1708.[85] This high price was partly fictitious, a 'ring' having
been formed in coals; but they managed those things better then than
now, and held public inquiry on 'forestalled and regraters.'[86] 'The
lords ordered several persons to attend upon account of engrossing
Coals, and among them two noted quakers; 'tis said the chief reason of
their being so dear is, that several persons in the north, and some
Londoners, have farmed most of the Coal pits about Newcastle, with
design to sell them at what price they please.' It was even suggested
that Government should take the matter up. ''Tis said a proposal is
made to the parliament, that the queen be the free importer of Coals,
and that they shal never exceed 25_s._ per Chaldron, nor be under

          [Footnote 85: _Luttrell's Diary_, Nov. 26, 1702.]

          [Footnote 86: _Luttrell's Diary_, Nov. 13, 1703.]

          [Footnote 87: _Ibid._ Nov. 20, 1703.]

Not only were they dear, but at times poor in quality. 'The late
Common Practice at Sunderland of mixing bad sorts of Coals with the
right Lumley Coals, giving such Mixtures the Name of 'pure Lumley
Coals,' &c., was counteracted by certificates being given of their
genuineness. In Oct. 1711 coals in the Pool were 25_s._ to 26_s._ a
chaldron. Scotch coals had, however, been introduced, for we find an
advertisement: 'At Mr. Folley's Warehouse on White Fryers Wharf, are a
parcel of Scotch Coals to be Sold Reasonably, being the best that have
come to London for many Years, and out of the Earl of Marrs

          [Footnote 88: _Daily Courant_, Jan. 21, 1713.]

[Illustration: 'Small Coale!']

But if they were this high price, ex ship, and wholesale, those who
bought in small quantities had to pay very heavily. Swift in his
letters to Stella is always grumbling at the expense of his modicum of
coals, and would stop longer in, and go earlier to, bed, in order to
save. Then was it that the cry of 'Small coale!' was heard in the
streets--a cry that will always be associated with the memory of
Thomas Britton, the 'musical small coal man,' who died Sept. 14, 1714.

The stoves used to burn coal were small and portable, taking the place
of the old andirons, and standing unfixed in the somewhat wide
chimney-pieces. It is needless to say that the modern 'Queen Anne'
stoves bear very little likeness to the genuine article. The back
plates were frequently very ornamental, sometimes having the arms of
the owner of the house upon them. The accompanying illustration, being
taken from an ironmonger's handbill, is probably copied from one he
had in stock--if not, it most certainly represented those in use.

[Illustration: Fireplace and Utensils.]

Of the furniture of the time--the houses were, to our idea, very
scantily furnished. Take any of the very few engravings of social life
in this reign, and one is astonished at the bare look of the
apartments: a table in the centre, a few high-backed and clumsy
chairs, a square, box-like settee, are all that are movable; on the
walls a picture or two, sometimes, not always, a looking-glass,
occasionally an alcove with shelves for china and bric-a-brac, and
window curtains--always curtains,--the possession of which must have
entailed much trouble on many housekeepers. _Vide_ the following
advertisement:[89] 'London, Nov. 24.--Having no longer since than last
Night had the misfortune (with other of my Neighbours in Leicester
Fields) to be robb'd by a very uncommon method; I desire you would
(for the Good of the Publick) incert in your Paper the underwritten
Advertisement, that Persons may thereby be put upon their Guard, and
make such provision as may prevent the like Robberies.

          [Footnote 89: _Daily Courant_, Nov. 27, 1704.]

'_The Thieves observe those Houses whose Window-shutters, either
outward or inward, reach not up to the top of the Windows; and taking
out some Quaries of the Glass, put their Hands in and rob the Houses
of their Window Curtains._'

Without doubt, the houses of the wealthy were better furnished, and
more artistically. The virtuoso would bring with him on his return
from his 'grand tour' some specimens, both of pictures and furniture,
of the lands he visited. Of the former, they were invariably originals
or copies of the Caracci, Titian, Palma, Van Dyck, etc., and they were
always being imported or changing hands; but of good furniture we
seldom find any to be sold, such as, for instance, 'Two Cabinets, the
one of 48 drawers, containing great variety of curious Shells, Agates,
Corals, Mocus's' (the Mocha or Moco Stone), 'Medals, Minerals, and
other Rarities. The other finely inlaid with Flowers and Birds of
Stone by Baptist.'

And the merchants and well-to-do people undoubtedly had furniture
almost invented to show off their china:[90] 'Whereas the New East
India Company did lately sell all their China Ware, These are to
Advertise, that a very large parcel there of (as Broken and Damag'd)
is now to be sold by Wholesale and Retail, extreamly Cheap, at a
Warehouse in Dyer's Yard. _Note._--It's very fit to furnish
Escrutores, Cabinets, Corner Cupboards or Sprigs, where it usually
stands for Ornament only.'

          [Footnote 90: _Harl._ 5996, 147.]

Naturally, almost all the ornamental ceramics came from China or
Japan--for the state of our own ceramic art was at a very low ebb; in
fact, it was only in its infancy in the middle of the last century.
Some pottery was made in Staffordshire and York, but it was near
London that the manufacture of the best, such as it was, was seated.
The potteries at Fulham were at work, as also Lambeth and Vauxhall.
Thoresby tells us of this latter:[91] 'We went by water to Foxhall and
the Spring Garden: I was surprised with so many pleasant walks &c. so
near London. After dinner there, we viewed the pottery and various
apartments there; was most pleased with that where they were painting
divers colours, which yet appear more beautiful, and of different
colours when baked.'

          [Footnote 91: _Thoresby's Diary_, May 24, 1714.]

None of these wares were remarkable at that time for their beauty, and
so the oriental porcelain was naturally the most admired, and
consequently bore away the palm, both for beauty of form and design.
The use of tea, too, largely helped the consumption of oriental China.
The cups and teapots were home articles for the Chinese to make, and
it was very many years before we, in England, were even nearly
rivalling them.

Tea necessitated a smaller and more elegant table, so we find the want
supplied by tea and Dutch tables. Lacquer ware was also in much
request, as well for 'Tea Tables, Bowls, Dressing Suites, Cabinets,
and Bellows Boards,' as for screens to keep off draughts.

But perhaps the most glorified piece of furniture in the house, was
the bed, which could be had at all prices, from the[92] 'new sacking
bottom'd Bedsteads at 11_s._ a piece' to that imperial couch which was
a prize in a lottery 'by her Majesty's permission,'[93] 'A Rich Bed, 7
Foot broad, 8 foot long, and about 14 foot high, in which is no less
than Two Thousand Ounces of Gold and Silver wrought in it; Containing
four Curtains Embroidered on both sides alike, on a white Silk Tabby,
Three Vallains with Tassels, three Basses, two Bone-graces, and four
Cantoneers Embroider'd on Gold Tissue Cloth, cost 3,000_l._, put up at
1,400_l._' This, of course, was an extraordinary bed; but the price of
bed Furniture really seems to have been 'from 6_l._ or 7_l._ per Bed
to 40_l._ per Bed, with all sorts of fine Chain Stitch Work.' Velvet,
both in crimson and other colours, was also a favourite for
bed-hangings, and cost 40_l._ at least. One quilt is described, but I
fairly give it up--'Stole out of the house of John Barnes, &c., a
_Culgee_ quilt.'

          [Footnote 92: _Harl._ 5996, 87.]

          [Footnote 93: _Ibid._ 5961, 326.]

[Illustration: A Bed.]



     Number of servants -- Footmen -- Wages -- Liveries -- 'How d'ye'
     -- The Upper Gallery -- Footmen's Parliament -- Accomplishments
     -- White slaves from Barbary -- Negro slaves -- Runaways --

The quantity of servants in vogue at that time, especially of male
servants, seems to us to be excessive, but when we look how useful
they were, apart from their menial duties, as guards, and assistants
when the carriage stuck in a deep rut when travelling, and remember
that the old feudal system of having retainers about one for show was
then only moribund (it is not yet dead), their number is accounted
for. First on the list stands my lord's page, who wore his livery,
although of more costly material than that worn by the footman. He
served his apprenticeship as 'a little foot page,' but it was always
understood that, afterwards, his rise in life should be looked to by
his patron. It was very much the same relation that existed between
knight and squire. How he accompanied his lord on state occasions is
shown in one of the illustrations of carriages. Steele speaks
disparagingly of the lad's position.[94] 'I know a Man of good Sense
who put his Son to a Blacksmith, tho' an Offer was made him of his
being received a Page to a Man of Quality.'

          [Footnote 94: _Spectator_, 214.]

But it was the footman of that age, and indeed of the whole of
the early Georgian era, who was the perpetual butt of the
satirist--probably not without reason. 'There's nothing we Beaus take
more Pride in than a Sett of Genteel Footmen. I never have any but
what wear their own Hair, and I allow 'em a Crown a Week for Gloves
and Powder; if one shouldn't, they'd Steal horridly to set themselves
out, for now, not one in ten is without a Watch, and a nice Snuff Box
with the best Orangerie; and the Liberty of the Upper Gallery, has
made 'em so confounded pert, that, as they wait behind one at Table,
they'll either put in their Word, or Mimick a body, and People must
bear with 'em or else pay 'em their Wages.'[95] Steele, of course,
could not resist such a tempting theme for his pen, and, consequently,
devotes a whole _Spectator_ (No. 88) to footmen. He says: 'They are
but in a lower Degree what their Masters themselves are; and usually
affect an Imitation of their Manners; and you have in Liveries, Beaux,
Fops, and Coxcombs, in as high perfection, as among People that keep
Equipages. It is a common Humour among the Retinue of People of
Quality, when they are in their Revels, that is when they are out of
their Master's Sight, to assume in a humourous Way the Names and
Titles of those whose Liveries they wear.'

          [Footnote 95: _Tunbridge Walks_, ed. 1703.]

Indeed, the footmen of that age must have had a good time of it, for
the custom of feeing them, or, as it was called, of giving them
'vails,' was very prevalent. It got worse later on--indeed, it became
such a nuisance that it was obliged to be stopped. Yet even now it has
to be done, like feeing waiters. Certainly their wages were not great.
'I love punctual Dealings, Sir; Now my Wages comes to at Six Pound per
Annum, Thirty two Pounds the Five Years and four Months, the odd Week
two Shillings Sixpence, the two Hours one halfpenny,' etc.[96] This,
certainly, even at the then enhanced value of money, was not a great
yearly wage, and to a certain extent must plead excuse for the custom
of giving vails. As a rule they were treated like dogs by their
masters, and were caned mercilessly for very trivial faults. They were
very far from being faultless, and Swift's man Patrick seems to have
been a specimen of his kind. How humorously Swift used to describe his
faults to Stella! how he was always going to get rid of him, and never

          [Footnote 96: _The Perplexed Lovers_, by Mrs. Centlivre, ed.

Their liveries were, perhaps, not so gorgeous as in the later
Georgian time, but they liked fine clothes. 'Her footmen, as I told
you before, are such Beaus, that I do not much care for asking them
Questions; when I do, they answer me with a sawcy Frown, and say that
every thing, which I find fault with, was done by my Lady Mary's
Order. She tells me that she intends they shall wear Swords with their
next Liveries, having lately observed the Footmen of two or three
Persons of Quality hanging behind the Coach with Swords by their

          [Footnote 97: _Spectator_, No. 299.]

One part of their duty was to call on their master's or mistress's
acquaintances, and ask, with their compliments, 'How do
ye?'--equivalent to our sending in a card; and this custom is
frequently mentioned in contemporary literature. 'And I'll undertake,
if the How d'ye Servants of our Women were to make a Weekly Bill of
Sickness,' &c.,[98] 'While she sleeps I'm Employ'd in Howdee's,'[99]
'We have so many come with How-dee's, I never mind 'em.'

          [Footnote 98: _Ibid._ 143.]

          [Footnote 99: _The Basset Table_, sc. i., ed. 1706.]

The upper gallery at the play was theirs by prescriptive right; their
verdict greatly influenced the success or failure of a play, and they
were worth conciliating. Pinkethman, who played to the gallery, knew
this, and in Mrs. Centlivre's comedy of 'The Basset Table,' where he
took a footman's part, spoke the prologue, in which he not only
addressed them in preference to the other portion of the audience, but
showed his power over them by making them rattle their sticks and clap
their hands at his command.

  Therefore dear Brethren (since I am one of you)
  Whether adorn'd in Grey, Green, Brown or Blue,
  This day stand all by me, as I will fall by you;
  And now to let--
  The poor Pit see how _Pinky's_ Voice Commands,
  Silence--Now rattle all your Sticks and clap your grimy Hands.
  I greet your Love, and let the vainest Author show,          }
  Half this command on cleaner hands below,                    }
  Nay, more to prove your Interest, let this Play live by you. }
  So may you share good Claret with your Masters,
  Still free in your Amours from their Disasters;
  Free from poor Housekeeping, where Peck is under Locks.
  Free from Cold Kitchings, and no Christmas Box:
  So may no long Debates i' th' House of Commons,
  Make you in the Lobby starve, when hunger summons;
  But may your plenteous Vails come flowing in,
  Give you a lucky Hit, and make you Gentlemen;
  And thus preferr'd, ne'er fear the World's Reproaches,
  But shake your Elbows with my Lord, and keep your Coaches.

Whilst waiting in the House of Commons, as alluded to in the
foregoing, the footmen used to form a parliament of their own, and
discussed politics like their masters. As a joke upon the poverty of
the Scotch lords, it used to be said that, in the footmen's House of
Lords, many questions were lost to the court party, which were
carried in the real House, owing to there being so few footmen
belonging to them. Swift alludes to this practice[100]: 'Pompey,
Colonel Hill's black, designs to stand speaker for the footmen. I am
engaged to use my interest for him, and have spoken to Patrick to get
him some votes.'

          [Footnote 100: _Journal to Stella_, letter 10.]

'Give you a lucky Hit' shows that the spirit of Chawles Jeames Yellow
Plush was then in existence, and that he sometimes speculated; and, if
the following newspaper paragraph is reliable, he sometimes won: and
would be in a position to realise the last line in the prologue: 'The
Ticket which entitled the Bearer to 10,000_l._ drawn in this present
Lottery, belongs to a Brewer's Man and Maid Servant.'[101]

          [Footnote 101: _Postboy_, Jan. 21/23, 1714.]

The accomplishments of male servants seem to have been varied. Addison
says,[102] 'I remember the time when some of our well-bred Country
Women kept their _Valet de Chambre_, because, forsooth, a Man was much
more handy about them than one of their own Sex. I myself have seen
one of these Male _Abigails_ tripping about the Room with a looking
glass in his Hand, and combing his Lady's Hair a whole Morning
together.' And another of the fraternity advertises thus: 'A likely
sober Person, who can give a very good Account of himself, by several
Gentlemen and others: He has a Mind to serve a Gentleman as a _Valet
de Chambre_ or Buttler; or to wait on a single Gentleman in Town or
Country; he is known to shave well, and can make Wigs; he well
understands the Practice of Surgery, which may be of great Use to a
Family in the Country or elsewhere; he is a Sportsman; he understands
shooting flying, Hunting and Fishing, and all other Sports relating
thereunto; he well understands a Horse.'

          [Footnote 102: _Spectator_, No. 45.]

But (and it is a curious little revelation of social life) men did not
monopolise the position of body servants to their masters. Steele,
writing as Isaac Bickerstaff, about his club, says:[103] 'This may
suffice to give the world a taste of our innocent conversation, which
we spun out until about ten of the clock, when my _maid_ came with a
lantern to light me home.'

          [Footnote 103: _The Tatler_, No. 132.]

There was, however, another class of servants--black slaves; for the
children of Ham were still in their cruel bondage here--and many are
the advertisements respecting them, from 'a parcel of beads for the
Guinea trade' to a 'Mulatto Maid missing.' It seems curious to us,
now, to think of the somewhat inconsequent behaviour of those times,
keeping black slaves with one hand, and redeeming white ones from
Barbary with the other. One thing is, the poor whites only changed
their method of slavery, for they were draughted into the navy, and in
the long war that followed, there was very little hope of their
release. The papers of March 10, 1702, tell of 143 out of 190 of these
poor wretches going to St. Paul's, where the Bishop of London gave
them 70_l._ between them, and the dean, Dr. Sherlock, 'admonished
them to return thanks to the Government for their Deliverance, and to
the People for their Charity, and that they should not pursue the
Practices to which Sailers, &c., are too much addicted, viz. Swearing
and Cursing. There are about 42 left behind, as 'tis said because some
of the Powder, which was carried thither, happened not to be Proof.'
And the London _Post_, March 11/13, tells a touching little romance of
this event: 'This day the Slaves lately arrived from Barbary, went in
a Body to the Admiralty Office, in order to enter themselves on Board
the Queen's Ships; And 'twas observable, that when they came Yesterday
out of Paul's, one of them was spy'd out by 2 of his Daughters who
came thither only out of Curiosity, and so soon as they saw their
Father, run with open Arms, imbraced and kissed him.'

It is needless to say that the negro slaves were always running away,
and being advertised for; but, as the rewards given were not high, it
is probable that recapture was almost certain. One or two instances
will suffice: 'A Slender middle sized India Black, in a dark grey
Livery with Brass Buttons, went from Mrs Thwaits, in Stepney, the 4th
of June, and is suppos'd to be gone on board some Ship in the Downs;
whosoever secures and gives notice of him to Mrs. Thwaits or Mr.
Tresham, two doors within Aldgate, shall have 10_s._ reward and
reasonable Charges.' 'Went away from his Master's House in Drury Lane,
upon Monday the 6th Instant, and has since been seen at Hampstead,
Highgate and Tottenham Court, an Indian Black Boy, with long Hair,
about 15 Years of Age, speaks very good English; he went away in a
brown Fustian Frock, a blew Wastecoate, and scarlet Shag Breeches, and
is called by the name of Morat; Whoever brings him to, or gives Notice
of him, so as he may be brought to Mr. Pain's House in Prince's Court,
Westminster, shall have a Guinea Reward, and the Boy shall be kindly
received.' Judging by his 'long Hair,' this boy was not a
negro--indeed it would seem that it only needed a dark skin to
constitute a slave; for 'an East India young man, named Cæsar,' ran
away. 'A Negro Maid, aged about 16 Years, much pitted with the Small
Pox, speaks English well, having a piece of her left Ear bit off by a
Dog; She hath on a strip'd Stuff Wastcoat and Petticoat ... they shall
have a Guinea Reward and reasonable Charges.' Sometimes (indeed it was
rather fashionable) the poor wretches had collars round their necks.
'A Tall Negro young fellow commonly known as Jack Chelsea, having a
Collar about his Neck (unless it be lately filed off), with these
Words; Mr. Moses Goodyeare of Chelsea his Negro, ran away from his
Master last Tuesday evening.' This habit of wearing collars is noticed
by Steele,[104] who inserts a letter from 'a blackamoor boy--Pompey.'
'Besides this, the shock dog has a collar that cost almost as much as
mine.' Sometimes these collars were of silver. 'Run away from his
Master about a Fortnight since, a lusty Negroe Boy about 18 years of
Age, full of pock holes, had a Silver Collar about his Neck engrav'd
Capt. Tho. Mitchel's Negroe, living in Griffith Street in Shadwel.'

          [Footnote 104: _Tatler_, No. 245.]

They were rarely advertised to be sold--indeed, I have only found one
instance in all the newspapers of the twelve years of Anne's reign,
and that is very simple. 'A Negro boy about 12 years of age, that
speaks English, is to be sold. Enquire of Mr. Step Rayner, a
Watchmaker, at the sign of the Dial, without Bishopsgate.'

Another kind of servant must not be forgotten, although his servitude
was but a limited one--and that is the apprentice, of whom Misson
says: 'An Apprentice is a sort of a Slave; he wears neither Hat nor
Cap in his Master's presence: he can't marry, nor have any Dealings on
his own Account. All he earns is his Masters.' Misson is slightly in
error in one part of this description, but it is a piece of delicate
etiquette, which probably escaped a foreigner's eye: the apprentice
might wear his cap in his master's presence during the last year of
his time. A branch of industry then existed--although probably it was
practised by very few:--'Attendance will be given at the Sun Coffee
House in Queen Street, very near Cheapside, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays,
and Fridays, where Youth may be furnished with Masters to go
Apprentices to Merchants, Wholesale or Retale Trades, or Handicraft




     Out-of-door amusements -- A holiday -- Hatred of French fashions
     -- Beaus' oaths -- Kissing -- Fops: their daily life.

Passing to the social habits of the people, it is difficult where to
commence the description. The men of the time were humdrum and
prosaic--they went nowhere, at least according to our ideas--a journey
to York or so was really fraught with peril and hardship, consequently
no one ever moved about unless they were compelled. The suburbs were
sparsely inhabited, and there was nothing much to see when one got
there except at Hampstead or Highgate. 'Your Glass Coach will go to
_Hide Park_ for Air. The Suburb fools trudge to _Lambs Conduit_ or
_Totnam_; your sprucer sort of citizen gallop to _Epsom_, your
Meckanick gross Fellows, showing much conjugal affection, strut before
their wives, each with a Child in his Arms, to Islington or
Hogsdon.'[105] What a suburban holiday was like we may see in the
following description, which, however, is somewhat condensed and
revised:[106] 'Fearing Time should be Elaps'd and cut short our
intended Pastime, we Smoak'd our Pipes with greater Expedition, in
order to proceed on our Journey, which we began about Eleven a Clock;
and marching thro' Cheapside, found half the People we either met, or
overtook, equip'd for Hunting; walking backwards and forwards, as I
suppose, to shew one another their Accoutrements. The City Beaus in
Boots as black as Jet, which shin d, by much rubbing, like a stick of
Ebony; their Heels arm'd with Spurs, the travelling weapons to defend
the Rider from the Laziness of his Horse, carefully preserv'd bright
in a Box of Cotton, and dazzled in the eyes of each beholder like a
piece of Looking glass; their Wastes hoop'd round with Turkey Leather
Belts, at which hung a Bagonet, or short Scymitar, in order to cut
their Mistresses Names upon the trees of the Forest: In the right Hand
a Whip, mounted against the Breast like the Scepter of a King's Statue
upon the Change, adorn'd with twisted Wiggs and crown'd with edg'd
Casters; being all over in such Prim and Order, that you could scarce
distinguish them from Gentlemen. Amongst 'em were many Ladies of the
same Quality, ty'd up in Safeguards so be-knotted with their two penny
Taffaty, that a Man might guess by their Finery, their Fathers to be
Ribbond Weavers. We crowded along, mix'd among the Herd, and could not
but fancy the major part of the Citizens were Scampering out of town
to avoid the Horse Plague. We mov'd forward, without any
discontinuance of our Perambulation, till we came to the _Globe_ at
_Mile End_, where a Pretious Mortal made us a Short hand complement,
and gave us an Invitation to a Sir-Loine of Roast Beef, out of which
Corroborating Food we renew'd our Lives; and strengthening our Spirits
with a flask of rare Claret, took leave of my Friend's Acquaintance
and so proceeded.

          [Footnote 105: _The Virtuoso_, ed. 1704.]

          [Footnote 106: _The London Spy._]

'By this time the Road was full of Passengers, every one furnish'd
with no small Appetite to Veal and Bacon. Citizens in Crowds, upon
Pads, Hackneys, and Hunters; all upon the _Tittup_, as if he who Rid
not a Gallop was to forfeit his Horse. Some Spurring on with that
speed and chearfulness, as if they intended never to come back again:
Some Double, and some Single. Every now and then drop'd a Lady from
her Pillion, another from her Side Saddle; Sometimes a Beau would
tumble and dawb his Boots, which, to shew his Neatness, he would clean
with his Handkerchief. In this order did we march, like Aaron's
Proselites, to Worship the Calf, till we came to the New rais'd
Fabrick call'd _Mob's Hole_, where the Beast was to be Eaten. We
press'd hard to get into the House, which we found so full, that when
I was in, what with the smell of Sweat, Stinking Breaths and Tobacco,
I thought there was but a few Gasps between the Place and Eternity.
Some were Dancing to a Bag pipe; others Whistling to a Base Violin,
two Fidlers scraping Lilla burlero,[107] my Lord Mayor's[108]
Delight, upon a Couple of Crack'd _Crowds_[109], and an old Oliverian
trooper tootling upon a Trumpet.' After a rest and some liquid
refreshment, they chatted and bantered with the holiday folk, until
'from thence went into the Kitchin, Built up of Furzes, in the Open
Air, to behold their Cookery; where the Major part of the Calf was
Roasting upon a Wooden Spit: Two or three great Slivers he had lost
off his Buttocks, his Ribs par'd to the very Bone, with holes in his
Shoulders, each large enough to bury a _Sevil_ Orange, that he look'd
as if a Kennel of Hounds had every one had a Snap at him. Under him
lay the Flitch of Bacon of such an _Ethiopian_ Complection, that I
should rather have guess'd it the side of a _Blackamore_; It looking
more like a Cannibal's Feast than a Christian Entertainment. Being
soon glutted with the view of this unusual piece of Cookery, we
departed from thence, and hearing a great bustle in the Upper Room of
an Outhouse, we went up Stairs to see what was the matter, where we
found a poor Fidler, scraping over the tune of _Now Ponder Well you
Parents Dear_;[110] and a parcel of Country People Dancing and crying
to 't. The Remembrance of the Uncles Cruelty to the poor Innocent
Babes, and the Robin Red Breasts Kindness, had fix'd in their very
Looks such Signs of Sorrow and Compassion, that their Dancing seem'd
rather a Religious Worship, than a Merry Recreation. Having thus given
ourselves a Prospect of all that the place afforded, we return'd to
Stratford, where we got a Coach, and from thence to London.'

          [Footnote 107: See Appendix.]

          [Footnote 108: See Appendix.]

          [Footnote 109: Fiddles.]

          [Footnote 110: See Appendix.]

[Illustration: The Merry Fidler.]

This stay-at-home lot naturally disliked all who differed from them;
and their especial hatred, on whom all their vials of wrath was poured
out, and who provoked their most pungent satire, was the travelled fop
who had brought back with him Continental ideas and fashions. In this
matter John Bull, until he began to move about a bit, has always been
most conservative. Anything 'un-English' was certain of condemnation,
and of course, during the war the French, and all belonging to them,
were especially hated.

  Our Native Speech we must forget, ere long,
  To learn the _French_, that much more Modish Tongue.
  Their Language smoother is, hath pretty Aires;
  But ours is _Gothick_, if compar'd with theirs.
  The French by Arts of smoother Insinuation,
  Are now become the Darlings of the Nation;
  His Lordship's Valet must be bred in _France_,
  Or else he is a Clown without Pretence:
  The _English_ Blockheads are in Dress so coarse,
  They're fit for nothing, but to rub a Horse,
  Her Ladyship's ill-manner'd or ill-bred,
  Whose Woman, Confident, or Chamber Maid,
  Did not in _France_ suck in her first breath'd Air,
  Or did not gain hir Education there;
  Our Cooks in dressing have no Skill at all.
  They're only fit to serve an Hospital,
  Or to prepare a Dinner for a Camp;
  _French_ Cooks are only of the Modish Stamp.[111]

          [Footnote 111: _The Baboon A-la-mode, A Satyr against the
          French_, ed. 1704.]

These affectations offended our insularity, and, probably, the
following sketch was not at all ungenerous or uncalled for:--

  And he who to his Fancy puts no Stop,
  Goes out a Fool, and may return a Fop;
  And after he Six Months in _France_ has been,
  Comes home a most Accomplish'd Harlequin,
  Drest in a tawdry Suit at _Paris_ made,
  For which he more than thrice the Value paid.
  _French_ his Attendants, _French_ alone his Mouth
  Can speak, his native Language is uncouth.
  If to the Ladies he does make Advance,
  His very Looks must have the Air of France,
  The _English_ are so heavy and so dull,
  As if with Lead, not Brains, their Heads were full.
  But the brisk _Frenchman_, by his subtil Art,
  Soon finds Access to any Lady's Heart.

And again,[112] 'Then before they can Conster and Pearse,[113] they
are sent into _France_ with sordid illiterate Creatures, call'd Dry'd
Nurses, or Governours; Engines of as little use as Pacing Saddles, and
as unfit to Govern 'em as the Post Horses they ride to Paris on; From
whence they return with a little smattering of that mighty Universal
Language, without being ever able to write true English.'

          [Footnote 112: _The Virtuoso._]

          [Footnote 113: Construe and parse.]

If these descriptions be true, and they are so numerous and widely
scattered as to leave little doubt of it, the young fellow came back a
fribble, an emasculated nothing, except as regards his periwig, his
clothes, and his snuff-box.

  [114]But _Art_ surpasses _Nature_; and we find
  Men may be transform'd into Womankind

          [Footnote 114: _Almonds for Parrots_, ed. 1708.]

--a creature who 'can Sing, and Dance, and play upon the Guitar; make
Wax Work, and Fillagree, and Paint upon Glass'[115]--who swore pretty
little oaths--odsbodikins![116] oh me! and never stir alive! or
blister me![117] impair my vigour! enfeeble me! or could say to a
lady,[118] Madam, split me, you are very impertinent! who painted
himself[119] 'purely to oblige the ladies,'--and who, when he met a
friend, must needs fall a-kissing him, described in one old play as
'the Embracing[120] and the fulsome Trick you Men have got of Kissing
one another.' Or, as in another play, one of those travelled pretty
dears says,[121] 'Sir--You Kiss Pleasingly--I love to Kiss a Man, in
_Paris_ we kiss nothing else.'

          [Footnote 115: _Tunbridge Walks._]

          [Footnote 116: _Tatler_, No. 13.]

          [Footnote 117: _The Beau's Duel._]

          [Footnote 118: _Tatler_, No. 2.]

          [Footnote 119: _St. James's Park, a Satyr_, 1709.]

          [Footnote 120: _Tunbridge Walks._]

          [Footnote 121: _Love Makes a Man._]

[Illustration: Men Kissing.]

What was their life composed of, and how did they spend it? Naturally
they got up late, breakfasted _en déshabillé_, held a sort of levée,
till it was time to go to White's or the Cocoa Tree, or else lounged
in the Mall, where Ward describes the scene as 'It seem'd to me as if
the World was turn'd Top-Side turvy; for the ladies look'd like
undaunted Heroes, fit for Government or Battle, and the Gentlemen like
a parcel of Fawning, Flattering Fops, that could bear Cuckoldom with
Patience, make a Jest of an Affront, and swear themselves very
faithful and humble Servants to the Petticoat; Creeping and Cringing
in dishonour to themselves, to what was decreed by Heaven their
Inferiours; as if their Education had been amongst Monkeys, who (as it
is said) in all cases give the Pre-eminence to their Females.' Or
perhaps he would lounge down to the Exchange to buy a pair of gloves
or a sword knot, and, under any circumstances, to ogle the shop girls.
Ward's language may be a little rough, but it is sound, and it touches
one of the social cankers of the day. Then dinner at Pontac's, or some
ordinary; then a little more coffee-house, and a wind up at some side
box--favourite haunt of beaus--at the play, where probably other of
the _jeunesse dorée_--this time those who had received a home
education--would arrive; would-be men-about-town, things of sixteen
years old or so--whose future development would be first Mohock, then
sot:[122] 'Such as come Drunk and Screaming into a Play House, and
stand upon the Benches, and toss their full Perriwigs and empty Heads,
and with their shrill unbroken Pipes, cry _Dam me, this is a Damn'd
Play_.' A little Tunbridge or Bath in the season, and this was the sum
of their existence, which, if the money held out, lasted until they
either physically rotted, or settled down to married life! sated and
blasé; or, if it was soon spent, and the brilliant meteor had flashed
its course across the heavens, there was nothing but the living death
of the debtors' gaol, from which release was next to impossible.

          [Footnote 122: _The Virtuoso._]




     Receiving in bed -- A lady's life -- A fine lady's diary --
     Walking -- Visiting -- Tea-table scandal -- Shopping -- Daily
     church -- Pets -- Dancing -- Books on ditto -- A dancing master.

And how did the women fare? We have seen that among the middle classes
the domestic virtues were encouraged and highly extolled, and to be a
'notable housewife' was a legitimate and proper ambition; but how did
the fine-lady class spend their time? Were their lives more usefully
employed than those of the beaus? Addison says that he remembers the
time when ladies received visits in bed, and thus graphically
describes the custom:[123] 'It was then looked upon as a piece of Ill
breeding for a Woman to refuse to see a Man, because she was not
stirring; and a Porter would have been thought unfit for his Place,
that could have made so awkward an Excuse. As I love to see everything
that is new, I once prevailed upon my Friend Will Honeycomb to carry
me along with him to one of these Travelled Ladies, desiring him at
the same time, to present me as a Foreigner who could not speak
_English_, so that I might not be obliged to bear a part in the
Discourse. The Lady, tho' willing to appear undrest, had put on her
best Looks, and painted herself for our Reception. Her Hair appeared
in a very nice Disorder, as the Night Gown which was thrown upon her
Shoulders was ruffled with great Care.'

          [Footnote 123: _Spectator_, No. 45.]

There is an amusing little pamphlet--not a chap book
proper[124]--which, though undated, bears internal evidence of the
time of its birth, which gives an account of a fine lady's life.

          [Footnote 124: _The English Lady's Catechism._ I have seen
          the original edition, dated 1703.--J. A.]

'How do you employ your time now?'

'I lie in Bed till Noon, dress all the Afternoon, Dine in the Evening,
and play at Cards till Midnight.'

'How do you spend the Sabbath?

'In Chit Chat.'

'What do you talk of?'

'New Fashions and New Plays.'

'How often do you go to Church?'

'Twice a year or oftener, according as my Husband gives me new

'Why do you go to Church when you have new Cloaths?'

'To see other Peoples Finery, and to show my own, and to laugh at
those scurvy, out of fashion Creatures that come there for Devotion.'

'Pray, Madam, what Books do you read?'

'I read lewd Plays and winning Romances.'

'Who is it you love?'


'What! nobody else?'

'My Page, my Monkey, and my Lap Dog.'

'Why do you love them?'

'Why, because I am an English Lady, and they are Foreign Creatures; my
Page from Genoa, my Monkey from the East Indies, and my Lap Dog from

          [Footnote 125: This settles the date as being early in
          Anne's reign, as the galleons were captured at Vigo in 1702,
          and everything from Vigo was fashionable.]

'Would not they have pleased you as well if they had been English?'

'No, for I hate everything that Old England brings forth, except it be
the temper of an English Husband, and the liberty of an English wife;
I love the French Bread, French Wines, French Sauces, and a French
Cook; in short, I have all about me French or Foreign, from my Waiting
Woman to my Parrot.'

And Addison tells much the same story when he gives a portion of the
diary of a lady of quality.[126]

          [Footnote 126: _Spectator_, No. 323.]

'Wednesday _From Eight 'till Ten_. Drank two Dishes of Chocolate in
Bed, and fell asleep after 'em.

'_From Ten to Eleven._ Eat a Slice of Bread and Butter, drank a Dish
of Bohea, read the _Spectator_.

'_From Eleven to One._ At my Toilet, try'd a new Head. Gave orders for
_Veney_ to be combed and washed. _Mem._ I look best in Blue.

'_From One till Half an Hour after Two._ Drove to the Change. Cheapned
a couple of Fans.

'_Till Four._ At Dinner. _Mem._ Mr. _Froth_ passed by in his new

'_From Four to Six._ Dressed, paid a Visit to old lady Blithe and her
Sister, having heard they were gone out of Town that Day.

'_From Six to Eleven._ At Basset. _Mem._ Never set again upon the Ace
of Diamonds.

'Thursday. _From Eleven at Night to Eight in the Morning._ Dream'd
that I punted to Mr. _Froth_.

'_From Eight to Ten._ Chocolate. Read two Acts in _Aurenzebe_[127]

          [Footnote 127: By Dryden.]

'_From Ten to Eleven._ Tea Table. Sent to borrow Lady _Faddle's Cupid_
for _Veney_. Read the Play-Bills. Received a letter from Mr. _Froth_.
_Mem._ Locked it up in my strong box.

'_Rest of the Morning._ _Fontange_ the Tire woman, her Account of my
Lady _Blithe's_ Wash. Broke a Tooth in my little Tortoise-shell Comb.
Sent _Frank_ to know how my Lady _Hectick_ rested after her Monky's
leaping out at Window. Looked pale. _Fontange_ tells me my Glass is
not true. Dressed by Three.

'_From Three to Four._ Dinner cold before I sat down.

'_From Four to Eleven._ Saw Company. Mr. _Froth's_ opinion of
_Milton_. His Account of the _Mohocks_. His Fancy for a Pincushion.
Picture in the Lid of his Snuff-box. Old Lady _Faddle_ promises me her
Woman to cut my Hair. Lost five Guineas at Crimp.

'_Twelve a Clock at Night._ Went to Bed.

'Friday. _Eight in the Morning._ Abed. Read over all Mr. _Froth's_
Letters. _Cupid_ and _Veney_.

'_Ten a Clock._ Stay'd within all day--not at home.

'_From Ten to Twelve._ In Conference with my Mantua Maker. Sorted a
Suit of Ribbands. Broke my Blue China Cup.

'_From Twelve to One._ Shut myself up in my Chamber, practised Lady
_Betty Modely's_ Skuttle.

'_One in the Afternoon._ Called for my flowered Handkerchief. Worked
half a Violet Leaf in it. Eyes aked and Head out of Order. Threw by my
Work, and read over the remaining Part of _Aurenzebe_.

'_From Three to Four._ Dined.

'_From Four to Twelve._ Changed my Mind, dressed, went abroad, and
play'd at Crimp till Midnight. Found Mrs. _Spitely_ at home.
Conversation: Mrs. _Brilliant's_ Necklace false Stones. Old Lady
_Loveday_ going to be married to a young Fellow that is not worth a
Groat. Miss _Prue_ gone into the Country. _Tom Townley_ has red Hair.
_Mem._ Mrs. _Spitely_ whispered in my Ear that she had something to
tell me about Mr. _Froth_, I am sure it is not true.

'_Between Twelve and One._ Dreamed that Mr. _Froth_ lay at my Feet and
called me _Indamora_.[128]

          [Footnote 128: The Heroine in _Aurenzebe_.]

'Saturday. Rose at Eight a Clock in the Morning. Sate down to my

'_From Eight to Nine._ Shifted a Patch for Half an Hour before I could
determine it. Fixed it above my left Eye-brow.

'_From Nine to Twelve._ Drank my Tea and Dressed.

'_From Twelve to Two._ At Chappel. A great deal of good Company.
_Mem._ The third Air in the new Opera. Lady _Blithe_ dressed

'_From Three to Four._ Dined. Miss _Kitty_ called upon me to go to the
Opera before I was risen from Table.

'_From Dinner to Six._ Drank Tea. Turned off a Footman for being rude
to _Veney_.

'_Six a Clock._ Went to the Opera. I did not see Mr. _Froth_ till the
beginning of the second Act. Mr. _Froth_ talked to a gentleman in a
black Wig. Bowed to a Lady in the Front Box. Mr. _Froth_ and his
Friend clapp'd _Nicolini_ in the third Act. Mr. _Froth_ cried out
_Ancora_. Mr. _Froth_ led me to my Chair. I think he squeezed my Hand.

'_Eleven at Night._ Went to Bed. Melancholy Dreams. Me-thought
Nicolini said he was Mr. _Froth_.

'Sunday. Indisposed.

'Monday. _Eight a Clock._ Waked by Miss _Kitty_. _Aurenzebe_ lay upon
the Chair by me. _Kitty_ repeated without Book the Eight best Lines in
the Play. Went in our Mobbs to the dumb Man,[129] according to
Appointment. Told me that my Lover's Name began with a G. _Mem._ The
Conjurer was within a Letter of Mr. Froth's Name,' &c.

          [Footnote 129: Duncan Campbell, who pretended to tell
          fortunes by second sight.]

Virtually, these two different versions of how an idle woman passed
her time agree remarkably well, and they let a whole flood of daylight
into the inner life of the time--on what they breakfasted when they
dined, what time the opera began, etc. Apart from opera, the play, and
cards, how were the females of the middle class to amuse themselves of
an evening? Say they had been busy all day, the evenings had to be
passed somehow. There was very little of that domesticity and home
life of which we are so proud, for the men spent their evenings at
their club, their coffee-house, the tavern, or the play, so they had
to amuse themselves with such innocent games as hot cockles, questions
and commands, mottoes, similes, cross purposes, blindman's buff, and a
game called 'Parson has lost his Cloak,' or else 'Bouts rimés,' which
consisted of giving four terminal words of any kind so that they
rhymed, and then some one else filling up the blank lines, and making
four lines of sensible poetry.[130] In fact, just the same amusements
that are now compelled to be resorted to as pastimes in a village
home. The better class had musical evenings, for chamber music was
popular, but the spinets and harpsichords were of moderate compass,
and very slight in sound. They danced country dances too, any quantity
of them; and there was the curse of the age--cards--as a never-failing

          [Footnote 130: See _Spectator_, No. 60.]

The women did not walk much. Swift seems to think they did; but then a
little walking went a long way with him. He quite boasts of his walk
from and to Chelsea of a day, a good two-mile walk each way, as
somewhat of a feat, and he repeatedly grumbles at Stella for not
walking more--tells her to knock off her claret and buy a pair of good
strong boots and use them.[131] 'When I pass the Mall in the evening
it is prodigious to see the number of ladies walking there; and I
always cry shame at the ladies of Ireland, who never walk at all, as
if their legs were of no use, but to be laid aside.... I tell you
what, if I was with you, when we went to Stoyte, at Donnybrook, we
would only take a coach to the hither end of Stephen's Green, and from
thence go every step on foot; yes, faith, every step.'

          [Footnote 131: _Journal to Stella_, letter 23.]

The Mall was the fashionable lounge, or the Parade, where smoking was
not allowed.[132] 'From thence we walk'd into the Parade, which my
Friend told me us'd, in a Morning, to be cover'd with the Bones of Red
Herrings, and smelt as strong about Breakfast Times as a Wet Salter's
Shop at Midsummer. But now, says he, its perfum'd again with _English_
Breath; and the scent of Oroonoko Tobacco no more offends the Nostrils
of our squeamish Ladies.' And there were the ducks to feed on the
canal. But the Mall was _the_ place. Ward goes into ecstasies over it:
never was there such a sight. 'From thence we went thro' the _Pallace_
into the _Park_ about the time when the Court Ladies raise their
extended Limbs from their downy Couches, and Walk into the Mall to
refresh their charming Bodies with the Cooling and Salubrious Breezes
of the Gilded Evening. We could not possibly have chose a Luckier
Minute to have seen the delightful _Park_ in its greatest Glory and
Perfection; for the brightest Stars of the Creation sure (that shine
by no other Power than humane Excellence) were moving here with such
awful State and Majesty that their Graceful Deportments bespoke 'em
Goddesses,' etc.

          [Footnote 132: _The London Spy._]

[Illustration: A Tea Party.]

Of course they paid visits--how could women live without a little
gossip? The invaluable Misson takes a note of the practice. 'Persons
of the first Quality visit one another in _England_ as much as we do
in _France_, generally about Evening; but the ordinary Sort of People
have not that Custom. Among us all the little Shopkeepers,
particularly the Women, go with their Gowns about their Heels to visit
one another by Turns, either to crack and bounce to one another, or
else to sit with their Arms a cross, and say nothing. What can be more
tedious, impertinent, and ridiculous than such Visits? Here, Persons
of that Condition go to see one another with their Work in their Hands
and Chearfulness in their Countenance, without Rule or Constraint.
Upon certain Occasions, as upon Mourning or Marriage, they pay one
another Visits of Ceremony.' Brown gives a most amusing
description[133] of 'the City Ladies Visiting Day, which is a familiar
Assembly, or a general Council, of the fair and charming Sex, where
all the important affairs of their Neighbours are largely discuss'd,
but judg'd in an arbitrary manner, without hearing the Parties speak
for themselves. Nothing comes amiss to these Tribunals; matters of
high and no consequence, as Religion and Cuckoldom, Commodes and
Sermons, Politicks and Gallantry, Receipts of Cookery and Scandal,
Coquetry and Preserving, Jilting and Laundry; in short, every thing is
subject to the Jurisdiction of this Court, and no Appeal lies from it.
The Coach stops at the Goldsmith's or Mercer's Door, and off leaps Mr.
_Skip Kennel_ from behind it, and makes his Address to the Book Keeper
or Prentice, and asks if his Lady (for that is always the name of the
Mistress) receives any Visits that day or No; some stay must be made
till the Woman above stairs sends down her Answer, and then the Pink
of Courtesie is receiv'd at the top of the Stairs, like King James by
the French King, and handed to her stool of discourse.... Thus they
take a sip of Tea, then for a draught or two of Scandal to digest it,
next let it be Ratafia, or any other Favourite Liquor, Scandal must be
the after draught to make it sit easie on their Stomach, till the half
hour's past, and they have disburthen'd themselves of their Secrets,
and take Coach for some other place to collect new matter for

          [Footnote 133: _The Works of Thomas Brown_, ed. 1708, vol.
          iii. p. 86.]

Tea was then in its infancy, but it was an extremely fashionable
beverage, in spite of its expense, and the tea-table was the very
centre of scandal and gossip.

  How see we Scandal (for our sex too base),           }
  Seat in dread Empire in the Female Race,             }
  'Mong Beaus and Women, Fans and Mechlin Lace,        }
  Chief seat of Slander, Ever there we see
  Thick Scandal circulate with right Bohea.
  There, source of black'ning Falshood's Mint of Lies, }
  Each Dame th' Improvement of her Talent tries,       }
  And at each Sip a Lady's Honour dies;                }
  Truth rare as Silence, or a Negro Swan,
  Appears among those Daughters of the Fan.

Naturally, when out walking they did a little shopping, or what passed
as such; for then, as now, many a fine lady would go into a shop and
look at the goods simply to pass away the time, regardless of the
loss and inconvenience to the shopkeeper. Steele notices this--indeed,
what little social blot ever went undetected by the omniscient
_Spectator_?--in the following amusing strain:[134] 'I am, dear Sir,
one of the top China Women about Town; and though I say it, keep as
good Things and receive as fine Company as any o' this End of the
Town, let the other be who she will. In short I am in a fair Way to be
easy, were it not for a Club of Female Rakes who, under pretence of
taking their innocent rambles, forsooth, and diverting the Spleen,
seldom fail to plague me twice or thrice a day to cheapen Tea, or buy
a Skreen. What else should they mean? as they often repeat it. These
Rakes are your idle Ladies of Fashion, who having nothing to do employ
themselves in tumbling over my Ware. One of these No Customers (for,
by the way, they seldom or never buy anything) calls for a set of Tea
Dishes, another for a Bason, a third for my best Green Tea, and even
to the Punch bowl; there's scarce a piece in my Shop but must be
displaced, and the whole agreeable Architecture disordered, so that I
can compare 'em to nothing but to the Night Goblins that take a
Pleasure to overturn the Disposition of Plates and Dishes in the
kitchens of your housewifely Maids. Well, after all this Racket and
Clutter, this is too dear, that is their Aversion; another thing is
Charming, but not wanted. The Ladies are cured of the Spleen, but I am
not a Shilling the better for it.'

          [Footnote 134: _Spectator_, No. 337.]

[Illustration: A Lady and Footman.]

One famous place for shopping was the New Exchange, in the Strand,
which must have been something like our arcades; and many are the
allusions, in contemporary literature, to the dangerous allurements of
the Exchange shop-girls. 'Did you buy anything? Some Bawbles. But my
choice was so distracted among the Pretty Merchants and their Dealers,
I knew not where to run first. One little lisping Rogue, Ribbandths,
Gloveths, Tippeths. Sir, cries another, will you buy a fine Sword
Knot; then a third, pretty voice and Curtsie, Does not your Lady want
Hoods, Scarfs, fine green silk Stockings. I went by as if I had been
in a Seraglio, a living Gallery of Beauties--staring from side to
side, I bowing, they laughing; so made my escape.'[135]

          [Footnote 135: _The Lying Lover._]

This was the universal description of the New Exchange, and the
character of their wares has been immortalised in a song by Ward:--

  Fine Lace or Linnen, Sir,
  Good Gloves or Ribbons here;
    What is't you please to Buy, Sir?
  Pray what d'ye ask for this?
  Ten Shillings is the Price;
  It cost me, sir, no less,
    I Scorn to tell a Lye, Sir.

  Madam, what is't you want,
  Rich Fans of India paint?
    Fine Hoods or Scarfs, my Lady?
  Silk Stockings will you buy,
  In Grain or other Dye?
  Pray, Madam, please your Eye;
    I've good as e'er was made ye.

  My Lady, feel the Weight,
  They're Fine, and yet not Slight;
    I'd with my Mother trust 'em.
  For Goodness and for Wear,
  Madam, I Vow and Swear,
  I show'd you this same Pair
    In hopes to gain your Custom.

  Pray tell me in a Word,
  At what you can afford,
    With Living Gain to sell 'em:
  The price is one Pound five,
  And as I hope to Live,
  I do my Profit give,
    Your Honour's very welcome.

  Knives, Penknives, Combs or Scissors,
  Tooth Pickers, Sirs, or Tweesers;
    Or Walking Canes to Ease ye.
  Ladies, d'ye want fine Toys,
  For Misses or for Boys?
  Of all sorts I have Choice,
    And pretty things to please ye.

  I want a little Babye,
  As pretty a one as may be,
    With Head dress made of Feather:
  And now I think again,
  I want a Toy from Spain,
  You know what 'tis I mean:
    Pray send 'em home together.

Another female practice, then, was to go to daily service at church
especially--and St. Paul's, Covent Garden, was a very fashionable
church at which to worship, or ogle the beaus.[136] 'This Market and
that Church,' says my friend, 'hides more faults of kind Wives and
Daughters among the Neighbouring Inhabitants than the pretended Visits
either to my Cousin at t'other end of the Town, or some other distant
Acquaintance; for if the Husband asks, Where have you been, Wife? or
the Parent, Where have you been, Daughter? the Answer, if it be after
Eleven in the forenoon, or between Three and Four in the Afternoon,
is, At Prayers. But, if early in the Morning, then their excuse is, I
took a walk to Covent Garden Market, not being very well, to refresh
myself with the scent of the Herbs and Flowers; Bringing a Flower, or
a Sprig of Sweet Bryar, home in her Hand, and it confirms the matter.'

          [Footnote 136: _The London Spy._]

When not walking, ladies used either a coach or a sedan chair, and but
seldom rode on horseback; but, when they did so, they generally
preferred the pillion to the side-saddle, as in the accompanying
illustration, and held on by the belt either of her cavalier or groom.

In the country, horse exercise was much more in vogue, and Swift
repeatedly alludes to, and reminds Stella of, her riding. When riding,
ladies very frequently wore masks to protect the countenance from the
rays of the sun.

[Illustration: Riding Pillion.]

Frequent allusions are made to a lady's pets, her lap-dog or her
parrot; but very few people know the very wide range of choice she had
in the selection of those pets. Needless to say there were monkeys,
both Marmoset and other kinds; there were paroquets, paroquets of
Guinea, cockatoos and macaws, scarlet nightingales from the West
Indies, lorries or lurries, canaries, both ash and lemon colour, white
and grey turtle doves from Barbary, white turtle doves, and the turtle
doves from Moco, no bigger than a lark, spotted very fine. There were
milk-white peacocks, white and pyed pheasants, bantams, and furbelow
fowls from the East Indies, and top-knot hens from Hamburg. She would
hardly want the 'Parcel of living Vipers, fresh taken, fat and good,
are to be sold by the dozen,' nor would she care about the 'fine Tyger
from the East Indies, who was brought over together with some fine
geese from the same part of the world,' and some 'Amedawares.' In fact
there were 'Jamrachs' then as now, and many of the bird shops were in
St. Martin's Lane, near which locality they still abound. There is a
curious advertisement in the _Postman_, January 12/15, 1706, which
settles the date of bird-seed glasses. 'The so much approved and most
convenient new fashion Crystal Bird Glasses, which effectually prevent
the Littering of the Seeds into the Rooms.'

An innocent amusement, of which they were very fond, was dancing. And
of dances there were a considerable quantity: country dances and jigs,
of which there was an infinite variety, and minuets, rigadoons, and
other more stately and stagey dances, as the 'Louvre and the French
Brittagne.' These latter were elaborate, and absolutely inaugurated a
fresh literature devoted to their cult. This seems to have been
started by one Thoinet Arbeau, in a book published by him in 1588, and
he may be called the originator of the ballet. Both Beauchamp and
Feuillet wrote on this subject in French. Feuillet's book was
translated and improved upon by Siris, in 1706. John Weaver wrote on
this subject (in his 'Orchesography') about 1708, and John Essex (in
the 'Treatise of Chorography') in 1710. The object was to teach the
different steps and dances, by means of diagrams. Thus coupées,
bourées, fleurets, bounds or tacs, contretemps, chasses, sissones,
pirouettes, capers, entrechats, etc., all had their distinguishing

The effect of learning by this method is whimsically given by
Addison.[137] 'I was this morning awakened by a sudden shake of the
house, and as soon as I had got a little out of my consternation I
felt another, which was followed by two or three repetitions of the
same convulsion. I got up as fast as possible, girt on my rapier, and
snatched up my hat, when my landlady came up to me and told me "that
the gentlewoman of the next house begged me to step thither, for that
a lodger she had taken in was run mad, and she desired my advice," as
indeed everybody in the whole lane does upon important occasions. I am
not like some artists, saucy, because I can be beneficial, but went
immediately. Our neighbour told us "she had the day before let her
second floor to a very genteel youngish man, who told her he kept
extraordinary good hours, and was generally home most part of the
morning and evening at study; but that this morning he had for an hour
together made this extravagant noise which we then heard." I went up
stairs with my hand upon the hilt of my rapier, and approached this
new lodger's door.

          [Footnote 137: _The Tatler_, No. 88.]

[Illustration: A Bourée and a Contretemps.]

'I looked in at the keyhole, and there I saw a well-made man look with
great attention on a book, and on a sudden jump into the air so high,
that his head almost touched the ceiling. He came down safe on his
right foot, and again flew up, alighting on his left; then looked
again at his book, and holding out his right leg, put it into such a
quivering motion, that I thought he would have shaked it off. He then
used the left after the same manner, when on a sudden, to my great
surprise, he stooped himself incredibly low, and turned gently on his
toes. After this circular motion, he continued bent in that humble
posture for some time, looking on his book. After this, he recovered
himself with a sudden spring, and flew round the room in all the
violence and disorder imaginable, until he made a full pause for want
of breath.

[Illustration: A Sissone.]

'In this _interim_, my women asked "what I thought." I whispered,
"that I thought this learned person an enthusiast, who possibly had
his first education in the Peripatetic way, which was a sect of
Philosophers, who always studied when walking." But observing him much
out of breath, I thought it the best time to master him if he were
disordered, and knocked at his door. I was surprized to find him open
it, and say with great civility and good mien, "that he hoped he had
not disturbed us." I believed him in a lucid interval, and desired "he
would please to let me see his book." He did so, smiling. I could not
make anything of it, and therefore asked "in what language it was
_writ_." He said, "it was one he studied with great application; that
it was his profession to teach it, and he could not communicate his
knowledge without a consideration." I answered "that I hoped he would
hereafter keep his thoughts to himself, for his meditation this
morning had cost me three coffee dishes and a clean pipe." He seemed
concerned at that, and told me "he was a dancing master, and had been
reading a dance or two before he went out, which had been written by
one who had been taught at an Academy in France." He observed me at a
stand, and went on to inform me, "that now _Articulate_ MOTIONS as
well as SOUNDS were expressed by _Proper_ CHARACTERS, and that there
is nothing so common as to communicate a _Dance_ by a letter." I
besought him hereafter to meditate in a ground room.'

The public dancers were utilised in rather a curious way, if we may
credit Mrs. Centlivre--who certainly ought to know. She says, in 'Love
at a Venture,' '_Sir Paul Cautious_, Go to the Play House, and desire
some of the Singers and Dancers to come hither,' and the servant,
later on in the play, announces, 'The Singers and Dancers are come,
Sir. (Here is songs and dances.)'



     Games at cards -- Curious cards -- Price -- Tax on Cards --
     Female passion for gambling -- The Groom Porter's -- Gaming
     houses -- Gamesters -- Noted gamesters -- Debts of honour --
     Speculation -- Life insurances -- Marine and other insurances --
     Shopkeepers' lotteries -- Government lotteries -- Prizes and

But primest and chief delight of men and women in this age was CARDS.
Never, perhaps, was such a card-playing time--certainly not in
England. Ombre, which is so vividly described in the third canto of
the 'Rape of the Lock' was a game which could be played by two, three,
or five persons--generally by three; to each of whom nine cards were
dealt. It takes its name from the Spanish, the person who undertook to
stand the game making use of the words 'Yo soy l'hombre,' 'I am the
man.' It was an improvement on _Primero_, which disappeared after its
introduction. L'hombre is still played in Spain under the name of
_Tresillo_, and in Spanish America it is called _Rocambor_. _Piquet_
is now played. _Basset_ was a very gambling game, closely resembling
the modern _Faro_; _Whisk_ or _Whist_, _Brag_, _Lanterloo_, or
_Lanctre loo_, in which _pam_, or the knave of clubs, is the highest
card:[138] 'Were she at her Parish Church, in the Height of her
Devotion, should any Body in the Interim but stand at the Church Door
and hold up the _Knave of Clubs_, she would take it to be a Challenge
at _Lanctre Loo_; and starting from her prayers, would follow her
beloved _Pam_, as a deluded Traveller does an _Ignis Fatuus_'; and
_One and Thirty_, which does not seem a very extravagant game, judging
by Swift's account of it.[139] 'Lord Treasurer has had an ugly fit of
the rheumatism, but is now near quite well. I was playing at _one and
thirty_ with him and his family the other night. He gave us all
twelvepence apiece to begin with.' These were some of the games[140]
they delighted in; and the accompanying illustration very vividly
brings before us a quiet and pleasant game at cards.

          [Footnote 138: Ward's _Adam and Eve stript of their

          [Footnote 139: _Journal to Stella_, letter 53.]

          [Footnote 140: Other games were cribbage, all fours, ruff
          and honours, French ruff, five cards, costly colours, bon
          ace, putt, plain dealing, Queen Nazareen, pennech, post and
          pair, bankafalat, beast.]

[Illustration: A Card Table.]

The implements of gaming, the cards themselves, were much smaller and
thinner than those we are accustomed to play with. They were not
always confined to the prosaic display of the pips and Court cards, as
ours are, but took a far more fanciful flight. 'Geographical,
Geometrical, Astronomical and Carving Cards, each Pack price 1_s._'
'Orange Cards, Representing the late King James's Reign and
Expedition of the Prince of Orange, Plots of the Papists, Bishops in
the Tower and Trial, Consecrated mock Prince of Wales, Popish Midwife,
Fight at Reading, Pope's Nuncio, Captain Tom, Essex's Murder, burning
Mass Houses, Army going over to the Prince of Orange, etc.'; cards
delineating the victories of Marlborough and other events in Anne's
reign; Sacheverel cards; and anything for fashion--cards from Vigo--in
1702--after the great victory there; proverb cards; all kinds of
cards. The ordinary playing cards were cheap enough in all conscience,
'the best Principal superfine Picket Cards at 2_s._ 6_d._ a Dozen; the
best Principal superfine Ombro Cards at 2_s._ 9_d._ a Dozen; the best
Principal superfine Basset Cards at 3_s._ 6_d._ a dozen' (packs
understood). The price to retailers averaged 1-1/2_d._ per pack, and
it is marvellous how they could, at that time, be made for the money.

By an Act of 10 Anne, c. 18, s. 176, etc., a duty of sixpence per pack
for cards, and five shillings a pair for dice, was imposed; and all
cards made and unsold before June 12, 1711, were to be brought in to
be stamped, and pay a duty of one halfpenny per pack, and dice 6_d._ a

The passion of women for gambling was a fruitful theme for satire in
those days. 'She's a profuse Lady, tho' of a Miserly Temper, whose
Covetous Disposition is the very Cause of her Extravagancy; for the
Desire of Success wheedles her Ladyship to play, and the incident
Charges and Disappointments that attend it, make her as expensive to
her Husband, as his Coach and six Horses. When an unfortunate Night
has happen'd to empty her Cabinet, she has many Shifts to replenish
her Pockets. Her Jewels are carry'd privately into Lombard Street, and
Fortune is to be tempted the next Night with another Sum, borrowed of
my Lady's Goldsmith at the Extortion of a Pawnbroker; and if that
fails, then she sells off her Wardrobe, to the great grief of her
Maids; stretches her Credit amongst those she deals with, or makes her
Waiting Woman dive into the Bottom of her Trunk, and lug out her green
Net Purse full of old Jacobuses, in Hopes to recover her losses by a
Turn of Fortune, that she may conceal her bad Luck from the Knowledge
of her Husband.'[141]

          [Footnote 141: 'The Gaming Lady, or Bad Luck to him that has
          her,' in _Adam and Eve stript of their Furbelows_.]

Nay, worse subterfuges than these are more than openly hinted at in
divers authors. One or two examples will suffice.

  This Itch for play has likewise fatal been,
  And more than Cupid draws the Ladies in,
  A Thousand Guineas for Basset prevails,
  A Bait when Cash runs low, that seldom fails;
  And when the Fair One can't the Debt defray
  In Sterling Coin, does Sterling Beauty pay.[142]

          [Footnote 142: Epilogue to _The Gamester_, ed. 1705.]

No wonder that Steele bursts out,[143] 'Oh, the damned Vice! That
Women can imagine all Household Care, regard to Posterity, and fear of
Poverty, must be sacrificed to a game at Cards.

          [Footnote 143: _The Tender Husband._]

 [Illustration: A Gambling Scene.]

But we must not think that the fair ones monopolised the enjoyment of
this passion--the sterner sex were equally culpable. Gaming houses
were plentiful. The 'Groom Porter's' was still in full swing, _vide_
this advertisement:[144] 'Whereas Her Majesty, by her Letters Patent
to Thomas Archer Esq. constituting him Her Groom Porter, hath given
full Power to him and such Deputies as he shall appoint, to supervise,
regulate, and authorize (by and under the Rules, Conditions and
Restrictions by the Law prescribed) all manner of Gaming within this
Kingdom. And, whereas several of Her Majesty's Subjects, keeping Plays
or Games in their Houses, have been lately abused, and had Moneys
extorted from them by several ill disposed Persons, contrary to Law.
These are therefore to give Notice, That no Person whatsoever, not
producing his Authority from the said Groom Porter, under the Seal of
his Office, hath any Power to act anything under the said Patent. And
to the end that all such Persons offending as aforesaid may be
proceeded against according to Law, it is hereby desired, that Notice
be given of all such Abuses to the said Groom Porter, or his Deputies,
at his Office at Mr. Stephenson's, a Scrivener's House, over against
Old Man's Coffee House near Whitehall.'

          [Footnote 144: _The London Gazette_, Dec. 6/10, 1705.]

The Groom Porter's own Gaming House must have been the scene of

          [Footnote 145: _The Busy Body._]

     _Sir Geo. Airy._ Oh, I honour Men of the Sword; and I presume
     this Gentleman is lately come from Spain or Portugal--by his

     _Marplot._ No, really, Sir George, mine sprung from civil Fury:
     Happening last night into the Groom Porter's--I had a strong
     Inclination to go ten Guineas with a sort of a--sort of a--kind
     of a Milk Sop, as I thought; A Pox of the Dice, he flung out, and
     my Pockets being empty, as Charles knows they sometimes are, he
     prov'd a Surly North Briton, and broke my face for my Deficiency.

If scenes like this were enacted at the Groom Porter's, what must have
taken place at the other gaming houses? Let two contemporary writers,
whose language, though rough, is trustworthy, answer the question.
'Gaming is an Estate to which all the World has a Pretence, tho' few
espouse it that are willing to keep either their Estates, or
Reputations. I knew two _Middlesex Sharpers_ not long ago, that
inherited a West Country Gentleman's Estate, who I believe, wou'd have
never made them his Heirs in his last Will and Testament.

'_Lantrillou_ is a kind of Republick very ill ordered, where all the
World are Hail Fellow well met; no distinction of Ranks, no
Subordination observed. The greatest Scoundrel of the Town, with Money
in his Pockets, shall take his Turn before the best _Duke_ or _Peer_
in the Land, if the Cards are on his side. From these Privileg'd
Places not only all Respect and Inferiority is Banish'd; but every
thing that looks like Good Manners, Compassion, or Humanity: Their
Hearts are so Hard and Obdurate, that what occasions the Grief of one
Man, gives Joy and Satisfaction to his next Neighbour....

'In some Places they call Gaming Houses _Academies_; but I know not
why they should inherit that Honourable Name, since there's nothing to
be learn'd there, unless it be _Slight of Hand_, which is sometimes at
the Expence of all our Money, to get that of other Men's by Fraud and
Cunning. The Persons that meet are generally Men of an _Infamous_
Character, and are in various Shapes, Habits and Employments.
Sometimes they are Squires of the _Pad_, and now and then borrow a
little Money upon the _King's High Way_, to recruit their losses at
the _Gaming House_, and when a Hue and Cry is out, to apprehend them,
they are as safe in one of these Houses as a _Priest_ at the _Altar_,
and practise the old trade of _Cross biting Cullies_, assisting the
Frail _Square Dye_ with high and low _Fullums_, and other _Napping_
Tricks, in comparison of whom the common Bulkers, and Pickpockets, are
a very honest Society. How unaccountable is this way to _Beggary_,
that when a Man has but a little Money, and knows not where in the
World to compass any more, unless by hazarding his Neck for't, will
try an Experiment to leave himself none at all: Or, he that has Money
of his own, should play the Fool, and try whether it shall not be
another Man's. Was ever any thing so Nonsensically Pleasant.

'One idle day I ventur'd into one of these _Gaming Houses_, where I
found an _Oglio of Rakes_ of several Humours, and Conditions met
together. Some that had left them never a Penny to bless their Heads
with. One that had play'd away even his Shirt and Cravat, and all his
Clothes but his Breeches, stood shivering in a Corner of the Room, and
another comforting him, and saying, _Damme_ Jack, who ever thought to
see thee in a State of Innocency: Cheer up, Nakedness is the best
Receipt in the World against a Fever; and then fell a Ranting, as if
Hell had broke loose that very Moment.... I told my friend, instead of
_Academies_ these places should be call'd _Cheating Houses_: Whereupon
a Bully of the _Blade_ came strutting up to my very Nose, in such a
Fury, that I would willingly have given half the Teeth in my Head for
a Composition, crying out, Split my Wind Pipe, Sir, you are a Fool,
and don't understand _Trap_, the whole World's a Cheat.'[146]

          [Footnote 146: _The Works of Mr. Thomas Brown_, ed. 1705.]

Ward,[147] also, writing of gaming, says: 'Pray, said I, what do you
take those Knot of Gentlemen to be, who are so Merry with one another?
They, reply'd my Friend, are Gamesters, waiting to pick up some young
Bubble or other as he comes from his Chamber; they are Men whose
Conditions are subject to more Revolutions than a Weather Cock, or the
Uncertain Mind of a Fantastical Woman. They are seldom two Days in one
and the same Stations, they are one day very richly drest, and perhaps
out at Elbows the next; they have often a great deal of Money, and
are as often without a Penny in their Pockets; they are as much
Fortunes Bubbles, as young Gentlemen are theirs; for whatever benefits
she bestows upon 'em with one Hand, she snatches away with t'other;
their whole Lives are a Lottery, they read no books but Cards, and all
their Mathematicks is to truly understand the Odds of a Bet; they very
often fall out, but very seldom Fight, and the way to make 'em your
Friends is to Quarrel with them.... They generally begin every Year
with the same Riches; for the Issue of their Annual Labours is chiefly
to inrich the Pawnbrokers. They are seldom in Debt, because no Body
will Trust 'em; and they never care to Lend Money, because they Know
not where to Borrow it. A Pair of False Dice, and a Pack of mark'd
Cards sets 'em up; and an Hours Unfortunate Play commonly breaks 'em.'

          [Footnote 147: _The London Spy._]

These professional swindlers belonged to all classes of society, and
some who died in this reign have left names behind them: St. Evremont,
Beau Fielding, Macartney, who was Lord Mohun's second in his
celebrated duel with the Duke of Hamilton, and the Marquis de
Guiscard, who stabbed Harley, the Earl of Oxford. Their Lives, and
many others, are given by Lucas,[148] from whom I shall only borrow
one example, to show the equality that play made between the different
social grades. Bourchier died in 1702, so that he just comes within
this reign. 'Being at the _Groom Porter's_, he flung one Main with the
Earl of _Mulgrave_ for 500 Pounds, which he won; and his Honour
looking wistly at him, quoth he, _I believe I shou'd know you_. _Yes_
(reply'd the Winner) _your Lordship must have some Knowledge of me,
for my Name is_ Dick Bourchier, _who was once your Footman_. Whereupon
his Lordship supposing he was not in a Capacity of paying 500 Pounds
in case he had lost, cry'd out, _A Bite, A Bite_. But the _Groom
Porter_ assuring his Lordship that Mr. _Bourchier_ was able to have
paid 1,000 Pounds provided his Lordship had won such a Summ, he paid
him what he plaid for, without any farther Scruple.'

          [Footnote 148: _Memoirs of the Lives, Intrigues, and Comical
          Adventures of the most famous Gamesters and Celebrated
          Sharpers in the Reigns of Charles 2, James 2, William 3, and
          Queen Anne, etc._ By Theophilus Lucas. London, 1714.]

'Once Mr. _Bourchier_ going over to _Flanders_, with a great Train of
Servants, set off in such a fine Equipage, that they drew the Eyes of
all upon them wherever they went, to admire the Splendor and Gaiety of
their Master, whom they took for no less than a Nobleman of the first
Rank. In this Pomp, making his Tour at K. _William's_ Tent, he
happen'd into Play with that great Monarch, and won of him above
£2,500. The Duke of _Bavaria_ being also there, he took up the
cudgels, and losing £15,000 the Loss put him into a great Chafe, and
doubting some foul Play was put upon him, because Luck went so much
against him, quoth Mr. _Bourchier_: _Sir, if you have any suspicion of
the least Sinister Trick put upon your Highness, if you please I'll
give you a Chance for all your Money at once, tossing up at Cross and
Pile, and you shall have the Advantage too of throwing up the Guinea
yourself_. The Elector admir'd at his bold Challenge, which never the
less accepting, he tost up for £15,000, and lost the Money upon
Reputation, with which Bourchier was very well satisfied, as not
doubting in the least; and so taking his leave of the King, and those
Noblemen that were with him, he departed. Then the Elector of
_Bavaria_ enquiring of his Majesty, who that Person was, that could
run the Hazard of playing for so much Money at a time, he told him it
was a subject of his in _England_, that though he had no real Estate
of his own, yet was he able to play with any Sovereign Prince in
_Germany_. Shortly after _Bourchier_ returning into _England_, he
bought a most rich Coach and Curious Sett of Six Horses to it, which
cost him above £3,000, for a present to the Elector of _Bavaria_, who
had not as yet paid him any thing of the £30,000 which he had won of
him. Notice hereof being sent to his Highness, the generous Action
incited him to send over his Gentleman of Horse into _England_, to
take care of this Present, which he receiv'd Kindly at _Bourchier's_
Hands, to whom he return'd Bills of Exchange also, drawn upon several
eminent Merchants in _London_, for paying what Money he had lost with
him at Play.'

Bourchier became very rich, and purchased an estate near Pershore, in
Worcestershire, where he was buried--although he died in London.

The lower classes followed the example of their social superiors, and
gambled; but once only can I find such an instance of gaming fever as
the following:[149] 'An Inditement is presented against a Person in
Westminster, for playing away his Wife to another Man, which was done
with her own consent.'

          [Footnote 149: _The English Post_, October 12/14, 1702.]

Losses at cards, or debts of honour, as they were then and are now
called, were supposed to be punctually paid. See 'The Gamester.'

     _Hector._ Then, Sir, here is two Hundred Guineas lost to my Lord
     _Love-game_, upon Honour.

     _Sir Thos. Valere._ That's another Debt I shall not pay.

     _Hector._ How, not pay it, Sir. Why, Sir, among Gentlemen, that
     Debt is look'd upon the most just of any: you may Cheat Widows,
     Orphans, Tradesmen without a Blush; but a Debt of Honour, Sir,
     must be paid. I cou'd name you some Noblemen that pays no
     Body--yet a Debt of Honour, Sir, is as sure as their Ready Money.

     _Sir Thos._ He that makes no Conscience of Wronging the Man whose
     Goods have been deliver'd for his use can have no pretence to
     Honour, whatever Title he may wear.

There was a speculating mania arising, which boded ill for the future.
In this reign was born the 'South Sea Bubble,' which burst so
disastrously in the next, and involved thousands in ruin. Perhaps the
mildest form it took was in insurances. We have already glanced at the
fire insurances in Queen Anne's time; they now began to think of life
insurance, and the first advertisement on this subject that I have
noticed is in 1709. 'The Office of Assurance of Money upon Lives is at
the Rainbow Coffee House in Cornhill, where Men or Women may Subscribe
on their own Lives for the benefit of their Children, or other
Person's Lives for the benefit of themselves, and have them approv'd
without their Knowledge, paying 10_s._ Entrance, and 10_s._ towards
the first Claim for each Life, and shall have a Policy for £1,000 for
each Life subscribed upon in the said Society. This Office may be
proper for such Persons as have Annuities, Estates, or Places for
Life; and for such Persons to make Assurance upon Lives where Debts
are dubious if the Person die. This Office will assure Money much
Cheaper per cent. than private Persons.' This looks very much as if it
were the first life insurance company that was started, in lieu of
private enterprise; and as this is the only company that is advertised
in Queen Anne's reign, it was probably the sole forerunner of the
numerous similar enterprises now in existence.

Hatton says, 'Offices that _Insure Ships_ or their Cargo are many
about the _Royal Exchange_, as Mr. Hall's, Mr. Bevis's, etc., who for
a _Premium_ paid down procure those that will subscribe Policies for
Insuring Ships (with their Cargo) bound to or from any part of the
World, the _Premium_ being proportioned to the Distance, Danger of
Seas, Enemies, etc. But in these Offices 'tis Customary upon paying
the Money on a Loss to discount 16 per cent.'

A curious marine insurance was in existence early in 1711, of which
the following is the advertisement; but it seems a sporting insurance,
and only meant to cover the war risk. 'For the Encouragement of
Navigation for Masters, Mates and other Seafaring Men that are Burnt,
Sunk or Taken. That 4,000 Persons by paying 2_s._ 6_d._ for a Policy,
and 5_s._ to the 1st Quarter, which will be paid 21 days after
Midsummer for the Lady Day Quarter, to the Sufferer or Sufferers
£1,000 in full, or in proportion to what is paid in, and continuing to
pay 5_s._ every Quarter or 14 days after; likewise if 4,000 persons by
paying 2_s._ 6_d._ for a Policy, and 2_s._ for the 1st if full, £400
or in proportion to be paid 21 days after Midsummer for this Lady Day
Quarter, and likewise 4,000 by paying 2_s._ 6_d._ for Policies and
1_s._ per Quarter, the Sufferer or Sufferers to receive the benefit of
£200 if full, or else in proportion, to be paid in 21 days after
Midsummer; the Office was opened on Saturday last, the 27th past, by
Hen Willson, Gent, in Jacob Street, Southwark. Note. When 1,000
Policies are taken out, Trustees will be Chosen and Land Security
given. Any Person may Insure in all 3 Offices. Proposals at large may
be had at the Office. Note, that £6 per cent. will be deducted out of
the Money paid for the trouble and charges.'

There were besides--and they sprang up as if by magic--insurances for
everything: for marriages, for births, for baptisms--rank swindles
all. And lotteries! why, every thing, unsaleable otherwise, was tried
to be got rid of by lottery. The papers teemed with advertisements.
Take one newspaper haphazard; for example, the _Tatler_, Sept. 14/16,
1710: 'Mr. Stockton's Sale of Jewels, Plate, &c., will be drawn on
Michaelmas Day.' 'The Lottery in Colson's Court is to be drawn the
21st Inst.' 'The Sale of Goods to be seen at Mrs. Butler's, &c., will
certainly be drawn on Tuesday the 19th Inst.' 'Mrs. Povy's Sale of
Goods is put off to Saturday 23rd Inst. 'Mrs. Symond's Sale of Goods
will begin, &c., on Wednesday the 20th of this Instant.' 'Mrs.
Guthridge's Sixpenny Sale of Goods, &c., continues to be drawn every

The financial atmosphere was getting unwholesome, Government had to
step in, and an Act was passed which duly appeared in the _London
Gazette_, June 28/July 1, 1712, which enacted 'That every Person who,
after the 24 June 1712, shall erect, set up, or keep any Office or
Place for making Insurance on Marriages, Births, Christnings, or
Service, or any other Office or Place, under the Denomination of Sales
of Gloves, of Fans, of Cards, of Numbers, of the Queen's Picture, for
the improving of small sums of Mony,[150] or the like Offices or
Places under pretence of improving small sums of Money, shall Forfeit
for every such Offence the sum of 500_l._, to be recovered with full
Costs of Suit, and to be divided as aforesaid.' This had the desired
effect, and both in the _British Mercury_, June 27/30, 1712, and the
_Post Boy_, Aug. 21/23, 1712, we hear of prosecutions of illicit
lotteries--and they soon ceased.

          [Footnote 150: Here is a sample of one of these traps to
          catch gulls: 'At Nixon's Coffee House, at Fetter Lane End in
          Fleet St, is open'd an Office call'd the Golden Office,
          where by putting in Monys, not exceeding 5 Guineas, may
          receive Cent per Cent in three Weeks time. Proposals may be
          had at the Place aforesaid.'--_Postboy_, April 26/29, 1712.]

Of course, morally speaking, the Government had no right to complain,
for they had begun the system--by legalising a lottery for £1,500,000
in 1709--from which time until 1824 no year passed without Parliament
sanctioning a Lottery Bill. It is not worth while going into the
schemes of the various lotteries in Queen Anne's reign, but it may be
interesting to note the constitution of the one which inaugurated an
indefensible system of immoral finance, which lasted over a century.
There were 150,000 tickets at £10 each, making £1,500,000, the
principal of which was to be sunk, and 9 per cent. to be allowed on it
for 32 years. Three thousand seven hundred and fifty tickets were
prizes from £1000 to £5 per annum; the rest were blanks--a proportion
of thirty-nine to one prize, but, as a consolation, each blank was
entitled to fourteen shillings per annum during the thirty-two years.

People rushed after the tickets, and they were taken up at once. '21
Jan. 1710.--Yesterday books were opened at Mercer's Chappel for
receiving subscriptions for the lottery, and, 'tis said, above a
Million is already subscribed; so that, 'tis believed, 'twill be full
by Monday 7 night.'[151]

          [Footnote 151: Luttrell.]

[Illustration: A Lottery.]

And the same authority tells us[152] that 'Mr. Thomas Barnaby, who
lately belonged to the 6 clerk's office, has got the £1000 per ann.
ticket in the lottery.'

          [Footnote 152: _Ibid._ August 15, 1710.]

Among the prize-holders of the next lottery (at least, so Swift writes
Stella, Aug. 29, 1711) was a son of Lord Abercorn's. 'His second son
has t'other day got a prize in the lottery of four Thousand pounds,
beside two small ones of two hundred pounds each; nay, the family was
so fortunate, that my lord bestowing one ticket, which is a hundred
pounds, to one of his servants, who had been his page, the young
fellow got a prize, which has made it another hundred.'

In some of the lotteries the prizes were very valuable, for we read in
the _Post Boy_, Jan. 6/8, 1713, that 'Yesterday was drawn No. 22858,
which entitles the Bearer to £36,000.'

The accompanying engraving shows us exactly how the lotteries were
drawn; and, as it is taken from a book published in 1710, in all
probability it is a correct representation of the famous first State
lottery of 1709. Bluecoat boys, then, as in 1824, drew out the

As in all lotteries, superstition attaches a peculiar value to some
number, or combination of numbers, in the ticket: so it was in Anne's
time, and the _Spectator_ (191) comments on an advertisement in the
_Post Boy_ of Sept. 27, 1711--'This is to give notice, That Ten
Shillings over and above the Market Price will be given for the Ticket
in the £1,500,000 Lottery No. 132, by Nath. Cliff, at the Bible and
Three Crowns in Cheapside.'



     Astrologers -- Their advertisements -- Their
     tricks -- Witchcraft -- Cases of witchcraft.

It is not for us to decry the superstition of that age--we should look
to ourselves in this matter. Perhaps they were more open in their
expression of belief in the supernatural, and perhaps that belief was
wider spread than at present. The seventh _Spectator_ gives a very
good account of the minor superstitions, but does not touch on the
grosser ones, such as the consulting of astrologers, and the belief in
witches. These two things still exist in England, though nothing like
to the extent they did in the early part of the last century. In spite
of Hudibras and Sidrophel, an astrologer was a very important entity.
He published his almanacs--he drew horoscopes; and, as to witches,
why, of course there were plenty of them. An old, ugly, soured, and
malevolent woman earned a right to be considered such.

As for the astrologers, it is needless to say they were unscrupulous,
needy sharpers, who lived 'in all the By-Allies in Moorfields, White
Chappel, Salisbury Court, Water Lane, Fleet Street, and Westminster.'
Their advertisements have come down to us, and a selection of two or
three of them will furnish both amusement and information.

'_In_ Cripplegate Parish, _in_ Whitecross Street, _almost at the
farther End near_ Old Street (_turning in by the sign of the_ Black
Croe _in_ Goat Alley, _straight forward down three steps, at the sign
of the_ Globe) _liveth one of above Thirty Years Experience, and hath
been Counsellor to Counsellors of several Kingdoms, who resolveth
these Questions following_--

'Life Happy or Unhappy? If Rich, by what means attain it. What manner
of Person one shall Marry? If Marry the Party desired. What part of
the City or Country is best to live in? A Ship at Sea, if safe or not.
If a Woman be with Child, with Mail or Female, and whether Delivered
by Night or by Day? Sickness, the Duration, and whether end in life or
death? Suits at Law, who shall overcome, With all lawful Questions,
that depend on that most Noble Art of CHRISTIAN ASTROLOGY.

'Likewise, he telleth the Meaning of all _Magical Panticles_,
_Sigils_, _Charms_, and _Lamens_, and hath a Glass, and helpeth to
further Marriages.

'He hath attained to the Signet Star of the Philosopher.

'He likewise hath attained to the _Green_, _Golden_, and _Black
Dragon_, known to none but _Magicians_, and _Hermetick Philosophers_;
and will prove he hath the true and perfect Seed and Blossom of the
_Female Fern_, all for Physician's uses. And can tell concerning every
serious Person, what their Business is on every Radical figure, before
they speak one Word; secondly, What is past in most of their Life,
What is present, and what is to come; where that they have Moles, what
colour they are, and what is the meaning of them, &c.

'He hath a Secret in Art, far beyond the reach or Knowledge of common

          [Footnote 153: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 231.]

In this case we see the astrologer using the jargon of the alchemists,
to enhance his value in the eyes of his dupes. It was still familiar
to the ears of the people, and Jonson's 'Alchemist' was a popular
play. The succeeding examples are more commonplace:--

'To be spoken with every day in the Week except _Saturday_ at the
_Golden Ball_ (being the Third House on the Left Hand) in _Gulstone
Square_, next Turning beyond _Whitechappel Bars_: And for the
convenience of those who live in _Westminster_, _Southwark_, &c., He
is to be spoken with every _Saturday_ at the _Golden Ball_ and _2
Green Posts_, (There being a Hatch with _Iron spikes_ at the door)
near the Watch House in _Lambeth Marsh_.

'A Person who by his Travels in many Remote parts of the World, has
obtained the Art of Presaging or Foretelling all Remarkable Things,
that ever shall happen to Men or Women in the whole course of their
Lives, to the great Admiration of all that ever came to him; and this
he does by a Method never yet practised in _England_: He might give
Multitudes of Examples, but will give but one of a Sort.

'A Young Woman, who had a Person pretended Love to her for many Years;
I told her, she would find him False and Deceitful to her, and that he
never design'd to Marry her, which was a great Trouble to her to hear,
by reason she had plac'd her Affection on him, but she found it True,
for shortly after he Marryed another: Soon after she had several
Sweethearts at a Time, and came to me again for Advice; I told her,
there was but one of those she could be happy with, and describ'd him
to her; she took my Advice and Marryed him, and they prove a very
Happy Couple.

'I have prevented the Ruin of Hundreds of Young _Men_ and _Women_, by
advising them to whom to dispose of themselves in Marriage.

'Another who had been many Years Plagued with a Bad Husband, I told
her very few Months she'd Bury him and Marry again very happily, which
she found True,' &c., &c.[154]

          [Footnote 154: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 233.]

The next is much shorter: 'Noble, or Ignoble, you may be foretold
anything that may happen to your Elementary Life: as at what time you
may expect prosperity: or, if in Adversity, the end thereof: Or when
you may be so happy as to enjoy the Thing desired. Also young Men may
foresee their fortunes, as in a Glass, and pretty Maids their
Husbands, in this Noble, yea, Heavenly Art of ASTROLOGIE. At the Sign
of the _Parrot_ opposite to _Ludgate_ Church within _Black Fryars_

          [Footnote 155: _Ibid._ 5931, 236.]

Ward,[156] with his keen observation, naturally attacked these gentry,
lashed them unmercifully, and at great length. A short extract must
suffice for our purpose, and will sufficiently show the estimation in
which these astrologers were held by persons of common sense.

          [Footnote 156: _The London Spy._]

'No common _Errours_, _Frauds_, or _Fallacies_, in the World, have so
far subdued the Weaker, and Consequently the Greater part of Mankind,
as the _Juggles_ and _Deceits_ practicable in a parcel of pretending
_Astrologers_; who undertake to resolve all manner of Lawful
Questions, by Jumbling together those distant Bodies, in whose Nature
or Influence they have just as much Knowledge, as a Country _Ale
Woman_ has of _Witchcraft_, or a _German Juggler_ of _Necromancy_. In
the first place, I have had an opportunity of examining several
Nativities Calculated by those who have had the Reputation of being
the best Artists of this Age; wherein I have observ'd Sickness, Length
of Days, and all other Fortunate and Unfortunate Contingencies
assign'd the Natives, have been as directly opposite to what has
happen'd thro' the whole Course of their Lives, as if the Fumbling
_Star Groper_ had rather, thro' an Aversion to _Truth_, study'd the
_Rule_ of _Contraries_, that he might always be found in the _Wrong

[Illustration: An Astrologer.]

'In the next place, their method in deceiving people who come to
enquire after _Stolen Goods_, is such a bare fac'd ridiculous piece of
Banter, that I wonder any Creature that bears Humane Shape, can be so
stupidly Ignorant, as not to plainly discern the Impositions that are
put upon them by their _canting Albumazer_; Who, in the first place,
enquires about what time, and in what manner the things were lost; and
what strangers they had in the House? From whence he reasonably
infers, whether the Spoon, Cup, Tankard, or whatsoever it be, was
taken away by the Common Thief, or stolen by a Servant, or Person that
uses the House, or whether Conceal'd by the Master or Mistress on
purpose to make the Servants more diligent. If his Conjecture be, that
it was taken by a Common Thief, he describes a Swarthy Black Ill
looking Fellow, with a down look, or the like; most wisely considering
That such sort of Rogues are seldom without a Gallows in their
Countenances: Telling withall, That the Goods are Pawn'd, and will
scarcely be recoverable, without they take the Thief speedily, in
order to effect which, he will give them his best Directions; which
the credulous _Ignoramus_ desires in Writing, for fear he should
forget; which the Sower look'd Conjurer gives him accordingly, after
the following manner:--_Go a quarter of a Mile from your own Dwelling,
and then turn_ Easterly, _and walk forward till you come to the Sign
of a large Four Footed Beast, and Search within three or four Doors of
that Sign, and you will go near to take him, if you go soon enough, or
hear of him, who is of a middle Stature and in poor Habit._ Away goes
the Fool, as well satisfied with the Note, as if he had the Rogue by
the Elbow, and if by any Accident they do hear of the Thief, all is
ascrib'd to the wonderful Cunning of their _Wissard_: But if on the
contrary, he believes it to be taken by a Servant, or any Body that
uses the House, he bids 'em, hab nab at a venture, _Go home satisfied,
for they shall certainly find the Spoon, &c. in three or four days'
time, hid in a private Hole, in such a part of the Kitchen, or he'll
make the Devil to do with those that have it; and force them to bring
it in open shame and disgrace at Dinner time, and lay it down upon the
Table in the Sight of the whole Family_. Away goes the Person well
satisfied with what their _Ptolomist_ had told 'em: and declares to
every one in the House how the Thief was Threaten'd, and after what
manner the Spoon should be found within the time appointed, or else
woe be to them that have it. This Frightful Story coming to the Ears
of the Guilty, brings 'em under such dreadful Apprehensions of the
Conjuror's Indignation, if they do not lay what they've taken within
the time, according to the Direction; that the first opportunity they
have, they will place it to the utmost exactness in whatever Hole or
Corner he has appointed for the finding of it.'

The belief in witchcraft was still firmly rooted in the country in
spite of the more enlightened feeling on the subject which prevailed
in the metropolis. Addison[157] tells us of the Coverley Witch, Moll
White, how he and Sir Roger went and visited her hovel, and found a
broomstick behind the door, and the tabby cat, which had as evil a
reputation as its mistress, and how 'In our return home, Sir Roger
told me that Old Moll had been often brought before him for making
Children spit Pins, and giving Maids the Night Mare; and that the
Country People would be tossing her into a Pond and trying Experiments
with her every Day, if it was not for him and his Chaplain.'

          [Footnote 157: _Spectator_, No. 117.]

A little before this was written, two women had been executed at
Northampton for witchcraft, and at that very time an old woman named
Jane Wenham, living at a little village in Hertfordshire called
Walkerne, was charged with, and next year tried for, witchcraft. She
was condemned, reprieved, and pardoned. But in 1716 Mrs. Hicks and her
daughter were executed at Huntingdon, and their crime was that of
selling their souls to the devil, etc. Indeed, the capital sentence
against witchcraft was only abolished by an Act 9 Geo. II. cap. 5.

There are two other published cases of witchcraft in Queen Anne's
time. One[158] is the 'Full and True Account of the Apprehending and
Taking of Mrs. Sarah Mordike, who is accused for a Witch. Being taken
near Paul's Wharf on Thursday the 24th of this Instant, for having
Bewitch'd one Richard Hetheway, near the Faulken Stairs in Southwark.
With her Examination before the Right Worshipful Sir Thomas Lane, Sir
Owen Buckingham, and Dr. Hambleton in Bow Lane.' It was an ordinary
case: the bewitched person lost his appetite, voided pins, etc., and
got better when he had scratched and brought blood from Moll Dyke, as
she was familiarly called. The other, if at all credible, is a much
worse case:[159] 'A Full and True Account of the Discovering,
Apprehending and taking of a Notorious _Witch_, who was carried before
Justice _Bateman_ in _Well Close_, on _Sunday July_ the 23. Together
with her Examination and Commitment to _Bridewel Clerkenwel_.

          [Footnote 158: British Museum, 515, l. 2./15.]

          [Footnote 159: British Museum, 515, l. 2./199.]

'_Sarah Griffith_ who Lived in a Garret in _Rosemary lane_ was a long
time suspected for a bad Woman, but nothing could be prov'd against
her that the Law might take hold of her. Tho' some of the Neighbours'
Children would be strangely effected with unknown Distempers, as
Vomiting of Pins, their Bodies turn'd into strange Postures and such
like, many were frighted with strange Apperitions of Cats, which of a
sudden would vanish away, these and such like made those who lived in
the Neighbourhood, both suspicious and fearful of her: Till at last
the _Devil_ (who always betrays those that deal with him) thus brought
the Truth to Light. One Mr. _John_ ---- at the _Sugar loaf_ had a good
jolly fellow for his Apprentice: This Old _Jade_ came into his Shop to
buy a quartern of Sope, the young fellow happened to Laugh, and the
Scales not hanging right, cryed out he thought that they were be
Witch'd; The Old Woman hearing him say so, fell into a great Passion,
judging he said so to Ridicule her, ran out of the Shop and threatned
Revenge. In the Night was heard a lumbring noise in the Shop, and the
Man coming down to see, found a strange Confusion, every thing turn'd
topsy turvy, all the goods out of order; but what was worse, the next
day the poor fellow was troubled with a strange Disease, but (by) the
good Prayers of some Neighbouring Divines the power of the _Devil_ was

'Two or three days after it happened, that the Young Man with two or
three more walking up to the New River Head, who should they see but
Mother _Griffith_ walking that way. They consulted together to try
her, and one of them said let us toss her into the River, for I have
heard that if she Swims 'tis a certain sign of a Witch; in short they
put their design in Execution, for coming up to her, they tossed her
in; but like a Bladder when forc'd under Water pops up again, so this
Witch was no sooner in but Swam like a Corke; they kept her in some
time, and at last let her come out again; she was no sooner out but
she smote that Young Man on the Arm, and told him he should pay dear
for what he had done. Immediately he found a strange pain on his Arm,
and looking on it found the exact mark of her Hand and Fingers as
black as a Cole; he went home where he lay much Lamented and
wonderfully affrighted with the Old Woman coming to afflict him, and
at last died with the pain, and (was) Buried in St. _Pulchers_ Church

'Mr. John ---- fearing some further mischief, takes a Constable and
goes to her Lodging, where he finds the Old Woman, and charges the
Constable with her. She made many attempts to escape, but the Devil
who owed her a shame had now left her, and she was apprehended. As she
was conducted towards the Justices' House she tried to leap over the
Wall, and had done it, had not the Constable knocked her down. In this
manner she was carried before the Justice, there was Evidence that was
with him in his Sickness could Witness that he had unaccountable Fits,
Vomitted up Old Nails, Pins and such like, his body being turned into
strange postures, and all the while nothing but crying out of Mother
_Griffith_ that she was come to torment him, his Arm rotted almost
off, Gangreen'd, and Kill'd him. When she came before the Justice she
pleaded innocence, but the Circumstances appeared so plainly that she
was committed to Bridewel, where she now remains.

  'Witness my Hand,
  'July 24, 1704.'

                                                      'THOS. GREENWEL.

And Thoresby, in his semi-pious way, mentions (Feb. 18, 1712), 'With
Mrs. Neville, Cousin Cookson, and others of the Grand Jury to see a
reputed witch, who, though aged, could not repeat the Lord's Prayer; a
fit instrument for Satan.'



     Habit of snuff-taking -- Perfumes -- Charles Lillie -- List of
     scents -- Soaps -- Wash balls -- 'Complections' -- Tooth powder
     -- Hair dye -- Spectacles.

There was one social habit that the two sexes had in common, and that
was in taking snuff: nay, it was more than hinted that some of the
fair sex smoked--not nice little fairy 'Paquitas' or dainty little
cigarettes, but nasty, heavy, clumsy clay pipes. The subject will be
discussed in another part, but now we merely glance at the prevalence
of the habit--not so much with the ladies, as it was later on in the
century, but with the gentlemen; and the quantity taken, in the latter
part of the reign, was excessive.

It is a marvel how the ladies at first allowed it, for it was the
custom in society for a gentleman to kiss all the ladies in a room--a
custom frequently mentioned in contemporary literature, and therefore
only requiring one quotation[160] to illustrate it: 'The other Day
entering a Room adorned with the Fair Sex, I offered, after the usual
Manner, to each of them a Kiss; but one, more scornful than the rest,
turned her Cheek. I did not think it proper to take any Notice of it
till I had asked your Advice.'

          [Footnote 160: _Spectator_, No. 272.]

Besides, the ladies were undoubtedly fond of sweet smells, perfumes,
and scents; and one, in particular, seems to have possessed remarkable
properties. 'The Princely Perfume. Being a most delightful Powder,
which incomparably scents Handkerchiefs, Gloves, and all Sorts of
Linnen, making them smell most deliciously oderiferous, fine and
charming; it perfumes the Hands, the Hair of the Head, and Periwigs
most delicately, also all Manner of Cloaths, Beds, Rooms, Scrutores,
Presses, Drawers, Boxes, and all other Things, giving them a most
admirable, pleasant and durable Scent, which is so curiously fragrant,
so delectably sweet, reviving and enlivening, that no Perfume or
Aromatick in the World, can possibly come near it; it never raises the
vapours in Ladies, but, by its delicious Odour, Fragrancy and charming
Perfume (which is really Superior to all other Scents upon Earth) it
refreshes the Memory, cures the Head Ach, takes away Dulness and
Melancholy, makes the Heart glad, and encreases all the Spirits,
Natural, Vital, and Animal, to a Wonder.'[161] And there was a much
bepuffed scent called the 'Royal Essence,' which, besides being a
paragon of perfume, had the useful quality of curling the Periwig.

          [Footnote 161: _Daily Courant_, Feb. 14, 1708.]

But the prince of perfumers and puffers was Charles Lillie, whose
connection with the _Tatler_ is so well known, and who was so
belauded, that Addison, or Steele, in No. 96, had to issue a
disclaimer. 'Whereas several have industriously spread abroad, that I
am in partnership with CHARLES LILLIE the perfumer, at the corner of
Beaufort Buildings; I must say with my friend PARTRIDGE, that they are
_Knaves_ who reported it. However, since the said CHARLES has promised
that all his customers shall be mine, I must desire all mine to be
his; and dare answer for him, that if you ask in my name for Snuff,
Hungary or orange water, you shall have the best the town affords at
the cheapest rate.'

When Lillie died, he left his MS. receipts behind him, made into a
book, but it was never published till 1822; and he gives a long list
of the scents in use.

  Spirit of ambergris
    "    "  musk
    "    "  benjamin (benzoin)
    "    "  orange
    "    "  lemons and citrons
    "    "  bergamot
    "    "  lavender
  Red spirit of lavender
  Otto of roses and sandal citron
  Perfumed catchui
  Essence of jessamine
     "    "  orange flowers
  Lavender water
  Hungary water
  Aqua Mellis, or King's honey water
  Portugal and Angel water
  Oil of Rhodium
   "  "  roses
   "  "  lavender
   "  "  rosemary
   "  "  cloves
   "  "  cinnamon
   "  "  marjoram
   "  "  coriander
  Eau Sans Pareil
  Eau de Carm
  Jessamine water
  Bergamot water
  Orange flower water
  Myrtle water
  Rose water
  Cordova water

This reads like a very sufficient list of scents; that it was not
greater was undoubtedly owing to the disturbed state of trade, and the
absence of geographical discovery--which of late years has greatly
increased the perfumer's _répertoire_.

There were soaps enough, in all conscience--Joppa, Smyrna, Jerusalem,
Genoa, Venice, Castille, Marseilles, Alicant, French, Gallipoly, Curd,
Irish, Bristol, Windsor, Black, and Liquid Soaps--and yet the ladies
would use abominations called 'Wash balls.' These must have been a
profitable manufacture, for the makers advertised freely in the
papers. Let us look into a 'Composition for best Wash balls. Take
forty pounds of rice in fine powder, twenty-eight pounds of fine
flour, twenty-eight pounds of Starch powder, twelve pounds of white
lead, and four pounds of Oris root in fine powder; but no whitening.
Mix the whole well together, and pass it twice through a fine hair
seive; then place it in a dry place, and keep it for use. Great care
must be taken that the flour be not Musty, in which case the balls
will in time crack, and fall to pieces. To this composition may be
added Dutch pink, or brown fine damask powder, &c., according to the
Colour required when the wash balls are quite dry.' These wash balls
were in some variety--common, best camphor, ambergris, Bologna,
marbled, figured, Greek, Marseilles, Venice, and chemical.

This making up of complexions was an art, and would not bear trifling
with. 'Madam, who dress'd you? Here's this Tooth set in the wrong way,
and your Face so besmear'd! What Complection do you use? This is worse
than they daub Sign posts with; I never saw any thing so
frightful.'[162] Naturally, with such an ingredient as white lead in
their composition, these wash balls were injurious to the skin--_vide_
a letter in _Spectator_, No. 41. 'Her skin is so tarnished with this
Practice, that when she first wakes in a Morning, she scarce seems
young enough to be the Mother of her whom I carried to bed the night
before.' No wonder, for they used carmine, French red, Portuguese
dishes, Spanish wool and papers, Chinese wool, and they had, also,
pretty little lacquered boxes of paints for the toilette sent over
from China. There was a wonderful 'bloom' advertised, 'The famous
Bavarian Red Liquor, which gives such a blushing Colour to the Cheeks
of those that are white or pale, that it is not to be distinguished
from a natural fine Complection, nor perceived to be Artificial by the
nearest Friend, is nothing of Paint, or in the least hurtful, but good
in many Cases to be taken inwardly; it renders the Face delightfully
handsome and beautiful, is not subject to be rub'd off like Paint,
therefore cannot be discovered by any one.' There were also pearl and
bismuth powders for the face.

          [Footnote 162: _The Gentleman Cully_, ed. 1702.]

Rose and white lip salves were used as now, but their dentifrices were
peculiar, to say the least, if this is a fair sample: 'Take four
ounces of Coral, reduced to an unpalpable powder, eight ounces of very
light Armenian bole, one ounce of Portugal Snuff, one ounce of Havanah
Snuff, one ounce of the ashes of good tobacco, which has been burnt,
and one ounce of gum myrrh, which has been well pulverised. Mix all
these well together, and sift them twice.' An inferior tooth powder
was made by leaving out the coral and substituting _old broken pans_
(brown stone ware) reduced to a very fine powder. These mixtures were
either rubbed on the teeth with the finger, or else used with a
vegetable tooth brush or 'Dentissick Root,' which seems to have been
made out of the roots of the marsh mallow, partially dried, and then
fried in a mixture of rectified spirits, dragon's blood, and conserve
of roses, until they were hard; when one end was bruised with a
hammer, in order to open the fibres and form a rudimentary brush.
There were dentists, both male and female, and they seem to have been
so far successful that some of them guarantee their patients being
able to eat with the false teeth after they were fixed. 'So firm and
exact as to be eat on, and not to be discover'd by any Person from
Natural Ones.'

The usual way of darkening the hair was by the mechanical means of a
leaden comb.[163] 'Jenny Trapes! What that Carrot pated Jade that
Lodges at the Corner of _White Horse Alley_!--The Same indeed, only
She has black'd her Hair with a Leaden Comb.' But there were also
'Hair Restorers' in those days, as we find by an advertisement, that
'All Persons who, for themselves or Friend, having red or grey Hairs,
and would have them dy'd, or turn'd black or dark brown, will find
entire Satisfaction, as a great many have already, by the use of a
Clear Water,' etc.

          [Footnote 163: _Tunbridge Walks_, ed. 1703.]

Should the sight fail, it could be aided by spectacles, as now--but
they were awsome things--with heavy horn, tortoiseshell, or silver
rims, and were certainly no adjuncts to personal appearance. They
varied in price from 4_d._ to 25_s._ per pair.



     The penny post -- Dockwra's vindication of himself -- Abolition
     of penny post -- Post days and rates -- Halfpenny post -- Method
     of doing business -- The Exchange -- Description of frequenters
     -- Bankers -- Curious advertisement of Sir Richard Hoare's.

Among the social institutions then in existence, was the penny post,
which cannot be better, or more tersely, described than in Misson's
own words: 'Every two Hours you may write[164] to any Part of the City
or Suburbs, he that receives it pays a Penny, and you give nothing
when you put it into the Post; but when you write into the Country,
both he that writes and he that receives pay each a Penny. It costs no
more for any Bundle weighing but a Pound, than for a small Letter,
provided the Bundle is not worth more than ten Shillings. You may
safely send Money, or any other thing of Value, by this Conveyance, if
you do but take care to give the Office an Account of it. It was one
Mr. _William Dockwra_ that set up this New Post, about the beginning
of the Reign of King Charles 2, and at first enjoy'd the Profits
himself; but the Duke of _York_, who had then the Revenue of the
General Post, commenc'd a Suit against him, and united the Penny Post
to the other.'

          [Footnote 164: Besides the six great offices for taking in
          letters, there were 600 smaller ones in different parts of
          London, for the convenience of correspondents.]

Misson makes a slight error here. The penny post was started in 1683
by Rob. Murray, an upholsterer, but next year, several charges being
brought against him, he was removed, and the concern was handed over
to Dockwra, who was dispossessed as above, by an action in which he
was cast both in damages and costs; but, about a year after, he was
appointed Controller of the District Post. He was allowed a pension in
the time of William and Mary (variously stated of from £200 to £500 a
year), but he only enjoyed it four years, when he was discharged on
account of some charges of malversation, etc., which were brought
against him.

In January 1703, when Dockwra tried for the Chamberlainship of the
City of London--which candidature, however, he soon abandoned--he
found it necessary to issue disclaimers, and tell his version of the
history of the penny post.[165]

          [Footnote 165: _Daily Courant_, January 11, 1703.]

'Whereas a malicious false Report has been industriously spread, that
one _Robert Murray_ was the first Inventor of the _Penny Post_, and
that he has been in Articles with me _William Dockwra_, and wrong'd
and hardly used; the World is desired to take notice, That as to the
first Pretence, it is utterly false, for _Dr. Chamberlen_, one _Henry
Neville_, _Payne_, and others pretended themselves the first
Inventors; And after I had actually set up the Office, one Mr.
_Foxley_ came and shew'd me a Scheme of his concerning a _Penny Post_,
which he had offer'd to Sir _John Bennet_, Post Master General, eight
Years before I ever Knew Murray, but that was rejected as
impracticable, as indeed were all the rest of their Notions; nor was
it by any of them, or any other Person whatsoever, put into any Method
to make it practicable, till at my sole Charge and Hazard I begun it
in the Year 1680.

'As to the Articles, they were sacredly Kept on my part, but never
perform'd by _Murray_, to my great Loss and Damage, as by the very
Articles themselves will evidently appear; and I am ready at any time
to demonstrate, it is so far from having One Shilling due to him, or
using him any way hardly, That on the Contrary, in Compassion to his
distressed Condition, I have often bayl'd him to keep him out of
Prison, and redeem'd him from thence, lent him several Sums of Money,
which he never took care to pay again; and to this day I have Notes
and Bonds to Produce, that he owes me more than One hundred and Fifty
Pounds: So that these most unjust and ungrateful Allegations in
_Murray_, are at this time reviv'd to be made use of, as malicious
Reflections to lessen my Service to this City, and to stain my
Reputation and Integrity thereby, to hinder my Fellow Citizens
Kindness upon the Election for Chamberlain, which I hope will make no
Impression, since I do affirm myself to be the first that ever put the
Penny Post into Practice at a vast Expence and great Loss to me and my

                                                    'WILLIAM DOCKWRA.'

And in the next day's _Courant_ he was obliged to defend himself from
other allegations.

'Whereas some Malicious Persons, designing to lessen me in the good
Opinion of my Fellow Citizens, have spread a False and Scandalous
Report, that I, _William Dockwra_, was remov'd from being Comptroller
of the _Penny Post_, because of Injuries done to the Subject; and that
I sunk the Revenue at least one fourth part to the Crown. I do hereby
declare, That on the Contrary, I rectified many Abuses in the
Management of that Office, and never wrong'd either Crown or Subject
of the Value of a Shilling: And I do positively affirm, That I prov'd
undeniably before the Post Master General by the Accounts then made
up, that I advanced that small Revenue above Four Hundred Pounds: Yet
neither my Right to the whole (being the only Person that ever brought
the _Penny Post_ to Perfection) nor the faithful Discharge of my Trust
while Comptroller thereof, were sufficient to protect me against those
Artifices too often made use of to remove useful and honest Men from
publick Imployment: Nor have I receiv'd any of the Pension formerly
granted me these two Years and half past. So that I hope the
Impartial World will consider the great Loss I and my Family have
sustain'd, by being depriv'd of the _Penny Post_, whilst the Publick
daily reaps the Benefit and Advantage thereof and will do so to

                                                    'WILLIAM DOCKWRA.'

In 1711 an Act was passed abolishing the penny post, and on June 23 of
that year a proclamation was issued putting it in force. A notice had
previously appeared in the _London Gazette_ of June 12/14,
assimilating all rates to those of the General Post, although for 'the
Accommodation of the Inhabitants of such Places, their Letters will be
convey'd with the same Regularity and Dispatch as formerly, being
first Tax'd with the Rates, and Stamp'd with the Mark of the General
Post Office, and that all Parcels will likewise be Tax'd at the Rate
of One Shilling per Ounce as the said Act directs.'

In 1709 the Foreign and Inland Post Letter days were:--

     'MONDAY. To Spain, Italy, Germany, Flanders, Denmark, Sweedland,
     Downs and Kent.

     'TUESDAY. Germany, Holland, Sweedland, Denmark, North Britain,
     Ireland and Wales.

     'WEDNESDAY. Kent and the Downs.

     'THURSDAY. Spain, Italy, and all parts of North Britain and

     'FRIDAY. Italy, Germany, Flanders, Kent, Holland, Sweedland,
     Denmark and Downs.

     'SATURDAY. All parts of Wales, North Britain, England and

'Letters return from all parts of England and North Britain, Mondays,
Wednesdays and Fridays; from Wales, Mondays and Fridays, from Kent and
the Downs every day; but from beyond Sea uncertain.

'The Carriage is 2_d._ a Sheet 80 Miles, double 4_d._ and 8_d._ an
Ounce for more than Letters. All Letters more than 80 Miles is 3_d._
Single and 6_d._ Double Pacquet 12_d._ an Ounce. A Letter to Dublin
6_d._ Single, Double 1/ and 1/6 an Ounce.'

Foreign postage was not so very dear. In 1705, for instance, a letter
of a single sheet could be carried _to_ the West Indies for
1_s._/3_d._ and 2 sheets for 2/6; whilst _from_ thence to England it
was respectively 1/6 and 3/, or by weight 6/ per oz.

In 1708 Mr. Povey established a foot post--carrying letters, in the
London district only, for one halfpenny. How long he kept it up does
not seem clear; the Post Office authorities stopped him; but there is
an advertisement referring to it in the _Daily Courant_ of July 4,
1710: 'Whereas a Person in some Distress sent a letter by the
Halfpenny Carriage on Monday night last,' etc., and this clearly
shows it was in existence at that date.

The _Gazette_ Nov. 29/Dec. 1, 1709, has the following Advertisement:
'Whereas Charles Povey and divers Traders and Shop Keepers in and
about the Cities of London and Westminster, Borough of Southwark and
Parts adjacent, and several Persons ringing Bells about the Streets of
the said Cities and Borough, have set up, imploy'd, and for sometime
continued a Foot Post for Collecting and Delivering Letters within the
said Cities and Borough, and Parts adjoining, for Hire under the Name
of the Halfpenny Carriage. Contrary to the Known Laws of this Kingdom,
and to the great Prejudice of her Majesty's Revenues arising by Posts;
her Majesty's Postmaster General has therefore directed Informations
in her Majesty's Court of Exchequer, to be exhibited against the said
Charles Povey, and several Shop Keepers and Ringers of Bells, for
Recovery against every of them of £100 for such setting up, and for
every week's continuance thereof; and also £5 for every Offence in
Collecting and Delivering of Letters for Hire as aforesaid, contrary
to the Statute for erecting and establishing a Post Office.'

These additions to the rate of postage, of course, induced people to
look after franks--the granting of which, however, had not assumed
anything like the proportions it did later on.

But there was not the hurrying and driving in business then as now.
Men lived over their shops or counting houses, and, being easily
accessible, did their work in a deliberate, leisurely manner, and
began their business very early in the day. For instance, when Sir
William Withers, Lord Mayor in 1707, was putting up for a seat in
Parliament, he adduced, as showing he would have time for his
parliamentary duties, that 'There is not above one Cause in a Day
throughout the whole Year, to be Heard after Ten a Clock in the
Morning.'[166] 'Change was earlier than now; 'Crowds of People gather
at the _Change_ by One, disperse by Three.'[167] It is thus humorously
described:[168] 'The Exchange is the Land's Epitome, or you might call
it the little Isle of _Great Britain_ did the Waters encompass it. It
is more, 'tis the whole World's Map which you may here discern in its
perfectest Motion, justling and turning. 'Tis a vast heap of Stones,
and the confusion of Languages makes it resemble _Babel_. The Noise in
it is like that of Bees; a strange Humming or Buzzing, of walking
tongues and feet; it is a kind of a still Roaring, or loud Whisper. It
is the great Exchange of all Discourses, and no Business whatsoever
but is here on Foot. All things are sold here, and Honesty by Inch of
Candle; but woe be to the Purchaser, for it will never thrive with

          [Footnote 166: _Daily Courant_, October 30, 1707.]

          [Footnote 167: _A Comical View of London and Westminster_,
          ed. 1705, p. 100.]

          [Footnote 168: _Hickelty Pickelty._]

In the centre of the Exchange was a statue of Charles II., and here
the stock jobbers hovered about--when they were not at Robin's or
Jonathan's in Exchange Alley; and all about, each under his own
nationality, stood the trim Italian, the Hollanders and Germans, with
their slovenly mien, and uncouth, unkempt beards and moustachios. The
Dons, in flat crowned hats and short cloaks, took snuff prodigiously,
and smelt terribly of garlic; there were the lively Gauls, animated
and chattering, 'ready to wound every Pillar with their Canes, as they
pass'd by, either in Ters, Cart, or Saccoon.' Jews of course, amber
necklace sellers from the Baltic in fur caps and long gowns, a
sprinkling of seedy military men, and the merchants. These were the
constituent parts of 'Change in those days, and it must have been a
sight worth seeing. Round about were shops as now, where the spruce
young Cits ogled the pretty glove sellers, or bought a Steinkirk, or a
sword knot. Contemporary accounts of these fair damsels are not very
good, but it was rather a libellous or scurrilous age as regards
women, and they might not be true, or at all events be taken with much

Ward[169] gives an amusing account of the exterior. 'The Pillars at
the Entrance of the Front _Porticum_ were adorn'd with sundry
Memorandums of old Age and Infirmity, under which stood here and there
a _Jack in a Box_, like a Parson in a Pulpit, selling Cures for your
Corns, Glass Eyes for the Blind, Ivory Teeth for Broken Mouths, and
Spectacles for the weak sighted; the Passage to the Gate being lin'd
with Hawkers, Gardeners, Mandrake Sellers, and Porters; after we had
Crowded a little way amongst the Miscellaneous Multitude, we came to a
_Pippin Monger's_ Stall, surmounted with a _Chymist's_ Shop; where
_Drops_, _Elixirs_, _Cordials_, and _Balsams_ had justly the
Pre-eminence of _Apples_, _Chesnuts_, _Pears_, and _Oranges_,' etc.,
showing a view of the motley group of costermongers without. The
pillars of the Exchange were hung round with advertisements, as indeed
they were until very recently.

          [Footnote 169: _London Spy._]

Some well-known names of bankers were then in existence--Child's,
Hoare's, Stone's, and Martin's. In Harl. MSS. 5996, 153 is a somewhat
curious advertisement of Sir Richard Hoare's. 'WHEREAS there hath been
several false and Malicious Reports industriously spread abroad
reflecting on Sir _Richard Hoare_, Goldsmith, for occasioning and
promoting a Run for Money on the _Bank of England_; and in particular,
several of the Directors of the said Bank reporting, That the said Sir
_Richard_ sent to the Bank for Ten of their Notes of £10 each, with a
design to send several Persons with the said Notes to receive the
Money thereon, so as to effect his ill Designs, and to bring a
Disreputation on the Bank, and occasion a Disturbance in the City of

'This is to satisfie all Persons, That the Right Honourable the Lord
_Ashburnham_, Father of the Honourable Major _Ashburnham_, Major of
the First Troop of Her Majesty's Life Guards, who was ordered to march
for _Scotland_, sending to the said Sir _Richard Hoare_ for a large
Quantity of Gold, and for Ten Bank Notes of £10 each, for the said
Major to take with him to bear his Expenses. The Gold was sent to his
Lordship accordingly, and Sir _Richard's_ Servant went to the Bank for
ten Notes of £10 each, which the Cashier of the Bank refus'd to give:
But if Sir _Richard_ had intended to promote a Run for Mony on the
Bank, he could have done it in a more effectual manner, having by him,
all the time that the great demand for Mony was on the Bank, several
Thousand Pounds in Notes payable by the Bank; and also there was
brought to Sir _Richard_ by several Gentlemen, in the time of the Run
on the Bank, Notes payable by the said Bank, amounting to a great many
Thousands of Pounds, which he was desir'd to take and receive the Mony
presently from the Bank, which he refus'd to do until the great Demand
on the Bank for Money was over.

'N.B. That the Reports against Sir _Richard_ have been more Malicious
than herein is mention'd, which he forbears to insert for brevity's

Ward, for some reason, disliked bankers: 'What methods do they take
now to improve their Cash? The chief advantage they now make is by
supplying the Necessities of straiten'd Merchants and great Dealers,
to pay (for) the Goods imported, rather than they should fall under
the Discredit as well as Disadvantage of being run into the King's
Ware House, or by assisting of 'em in the purchase of great Bargains,
or the like; for which they make 'em pay such unreasonable extortion,
that they devour more of the Merchants Profit than Snails, Worms or
Magpies, do of the Farmers Crop, or the Gardiner's Industry.' If this
was all the fault he could find, their iniquities were not very



     A beau -- An inventory of him -- Hats -- Wigs: their price:
     varieties -- Hair powder -- Robbery of wigs -- Natural hair --
     Neck cloths -- Shirts -- Open waistcoats -- Colonel Edgworth --
     Coats -- Cheap clothiers -- Stockings -- Boots and shoes --
     Shoeblacks and blacking -- Handkerchiefs -- Muffs -- Swords --
     Walking sticks -- Watches -- Over coats -- Night caps -- Night

We have seen the birth, marriage, and funeral of these good people,
and have noted some of their social habits. Next is, how did they
dress? Far plainer than in Charles the Second's time, rather richer
than under solemn and austere Dutch William, yet not nearly as finely
as during the Georgian era. That, of course, is speaking of ordinary
mortals--neither the titled ones of the land, who showed their rank by
their dress, nor the beaus, who formed no inconsiderable portion of
metropolitan life, and at whom were levelled stinging little shafts of
satire from all sides, mostly good-humoured. The macaroni, the dandy,
the buck, the blood, the swell--all are fine, but the beau of Anne's
time was _superfine_, and modelled on the messieurs of the time of
Louis XIV. He cannot be dismissed in a few words, for he was an
institution of the time. There were travelled fops, and they were
hated--there were those of home manufacture, and they were laughed at.
Misson notes that 'A Beau is so much the more remarkable in _England_,
because generally speaking, the _English_ Men dress in a plain uniform
manner,' and he describes them as 'Creatures compounded of a Perriwig
and a Coat laden with Powder as white as a Miller's, a Face besmear'd
with Snuff, and a few affected airs; they are exactly like Molière's
Marquesses, and want nothing but that Title, which they would
infallibly assume in any other Country but England.' Cibber[170]
describes him as one 'that's just come to a small Estate, and a great
Perriwig--he that Sings himself among the Women--He won't speak to a
Gentleman when a Lord's in Company. You always see him with a Cane
dangling at his Button, his Breast open, no Gloves, one Eye tuck'd
under his Hat, and a Toothpick.' Verily, there is little new under the
sun, and we, in these our latter days, have been familiar with the

          [Footnote 170: _The Careless Husband_, 2nd ed., 1705.]

Ward naturally loves him--impales him on his entomological pin--and
enjoys his wriggles. He puts him under his microscope and minutely
observes him, and then gives us the benefit of his description: 'A
Beau is a _Narcissus_ that is fallen in Love with himself and his own
Shadow. Within Doors he is a great Friend to a great Glass, before
which he admires the Works of his Taylor more than the whole Creation.
His Body's but a Poor Stuffing of a Rich Case, like Bran to a Lady's
Pincushion; that when the outside is stript off, there remains nothing
that's Valuable. His Head is a Fool's Egg, which lies hid in a Nest of
Hair; His Brains are the Yolk which Conceit has Addled. He's a
strolling Assistant to Drapers and Taylors, showing every other Day a
New Pattern, and a New Fashion. He's a Walking Argument against
Immortality; For no Man by his Actions, or his Talk can find he has
more Soul than a Goose. He's a very Troublesome Guest in a Tavern; and
must have good Wine chang'd three or four Times till they bring him
the worst in the Cellar, before he'll like it. His Conversation is as
intolerable as a young Councel's in Term Time. Talking as much of his
_Mistresses_, as the other does of his _Motions_; and will have the
most Words, tho' all he says is nothing. He's a Bubble to all he deals
with, even to his Periwig Maker; and hates the sordid Rascal that
won't Flatter him. He scorns to condescend so low, as to speak of any
Person beneath the dignity of a Noble man; the Duke of such a Place,
and my Lord such one, are his common Cronies, from whom he knows all
the Secrets of the Court, but dares not impart 'em to his best
Friends, because the Duke enjoyn'd him to Secrecie. He is always
furnish'd with new Jests from the last New Play, which he most
commonly spoiles with repeating. His Watch he compares with every Sun
Dial, Swears it corrects the Sun; and plucks it out so frequently in
Company, that his Fingers go oftener in a Day to his Fob, than they do
to his Mouth, spending more time every Week in showing the Rarity of
the Work, than the Man did in making on't; being as forward to tell
the Price without desiring, as he is to tell you the Hour without
asking; he is a constant Visitor of a Coffee house, where he Cons over
the News Papers with much indifference; Reading only for Fashion's
sake and not for Information. He's commonly of a small standing at one
of the Universities, tho' all he has learnt there, is to Know how many
Taverns there are in the Town, and what _Vintner_ has the handsom'st
Wife.... He's a Coward amongst _Brave men_, and a _Brave fellow_ among
_Cowards_; a _Fool_ amongst _Wise men_, and a _Wit_ in Fool's

Pretty hard hitting; but it is borne out on all hands. Try another
description:[171] 'His first Care is his Dress, the next his Body; and
in the uniting these Two lies his Soul and Faculties. His business is
in the Side Box, the Stage, and the Drawing Room; his Discourse
consists of Dress, Equipage, and the Ladies, and his extream
Politeness in writing _Billet deux_; which he never fails to shew in
all Companies. The nice Management of his _Italian_ Snuff box, and the
affected Screw of his Body, makes up a great Part of his Conversation,
and the Pains he takes to recommend himself, wou'd set _Heraclitus_ a
Laughing. He's perpetually Laughing to shew his white Teeth, and is
never serious but with his Taylor. His whole Design is bent upon a
Fortune, which if he gets, the Coach and Equipage is still supported;
if not his fine Cloaths and he prove stale together, and he is
commonly buried ere he dies in a Gaol, or the Country, two places
equally disagreeable to a Man of his Complexion.'

          [Footnote 171: _Hickelty Pickelty._]

And, not to be wearisome, we will conclude with John Hughes'
'Inventory of a Beau':[172] "A very rich tweezer case, containing
twelve instruments for the use of each hour in the day.

          [Footnote 172: _Tatler_, No. 113.]

'Four pounds of scented snuff, with three gilt snuff boxes; one of
them with an invisible hinge, and a looking glass in the lid.

'Two more of ivory, with the portraitures on their lids of two ladies
of the town; the originals to be seen every night in the side boxes of
the play house.

'A sword with a steel diamond hilt, never drawn but once at May fair.

'Six clean packs of cards, a quart of orange flower water, a pair of
French scissors, a toothpick case, and an eye brow brush.

'A large glass case, containing the linen and cloaths of the deceased;
among which are two embroidered suits, a pocket perspective, a dozen
pairs of _red heeled shoes_, three pairs of _red silk stockings_, and
an amber headed cane.

'The strong box of the _deceased_, wherein were found five billet
doux, a Bath shilling, a crooked sixpence, a silk garter, a lock of
hair, and three broken fans.

'A press for books; containing on the upper shelf Three bottles of
diet drink--Two boxes of pills.

'On the second shelf are several miscellaneous works; as Lampoons,
Plays, Taylor's Bills, And an Almanack for the year 1700.

'On the third shelf, a bundle of letters unopened, indorsed, in the
hand of the deceased "Letters from the old Gentleman," Lessons for the
flute, Toland's "Christianity not mysterious," and a paper filled with
patterns of several fashionable stuffs.

'On the lower shelf, one shoe, a pair of snuffers, a French Grammar, a
mourning hatband; and half a bottle of usquebaugh.

'There will be added to these goods, to make a complete auction, a
collection of gold snuffboxes and clouded canes, which are to continue
in fashion for three months after the sale.'

In a description of men's dress, we will begin at his hat, and descend
gradually to his boots. The hats were rather low crowned, made of
felt, with very broad flapping brims--which were looped up, or
cocked--very much at the fancy of the wearer--and the absence of this
cocking denoted a sloven. 'Take out your Snuff Box, Cock, and look
smart, hah!'[173] says Clodio to his bookworm brother Carlos; and
their numerous shapes are alluded to by Budgell,[174] 'I observed
afterwards, that the Variety of Cocks into which he moulded his Hat,
had not a little contributed to his Impositions upon me.'

          [Footnote 173: _Love Makes a Man_, C. Cibber, ed. 1701.]

          [Footnote 174: _Spectator_, 319.]

They were universally of black hue; at least I have never met with
mention of any other colour, except in sport: 'I shall very speedily
appear at _White's_ in a _Cherry coloured Hat_. I took this Hint from
the Ladies Hoods, which I look upon as the boldest Stroke that Sex has
struck for these three hundred Years last past.'[175] They had a gold
or silver lace hat band, but ordinary people seldom had their hats
edged. A hatband was considered _de rigueur_ for servants, and Swift's
man, Peter, even bought a silver one for himself, rather than be
without one. Feathers were only worn by military men. 'The Person
wearing the Feather, though our Friend took him for an Officer in the
Guards, has proved to be an arrant Linnen Draper,'[176] _i.e._ only in
the train bands.

          [Footnote 175: _Ibid._]

          [Footnote 176: _Ibid._]

But it was in the periwig, the Falbala, or Furbelow, the dress wig of
the age, that all care was centred, and in which all the art of dress
culminated. Originally invented by a French courtier to conceal a
deformity in the shoulders, either of the Dauphin, or the Duke of
Burgundy, its use spread all over Europe; but, perhaps, the fashion
never was so preposterous at any time, as it was in Anne's reign, if
we except the wonderful wig of the spendthrift Sir Edward Hungerford
(whose bust used to be in a niche in Hungerford Market) in the middle
of the previous century, who is said to have given five hundred
guineas for a wig! They were made from women's hair--or, at least,
were so presumably. Of this we have many examples; take one: 'A noisie
Temple _Beaux_ with a Peruke of his Sister's Hair ill made';[177]

          [Footnote 177: _The Roving Husband Reclaim'd_, ed. 1706.]

  They made our Sparks cut off their Nat'ral Hair,
  A d--d long W----'s Hair Periwig to wear.[178]

          [Footnote 178: _The Baboon à la Mode, A Satyr against the

Women's hair was a valuable commodity, judging by the following: 'An
Oxfordshire Lass was lately courted by a young man of that County, who
was not willing to marry her unless her friends could advance £50 for
her portion; which they being incapable of doing, the lass came to
this City to try her fortune, when she met with a good Chapman in the
Strand, who made a purchase of her Hair (which was delicately long and
light), and gave her _sixty pounds_ for it, being 20 ounces at £3 _an
ounce_; with which money she joyfully returned into the Country and
bought her a husband.'[179] Indeed, it was an article of general
purchase and sale: 'We came up to the corner of a narrow Lane, where
_Money for old Books_ was writ upon some part or other of every Shop,
as surely as _Money for Live Hair_, upon a _Barber's_ Window.'[180]

          [Footnote 179: _Protestant Mercury_, July 10, 1700.]

          [Footnote 180: _London Spy._]

Men used to travel the country on horseback and collect it, and it was
not unfrequent for suspected highwaymen, when stopped and brought
before the authorities, to declare they were dealers in hair, roaming
about, following their avocation--although it could not have been a
very remunerative one, if we can believe the advertisements for the
apprehension of deserters from the army: 'said he was a dealer in
hair' being frequently mentioned. Here is an advertisement which gives
a graphic picture of one of these gentry: 'Lost on Tuesday Night last
the 14th Instant, about 6 in the Evening, from behind a Gentleman in
Piccadilly, a Pair of Bags, in which were three Bladders with Hair in,
two Holland Shirts, Neckcloaths, and other Linnen, A Leather Bag with
an Iron Instrument and Hair in it, a pair of small Perriwig Cards,
with Read the Maker's Name in Flower de Luce Court in Fleet Street,
and other small matters beside,'[181] etc.; and we may note that 'At
the Sugar Loaf in Bishopsgate Street near Cornhil, is the House of
Call, where Perriwig Makers can have Men, and Men may have

          [Footnote 181: _Daily Courant_, Oct. 17, 1712.]

          [Footnote 182: _Postman_, Nov. 13/16, 1708 (? misprint for

'Did you ever see a Creature more ridiculous than that stake of human
nature which dined the other day at our house, with his great long wig
to cover his head and face; which was no bigger than a _Hackney
Turnep_, and much of the same form and shape? Bless me, how it looked!
just like a great Platter of French Soup, with a little bit of flesh
in the middle. Did you mark the beau tiff of his wig, what a deal of
pains he took to toss it back, when the very weight thereof was like
to draw him from his seat?'[183] And they must have been heavy. 'His
Wigg I believe had a pound of Hair and two pounds of powder
in't.'[184] And again, 'One Impudent Correcter of Jade's Flesh, had
run his Poles against the back Leather of a foregoing Coach, to the
great dammage of a _Beau's_ Reins, who peeping out of the Coach door,
with at least a _fifty Ounce Wig_ on,' etc.[185]

          [Footnote 183: _The Levellers, a Dialogue._]

          [Footnote 184: _The Gamesters._]

          [Footnote 185: _London Spy._]

The furbelow, or dress wig, was sometimes called a 'long Duvillier'
(see _Tatler_ 29), from a famous French perruquier of that name; and
these wigs were not only long, but tall: _vide_ the humorous
advertisement in the _Tatler_ (180): 'N.B. Dancing Shoes, not
exceeding four inches in height in the heels, and periwigs not
exceeding three feet in length, are carried in the coach box
_gratis_.' Not to have it in perfect curl was unendurable. 'I think
standing in the Pillory cannot be a more sensible Ignominy to a
Gentleman that wears tolerable Cloaths, than appearing in Publick with
a rumpled Periwig.'[186] Pretty dears! they used to carry ivory or
tortoiseshell combs, curiously ornamented, with them, and comb their
precious wigs in public--ay, the most public places--walking in the
Park, or sitting in the Beau's Paradise, the side box of the theatre,
and when paying visits. But it seems to have been in anybody's power,
by the exercise of a little trouble, to keep his wig in proper
curl.[187] 'The Secret White Water to Curl Gentlemen's Hair,
Children's Hair, or fine Wigs withal, that are out of Curl; being used
over Night, according to Directions, it performs a Curl by next
Morning as substantial and durable as that of a new Wig, without
damaging the Beauty of the Hair one jot; by it old Wigs that look
almost scandalous, may be made to shew inconceivably fine and neat,
and if any single Lock or part of a Wig be out of Curl, by the
pressing of the Hat or riding in windy or rainy Weather, in one
Night's time it may be repaired hereby to Satisfaction. The Directions
are so ample and large that Gentlemen's Men may perform the work with
all the ease imaginable, the like thing never done before. Invented by
an able Artist, and sold only at the Glover's Shop under the Castle
Tavern, Fleet Street. Price 1_s._ a Bottle.'

          [Footnote 186: _The Gentleman Cully_, ed. 1702.]

          [Footnote 187: _Postman_, Sept 23/26, 1710.]

These wigs were expensive--that is, if Steele and Addison do not
exaggerate. Take this example from the _Tatler_, No. 54. 'He answered
Phillis a little abruptly at supper the same evening, upon which she
threw his perriwig into the fire. "Well," said he, "thou art a brave
termagant jade; do you know, hussy, that fair wig _cost forty
guineas_?"' And in the _Guardian_ (No. 97), 'This gave me some
encouragement; so that to mend the matter, I bought a fine flaxen long
wig that cost me thirty guineas.' But there were wigs and wigs, and
probably these highly priced ones were somewhat abnormal; at all
events, ordinary people could not have afforded them, for we find
Swift loud in his laments about paying _three guineas_ for one.[188]
'It has cost me three guineas to day for a periwig. I am undone! It
was made by a Leicester lad, who married Mrs. Worrall's daughter,
where my mother lodged; so I thought it would be cheap, and especially
since he lives in the city.'

          [Footnote 188: _Journal to Stella_, let. 13.]

It must not be imagined that the periwig was the only variety. On the
contrary, there were several kinds of wig. 'I had an humble Servant
last Summer, who the first time he declared himself, was in a Full
Bottom'd Wigg; but the Day after, to my no small Surprize, he accosted
me in a thin Natural one. I received him, at this our second
Interview, as a perfect Stranger, but was extreamly confounded, when
his speech discovered who he was. I resolved, therefore, to fix his
Face in my Memory for the future; but as I was walking in the Park the
same Evening, he appeared to me in one of those Wiggs that I think you
call a _Night Cap_, which had altered him more effectually than
before. He afterwards played a Couple of Black Riding Wiggs upon me,
with the same Success,'[189] etc. The 'Night Cap' wig was a sort of
periwig, with a short tie and a small round head. Then there was a
'Campaign' wig, which was imported from France; and this was made very
full, was curled, and eighteen inches in length in the front, with
drop locks. In the contemporary prints of Marlborough's victories, the
back part of the wig is sometimes shown as being put in a black silk
bag. We get an approximate idea of their value from the following
advertisement: 'Lost &c. a Campaign Perriwig, fair Hair with a large
Curl, value about 7 guineas,' etc.

          [Footnote 189: _Spectator_, No. 319 (Budgell).]

I have come across one mention of a 'Spanish Wigg,' but as this was
worn by a runaway ship's apprentice, it was probably of foreign
manufacture, and the species had no place here. Lastly, there was the
'Bob' wig, or attempt to imitate the natural head of hair. This wig
was mostly in use among the lower orders; and many are the
descriptions of it, and its various colours, in the advertisements for
army deserters. But the better class also used it. We have seen, in
the _Spectator_, No. 319, how a man wore 'a thin Natural' wig; so also
we read in Steele's 'Lying Lover,' 'What shall I do for powder for
this smart Bob?'

The proper quality, and quantity, of his powder, must have been a
serious weight upon the mind of a beau. Its groundwork, or basis, was
starch, very finely ground and sifted; but this was adulterated with
burnt alabaster, plaster of Paris (which was called in the trade _Old
Doctor_), whitening, fine flour, flour from pearl barley, and other
things; and it was scented--well, we should think to a sickening
degree--with ambergris, musk and civet, violets, orris root, rose,
bergamot, orange flowers, and jessamine. And there were different
coloured hair powders. The black was made with starch, Japan ink, and
ivory black; a cheaper sort was made of pounded coal-dust. Brown was
made with starch and umber--according to the shade required. Grey was
produced by mixing some of the black powder with more starch, and
adding a little smalts.

Gay presents us with a curious little piece of economy:--

  When suffocating Mists obscure the Morn
  _Let thy worst Wig, long us'd to Storms, be worn_;
  This knows the powder'd Footman, and with Care,
  Beneath his flapping Hat, secures his Hair.[190]

          [Footnote 190: _Trivia_, book 1.]

We are indebted also to Gay[191] for the following vivid description
of the manner in which the beaus were robbed of their cherished

          [Footnote 191: _Ibid._ book 3.]

  Nor is thy Flaxen Wigg with Safety worn;
  High on the Shoulder, in the Basket born,
  Lurks the sly Boy; whose Hand to Rapine bred,
  Plucks off the curling Honours of the Head.

This was an ingenious plan, but it was almost equalled in the very
early years of George I. by a practice which sprang up, of cutting a
hole in the leather backs of the carriages, boldly clutching the
occupant's wig, and dragging it through the hole.

Some few had the courage to wear their own hair, and here is a
hairdresser's advertisement on the subject:[192] '_Next door to the_
Golden Bell _in St._ Bride's Lane Fleet Street, Liveth _Lydia
Beecroft_, who Cutteth and Curleth Ladies, Gentlemen's, and Childrens
Hair; and selleth a fine Pomatum, which is mixt with Ingredients of
her own making, that if the Hair be never so Thin, it makes it grow
Thick; if Short, it makes it grow Long: If any Gentlemens or Childrens
Hair be never so Lank, she makes it Curle in a little time like a
Periwig. She waits on Ladies, if desir'd, on Tuesdays and Fridays; the
other Days of the Week, she is to be spoken with at Home.' So that we
see the 'Professors' of those days were very similar to their
congeners of ours, and had invaluable nostrums--'prepared only by,'
etc. Bear's grease used to be imported from Russia; but a spurious
kind was also sold, made out of dog's, or goat's, fat, or rancid
hog's lard. There were common, hard, black, and brown pomatums, to say
nothing of powders and liquids for thickening the hair, principally
made of burdock root and small beer, and a powder for cleansing the
hair, made with cassia wood and white vitriol.

          [Footnote 192: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 242.]

We next come to the neckcloth, as no collar or band of the shirt was
shown; and the one most in fashion was the 'Steinkirk, so called from
the battle of that name, which was fought on Aug. 3, 1692, when the
English under William III. were defeated, and the campaign broken up.
This style of neckcloth was introduced from Paris, and it was highly
fashionable there, because its negligent style was popularly supposed
to imitate the disordered dress of the victorious French generals, who
were so eager to rush into the fight that they did not stop to finish
dressing--or, at all events, to tie their neckcloths. It was a very
graceful fashion, and the ends, which were laced or fringed, were
sometimes tucked in the waistcoat or shirt. They are frequently
alluded to as 'snuff grimed.' Ladies also wore them, as in 'The
Careless Husband' Lady Easy 'takes her Steinkirk from her Neck and
lays it gently over his Head.'

And there was the 'Berdash.' 'I have prepared a treatise against the
Cravat and berdash, which I am told is not ill done.'[193] Some have
imagined that the word haberdasher is derived from this neckcloth, but
it is too ridiculous to think of for a moment, as there were
haberdashers as early as Edward the Third's reign, and at the time of
which we write there were 'haberdashers of hats.' In the epilogue to
Mrs. Centlivre's 'Platonick Lady,' 'design'd to be spoken by Mrs.
Bracegirdle but came too late,' it is mentioned--

          [Footnote 193: _Guardian_, No. 10.]

  Yet, tell me, Sirs, don't you as nice appear
  With your false Calves, _Bardash_, and Fav'rites here?[194]
                                           [pointing to her forehead.]

          [Footnote 194: Small curls on the forehead.]

The _Daily Courant_, Nov. 4, 1708, says: 'Also very fine Muslin
Neckcloths to be sold at 5_s._ a Piece.'

A gentleman's shirt was of fine holland, and was somewhat dear--the
fronts were worn very open, and the ruffles were not laced, at least
for ordinary wear: this piece of extravagance was reserved for a later
time. Showing so much of the shirt necessitated clean linen, but it is
hardly likely that many followed the example of Tom Modely,[195] whose
'business in this world is to be well dressed; and the greatest
circumstance that is to be recorded in his annals is that he wears
_twenty shirts a week_.' That they were costly, we may judge from the
fact that Swift was not extravagant in his dress, and that he bought
them first-hand in Holland, by means of his friend Harrison, who was
under great obligations to him. '28 Feb. 1718. I have sent to Holland
for a dozen shirts,'[196] etc.--and again he writes: 'Jan. 31, 1713.
I paid him (Harrison) while he was with me seven guineas, _in part_ of
a dozen of shirts he bought me in Holland.'

          [Footnote 195: _Tatler_, No. 166.]

          [Footnote 196: _Journal to Stella._]

This having the waistcoat unbuttoned to show the shirt is very
frequently mentioned, but it was eminently a young man's practice. A
lady, speaking of her husband, says: 'You must know, he tells me that
he finds London is a much more healthy place than the Country; for he
sees several of his old acquaintance and schoolfellows are here _young
fellows with fair full-bottomed perriwigs_. I could scarce keep him
this morning from going out _open breasted_.'[197] Again[198]: 'There
is a fat fellow whom I have long remarked, wearing his breast open in
the midst of winter, out of an affectation of youth. I have therefore
sent him just now the following letter in my physical capacity:--

          [Footnote 197: _Tatler_, No. 95.]

          [Footnote 198: _Ibid._ 246.]


     "From the twentieth instant to the first of May next, both days
     inclusive, I beg of you to button your waistcoat from your collar
     to your waistband."'

It was supposed to have a most killing effect on the fair sex. 'A
sincere heart has not made half so many conquests as an open
_waistcoat_.'[199] The waistcoats, otherwise, were seldom mentioned;
they were long, but not so long as they afterwards became; and, with
the exception of very fine suits, seem to have been quite plain. One
or two advertisements of fine clothes will tell us a great deal about
them. 'Lost &c.--a Red Waistcoat Wove in with Gold, 2 Cravats, and 2
pair of Ruffles, 1 being grounded Lace very fine, the other
Colebatteen.' 'Stolen &c.--a new Cinnamon Colour Cloth Coat, Wastcoat
and Breeches, Embroider'd with Silver 4 or 5 inches deep down before,
and on the Sleeves, and round the Pocket Holes and the Pockets and
Knees of the Breeches. They are lin'd with a Sky Blue Silk.' 'Left in
a Hackney Coach &c. a light brown colour'd Hanging Coat, with long
Sleeves, upper Cape Black Velvet, with Gold Buttons and Button Holes.'
'Taken from a Gentleman's House &c. a Dove Coloured Cloth Suit
embroider'd with Silver, and a pair of Silk Stockings of the same
Colour; a Grey Cloth Suit with Gold Buttons and Holes; a Silk Drugget
Salmon Coloured Suit lin'd with white Silk; a Silver Brocade Waistcoat
trim'd with a knotted Silver Fringe, and lin'd with white Silk; A
floured Satin Nightgown, lin'd with a Pink coloured Lustring, and a
Cap and Slippers of the Same; a Thread Satin Nightgown, striped red
and white, and lin'd with a Yellow Persian, and a Cap of the same; a
yellow Damask Nightgown lin'd with Blue Persian; a Scarlet Silk net
Sash to tye a Nightgown.' These were clothes fit for 'the prince of
puppies, Colonel Edgworth,'[200] who went one day to see his brother
who lived but a day's journey from him; yet he took with him a led
horse loaded with portmanteaus. On his arrival, these were unpacked,
and three suits of clothes, each finer than the other, were displayed
on chairs, his nightgown on another, and his shaving plate all put
out. Next morning he appeared at breakfast with his boots on, and his
brother asked him where he was going for a ride before dinner. He
replied that he was going home; that he had only just come to see him,
and must go back at once, which he did. The poor man afterwards died
mad in the common Bridewell at Dublin.

          [Footnote 199: _Ibid._ 151.]

          [Footnote 200: _Journal to Stella_, letter 6.]

Noblemen wore their stars on their coats, and their ribands, but it
must have been a Collar day when the following happened: 'On Wednesday
morning last between 11 and 12 at St. James's Gate, was dropt from a
Nobleman's Coller of Esses, an enamel'd George; if brought to Mr.
Mead's, a Goldsmith, at the Black Lyon within Temple Bar, shall have a
Guinea Reward, and no Questions ask'd.'[201] The reward does not
indicate reckless prodigality on the part of the nobleman.

          [Footnote 201: _Postboy_, Feb. 25, 1714.]

We have seen that there was a great variety of colours in men's
clothing. A little curiosity in colour must not pass unnoticed.

  The City Prentices, those upstart Beaus
  In short spruce Puffs and _Vigo_ coloured clothes.[202]

--a colour which might puzzle for some time, were it not for the huge
quantity of _snuff_ captured at Vigo in 1702.

          [Footnote 202: Epilogue to Mrs. Centlivre's _Love's
          Contrivance_, ed. 1703.]

There were clothes of Drap du Barri and D'Oyley suits, so called after
the famous haberdasher, whose name still survives in the dessert
napkin. They were made of drugget and sagathay, camlet, but the
majority of men wore cloth. It is scarcely necessary to describe the
shape of the coat, for the illustrations show it better than any
printed description. There is but one peculiarity I would point
out--that in 1711 the coats used to be _wired_ to make them stick out.
'The Skirt of your fashionable Coats forms as large a Circumference as
our Petticoats; as these are set out with Whalebone, so are those with
Wire, to encrease and sustain the Bunch of Fold that hangs down on
each side.'[203]

          [Footnote 203: _Spectator_, No. 145.]

The cheap clothiers lived in Monmouth Street, St. Giles (now called
Dudley Street), and there was no love lost between them and their
higher-priced brethren, as the following advertisement shows: 'Whereas
the Monmouth Street Men and other Taylors in and about the City, have
by divers Advertisements in the Postman and other publick Prints, and
by Bills given from Door to Door, boasted what mighty Pennyworths
Persons may have of them, in selling Sagathy and Druggit Suits, the
smallest sized Men for 3 Guineas, and the largest sizes for £3 10_s._
and Men's Cloth Suits at £4 and £4 10_s._ This is to acquaint all
Persons that have occasion for such Suits, if they please to make
Tryal, may have the same as Cheap in Birchin lane, and as well and as
fashionable made, and may be assured of seeing more choice both of
broad Cloaths, Camblet, Druggits and Sagathys than many of those
Upstarts can pretend to.'[204]

          [Footnote 204: _Postman_, Nov. 15, 1707.]

A perusal of the advertisements of these 'Monmouth Street Men'
confirms these prices, and one will serve as a type of all. 'At the
sign of the _Golden Heart_ in _Monmouth Street_ in St. _Giles'_ in the
Fields. All Gentlemen and Others, may be Furnished with all sorts of
Cloathes and chuse their Patterns and have them made very well and
Fashionable, of Cloath, Druggets, or Sagathie, the first size Drugget
or Sagathie at _Three Pounds_, the second size at _Three Guineas_, and
the largest size at _Three Pound Ten Shillings_; with all sorts of
Cloath Suits very Reasonable, and Cheaper than any hath yet pretended
to make them: With all sorts of Plain Liveries at _Three Pound
Fifteen_ and _Four Pound_ a Suit, and Laced Liveries proportionable;
As likewise all sorts of Camblet Suits very Reasonable, and Campaign
Coats at _Fifteen_ or _Sixteen Shillings_ a Coat; All sorts and sizes
of Boys Cloathes very Good and Cheap.'[205] In reading these
advertisements, and indeed in all quotations of price, the different
value of money--then and now--should never be forgotten; three pounds
being equivalent to seven or eight. So that, according to our ideas,
clothing was dearer then than now.

          [Footnote 205: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 205.]

[Illustration: '4 Paire For a Shilling, Holland Socks!']

In the country, owing to the very little correspondence between it and
the metropolis, of course the fashions were some time in reaching
remote distances, and were equally long in departing from thence, to
make way for new ones. Addison humorously describes the fashions for
men in Cornwall in 1711. 'From this place, during our progress through
the most western parts of the kingdom, we fancied ourselves in King
Charles the Second's reign, the people having made very little
variations in their dress since that time. The smartest of the country
Squires appear still in the Monmouth Cock, and when they go a wooing,
whether they have any post in the militia or not, they generally put
on a red coat. We were indeed very much surprised, at the place we lay
at last night, to meet with a gentleman that had accoutred himself in
a night cap wig, a coat with long pockets and slit sleeves, and a pair
of shoes with high scallop tops; but we soon found by his conversation
that he was a person who laughed at the ignorance and rusticity of the
country people, and was resolved to live and die in the mode.'[206]

          [Footnote 206: _Spectator_, 129.]

Of men's breeches, and the materials of which they were made, very
little mention is made; but the stocking is frequently brought to
notice. They were of cloth, knitted woollen, thread, and silk. The
latter were of all colours, to suit the beaus' costumes, but black
silk was the wear of your well-to-do citizen, professional man, or
gentleman. Misson says 'The _English_ Silk Stockings are one of its
famous Merchandizes;' and solemn old Thoresby records how he and his
cousin 'bought each a pair of black silk rolling stockings in
Westminster Hall.' There is no mention of gaiters as a protection
against cold, rain, or mud. Addison grumbles that 'another informs me
of a pair of silver Garters buckled below the knee, that have lately
been seen at the _Rainbow_ Coffee house in _Fleet Street_,'[207] and
considers it his mission 'to Correct those Depraved Sentiments that
give Birth to all those little Extravagances which appear in their
outward Dress and Behaviour.'

          [Footnote 207: _Ibid._ 16.]

With regard to shoes, there seems to have been much foppery. Red heels
are specially railed against by the _Spectator_. The beaus wore the
heels very high, as indeed was the fashion with the fair sex. Gay
speaks, among his _de omnibus rebus_, of shoes, and gives the
following advice[208]:--

          [Footnote 208: _Trivia_, book 1.]

  When the _Black Youth_ at chosen Stands rejoice,
  And _Clean your Shoes_ resounds from ev'ry Voice;
  When late their miry Sides Stage Coaches show,
  And their stiff Horses thro' the Town move slow;
  When all the _Mall_ in leafy Ruin lies,
  And Damsels first renew their Oyster Cries:
  Then let the prudent Walker Shoes provide
  Not of the _Spanish_ or _Morocco_ Hide;
  The wooden Heel may raise the Dancer's Bound,
  And with the 'scallop'd Top his Step be crown'd:
  Let firm, well hammer'd Soles protect thy Feet
  Thro' freezing Snows, and Rains, and Soaking Sleet.
  Should the big Laste extend the Shoe too wide,
  Each Stone will wrench th' unwary Step aside:
  The sudden Turn may stretch the swelling Vein,
  Thy cracking Joint unhinge, or Ankle sprain;
  And when too short the modish Shoes are worn,
  You'll judge the Seasons by your shooting Corn.

Shoe-strings had gone out, and buckles were in fashion; but they had
not assumed the proportions they did in after years. Boots were never
worn except for riding; and there was in this reign very little
improvement on the heavy and clumsy riding-boot of William the Third's
time, which was still worn by Marlborough and his cavalry. Many are
the pairs, with their spurs, that are advertised for as being left in

[Illustration: Jack Boot.]

In those days of bad pavements and defective sewage, when men had
hardly begun the general use of the chair, and a coach was, as now,
the luxury of the few, shoeblacks were a necessity; and, although a
man might, like the Templar in 'Sir Roger de Coverley,' 'have his
shoes rubbed and his periwig powdered at the Barber's, as you go unto
the Rose,' yet a large number of '_Black Youth_ at chosen Stands
rejoice; and _Clean your Shoes_ resounds from ev'ry Voice.' They were
very numerous; and from them is derived our word _blackguard_, for so
were they called about Charing Cross and White Hall.

[Illustration: Shoe-black.]

There were different kinds of blacking, but, judging from the
dispraise awarded to each other's goods by rival manufacturers, they
could have been neither pleasant nor effective. 'London Fucus for
Shoes; being an unparallel'd Composition of the most pure and rich
Blacks, Choice Oils, &c., and is a thing so adapted to this Use, that
the World never yet produc'd the like Invention, having gain'd a
General Applause, causing the straitest Shooes to wear with delight
and ease; beautifies them to admiration, preserves the Leather from
cracking or rotting to the very last; and frees the Feet from all
Pains, Corns, Swellings, &c.... Price 12_d._ a Roll. Note, one Roll
serves one Person near half a year.' And then the famous 'Spanish
Blacking' advertised, and called the poor 'Fucus' names.

The little odds and ends of male attire must be noted. Gloves, for
instance, were in constant use, and we have seen how prodigally they
were given away at funerals. The ire of the _Spectator_ was aroused by
a custom, then just brought up, of edging them with silver fringe, but
this luxurious practice does not seem to have obtained for very long.

The pocket-handkerchiefs, owing to the prevalence of the practice of
snuff-taking, were nearly always of silk, though cambric was used; and
although we do not hear of 'Moral Pocket-handkerchiefs,' they were
somewhat similarly utilised, as the following advertisement shows: 'A
Silk Handkerchief Printed, with a Draught of the Roads of England
according to Mr. Ogleby's Survey, shewing the Roads and distance in
measured Miles from London to the several Cities and Towns in England.
Also the Victory Handkerchief, which gives an account of the Success
of 5 most glorious Victories obtain'd by the Confederates over the
French. Ornamented with the Arms of the Empire and Great Britain,
Prussia and Holland: They will both Wash in a weak Lather of Soap
without Prejudice. Price 2_s._ 6_d._' Others were printed with the
Queen's Speech to Parliament, April 5, 1710; the standards and ensigns
taken from the French, with the queen's effigies at full length; Dr.
Sacheverell and the six bishops who voted with him; the four seasons
of the year with the sun in the centre, curiously ornamented; and the
last one I can find advertised in Anne's reign was one printed on
white silk with 'An Abstract of the Peace made between England and
France, with the lively Effigies of all the Confederates, Princes and
the several Plenipotentiaries at Utrecht.'

In the early part of Anne's reign it was fashionable for men to wear
muffs, as it had been ever since Charles the Second's time. Ward
(1703) says: 'What is he in the long Whig, with his Fox skin Muff upon
his Button, and his Pocket book in his Hand? Why he (replied my
schoolfellow) is a Beau.' But they seem to have become less popular in
1710 (_vide_ _Tatler_, No. 155). 'I saw he was reduced to extreme
poverty, by certain shabby superfluities in his dress: for,
notwithstanding that it was a very sultry day for the time of the
year, he wore a loose great Coat and a _Muff_,' etc. Yet in 1711
Addison writes (_Spectator_, No. 16): 'I have receiv'd a Letter,
desiring me to be very satyrical upon the little Muff that is now in

Every gentleman carried a sword, and we are able to get accurate
descriptions of them, from the very numerous descriptions of them in
the advertisements of lost and stolen swords--how they used to lose
them! Probably the company at the tavern or club was jovial, the
claret good, and the way home was badly lit, and in the morning the
silver-hilted sword was a-missing. I wonder if they ever got them
back? They cried after them loudly enough, although they did not offer
great rewards, a guinea or so at the outside. Gay thus warns the
walker in the streets:--

  Where the Mob gathers, swiftly shoot along,
  Nor idly mingle in the noisy Throng.
  Lur'd by the Silver Hilt, amid the Swarm,
  The subtil Artist will thy Side disarm.

With a beau, his sword, as every other part of his dress, received his
special attention, and he very seldom was without it, except when
dancing. His sword-knot was of some gay colour, and was very long; and
he was solicitous as to the carriage of his sword. 'But my sword--does
it hang careless?' asks Bookwit in the 'Lying Lover'; and yet withal
the hilts very seldom seem to have been of much value, either
diamond-cut steel, gilt, or plain silver hilts. The following are some
of the better sort, and of the most artistic merit. 'A large plain
Silver hilted Sword with Scrowls and gilt in parts, with a broad
gutter'd hollow Blade gilt at the shoulder, and the edges ground very
sharp and a strong silver gilt handle.' 'A Hanger with a fine Aggat
Haft, Belt, and Silver buckle.' 'A Silver gilt Sword, done with
several Figures, with a Chequer Gold handle done one half of it with a
Black Ribbon.' 'A Silver and Gold Hilted Sword wrought with Figures
and Images about the handle, being tyed with a broad black Ribbon, the
Blade broad from the Hilt halfway, and stain'd with blew and Gold.' 'A
Silver and Gold hilted Sword of a Trophy Pattern, with a man on
Horseback on the Middle of the Pommel, and the same in the Shell, with
the Figures lying down on each side of the Horse, the Button of the
Pommel being in Squares.'

Here is an advertisement which shows how a poor innocent was led
astray: 'June 24, 1712. Whereas a Gentleman coming to Bradbery's
Hazard Table last Night, and not a Gamester, but brought by an
Acquaintance to see the Nature of it, lost his Silver hilted Sword,
which some of the Company took from his side; This is to give Notice
that any body that produces the Sword to Mr. John Waters, Perfumer, in
the Strand, over against the Talbot Inn; or to Mr. Hosier, over
against the Bunch of Grapes in New Street, Fetter Lane, shall have
10_s._ Reward, and no Questions ask'd; and if the Sword is not
produc'd, the Man that keeps the Table will be indited.'

Towards the end of Anne's reign swords were worn of a preposterous
length, which excited the satire of the _Guardian_.[209] 'When Jack
Lizard made his first trip to town from the university, he thought he
could never bring up with him enough of the gentleman; this I soon
perceived in the first visit he made me, when I remember, he came
scraping in at the door, encumbered with a bar of Cold iron so
irksomely long, that it banged against his Calf, and jarred upon his
right heel, as he Walked, and came rattling behind him as he ran down
the stairs. But his sister Annabella's raillery soon cured him of this
awkward air, by telling him that his sword was only fit for going up
stairs, or walking up hill, and that she shrewdly suspected he had
stolen it out of the College kitchen.'

          [Footnote 209: _Guardian_, No. 143.]

Equal, at least, in importance to the sword, was the cane, 'the nice
conduct' of which was part of a gentleman's education--and, if swords
were plentifully lost or stolen, how many more despairing owners
mourned their canes? There were useful, as well as ornamental canes.

  If the Strong Cane support thy walking Hand,
  Chairmen no longer shall the Wall command;
  Ev'n sturdy Car-men shall thy Nod obey,
  And rattling Coaches stop to make thee Way:
  This shall direct thy Cautious Tread aright,
  Though not one glaring Lamp enliven Night.
  Let Beaus their Canes with Amber tipt produce,
  Be theirs for empty Show, but thine for use.[210]

          [Footnote 210: _Trivia_, book 1.]

The majority of those lost were hardly worth advertising for; but we
will pick out a few, as specimens of what the better sort were like:
'A fine Cane with a Gold Head, engraved with a Cypher and Crown on the
top of it.[210] 'A Cane with an Aggot head.' 'A small cane with an
Amber head and a Black Silk Ribbond in it, a Princes Metal Hoop, and a
Silver Ferril at the bottom.' 'A Cane with a Silver Head and a Black
Ribbon in it, the top of it Amber, crack'd in two or three places,
part of the Head to turn round, and in it a Perspective Glass.' 'A
Cane with a croched Head, a Silver Ferrel and a Silver ring.' 'A Cane
with a Silver Head, with the Figure of the Tower of Babel upon it,
done in Chaced Work.' 'A Cane with a Silver Head and Scent Box, and a
Ferril of Silver at the Bottom.'

His snuff-box, too, was an object of his solicitude, though, as the
habit of taking snuff had but just come into vogue, there were no
collections of them, and no beau had ever dreamed of criticising a box
as did Lord Petersham, as 'a nice Summer box.' So many of them have
come down to us that they need no description, and I may merely say
that those of the middle classes were chiefly of silver, or
tortoise-shell, or mother-of-pearl; sometimes of 'Aggat'--or with a
'Moco Stone' in the lid. A beau would sometimes either have a
looking-glass, or the portrait of a lady inside the lid.

We have seen how proud the beau was of his watch, which he wore in a
fob, or pocket, in his breeches. A seal or two, generally of small
value, and a watch key, were attached to it by a ribbon; chains,
either of gold, silver, or steel, being sparingly used. The seals, of
course, were then necessary, as, there being no gummed envelopes,
every letter had to be properly sealed, either by wax or wafer.
Tompion was the great watch-maker, and he lived at the Three Crowns,
at the corner of Water Lane in Fleet Street, where he was afterwards
succeeded by George Graham. The value of Tompion's watches may be
gathered from the fact that from seven to ten guineas were generally
offered for their recovery when lost, or from eighteen to twenty-five
guineas of our money.

The watch of that day, and indeed of the whole Georgian era, consisted
of the watch proper, and an outer ornamental case, which was lined
with a pad of coloured velvet or satin, to make it fit tight to the
watch. We now never see watch-cases made of other materials than the
precious metals, or imitations thereof; but then, beautiful cases were
made of shagreen of various colours, or tortoiseshell inlaid, or
studded, with gold. Some beautiful specimens may be seen in the
library of the Corporation of the City of London, in the Clockmakers'
Company's collection.

[Illustration: A Watch Riband.]

As umbrellas were not used by men, as being too effeminate, and
india-rubber waterproofing was only to be discovered more than a
century later, men, in Anne's reign, had to put their trust in good
broadcloth coats or cloaks.

  Nor should it prove thy less important Care,
  To Chuse a proper Coat for Winter's Wear.
  Now in thy Trunk thy _Doily_ Habit fold,
  The silken Drugget ill can fence the cold;
  The Frieze's spongy Nap is soak'd with Rain,
  And Show'rs soon drench the Camlet's cockled Grain.
  True _Witney_ Broad Cloth with its Shag unshorn,
  Unpierc'd is in the lasting Tempest worn:
  Be this the Horse man's Fence; for who would wear
  Amid the Town the Spoils of _Russia's_ Bear?
  Within the _Roquelaure's_ Clasp thy Hands are pent,
  Hands, that stretch'd forth invading Harms prevent.
  Let the looped _Bavaroy_ the Fop embrace,
  Or his deep Cloak be spatter'd o'er with Lace.
  That Garment best the Winter's Rage defends,
  Whose shapeless Form in ample Plaits depends;
  By various Names[211] in various Counties known,
  Yet held in all the true _Surtout_ alone:
  Be thine of _Kersey_ firm, though small the Cost,
  Then brave unwet the Rain, unchill'd the Frost.[212]

          [Footnote 211: _A Joseph_, _a Wrap Rascal_, etc.]

          [Footnote 212: _Trivia_, book 1.]

Scarlet seems to have been the favourite colour for the roquelaure or
cloak, and some must have been 'exceeding magnifical, scarlet rocklows
and rocliers, with gold buttons and loops, being advertised as lost.
Ah! the men of that time! they were always losing something.

In doors, in their hours of ease, the precious furbelow wig was
discarded, and their closely cropped or shaved heads were clad in
handsomely worked caps--called _night caps_, although only worn in the
daytime; some kind of night cap having been an article of dress ever
since the time of Elizabeth. They were as common presents from ladies
to gentlemen, as a pair of slippers, or a smoking-cap would be now.
Says Swift, 'Your fine Cap, Madam Dingley, is too little, and too hot.
I will have that fur taken off; I wish it were far enough; and my old
Velvet cap is good for nothing. Is it velvet under the fur? I was
feeling but cannot find; if it be, it will do without it, else I will
face it; but then I must buy new velvet: but may be I may beg a piece.
What shall I do?'[213]

          [Footnote 213: _Journal to Stella_, letter 8.]

[Illustration: 'Old Cloaks, Suits, or Coats!']

[Illustration: 'Old Satin, Old Taffety, or Velvet!']

The loose dressing gown, too, was called a _night gown_--why, I know
not, because it was not worn at night. 'You must know I am in my night
gown every morning betwixt six and seven, and Patrick is forced to ply
me fifty times before I can get on my nightgown.'[214] They were made
of costly materials as well as 'Callicoe'; indeed, they were generally
of brocade, or some embroidered material. Men used even, early in the
day, to lounge into the coffee-houses dressed in them. One example
will show both their price and the materials of which they were
sometimes made. 'Whereas on Tuesday the 23d of December last, 3 Night
Gowns was agreed for, and taken away from a Shop in Exchange Alley,
viz. One Man's Night-Gown of yellow Sattin with Red and white Flowers
lined with a pale Blue Sattin, Value £6 10_s._ One ditto of blue
Ground Sattin, with red and white Flowers, lined with a plain yellow
Sattin, Value £5 10_s._ One ditto of red and white broad stript Thread
Sattin, lined with a green and white Persian, Value £2 10_s._ for
which the Payment left was not satisfactory. If the Person who bought
the said Gowns will give notice to Mr. Gray at the Rainbow and Punch
bowl in Gilt Spur Street, so as they may be had again, shall have 6
Guineas Reward, and no Questions asked.'

          [Footnote 214: _Journal to Stella_, letter 8.]

As the ultimate fate of all these fine clothes was the old clothes
man, a picture of him will as appropriately close this portion of the
disquisition on male dress, as one of his mate will open that on
female costume.



     The commode -- Description of ladies' dress -- The petticoat --
     The bodice -- A costly wardrobe -- Underlinen -- Dressing like
     men -- Scents -- Patches -- Patching Whig and Tory -- Masks --
     The hood -- High-crowned hats -- Furs -- Umbrellas -- Pattens --
     The fan -- Mobs -- Shopping -- Stuffs -- List of Indian stuffs --
     Lace -- Linens -- Tallymen -- Jewellery -- Diamonds -- Plate --
     Children's jewellery.

The 'commode' must have been so named on the same _lucus à non
lucendo_ principle as the night cap and gown; for a more inconvenient
headdress, perhaps, was never invented. It originated in the Court of
Louis XIV., and was there called a _fontange_ because it had been
introduced by Mademoiselle Fontange.[215] It was also named a 'head'
or a 'top knot' and was made of rows of plaited muslin, or lace,
stiffened with wire, one over the other, diminishing as they rose.
During the reign, their fashion and shape altered very much, as is
noticed by Addison: 'There is not so variable a thing in Nature as a
Lady's Head Dress: Within my own Memory I have known it rise and fall
above thirty Degrees. About ten years ago it shot up to a very great
Height, insomuch that the Female Part of our Species were much taller
than the men.'[216] The numerous examples given in the illustrations
of this book render any further reference to the 'commode'
unnecessary, as the reader will there see it depicted in every stage.
The cut on this page is only given because it shows it on a larger
scale than any other, and is, besides, interesting, as forming one of
a pack of cards (1707).

          [Footnote 215: It is said to have had its origin in a
          hunting party, where the hair of the royal favourite got
          loose. She hurriedly tied her laced handkerchief round her
          head; and the effect produced was so pretty, and artistic,
          that it delighted Louis XIV., who begged her to keep it so
          arranged for the remainder of the day--a hint not wasted on
          the other ladies, who next day appeared 'coiffées à la

          [Footnote 216: _Spectator_, No. 98, June 21, 1711.]

[Illustration: A Commode.]

Ward gives us his definition of a _Belle_, or 'Modish Lady,' as he
prefers to call her, who was--

  At _Hackney_, _Stepney_, or at _Chealsea_ Bred,
  In Dancing perfect and in Plays well Read.
  Impatient of Extreams, with Pride half Craz'd,
  Then must her Head, a Story higher be rais'd.
  In her next Gaudy Gown, her Sweeping Train
  Is order'd to be made as long again;
  All things must vary from the common Rode,
  And reach a Size beyond the Decent Mode:
  Thus Monstrously Adorn'd, to make a show,               }
  She walks in State, and Courtsies very low,             }
  And is a proper Mistress for the _Fool_, a _Beau_.[217] }

          [Footnote 217: _London Spy._]

We get a very good, and at the same time humorous, description of
female dress in 1707 out of Mrs. Centlivre's play of 'The Platonick
Lady,' wherein one of the characters is Mrs. Dowdy, 'a Somersetshire
Widow, come to Town to learn Breeding.'

     Act. 3. Enter Mrs. _Dowdy_, Mrs. _Brazon_ the Matchmaker, Mrs.
     _Wheedle_ the Milliner, Mrs. _Turnup_ the Manto Maker, Mrs.
     _Crispit_ the Tire Woman, and _Peeper_, her Maid. They all seem
     Talking to her.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. We'l, we'l la you now, la you now, Shour and Shour
     you'l Gally me.

     _Turnup._ Here's your Ladyships Manto and Petticoat.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. Ladyship, why what a main difference is here
     between this Town and the Country. I was never call'd above
     Forsooth in all my Life. Mercy on me, why you ha spoil'd my
     Petticoat, mum: zee, _Peeper_, she has cut it in a Thousand Bits.

     _Peeper._ Oh, that's the Fashion, these are Furbelows Madam--'tis
     the prettiest made Coat.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. Furbelows, a murrain take 'em, they spoil all the
     Zilk. Good strange, shour London Women do nothing but study
     Vashions, they never mind their Dairy I warrant 'em.

     _Turnup._ Ladies have no other employment for their Brain--and
     our Art lies in hiding the defects of Nature. Furbelows upwards,
     were devised for those that have no hips, and too large ones,
     brought up the full bottom'd Furbelows.

     _Milliner._ And a long Neck and a hollow Breast, first made use
     of the Stinkirk--and here's a delicate one for your Ladyship. I
     have a Book in my pocket just come from _France_, Intituled, _The
     Elements of the Toylet_.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. Elements, mercy on me! what do they get up in the
     Sky now?

     _Peeper._ A Learned Author to be sure,--let me see that, Mrs.

     _Milliner._ Here, Mrs. _Peeper_, 'tis the Second Volume; the
     first only shews an Alphabetical Index of the most notable Pieces
     which enter into the Composition of a Commode.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. Well, I shall ne'er mind these hard Names; Oh Sirs,
     _Peeper_, what swinging Cathedral Headgeer is this?

     _Peeper._ Oh, Modish French Night Clothes; Madam, what's
     here--all sorts of dresses painted to the Life. Ha, ha, ha, head
     cloaths to shorten the Face. Favourites to raise the Forehead--to
     heighten flat cheeks flying Cornets--four Pinners to help narrow
     Foreheads and long Noses, and very forward, to make the Eyes look

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. Ay--that, _Peeper_, double it down, I love

     _Peeper._ Take it and read it at your leisure, Madam.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. I shall never ha done shour zeeing all my vine
     things. Hy day, what's these two pieces of Band Box for?

     _Turnup._ 'Tis Past board, Madam, for your Ladyship's Rump.[218]

          [Footnote 218: The extremely _bouffée_ furbelows were called
          rumpt furbelows, and the brooches inserted in the centre
          were called rump jewels or rumphlets.]

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. A Rump, ho, ho, ho, has Cousin _Isbel_ a Rump,

     _Peeper._ Certainly Madam.

     Mrs. _Dowdy_. If Cousin has one, as I hope to be kiss'd, I'll
     have it, Mrs. Turnup.

It is hardly within the scope of this work to follow the varying
fashions of the reign, so one more extract must suffice. It is from
'The Humours of the Army,' by Charles Shadwell (a son, or nephew, of
the Poet Laureate, 1713): 'But there are some fashionable Creatures at
the other End of the Town, that give great Hopes of their being very
odd and Whimsical; for their Head dresses are no bigger than the
Skull-caps they us'd to wear; their Petticoats are up to their knees;
their Stays up to their chins; and their Fans up to their Nostrils;
and the mody Shrug makes 'em wear their shoulders up to their Ears;
their Lappets reach down to the Frenching of their Petticoats, which
are widen'd with Abundance of Whalebone; They stoop forward when they
should walk upright; they shuffle along a tip Toe, curtsey on one
Side, smile on those they would ridicule, and look very grave on their
intimate acquaintances.'

  Begin my Muse and sing in _Epick_ Strain
  The PETTICOAT; (nor shalt thou sing in vain,
  The PETTICOAT will sure reward thy Pain!)[219]

          [Footnote 219: _The Petticoat; an Heroi-Comical Poem_, by
          Joseph Gay (pseudo for J. Durant de Brevel), 1716.]

Before its introduction, women to improve their figures, or to follow
the fashion, wore false hips, but these speedily disappeared when the
hooped petticoat made its appearance, about 1709. Addison wrote a very
funny paper, a mock trial of it,[220] in which the arguments for and
against are duly heard, and he winds up his judgment with 'I consider
women as a beautiful romantic animal, that may be adorned with furs
and feathers, pearls and diamonds, ores and silks. The lynx shall cast
its skin at her feet to make her a tippet; the peacock, parrot and
swan shall pay contribution to her muff, the sea shall be searched for
shells, and the rocks for gems; and every part of nature furnish out
its share towards the embellishment of a creature that is the most
consummate work of it. All this I shall indulge them in; but as for
the petticoat I have been speaking of, I neither can nor will allow
it.' Vain, idle words! the fashion crept on, until under the Georges
it was absolutely outrageous. At present it was a somewhat mild
hooping of whalebone, compressible--at least such was the under
framework; for the word petticoat meant the skirt of the dress--over
which was the furbelow. They were made of varied and rich materials;
one example will serve to illustrate: 'Stolen &c. A Cloth Colour Gown
and Petticoat of Grazet, an Ash Coloured Grazet Gown and Petticoat, a
Hair Colour plush Petticoat, a black Russel Petticoat flower'd, an Ash
colour Silk Quilted Petticoat, a Cloth Colour'd Silk Sattinet Gown and
Petticoat,' etc.

          [Footnote 220: _Tatler_, 116.]

The bodices were laced, open in front, over very tight stays, showing
them; and they varied in material from 'a pair of stays cover'd with
Black Tabby Stitched, lin'd with Flannel,' to one 'with 8 diamond
Buckles and Tags,' for which Sir Richard Hoare, of the Golden Bottle
in Fleet Street, would give the finder twelve guineas. The bodices
were worn low, showing the bosom--which, however, was partially
concealed by the 'tucker' or 'modesty piece,' which was an edging
going round the top of the dress and front of the bosom. In 1713 this
was beginning to be discontinued, and deep, and many, were the growls
over it in the _Guardian_.

The sleeves of the bodice were somewhat short (only coming a little
below the bend of the arm), and were worn hanging, to show the white
muslin, or lace, hanging sleeve, which came nearly to the wrist--a
very pretty fashion; and an apron was worn, made somewhat ornamental
by frilling, etc.

This formed the outward costume of a lady; only sometimes it was of
extremely rich material, vide the following: 'Stolen out of the house
of Mr. Peter Paggen in Love Lane near Eastcheap ... One Isabella
colour Kincob Gown flowered with Green and Gold, one Silver lace half
Ell deep; One Silver Orrice a quarter of a Yard deep; A large Parcel
of Black and Silver Fringe; One dark colour Cloth Gown and Petticoat
with 2 Silver Orrices; One Purple and Gold Atlas Gown; One Scarlet and
Gold Atlas Petticoat edged with Silver; One wrought under Petticoat
edged with Gold; one Black Velvet Petticoat; three Black and White
Norwich Stuff Gowns and Petticoats; one Black fine Cloth Gown and 2
Petticoats; One White Satin Gown lined with Black Silk; One Alejah
Petticoat striped with Green, Gold, and White; One Silver Net half
Yard deep; One White Sarsnet Scarf; Two Yards of White and Gold Atlas;
one Blue and Silver Silk Gown and Petticoat; One Blue and Gold Atlas
Gown and Petticoat; Two Silver Laces each a quarter of a Yard deep,
One yellow Chintz Gown and Petticoat, one Workt Petticoat; one White
Holland Gown and Petticoat drawn for Stitchin; One pair of Shoes and
Clogs laced with Silver; One dark Colour Cloth Petticoat with a Silver
Orrice, one White Sarsnet Scarf,' etc.

Of ladies' underlinen we get a glimpse in the following: 'Lost &c., a
deal box containing 4 fine Holland Shifts, 7 fine Cambric
Handkerchiefs, 2 Night rails and Aprons, one with edging and the other
flowered, 2 yards of fine loopt Macklen Lace, one Suit of Muslen Lace
Night Cloaths, 2 Holland Wastcoats, 3 Diaper Towels, One Powder Box
and 6 combs.'

The stockings were either of thread or silk; in the latter case they
were sometimes of bright colours. We have already seen how the little
temptress of the New Exchange asked, 'Does not your Lady want ... fine
green Silk Stockings?' The shoes were beautifully made, of satin or
silk, embroidered, or of fine Morocco leather, with high heels.

Oddly enough, even in those days, which we are somehow inclined to
clothe in idyllic simplicity, women dressed like men, as far as they
could. Budgell notes this: 'They already appear in Hats and Feathers,
Coats and Perriwigs.'[221] And Addison points out to them[222] that if
their design in so doing is to 'smite more effectually their Male
Beholders,' they are mistaken, for 'how would they be affected should
they meet a Man on Horseback, in his Breeches and Jack Boots, and at
the same time dressed up in a Commode and a Night raile?'

          [Footnote 221: _Spectator_, 331.]

          [Footnote 222: _Ibid._ 435.]

The same little feminine vanities existed then as now. We had a glance
at the cosmetics and scents, so will only just give one more
illustration which supplies some then missing scents. 'I have choice
good Gloves, Amber, Orangery, Gensa, Romane, Frangipand, Nerol,
Tuberose, Jessimine and Marshal. All manner of Tires for the Head,
Locks, Frowzes and so forth;'[223] so that they were not altogether
independent of the barber's art as regards false hair.

          [Footnote 223: _The Virtuoso._]

[Illustration: Coiffure.]

  There stands the _Toilette_, Nursery of Charms,
  Compleatly furnish'd with bright Beauty's Arms;
  The Patch, the Powder Box, Pulville, Perfumes,
  Pins, Paint, a flatt'ring Glass, and Black lead Combs.
  So Love with fatal Airs the Nymph supplies
  Her Dress disposes, and directs her Eyes.
  The Bosom now its naked Beauty Shows,
  Th' experienced Eye resistless Glances throws;
  Now vary'd Patches wander o'er the Face,
  And Strike each Gazer with a borrow'd Grace;
  The fickle Head dress sinks and now aspires,
  And rear's it's tow'ry Front on rising Wires:
  The Curling Hair in tortured Ringlets flows,
  Or round the Face in labour'd Order grows.[224]

          [Footnote 224: _The Fan._]

The mode of coiffure was far less pretentious than in succeeding
reigns. When a cap or commode was worn, the hair, except in front,
was almost entirely concealed. When worn without a cap, as in the
house--especially for dress occasions--it was rolled, as in the
accompanying illustration, in a style both elegant and informal.

[Illustration: Patching.]

That curious practice of patching the face was in force, but was used
in greater moderation than either in the reign of Charles I., when
suns, moons, stars, and even coaches and four were cut out of sticking
plaister, and stuck on the face, and even the mercers patched, to show
the effect to their customers--or in the Georgian era, when the face
was covered with a sooty eruption. The effect on a pretty face, as
shown in the accompanying illustration, is far from unpleasant. But it
was an art, and required judgment.

     _Penelope._ But alas, Madam, who patch'd you to Day? Let me see.
     It is the hardest thing in Dress. I may say without Vanity I know
     a little of it. That so low on the Cheeks pulps the Flesh too
     much. Hold still, my dear, I'll place it just by your
     Eye--(_Aside_) Now she downright squints.

     _Victoria._ There's nothing like a sincere Friend; for one is not
     a judge of one's self. I have a Patch box about me. Hold, my
     dear, that gives you a sedate Air, that large one near your

     _Penelope._ People, perhaps, don't mind these things: But if it
     be true, as the Poet finely sings, That all the Passions in the
     Features are, We may show, or hide 'em, as we know how to affix
     these pretty artificial Moles.

     _Victoria._ And so catch Lovers, and puzzle Physiognomy.[225]

          [Footnote 225: _The Lying Lover._]

When not properly applied see the result. 'Han't I got too many Beauty
Spots on, in my Mind now my Vace louks just like a Plumb Cake var all
the World,'[226] whilst they possibly might call forth some
uncomplimentary remarks, such as 'You pert Baggages, you think you are
very handsome now, I warrant you. What a devil's this pound of hair
upon your paltry frowses for? what a pox are those patches for? what,
are your faces sore? I'd not kiss a Lady of this Age, by the Mass, I'd
rather kiss my Horse.'[227]

          [Footnote 226: _The Platonick Lady._]

          [Footnote 227: _The Virtuoso._]

Misson notes the difference between his countrywomen and ours. 'The
Use of Patches is not unknown to the French Ladies; but she that wears
them must be young and handsome. In England, young, old, handsome,
ugly, all are _bepatch'd_ till they are Bed-rid. I have often counted
fifteen Patches or more upon the swarthy wrinkled Phiz of an old Hag
threescore and ten, and upwards. Thus the English Women refine upon
our Fashions.'

One would hardly imagine that this fashion could have been pressed
into the service of party passion, but so it was, if Addison was not
jesting--and, after all, perhaps it is not so astonishing, when we
recollect that the Tory ladies stayed away from the Queen's Drawing
Room--on her Majesty's birthday too--because she gave a flattering
reception, and a costly sword, to Prince Eugene: 'About the Middle of
last Winter I went to see an Opera at the Theatre in the Haymarket,
where I could not but take notice of two Parties of very fine Women,
that had placed themselves in the opposite Side Boxes, and seemed
drawn up in a kind of Battle Array one against another. After a short
Survey of them, I found they were Patch'd differently; the Faces on
one Hand being spotted on the right Side of the Forehead, and those
upon the other, on the Left. I quickly perceived that they cast
Hostile Glances upon one another; and that their Patches were placed
in those different Situations, as Party Signals to distinguish Friends
from Foes. In the Middle Boxes, between these two opposite Bodies,
were several Ladies who Patched indifferently on both Sides of their
Faces, and seem'd to sit there with no other Intention but to see the
Opera. Upon Inquiry I found that the Body of _Amazons_ on my right
Hand were Whigs, and those on my Left, Tories: And that those who had
placed themselves in the Middle Boxes were a Neutral Party, whose
Faces had not yet declared themselves. These last however, as I
afterwards found, diminished daily, and took their Party with one Side
or the Other; insomuch that I observed in several of them, the
Patches, which were before dispersed equally, are now all gone over to
the Whig or Tory side of the Face.'[228]

          [Footnote 228: _Spectator_, 81.]

It has been noticed that masks were used in the country by ladies when
taking horse exercise; in fact, it was a substitute for the modern
veil; and, in previous reigns, it had been used generally out of
doors. But in Anne's time it had got to be associated with
disreputable females, so much so that at concerts, and at Powel's
puppet show, no person wearing a mask was admitted. They were still
worn at the theatres, but scarcely by ladies. Still they were worn
sometimes even by them, on the first night of a play, in case there
might be any allusion, which might afterwards be excised, which would
make them blush. They were not expensive luxuries.

  No change in Government the Women stop.
  For Eighteen Pence in Velvet sets them up.[229]

          [Footnote 229: Epilogue to _The Modish Husband_, ed. 1702.]

Seeing the class by whom they were worn, people having them on were
naturally liable to insult. The following illustrates the manners of
the time: 'An Arch Country Bumpkin having pick'd up a Frog in some of
the adjacent Ditches, peeping into the Coach as he pass'd by, and
being very much affronted that they hid their Faces with their Masks,
Ads blood, Says he, you look as ugly in those black Vizards as my Toad
here; e'en get you all together, tossing on't into the Coach: At which
the frightened Lady birds Squeak'd out, open'd the Coach Doors, and
leap'd among the throng, to shun their loathsome Companion.'[230]

          [Footnote 230: _London Spy._]

[Illustration: A Mask or Vizard.]

Of course, when the commode was worn, no other head-covering could be
worn with it; but, when it came to be lowered, and almost disappear, a
graceful fashion came up of scarves or hoods, and thus bright colours
are alluded to more than once by contemporary writers, especially in
the _Spectator_:[231] 'I took notice of a little Cluster of Women
sitting together in the prettiest colour'd Hoods that I ever saw. One
of them was Blue, another Yellow, and another Philomot;[232] the
fourth was of a Pink Colour, and the fifth was of a pale Green. I
looked with as much pleasure upon this little party Coloured Assembly,
as upon a Bed of Tulips, and did not know at first whether it might
not be an Embassy of Indian Queens,' etc. Whatever made Steele attack
the hood as he did in a manner so scurrilous, and utterly unlike
him?--though, after all, his objurgations are directed more against
the cloak than the hood.

          [Footnote 231: No. 265.]

          [Footnote 232: _Feuille-mort._]

  Your Hoods and Cloaths or rather Riding Hoods
  Were first invented to steal People's Goods--
  For when their Wearers came with a Pretence
  To Buy--Tho' looking with much Innocence,
  Lace, Silk, or Muslin privately they steal
  And under those same Cloaks their Theft Conceal.[233]

          [Footnote 233: _Female Folly, or the Plague of a Woman's
          Riding Hood and Cloak_, 1713.]

The tall broad-brimmed hat (which still exists in Wales, only made in
beaver) of James the First's reign was still used by country women,
and the poorer class in towns. Ward, talking of an 'Assembly of Fat
Motherly Flat Caps' at Billingsgate, says: 'Their Chief clamour was
against High Heads and Patches; and said it would have been a very
good Law, if Q. _Mary_ had effected her design, and brought the proud
Minks's of the Town, to have worn High Crownd Hats instead of Top
Knots.'[234] And in 'Tunbridge Walks': 'Oh! the joys of a Country
life, to mind one's Poultry, and one's Dairy, and the pretty business
of milking a Cow, then, the soft diversions of riding on Horseback, or
going to a Bull baiting, and the Charming Conversation of _High
Crown'd Hats_, who can talk of nothing but their Hogs and their

          [Footnote 234: _London Spy._]

[Illustration: An Umbrella.]

Furs were worn, and of course duly lost. From one advertisement we get
to know the name of 'a Sable Tippit or _Zar_;' and from another we
learn something of its shape, 'a round Sable Tippet, about 2 yards
long, the Sable pretty deep and dark, with a piece of black Silk in
the Square of the neck.' They also had muffs, not only of feathers, as
we have already seen, but of fur of all sorts, from otter skin to 'the
Cats' fur. But ladies did not go out more than they could help, either
in cold or wet weather. The streets were so bad, and, although to them
was accorded the 'umberellow' (for it was far too effeminate a thing
for men to carry, no Jonas Hanway having yet arisen), yet they did not
stir out unless obliged; and it was only

  The tuck'd up sempstress walks with hasty strides
  While Streams run down her oil'd umbrella's sides.[235]

          [Footnote 235: _The Tatler_, No. 238.]

Curious clumsy things these old umbrellas must have been. For a man to
have used one, he would have deserved, and received, some such satire
as 'The Young gentleman belonging to the Custom House, that for fear
of rain borrowed the Umbrella at Will's Coffee House in Cornhill of
the _Mistress_, is hereby advertised that to be dry from head to foot
on the like occasion he shall be welcome to the _Maid's

          [Footnote 236: _The Female Tatler_, Dec. 12.]

  Good Huswives all the Winter's Rage despise,
  Defended by the Riding Hood's Disguise;
  Or underneath th' _Umbrella's_ oily Shed,
  Safe thro' the Wet on clinking Pattens tread.
  Let _Persian_ Dames th' _Umbrella's_ Ribs display,
  To guard their Beauties from the sunny Ray;
  Or sweating Slaves support the shady Load,
  When Eastern Monarchs shew their State abroad;
  _Britain_ in Winter only knows its Aid,
  To guard from chilly Show'rs the walking Maid.
  But O! forget not, Muse, the _Patten's_ Praise,
  That female Implement shall grace thy Lays;
  Say from what Art Divine th' Invention came,
  And from its Origine deduce the name.[237]

          [Footnote 237: _Trivia_, book 1.]

And then Gay tells the legend of how Vulcan fell in love with Martha
(or Patty), the daughter of a Lincolnshire yeoman; how to save her
feet from the cold and wet he studded her shoes with nails; but still
she had a cold and lost her voice, until he hit upon the happy idea of
the 'patten' the use of which completely restored her to health, and

  The Patten now supports each frugal Dame,
  Which from the blue ey'd _Patty_ takes the name.

But we must not forget that potent weapon in woman's armoury, the fan.

  The Fan shall flutter in all Female Hands,
  And various Fashions learn from various lands,
  For this, shall Elephants their Iv'ry shed;
  And polished Sticks the waving Engine spread:
  His clouded Mail the Tortoise shall resign,
  And round the Rivet pearly Circles shine.
  On this shall _Indians_ all their Art employ,
  And with bright Colours stain the gaudy Toy;
  Their Paint shall Here in wildest Fancies flow,
  Their Dress, their Customs, their Religion show,
  So shall the _British_ Fair their minds improve,
  And on the Fan to distant Climates rove.
  Here shall the _Chinese_ Dame her Pride display,
  And silver Figures gild her loose Array;
  She boasts her little Feet and winking Eyes,
  And tunes the Fife, or tinkling Cymbal plies;
  Here Cross leg'd Nobles in rich State shall dine,
  When on the Floor large painted Vessels shine,
  For These, O _China_, shall thy Realms be sought,
  With These, shall _Europe's_ mighty Ships be fraught,
  Thy glitt'ring Earth shall tempt their Ladies Eyes,
  Who for thy brittle Jars shall Gold despise.
  Gay _France_ shall make the Fan her Artists' Care,
  And with the Costly Trinket arm the Fair.
  While Widows seek once more the Nuptial State,
  And wrinkled Maids repent their Scorn too late,
  As long as youthful Swains shall Nymphs deceive,
  And easie Nymphs those youthful Swains believe,
  While Beaus in Dress consume the tedious Morn,
  So long the _Fan_ shall Female Hands adorn.[238]

          [Footnote 238: _The Fan_, by Gay, ed. 1714.]

To anyone interested in the use of the fan at this period, a perusal
of Addison's article in the _Spectator_ (No. 102) is recommended: it
is too long for reproduction here, and would be thoroughly spoilt by
merely making use of extracts from it. They seem to have been seldom
lost, or if so, were not of sufficient value to advertise--in fact, I
have only met with one advertisement, 'A painted Landskip Fann, cutt,
gilded Sticks,' and for this a reward of 7_s._ 6_d._ was offered. That
they were largely imported is evident by the following notice: 'For
Sale by the Candle, at the Marine Coffee House in Birchin Lane
&c.--Forty Thousand Fans of Sundry Sorts;' but these most probably
were either Chinese, Japanese, or Indian palm fans.

Before closing the subject of women's costumes the 'Mob' must be
noticed--that dress of which Swift writes: 'The ladies were all in
Mobs; how do you call it?--undressed.'[239] This negligent costume, of
which no actual contemporary description seems to exist, is never
mentioned except to be decried--as, for instance, the question is
asked, 'How is a man likely to relish his wife's society when he comes
home and finds her slovenly, in a Mob?' And there were one or two
other articles of dress not usually mentioned, and not described, as
'Women's laced Head Cloaths commonly called _Quaker's Pinners_' and

          [Footnote 239: _Journal to Stella_, letter 11.]

What woman could exist without shopping nowadays? And the habit was
the same among the ladies of Queen Anne's time. The _Female Tatler_
(1709) gives us the following graphic description of shopping: 'This
afternoon some ladies, having an opinion of my fancy in Cloaths,
desired me to accompany them to Ludgate Hill, which I take it to be as
agreeable an amusement as a lady can pass away three or four hours in.
The shops are perfect gilded theatres, the variety of wrought silks so
many changes of fine scenes, and the Mercers are the performers in the
Opera; and instead of "_vivitur ingenio_," you have in gold capitals
"_No trust by retail_." They are the sweetest, fairest, nicest, dished
out creatures; and by their elegant and soft speeches, you would guess
them to be Italians. As people glance within their doors, they salute
them with--Garden silks, ladies, Italian Silks, brocades, tissues,
cloth of Silver, or cloth of Gold, very fine Mantua Silks, any right
Geneva velvet, English velvet, velvet embossed. And to the meaner
sort--Fine thread satins both striped and plain, fine mohair silk,
satinnets, burdets, Persianets, Norwich Crapes, anterines, silks for
hoods and scarves, hair camlets, druggets or sagathies, gentlemen's
nightgowns ready made, shallons, durances, and right Scotch plaids.

'We went into a shop which had three partners; two of them were to
flourish out their silks; and after an obliging smile and a pretty
mouth made, Cicero like, to expatiate on their goodness; and the
other's sole business was to be gentleman usher of the shop, to stand
completely dressed at the door, bow to all the coaches that pass by,
and hand ladies out and in.

'We saw abundance of gay fancies, fit for Sea Captain's wives,
Sheriff's feasts, and Taunton dean ladies.[240] This, Madam, is
wonderfully charming. This, Madam, is so diverting a Silk. This,
Madam--my stars! how cool it looks. But this, Madam.--Ye Gods! would I
had 10,000 yards of it! Then gathers up a sleeve, and places it to
your shoulders. It suits your Ladyship's face wonderfully well. When
we had pleased ourselves, and bid him ten shillings a yard for what he
asked fifteen; Fan me, ye winds, your lady ship rallies me! should I
part with it at such a price, the weavers would rise upon the very
Shop. Was you at the Park last night, Madam? Your ladyship shall abate
me sixpence. Have you read the Tatler to day? &c.

          [Footnote 240: Why _Taunton dean ladies_ I am at a loss to
          say, unless, as Somersetshire was then considered as the
          'ultima Thule' of civilisation, it is meant that the dresses
          were as fine and gaudy as a country belle would wear, in
          contradistinction to the better taste of her town-bred

'These fellows are positively the greatest fops in the kingdom; they
have their toilets and their fine night gowns; _their chocolate in the
morning_, and _their green tea two hours after_; Turkey polts for
their dinner; and their perfumes, washes, and clean linen, equip them
for the Parade.'

We get a glimpse at the prices of silk dresses in the following
advertisement: 'The Silk Gowns formerly sold in Exchange Alley, are
removed to the sign of the Hood and Scarf, directly over against
Will's Coffee House in Cornhill, where any Gentleman or Lady may be
furnished with any Size or Price, there being all Sorts of Silks, from
rich Brocades of 7 Guineas Price to Thread Sattin Gowns of 37_s._,'

Besides the stuffs described in the _Female Tatler_, there were
'Silver Tishea, Pudsway Silks, Shaggs, Tabbeys, Mowhairs, Grazets,
Brochés, Flowered Damasks, Flowered Lustrings, ditto striped and
plain, Sarsnets, Italian Mantuas, Silk Plushes, Farendines, Shagreen,
Poplins, Silk Crapes and Durants'; whilst among the woollen goods were
'Hair and Woollen Camlets, Hair Plushes, Spanish and English Druggets,
Serge Denims, Calamancoes, Russels, Serges, Shalloons, Tammeys,
Ratteens, and Salapeens.' Ladies' black broadcloth cost 13_s._ 6_d._
per yard, fine scarlet 15_s._ 6_d._, and superfine do. 17_s._ 6_d._

Of Indian stuffs there is a formidable list, and as the names are
curious, and are probably lost and forgotten, I reproduce them:--

    Do. Persia
    Do. Culme
    Do. Mamoodies
    Do. Romalls
  Betellees. Oringal
  Guinea stuffs
  China cherrys

Having a Queen upon the throne--one that kept her Court, and dressed
well--lace was naturally an article in demand. The Queen was somewhat
moderate at her Coronation, for her point lace only came to £64 13_s._
9_d._ It was Flanders lace, and was allowed to be imported, provided
it was not made in 'the dominions of the French king.' Mechlin and
Brussels lace first made their appearance in this reign, and, in 1710,
the Queen paid £151 for twenty-six yards of fine edged Brussels lace.
Indeed, Brussels lace was somewhat dear: 'One Brussels Head is valued
at £40; a grounded Brussels head £30; one looped Brussels £30.' 'Lost
betwixt Hemming's Row and Owin Street near Leicester Fields, a Tin Box
with Lace; whoever brings it to Mrs. Beck at the Angel and Star in
Fleet Street shall have £10 Reward and no Questions ask'd.' '9 pieces
of fine Bone Lace belonging to a Person of Quality' were also lost,
and £10 reward offered. This lace does not always seem to have been
made of thread, for, 'Whereas two pieces of Silver Bone lace, was
brought to a shop in Winchester Street to be weighed, the Lace being
suppos'd to be stol'n, is stoped.' Four pieces of 'Macklin' lace,
lost, induced a reward of five guineas, and the finder of three pieces
of 'Brussels edging Lace' is supposed to be tempted by the offer of
10_s._ to bring them back.

We have read in the robbery from Mr. Paggen's of a number of garments
with gold and silver lace, and with silver 'Orrices,' and the use of
bullion lace grew to such an extent, that in 1711, its entry was
forbidden under pain of forfeiture, and a fine of £100.

The linen of this reign was finer, and better, than in those
preceding, and one linen draper of the time has handed his name down
to posterity, viz. 'Thomas Doyley at the Nun in Henrietta Street,
Covent Garden.' A list of the linens then in vogue, is, as far as I
can learn, as follows: 'White and Brown Osnabrigs, Dowlas's, Kentings,
Muslins, Bed ticks, Garlets, Spotted Lawns, Sletias, Harford Blue,
White Shorks, Holland, Cambricks, Gentings, Callicoes, Damask, Diaper,
Huckabacks, Dimmities.'

Of these 'fine double threaded Cottons for Sheetings' was 12_d._ per
yard and muslin 5_s._ 6_d._

The 'Tally Man' was an institution in those days, and was well known.
His handbills remain, and there is a singular unanimity among them;
with one voice they make Monday the day for purchases and payments.
The reason for this is obvious; at that early period of the week the
Saturday's earnings ought not to be spent. As a rule, the terms were,
'Paying one shilling a Week for Thirty Shillings, untill the Sum is
paid for which they Contract.' One gentleman sticks up for his
dignity, and begs you to 'Note. That these goods are not to be sold by
a Tally man, but the Money is to be taken by Weekly, or Monthly
Payments, according as it shall be agreed upon for the Ease of the
Customers.' This system was as pernicious then as now, only, as the
law of arrest for debt was in full force, the prisons held plenty of

It was not a particularly ostentatious age for jewellery, and we can
get a good idea of what was worn, by one or two advertisements of lost
property. 'Stolen the 11th of this Instant February 1703[241] between
6 and 7 of the clock at night, from the Golden Buck in Lombard Street,
a Show Glass, in which, besides several things not remembr'd, were
these Particulars, viz. A gold Moco[242] Stone Chain set in Gold with
a Crown at the top. One Grain Gold Watch Chain mark't C. O. One large
Saphyre loose and 1 a little less. One string of Pearls from 2 Grains
to 5 or 6 Grains a piece; one large Pearl with a large Hole in it,
about 12 Grains, with several other loose Pearls; with several Diamond
Rings, Rubies and Garnet Grislets set in the Middle. One very large
Sized Ring, with 12 Diamonds, one being out, with an Ametheist broke
in the middle. One fine Medal of Cardinal Richelieu; one Smaller Gold
Medal with two Heads. Several Stone and plain Lockets, and Gold
Hearts, with Stones on the top to open. One Gold Chain with three
links, links and end, 15 d. wt. and one Brilliant Diamond Ring, set
round with 8 Diamonds in the middle; one longish Diamond weighing
about 2 grains and a half, or 3 at most. One large Garnet set in Gold
to hang to a Watch, and several Hoops and Joints markt T. S. Several
Gold Rings set with Turky and Vermillions. Several Gold Buttons, some
plain and some set with Moco Stones, and a Cornelian Ring Set. One
pair of plain Gold Buttons link'd with a Chain nock fashion'd, 8. d.
weight and half. Several false Stone Ear Rings, and Rings of several
Colours, set in Gold. One pair of Ear Rings, Diamonds and Drops, value
about 4_l._ 10_s_. Several right Garnet Ear Rings set in Gold with
Drops. Two red Watch Bottles rib'd with Gold. Several gilt Watch
Bottles and other Toys. One gilt Coral with a double branch. One
Necklace with Pearls and Vermillions; one Moco Stone Bracelet, 1 large
piece of Coral, weight 1 Ounce 8 p. wt., a plain gold Socket to it, 14
or 15 p. wt., 1 Cornelian set in Gold, and very finely enamelled, 3 or
4 Cornelian Seals set strong in Gold, several Gold Ear Rings with Tops
and Drops to 'em, 1 little Padlock in Gold and Silver and a Gold Key,
and several Corellionel Keys, &c.'

          [Footnote 241: In reality it was 1704. In the old style of
          reckoning 1704 did not begin till the 25th of March, and the
          _London Gazette_ of this reign always kept to the old

          [Footnote 242: 'Moco' stones are what are now called moss

'Lost, &c. A Gold Watch made by Richards, with a Gold Seal and
Cornelion set in it, a Griffin Rampant ingrav'd thereon, a pair of
Drops hanging at the end of the Chain; a Rumphlet[243] of Diamonds set
in Silver and gilt. 2 Necklaces of Pearl, 1 middling, the other small;
1 Diamond Ring containing 7 stones set in Gold. 1 Mourning Ring mark'd
H. G. in a Silver Box.' 'A Bristow Stone[244] Necklace set in Silver.'

          [Footnote 243: See _ante_, 'Rumps.']

          [Footnote 244: Probably what we call 'Bristol diamonds.']

There was lost a very interesting memorial ring, to which, in those
Jacobite days, no doubt a particular value was attached. 'A Gold ring
with 7 Diamonds in the form of a Rose, which opens, and within the
effigies of K. Charles I. Enamelled, next the finger is C. R. with a
Death's Head in the middle.'

Diamonds were much worn, and frequently lost. For the following, a
reward of 10 per cent. of their value was offered. 'Lost &c. 42 loose
Diamonds, some of them large, belonging to a Necklace, and two with
holes made behind for Screws to be put in, all strung on a white silk;
and two Tags with 16 small Diamonds.' For the next 100_l._ was
offered, or proportionate sums for portions. 'Lost by a Person of
Quality, a Diamond Cross of 6 Brilliant Diamonds and a large Brilliant
Stone loose in a Collet. The middle stone in the Cross weighs 10
grains, and the other 5 together 29 grains, and the Diamond in the
Collet 15 grains or there abouts.'

The greatest loss of diamonds in this reign was the following, for
which a reward of 1,000 guineas, and the Queen's pardon, was offered.
'Whereas there were brought from India in the Ship Albemarle (which
was driven ashore at Pielpora near Plimouth about the 9th of this
instant December) Five Bulses of Diamonds, which are pretending to be
missing or lost.... Amongst which said Diamonds was one very uncommon,
remarkable Diamond, viz. One cut Table Stone of the first Water, and
in all Perfection, weighing about 26 Carrats and a Quarter, and one
Pointed rough Stone weighing about 18 Carrats and a Quarter; and one
other rough Stone weighing about 21 Carrats, a Point some thing
fallen, Christalline, White and Clean.'[245] One is glad to read in
'Luttrel's Diary,' January 15, 1709, 'Part of the Diamonds missing out
of the Ship Albemarle are found, and brought to the Secretary's

          [Footnote 245: _London Gazette_, Dec. 23/27, 1708.]

'Lost April 23 (1702) upon the day of Her Majesty's Coronation, in or
near Westminster Hall, a Diamond Stomacher, with a Row of Rose
Diamonds down the Middle, with knots of small Rose Diamonds on each
side; in the setting there being a joint between each knot; they being
all set in Silver, and sow'd upon black Ribbon. Lost also at the same
time one large Rose Diamond set in Silver, and fastened to a Bodkin.'

The Queen herself lost some diamonds on this memorable occasion, but
nothing of great value, as only ten guineas were offered as a reward.
'Whereas there was Ten Small Diamonds singly set in Silver, but made
up together into a Sprig fastened by a Wire, which were lost from Her
Majesty's Robes in the Procession upon the Coronation Day,' etc. This,
however, was not the only loss the Queen suffered during her reign,
some of her subjects conceiving a violent affection for her
plate--_vide_ the following advertisements. 'Whereas several pieces of
Plate, as Dishes, Trencher Plates, Knives, forks, spoons and salts,
together with Pewter of all Sorts, Table Linen and other Necessaries,
which were provided and used in Westminster Hall at her Majesty's
Coronation Feast on 23 Inst., have been taken away from thence, and
are yet concealed,'[246] etc. 'Lost last night, being the 10th of this
Instant, January, the following Pieces of Plate, viz, a large
Monteith[247] with the Queen's Arms; a Salver, with the Royal Arms; 3
Salts Nurl'd; 4 Spoons, with W. R. in a Cypher, and a Crown over them;
One Plate with the late King's Arms, and W. R.; the bottom of a
Mustard Caster, with A. R. in a Cypher, and a Crown over it.'[248]
'Lost at Somerset House, at the Entertainment of the Venetian
Ambassadors, one of Her Majesty's Knurl'd Dishes, weight 52 Ounces,
and one Silver Mazerine, Weight 20 Ounces, both engrav'd with His late
Majesty's Arms.'[249] 'Lost from Her Majesty's Palace at Windsor, on
Sunday the 4th Instant, Two Silver Trencher Plates of Her Majesty's
Engraven'd A. R. and the Arms of England before the Union.'

          [Footnote 246: _Ibid._ Jan. 8/11, 1704-5.]

          [Footnote 247: A Monteith was a kind of punch-bowl, with
          scallops or indentations in the brim, the object of which
          was to convert it into a convenient tray for bringing in the
          wine-glasses. These being placed with the brims downwards,
          radiating from the centre, and with the handles protruding
          through the indentations in the bowl, were easily carried
          without much jingling or risk of breaking. Of course the
          bowl would then be empty of liquor.

            'New things produce new words, and thus _Monteith_
            Has by one Vessel, sav'd his name from Death.'
                             Dr. King's _Art of Cookery_, etc., p. 37.]

          [Footnote 248: _London Gazette_, May 26/29, 1707.]

          [Footnote 249: _Ibid._ Oct. 20/24, 1713.]

The plate of this reign was heavy and cumbrous, and of very little
artistic merit. It was greatly in use, and was an outward and visible
sign of its owner's wealth. To such an extent did its use obtain, that
taverns were ordered not to have silver tankards, the temptation to
steal them being so great.

[Illustration: Costume of a Lady.]

Ladies occasionally wore chatelaines in the street, and lost them,
whilst they seem only to have worn their watches for the sake of
losing their outer case, judging by the numbers of advertisements.
Being worn outside, there was nothing easier to steal. Not the whole
watch; oh no! but gently to press the spring, and the gold case was in
the thief's possession, with next door to no risk. They were
absolutely asking to be stolen. Even the little children must needs be
decked out with watches and chains. 'Whereas a Gold Watch, with a Gold
Chain with 6 lockets, one of them with a Cypher L. T. set with Pearl
and Green Stones, was lost from a Childe 11 years old.' 'Stop't, a
Child's Gold Chain suppos'd to be stolen.' 'Cut off from a Child's
neck yesterday, a Gold Chain, four times about her Neck.' 'Taken from
a Child, a Gold Chain with this Motto, _Memento Mori_.' 'Lost from a
Child's side, a Silver Scissor Case, Open Work, with Scissors in them;
to it a Chain and flat Hook gilt with Gold.'




     English fare -- Time of dining -- Pontack's -- Other ordinaries
     -- Books on Cookery -- Receipts -- Pudding -- Fish -- Oysters --
     Poultry -- Assize of bread -- Markets -- Vegetables -- Lambeth
     gardeners -- Fruit -- Dried fruit.

In the matter of food, people were not _gourmets_ as a rule. The
living was plentiful, but plain, and a dinner was never more than two
courses; as Addison wrote, 'two plain dishes, with two or three good
natured, chearful, ingenious friends, would make me more pleased and
vain than all that pomp and luxury can bestow;' and this sentiment
pervaded the whole of society. Dinner is almost the only meal ever
mentioned, and one looks in vain for details of breakfast or supper.
They were taken, of course, but men, then, did not sufficiently deify
their stomachs, as to be always talking about them: dinner was _the_
meal of the day, and there is no doubt that the most was made of that
opportunity. Misson says: 'The English eat a great deal at dinner;
they rest a while, and to it again, till they have quite stuff'd their
Paunch. Their Supper is moderate: Gluttons at Noon, and abstinent at
Night. I always heard they were great Flesh eaters, and I found it
true. I have known several people in England that never eat any Bread,
and universally they eat very little: they nibble a few crumbs, while
they chew the Meat by whole Mouthfuls. Generally speaking, the English
Tables are not delicately serv'd. There are some Noblemen that have
both _French_ and _English_ Cooks, and these eat much after the
_French_ manner; but among the middling Sort of People they have ten
or twelve Sorts of common Meats, which infallibly take their Turns at
their Tables, and two Dishes are their Dinners: a Pudding, for
instance, and a Piece of Roast Beef; another time they will have a
piece of Boil'd Beef, and then they salt it some Days before hand, and
besiege it with five or six Heaps of Cabbage, Carrots, Turnips, or
some other Herbs or Roots, well pepper'd and salted, and swimming in
Butter: A Leg of roast or boil'd Mutton, dish'd up with the same
dainties, Fowls, Pigs, Ox Tripes, and Tongues, Rabbits, Pidgeons, all
well moistened with Butter, without larding: Two of these Dishes,
always serv'd up one after the other, make the usual Dinner of a
Substantial Gentleman, or wealthy Citizen. When they have boil'd Meat,
there is sometimes one of the Company that will have the _Broth_; this
is a kind of Soup, with a little Oatmeal in it, and some Leaves of
Thyme or Sage, or other such small Herbs. They bring up this in as
many Porringers as there are People that desire it; those that please,
crumble a little Bread into it, and this makes a kind of _Potage_.'

Here, then, we have a very graphic, and evidently unbiassed, account
of the cuisine of this reign. Two o'clock seems to have been the
middle-class time of dining, but people with any pretension to fashion
dined later. 'Why does any Body Dine before Four a Clock in London?
For my Part, I think it an ill bred Custom to make my Appetite
Pendulum to the Twelfth Hour. Besides, 'tis out of Fashion to Dine by
Day light.'[250] And Steele, writing about 'Rakes,' says: 'All the
noise towards six in the evening is caused by his mimics and
imitators;'[251] thus leading to the inference that, dinner being at
four, and wine being plentifully drunk after it, they rose from table
half drunk, and went noisily to the coffee-houses.

          [Footnote 250: _The Basset Table._]

          [Footnote 251: _Tatler_, No. 27.]

This, probably, was the case at such a place as Pontack's, which held
the first rank among the restaurants of the time. It was situated in
Abchurch Lane, and was said to have derived its name from Pontack, a
president of the Parliament of Bordeaux, who gave his name to the best
French clarets; but this could hardly be the case, as all contemporary
writers call the proprietor Pontack. Misson speaks in high terms of
the place. Swift writes to Stella: 'I was this day in the City, and
dined at Pontack's with Stratford, and two other merchants. Pontack
told us, although his wine was so good, he sold it cheaper than
others, he took but seven shillings a flask;' and again, 'I dined in
the City at Pontack's with Stratford; it Cost me Seven Shillings.'
'Would you think that little _lap dog_ in Scarlet there, has Stomach
enough to digest a Guinea's worth of Entertainment at _Pontack's_
every Dinner Time?'[252] 'Mr. Montgomery said you had better go to
_Pontack's_, Gentlemen, I think there is none here but knows
Pontack's, it is one of the greatest Ordinaries in England.'[253]
'Your great Supper lies on my Stomach still, I defie _Pontack_ to have
prepar'd a better o' th' sudden.'[254]

          [Footnote 252: _Works of T. Brown._]

          [Footnote 253: _An Account of the Behaviour, Confession and
          last Dying Speech of Sir John Johnson._]

          [Footnote 254: _Lying Lover._]

There were others nearly as good.

  At Locket's,[255] Brown's and at Pontack's enquire,
  What modish Kick shaws the nice Beaus desire,
  What famed Ragoust, what new invented Salate
  Has best pretentions to regale the Palate.[256]

          [Footnote 255: Charing Cross.]

          [Footnote 256: Prologue to Centlivre's _Love's

Ward describes a tavern ordinary well; he is in his element; but to
give his description would take up too much room. On entering the bar,
the principal person visible was the _dame de comptoir_, 'all Ribbons,
Lace and Feathers.' Having passed her, and taken a seat at the table,
he had 'a Whet of Old Hock' to sharpen his appetite for dinner, which
consisted of two calves' heads, a couple of geese, and Cheshire
cheese; after which they all fell to a-drinking wine.

There were cheaper places, or ordinaries, than these to dine at. 'I
went afterwards to _Robin's_,[257] and saw People who had dined with
me at the Five penny Ordinary just before, give Bills for the Value of
large Estates;'[258] and twopenny ordinaries are mentioned, but they
must have been for the very poor.

          [Footnote 257: A Stock Jobbing Coffee House in Change

          [Footnote 258: _Spectator_, No. 454.]

In spite of what Misson says, there was good cookery to be got, only
it hardly came into ordinary life; and there are two cookery
books[259] which give most excellent receipts, and show that there was
plenty of variety, both in the material and cooking of food; nay, even
in the elegances of the table, which were well cared for, as the
following receipt of Howard's shows: '_How to dish up a Dish of Fruits
with preserved Flowers_.--Take a large Dish, cover it with another of
the same bigness, and place the uppermost over with Paste of Almonds,
inlaid with red, white, blue, and green Marmalade in the figure of
Flowers and Banks; then take the branches of candied Flowers, and fix
them upright in Order, and upon little Bushes erected, and covered
with Paste: Fix your preserved and Candied Cherries, Plumbs, Pease,
Apples, Goosberries, Currans, and the like, each in their proper
place; and for Leaves, you may use Coloured Paste or Wax, Parchment,
or Horn; and this, especially in Winter, will be very proper.' Some of
the dishes he gives are hardly in vogue now; as for instance:
'_Spinage Tarts_.--Take Marrow, Spinage, hard Eggs, of each a handful,
Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Limon-peel shred very fine; then put in as many
Currans as you think fit, with Raisins stoned, and shred, candied,
Orange and Citron peel; sweeten it to your taste, make Puff Paste, and
make them into little square Pasties; bake or fry them.'

          [Footnote 259: _England's Newest way in all Sorts of
          Cookery_, etc., by Henry Howard, and '_Royal Cookery, or the
          Complete Court Cook_, by Patrick Lamb, Esq. Near 50 years
          Master Cook to their late Majesties King Charles 2. King
          James 2. King William and Queen Mary, and to Her present
          Majesty Queen Anne.']

Perhaps few people now would care to make Mr. Lamb's '_Patty of
Calves' Brains_.--The Calves Brains being clean, scald them, then
blanch some Asparagus, and put it in a Sauce pan, with a little Butter
and Parsley; being Cold, put the Brains in the Patty, with the
Asparagus, five or six Yolks of hard Eggs, and Forc'd Meat; season it
with Pepper and Salt. When it is bak'd, add the Juce of a Lemon, drawn
Butter and Gravy. _So serve it._'

Listen to Misson's ecstasies over our national dish--the PUDDING. 'The
_Pudding_ is a Dish very difficult to be describ'd, because of the
several Sorts there are of it; Flower, Milk, Eggs, Butter, Sugar,
Suet, Marrow, Raisins, &c., &c., are the most common Ingredients of a
_Pudding_. They bake them in an Oven, they boil them with Meat, they
make them fifty several Ways: BLESSED BE HE THAT INVENTED PUDDING,
for it is a Manna that hits the Palates of all Sorts of People: a
Manna better than that of the Wilderness, because the People are never
weary of it. Ah, what an excellent Thing is an _English Pudding_! _To
come in Pudding time_, is as much as to say, to come in the most lucky
Moment in the World.'[260]

          [Footnote 260: There was 'the Royal Peace Pudding, Tickets
          1_s._ each, Made on Thanksgiving Day, 1713, 9 feet long,
          20-1/2 inches broad, and 6 inches deep,' and there were the
          famous 12_d._ Marrow puddings. Blood Puddings were also in
          vogue. See _Trivia_:--

            'Blood stuff'd in Skins is _British_ Christian Food,
            And _France_ robs Marshes of the croaking Brood;
            Spongy _Morells_ in strong Ragousts are found,
            And in the _Soupe_ the slimy Snail is drown'd.']

[Illustration: 'Four for Sixpence, Mackerell.']

Of fish he says: 'In Proportion Fish is dearer than any other
Belly-timber at London;' and as a matter of fact we hear very little
about it as an article of food. The country, inland, was of course
entirely dependent upon fresh-water fish, such as carp, jack, perch,
etc. The London market was at Billingsgate (which kept up its
reputation for its peculiar vernacular), but that was also waterman's
stairs, and a place of departure for boats; and here was sold whatever
fish was brought to London. A little before every Lent came vessels
loaded with salt cod, which were sold at 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ a
couple, and sometimes at 1_d._ per lb. Mackerel, on account of its
perishable nature, was allowed to be sold on Sunday, as Gay notes,
'Ev'n Sundays are prophan'd by Mackrell cries.'

From Billingsgate the fish was distributed to the various stalls
throughout London:--

  You'll see a draggled Damsel, here and there,
  From _Billingsgate_ her fishy Traffick bear.

And these stalls are thus described:--

  When fishy Stalls with double Store are laid;
  The golden belly'd Carp, the broad-finn'd Maid,
  Red speckled Trouts, the Salmon's silver Soul,
  The jointed Lobster, and unscaly Soale,
  And luscious 'Scallops, to allure the Tastes
  Of rigid Zealots to delicious Fasts;
  _Wednesdays_ and _Fridays_ you'll observe from hence,
  Days, when our Sires were doom'd to Abstinence.

Care was taken for the preservation of salmon, as the following
notice shows: 'Whereas by divers ancient statutes made to prevent the
Destruction of the Fry and Brood of Salmons, it is ordained, That none
shall be taken in any of the Rivers or Waters, wherein Salmon is
taken, between the 8th of September and the 11th of November; and that
none shall be taken in the Waters in the County of Lancaster between
the 29th of September and the 2d of February; and by a late Statute,
That no Salmons shall be taken in the County of Southampton and the
Southern Parts of Wiltshire between the 30th of June and the 11th of
November, nor be exposed to Sale under the Penalties thereby provided:
These are to give Notice that all Salmons taken out of their Seasons,
and exposed to Sale in London, will be destroyed, as many lately have
been, by the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of the said City, as not fit to
be sold for Victuals, being taken out of their Seasons, contrary to
the Statutes afore mentioned: And that every Person bringing before
the Lord Mayor such unseasonable Salmons, shall have a Reward for the
same, to be paid by the Company of Fishmongers, London, as the Lord
Mayor for the time being shall think fit.'[261]

          [Footnote 261: _London Gazette_, Oct. 31/Nov. 4, 1706.]

Our River Thames, then, was really the _habitat_ of good fish, for we
read: 'A Sturgeon was taken the last Week in the River near Stepney,
which the Lord Mayor sent as a Present to Her Majesty.'[262]

          [Footnote 262: _The English Post_, June 5/8, 1702.]

It causes a sigh of regret to read of the great plenty, and wonderful
cheapness, of real native oysters. They were then, as now, only
considered fit to eat during the months with R in them; and Gay,
speaking of autumn, says, as a sign of its arrival, 'And Damsels first
renew their Oyster Cries'; and in another part of 'Trivia' he gives
the following sound advice:--

  If where _Fleet Ditch_ with muddy Current flows,
  You chance to roam; where Oyster Tubs in Rows
  Are rang'd beside the Posts; there stay thy Haste,
  And with the sav'ry Fish indulge thy Taste:
  The Damsel's Knife the gaping Shell commands,
  While the salt Liquor streams between her Hands.

And they were wonderfully cheap, sold in the streets by the
wheelbarrow men at 'Twelve Pence a Peck.' There was keen competition
in them, and rival fishmongers advertised the superior excellence of
their oysters. One will serve as a sample of the whole. '_Thomas West_
Fishmonger in Honey Lane Market near Blossom's Inn, gives notice, That
all Persons who have occasion for the Choicest of Oysters called
Colchester Oysters, may be supplied for this Season with the largest
pick't Fat and Green for 3_s._ a Barrel; Those somewhat smaller at
2_s._ 6_d._ of the same sort; Fat and Green, of a lesser size for
2_s._ the Barrel: The large pickt, white, fat Oysters for 2_s._ 6_d._
The smaller white fat Oysters 1_s._ 8_d._ At all these Prizes I will
sell the right Colchester Oysters, which, without considering their
goodness beyond other sorts, are cheaper than the Town Wheel barrow
Oysters: And that all Persons in City or Country, that send for them,
may no ways be deceived of having the right sort, the prizes are all
branded on the side of the Cask. Note, they are all branded at the
Pits, where they are pickt, so that if there be any Cheat, it must be
by the Oyster Man, which hath been too often practised to my Loss and
their shameful Gain. My Oysters Comes in on Monday's, Wednesdays,
Thursdays and Fridays by Water Carriage. No Trader in the City or
Suburbs having them come in so often, by reason of which, they will
hold good the farthest Journey, to please the nicest Eater. Those that
are not bought at my own Shop, will, by reason of the Extraordinary
Charge be 2_d._ in a Barrel advanc'd; and all that are desirous to
have them from my Shop, the same day that they come in of, they shall
be delivered, if desired, as far as St. James for 2_d._ Temple Bar
1_d._ And all other places proportionable, and when all is said, I
hope tryal will be your Satisfaction.'

[Illustration: 'Twelve Pence a Peck, Oysters!']

Pickled oysters were also imported from Jersey, and sold at 1_s._
8_d._ per hundred. Swift writes Stella[263] how 'Lord Masham made me
go home with him to night to eat boiled oysters. Take Oysters, wash
them clean, that is, wash their shells clean; then put your oysters in
an earthen pot, with their hollow sides down, then put this pot
covered, into a great Kettle with water, and so let them boil. Your
oysters are boiled in their own liquor, and (do) not mix water.'

          [Footnote 263: _Journal_, March 6, 1712.]

Poultry, with the exception of game, was the same as now; the only
importation from foreign parts, seemingly, being ortolans, which were
brought over in September of each year. The English ortolan, too, was
keenly relished by epicures. 'You have a coarse stomach, and to such a
one, a Surloin of Beef were better than a dish of Wheat ears.'[264]

          [Footnote 264: _The Virtuoso._]

For relishes, there were anchovies 8_d._ per lb., neats' tongues and
York hams 6_d._ per lb.; but salt was somewhat dear. The home
manufacture did not supply the whole demand, as now, and it was
imported both from Portugal and France. Still, it was made at home.
'Whereas it hath been reported, that there was not a sufficient
quantity of Salt made at Shirley wich, in the county of Stafford, to
supply the customers that came for it. This is to give notice, that
with the Additional Works, there is now twice the quantity made out of
the new Pit, much better and stronger than was formerly.'[265]

          [Footnote 265: _Postman_, June 9/12, 1705.]

Bread, as usual, was made the subject of legislation, and the
following proclamation was issued:--

                          'London May 3.

                         'GARRARD. MAYOR.

          _'Martis 2 do die Maii 1710. Annoque Reginæ
                'Annæ Magnæ Britanniæ &c. Nono._

     By Virtue of an Act Passed in the last Session of Parliament,
     Intituled, _An Act to Regulate the Price and Assize of Bread_,
     This Court doth Order and Appoint, That the Assize of all White,
     Wheaten and Household Bread, to be made of Wheat for Sale within
     this City and Liberties thereof, shall for the future be Penny,
     Two Penny, Six Penny, Twelve Penny, and Eighteen Penny Loaves,
     and no other; and that on every Loaf be fairly Imprinted or
     Marked, several Letters for Knowing the Price and Sort thereof,
     as followeth, that is to say

                               | _Finestor | _Wheaten._ | _Houshold._
                               |   White._ |            |
  On every Penny Loaf          |    I. F.  |     I. W.  |     I. H.
           Two Penny Loaf      |   II. F.  |    II. W.  |    II. H.
           Six Penny Loaf      |           |    VI. W.  |    VI. H.
           Twelve Penny Loaf   |           |   XII. W.  |   XII. H.
           Eighteen Penny Loaf |           | XVIII. W.  | XVIII. H.

     And in further Pursuance of the said Act, this Court doth
     appoint, That the Assize and Weight of the said Bread shall be as

                                |  _White._   | _Wheaten._  | _Houshold._
                                | Lb. Oz. Dr. | Lb. Oz. Dr. | Lb. Oz. Dr.
  The Penny Loaf to Weigh by    |             |             |
    Avoirdepois or Common Weight| --   4.  3. | --   6.  5. | --   8.  7.
  The Two Penny Loaf            | --   8.  7. | --  12. 10. | 1.   0. 14.
  The Six Penny Loaf            | --  -- --   | 2.   5. 15. | 3.   2.  9.
  The Twelve Penny Loaf         | --  -- --   | 4.  11. 13. | 6.   5.  2.
  The Eighteen Penny Loaf       | --  -- --   | 7.   1. 11. | 9.   7. 11.

     Whereof all Bakers and others concern'd are to take Notice, and
     to Observe the same under the Penalties in the said Act contained
     to be inflicted on all such who shall Neglect so to do.

     'Note, That 16 Drams make One Ounce and 16 Ounces One Pound.


And so they continued to regulate the price, according to the
fluctuations of the corn market.

Milk was produced from cows kept in London, and was carried round by
women, or milkmaids, as they were called.

  On Doors the sallow Milkmaid chalks her Gains;
  Ah! how unlike the Milkmaid of the Plains!

And the milch-asses went their daily rounds. Asses' milk was in great
request, and many were the advertisements of milch-asses for sale. Its
price was 3_s._ 6_d._ per quart.

  Before proud Gates attending Asses bray,
  Or arrogate with solemn pace the Way;
  These grave Physicians with their milky Chear,
  The Love sick Maid, and dwindling Beau repair.

Butter was got from the surrounding villages, but already there was a
trade in this article with Ireland, for on August 14, 1705, was sold
at the Marine Coffee House thirty-eight casks of Irish butter and
forty-nine casks of Irish beef.

There were several markets in London, each with its specialty.

  Shall the large Mutton smoke upon your Boards?
  Such _Newgate's_ copious Market best affords;
  Would'st thou with mighty Beef augment thy Meal?
  Seek _Leaden hall_; Saint _James's_ sends thee Veal.
  _Thames street_ gives Cheeses; _Covent garden_ Fruits;
  _Moor fields_ old Books; and _Monmouth Street_ old Suits.

Vegetables were principally supplied from the Lambeth market gardens,
which are thus mentioned by Steele[266]: 'When we first put off from
Shore, we soon fell in with a Fleet of Gardeners bound for the several
Market Ports of _London_; and it was the most pleasing Scene
imaginable to see the Chearfulness with which those industrious People
ply'd their Way to a certain Sale of their Goods. The Banks on each
Side are as well peopled, and beautified with as agreeable
Plantations, as any Spot on the Earth; but the _Thames_ itself, loaded
with the Product of each Shore, added very much to the Landskip. It
was very easie to observe by their Sailing, and the Countenances of
the ruddy Virgins who were Supercargoes, the Parts of the Town to
which they were bound. There was an air in the Purveyors for _Covent
Garden_, who frequently converse with Morning Rakes, very unlike the
seemly Sobriety of those bound for _Stocks Market_.'

          [Footnote 266: _Spectator_, No. 454.]

Neither Ward nor Brown viewed the Lambeth gardeners in such a
_couleur-de-rose_ aspect; and haply they described the scene more
accurately. The former says: 'A scoundrel crew of _Lambeth_ Gardeners
attacked us with such a Volley of saucy Nonsence, that it made my Eyes
stare, my Head ake, my Tongue run, and my Ears tingle.' Brown tells us
that 'the next diverting Scene that the River afforded us, was a very
warm Engagement between a Western Barge, and a Boat full of _Lambeth_
Gardeners, by whom _Billingsgate_ was much outdone in stupendious
Obscenity, tonitrous Verbosity, and malicious Scurrility, as if one
side had been _Daniel D--f--'s_[267] Party, and the other the
_Observator's_.' And they both give examples of this bargee slang,
which, it is needless to say, are utterly unfit for reproduction.

          [Footnote 267: Daniel Defoe.]

From these market gardens came the 'Asparagrass' and 'Sallary,'[268]
the 'Apricocks' and those melons which the _Spectator_ noted were
consigned by Mr. Cuffe of Nine Elms to Sarah Sewell and Company, at
their stall in Covent Garden.

          [Footnote 268: Potatoes in any large quantity were 1/2_d._
          per lb.]

Misson says, 'Fruit is brought only to the Tables of the Great, and of
a small number even among them. The Desert they never dream of, unless
it be a Piece of Cheese.' That possibly was correct, but still a great
deal of fruit was eaten. The _Daily Courant_ of Feb. 20, 1714,
mentions the following--Pears: 'Bon chrestien,' 'Mesir jean,' 'Beuré.'
Apples: 'Pomme Royal,' 'Pomme Dâpy,' 'Reinette Grise,' and the
'Magdelaine' peach. We also see that

  Wallnutts the Fruit'rer's Hand, in Autumn stain,
  Blue Plumbs, and juicy Pears augment his Gain;
  Next Oranges the longing Boys entice,
  To trust their Copper Fortunes to the Dice.

'Lisbon, China Oranges, and Sower Oranges' were sold in Love Lane,
near Billingsgate; as were also 'a Parcel of Pot China Oranges, of a
pleasant taste and flavour, landed out of the Lisbon Fleet, now a
delivering.' Oranges were favourite trees to grow here, and one
advertisement mentions 7,000 of them for sale. The retail price of
oranges was not excessive, considering the restricted commerce, and
the small tonnage of the shipping. 'We have the finest oranges for two
pence a piece,' writes Swift.

The foreign fruit market was, as now, near Billingsgate, and here
were sold olives, raisins, currants, French 'Pruants,' and the choicer
sorts of French dry fruits, 'Pears of Rousselet, of Champagne, Prunes
of Tours, and Muscadine Grapes,' 'Candid Maderas Citrons, and Sweet
Barbary Almonds.'




     Beer -- Hard drinking -- 'Whetters' -- Wines -- List of French
     and Spanish wines -- Wines of other countries -- Duties on wines
     -- Spirits -- Liqueurs -- Homemade wines -- Prices of tea --
     Adulteration -- Price of coffee -- Chocolate -- Its price -- Duty

Beer always has been the alcoholic liquor most largely consumed in
England, and, among the poorer and lower middle classes, it was so in
Anne's reign; but it was looked down upon, and despised, by the upper
classes. It was of different qualities, from the 'penny Nipperkin of
Molassas Ale'[269] to 'a pint of Ale cost me fivepence.'[270] Not only
were there the local brewers in London, but the excellence of 'right
Darby' and 'Sleeford or Lincolnshire' ales was such that these
breweries were represented. 'Right North Country Pale Ale ready
bottled at 4_s._ per dozen' was also to be had; and pale ale was
exported. 'Any Merchant that has occasion for Pale Ale and Stout, to
send to the West Indies, may at any time be supplied at the Fountain
Brewhouse, by the Hermitage, with Beer for Shipping at reasonable
rates.' Dantzic Spruce was also imported. Beer was taxed then, as now,
by the barrel. 'Yesterday the Commons, in a Committee of Ways and
Means, resolved, That an additional duty of 3_d._ per barrel be laid
upon all beer and ale above 6_s._ per barrel; and under 6_s._, 1_d._;
vinegar 9_d._; cyder per hogshead 5_d._; strong waters mead and
matheglin 1_d._ per gallon.'[271]

          [Footnote 269: _London Spy._]

          [Footnote 270: _Journal to Stella_, Nov. 29, 1710.]

          [Footnote 271: _Luttrell's Diary_, Jan. 24, 1710.]

But, for well-to-do people, wine was the drink, and the variety was
nearly as great as in our time. It was a hard-drinking age, and the
habit was universal. 'I look'd to have found you with your Head ake
and your morning Qualms'[272] must have been a not unusual salutation;
but it was not done for the same reason as by those gentlemen
mentioned in the _Guardian_ (No. 58), 'who drink vast quantities of
ale and October to encourage our manufactures; and another who takes
his three bottles of French claret every night because it brings a
great custom to the Crown.'

          [Footnote 272: _The Virtuoso._]

  _Nightly_ on bended knees, the musty _Putt_,
  Still Saints the _Spigot_, and Adores the _Butt_;
   With fervent _Zeal_ the flowing Liquor plies
  But _Damns_ the _Moderate_ Bottel ... for its size.
                                              _The Tripe Club_, Swift.

These evening potations rendered a morning's draught generally
necessary; but, after that, drinking was again postponed till the
day's work was over. The modern system of 'nipping' did obtain to a
slight degree, but it was reprehended. 'Whereas Mr. Bickerstaff, by a
letter bearing date this twenty fourth of February, has received
information that there are in and about the Royal Exchange a sort of
people commonly known by the name of WHETTERS, who drink themselves
into an intermediate state of being neither drunk nor sober before the
hours of Exchange, or business; and in that condition buy and sell
stocks, discount notes, and do many other acts of well disposed
citizens; this is to give notice, that from this day forward no
WHETTER shall be able to give or endorse any note, or execute any
other point of Commerce, after the third half pint, before the hour of
one; and whoever shall transact any matter or matters with a WHETTER,
not being himself of that order, shall be conducted to Moorfields[273]
upon the first application of his next of kin.'[274]

          [Footnote 273: Bedlam.]

          [Footnote 274: _Tatler_, 138.]

The war with France made the French wines somewhat scarcer than they
would otherwise have been, and opened a trade for wines from other
countries; still the number of prizes taken, laden with clarets, etc.,
and the efforts of smugglers, kept the market pretty well supplied.
The wines seem to have been good, although the Spanish and Portuguese
wines were fortified with 'Stum,' a fact well known, especially as to
its effects: 'get drunk with Stum'd wine.'[275] The French wines were
very numerous--some even unknown to us by their names--comprising
Champagne, Burgundy, Frontiniac, Muscat, Anjou, Bouvrie (? Vouvray),
Bayonne, Obrian (Hautbrion), Pontack, Claret, Bomas (? Pomard), High
Priniac (Preignac), La Fitt, Margouze (Margeaux), La Tour, Graves,
Cahorze, Blacart, Monson, Hermitage, Langoon, Bosmes (? Beaumes),
Macco (? Macon), Languedoc, and Cap Breton clarets. Their prices were
various: ordinary clarets from the wood 4_s._ to 6_s._ per gallon;
good bottled clarets from 3_s._ or 4_s._ to 10_s._ a bottle. Champagne
came over in baskets or hampers containing ten dozen to two hundred
bottles per basket, and was sold retail about 8_s._ a bottle. Good
Burgundy cost 7_s._ a bottle, but these prices varied, as they do now,
with the quality.

          [Footnote 275: Shadwell's _Epsom Wells_.]

French wines, however, were not universal favourites. 'A Bottle or two
of good solid Edifying Port, at honest _George's_, made a Night
chearful, and threw off Reserve. But this plaguy _French_ Claret will
not only Cost us more Money, but do us less Good,' growls Steele.[276]
Being at war with France, it was considered patriotic not to drink
French wine, and Port became popular. Its introduction was owing to
the treaty with Portugal in 1703, called the Methuen Treaty, from the
name of our minister at Lisbon. It is famed as being the shortest
treaty known, consisting of only two clauses, one that the Portuguese
should take British cloths, and the other that Portuguese wines should
be admitted here at one third less duty than the French wines paid.
Red Viana seems to have been frequently substituted for port, and it
was sold at about 5_s._ a gallon. Then there were White Viana, Lisbon,
Passada, Annadea, Bende Carlo (Beni Carlos), Barrabar, Carcavella, and
Ribidavia, whilst the Spanish wines were Sherry, Malaga, Tent,
Saragusa, Villa Nova, Barcelona, Alicant, Re Gallicia, Sallo or
Mattero, and White Muscadine. There were Florence wines, which came
over in rush-covered flasks with oil in the neck of the
flasks--Chiante, Multapulchana (? Montepulciano), Madeira, Canary,
Tockay from Hungary, and also (verily, there is very little new under
the sun) _Carlowitz_, from the same country; there were wines from
Neuchatel, and a wine I cannot class, called Mount Allaguer. We hear
very little of Rhenish wines. In 'Tunbridge Walks' an uncomplimentary
reference is made, 'Dam rotgut Rhenish'; but fine old hock was selling
in 1713 at 26_s._ a dozen, including bottles, or new Rhenish might be
had for 1_s._ 8_d._ a quart, or 6_s._ a gallon. It is hardly worth
going into the prices of these miscellaneous wines. One advertisement
will be sufficient. 'Advertisement to Private Families of 33 Dozen
Bottles of excellent rich Palm Canary Wine, a Flower; also 45 Dozen of
Curious Red Zant, a most noble and scarce Wine, no Champaign or
Burgundy drinks finer, and likewise 60 Dozen of Choice Florence Wine,
true Flavour and Colour, all perfect Neat, and as good as ever was
tasted, reserv'd by a Gentleman for his own drinking, but oblig'd to
sell them: The Palm Wine at 30_s._ a Dozen, the Zant and Florence each
36_s._ Bottles and all (none less than 4 Bottles) which is but at the
rate of 2_s._ 3_d._ a Quart for the Palm Wine, and 2_s._ 9_d._ for the
Zant and Florence, tho' would fetch more if the Owner could Keep them,
the like being scarcely to be had in Town, at leastwise not under
3_s._ a Quart the first, and 3_s._ 6_d._ the last, if for that, and
will be dearer.'

          [Footnote 276: _Spectator_, No. 43.]

Retailers had to take out a licence to sell wine; and of course there
were customs duties. Luttrell says, Dec. 4, 1703: 'Yesterday the
Commons, in a Committee upon the Supply, resolved, nemine
contradicente, that 1_s._ per gallon be laid upon all Wines over and
above the present Customs, to be paid by the retailer;' but,
afterwards, he writes, Jan. 15, 1704, that the Commons rejected the
bill for 1_s._ per gallon upon wines. On March 20, 1706, the Queen
gave her royal assent to an Act 'for a further duty on low Wines';
and, in 1713, French wines paid a duty of 4_s._ 6_d._ per gallon!

_The_ wine merchants of the time were an enterprising firm named
Brooke & Hellier (mentioned in the _Spectator_ more than once), who
had several branch establishments in various parts of London, even
brought wine by road from Bristol, and one year paid as much as
25,000_l._ customs duties; but they came to grief in 1712, and
dissolved partnership. Brooke afterwards set up in business by

There was Batavian arrack for those that liked it, usquebaugh (both
green and golden), and brandy--especially Nants brandy--beloved
of the poor in penny drams. Not but what there were other
brandies--Gaudarella, Viana or Fial (? Fayal), Strasburg, Spanish, and
even our familiar old friend _British_ brandy. The average retail
price of 'right Nants' seems to have been about 12_s._ per gallon, but
Spanish could be got 2_s._ 6_d._ per gallon cheaper. In 1713 the
customs duty on brandy was 6_s._ 8_d._ per gallon; freight and leakage
came to 2_s._ 6_d._; so that it did not leave much profit after paying
for the brandy.

There were liqueurs and cordials; and they must have been very
diversified, for the name of the 'Still room' was not then an empty
sound; and scandal just whispered that it was sometimes possible that
the dear creatures tasted their own manufactures. Are we to believe
the following sketch? 'It would make a Man smile to behold her Figure
in a front Box, where her twinkling Eyes, by her Afternoon's Drams of
Ratifee and cold Tea, sparkle more than her Pendants.... Her Closet is
always as well stor'd with Juleps, Restoratives, and Strong Waters, as
an Apothecary's Shop, or a Distiller's Laboratory; and is herself so
notable a Housewife in the Art of preparing them that she has a larger
Collection of Chemical Receipts than a Dutch Mountebank.... As soon as
she rises, she must have a Salutary Dram to keep her Stomach from the
Cholick; a Whet before she eats, to procure Appetite; after eating, a
plentiful Dose for Concoction; and to be sure a Bottle of Brandy under
her Bed side for fear of fainting in the Night.'[277]

          [Footnote 277: _Adam and Eve Stript of their Furbelows._]

These cordials were not always palatable, if we can believe Addison's
description of 'Widow Trueby's Water,' which Sir Roger 'always drank
before he went abroad.' There were the 'Ratafia of Apricocks,' the
'Fenouillette of Rhé,' 'Millefleurs,' 'Orangiat,' 'Burgamot,'
'Pesciot,' and citron or cithern water, with many others. Elder and
other home-made wines were in use. Let us see how they were
appreciated. 'Her female Ancestors have always been fam'd for good
Housewifry, one of whom is made immortal, by giving her Name to an Eye
Water and two sorts of Puddings. I cannot undertake to recite all her
Medicinal Preparations; as Salves, Sere cloths, Powders, Confects,
Cordials, Ratifia, Persico, Orange Flower, and Cherry Brandy, together
with innumerable sorts of Simple Waters. But there is nothing I lay so
much to Heart, as that detestable Catalogue of Counterfeit Wines,
which derive their Names from the Fruits, Herbs or trees of whose
Juices they are chiefly compounded: _They are loathsome to the taste
and pernicious to the health_; and as they seldom survive the Year,
and then are thrown away, under a false Pretence of Frugality, I may
affirm they stand me in more than if I entertain'd all our Visiters
with the best Burgundy and Champaign.'[278]

          [Footnote 278: _Spectator_, 328.]

Punch had begun to make its appearance, but it was a simple liquor to
what afterwards became known by that name. Here is a receipt given by
a noted brandy merchant of the time: 'Major Bird's Receipt to make
Punch of his Brandy. Take 1 Quart of his Brandy, and it will bear 2
Quarts and a Pint of Spring Water; if you drink it very strong, then 2
Quarts of Water to a Quart of Brandy, with 6 or 8 Lisbon Lemmons, and
half a Pound of fine Loaf Sugar: Then you will find it to have a
curious fine scent and flavour, and Drink and Taste as clean as
Burgundy Wine.'

There was also an intoxicating liquor, still in limited use, called
'Brunswick Mum,' whose price was '9_s._ the dozen without doors, and
10_s._ within.' The name of this compound is supposed to be derived
from its power of making men _speechlessly_ drunk.

  The clamorous crowd is hush'd with mugs of mum,
  Till all, turn'd equal, send a general hum.

Bottled cyder, too, could be obtained at 6_s._ per dozen.

The antidote to all these intoxicants was to be found in 'The Essence
of Prunes, Chymically prepar'd by a Son of Monsieur Rochefort, a Sworn
Chymist of France. It gives English Spirits the smell and taste of
Nantz Brandy; _it prevents any Liquor from intoxicating the Brain_.'

We must not forget, however, that tea, coffee, and chocolate were in
much demand, and that both the coffee and chocolate houses really
supplied these beverages as their staple article. Tea was more of a
home drink, and was very dear, reckoning the different values of
money. Perhaps there were greater fluctuations in its price than in
any other article of food. Black tea varied in 1704 from 12_s._ to
16_s._ per lb.; in 1706, 14_s._ to 16_s._; in 1707, which seems to
have been an exceptionally dear year, 16_s._, 20_s._, 22_s._, 24_s._,
30_s._, and 32_s._; in 1709, it was from 14_s._ to 28_s._; and in
1710, 12_s._ to 28_s._ Green tea in 1705 was 13_s._ 6_d._; in 1707,
20_s._, 22_s._, 26_s._; in 1709, 10_s._ to 15_s._; and in 1710, 10_s._
to 16_s._ The difference between old and new is given once. The new
tea is 14_s._, and the old 12_s._ and 10_s._

The margins in price are not only accounted for by the difference in
age, but it was well known that old leaves were redried, and used in
the cheaper sorts; indeed, there is a very curious advertisement in
the advertising portion of the _Tatler_, Aug. 26, 1710: 'Bohea Tea,
made of the same Materials that Foreign Bohea is made of, 16_s._ a
Pound. Sold by R. Fary only, at the Bell in Grace Church Street,
Druggist. Note. The Natural Pecko Tea will remain, after Infusion, of
a light grey Colour. All other Bohea Tea, tho' there be White in it,
will Change Colour, and is artificial.'

Luttrell writes, Dec. 16, 1704: 'The Commons in a Committee of wayes
and means, resolved to double the duties on Coffee, Tea, and

The first noteworthy incident in the price of coffee in this reign is
an advertisement.[279] 'Whereas Coffee was formerly sold at 2_s._
6_d._ per pound, and is now already amounted to betwixt 6_s._ and
7_s._ per pound, the Majority of the Retailers have thought it
reasonable to request their Customers to pay 3 half pence per Dish,
and do assure that no person that sells Coffee for 1_d._ a Dish can
make good Coffee.' It is rather interesting to watch the fluctuations
in price. In 1706, from 6_s._ to 6_s._ 8_d._ per lb.; in 1707, from
7_s._ it fell to 5_s._ 10_d._ and 5_s._ 4_d._; in 1708 it rose, either
owing to speculation, or a failure in the crop, to 8_s._ 4_d._,
10_s._, and 11_s._ 6_d._, which was the highest price, when it fell to
9_s._ 10_d._ and 9_s._ In 1709 it still further fell--7_s._ 4_d._ and
6_s._ 8_d._; and in 1710 it was 5_s._ 8_d._

          [Footnote 279: _Postman_, April 27/30, 1706.]

Attention was paid to its manufacture, for we find that 'Thomas
Burges, Druggist, removed from Snow hill to the Blew Anchor in Fleet
Street, near Serjeants Inn, sells the best of Coffee roasted after a
new way, having a better flavour, and is a much sweeter way than the
common method of roasting Coffee.'

As tea came into favour, chocolate-drinking fell into disuse, although
it was generally taken as a drink the first thing in the morning,
before taking tea and toast. It was of two kinds, Caracas or Caraco,
and Martineco; and the former was the most esteemed. It was roasted
and ground, and either sold plain or mixed with sugar. Its usual price
was 3_s._ per lb. for the one, and 2_s._ 6_d._ for the other. Early in
1703, a man advertised a machine of his invention, for making
chocolate of a far superior quality, at least 1_s._ per lb. under the
then prices; and, as his advertisements are somewhat curious, an
example is given: 'To the Nobility and Gentry. Whereas the Author of
the new Invention for making Chocolate, hath given a general
Satisfaction both for its fineness, goodness and Cheapness, to all
those that ever yet drank of the same, besides the Satisfaction all
persons have of its being cleanly made, upon sight of the Invention,
which some Malicious persons, the better to impose upon the World to
vend their foul broken Nuts does imitate; but for the working part are
as Ignorant as a Natural Bull. But the Author of this Invention thinks
himself oblig'd to declare to the World, after 10 Years improving the
same with great charge and labour, as many honourable persons in
London can testifie; and if any person can make it appear, that they
were the first Inventers of this so great a conveniency, as does no
ways exceed 12 Inches, before himself, the Author will lay it by, and
Act no more, notwithstanding he is now actually petitioning Her
Majesty for a Patten, and, till such time as he shall obtain the same,
will continue to make and sell his Chocolate at these Rates following,
_viz._ All Spanish Nut with Vanello at 4_s._ 8_d._ a pound, plain
4_s._ 2_d._ all Marteneco Nut with Vanello 3_s._ 8_d._--plain 3_s._
2_d._--both sorts made up with Sugar answerable. If any Chocolate
maker, or others, can make it appear he reserves above 8_d._ in
selling a pound for labour and charges in making, a farther remittance
shall be made in the price.' This gentleman subsequently advertised
that he sold it at '2_d._ per Dish liquid--14_d._ a Quart without
doors. Sundays excepted.'

The duty on the nuts was sufficiently high to induce smuggling. 'Last
Week 6 Sacks of Cocoa Nuts were seiz'd by a Custom House Officer,
being brought up to Town for so many sacks of Beans.'[280]

          [Footnote 280: _London Post_, April 14/17, 1704.]



     Habit of smoking -- Women and children smoking -- Prices of
     tobacco -- Customs duty -- Origin of snuff-taking -- The Vigo
     Expedition -- Snuff rasps -- Ladies taking snuff -- Proper use of
     the snuff-box -- Use of a spoon -- Prices of snuffs -- List of
     ditto -- Duty on snuff.

Allusion has been made to the prevalent use of tobacco, both in
smoking and as snuff; and, perhaps, at no time in the century was
there a larger consumption. The habit of meeting convivially at the
coffee-houses, and taverns, favoured the practice of smoking among the
men. Ward, who disliked smoking, gives the following account of a
famous tobacco shop in Fleet Street. Speaking of the company
assembled, he says: 'There was no Talking amongst 'em, but _Puff_ was
the Period of every Sentence; and what they said was as short as
possible, for fear of losing the Pleasure of a Whiff, as _How d'ye
do?_ Puff. _Thank ye._ Puff. _Is the Weed good?_ Puff. _Excellent._
Puff. _It's fine Weather._ Puff. _G--d be thanked._ Puff. _What's a
clock?_ Puff, &c. Behind the Counter stood a Complaisant Spark who I
observ'd show'd as much Breeding in the Sale of a Pennyworth of
Tobacco, and the Change of a Shilling, as a Courteous Footman when he
meets his Brother _Skip_ in the Middle of _Covent Garden_; and is so
very Dexterous in Discharge of his Occupation, that he guesses from a
Pound of Tobacco to an Ounce, to the certainty of one single Corn. And
will serve more Pennyworths of Tobacco in half an Hour, than some
Clouterly _Mundungus Sellers_ shall be able to do in half Four and
Twenty. He never makes a Man wait the Tenth part of a Minute for his
Change, but will so readily fling you down all Sums, without Counting,
from a Guinea to three Pennyworth of Farthings, that you would think
he had it ready in his Hand for you before you ask'd him for it. He
was very generous of his Small beer to a good Customer; and I am
bound to say thus much in his behalf, That he will show a Man more
Civility for the taking of a Penny than many _Mechanicks_ will do for
the taking a Pound.'

'Tobacco is very much used in England. The very Women take it in
Abundance, particular'y in the Western Counties,' writes Misson, and
Brown also mentions the practice; but, although Jorevin reports that
in Charles the Second's time, in Worcestershire, it was not only usual
for the women to join the men in smoking, but that the children were
sent to school with pipes in their satchels, and the schoolmaster
called a halt in their studies whilst they all smoked--he teaching the
neophytes--yet Thoresby runs him very hard. '20 Jan. 1702. Evening
with brother &c. at Garraway's[281] Coffee House; was surprised to see
his sickly child of three years old fill its pipe of Tobacco and smoke
it as _audfarandly_ as a man of three score; after that, a second and
a third pipe without the least concern, as it is said to have done
above a year ago.'

          [Footnote 281: At Leeds.]

The tobacco was twisted into rope and made up in rolls, more after the
fashion of Varinas Knaster than of our other twisted tobaccos, and it
generally had to be cut up before using. Its price may be learned from
the following advertisements. 'Whereas there has been several Persons
who have pretended to sell the true Spanish roll'd Tobacco; These are
therefore to inform the World, that Jeremiah Stoaks at Garraway's
Coffee House in Exchange Ally, bought the whole Parcel that was
brought into England, as by Prize taken by Her Majesty's Fleet at
Vigo, and that there is not a Nett Portacco in England but what he has
in his Hands; These are therefore to advise all Gentlemen, that they
may be furnish'd with the same tobacco at 8_s._ per Pound, at the
above mentioned Place, and no where else.' This class of tobacco was
evidently exceedingly choice, comparing it with the ordinary price.
'Benjamin Howes, Tobacconist, at the Corner of Shoe Lane in Fleet
Street, London, who hath lived there 30 years and upwards; he was
Partner with Mr. Montague, did sell his best old, mild, sweet-scented
Virginia Tobacco for 2_s._ per Pound, does now, and will continue to
sell the same for 20_d._, either Large Cut, Small or Long Cut, and
Penny Papers for Taverns or Publick Houses, full half Ounces for
20_d._ a Pound (for present Money). He sells right Spanish in the Roll
for 8_s._ a Pound, and Spanish and Virginia mixt for 3_s._ a pound,
and Encouragement to Country Chapmen.'

There was a Customs duty on tobacco, of course; and we find, in 1707,
the Irish Parliament increasing this tax, among many others, in order
to vote a supply of 135,000_l._ to Her Majesty. 'Dublin, 5 Aug.
Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Committee that the said
Additional Duty be three pence halfpenny per Pound weight on all
Tobacco which shall be so Imported into this Kingdom, from and after
the said 29th day of September 1707 over and above the Hereditary Duty
of two pence halfpenny per Pound, payable for the same.'

But it was the singular growth of the practice of taking snuff that
specially marks the reign of Anne, before which time it was
comparatively unknown. Lillie, the perfumer, previously mentioned,
sold snuff, as all his craft did: and from him we get a very
interesting account of its rise. He says: 'Before the year 1702, when
we sent out a fleet of ships under the command of Sir George Rooke,
with land forces commanded by the Duke of Ormond, in order to make a
descent on Cadiz, snuff taking was very rare, and, indeed, little
known in England; it being chiefly a luxurious habit among foreigners
residing here, and a few of the English gentry who had travelled
abroad. Among these, the mode of taking the snuff was with pipes of
the size of quills, out of small spring boxes. These pipes let out a
very small quantity of snuff, upon the back of the hand, and this was
snuffed up the nostrils with the intention of producing the sensation
of sneezing, which, I need not say, forms now no part of the design,
or rather fashion of snuff taking.

'But to return to our expedition by sea. When the fleet arrived near
Cadiz, our land forces were disembarked at a place called Port St.
Mary, where, after some fruitless attempts, it was resolved to
re-embark the troops, and set sail for England. But previous to this,
Port St. Mary, and some adjacent places were plundered. Here, besides
some very rich merchandize, plate, jewels, pictures, and a great
quantity of cochineal, several thousand barrels and casks of fine
snuffs were taken, which had been manufactured in different parts of
Spain. Each of these contained four tin canisters of snuff of the best
growth, and of the finest Spanish manufacture.

'With this plunder on board (which fell chiefly to the share of the
land officers) the fleet was returning to England; but, on the way, it
was resolved to pay a visit to Vigo, a considerable port in Spain,
where the Admiral had advice that a number of galleons from the
Havannah, richly laden, had put in. Here our fleet got in and
destroyed most, or all of the Spanish shipping, and the plunder was
exceedingly rich and valuable.

'It now came to the turn of the _sea_ officers and _sailors_ to be
snuff proprietors and merchants; for, at Vigo, they became possessed
of prodigious quantities of gross snuff, from the Havannah, in bales,
bags, and scrows,[282] which were designed for manufacture in
different parts of Spain. Thus, though snuff taking was very little
known or practised in England, at that period, the quantities taken in
this expedition, (which was estimated at fifty tons weight,) plainly
shew that in the other countries of Europe, snuff was held in great
estimation, and that the taking of it was considered not at all

          [Footnote 282: Raw hide packages.]

'The fleet having returned to England, and the ships being ordered to
be laid in their several ports, the sea officers and sailors brought
their snuff (which was called, by way of victorious distinction, Vigo
Snuff,) to a very quick and cheap market; waggonloads of it being sold
at Portsmouth, Plymouth, and Chatham, for not more than three or four
pence per pound.

'This sort of bale snuff had never been seen or known in England
before, except through some Spanish Jews, who, in the present case,
bought up almost the whole quantity at a considerable advantage.

'The land officers, who were possessed of the fine snuffs taken at
Port St. Mary, sold some of them in the several ports at which they
landed. Others of them, however, understood better the nature of the
commodity which had fallen to their share, and kept it for several
years, selling it off by degrees, for very high prices.

'From the above mentioned quantity of different snuffs, thus
distributed throughout the kingdom, novelty being quickly embraced by
us in England, arose the custom and fashion of snuff taking; and,
growing upon the whole nation, by degrees, it is now almost as
universal here, as in any other part of Europe.'

But snuff was not always sold ready made: people made their own, out
of roll tobacco--by means of rasps, which were generally carried in
the pocket. Specimens of these rasps may be seen at the South
Kensington Museum, but, unless they are in some loan collection, they
are very poor examples. In private collections, and especially on the
Continent, are some of them, being exquisite specimens of ivory
carving. 'Then there's the Miscellany, an apron for Stella, a pound of
chocolate, without sugar, for Stella, a fine snuff rasp of ivory,
given me by Mrs. St. John for Dingley, and a large roll of tobacco,
which she must hide, or cut shorter out of modesty, and four pair of
spectacles for the Lord knows who.'[283]

          [Footnote 283: _Journal to Stella_, Nov. 3, 1711.]

Here we see how customary it was for ladies to take snuff in 1711,
although Steele seems to be shocked at it, as quite a new fashion in
1712. Vide his letter in _Spectator_ (344): 'I have writ to you three
or four times to desire you would take notice of an impertinent Custom
the Women, the fine Women, have lately fallen into, of taking Snuff.
This silly Trick is attended with such a Coquet Air in some Ladies,
and such a sedate Masculine one in others, that I can not tell which
to most complain of; but they are to me equally disagreeable. Mrs.
_Saunter_ is so impatient of being without it, that she takes it as
often as she does Salt at meals; and as she affects a wonderful Ease
and Negligence in all her manners, an upper Lip mixed with Snuff and
the Sauce is what is presented to the Observation of all who have the
honour to eat with her. The pretty Creature her Niece does all she can
to be as disagreeable as her Aunt; and, if she is not so offensive to
the Eye, she is quite as much to the Ear, and makes up all she wants
in a confident Air, by a nauseous Rattle of the Nose, when the Snuff
is delivered, and the Fingers make the Stops and Closes on the
Nostrils.... But _Flavilla_ is so far taken with her Behaviour in this
kind, that she pulls out her Box (which is indeed full of good
_Brazile_) in the middle of the Sermon;[284] and to shew she has the
Audacity of a well bred Woman, she offers it to the Men, as well as to
the Women who sit near her.... On Sunday was sennight, when they came
about for the Offering, she gave her Charity with a very good Air, but
at the same Time asked the Church warden if he would take a Pinch.'

          [Footnote 284: See also _Tatler_, 140.]

But, if the ladies took snuff, how much more did the men? who were
especially addicted to 'the humour of taking SNUFF, and looking dirty
about the mouth by way of ornament.' They took snuff 'with a very
Jantee Air,'[285] as is well exemplified by Steele's humorous puff in
_Spectator_ (138): 'The Exercise of the Snuff Box, according to the
most fashionable Airs and Motions, in opposition to the Exercise of
the Fan, will be taught with the best plain or perfumed Snuff at
Charles Lillie's, Perfumer, at the Corner of Beaufort Buildings in the
Strand, and Attendance given for the Benefit of the young Merchants
about the Exchange for two hours every day at Noon, except Sundays, at
a Toy Shop near Garraway's Coffee House. There will likewise be Taught
The Ceremony of the Snuff box, or Rules for offering Snuff to a
Stranger, a Friend, or a Mistress, according to the Degrees of
Familiarity or Distance; with an Explanation of the Careless, the
Scornful, the Politick, and the Surly Pinch, and the Gestures proper
to each of them.'

          [Footnote 285: Centlivre's _The Wonder, a Woman Keeps a
          Secret_, ed. 1714.]

Snuff was not always taken with the finger and thumb, but a spoon was
used--as it is now, in some parts of Scotland, Lapland, Sweden,
Norway, and China. In the prologue of a play called 'Hampstead Heath,'
published in 1706, this habit is mentioned.

  To Noddles cram'd with Dighton's musty Snuff
  Whose nicer Tasts think Wit consists alone
  In Tunbridge Wooden Box with Wooden Spoon.

And in the play (Act 3):--

     _Chum._ Madam, I beg your Pardon, 'tis what the Jews take; but I
     carry sweet Snuff for the Ladies. (_Shows another box._)

     _Arabella._ A Spoon too, that's very gallant; for to see some
     People run their fat Fingers into a Box is as nauseous as eating
     without a Fork.

The prices of snuffs varied much in this reign: the following is the
best list I can make out:--

                 1705.  1706.                    1707.      1711.   1713.
                 s. d.  s. d.                    s. d.      s. d.   s. d.
  Lisbon  p. oz. 1  6   1  8 and 1s. 2d.         2 p. lb.  26s. --  1  6 or p. lb. 20s.
  Tunquin   "     --    1  6                       --           --             --
  Spanish   "     --       6 p. lb. 2s. 6d. & 4s.  --       3 6 to  5s. p. lb. --
  Havanna   "     --       6                       --       6 0 p. lb.         --
  Seville   "     --       6                       --           --             --
  Italian   "     --    1  6 and 1s.               --           --             --
  Burgamot  "     --    1  6 and 1s.               --           --             --
  Musty     "     --       6                       --           --             --
  Brazile   "     --       6          6s. p. lb. 84s. 2s. 6d. p. lb. 32s. 3s. p. oz.

A more exhaustive list could have been made, but enough is given to
show the difference in price of the various sorts. These were more
than have just been given, and included Oronoko, Barcelona, Portugal,
Tonkar, Orangerie, Port St. Mary's, Alicant, Rancia, and Cabinet

And there were snuffs which hardly came under the category of harmless
sternutatories: as, 'The true Imperial Golden Snuff; which thousands
of People have found to be the most effectual Remedy ever known, for
all Distempers of the Head and Brain; It immediately cures the
Headach, be the Pain ever so violent; instantly removes Drowsiness,
Sleepiness, Giddiness and Vapours; it is most excellent against
Deafness and Noise in the Ears; cures stoppages or cold in the Head,
&c.; and far exceeds all other Snuff for all Humours in the Eyes and
Dimness of sight, and certainly prevents Appoplexies and Falling

Snuff played its part in helping to pay for the long war with
France.[286] '9 Feb. 1710. Yesterday the House of Commons, in a
Committee on Ways and means, resolved, that ... a duty of 3_s._ per
pound be laid upon Snuff above what it already pays, except that of
Her Majesty's growth.'

          [Footnote 286: _Luttrell._]



     Universal use of coffee-houses -- Their convenience -- Company --
     First coffee-house -- Number of them -- Anecdote of Bishop
     Trelawney -- Description of interior -- The news -- Advance in
     price -- Chocolate-houses -- Famous coffee-houses -- Button's
     Lion -- Lloyd's -- Sales by candle -- Jenny Man -- Don Saltero's
     collection -- Taverns -- Noblemen frequenting them -- Drinking own
     wine -- Purl houses -- List of old taverns.

[Illustration: A Coffee House.]

The coffee-house was not a new institution in Anne's reign, but then
it reached the zenith of its popularity. It was the centre of news,
the lounge of the idler, the rendezvous for appointments, the mart for
business men. Men might have their letters left there, as did
Swift;[287] 'Yet Presto[288] ben't angry, faith, not a bit, only he
will begin to be in pain next Irish Post, except he sees M.D.'s little
handwriting in the glass frame at the bar of St. James's Coffee House,
where Presto would never go but for that purpose.' They were alike the
haunt of the wit and the man of fashion--a neutral meeting-ground for
all men, although they naturally assorted themselves, like to like, by
degrees. There

  The gentle _Beau_ too, Joyns in wise Debate,
  _Adjusts_ his Cravat, and _Reforms_ the State[289]

--and he might even rub shoulders with a highwayman, as Farquhar
suggests, when he makes Aimwell say to Gibbet,[290] who is a
highwayman, 'Pray Sir, ha'nt I seen your face at Will's Coffee House?'
and he replies, 'Yes Sir, and at White's too.' But the excellent rules
in force, and the good common sense of the frequenters, prevented any
ill effects from this admixture of classes. All were equal, and took
the first seat which came to hand. If a man swore, he was fined 1_s._,
and if he began a quarrel he was fined 'dishes' round. Discussion on
religion was prohibited, no card-playing or dicing allowed, and no
wager might be made exceeding 5_s._ These were the simple rules
generally used, and, if they were only complied with, all must have
felt the benefit of such a mild despotism.

          [Footnote 287: _Journal to Stella_, letter 14.]

          [Footnote 288: A nickname of Swift's--a play on his name.]

          [Footnote 289: _The Tripe Club._]

          [Footnote 290: _The Beaux' Stratagem_, act. iii. sc. 2.]

Wood mentions that the first coffee-house was at Oxford, and was kept,
in 1650, by Jacobs, a Jew. The first in London seems to have been kept
by a foreigner named Rosa Pasquee, in 1652, in St. Michael's Alley,
Cornhill, whilst Hatton says[291]: 'I find it Recorded that one _James
Farr_, a Barber, who kept the Coffee House which now is the _Rainbow_,
by the Inner Temple Gate, (one of the first in England) was in the
year 1657 presented by the Inquest of St. Dunstans in the W. for
Making and Selling a sort of Liquor, called Coffee, as a great Nusance
and Prejudice of the neighbourhood, &c. And who would then have
thought London would ever have had near 3,000 such Nusances, and that
Coffee should have been (as now) so much Drank by the best of Quality
and Physicians.' Of these 'near 3,000' I have, in my searches through
the newspapers, etc., of the period, found the names of over 500,
which, to preserve them again from falling into oblivion, are to be
found in the Appendix to this book.

          [Footnote 291: _New View of London_, 1708.]

These coffee-houses sold alcoholic liquors as well as coffee; a fact
which is somewhat whimsically illustrated in the following extract
from a letter of Bishop Trelawney to Bishop Sprat, July 20, 1702 or
3.[292] 'I had a particular obligation to Burnett, and will publicly
thank him in print (among other matters I have to say to him, and to
his Articles against our religion) for his causing it to be spread by
his emissaries that I was drunk at Salisbury the 30th of January;
whereas the Major General,[293] Captain Culleford, a very honest
Clergyman, and the people of the Inn (which was a coffee house too)
can swear I drank nothing but two dishes of Coffee; and, indeed I had
not stopped at all, but to enable my children by a very slender bait,
to hold out to Blandford, where I dined at 6 that night.'

          [Footnote 292: _Atterbury's Correspondence_, ed. 1784, vol.
          iii. p. 87.]

          [Footnote 293: His brother. Bishop Trelawney was also a
          baronet; and he had an unepiscopal habit of swearing
          occasionally, but when such a _faux pas_ occurred he always
          said it was the baronet, not the bishop, that swore. The
          inconvenience of this arrangement was pointed out to him one
          day by a friend, who remarked that, if the baronet was
          damned for swearing, what would become of the bishop.]

Misson, speaking of coffee-houses, says: 'These Houses, which are
very numerous in London, are extreamly convenient. You have all Manner
of News there: You have a good Fire, which you may sit by as long as
you please; You have a Dish of Coffee, you meet your Friends for the
Transaction of Business, and all for a Penny, if you don't Care to
spend more.' Yes, that was all--anybody, decently dressed, might have
all this accommodation for _One Penny_. 'Laying down my Penny upon the
Bar,' writes Addison,[294] and 'so briefly deposited my Copper at the
Bar,' says Brown, show that the _habitués_ spent no more; and Steele,
in the first number of the _Tatler_, speaking of the expenses
attending the production of the paper, says: 'I once more desire my
readers to consider, that as I cannot keep an ingenious man to go
daily to Will's under two pence each day, merely for his charges; to
White's under sixpence; nor to the Grecian, without allowing him some
plain Spanish (snuff) to be as able as others at the learned table,'

          [Footnote 294: _Spectator_, No. 31.]

A man with leisure got rid of some hours daily at the coffee-house, or
houses, and such a one would spend from 10 A.M. till noon, and again,
after his two-o'clock dinner, would be there from 4 to 6, when he
would leave for the theatre, or his turn in the park.

The illustration gives us an excellent idea of the interior of a
coffee-house, and its domestic economy--the _dame de comptoir_, the
roaring fire with its perpetual supply of hot water, and its coffee
and tea pots set close by, so as to be kept warm, and the very plain
tables and stools, show the accommodation that was required, and
accepted, by the very plain-living people of that day.

A coffee-house is necessarily a _pièce de résistance_ with Ward. He
describes it graphically, though somewhat roughly, and he brings the
scene of the interior vividly before our eyes. 'Come, says my Friend,
let us step into this Coffee House here; as you are a Stranger in the
Town, it will afford you some Diversion. Accordingly in we went, where
a parcel of Muddling _Muckworms_ were as busy as so many _Rats_ in an
old _Cheese Loft_; some Going, some Coming, some Scribling, some
Talking, some Drinking, some Smoaking, others Jangling; and the whole
Room stinking of Tobacco, like a Dutch Scoot or a Boatswain's Cabbin.
The Walls being hung with Gilt Frames, as a Farriers shop with Horse
shooes; which contain'd abundance of Rarities, viz. Nectar and
Ambrosia, May Dew, Golden Elixirs, Popular Pills, Liquid Snuff,
Beautifying Waters, Dentifrisis, Drops, Lozenges, all as infallible as
the Pope,

  Where every one above the rest
  Deservedly has gain'd the Name of Best

(as the famous _Saffold_ has it).'

Brown, also, has plenty to say about them, but one short extract only
will be borrowed: 'Every Coffee House is illuminated both without and
within doors; without by a fine glass Lantern, and within by a Woman
so light and splendid, you may see through her without the help of a
Perspective. At the Bar the good Man always places a Charming Phillis
or two, who invite you by their amorous glances into their smoaky
Territories, to the loss of your sight.' These 'pretty barmaids' are
spoken of by Steele[295]: 'Upon reading your late Dissertation
concerning _Idols_, I cannot but complain to you that there are, in
Six or Seven Places of this City, Coffee houses kept by Persons of
that Sisterhood. These _Idols_ sit and receive all Day long the
adoration of the Youth within such and such Districts,' etc. Another
contemporary[296] notices that 'A Handsom Bar keeper invites more than
the Bush. She's the Loadstone that attracts Men of Steel, both those
that wear it to some purpose, and those that wear it to none. No City
Dame is demurer than she at first Greeting, nor draws in her Mouth
with a Chaster Simper; but in a little time you may be more familiar,
and she'll hear a double Entendre without blushing.'

          [Footnote 295: _Spectator_, No. 87.]

          [Footnote 296: _Hickelty Pickelty._]

Steele[297] gives a polished account of coffee-house frequenters and
politicians: 'I, who am at the Coffee house at Six in a Morning, know
that my friend _Beaver_ the Haberdasher has a Levy of more
undissembled Friends and Admirers, than most of the Courtiers or
Generals of Great Britain. Every Man about him has, perhaps, a News
Paper in his Hand; but none can pretend to guess what Step will be
taken in any one Court of Europe, till Mr. _Beaver_ has thrown down
his Pipe, and declares what Measures the Allies must enter into upon
this new Posture of Affairs. Our Coffee House is near one of the Inns
of Court, and _Beaver_ has the Audience and Admiration of his
Neighbours from Six 'till within a Quarter of Eight, at which time he
is interrupted by the Students of the House; some of whom are ready
dress'd for Westminster, at Eight in a Morning, with Faces as busie as
if they were retained in every Cause there; and others come in their
Night Gowns to saunter away their Time, as if they never designed to
go thither. I do not know that I meet in any of my Walks, Objects
which move both my Spleen and laughter so effectually, as these young
Fellows at the Grecian, Squire's, Searle's, and all other Coffee
Houses adjacent to the Law, who rise early for no other purpose but to
publish their Laziness. One would think these young _Virtuosos_ take a
gay Cap and Slippers, with a Scarf and Party Coloured Gown, to be
Ensigns of Dignity, for the vain things approach each other with an
Air, which shews they regard one another for their Vestments.... When
the Day grows too busie for these Gentlemen to enjoy any longer the
Pleasures of their _Deshabille_ with any manner of Confidence, they
give place to Men who have Business or Good Sense in their Faces, and
come to the Coffee house, either to transact Affairs or enjoy

          [Footnote 297: _Spectator_, 49.]

News was, of course, one of the prime objects of these gatherings. 'I
love News extreamly, I have read Three News Letters to day. I go from
Coffee House to Coffee House all day on Purpose,'[298] was literally
true of some men. Not that their little newspapers gave them much--but
of them hereafter. Yet there was a chance of hearing some news before
it got into the papers; and the _quidnuncs_ would go to the Windsor,
where was to be had 'also the Translation of the Harlem Courant, soon
after the Post is come,' or to Grigsby's, where 'all Foreign News is
taken in, and Translated into English immediately after the arrival of
any Mail,' or to Elford's, where 'is to be seen and read Gratis, the
Journal of the famous Voyage of the Duke and Dutchess Privateer of
Bristol that took the rich Aquiápulca Ship containing many remarkable
Transactions. Also an Account of a Man living alone 4 Years and 4
Months in the Island of John Fernando, which they brought with them.'
This was, of course, Alexander Selkirk, who was brought off the island
on February 12, 1709; and this log, or the coffee-house gossip anent
it, probably furnished the inspiration for 'Robinson Crusoe,' which
Defoe published in 1719.

          [Footnote 298: _The Scowrers._]

We have seen how the coffee-house keepers tried to advance their
beverages from 1_d._ to 1-1/2_d._ because of the rise in coffee; but
the effort was spasmodic, and did not last. They had a far better cry
in 1712, as we find in the _Daily Courant_ of August 8 in that year.
'These are to give Notice, That the Coffee Men by reason of the
present Taxes on Coffee, Tea, Paper, Candles, and Stamps on all
Newspapers, find themselves under a necessity of advancing some of
their Liquors to the prices following; viz, Coffee 2_d._ per dish:
Green Tea 3 halfpence; and all Drams 2_d._ per Dram: to commence from
this day.' Let us hope when they got this huge advance they made their
tea stronger, and did not give their customers 'that pall'd Stuff too
often found in mean Coffee Houses.'[299]

          [Footnote 299: Motteux, in the Preface to his _Poem in
          Praise of Tea_.]

No doubt, from the familiar abbreviations, such as Tom's, Ned's,
Will's, John's, etc., some of the coffee-houses were kept by waiters
who had saved a little money--such an one as '_Tom_ the Tyrant; who,
as first Minister of the Coffee House, takes the Government upon him
between the Hours of Eleven and Twelve at night, and gives his Orders
in the most Arbitrary manner to the Servants below him as to the
Disposition of Liquors, Coal and Cinders;'[300] while Kidney, the
waiter at the St. James's Coffee House, immortalised in the _Tatler_
as having 'the ear of the greatest politicians that come hither,'
could not be spoken with 'without clean linen.'

          [Footnote 300: _Spectator_, No. 49.]

The chocolate-houses seem to have been a specialty, and they were few
in number. In the commencement of the reign, in 1702, chocolate was
sold at 12_d._ the quart, 2_d._ the dish. I can only find the names of
five chocolate-houses (describing themselves as such), and but two of
them are of any note, White's and the Cocoa Tree. White's was started
in 1698, and was, in Queen Anne's reign, situated five doors from the
bottom of the west side of St. James's Street, ascending from St.
James's Palace. It had a small garden attached to it. This house was
burnt down in 1733, the King and Prince of Wales looking on. Hogarth
has immortalised this event in Plate 6 of the 'Rake's Progress.' It
was to all intents and purposes a gambling house. When White died is
not known, but _Mrs._ White had it in March 1712. Afterwards it passed
into the hands of Arthur, who had it when it was burnt down; and he
removed next door to the St. James's Coffee House. It soon ceased to
be a chocolate-house, and became a club. In 1755 it was removed to No.
38, on the opposite or east side of St. James's Street. White's Club
is supposed to be political; but, apart from its members being
Conservative, it takes no leading part, contenting itself with being
extremely aristocratic.

The Cocoa Tree Chocolate House stood at the end of Pall Mall, on the
site of what now is 87 St. James's Street. It was a Tory house;
indeed, Defoe says, 'A Whig will no more go to the Cocoa Tree or
Ozinda's, than a Tory will be seen at the Coffee house of St.
James's.' The Cocoa Tree Club is now held at 64 St. James's Street.

As the coffee-houses occupied so prominent a part in the social
economy of the time, a very brief notice of some of the best known
will be of interest. Anderton's is still in Fleet Street, beloved of
Freemasons and literary men. Batson's, in Cornhill, was a famous
meeting-place for physicians. The Bay Tree still stands in St.
Swithin's Lane. Button's, which was opposite Tom's, in Russell Street,
Covent Garden, was a great resort of Addison's; and here contributions
to the _Guardian_ could be received. The lion's head which served as a
letter-box has been immortalised in that paper. It was in imitation of
the famous lion at Venice. The original is still in existence, but is
not always accessible to the curious. It was removed from Button's
when that coffee-house was taken down, and took refuge in the
Shakespeare's Head Tavern, Covent Garden. For a time it was placed in
the Bedford Coffee House, and was used as a letter box for
contributions to _The Inspector_. It returned to the Shakespeare's
Head in 1769, and remained there till 1804. It was then bought by
Charles Richardson, the proprietor of Richardson's Hotel, and at his
death it came into the possession of his son, who sold it to the Duke
of Bedford, and it is now preserved in Woburn Abbey.

Child's was in St. Paul's Churchyard, and was famous for its learned
frequenters. It was not far from the College of Physicians, which was
then in Warwick Lane, so doctors came there, and, chief among them,
Dr. Mead. Sir Hans Sloane and other members of the Royal Society
dropped in, and the house was a noted resort of clergymen--so much so,
that it is mentioned as such in the _Spectator_ (No. 609): 'For that a
young Divine, after his first Degree in the University, usually comes
hither only to shew himself, and on that Occasion is apt to think he
is but half equipp'd with a Gown and Cassock for his publick
Appearance, if he hath not the additional Ornament of a Scarf of the
first Magnitude to entitle him to the appellation of Doctor from his
Landlady, and the Boy at _Child's_.'

The Camisards was in St. Martin's Lane, and took its name from the
Camisars, who were French religious fanatics, who, being persecuted in
their own country, came over here in 1707. They claimed the gifts of
prophecy, and of working miracles. The sect soon died out. Dick's, in
Fleet Street, still stands, and was so called from its first
proprietor, Richard Turner, in 1680.

Garraway's is famous, and derived its name from its original
proprietor, Thomas Garway, a tobacconist and coffeeman, who had it in
the middle of the 17th century. He is said to have been the first to
retail tea. It was always a mercantile resort, and here were sold
wines, etc., by auction. The Grecian, in Devereux Court, Temple, was
chiefly visited by learned men; it was from this place that Steele, in
his scheme of the _Tatler_, said that all accounts of learning should
appear under the title of Grecian. It was not, however, because of
this proclivity that it obtained its classical name: it was kept by a
Greek named Constantine. Apart from its being naturally frequented by
the lawyers, the scientific _élite_ went there, as we gather from
Thoresby, June 12, 1712: 'Attended the Royal Society, where I found
Dr. Douglas dissecting a dolphin, lately caught in the Thames, where
were present the President, Sir Isaac Newton, both the Secretaries,
the two Professors from Oxford, Dr. Halley and Keil, with others,
whose company we afterwards enjoyed at the Grecian Coffee House.' The
Guildhall Coffee House still survives.

Jonathan's was essentially a stockjobbers' house, and was in Exchange
Alley, as was also Baker's, which had a similar _clientèle_. 'I have
been taken for a Merchant upon the _Exchange_ for above these Ten
Years, and sometimes pass for a _Jew_ in the assembly of Stock Jobbers
at Jonathan's,' writes Addison in the first number of the _Spectator_.
'Stock Jobbers busie at Jonathan's from Twelve to Three,' says Ward.
The St. James's was as thoroughly a Whig house as White's was Tory;
and 'Foreign and Domestic News you will have from St. James's Coffee
House' was part of the _Tatler_ programme. We have seen how Swift used
it, and how his letters used to be directed there; but what he wrote
to Stella was hardly the reason of his frequenting the house. He seems
to have got on very friendly terms with Elliot, the proprietor, rather
early in his London career, for he writes: 'I dined to day with poor
Lord Mountjoy, who is ill of the gout; and this evening I christened
our Coffeeman Elliot's child; where the rogue had a most noble supper,
and Steele and I sat among some scurvy company over a bowl of punch,
so that I am come home late, young woman, and cannot stay to write to
little rogues.'[301] The Jamaica is still in existence, although not
where it was in Anne's reign. It was then in Cornhill, 'by the Ship
and Castle.' The Jerusalem was then, as it used to be not so long
since, 'near Garraway's.'

          [Footnote 301: _Journal to Stella_, Nov. 19, 1710.]

[Illustration: The Lion at Button's.

  Servantur Magnis
  Isti Cervicibus Ungues;
  Non Nisi Delectâ Pascitur
  Ille Ferâ.]

Lloyd's was then in Lombard Street, and indeed to this day, on Lloyd's
policies, is stated that this policy shall have the same effect as if
issued in Lombard Street. 'And it is agreed by us the Insurers, that
this Writing or Policy of Assurance shall be of as much Force and
Effect as the surest Writing or Policy of Assurance heretofore made in
_Lombard Street_, or in the _Royal Exchange_, or elsewhere in
_London_.' Both Steele[302] and Addison[303] mention this
coffee-house; and for mercantile purposes it shared, with the Marine
in Birchin Lane, the reputation of being the busiest. Here were sales
of wine and ships, and the latter business is still transacted there.

          [Footnote 302: _Tatler_, 247.]

          [Footnote 303: _Spectator_, 46.]

A curious custom obtained in this reign--that of selling goods,
notably wines, by 'the Candle.' Pepys notes it in his diary as being
new to him, so that it had not been long in vogue. Lloyd's and the
Marine Coffee Houses were the principal places where these singular
auctions were held.

When the custom died out I cannot learn, but probably it was during
the first quarter of this century. The latest account I can find of
its being practised is in _The Saturday Bristol Times and Mirror_ of
March 29, 1873. 'Sale by Candle. The practice of letting by inch of
Candle still prevails in the County of Dorset. At the annual letting
of the parish meadow of Broadway, near Weymouth, which occurred a few
weeks ago, an inch of candle was placed on a piece of board nine
inches square, and lighted by one of the parish officers. The biddings
were taken down by one of the parish officers, and the chance of
taking the meadow was open to all while the candle was burning. The
last bidder before the candle went out was the incoming tenant. This
year the candle was extinguished suddenly. The land, about two acres
in extent, was in 1624 presented to the poor by William Gould, the
object of the gift being to keep the poor from working on the
highways.' The custom, for aught I know, may still exist in some
out-of-the-way places.

Information on maritime matters was even then forwarded to Lloyd's
(although his _News_ was not published after Feb. 23, 1696, till
1726), as is shown by the following episode: '_London_, August 4th.
Yesterday Morning a Letter was sent by the Penny Post to Mr. Edward
Lloyd, Coffee man, in Lombard Street; which letter was subscrib'd Jo.
Browne, was dated from on Board the Little St. Lewis off Bantry Bay in
Ireland. July. 22. and contain'd in Substance, That the said Browne
coming in a Vessel of which he was Master, from the Bay of Campeachy
for Ireland, was taken by the said little St. Lewis, a French Frigate
of 30 Guns, the 14th of July.'[304] He then went on circumstantially
to relate how an officer on board had told him that the French had
taken the Island of St. Helena and fifteen English East India ships;
and that their fleet intended to sail for the Cape, to intercept our
outward-bound East India ships. The editorial comment on this news is:
''Tis very probable this Letter is a Forgery, but as we cannot
possibly determine whether it be or not, and the Story having made a
great Noise in Town, we found ourselves oblig'd to give an Account of
it.' It turned out a hoax, for, next day, Lloyd received a letter
saying that the rumour had served its turn. 'To which Mr. Lloyd thinks
fit to Answer. Sir, Whoever you are that wrote these two letters to
Mr. Lloyd, he makes it his Request to you, that you would please to
Confirm your Willingness to take off the Amusement made by the first,
by writing him a third Letter in the same Hand the first was, which
the second is not.' Lloyd died on Feb. 15, 1713.

          [Footnote 304: _Daily Courant_, Aug. 4, 1704.]

There were several coffee-houses kept by persons of the name of Man.
There was Old Man's, Young Man's, Man's New Coffee House, Charing
Cross, Man's in Birchin Lane, and Man's in Chancery Lane, opposite
Lincoln's Inn Gate. Old Man's was in the Tilt Yard, Whitehall, and was
the rendezvous for officers in the army. The Paymaster-General's
office is now built upon its site. It was kept by the well-known Jenny
Man, whom Brown describes as 'pledging an Irish Colonel in
Usquebaugh.' The _Postboy_, June 3/5, 1712, notices her: 'Expect
something Extraordinary[305] in our Next. In the mean time, we are
inform'd, that Jenny -- Man is indispos'd'; and in the _Flying Post_,
Nov. 6/8, 1712, is a song, one verse of which refers to her:--

          [Footnote 305: News of the peace.]

  Alas! alas! for _Jenny Man_,
  'Cause she don't love the Warming Pan,[306]
  High Church will all her Actions Scan
    Since she was an Inch long, Sirs;
  She is no Friend to Right Divine,
  Therefore she must not sell French Wine,
  But Tea and Coffee, very fine,
    And sure that is no Wrong, Sirs.

          [Footnote 306: An allusion to the story of the Pretender's
          being smuggled in a warming-pan, and evidence of Jenny's
          Hanoverian proclivities.]

Young Man's was at Charing Cross, and was a fashionable lounge. It was
also a gambling house, for Brown says of it: '_Young Man's Coffee
House_ threw it self in my way, and very kindly offer'd its
Protection. I acquiesced then, knowing myself secure from more Dangers
than one, and immediately upon my entrance mounted the Stairs, and
mingled my Person with the Knights of the Round Table, who hazard
three Months Revenue at a single Cast.' Ward is disgusted with the
superfine air of the place, and says of its frequenters, 'their whole
Exercise being to Charge and Discharge their Nostrils; and keep the
Curles of their Periwigs in proper Order.... They made a Humming, like
so many Hornets in a Country Chimney, not with their talking, but with
their Whispering over their New _Minuets_ and _Bories_, with their
Hands in their Pockets, if freed from their Snush Box.... Amongst them
were abundance of Officers, or Men who by their Habit appear'd to be
such; but look'd as tenderly, as if they Carried their Down beds with
them into the Camp, and did not dare to come out of their Tents, in a
cold morning, till they had Eat a Mess of Plum Panada for Breakfast,
to defend their Stomachs from the Wind.... Having sat all this while
looking about us, like a Couple of _Minerva's_ Birds, among so many
Juno's Peacocks, admiring their Gaiety; we began to be thoughtful of
a Pipe of Tobacco, which we were not assur'd we could have the liberty
of Smoaking, lest we should offend those Sweet Breath Gentlemen. But,
however, we Ventur'd to call for some Instruments of Evaporation,
which were accordingly brought us, but with such a Kind of
unwillingness, as if they would much rather have been rid of our
Company; for their Tables were so very Neat, and Shin'd with Rubbing,
like the Upper Leathers of an Alderman's shoes. The floor as clean
Swept, as a Sir _Courtly's_ Dining Room, which made us look round, to
see if there were no Orders hung up to impose the Forfeiture of so
much _Mop Money_ upon any Person that should spit out of the Chimney

Nando's was in Fleet Street, at the corner of Inner Temple Gate, the
house wrongly described as being formerly the palace of Cardinal
Wolsey, and now a hairdresser's. It was not particularly famous for
anything in Anne's time, only the name is familiar to students of that
epoch, as being next door to the shop of Bernard Lintot the
bookseller, and mentioned by him in all his advertisements.

Ozinda's was in St. James's Street, and ranked with White's as a Tory
house. Robin's was in Exchange Alley. Swift dated some of his letters
to Stella from this coffee-house, and Steele mentions it as a Stock
Exchange house in the _Spectator_, No. 454. The Rainbow in Fleet
Street is still in existence, and Ward[307] classes it thus: 'Coffee
and Water Gruel to be had at the Rainbow and Nando's at Four.' It
seems to have been a favourite sign, for I have seven on my list.

          [Footnote 307: _Comical View of London._]

Squire's was in Fulwood's (now called Fuller's) Rents in Holborn, and
has been rendered historical by Addison, who makes Sir Roger ask
him[308] 'if I would smoak a Pipe with him over a Dish of Coffee at
Squire's. As I love the old Man, I take delight in complying with
everything that is agreeable to him, and accordingly waited on him to
the Coffee House, where his venerable Figure drew upon us the Eyes of
the whole Room. He had no sooner seated himself at the upper End of
the high Table, but he called for a clean Pipe, a Paper of Tobacco, a
Dish of Coffee, a Wax Candle, and the _Supplement_ with such an Air of
Cheerfulness and Goodhumour, that all the Boys in the Coffee room (who
seemed to take pleasure in serving him) were at once employed on his
several Errands, insomuch that no Body else could come at a Dish of
Tea till the knight had got all his Conveniencies about him.' Squire
died in 1717.

          [Footnote 308: _Spectator_, No. 269.]

The following note on the Smyrna Coffee House is the best description
possible to give of it.[309] 'This is to give notice to all ingenious
gentlemen in and about the cities of London and Westminster, who have
a mind to be instructed in the noble Sciences of Music, Poetry, and
Politics, that they repair to the Smyrna Coffee in Pall Mall, betwixt
the hours of eight and ten at night, where they may be instructed
gratis, with elaborate ESSAYS _by word of mouth_ on all, or any of the
above mentioned Arts. The disciples are to prepare their bodies with
three dishes of bohea, and purge their brains with two pinches of
snuff. If any young student gives indication of parts, by listening
attentively, or asking a pertinent question, one of the professors
shall distinguish him by taking snuff out of his box in the presence
of the whole audience--

          [Footnote 309: _Tatler_, 78.]

'N.B. The seat of learning is now removed from the corner of the
chimney on the left hand towards the window, to the round table in the
middle of the floor over against the fire; a revolution much lamented
by the porters and chairmen, who were much edified through a pane of
glass that remained broken all the last summer.'

John Salter's (or, as he was christened by Steele, or Rear Admiral Sir
John Munden, 'Don Saltero') was situated in the middle of Cheyne Walk,
Chelsea. He was originally a servant to Sir Hans Sloane, and, when he
left his service to set up as barber and coffee-house keeper, Sir Hans
gave him some odds and ends from his Museum. Other kind friends
followed, and Don Saltero's became a place of note, the curiosities,
natural and otherwise, taking up much of the space. Indeed, Steele, in
recording a visit to the Don's, says,[310] 'When I came into the
Coffee house, I had not time to salute the Company, before my eye was
diverted by ten thousand jimcracks round the room and on the ceiling.'
The first catalogue of his curiosities that he published, was in 1729,
and in the preface he says, 'The first Donor was the Honourable Sir
John Cope, bart., to whom and Family I am much obliged for several
very valuable pieces, both of Nature and Art.' The list comprises 249
articles, which in the 12th edition, 1741, was increased to 420, so
that, probably, in Anne's time there were not more than a couple of
hundred. Apart from the natural curiosities, which were numerous, were
many undoubtedly spurious, as '(2) Painted Ribbands from Jerusalem
with the Pillar, to which our Saviour was tied when scourged, with a
Motto on each.' '(40) The Queen of Sheba's Fan.' He seems to have
invested largely in this royal lady's property, for we have '(53)
Queen of Sheba's Cordial Bottle,' and '(55) The Queen of Sheba's Milk
Maid's Hat.' No. 56 was 'Pontius Pilate's Wife's Chambermaid's
Sister's Sister's Hat'--a relic which, Steele declares, was made
within three miles of Bedford.

          [Footnote 310: _Tatler_, No. 34.]

These rather detract from the possible authenticity of the historical
relics, which were numerous, and, if genuine, were curious and
valuable. '(15) A Wooden Shoe put under the Speaker's Chair in K.
James IId's Time.' '(37) Gustavus Adolphus's Gloves.' '(38) Harry
VIIIth's Coat of Mail.' '(39) Queen Elizabeth's Stirrup.' '(41)
Katherine Q. Dowager's Coronation Shoes.' '(42) King Charles IId's
Band, which he wore in Disguise in the Royal Oak.' '(43) William the
Conqueror's Flaming Sword.' '(44) Oliver's Sword.' '(45) King James
IId's Coronation Shoes.' '(46) King William the IIId's Coronation
Sword.' '(47) King William's Coronation Shoes.' '(49) Queen Anne's
Testament.' '(50) Henry the VIIIth's Gloves.' '(51) The Czar of
Moscow's Gloves;' and last but not least--an undeniable forgery,
'(242) Robinson Crusoe's and his Man Friday's Shirts.'

Steele describes the Don as 'a sage of a thin and meagre countenance;
which aspect made me doubt whether reading or fretting had made it so
philosophic; but I very soon perceived him to be of that sect which
the ancients call _Gingivistæ_; in our language, tooth drawers.'
Besides shaving and tooth drawing, he played on the violin: 'if he
would wholly give himself up to the string, instead of playing twenty
beginnings to tunes, he might, before he dies, play _Roger de
Caubly_[311] quite out. I heard him go through his whole round, and
indeed he does play the "Merry Christ Church Bells"[312] pretty
justly;' and another authority says, 'There was no passing his house,
if he was at home, without having one's ears grated with the sounds of
his fiddle, on which he scraped most execrably.' Steele recommends
some of his curiosities to be taken away, 'or else he may expect to
have his letters patent for making punch superseded, be debarred
wearing his Muff next winter, or ever coming to London without his
wife.' Either of these would have punished Saltero severely, for he
was known out of doors by his old grey muff, which he carried up to
his nose; and Mrs. S. had a temper of her own, to escape which the Don
sometimes slipped off to London by himself. His collection seems to
have dwindled away, for when it was sold in 1799 there were only 121
lots, and the whole seem to have sold for a little over 50_l._

          [Footnote 311: See Appendix.]

          [Footnote 312: See Appendix.]

Slaughter's Coffee House in St. Martin's Lane afterwards superseded
Old Man's as a military meeting-place, and in the latter half of the
century it was frequented by artists and sculptors. Searle's, or
Serle's, was a legal coffee-house, and was situated at the corner of
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Of Tom's--I have a list of six--perhaps the best
known was that in St. Martin's Lane, where, as we have seen, was one
of the first insurance offices. The Virginia, which was in St.
Michael's Alley, and afterwards in Cornhill, has disappeared within
the last few years.

'All accounts of POETRY, under Will's Coffee House,' says the
_Tatler_; it was situated No. 1 Bow Street, at the corner of Russell
Street, and took its name from its proprietor, William Urwin. If Ward
can be trusted, gamblers as well as wits frequented it, for he
says[313] there was 'great shaking of the Elbow at _Will's_ about
Ten.' Still it was, _par excellence_, the _Wits_ coffee-house, a class
who are very happily described by a contemporary writer:[314] 'All
their words go for Jests, and all their Jests for nothing. They are
quick in the Fancy of some ridiculous Thing, and reasonable good in
the Expression. Nothing stops a Jest when it is coming; and they had
rather lose their Friend than their Wit.' And they are also written of
as being 'Conceited, if they had but once the Honour to dip a finger
and thumb in Mr. D----'s[315] snush box, it was enough to inspire 'em
with a true Genius of Poetry, and make 'em write Verse, as fast as a
Taylor takes his stitches.' In fact, it was on Dryden's reputation
that Will's coffee-house was then living; and his going there is
noticed by Pepys, 'Feb. 3, 1664--In Covent Garden to-night, going to
fetch my wife, I stopped at the great Coffee house there, where I
never was before: where Dryden, the poet, I knew at Cambridge, and all
the wits of the town, and Harris the player, and Mr. Hoole, of our
College. And, had I time then, or could at other times, it will be
good coming thither, for there, I perceive, is very witty and pleasant
discourse. But I could not tarry, and, as it was late, they were all
ready to go away.' Here also Pope saw the old man, whom he described
as 'a plump man with a down look, and not very conversible.'

          [Footnote 313: _A Comical View of London and Westminster._]

          [Footnote 314: _Hickelty Pickelty._]

          [Footnote 315: Dryden's.]

Such, then, were some of the principal coffee-houses. What were the
taverns like? There were then no hotels proper, such as we know them:
a man had to live in private apartments, and, when he wanted dinner,
he had to betake himself to a tavern, or ordinary. As Misson remarks,
'At London they hardly so much as know what an _Auberge_ is: There are
indeed a thousand and a thousand Taverns, where you may have what you
please got for you.' A tavern was a far more free-and-easy place than
a coffee-house--in fact, it is a question whether the _convenances_ of
a coffee-house would admit of a man 'washing his teeth at a tavern
window in Pall Mall';[316] indeed, the keeping of them was hardly
considered reputable, for we find[317] that 'Her Majestie sign'd a
warrant for continuing the salaries of the prince's servants during
her life, provided they kept no publick houses.'

          [Footnote 316: _Tatler_, 11.]

          [Footnote 317: _Luttrell_, Jan. 1, 1709.]

Ward describes[318] the freedom and jollity of these places:
'Accordingly we stept in, and in the Kitchen found half a dozen of my
Friends Associates, in the height of their Jollitry, as Merry as so
many _Cantabridgians_ at _Sturbridge Fair_, or _Coblers_ at a
_Crispins Feast_. After a Friendly Salutation, free from all Foppish
Ceremonies, down we sat; and when a Glass or two round had given fresh
Motion to our drowsy Spirits, and abandon'd all those careful thoughts
which makes Man's Life uneasie, Wit begot Wit, and Wine a Thirsty
Appetite to each Succeeding Glass. Then open were our Hearts and
unconfined our Fancies; my Friend and I contributed our Mites to add
to the Treasure of our Felicity. _Songs_ and _Catches_ Crown'd the
Night, and each Man in his Turn pleased his Ears with his own

          [Footnote 318: _London Spy._]

[Illustration: A Tavern Scene.]

The most singular thing was, that it was not at all derogatory for a
nobleman or gentleman to go to a tavern for a carouse--and all clubs
were held at taverns. Thoresby relates that, after his reception by
the Queen, as one of a deputation from Leeds, on July 2, 1712, 'We
left the Duke there, but returned in the High Sheriff's coach to Sir
Arthur Kaye's, who, with Sir Bryan Stapleton, accompanied us; from Sir
Arthur's we went to the Tavern to drink her Majesty's health, and
stayed full late.' And Swift writes to Stella:[319] 'After dinner we
went to a blind tavern, where Congreve, Sir Richard Temple, Eastcourt,
and Charles Main were over a bowl of bad punch. The Knight sent for
six flasks of his own wine for me, and we staid till twelve.' This
sending for one's own wine was a peculiar arrangement, but doubtless
the landlord was satisfied with a premium on 'corkage.' Swift
frequently speaks of this custom: 'To-day I dined with Lewis and Prior
at an eating house, but with Lewis's wine.' 'I dined in a Coffee house
with Stratford upon Chops, and some of his Wine.' Again he was with
Lords Harley and Dupplin, the son and son-in-law of the Earl of
Oxford--and 'we were forced to go to a tavern, and send for wine from
Lord Treasurer's.'

          [Footnote 319: _Journal_, Oct. 27, 1710.]

But the frequenters of taverns were not all so respectable as these
examples; and Brown supplies particulars of another section of
society. 'A _Tavern_ is a little _Sodom_, where as many Vices are
daily practised, as ever were known in the great one; Thither
_Libertines_ repair to drink away their Brains, _Aldermen_ to talk
Treason, and bewail the loss of Trade; _Saints_ to elevate the Spirit,
hatch Calumnies, coin false News, and reproach the Church; _Gamesters_
to shake their Elbows; Thither _Sober Knaves_ walk with _Drunken
Fools_ to make Cunning Bargains and overreach them in their Dealings;
Thither _Young Quality_ retire to spend their Tradesmens Money;
Thither _Bullies_ Coach it to Kick Drawers, and invent new Oaths and
Curses; Thither run _Sots_ purely to be drunk, _Beaux_ to shew their
Vanity, _Cowards_ to make themselves valiant by the Strength of their
Wine, _Fools_ to make themselves witty in their own Conceits, and
_Spendthrifts_ to be made Miserable by a Ridiculous Consumption of
their own Fortunes.'

There were lower depths yet: there were the _purl houses_, where
'Tradesmen flock in their Morning gowns, by Seven, to cool their
Plucks,' and the _mug houses_,[320] which in George the First's time
were made into political clubs. 'King George for Ever' was then the
mug-house cry, which the coffee-houses countered with 'High Church and
Ormonde; no Presbyterians; no Hanover; down with the Mug.'

          [Footnote 320: 'Here is nothing drunk but Ale, and every
          Gentleman hath his separate Mug, which he Chalks on the
          Table, where he sits, as it is brought in; and every one
          retires when he pleases, as from a Coffee House.'--_A
          Journey through England_, 1722.]

The following is a list of the principal taverns then in existence,
for some of which I am indebted to Timbs' 'Club Life of London.' 'The
Bear,' at the foot of London Bridge, Southwark and west side, which
was in existence in 1463, was not pulled down till 1761. The 'Boar's
Head,' in Eastcheap; Pontack's, in Abchurch Lane; and the 'Pope's
Head' tavern in Pope's Head Alley, were all standing; and the 'Cock,'
in Threadneedle Street, was only destroyed in 1851. There was the
'Salutation' in Newgate Street, where Wren used to smoke his pipe,
whilst St. Paul's was rebuilding. Dolly's chop-house, in Paternoster
Row, was established in Queen Anne's reign. The 'White Hart' in
Bishopsgate Without, which bore the date 1480, was not pulled down
till 1829. The 'King's Head,' in Fenchurch Street, at the corner of
Mark Lane, was the hostel at which Queen Elizabeth is _said_ to have
dined in May 1554. The 'Devil,' in Fleet Street, now occupied by
Childs' bank, was flourishing, and Steele describes it[321] as 'a
place sacred to mirth tempered with discretion, where Ben Jonson and
his Sons used to make their liberal meetings,' and he says that in the
Apollo room were the rules of Ben's Club, painted in gold letters over
the chimney piece.

          [Footnote 321: _Tatler_, 79.]

This tavern was so popular that a rival sprang up on the other side of
the street, the 'Young Devil,' and here, for a year or so, from the
beginning of 1708, till some time in or about 1709, the Society of
Antiquaries held their meetings, afterwards at the 'Fountain' tavern,
Inner Temple Gate. The 'Cock,' in Fleet Street, has only just been
demolished. There was another famous tavern which was near St.
Dunstan's Church, in Fleet Street, called 'The Hercules' Pillars,'
which was visited by Pepys, as appears by four entries in his diary.
Another tavern of this name, at Charing Cross, will be noted when
treating of the amusements of the people. The 'Mitre' tavern must not
be confounded with the coffee-house of that name in Mitre Court, but
was the one frequented by Dr. Johnson, and so often referred to by

The 'Palsgrave's Head,' on the south side of the Strand, near Temple
Bar, was then a coffee-house, and was so named from the Palsgrave
Frederick, afterwards King of Bohemia, who married the Princess
Elizabeth, daughter of James I. The 'Crown and Anchor,' which
stretched along the Strand from Arundel Street to Milford Lane, was
famous as being the place where the Academy of Music was instituted in
1710. The 'Rose' tavern in Drury Lane is frequently mentioned in the
literature of this time. It was afterwards absorbed into Drury Lane
Theatre, when Garrick enlarged it in 1776. The 'Rummer Tavern,' at
Charing Cross, near Locket's Ordinary, is often mentioned in
advertisements, and Brown and Ward speak of 'Heaven' and 'Hell,' which
were two ale-houses near Westminster Hall. Pepys notices one of them
on January 28, 1660--'And so I returned, and went to Heaven, where
Ludlin and I dined.' And last, not least, was the 'Bumper' tavern,
which 'Dick Estcourt,' the actor, opened on January 1, 1712, and
which Steele so kindly puffed in _Spectator_ No. 264. An exhaustive
catalogue of the taverns in the City is given by Ward in his 'Vade
Mecum for Maltworms,' a very curious and now rare book; but it is
hardly worth while to reproduce their names, even in an appendix.



     Origin -- October Club -- Calves Head Club -- Kit Cat Club --
     Other clubs -- Suggested clubs.

The name of Club is undoubtedly taken from the practice of a jovial
company to 'club,' or divide the whole expenses of the entertainment;
and 'the payment of our Clubs'[322] is a frequently mentioned wind-up
of any festivity. Naturally, such agreeable meetings were repeated
until they became habitual, and the society, or _club_, was formed;
and these humble beginnings laid the foundation of that great social
organisation which nowhere flourishes better than in England.

          [Footnote 322: _London Spy._]

The principal clubs of Queen Anne's time were the October Club, the
Calves Head Club, and the Kit Cat Club. The October Club was a
Political Club, of high Tory proclivities, and it was so called from
the 'October Ale' which was supposed to be the drink of the members.
It was held at the 'Bell Tavern,' in King Street, Westminster, and
they succeeded in plaguing the Whigs to their hearts' content. Swift
writes Stella of them:[323] 'We are plagued here with an October Club;
that is, a set of above a hundred Parliament men of the Country, who
drink October beer at home, and meet every evening at a tavern near
the Parliament, to consult affairs, and drive things on to extremes
against the Whigs, to call the old ministry to account, and get off
five or six heads. The ministry seem not to regard them, yet one of
them in confidence, told me that there must be something thought on to
settle things better.' Swift wrote a little pamphlet called 'Some
Advice Humbly Offered to the Members of the October Club, in a letter
from a Person of Honour,' which met with varying fortunes; for he
tells Stella, 'The little twopenny letter of "Advice to the October
Club," does not sell: I know the reason; for it is finely written, I
assure you; and like a true author, I grow fond of it, because it does
not sell: you know that it is usual to writers to condemn the judgment
of the world; if I had hinted it to be mine, every body would have
bought it, but it is a great secret.'[324] A few days later, and he
writes, February 1, that it 'begins now to sell; but I believe its
fame will hardly reach Ireland.' There is no doubt but that it
partially had the desired effect--of making these troublesome
gentlemen less obstructive. Poor Swift was once nearly getting into a
dilemma with regard to this club, and his story is as follows: 'Then
Ford drew me to dine at a tavern, it happened to be the day and the
house where the October Club dine. After we had dined, coming down, we
called to inquire, whether our yarn business had been over that day,
and I sent into the room for Sir George Beaumont. But I had like to be
drawn into a difficulty; for in two minutes out comes Mr. Finch, Lord
Guernsey's son, to let me know, that my Lord Compton, the steward of
this feast, desired, in the name of the club, that I would do them the
honour to dine with them. I sent my excuses, adorned with about thirty
compliments, and got off as fast as I could. It would have been a most
improper thing for me to dine there, considering my friendship for the
Ministry. The Club is about a hundred and fifty, and near eighty of
them were then going to dinner at two long tables in a great ground
room.'[325] Afterwards the October Club was split, and the more
Jacobite portion formed themselves into the March Club.

          [Footnote 323: _Journal_, Feb. 18, 1711.]

          [Footnote 324: _Journal_, Jan. 28, 1712.]

          [Footnote 325: _Journal_, April 13, 1714.]

The Calves Head Club was decidedly an opposition one, and its history,
true or not, is told in a little book which some people have
attributed to Ward,[326] 'The SECRET HISTORY of the CALVES HEAD CLUB:
or, the REPUBLICAN UNMASK'D. Wherein is fully shewn the religion of
the CALVES HEAD Heroes in their Anniversary Thanksgiving Songs on the
Thirtieth of _January_, by them called Anthems, for the years 1693,
1694, 1695, 1696, 1697. NOW PUBLISHED to demonstrate the Restless,
Implacable Spirit of a certain Party still among us, who are never to
be satisfied till the present Establishment in Church and State is
subverted. The Second Edition.

          [Footnote 326: _Brit. Mus._ 1093, c. 73.]

     _Discite justitiam moniti, & non temnere Divos._ Virg.

       *       *       *       *       *


     Printed, And Sold by the Booksellers of _London_ and
     _Westminster_. 1703.'

The author tells the history of the club as follows: 'Happening in the
late Reign to be in the Company of a certain active Whigg, who in all
other Respects was a Man of probity enough; he assured me, that to his
Knowledge, 'twas true, That he knew most of the Members of that Club,
and that he had been often invited to their Meetings, but that he had
always avoided them: Adding, that according to the Principles he was
bred up in, he wou'd have made no scruple to have met _Charles_ the
First, in the Field, and oppos'd him to the utmost of his Power; but
that since he was Dead, he had no further Quarrel to him, and looked
upon it as a cowardly piece of Villany, below any Man of Honour, to
insult upon a Memory of a Prince, who had suffer'd enough in his Life

'He farther told me, that _Milton_, and some other Creatures of the
Commonwealth, had instituted this Club, as he was inform'd, in
Opposition to Bp. _Juxon_, Dr. _Sanderson_, Dr. _Hammond_, and other
Divines of the Church of England, who met privately every 30th of
_January_; and, tho' it was under the Time of the Usurpation, had
compil'd a private Form of Service for the Day, not much different
from that we now find in the Liturgy....

'By another Gentleman, who, about Eight Years ago, went out of meer
Curiosity to see their Club, and has since furnish'd me with the
following Papers; I was inform'd that it was kept in no fix'd House,
but that they remov'd as they saw convenient; that the place they met
in when he was with 'em, was a blind Ally, about _Morefields_;[327]
that the Company wholly consisted of _Independents_ and _Anabaptists_
(I am glad for the Honour of the _Presbyterians_ to set down this
Remark); that the Famous _Jerry White_, formerly Chaplain to _Oliver
Cromwell_, who, no doubt on't, came to sanctify with his Pious
Exhortations, the Ribbaldry of the Day, said Grace; that after the
Table Cloth was removed, the Anniversary _Anthem_, as they impiously
call'd it, was sung, and a Calves Scull filled with Wine or other
Liquor, and then a Brimmer went about to the Pious Memory of those
worthy Patriots that had kill'd the Tyrant, and deliver'd their
Country from his Arbitrary Sway; and lastly, a Collection made for the
Mercenary Scribler, to which every Man contributed according to his
Zeal for the Cause, or the Ability of his Purse.'

          [Footnote 327: In the ninth ed., 1714, after 'Morefields' it
          goes on: 'Where an Axe hung up in the _Club Room_, and was
          reverenced as a principal Symbol in this Diabolical
          Sacrament. Their Bill of Fare was a large Dish of
          _Calves-Heads_, dressed several ways, by which they
          represented the King and his Friends, who had suffer'd in
          his Cause; a large _Pike_ with a small one in his Mouth, as
          an Emblem of Tyranny; a large _Cod's Head_, by which they
          pretended to represent the Person of the King singly; a
          _Boar's Head_ with an Apple in its Mouth, to represent the
          King, by this, as Beastial, as by their other Hieroglyphicks
          they had done Foolish and Tyrannical. After the Repast was
          over, one of their Elders presented an _Ikon Basilike_,
          which was with great Solemnity burn'd upon the Table, whilst
          the _Anthems_ were singing. After this, another produc'd
          _Milton's Defensio Populi Anglicani_, upon which all laid
          their Hands, and made a Protestation in the form of an Oath,
          for ever to stand by, and maintain the same;' then the text
          goes on as above.]

The following 'Anthem,' if not the most refined of the series, is, at
least, the most spirited and characteristic:--

_An Anthem on the 30th of_ January 1696.

  There was a King of _Scottish_ Race, a Man of Muckle might a,
  Was never seen in Battels Great, but greatly he would sh---- a;
  This K. begot another K. which made the Nation sad a,
  Was of the same Religion, an Atheist like his Dad a:
  This Monarch wore a Picked Beard, and seem'd a Doughty Hero,
  As _Dioclesian_ Innocent, and Merciful as _Nero_.
  The Churches darling Implement, but Scourge of all the People,
  He Swore he'd make each Mother's Son Adore their Idol Steeple:
  But they perceiving his designs, grew plagy shy and jealous,
  ☞ And timely Choppt his _Calve's_ head off, and sent him to his
  Old _Rowly_ did succeed his Dad, such a King was never seen a,
  He'd lye with every nasty Drab, but seldom with his Queen a.
  His Dogs at Council Board wou'd sit, like Judges in their Furs a,
  'Twas hard to say which had most Wit, the Monarch or his Curs a.
  At last he died, we know not how, but most think by his Brother,
  His Soul to Royal _Tophet_ went to see his Dad and Mother.
  The furious _James_ Usurp'd the Throne, to pull Religion down a;
  But by his Wife and Priest undone, he quickly lost his Crown a.
  To _France_ the wand'ring Monarch's trudg'd, in hopes relief to find a,
  Which he is like to have from thence, even when the D----'s blind a.
  Oh! how shou'd we Rejoyce and Pray, and never cease to Sing a,
  ☞ If _Bishops_ too were Chac'd away, and Banished with their _King_ a:
  Then Peace and Plenty wou'd ensue, our Bellies wou'd be full a,
  The enliven'd Isle wou'd Laugh and Smile, as in the days of _Noll_ a.

Whether this 'Secret History' be true or not, it would almost appear
that there was a Calves Head Club in George the Second's reign, for in
the _Monthly Intelligencer_, which was a portion of the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, we find[328]: 'Friday, January 30, 1735. Some young
Noblemen and Gentlemen met in a Tavern in _Suffolk Street_,[329]
called themselves the _Calves Head Club_; dress'd up a Calfs Head in a
Napkin, and after some Huzzas threw it into a Bonfire, and dipt
Napkins in their red Wine, and wav'd them out at Window. The Mob had
strong beer given them, and for a time hallood as well as the best;
but taking Disgust at some Healths propos'd, grew so outragious, that
they broke all the Windows, and forc'd themselves into the House, but
the Guards being sent for, prevented further Mischief.' Different
accounts exist of this occurrence, variously modifying it, until they
end in a total denial; but engravings exist professing to give the
'True Effigies' of the scene. Apropos of this, in the 1714 edition of
the 'Secret History' is an engraving of 'the Westminster Calf's Head
Club,' which is none other than the representation of a coffee-house
already produced (see page 162), but altered somewhat to suit the
occasion. For instance, the _dame de comptoir_ is erased, and in her
place is a huge axe.

          [Footnote 328: _Gent. Mag._ vol. v. p. 105.]

          [Footnote 329: Charing Cross.]

Perhaps one of the now best-known clubs of Anne's time was the Kit
Cat, which derived its peculiar cognomen (so Addison says) 'from a
Mutton Pye.' Attempts have been made to attribute its origin to a
political gathering of Whig noblemen and gentlemen, but contemporary
authorities all agree that it was founded by Jacob Tonson, the
bookseller; and Sir R. Blackmore (a member of the club), who wrote a
poem called 'the Kitcats' in 1708, may be considered as knowing
something about what he wrote. Whether the pieman's name was
Christopher Cat, or Christopher, living at the sign of the Cat and
Fiddle, does not much matter: certain it is that the pies from which
the club was named were called Kit Cat's pies.

Various domiciles have been given to the club, but Sir R. Blackmore
says it was held at the Fountain in the Strand, a site now occupied by
the Cigar Divan, as is denoted by the name of Fountain Court.

  On the fair _Strand_ by which with graceful Pride,
  Unrival'd _Thamis_ rolls his alternate Tyde,
  Between the Courts which most the People awe,
  (In one the Monarch reigns, in one the Law.)
  A Stately Building rear'd its lofty Head,
  Which both the _Thames_ and _Town_ around survey'd.
  Here crown'd with Clusters _Bacchus_ kept his Court,
  Where mighty Vats his chearful Throne support;
  High o'er the Gate he hung his waving Sign,
  A _Fountain_ Red with ever-flowing Wine.
  One Night, in Seven, at this convenient Seat,                   }
  Indulgent BOCAJ[330] did the Muses treat,                       }
  Their Drink was generous Wine, and _Kit Cat's_ Pyes their Meat. }
  Here he assembled his Poetic Tribe,
  Past Labours to Reward, and new ones to prescribe;
  Hence did th' Assembly's Title first arise,
  And _Kit-Cat_ Wits sprung first from _Kit-Cat's_ Pyes.
  BOCAJ the mighty Founder of the State        }
  Led by his Wisdom, or his happy Fate,        }
  Chose proper Pillars to support its Weight   }
  All the first Members for their Place were fit
  Tho' not of Title, Men of Sense and Wit.

          [Footnote 330: Jacob transposed.]

They showed they had sense at all events, for in the summer they went
into the fresh air, and held their meetings at the _Flask_ at

  Or when Apollo like, thou'rt pleas'd to lead            }
  Thy Sons to feast on _Hampstead's_ airy Head;           }
  _Hampstead_ that now in name _Parnassus_ shall exceed.  }

Another proof, if it were needed, that Tonson was the founder of the
club, is that forty-two of its members presented him with their
portraits, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, to adorn his house at Barn
Elms. As the room was not lofty enough to admit of their being the
regulation size, special canvases were had (36 × 28 in.), and this is
still called Kit Cat size. These portraits are still in existence, and
were all shown at the Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester, and some
at the International Exhibition of 1862. This club was famous for the
toasts engraved on its drinking glasses, many of which have survived
to this day; and this gave rise to Dr. Arbuthnot's epigram--

   Whence deathless Kit-Cat took his name,
    Few Critics can unriddle:
  Some say from pastry cook it came
    And some from Cat and Fiddle.
  From no trim beaus its name it boasts,
    Grey statesmen or green wits,
  But from this pell mell pack of toasts
    Of old Cats and young Kits.

There were numerous social clubs, the Beefsteak, and the Saturday
Club, of which Swift makes frequent mention in his letters to Stella.
Take one instance[331]: 'I dined with lord-treasurer, and shall again
to-morrow, which is his day, when all the ministers dine with him. He
calls it whipping day. It is always on Saturday, and we do indeed
usually rally him about his faults on that day. I was of the original
club, when only poor Lord Rivers, lord keeper, and Lord Bolinbroke
came; but now Ormond, Anglesey, lord Steward, Dartmouth, and other
rabble intrude, and I scold at it; but now they pretend as good a
title as I; and, indeed, many Saturdays I am not there.[331]
He also belonged to a club or society for social converse and the
encouragement of literature, which was founded in the latter part of
the year 1712. Its meetings were on Thursday, and it was the custom of
the members to entertain their brethren in turns. He gave one dinner
at the Thatched House[332]: 'it will cost me five or six pounds; yet
the secretary says he will give me wine.' But they soon got
extravagant, for their very next dinner is noted[333] as 'The Duke of
Ormond's treat last week cost £20 though it was only four dishes, and
four without a dessert; and I bespoke it in order to be cheap;' and
this did not include wine. In this society, when money was raised for
a benevolent purpose, the members were assessed according to their
several estates: thus, the Duke of Ormond paid ten guineas, Swift half
a guinea.

          [Footnote 331: _Journal to Stella_, Jan. 9, 1713.]

          [Footnote 332: _Ibid._ Feb. 21, 1712.]

          [Footnote 333: _Ibid._ March 5, 1712.]

Steele, in _Tatler_ No. 9, gives an amusing and graphic account of a
club, held at a tavern called the Trumpet, in Shire Lane; and, to show
how prevalent the establishment of clubs was in this reign, the
following are some suggested ones (of course only in fun) to be found
in the _Spectator_: The Amorous, Chit Chat, Everlasting, Fox hunters,
Fringe glove, Hebdomadal, Henpecked, Lazy, Lawyers, Mohock, Moving,
Rattling, The Romp, Sighing, Spectator's, Street, Twopenny, Ugly,
Widows; and the _Guardian_ supplies a list of supposed clubs of little
men, and the Short, Silent, Tall, and Terrible Clubs.



     Royal visits to the City -- Lord Mayor's show -- The lions at the
     Tower -- The Armoury -- Tombs at Westminster -- Bartholomew
     Fair -- Description -- Shows -- Tight-rope dancing -- Natural
     curiosities -- Theatrical performances, etc. -- Abolition -- May
     Fair -- Lady Mary -- Pinkethman -- Shows -- Visit
     to -- Abolition -- Southwark Fair -- Its shows.

But clubs were not the only social enjoyments. The populace had,
during this reign, many free sights--and the numerous visits of the
Queen to the City provided fine shows gratis. She dined at Guildhall
on the Lord Mayor's day after her accession, and she visited the City
again on November 12 the same year, accompanied by both Houses of
Parliament, to return thanks for the successes at Vigo. Certainly
January 19, 1704, was kept as a fast; but on September 7 of that year
the Queen again went to St. Paul's, in commemoration of the victory at
Blenheim and the capture of Gibraltar; and on January 3, 1705, the
standards[334] taken at Blenheim were carried, by a detachment of
horse and foot guards, from the Tower, and hung up in Westminster
Hall. On the 6th of the same month the Duke of Marlborough dined, by
invitation, with the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, at Goldsmiths' Hall.
Once more the Queen visited St. Paul's, on August 23, 1705, to return
thanks for the Duke's forcing the French lines in Brabant, and yet
again for the victory at Ramilies on June 27, 1706. This time, the
colours taken were deposited in the Guildhall, with great pomp, on
December 19, 1706: the Queen, and Prince George, going into St.
James's Park to see them pass. On this occasion the Duke dined with
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, in Vintners' Hall. On December 30 of the
same year, the Queen gave thanks at St. Paul's for the successes of
the last campaign in Spain and Italy; and, as the newspaper account
informs us, 'the Night ended with Ringing of Bells, Bonfires,
Illuminations, and other Rejoycings.'

          [Footnote 334: There was an engraving made of these
          standards; and a handbill about it (_Harl. MSS._ 5996, 40)
          is curious, as showing how they pushed trade then. 'The
          Colours being only to be seen in _Westminster Hall_, several
          Gentlemen and Others have desired to share in the
          _Commemoration_ thereof, by placing the _Representation_ of
          'em in their Halls and Houses: And now to accommodate those
          who are so disposed, the said _Representation_ with the
          _Imbellishments_ above mention'd, is done on fine _Imperial
          Paper_, and will in a Day or Two be left at your house for
          your Perusal, till call'd for next Day, when you are desired
          either to return it, or be pleased to pay Two Shillings and
          Sixpence to the Person that deliver'd the Same.']

Yet again was there another day of public rejoicing, on May 1, 1707,
to celebrate the union with Scotland, and the Queen once more visited
St. Paul's. But this was to be the last. On thanksgiving day, July 7,
1713, to celebrate the conclusion of peace, Anne was too unwell to
play her accustomed part, and was reluctantly compelled to abandon it
and remain at home. The fireworks on this occasion were splendid.
'Those in Smithfield began about Ten at Night, and ended about Eleven:
when those upon the Thames, over against Whitehall, began, and lasted
till after Midnight. Besides that these were in both Places Excellent
in their kind, they were play'd off with the utmost Regularity and
good Order; so that we have not heard of the least Mischief done
either upon the River or in Smithfield;' and, as was observed in the
_Guardian_, No. 103: 'In short, the artist did his part to admiration,
and was so encompassed with fire and smoke that one would have thought
nothing but a Salamander could have been safe in such a situation.'
But these seem to have been eclipsed by a display at Dublin in honour
of the Queen's last birthday, February 6, 1714, as is recorded in the
_Daily Courant_ of February 16, 1714.

The Londoner, too, had his Lord Mayor's Show, with its fun, perhaps
just a trifle rougher than in our day. Owing to the difference of old
and new style, Lord Mayor's day was on October 29 instead of November
9 as now. Ward naturally revels in it[335]: 'Tuesday 29. Windows in
_Cheapside_ stuck with more Faces at Ten, than the Balconies with
Candles on an Illumination Night. Wicked havock of Neats-Tongues and
Hamms in the Barges about Eleven. Artillery Men march by two and two,
burlesqued in Buft and Bandileers. The Vintners and Brewers, the
Butchers and Apothecaries justle about precedence; 'Tis pity they are
not incorporated. The Ladies pelted with dead Cats instead of Squibs
from Twelve to Three. Mob tumultuous. Boys starting to see that which,
as the Old Woman said, they must all come to one Day.' And in the
_London Spy_ he gives a very long account of the show, its pageants,
and the rough humour of the spectators.

          [Footnote 335: _Comical View of London and Westminster._]

'I took three lads, who are under my Guardianship, a rambling, in a
hackney Coach, to shew them the town; as the lions, the tombs,
Bedlam.'[336] These were the three great sights of London: the lions
at the Tower, the tombs in Westminster Abbey, and the poor mad folk in
Bedlam. 'To see the lions' is proverbial, and these had to be visited
by every one new to the City. In 1703 there were four, two lions and
two lionesses--one with a cub. In this reign three of the lions died
almost at the same time, and it was looked upon by some as an event of
dire portent. Addison laughingly alludes to the popular idea of
something awful happening on the death of a 'Tower' lion, when, in the
_Freeholder_, he makes the Jacobite squire ask the keeper whether any
of the lions had fallen sick when Perth was taken, or on the flight of
the Pretender. When dead they were sometimes stuffed, as Ward relates.
He also says there was a leopard, three eagles, two owls, and a
hyena. That was in 1703; and Thoresby, writing in 1709, went to see
the 'lions, eagles, catamountains, leopards, &c.' He also relates[337]
his experiences of a visit to the Tower itself: 'Walked with Mr. Dale
to the Tower; was mightily pleased with the new and excellent method
the Records[338] are put into (of which see a letter of the Bishop of
Carlisle to me;) and viewed many great curiosities of that nature, and
original letters from foreign kings and potentates, upon parchment,
and paper as old (reckoned as great a rarity) to the Kings of England,
very ancient tallies, Jewish stars, &c., which the obliging Mr. Holms
showed me, who also gave me an autograph of Queen Elizabeth, that was
his own property; then went to view the several armouries, as that
more ancient of the weapons taken in the year 1588 from the pretended
Invincible Armada, and those modern from Vigo, and in other memorable
transactions of this age; the present armoury for use is put to a
surprising method, in the form of shields, pyramids, trophies, &c.
Some of the elder and later kings' armour are placed as though mounted
on horseback.'

          [Footnote 336: _Tatler_, No. 30.]

          [Footnote 337: _Diary_, Jan. 21, 1709.]

          [Footnote 338: The records were kept in the Tower until the
          present reign.]

Ward also visited the Tower, after seeing the lions, and has left a
most amusing account of what he saw, which is far too long for
transcription. He first noted 'a parcel of Bulky Wardens, in old
fashion'd Lac'd Jackets, and in Velvet Flat caps, hung round with
divers colour'd Ribbonds, like a Fool's hat upon a Holiday.' Indeed,
their costume was identical with their present state dress, only it
was utterly marred by their wearing portentous periwigs. Under the
guidance of one of these gentry he was shown Traitor's Gate, the White
Tower, and St. Peter's Church; and afterwards, the Grand Armoury,
where he was particularly delighted to see that 'at the corner of
every Lobby, and turning of the Stairs, stood a _Wooden Granadier_ as
Sentinel, painted in his proper Colours, cut out with much exactness
upon Board.' Arrived in the arsenal, he was handed over to one of the
armourer's men, who had 'everything as ready at his fingers' ends, as
the Fellow that shows the Tombs at Westminster. The first Figure at
our Coming in, that most effected the Eye, by reason of its bigness,
was a long Range of _Muskets_ and _Carbines_, that ran the length of
the _Armory_, which was distinguish'd by a Wilderness of Arms, whose
_Locks_ and _Barrels_ were kept in that admirable Order, that they
shone as bright as a Good Housewifes _Spits_ and _Pewter_ in the
_Christmas Holidays_, on each side of which were _Pistols_,
_Baggonets_, _Scimiters_, _Hangers_, _Cutlaces_, and the like
Configurated into _Shields_, _Triumphal Arches_, _Gates_,
_Pillasters_, _Scollopshells_, _Mullets_, _Fans_, _Snakes_,
_Serpents_, _Sun Beams_, _Gorgon's Heads_, the _Waves of the Ocean_,
_Stars_ and _Garters_, and in the middle of all, _Pillars_ of _Pikes_,
and turn'd _Pillars_ of _Pistols_; and at the end of the _Wilderness_,
fire Arms plac'd in the Order of a great _Organ_.' Coming thence, he
noticed the Tower rooks, as he called those men who asked 'Whether you
will see the Crown, the whole Regalia or the King's Marching Train of
Artillery?' He would have none of them, but went with a warder into
the armoury proper, where he 'View'd the Princely Scare crows, and he
told us to whom each Suit of Armour did belong Originally, adding some
short Memorandums out of History, to every empty Iron side; some True,
some False, supplying that with Invention, which he wanted in Memory.'
He would not see the Regalia, but got a description of it from the
warder, 'and so Cozened the Keeper of our Eighteen Pence a piece.' The
warder told them 'there was a Royal Crown, and a new one made for the
Coronation of the late Queen _Mary_, and three others wore by his
Majesty with Distinct Robes, upon several occasions; also the Salt
Spoons, Forks and Cups, us'd at the Coronation.' Altogether, a visit
to the Tower then very much resembled one nowadays.

As to the tombs at Westminster, what more do we want to know about
them, as they then were, than what is contained in _Spectator_ No. 26,
where Addison grumbles at Sir Cloudesley Shovel's monument, 'Instead
of the brave rough English Admiral, which was the distinguishing
Character of that plain gallant Man, he is represented on his Tomb, by
the Figure of a Beau, dress'd in a long Perriwig, and reposing himself
upon Velvet Cushions under a Canopy of State? 'And for all else in the
grand old abbey, have we not the lifelike description of Sir Roger's
visit?[339] how he saw Jacob's pillar, sat in the Coronation Chair,
handled Edward the Third's sword, and afterwards wanted the Spectator
to call on him 'at his Lodgings in _Norfolk Buildings_, and talk over
these Matters with him more at leisure.' It would be a literary
profanity to deal with them except in their entirety.

          [Footnote 339: _Spectator._]

But the lions, the tombs, and Bedlam could never be sufficient
recreative pabulum for a large city, so there were outlets for the
exuberance of their spirits in the three fairs, Bartholomew, May fair,
and Southwark. Bartholomew fair stands pre-eminent, both for its
antiquity, its size, and length of duration. In Anne's time it was no
longer the great mart for cloth it used to be--and the fair was given
over to rioting and unlimited licence. This fair is a most congenial
subject for Ward's pen, and he gives it free range--too free, alas!
for many extracts. He describes the entrance to it as a '_Belfegor's_
Concert, the rumbling of _Drums_, mix'd with the intolerable Squalling
of _Cat Calls_ and _Penny Trumpets_,' so, to get out of the noise and
smell, prominent in which latter was 'the Singeing of Pigs, and burnt
Crackling of over Roasted Pork' (which was a specialty in the fair),
he turned into an ale house, where he had doctored beer, and was so
annoyed by a waiter, who would constantly inquire, 'Do you call,
sirs?' that he threatened to kick him downstairs. From this upper
room he could see the booths, and note the humours of the fair: the
mock finery of the actors, who were 'strutting round their Balconies
in their Tinsey Robes, and Golden Leather Buskins;' and the sorry
buffoonery of the Merry Andrews. Having rested, he sallied forth into
the fair, saw the rope-dancers, one of whom was a negress, who set a
countryman near Ward into fits of laughter, which he explained:
'Master, says he, I have oftentimes heard of the Devil upon two
Sticks, but never Zee it bevore in me Life. Bezide, Maister, who can
forbear Laughing to see the Devil going to Dance?' He speaks in high
terms of the German rope-dancer, of whom Lauron gives two portraits.
He then went into a booth to see 'a Dwarf _Comedy_, Sir-nam'd a
_Droll_,' but does not seem to have cared much about it. He and his
friend then refreshed themselves with 'a Quart of Fill-birds, and Eat
each of us two Penny worth of Burgamy Pears,' and witnessed another
performance. They then needed solid food, so determined to have a
quarter of a pig (sucking pig of course), and made their way to Pye
Corner, 'where Cooks stood dripping at their Doors, like their Roasted
Swine's Flesh,' but the total absence of cleanliness in the cookery
was so repulsive, that they had to forego the luxury.

After undergoing the certain penalty of having his handkerchief
stolen, he went to see another droll, the plot of which seems to have
been perfectly inexplicable, and he came to the conclusion that
'_Bartholomew Fair Drolls_ are like _State Fire Works_, they never do
any Body good, but those that are concern'd in the Show.' The wax-work
was then visited, and then they went to a music and dancing booth, in
which they not only had a most discordant instrumental concert, but
saw a woman 'Dance with Glasses full of Liquor upon the Backs of her
Hands, to which she gave Variety of Motions, without Spilling,' and a
youthful damsel perform a sword dance, which was succeeded by
'abundance of Insipid Stuff.' They got away, and passed by the
'Whirligigs,' went into a raffling shop, and the Groom Porter's, after
which he went to an alehouse to rest himself and smoke a pipe, and
finally went home, thoroughly tired.

This, then, was a true record of a visit to Bartholomew Fair, by the
aid of which we shall thoroughly appreciate the following
advertisements of the amusements there:--

'At the great Booth over against the Hospital Gate, during the time of
_Bartholomew Fair_ will be seen the Dancing on the Ropes, after the
French and Italian Fashion, by a Company of the finest Performers that
ever yet have been seen by the whole World. For in the same Booth will
be seen the two Famous French Maidens, so much admired in all Places
and Countries wherever they come (especially in _May fair_ last),
where they gain'd the highest Applause from all the Nobility and
Gentry, for their wonderful Performance on the Rope, both with and
without a Pole; so far out doing all others that have been seen of
their Sex, as gives a general Satisfaction to all that ever yet
beheld them. To which is added, Vaulting on the High Rope, and
Tumbling on the Stage. As also Vaulting on two Horses, on the great
Stage, at once. The Stage being built after the Italian manner, on
which you will see the Famous _Scaramouch_ and _Harlequin_. With
several other Surprizing Entertainments, too tedious here to mention.
Perform'd by the greatest Masters now in _Europe_. The like never seen
before in _England_.'

Rope-dancing was evidently very popular, for there is another booth,
in which Blondin is outdone. 'It is there you will see the Italian
Scaramouch dancing on the Rope, with a Wheel Barrow before him with
two Children and a Dog in it, and with a Duck on his Head; who sings
to the Company, and causes much laughter.' And yet one more, for it
introduces us to the most famous rope-dancer of the reign--'Lady
Mary.' 'Her Majesty's Company of Rope Dancers. At Mr. Barnes and
Finly's Booth, between the Hospital Gate and the Crown Tavern,
opposite the Cross Daggers, during the usual time of Bartholomew Fair,
are to be seen the most famous Rope dancers in Europe. And 1st. 2
young Maidens, lately arrived from France, Dance with and without a
Pole to admiration. 2. The Famous Mr. Barnes, of whose performances
this Kingdom is so sensible, Dances with 2 Children at his Feet, and
with Boots and Spurs. 3. Mrs. Finly distinguished by the name of Lady
Mary for her incomparable Dancing, has much improv'd herself since the
last Fair.' Lady Mary is frequently mentioned in contemporary
literature, and on one occasion is alluded to 'as little dressed as
Lady Mary.' This probably arose from her dispensing with petticoats in
dancing. The German rope-dancer, immortalised by Lauron, is dressed in
a fine frilled Holland shirt, trunk hose, and tights--in fact, the
usual acrobatic dress; and Ward notices two dancers, 'who, to show
their Affection to the Breeches wor'em under their Petticoats; which,
for decency's sake, they first Danc'd in; But they doft their
Petticoats after a gentle breathing.' This probably accounts for the
caustic remark in the _Spectator_ (No. 51), 'The Pleasantry of
stripping almost Naked has been since practised (where indeed it
should have begun) very successfully at _Bartholomew_ Fair.'

There were, also, natural curiosities to be seen. 'At the next Door to
the Sign of the _Greyhound_ in _Smithfield_, is to be shown (by Her
Majesty's Order) a Wonderful and Miraculous Sight, a Male Child which
was born in _Garnsey_ of the body of _Rebecca Secklin_, and now sucks
at her Breasts, being but Thirty Weeks old, with a prodigious big
Head, being above a yard about, and hath been shown to several Persons
of Quality.'

'_By Her Majesties Authority._ At the Hart's Horn's Inn in Pye Corner,
during the time of Bartholomew Fair, will be seen these strange
Rarities following, _viz._ A Little _Farey Woman_, lately come from
_Italy_, being but Two Foot Two Inches high, the shortest that ever
was seen in _England_, and no ways Deform'd, as the other two Women
are, that are carried about the Streets in Boxes from House to House,
for some years past, this being Thirteen Inches shorter than either of
them; if any Person has a desire to see her at their own Houses, we
are ready to wait upon them any Hour of the Day.

'Likewise a little _Marmazet_ from _Bengal_ that dances the _Cheshire
Rounds_,[340] and Exercises at the Word of Command. Also a strange
Cock from _Hamborough_, having Three proper Legs, Two Fundaments, and
makes use of them both at one time. Vivat Reginæ' (_sic_).

          [Footnote 340: See Appendix.]

'Next Door to the Golden Hart in West Smithfield, between the Hospital
Gate and Pye Corner during the time of Bartholomew Fair, is to be seen
the Admirable Work of Nature, a Woman having three Breasts; and each
of them affording Milk at one time or differently, according as they
are made use of. There is likewise to be seen the Daughter of the same
Woman, which hath breasts of the like Nature, according to her Age;
and there never hath been any extant of such sort, which is wonderful
to all that ever did, or shall behold her.'

Theatrical performances naturally took a prominent part; for the two
theatres shut up during Fair time, and Mills, Doggett, and Penkethman,
all fair actors, and belonging to the regular stage, had booths here,
and did well; in fact, Penkethman became wealthy. As Ward
remarks[341]: 'After struggling with a Long See-Saw, between _Pride_
and _Profit_; and having Prudently consider'd the weighty difference
between the Honourable Title of one of His _Majesties Servants_, and
that of a _Bartholomew Fair Player_, a _Vagabond_ by the Statue, did
at last, with much difficulty, conclude, That it was equally Reputable
to Play the Fool in the _Fair_ for Fifteen or Twenty Shillings a Day,
as 'twas to please Fools in the _Play House_ at so much a week.'

          [Footnote 341: _London Spy._]

At Parker's Booth was played the Famous History of Dorastus and
Fawnia, 'With very pleasant Dialogues and Antick Dances.'

'Never Acted before. At Miller's Booth, over against the Cross
Daggers, near the Crown Tavern, during the time of Bartholomew Fair
will be presented an Excellent new Droll call'd

     'The Tempest, or the Distressed Lovers,

     With the English HERO and the Highland Princess, with the Comical
     Humours of the Inchanted Scotchman, or Jockey and the three
     Witches. Shewing how a Nobleman of England was cast away upon the
     Indian Shore, and in his Travels found the Princess of the
     Country, with whom he fell in Love, and after many Dangers and
     Perils, was married to her; and his faithful Scotchman, who was
     saved with him, travelling thorow Woods, fell in among Witches,
     where between 'em is abundance of Comical Diversion. There in the
     Tempest, is Neptune with his Tritons in his Chariot drawn with
     Sea Horses and Mairmaids singing. With Variety of Entertainments,
     Performed by the best Masters; the Particulars would be too
     tedious to be inserted here. Vivat Regina.'

There seems to have been another version of this play, which, after
all, was only a travesty of Shakespeare's 'Tempest.'

     'At Doggett's Booth, Hosier Lane End, during the Time of
     Bartholomew Fair, will be presented a New Droll, called the
     Distress'd Virgin, or Unnatural Parents, Being a True History of
     the Fair Maid of the West; or The Loving Sisters. With the
     Comical Travels of Poor Trusty in search of his Master's
     Daughter, and his encounter with Three Witches.

     'Also Variety of Comick Dances and Songs, with Scenes and
     Machines never seen before--Vivat Regina.'

In the next advertisement we see three of 'Her Majesty's Servants'
combine in keeping a booth in the Fair.

  'At Pinkeman's, Mills', and Bullock's Booth,

     In the Old Place over against the Hospital Gate, During the time
     of Bartholomew Fair will be presented, A New Droll call'd

  'The Siege of Barcelona, or the Soldier's Fortune,
  With the taking of Fort Mount jouy,

     Containing the Pleasant and Comical Exploits of that Renown'd
     Hero Captain Blunderbuss and his Man Squib; His Adventures with
     the Conjuror; and a Surprizing Scene of the Flying Machine, where
     he and his Man Squib are Enchanted; Also the Diverting Humour of
     Corporal Scare Devil.

  'The Principal Parts Acted by the Comedians of the
  Theatre Royal,


  Colonel Lovewell                 Mr. Mills.
  Captain Blunderbuss              Mr. Bullock.
  Squib, his Man                   Mr. Norris, alias Jubilee Dicky.[342]
  Corporal Scare Devil             Mr. Bickerstaff.
  Maria, the Governor's Daughter   Mrs. Baxter.
  The Dame of Honour               Mrs. Willis.

          [Footnote 342: So called because in 1699 he played the part
          of Dicky in Farquhar's _Constant Couple, or a Trip to the

'To which will be added the Wonderful Performance of the most
celebrated Master, Mr. Simpson the famous Vaulter; Who has had the
Honour to teach most of the Nobility in England; and at whose request
he now performs with Mr. Pinkeman to let the World see what Vaulting
is. Being lately arrived from Italy.

'The Musick, Songs and Dances are all by the best Performers of their
kind, whom Mr. Pinkeman has Entertained at extraordinary Charge,
purely to give a full Satisfaction to the Town. Vivat Regina.'

'At _Ben Johnson's_ BOOTH (by Mrs. Mynn's Company of Actors). In the
Rounds in _Smithfield_, during the FAIR, Will be presented an
excellent Entertainment, being the Famous History of WHITTINGTON, Lord
MAYOR of LONDON: Wherein besides the Variety of SONGS and DANCES, will
be shown an extraordinary View of several stately and surprising
SCENES; as a Rowling Sea, bearing a large Ship under Sayl, with
_Neptune_, Mermaids, Dolphins, &c. Also a Prospect of a _Moorish_
Country, so swarming with Rats and Mice, that they over run the King
and Queen's Table at Dinner; Likewise a large diverting SCENE of
Tapestry, fill'd with all living Figures; and lastly, concluding with
a _Lord Mayor's_ Triumph, in which are presented nine several
Pageants, being Six Elephants and Castles, a Magnificent Temple, and
two Triumphal Chariots, one drawn by two Lyons, and the other by two
Dolphins; in all which are seated above twenty Persons in various
Dresses; with Flaggs, Scutcheons, Streamers, &c. The Preparation and
Decoration of which infinitely exceed both in Expence and Grandeur,
all that has ever been seen on a Stage in the FAIR. _The Chief Parts
are performed by Actors from both Theatres._ Vivat Regina.'

Here we see a departure from the old drolls, and a reliance on the
part of the management on mechanical and spectacular effects: besides
which, there was the puppet show, pure and simple. 'By Her Majesties
Permission. At HEATLY'S Booth, Over against the _Cross Daggers_, next
to Mr. _Miller's Booth_; During the time of _Bartholomew Fair_, will
be presented a _Little_ Opera, Call'd, The Old _Creation of the World_
Newly Reviv'd, With the Addition of the Glorious _Battle_ obtained
over the _French_ and _Spaniards_, by his Grace the _Duke_ of
_Marlborough_. The Contents are these--

     '1. The Creation of _Adam_ and _Eve_.

     '2. The Intreagues of _Lucifer_ in the Garden of _Eden_.

     '3. _Adam_ and _Eve_ driven out of Paradice.

     '4. _Cain_ going to Plow. _Abel_ driving Sheep.

     '5. _Cain_ Killeth his Brother _Abel_.

     '6. _Abraham_ Offering his Son _Isaac_.

     '7. Three Wisemen of the _East_ guided by a Star, who Worship

     '8. _Joseph_ and _Mary_ flee away by Night upon an _Ass_.

     '9. King _Herod's_ Cruelty, his _Men's_ spears _laden_ with

     '10. Rich _Dives_ invites his _Friends_, and orders his Porter to
     keep the Beggars from his Gate.

     '11. Poor _Lazarus_ comes a begging at Rich _Dives's_ Gate, the
     Dogs lick his Sores.

     '12. The good Angel and Death contend for Lazarus's Life.

     '13. Rich _Dives_ is taken Sick and dieth, he is buried in great

     '14. Rich _Dives_ in Hell, and _Lazarus_ in _Abraham's_ Bosom,
     seen in a most glorious Object, all in machines, descending in a
     Throne, Guarded with multitudes of Angels, with the Breaking of
     the Clouds, discovering the Palace of the Sun, in double and
     treble Prospects, to the Admiration of all Spectators. Likewise
     several Rich and Large Figures, which Dances _Jiggs_,
     _Sarabrands_, Anticks, and Country _Dances_, between every Act;
     compleated with the merry Humours of Sir John Spendall, and
     _Punchanello_, with several other things never yet Expos'd.
     Perform'd by Mat Heatly. Vivat Regina.'

This show seems to have been popular, for in another fair we have it
again with variations: 'At _Crawly's_ Booth, over against the _Crown
Tavern_ in _Smithfield_ during the time of _Bartholomew Fair_, will be
presented a little _Opera_ call'd, _The Old Creation of the World_,
yet newly reviv'd, with the addition of _Noah's Flood_; also several
Fountains playing Water during the time of the Play.

'The last Scene does present _Noah_ and his _Family_ coming out of the
Ark, with all the Beasts, two by two, and all the _Fowls_ of the Air
seen in a Prospect sitting upon the Trees. Likewise over the Ark is
seen the Sun rising in a most glorious manner, moreover a multitude of
Angels will be seen in a double rank, which presents a double
prospect, one for the Sun, the other for a Palace, where will be seen
six Angels, ringing six Bells.

'Likewise Machines descends from above, double and trible, with
_Dives_ rising out of Hell, and _Lazarus_ seen in _Abraham's_ bosom,
besides several _Figures_ dancing _Jiggs_, _Sarabrands_, and _Country
Dances_, to the Admiration of all Spectators; with the merry Conceit
of Squire _Punch_ and Sir _John Spendall_.

'All this is compleated with an Entertainment of Singing and Dancing
with several Naked Swords, Perform'd by a Child of Eight Years of Age,
to the general Satisfaction of all Persons. Vivat Regina.'

As a specimen of the dancing booth Ward visited, take the following
handbill: 'James Miles, From _Sadler's_ Wells, at _Islington_; NOW
keeps the GUN MUSICK BOOTH, in _Bartholomew_ Fair. Whereas Mr. _Miles_
by his Care and Diligence to oblige the Gentry, and all others that
are Lovers and Judges of good Musick, has put himself to an
extraordinary Charge, in getting such Performers, as, no doubt, will
give a general Satisfaction to all. This is also to give Notice to all
Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, That they may be accommodated with all
Sorts of Wine, and other Liquors; with several extraordinary
Entertainments of Singing and Dancing, which was never perform'd at
the Fair, viz.:--

     '1. A New Dance between Three Bullies and Three Quakers.

     '2. A New Dance between Two Spirits and Two Scaramouches.

     '3. A New Dance between Four Swans and Four _Indians_ riding on
     their Backs.

     '4. A Wrestler's Dance, performed by Two Youths.

     '5. Likewise Dancing on the Tight Rope, and a Young Man that
     Vaults the Slack Rope, with variety of Tumbling.

     '6. A New Dance of Eight Granadiers, who perform the whole
     Exercise of War, in their proper Accoutrements, to the just Time
     of Musick.

     '7. A New Scotch Dance, with their Habits and Bonnets, perform'd
     by Two Boys, to Admiration.

     '8. A New Entertainment between a Scaramouch, a Harliquin, and a
     Punchanello in Imitation of Bilking a Reckoning.

     '9. A New Cane Chair Dance by Eight Persons.

     '10. A New Dance by Four Scaramouches, after the _Italian_

     '11. A New Dance by a Scaramouch and a Country Farmer.

     '12. A New Swan's Dance, perform'd by Four young Lads, to the
     Amazement of all Spectators.

     '13. We shall also present you with the Wonder of her Sex, a
     young Woman who dances with the Swords, and upon the Ladder, with
     that Variety, that she challenges all her Sex to do the like.

     '14. A Cripples Dance by Six Persons with Wooden Legs and
     Crutches in Imitation of a Jovial Crew.

     '15. A Posture Dance, perform'd by Eight Persons.

     '16. A Dance by Six Men, wherein Two Coopers, Two Grinder and Two
     Butchers perform everything natural to their Trades.

     '17. The _Vigo_ Dance, perform'd by an _English_ Man, a _Dutch_
     Man, a _French_ Man, and a _Spaniard_.

     '18. A Blacksmith's Dance.

     '19. A Tinker's Dance; together with other extraordinary
     Entertainments too long to be inserted. Vivat Regina.'

There was a famous Merry Andrew who used to act for Pinkethman, and
who, at other times, followed the vocation of a Horse Doctor. There is
a very curious elegy upon him, still extant[343]:--

          [Footnote 343: _Harl. MSS._, 5931, 251.]

  That us'd to visit _Smithfield_ or _May Fair_,
  To pertake of the Lewdness that is acted there;
  T' oblige the Mobb, that did some Pastime lack,
  He'd _Merry Andrew_ turn; and name of Quack
  Forsake a Fortnight, then that time expir'd
  The name of _Doctor_ was again acquir'd.

Occasionally there were rather more refined exhibitions, but they were
very rare. Here is one, 'In the first Booth on the left Hand from the
Hospital Gate, over against the Royal Oak Lottery, in Bartholomew
Fair, from 9 o'clock in the Morning till 9 at Night, will be exposed
to publick View, all the most valuable wrought Plate taken by her
Majesties Fleet at Vigo. Having been first Lodged in the Tower and
never exposed before but in the Tower, viz., a fine large Altar Piece
with 6 Angels at full proportion, standing round on Pedestals, 4
Apostles supporting the 4 pillars, and 4 Angels attending them, with
each a lamp for Incence in their Hands, also a Crown set with Valuable
Stones, a Holy Water Pot garnish'd with Curious Fillegrin Work, and a
great many other extraordinary Curiosities of Gilt and Fillegrin
Plate, all brought from Vigo. The like never seen in England before.
Price 6_d._'

Bartholomew Fair began on August 24 of each year, being St.
Bartholomew's Day, and lasted fourteen days. In 1691 and 1694 it was
reduced to the old term of three days, and in 1697, 1700, and 1702
stage plays were prohibited in the fair. The revenue derived from it
formed part of the income of the Lord Mayor, and in 1697 a proposal
was made to allow the Lord Mayor 4,000_l._ a year for the maintenance
of his office, and abolish his perquisites; when Bartholomew Fair was
valued at 100_l._ per annum.

On June 2, 1708, 'the Common Council of this City Mett, and the lease
for holding Bartholomew Fair expiring the 11th of August, agreed, That
for the future none should be kept for Stage Plays, raffling Shops &c.
which tend to debauchery; but only 3 dayes for the sale of leather and
Cattle, according to its antient custome.'[344] The raffling shops
were clearly illegal, for the same writer says, October 11, 1705:
'Yesterday the grand jury found bills of indictment against all those
persons who kept raffling shops in the Cloysters during Bartholomew
fair.' But all the legislation in the world was impotent to put down
this fair, until, in this century, public opinion as to the expedience
of fairs was changed, and 'Bartlemy' fair was proclaimed for the last
time in 1855.

          [Footnote 344: Luttrell.]

May Fair, or, as it was originally called, St. James's Fair, was of
old date, as Machyn mentions it in his 'Diary for 1560.' Pepys, also,
calls it by the latter name when he speaks of it: its name of _May_
fair was comparatively recent, and was, of course, owing to its being
held in that month. It was held on the north side of Piccadilly, and
seems to have had even a more evil repute than Bartholomew Fair. The
_Observator_ says: 'Can any rational men imagine that her Majesty
would permit so much lewdness as is committed in May Fair, for so many
days together, so near to her royal Palace, if she knew anything about
the matter?' Anyhow the fair flourished during the major portion of
Anne's reign.

The shows were very much like those at the larger fair. Here is one in
1702: 'At MILLER'S Booth in _May Fair_, the Second Booth on the Right
Hand coming into the Fair, over against the Famous Mr. Barnes the Rope
Dancer, will be presented an Excellent Droll, call'd _Crispin_ and
_Crispianus_; or a Shoemaker a Prince. With the Comical Humours of
Barrady and the Shoemaker's Wife. With the best Machines, Singing and
Dancing, ever yet in the Fair. Where the Famous Ladder Dancer performs
those things upon the Ladder never before seen, to the Admiration of
all Men. Vivat Regina.'

'Lady Mary' was at the same fair, and advertises herself by means of a
disclaimer: 'Whereas it hath been maliciously reported that Mrs.
Finley, who for her incomparable Dancing on the Rope, is unwillingly
distinguish'd by the Name of the Lady Mary, was Dead; This is to
inform all Persons, That the said Report is Notoriously false, she now
being in Mr. Barnes's and Finley's Booth, over against Mr. Pinkethman
and Mr. Simson's, next to Mr. Mills, and Mr. Bullock's in May Fair,'
&c. And she was there again in 1704: 'At Mr. Finley and Mr. Barnes's
Booth, During the time of May Fair, will be seen a Compleat Company of
near 20 of the best Rope Dancers, Vaulters and Tumblers in Europe, who
are all excellent in their several Performances, and do such wonderful
and surprizing things, as the whole World cannot parallel; where
Finley, who gave that extraordinary satisfaction before Charles III.
King of Spain on Board the Royal Katherine, performs several new
entertainments, and where the Lady Mary, likewise shows such additions
to her former admirable perfections, as renders her the wonder of the
whole world.' She was very popular, as Pinkethman somewhat bitterly
remarks in the 'Epilogue to the Bath' (acted at Drury Lane, 1701),
where he says he made grimaces to empty benches, while Lady Mary had
carried all before her:--

     Gadzooks, what signified my Face?

This, however, did not prevent Pinkethman from going there again; for
in 1704 he issued the following advertisement: 'In Brookfield
Marketplace at the East corner of Hide Park, is a Fair to be kept for
the space of Sixteen days, beginning the First of May: The first three
days for Live Cattle and Leather, with the same Entertainment as at
Bartholomew Fair, where there are shops to be Lett ready built, for
all manner of Tradesmen that usually keep Fairs; and so to continue
yearly at the same Time and place; being a Free Fair; and no person to
be arrested or molested during the Time of this Fair by Virtue of Pye
Powder Court. And at Mr. Pinkeman's Droll Booth will be performed
several Entertainments which will be expressed at large upon the
Bills, especially one very surprizing that the whole World never yet
produced the like, viz, He speaks an Epilogue upon an Elephant between
Nine and Ten Foot high arriv'd from Guinea, led upon the Stage by Six
Blacks. The Booth is easily known by the Picture of the Elephant and
Mr. Pinkethman sitting in State on his back, on the outside of his
Booth. Any body that wants Ground for Shops or Booths, may hire it of
Mr. Pinkeman, enquire at the Bull Head in Brookfield Market, alias May

He was there again in 1707. 'At Pinkeman's Booth in May Fair, to
entertain the Quality, Gentry, and others, he has got Eight Dancing
Doggs, brought from Holland, which are Admir'd by all that see them:
and they will dance upon Mr. Pinkeman's Stage in each Show. This
Extraordinary Charge he's at (in procuring these Doggs) is purely to
divert the Town. They are the Wonder of the World, The last Show
beginning between 8 & 9 a Clock for the Entertainment of the Quality,
as the Park breaks up.'

There was another theatrical company: 'At the NEW PLAY HOUSE in MAY
FAIR, During the time of the FAIR will be play'd, the True and Ancient
Story of MAUDLIN _the Merchants Daughter of_ BRISTOL _and her lover_
ANTONIO. How they were Cast away in a Tempest upon the Coast of
_Barbary_; where the Mermaids were seen floating on the Seas, and
Singing on the Rocks, foretelling their danger. The DROLL intermingled
with most delightful merry Comedy, after the manner of an OPERA, with
extraordinary variety of Singing and Dancing: By his Grace the Duke of
_Southampton's_ Servants. _The Place will be Known by the Balcone
adorn'd with Blue Pillars twisted with Flowers._ Vivat Regina.'

May Fair boasted of its natural curiosities, as the two following
advertisements testify: 'Near Hide Park Corner during the Time of May
Fair, near the Sheep pens over against Mr. Penkethman's Booth; Is to
be seen the Wonder of the World in Nature, being a Mail Child born
with a Bear growing on its Back alive, to the great Admiration of all
Spectators, having been shown before most of the Nobility of the

'By Her Majesties Permission. This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen,
Ladies and others, that coming into May Fair, the first Booth on the
left Hand, over against Mr. Pinkeman's Booth; During the usual time of
the Fair, is to be seen, a great Collection of Strange and Wonderful
Rarities, all Alive from several parts of the World.

'A little Black Man lately brought from the West Indies, being the
Wonder of this Age, he being but 3 Foot high and 25 Years Old.

'Likewise 2 Wood Monsters from the East Indies, Male and Female, being
the Admirablest Creaturs that ever was seen in this Kingdom; they
differ from all Creaturs whatsoever, and are so Wonderful in Nature
that it is too large to insert here.

'Also a little Marmoset from the East Indies, which by a great deal of
Pains is now brought to that perfection, that no Creature of his Kind
ever perform'd the like; he Exercises by Word of Command, he dances
the Cheshire Rounds, he also dances with 2 Naked Swords, and performs
several other Pretty Fancies. Likewise a Noble Civet Cat from Guiny
which is admir'd for his Beauty, and that incomparable Scent, which
Perfumes the whole Place. Also a Muntosh from Rushy, being very
Wonderfully Marked.

'Also a Helliscope from Argier, being the Beautifuls Creature in all
the World; specked like a Leopard. Vivat Regina.'

The 'London Spy' would be incomplete without an account of a scene so
congenial as May Fair, so of course he visited it; but it does not
appear to have vied in any degree with Bartholomew Fair. 'We ordered
the Coach to drive thro' the Body of the Fair that we might have the
better View of the Tinsey Heroes and the gazing Multitude; expecting
to have seen several Corporations of Strolling Vagabonds, but there
prov'd but one Company, amongst whom Merry _Andrew_ was very busie in
coaxing the attentive Crowd into a good Opinion of his Fraternitie's
and his own Performances; and when with abundance of Labour, Sweat,
and Nonsense he had drawn a great cluster of the Mob on his Parade,
and was just beginning to encourage them to _Walk in and take their
Places_; his unlucky opposite, whose boarded Theatre entertain'd the
Publick with the wonderful activity of some little _Indian_ Rope
Dancers, brings out a couple of Chattering _Homunculusses_, drest up
in _Scaramouch_ Habit; and every thing that Merry _Andrew_ and his
Second did on the one side, was mimick'd by the little Flat nos'd
Comedians on the other, till the two Diminutive Buffoons, by their
Comical Gestures had so prevail'd upon the gaping Throng, that tho'
Merry _Andrew_ had taken pains, with all the wit he had to collect the
Stragling Rabble into their proper order, yet like an unmannerly
Audience, they turn'd their Backs upon the _Players_, and devoted
themselves wholly to the Monkeys, to the great vexation of _Tom Fool_
and all the Strutting train of imaginary Lords and Ladies. At last
comes an Epitome of a Careful Nurse, drest up in a Country Jacket, and
under her Arm a Kitten for a Nurslin, and in her contrary hand a piece
of Cheese; down sits the little Matron with a very Motherly
Countenance, and when her Youngster _Mew'd_, she Dandled him, and
Rock'd him in her Arms, with as great signs of Affection as a loving
Mother could well shew to a disorder'd Infant; then bites a piece of
the Cheese, and after she had mumbled it about in her own Mouth, then
thrust it with her Tongue into the Kitten's. Just as I have seen some
Nasty Old Sluts feed their Grandchildren.'

The other shows in the fair seem to have been very poor: two or three
dancing booths, a puppet show, 'a Turkey Ram, with as much Wooll upon
his Tail as would load a Wheelbarrow,' and a couple of tigers, were
all Ward could find worth recording.

The fair was disorderly, and in 1702 an incident occurred which
materially assisted its downfall. 'Westminster, May 16. The Constables
of this Liberty being more than ordinary vigilant in the discharge of
their duty, since the coming forth of her Majesty's pious Proclamation
again Vice and Debauchery, and having in pursuance thereof taken up
several Lewd Women in May Fair, in order to bring them to Justice,
were opposed therein by several rude Soldiers, one of whom is
committed to Prison, and the rest are diligently enquired after.'[345]
In fact among them they managed to kill a constable, named John
Cooper--for which murder a fencing-master named Cook was afterwards
hanged at Tyburn; and, although the fair lingered a few years longer,
yet it became such a nuisance that in November 1708 the Grand Jury of
Westminster 'did present as a publick Nuisance and Inconvenience, the
yearly riotous and tumultuous Assembly in a place called _Brook
Field_, in the Parish of _St. Martins in the Fields_, in this County,
called _May Fair_.'[346]

          [Footnote 345: _Postman_, May 14/16, 1702.]

          [Footnote 346: _Stow's Survey_, ed. 1720.]

This was the beginning of its end, and 1708 saw the last of the fair.
'Saturday 30 April 1709. Yesterday was published a proclamation by her
Majestie, prohibiting the erecting or making use of any booths or
stalls in Mayfair, for any plays, shows, gaming, musick meetings, or
other disorderly assemblies.'[347] That this had been expected is
shown by Steele, writing on April 18, 1709. 'Advices from the upper
end of Piccadilly say, that May Fair is utterly abolished.'[348]

          [Footnote 347: Luttrell.]

          [Footnote 348: _Tatler_, No. 4.]

The _Tatler_ (No. 21) makes merry over its downfall, and says, 'if any
lady or gentleman have occasion for a tame elephant, let them enquire
of Mr. Pinkethman, who has one to dispose of at a reasonable rate. The
downfall of May-fair has quite sunk the price of this noble Creature,
as well as of many other Curiosities of Nature. A tiger will sell
almost as cheap as an ox; and I am Credibly informed, a man may
purchase a cat with three legs, for very near the value of one with
four. I hear likewise that there is a great desolation among the
gentlemen and ladies who were the ornaments of the town, and used to
shine in plumes and diadems; the heroes being most of them pressed,
and the queens beating hemp.'

There was also a fair at Southwark, but of this very little mention is
made in the newspapers or handbills. It was an old one, dating from
1492, and was founded by a Charter granted by Edward IV., to hold a
fair 'for three days, that is to say, the 7th, 8th, 9th days of
September to be holden, together with a Court of Pie Powders, and with
all the liberties to such Fairs appertaining.' It used to be opened
with some degree of state by the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, and was
generally called 'Our Lady's Fair.'

The indefatigable public caterer, Pinkethman, was there, in 1704, with
'the same Company that was at Bartholomew Fair over against the
Hospital Gate, particularly the two famous French Maidens, and the
Indian Woman; and also Italian Interludes of Scaramouch and Harlequin,
by those two Great Masters of their kind Mr. Sorine and Mr. Baxter;
and likewise extraordinary Performances on the Manag'd Horse by the
famous Mr. Evans and Mr. Baxter, who both perform several new things
in their Way. And also Mr. Evans walks on the Slack Rope, and throws
himself a Somerset through a Hogshead hanging eight Foot high, with
several other Entertainments too tedious to insert here.'

In 1705 'the two famous French Maidens the Lady Isabella and her
Sister,' again attended the fair, accompanied by 'the Famous Mr. Luly,
who walks on the Slack Rope without a Pole, and stands upon one Legg
distinctly playing a tune on the violin; and likewise turns himself
round on the Rope with as much freedom as if on the Ground.'

An old friend was also there, 'The Whole Story of the Creation of the
World, or Paradise lost,' but seemingly its sole attraction was not
sufficient, for it was accompanied by 'The Ball of _Little Dogs_ come
from _Lovain_, which performs, by their cunning tricks, Wonders in the
World by Dancing. You shall see one of them named _Marquis of
Gaillardin_, whose Dexterity is not to be compared; he dances with
Mrs. _Poncette_ his Mistress, and the rest of their Company at the
sound of Instruments; observes so well the Cadance, that they amaze
every Body. They have danced in most of the Courts of _Europe_,
especially before the Queen and most of the Quality of _England_. They
are carried to Persons of Qualities Houses if required. They stay but
a little while in this Place. They give a General Satisfaction to all
People that see them.'

Here also was to be seen the English Sampson, William Joyce, described
by Ward as 'the _Southwark Sampson_, who breaks Carmens Ribs with a
Hug, snaps Cables like Twine Thread, and throws Dray Horses upon their
backs, with as much Ease as a _Westphalia Hog_ can crack a Cocoa Nut.'
When he exhibited before William III., he lifted 1 ton and 14-1/2 lbs.
of lead, tied a very strong rope round him to which was attached a
strong horse, which, although whipped, failed to move him: this rope
he afterwards snapped like pack thread. 'We are credibly inform'd that
the said Mr. _Joyce_ pulled up a Tree of near a Yard and a half
Circumference by the Roots at _Hamstead_ on _Tuesday_ last in the open
View of some Hundreds of People, it being modestly computed to Weigh
near 2000 weight.'



     The Lincolnshire ox -- The large hog -- The whale -- Monkeys and
     wild beasts -- 'The Lest Man and Hors in the World' -- Performing
     horse -- Dwarfs and giants -- Human curiosities -- Helen and
     Judith -- Conjurors -- Posture masters -- Mr. Clinch -- Waxwork
     -- Mrs. Salmon, etc. -- Westminster Abbey wax-figures -- Powell's
     puppets -- Moving pictures -- Glass-blowing -- Miraculous
     fountain -- Winstanley -- His waterworks -- The four Indian

But it must not be imagined that these fairs monopolised all the
rarities and natural curiosities. On the contrary, there were plenty
on exhibition elsewhere, as we shall see. 'This is to give Notice to
all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, that the Great Ox that hath been so
long talk'd of, and that hath been in the News so often, is now come
to _London_, and is to be seen any Hour of the Day, at the _White
Horse Inn_ in _Fleet Street_, at the same place where the great
_Elephant_ was seen. This Large and Famous Beast, otherwise called the
True _Lincolnshier_ Ox, is Nineteen Hands High, and Four Yards Long,
from his Face to his Rump, and never was Calv'd nor never Suckt, and
two Years ago was no bigger than another Ox, but since is grown to
this Prodigious Bigness. This Noble Beast was lately shown at the
University of _Cambridge_, with great Satisfaction to all that saw
him. The like Beast for Bigness was never seen in the World before.
Vivat Reginæ' (_sic_). Other dimensions are given when it was
exhibited at May Fair. 'His shin being 36 inches round, and an Ell
broad from Huckle Bone to Huckle Bone across the Back.' The following
looks suspiciously like a newspaper puff: 'Yesterday the 17th Instant,
was proffer'd for the Great Lincolnshire Ox, 350 Guineas.'[349]

          [Footnote 349: _Daily Courant_, Nov. 28, 1703.]

Then there was a 'Large _Buckinghamshire_ Hog, above 10 Foot long; 13
Hands high; above 7 foot and a half round the Body; almost 5 Foot
round the Neck, and 18 inches round the fore Leg, above the Joynt.'
And 'At the White Horse in Fleet Street' could be seen the 'Wonderful
Worcestershire Mare 19 Hands high, curiously shaped, every way

These were native productions, and, although abnormal, could not
compete with rarities from foreign lands--especially with the whale,
_Vide Daily Courant_, September 15, 1712: 'There being last Week a
Royal Parmacitty Whale taken in the Thames, which is the noblest Fish
ever seen in England, the same will for the curiosity of Gentlemen,
&c., be exposed to view in a Barge near the Faulcon over against Black
Fryers at 2_d._ a piece.' It got rather odoriferous by keeping, so we
read in the _Daily Courant_ of September 22, that, 'the Royal Whale,
supposed to be the Spermacete so much admired, will be exposed to Sale
by Auction to-morrow at 4 o'clock.' Its purchaser is unknown, but we
hear of it again: 'We called at the Isle of Dogs to see the Skeleton
of a whale, forty-eight yards long, and thirty-five round.'[350]

          [Footnote 350: Diary of Ralph Thoresby, July 14, 1714.]

Of course there was no Zoological Society at that time, and the only
way of seeing foreign animals was by small private collections, which,
for want of capital, never contained any very rare specimens. Still,
it was something even to get this, and we must not forget that our own
Zoological collection is the work of the present century, and is an
example followed by scarcely any other town in England, where still,
as in the villages, people are dependent upon the travelling
menageries for any practical knowledge they may possess of the natural
history of any land other than their own. In London a permanent
collection of wild beasts, or at all events lions and tigers, had
existed at the Tower, where once was a white bear, which used, duly
fastened by a cord, to fish in the Thames; and we have seen that these
animals were one of the principal sights of the City.

'At the White Horse Inn in Fleet Street, any time of the Day or
Evening,' were to be seen '1. A little Black Hairy Pigmey, bred in the
Desarts of Arabia, a Natural Ruff of Hair about his Face, two Foot
high, walks upright, drinks a Glass of Ale or Wine, and does several
other things to admiration. 2. A Hyenna. 3. A Murino dear, one of the
seven Sleepers. 4. The Remark from the East Indies. 5. The Noble
Histix from the West Indies. 6. The little Whifler, admired for his
extraordinary Scent. 7. The Mock call, the Bird of Paradise.'

[Illustration: A Leopard.]

'To all Gentlemen and others, that are lovers of Rarieties. Are to be
seen divers sorts of Outlandish Beasts lately brought over, which,
altho by Nature feirce and Savage, are here to be seen very gentle and
tame, giving great Satisfaction to all the beholders. As first A
Leopard, a beast of excellent beauty, presented to an English Merchant
in Turkey by the king of the Arabs, as a particular mark of favour for
eminent Services performed, who for the Maintenance of it in its
voyage from Aleppo, gave One hundred and ninety of the best and
fattest fowls. Likewise two Dromedaries Male and Female, the Male
being the largest that ever was in England, being seven foot high, and
ten foot in length; his common burden is twelve hundredweight, with
which he travels 40 miles a day; there is also to be seen a Civet Cat
giveing a pleasant smell throughout the Room. Likewise a Wolf and
other wild beasts are there to be seen at any time of the day (all
being alive).'

A dromedary seems to have been considered a great curiosity, and the
following advertisement gives a wonderful description of it. 'By Her
Majesties Authority. Betwixt the _Queen's Head_ and _Crooked Billet_
near _Fleet Bridge_. This is to give notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies,
and others, that there is here to be seen, two strange wonderful and
remarkable monstrous Creatures, an old She _Dromodary_, being seven
foot high and ten foot long, lately arriv'd from _Tartary_, and her
young One, being the greatest Rarity and Novelty that ever was seen in
the three Kingdoms before. These Creatures is much admired above all
other _Creatures_ in their way of bringing forth their young, for they
go fourteen Months with young; these Creatures resemble several sorts
of Creatures, and yet but one at the last; they are headed like a
Horse, ey'd like an Ox, nos'd like a Deer, cloven Lipt like a Hare,
also neck'd like a Swan, and Tail'd like a Mule, and cloven footed
like a Cow, also the young Creature shewing several Actions by the
word of Command. Note also that Natural Dromodarys (as these be) are
the swiftest Creatures upon Earth: These Creatures are to be seen at
any hour of the day from eight in the Morning till nine at night.
Vivat Regina.'

'By Her Majesty's Authority. Is to be seen, the Hand of a Sea Monster
which was lately taken on the Coasts of _Denmark_; the whole Creature
was very large, and weigh'd (according to Computation) at least fifty
Tuns, and was seventy foot in length: His upper part resembled a Man;
from the middle downwards he was a Fish, &c. Likewise there is a Man
Teger, lately brought from the _East Indies_, a most strange and
wonderful Creature, the like never seen before in _England_, it being
of Seven several Colours, from the Head downwards resembling a Man,
its fore parts clear, and his hinder parts all Hairy; having a long
Head of Hair, and Teeth 2 or 3 Inches long; taking a Glass of Ale in
his hand like a Christian, Drinks it, also plays at Quarter Staff.
There is also a famous Porcupine, a Martin Drill, a Pecari from the
Deserts of Arabia, the Bone of a Giant above a Yard long, with several
other Monstrous Creatures too difficult to describe, all alive. This
is to give notice that the _Man Teger_ is removed from _Holborn Bars_
to the sign of the _George_ against the steps of _Upper More Fields_.
Vivat Regina.'

'This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, that are
Lovers of Ra-arities, that over against the _Muse Gate_, near
_Chairing Cross_, is to be seen the same Creature that was shown at
_Epsom_ and the _Bath_ all this Summer. This Noble Creature, which
much resembles a Wild _Hairy Man_, was lately taken in a Wood at
_Bengall_ in the _East Indies_, he Dances upon the strait Rope with a
Pole in his hands, he cuts Capers upon the Rope, and Dances true to
the Musick. Likewise this Creature walks the Steep Rope with a Pole in
his hands. He walks upon a small Slack Rope Swinging, at the same time
drinks a Glass of Ale, and all this is performed on a Rope no bigger
than a penny Cord; and swings on it, to the great Admiration of all
Spectators. He pulls off his Hat, and pays his Respects to the
Company, and smoaks a _Pipe of Tobacco_ as well as any Christian. This
Noble Creature flings a _Strapader_, and hangs by his Hands and his
Feet, and performs such Wonderful Things, that ne'er was done by any
Rope Dancer whatever.' This was the rope-dancer spoken of by Addison:
'He is by birth a Monkey; but swings upon a Rope, takes a pipe of
Tobacco, and drinks a glass of Ale, like any reasonable

          [Footnote 351: _Spectator_, No. 28.]

Occasionally, but very rarely, the nobler beasts were shown. 'At the
Duke of Marlborough's Head in Fleet Street, is to be seen these
Rarities following. 1. The noble and majestick Lion, lately brought
from Barbary, which for its most surprizing Largeness, and its being
so wonderful tame, far exceeds any that ever was seen in the world. 2.
A young Lion lately brought over from Algier, so wonderful tame that
any Person may handle him as well as his keeper. 3. The noble Panther
lately brought from Egypt, one of the beautifullest Creatures in the
World for variety of Spots of divers Colours; a Creature much admired
by all the Gentlemen, and Ladies that ever saw him. 4. The Noble
Pelican or Vulture, lately arrived from America 3 foot high, 9 over.
The Head like a Griffin, Neck like a Swan: the like never seen in this
kingdom before.'

A rhinoceros could only be seen stuffed, and with its skeleton.

In the latter part of 1711 there was a show of 'the Lest Man and Hors
in the World,' which Addison has immortalised in the _Spectator_ (No.
271), saying that the man, his wife, and horse 'are so very light,
that when they are put together into a Scale, an ordinary Man may
weigh down the whole Family.' These were combined with some wild
animals, which evidently would not pay to exhibit by themselves.

'By Her Majesty's Permission. This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen,
Ladies, and Others, that JUST over against the _Mews Gate_ at _Charing
Cross_, is to be seen a Collection of strange and wonderful Creatures
from most Parts of the World, all alive.

[Illustration: 'The Lest Man and Hors in the World.']

'The First being a little _Black Man_, being but 3 Foot high, and 32
Years of Age, strait and proportionable every way, who is
distinguished by the Name of the _Black Prince_, and has been shown
before most Kings and Princes in _Christendom_. The next being his
Wife, the _Little Woman_, NOT 3 Foot high, and 30 Years of Age, strait
and proportionable as any Woman in the Land, which is commonly call'd
the _Fairy Queen_, she gives a General satisfaction to all that sees
her, by Diverting them with Dancing, being big with Child. Likewise
their little _Turkey Horse_, being but 2 Foot odd Inches High, and
above 12 Years of Age, that shews several diverting and surprising
Actions, at the Word of Command. The least Man, Woman and Horse that
ever was seen in the World Alive. _The Horse being kept in a Box._ The
next being a strange Monstrous Female Creature, that was taken in the
Wood in the Desarts of ÆTIOPIA in Prestor _John's_ Country, in the
remotest parts of AFFRICA, being brought over from _Cape de Bon
Esperance_, alias _Cape of Good Hope_; from hir Head downwards she
resembles Humane Nature, having Breasts, Belly, Navel, Nipples, Legs,
and Arms like a Woman, with a long Monstrous Head, no such Creature
was ever seen in this part of the World before, she showing many
strange and wonderful Actions which gives great satisfaction to all
that ever did see her. The next is the noble _Picary_ which is very
much admir'd by the Learned. The next being the Noble _Jack-call_, the
Lion's provider, which hunts in the Forest for the Lion's Prey.
Likewise a small _Egyptian Panther_, spotted like a _Leopard_. The
next being a strange monstrous Creature, brought from the _Coast_ of
_Brazil_, having a Head like a Child, Legs and Arms very wonderful,
with a long Tail like a Serpent, wherewith he feeds himself, as an
_Elephant_ doth with his Trunk. With several other Rarities too
tedious to mention in this Bill.'

Before quitting the natural history shows we must notice

  'The finest Taught Horse in the World.

These are to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, that
are Lovers of Sport and Ingenuity, that at the _Ship_ on _Great Tower
Hill_ will be shewn a Dancing Horse, which performs a great many
Dexterous Actions at the Word of Command, Viz., He fetches and carries
like a Spaniel Dog, if you hide a _Glove_, _Handkerchief_, _Door Key_,
_Pewter Bason_, or so small a thing as a _Silver Two Pence_, he will
seek about the Room till he finds it and brings it to his Master.

'Turn him loose in the Room without either Bridle or Halter on his
Head, altho' there were a hundred People in the Room, some paying as
they come in, and some not paying, yet let them sit and be mixed one
amongst another, he will find them out that have not payd from the

'Borrowing several pieces of Money of Persons in the Room, Blind fold
this Horse whilst the Money is in Borrowing, yet giving him the Money,
he will take it in his Mouth one piece after another and will give it
where 'twas Borrowed, and will give account what Pieces they are when
he delivers them. He tells all Numbers and findeth any one Person from
another; he plays at Cards, at Putt, a thing much to be admired, he
plays with as much readiness as any one that plays with him. Tell him
that there is an Express Warrant come to press him, and that he must
leave his Master to go and serve the _French King_, unless he can find
some way to deceive the Press Masters, he presently falleth so Lame,
that he can hardly set one Foot before another, but telling him if he
is Alive he must go, he throweth himself on the Ground, and with his
Legs stretched out stiff, and his Tongue lying out of his Mouth, as if
he were Dead; but telling him that he must rise and Serve Queen
_Anne_, he riseth up and is Extraordinary Brisk and Cheerful; he turns
his Body round on one Foot, and will Leap through Hoops, and performs
Sixty Actions at Command without Bridle on his Head; the like never
seen by no dumb Creature in the World. Vivat Regina.'

Dwarfs always have been shown about, and the following advertisement
is probably that of one of the rivals to that spiteful 'little Farey
Woman' already noticed.

'At the Brandy Shop over against the _Eagle_ and _Child_ in _Stocks
Market_, is to be seen any hour of the Day, from 8 in the Morning till
9 at Night, a little _German_ Woman, the Dwarf of the World, being but
2 Foot 8 Inches in Height, and the Mother of 2 Children, as straight
as any Woman in _England_; she sings and dances incomparable well, she
has had the honour to be shown before Kings and Princes, and most of
the Nobility of the Land, she is carried in a little Box to any
Gentleman's House, if desir'd.'

'In _Bridges Street_ in _Covent Garden_, over against the _Rose
Tavern_, is to be seen a Living FAIRY, suppos'd to be a Hundred and
Fifty Years Old; his Face being no bigger than a Child's of a Month:
was found Sixty Years ago; Look'd as Old then as he does now. His head
being a great piece of Curiosity, having no Scull, with several
Imperfections worthy your Observation.'

'There were giants in the earth in those days,' and at the 'Hercules's
Pillars at Charing Cross' might be seen a German giant, seven and a
half feet high, and an Italian giantess 'above Seven foot high, and
every way proportionable weighing 425 Pounds Weight.' This seems to
have been the normal height of giants, for the Saxon giant[352] who
was 'but Twenty Five Years of Age, he is Seven Foot and Five Inches in
height, and every way Proportionable.' He was shown to the Queen and
Prince George at Windsor; but, previously 'he had the Honour to be
presented with a piece of Armour proportionable to his Bigness, by the
King of the _Romans_.'

          [Footnote 352: 'This is to satisfie all People that have
          been inform'd that the High German Tall Man, had kill'd a
          Man, and was to be hang'd; that it is all false, and has
          been given out by other Show Keepers, on purpose to take
          away his Credit and Good Name.'--The _Post Boy_, April
          12/14, 1709.]

Germany, however, was not to have the monopoly of supplying us with
giants--that, our patriotism could not stand--so a real live British
giant was produced, warranted genuine. The only fault about him is
that he does not state his height, so that we have no means of
comparing him with the foreign importations.

'This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladys and Others, that there
is now to be seen in this Place, a Tall BRITAIN, Born on a _Mountain_
near _Llanriost_; from the _Age_ of 16 Years he has Travelled abroad,
and has been shown before all the Foreign Kings and Princes in
Christendom; and is now lately come into _England_, and had the Honour
to have been shown before Her Present _Majesty_ of _Great Brittain_
and her Royal Consort the _Prince to the Great Satisfaction of all_
Spectators that have seen him, he being the _Tallest Man_ that ever
was show'd in this Kingdom.'

'There is lately brought to this place from America a Savage; being a
Cannibal Indian or Man Eater who was taken in a Skirmish near South
Carolina, between the Natives of that Place and some of the Wild
Savage men. Likewise an Indian Woman, a Princess of that Country.'

Divers freaks of humanity were shown, but it requires some credulity
to take in the following: 'At the Herculus Pillars at _Charing Cross_,
is to be seen a Girl that was found on a Mountain, in the west of
_England_; When an Eminent Gentlewoman observing her to be without
Fingers or Toes; and without Speech in regard to her Distress, ordered
her to be brought to her Habitation; this Gentlewoman for many Years,
was troubled with Convulsions of a severe kind, was perfectly Cured
in a very short time, by the Girls Stroaking. This Girl hath like
Success in Pains that arise from the Spleen, Sores, and Swellings, and
many other Distempers, and what is very Remarkable also in her; She
never spoke one Word in Four Years, and then by a Prophetick Spirit,
said, the Gentlewoman that preserved her, would Die by Two a Clock
which happened accordingly. The Girl is Ingenious, and can Work at her
Needle; and perform several other things worth Observation; Price for
seeing her Six Pence a Piece. She Toucheth Gratis.'

[Illustration: Hungarian Youth.]

'This young Man was Born in _Hungary_, and is about 18 years of Age, a
Foot and a Half High: In the places where the Thighs, or Legs should
be; hath Two Breasts in all points like a Woman's on which He Walks.
The Natural parts are of the Male kind; Climes, or gets from the
Ground upon a Table, and sits on a Corner of it, but 3 Quarters of an
Inch broad, and shews more Artful Tricks, to the General Diversion,
Satisfaction, and Admiration of all Spectators, and speaks several
Languages. Vivat Regina.'

The following, although a curious, could hardly have been a pleasing
exhibition. 'The Bold Grimace _Spaniard_. At the _Ram's Head_ Inn in
_Fanchurch Street_, is to be seen a _Bold Grimace Spaniard_, lately
brought over, by _David Cornwell_, in the _Bilboa Merchant_: He liv'd
15 Years among wild Creatures in the Mountains, and is reasonably
suppos'd to have been taken out of his Cradle, an Infant, by some
Savage Beast, and wonderfuly preserv'd, till some Comedians
accidentally pass'd thro' those Parts, and perceiving him to be of
human Race, pursu'd him to his Cave, where they caught him in a Net.
They found something wonderful in his Nature, and took him with 'em
in their Travels thro' _Spain_ and _Italy_. He performs the following
surprising Grimaces, viz. He lolls out his Tongue a Foot long, turns
his Eyes in and out at the same time; contracts his Face as small as
an Apple; Extends his Mouth Six Inches, and turns it into the Shape of
a Bird's Beak, and his Eyes like to an Owl's; turns his Mouth into the
Form of a Hat cock'd up three ways; and also frames it in the manner
of a four square Buckle; licks his Nose with his Tongue, like a Cow;
rolls one Eye Brow two Inches up, the other two down; changes his face
to such an astonishing Degree, as to appear like a Corpse long buried;
Altho bred wild so long, yet by travelling with the aforesaid
Comedians 18 years, he can sing wonderfully fine, and accompanies his
Voice with a thorow Bass on the Lute. His former natural Estrangement
from human Conversation obliged Mr. _Cornwell_ to bring a Jackanapes
over with him for his Companion, in whom he takes great Delight and

Queen Anne's time could also match our age with 'Two-Headed
Nightingales,' 'Siamese Twins,' or 'Pygopagi.' 'At Mr. John Pratt's at
the Angel in Cornhil ... are to be seen two Girls, who are one of the
greatest Wonders in Nature that ever was seen, being Born with their
Backs fasten'd to each other, and the Passages of their Bodies are
both one way. These Children are very Handsome and Lusty, and Talk
three different Languages; they are going into the 7th year of their
Age. Those who see them, may very well say, they have seen a Miracle,
which may pass for the 8th Wonder of the World.' These were Helen and
Judith, who were born at Tzoni, in Hungary, October 26, 1701; lived to
the age of twenty-one, and died in a convent at Petersburg February
23, 1723. They were well-shaped, very good-looking, and very fond of
each other. They spoke Hungarian, high and low Dutch, French, and

There was also exhibited 'A young fresh country Lad just arriv'd from
_Suffolk_; who is covered all over his Body, except the Face, Palms of
the Hands, and Soles of his Feet, with Bristles like a Hedgehog, as
hard as Horn, which shoots off yearly.'

'There is lately arrived a Person that was born without either Arms or
Hands, and he does such miraculous things with his Feet, that the like
never was known in the World.... He writes very fine with his _Mouth_,
right and left Foot without discerning, which is the best, and in Five
sorts of Languages, and makes his own Pens with a Pen Knive; he walks
upon his two great Toes, and stands upon one Toe; he lays his Foot in
his Neck, and hops upon the other, he stands upon the top of a little
Stool, and reaches a Glass with his _Mouth_ from under it; he threads
a very fine and small Needle, and sows very prettily; and all Actions
whatsoever is done by Hands, he does with his Feet: he Combs or
dresses a Perriwig very well, shaves himself, dresses and undresses
himself &c., and all with his feet, &c.'

There were conjurors, especially 'the incomparable German.... He
makes pass through his Cups 60 Balls, without touching them, and they
are turn'd into little live Birds, which whistle upon the Table. He
takes a parcel of Cards, and throws them about the Room, and they are
turn'd into little live Birds.' He was only equalled by 'An admirable
Piece of Ingenuity in Hanging Sword Court, the Middle of Fleet
Street,' where twice a day 'several Persons may be Entertained at
Table, with various Dishes, and different kinds of Liquors, arising
from Fountains on the Table to the drinking Glasses of the
Entertained; of the which, when they are satisfied, a Serpent arising
from a Box on the Middle of the Table, flyeth away with the Table and
what's thereon remaining; and that very moment another Table of the
same Dimensions, and furnished with another service, is in place where
the former Table stood, without any visible Cause.'

[Illustration: A Posture-master.]

Posture-masters, as the acrobats were then called, abounded, and one
of the chief among them was Higgins, successor to the famous Clark,
who could dislocate and deform himself at pleasure. But he must have
found a worthy imitator in 'The young Posture Master from _Exeter_,
who performs those Postures of Body, that none never yet did; he
extends his Body into all deform'd Shapes of Stature; he makes his Hip
and Shoulder Bones meet together; he stands upon one Leg and extends
the other in a direct Line half a Yard above his Head; he drinks her
Majesty's Health on his Head; he lays his Head on the Ground, and
turns his Body round twenty Times, without stirring his Face from the
Place; he sucks all his Bowels into his Breast, making a pack Saddle
on his Back, that he will bear the lustiest Man that will be pleas'd
to sit upon his Rump; he will sit in a Posture as if his Body was
split, and so divides his Legs that his Toes are separated Six Foot
ten Inches from Toe to Toe; he stands on a Table and turns his Head
backwards below his Heels; he likewise dances any Dance upon his Knees
with his Toes in his Hands, and dances true to the Musick.' But even
all these accomplishments do not seem to have been sufficiently
attractive of themselves, for with him was 'a Child of Five Years of
Age, who does the Activity of Tumbling to the greatest Perfection.
After which Mr. _Cornwall_ takes an empty Bag, and turns it twenty
times, and stamps on it, if requir'd, and then commands several Eggs
out of it, and at last the live Hen.'

Children then, as now, had to go through acrobatic performances. There
was 'a Boy that walks upon a Slack Rope no thicker than a Penny Cord,
and a little Girl that vaults on the high Rope;' but, even in our
time, we should hardly like to see 'a little Child about two Years and
a half old perform such wonderful things on the Stiff Rope, as is
surprising to all that behold him.' We hear more of this poor little
thing. 'Whereas it has been industriously and falsely reported that
the little Child that is under 3 years old, that danced on the Rope
and tumbled, is dead; Mr. Francis thought it proper to certify all
People, that the Child is living and well; and he challenges all
Europe to produce a Child of his Age to perform what he does, both for
Dancing and Tumbling. Likewise the little Girl about 7 Years old, that
danced the Rope, vaulted the Slack Rope, and tumbled to the Admiration
of all who saw her.'

There was a curious entertainment that lasted nearly the whole of
Anne's reign; of which the first notice I can find is in the _Daily
Courant_, November 27, 1704. By degrees Clench enlarged his
_répertoire_ until he did all described in the accompanying handbill.
'These are to give Notice to all _Gentlemen_, _Ladies_ and _Others_,
that Mr. _Clench_ of _Barnet_ who imitates the _Horn_, _Huntsman_ and
_Pack of Hounds_, the _Sham Doctor_, _Old Woman_, _Drunken Man_, the
_Bells_, _Flute_, _Double Curtell_,[353] the _Organ with three
Voices_, by his own _Natural Voice_, to the greatest Perfection;
(being the only man that ever could Attain to so great an Art,) will
perform,' etc. Clinch is mentioned in the _Tatler_ (No. 51): 'A good
company of us were this day to see, or rather to hear, an artful
person do several feats of activity with his throat and windpipe. The
first thing wherewith he presented us, was a ring of bells, which he
imitated in a most miraculous manner; after that, he gave us all the
different notes of a pack of hounds, to our great delight and
astonishment.' Thoresby went to see him, and reports:[354] 'Evening to
hear the memorable Mr. Clench, whose single voice, as he has learned
to manage it, can admirably represent a number of persons, at sport
and in hunting, and the very dogs and other animals, but none better
than a quire of Choristers chanting an anthem, &c.'

          [Footnote 353: Sort of bassoon.]

          [Footnote 354: _Diary_, Jan. 14, 1709.]

Waxwork figures have always been a popular exhibition, and then was
living a Mrs. Salmon, whose fame was as great as Madame Tussaud's. Her
handbills were curiosities in their way, but they are so long that one
only can be transcribed. The Royal Off Spring: Or, the Maid's Tragedy
Represented in Wax Work, with many Moving Figures and these Histories
Following. King _Charles_ the First upon the Fatal Scaffold, attended
by Dr. _Juxon_ the Bishop of _London_, and the Lieutenant of the
_Tower_, with the Executioner and Guards waiting upon our Royal
Martyr. The Royal Seraglio, or the Life and Death of _Mahomet_ the
Third, with the Death of _Ireniæ_ Princess of _Persia_, and the fair
Sultaness _Urania_. The Overthrow of Queen _Voaditia_, and the
Tragical Death of her two Princely Daughters. The Palace of _Flora_ or
the _Roman_ superstition. The Rites of _Moloch_, or the Unhumane
Cruelty, with the manner of the _Canaanitish_ Ladies, Offering up
their First-born Infants, in Sacrifice to that ugly Idol, in whose
Belly was a burning Furnace, to destroy those Unhappy Children.
_Margaret_ Countess of Heningberg, Lying on a Bed of State, with her
Three hundred and Sixty-Five Children, all born at one Birth, and
baptized by the Names of _Johns_ and _Elizabeths_, occasioned by the
rash Wish of a poor beggar Woman. _Hermonia_ a _Roman_ Lady, whose
Father offended the Emperor, was sentenced to be starved to Death, but
was preserved by Sucking his Daughters Breast. Old Mother _Shipton_
that Famous _English_ Prophetess, which fortold the Death of the
_White_ King; All richly dress'd and composed with so much variety of
Invention, that it is wonderfully Diverting to all Lovers of Art and
Ingenuity. All made by Mrs. _Salmon_, and to be seen near the _Horn
Tavern_ in _Fleet Street_. Vivat Reginæ (_sic_).'

Of the miraculous accouchement of Margaret, Countess of Heningberg,
Thoresby says[355]: 'After, walked to Gray's Inn to Mr. Smith, who
most courteously entertained me, and gave me some inscriptions he had
taken for me in his travels, particularly that for the memorable
Countess who had 365 children at a birth; he saw the two basins they
were baptized in.'

          [Footnote 355: _Diary_, July 14, 1712.]

Nor was this the only exhibition of the kind; there was yet another
similar show. 'The Effigies of his late Majesty King William III., of
Glorious Memory, is Curiously done in Wax to the Life, Richly Drest in
Coronation Robes, standing by the Effigies of his late Royal Consort,
Queen Mary in the like Dress; likewise the late Duke of Gloucester in
his Garter Robes. Together with the Effigies of several Persons of
Quality and Others, all which are Alive, or have been so of late
Years, whereby the Spectators may Judge of Likeness. They are to be
seen every Day at Mr. Goldsmith's in Green Court in the Old
Jury.'[356] This is the same artist who is spoken of in a newspaper
paragraph. 'On _Wednesday_ last Mrs. _Goldsmith_, the famous Woman for
Waxwork, brought to _Westminster Abbey_ the Effigies of that
celebrated Beauty the late Duchess of _Richmond_, which is said to be
the richest Figure that ever was set up in King _Henry's_

          [Footnote 356: _The English Post_, March 23/25, 1702.]

          [Footnote 357: _Daily Courant_, Aug. 6, 1703.]

'To be seen in _Exeter Change_ in the _Strand_, as well in _Christmas_
and other Holidays, as at all other times, tho' the _Change_ be shut,
only then you must go in at that end towards _Charing Cross_.

[Right sidenote: _Note._ The Prices are Six-pence, Four-pence, and
Two-pence a-piece]

[Left sidenote: There is the Effigies of a Comedian walking behind
the _Queen_]

  and to be
  seen. The present
  Court of _England_
  in Wax, after (and as
  big as) the Life, in the
  Inner Walk of _Exeter Change_
  in the _Strand_, much exceeding that
  which was at the _New Exchange_ tho'
  both made by the most deservedly famous
  Mrs. _Mills_, whom in that Art, all ingenuous
  Persons own, had never yet an equal: The names
  of the chief Persons are, The QUEEN, his Royal
  Highness Prince _George_, the Princess _Sophia_, his Grace
  The Duke of _Marlborough_, the Countess of _Manchester_,
  the Countess of _Kingstone_, the Countess of _Musgrave_ &c.
  As likewise the Effigies of _Mark Anthony_, naturally
  acting that which render'd him remarkable to
  the World; _Cleopatra_ his Queen, one of her
  _Egyptian_ Ladies, _Oliver Cromwell_ in
  Armour, the Count _Tallard_: with many
  others too tedious here to mention.
  To be seen from 9 in the
  Morn, till 9 at Night. You
  may go in at any of the
  Doors in the _Change_,
  and pass thro' the
  Hatter's Shop in
  the Outward

Persons may have their Effigies made, or their deceased Friends on
reasonable Terms.

The Westminster waxwork figures were then in a sadly dilapidated
condition. Brown says[358]: 'As soon as we ascended half a Score Stone
Steps in a dirty Cobweb hole, and in old Worm eaten Presses, whose
Doors flew open on our approach; here stood _Edward_ the Third, as
they told us, which was a broken piece of Waxwork, a batter'd Head,
and a Straw stuff'd Body, not one quarter cover'd with Rags; his
beautiful Queen stood by, not better in Repair; and so to the number
of half a score Kings and Queens, not near so good figures as the King
of the Beggars make, and all the begging Crew would be ashamed of
their Company. Their Rear was brought up with good _Queen Bess_, with
the Remnants of an old dirty Ruff, and nothing to cover her Majesty's

          [Footnote 358: _A Walk round London and Westminster._]

One of the most popular exhibitions was the puppet shows kept by
Robert Powell, a dwarfish deformity. 'This is Mr. _Powell_--That's
he--the little Crooked Gentleman, that holds a Staff in his Hand,
without which he must fall.'[359] His 'Punch's Theatre' was in the
little Piazza, Covent Garden--and Steele makes the under sexton of St.
Paul's[360] Church grumble at his entertainment, because it took
people away from him. Defoe says: 'Mr. Powell by Subscriptions and
full Houses, has gathered such Wealth as is ten times sufficient to
buy all the Poets in England; that he seldom goes out without his
Chair, and thrives on this incredible Folly to that degree, that, were
he a Freeman, he might hope that some future Puppet Show might
celebrate his being Lord Mayor, as he has done Sir R.
Whittington.'[361] Both in the _Tatler_ and _Spectator_ he is
frequently referred to, especially in the former. In the season he
took himself and his puppets to Bath, so that he always kept them

          [Footnote 359: Introduction to _A Second Tale of a Tub_, ed.

          [Footnote 360: _Spectator_, No. 14.]

          [Footnote 361: _Groans of Great Britain._]

[Illustration: Portrait of Powell.]

His performances were very varied, one being 'The History of King
Bladud, Founder of the Bath. The Figures being drest after the manner
of the Ancient Britains. With the Walks, Groves, and Representation of
the King's Bath and new Pump house. The Figures of Ladies and
Gentlemen all moving in real Water.' He caught the passing folly as it
flew, and depicted it as in 'The City Rake or Punch turn'd Quaker,'
'Poor Robins Dream or the Vices of the Age Exposed;' or, he had a
puppet 'of a Rope Dancer, being an exact pattern of the present Lady
Isabella.' He was for ever bringing out some novelty, even if it was
such rubbish as 'a New Piece of Machinary after the British Manner,
contrived and just finished by Powell, which represents a Paradice
wonderful surprising. At the breaking of the clouds arise several
Triumphal Arches, which form several most agreeable Prospects;
beautify'd by her most Serene Majesty of Great Britain in her Royal
Robes, attended by her Peers and Officers of State; under their Feet
are represented the Trophies taken from the French and Bavarians by
her Majesty's Arms this War.'

One of the last of Powell's advertisements, in Queen Anne's reign,
was: 'Whereas it has been reported that Punch of the Bath and Covent
Garden was dead, these are to inform the Publick that he was only in a
small consumption, but by the long experienc'd Cordial of the Golden
Elixir is recovered, and remov'd for the Air to the Great Masquerading
House in Spring Garden, where he hopes once more to see his noble

Pinkethman was far too keen to let Powell have the monopoly of this
sort of entertainment, so we find a handbill: 'This is to give Notice,
that Mr. PENKETHMAN, who, by his Indefatigable Industry, has ever made
it his Study to Invent Something New and Excellent to please the
_World_, has, with the Greatest Diligence, Labour and Expence, set
himself to contrive, which he has now, after Several Years
Application, brought to Perfection, a most Surprising and Magnificent
_Machine_, call'd the PANTHEON, consisting of several Curious
Pictures, and Moving Figures, representing the Fabulous History of the

'The Whole contains Fourteen several Entertainments, and near a
Hundred Figures (besides _Ships_, _Beasts_, _Fowl_, and other
Embellishments) some near a Foot in Height; all which have their
respective and peculiar Motions, their very Heads, Legs, and Arms,
Hands and Fingers, Artificially moving exactly to what they perform,
and setting one Foot before another, as they go, like Living
Creatures, in such a Manner that Nothing but _Nature_ itself can
exceed it. In short, the PAINTING is by the Finest Hands, and the
_Story_ and Contrivance so Admirable, that it justly deserves to be
esteemed One of the Greatest Wonders of the Age.' This show is
casually mentioned in _Spectator_ (No. 31).

Pinkethman was also proprietor of a moving picture, for in an
advertisement[362] he says: 'Mr. Pinkethman In order to divert and
oblige the Gentry and others of Greenwich, Deptford, Woolwich, Lee,
and other adjacent places thereabouts, has remov'd the most Famous
Artificial and Wonderful Moving Picture that came from Germany and was
to be seen at the Duke of Marlborough's Head in Fleet Street, is now
to be seen at the Hospital Tavern in Greenwich,' etc. Thoresby[363]
saw this picture when in London in 1709, and was highly delighted with
it. He also says: 'I had some discourse with the German inventor of
it, Mr. Jacobus Morian.' The following is its handbill:--

          [Footnote 362: _Daily Courant_, May 9, 1709.]

          [Footnote 363: _Diary_, Feb. 11, 1709.]

               'To All Gentlemen, Ladies and others

Notice is hereby given, that here is arrived from _Germany_, a most
artificial and Wonderful Original Picture, the like never seen in all
_Europe_: Part of this fine Picture represents a Landskip, and the
other part the Water on Sea: In the Landskip you see a Town, out of
the Gates of which cometh a Coach Riding over a Bridge through the
Country, behind, before, and between the Trees till out of sight;
coming on the Bridge, a Gentleman sitting on the Coach, civilly
salutes the Spectating Company, the turning of the Wheels and motion
of the Horses are plainly seen as if natural and Alive. There Cometh
also from the Town Gate a Hunter on Horseback, with his Doggs behind
him, and his Horn at his side, coming to the Bridge he taketh up his
Horn and Blows it that it is distinctly heard by all the Spectators.
Another Hunter painted as if Sleeping, and by the said Blowing of the
Horn awaking, riseth up his Head, looks about, and then lays down his
Head again to Sleep, to the great Amazement and Diversion of the
Company. There are also Painted and Represented, Country men and
Women, Travellers, Cows and Pack horses going along the Road till out
of sight. And at a seeming distance on the Hills are several Windmills
continually Turning and Working. From a River or Sea port, you see
several sorts of Ships and Vessels putting to Sea, which Ships by
degrees lessen to the sight as they seem to Sail further off. Many
more Varieties too long to be inserted here, are Painted and
Represented in this Picture to the greatest Admiration, Diversion and
Satisfaction of all Ingenious Spectators. The Artist Master of this
Piece hath employed above 5 years in contriving, making and perfecting
it. It was design'd for a present to a great Prince in _Germany_, to
be put in his chiefest Cabinet of greatest Rarities, but that Prince
Dying, the maker kept it to himself, and now presents it to the View
and Diversion of all ingenious Persons.' This picture is just noticed
in the _Tatler_ (No. 129): 'and I doubt not but it will give as good
content as the moving picture in Fleet Street.'

There was another of these mechanical toys, exhibited at the same
place. 'Far exceeding the Original formerly shewn, and never publish'd
before the beginning of the present Year 1710. Representing several
stately ships and vessels sailing out of the Port of a City; a Coach,
drawn by four Horses going over a bridge into the Town; a Cart with an
Old Woman in it, drawn by two Horses, the Wheels moving: A Gentleman
carry'd in a Chair, saluting the Company, A Windmill continually
turning round; Swans swimming, which dip their Heads in the Water: A
Man digging with a Pick Ax: All in lively Motion,' etc. And still one
more appeared in 1713, which was a representation of the sky effects
of morning, noon, and night, with ships sailing, and saluting the
forts as they passed.

At the Duke of Marlborough's Head, too, was to be seen 'a true and
very natural Representation of the most famous Antiquities and
Stupendious Works commonly called the Seven Miracles of the World; All
which cannot but be pleasant to the Eyes of all curious Beholders, and
perhaps more agreeable than may by Words be expressed,' but there is
no record of what this exhibition was like.

'In Bell Yard, over against the Middle Temple Gate, Fleet Street, next
door to the Bell Inn, at the Arms of Amsterdam, will be shewn for the
satisfaction of all persons of Quality and others most Curious and
exact Model of the famous City of Amsterdam, being between 20 and 30
foot long, and near 20 foot broad; with all the Churches, Chappels,
Stadt house, Hospitals, noble Buildings, Streets, Trees, Walks,
Avenues, with the Sea, Shipping, Sluices, Rivers, Canals, &c., most
exactly built to admiration; In short, the Situation and
Representation of the whole City is performed with such Art and
Ingenuity, to the wonderful satisfaction of the States General of the
United Provinces, several Foreign Princes, our Nobility, Gentry,
Artificers and others, that have seen it, that it is allowed to be one
of the greatest curiosities ever yet seen in England. This great piece
of Work was 12 years in finishing, and cost a vast sum of Money.'

[Illustration: Glass-blowing.

The Glass of Dr. _Faustus_.]

It is always interesting to watch glass-blowers at work, and see them
turn out their pretty but fragile toys; and doubtless they yielded as
much, or more, delight in Anne's time.

     'By Her Majesties Authority.

This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, That
there is lately arriv'd in this Place, a _Rare_ and _Curious_ ARTIST,
which in the presence of all Spectators maketh all Sorts and Fashions
of Indian, China, and all Sorts of Curious Figures &c. As _Jars_,
_Teapots_, _Coffee Dishes_, _Bottle_ and _Flower Pots_, as small as
they please; being very dexteriously intermixed with _red_, _blew_,
and other Colours, as Natural as the _Indian_ painting: As also all
sorts of _Beasts_, _Birds_, _Fowls_, _Images_, _Figures of Men_,
_Women_, and _Children_, which he bloweth of all Colours in Glass, so
curiously, the like was never seen in this Kingdom.

'Besides all this, he sheweth you a most wonderful and admirable
Glass of Water, wherein are four or five Images, which he maketh
every one to come up and down as he pleases, without any help or
assistance, being very pleasant and delightful to all Spectators; with
Several other Rarities too tedious to Mention.

'There is a _Wheel_ that's turn'd by Humane power, which Spins Ten
Thousand Yards of _Glass_ in less than half an hour.

'He also maketh Artificial Eyes of Glass to admiration, they being so
curiously made and colour'd, that they cannot be discerned from the
_Natural Eyes_; Likewise he teacheth how they may fix them in their
Heads themselves, to the great Satisfaction of all persons that make
use of them.... Vivat Regina.'

There was another artist in glass who blew 'Swans, Ducks, Birds,
Knives, Forks, and Scabbards, Decanters, Cruets, Bottles and Ladles,
with pipes to smoke Tobacco, and Grenadoes to stick by the Snuff of a
candle that gives a report like a Gun; blows Tea Pots and other
fancies imitating China.'

A singular mechanical toy, too, deserves special mention: 'At the
Black Horse in Hosier Lane, near West Smithfield, is to be seen a
large piece of Water Work, 12 Foot long and 9 foot high, with a new
Mathematical Fountain 8 foot high, made in white flint glass, in which
is a Tavern, a Coffee house and a Brandy shop, which at your command
runs at one Cock hot and Cold liquor, as Sack, Whitewine, Claret,
Coffee, Tea, Content, plain, cherry and Rasberry Brandy, Geneva,
Usquebaugh, and Punch. All these liquors of themselves rising much
higher than their level, and each liquor drawn singly at one Cock; The
like never performed in any Nation by any Person till Now, by CHARLES

  For satisfaction your own eyes believe,
  Art cannot blind you, nor your Taste deceive;
  Com and welcom my friends, and tast e're you pass,
  It's but 6_d._ to see't and 2_d._ each glass.

But the man who did most with hydraulic power was Winstanley, the
builder of the fantastic, semi-Chinese pagoda lighthouse on the
Eddystone rock. Winstanley had been a mercer in London, and, having
made some money, retired from business, and went to live at Littlebury
in Essex. Here he constructed ingenious but useless hydraulic toys,
and, from being locally famous, he opened an exhibition of them in

The first mention I can find of it in this reign, is in the _Postman_,
May 1/4, 1703: 'Mr. Henry Winstanley's Water Works, will be Opened on
Thursday being the 6th of May; And All Persons that please to see
them, are desired to be there between 3 and 4 of the Clock. The House
is at the lower end of Pickadilly, towards Hide Park.' In the _Daily
Courant_, August 14, 1703, he notifies that: 'Mr. Henry Winstanley's
Water Works being now open'd, and several Persons coming too late by
reason of the days being shorter, this is to satisfie and give notice,
that they will be shewn from Monday next at Four of the Clock. And
therefore all Persons that are disposed to see them, are desired to
be there before the time, or exactly at it. And also this is further
to acquaint, that they will not be shewn this Season longer than 10 or
14 days, by reason of Mr. Winstanley's having extraordinary Occasions
of going out of Town.'

It was a disastrous 'out of town' for him, for he had his wish
gratified in being in his gimcrack lighthouse 'in the greatest storm
ever known,' namely, that of November 27, 1703, which clean swept away
the building, Winstanley, and five other persons.'

[Illustration: Wonderful Fountain.]

For some years after his sad death his exhibition was in abeyance,
until we see by the _Daily Courant_, June 5, 1707: 'The famous Water
Works of the late Ingenious Mr. Henry Winstanley are now open'd, and
will continue to be shown this present June, and the ensuing Month of
July (for the Benefit of his Widow) by his old Servants, with several
Additions. And all Persons that please to see them, are desir'd to be
at the House by 5 of the clock at the farthest, and they will not
lose time in staying. The House is at the lower End of Picadilly
towards Hide Park, and is known by the Wind Mill on the top of it. As
also his famous House at Littlebury in Essex is kept up, and shewn as
formerly, with several additions.' His widow continued to show them,
with many variations, every summer during the remainder of the reign.
In 1711 there were shown 'Sea Gods and Goddesses, Nymphs, Mermaids,
and Satirs, all of them playing of water as suitable, and some Fire
mingling with the water, and Sea Triumphs round the Barrel that plays
so many Liquors; all which is taken away after it had perform'd its
part, and the Barrel is broke in Pieces before the Spectators.' In
1712 there is the same entertainment, but fuller details are given: it
was 'of 6 several sorts of Wine, and the best brandy and biskets, all
coming out of the famous Barrel, and given to the Boxes and Pit; with
Geneva, Cherry beer, and Cyder to the first Gallery, there is also
Coffee and Tea as at all other times.'

In 1713 'the Curious Barril will be made a Spring Garden, entertaining
the Boxes and Pit with Cool Tankards, Spaw Waters, Bisquits, Milk,
Ale, Beer, Sullibubs, Cake, and Cheese Cakes, and Flowers Playing of
Water: And a very delightful part will be added to the 3 Parts that
are usually performed. There is Galuthetis's Flight from Polyheme, and
as she is carried in State by Neptune attended by many Figures playing
of Water, and some with Fire mingling with it; then will be a great
Tempest of Thunder and Lightning and burning Flames rolling in great
Cascades of Water, to the Expence of 300 Tun extraordinary.' In 1714,
'the Curious Barrel will be made a Dairy House, entertaining the Boxes
and Pit with Curds, several sorts of Creams, Milk, Whey, Cakes, Cheese
Cakes, Sullibubs, New Butter, Butter Milk, which a Woman will be seen
to churn, and a flying Zepherus, a Flora presenting the Spectators
with a Basket of Fruit.... There is Galathea's flight from Polypheme
guided by two flying Boys, with a flaming Torch playing Water through
the Flames: A flying fiery Dragon, out of whose Mouth comes great Fire
Balls, flames of Fire, a large sheet of Water, with many Cascades of
Water, to the expence of 800 Tuns extraordinary.' It was a very
popular exhibition, and ranked, as we see,[364] with the opera and the

          [Footnote 364: _Spectator_, No. 168.]

In 1710 the good folks of London were treated to a somewhat unusual
spectacle--that of four real live Indian chiefs or kings, as they were
called. They came over in April of that year, and were treated as
guests of the nation; apartments being obtained for them at an
upholsterer's in King Street, Covent Garden,[365] and they were taken
in two of the royal carriages to visit the Queen. Luttrell says: '20
Aprill. Four Indian Sachems, or Kings of the 5 Indian Nations, lately
arrived here, offering their services to assist her majestie against
all her enemies in those parts, and secure her from the French in and
about Canada in America, had yesterday audience of the queen, and
accepted very graciously; her majestie ordered them presents, the lord
Chamberlain to entertain them at her charge, and that they be shown
what is remarkable here.' On the 21st they visited, in a royal barge,
Greenwich Hospital and Woolwich Dockyard, and on the 22nd they saw the
Banqueting Hall and Chapel at Whitehall. On the 26th they were present
at a review of cavalry and infantry in Hyde Park. On the 28th the New
England and New York merchants gave them a feast, and the Archbishop
of Canterbury presented them each with an English Bible. On May 3 they
had their audience of leave, and then went by way of Hampton Court to
Windsor, from whence they travelled to Portsmouth, and, embarking on
board the _Dragon_, sailed from Spithead on the 8th May, and landed
safely at Boston July 15 of the same year.

          [Footnote 365: _Tatler_, 171.]

[Illustration: The Four Indian Kings.]

The following handbill shows that at some period of their stay they
went to see Powell's Marionettes.

  'At PUNCH'S Theatre
  For the Entertainment of the
  (A) The Emperor _Tee Yee Neen Ho Ga Row_.
  (B) King _Sa Ga Yeau Qua Rah Tow_.
  (C) King _E Tow oh Koam_.
  (D) King _Oh Nee Yeath Tow no Riow_.

     'At the Upper End of _St. Martin's Lane_,[366] joyning to
     _Litchfield Street_, will be presented a NEW OPERA, performed by
     a Company of _Artificial Actors_, who will _present you_ with an
     _incomparable Entertainment_ call'd

                     'The Last Years CAMPAIGNE

          [Footnote 366: This was before Powell removed to the Piazza,
          Covent Garden.]

     With the Famous Battle fought between the Confederate Army
     (commanded by the Duke of _Marlborough_) and the _French_ in the
     _Woods_ near _Blaguiers_. With _several Comical entertainments
     of_ Punch _in the_ Camp. Also _variety of_ Scenes; _with a most
     Glorious Prospect of both Armies, the French in their
     Entrenchments, and the Confederates out_; _where will be seen
     several Regiments of Horse and Foot engaged in Forcing the_
     French _Lines_. _With the Admirable Entertainments of a Girl of
     Five Years Old Dancing with Swords._' The 50th _Spectator_ gives
     an amusing account of their supposed description of this country.



     Bear-baiting -- Bear-gardens -- Bull-baiting -- Description --
     Extra ordinary bull bait -- Cock-fighting -- Cock-pits -- Value
     of matches -- Training.

But all amusements at this time were not so innocent as the foregoing:
there were fiercer and more blood-stirring excitements for the men.
Take bear and bull baiting. The former was dying out, and was no
longer as popular as it was during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I.,
and Charles I.

     _Slender._[367] Why do your dogs bark so? be there bears i' the

          [Footnote 367: _Merry Wives of Windsor_, Act. 1. sc. 1.]

     _Anne._ I think there are, Sir; I have heard them talked of.

     _Slender._ I love the sport well; but I shall as soon quarrel at
     it as any man in England. You are afraid, if you see the bear
     loose, are you not?

     _Anne._ Ay, indeed, Sir.

     _Slender._ That's meat and drink to me now: I have seen
     Sakerson[368] loose twenty times, and have taken him by the
     chain; but, I warrant you the women have so cried and shriek'd at
     it, that it pass'd; but women, indeed, cannot abide 'em; they are
     very ill-favoured rough things.

          [Footnote 368: This bear belonged to Henslow and Alleyn,
          proprietors of Paris Garden, near the Globe Theatre,

We learn something of a bear-baiting from Hudibras.

  And round about the pole does make
  A circle, like a bear at stake,
  That at the chain's end wheels about,
  And overturns the rabble rout.
  For after solemn proclamation,
  In the bear's name, as is the fashion,
  According to the law of arms,
  To keep men from inglorious harms,
  That none presume to come so near
  As forty feet of stake of bear;
  If any yet be so fool hardy,
  T' expose themselves to vain jeopardy,
  If they come wounded off, and lame,
  No honour's got by such a maim.

Indeed, in 1709, Christopher Preston, of Hockley-in-the-Hole, was
attacked and partially devoured by one of his own bears. His funeral
sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Pead, then incumbent of St.
James's, Clerkenwell.

The animals destined for combat were paraded through the streets, as
we learn from Gay ('Trivia,' Book 2).

  Experienc'd Men, inur'd to City Ways,
  Need not the _Calendar_ to count their Days.
  When through the Town, with slow and solemn Air,
  Led by the Nostril walks the muzzled Bear;
  Behind him moves majestically dull,
  The Pride of _Hockley Hole_, the surly Bull;
  Learn hence the Periods of the Week to Name.
  _Mondays_ and _Thursdays_ are the Days of Game.

That these places of so-called sport were disorderly need not be said;
indeed, to 'make a place a bear-garden' is proverbial. The rough
element wanted some safe outlet for its energy, and found it in such
exhibitions. Nor must we be too hasty to decry them when we recollect
that it was only in 1835 that it absolutely became illegal to keep any
house, pit, or other place for baiting or fighting any bull, bear,
dog, or other animal. We have our dog-fights now--prize-fighting is
not yet extinct, many a quiet main of cocks is fought, many a rat-pit
exists, and badger-drawing is not altogether an unknown thing.

There were three bear-gardens--at Hockley-in-the-Hole (Clerkenwell),
at Marrybone Fields (at the back of Soho Square), and at Tuttle
(Tothill) Fields, Westminster, and at all these, baiting was carried
on. Of the latter we find an advertisement promising plenty of
sport:[369] 'At William Wells's Bear Garden, in Tuttle Fields,
Westminster, this present _Monday_ the 10th of _April_, will be a
_Green Bull Baited_; and 20 _Doggs_ fights for a _Coller_, and that
Dogg that runs farthest and fairest wins the _Coller_; with other
Diversion of _Bull Baiting_ and _Bear Baiting_.

          [Footnote 369: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 282.]

'Here follows the Manner of those Bull Baitings which are so much
talk'd of: They tie a Rope to the Root of the Horns of the Ox or Bull,
and fasten the other End of the Cord to an Iron Ring fix'd to a Stake
driven into the Ground; so that this Cord being about 15 Foot long,
the Bull is confin'd to a Sphere of about 30 Foot Diameter. Several
Butchers, or other Gentlemen, that are desirous to exercise their
Dogs,[370] stand round about, each holding his own by the Ears; and
when the Sport begins, they let loose one of the Dogs: The Dog runs at
the Bull: the Bull, immovable, looks down upon the Dog with an Eye of
Scorn, and only turns a Horn to him to hinder him from coming near:
The Dog is not daunted at this, he runs round him, and tries to get
beneath his Belly, in order to seize him by the Muzzle, or the Dewlap,
or the pendant Glands: The Bull then puts himself into a Posture of
Defence; he beats the Ground with his Feet, which he joins together as
close as possible, and his chief Aim is not to gore the Dog with the
Point of his Horn,[371] but to slide one of them under the Dog's Belly
(who creeps close to the Ground to hinder it) and to throw him so high
in the Air that he may break his Neck in the Fall. This often happens:
When the Dog thinks he is sure of fixing his Teeth, a Turn of the
Horn, which seems to be done with all the Negligence in the World,
gives him a Sprawl thirty Foot high, and puts him in danger of a
damnable Squelch when he comes down. This Danger would be unavoidable,
if the Dog's Friends were not ready beneath him, some with their Backs
to give him a soft Reception, and others with long Poles which they
offer him slant ways, to the Intent that, sliding down them, it may
break the Force of his Fall. Notwithstanding all this care, a Toss
generally makes him sing to a very scurvy Tune, and draw his Phiz into
a pitiful Grimace: But, unless he is totally stunn'd with the Fall, he
is sure to crawl again towards the Bull, with his old Antipathy, come
on't what will. Sometimes a second Frisk into the Air disables him for
ever from playing his old Tricks; But, sometimes, too, he fastens upon
his Enemy, and when once he has seiz'd him with his Eye teeth, he
sticks to him like a Leech, and would sooner die than leave his Hold.
Then the Bull bellows, and bounds, and Kicks about to shake off the
Dog; by his Leaping the Dog seems to be no Manner of Weight to him,
tho' in all Appearance he puts him to great Pain. In the End, either
the Dog tears out the Piece he has laid Hold on, and falls, or else
remains fix'd to him, with an Obstinacy that would never end, if they
did not pull him off. To call him away would be in vain; to give him a
hundred blows would be as much so; you might cut him to Pieces Joint
by Joint before he would let him loose. What is to be done then! While
some hold the Bull, others thrust Staves into the Dog's Mouth, and
open it by main Force. This is the only Way to part them.'[372]

          [Footnote 370: These dogs were only a moderate size.]

          [Footnote 371: If too sharp, the bull's horns were covered
          with wooden sheaths.]

          [Footnote 372: Misson.]

This, however, was not always the case. Look at the other side:--

  Curs'd dog, the bull reply'd, no more
  I wonder at thy thirst of gore;
  For thou (beneath a butcher train'd,
  Whose hands with cruelty are stain'd,
  His daily murders in thy view)
  Must, like thy tutor, blood pursue.
  Take then thy fate. With goring wound
  At once he lifts him from the ground:
  Aloft the sprawling hero flies,
  Mangled he falls, he howls, and dies.[373]

          [Footnote 373: _Gay_, Fable 9.]

Here is a refinement of cruelty: 'At the _Bear Garden_ in _Hockley in
the Hole_, 1710. This is to give notice to all Gentlemen, Gamsters,
and Others, That on this present _Monday_ is a Match to be fought by
two Dogs, one from _Newgate_ Market, against one of _Honey Lane_
Market, at a Bull, for a Guinea to be spent. Five Let goes out off
hand, which goes fairest and farthest in Wins all; like wise a _Green
Bull_ to be baited, which was never baited before, and a Bull to be
turned lose with Fire works all over him; also a Mad Ass to be baited;
With variety of Bull baiting and Bear baiting; and a Dog to be drawn
up with Fire works.'[374] These novelties took, for a subsequent
advertisement tells us that 'The Famous Bull of Fire works pleased the
Gentry to Admiration.' Indeed, it must have been popular, for in an
advertisement of the _Tatler_, Jan. 3/5, 1709 (1710), we find: 'This
Day is published The Bull Baiting, or Sach----ll[375] dressed up in
Fire works; lately brought over from the Bear Garden in Southwark, and
exposed for the Diversion of the Citizens of London: at 6_d._ a
piece.' This book, however, is very dreary fun.

          [Footnote 374: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 46.]

          [Footnote 375: Sacheverell.]

But bears and bulls, though baited, were never allowed to be killed by
their adversaries, which, however, was not the case with
cock-fighting, a pastime passionately indulged in in this reign. There
were many cock-pits--one historical one, the Council Chamber at
Whitehall, where in 1710 Guiscard stabbed Harley with his penknife,
and which went by the name of the Cockpit certainly till 1810. There
was 'The Royal Cock Pit on the South Side of St. James Park,' where
mains used to be fought for such prizes as '4 Guineas a Battel and 40
the odd Battel.' And there was a famous one near Gray's Inn Walks, or
Gardens, where dear Sir Roger walked with the _Spectator_, and which
Brown describes as 'The Lawyer's Garden of Contemplation, where I
found (it being early in the Morning) none but a parcel of
Superannuated Debauchees, huddled up in Cloaks, Frize Coats and Wadded
Gowns, to preserve their old Carcases from the searching sharpness of
_Hampstead_ Air.' There had been one there previous to 1704, when we
find 'At the _New_ Cock pit at the Bowling Green, behind Grays Inn
Walks, this present Tuesday being the 28th of _March_, will begin a
great Match of Cock fighting, for Ten Guineas a Battle, and Two
Hundred Guineas the odd Battle, between the Gentlemen of _Essex_ and
_Cambridgeshire_, against the Gentlemen of London and Surry.' In 1706
it was to let, and in 1708 it was burnt down under sad circumstances.
'There had been a great Match fought on _Saturday_, and the Weather
being hard, two of the Feeders, _Crompton_ and _Day_, would stay all
Night with their Cocks; when by Negligence their Candle fell among the
Straw, which took Fire. In the Morning one Mr. _Newberry_, a great
Cocker, sent his two Sons to see his Cocks fed, who wonder'd they saw
no Snow upon the Cock pit; when coming thither they saw a great Smoak,
and before they cou'd make any Body hear, the place was all on Fire.
One of the feeders was found burnt, only some part of his Body
remaining, and the other is missing.'[376] It was repaired and
re-opened 1709, but was again to be re-let in 1710. There were many
others, even extending to the suburbs, such as Hampstead.

          [Footnote 376: _A Looking-glass for Swearers_, etc., 1708.]

Misson's description of them is amusing, but it would hardly appear
from it that he ever witnessed a fight. 'Cock fighting is one of the
great _English_ Diversions; they build Amphitheatres for this Purpose,
and Persons of Quality sometimes appear at them. Great Wagers are
laid; but I'm told, that a Man may be damnably bubbled, if he is not
very sharp.'

County matches used to be arranged; but for a spice of arrogance
little can beat this: 'At the New Cock Pit by the Bowling Green behind
Gray's Inn Walks, next Tuesday, will begin a great Match of Cock
Fighting which will continue all the Week; the Gentlemen of Essex
against all the rest of Great Britain, for 10 Guineas a Battle and 500
Guineas the Odd Battle.' These were the highest stakes ever publicly
advertised in Queen Anne's reign, whatever might have been done at
private matches--as, for instance, in the Tatler's Club (_Tatler_,
132), Sir Jeoffrey Notch, their chairman, would talk about his
favourite old game-cock Gauntlett, 'upon whose head, the Knight, in
his youth, had won five hundred pounds, and lost two Thousand.'

The cocks sometimes fought in silver spurs, but generally with steel
ones, and of these there were several kinds. 'Note that on Wednesday
there will be a single battle fought with Sickles, after the East
India manner. And on Thursday there will be a Battle Royal, one Cock
with a Sickle, and four Cocks with fair Spurs. On Friday there will be
a pair of Shake bags fight for 5_l._ And on Saturday there will be a
Battle Royal, between a Shakebag with fair Spurs, and 4 Matchable
Cocks which are to fight with Sickles, Launcet Spurs, and Penknife
Spurs, the like never yet seen. For the Entertainment of the foreign
Ambassadors and Gentlemen.'

Cock-fighting even had a literature of its own. In 1709 was published
'The Royal Pastime of Cock fighting &c. by R. H. a Lover of the
Sport'; and in the same year was printed another edition of 'The
Compleat Gamesters, by C. Cotton,' in which are full directions as to
the breeding, feeding, and fighting of Cocks. As so little is now
known of this cruel sport, a few short extracts from this latter work
will make us more thoroughly comprehend it as it was then practised.

In shape, the cock must be neither too large nor too small; with a
small head and strong legs; his spurs, though long and sharp, turning
slightly inwards. He should walk very upright and stately; and if he
crows frequently in his pen it is a sign of courage. The combs or
wattles are to be cut as soon as they appear; and the cock chickens
are to be separated as soon as they begin to peck each other. Fighting
cocks should not begin their career as such until they are two years
old; and before a battle they should be dieted--_i.e._ for four days
they should be fed with stale bread three times a day; after which
they may have a spar, or sham fight, with another cock, their spurs
being carefully guarded with leather balls. They must then be stoved,
which meant putting them in deep baskets filled with straw, covering
them with straw and shutting down the lids; but before undergoing this
'sudatorium' they were to be fed with sugar candy, chopped rosemary,
and butter. In the evening the cock was released, and fed with
wheatmeal and oatmeal, ale, white of eggs, and butter. 'The second day
after his sparring, take your Cock into a fair green Close, and having
a Dunghill Cock in your arms, show it him, and then run from him, that
thereby you may entice him to follow, you permitting him to have now
and then a blow; when he begins to pant, being well heated, take him
up and carry him home.' He was then to have a dose of pounded leaves
of herb of grace, hyssop, and rosemary, mixed with butter, and then
stoved till the evening. Next day he was to rest, and the day after to
be sparred, which treatment was to be continued for a fortnight; but
for the next month, by which time he was to be fit for fighting, he
was merely to be fed and stoved. He was not to be fed before fighting.



     The Queen's love of racing -- Visit to Newmarket -- Queen's
     plates -- Value of matches -- Race meetings -- Tregonwell
     Frampton -- His horse Dragon -- The Queen's love of hunting --
     Sir Roger de Coverley -- Fox-hunting -- Stag-hunting --
     Hare-hunting -- Coursing -- Packs of hounds -- Fishing -- Hawking
     -- Netting -- The Game Act -- Shooting, sitting and flying --
     Match shooting -- Archery.

The horse, necessarily, in those days, when locomotion was only
obtainable through its agency, was of prime importance: farriery was
fairly understood, and some voluminous disquisitions on it were
published, with the most curious receipts for the various ills
horseflesh is heir to, and elaborate engraving of fleams, firing
irons, bits (some of them very cruel), and all sorts of harness--even
down to currycombs, dandy-brushes, and stable utensils. But it is not
here that the hack or roadster is to be spoken of, but the horse kept
for sport--the race horse--about which they had already found out the
fact, 'Like Race Horses cost more in keeping them than they're
worth.'[377] The Queen was fond of racing, and gave her 100_l._ gold
cups to be run for, as now: nay more, she not only kept race horses,
but ran them in her own name. Her six-year-old grey gelding Pepper ran
for her gold cup at York (over Clifton and Rawcliffe Ings) on July 28,
1712. Over the same course, and for the same stake, on August 3, 1714,
ran her grey horse Mustard, by the Taffolet Barb, which, according to
the _Daily Courant_ of May 14, 1714, was entered to run 'in Whitsun
week at Guildford in Surrey for the 50_l._ plate'; and, sad to tell,
her brown horse Star (afterwards called Jacob) ran at York for a plate
of the value of 14_l._, and won it, on July 30, 1714, the very day on
which the Queen was struck with apoplexy, expiring the next day.

          [Footnote 377: _Tunbridge Walks._]

She paid a visit to Newmarket in April 1705, going to Cambridge once
or twice during her stay. Luttrell says: 'Aprill 26, 1705. The queen
has ordered her house at Newmarket to be rebuilt, and gave 1000_l._
towards paving the town; and bought a running horse of Mr. Holloway,
which cost a 1000 guineas, and gave it to the prince.' Prince George
shared his august consort's love of horse-racing, and in the
_Gazette_, June 18/21, 1705, we find: 'These are to give notice, That
his Royal Highness the Prince is pleased to give a Gold Plate, value
One Hundred Guineas to be run for at Black Hambleton in Yorkshire,
over the four Miles old Beacon course, the last Thursday in July, by
any Horse five years old last Foaling time: No Horse to be admitted to
run but such as bring a Certificate from the Breeder of his Horses
Age; and likewise to be judged and approved to be no older than
aforesaid, by the Gentlemen whose Horses run for the said Plate; each
horse to carry ten Stone weight, and start at the usual hours.

'And his Royal Highness is also pleased to give another Gold Plate,
Value One Hundred Guineas, to be run for the Second Thursday in
October next, one Heat, over the Heat's Course at Newmarket, ten
Stone, by Horses five years old, whose Age must be certified as
aforesaid, and likewise allowed by Gentlemen whose Horses run. This
year no Mare will be admitted to run for either of those Plates:
Although for the future his Royal Highness designs to give a Plate of
the like Value, to be run for at each of the aforesaid Courses by
Mares only, of the said Age.'

Indeed, in that year of 1705 the royal couple seemed mightily given to
racing, for 'the queen has appointed horse races to be at Datchet
after her return from Winchester to Windsor.'[378]

          [Footnote 378: _Luttrell_, Sept. 1, 1705.]

Her gold plates, as far as can be made out from newspaper
advertisements, were, in 1703, 100_l._, at Stapleton Leys, Yorkshire,
September 2; one at Newmarket on April 12, 1705; at Langton Wold, near
Malton, Yorkshire, July 24, 1707; in 1709 at Black Hambleton,
Yorkshire, July 26; one of 50_l._ at Datchet, August 24; one of
100_l._ at Newmarket, October 6; while the Prince's Cup of 100_l._ for
mares four years old was run for on October 8 the same year; in 1711,
at Clifton and Rawcliffe Ings; in 1712 at Black Hambleton, on July 26;
and at Clifton Ings, on July 28; in 1713 at Hambleton, August 1;
Clifton, August 3; and in the same year one was run for at Ascot Heath
on August 12--the first mention that I can find of racing there; in
1714, Clifton Ings, on July 28.

A few racing mems of this time will illustrate to what an extent this
passion for the turf was carried. 1702: 'They write from Newmarket,
That the Lord Godolphin's and Mr. Harvy's Horses ran for 3,000_l._ His
Lordship won; As also the Earl of Argile, and the Duke of
Devonshire's; the latter's Horse won, by which Mr. Pheasant got a
considerable sum.' 1703: 'The great horse race at Newmarket, run for
1000 guineas between the lord Treasurer and the Duke of Argyle, was
won by the latter.' Perhaps the earliest sporting paper is 'News from
_New Market_: or An Account of the Horses Match'd to Run there in
_March_, _April_, and _May_ 1704, The Weight, Miles, Wages and
Forfeits. Printed for _John Nutt_ near Stationer's Hall. Price 2_d._'
1707: 'Last Monday was a horse race at Newmarket, between the lord
Granby's Grantham and Mr. Young's Blundel, for 3000_l._--the latter
won.' On April 10, 1708, at Newmarket, the Duke of Bedford's bay horse
(9 stone) had a match with Mr. Minchall's bay colt (8-1/2 stone) for
1,000 guineas; but there is no record of which won. These were the
highest stakes recorded during the reign: they were generally for 200
or 300 guineas.

Luttrell records a somewhat singular match against time: '14 April
1709. Some days since, a baker at Clerkenwell Green, laid with a
Vintner there, a wager of 400 guineas against 16 Guineas, that his
horse could not run from Shoreditch Church to Ware and back again
(being 40 miles) in 2 hours and 36 minutes, which race was last
Tuesday, and performed in 2 hours and 28 minutes, but the horse since

The first mention, in this reign, of Epsom Races, as far as I can
find, is in the _London Gazette_ April and May 26/3, 1703, when three
small plates were to be run for, of 30_l._, 10_l._, and 5_l._ value.
On May 25, 1704, there was only one to be competed for, and that of
20_l._ They had very early 'Epsom Spring Meetings'; for, in the _Daily
Courant_, February 15, 1709, it says: 'On Epsom Downes in Surrey, on
the first Monday after the Frost, a Plate of 20_l._ will be run for,'

Races for stakes of little value were common all over the country, and
were deemed of sufficient importance to be advertised in the London
papers. Take a few haphazard: Nottingham, Kerfall, Boston, Winchester,
Croydon, Coventry, Quainton, Horsham, Woodstock, Mansfield; nay, there
was even a 'Jockey Field betwixt Bedford Row and Gray's Inn, having a
full Prospect of Hampstead and Highgate.'

What a vast difference there was between those old racecourses and
ours! No grand stands, no howling ring, no carriages, no ladies; not
even a special dress for the jockeys. According to a nearly
contemporary print, there were very few spectators even--and but a
sorry booth, or so, for the sale of liquor.

The most famous sporting man of his time was Tregonwell Frampton,
Esq., of Moreton, Dorsetshire, 'the Father of the Turf,' who was
keeper of her Majesty's running horses at Newmarket--a post he had
filled in the time of William III., and which he continued to hold
under Georges I. and II. He is described as being 'the oldest, and as
they say the cunningest jockey in England; one day he lost 1,000 gs.,
the next he won 2,000, and so alternately. He made as light of
throwing away 500_l._ or 1,000_l._ at a time, as other men do of their
pocket money, and was perfectly calm, cheerful and unconcerned when he
lost a thousand pounds as when he won it.' This may be true, but I
find no record of his running for any such large sums in any match.
'April 6, 1708. Mr. Frampton's Monkey and Mr. Cotton's Snap, 100
Guineas. Ap. 27. Sir Cecil Bishop's Quaker and Mr. Frampton's Monkey
200 guineas. Ap. 28. Mr. Minchall's Cork and Mr. Frampton's Trumpeter
500 guineas. Oct. 1, 1709. Mr. Pullen's Slouch against Mr. Frampton's
White Neck 200 g's. 5 Oct. Mr. Frampton's Teller against L'd
Dorchester's Colt, 200 g's.' And even his sporting bid in Sept. 1713
was not for high stakes, although he challenged dukes to compete. 'Mr.
Frampton that keeps the Queen's Running Horses, has made a Sporting
Proposal to three Dukes, allowing them to joyn their Stables, and Name
to him any 6 Horses or Mares (the Horse called Wyndham[379] excepted)
against 6 of his now in his Stables ... they are to run for 100_l._
each horse,' etc.

          [Footnote 379: Belonging to the Duke of Somerset.]

Thus we see he owned many horses, but the most famous of all was one
named Dragon, to whom it is alleged Frampton behaved with cruel
barbarity. On Oct. 30, 1712, Dragon ran against Lord Dorchester's
Wanton for three hundred guineas, and on April 22, 1713, encountered
the redoubtable Wyndham for the same stakes. His alleged mutilation
and death are told by Dr. John Hawkesworth in No. 37 of _The
Adventurer_. There is no record of his death, but in an old song,
called '_Newmarket_ Horse Race,' belonging to the early part of George
the First's reign, it says--

  For I'll have the brown Bay, if the blew bonnet ride,
  And hold a thousand Pounds of his side, Sir;
  _Dragon_ would scow'r it, but _Dragon_ Grows old;
  He cannot endure it, he cannot, he wonnot now run it,
    As lately he could:
  Age, age, does hinder the Speed, Sir,

which would infer that Dragon was old and worthless as a racer before
his death, and the other story falls to the ground.

When young, the Queen was very fond of hunting, and, in fact, pursued
it after her accession to the throne, when, from her increasing size,
she no longer mounted the saddle. 'The Queen came last Thursday to
Hampton Court, and having assisted in council, and dined there,
returned at night to Windsor, where she takes the divertisement of
hunting almost every day in an open Calash in the forest,'[380] _i.e._
she drove down the long rides and saw what she could of the hunt.
Again,[381] three years later: 'This morning her Majestie and the
prince went for Winchester to take the diversion of hunting.' Still
later[382]: 'The queen was hunting the stag till four this afternoon,
and she drove in her chaise, above forty miles.'

          [Footnote 380: _Luttrell_, Aug. 15, 1702.]

          [Footnote 381: _Ibid._, Aug. 28, 1705.]

          [Footnote 382: _Stella._]

The country gentry then, as now, were ardently fond of sport; but then
the hunting field was a thoroughly neighbourly gathering, there were
no subscription packs, and no fast trains to bring every snob that
possesses, or can hire, a 'hunter.' The runs might not be so fast as
now, nor were they ever recorded in any sporting paper--horrible
disadvantages, doubtless, but still they brought neighbours together,
engendered a kindly feeling, and gave legitimate occupation to people
whose brains were not addled with too much reading. Where can there be
a prettier picture of a thoroughbred old English sportsman than that
which Addison draws of Sir Roger[383]: 'The Walls of his great Hall
are covered with the Horns of several kinds of Deer that he has killed
in the Chace, which he thinks the most valuable Furniture of his
House, as they afford him frequent Topicks of Discourse, and shew that
he has not been Idle. At the lower End of the Hall, is a large Otter's
Skin stuffed with Hay, which his Mother ordered to be hung up in that
manner, and the Knight looks upon it with great Satisfaction, because
it seems he was but nine Years old when his Dog killed him. A little
Room adjoining to the Hall is a kind of Arsenal filled with Guns of
several Sizes and Inventions, with which the Knight has made great
Havock in the Woods, and distroyed many thousands of Pheasants,
Partridges, and Wood-cocks. His Stable Doors are patched with Noses
that belonged to Foxes of the Knights own hunting down. Sir Roger
shewed me one of them that for Distinction Sake has a Brass Nail
struck through it, which cost him about fifteen Hours riding, carried
him through half a dozen Counties, killed him a Brace of Geldings, and
lost above half his Dogs. This the Knight looks upon as one of the
greatest Exploits of his Life. The perverse Widow, whom I have given
some Account of, was the Death of several Foxes; for Sir Roger has
told me that in the course of his Amours he patched the Western Door
of his Stable. Whenever the Widow was cruel, the Foxes were sure to
pay for it. In proportion as his Passion for the Widow abated, and
old Age came on, he left off Fox hunting; but a Hare is not yet Safe
that Sits within ten Miles of his House.'

          [Footnote 383: _Spectator_, 115.]

Hunting commenced both earlier in the season and in the day than now.
'It must be imagined it was near Day when we went to Bed and therefore
could not be expected we should get out a Hunting at Five or Six in
the Morning.'[384] From a set of nearly contemporary prints we gather
that possibly little attention was paid to earth-stopping, when
fox-hunting, for one part of the engraving shows a fox being dug out.
In another part the hounds are breaking up the fox, which has not been
denuded of his brush. Only the gentlemen are represented as being on
horseback, the huntsmen having leaping poles. This was better for them
than being mounted, for the country was nothing like as cultivated as
now, and perfectly undrained, so that they could go straighter on
foot, and with these poles leaps could be taken that no horseman would

          [Footnote 384: _The Quaker's Art of Courtship_, 1710.]

  Nor should the Fox shun the pursuing Hound
  Nor the Tall Stag with branching Antlers crown'd.[385]

          [Footnote 385: _Rural Sports_, Gay, ed. 1713.]

From the engravings referred to, we find that the stag was first
found, or harboured, with a bloodhound--the staghounds were coupled,
and let loose when wanted by the huntsmen, who were on foot. Its death
was duly celebrated by a 'Mort,' or blowing of horns, when a
hunting-knife was presented to the principal man present, to cut off
its head, after everyone had passed his opinion as to its age, weight,
etc.: the deer was then carted home. Guns were carried wherewith to
shoot the stag, if necessary, when at bay.

Budgell, in _Spectator_ No. 117, well describes a run after a hare,
and the discipline of the hounds who were close upon the hare, when
the huntsman threw his pole between them--this the well-tutored dogs
would not pass, and the hare was rescued. Gay, too, tells the story of
a run well:--

  Now at a Fault the Dogs confus'dly stray,
  And try t'unravel his perplexing Way;
  They trace his artful Doubles o'er and o'er,
  Smell every Shrub, and all the Plain explore,
  'Till some stanch Hound summons the baffled Crew,
  And strikes away his wily Steps anew.
  Along the Fields they scow'r with jocund Voice,
  The frighted Hare starts at the distant Noise;
  New Stratagems and various Shifts he tries,
  Oft' he looks back, and dreads a close Surprize;
  Th' advancing Dogs still haunt his list'ning Ear,
  And ev'ry breeze augments his growing Fear:
  'Till tir'd at last, he pants, and heaves for Breath;
  Then lays him down, and waits approaching death.[386]

          [Footnote 386: _Ibid._]

Or what better description could we have of coursing a hare than the

  The Greyhound now pursues the tim'rous Hare,
  And shoots along the Plain with swift Career;
  While the sly Game escapes beneath his Paws,
  He snaps deceitful Air with empty Jaws;
  Enrag'd, upon his Foe he quickly gains,
  And with wide Stretches measures o'er the Plains;
  Again the Cunning Creature winds around,
  While the fleet Dog o'ershoots, and loses Ground;
  Now Speed he doubles to regain the Way,
  And crushes in his Jaws the Screaming Prey.

Many packs of hounds were advertised for sale during Anne's reign--not
such large packs as we now have, but small packs, with which a man
could then show sport, and yet the keeping of which need not be
costly. Two or three are given for example's sake: 'Any Gentleman that
hath a mind to purchase a good pack of cloddy strong Hounds, fit for
any Country, from 15 couple to 10, may be accommodated,' etc. 'There
are to be dispos'd of 18 Couple of Hare Hounds, well siz'd and well
mark'd, at reasonable rates.' 'There are 9 Couple of good Fox Hounds
(with a Tarrier) (4 Couple being stanch finders) to be sold at a very
reasonable Price. These Hounds are as proper for Deer as Fox.' 'Lost
the 16th Instant from the Earl of Litchfield's Foxhounds in some Woods
near Crawford in Kent, a small White Beagle, with Red Spots on her
Ears, and a short Tail, (being a Tarrier),' etc.

There were cockney hunts, with deer, both at Hampstead and Muswell
Hill, and live deer were bought and sold commonly; indeed there is one
advertisement which has a touch of old Leadenhall Market about it.
'Any person who has Beagles, Foxes or Hares to dispose of, may hear of
a Purchaser by giving Notice to the Porter at Sion Chappel near

One sport then in vogue must not be omitted from the

  If you'd preserve a num'rous Finny Race,
  Let your fierce Dogs the Rav'nous Otter chase;
  Th' amphibious Creature ranges all the Shores,
  Shoots through the Waves, and ev'ry haunt explores:
  Or let the Gin his roving Steps betray,
  And save from hostile Jaws the Scaly Prey.

Angling was extensively practised, with almost the same appliances and
tackle as now, even down to the wicker creel at the side. Will Wimble
'makes a May fly to a Miracle; and furnishes the whole country with
angle rods.' Isaac Walton had not long been dead (Dec. 15, 1683), and
his disciples in the 'Contemplative Man's Recreation' were many and
experienced. Hear what Gay says about making a fly to suit the

  Oft' have I seen a skillful Angler try
  The various Colours of the treach'rous Fly;
  When he with fruitless Pain hath skim'd the Brook,
  And the coy Fish rejects the skipping Hook,
  He shakes the Boughs that on the Margin grow,
  Which o'er the Streams a waving Forrest throw;
  When if an Insect falls (his certain Guide)
  He gently takes him from the whirling Tide;
  Examines well his Form with Curious Eyes,
  His gaudy Colours, Wings, his Horns and Size.
  Then round his Hook a proper Fur he winds,
  And on the Back a speckled Feather binds.
  So just the Properties in ev'ry part,
  That even Nature's Hand revives in Art.

Hawking, too, was a sport not then extinct, the land not being so
parcelled into fields, and fenced in, as now; so that the flight of
the birds could be easily followed. The birds were startled by five or
six spaniels trained to the work. Here is a description of one lost by
the Earl of Abingdon: 'a small black and white Hawking Spaniel, his
Hair not very long, more black than white, long Back, with a thick
Head.' In brook-hawking, men used to beat the rushes with poles, and
they also hawked partridges and pheasants. The latter are depicted in
the engraving as being poked off their roosts with poles.

They went bat-fowling with the same nets as are now used, and they
also netted partridges at night, with the aid of a lanthorn. In
wild-fowl shooting they also used a horse for stalking. There were
decoys for ducks, and we get an insight as to how they were managed.
'These are to give Notice, that if any Person that understands the
management of a Decoy, wants a place, he may have one about 40 Miles
from London provided he brings a Certificate from the last Master he
served as to his ability ... he shall have as good Wages as is usually
given, or a third Bird, as he shall agree when he seeth the Decoy.'

It was not every person that might shoot game: 'The first of them,
says he, that has a Spaniel by his Side, is a Yeoman of about an
hundred Pounds a Year, an honest Man; He is just within the Game Act
and qualified to kill an Hare or a Pheasant; he knocks down a Dinner
with his Gun twice or thrice a week; and by that means lives much
cheaper than those who have not so good an Estate as himself. He would
be a good Neighbour if he did not destroy so many Partridges; in short
he is a very sensible man; shoots flying; and has been several times
foreman of the Petty Jury.'[387] This Game Act, which he was just
within, was the 3rd James I. cap. 14, clause 5, which says that no one
not having forty pounds per annum, or 200_l._ worth of goods and
chattels, may shoot game; and should they do so, 'then any person
having lands, tenements or hereditaments, of the clear yearly value of
one hundred pounds a year, may take from the person or possession of
such malefactor or malefactors, and to his own use for ever keep, such
guns, bows, cross-bows, &c. &c.' and this Act was in force till 1827,
when it was repealed.

          [Footnote 387: _Spectator_, No. 122.]

Shooting flying was not an ordinary accomplishment: it was but just
coming in, and most people took 'pot shots,' and would not risk
shooting at a bird on the wing.

  The dreadful Sound the springing Pheasant hears
  Leaves his Close Haunt, and to some Tree repairs;
  The Dog, aloft the painted Fowl surveys,
  Observes his Motions, and at distance Bays.
  His noisie Foe the stooping Pheasant eyes,
  Fear binds his Feet, and useless Pinions ties,
  Till the sure Fowler, with a sudden Aim,
  From the tall Bough, precipitates the Game.

Partridges, because they flew well, and strongly, were then not shot,
but snared, by means of a trained dog.

  Now the warm Scent assumes the Covey near,
  He treads with Caution, and he points with Fear.
  Then lest some Sentry Fowl his Fraud descry,
  And bid his Fellows from the Danger fly,
  Close to the Ground in Expectation lies,
  Till in the Snare the flutt'ring Covey rise.

'But if I miss Sitting, I commonly hit 'em Flying,' says Bellair in
Mrs. Centlivre's 'Love at a Venture,' which shows that it was only
when the former failed, that he tried the latter plan. And, in an
advertisement for a gamekeeper, it is noticed: 'Any one that is a very
good Coach man, and can Shoot flying, perfectly well, may hear of a
good Place.' If being a good coachman was useful to a gamekeeper, what
can we say to this: 'Any Gentleman that wants a Man for Shooting,
Hunting, Setting, or any Manner of Game, may hear of one well
qualified. He is a good Scholar, and shaves well.'

Luttrell notes, Mar. 15, 1707: 'Yesterday the lords past the bill for
the preservation of the game, in which is a clause, that if any
poulterer, after the 1st of May next, sells hare, pheasant, partridge
&c. shall forfeit 5_l._ for every offence, unless he has a certificate
from the lord of the mannor that they were not taken by poachers.'
The killing of game must have been earlier then than now, for,
appended to _Spectator_ No. 156, Aug. 29, 1711, is the following:
'ADVERTISEMENT--Mr. _Spectator_ gives his most humble service to Mr.
R. M. of _Chippenham_ in _Wilts_, and hath received the Partridges.'

There were rifle matches in those days. One was shot at the artillery
ground, Finsbury, on July 16, 1703, for a cup value twenty-five
guineas: 'No gun to exceed 4 foot and a half in the Barrel, the
distance to be 200 yards, and but one Shot a piece, the nearest the
Centre to win.' On July 7, 1709, was a match for four pieces of plate:
'to stand 100 yards distance from the Target.' A deer, value 50_s._,
was to be shot for more than once--and the prize once sank as low as
'a pair of breeches.' There was one very singular prize: 'A very fine
brass Gun, in the form of a Walking Cane, to be us'd as a Gun or
Pistol, and in it a fine Prospect Glass, and a Perpetual Almanack
engrav'd about the Head, and a Sun Dial in the Head, and several other
ingenious Utensils.'

Archery was still kept up, as we see by the following
advertisement[388]: 'All Gentlemen who are Lovers of the Ancient and
Noble Exercise of _Archery_, are hereby Invited by the Stewards of the
_Annual Feast_ for the _Clerkenwell_ Archers, to Dine with them at
Mrs. _Mary Barton's_, at the Sign of Sir _John Oldcastle_, upon
_Friday_ the 18th Day of _July_ 1707 at One of the Clock, and to pay
the Bearer _Thomas Beaumont_, Marshal to the _Regiment_ of _Archers_,
Two Shillings and Sixpence; and to take a Sealed Ticket, that the
certain Number may be known, and Provision made accordingly.

          [Footnote 388: _Harl. MSS. 5961_, 154.]



     Challenges -- The stakes -- The combatants -- Description of
     fights -- General combativeness -- Boxing -- Cudgel-playing --
     Pedestrianism -- Tennis -- Cricket -- Football -- Skating --
     Billiards -- Country wakes -- Bowling -- Bowling greens -- Formal
     gardening -- Clipping trees -- Books on gardening -- Trees and
     flowers -- Town and country life -- Country labourers.

In those days, when everyone with any pretensions to gentility wore a
sword, and duelling was rife, it is no wonder that exhibitions of
skill in that weapon were favourites. Like modern prize fights, they
drew together all the scum and riff-raff, as well as the gentry who
were fond of so-called _sport_. They were disreputable affairs, and
were decried by every class of contemporary. The preliminaries were
swagger and bounce, as one or two out of a very large number will

          [Footnote 389: _Harl. MSS. 5931_, 50.]

  'At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole.

     A Tryal of Skill to be Performed between two Profound Masters of
     the Noble Science of Defence on _Wednesday_ next, being this 13th
     of the instant July 1709 at Two of the Clock precisely.

     'I, _George Gray_, born in the City of Norwich, who has Fought in
     most Parts of the _West Indies_ viz. _Jamaica_, _Barbadoes_, and
     several other Parts of the World; in all Twenty-five times, upon
     a Stage, and was never yet Worsted, and now lately come to
     _London_; do invite _James Harris_, to meet and Exercise at these
     following Weapons viz.:--

       _Back Sword_,        }   { _Single Falchon_
       _Sword and Dagger_,  }   {       AND
       _Sword and Buckler_, }   { _Case of Falchons_.

     'I, _James Harris_, Master of the said Noble Science of Defence,
     who formerly rid in the Horse guards, and hath Fought a Hundred
     and Ten Prizes, and never left a Stage to any Man: will not fail
     (God Willing) to meet this brave and bold Inviter at the Time and
     Place appointed, desiring Sharp Swords, and from him no Favour.

     '☞ _Note._ No person to be upon the Stage but the Seconds.
     _Vivat Regina._'

       *       *       *       *       *

  'At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole.

     A Tryal of Skill to be Performed between these two following
     Masters of the Noble science of Defence, on _Wednesday_ the Fifth
     of _April_, 1710, at Three of the Clock precisely.

     'I, _John Parkes_ from _Coventry_, Master of the Noble Science of
     Defence, do Invite you _Thomas Hesgate_, to meet me and Exercise
     at these following Weapons, viz.:--

       _Back Sword_,        }   { _Single Falchon_,
       _Sword and Dagger_,  }   { _Case of Falchons_,
       _Sword and Buckler_, }   { _And Quarterstaff_.

     'I, _Thomas Hesgate_, a _Barkshire_ Man, Master of the said
     Science, will not fail (God willing) to meet this brave and bold
     Inviter, at the Time and Place appointed; desiring Sharp Swords,
     and from him no Favour.

     '☞ _Note._ No Person to be upon the Stage but the Seconds.
     _Vivat Regina._'[390]

          [Footnote 390: _Harl. MSS. 5931_, 277.]

The challenger would wager some twenty or thirty pounds, and the
stakes would be deposited and delivered to the challenged: the
challenger receiving the money taken at the door,[391] or, as we
should term it, gate money; which, frequently, twice or thrice
exceeded the value of the stakes.

          [Footnote 391: De Sorbière.]

There is one remarkable exception, I have found, to this monetary
arrangement, but it is the only one in my experience. For, in an
advertisement of the usual character, there comes: 'Note. That John
Stokes fights James Harris, and Thomas Hesgate fights John Terriwest
three Bouts each at Back Sword, for Love.'

Preliminaries arranged, handbills printed and distributed, the combat
duly advertised in at least one newspaper, and the day arrived: like
the bull and bear, the combatants paraded the streets, preceded by a
drum, having their sleeves tucked up and their swords in hand. All
authorities agree that the fights were to a certain extent serious:
'The Edge of the Sword was a little blunted, and the Care of the Prize
fighters was not so much to avoid wounding each other, as to avoid
doing it dangerously: Nevertheless, as they were oblig'd to fight till
some Blood was shed, without which no Body would give a Farthing for
the Show, they were sometimes forc'd to play a little ruffly. I once
saw a much deeper and longer Cut given than was intended.'[392]

          [Footnote 392: Misson.]

Ward[393] gives a short description of one of these fights: 'Great
Preparations at the Bear Garden all Morning, for the noble Tryal of
Skill that is to be play'd in the Afternoon. Seats fill'd and crowded
by Two. Drums beat, Dogs yelp, Butchers and Foot soldiers clatter
their Sticks; At last the two heroes, in their fine borrow'd _Holland_
Shirts, mount the Stage about Three; Cut large Collops out of one
another, to divert the Mob and Make Work for the Surgeons: Smoking,
Swearing, Drinking, Thrusting, Justling, Elbowing, Sweating, Kicking,
Cuffing all the while the Company stays.'

          [Footnote 393: _Comical View of London and Westminster._]

Steele gives a good account of a prize fight[394]: 'The Combatants met
in the Middle of the Stage, and shaking Hands, as removing all malice,
they retired with much Grace to the Extremities of it; from whence
they immediately faced about, and approached each other, _Miller_ with
an Heart full of Resolution, _Buck_ with a watchful untroubled
Countenance; _Buck_ regarding principally his own Defence, _Miller_
chiefly thoughtful of annoying his Opponent. It is not easie to
describe the many Escapes and imperceptible Defences between Two Men
of quick Eyes, and ready Limbs; but _Miller's_ Heat laid him open to
the Rebuke of the calm _Buck_, by a large Cut on the Forehead. Much
Effusion of Blood covered his Eyes in a Moment, and the Huzzas of the
Crowd undoubtedly quickened his Anguish. The Assembly was divided into
Parties upon their different ways of Fighting: while a poor Nymph in
one of the Galleries apparently suffered for _Miller_, and burst into
a Flood of Tears. As soon as his Wound was wrapped up, he came on
again in a little Rage, which still disabled him further. But what
brave Man can be wounded with more Patience and Caution? The next was
a warm eager Onset, which ended in a decisive Stroke on the Left Leg
of _Miller_. The Lady in the Gallery, during the second Strife,
covered her Face; and for my Part, I could not keep my thoughts from
being mostly employed on the Consideration of her unhappy Circumstance
that Moment, hearing the Clash of Swords, and apprehending Life or
Victory concerned her Lover in every Blow, but not daring to satisfie
herself on whom they fell. The Wound was exposed to the view of all
who could delight in it, and sowed up on the Stage. The surly Second
of _Miller_ declared at this Time, that he would that Day Fortnight
fight Mr. _Buck_ at the Same Weapons, declaring himself the Master of
the renowned _German_; but Buck denied him the Honour of that
Courageous Disciple, and asserting that he himself had taught that
Champion accepted the Challenge.'

          [Footnote 394: _Spectator_, No. 436]

I have been, to my great regret, unable to find a contemporary print
of one of these combats; the nearest approach to it being the fight
between Dr. Sacheverell and Dr. Hoadley, which furnishes a graphic,
though burlesque, representation of the scene.

Looking at the class from which these gladiators sprang, it is not
surprising to hear that some of these prize fights were prearranged,
or, to use modern slang, 'squared.' In _Spectator_ 449 is a letter,
from which the following is an extract: 'Being in a Box at an
Alehouse, near that renowned Seat of Honour above mentioned,[395] I
overheard two Masters of the Science agreeing to quarrel on the next
Opportunity. This was to happen in the Company of a Set of the
Fraternity of Basket Hilts, who were to meet that Evening. When this
was settled, one asked the other, Will you give Cuts or receive? the
other answered, Receive. It was replied, Are you a Passionate Man? No,
provided you cut no more nor no deeper than we agree.'

          [Footnote 395: _Hockley in the Hole._]

The very children were bitten with the mania. 'Apprentices, and all
Boys of that Degree, are never without their _Cudgels_, with which
they fight something like the Fellows before mention'd, only that the
Cudgel is nothing but a stick; and that a little Wicker Basket which
covers the Handle of the Stick, like the Guard of a _Spanish_ Sword,
serves the combatants instead of defensive Arms.'[396]

          [Footnote 396: Misson.]

This sword-fighting, however, was seeing its last days, and was, in
the next reign, to be superseded by pugilistic encounters. At present,
boxing, although extensively practised, had not been reduced to a
science. Whatever was it made everybody so pugnacious? 'Anything that
looks like fighting,' says Misson, 'is delicious to an Englishman. If
two little Boys quarrel in the Street, the Passengers stop, make a
Ring round them in a Moment, and set them against one another, that
they may come to Fisticuffs. When 'tis come to a Fight, each pulls off
his Neckcloth and his Waistcoat, and give them to hold to some of the
Standers by; then they begin to brandish their Fists in the Air; the
Blows are aimed all at the Face, they Kick one another's Shins, they
tug one another by the Hair &c. He that has got the other down may
give him one Blow or two before he rises, but no more; and let the Boy
get up ever so often, the other is obliged to box him again as often
as he requires it. During the Fight, the Ring of Bystanders encourage
the Combatants with great Delight of Heart, and never part them while
they fight according to the Rules. The Father and Mother of the Boys
let them fight on as well as the rest, and hearten him that gives
Ground or has the Worst.

'These Combats are less frequent among grown Men than Children, but
they are not rare. If a Coachman has a Dispute about his Fare with a
Gentleman that has hired him, and the Gentleman offers to fight him to
decide the Quarrel, the Coachman consents with all his Heart: The
Gentleman pulls off his Sword, lays it in some Shop, with his Cane,
Gloves and Cravat, and boxes in the same Manner as I have describ'd
above. If the Coachman is soundly drubb'd, which happens almost
always, that goes for payment; but if he is the _Beator_, the _Beatee_
must pay the Money about which they quarrell'd. I once saw the late
Duke of Grafton at Fisticuffs in the open Street, with such a Fellow
whom he lamb'd most horribly.'

There was cudgel-playing--for a new hat; 'he that breaks most Heads to
have the Hat; he that plays puts in six-pence.' Quarterstaff was
played, and there was a somewhat dangerous game--'there will be three
bouts with _threshing flails_.' 'A Tryal of Skill is to be fought &c.
between John Parkes[397] of Coventry, and John Terrewest. Note--They
fight at the Ancient Weapon called the Threshing Flail.'

          [Footnote 397: John Parkes or Sparkes was buried at
          Coventry, and on his tombstone was inscribed, _inter alia_,
          that he was a man of mild disposition, a gladiator by
          profession, who fought 350 battles in different parts of
          Europe, when he retired. He died 1733.]

Mild athleticism seems to have obtained among a few of the upper
middle class: for instance, Addison speaks[398] of the dumb-bell with
which he used to practise every morning, and also of a kind of Indian
club exercise, 'brandishing of two short Sticks grasped in each Hand,
and loaden with Plugs of Lead at either End. This opens the Chest,
exercises the Limbs, and gives a Man all the Pleasure of Boxing,
without the Blows.'

          [Footnote 398: _Spectator_, No. 115.]

There were foot races, but I can find but one or two notices of them,
and there is very little like professional pedestrianism, except the
following very mild feat: 'A Wager of 100_l._ was laid last week, that
a German of 64 years old, should walk in Hyde Park 300 miles in 6
dayes, which he did within the time, and a mile over.'[399]

          [Footnote 399: Luttrell, Sept. 13, 1709.]

Tennis was a fashionable game, although I only find one public court
mentioned, 'facing Oxenden Street near the Haymarket.' Ward gets quite
moral on the subject of this game: 'Rightly considered, it's a good
Emblem of the World. As thus: the Gamesters are the Great Men, the
Rackets are the Laws, which they hold fast in their Hands, and the
Balls are we little Mortals which they bandy backwards or forwards
from one to t'other as their own Wills and Pleasure directs 'em.'

Cricket was played, and sufficient interest was felt in the matches:
on one or two occasions they were advertised in the newspapers. In
1705: 'This is to give notice, That a Match at Cricket is to be
plai'd between 11 Gentlemen of the West part of the County of Kent
against as many of Chatham for 11 Guineas a man, at Mauldon in Kent on
the 7th of August next.' And in 1707: 'There will be two great Matches
at Cricket plaid, between London and Croydon; the first at Croydon on
Tuesday July 1, and the other to be plaid in Lamb's Conduit Fields
near Holborn, on the Thursday following, being the 3rd of July.'

On the approach of winter football came into vogue, and it was played
in the streets.

                            When lo! from far
  I spy the furies of the Foot ball war:
  The 'prentice quits his Shop, to join the Crew,
  Increasing Crowds the flying Game pursue,
  Thus, as you roll the Ball o'er Snowy Ground,
  The gathering Globe augments with every Round.
  But whither shall I run? the Throng draws nigh,
  The Ball now skims the Street, now soars on High
  The dext'rous Glazier strong returns the bound,
  And jingling sashes on the Penthouse sound.[400]

          [Footnote 400: _Trivia_, book 2.]

'In Winter _Foot-balls_ is a useful and charming Exercise. It is a
Leather Ball about as big as ones Head, fill'd with Wind: This is
kick'd about from one to t'other in the Streets, by him that can get
at it, and this is all the Art of it.'[401]

          [Footnote 401: Misson.]

Skating, although practised here in the time of Fitz-Stephen, had
fallen into desuetude, until it was reintroduced by the Cavaliers who
had been with Charles II. in Holland. Pepys thought it was 'a very
pretty art,' yet got very nervous over the Duke of York's skating. 'To
the Duke, and followed him into the Parke, where, though the ice was
broken and dangerous, yet he would go slide upon his scates, which I
did not like, but he slides very well.' Skating was popular in London
in Anne's reign, but it is doubtful whether it obtained in the remote
parts of the country. Writes Swift to Stella, Jan. 31, 1711: 'The
Canal and Rosamonds Pond full of the rabble sliding, and with skates,
_if you know what those are_.'

'The Gentile, cleanly and most ingenious Game at Billiards' was a
resource at home; and it was played on a table like ours--an oblong
wooden table, covered with green cloth, and with pockets of netting,
in precisely the same position as now, the cushions being stuffed with
fine flax or cotton. The game was not played as we play it, but there
were two balls, a port or archway at one end, and a king or cone at
the other. The cues were not like ours, but more like maces, only much
heavier. 'Your Sticks ought to be heavy, made of _Brazile Lignum
Vitæ_, or some other weighty wood which at the broad end must be tipt
with Ivory.' The game was not only played in private, but in coffee
houses. 'At the Greyhound Coffee House near Monmouth Street in Soho,
are to be sold two new Billiard Tables, and all other goods and
conveniences fit for a Coffee House,' etc. And again: 'A very good
French Billiard Table little the worse for wearing, full size, with
all the Materials fit for French or English play &c. Enquire at Scot's
Coffee House.' Indeed Cotton says there were few towns of note in
England which had not a public billiard-table. He, however, warns
people against 'those spunging Caterpillars, which swarm where any
Billiard Tables are set up, who make that single room their Shop,
Kitching and Bed Chamber.'

[Illustration: Billiards.[402]]

          [Footnote 402: This illustration, although from the 1709
          edition of Cotton's _Compleat Gamester_, is of older date;
          indeed, it is identical with the first edition of 1674. The
          fact of its being a text-book in Anne's reign shows that the
          game had not then been modified.]

The rough sports, such as cudgel-playing, foot-ball, wrestling,
throwing, boxing, leaping, and running, were kept alive by the country
wakes, which took place on the dedication festival of the parish
church. These were sometimes supplemented by a grinning match, such as
that which drew down Addison's wrath,[403] and which was afterwards
abandoned, in deference to his opinion.

          [Footnote 403: _Spectator_, No. 173.]

Near London these wakes, like Hampstead or Deptford wakes, were well
kept up; and there was my Lady Butterfield in Epping Forest, of whose
entertainment and calf-roasting, we have already had a description
through Ward's instrumentality. Here is one of her advertisements: 'My
Lady Butterfield gives a Challenge to all England, to Ride a Horse,
Leap a Horse, Run on Foot or Hallow with any Woman in England Ten
years younger, but not a Day older, because she would not under value
herself. Gentlemen and Ladies, whilst in the Spring 'tis worth your
while to come to hear the Nightingal Sing in Wanstead within a Mile of
the Green Man, in Essex, at my Lady Butterfield's at Nightingal Hall.
This is to give notice to all Gentlemen and Ladies, and all the best
of my Friends, that on the last Wednesday of April is my feast, where
is very good Entertainment for that Day, and for all the Year after
from my Lady Butterfield.'

Or another:--


  If Rare Good young Beans and Pease can Tempt Ye,
  Pray pass not by my Hall with Bellies Empty;
  For Kind Good Usage every one can tell,
  My Lady Butterfield does al excell;
  At Wanstead Town, a Mile of the Green Man,
  Come if you dare and stay away if you can.

She had a rival later on, in 1713. 'This is to acquaint all Jolly Lads
and Lasses. That on Monday the 28th Instant, there will be a Meeting
of several Gentlemen and Ladies at the Opening of Mr. Tucker's new
House upon Epping Forest, where the Company will be provided with good
Music and Dancing, and be likewise entertain'd by Country People with
the following Diversions, viz. A Beaver Hat to be Cudgell'd for, A
Pair of Buckskin Breeches to be wrestled for; and a lac'd Holland
Smock to be danced for, by 6 young Women. N.B. The Sport begins at 10
a Clock in the Morning; and such care is taken that the Company may
not return a hungry, One Ox will then be roasted and given _gratis_.'

Women raced for smocks, silk stockings, or topknots; whilst one would
surely have won Sir John Astley's heart. 'This is to give Notice, That
there is a young Woman, born within 30 Miles of London, will run, for
Fifty or a Hundred Pounds, a Mile and an half, with any other Woman
that has liv'd a Year within the same Distance; upon any good Ground,
as the Parties concern'd shall agree to.'

Even a woman's suspected infidelity was turned into sport. 'At
_Hammersmith_ near _Kensington_, to morrow, being Friday, will be rode
a SKIMMINGTON TRIUMPH, according to the Manner described in Hudibras,'
which the reader will find, if he be curious in the matter, in Part.
II. Canto II. of Butler's immortal poem.

One harmless diversion should not be passed over. 'At Epsom Old Wells
... on Whitsun Tuesday will be Moris Dancing Set against Set, for
Lac'd Hats, at 10 a Clock, with other Diversions.'

But the game, _par excellence_, which combined out-of-door sport with
the minimum of fatigue, suitable alike to the mercurial young, and the
steady middle-aged, was bowling; and the bowling greens multiplied
exceedingly in this reign, especially (judging by the advertisements)
after 1706. We hear of them starting up in all the suburbs: at Putney,
Hoxton, Maribone, Hampstead, Stoke Newington, Ham Lane, etc.

That the bowls were the same as are now played with we see by the
following advertisement: 'Lost out of the Bowl House belonging to
Pemlico Green in Hogsdon near Shoreditch two pair of Lignum Vitæ Bowls
and one pair of a reddish Wood.' It was not an expensive recreation.
'The New Green over against Bunhill fields will be open'd on Saturday
next, and the Old Green to be Bowled on for Six Pence and One Penny
for taking up.' Sometimes there were prizes bowled for, as 'At the
Black Gray hound Dog at Bristow Causey, will be a Silver Tobacco Box
Bouled for, value 30_s._'

It was essentially a sober cit's amusement. 'I wonder how so many Fat
Gentlemen can endure the Green all Day, tho' tis pleasant enough to
look out o' the window and observe em--To see a Tun o' Grease, with a
broad fiery Face, and a little black cap, waddle after a Bowl, rub,
rub, rub, rub, rub, and lose more Fat in getting a Shilling--Than
wou'd yield him a Crown at the Tallow Chandler's.'[404] 'A Bowling
Green is a Place where there are three Things thrown away besides
Bowls, viz. Time, Money, and Curses; the last ten for one. The best
Sport in it, is a sight of the Gamesters, and the looker on enjoys it
more than him that Plays. It is the School of Wrangling, nay worse
than the Schools, for Men will cavil here for a Hair's bredth, and
make a Dispute, where a Straw might end the Controversie. No Antick
screws his Body into such strange Postures; and you would think 'em
mad, to hear 'em make Supplication to their Bowls, and exercise their
Rhetorick to intreat a good Cast.'[405] A great nuisance in these
public bowling-grounds were the people who betted on the players'
skill. '_Cuff._ Let's be sure to bet all we can. I have known a great
Bowler whose Better's place was worth about 200_l._ a year, without
venturing a farthing for himself.'[406]

          [Footnote 404: _Tunbridge Walks._]

          [Footnote 405: _Hickelty Pickelty._]

          [Footnote 406: _Epsom Wells._]

'A Bowling Green is one of the most agreeable Compartments of a
Garden, and, when 'tis rightly placed, nothing is more pleasant to the
Eye. It's hollow Figure covered with a beautiful Carpet of Turf very
Smooth, and of a lively green, most commonly encompassed with a Row of
tall Trees with Flower bearing Shrubs, make a delightful composition;
besides the Pleasure it affords us, of lying along upon its sloping
Banks, in the Shade, during the hottest weather.'[407] It must have
delighted a gardener's heart, in those days, to have had something
which must, almost of necessity, be ornamented in a somewhat formal
manner. There were no landscape gardeners then, they were all fettered
by the precision style of elaborate parterres, terraces, cut trees,
statuary; and although a more educated mind pined for a better state
of things, as is evidenced throughout the _Spectator_ whenever mention
is made of a garden, the tyranny of custom and the gardeners
prevailed. 'Our trees rise in Cones, Globes, and Pyramids. We see the
Marks of the Scissors upon every Plant and Bush. I do not know whether
I am singular in my Opinion, but, for my own part, I would rather look
upon a Tree in all its Luxuriancy and Diffusion of Boughs and
Branches, than when it is thus cut and trimmed into a Mathematical
Figure; and cannot but fancy that an Orchard in flower looks
infinitely more delightful than all the little Labyrinths of the most
finished Parterre.'[408] These parterres were made in as elaborate
devices as some of our specimens of leaf-gardening, and looked very

          [Footnote 407: _The Theory and Practice of Gardening_, by J.
          James, 1712.]

          [Footnote 408: _Spectator_, No. 414.]

In the _Guardian_ (No. 173) this practice of clipping trees is
ridiculed most unmercifully. 'I know an eminent cook, who beautified
his Country seat with a Coronation dinner in greens; where you see the
Champion flourishing on horseback at one end of the table, and the
queen in perpetual youth at the other. For the benefit of all my
loving Countrymen of this Curious taste, I shall here publish a
Catalogue of greens to be disposed of by an eminent town gardener ...
Adam and Eve in Yew; Adam a little Shattered by the fall of the Tree
of Knowledge in the great Storm; Eve and the Serpent very flourishing.

'St. George in box; his arm scarce long enough, but will be in a
Condition to Stick the dragon by next April.

'A Green dragon of the same with a tail of ground Ivy for the
present.--N.B. These two not to be sold separately.

'A pair of Giants stunted, to be sold Cheap.

'A quickset hedge, shot up into a porcupine, by its being forgot a
week in rainy weather,' etc.

There were many works on gardening published in this reign, notably
that by James, which was a translation from the French. It is enriched
with beautiful designs for parterres, etc., and is undoubtedly the
handsomest work on the subject. Van Oosten's 'Dutch Gardener' is
another translation, as is 'the Retir'd Gard'ner' of London and Wise.
The latter is a book of about 800 pages, with several woodcuts and
copperplate engravings, and consists of two parts--one a translation
of 'Le Jardinier Solitaire,' and the other from the work of the Sieur
Louis Ligers. This was edited by George London and Henry Wise, who are
more than once mentioned in the _Spectator_. They were practical
gardeners, and their nurseries far surpassed all others in England.
London was chief gardener to William and Mary, and afterwards to Anne.
During her reign the nurseries were let to a man named Swinburne, but
the name of the original firm was still kept up.

There is, however, an excellent book in English called 'the Clergy
Man's Recreation,' by John Laurence, A.M., 1714, but it is all about
the cultivation of fruit trees.

Plants would even grow out of doors in the City then, and we find the
fore courts of houses planted, or at all events the walls covered with
jasmines, vines, etc. Whilst the newspapers advertise for sale, 'Yews,
Hollys and all sorts of Fillbrea Laurell &c. with all sorts of Fine
Flowering Trees as Honi suckles, Cittisus, Roses, Sævays both Headed
and Pyramid, Orange Trees, and Spanish Jesemins, Gilded Hollys Pyramid
and Headed, Filleroys, Lawrel Tines, and Arbour Vitæ,' and amongst the
flowers were 'Double Emonies, Ranckilos, Tulips, Aurickelouses, Double
Anemonies, Double Ranunculos and Double Junquils.' Ranunculus seems to
have been a puzzling word, for once again we find it spelt

Town and country were eminently antagonistic. The want of means of
communication kept country people in a state of stagnation, compared
to their brethren of the town, whose more fastidious taste could not
brook the boorish behaviour, and coarse pleasures, of the countryman.

'_Woodcock._ No _Londiner_ shall either ruin my Daughter, or waste my
Estate--If he be a Gamester 'tis rattl'd away in two Nights--If a lewd
fellow, 'tis divided into Settlements--If a nice Fop, then my Cherry
trees are cut down to make Terras-Walks, my Ancient Mannor House,
that's noted for good Eating, demolish'd to Build up a Modem Kickshaw,
like my Lord _Courtair's_ Seat about a Mile off, with Sashes, Pictures
and _China_; but never any Victuals drest in the House, for fear the
Smoke of the Chimney should Sully the New Furniture.

'_Reynard._ So that instead of providing her a Gentleman, you'd
Sacrifice her to a Brute; who has neither Manners enough to be thought
Rational, Education enough for a Justice of the Peace, nor wit enough
to distinguish fine Conversation from the Yelping of Dogs; Hunts all
the Morning, topes all the Afternoon, and then goes lovingly Drunk to
Bed to his Wife.

'_Woodcock._ And pray, what are your Town Diversions? To hear a parcel
of _Italian_ Eunuchs, like so many Cats, squawll out somewhat you
don't understand. The Song of my Lady's _Birthday_, by an honest
Farmer, and a Merry Jig by a Country Wench that has Humour in her
Buttocks, is worth Forty on't; Your Plays, your Park, and all your
Town Diversions together, don't afford half so substantial a Joy as
going home thoroughly wet and dirty after a fatiguing Fox Chace, and
Shifting one's self by a good Fire. Neither are we Country Gentlemen
such Ninnies as you make us; we have good Estates, therefore want not
the Knavery and Cunning of the Town; but we are Loyal Subjects, true
Friends, and never scruple to take our Bottle, because we are guilty
of nothing which we are afraid of discovering in our Cups.'[409] A
very pretty quarrel as it stood, and one on which, as Sir Roger
remarked, 'much might be said on both sides,' for Addison[410] rather
grumbles at the old-fashioned courtesy of the well-bred squire as
opposed to the greater ease of manners then in vogue: 'If, after this,
we look on the People of Mode in the Country, we find in them the
Manners of the last Age. They have no sooner fetched themselves up to
the Fashion of the polite World, but the town has dropped them, and
are nearer to the first State of Nature than to those refinements
which formerly reign'd in the Court and still prevail in the Country.
One may now know a Man that never conversed in the World, by his
Excess of Good Breeding. A polite Country Squire shall make you as
many Bows in half an hour, as would serve a Courtier for a Week. There
is infinitely more to do about Place and Precedency in a meeting of
Justices Wives, than in an Assembly of Dutchesses.'

          [Footnote 409: _Tunbridge Walks._]

          [Footnote 410: _Spectator_, No. 119.]

But if the country aristocracy were so behindhand, in what state were
the labourers? Their lot was hard work and scant wage, only relieved
by a village wake or a country fair; no education, no hope of any
better position, of the earth, earthy; a man rose at early morning,
worked hard all day, came home to sleep, and so on without
intermission. Gay thus describes him and his labours:--

  If in the Soil you guide the crooked Share,
  Your early Breakfast is my Constant Care.
  And when with even Hand you strow the Grain,
  I fright the thievish Rooks from off the Plain.
  In misling Days when I my Threasher heard,
  With Nappy Beer I to the Barn repair'd;
  Lost in the Musick of the whirling Flail,
  To gaze on thee I left the smoaking Pail;
  In Harvest, when the Sun was mounted high,
  My Leather Bottle did thy Drought supply;
  When e'er you mow'd I followed with the Rake,
  And have full oft been Sun burnt for thy Sake;
  When in the Welkin gath'ring Show'rs were seen,
  I lagg'd the last with _Colin_ on the Green;
  And when at Eve returning with thy Carr,
  Awaiting heard the gingling Bells from far;
  Strait on the Fire the sooty Pot I plac't,
  To warm thy Broth I burnt my Hands for Haste.
  When hungry thou stood'st _staring, like an Oaf_,
  I slic'd the Luncheon from the Barly Loaf,
  With crumbled Bread I thicken'd well thy Mess,
  Ah, love me more, or love thy Pottage less![411]

          [Footnote 411: _The Shepherd's Week_--_The Ditty_, ed.

The dress of the labourer at this time was a broad-brimmed flap felt
hat, a jerkin, or short coat, knee breeches and stockings; whilst the
women wore their dresses very plainly made--necessarily without
furbelows and hoops, and, for headgear, had a very sensible
broad-brimmed straw hat, or, on holidays, the high-crowned felt hat.



     The theatres -- Dorset Gardens -- Its demolition -- Performances
     -- Lincoln's Inn Fields -- Theatre Royal, Drury Lane -- Its
     company -- Mrs. Tofts -- The Queen's Theatre, Haymarket -- Its
     foundation stone -- Its operas -- Pinkethman's theatre at
     Greenwich -- The Queen and the Stage -- Her reforms -- Strolling
     players -- Behaviour at the theatre -- Orange wenches -- Stage
     properties -- Actors -- Betterton -- Verbruggen -- Cave Underhill
     -- Estcourt -- Dogget -- Colley Cibber -- Wilks -- Booth --
     Pinkethman -- Minor actors -- Actresses -- Mrs. Barry -- Mrs.
     Bracegirdle -- Mrs. Oldfield -- Mrs. Verbruggen -- The ballet.

The drama was fairly supported in Queen Anne's time, although there
were never more than three theatres open at once, and generally only
two. It was not an age for either striking actors or immortal plays;
but, as to the former, they were hard-working, and some of them have
left a name behind them renowned in the history of the stage; and, for
the latter, they were, although somewhat coarse in humour, not so
licentious as the plays of the three preceding reigns. It is
impossible, within the limits of this book, to do more than generalise
on the drama of that day--its history has materials in it for a book
to itself.

There were four theatres: Dorset Gardens, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Drury
Lane, and the Queen's Theatre, Haymarket.

Dorset Gardens Theatre was in Salisbury Court, in Salisbury Square,
Fleet Street, and was built, it is said, from designs by Sir
Christopher Wren, and to have been decorated by Grinling Gibbons. It
fronted the river one way, was consequently easy of access by 'the
silent highway,' and its façade was very pretty, although not
elaborately ornamented. It was opened on Nov. 9, 1671, by the Duke of
York's Company, when they left the playhouse in Little Lincoln's Inn
Fields. It gradually got disreputable, and in 1698 was used for the
drawing of a penny lottery. Ward thus describes its condition in his
time. 'By this time we were come to our propos'd landing Place, when a
Stately Edifice (the Front supported by Lofty Columns) presented to
our View. I enquired of my Friend what Magnanimous Don Cressus Resided
in this Noble and Delightful Mansion? Who told me, No Body as he knew
on, except Rats and Mice; and perhaps an old superannuated _Jack
Pudding_, to look after it, and to take Care that no Decay'd Lover of
the Drama should get in and steal away the _Poet's Pictures_, and sell
'em to some Upholsterers for _Roman Emperours_; I suppose there being
little else to lose, except Scenes, Machines, or some such Jim Cracks.
For this, says he, is one of the Theatres, but now wholly abandon'd by
the Players; and 'tis thought, will in a little time be pull'd
down.'[412] The neighbourhood around about he describes as something
awful in its character, and he was not particular to a shade.

          [Footnote 412: _London Spy._]

The following advertisement[413] will show the style of amusement it
afforded its patrons:--

          [Footnote 413: _Daily Courant_, April 30, 1703.]

         'Being the last time of Acting till after May Fair.

     At the Theatre in _Dorset Gardens_, this day being _Friday_ the
     30th of _April_ will be presented A _Farce_ call'd, _The Cheats_
     of Scapin. And a Comedy of two Acts only, call'd, _The Comical
     Rivals_, or the School Boy. With several Italian Sonatas by
     Signior _Gasperini_ and others. And the _Devonshire Girl_, being
     now upon her Return to the City of _Exeter_, will perform three
     several Dances, particularly her last new Entry in imitation of
     _Mademoiselle Subligni_, and the _Whip of_ Dunboyne by Mr.
     Claxton her _Master_, being the last time of their Performance
     till Winter. And at the desire of several Persons of Quality
     (hearing that Mr. _Pinkeman_ hath hired the two famous French
     Girls lately arriv'd from the Emperor's Court) They will perform
     several Dances on the Rope upon the Stage, being improv'd to that
     Degree, far exceeding all others in that Art. And their _Father_
     presents you with the _Newest Humours of Harlequin_ as performed
     by him before the Grand Signior at _Constantinople_. Also the
     Famous Mr. _Evans_ lately arriv'd from _Vienna_, will shew you
     Wonders of another kind, Vaulting on the Manag'd Horse, being the
     greatest Master of that Kind in the World. To begin at Five so
     that all may be done by Nine a Clock.'

In the _Daily Courant_ May 13, 1703, there was an attempt to revive
it, but it was unsuccessful. 'The Queen's Theatre in _Dorset Garden_
is now fitting up for a new _Opera_; and the great Preparations that
are made to forward it and bring it upon the Stage by the beginning of
_June_, adds to every body's Expectation, who promise themselves
mighty Satisfaction from so well order'd and regular an Undertaking as
this is said to be, both in the Beauties of the Scenes, and Varieties
of Entertainments in the Musick and Dances.'

It opened spasmodically, now and then: on July 9, 1706, with an opera
called 'Arsinoe, Queen of Cyprus.' Mrs. Tofts as Arsinoe; a prologue
spoken by Cibber, and an epilogue by Estcourt; and on Aug. 1 there was
an opera called 'Camilla' played. And we hear the last of it in the
autumn of this year.'[414] 'By the _deserted Company_ of Comedians of
the Theatre Royal. At the Queen's Theatre in Dorset Gardens, on
Thursday next being the 24th of October, will be Acted a Comedy,
call'd The RECRUITING OFFICER.[415] In which _they Pray_ there may be
_Singing by Mrs. Tofts_ in English and Italian. _And some Dancing._'
On the 30th they played 'Master Fido, or the Faithful Shepherd,'
'acted all by women'--a not absolute novelty, but which showed how
hard up they were for something new to draw. And there were five more
performances that year.

          [Footnote 414: _Daily Courant_, Oct. 22, 1706.]

          [Footnote 415: By George Farquhar.]

But all attempts to galvanise it into life failed, and in the _Daily
Courant_ of June 1, 1709, we read, 'The Play House at Dorset Stairs is
now pulling down, where there is to be sold old Timber fit for
Building or Repairs, Old Boards, Bricks, Glass'd Pantiles and Plain
Tiles, also Fire Wood, at very reasonable rates.'

Lincoln's Inn Fields was another theatre which had very varying
fortunes during this reign. In 1705, when the company left for their
new home in the Haymarket, it was to let. Betterton took it for a
night for his benefit on March 3 of that year, and Cave Underhill for
his on March 31. It was not re-opened till Sept. 12, 1706, and was
played in only six nights that year. It was rebuilt by Rich, but was
not again acted in during Queen Anne's reign.

One advertisement of its performances may be given as exemplifying
their variety.[416] 'At the Desire of several Persons of Quality. For
the Benefit of Mrs. _Prince_. At the Theatre in _Little Lincoln's Inn
Fields_, the present _Tuesday_ being the 8th of _June_, will be
presented the last New Tragedy call'd, _The Fair Penitent_.[417] With
four Entertainments of Singing (entirely New) by the Famous Signiora
_Francisca Margarita de l'Epine_; to which will be added the
Nightingale Song[418]; it being the last time of her Singing whilst
she stays in _England_. The Instrumental Musick composed by Signior
_Jacomo Greber_. With a Country Wedding Dance by Monsieur _Labbé_,
Mrs. Elford, and others. Also a new Entertainment of Dancing between
_Mazetin_ a Clown, and two Chairmen. With the Dance of _Blouzabella_
by Mr. _Prince_, and Mrs. Elford. By reason of the Entertainments the
Play will be shortened. Boxes 6_s._ Pit 4_s._ Gallery 2_s._ 6_d._'
These seem to have been the benefit prices at this theatre, the normal
ones being 5_s._, 3_s._, and 2_s._

          [Footnote 416: _Daily Courant_, June 8, 1703.]

          [Footnote 417: By N. Rowe.]

          [Footnote 418: Can this be an early work of Carey's? See

Dorset Gardens and Lincoln's Inn Fields theatres were the dramatic
failures; the 'Theatre Royal in Drury Lane,' as it was called, was an
exception, and stood its ground fairly during the Queen's reign. It
was built by Killigrew, at a cost of £1,500, on the site of a plot of
ground called the 'Riding Yard,' which was obtained on lease from the
Duke of Bedford, and opened in 1663. The actors there were called Her
Majesty's servants, and had the right to dress in scarlet, the royal

In the summer time, when the quality was dispersed at the various
Spas, the dramatic company followed them to their fashionable resorts,
as also did Powell and Clinch. This, at all events, was the case in
the early days of Anne's rule. 'Her Majesty's Servants of the Theatre
Royal being return'd from the Bath, do intend, to morrow being
_Wednesday_ the Sixth of this instant _October_ to act a Comedy call'd
_Love makes a Man, or, the Fop's Fortune_.[419] With Singing and
Dancing. And whereas the Audiences have been incommoded by the Plays
usually beginning too late, the Company of the said Theatre do
therefore give Notice that they will constantly begin at Five a Clock
without fail, and continue the same Hour all the Winter.'[420]

          [Footnote 419: By Colley Cibber.]

          [Footnote 420: _Daily Courant_, Oct. 5, 1703.]

Later in this reign they stopped in London, but did not play every
day. 'Not Acted these 15 years. By Her Majesty's Company of Comedians.
At the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, on Tuesday next, being the 1st of
July, will be Reviv'd the 2nd Part of the Destruction of
Jerusalem,[421] by Titus Vespasian. The Parts of Titus by Mr. Booth,
Phraartes Mr. Mills, Tiberius Mr. Keen. John, Mr. Powell. Berenice
Mrs. Rogers, Clarona Mrs. Bradshaw. N.B. The Company will continue to
Act on every Tuesday and Friday during the Summer Season. By Her
Majesty's Command[422] no Persons are to be admitted behind the
Scenes.'[423] At one time, as Cibber narrates, it was even closed

          [Footnote 421: By J. Crowne, 1677.]

          [Footnote 422: See p. 255.]

          [Footnote 423: _Daily Courant_, June 28, 1712.]

The theatre was used occasionally for other than dramatic
performances. Here is one: 'At the Theatre Royal in _Drury Lane_, this
present _Tuesday_ being the 14th of _December_ will be perform'd, _The
Subscription Musick_. Wherein Mrs. _Tofts_ Sings several Songs in
Italian and English. With a new piece of Vocal and Instrumental Musick
never perform'd before, composed by Mr. _Leveridge_. And several new
Entries and Entertainments of Dancing by Monsieur _l'Abbé_, Monsieur
_Du Ruell_, Monsieur _Charrier_, Mrs. _Campion_, Mrs. _Elford_, the
_Devonshire_ Girl, and others. No Person to be admitted into the Pit
or Boxes but by the Subscribers Tickets, which are deliver'd at Mr.
_White's_ Chocolate house. The Boxes on the Stage and the Galleries
are for the Benefit of the Actors. The Stage Boxes 7_s._ 6_d._ the
first Gallery 2_s._ 6_d._ the Upper Gallery 1_s._ 6_d._ To begin about
Five a Clock. No Person to stand on the Stage.'[424]

          [Footnote 424: _Ibid._, Dec. 14, 1703.]

That the ordinary prices, which they never advertised, were much lower
than these, is shown by an advertisement in the following year. 'And
by reason of the extraordinary Charge in the Decoration of it, the
Prices will be rais'd. Boxes 5_s._ Pit 3_s._ First Gallery 2_s._ Upper
Gallery 1_s._'

Before quitting this short notice of Drury Lane Theatre reference must
be made to an incident in which Mrs. Tofts the singer was interested.
'ANN _Barwick_ having occasioned a Disturbance at the Theatre Royal in
_Drury Lane_ on _Saturday_ Night last the 5th of _February_, and being
thereupon taken into Custody, Mrs. Tofts, in Vindication of her own
Innocency, sent a Letter to Mr. _Rich_, Master of the said Theatre,
which is as followeth.

     SIR, I was very much surpriz'd when I was inform'd, that _Ann
     Barwick_, who was lately my Servant, had committed a Rudeness
     last night at the Play-house, by throwing of Oranges, and hissing
     when Mrs. _l'Epine_ the Italian Gentlewoman Sung. I hope no one
     can think that it was in the least with my Privity, as I assure
     you it was not. I abhor such Practises, and I hope that you will
     cause her to be prosecuted, that she may be punish'd as she

     I am, Sir, Your humble Servant,
                                                      KATHARINE TOFTS.

  To Christopher Rich Esq.; at the
  Theatre Royal. Feb. 6. 1703.'[425]

          [Footnote 425: _Ibid._ Feb. 8, 1703.]

Misson gives a description of its interior, which, from his
invariable truthfulness, can be relied on. 'The Pit is an
Amphitheater, fill'd with Benches without Back boards, and adorn'd and
cover'd with green Cloth. Men of Quality, particularly the younger
Sort, some Ladies of Reputation and Vertue, and abundance of Damsels
that hunt for Prey, Sit all together in this place, Higgledy piggledy,
chatter, toy, play, hear, hear not. Farther up, against the Wall,
under the first Gallery, and just opposite to the Stage, rises another
Amphitheater, which is taken up by Persons of the best Quality, among
whom are generally very few Men. The Galleries, whereof there are only
two rows, are filled with none but ordinary People, particularly the
Upper One.'

Italian opera was coming mightily into vogue, but a new theatre was
needed for its performance, so a company was formed, capital 3,000_l._
in 100_l._ shares, which covered a subscription for life; and Sir John
Vanbrugh was entrusted with its building. The members of the Kitcat
Club were large subscribers; and Cibber says, 'Of this Theatre I saw
the first Stone laid, on which was inscrib'd _The little Whig_,[426]
in Honour to a Lady of extraordinary Beauty, then the celebrated Toast
and Pride of that Party.' But this seems an inaccuracy, for in a
newspaper-cutting of March 19, 1825, it says, 'Removing that portion
of the walls of the Italian Opera House, immediately adjoining the
cellar of Mr. Wright, on Saturday last, the workmen discovered the
first stone of the old building, laid in 1704. The stone was in a
perfect state, and in the cavity formed for the purpose of receiving
them were found several coins of the reign of Queen Anne; a brass
plate which covered the cavity bore the following inscription: "April
18, 1704. In the third year of the happy reign of our Sovereign Lady
Queen Anne, this corner stone of the Queen's Theatre was laid, by his
Grace Charles Duke of Somerset, Master of the Horse to her most sacred

          [Footnote 426: Lady Sunderland, second daughter of the Duke
          of Marlborough. _See_ p. 22.]

The outside was imposing: an arcade, as now, ran along the front of
the building, the length of which was relieved by a dome in the
centre, and on the balustraded parapet were eight statues on
pedestals. But, if Cibber is to be trusted, the inside was so badly
constructed acoustically that 'scarce one Word in ten could be
distinctly heard in it,' and the consequence was that the roof had to
be remodelled and made flat.

Vanbrugh and Congreve opened this theatre on Easter Monday, April 9,
1705, and Mrs. Bracegirdle spoke a prologue, written by Dr. Garth, in
which are the lines, alluding to the Haymarket:--

  Your own magnificence you here Survey,
  Majestick Columns stand where Dunghills lay,
  And Cars triumphal rise from Carts of Hay.

The play on this occasion was, according to Cibber, 'a translated
Opera, to _Italian_ Musick, called the _Triumph of Love_.' This, he
says, only ran three days, and then Sir John Vanbrugh produced his
comedy called 'The Confederacy.' Downes[427] says, 'It (i.e. the
Italian Opera) lasted but 5 Days, and they being lik'd but
indifferently by the Gentry; they in a little time marcht back to
their own Country. The first play _Acted_ there was _The Gamester_.'

          [Footnote 427: _Roscius Anglicanus_, 1712.]

It is singular that neither of these authorities are correct, and
luckily we have the advertisements left to guide us. It is, however,
somewhat strange that there should have been no public announcement in
the newspapers of its opening; but the first advertisement published
is in the _Daily Courant_, April 14, 1705: 'At the Queen's Theatre in
the Haymarket, this present Saturday being the 14th of April, will be
reviv'd, The Indian Emperor, or the Conquest of Mexico by the
Spaniards. The Part of Cortez to be perform'd by Mr. Powel; with
Entertainments of Dancing, as also Singing by the new Italian Boy. By
Her Majesty's Sworn Servants.'

The next play was 'The Merry Wives of Windsor,' on April 23; on the
27th 'The Gamester'; and Downes says 'The Confederacy' was playing
long after.

This theatre was, undoubtedly, the most fashionable; and its prices,
at times, were far above its rivals. Take, for example[428]: 'At the
Desire of several Persons of Quality. At the Queen's Theatre in the
Hay Market, on Saturday next, being the 7th of February, will be
presented an Opera call'd Camilla. The Part of Metius (to which are
added several new Select Songs) to be perform'd by the famous Signior
Gioseppe Cassani, lately arrived from Italy. With several new
Entertainments of Dancing by Monsieur Cherrier, Monsieur Debargues,
Mrs. Santlow, Mrs. Evans, and others. The Boxes to be open'd to the
Pit, and no Person to be admitted but by Tickets, which will be
deliver'd out on Friday and Saturday Morning at White's Chocolate
House, at a Guinea each Ticket. The number of Tickets not to exceed
450.' On the 6th same month the performance was lowered to half a
guinea. Stage boxes, half a guinea; first gallery, 5_s._; upper
gallery, 2_s._; and on Feb. 10 admission was still further lowered.

          [Footnote 428: _Daily Courant_, Feb. 4, 1708.]

Congreve soon gave up his share, and Sir John Vanbrugh was also glad
to get rid of this 'bad egg': so after Jan. 10, 1708, it was
transferred to Owen MacSwiney for operatic performances, one of which
we have just mentioned.

Pinkethman, the indefatigable, had a theatre at Greenwich, which he
worked during the summer months, though the exact time is unknown. In
an advertisement of his moving picture (_Daily Courant_, May 9, 1709)
he says it may be seen 'next Door to his New Play House, where variety
of Plays are Acted every Day as in London.' He could not long have
started, as in the _Tatler_ (No. 4, April 18, 1709) it says, 'We hear
Mr. _Penkethman_ has removed his ingenious Company of Strollers to
Greenwich. But other letters from Deptford say, the company is only
making thither, and not yet settled; but that several Heathen Gods and
Goddesses, which are to descend in machines, landed at the King's Head
Stairs last Saturday. _Venus_ and _Cupid_ went on foot from thence to
Greenwich; _Mars_ got drunk in the town, and broke his Landlord's
head, for which he sat in the Stocks the whole Evening; but Mr.
_Penkethman_ giving Security that he should do nothing this ensuing
Summer, he was set at liberty. The most melancholy part of all was,
that _Diana_ was taken, and committed by Justice Wrathful; which has,
it seems, put a stop to the Diversions of the Theatre at Blackheath.
But there goes down another _Diana_ and a _Patient Grissel_ next tide
from Billingsgate.'

Queen Anne was not a patron of the drama. She never went to the
theatre, and, as far as I can learn, seldom had dramatic performances
at court. 'On Sunday, being the Queen's Birth Day, her Majesty
receiv'd the usual Compliments on that occasion, and yesterday there
was an extraordinary appearance of the Nobility and Gentry of both
Sexes at St. James's upon the same account. The Play call'd, All for
Love,[429] was Acted in the presence of the Court.'[430] And this was
such an extraordinary event that even another newspaper informed its
readers of the astounding fact. Downes remarks on this: 'Note From
_Candlemas_ 1704 to the 22d of April 1706. There were 4 Plays
commanded to be _Acted_ at Court at St. _James'_, by the _Actors_ of
both Houses viz. First _All for Love_. The Second was _Sir_ Solomon
_or the Cautious Coxcomb_.[431] The next was _The Merry Wives of_
Windsor, _Acted_ the 23rd of _April_, the Queen's Coronation Day. The
last was _The Anatomist or Sham Doctor_;[432] it was perform'd on
_Shrove Tuesday_, the Queen's Birthday.'

          [Footnote 429: _All for Love, or the World well Lost_, by

          [Footnote 430: _Postman_, Feb. 5/8, 1704.]

          [Footnote 431: A translation from the _Ecole des Femmes_ of
          Molière, and attributed to John Caryll.]

          [Footnote 432: By Edward Ravenscroft, 1697.]

But though she would not go to the theatres, she heartily took their
reformation in hand, as the following proclamation shows:--

     'ANNE R.

     'WHEREAS. We have already given Orders to the Master of Our
     Revels, and also to Both the Companies of Comedians, Acting in
     _Drury Lane_, and _Lincolns Inn Fields_, to take Special Care,
     that Nothing be Acted in either of the Theatres contrary to
     Religion or Good Manners, upon Pain of our High Displeasure, and
     of being Silenc'd from further Acting; And being further desirous
     to Reform all other Indecencies, and Abuses of the Stage, which
     have Occasion'd great Disorders, and Justly give Offence; Our
     Will and Pleasure therefore is, and We do hereby strictly
     Command, That no Person of what Quality soever, Presume to go
     Behind the Scenes, or come upon the Stage, either before, or
     during the Acting of any Play. That no Woman be Allow'd or
     Presume to wear a Vizard Mask in either of the Theatres. And
     that no Person come into either House without Paying the Prices
     Establish'd for their Respective Places.

     'All which Orders We strictly Command all Managers, Sharers, and
     Actors of the said Companies, to see exactly Observ'd, and
     Obey'd. And We Require and Command all Our Constables, and others
     appointed to Attend the Theatres, to be Aiding and Assisting to
     them therein. And if any Persons whatsoever shall disobey this
     Our Known Pleasure and Command, We shall Proceed against them as
     Contemners of Our Royal Authority, and Disturbers of the Publick

     'Given at our Court at St. _James's_ the 17th Day of _January_.

     'In the Second Year of our Reign.'

     Luttrell, writing on January 20, 1704, says: 'This day, the lords
     ordered thanks to the Queen for restraining the play houses from

This proclamation, however, did not have the desired effect, for
another appeared in March the same year: 'WHEREAS great Complaints
have been made to Her Majesty, of many indecent, prophane and immoral
Expressions that are usually spoken by Players and Mountebanks
contrary to Religion and Good Manners. And thereupon Her Majesty has
lately given Order to _Charles Killigrew, Esqre._; Her Majesty's
Master of the Revels, to take especial care to correct all such
Abuses. The said Master of the Revels does therefore hereby require
all Stage Players, Mountebanks, and all other Persons, mounting
Stages, or otherwise, to bring their Several Plays, Drolls, Farces,
Interludes, Dialogues, Prologues, and other Entertainments, fairly
written, to him at his Office in _Somerset House_, to be by him
perused, corrected and allow'd under his hand, pursuant to Her
Majesty's Commands, upon pain of being proceeded against for contempt
of Her Majesty's said Order,'[433] etc. Another proclamation appeared
in the _Gazette_, Nov. 13/15, 1711, forbidding anybody to stand upon
the stage or go behind the scenes.

          [Footnote 433: _Daily Courant_, March 9, 1704.]

That these proclamations were not strictly attended to is evidenced by
the notices scattered over the newspaper advertisements, till 1712,
that no Persons were allowed on the stage, or behind the scenes, by
her Majesty's command; but, after this last proclamation, the practice
seems to have been stopped.

Anne was determined that her orders should be carried out, and looked
after the small fry as well as the big fish. 'Whereas the Master of
the Revels has received Information, That several Companies of
Strolling Actors pretend to have Licenses from Noblemen, and presume
under that pretence to avoid the Master of the Revels, his Correcting
their Plays, Drolls, Farces, and Interludes: which being against Her
Majesty's Intentions and Directions to the said Master: These are to
signifie. That such Licenses are not of any Force or authority. There
are likewise several Mountebanks Acting upon Stages, and Mountebanks
on Horseback, Persons that keep Poppets, and others that make Shew of
Monsters, and strange Sights of living Creatures, who presume to
Travel without the said Master of the Revels' Licence,'[434] etc., and
goes on to say that their exhibitions must be licensed by him, under

          [Footnote 434: _London Gazette_, Feb. 1/5, 1705.]

These strolling actors seem to have been poor enough, and might fairly
come under the category of 'vagabonds by Act of Parliament' if the
account Steele[435] gives of them be in any way correct: 'We have now
at this Place a Company of Strolers, who are very far from offending
in the impertinent Splendour of the Drama. They are so far from
falling into these false Gallantries, that the Stage is here in its
Original Situation of a Cart. _Alexander_ the Great was acted by a
Fellow in a Paper Cravat; The next Day the Earl of _Essex_ seemed to
have no Distress but his Poverty: and my Lord _Foppington_ the same
Morning wanted any better means to shew himself a Fop Man by wearing
Stockings of different Colours. In a Word tho' they have had a full
Barn for many Days together, our Itinerants are still so wretchedly
poor, that without you can prevail to send us the Furniture you forbid
at the Play House, the Heroes appear only like sturdy Beggars, and the
Heroines Gipsies.'

          [Footnote 435: _Spectator_, No. 48.]

'No person to be admitted to keep Places in the Pit' seems a singular
order, were it not explicable by the fact that people used to send
their footmen to keep places for them until their arrival, and that
the manners of these gentry gave great offence to the habitués of the
pit. The proper place for the footmen was the upper gallery, which was
allowed to them free, supposing they were in attendance on their
masters. We have seen Pinkethman's power over them, but their
behaviour generally was rough and noisy. In the _Female Tatler_, Dec.
9, 1709, is this notice: 'Dropt near the Play house, in the Haymarket,
a bundle of Horsewhips, designed to belabour the Footmen in the Upper
Gallery, who almost every Night this Winter, have made such an
intolerable Disturbance, that the Players could not be heard, and
their Masters were obliged to hiss them into silence. Whoever has
taken up the said Whips, is desired to leave 'em with my Lord Rake's
Porter, several Noblemen resolving to exercise 'em on their Backs, the
next Frosty Morning.'

The bad behaviour was not wholly confined to the lackeys, for
Addison[436] alludes to that of some ladies whilst at the Theatre: 'A
little before the rising of the Curtain, she broke out into a loud
Soliloquy, _When will the Dear Witches enter?_ and immediately upon
their first Appearance, asked a Lady that sat three Boxes from her, on
her Right Hand, if those Witches were not charming Creatures. A little
after, as _Betterton_ was in one of the finest Speeches of the Play,
she shook her Fan at another Lady, who sat as far on the Left Hand,
and told her with a Whisper that might be heard all over the Pit, We
must not expect to see _Ballon_ to-night. Not long after, calling out
to a young Baronet by his Name, who sat three seats before me, she
asked him whether Macbeth's wife was still alive: and before he could
give an Answer, fell a talking of the Ghost of Banquo.'

          [Footnote 436: _Ibid._ No. 45.]

Steele,[437] too, tells of the bad conduct of a beau, which curiously
illustrates the necessity of Anne's proclamations: 'This was a very
lusty Fellow, but withal a sort of Beau, who getting into one of the
Side boxes on the Stage before the Curtain drew, was disposed to show
the whole Audience his Activity by leaping over the Spikes; he pass'd
from thence to one of the Entering Doors, where he took Snuff with a
tolerable good Grace, display'd his fine Cloaths, made two or three
feint Passes at the Curtain with his Cane, then faced about and
appear'd at t'other Door: Here he affected to survey the whole House,
bow'd and smil'd at random, and then shew'd his Teeth, which were some
of them indeed very white: After this he retired behind the Curtain,
and obliged us with several Views of his Person from every Opening.'

          [Footnote 437: _Spectator_, No. 240.]

And, again, take this short sketch: 'And our rakely young Fellows live
as much by their Wits as ever; and to avoid the clinking Dun of a
Boxkeeper, at the End of one Act, they sneak to the opposite Side
'till the End of another; then call the Boxkeeper saucy Rascal,
ridicule the Poet, laugh at the Actors, march to the Opera, and spunge
away the rest of the Evening. The Women of the Town take their Places
in the Pit with their wonted Assurance. The middle Gallery is fill'd
with the middle Part of the City: and your high exalted Galleries are
grac'd with handsome Footmen, that wear their Master's Linen.'[438]

          [Footnote 438: _Humours of the Army_, Chas. Shadwell, 1713.]

Such then was the appearance in front of the stage; and, to thoroughly
realise the scene, we must remember, _en passant_, that necessary
individual the 'Candle Snuffer,' and those bold young women, whose
class Nell Gwynne made famous, the 'Orange Wenches.'

Four or five hours in such theatres were almost insupportable without
some slight refreshment, and this was supplied by these girls, who
continually circulated throughout the audience. Their class is
sufficiently alluded to in a passage in the _Spectator_, No. 141: 'A
Poet sacrifices the best Part of his Audience to the Worst; and as one
would think neglects the Boxes, to write to the Orange Wenches.' They
seem to have fulfilled other duties besides supplying refreshment:--

  Now turn, and see where loaden with her Freight,
  A Damsel Stands, and Orange-wench is hight;
  See! how her Charge hangs dangling by the Rim,
  See! how the Balls blush o'er the Basket-brim;
  But little those she minds, the cunning _Belle_
  Has other Fish to Fry, and other Fruit to sell;
  See! how she whispers yonder youthful Peer,
  See! how he smiles, and lends a greedy Ear.
  At length 'tis done, the Note o'er Orange wrapt
  Has reach'd the Box, and lays in Lady's Lap.[439]

          [Footnote 439: _The Stage_, N. Rowe.]

Bad weather occasionally militated against the poor players. 'Her
Majesty's Servants at the Theatre Royal (the weather being chang'd)
intend to act on Wednesdays and Fridays till Bartholomew Fair.'[440]
This and bad trade made them look out for novelties, such as acting a
play the characters in which were sustained entirely by women, or
having amateurs on the stage. 'At the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, to
morrow being Friday the 7th of July, will be reviv'd a Play call'd,
The Orphan, or, the Unhappy Marriage.[441] All the Men's parts to be
perform'd by young Gentlemen for their Diversion.'[442] Or they would
try the effect of 'a New Prologue by a Child of 4 years of Age,' or 'a
New Epilogue by Mrs. Pack in a Riding Habit, upon a Pad-Nagg
representing a Town Miss Travelling to Tunbridge.'

          [Footnote 440: _Daily Courant_, July 26, 1704.]

          [Footnote 441: By Thos. Otway.]

          [Footnote 442: _Daily Courant_, July 6, 1704.]

The properties of a theatre have always been a fair whetstone for men
to sharpen their humour on, and the writers of the time of Queen Anne
were not behindhand in this respect. When Drury Lane was closed by
order, in 1709, the _Tatler_ (No. 42) made very merry over the
miscellaneous effects:--

'Three Bottles and a half of lightning.

'One Shower of Snow in the whitest French Paper.

'Two Showers of a browner sort.

'A Sea, consisting of a dozen large waves; the tenth bigger than
ordinary, and a little damaged.

'A dozen and a half of Clouds, trimmed with black, and well

'A Mustard bowl to make Thunder with.

'The Complexion of a Murderer in a Bandbox; consisting of a large
piece of burnt Cork, and a Coal black Peruke,' etc.

At the death of Peer, the property man at this theatre, the _Guardian_
extracted much fun from a catalogue of articles under his care.

Rowe goes into poetry on the same subject--thus:--

  Hung on the selfsame Peg, in Union rest
  Young _Tarquin's_ Trowsers, and _Lucretia's_ Vest,
  Whilst without pulling Quoives _Roxana_ lays
  Close by _Statira's_ Petticoat her Stays
  Near these sets up a Dragon drawn Calash,
  There a Ghost's Doublet delicately slash'd,
  Bleeds from the mangled Breast, and gapes a frightful Gash.
  In Crimson wrought the sanguine Floods abound,
  And seem to gutter from the streaming Wound.
  Here Iris bends her various painted Arch,
  There artificial Clouds in sullen Order march,
  Here stands a Crown upon a Rack, and there
  A _Witch's_ Broomstick by great _Hector's_ Spear;
  Here stands a Throne, and there the _Cynick's_ Tub,
  Here _Bullock's_ Cudgel, there Alcida's Club:
  Beads, Plumes, and Spangles, in Confusion rise,
  Whilst Rocks of Cornish Diamonds reach the Skies.
  Crests, Corslets, all the Pomp of Battle join,
  In one Effulgence, one promiscuous shine.

The actors of this reign, with a few exceptions, were not people of
much genius. After these few, some were respectable, the rest bad;
but, although the play was the proper place of amusement to go to, and
there were seldom more than two theatres open at once, yet we find it
comparatively languishing, the companies frequently playing only twice
a week, or the theatre closed altogether. Doubtless the tragedy was
stilted, and the comedy was akin to buffoonery. As witness to the
latter let Addison[443] testify: 'It would be an Endless Task to
consider Comedy in the same Light, and to mention the innumerable
Shifts that small Wits put in practice to raise a Laugh. _Bullock_ in
a short Coat, and _Norris_ in a long one, seldom fail of this Effect.
In ordinary Comedies, a broad and a narrow Brim'd Hat are different
characters. Sometimes the Wit of the Scene lies in a Shoulder belt,
and sometimes in a Pair of whiskers.'

          [Footnote 443: _Spectator_, No. 44.]

The 'Phœnix of the Stage,' as Anthony, or Tony, Aston calls
Betterton, stands pre-eminent among the actors. Born in 1635, he was
an old man when Queen Anne came to the throne; and he died on April
28, 1710, from the effects of gout, which he aggravated by acting when
the fit was on. His last performance was on April 13, 1710, and it is
thus described in the _Daily Courant_ of that date: 'At the Desire of
several Persons of Quality. For the Benefit of Mr. Betterton. At the
Queen's Theatre in the Hay market this present Thursday being the 13th
April will be Reviv'd, The Maid's Tragedy.[444] The part of Melantius
by Mr. Betterton, Amintor by Mr. Wilks, Calianax by Mr. Pinkethman,
Evadne by Mrs. Barry, and all the other parts to the best Advantage.
To which will be added Three Designs, Representing the Three Principal
Actions of the Play, in Imitation of so many great Pieces of History
Painting, where all the real Persons concern'd in those Actions will
be Plac'd at proper distances, in different Postures peculiar to the
Passion of each Character.'

          [Footnote 444: By Beaumont and Fletcher.]

Totally unfit, from illness, to act, he had resort to violent remedies
to enable him to go through his part, which he did, with his gouty
foot in a slipper, but the exertion killed him. A great favourite of
Charles II., that king not only sent him to Paris, to see and report
on the French theatres, but appointed him to teach the nobility for
court theatricals, whilst his wife tutored the future queens Mary and
Anne--in fact, the latter settled a pension of 100_l._ per annum upon
her, after her husband's death. Pepys describes him as 'the best actor
in the world,' and so he undoubtedly was--in his age. Aston[445]
describes him thus: 'He had little Eyes, and a broad Face, a little
Pock fretten, a Corpulent Body, and thick Legs, with large Feet....
His Voice was low and grumbling; yet he could Tune it by an artful
_Climax_, which enforc'd universal Attention, even from the _Fops_ and
_Orange Girls_. He was incapable of dancing even in a Country Dance.'

          [Footnote 445: _Supplement to Cibber._]

Room must be found for one little anecdote which Aston tells of him.
'Mr. _Betterton_ had a small Farm near _Reading_, in the County of
_Berks_; and a Countryman came, in the Time of _Bartholomew Fair_, to
pay his Rent. Mr. _Betterton_ took him to the Fair, and going to one
_Crawley's_ Puppet Shew, offer'd _Two Shillings_ for himself and
_Roger_, his Tenant.--No, no, Sir, said _Crawley; we never take Money
of one Another_. This affronted _Mr. Betterton_, who threw down the
Money, and they entered.'

Among the actors of the time he was looked up to as a king.
Downes[446] says: 'I must not Omit Praises due to Mr. Betterton. The
first and now only remains of the old Stock, of the Company of Sir
_William Davenant_ in _Lincolns_ Inn Fields; he like an old Stately
Spreading Oak now stands Fixt, Environ'd round with brave Young
Growing Flourishing Plants.... Mr. _Dryden_ a little before his Death
in a Prologue, rendring him this Praise:--

          [Footnote 446: _Roscius Anglicanus_, 1708.]

  He like the Setting Sun, still shows a Glimmery Ray
  Like Antient ROME Majestick in decay.'

He was buried in Westminster Abbey on May 2, 1710, and Steele[447]
wrote a long panegyric upon him, saying he 'ought to be recorded with
the same respect as Roscius among the Romans.'

          [Footnote 447: _Tatler_, 167.]

He died, not in want, but in comparatively poor circumstances, and he
must have been a man of some culture, as the following advertisement,
soon after his death, shows:[448] 'This Day will be Continued the Sale
by Auction of the _Prints_, and _Books of Prints and Drawings_, of Mr.
_Tho. Betterton_, deceased, &c.'

          [Footnote 448: _Harl. MSS._ 5996, 100.]

Verbruggen, although he died in 1708, played in Queen Anne's reign.
But little is known of him, except that he was a tragedian, and was
the original Oronooko. A contemporary character of him is 'A fellow
with a crackt voice, he clangs his words, as if he spoke out of a
broken drum.'[449] Downes says, 'his Person being tall, well built
and clean, only he was a little In Kneed, which gave him a
shambling Gate;' and he adds, '_Verbruggen_ was Nature without
Extravagance--Freedom without Licentiousness--and vociferous without

          [Footnote 449: _Comparison between the two Stages._]

Cave Underhill was another veteran, of whom Steele writes[450] when
making an appeal to the public to support him: 'he has been a comic
for three generations; my father admired him extremely when he was a
boy.' He took a benefit at Drury Lane on June 3, 1709, when 'Hamlet'
was played, and he took his favourite part of the gravedigger.

          [Footnote 450: _Tatter_, 22.]

Leigh was another old actor who died in this reign.

Estcourt deserves notice. He was born in 1668, and, at the age of 15,
ran away from his father's house, and joined a company of strollers at
Worcester. He was recovered, and apprenticed to an apothecary in
London; again ran away, and led a wandering life for some years, till
we find him engaged at Drury Lane. Downes describes him as '_Histrio
Natus_; he has the Honour (Nature enduing him with an easy, free,
unaffected Mode of Elocution) in Comedy always to Lœtificate his
Audience, especially Quality.' He was a pet of the Duke of
Marlborough, and was _Providore_ of the famous Beefsteak Club, where
he wore a small gold gridiron suspended from his neck by a green
ribbon. He retired from the stage some time before his death, and took
the 'Bumper' in St. James Street, where he Lœtificated his
customers in another manner. Steele puffed him in the _Spectator_, and
wept over his decease in the same periodical.[451]

          [Footnote 451: No. 468.]

The name of Dogget is, perhaps, as well known to us as any actor of
the time. An Irishman by birth, he came to England and joined a
travelling troupe; afterwards being good enough to play at both Drury
Lane and Lincoln's Inn Fields. In fact, he was joint manager of the
former with Wilks and Cibber, but gave it up in 1713, because Booth
was forced on him as a co-partner; and he never returned to the
theatre, either as a regular actor or as manager. It must have been a
blow to him, for he was fond of money, and was then reputed to have
been worth £1,000 per annum. He was not particular: he put his pride
in his pocket, and had a booth at Bartholomew Fair, the same as
Pinkethman or Mills. He died at Eltham, in Kent, Sept. 22, 1721, and
left in his will the memorable Coat and Badge to be raced for,
annually, on the anniversary of the accession of George the First, to
show his attachment to the Whig party and the House of Brunswick.
Downes says of him, 'On the Stage, he's very Aspectabund, wearing
Farce in his Face; his Thoughts deliberately framing his Utterance
Congruous to his Looks; He is the only Comick Original now extant.'
Tony Aston says 'he was a little, lively spract Man.... a Man of very
good Sense, but illiterate; for he wrote me Word thus--_Sir, I will
give you a_ hole, instead of (_whole_) _Share_. He dress'd neat, and
something fine, in a plain Cloth Coat, and a Brocaded Waistcoat.'

Colley Cibber was born in London Nov. 6, 1671, and is known as much,
or more, as a playwright, or poet as an actor. In his boyhood he tried
for a scholarship at Winchester, but failed; afterwards he meditated
going to the University, but the Revolution of 1688 broke out, and he
was for a short time in the army as his father's substitute. He saw no
service, and soon became an actor, _i.e._ in 1690, and did not quit
the stage till 1730, in which year he was made Poet Laureate to George
II. He died Dec. 12, 1757. Downes tells us he was 'A Gentleman of his
time who has Arriv'd to an exceeding Perfection, in hitting justly the
Humour of a starcht Beau or Fop; as the Lord _Fopington_; Sir
_Fopling_ and Sir _Courtly_, equalling in the last the late eminent
Mr. _Mountfort_, not much Inferior in Tragedy, had Nature given him
Lungs, Strenuous to his finisht Judgment.' Gildon,[452] however, falls
foul of him; but then, the only good words he had were for Betterton
and Barry.

          [Footnote 452: _Comparison between the two Stages._]

     _Ramble._ But prithee look on this side; there's Cibber, a poet
     and fine Actor.

     _Critick._ And one that's always repining at the success of
     others, and upon the stage makes all his fellow actors uneasy.

Wilks, the best tragedian of the age, came of a good Worcestershire
family, and, from his association with actors, drifted into the
profession. He was remarkable for the carefulness of his acting, and
for the ease and good breeding he displayed upon the stage. He died in
1732 at the age of 76. What do his contemporaries say of him? Downes
says, 'Proper and Comely in Person, of Graceful Port, Mein and Air;
void of Affectation; his Elevations and Cadences just, Congruent to
Elocution.' The author of 'The Comparison between the two Stages' can
say nothing ill-natured of him, and Steele[453] speaks highly of him.

          [Footnote 453: _Spectator_, 370.]

     _Ramble._ Ay, but Powell----

     _Critick._ Is an idle fellow, that neither minds his business,
     nor lives quietly in any community--

is a fair criticism on that actor, who, had he been but as steady or
painstaking, might have rivalled Wilks; but he was a drunken,
dissipated dog, a careless study, with a bad memory; pursued by
bailiffs, he sometimes walked with his sword drawn--once making an
unfortunate 'officer' retreat to the other side of the road, where he
called out, 'We don't want you _now_, Mr. Powel.' Died Dec. 14, 1715.

Booth was the Aristo of the profession. He was not only nearly related
to the Earl of Warrington, but in 1704 he married a daughter of Sir
William Barkham, Bart., of Norfolk. A scholar of the great and
terrible Dr. Busby, he shone in acting in the Latin plays at
Westminster. He was intended for the Church, but he caught stage
fever, ran away from school at the age of 17, and joined the theatre
at Dublin. When he came to London he became a pupil of Betterton's,
and profited by his master's instructions. He was joint patentee in
Drury Lane, but he left the stage at the early age of 46. Died 1733.

Of the minor actors Pinkethman stands first. He was low comedy, and
his great ambition was to please the gods. We have heard a good deal
about him in this book in his various characters as caterer for the
amusement of the public. Gildon, of course, can say nothing good of

     _Sullen._ But Penkethman the flower of----

     _Critick._ Bartholomew Fair, and the idol of the rabble; a fellow
     that over does everything, and spoils many a part with his own

Be this as it may, he is very honourably mentioned throughout the
_Spectator_, although Steele[454] gives him a good-humoured rap over
the knuckles. 'Mr. William Bullock and Mr. William Penkethman are of
the same Age, Profession, and Sex. They both distinguish themselves in
a very particular Manner under the discipline of the Crab-tree, with
this only difference, that Mr. Bullock has the more agreeable Squall,
and Mr. Penkethman the more graceful Shrug. Penkethman devours a cold
Chick with great Applause; Bullock's talent lies chiefly in Asparagus.
Penkethman is very dexterous at conveying himself under a Table;
Bullock is no less active in jumping over a Stick. Penkethman has a
great deal of money; but Mr. Bullock is the taller man.'

          [Footnote 454: _Tatler_, 188.]

The mention of Crab-tree seems to suggest that Pinkethman had been
thrashed at some period of his career, as does a passage in another
_Tatler_ (No. 42), describing the theatrical properties at Drury Lane:
'Three oak Cudgels, with one of Crab-tree; all bought for the Use of
Mr. Pinkethman.'

That he must have been a fair actor is testified by the fact that he
played in two out of the four performances at St. James's.

As far as I can find out, he seems first to have acted at the Theatre
Royal in 1692, in the play of 'Volunteers, or the Stock Jobbers,'[455]
when he played the part of Taylor (six lines only). He rose gradually,
and was a painstaking actor, ever on the alert to court popular
favour. He became rich. Downes says of him, 'He's the darling of
_Fortunatus_, he has gain'd more in Theatres and Fairs in Twelve Years
than those that have Tugg'd at the Oar of Acting these 50.' To realise
this fortune he probably was saving in his habits, and not so lavish
as some of his compeers--a fact which is exaggerated into a charge of
meanness: see an Elegy on his Merry Andrew, John Edwards.[456]

          [Footnote 455: By Thos. Shadwell.]

          [Footnote 456: _Harl. MSS._ 5931, 251.]

  Dull sneaking Pinkeman this loss bewail,
  And sing his Dirge o're half a pint of Ale,
  For if thou more didst spend at once, your Note
  You'd Change, and for your Charges cut your throat.

He seems to have retired from the stage after his benefit on May 23,
1724, and he died in 1740.

The other actors, Bullock,[457] Mills, Norris, _alias_ Jubilee Dickey,
Pack Johnson, etc., are unworthy any notice except to chronicle their
names as actors of the time.

          [Footnote 457: 'For the Benefit of Will. Bullock.

'At the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, on Whitson Monday, being the 5th
of June, will be reviv'd a Diverting Comedy call'd the Miser [Thomas
Shadwell]. Written by the Author of the Squire of Alsatia; the part of
Timothy Squeez the Scriveners foolish Son to be acted by Will.
Bullock. With Entertainments of Dancing by Monsieur du Ruell. And Mr.
Clinch of Barnet will perform these several Performances, first an
Organ with three Voices, then the Double Curtel, the Flute, the Bells,
the Huntsman, the Horn, and Pack of Dogs, all with his Mouth; and an
old Woman of Fourscore Years of Age nursing her Grand Child; all of
which he does open on the Stage. Next a Gentleman will perform several
Mimick Entertainments on the Ladder, first he stands on the top round
with a Bottle in one hand and a Glass in the other, and drinks a
Health; then plays several Tunes on the Violin, with fifteen other
surprizing Performances which no man but himself can do. And Will
Pinkeman will dance the Miller's Dance and speak a comical joking
Epilogue on an Ass. Beginning exactly at five a Clock by reason of the
length of the Entertainments. At Common Prices.'--_Daily Courant_,
June 2, 1704.]

It is singular that the ladies of the stage of this period stand out
so prominently for their talents. It must have been by natural genius,
for they could have had little enough tradition to guide them, it
being only forty or fifty years since the first woman ever trod the
boards. Who she was seems to be somewhat obscure, but it probably was
Mrs. Coleman, who played Ianthe in the first part of the 'Siege of
Rhodes' in 1656, but she did not speak. We know Kynaston, who kept
Charles II. waiting whilst he was being shaved to play his part; he of
whom Pepys writes[458] thus: 'Kynaston, the boy, had the good turn to
appear in three shapes; first as a poor woman in ordinary clothes to
please Morose; then in fine clothes, as a gallant; and in them was the
prettiest woman in the whole house; and lastly, as a man; and then
likewise did appear the handsomest man in the house.' Of him Betterton
writes,[459] 'that it has been disputed among the Judicious, whether
any _Woman_ could have more sensibly touched the Passions.' He seems
to have been the last of the male actors who took female parts,
although in 1661 a woman actor was still a novelty. 'There saw the
"Scornfull Lady,"[460] now done by a woman, which makes the play much
better than ever it did to me.'[461] A Mrs. Sanderson is traditionally
said to have been the first woman actress, and she played Desdemona at
the theatre in Clare Market on Dec. 8, 1660. Betterton says the mother
of Norris, or Jubilee Dickey, 'was the first Woman who ever appeared
on the Stage as an Actress.'

          [Footnote 458: _Diary_, Jan. 7, 1661.]

          [Footnote 459: _The History of the English Stage._]

          [Footnote 460: By Beaumont and Fletcher.]

          [Footnote 461: _Pepys_, Feb. 12, 1661.]

Anyhow, never was there a period that could show four such actresses
as Mrs. Barry, Mrs. Bracegirdle, Mrs. Oldfield, and Mrs. Verbruggen.

Elizabeth Barry, the daughter of a barrister of good birth, was born
1658; so that she was not in her first youth at the accession of Anne.
Her father so encumbered his estate that it became necessary for his
children to seek their fortunes as best they might. She chose the
stage, and Sir Wm. Davenant took her in hand, but gave her up as
hopeless. The Earl of Rochester, however, having wagered that by
proper instruction she should be the finest actress on the stage in
less than six months, she took such pains that when, in 1677, she
played the Hungarian Queen in the tragedy of 'Mustapha,'[462] before
Charles the Second and the Duke and Duchess of York, she created an
absolute furore: so much so that the Duchess took lessons from her,
and not only gave her her wedding suit, but her coronation robes when
she became queen. She died on November 7, 1713, and was buried at
Acton, where her daughter, by the Earl of Rochester, was already
interred. Aston, speaking of her personal appearance, says: 'And yet
this fine creature was not handsome, her Mouth op'ning most on the
Right Side, which she strove to draw t'other way, and, at Times,
composing her Face, as if sitting to have her Picture drawn. Mrs.
Barry was middle siz'd, and had darkish Hair, light Eyes, dark
Eye-brows, and was indifferently plump: Her Face somewhat preceded her
Action, as the latter did her Words; her Face ever expressing the
Passions; not like the Actresses of late Times, who are afraid of
putting their Faces out of the Form of Non-meaning, lest they should
crack the Cerum, White-Wash, or other Cosmetic, trowel'd on.'

          [Footnote 462: By the Earl of Orrery.]

Betterton says Mrs. Bracegirdle was the daughter of Justinian
Bracegirdle of Northamptonshire, Esq., whilst Aston, who calls her
'the _Diana_ of the Stage,' says 'The most received Opinion is, that
she was the Daughter of a Coach Man, Coach maker, or Letter out of
Coaches in the Town of _Northampton_, but I am inclinable to my
Father's Opinion, (who had a great Value for her reported Virtue) that
she was a distant Relation, and came out of _Staffordshire_ from about
_Wallsal_ or _Wolverhampton_.' She is believed to have been born about
the year 1674, and somehow came to be placed, when an infant, under
the care of Betterton and his Wife, who naturally brought her up to
the stage. So young did she enter her future profession that she acted
as a page in 'The Orphan,'[463] at the Dorset Garden Theatre in 1680,
when only six years old. She was not only remarkable for her
magnificent acting, but for the exceeding purity of her life, which no
breath of scandal could sully; although it could not be said it was
from want of temptation. Congreve writes of her:--

          [Footnote 463: By Thos. Otway.]

  Pious _Celinda_ goes to Pray'rs,
    Whene'er I ask the Favour;
  Yet, the tender Fool's in Tears,
    When she believes I'll leave her.

  Wou'd I were free from this Restraint,
    Or else had Power to win her!
  Wou'd she cou'd make of me a Saint,
    Or I of her a Sinner!

And D'Urfey, in his 'Don Quixote,' sings of her:--

  Since that our Fate intends
    Our Amity shall be no dearer,
  Still let us kiss and be Friends,
    And sigh we can never come nearer.

She was wonderfully charitable, and would go daily about the slums of
Clare Market relieving the necessitous; and woe be to anyone who
should have dared to molest her--his fate would have been speedy. She
retired from the stage in 1707, but did not die till 1748. Her
personal description is: 'She was of a lovely Height, with dark-brown
Hair and Eye brows, black sparkling Eyes, and a fresh blushy
Complexion; and, whenever she exerted herself, had an involuntary
Flushing in her Breast, Neck and Face, having continually a chearful
Aspect, and a fine Set of even White Teeth; never making an _Exit_,
but that she left the Audience in an Imitation of her pleasant
Countenance. Genteel Comedy was her chief Essay, and that too when in
Men's Cloaths, in which she far surmounted all the Actresses of that
Age' (Aston).

Her great rival was Mrs. Anne Oldfield, who was born in Pall Mall in
1683. Her father was in the Horse Guards, and on his death left his
wife and daughter in very straitened circumstances. Tradition says
that she was living with her aunt, who kept the Mitre Tavern in St.
James's Market, when Sir John Vanbrugh heard her read some plays:
certain it is, he introduced her to Rich in 1699, when she played
Candiope, in 'Secret Love, or The Maiden Queen.'[464] Mrs. Oldfield
was far from being as immaculate in character as her rival. Her last
performance was on April 28, 1730; she died October 23, 1730, and was
buried in Westminster Abbey. Allusion has been made to her mode of
burial at the commencement of this book (p. 38).

          [Footnote 464: By Dryden.]

Steele[465] gives her portrait thus: 'FLAVIA is ever well dressed, and
always the genteelest woman you meet; but the make of her mind very
much contributes to the ornament of her body. She has the greatest
simplicity of manners of any of her sex. This makes everything look
native about her, and her clothes are so exactly fitted, that they
appear, as it were, part of her person,' etc.

          [Footnote 465: _Tatler_, 212.]

     _Ramble._ There's Mrs. Rogers, Mrs. Oldfield, Mrs. Verbruggen----

     _Critick._ The last is a miracle, but the others mere rubbish,
     that ought to be swept off the stage with the filth and dust.

Hers was a romantic history. Her maiden name was Percival, and she
married Mountford the actor, who was killed by Lord Mohun for
protecting Mrs. Bracegirdle. Betterton says, 'Her Father Mr.
_Percival_ had the Misfortune to be drawn into the Assassination Plot
against King _William_; for this he lay under Sentence of Death, which
he received on the same Night that Lord Mohun killed her husband, Mr.
_Mountfort_. Under this, almost insuperable Affliction, she was
introduced to the good Queen _Mary_, who being, as she was pleased to
say, _Struck to the Heart_ upon receiving Mrs. _Mountfort's_ Petition,
immediately granted all that was in her Power, a Remission of her
Father's Execution for that of Transportation. But Fate had so ordered
it that poor Mrs. _Mountfort_ was to lose both Father and Husband. For
as Mr. _Percival_ was going abroad, he was so weakened by his
Imprisonment, that he was taken Sick on the Road, and died at
_Portsmouth_.' She afterwards married Jack Verbruggen, and their
married life is thus described by Aston: 'She was the best
Conversation possible; never Captious, or displeas'd at any Thing but
what was gross or indecent; for she was cautious lest fiery _Jack_
shou'd so resent it as to breed a Quarrel; for he would often say
_Dammee! tho' I don't much value my Wife yet no Body shall affront
her, by G--d_; and his Sword was drawn on the least occasion, which
was much the fashion in the latter End of King _William's_ Reign.' She
is described as being 'a fine fair Woman, plump, full featured, her
Face of a fine smooth Oval.'

The theatre never solely depended upon the drama for its attractions,
and there was generally a ballet of some description; not, of course,
such elaborate affairs as we have now, but performances by one or two
artists, such as M. L'Abbé and Mrs. Elford. The dances were such as
chacones, minuets, allmands, corantos, jigs, sarabands, etc., and we
have already seen the pains taken with this art, and the elaborate
instructions of its professors.



     Introduction of Italian opera -- Its rapid popularity -- Mixture of
     languages -- Handel -- His operas, and visit here -- Singers -- Abel
     -- Hughs -- Leveridge -- Lawrence -- Ramondon -- Mrs. Tofts -- Her
     madness -- Foreign singers -- Margherita de l'Epine -- Nicolino
     Grimaldi -- Isabella Girardeau -- Composers -- Dr. Blow -- Jeremiah
     Clarke -- Dean Aldrich -- Tom D'Urfey -- Henry Carey -- Britton,
     the small coal man -- His concerts -- His death -- Concerts and
     concert rooms -- Gasparini, the violinist -- Musical instruments
     -- Musical scores.

'1673.4. 5 Jan. I saw an Italian opera in Music, the first that had
been in England of this Kind,' writes Evelyn; but Pepys mentions it
even earlier: '1667.8. Jan. 12. With my Lord Brouncker to his house,
there to hear some Italian musique, and here we met Tom Killigrew, Sir
Robert Murray, and the Italian, Signor Baptista,[466] who hath
prepared a play in Italian for the Opera, which Sir T. Killigrew do
intend to have up; and here he did sing one of the Acts.' There is,
however, no record of either of these being acted. The first opera of
which we have any record is a translation of 'Arsinoë,' an Italian
opera written by Stanzani of Bologna, for the theatre of that town, in
1677, and here is the premier advertisement of opera in England.

          [Footnote 466: Battista Draghi.]

'At the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, this present Tuesday being the
16th of January, will be presented a New Opera never perform'd before,
call'd Arsinoe Queen of Cyprus, After the Italian manner, All Sung,
being set to Musick by Mr. Clayton. With several Entertainments of
Dancing by Monsieur l'Abbee, Monsieur du Ruel, Monsieur Cherrier, Mrs.
Elford, Mrs. du Ruel, Mrs. Moss and others. And the famous Signiora
Francisca Margaretta de l'Epine will, before the Beginning and after
the Ending of the Opera, perform several Entertainments of singing in
Italian and English. No person to be admitted into the Boxes or Pitt
but by the Subscribers Tickets, to be delivered at Mrs. White's
Chocolate House. The Boxes on the Stage and the Galleries are for the
benefit of the Actors.'[467] The singers were all English; and here we
have the commencement of the subscription opera.

          [Footnote 467: _Daily Courant_, Jan. 16, 1705.]

In the next two years there were but very few operas, although Addison
wrote one called 'Rosamond.' During this period, too, the Queen's
Theatre in the Haymarket was opened for Opera, with what success we
have seen.

The thin edge of the wedge, as regards Italian singing, was introduced
in 1707, when Valentini Urbani, a Castrato, and a female singer called
'The Baroness,' came over here. They made their first appearance 'At
the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, this present Saturday, being the 6th
of December, will be presented an Opera called "Camilla." All to be
sung after the Italian manner. The Parts of Latinus by Mr. Turner,
Prenesto by Signiora Margarita, part in Italian, Turnus by Signior
Valentino, in Italian, Metius by Mr. Ramondon, Linco by Mr. Leveridge,
Camilla by Mrs. Tofts, Lavinia by the Baroness, most in Italian,
Tullia by Mrs. Lindsey.'[468]

          [Footnote 468: _Ibid._ Dec. 6, 1707.]

What a curious mixture it must have been, some singing in Italian and
some in English! but it was not the sole example, for when Italian
opera was introduced into Germany the recitative was given in German
and the airs sung in Italian.

Of course an innovation, and coming from a foreign source, roused the
insular prejudices of John Bull. It was un-English. As Dennis, the
critic, wrote[469]: 'And yet tho' the Reformation and Liberty and the
Drama were establish'd among us together, and have flourish'd among us
together, and have still been like to have fall'n together,
notwithstanding all this, at this present Juncture, when Liberty and
the Reformation are in the utmost Danger, we are going very bravely to
oppress the Drama, in order to establish the luxurious Diversions of
those very Nations, from whose Attempts and Designs, both Liberty and
the Reformation are in the utmost Danger.'

          [Footnote 469: _An Essay on the Operas after the Italian
          manner_, 1706.]

With far greater sense and show of reason he says: 'If that is truly
the most Gothick, which is the most oppos'd to Antick, nothing can be
more Gothick than an Opera, since nothing can be more oppos'd to the
ancient Tragedy, than the modern Tragedy in Musick, because the one is
reasonable, the other ridiculous; the one is artful, the other absurd;
the one beneficial, the other pernicious; in short, the one natural,
and the other monstrous. And the modern Tragedy in Musick, is as much
oppos'd to the Chorus, which is the Musical part of the Ancient
Tragedy, as it is in the _Episodique_; because, in the Chorus, the
Musick is always great and solemn, in the Opera 'tis often most
trifling and most effeminate; in the Chorus the Music is only for the
sake of the Sense, in the Opera the Sense is most apparently for the
sake of the Music.'

This mongrel style of performance, half Italian, half English, lasted
till 1710. 'Pyrrhus and Demetrius' (a translation of 'Pirro e
Demetrio' of Adriano Morselli) was the last opera thus played. On Jan.
3, 1709, the prices of admission were considerably reduced: stage
boxes from 15_s._ to 8_s._, first gallery from 5_s._ to 2_s._ 6_d._,
and upper gallery from 2_s._ to 1_s._ 6_d._, and the pit was 5_s._

Steele laughingly criticises[470] the performance of 'Pyrrhus and
Demetrius.' 'That the understanding has no part in the pleasure is
evident, from what these letters very positively assert, to wit, that
a great part of the performance was done in Italian; and a great
Critic fell into fits in the Gallery, at seeing not only Time and
Place, but Languages and Nations confused in the most incorrigible

The opera of 'Almahide' (composer unknown, supposed to be Buononcini)
was brought out at the Hay market on Jan. 10, 1710, and was the first
opera ever played entirely in Italian and by Italian singers. These
were Nicolini, Valentini, Cassani, Margarita, and Isabella Girardeau.
Still John Bull must assert himself, and between the acts _intermezzi_
were sung in English by Dogget, Mrs. Lindsey, and Mrs. Cross.

Another opera was that of 'Hydaspes' (by Francesco Mancini), which
Addison[471] made terrible fun of, especially of a fight that took
place between Nicolini and a lion. He had previously[472] unmercifully
ridiculed 'Nicolini exposed to a Tempest in Robes of Ermine, and
sailing in an Open Boat upon a Sea of Pasteboard,' 'the painted
Dragons Spitting Wildfire, enchanted Chariots drawn by _Flanders_
Mares, and real Cascades in artificial Landskips;' but then he might
have been sore at the fate of his own opera, 'Rosamond,' which was not
a success.

          [Footnote 470: _Tatler_, No. 4.]

          [Footnote 471: _Spectator_, 13.]

          [Footnote 472: _Ibid._ 5.]

Towards the end of 1710 Handel, who was then twenty-seven years of
age, came over to England upon the invitation of several noblemen,
whose acquaintance he had made at the Court of Hanover; and here he
wrote, for Aaron Hill, who then managed the Haymarket Theatre, his
opera of 'Rinaldo,' the first advertisement of which contains a silly
blunder as to dates. 'By Subscription. At the Queen's Theatre in the
Hay Market, this present Saturday being the 24th day of February, will
be perform'd a new Opera, call'd Rinaldo. Tickets and Books will be
delivered out at Mr. White's Chocolate House in St. James's Street,
_to Morrow_ and Saturday next.'[473] In 1712 appeared another of
Handel's operas, 'Il Pastor Fido,' which was only performed four

          [Footnote 473: _Daily Courant_, Feb, 24, 1711.]

On Jan. 21, 1713, was performed his opera of 'Theseus,' about which
performance, however, there seems to have been some hitch, for we
read[474]: 'Advertisement from the Queen's Theatre in the Hay
Market.--This present Saturday the 24th of January, the Opera of
Theseus composed by Mr. Hendel will be represented in its Perfection,
that is to say with all the Scenes, Decorations, Flights and Machines.
The Performers are much concerned that they did not give the Nobility
and Gentry all the Satisfaction they could have wished, when they
represented it on Wednesday last, having been hindered by some
unforeseen Accidents, at that time insurmountable. The Boxes on the
Stage Half a Guinea, the other Boxes 8_s._ The Pit 5_s._, the first
Gallery 2_s._ 6_d._' On Handel's first visit, in 1710, the Queen gave
him a most flattering reception, and would fain have him remain here,
offering him a pension; but he excused himself, as being already
engaged to the Elector George of Hanover.

          [Footnote 474: _Ibid._ Jan. 24, 1713.]

A few short notes about the singers will be interesting. Very early in
Anne's reign mention is made of a singer of whom the only record I can
find, is in the following advertisement, and some few others: 'To all
the Nobility and Gentry, Whereas Mr. _Abel_, having been Honoured with
the Commands of the Nobility and Gentry, to sing in Drury Lane 4
times; this is to give notice that the said Mr. Abel has not engaged
to sing in any other Consort, till that Noble Performance be

          [Footnote 475: _Postman_, May 9/12, 1702.]

Hughes was a favourite concert singer, with a good countertenor voice;
and, when opera first came in, he always played the best parts, until
Valentini came over, after which he either died, or left the stage,
for no more is heard of him.

Richard Leveridge had a fine and powerful bass voice, and stuck to the
stage till he was more than eighty years old, singing in the pantomime
at Covent Garden. He was not only an actor and singer, but a
composer, having taken part in the composition of an English opera,
called the 'Island Princess,' in 1699, and he also wrote and composed
many Bacchanalian songs. Died 1758, aged 88.

Of Lawrence little is known, except that when the opera of 'Hydaspes'
was brought out on May 23, 1710, he was able to take a part in it,
although an inferior one, and _sing it in Italian_. He had a tenor
voice, and continued in Italian opera till 1717, when trace is lost of

Ramondon seems to have come upon the stage in 1705, and to have had a
bass voice, as he took Leveridge's part in 'Arsinoë.' He seems to have
left the stage with the opera of 'Pyrrhus and Demetrius,' but he
published some songs in 1716, and set the song tunes in 'Camilla' for
the harpsichord or spinet.

Mrs. Tofts was our English prima donna, and she too possessed the then
rare accomplishment of being able to sing in Italian. She was the
daughter of a person in the family of Bishop Burnet, and when she
appeared on the stage, she won all hearts by her voice, figure, and
performance. Her voice was more soprano than contralto.

We have seen her disclaimer when her servant insulted Madame de
l'Epine; and doubtless it was sincere, as she was an equal, if not a
greater, favourite with the public. She retired from the stage, with a
competence amassed by her exertions, in 1709. If we may believe the
_Tatler_ (No. 20), she had sad cause for leaving the stage, having
lost her reason. 'The great revolutions of this nature bring to my
mind the distresses of the unfortunate CAMILLA, who has had the ill
luck to break before her voice, and to disappear at a time when her
beauty was in the height of its bloom. This lady entered so thoroughly
into the great characters she acted, that when she had finished her
part she could not think of retrenching her equipage, but would appear
in her own lodgings with the same magnificence that she did upon the
stage. This greatness of soul had reduced that unhappy princess to an
involuntary retirement, where she now passes her time among the Woods
and Forests, thinking on the Crowns and sceptres she has lost, and
often humming over in her solitude,

  I was born of royal race,
  Yet must wander in disgrace.[476]

etc. But for fear of being over heard, and her quality known, she
usually sings it in Italian,

  Nacqui al regno, nacqui al trono
  E per sono
  I ventura pastorella.'[477]

A sad, very sad picture, if a true one.

          [Footnote 476: From the opera of 'Camilla.']

          [Footnote 477: Sic in orig., but it should read--

            'E pur sono
            Sventurata pastorella.']

At all events she must have got better, for she married a rich
gentleman named Joseph Smith, a virtuoso, and patron of art; and when
he went to Venice, as English consul, she accompanied him.

In _Spectator_ 443 is a letter, supposed to be written by her, from

Her mental malady, however, again seized her, and she lived in
retirement, in a remote part of her own house, occasionally roaming
about her garden, singing. She is supposed to have died about 1760.

She and her rival are thus celebrated in a song by Hughes (author of
the 'Siege of Damascus'), called 'Tofts and Margaretta.'

  Music has learn'd the discords of the State,
  And concerts jar with Whig and Tory Hate.
  Here Somerset and Devonshire attend
  The British Tofts, and every note commend;
  To native merit just, and pleas'd to see
  We've Roman arts, from Roman bondage free:
  There fam'd l'Epine does equal skill employ,
  Whilst listening peers crow'd to th' ecstatic joy:
  Bedford, to hear her song, his dice forsakes,
  And Nottingham is raptur'd when she shakes:
  Lull'd statesmen melt away their drowsy cares
  Of England's safety, in Italian Airs.
  Who would not send each year blank passes o'er,
  Rather than keep such strangers from our shore?

Francesca Margherita de l'Epine came over here with a German musician
named Greber, and was sometimes irreverently called 'Greber's Peg.'
There is no doubt but that she sang very beautifully, and was without
a rival on the stage, or in the concert room, after the retirement of
Mrs. Tofts. She herself retired in 1718, and married Dr. Pepusch, the
celebrated musician, who gave her another nickname, that of 'Hecate,'
because of her swarthy complexion and unprepossessing countenance.
However, she came well dowered, for she brought him a fortune of
£10,000, a very large sum in those days. Swift, who evidently had a
John Bull's dislike for everything foreign, writes from Windsor to
Stella,[478] 'We have a music meeting in our town to-night. I went to
a rehearsal of it, and there was Margarita, and her sister, with
another drab, and a parcel of fiddlers; I was weary, and would not go
to the meeting, which I am sorry for, because I heard it was a great
assembly.' She died about the year 1740.

          [Footnote 478: _Journal_, Aug. 6, 1711.]

The Cavaliere Nicolino Grimaldi,[479] commonly called Nicolini, was a
Neapolitan, and came over to England in 1708, entirely on his own
responsibility, hearing we were passionately fond of foreign operas.
He had achieved a high reputation in Italy, and sustained it here,
although foreigners were only tolerated, not liked. He first played
in 'Pyrrhus and Demetrius,' and he left England June 14, 1712. His
departure is thus chronicled by Addison[480]: 'I am very sorry to
find, by the Opera Bills for this Day, that we are likely to lose the
greatest Performer in Dramatick Musick that is now living, or that
perhaps ever appeared upon a Stage. I need not acquaint my Reader,
that I am speaking of _Signior Nicolini_.'

          [Footnote 479: _Cavaliere di San Marco._]

          [Footnote 480: _Spectator_, 405.]

Of Isabella Girardeau we know little, save that her maiden name was
Calliari, that she married a Frenchman, and sang from 1700 to 1720.

Of the musical composers living in Anne's reign, perhaps the oldest
was Dr. Blow, who died in 1708. Then there was Tudway, who composed an
anthem[481] on the occasion of Queen Anne visiting the University of
Cambridge, in 1705, which gained him his doctor's degree, and he was
afterwards made public Professor of Music to that university, where he
was longer remembered for his punning proclivities than for his
musical talents.

          [Footnote 481: 'Thou, O God, hast heard my vows.']

Jeremiah Clarke, who was coadjutor with Dr. Blow as organist at the
King's Chapel, composed the beautiful anthem 'Praise the Lord, O
Jerusalem.' He shot himself in 1707 when about forty years of age.
There is a curious story told about his suicidal mania. Some weeks
before he finally committed the rash act, he was riding to town,
accompanied by a servant, returning from a visit to a friend in the
country, when the fit seized him, and, dismounting by a field in which
was a pond surrounded by trees, he tossed up whether he should hang or
drown. The coin fell _on its edge_ in the clay, and saved his life for
that time.

Dean Aldrich was then alive (he did not die till 1710), and he will be
long remembered, not only for his 'Artis Logicæ Rudimenta,' but for
his skill as a musical composer[482]; whilst no one at all conversant
with Church music will forget the names of Drs. Crofts and Greene.

          [Footnote 482: See _Christ Church Bells_, Appendix.]

Among the secular composers was Tom D'Urfey, whose 'Pills to purge
Melancholy' is a storehouse of song; but, with the exception of Henry
Carey, whose 'Sally in our Alley' and 'Black-Eyed Susan' are immortal,
the opera and ballad composers of Anne's reign were of no great mark.

A most curious outcome of musical brotherhood was Thomas Britton, the
small-coal man, already casually mentioned. He must not be passed over
under any circumstances, as it is perhaps the only instance of
fraternity, absolute and equal, recorded in this reign, between the
upper and lower ranks of society. It was of him that Prior wrote:--

  Though doom'd to small coal, yet to arts allied;
  Rich without wealth, and famous without pride,
  Music's best patron, judge of books and men;
  Belov'd and honour'd by Apollo's train.
  In Greece or Rome sure never did appear,
  So bright a genius, in so dark a sphere!
  More of the man had probably been sav'd
  Had Kneller painted, and had Virtue grav'd.

This singular man had a small coal shop in Aylesbury Street,
Clerkenwell; and his room, which was over his coal stores, could only
be reached by a breakneck ladder, as Ward remarks--

  Upon Thursdays repair
  To my palace, and there
  Hobble up stair by stair;
  But I pray ye take Care
  That you break not your shins by a Stumble.

Somehow, he had a soul above his vocation. He was a fair chemist, and
a collector (with some knowledge) of old books and manuscripts. But
the most curious part of all his surroundings was the fact that he was
able to gather round him in his dirty little den, not only all the
musical talent available, but titled _dilettanti_, and even elegant
ladies came to his _réunions_. It was quite the proper place to go to.
Hear what old Thoresby says,[483] 'In our way home called at Mr.
Britton's, the noted small coal man, where we heard a noble concert of
music, vocal and instrumental, the best in town, which for many years
past he has had weekly for his own entertainment, and of the gentry
&c. gratis, to which most foreigners and many persons of distinction,
for the fancy of it, occasionally resort.' And no wonder, when the
learned musical Dr. Pepusch might be present, or Handel played the
harpsichord, whilst Banister would take first violin. Still, it was a
peculiar place to meet in, and only shows what inconveniences people
will suffer for fashion's sake.

          [Footnote 483: June 5, 1712.]

His death was almost as remarkable as his life. One of his performers
was injudicious enough to introduce to him a friend of his who was a
ventriloquist, who, without seeming to speak, bade him, as from a
far-off, sepulchral voice, fall down on his knees at once and say the
Lord's Prayer, for that he should die within a few hours. Poor Britton
did as he was bid--then went home, took to his bed, and died in a few
days of sheer fright, a victim to practical joking.

There was a vast amount of musical taste at that time, but of course
it was not so highly developed as now. We have seen that a dramatic
performance was generally accompanied by a musical one, and the
concerts, or _consorts_, as they were then called, were numerous.

Owing probably to the mourning consequent on the decease of William
III., the first announcement of a concert in Anne's reign that I can
find is one postponed from April 30, 1702, to May 7, and this was to
take place at Stationers' Hall, a very usual place for such
entertainments. In the same newspaper is a notice that 'The Queen's
Coronation Song, compos'd and Sung by Mr. Abell is to be perform'd at
Stationers Hall near Ludgate, to Morrow, being the First of May 1702
at 8 of the Clock at Night precisely, with other Songs in Several
Languages, and accompanied by the greatest Masters of Instrumental
Musick; Each Ticket 5_s._'

York Buildings was another favourite concert room, as was also
Hickford's Dancing Room. This latter place, being at the extreme West
End of London, bid for aristocratic patrons, and the prices were high;
indeed, the tickets for the following concert were the highest priced
of any I have ever met with: '1707 To Morrow being Wednesday the 2nd
of April, Signior Fr. Conti will cause to be perform'd at Mr.
Hickford's Dancing Room in James Street, in the Hay Market over
against the Tennis Court, the Consort of Musick compos'd by him for
her Majesty, and which he had the Honour to have perform'd at Court
the Day after the Act for the Union[484] pass'd. Signiora Margarita,
the Baroness, and Signior Valentino will sing in it accompanied with
several Instruments, and the Signior Conti will play upon his great
Theorbo, and on the Mandoline, an instrument not known yet. The
Consort will begin at 7 a Clock at Night. Tickets to be had only at
White's Chocolate House, and at the Smyrna Coffee House at a Guinea a
ticket.' A high price--but consider the attractions. All the available
talent, together with a _Monstre_ Instrument, and an entirely novel

          [Footnote 484: The Royal Assent to this Act was given March
          6, 1707.]

Nowadays we should hardly expect concerts to be given at Chelsea
Hospital, but it was different then, and 'Ladies of Quality' probably
had as much influence then as they have now, and could get pretty well
what they liked: '1702 In Honour of the Queens Coronation; The Ladies
Consort of Musick; by Subscription of several Ladies of Quality (by
permission) at the Royal College of Chelsea, on Monday the 25th of the
present May, is to be performed once, a new Consort of Musick, by Mr.
Abel and other voices; with Instrumental Musick of all sorts; To be
placed in two several Quires on each side of the Hall; a manner never
yet performed in England. The Hall to be well illuminated; the said
Consort to begin exactly at five a Clock, and to hold 3 full hours.
Each Ticket 5_s._ Notice that the Moon will shine, the Tide serve, and
a Guard placed from the College to St. James's Park, for the safe
return of the Ladies.'

The moon and tide were important factors then, as we find in a notice
of 'a Consort of Musick' at Richmond Wells, Aug. 12, 1703: 'This
Consort to be perform'd but once, because of the Queen's going to the
Bath. _Note._ The Tide serves at 11 o'clock in the Morning and Light
Nights.' So that the visitors were evidently expected to spend the
whole day there.

Another suburban Spa (Hampstead) was famous for its concerts, and
continued in favour during the whole of the reign.

'1705 On Saturday August 4th In the great Room at the _Ship Tavern
Greenwich_ will be an extraordinary Consort of Vocal and Instrumental
Musick, viz., Several Songs set by the best Masters; Particularly a
Song of two parts by Mr. Henry Purcel, never performed but once before
in Publick,' etc.

Towards the latter end of the reign the character of some of these
concerts seems to be altering. Take one at Stationers' Hall, Feb. 22,
1713, for instance: 'Among other choice Compositions, a celebrated
Song of Mr. Hendel's by a Gentlewoman from Abroad, who hath never
before exposed her Voice publickly in this kingdom. To which will be
added an uncommon piece of Musick by Bassoons only. Country Dances
when the Consort is over; and such a Decorum kept that the most
innocent may be present without the danger of an Affront.'

Concerts, as we see, were both vocal and instrumental. Of the vocal
performers much has already been said; of the instrumental, none are
worth notice, except Gasparini, an Italian, who was an excellent
violinist. The last and perhaps the least of them was: 'A Boy of about
Eight Years of Age will perform an Italian Sonata on the Trumpet, who
never yet perform'd in publick.' This musical treat took place at York
Buildings, Feb. 24, 1703.

The instruments in domestic use were the chamber or house organ, many
of which were frequently advertised for sale, the spinet, and
harpsichord, or harpsicalls, which we know so well, thanks to the
South Kensington Museum. Here, however, is a rare one: 'To be disposed
of, a most excellent Harpsicord made by the famous Sign. Gieronimo
Senti, at Pesaro in Italy, having 2 Extraordinary fine Keys of Ivory,
several Stops and Alterations besides the 2 Principals, and one
Octave, or the Spinet, which may by plaid seperately or together,
imitating most exactly the Theorbo, and most curiously the Arch Lute.'
The flute was played, as were also the lute, and the theorbo, a
lute-like instrument. The other stringed instruments were the bass
viol and the violin, Cremonas being then, as now, highly prized.

It was essentially an age for chamber music, with nice little social
gatherings, at which were played duets on the flute, etc., or catches,
rounds, and three-part songs were sung. What we should call _good_
music was thoroughly appreciated, and Corelli, perhaps, was then the
favourite composer. The following advertisement will show the class of
music then in vogue (1706): 'To all Lovers of Musick. This day are
published, and to be sold at Isaac Vaillant's Book and Map-seller in
the Strand near Catherine Street, Per.[485] Opera 2 da, Sonata di
Camera for 2 Flutes and Bass, Marini Opera 6 ta, 12 Sonatas for 2
Violins, a Viol and double Basses, 6 Sonatas and Solos transposed for
the Flute, pr 5_s._ Mr Novel's 12 Sonatas for 2 Violins and double
Basses, pr 6_s._, Six new Sonatas for 2 Flutes and a Bass by Mr.
Keller. Albicestilo, Opera Nona, 12 Solos for the Violin, a new Book
for the Harpsichord by Mr. Anglebert, with several Overtures, Minuets,
Jigs, &c. of Mr. Lully transposed for that instrument. These books are
printed by Steph Roger, most of them on Royal Paper. At the abovesaid
Vaillant's may be had the new Edition of Corelli printed on Imperial
Paper pr 32_s._ 6_d._'

          [Footnote 485: ? Perti, who lived to the age of nearly 100,
          and was alive in 1744.]

But all music was not as dear as this--for instance: 'The Monthly Mask
of Vocal Musick: the newest Songs, made for the Theatres and other
occasions Compos'd by Mr. John Welden and Mr. Dan Purcel. Publish'd
for November, which collections will be continued monthly for the year
1703 pr. 6_d._ Also a Set of Lessons for the Harpsicord or Spinnet.
Composed by Mr. John Eccles, Master of Her Majesties Musick pr 6_d._'

Music was printed either from engraved copper plates, as in the case
of 'The Nightingale,' which was engraved by Thomas Cross, who worked
in the very early part of the century, or by movable types, as is the
case with all music taken from 'The Dancing Master.' But the Dutch hit
upon a cheaper plan, and made use of pewter plates, which they
_stamped_, and so were able to undersell the engraved music. It is
said they got 1,500_l._ by printing the opera of 'Rinaldo.' One
Richard Mears also engraved music, but he, finding his trade
interfered with by the Dutchmen, took to stamping. At his death in
1743 almost the whole of the music-printing in the country was done by
the son of the following advertiser:[486] 'Twenty four _New Country_
Dances for the year 1710, with proper _Tunes_, and _New_ Figures, or
direction to each _Dance_, composed by Mr. Kynaston, all fairly
_Engraven_, price 6_d._ NOTE The New _Country_ Dancing _Master_ is
published, containing the Country dances for the three last years.
Printed for John Walsh. Servant in Ordinary to her Majesty.'

          [Footnote 486: _Tatler_, 88.]



     Wollaston -- Murray -- Hugh Howard -- Lewis Crosse -- Luke
     Cradock -- Charles Jervas -- Richardson -- Sir James Thornhill --
     Sir Godfrey Kneller -- Closterman -- Pelegrini -- Sebastian Ricci
     -- Vander Vaart -- Laguerre -- Dahl -- Boit -- Class of pictures
     in vogue -- Water colours -- Drawings -- Engravings -- Sculpture
     -- Grinling Gibbons -- Architects -- Sir C. Wren -- Vanbrugh.

The sister art of painting was not well represented in this reign--by
native talent, at all events, except by Thornhill. There was
Wollaston, a portrait painter, who could only command five guineas for
a three-quarters canvas: he was one of Britton's amateurs, and played
both violin and flute. He died at an old age in the Charter House.
Thomas Murray was another portrait painter.

There was Hugh Howard, to whom Prior indited an ode commencing,

  Dear Howard, from the soft assaults of love,
    Poets and painters never are secure;
  Can I untouch'd the fair one's passions move,
      Or thou draw beauty, and not feel its power?

He was lucky, for through his acquaintances of high rank he obtained
the situation of Keeper of the State Papers, and Paymaster of His
Majesty's Palaces, when he still followed the pursuit of art, by
collecting prints and medals.

Lewis Crosse was a painter in water colours, and executed miniatures.
He also collected them, and his very valuable collection was sold in
1722, two years before his death. Luke Cradock, who was but a house
painter, rose by his own exertions to be an excellent painter of
birds, and, like H. S. Marks, Esq., R.A., his works were highly prized
for house decorations. According to Vertue, his pictures, soon after
his death, fetched three or four times the prices paid for them.

Charles Jervas, who lived in this reign, and had been a pupil of
Kneller, was a very good painter. He taught Pope to draw and paint,
and Pope wrote an 'Epistle to Mr. Jervas,' in which he belauded him,
as did also Steele[487] when he called him 'the last great painter
Italy has sent us, Mr. Jervas'--alluding to his return from studying
in Italy. He married a widow worth 20,000_l._, and the praise he
received with the affluence of his circumstances rendered him
inordinately vain, as the two following anecdotes will show. He made a
good copy of a Titian, and he thought he had actually outdone that
master; for, looking from one to the other, he complacently observed,
'Poor little Tit! how he would stare!' The Duchess of Bridgewater sat
to him for her portrait, that picture of which Pope says--

     With Zeuxis' Helen thy Bridgewater vie

--and he remarked that she had not a handsome ear. Her ladyship asked
him his opinion of what _was_ a handsome ear, to which his answer
was--showing her one of his own.

          [Footnote 487: _Tatler_, No. 4.]

Jonathan Richardson was, perhaps, the best English portrait painter of
his time; and, after the deaths of Kneller and Dahl, stood prominent
in that branch of his profession. Aikman and Alexander were also
contemporary artists.

But perhaps the English artist of that time best known to us is Sir
James Thornhill; not only by his painting in the dome of St. Paul's,
but by his masterpiece in the Hall of Greenwich Hospital. Indeed he
was a worthy rival both of Verrio and Laguerre. Forty shillings per
square yard was all he got for painting St. Paul's, and probably no
more for Greenwich. For his decorations at Blenheim he only received
twenty-five shillings per square yard; and the Directors of the South
Sea Company would pay him no more for the work he did on their
staircase and hall. There are a few other English painters, but they
were of no note.

Of foreign artists in England, doubtless the greatest was Kneller, who
was born at Lubeck in 1648. He came over here in 1674, without the
least intention of stopping; but, having painted Charles II. and
established a reputation, he made this country his home. Knighted by
William, petted by Anne, baroneted by George I., he could scarcely
expect greater honours. His principal works in Anne's reign were a bad
portrait of the King of Spain, who paid a visit to the Queen, and was
kept some time longer than he expected, by stress of weather; seven
portraits of admirals at Hampton Court, and the portraits of the Kit
Cat Club, which have already been noticed. He was as vain as Jervas,
if not more so. Pope tried to see to what extent his vanity would go.
'Sir Godfrey, I believe if God Almighty had had your assistance, the
world would have been formed more perfect.' ''Fore Gad, Sir, I believe
so too,' was the self-satisfied reply. He, however, was not devoid of
wit, as his little encounter with Dr. Ratcliffe proves. They lived
next to each other, and there was a door between the two gardens.
Through this door Ratcliffe's servants used to come and pick Kneller's
flowers; so the painter sent word that he would have the door shut. A
message came from the doctor that 'he might do anything with it but
paint it,' to which the artist replied that 'he would take anything
from him but his physic.' Kneller was painting the portrait of James
II., which was to be a present to Pepys, when the King received the
news of the landing of the Prince of Orange. He ordered the painter to
proceed with his work, so that 'his good friend Pepys should not be

When Sir Godfrey moved from his house in Covent Garden, he had a sale
of pictures, probably of little artistic value, or only copies.[488]
'At the late Dwelling House of Sir Godfrey Kneller, in the Piazza's,
Covent Garden, will be sold a Collection of Original Paintings, fit
for Stair Cases, Chimneys, Doors or Closets. Some of the Masters they
were done by are as follows: viz. Holben, Ruben, Van Dyke, Sr. Peter
Lely, Antonio de Cortona, Solveta, Rosa, Snider, Vander Velde,
Rostraten, Bombodes, Verelst and several other great Masters.' This
auction was a failure: 'This is to give notice, That the Collection,
&c., will be Sold out of hand at very reasonable Rates at the
above-mentioned place, beginning this present _Monday_ being the 27th
of March, the badness and uncertainty of the Weather having put a stop
to the Auction.[489]

          [Footnote 488: _Postman_, March 11/14, 1704.]

          [Footnote 489: _Daily Courant_, March 27, 1704.]

John Closterman was the artist who painted the whole-length portrait
of Queen Anne, now in the Guildhall. We get several notices of him
from the newspapers: 'Mr. Closterman being obliged at Christmas next
to go to Hanover, and afterwards to several Courts of Germany; so that
it is uncertain whether he will ever return to England. Such Persons
of Quality and others, as have lately sate to him, are desired to take
notice, that their Pictures will be finished out of hand, and
deliver'd as they shall best please to order them.'[490]

          [Footnote 490: _Ibid._, Aug. 6, 1705.]

In April of the next year he advertised that 'being oblig'd to leave
England very suddenly, will sell all his pictures by Auction.' Another
sale of pictures took place on Feb. 28, 1711, which was probably after
his death, the date of which is somewhat uncertain. He had married a
worthless girl, who robbed him of all he possessed, and then ran away:
this sent him mad, and he soon afterwards died.

Antonio Pelegrini made several designs for painting the dome of St.
Paul's, and was paid for them. He painted staircases, etc., for the
Dukes of Manchester and Portland, and for other noblemen. He died

His master, Sebastian Ricci, came over here, and painted the
altarpiece in the chapel of Chelsea College; but he, too, did not
stop. Not so James Bogdani, a native of Hungary, who lived here
between forty and fifty years. He painted fruit, flowers, and birds,
and our royal palaces still possess examples of this master, which
were purchased by Queen Anne.

John Vander Vaart,[491] of Haarlem, lived for over fifty years in
Covent Garden, and died there. His _forte_ was game. He painted a
piece of still life--a violin--on a door at Devonshire House,
Piccadilly, that deceived everybody. This is now at Chatsworth.

          [Footnote 491: In the _Postman_, Feb. 3/6, 1711, is an
          advertisement of his, saying he intended retiring from
          business, and will sell his collection of pictures.]

Pope's line, 'Where sprawl the Saints of Verrio and Laguerre,'
naturally makes us think of these two masters, and many were the
ceilings which the latter painted in England. He enjoyed royal
patronage under both William and Anne, designing for the latter some
tapestry, illustrative of the union between England and Scotland, in
which were portraits of the Queen and her ministers. He did the
drawings, but the tapestry was not made. His end was sudden: he died
of apoplexy in Drury Lane Theatre, whither he had gone to attend the
benefit of his son, who sang there in 'The Island Princess.'[492]

          [Footnote 492: By P. A. Motteux.]

Michael Dahl was a Swede, and a mighty portrait painter. He was
Kneller's rival, and yet they must have been friends, for Sir Godfrey
painted his portrait. He was a great pet of Prince George of Denmark,
and was also patronised by the Queen.

Any account of the artists of this reign would be sadly incomplete
without mention of Boit, the enameller, who was certainly the best, up
to that time, after Petitot or Zincke. He got large sums for his
miniatures. Several now exist, and one, especially good, of Queen Anne
sitting, and Prince George standing beside her, is at Kensington
Palace. The most important work on which he was engaged during his
stay in England was a large plate, about 24 in. by 18, for which
Laguerre painted the design in oil. It represented the Queen, Prince
George, and the principal members of the Court, with Victory
introducing the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene; France and
Bavaria were prostrate, and there were the usual military
accompaniment of standards and trophies of arms. He got an advance of
£1,000, and spent £700 or £800 of it in erecting furnaces able to fire
so large a plate; and, when he began to lay on colour, he got another
advance of £700. Then came the memorable disgrace of Marlborough, and
he was ordered to change Marlborough into Ormonde, and Victory into
Peace. Prince Eugene would not sit, and no further progress was ever
made with the picture. Boit ran away, on the Queen's death, much in
debt, and got to France, where they were only too glad to receive him.
There he died in 1726.

Those were not, as now, golden days for artists, who never dreamed of
living in luxuriously furnished mansions of their own building. There
were no exhibitions of art, nor did the middle class indulge much in
oil paintings, which were principally confined to originals, or
copies, of the Italian or Dutch and Flemish schools. Of course every
gentleman who made the 'grand tour' brought some home with him, if
only to show his taste in such matters; and, through the fluctuations
of fortune, there was generally a good supply of them in the market.
The following extract from Swift's Journal to Stella will give some
idea of the price of a copy, for it is scarcely likely to have been an
original. '6 Mar. 1713. I was to day at an auction of pictures with
Pratt, and laid out two pounds five Shillings for a picture of
Titian, and if it were a Titian it would be worth twice as many
pounds. If I am cheated, I'll part with it to Lord Masham; if it be a
bargain, I'll keep it to myself. That's my conscience.'

To give an idea of the range of art which these pictures occupied, let
us take the names of the masters, with their spellings, as they appear
in the advertisements. _Italian_. Giorgione-da Castle Franco, Titian,
Palma, Tintoret, Bassan, Cavalieri, Gioseppi d'Arpino, Paulo Faranati,
Camillo Procacino, Spaniolette, Bartolemeo, Pordenone, Andrea del
Sarto, Leonardo da Vinci, Paulo Veronese, Gaspar Poussin, Julio
Romano, Pollydore, Parmigiano, Baptista Franca, Corregio, Primaticcio,
Schiavone, Claud Lorain, Fran, Bolognese, Mola, the Borgognon, Luca
Jordano, Bourdon, Perosini, Scacciati, Daudini, Tempesto, and Guido

Among the Dutch and Flemish Masters were: Van Dyke, Quentin Messias,
Ostervelt, Vander Werff, Van de Velde, Cornelius Johnson, Vander Meer,
Brayuinx, Griffiere, Backhuysen, De Wit, Brawer, Wyck, Ostade,
Hondecoeter, Saftleven, Boc, Percellus, Ryzeberg, Blœmœrt,
Youngfranc, Bramer, Varelst, Palamedus, Levintz, Ruysdail, Hemskirk,
Breughel, Holben, Rubens, Berchem, and Teniers.

And we have one advertisement where 'Among them are Portraits a half
length of the Queen of _England_[493] by _Ryly_: Sir _Tho More_; Lord
_Cicil_ in Queen _Elizabeth's_ time, and the Lord _Francis Bacon_.'

          [Footnote 493: Either Mary of Modena, Consort of James II.,
          or Queen Mary.]

People who could not afford oil paintings might buy water colours, and
the following gives us the names of two famous artists: 'A choice
collection of Limnings, by Mr. _Cooper_ and old Mr. _Hoskins_ now in
the possession of his Son _John Hoskins_ of _Chelsea_, will be sold by
Auction. Likewise several Boxes of Limning Colours,' etc. These were,
in all probability, miniatures.

Drawings, both in crayon and black lead, line engravings, and etchings
were within the compass of most people's purses, and here is an
advertisement which would create some interest even now at Christie's.
'At the Eagle and Child in Bedford Street, Covent Garden, &c. will be
continued the Sale by Auction of a collection of Paintings, Drawings,
and Prints, by the most famous Italian, and other great Masters. The
Drawings are of the most celebrated Masters of the several Schools of
Italy. A great number of them in Frames and Glasses. The Prints are in
great perfection, a great many Etcht by the Masters themselves, others
graved by the most eminent Gravers. There are a great many
extraordinary rare Wood Cuts, they have been collecting these 30 Years
with great industry and expense, most out of the chiefest Auctions in
England, and others bought in Holland and France, by Mr. William
Gibson,[494] Limner.'

          [Footnote 494: A miniature painter, pupil of Sir Peter Lely,
          and nephew of Gibson, the dwarf painter.]

We know the engravings of that time were very good: they were also
very cheap, and of good subjects. 'You may have the Right Originals
after the greatest Masters, as Raphael, Michael Angelo, Ruben, Julij
Romana, all well graven, and 30 sorts of Altarpieces and Prints ready
framed;' or one might buy 'A complea. Sett of the Prints of the Royal
Palaces and Noblemen's Seats in England, neatly bound up together, or
sold Singly for 1_s._ apiece; and likewise a curious Collection of
Italian and French prints, particularly the Original Battles of
Alexander; the Galleries of Luxemburgh; Poussin's Landskips, and many
others.' Good English Engravers were then very scarce: nearly all the
illustrations to books were engraved by foreigners, and very
frequently in Holland.

Take the following for example--engraved in England, but by a
foreigner: The Seven Cartons of Raphael d'Urbin drawn and engraved
from the Originals in the Gallery at Hampton Court by S. Gribelin, are
sold by C. Mather near Temple Bar in Fleet Street &c.--price 15_s._'
There was another set of these engraved in 1711 and 1712, by Michael
Dorigny, who offered eight plates 19 in. by 25 to 30 for four guineas.
Steele gives this venture a kindly puff in _Spectator_ 226.

Sculpture was not at a premium, there being but one sculptor at all
worthy of the name (of course except Gibbons), and he was Francis Bud,
to whom, among other works, we owe the statue of Queen Anne in St.
Paul's Churchyard, and the Conversion of St. Paul in the pediment of
the cathedral.

The virtuosi got their statuary from Italy, and of course these
classical gentlemen would be satisfied with nothing less than 'right
Antiques.' 'Four Marble Figures lately come from Italy, with 2 half
bodies. The Figures are Jupiter and Venus, Bacchus and his Mistress.'

There was a demand for plaster and leaden casts for garden
ornamentation, and this was met by one Van Nost, who lived in 'Hide
Park Road, near the Queen's Mead House,' who had a fine collection,
which was sold after his death, in 1712. His widow also sold, at a
great reduction in price, 'the fine Marble Figures and Bustos, curious
inlaid Marble Tables, Brass and Leaden Figures and very rich Vauses.'

Grinling Gibbons, of course, bears the palm in the matter of carving
in this age, and we must not forget that he carved in stone and marble
as well as in wood. The statue of Charles II. in the old Royal
Exchange, the base of Charles the First's statue at Charing Cross, and
the marble pedestal of the equestrian statue of Charles II. at
Windsor, together with the magnificent tomb of Baptist Noel, Viscount
Camden, in the church of Exton, Rutlandshire, all testify to his
ability when dealing with the more obdurate materials. As to his wood
carvings, they are most numerous and widely spread. In the choir of
St. Paul's, at Chatsworth, at Burleigh, at Petworth, etc., are
triumphs of his skill.

From sculpture to architecture is but a step; and a reign that can
boast of two such architects as Wren and Vanbrugh must of necessity
rank high as favouring this art. If Wren had built nothing else but
St. Paul's, his fame would have been immortal, and the other buildings
with which he beautified London, thanks to the great fire, cannot add
lustre to his name. In the architecture of his churches he was very
uneven; but it must not be forgotten that he had at that time so much
work on hand, that thorough originality could not be expected in every
case, and also, in very many instances he was hampered as to the
expense. Not that he was an extravagant architect. The man who could
build (even taking money at its different value then and now) St. Mary
Aldermary for a little over 5,000_l._, or St. Mary-le-Bow for
8,000_l._--exclusive of the steeple, which cost nearly 1,400_l._
more--could not be accused of extravagance. We owe to him the
Monument, Greenwich and Chelsea Hospitals, the Theatre and Ashmolean
Museum at Oxford, and the library of Trinity College, Cambridge,
besides a large number of churches, all still existing, and the Royal
Exchange and Temple Bar, destroyed. In this reign he was thoroughly
appreciated and honoured; was knighted by Anne, was President of the
Royal Society, and sat twice in Parliament; and it was reserved to the
Whigs in George the First's reign to deprive him of his places, and
leave him uncared for in his old age.

The versatile Vanbrugh, who could be playwright or architect, poet,
theatrical manager, or king-at-arms, adds much to the lustre of Anne's

We have seen how Swift lampooned him on the building of his own house
at Whitehall (p. 47), and we all know Dr. Evans' epitaph upon him:--

  Lie heavy on him, earth, for he
  Laid many a heavy load on thee.

That he was as great an architect as Wren, cannot be for a moment
entertained; but that he was not without good taste and scientific
knowledge, his two best works, Blenheim and Castle Howard, testify.



     Its infancy -- Virtuosi -- Gresham College -- Visit to the Royal
     Society's Museum -- Their curiosities -- Their new house --
     Geology -- Experimental philosophy -- Courses of chemistry --
     Mathematics -- List of patents -- Hydraulic machinery -- Savery's
     steam engine -- Description.

Exact science, as we understand the term, hardly existed. Sir Isaac
Newton was just lighting the spark which has been fanned by succeeding
generations into such a mighty flame. The Royal Society was an
absolute laughing-stock, and men called virtuosi pottered about,
looking (and doubtless thinking they were) mighty wise.

Any man who investigated nature after his lights, and with the
imperfect materials which were at his command, was looked upon as a

  'The _Will_ of a VIRTUOSO.[495]

          [Footnote 495: _Tatler_, No. 216.]

'I _Nicholas Gimcrack_ being in sound health of mind, but in great
weakness of body, do by this my last Will and Testament bestow my
worldly Goods and Chattels in manner following.

'_Imprimis_. To my dear wife, One box of butterflies, One drawer of
Shells, A female Skeleton, A dried Cockatrice.

'_Item._ To my Daughter _Elizabeth_. My Receipt for preserving dead
Caterpillars. Also my preparations of winter May dew, and

'_Item._ To my little daughter _Fanny_, Three Crocodile's Eggs. And
upon the birth of her first Child if she marries with her mother's
consent, the Nest of a Humming Bird.

'_Item._ To my eldest Brother, as an acknowledgment for the Lands he
has vested in my Son _Charles_, I bequeath my last Year's Collection
of Grasshoppers.

'_Item._ To his Daughter _Susanna_, being his only Child, I bequeath
my English Weeds pasted on Royal paper, with my large Folio of Indian

'Having fully provided for my nephew _Isaac_ by making over to him,
some years since, a Horned Scarabæus, the Skin of a Rattle snake, and
the Mummy of an Egyptian King, I make no further Provision for him in
this my _Will_.

'My eldest Son _John_ having spoken disrespectfully of his little
Sister, whom I keep by me in Spirits of Wine, and in many other
instances behaved himself undutifully towards me, I do disinherit, and
wholly Cut off from any part of this my personal estate, by giving
him a single Cockle shell.

'To my second Son _Charles_, I give and bequeath all my Flowers,
Plants, Minerals, Mosses, Shells, Pebbles, Fossils, Beetles,
Butterflies, Caterpillars, Grasshoppers, and Vermin, not above
specified; as also my Monsters, both wet and dry; making the said
_Charles_ whole and sole _Executor_ of this my last _Will_ and
_Testament_; He paying or causing to be paid, the aforesaid Legacies
within the space of six Months after my Decease. And I do hereby
revoke all other _Wills_ whatsoever by me formerly made.'

     _Clarinda._ A Sot, that has spent £2000 in Microscopes, to find
     out the Nature of Eals in Vinegar, Mites in a Cheese, and the
     blue of Plums which he has subtilly found out to be living

     _Miranda._ One who has broken his brains about the nature of
     Magots, who has studied these twenty years to find out the
     several sorts of Spiders, and never cares for understanding

          [Footnote 496: _The Virtuoso_, by Shadwell.]

It is needless to say that Gresham College, then the home of the Royal
Society, affords a wealth of merriment to Ward. It is 'Wise Acres
Hall,' or 'Maggot Mongers' Hall'; but his description,[497] although
whimsical, is truthful, and shows the puerility (as we might term it)
of science in those days. 'My Friend conducted me up a pair of Stairs,
to the Elaboratory-Keeper's Apartment and desir'd him to oblige us
with a Sight of his Rarities; who very curteously granted us the
Liberty; opening his Warehouse of _Egyptian Mummies_, old musty
Skeletons, and other antiquated Trumpery: The first thing he thought
most worthy of our Notice, was the _Magnet_, with which he show'd some
notable Experiments, it made a Paper of Steel Filings Prick up
themselves one upon the back of another, that they stood pointing like
the Bristles of a _Hedge Hog_; and gave such Life and Merriment to a
parcel of Needles, they danced the Hay, by the motion of the Stone, as
if the Devil were in 'em; the next things he presented to our view,
were a parcel of Shell Flies almost as big as _Lobsters_, arm'd with
Beaks as big as _Jack-Daws_: then he commended to our observation that
Wonderful Curiosity, the _Unicorn's_ Horn; made, I suppose, by an
Ingenious Turner, of the Tusks of an _Elephant_; it is of an excellent
Virtue; and, by report of those that know nothing of the matter, will
expel Poison beyond the _Mountebanks Orvieton_; Then he carry'd us to
another part of the Room, where there was an _Aviary_ of Dead Birds,
Collected from the extream parts of _Europe_, _Asia_, _Africa_, and
_America_; amongst which were an _East India_ Owl, a _West India_ Bat,
and a Bird of _Paradise_, the last being Beautified with variety of
Colours, having no discernable Body, but all Feathers, Feeding, when
alive, upon nothing but Air, and tho' 'tis as big as a Parrot, 'tis as
light as a Cobweb. Then he usher'd us among sundry sorts of Serpents,
as the _Noy_, _Pelongy_, _Rattle Snake_, _Aligator_, _Crocodile_ &c.
That looking round me, I thought myself hem'd in amongst a legion of
Devils; When we had taken a survey of these pin-cushion Monsters, we
turn'd towards the Skeletons of Men, Women, and Monkeys, Birds, Beasts
and Fishes; Abortives put up in Pickle, and abundance of other
Memorandums of Mortality; that they look'd as Ghostly as the Picture
of _Michael_ Angelo's Resurrection; as if they had Collected their
Scatter'd Bones into their Original Order, and were about to March in
search after the rest of the Appurtenances.'

          [Footnote 497: _London Spy._]

That this account is not exaggerated is shown by an extract or two of
Dr. Green's catalogue of these curiosities.

'Tortoises, when turned on their backs, will sometimes fetch deep
sighs and shed abundance of tears.

'A bone, said to be taken out of a Mermaid's head.

'A stag-beetle, whose horns, worn in a ring, are good against Cramp,

The Royal Society, however, under Newton's presidency, woke up
wonderfully in Anne's reign, although they still pottered after such
things as dissecting dolphins,[498] etc. In 1705 the Mercers' Company
gave them notice to quit Gresham College, and they petitioned the
Queen for a grant of land near Westminster, but the petition was
refused. Then they applied to the trustees of the Cotton Library for
permission to meet at Cotton House, Westminster, but could not obtain
it. And so they tried for six years to get their own premises, and at
last succeeded in buying the house (really two houses) of Dr. Brown,
in Crane Court, Fleet Street, which house, but little altered, is now
standing, and is in the occupation of the Scottish Corporation. This
cost them 1,450_l._, 550_l._ of which they paid out of their own
funds, and borrowed the remainder at six per cent.; but it also
required 1,800_l._ to fit these houses for the requirements of the
Society: yet somehow they managed to hold their first meeting there on
Nov. 8, 1710.

          [Footnote 498: Thoresby.]

Addison, in the _Tatler_,[499] cannot resist the temptation of making
fun of this Society: 'When I married this Gentleman he had a very
handsome estate, but upon buying a set of Microscopes he was chosen _a
Fellow of the Royal Society, from which time I do not remember ever to
have heard him speak as other people did_, or talk in a manner that
any of his family could understand.' Steele,[500] too, must needs give
a little stab: 'When I meet with a young fellow that is an humble
admirer of these Sciences, but more dull than the rest of the Company,
I conclude him to be a Fellow of the Royal Society.'

          [Footnote 499: No. 221.]

          [Footnote 500: _Tatler_, 236.]

The science of geology was very little known, although Dr. Woodward,
in his 'Natural History of the Earth,' notes its division into strata,
but in that, as in all other sciences, they were but in a very
elementary stage. They had only got as far as this: 'An Account of
the Origin and Formation of Fossil-Shells, &c., wherein is proposed a
Way to reconcile the two different Opinions, of those who affirm them
to be the Exuviæ of real Animals, and those who fancy them to be Lusus

But science was making such steps that men were willing to be taught,
and consequently teachers were found. The stage physical science had
reached in 1706 is shown by the following advertisement: 'For the
Advancement of Experimental Philosophy, and for the Benefit of all
such Gentlemen as are willing to lay the best and surest Foundation
for all useful Knowledge: There are provided Engines for rarefying and
condensing Air, with all the Appurtenances thereunto belonging; also
Barometers, Thermometers, and such other Instruments as are Necessary
for a Course of Experiments, in order to prove the Weight and Spring
of the Air, its usefulness in the propagation of Sounds and
Conversation of Life, &c., with several new and surprising Experiments
concerning the production of Light in Vacuo: Likewise Utensils proper
for making the Hydrostatical Experiments to determine the Laws of
Fluids Gravitating upon each other. By J. Hodgson and F. Hawksbee,
Fellows of the Royal Society. This Course will begin &c.... at which
times Lectures will be Read for the better understanding the
Experiments, and for the drawing of such Conclusions and Uses as flow
from them. Those Gentlemen that are desirous to be present must pay 2
Guineas, one at the time of Subscription, and the other on the 3rd
Night after the Course begins.' Hawksbee continued these lectures till
his death, about 1710 or 1711.

Courses of chemistry had existed ever since the commencement of the
reign: _vide_ 'A Course of Chimistry, commencing the 27th of April,
1702, containing above 100 Operations, will be performed by George
Willson at his Elaboratory in Well Yard, by St. Bartholomew's Hospital
in Smithfield.' His fee was two and a half guineas.

What was meant by this course we cannot tell, but there is another
advertisement in 1712 which may throw some light upon it: 'A Compleat
Course of Chymistry containing about 100 Operations, illustrated with
the proper Scholia, has been perform'd at the Laboratory of Mr. Edward
Bright, Chymist, in White Friars near Fleet Street, to the entire
Satisfaction of the Gentlemen that attended it, &c.... In these
Courses Endeavours are used to demonstrate the Constituent Parts of
each Medicine, their Virtues and Doses; to which will be added many
useful Observations applicable to the Practice of Physick.

The higher branches of mathematics were also publicly taught in 1705:
'On Tuesday next being the 2nd Day of October, at the Marine Coffee
house in Birchin Lane, Mr. Harris will go on with the Public
Mathematic Lecture; beginning them with Geometry anew; and he will
explain largely the Uses of all the Propositions as he goes along:
with a particular regard to the principles of true Mechanick
Philosophy.' This latter was highly necessary, for mechanics were in
an exceedingly elementary state: even such a common thing as a wind
dial was new, and wonderful, in 1706. 'The WIND DIAL, lately set up at
Grigsby's Coffee and Chocolate House, behind the Royal Exchange, being
the first and only one in any publick House in England, and having
given great Satisfaction to all that have seen it, and being of
Constant use to those that are in any wise Concerned in Navigation: We
think it may not be improper to describe it to the Publick, viz. The
Dial Board is fixed to the Ceiling of the Publick Ground room, upon
which are all the points of the Compass in Gold Letters, and a Hand
Points to each of them, continually as the Wind varies. The Hand is
directed by an Iron work, which is turned by a Fan placed 90 foot
high, to prevent the effects of Eddy Winds.'

Condensing sea water, in order to make it potable, is, if an old
invention, quite a modern practice; yet we see it in use in 1705. 'Mr.
Walcot's Engines for making Sea Water Fresh and Wholesome, are sold by
him at his Warehouse in Woolpack Alley in Houndsditch at reasonable
rates being of great use and advantage for all Ships, especially such
as go long voyages.'

Perhaps the best method of gauging the mechanical genius of the age is
to examine the patents granted, and, as they are very few in this
reign, a short list of them will fulfil this condition, and yet not be

Jan. 1, 1703. A grant to George Sorocold, gent., of a new invention by
him contrived and found out, for cutting and sawing all kinds of
boards, timber, and stone, and twisting all kinds of ropes, cords, and
cables, by the strength of horses or water.

April 8, 1704. A grant to Benjamin Jackson, gent., of the sole use and
exercise of a new invention for ordinary coaches, calashes, shazes,
waggons, and other carriages and machines of that nature, that though
the wheels or carriages may be overset, yet the bodies of them shall
remain upright.

May 1, 1704. A grant to Nicholas Fain, gent., Peter Defaubre, and
Jacob Defaubre, watchmakers, for making use of precious or more common
stones, crystal or glass, as an internal and useful part of watches
and other engines.

July 29, 1704. A grant unto Richard Cole, gent., of his invention of
forming glasses into conical figures, and lamps for the better
dispersing and casting of light.

April 12, 1706. A grant unto Henry Mill, gent., of his new invention
of a mathematical instrument, consisting of several new sorts of
springs for the ease of persons riding in coaches, chariots, calashes,
and chaises.

June 6, 1706. A grant unto Robert Aldersey of his new invention in
contriving a floating dam to carry lighters and other vessels over the
greatest flats and shallows in any navigable river.

1706. A grant unto Thomas Savery, Esq., of his new invention for
making double hand-bellows, which by the power of springs and screws
will produce a continual blast.

July 26, 1709. A grant unto Jeremiah Wieschamer of his new invention
of a mill or engine for the more easy grinding or pressing of
sugar-canes with a less number of oxen, horses, or cattle than by
those mills formerly used.

April 3, 1712. A grant unto Israel Pownoll of his new invented engine
or machine for taking up ballast, sullage, sand, etc., of very great
use in cleansing rivers, harbours, etc.

June 17, 1712. A grant unto Nicholas Lewis Mandell, Esq., and John
Grey, carpenters, of their two new invented engines; the one of a
small size for the weighing and raising up any weight far beyond what
can be performed by any crane or capstone; and the other for raising
water in a new and surprising manner, of great use in extinguishing

April 2, 1714. A grant unto John Wilks of his new invented engine or
mill for grinding all sorts of wood dry for the use of dying.

May 27, 1714. A grant unto John Coster, gent., and John Coster, jun.,
gent., of their new invented engine for drawing water out of deep

[Illustration: Savery's Steam Engine.]

These are all the mechanical patents worthy of notice during Anne's
reign. Hydraulic machinery was particularly useful, and attention was
specially paid to its perfection. Here is the record[501] of a
draining feat happily completed: 'The Lands in Havering and Dagenham
Levels in Essex, having lain these 6 Years under Water, were, after a
great deal of Industry and Expence happily recovered on the 29th Day
of October past, being the same Day 6 years that that Breach happened.
The Gentlemen concerned in that Undertaking have given to the
Artificers and Labourers an Ox and a Sheep to be Roasted whole, and a
Hog to be barbicui'd, with large Puddings in their Bellies, on the
13th of this present Instant, on the said Works.'

          [Footnote 501: _Daily Courant_, Nov. 11, 1713.]

But few people remember that the steam engine was a living and
working fact, and a commercial commodity, in Queen Anne's time, and
this owed its being to the general utility of hydraulic machinery.
Salamon de Caus and the Marquis of Worcester are rivals as to the
invention of a working steam engine, and Papin came very near to being
successful, even going so far as to propel a ship with revolving oars
or paddles, which could in speed beat the king's barge manned by
sixteen rowers. But it was reserved to Savery to make it commercially
valuable. In 1698 he took out a patent. 'A grant to Thomas Savery
gentl, of the sole exercise of a new invenc̃on by him invented,
for raising of water, and occasioning moc̃on to all sorts of Mill
Works, by the impellent force of fire, which will be of great use for
draining mines, serving towns w{th} water, and for the working of all
sorts of Mills where they have not the benefit of water nor Constant
winds, to hold for 14 years; with usual clauses. Testibus apud
Westm̃  25{o} die Julij anno supradc̃o.'

He could not have wasted much time in perfecting his invention and
putting it on a sound commercial basis, for we find an advertisement
in the _Postman_, March 28/31, 1702: 'Captain _Savery's_ Engines which
raise Water by the force of Fire in any reasonable quantities and to
any height, being now brought to perfection, and ready for publick
use; These are to give notice to all Proprietors of Mines and
Collieries which are encumbered with Water, that they may be furnished
with Engines to drain the same at his Work house in _Salisbury Court,
London_, against the Old Play house, where it may be seen working on
_Wednesdays_ and _Saturdays_ in every week from 3 to 6 in the
afternoon; where they may be satisfied of the performance thereof,
with less expence than any other force of Horse or Hands, and less
subject to repair.'

He must, even then, have had some at work, for he says in the preface
to his little work,[502] dated Sept. 22, 1701: 'That the _attending_
and working the _Engine_ is so far from being so,[503] that it is
familiar and _easie_ to be learned by those of the _meanest Capacity_,
in a very little time; insomuch, that I have Boys of 13 or 14 years of
_Age_, who now _attend_ and _work_ it to perfection, and were _taught_
to do it in a few days; and I have known some _learn_ to work the
Engine in _half-an-hour_.'

          [Footnote 502: _The Miner's Friend, or, an Engine to raise
          Water by Fire described_, &c. by Thomas Savery, Gent.
          London. 1702.]

          [Footnote 503: _I.e._ intricate and difficult to work.]

He had visions of its future power, and knew somewhat of its vast
capabilities: 'Whereas this _Engine_ may be made _large_ enough to do
the _work_ required in employing _eight_, _ten_, _fifteen_, or _twenty
horses_ to be constantly maintained and kept for doing _such a work_;
it will be improper to stint or _confine_ its Uses and Operation in
respect of _Water Mills_.' He then suggests that it would pump water
to the top of a house, for domestic supply, for fountains, and in case
of fire--or supply towns with water, draining fens, mines, and coal
pits, nay, he even suggests their use through the furnace and shaft,
as ventilators. More than all, he says, 'I believe it may be made very
_useful_ to Ships, but I dare not meddle with that matter; and leave
it to the Judgement of those who are the best Judges of Maritain

His engine was as ingenious as it was simple. Two boilers with
furnaces supplied the steam. This was admitted alternately, by means
of a handle worked by a man or boy, into one of two elliptical
receivers, where it condensed, formed a vacuum, and the water rushed
in and filled its place--the same principle which is the foundation of
that invaluable feed-pump, Giffard's injector. When full, the
application of steam ejected it from the receiver, and forced it up
the pipe, and so _de novo_. His idea was to utilise the water thus
raised to turn a water-wheel, and thus get effective power for working
machinery in mills.



     Authors -- Public libraries -- Their condition -- George
     Psalmanazar -- Hack writers -- Poverty of authors -- Their
     punishment -- The press -- _Daily Courant_ -- List of newspapers
     -- _London Gazette_ -- _Postboy_ -- _Postman_ -- Dawk's _News
     Letter_ -- Dyer's -- Evening papers -- Dearth of domestic news --
     Amenities of the press -- Roper and Redpath -- Tutchin -- His
     trial -- Press remuneration -- Mrs. Manley -- The Essay papers --
     The halfpenny stamp -- Its effect -- Advertising -- Almanacs --
     List of them -- Moore's -- The _Ladies' Diary_ -- _Poor Robin's
     Almanack_ -- Merlinus Liberatus -- The Essayists and Partridge --
     His false death -- His elegy and epitaph -- An amateur magazine.

Well might the time of Anne be called the Augustan age of literature.
The writers of that day have lived till ours, and will live and be
quoted as models of purity of style, as long as, and wherever, the
English language is spoken. In what other age can such a wealth of
literary names be found as Addison, Steele, Swift, Pope, Warburton,
Gay, Prior, Parnell, Defoe, Vanbrugh, Congreve, Rowe! It was the grand
awakening of letters; and, having good food provided for them, the
people appreciated it, and it undoubtedly laid the foundation of the
present reading age. Before this time there had been no books, _i.e._
adapted to the general public, to read. Truly, there were scholars
here and there, and the Universities were ever fountains of learning;
but literature had not entered into every-day life, and we have to
thank Steele and Addison, who charmed the public taste by their social
and moral essays, into becoming first a reading, and then a thinking

There were men who loved their books--veritable bibliophiles--and what
choice editions they must have possessed! Look at the huge volumes of
title-pages which Bagford collected as materials for his history of
printing--which never was written--look at the treasures that have
come down to us in the Cotton, Harleian Royal, and Lambeth libraries!
A sale like that of the Sunderland library[504] convulses the literary
world, and buyers come from all parts of the globe. Then, however, an
advertisement like this was not uncommon: 'A curious Collection of
Books, which was Collected by a great Antiquarian, in Greek, Latin,
Spanish, French, Italian, and English, in all Faculties and Sciences,
many of them very scarce, of the best Authors and Editions, as Aldus,
Stevens, Elzevir and others,' etc.

          [Footnote 504: The Duke of Marlborough's collection, sold

We learn from Misson the state of our public libraries. He says: 'At
present I know but three publick ones in this City; those of the
Chapter at _Westminster_, and _Sion College_ (which are very much
neglected, and in a sorry Condition in all Respects) and that which
Dr. _Tenison_, Archbishop of _Canterbury_, has lately founded. The two
former are going to Decay, and the latter is not yet quite form'd.
Neither the one nor the other are much frequented. The King's Library
at St. _James's_ is also in a miserable state; I am told that Dr.
_Bentley_, who has the keeping of it, in the room of Mr. _Instel_,
does all he can to restore it; but his Endeavours will be to no
purpose, unless the Master of it has Leisure and Will to have an Eye
to it himself. There have been Books in Pawn in the Hands of the
Binders, I know not how many Years. King _Charles II._ did but laugh
at it. It is, nevertheless, a Pity that so many good Books, and so
well bound, should be given up to the Mould and Moisture of the Air,
to Moths and to Dust. The Library of Sir _Robert Cotton_ is
particularly famous for Manuscripts. The Royal Society have begun to
Collect a pretty good one: the late Duke of _Norfolk_, who was of it,
left them his. There are a great many Noble men in England that love
Books, and have good Collections of them.'

A literary curiosity of this reign deserves to be, and must be,
noticed. It is George Psalmanazar, the impostor who, for a while,
deceived the majority of the English _literati_. He seems to have been
born in France in 1679, and to have received a good education. He
wandered about as a pilgrim, and that either not paying, or else being
dissatisfied with the life, he hit upon the extraordinary idea of
passing himself off as a Formosan, and to do this he actually had to
invent a new language and grammar. Accompanied by a clergyman named
Innes, he came over to England, where he translated the Church
Catechism into pretended Formosan, and he published a History of
Formosa, and of his own adventures; but the suspicions of the learned
were aroused, and he was unmasked. He tried to fight against it for
some time, and issued advertisements in the papers, that he could be
seen, spoken with, and catechised, but to no purpose. He afterwards
lived by doing hack work for the booksellers, and at his death he
thoroughly confessed his imposture.

The hack writers of the time are thus humorously described in the
_Guardian_ (No. 58): 'According as my necessities suggest it to me, I
hereby provide for my being. The last summer I paid a large debt for
brandy and tobacco, by a wonderful description of a fiery dragon, and
lived for ten days together upon a whale and a mermaid. When winter
draws near, I generally conjure up my spirits, and have my apparition
ready against long dark evenings. From November last to January I
lived solely upon murders; and have since that time, had a comfortable
subsistence from a plague and a famine. I made the Pope pay for my
Beef and Mutton last Lent, out of pure spite to the Romish Religion;
and at present my good friend the King of Sweden finds me in clean
linen, and the Mufti gets me credit at the Tavern.'

Literary men had their money troubles then as now--probably not more
so--as many a melancholy tale of modern Grub Street could tell.
Swift's society did some good. Take his Journal to Stella, Feb. 12 and
13, 1713, as an example: 'I gave an account of Sixty guineas I had
collected, and am to give them away to two Authors to-morrow, and lord
Treasurer has promised me a hundred pounds to reward some others.... I
found a letter on my table last night to tell me that poor little
Harrison ... was ill, and desired to see me at night.... I went in the
morning, and found him mighty ill, and got thirty guineas for him from
Lord Bolinbroke, and an order for a hundred pounds from the treasury
to be paid him to-morrow.... I was to see a poor poet, one Mr. Diaper,
in a nasty garret, very sick. I gave him twenty guineas from Lord
Bolinbroke, and disposed the other sixty to two other authors.' This
was practical benevolence, but its record only shows the sad necessity
there was for its exercise.

Other troubles they had, and perhaps not the least of them was the
fear of personal violence. They hit hard in those days, and people did
not always take their castigation meekly. Sometimes they took the law
into their own hands, and then woe be to the unfortunate author.
Samuel Johnson (author of _Julian_) in Charles the Second's reign was
not only publicly whipped, but was nearly murdered in his own house.
Tutchin, too, who wrote a poem on the death of James II., was waylaid,
and so frightfully beaten that he died from its effects. Defoe also
frequently mentions attempts to injure him. So Swift wrote to
Stella,[505] 'No, no, I'll walk late no more; I ought to venture it
less than other people, and so I was told.'

          [Footnote 505: _Journal_, June 30, 1711.]

In what condition was the press of that day? Let Pope's bitter pen

  Next plunged a feeble, but a desperate, pack,
  With each a sickly brother at his back;
  Sons of a day; just buoyant on the flood,
  Then numbered with the puppies in the mud.
  Ask ye their names? I could as soon disclose
  The names of these blind puppies as of those.
  And monumental brass this record bears,
  These are--ah--no--these were--the gazetteers.[506]

          [Footnote 506: _Dunciad._]

[Illustration: a Printing Press.]

When Anne succeeded to the throne on March 8, 1702, the following
newspapers were in existence: _The London Post_, _English Post_,
_Postman_, _Postboy_, _Flying Post_, _London Gazette_, _Post Angel_,
_New State of Europe_, and Dawks's and Dyer's _News Letter_ (the
former of which was printed in script letters, to look as much as
possible like writing). The whole of these were issued three times a
week; but three days after Anne's accession came out the first daily
paper in England. The _Daily Courant_ was born March 11, 1702, and
this little fledgling, the precursor of the mighty daily press,
measures but 14 in. by 8 in. It is printed only on one side of the
sheet: the reason given for which is, to say the least, peculiar,
reminding one of the lines:--

  My wound is great, because it is so small,
  Then were it greater, were it none at all.

'This Courant (as the Title shews) will be Publish'd Daily; being
design'd to give all the Material News as soon as every Post arrives;
and is confin'd to half the Compass, _to save the Publick at least
half the Impertinences of Ordinary News Papers_.' Probably the correct
reason was that, being a new venture, it could not obtain
advertisements. These, however, speedily came when it passed into the
hands of Samuel Buckley (printer of the _Spectator_), and, in May, it
was in a most flourishing state, the other side being entirely taken
up with them, and it continued to have its fair share during the whole
of the reign. There is nothing very striking about its news, but, as
it is such a wonderful infant, I have reproduced this first number in
its entirety[507] here--it will serve as a model to show the kind of
news contained in these newspapers. There now exist but two newspapers
which were in being in Queen Anne's reign, namely, the _London
Gazette_ (but that has been kept alive through its official nursing),
and--but one due to private enterprise--_Berrow's Worcester Journal_,
which was established in 1700.

          [Footnote 507: See Frontispiece.]

The other papers born in this reign, including the _Satirical_ and
_Essay_ papers, are _The Observator_, _Gazette de Londres_, _Monthly
Register_, _Letter Writer_, _Whitehall_, _Rehearsal_, _Diverting
Post_, _A Weekly Review of the Affairs of France_, by Daniel De Foe,
_Whipping Post_, _News Letter_, _General Remarks on Trade_, _Mercurius
Politicus_, _St. James's_, _Kensington_, _Evening Post_, _A Review of
the State of the British Nation_, _The Weekly Comedy_, _Generous
Advertiser_, _Humours of a Coffee House_, _The British Apollo_,
_Tatler_, _Athenian News_, _Examiner_, _Medley_, _Moderator_, _Evening
Courant_, _British Mercury_, _Protestant Postboy_, _Hermit_, _Useful
Intelligencer_, _Night Post_, _Spectator_, _Plain Dealer_, _Guardian_,
_The Reconciler_, _The Mercator_, _Englishman_, _Britain_, _The
Lover_, _The Patriot_, _Controller_, _Weekly Packet_, _Monitor_.

It would be a waste of time to follow the fortunes of all these
papers; suffice it to say, that the majority of them had but a brief
existence, and let us note only a few of the prominent ones. First of
all the _London Gazette_, of which Misson says 'it is the truest and
most Cautious of all the Gazettes that I know. It inserts no news but
what is Certain, and often waits for the Confirmation of it, before it
publishes it.' It was first published on Feb. 1, 1666, and still
continues to this day as the official newspaper. It was first printed
by Thomas Newcomb, of the Savoy, then by Edward Jones, who died in
1705. From Feb. 18 of that year to Feb. 26, 1708, it was printed by
his widow, M. Jones. At the latter date, it appears as printed by J.
Tonson, at Gray's Inn Gate, who, although he moved into the Strand,
continued to print it during the remainder of the reign. It was
somewhat smaller than the other papers, and its normal price was
1_d._, but, if of extra size, owing to addresses to the Queen, etc.,
it was 2_d._ It was published twice weekly, and was the only one of
the newspapers that kept up the old style of reckoning time. It did
not begin the new year till after March 25; thus, for the year 1702,
all the Gazettes would be 1701 till March 25, after which they would
be 1702 till that same date in 1703.

When Samuel Buckley took the _Daily Courant_ in hand, he at once
filled it with advertisements. He then lived at the _Dolphin_, in
Little Britain; afterwards at Amen Corner. Either he sold the
_Courant_, or gave up printing it, for on Sept. 25, 1714, it was
'Printed by S. Gray, sold by Ferd. Burleigh in Amen Corner.' Perhaps
he could not attend to two papers at once, for, on the copy of the
_London Gazette_ for Sept. 25/28, 1714, in the British Museum, is
written 'first Gazette by Mr. Buckley.' Dunton[508] says of him: 'He
was Originally a Bookseller, but follows Printing. He is an excellent
_Linguist_, understands the _Latin_, _French_, _Dutch_ and _Italian_
Tongues; and is Master of a great Deal of Wit. He prints the _Daily
Courant_ and _Monthly Register_ (which, I hear, he Translates out of
the Foreign Papers himself).' Its usual price was 1_d._, but there was
a special edition published. The news of every _Post Day's Courant_,
is Constantly Printed with the _News_ of the _Day before_, on a Sheet
of Writing _Paper_, a _Blank_ being left for the Conveniency of
sending it by the Post. And may be had for 2_d._'[509]

          [Footnote 508: _The Life and Errors of John Dunton_, Lond.

          [Footnote 509: _Daily Courant_, Sept. 21, 1705.]

[Illustration: 'London Gazettes Here!']

Dunton thought the _Postboy_ was the best for English and Spanish
news, but the _Postman_ was the best for everything. A French
Protestant, named Fonvive, wrote the latter, and in the early part of
Anne's reign the _Postboy_ was written by Thomas, afterwards by Boyer,
also a foreigner, who had been tutor to the young Duke of Gloucester.
Swift writes of him: 'One _Boyer_, a French dog, has abused _me_ in a
pamphlet, and I have got him up in a Messenger's hands. The secretary
promised me to _swinge_ him. I must make that rogue an example to

In the early days of the reign both these papers had manuscript
postscripts, or supplements, when any fresh news arrived that was not
in their last edition, they being published thrice weekly. 'This is to
give Notice, that the _Post Boy_, with a Written Postscript,
containing all the Domestick Occurrences, with the Translations of the
Foreign News that arrives after the Printing of the said _Post Boy_,
is to be had only of Mr. John Shank, at Nandoe's Coffee house, between
the two Temple Gates; and at Mr. Abel Roper's at the _Black Boy_, over
against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street.' 'The Author of this
Paper having several times declared in Print that he is no ways
directly nor indirectly concerned in the Written Postscripts to the
_Post Man_, nor any other News but what is printed therein; he thinks
he has reason to complain of several People, who write to him from the
Country about faults and mistakes contained in those Written
Postscripts, putting him thereby to unnecessary Charges. He desires
those Persons to forbear the same for the future, but if they are not
satisfied with their written News (seeing they are not Contented with
what is Printed), they may be furnished with written Postscripts at
_Tom's_ Coffee House in St. Martin's Lane, by a Person, who the Author
hopes, will give them entire satisfaction.'

Later on in the century they printed these postscripts, but they were
not safe even then. 'There being a Sham Postscript published last
night, with an Advertisement, intending to impose the same upon people
as a Postscript to the _Postman_, We think fit to desire again our
readers to buy no Postscripts to the _Postman_, but from the Hawkers
they know, as the only means to stop that Villanous practice; and when
there is any material New, we shall take care to publish a Postscript,
provided it be a Post Day, and not too Late.' The _Post Boy_ had two
rough woodcuts, one on each side of the title: one of a Post boy on
horseback, blowing his horn; the other a Fame, blowing a trumpet, on
the banner of which is inscribed _Viresque acquirit eundo_; whilst the
_Postman_ has two woodcuts occupying the same position: one of a ship
in full sail; the other of a post boy on horseback, blowing his horn.
They are the same size as the _Daily Courant_.

'Dawks's _News Letter_, For Thirty Shillings a Year, paying a Quarter
before Hand to J. Dawks at the West End of Thames Street by Wardrobe
Stairs, near Puddle Dock,' was, as before said, printed in imitation
of writing. It generally contained a little more domestic news than
the other papers, and may be said to be the first evening paper. 'This
News Letter continues to be published every Tuesday, Thursday, and
Saturday, in the Evening, and contains what is most Remarkable, in any
(or all) of the other News Papers; to which is added the Occurrences
of the Day, and the Heads of the Foreign Mails, which come in many
times after the publication of the Printed Papers; and is so
contrived, that a Blank Space is left for any Gentleman, or others, to
write their private Business to their Friends in the Country, so that
they may have therewith the Chiefest News stirring.' Ichabod Dawks
started his _News Letter_ on Aug. 4, 1696. Steele mentions it more
than once in the _Tatler_, notably No. 178, where he says: 'But Mr.
Dawkes concluded his paper with a courteous sentence, which was very
well taken, and applauded by the whole company. "We wish," says he,
"all our Customers a merry Whitsuntide, and many of them." Honest
Ichabod is as extraordinary a man as any of our fraternity, and as

The proprietor of the other news-letter, Dyer, got into trouble more
than once. In 1694 he was summoned before the Parliament, and
reprimanded by the Speaker 'for his great presumption' in printing the
proceedings of the House. And once again, in 1702, he was ordered to
attend the House to answer for his presuming to misrepresent the
proceedings. He did not attend, and the attorney-general was
instructed 'to find out and prosecute him.'

In No. 18 of the _Tatler_, the joint production of Steele and Addison,
is an excellent _résumé_ of the foregoing newspapers. 'There is
another sort of gentlemen whom I am much more concerned for, and that
is the ingenious fraternity of which I have the honour to be an
unworthy member; I mean the News Writers of Great Britain, whether
Post Men or Post Boys, or by what other name or title soever
dignified, or distinguished. The case of these gentlemen is, I think
more hard than that of the Soldiers, considering they have taken more
towns, and fought more battles. They have been upon parties and
skirmishes, when our armies have lain still; and given the general
assault to many a place, when the besiegers were quiet in their
trenches. They have made us masters of several strong towns many weeks
before our generals could do it; and completed victories, when our
greatest captains have been glad to come off with a drawn battle.
Where Prince Eugene has slain his thousands, _Boyer_ has slain his ten
thousands. This gentleman can indeed be never enough commended for his
courage and intrepidity during the whole war: he has laid about him
with an inexpressible fury; and, like the offended Marius of ancient
Rome, made such havoc among his countrymen, as must be the work of two
or three ages to repair. It must be confessed, the redoubted _Mr.
Buckley_ has shed as much blood as the former; but I cannot forbear
saying (and I hope it will not look like envy) that we regard our
brother _Buckley_ as a kind of _Drawcansir_,[510] who spares neither
friend nor foe; but generally kills as many of his own side as the
enemies. It is impossible for this ingenious sort of men to subsist
after a peace; everyone remembers the shifts they were driven to in
the reign of King Charles the Second, when they could not furnish out
a single paper of News, without lighting up a comet in Germany, or a
fire in Moscow. There scarce appeared a letter without a paragraph on
an earthquake. Prodigies were grown so familiar, that they had lost
their name, as a great Poet of that age has it. I remember Mr. _Dyer_,
who is justly looked upon by all Fox hunters in the nation as the
greatest statesman our country has produced, was particularly famous
for dealing in whales; insomuch, that in five months' time (for I had
the Curiosity to examine his letters on that occasion) he brought
three into the mouth of the River Thames, besides two porpoises and a
Sturgeon. The judicious and wary Mr. _Ichabod Dawks_ hath all along
been the rival of this great writer, and got himself a reputation from
plagues and famines; by which, in those days, he destroyed as great
multitudes, as he has lately done by the sword. In every dearth of
news, Grand Cairo was sure to be unpeopled.'

          [Footnote 510: The name of a principal character in the Duke
          of Buckingham's comedy of _The Rehearsal_.]

[Illustration: A News Man.]

The _Evening Post_ came out in Aug. 1706, and was 'Published by John
Morphew near Stationers' Hall.' It seems to have been then a failure,
but it was started again in 1709. The _Evening Courant_, which started
July 1711, seems also to have had a very brief existence, as did also
the _Night Post_, which was born the same year, but this latter seems
to have had a longer life than its sister the _Courant_.

The domestic news in them was nearly _nil_--principally of the sailing
of ships or bringing in of prizes. Foreign news was taken bodily from
the foreign papers, as we see in the _Daily Courant_, in the Appendix;
and the home news was left to take care of itself. The _Gazette_
generally had the Queen's Speech to Parliament, and sometimes the
other newspapers would also have it, if on very special occasions, say
on June 6, 1712, when the Queen communicated to Parliament the terms
on which a peace might be made; yet the only reference the _Flying
Post_ of June 5/7 has on the subject is, 'Yesterday Her Majesty went
to the House of Peers, and made a long speech to both Houses.'

In fact, in all the twelve years of this reign, I only remember
meeting with one long account of any piece of home news, and I cannot
help thinking that was manufactured, as it is decidedly of the
catchpenny and chapbook order. It was 'An Account of the Apprehending
and taking of _Thomas Wallis_, alias _Whipping Tom_,' a wicked villain
who got hold of unprotected females, when crossing the unfrequented
fields near Hackney, and administered a fearful thrashing to them,
'with a great Rodd of Birch, that the Blood ran down their tender
Bodies in a sad and dreadful manner.' His only excuse was his 'being
resolved to be Revenged on all the Women he could come at after that
manner, for the sake of one Perjur'd Female, who had been Barbarously
False to him.' He 'believed that he had Whip'd from the 10th of
_October_ last to the 1st of _December_, about Three Score and Ten,
including Widdows, Wives and Maids, and did intend, if he had not been
taken, to have made them up to a Hundred betwixt this and _Christmas_,
at which time he then intended to keep Hollyday till after Twelfday,
and then began his Whipping Work.' And once, too, the _Postboy_ (Jan.
27/29, 1713) broke out in a sarcastically humorous vein: 'On Monday
last that Facetious and Merry Gentleman in the Pulpit, Mr. Daniel
Burgess, departed this Life to the great Mortification of his Female

'Esq: Thomas Burnet (S-n of that vertuous, orthodox, pious, forgiving,
impartial, sincere, never wav-ri-g (always standing to his T-x-t)
modest, conscientious Di--ne, and by the Gr-- of G--d in the fere of
the L--d) was on Saturday last taken up, and carried to the Lord
Viscount Bolinbroke's Office, for being the Author of that seditious
and scandalous Pamphlet, call'd _A certain Information of a certain
Discourse_, &c. (of which Libel Mr. Baker the Publisher lately swore
he was the Author) and gave sureties to appear the last Day of this
Term; his Bail were Guy Neville and Geo Trenchard Esqs: _What's bred
in the B-ne will never be out of the Fl-sh_.'

Talk about the amenities of the press! Here are one or two samples:--

     _Titus_ detected the _Tory Popish_ Plot, _and_ Abel's [511]
     inveterating a _Whiggish One_.

          [Footnote 511: Abel Roper, who then conducted the _Post

     _Titus was a Foul Mouth Slanderer_,--_so is_ Abel.

     _Titus_ openly traduced the next Heir to this Crown--So has

     _Titus_ deserv'd to be Hang'd--So does _Abel_.

     _Titus_ was low in Stature, but of Outrageous Principles--So is

     _Titus_ was protected in his Impudence--So is _Abel_.

     But the Time's coming to change, _Titus_ was call'd to Account
     for it--so _will_ Abel.

     _Titus_ was flogg'd and Pilloried--So will _Abel_.

     _Titus_ was despised by both Parties--So will _Abel_.

     _Titus_ died unpittied;--So will _Abel_.

     In fine,--_Titus was both Knave and Dunce_;--_So is_ Abel.[512]

          [Footnote 512: _Protestant Post Boy_, Jan. 15/17, 1712.]

One would imagine that after this flagellation Roper would not be the
first to assault a brother journalist, but he fell foul of Ridpath,
who conducted the _Flying Post_, and this is how he did it:
'Yesterday, one George Ridpath, a Cameronian, who formerly (as it is
credibly reported) was banished Scotland, for putting on Lawn Sleves,
and administering ---- to a Dog, in derision of the Church and
Bishops, was committed to Newgate for several scandalous Reflections
writ by him in a Paper formerly publish'd call'd the _Observator_; and
for being the Author of several notorious Falshoods and scandalous
Reflections on the Queen and Government, in a paper call'd _The Flying

          [Footnote 513: _Post Boy_, Sept. 6/9, 1712.]

Ridpath,[514] of whom Dunton says 'His _Humility_ and His _Honesty_
have establish'd his Reputation,' hit back by means of an anonymous
correspondent in the _Flying Post_:--

          [Footnote 514: Ridpath invented a manifold writer, which
          would take six or more copies at once.]

                                      'Lynn Regis in Norfolk, Sept 22.


     'Having observ'd the false Account which that Scandalous Wretch
     Abel Roper gave some time ago in his _Post Boy_, about the
     Reception of Mr. Walpole here; This is to inform you 'tis a
     notorious Lye; for that worthy Gentleman had a very honourable
     Reception, answerable to the just Esteem which this Corporation
     has for him.'

A notice of one more sparring match must close this subject--the same
two papers. Says friend Abel[515]: 'In the _Flying Post_ of last
Tuesday, we have a very unusual Specimen of the Author's Modesty, in
Owning and Recanting the Lye he had so impudently fix'd on Dr. S----l
in his former Paper. But 'tis very remarkable, That by endeavouring to
excuse this Lye, he unluckily falls into his _Habitual Sin_ again, no
less than _three_ times in this single Paragraph.... So little Credit
is to be given to this Infamous Weekly Libel, fill'd always with Lies
of the Author's own Invention, or such as are taken up at second-hand,
and vouch'd by him without the least Regard to Truth, Common Sense, or
Common Honesty.'

          [Footnote 515: _Post Boy_, Mar. 30/April 1, 1714.]

After this, who can wonder if some editors had rather a rough time of
it, especially Roper. He gives us[516] one glimpse of his condition:
'Last night _William Thompson_ Esq., came to the Proprietor of this
Paper, and told him, That if he did not insert the following Paragraph
in his Paper of this Day, _God Damn him, he would cut his Throat, and
he had a Penknife in his Pocket for that purpose_; for which the
Proprietor of this Paper designs to prosecute him according to Law,
but thought fit to publish this, that the Nation may be Judges,
whether a Person of such a Character is proper to be employ'd in his
Station in the Law? or, Whether our Constitution ought to be entrusted
in such Hands as will not scruple to commit Murder whenever it may
serve their Purpose.'

          [Footnote 516: _Postboy_, Sept. 12/15, 1713.]

In 1704 the House of Commons took umbrage at some remarks which John
Tutchin, the conductor of the _Observator_, had made on some
mismanagement of public affairs (and they were undoubted libels), and
cited him, the printer, and publisher before their Bar, to be brought
in custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms. Tutchin gave bail for his
appearance: and his trial came on on Nov. 4, 1704.[517] He got off
somehow, and was never tried again. Earlier in life he had been tried
at the Bloody Assizes, where he had the brutal Jeffreys for his judge,
and he was sentenced 'to be imprisoned for Seven Years; that once
every year he should be whipt through all the Market Towns in
Dorsetshire; that he should pay a fine of one hundred marks to the
King, and find security for his good behaviour during life.... Upon
passing the Sentence, the Clerk of the Arraigns stood up, and said, My
lord, there are a great many market towns in this County; the sentence
reaches to a whipping about once a fortnight, and he is a very young
man. Aye, says Jeffreys, he is a young man but an old rougue; and all
the interest in England shall not reverse the sentence I have past
upon him.' So poor Tutchin's heart died within him, and he petitioned
the King that he 'will be mercifully pleased to grant him the favour
of being hanged with those of his fellow prisoners, that are condemned
to die.' But to no avail.

          [Footnote 517: Howell's _State Trials_, ed. 1812, v. 14.]

His friends tried to buy him a pardon, but Jeffreys frustrated all
their efforts. At length Tutchin fell ill of the smallpox, and nearly
died of it, being only tended by his fellow-prisoners. During his
illness his mother bought his pardon of Jeffreys[518]; then she fell
sick of the smallpox, and died.

          [Footnote 518: A scandalous practice then in vogue. 'Mr.
          Tutchin hereupon endeavoured to get a pardon from the people
          who had grants of lives, many of them 500, some 1000, more
          or less as they had interest with the King.' Again: 'For it
          was usual at that time for one Courtier to get a pardon of
          the King for half a Score, and then by the assistance of
          Jeffreys to augment the sum to fourscore or a hundred.' In
          these 'Bloody Assizes' 300 persons were condemned to death,
          and nearly 1,000 sold as slaves to the West Indian

Of Tutchin's trial in 1704 we have the following contemporary evidence
from Luttrell: '18 May. Mr. Tutchin, author of the Observator, against
whom a proclamation was out at the desire of the House of Commons, has
given 1000_l._ bail to answer what shall be objected against him'; and
on May 29 he gave fresh bail. His trial began, as we know, on Nov. 4,
and he was found guilty, but sentence was deferred. On the 14th we
hear 'Yesterday, Mr. Tutchin, found guilty of publishing the
Observator, appeared at the Queen's bench Court, when his council
inform'd the Court of an error in the information, and the Attorney
General desiring time to consider of it, Tutchin is to attend again on
Saturday.' The point was the false dating of the writ; and he attended
on the 20th and 23rd, when it was argued; and on Nov. 28 judgment was
given in Tutchin's favour, 'the Attorney General at liberty to try him
again,' which he never did.

This trial is interesting, as it furnishes us with evidence as to the
pay of an editor, or rather author (for Tutchin wrote the whole
paper), of that time. John How was the proprietor of the paper, which
appeared first on April 1, 1702. In his evidence is the following:--

     _How._ About the latter end of March, 1702, I treated with Mr.
     Tutchin about writing an Observator, to be published weekly: the
     first of which was published in April 1702. And all that have
     been printed since, I had from him to this year.

     _Att. Gen._ You looked on these papers here: were those printed
     by the direction of Mr. Tutchin?

     _How._ To the best of my knowledge, they were. They were always
     brought from him to me.

     _Att. Gen._ Was there any agreement made between you about the
     writing of it?

     _How._ Yes, it was agreed at first to write once a week; and I
     was to give him half a guinea for it.[519] ...

          [Footnote 519: Howell's _State Papers_, ed. 1812, pp.

     _Sir T. Powis._ Did you pay him for the Preface?

     _How._ Yes, and for the Index.[520] ...

          [Footnote 520: _Ibid._ p. 1108.]

     _L. C. Justice._ What did you give him for that Preface and

     _How._ I think it was ten shillings.

At the same time there were other libels afloat. '30 May 1704.
Yesterday came out a proclamation by her Majestie for discovering and
apprehending the author, printer, and publisher of a scandalous libel,
intituled, Legions Humble Addresse to the Lords; offering the reward
of £100 for the author thereof, and fifty pounds for the printer

          [Footnote 521: _Luttrell._]

Was not Steele turned out of Parliament for libel? 'Resolved that
Richard Steele, Esq{re}, for his offence in writing and publishing the
said scandalous and seditious libels, be expelled the House;'[522] and
the resolution was adopted by 245 votes against 152.

          [Footnote 522: _Journals of the House of Commons_, vol.
          xvii. p. 514.]

In 1709 Luttrell tells us: '15 Oct. The Authors of the Review and
Female Tatler were presented by the grand jury as scandalous and a
publick nuisance, and were ordered to be prosecuted. 1 Nov. This day
the printer and publisher of the New Atlantis were examined touching
the author Mrs. Manley; they were discharged, but she remains in
custody. 5 Nov. One Ball is taken up for writing scandalous papers on
persons of quality; but Mrs. Manley, the author of the New Atlantis,
is admitted to Bayl.'

Few would be inclined to pity the profligate Mrs. Manley for any
punishment she might have received for her scandalous libels in both
the _Female Tatler_ and the _New Atlantis_; but she was not punished.
On the contrary, the Ministry gave her employment for her pen.

The _Tatler_ commenced the series of Essay papers. Steele is almost
apologetic, in its first number, for having to make any charge. He
elaborately calls attention to the expenses incurred in getting up
such a paper, and adds 'these considerations will I hope make all
persons willing to comply with my humble request (when my _gratis_
stock is exhausted) of a penny a piece.' And an advertisement at the
end of No. 4 says, 'Upon the humble petition of Running Stationers &c.
this Paper may be had of them, for the future, at the price of one
penny.' But there was a more expensive edition, whole-sheet _Tatlers_,
having a double quantity of paper, with one half-sheet blank 'to write
business on, and for the convenience of the post,' and they, of
course, were more expensive. The _Tatler_, _Spectator_, and _Guardian_
were all of Steele's creation; they were born, and died, at his
discretion; and the _Spectator_, at least, was always laid on the
Royal breakfast table. Their imitators were numerous, but short-lived;
in fact, the imposition of a halfpenny stamp massacred the innocents
of the press in a wholesale manner.

This tax was evidently in contemplation some time before it became
law. Swift writes to Stella, Jan. 31, 1711: 'They are here intending
to tax all little printed penny papers a halfpenny every half sheet,
which will utterly ruin Grub Street, and I am endeavouring to prevent
it.' It slept for a little, but it was smuggled at last into the 10th
Anne,[523] cap. 19, and fairly hidden among duties on soap, paper,
silk, linens, hackney chairs, cards, marriage licences, etc. It came
into operation on Aug. 1, 1712, and Swift makes merry over the effect
it will have on the struggling periodical literature. '19 July 1712.
Grub Street has but ten days to live; then an act of parliament takes
place that ruins it, by taxing every half sheet at a halfpenny.' '17
Aug. 1712. Do you know that Grub Street is dead and gone last week? No
more ghosts or murders now for love or money. I plied it pretty close
the last fortnight, and published at least seven penny papers of my
own, besides some of other people's: but now every single half sheet
pays a halfpenny to the Queen. The Observator is fallen; the Medleys
are jumbled together with the Flying Post; the Examiner is deadly
sick; the Spectator keeps up, and doubles its price; I know not how
long it will hold. Have you seen the red stamp the papers are marked
with? Methinks the stamping is worth a halfpenny.'

          [Footnote 523: The part of this Act specially bearing upon
          newspapers was a stamp duty for thirty-two years from August
          1, 1712: 'And be it Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that
          there shall be Raised, Levied, Collected and Paid, to and
          for the Use of Her Majesty, her Heirs and Successors, for
          and upon all Books or Papers commonly called Pamphlets, and
          for and upon all News Papers, or Papers containing Publick
          News, Intelligence or Occurrences, which shall, at any time
          or times within or during the Term last mentioned, be
          printed in Great Britain to be Dispersed and made Publick,
          and for and upon such Advertisements as are herein after
          mentioned the respective Duties following; That is to say.

          'For every such Pamphlet or Paper contained in Half a Sheet
          or any lesser Piece of Paper, so Printed, the sum of One
          half penny.

          'For every such Pamphlet or Paper (being larger than Half a
          Sheet, not exceeding one Whole Sheet) so printed, a Duty
          after the Rate of One Penny Sterling for every Printed Copy

          'And for every such Pamphlet or Paper, being larger than One
          Whole Sheet, and not exceeding Six Sheets in Octavo, or in a
          Lesser Page, or not exceeding Twelve Sheets in Quarto, or
          Twenty Sheets in Folio, so Printed, a Duty after the Rate of
          Two Shillings Sterling for every Sheet of any kind of Paper
          which shall be contained in One Printed Copy thereof.

          'And for every Advertisement to be Contained in the _London
          Gazette_ or any other printed Paper, such Paper being
          Dispersed or made publick Weekly, or oftner, the Sum of
          Twelve Pence Sterling.' Acts of Parliament were exempt.]

[Illustration: Newspaper Stamp.]

The _Spectator_ does not chuckle over the fall of its humbler
brethren. Addison says[524]: 'This is the Day on which many eminent
Authors will probably Publish their Last Words. I am afraid that few
of our Weekly Historians, who are Men that above others delight in
War, will be able to subsist under the Weight of a Stamp, and an
approaching Peace. A Sheet of Blank Paper that must have this new
Imprimatur clapt upon it, before it is qualified to Communicate any
thing to the Publick, will make its Way in the World but very heavily.
In short, the Necessity of carrying a Stamp, and the Improbability of
Notifying a Bloody Battel, will, I am afraid, both concur to the
sinking of those thin Folios, which have every other Day retailed to
us the History of _Europe_ for several Years last past. A Facetious
Friend of mine who loves a Punn, calls this present Mortality among
Authors, _The Fall of the Leaf_.'

          [Footnote 524: No. 445, July 31, 1712.]

All the papers, except the _Spectator_, rose their price just the
value of the stamps; but that 'Society Journal' charged 1_d._ extra--a
fact which caused no little grumbling--and which made Addison put
forth all his powers of special pleading to vindicate (see No. 488).

The imposition of 1_s._ duty on advertisements had no deterrent effect
upon them; this 'backbone of the paper' continued as before. There is
nothing that I have found to guide us as to the prices of
advertisements, except in one case--and I hardly think that can be
called a representative one. It is that of a short-lived paper called
To be published every _Tuesday_, and _Friday_, and 4000 of them always
carefully Distributed and Given away _Gratis_ each Day, in and about
the City's of _London_ and _Westminster_.' It enjoyed its brief
existence in 1707. The terms were not excessive under the
circumstances; 'Advertisements ... will be taken by the Men who carry
this PAPER about; Who will take them in very Carefully and Cheap
_viz._ after the Rate of 3_d._ for every Fifty letters.'

Advertisements, with the exception of those of quack doctors and their
medicines, were very much as now. Booksellers, public amusements,
things lost, things for sale, etc., give those old sheets a strange
similarity to those we are so familiar with.

Even the poor almanacs were taxed. The _Protestant Post Boy_, Nov.
15/17, 1711, says, 'Whereas, by an Act made last Sessions of
Parliament, a Duty was laid on all Almanacks, and a Penalty of Ten
Pounds is for any one that shall Sell any Almanacks without being
first Stampt as the Law directs; and whereas the said Tax &c. has made
a great Attraction in the Price, this is to give Notice to all Retale
Buyers, or others that the Prices are as follows.

'An Almanack Bound in Red Leather, with Paper to Write on of any Sort.

'An Almanack of any Sort Sticht. Six Pence.

'Any Sheet Almanack Four Pence.'

It is hardly worth while to give an exhaustive list of the almanacs
then in vogue. One advertisement[525] will be ample for the purpose:
'On Thursday next (15 Nov.) will be published the following Almanacks
for the year 1706. viz. Andrews, Chapman, Coley, Dove, Gadbury, Ladies
Diary, Moor, Partridge, Pond, Poor Robin, Salmon, Saunders, Tanner,
Wing, Colepepper, Dade, Fly, Fowl, Perkins, Rose, Swallow, Trigge,
Turner, White, Wood-house.'

          [Footnote 525: _Daily Courant_, Nov. 10, 1705.]

Out of which, that by Francis Moore, physician, the 'Vox Stellarum,'
is still published. Doubts have been thrown on the reality of this
gentleman, but it is certain that he did live, and Lysons speaks of
him as having lived in Calcotts Alley, High Street (then called Back
Lane), Lambeth, where he practised the combined professions of
astrologer, physician, and schoolmaster. He also lived in Southwark
and in Westminster. There is an engraving of him extant, evidently
done in Queen Anne's reign, by Drapentier, who also engraved the
portrait of Dr. Burgess. Moore is represented as a fat-faced man in a
full-bottomed wig. The legend is 'Francis Moore, born in Bridgenorth,
in the County of Salop, the 29th of January 1656/7.' His almanac was
first published in 1698.

The _Ladies' Diary_, which commenced in 1704, was only suspended in
1841, when it was incorporated in the _Gentleman's Diary_.

'Poor Robin, an ALMANACK of the Old and New Fashion; or an EPHEMERIS
of the best and newest Edition; wherein the Reader may find (that is
to say if he reads over the Almanack) many most excellent remarkable
things worthy his and others choicest Observation. Containing a
Two-fold Calendar, _viz._, The Old, Honest, Julian, or English
Account, and the Round head's, Whimzey heads, Maggot heads,
Paper-scull'd, Slender-witted, Muggletonian, or Fanatick Account, with
their several Saints Days, and Observations upon every Month. Being
the BISSEXTILE or Leap Year. _Written by_ POOR ROBIN _Knight of the
Burnt Island, a Well-wisher to the Mathematicks_.'


  Reader, this is the two and Fortieth Year,
  Since first our Book did to the World appear:
  And we do think 'tis stored with more knacks
  Than may be found in other Almanacks.
  Laugh if you will, but yet this always mind,
  If you your Eyes laugh out, you will be blind.

  _London_: Printed by _W. Bowyer_ for the Company of Stationers, 1704.

Such is a title-page of this almanac, which, when first started, is
thought to have been written by Herrick. It only ceased its
publication in 1828. As this was a genuinely humorous book, in a time
when pure fun was hardly understood, a very brief description may be
permitted. It had a comic chronology, such as:--

                                                     Years since
  Geese without or Hose or Shoes went bare.              5603
  Maids did Plackets in their Coats first wear.          4805
  Plumbs were first put into Christmas Pies.             1472
  The Hangman did the riding Knot devise.                3999
  Coffee came first to be us'd in _London_.              0049
  By Rebellion many a Man was undone.                    0050
  Women did at _Billingsgate_ first scold.               0973
  Summer was hot Weather, Winter cold.                   5782 &c. &c.

And every month had its appropriate poem, thus:--

  This is the merry Month of May,
  When as the Fields are fresh and gay;
  And in each Place where 'ere you go
  Are people walking to and fro.
  On every Place you cast your Eye,
  Hundreds of people you may Spy,
  The Fields bestrewed all about,
  Some pacing home, some passing out;
  Some woo their Lovers in the Shadows,
  Some stragling to and fro the Meadows.
  Some of this Chat, some of that Talk,
  Some Coacht, some horst, some afoot Walk.
  Some by _Thames_ Bank their Pleasure taking,
  Some Silabubs 'mong Milkmaids making;
  With Musick some on Waters rowing;
  Some to the adjoining Towns are going.
  To _Hogsdon_, _Islington_, _Tottenham Court_,
  For Cakes and Cream is great Resort, &c.

Also each month has its appropriate prose.

'Observations on January. Now a good Fire, and a Glass of brisk Canary
is as Comfortable as the thing called Matrimony. Cold Weather makes
hungry Stomachs, so that now a piece of powder'd Beef lin'd with
Brews,[526] vociferating Veal, and a Neat's Tongue, that never told a
Lye, is excellent good food; but to feed on hope, is but a poor Dish
of Meat to dine and sup with after a two Days Fast. If thou art minded
to go a Wooing this Cold Weather, do it with Discretion, for he that
doth make a Goddess of a Puppet, merits no Recompense but mere

          [Footnote 526: Broth.]

Besides these, there was plenty of proverbial philosophy, interspersed
with divers merry tales, and eccentric receipts, the whole going to
form a compilation perfectly unique for its time.

[Illustration: Partridge and Bickerstaff.]

Perhaps the chief among the serious astrological, and predicting,
almanacs was '_Merlinus Liberatus_, by JOHN PARTRIDGE, Student in
Physick and Astrology, at the _Blue Ball_ in _Salisbury Street_, in
the _Strand, London_.' Not, perhaps, that he would have lived in
story, much more than his fellows, had it not been for the fun that
Swift, Steele, and Addison made of him. Swift set the ball rolling, in
his sham 'Predictions for the year 1708, by Isaac Bickerstaff' (his
pseudonym), in which he says: 'My first prediction is but a trifle,
and yet I will mention it to show how ignorant those sottish
pretenders to astronomy are in their own concerns. It relates to
Partridge the Almanack maker. I have consulted the star of his
nativity by my own rules, and find he will infallibly die on the 29th
of March next, about eleven at night, of a raging fever; therefore, I
advise him to consider of it, and settle his affairs in time.' This
was a happy thought, born of the fact that Partridge had prophesied
the downfall and death of Louis XIV. Early in April 1708 Swift
published 'The accomplishment of the first part of Mr. Bickerstaff's
predictions, being an account of the death of Mr. Partridge, the
Almanac maker, on the 29th of March, 1708, in a letter to a person of

From that moment Partridge was dead. It was no use his publicly
stating that he was alive. The wits had decreed his fate, and dead he
was. His elegy and epitaph were printed, in the grisly manner common
to those productions. They are too long for reproduction, but are too
good not to quote from.

  WELL, 'tis as _Bickerstaff_ has guest,
  Tho' we all took it for a Jest;
  _Patrige_ is Dead, nay more, he dy'd
  E'er he could prove the good Squire ly'd.
  Strange, an Astrologer should Die,
  Without one Wonder in the Sky;
  Not one of all his _Crony_ Stars,
  To pay their Duty at his Hearse!
  No Meteor, no Eclipse appear'd!
  No Comet with a flaming Beard!
  The Sun has rose, and gone to Bed,
  Just as if _Patrige_ were not Dead;
  Not hid himself behind the Moon,
  To make a dreadful Night at Noon:
  He at fit Periods walks through _Aries_,
  Howe'er our Earthly Motion varies,
  And twice a Year he'll cut th' _Æquator_,
  As if there had been no such Matter.
      Some Wits have wondered what Analogy
  There is 'twixt _Cobling_ and _Astrology_;
  How _Patrige_ made his _Opticks_ rise
  From a _Shoe Sole_ to reach the Skies;
  Besides, that slow pac'd Sign _Bootes_
  As 'tis miscall'd, we know not who 'tis;
  But _Patrige_ ended all Disputes,
  He knew his Trade, and call'd it _Boots_.
  The _Horned Moon_ which heretofore
  Upon their Shoes the _Romans_ wore,
  Whose wideness kept their Toes from Corns
  And whence we claim our _Shoeing Horns_,
  Shews how the Art of _Cobling_ bears
  A near Resemblance to the Spheres, &c.


  HERE Five Foot deep lyes on his Back
  A _Cobler_, _Starmonger_, and _Quack_,
  Who to the Stars in pure Good will,
  Does to his best look upward still.
  Weep all you Customers that use
  His _Pills_, his _Almanacks_, or _Shoes_.
  And you that did your Fortunes seek,
  Step to this Grave but once a Week.
  This Earth which bears his Body's Print,
  You'll find has so much Virtue in't,
  That I durst Pawn my Ears, 'twill tell
  What 'eer concerns you full as well,
  In _Physick_, _Stolen Goods_, or _Love_,
  As he himself could, when above.[527]

          [Footnote 527: _Harl. MSS._ 5931-85.]

Congreve, or Rowe, took up cudgels for the poor man, and wrote and
published 'Squire Bickerstaff detected, or the astrological impostor
convicted, by JOHN PARTRIDGE, student in Physick, and Astrology.' What
was the use? Not only were the above squibs being sold about the
streets for a halfpenny, but Swift had to annihilate his opponents by
his 'Vindication of Isaac Bickerstaff Esq. against what is objected to
him by Mr. _Partridge_, in his Almanack for the present year, 1709.'

Steele, even in the very first _Tatler_, could not forbear poking fun
at Partridge. 'I have, in another place, and in a paper by itself,
sufficiently convinced this man that he is dead, and, if he has any
shame, I do not doubt but that by this time he owns it to all his
acquaintance; for though the legs and arms and whole body of that man
may still appear, and perform their animal functions; yet since, as I
have elsewhere observed, his art is gone, the man is gone.' And so the
banter was kept up, at intervals, all through the _Tatler_.

As an almanac writer he, in fact, did die in 1709, for that was the
last he really published--although an almanac is still sold bearing
the same title. He really, and corporeally, died in 1715, and was
buried in Mortlake Churchyard, where, on a flat black marble stone,
was the following inscription:--

  'Johannes Partridge Astrologus,
  et Medicinæ Doctor.
  Natus est apud East Sheen,
  in Comitatu Surrey,
  18 Januarii, 1641,
  et mortuus est Londini 24 Junii, 1715.
  Medicinam fecit duobus regibus, unæque Reginæ;
  Carolo scilicet secundo, Willielmo Tertio,
  Reginæque Mariæ.
  Creatus est Medicinæ Doctor
  Luguduni Batavorum.'

The almanac stamps seem to have prompted crime and forgery, owing to
their price; for the _London Gazette_, Feb. 7/10, 1713 has, 'Whereas
divers Almanacks, or Papers serving the purpose of an Almanack, with
false Stamps, have been lately Printed and Sold in several Parts of
England, contrary to a late Act of Parliament, and prejudicial to Her
Majesty's Revenue; and others, tho' with the true Stamps, have been
Printed and Sold Contrary to the Right of the Company of Stationers,
for which Divers Persons are now under Prosecution, and all others
will be Prosecuted when discover'd: This notice is given to prevent
all Persons incurring the like Trouble and Penalties.'

It seems strange, and somewhat in advance of the time, to hear of an
amateur magazine being started--but, at all events, such a thing was
proposed. 'Any Gentleman or Lady that is desirous of having any short
Poem, Epigram, Satyr &c. (published?) if they please to communicate
the Subjects to the Authors of the Diverting Muse, or the Universal
Medley, now in the Press and will be continued Monthly; or, if they
have any Song or other Poem of their own that is New and Entertaining,
if they please to direct them for Mr. George Daggastaff, to be left at
Mr. Hogarth's Coffee House in St. John's Gateway near Clerkenwell, the
former shall be done Gratis, and inserted in the Miscellany
abovemention'd, as also the latter, both paying the Postage or
Messenger.'[528] This liberal offer does not seem to have met with the
anticipated response, for I have looked in vain, in the Catalogues of
the British Museum and elsewhere, and can find no mention of the
'Diverting Muse.'

          [Footnote 528: _Daily Courant_, June 23, 1707.]



     List of diseases -- Quackery -- Bleeding, etc. -- Physicians --
     Surgeons -- Apothecaries -- Dissension between the physicians and
     apothecaries -- The dispensary -- Pharmacopœias -- Some
     nostrums -- Prescriptions -- Cupping -- Treatment of lunatics --
     Physicians' carriages -- Dr. Radcliffe -- Sir Samuel Garth -- Sir
     Hans Sloane -- Dr. Mead -- His duel with Woodward -- Study of
     Anatomy -- Surgical instruments -- Oculists -- Sir William Read
     -- Roger Grant -- The Queen touching for the evil -- Description
     of the ceremony -- Quacks' remedies -- Quack harangues.

People got ill then as now, and, judging by the following list, there
were just about as many diseases, only scientific names had not taken
the place of the old homely nomenclature. This is taken from a list of
deaths from all causes: 'Age. Ague and Fever, Appoplex and Suddenly,
Bleach, Blasted, Bloody Flux, Scouring and Flux. Burns and Scalds.
Bleeding, Calenture, Cancer, Gangrene and Fistula, Wolf, Canker,
Soremouth and Thrush, Colick and Wind, Cough and Cold, Consumption and
Cough, Convulsion, Cramp, Dropsie and Tympany, Excessive drinking,
Falling Sickness, Flox and Small Pox, French pox, Gout, Grief, Head
Ach, Jaundice, Jaw-faln, Impostume, Itch, King's Evil, Lethargy,
Leprosie, Liver-grown, Spleen and Rickets, Lunatick, Meagrom,
Measles, Mother, Palsie, Plague, Plague in the Guts, Pleurisie,
Purples and Spotted Fever, Quinsie and Sore Throat, Rising of the
Lights, Rupture, Scal'd head, Scurvy, Sores and Ulcers, Spleen,
Shingles, Stitch, Stone and Strangury, Sciatica, Stopping of the
Stomach, Surfet. Swine Pox. Teeth and Worms, Tissick, Vomiting, Wen.'

Of these, the most deaths resulted from consumption and cough, next
ague and fever, then flox and smallpox. The infant mortality was
terrible--the great cause of death being put down as teeth and worms.
Consumption even now baffles the skill of our physicians. Quinine was
then used for ague and fever, not as the crystal alkaloid, but in the
rough bark, which was sold as 'Jesuits Bark,' at prices ranging from
4_s._ to 10_s._ per lb. Smallpox, inoculation or vaccination being
unknown, was a fearful scourge, and spared no one--helped, as it was,
by the all but utter ignorance of sanitary science, to the value of
which we, in this generation, are only awaking.

Quackery was rampant, probably because people did not have much belief
in the healing powers of the regular practitioners. Herbs and simples
were much in use; and not only were there fearful remedies concocted
by fair hands in the still-room, but naturally every old woman had
faith in the traditional medicaments handed down to her by her
forefathers. Also the empiricism of the alchemists still lingered--see
the following advertisement: 'Whereas the Viper hath been a Medicine
approv'd by the Physicians of all Nations; there is now prepar'd the
Volatile Spirit compound of it, a Preparation altogether new, not only
exceeding all Volatiles and Cordials whatsoever, but all the
Preparations of the Viper itself, being the Receipt of a late Eminent
Physician, and prepar'd only by a Relation. It is the most Sovereign
Remedy against all Faintings, Sweatings, Lowness of Spirits, Vapours
&c.--As also in all Habits of Body or Disorders proceeding from
Intemperance, eating of Fruit, drinking of bad Wine, or any other
poysonous or crude Liquors, and is good to take off the ill Effects or
Remains of the Bark or Jesuits Powder.'

_Bleeding_ and _purging_--these were the main remedies relied on in
those old days; something to make the patient remember his illness by,
as he did his doctor's bill, by the quantity of medicine he had
swallowed. Brown, satirist as he was, was truthful, even to
coarseness, and neither he nor Ward told lies in order to round a
sentence, or point an epigram. This is how Brown[529] makes a
fashionable physician describe his practice: 'He pays well, and takes
Physick freely; besides I particularly know his Constitution; after
Bleeding, he must take a Purge or two, then some Cordial Powders,
Dulcifiers of the Blood, and two or three odd things more.... I tell
you 'tis an easie thing for a Man of Parts to be a Surgeon; do but buy
a Lancet, Forceps, Saw; talk a little of Contusions, Fractures,
Compress and Bandage; you'll presently, by most People, be thought an
excellent Surgeon.... I myself have turn'd out several Doctors out of
Families because they would not prescribe Physick _plentifully_, and
in large Quantities. I have perswaded my Patients, that they did not
well understand their Distemper; so have brought in another who has
_swingingly dos'd 'um_. I could tell you of a Sir _Harry_ that paid an
£100 for Physick in six Weeks, and I accepted it, being a Friend,
without requiring one Penny for my own Fees.'

          [Footnote 529: _The Dispensary_, by Thos. Brown.]

The profession then, as now, was divided among Physicians, Surgeons,
and Apothecaries; and the relative position of two of them is
mentioned by Addison[530]: 'An Operator of this Nature might act under
me with the same regard as a Surgeon to a Physician; the one might be
employ'd in healing those Blotches and Tumours which break out in the
Body, while the other is sweetening the Blood and rectifying the
Constitution.' The Apothecaries, of course, kept shops for the supply
of drugs.

          [Footnote 530: _Spectator_, No. 16.]

In the great fire of 1666 the College of Physicians, which was at Amen
Corner, was burnt down, and a new one built, which was used till 1825,
in Warwick Lane:--

  Not far from that most celebrated Place,
  Where angry Justice shews her awful Face;
  Where little Villains must submit to Fate,
  That great ones may enjoy the World in State;
  There stands a Dome, majestick to the sight,
  And sumptuous Arches bear its oval height;
  A golden Globe plac'd high with artful skill,
  Seems, to the distant sight, a gilded Pill.
                  --_The Dispensary_, by Dr. Garth, Canto 1, ed. 1699.

This was the building that the profession thought was mainly built by
the munificence of Sir John Cutler; but after his death his executors
demanded 7,000_l._ for money _lent_, and were eventually repaid
2,000_l._ Pope wrote of Cutler:--

  His Grace's fate sage Cutler could foresee
  And well (he thought,) advis'd him, 'Live like Me.'
  As well his Grace replied, 'Like you, Sir John?
  That I can do, when all I have is gone.'

Ward[531] sums up the physician's privileges: 'What Priviledges, said
I, extraordinary are Granted to them in their Charter, above what are
held by other Physicians who are not of their Society? Many, replied
my friend, and these in particular, viz. No Person, tho' a Graduate in
Physick of _Oxford_ or _Cambridge_, and a Man of more Learning,
Judgment and Experience than one half of their Members, shall have the
liberty of practising in, or within Seven Miles of _London_, without
License under the Colledge Seal; Or in any other part of _England_, if
they have not taken some Degree at one of the Universities; They have
also power to administer an Oath, which they know by Experience is as
practicable to be broke the next Day, as 'tis to be taken; They can
likewise Fine and Imprison Offenders, in the Science of Physick, and
all such who presume to Cure a Patient, when they have given 'em over,
by more excellent Measures than ever were known by their Ignorance;
They have also the Priviledge of making By Laws, for the Interest of
themselves, and Injury of the Publick, and can purchase Lands in Right
of the Corporation, if they could but find Money to pay for 'em; they
have authority to examine the Medicines in all Apothecaries Shops, to
Judge of the wholesomeness and Goodness of many Drugs and Compositions
they never yet understood; They are likewise exempt from troublesome
Offices, as _Jury men_, _Constables_, &c.'

          [Footnote 531: _London Spy._]

A visiting physician's fee was a guinea, but a consulting one's less.
'The Worshipful Graduate in the noble Art of Man slaughter, receiv'd
us with a Civility that was peculiar to him at the sight of four Half
Crowns.' A suit of black (velvet if possible), a full-bottomed wig, a
muff, and a gold- or silver-headed cane formed the outward adornment
of the physician.

The surgeons, not being incorporated till 1800, had no special
meeting-place; but the apothecaries had their Hall in Water Lane,
Blackfriars, which had been built in 1670, and is thus described by

  Nigh where _Fleet Ditch_ descends in sable Streams,
  To wash his sooty _Naiads_ in the _Thames_;
  There stands a Structure on a Rising Hill,
  Where _Tyro's_ take their Freedom out to kill.
                                --_The Dispensary_, Canto 3, ed. 1699.

Professional etiquette was, as a rule, strictly adhered to, and these
divisions did not interfere with each other, although Brown[532]
intimates that it was done occasionally: '_Gallypot...._ "For tho' I
am an Old Apothecary, I am but a Young Doctor. For I visit in either
Capacity, either as an Old Apothecary, which is as good as a Young
Doctor, or as a Young Doctor, and that's as good as t'other again."
_Trueman._ "But I thought you had left off Shop, and stuck only to
your Doctorship?" _Gallypot._ "So I do _openly_, but _privately I keep
a Shop_, and side in all things with the Apothecaries against the

          [Footnote 532: _The Dispensary._]

This allusion refers to a curious dissension which had arisen in the
profession. The physicians at the latter end of the seventeenth
century were undoubtedly an ignorant and unscientific race; and the
apothecaries, finding that if they did not know as much, they could
soon do so, began to prescribe on their own responsibility, as
Pope[533] says:--

  So modern 'pothecaries taught the art
  By Doctor's bills, to play the Doctor's part;
  Bold in the practice of mistaken rules,
  Prescribe, apply, and calls their Masters fools.

          [Footnote 533: _Essay on Criticism._]

The physicians naturally resented this, and making a pretext that the
apothecary's charges were so enormous as to render their prescriptions
useless to the poor, they eventually set up a Dispensary of their own
at the College, where they sold medicines to the poor at cost price.
And this accusation was warranted, if we can believe Brown. 'Pray how
do ye at your end of the Town prize a Dose of common Purging Pills?'
'Why, Brother, about Eighteenpence, sometimes Two Shillings, with an
_Haustus_ after them of Three and Sixpence.' 'And can you live so? I
believe all the things cost you at least a Shilling out of Pocket.'
'No, God forbid! How could I live then? Indeed they cost me about
Sixpence, and I take but Five Shillings and Sixpence, sometimes less,
and I think that's honest Gains.'

This Dispensary was the cause of great disturbance, and split the
profession into Dispensarians and anti-Dispensarians, and a naturally
acrimonious feeling sprang up, which was only allayed by the obnoxious
Dispensary being given up, when things fell back into their old

The Pharmacopœias then in use were 'Lasher's,' 'Bate's Dispensary,'
'Hartman's Family Physitian,' and 'Salmon's Collectanea Medica'[534];
and very curious indeed were some of the medicines prescribed, as
'Live Hog Lice,' 'Burnt Cork quenched in Aqua Vitæ,' 'Red Coral,' 'New
Gathered Earth Worms,' 'Live Toads,' 'Black tips of Crabs Claws,'
'Man's Skull,' 'Elk's hoofs,' 'Leaves of Gold,' 'Man's bones
calcined,' 'Inward skin of a Capon's Gizzard,' 'Goose dung, gather'd
in the Spring time, dry'd in the Sun,' 'Stone of a Carp's head,'
'Unicorn's horn,' 'Boar's tooth,' 'Jaw of a Pike,' 'Wind pipes of
Sheep cleansed and dryed in an Oven, Wind pipes of Capons in like
manner prepared,' 'Sea Horse tooth rasped,' 'Frog's livers,' 'White
dung of a Peacock dryed,' 'Toads and Vipers flesh,' 'Cuttle fish
bone,' and many others even more repulsive than these.

          [Footnote 534: A very long list of medical works of the time
          can be seen at the end of Dr. Garth's poem of _The
          Dispensary_, ed. 1699, B. M. 840 h. 6/2.]

How would one like to take this medicine for smallpox? '_Pulvis
Æthiopicus_, the Black Powder. ℞. Live Toads, No. 30 or 40, burn
them in a new Pot, to black Cinders or Ashes, and make a fine pouder.
Dose ʒss. or more in the Small Pox &c. and is a certain help for
such as are ready to die: some also commend it as a wonderful thing
for the cure of the Dropsie.'

'_Pulvis Ictericus_, A Pouder against the Yellow Jaundice. ℞.
Goose dung gather'd in the Spring time, dry'd in the Sun, and finely
pouder'd ℥ij., the best Saffron ʒi., white Sugar candy
℥ij., mix and make a pouder. Dose ʒij. twice a day in Rhenish
wine, for six days together. Or thus--℞. Roots of Turmerick, white
Tartar, Mars prepared. A ℥ss. Earthworms, Choice Rhubarb ʒij.,
mix and make a powder. Dose ʒj. in a little Glass of White Wine.
An Acquaintance of mine, a Learned Physician, usually makes both the
Compositions into One, and assures me that he never found it once to

'_Ranarum Hepata_, Livers of Frogs. ℞. They are prepared by drying
them upon Colewort Leaves in a Closed Vessel, and then poudring them.
S.A. Dose ʒss. against the Epilepsie, Quartan Ague &c. If they be
dried and preserved with the galls adjoyning, the medicine will be
stronger and better; and may then be given Morning and Evening à
℈j. ad ℈ij. in any fit Vehicle.'

'_Corrus Epilepticus._ The Antepileptic Crow or Raven. ℞. The
greater Crow, deplumate, and eviscerate it, casting away its Feet and
Bill; put into its Belly the Heart, Liver, Lungs, Bladder of the Gall,
with Galangal and Aniseeds, A ℥iv. bake it in a new Earthen Vessel
well shut or closed in an Oven with Household Bread; after it is
cooled, separate the Flesh from the Sides or Bones, and repeat this
Operation of baking the second or third time, but taking great care
that it may not be burnt, then reduce it into a fine pouder. S.A. Dose
ʒj. every day, to such as are afflicted with the Falling Sickness;
it is a famous remedy. That there may be a more excellent Composition
than this, we doubt not, and are confident it may be improv'd to a
greater advantage; the Composition in our _Seplasium._ _lib._ 6.
_cap._ 21. _sect._ 11. seems to excel it, which is this. ℞. Of
Ravens Flesh in pouder (as the former Prescript advises) ʒiij.
Viper pouder, ʒj. native Cinnamon ʒj. (ad ʒss.) mix and
make a subtile Pouder for two Doses, to be given at Night going to

The above are all from one book, published 1706, and could be
multiplied to almost any extent, from this and the other
Pharmacopœias, were it necessary; but enough has been quoted to
show the ignorance and empiricism of the medical practitioners of that

All remedies, however, were not of the foregoing description, and many
receipts seem admirably fitted to effect their desired purpose, the
great fault with them being that they were overloaded with extraneous
compounds, which could not possibly do the patient any good, and must
necessarily add greatly to the cost, if only the extra time taken in
their preparation be counted. Bleeding and purging, as before said,
were the remedies really relied on, and bleeding took place on the
slightest occasion. Not only the lancet, but cupping, was employed;
indeed, cuppers attended nearly every Bagnio or bath, as Ward says:
'I'll carry you to see the _Hummuns_, where I have an honest old
Acquaintance that is a Cupper.' He describes the operation thus: 'By
the Perswasions of my Friend, and my Friend's Friend, I at last
consented; upon which the Operator fetch'd in his Instruments, and
fixes three Glasses at my Back, which by drawing out the Air, stuck to
me as close as a _Cantharides_ Plaister to the Head of a Lunatick, and
Sucked as hard as so many Leeches, till I thought they would have
crept into me, and have come out on t'other side. When by Virtue of
this _Hocus Pocus_ Stratagem, he had conjur'd all the ill blood out of
my Body, under his glass Juggling Cups, he plucks out an ill favour'd
Instrument, at which I was as much frighted, as an absconding Debtor
is at the sight of a Bill of Middlesex, takes off his Glasses, which
had made my Shoulders as weary as a Porter's Back under a heavy
Burthen, and begins to Scarifie my Skin, as a Cook does a Loin of Pork
to be Roasted; but with such Ease and Dexterity, that I could have
suffer'd him to have Pink'd me all over as full of Eyelet holes, as
the Taylor did the Shoemakers Cloak, had any Malady requir'd it,
without Flinching; when he had drawn away as much Blood as he thought
Necessary, for the removal of my pain, he cover'd the Places he had
Carbonaded, with a new Skin, provided for that purpose, and healed the
Scarifications he had made, in an Instant.'

'A _Cantharides_ Plaister to the Head of a Lunatick' shows us somewhat
how those poor unfortunates who were bereft of their senses were
treated. Of Bethlehem Hospital I will speak in another place,
regarding it more as a prison for the safe keeping of mad people than
as an hospital, where, by any means, those cloudy intellects could be
brightened up and cleared.

If the relatives or friends could afford it, they were put under the
charge of some one, as now, who would pretend to try and cure them;
but then, unlike the present time, there was not even the form of a
visitation to hear complaints, or to report on ill-treatment. 'At the
Pestle and Mortar on Snow Hill, is a Person who has had great
Experience and success in curing Lunaticks, he has also conveniences
for Persons of both Sexes, good and diligent Attendance for the best
ranks of People, and having for several years past, perform'd it to
the satisfaction of many Families: He therefore makes this Publick, to
inform, where on very reasonable rates the same Cure shall be
industriously endeavour'd, and (with God's Blessing) effected.' Does
it not look like a model for a modern advertisement? How Dr. So and
So, assisted by a large staff of well-trained domestics, etc.

Here is an advertisement of a private Mad House. 'It being
industriously given out by some malicious Persons, That the House of
the Late Claudius Gillat at Hoxton, for the Accommodation of
Lunaticks, is shut up; These are to Certify, that the said House is
still kept by William Prowting, Apothecary, who has all Conveniences
fitting for such persons; as a large House, pleasant Gardens, &c., and
gives Liberty to any Physician, Surgeon or Apothecary, of
administering Physick to those that are recommended by them.'

Another Advertisement, however, lets a little light into the treatment
of the mentally afflicted: 'A Dumb young Man broke his Chain last
Wednesday Night, and left his Friends from their House in Compton
Street, next door to the Golden Ball Alehouse, Soho, and those that
will take Care to bring him Home, shall be Rewarded. He has been Mad
these 23 Years.'

Garth thus describes a prosperous physician:--

  Triumphant Plenty, with a chearful grace
  Basks in their Eyes, and sparkles in their Face.
  How sleik their looks, how goodly is their Mien,
  When big they strut behind a double Chin.
  Each Faculty in blandishments they lull,
  Aspiring to be venerably dull.

Like his descendant of modern times, who cannot possibly be clever in
his profession unless he drives two horses to his brougham, the
physician of Queen Anne's reign had to have his coach; but then it
must have at least four horses--of course he must be vastly cleverer
if he could drive six--but still, his equipage must be well appointed,
and in the fashion. Of course he need not go to the extent Radcliffe
did; but Radcliffe made himself the laughing-stock of the town, both
by the gaiety of his turn-out and by a rumour getting abroad that he
had started it with the idea of favourably impressing a young and
wealthy lady, to whom this old Adonis of sixty would needs pay his
addresses--in which scheme, alas for the doctor! he was not
successful. Steele could not resist having a bit of fun over it. 'This
day, passing through Covent garden, I was stopped in the piazza by
PACOLET, to observe what he called the Triumph of LOVE and YOUTH. I
turned to the object he pointed at, and there I saw a gay gilt
Chariot, drawn by fresh prancing horses; the Coachman with a new
Cockade, and the lacqueys with insolence and plenty in their
countenances. I asked immediately, "What young heir or lover owned
that glittering equipage?" But my companion interrupted: "Do you not
see there the mourning Æsculapius?" "The mourning?" said I. "Yes,
Isaac," said Pacolet, "he's in deep mourning, and is the languishing,
hopeless lover of the divine HEBE,[535] the emblem of youth and

          [Footnote 535: Miss Tempest, one of Queen Anne's Maids of

          [Footnote 536: _The Tatler_, No. 44.]

His rival Hannes set up a beautiful carriage, etc., and it excited
universal attention. Some friend told him that Hannes' horses were the
finest he had seen. 'Ah,' snarled old Radcliffe, 'then he'll he able
to sell 'em for all the more.'

The principal physicians of Anne's reign were Dr. Radcliffe, Sir
Samuel Garth, Sir Hans Sloane, and Dr. Mead.

The first was born in 1650, took his M.D. degree in 1682, came to
London in 1684, and, somehow, at once got into good practice. He was
called in to the poor little Duke of Gloucester, when too late to be
of any service, and consoled himself by soundly rating the two
physicians, Sir E. Hannes and Sir Rd. Blackmore, for their previous
conduct of the case. But he was not the court physician, for which he
had himself to thank. The Queen, when the Princess Anne, got somewhat
hypochondriac, after the death of her sister Queen Mary, and sent for
Radcliffe to come at once to see her. He was at a tavern in St.
James's, enjoying his bottle. He knew there was nothing the matter,
and physicians were not so smooth-tongued as they are now: so he very
rudely refused to go, and sent back a message that it was all fancy,
and that her Royal Highness was as well as anyone else. Next morning
he presented himself at the palace, only to be informed that he had
been dismissed, and that Dr. Gibbons had already received his
appointment. The Queen would never forgive him; but, on her death-bed,
he was sent for to attend her, when he returned as answer that 'he had
taken physic and could not come.' The Queen died, and great was the
popular wrath against the doctor for his refusal. He might have saved
her life, said the people; and after the manner of their kind, they
sent him threatening letters; nay, a friend of his moved that he might
be summoned to attend in his place in Parliament (he was member for
the town of Buckingham) in order to be censured for not attending her
Majesty. He did not long survive her, dying on Nov. 1, 1714.

One anecdote told of him is too good not to be repeated. He would
never even pay a tradesman without squabbling over the account. A
paviour had been repairing the pavement in front of his house, and
when he applied for his money was told he had spoiled it, and then
covered it with earth to hide his bad work. 'Doctor,' replied the man,
'mine is not the only bad work the earth hides.'

Sir Samuel Garth took his degree of M.D. in 1691, was elected a Fellow
of the College in 1692, and took a prominent part in the famous
dispute as to the Dispensary--writing in 1699 his poem of that name,
which had at once a large sale. Garth wrote many poems, translated
Ovid, and it was to him that Dryden owed his public funeral, for, as
Ward says, 'they had like to let him pass in private to his Grave,
without those Funeral Obsequies suitable to his Greatness, had it not
been for that true _British_ Worthy, who, Meeting with the Venerable
Remains of the neglected Bard passing silently in a Coach, unregarded,
to his last Home, ordered the Corps, by the consent of his few Friends
that Attended him to be Respited from so obscure an Interment; and
most Generously undertook at his own Expence, to revive his Worth in
the Minds of a forgetful People, by bestowing on his peaceful Dust a
Solemn Funeral Answerable to his Merit.' He had the body removed to
the College of Physicians, where it lay in state previous to its
removal, with great pomp, to Westminster Abbey.

He was a member of the Kit Cat Club, and the story is told of him that
one day at a meeting of that club he sat so long over his wine that
Steele reminded him of his duty to his patients. Garth replied that
'it was no matter whether he saw them that night or next morning, for
nine had such bad constitutions that no physician could save them, and
the other six had such good ones that all the physicians in the world
could not kill them.' He died Jan. 18, 1719.

The name of Sir Hans Sloane is undoubtedly the most familiar to the
ears of this generation of all the doctors of that time; especially to
Londoners, Sloane Street and Square, and Hans Place, being all
reminiscences of him, through the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth
with the second Baron Cadogan.

He was of Scotch extraction, but born in Ireland, in 1660. Already a
Fellow of the College of Physicians and Royal Society, he accompanied
as physician the Duke of Albemarle (who had been appointed Governor of
the West Indies) to Jamaica. The Duke soon died out there, and Sloane
returned to England with a large collection of the flora and fauna of
the countries he had visited. To this voyage may be attributed the
foundation of the British Museum, for it gave him the taste for
collecting rarities of every description, and, to prevent his museum
from being dispersed after his death, he bequeathed it to the nation,
on condition of the payment of 20,000_l._ to his family. Montague
House was purchased to contain the curiosities; and from this small
beginning has arisen that marvellous national collection, the finest
in the world. Honours flowed in upon him, and after a very busy life,
he died at a good old age in 1752.

Dr. Rd. Mead was born in 1673. Clever in his profession, and the
author of many medical treatises, undoubtedly he owed much of his
position to Radcliffe, whose patronage he secured by the most
unblushing adulation. He took advantage of every opportunity, such as
moving into the larger house of a physician recently dead; and should
have amassed a large fortune, as for many years he was earning between
5,000_l._ and 6,000_l._ per annum. Although his consulting fee was one
guinea and his visiting fee two, he would attend either Batson's, or
Tom's, Coffee Houses (the former being a noted place of resort for
medical men), and thither would come the apothecaries, for whom he
would write prescriptions, without seeing the patient, at half a
guinea each. He is remarkable as the doctor who fought a duel. It was
with Woodward, who had not only attacked him in his 'State of Physick
and Diseases,' but insulted him in public. Matters came to a climax
one day when they were leaving Gresham College, and, under the arch
leading from the outer to the Green Court, Mead's patience gave way.
He drew, and called upon Woodward to defend himself or beg his pardon.
Whether they ever actually fought or not is not known, although there
is a _bon-mot_ about Mead disarming Woodward and telling him to beg
for his life. 'Never till I am your patient,' was his reply. Certain
it is that Woodward gave in, and Mead lived in peace.

Mead was called in consultation when the Queen was in her last
illness, and he plainly gave his opinion that she would not survive,
but he did not attend her. He died Feb. 16, 1754, and was buried in
the Temple Church.

There must have been some hot blood in the profession in those days,
for Luttrell says: '6 July, 1704. Mr. Coatsworth, an apothecary in St.
Martin's Lane, convicted in Easter term, upon an information in the
Queen's bench, for assaulting Dr. Ratcliffe, at Tom's Coffee House, by
spitting in his face, upon some words that arose between them, was
upon Monday fined 100 marks, which he paid into Court.'

The practice of surgery was attended with some difficulties, for there
were no public schools of anatomy as now: nay, it was as late as 1667
that Evelyn presented to the Royal Society, as a wonderful curiosity,
the Table of Veins, Arteries, and Nerves which he had caused to be
made in Italy.

We see that anatomy had to be taught privately, but still that there
were professors who were capable of teaching. 'On Monday the 13th
Instant, Mr. _Rolfe_ Surgeon in _Chancery Lane_ intends to begin at
his House a compleat Course of Anatomy on Human Bodies, _viz._
Osteology, Myology, and Enterology, to be continued Every Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday.' The knife was freely used, and the instruments
were far from clumsy; but conservative surgery was also practised, and
many orthopædic mechanical appliances were in use. 'Charles Roberts,
who makes Steel Stays, Strait Stockings, Steel Boots, Collars,
Cheiques and Swings, and by many years practice, having brought the
same to great perfection, is perswaded to give this publick notice for
the benefit of such who suffer by Deformity.'

The barbers also bled and drew teeth, as many now do.

The oculists of that day were particularly pushing, and puffed and
lied themselves into notoriety with vigour. Chief of them was Sir
William Read, oculist to her most gracious majesty; and if anybody
wishes to see how much that tender organ the eye can be abused by an
oculist, let him read his 'Short but Exact Account of all the Diseases
Incident to the Eyes.' Originally a tailor in a small way of business,
he managed, somehow, to rise so as to become the Queen's sworn
oculist, and to be knighted; nor only so, but was able to keep up a
good establishment and a magnificent equipage. One thing is
certain--he thoroughly knew the value of advertising; and the
accompanying illustration is taken from one of his handbills, probably
about 1696. In it he gives a list of wonderful cures he has wrought,
how he has cured wry necks, harelips, cut out cancers, trepanned
skulls, operated on wens and polypuses, cured dropsy, cut off a man's
leg, and given sight to numerous people who were born blind.

His knighthood is thus recorded in the _Gazette_ of July 30/Aug. 1,
1705: 'Windsor 27 July. Her Majesty was this day Graciously pleased to
confer the Honour of Knighthood upon William Read Esq. Her Majesty's
Oculist in Ordinary, as a Mark of her Royal Favour for his great
Services done in Curing great Numbers of Seamen and Soldiers of
Blindness _gratis_.' This he advertised to do all through the war; and
when the Palatines came over here he publicly offered to attend any
of them for diseases of the eye gratis. And now, forsooth, he
advertised that 'Lady Read' would attend to patients as well; and some
Grub Street poet wrote a poem, called 'The Oculist,' 'Address'd to Sir
_William Read_, Knt.,' with a long and fulsome dedication. One part of
the poem runs:--

[Illustration: Sir William Read Operating.]

  Whilst _Britain's_ Sovereign Scales such WORTH has weigh'd,
  And ANNE her self her smiling Favours paid:
  That Sacred Hand does Your fair Chaplet twist,
  Great READ her own Entitled OCULIST.
  When the Great ANNE'S warm Smiles this Favourite raise,
  'Tis not a Royal Grace she gives, but pays.

Swift[537] writes to Stella of Read's sumptuous way of living: 'Henley
would fain engage me to go with Steele and Rowe &c. to an invitation
at Sir William Read's. Surely you have heard of him. He has been a
Mountebank, and is the Queen's Oculist; he makes admirable punch, and
treats you in gold vessels. But I am engaged, and won't go.'

          [Footnote 537: _Journal_, April 11, 1711.]

His rival, who was also the Queen's sworn oculist, was Roger Grant,
who, report said, was originally a tinker, and afterwards an
anabaptist preacher in Southwark.

  Her Majesty sure was in a Surprise,
  Or else was very short sighted;
  When a _Tinker_ was sworn to look after Eyes,
  And the Mountebank _Read_ was _Knighted_.

He also advertised largely, and published lists of his cures, with
certificates from the mayor and aldermen of Durham, Northampton,
Coventry, Hull, etc., touching the authenticity of his cures. How
these were procured is fully explained in a little tract called 'A
Full and True ACCOUNT of a _Miraculous_ CURE of a Young MAN in
_Newington_, That was Born BLIND, and was in Five Minutes brought to
Perfect Sight, by Mr. ROGER GRANT, Oculist,' 1709. The case in
question was advertised by Grant in the _Daily Courant_ of July 30,
1709, and the little book ruthlessly exposes the fraudulent manner in
which the certificate was obtained.

As has been said before, quackery was universal; nay, it had the
sanction of being practised by royalty, for was not the Queen an arch
quack when she touched for the 'evil'? She was the last of a long line
of sovereigns, from Edward the Confessor, who exercised the supposed
royal gift of healing; but this salutary efficacy was not confined to
the royal touch alone, if we can believe a little story of
Thoresby's[538]: 'Her Mother Mary Bailey of Deptford, after she had
been twelve years blind by the Kings evil was miraculously cured by a
handkerchief dipped in the blood of King Charles the First.'

          [Footnote 538: _Diary_, July 14, 1714.]

Misson was present the last time James the Second touched, and has
left us a graphic account of the ceremony: 'The King was seated in a
Chair of State,[539] rais'd two or three Steps. The Reverend Father
_Peter_, with his little Band and his sweeping Cloak, was standing at
the King's Right Hand. After some Prayers, the diseased Person, or
those that pretended to be so,[540] were made to pass between a
narrow double Rail, which fac'd the King. Each Patient, Rich and Poor,
Male and Female, fell upon their knees, one after another, at the
King's Feet. The King putting forth his two Hands, touch'd their two
Cheeks; the Jesuit, who held a Number of Gold Medals, each fasten'd to
a narrow white Ribband, put the Ribband round the Patient's Neck at
the same Time that the King touch'd him, and said something tantamount
to what they say in _France_, _The King touches thee; God cure thee_.
This was done in a Trice; and for fear the same Patient should crowd
into the File again, to get another Medal,[541] he was taken by the
Arm, and carry'd into a safe place. When the King was weary of
repeating the same action, and touching the Cheek or Chin, Father
_Peter_ the Almoner, presented him with the End of the String which
was round the Patient's Neck. The Virtue pass'd from the Hand to the
String, from the String to the Cloaths, from the Cloaths to the Skin,
and from the Skin to the Root of the Evil: After this Royal Touch,
those that were really ill were put into the Hands of Physicians; and
those that came only for the Medal, had no need of other Remedies.'
This last sentence explains a great deal.

          [Footnote 539: In the Banqueting Hall, Whitehall.]

          [Footnote 540: On this occasion there were 300.]

          [Footnote 541: These 'touch pieces' had on one side St.
          George overcoming the dragon, and were called 'angels.']

William III. did not touch, but gave away the money hitherto spent on
the touch pieces, etc., in charity. But Anne, as a thoroughly
legitimate English monarch, and a Stuart to boot, kept up the fiction
of her curative powers. She tried it on Dr. Johnson, but it had no
effect; and his recollections of the ceremony were very vague. 'He
had,' he said, 'a confused but somehow a sort of solemn recollection
of a lady in diamonds, and a long black hood.' But then the staunch
old Jacobite used to declare that 'his mother had not carried him far
enough; she should have taken him to ROME' (to the Pretender).

Anne touched the very first year of her reign, for Luttrell[542] says,
'The Service and Attendance belonging to the Ceremony of touching for
the King's Evil went for Bath last Week, her Majesty desiring to touch
there.' Illness sometimes prevented her: 'Her Majesty did not touch
yesterday for the evil as design'd, having the gout in her

          [Footnote 542: Oct 8, 1702.]

          [Footnote 543: _Luttrell_, March 20, 1703.]

It evidently required some little interest to get touched, for Swift
writes[544] to Stella: 'I visited the Duchess of Ormond this
morning.... I spoke to her to get a lad touched for the Evil.... But
the Queen has not been able to touch, and it now grows so warm, I fear
she will not at all.'

          [Footnote 544: _Journal_, May 8, 1711.]

Notices were duly posted in the _Gazette_ as to when she touched or
not, and in that of May 24/28, 1705, we find one which would lead us
to imagine that some unfair practice had arisen: 'It is also Her
Majesty's Command, That all Persons who shall then apply to be
touched, shall bring a Certificate to Her Majesty's Serjeant Surgeon,
signed by the Minister and Churchwardens of the Parish where such
Person shall then reside, that they never had before received the
Royal Touch, as been heretofore accustomed.'

It is impossible to take up a newspaper of that time without
encountering some quack advertisements, and the quantity of
handbills[545] still preserved, show how they must have flooded the
place. There was the 'Volatile _Spirit_ of BOHEA TEA,' 'Pilula
Salutiferens,' 'Spirit of Scurvy Grass,' 'Balsamick Pills,' 'Elixir
Minerale,' 'Green Cathartick Elixir,' 'The Hysterick Tincture,' 'The
White Cardialgic Powder,' 'The Volatile Cordial Pill,' 'Tinctura
Benedicta,' 'Electuarium Mirabile,' 'Electuary of the Balm of Gilead.'
What a list might be made of them! See what Addison says of them in
the _Tatler_ (224). The heading to one is given as a sample of the
style of art in the handbill.

          [Footnote 545:

              'If the pale Walker pants with weak'ning Ills,
               His sickly Hand is stor'd with Friendly Bills:
               From hence he learns the seventh born Doctor's Fame,
               From hence he learns the cheapest Tailor's name.'
                                                   --_Trivia_, book 2.]

[Illustration: A Quack.]

This 'Paris Pill and Electuary' is described as follows: 'The Price of
a Box of the Pills is 2_s._ 6_d._ and a Pot of the Electuary 1_s._
6_d._ of w{ch} Pills and Electuary two Boxes & one Pot will be
sufficient for any one not very far gone in the Distemper, and Double
the Number will heal the Patient if in great Extremity. Sold by J.
Sherwood Book Seller at Popings aley Gate fleet street, With a paper
of Directions.'

In another advertisement of 'Dr. Anderson's, or the Famous Scots
Pills,' you are requested to 'Beware of Counterfeits, especially an
Ignorant pretender, one Muffen, who keeps a China Shop, and is so
unneighbourly as to pretend to sell the same Pills within 3 Doors of

But the quacks were not all stationary; as at present, some were
peripatetic, who, after the fashion of these wanderers, had an
eloquence of their own, which only Ward can do justice to. Here
is a short extract[546] of the 'patter' of those days. 'Gentlemen,
you that have a Mind to be Mindful of preserving a Sound Mind
in a Sound Body, that is, as the Learned Physician Doctor
_Honorificicabilitudinitatibusque_ has it, _Manus Sanaque in Cobile
Sanaquorum_, may here, at the expense of twopence, furnish himself
with a parcel, which tho' it is but small, yet containeth mighty
things of great Use and Wonderful Operation in the Bodies of Mankind,
against all Distempers, whether _Homogeneal_ or _Complicated_; whether
deriv'd from your _Parents_, got by _Infection_, or proceeding from an
ill Habit of your own Body.

          [Footnote 546: _London Spy._]

'In the first place, Gentlemen, I here present you with a little
inconsiderable Pill to look at, you see not much bigger than a Corn of
Pepper, yet in this Diminutive _Pampharmica_, so powerful in effect,
and of such excellent Vertues, that if you have Twenty Distempers
lurking in the Mass of Blood, it shall give you just Twenty Stools,
and every time it operates, it carries off a Distemper; but if your
Blood's Wholesome, and your Body Sound, it will work you no more than
the same quantity of Ginger bread. I therefore call it, from its
admirable Qualities, _Pilula Ton dobula_, which signifies in the
Greek, _The Touch Stone of Nature_; For by taking of this Pill you
will truly discover what state of Health or Infirmity your
Constitution is then under.

'In the next place, Gentlemen, I present you with an excellent outward
application, call'd a Plaister; good against Green Wounds, old
Fistulas and Ulcers, Pains and Aches, Contusions, Tumours or King's
Evil, Spasms, Fractures, or Dislocations, or any Hurts whatsoever,
received either by Sword, Cane, or Gun Shot, Knife, Saw, or Hatchet,
Hammer, Nail or Tenter hook, Fire, Blast or Gunpowder, &c. And will
continue its Vertue beyond Credit; and as useful seven years hence as
at this present Moment, that you may lend it to your Neighbours in the
time of Distress and Affliction; and, when it has perform'd Forty
Cures 'twill be ne'er the Worse, but still retain its Integrity.
_Probatum Est_,' etc.

Dr. Zachary Pearce, Bishop of Rochester, who wrote No. 572 of the
_Spectator_ (altered by Addison), gives an amusing account of one of
these quacks. 'I remember one of those Public-spirited Artists at
_Hammersmith_, who told his Audience "that he had been born and bred
there, and that, having a special Regard for the place of his
Nativity, he was determined to make a Present of five Shillings to as
many as would accept of it." The whole Crowd stood agape, and ready to
take the Doctor at his Word; when putting his Hand into a long Bag, as
every one was expecting his Crown Piece, he drew out a handful of
little Packets, each of which he informed the Spectators was
constantly sold at five Shillings and six pence, but that he would
bate the odd five Shillings to every Inhabitant of that Place; the
whole Assembly immediately closed with this generous Offer, and took
off all his Physick, after the Doctor had made them vouch for one
another, that there were no Foreigners among them, but that they were
all _Hammersmith_ Men.' The whole article is an amusing _exposé_ of
the quackery then at its height. 'I unluckily called to mind a Story
of an Ingenious Gentleman of the last Age, who, lying violently
afflicted with the Gout, a Person came and offered his Service to Cure
him by a Method, which he assured him was Infallible; the Servant who
received the Message, carried it up to his Master, who, enquiring
whether the Person came on Foot, or in a Chariot; and being informed
he was on Foot: _Go_, says he, _send the Knave about his Business: Was
his Method as infallible as he pretends, he would long before now have
been in his Coach and Six_.



     Bath -- Manners of the company there -- Description of Bath --
     Its gaieties -- Sale of the water -- Tunbridge -- Epsom --
     Hampstead -- Other spas -- Turkish baths -- Controversy on hot
     and cold bathing -- The Hummums -- Description of a Turkish bath
     -- Other bagnios -- Cold bathing and baths.

It was a great time for our English spas, and 'Spaw Water' was a
favourite drink with the temperate. Chief of all, for its curative
qualities, and for its society, was Bath, or 'The Bath,' as it was
called; and, as it occupies such a prominent position in the social
life of this time, more than a passing notice of it is required.
Misson's description of it is short but businesslike. 'This Town takes
its name from the Baths for which it is famous. Several in
_Switzerland_ and _Germany_ are called _Baden_ for the same reason. In
Winter _Bath_ makes a very melancholy Appearance; but during the
Months of _May_, _June_, _July_, and _August_, there is a concourse of
genteel Company, that peoples, enriches, and adorns it; at that Time,
Provisions and Lodgings grow dear. Thousands go thither to pass away a
few Weeks, without heeding either the Baths or the Waters, but only to
divert themselves with good Company. They have Musick, Gaming, Public
Walks, Balls, and a little Fair every Day.'

The manners of this 'concourse of genteel company' are thus described
by Steele.[547] 'In the Autumn of the same Year I made my Appearance
at _Bath_. I was now got into the Way of Talk proper for Ladies, and
was run into a vast Acquaintance among them, which I always improved
to the _best advantage_. In all this Course of Time, and some Years
following, I found a Sober, Modest Man was always looked upon by both
Sexes as a precise unfashioned Fellow of no Life or Spirit. It was
ordinary for a Man who had been drunk in good Company, or passed a
Night with a Wench, to speak of it next Day before Women for whom he
had the greatest Respect. He was reproved, perhaps, with a Blow of the
Fan, or an Oh Fie, but the angry Lady still preserved an apparent
Approbation in her Countenance: He was called a strange wicked Fellow,
a sad Wretch; he shrugs his shoulders, swears, receives another Blow,
swears again he did not know he swore, and all was well. You might
often see Men game in the Presence of Women, and throw at once for
more than they were worth, to recommend themselves as Men of Spirit.'

          [Footnote 547: _Spectator_, No. 154.]

Perhaps the most graphic description of daily life at Bath is given in
a sixpenny pamphlet entitled 'A Step to the Bath with a Character of
the place' (London 1700). It is published anonymously, but I have no
doubt in my own mind that it was written by Ward, as it is exactly his
style, and is published by his publisher. Of course, in his writings,
we must not look for polished language; but his descriptions are
accurate, and as such well worth having. He thus describes the

'The first we went to, is call'd the _King's_; and to it joyns the
Queen's, both running in one; and the most famous for Cures. In this
_Bath_ was at least fifty of both Sexes, with a Score or two of
Guides, who by their Scorbutic Carcasses, and Lackered Hides, you
would think they had lain Pickling a Century of Years in the Stygian
Lake; Some had those Infernal Emissaries to support their Impotent
Limbs: Others to Scrub their Putrify'd Carcasses, like a Race
Horse.... At the Pump was several a Drenching their Gullets, and
Gormandizing the Reaking Liquor by wholesale.

'From thence we went to the Cross Bath, where most of the Quality
resorts, more fam'd for _Pleasure_ than _Cures_. Here is perform'd all
the Wanton Dalliances imaginable; Celebrated Beauties, Panting
Breasts, and Curious Shapes, almost Expos'd to Publick View:
Languishing eyes, Darting Killing Glances, Tempting Amorous Postures,
attended by soft Musick, enough to provoke a _Vestal_ to forbidden
Pleasure, Captivate a _Saint_, and charm a _Jove_: Here was also
different Sexes, from _Quality_ to the Honourable _Knights_, Country
_Put_, and City _Madam's_.... The ladies with their floating _Jappan_
Bowles, freighted with Confectionary, Kick-Knacks, Essences and
Perfumes, Wade about, like _Neptun's_ Courtiers, suppling their
Industrious Joynts. The Vigorous Sparks, presenting them with several
Antick Postures, as Sailing on their Backs, then Embracing the
Element, sink in Rapture.... The usual time being come to forsake that
fickle Element, _Half Tub Chairs_, Lin'd with Blankets, Ply'd as thick
as _Coaches_ at the _Play House_, or _Carts_ at the _Custom House_.

'Bathing being over for that Day we went to walk in the Grove, a very
pleasant place for Diversion; there is the _Royal Oak_ and several
Raffling Shops: In one of the Walks, is several Sets of Nine Pins and
Attendants to wait on you: Tipping all Nine for a Guinea, is as common
there, as two Farthings for a _Porrenger_ of _Barley Broth_, at the
_Hospital Gate_ in Smithfield. On several of the Trees was hung a
Lampoon on the Marriage of one Mr. S----a Drugmonger and the famous
Madam S---- of London.

'Having almost tir'd ourselves with walking, we took a Bench to ease
our weary Pedestals. Now, said my Friend, I'll give you an impartial
Account of the Perfections, Qualities and Functions, of a few
particular Persons that are among this Amphibious Crowd.... To give
you a particular Description of each of 'em, will require a Week's
time at least. Come, therefore, let's go to some Tipling Mansion, and
Carrouse, till we have Exhilerated our Drouthy Souls: To which I
readily agreed. About five in the Evening, we went to see a great
Match at Bowling: There was _Quality_, and Reverend _Doctors_ of both
Professions, Topping _Merchants_, Broken _Bankers_, Noted _Mercers_,
Inns of Court _Rakes_, City _Beaus_, Stray'd _Prentices_, and
_Dancing-Masters_ in abundance. _Fly, fly, fly, fly_, said one; _Rub,
Rub_, rub, rub, cry'd another. _Ten Guineas to five I Uncover the
Jack_, says a third. _Damn these Nice Fingers of mine_, cry'd my Lord,
_I Slipt my Bowl and mistook the Bias_. Another Swearing he knew the
Ground to an Inch, and would hold five Pound his Bowl came in.

'From hence we went to the _Groom Porters_, where they were a
Labouring like so many _Anchor Smiths_, at the _Oake_, _Back Gammon_,
_Tick Tack_, _Irish_, _Basset_, and throwing of _Mains_. There was
Palming, Lodging, Loaded Dice, Levant, and Gammoning, with all the
Speed imaginable; but the _Cornish_ Rook was too hard for them all.
The _Bristol Fair_ Sparks had but a very bad bargain of it; and little
occasion for Returns. _Bank Bills_ and _Exchequer Notes_ were as
Plenty, as _Pops_ at the _Chocolate Houses_ or _Patternoster Row_.
Having satisfied our Curiosity here; we left them as busie a shaking
their Elbows, as the _Apple Women_ in _Stocks Market_, Wallnuts in

'And meeting with three or four more Acquaintance, we stroul'd to a
_Bristol-Milk Dary-House_, and Enjoy'd our selves like brave

This, then, was how the day was spent at Bath, with the exception of
when some person of quality gave an entertainment to a select number
of visitors--and this they were expected to do. Our writer describes
his experience of one: 'The Ball is always kept at the Town Hall, a
very spacious Room, and fitted up for that Purpose. During which, the
Door is kept by a Couple of Brawny Beadles, to keep out the Mobility,
looking as fierce as the Uncouth Figures at _Guild-Hall_; there was
Extraordinary Fine Dancing (and how could it otherwise chuse, for
Spouse and I had a Hand in it). A Consort of Delicate Musick, Vocal
and Instrumental, perform'd by good Masters; A Noble Collation of dry
Sweet Meats, Rich Wine and large Attendance. The Lady who was the
_Donor_, wore an Extraordinary Rich Favour, to distinguish her from
the rest, which is always the Custom; and before they break up to
chuse another for the next Day, which fell upon a Shentlewoman of
_Wales_; but no ways Derogated from hur Honour, or Disparag'd her
Country in the least, but hur was as Noble, and as Generous, as e'er
an _English_ Shentlewoman of them all: To hur Honour be it Spoke.'

And he winds up the pamphlet with 'A Character of the Bath.'

'Tis neither Town nor City, yet goes by the Name of both: five Months
in the Year 'tis as Populous as _London_, the other seven as desolate
as a Wilderness. Its chiefest Inhabitants are Turnspit-Dogs; and it
looks like _Lombard Street_ on a Saints day. During the Season, it
hath as many Families in a House as _Edenborough_; and Bills are as
thick for Lodgings to be Let, as there was for Houses in the _Fryars_
on the Late Act of Parliament for the Dissolution of Priviledges; but
when the _Baths_ are useless, so are their Houses, and as empty as the
new Buildings by _St. Giles_ in the _Fields_; The _Baths_ I can
compare to nothing but the _Boylers_ in _Fleet Lane_ or _Old Bedlam_,
for they have a reaking steem all the Year. In a Word, 'tis a Valley
of Pleasure, yet a sink of Iniquity; Nor is there any Intrigues or
Debauch Acted in _London_, but is Mimick'd here.'

The Water was bottled and sold, and in order to guarantee its purity
an advertisement was issued in 1706: 'Notice is hereby given, that
George Allen is now chosen Pumper of the King's Bath Waters in Bath,
and that the true Waters are to be had of none but him who seals all
Bottles and Vessels with a Seal, whereon is the City Arms, viz a
Borough Wall and Sword, and round it these Words, The King's Bath
Water, George Allen, Pumper.' It was supplied in London fresh three
times a week, as we find by another advertisement of 1709.

Tunbridge ranked next to Bath as a fashionable resort, and it is thus
described in a contemporary play ('Tunbridge Walks,' ed. 1703).

     _Loveworth._ But _Tunbridge_ I suppose is the Seat of Pleasure;
     Prithee, what Company does the Place afford?

     _Reynard._ Like most publick Assemblies, a Medley of all Sorts,
     Fops, majestick and diminutive, from the long Flaxen Wig with a
     splendid Equipage, to the Merchants' Spruce Prentice, that's
     always mighty neat about the Legs; Squires come to Court some
     fine Town Lady, and Town Sparks to pick up a Russet Gown; for the
     Women here are Wild Country Ladies, with ruddy Cheeks like a
     _Sevil_ Orange, that gape, stare, scamper, and are brought hither
     to be Disciplined; Fat City Ladies with tawdry Atlasses, in
     Defiance of the Act of Parliament; and slender Court Ladies with
     _French_ Scarffs, _French_ Aprons, _French_ Night Cloaths and
     _French_ Complexions.

     _Loveworth._ But what are the Chief Diversions here?

     _Reynard._ Each to his own Inclinations--Beaus Raffle and
     Dance--Citts play at Nine Pins, Bowls, and Backgammon--Rakes,
     scoure the Walks, Bully the Shop keepers, and beat the
     Fidlers--Men of Wit rally over Claret, and Fools get to the
     _Royal Oak_ Lottery, where you may lose Fifty Guineas in a
     Moment, have a Crown returned to you for Coach Hire, a Glass of
     Wine, and a hearty wellcome. In short, 'tis a Place wholly
     dedicated to Freedom, no Distinction, either of Quality or
     Estate, but ev'ry Man that appears well Converses with the Best.

People, however went to Tunbridge to _drink_ the waters, not to
_bathe_ in them. So was it with Epsom Wells, which was decidedly lower
in tone. From its easy access to London, it was crowded with
citizens--and some very questionable characters. If Bath allowed some
licence to its frequenters, Epsom gave more. 'But if you were not so
monstrous lewd, the freedom of _Epsom_ allows almost nothing to be

          [Footnote 548: _Epsom Wells_, Shadwell.]

The Epsom season began on Easter Monday, and one advertisement will
sufficiently indicate its character. 1707. 'The New Wells at Epsom,
with variety of Raffling Shops, will be open'd on Easter Monday next.
There are Shops now to be Let, at the said Wells for a Bookseller,
Pictures, Haberdasher of Hats, Shoemaker, Fishmonger, and Butcher;
with conveniences for several other Trades. ☞ It's design'd
that a very good Consort of Musick shall attend and play there Morning
and Evening during the Season; and nothing will be demanded for the
Waters drunk there.' Pinkethman would take his performing dogs down
there, and Mr. Clinch, with the wonderful voice, would spend the
season there. Morris-dancing and other sports were got up, and at last
they had races, which have since evolved that national saturnalia the

They had not yet analysed these purgative waters, and consequently
'Epsom salts' were unknown, so that people, did they wish for them,
must either go to Epsom, or buy the water in London, where almost all
the other 'Spaw' waters could be procured. It is astonishing how they
could drink the quantity they are recorded to have done--_i.e._ if
those accounts are trustworthy. Brown, in one of his 'Letters from the
Dead to the Living,' talks of a lady 'that has drank two Quarts of
_Epsom_ Waters for her Mornings draught'; and Shadwell, in 'Epsom
Wells,' says:--

     _Brisket._ I vow it is a pleasurable Morning: the Waters taste so
     finely after being fudled last Night. Neighbour _Fribbler_,
     here's a Pint to you.

     _Fribbler._ I'll pledge you, Mrs. _Brisket_; I have drunk eight

     _Mrs. Brisket._ How do the Waters agree with your Ladyship?

     _Mrs. Woodly._ Oh, Soveraignly: how many Cups have you arrived

     _Mrs. Brisket._ Truly Six, and they pass so kindly.

There was, and even yet is, a mildly chalybeate spring at Hampstead,
which made that beautiful northern suburb very fashionable. The well
has been lately altered, and the old Assembly Rooms, which had lasted
from Anne's time, were pulled down in the early part of 1882. Old
gardens have been grubbed up, and fine new villas set a-top of them.
It is only a question of time as to when the trees in Well Walk will
die and be no more, and but a few houses will remain to attest the
glory of Hampstead in Queen Anne's time, when the Kit Cats made it
their summer meeting-place. Like all places of amusement then, the
spirit of gambling had invaded it, and either Swift or Steele notices
that: 'By letters from Hampstead which give me an account, there is a
late institution there under the name of a RAFFLING SHOP; which is, it
seems, secretly supported by a person who is a deep practitioner in
the law, and out of tenderness of conscience, has, under the name of
his maid Sisly, set up this easier way of conveyancing and alienating
estates from one family to another.'[549] Concerts of music were
frequent here in the season, as they were also at Richmond Wells,
which opened in the middle of May.

          [Footnote 549: _The Tatler_, No. 59.]

The medicinal powers of divers springs near London had been known for
generations, and we find them duly advertised and puffed--Acton
Waters, Dullidge and Northall Waters, Lambeth Wells, Sadler's New
Tunbridge Wells near Islington, 'at the _Musick House_ by the _New
River_.' The London Spaw, 'at the sign of the Fountain in the parish
of St. James's Clarken Well; in the way going up to Islington' ('the
Poor may have it Gratis'); whilst in 1702 we find an advertisement:
'This is to give notice, That at the King's Arms Inn in Haughton
Street in Clare Market, over against New Inn back Gate, is lately
discovered a Spring of Purging Water, known by the name of Holy-well,
or the London Water, exceeding for their Cathartic Excellency, all
other Purging Waters; working in small quantities without neglect of
Business. This Water has been tried and approved of by some of the
best Physicians. To be had at the Pump, at the place aforesaid at
2_d._ the Quart, and to those that buy it to Retail it, at the Usual

One of those in the country was Buxton, of which we get the following
notice in 1705: 'Whereas the Bath House at Buxton, in Derbyshire, so
famous in the North for divers Cures, hath of late Years been
mismanaged, by disobliging Persons of Quality and others usually
resorting to the said Bath; this is therefore to give Notice to all
Persons of Quality and Gentry of Both Sexes, That Care has now been
taken, by his Grace the Duke of Devonshire, to remedy the like
Treatment, for the future, by sending down from London a fitting and
obliging Person sufficiently qualified: So that now all Persons
resorting to the said Bath will meet with Civil Usage, and have the
best of every thing for Man and Beast at reasonable rates.' Then there
were springs at Scarborough, Bury, Astrop, Croft, Holt, and Blurton
Spaw Water, which was belauded by Floyer. Of course these are not a
tithe of those which were locally famous, but were not pushed into
public notoriety.

Foreign mineral waters were in use, but evidently only for medicinal
purposes. 'Purging Spaw Waters newly brought over from Germany, to be
sold at the Two Golden Images in King Street, near St. James's.' And
they were sold at prices varying from 12_s._ per doz. or 1_s._ per
flask, to 15_s._ per doz.

Not only were the hot springs of Bath frequented for the purposes of
bathing, but the Turkish bath was peculiarly an institution of this
reign, and the 'Hummums' or 'Bagnios' were well frequented, until the
latter got an evil reputation, and the name of Bagnio came to be
regarded as synonymous with a disorderly house. Some of the medical
men of the time took up the subject of bathing with relation to
health, and, as is generally the case, took opposite views; some
advocating cold bathing, like Sir John Floyer and Dr. Ed. Baynard in
Ancient and Modern,' 1706, or Dr. Browne, who wrote in 1707 'An
Account of the Wonderful CURES perform'd by the COLD BATHS. With
advice to the Water Drinkers at _Tunbridge_, _Hampstead_, _Astrope_,
_Nasborough_, and all the other _Chalibeate Spaws_'; whilst others
took up the cause of hot bathing, and decried the use of cold water,
even in immersion in Baptism, like Guidot, who in 1705 published 'An
_Apology_ for the _Bath_,' having previously printed a Latin tract,
'_De Thermis Britannicis_.'

Ward describes a visit to the Hummums in Covent Garden with a friend,
who suggested to him[550] 'if you will be your Club towards Eight
Shillings, we'll go in and Sweat, and you shall feel the effects of
this Notable Invention.' Let him tell his experiences in his own
words. 'We now began to unstrip, and put ourselves in a Condition of
enduring an Hour's Baking, and when we had reduc'd our selves into the
Original state of Mankind, having nothing before us to cover our
Nakedness, but a Clout no bigger than a Fig leaf, our Guide led us to
the end of our Journey, the next Apartment, which I am sure, was as
hot as a Pastry Cooks Oven to Bake a White Pot; that I began
immediately to melt, like a Piece of Butter in a Basting Ladle, and
was afraid I should have run all to Oyl by the time I had been in six
Minutes; The bottom of the Room was Pav'd with Freestone; to defend
our feet from the excessive heat of which, we had got on a pair of
new-fashioned _Brogues_, with Wooden Soles after the _French_ Mode,
Cut out of an Inch Deal Board; or else like the Fellow in the _Fair_,
we might as well have walk'd cross a hot Iron Bar, as ventur'd here to
have Trod bare Foot. As soon as the Fire had tapt us all over, and we
began to run like a Conduit Pipe, at every Pore, our Rubber arms his
Right Hand with a Gauntlet of coarse hair Camlet, and began to curry
us with as much Labour, as a _Yorkshire Groom_ does his Master's best
Stone Horse; till he made our Skins as Smooth as a Fair Ladies Cheeks,
just wash'd with _Lemon Posset_, and greas'd over with _Pomatum_. At
last I grew so very faint with the expence of much Spirits, that I
begg'd as hard for a Mouthful of fresh Air, as _Dives_ did for a drop
of Water; which our attendance let in at a Sash-Window, no broader
than a _Deptford_ Cheese Cake; but, however, it let in a Comfortable
Breeze that was very Reviving: when I had foul'd many _Callico_
Napkins, our Rubber draws a _Cistern_ full of Hot Water, that we might
go in, and Boil out those gross Humours that could not be Emitted by
Perspiration. Thus, almost Bak'd to a _Crust_, we went into the hot
Bath to moisten our Clay, where we lay Soddening our selves like
_Deer's_ Humbles design'd for Minc'd Pies, till we were almost
Parboiled ... then after he had wiped me o'er with a dry Clout,
telling us we had Sweat enough, he reliev'd us out of Purgatory, and
carried us into our Dressing Room; which gave us such Refreshment,
after we had been stewing in our own Gravy, that we thought ourselves
as happy as a Couple of _English_ Travellers, Transported in an
Instant, by a Miracle from the _Torrid Zone_ into their own Country.
Our expense of Spirits had weakened Nature and made us drowsie; where
having the Conveniency of a Bed, we lay down and were rubb'd like a
couple of Race Horses after a Course.'

          [Footnote 550: _The London Spy._]

An advertisement of these baths tells us fully of the extent of the
accommodation they afforded. 'At the Hummum's in Covent Garden are the
best accommodation for Persons of Quality to Sweat or Bath every day
in the week, the Conveniences of all kinds far exceeding all other
Bagnios or Sweating Houses both for Rich and Poor. Persons of good
Reputation may be accommodated with handsom Lodgings to lye all Night.
There is also a Man and Woman who Cups after the Newest and easiest
method. In the Garden of the same House is also a large Cold Bath of
Spring Water, which, for its Coldness and Delicacy, deserves an equal
Reputation with any in use.'

There were also 'John Evans's Hummums in Brownlow Street near Drury
Lane,' 'John Pindar's (the German Sweating House) in Westmoreland
Court, in Bartholomew Close, near Aldersgate Street,' and 'The Queen's
Bagnio in Long Acre,' kept by Henry Ayme, chirurgeon; where not only
could you have a bath for 5_s._, or two or more 4_s._ each, but there
was 'a lesser _Bagnio_, of a lower Rate, for the Diseased and Meaner
Sort.' 'There is no Entertainment for Women after _Twelve_ of the
Clock at Night, but all Gentlemen that desire Beds, may have them for
_Two Shillings_ per Night, for one single Person, but if two lie
together _Three Shillings_ both; which Rooms and Beds are fit for the
Entertainment of Persons of the highest Quality, and Gentlemen.'

Then there was the Royal Bagnio in Newgate Street, at the corner of
what now is Bath (formerly Bagnio) Street. There was also Pierault's
Bagnio, which was in St. James's Street, and was established about
1699. 'The charge of going in is 5_s._--if lie all Night 10_s._ each.
Here also is a _Cold Bath_, for which they take 2_s._ 6_d._ each

The disciples of cold bathing might be suited at 'A Convenient large
Cold Bath, that is Erected upon an Excellent Cold Spring, adjoyning to
the Bowling Green in _Queen Street_ in the _Park, Southwark_ ...
Prices 1_s._ and 6_d._--The Chair 2_s._'; and at No. 3 Endell Street
was a bath which, tradition says, was used by Queen Anne. It was about
twelve or fourteen feet square, and was originally lined with old blue
and white Dutch tiles. I can find nothing confirming this tradition,
which may or may not have a foundation in fact.



     Inactivity of the Church -- Dulness of Sunday -- Contempt of the
     clergy -- Low estimation of a chaplain -- Dress of the clergy --
     Church furniture -- Traffic in benefices -- Forged orders -- Dr.
     Sacheverell -- 'The modern champions' -- Queen Anne's Bounty --
     Its history -- Fifty new churches -- Protestant tone of Church
     feeling -- The effigies on Queen Elizabeth's birthday --
     Oppression of Roman Catholics -- Religious sects -- Eminent
     Nonconformists -- Daniel Burgess -- Dislike to Quakers --
     Examples -- William Penn.

Religious life in Anne's time was not active--at least in the Church
of England. Even the dignitaries of the Church, with very few
exceptions, were men of no mark, nor were there any among the inferior
clergy who could be called to the higher estate, and so help to leaven
and wake up the Episcopate. For the Church was asleep, and with the
exception of the Sacheverell episode--when the name of the Church was
dragged in to serve party purposes--nothing was heard of it. There
were priests in the livings then as now, and they duly baptized,
married, preached to, and buried their flock; but there was little
vitality in their ministrations, little or no zeal or earnestness as
to the spiritual state of those committed to their charge, and very
little of practical teaching, in the way of setting before them a
higher social standard for them to imitate. The Church services had no
life in them; with the exception of the cathedrals the services were
_read_, and the soul-depressing parson and clerk duet had its usual
effect of deadening the religious sensibilities of the so-called
worshippers. Why! Addison seems to think that dear old Sir Roger was
acting in a most praiseworthy manner in dragooning all his tenants to
Church, otherwise he confesses they would not have come; but what
spiritual good this compulsory attendance did them he does not hint
at--probably never thought of: 'My Friend Sir Roger being a good
Churchman, has beautified the Inside of his Church with several texts
of his own chusing; he has likewise given a handsome Pulpit Cloth, and
railed in the Communion Table at his own expence. He has often told
me, that at his coming to his Estate he found (his Parishioners) very
irregular; and that in order to make them kneel and join in the
Responses he gave every one of them a Hassock and a Common Prayer
Book: and at the same time employed an itinerant Singing Master, who
goes about the Country for that Purpose, to instruct them rightly in
the Tunes of the Psalms; upon which they now very much value
themselves, and indeed out-do most of the Country Churches that I have
ever heard.

'As Sir Roger is Landlord to the whole Congregation, he keeps them in
very good Order, and will suffer no Body to sleep in it besides
himself; for if by chance he has been surprized into a short Nap at
Sermon, upon recovering out of it he stands up and looks about him,
and if he sees any Body else nodding, either wakes them himself, or
sends his Servant to them.... As soon as the Sermon is finished, no
Body presumes to stir till Sir Roger is gone out of the Church. The
Knight walks down from his Seat in the Chancel between a Double Row of
his Tenants, that stand bowing to him, on each Side; and every now and
then enquires how such an one's Wife, or Mother, or Son, or Father do,
whom he does not see at Church; which is understood as a secret
reprimand to the Person that is absent.'[551]

          [Footnote 551: _Spectator_, 112.]

He then contrasts this parish with a neighbouring one where the squire
and parson are at variance--where all the tenants are _Atheists_ and
_Tithe Stealers_. Of course Addison's account is somewhat biassed by
his own proclivities; but we may take the tone of Church feeling
throughout the country to have been exemplified by the state of Sir
Roger's parish before the rather fussy, and certainly eccentric,
knight entered upon his high-handed course of compulsory attendance.

How Sunday was spent in London let Misson say: 'The _English_ of all
Sects, but particularly the Presbyterians, make profession of being
very strict Observers of the Sabbath Day.

'I believe their Doctrine upon this Head does not differ from ours,
but most assuredly our Scruples are much less great than theirs. This
appears upon a hundred Occasions; but I have observ'd it particularly
in the printed Confessions of Persons that are hang'd; Sabbath
breaking is the Crime the poor Wretches always begin with. If they
kill'd Father and Mother, they would not mention that Article, till
after having profess'd how often they had broke the Sabbath. One of
the good _English_ Customs on the Sabbath Day, is to feast as nobly as
possible, and especially not to forget the Pudding. It is a common
Practice, even among People of good Substance, to have a huge piece of
Roast Beef on _Sundays_, of which they stuff till they can swallow no
more, and eat the rest cold, without any other Victuals, the other Six
Days of the Week.'

Another quotation from Addison shows at all events his feeling as to
the state of the Church at that time: 'After some short Pause, the
old Knight turning about his Head twice or thrice, to take a Survey of
this great Metropolis, bid me observe how thick the City was set with
Churches, and that there was scarce a single Steeple on this side
_Temple Bar_. _A most Heathenish Sight!_ says Sir Roger: _There is no
Religion at this End of the Town. The Fifty new Churches will very
much mend the Prospect; but Church-work is slow--Church-work is

          [Footnote 552: _Spectator_, 383.]

There is no doubt but that the Clergy as a body were but little
thought of. Of course there were good and pious men then as now, but
there is no disguising the fact that the majority showed an
indifference to the spiritual well-being of the people, which could
not fail to react upon themselves, and foster a feeling bordering upon
contempt. Although those were not the days of deep thought, or
scientific speculation, there was a great deal of freethought in
existence: and although Atheists were professed to be looked upon, as
they are now, as moral lepers, yet still there they were.

Perhaps one of the most curious symptoms of the times was the
exceeding popularity of Dr. John Eachard's satire, 'The Grounds and
Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy and Religion enquired into,'
which, in 1705, had reached its _eleventh_ edition. But the butt of
all the satirists was the domestic chaplain. He was a member of the
household of every person of position, yet he had no social status.
Here is a contemporary account,[553] meant as a considerate warning to
a friend, putting before him a chaplain's social position:--

          [Footnote 553: 'A SATYR Address'd to a _Friend_ that is
          about to leave the University, and come abroad in the
          World,' by Mr. John Oldham, ed. 1703.]

  Some think themselves exalted to the Sky,
  If they light in some Noble Family:
  Diet, an Horse, and thirty pounds a year,
  Besides th' advantage of his Lordship's ear,
  The Credit of the business and the State,
  Are things that in a Youngster's Sense sound great.
  Little the unexperienc'd Wretch does know,
  What slavery he oft must undergo:
  Who, though in Silken Scarf and Cassock drest,
  Wears but a gayer Livery at best.
  When Dinner calls, the Implement must wait
  With holy words to consecrate the Meat,
  But hold it for a Favour seldom known,
  If he be deigned the Honour to sit down.
  Soon as the Tarts appear; Sir _Crape_, withdraw,
  Those Dainties are not for a spiritual Maw.
  Observe your distance; and be sure to stand
  Hard by the Cistern with your Cap in hand:
  There for diversion you may pick your Teeth,
  Till the kind Voider comes for your Relief.
  For meer Board-wages such their Freedom sell,
  Slaves to an Hour, and Vassals to a Bell:
  And if th' enjoyment of one day be stole,
  They are but Pris'ners out upon Parole:
  Always the marks of Slavery remain,
  And they, tho loose, still drag about the Chain.
    And where's the mighty prospect after all,
  A Chaplainship serv'd up, and seven years Thrall?
  The menial thing perhaps for a Reward,
  Is to some slender Benefice preferr'd,
  With this Proviso bound, that he must wed }
  My Lady's antiquated Waiting Maid,        }
  In Dressing only skill'd, and Marmalade.  }
  Let others who such meannesses can brook,
  Strike Countenance to every Great Man's Look:
  Let those that have a mind, turn slaves to eat,
  And live contented by another's Plate:
  I rate my Freedom higher, nor will I
  For Food, and Raiment truck my Liberty.

And Gay, too, in his _Trivia_ (book 2) says:--

  Cheese, that the Table's closing Rites denies,
  And bids me with th' unwilling Chaplain rise.

Addison, commenting on this custom, and the chaplain's status
generally, remarks,[554] 'In this case I know not which to censure,
the Patron or the Chaplain, the insolence of power or the abjectness
of dependence. For my own part, I have often blushed to see a
gentleman, whom I know to have much more wit and learning than myself,
and who was bred up with me at the University upon the same foot of a
Liberal Education, treated in such an ignominious manner, and sunk
beneath those of his own rank, by reason of that Character, which
ought to bring him honour.'

          [Footnote 554: _Tatler_, 255.]

Again, in the _Guardian_ (No. 163) his position is described: 'I have,
with much ado, maintained my post hitherto at the dessert, and every
day eat tart in the face of my patron; but how long I shall be
invested with this privilege, I do not know. For the servants, who do
not see me supported as I was in my old lord's time, begin to brush
very familiarly by me, and thrust aside my chair when they set the
sweetmeats on the table.'

A curious confirmation of one of Oldham's statements is found in a
little brochure of the early part of Anne's reign,[555] 'I turn away
my Footman for aspiring to my Woman, her I marry to my Lord's high
Chaplain, and give her six Changes of my old cast off Cloaths for her

          [Footnote 555: _The English Lady's Catechism._]

Royalty, even, was not exempt from this failing of snubbing the
chaplains. Swift writes,[556] 'I never dined with the chaplains till
to day; but my friend Gastrel and the Dean of Rochester had often
invited me, and I happened to be disengaged; it is the worst provided
table at Court. We ate on pewter.'

          [Footnote 556: _Journal to Stella_, Oct. 6, 1711.]

The clergy, when they appeared in public, wore always both cassock
and gown; with the wig, of course, which was sometimes carried to
excess, when it brought down the ridicule of the satirist, as in the
following[557] humble petition of _Elizabeth Slender_, Spinster,

          [Footnote 557: _Tatler_, 370.]

'That on the twentieth of this instant December, her friend, _Rebecca
Hive_, walking in the Strand, saw a gentleman before us in a gown,
whose periwig was so long, and so much powdered, that your petitioner
took notice of it, and said "she wondered that lawyer would so spoil a
new gown with powder." To which it was answered, "that he was no
lawyer, but a clergyman." Upon a wager of a pot of Coffee we over took
him, and your petitioner was soon convinced she had lost.

'Your petitioner, therefore, desires your worship to cite the
clergyman before you, and to settle and adjust the length of
_canonical Periwigs_, and the quantity of powder to be made use of in
them,' etc.

The vestments, when officiating, were simple, consisting of a cassock
and full surplice--the black gown being used for preaching.

The accompanying illustrations of a bishop and a prebendary are taken
from the prints of Queen Anne's coronation--the bishop wears chimere
and rochet, whilst the prebendary has his hood, and, as it was a
festival, he wears what seems to be meant for a cope.

[Illustration: A Clergyman's Walking Costume.]

The church furniture was not very extravagant, as is exemplified by
the following advertisement: 'Lost the 20th of August at Night, out of
St. Bennets Grace Church viz, a purple Velvet Cushion, with purple and
gold Tassels; The Covering of 2 Cushions very old of the same. The
Vallins for the Pulpit of purple Velvet with purple and gold Fringe; A
Cover for the Communion Table of purple Velvet very old. S.B.G. 1641
Embroider'd on it; A large Damask Table Cloath, and 2 Damask Napkins
mark'd S.B.G.L.E. 2 large pewter Plates, mark'd S.B.G. 2 Surplices, 1
old, the other New, mark'd S.B.G.L.E. A Clark's Gown of black
Callimanca with Loops, and faced with black Velvet.' The reward
offered for this lot was three guineas.

Benefices were then trafficked in. 'The next Advowson or Presentation
to a Church of about 200_l._ _per annum_, four score and ten Miles
from _London_, is to be dispos'd of, on very reasonable Terms, to any
Clergy man of a good Character for Learning and Morals. The present
Incumbent upwards of 60 Years of Age.' Simony was, however,
punishable, for we read in Luttrell, July 4, 1702, 'The late bishop of
St. Davids who some time since was deprived of that bishoprick on
account of Simony, being arrested for £1,000 costs of suit, is removed
from the bailiff's house to Newgate.'

There were a few black sheep among the clergy. The _London Gazette_
for Nov. 3/6, 1707, has an advertisement commencing, 'Where as one
William Sale was some Years since Convicted in the Ecclesiastical
Court at Canterbury, of having forged Holy Orders for himself, and for
his own Father,' etc., and it goes on to cite him to appear before the
Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishop of Rochester, and produce his
true orders, if he had any--or, if not, he would be prosecuted.

[Illustration: A Bishop.]

[Illustration: A Prebend.]

And in the _London Gazette_ for March 18/22, 1703, the clergy are
warned against one 'Abraham Gill, aged upwards of 30 years, middle
statur'd, some gray Hairs, wearing sometimes a light Wig, sometimes a
darker, sanguine Complexion, bold and Confident in Conversation,
strong Voice, a North Country Pronunciation, writing a Clerk like
Hand, as having been some time employ'd under an Attorney. Travelling
the Country with a Woman and 3 or 4 Children, sometime since forged
Letters of Orders, under the Hand and Episcopal Seal of the Lord
Bishop of Chester,' etc.

Swift, too, writes,[558] 'I walked here after nine, two miles, and I
found a parson drunk, fighting with a seaman, and Patrick and I were
so wise as to part them, but the seaman followed him to Chelsea,
cursing at him, and the parson slipped into a house, and I know no
more. It mortified me to see a man in my coat so overtaken.'

          [Footnote 558: _Journal to Stella_, May 5, 1711.]

It would be impossible to write of the Church of England in Anne's
reign without mentioning Dr. Sacheverell, whose two famous sermons
brought about his impeachment and sentence of three years' suspension.
In them he condemned Dissenters and those Churchmen who sympathised
with them, lashing, with his oratory, the high ones of the land--and
Godolphin especially, as was believed, under the name of 'Volpone.'
Then rose the war-cry of 'High Church and Sacheverell!' which even the
Queen could not avoid: 'God bless the Queen. We hope your Majesty is
for High Church and Sacheverell;' and presumably she was, for the very
month his suspension expired she presented him with the valuable
living of St. Andrew's, Holborn. High Churchism then meant
intolerance, and Sacheverell was the puppet pulled by wires held by

There is a curious contemporary skit which is worth reproducing, for
two reasons--first, as showing the style of literature then used in
party warfare; and second, because it gives an approximate
illustration of the Hockley-in-the-Hole combatants mounted on the
stage. In fact, the whole thing is a travesty on the bombastic
challenges of those doughty heroes.



A Tryal of Skill to be Fought at her Majesty's Bear Garden, on Monday
next, between a Jeroboam Tory and a Jerusalem Whig, with their two

          [Footnote 559: _Banks Coll._, Brit. Mus., 1890, _e._ The
          Combatants are Bishop (then Dr.) Hoadly and Dr.
          Sacheverell--the Seconds, Drs. Burgess and Harris.]

  When Gospel Trumpeter surrounded
  By long Ear'd Rout, to Battle Sounded
  And Pulpit, Drum Ecclesiastick
  Was beat with Fist instead of a Stick
  Then did Sir Knight----
                           Prophetically sung by the learned Hudibras.

'I, JEHU HOTSPUR, known by the name of the High Church Champion,
Defender of the Cause, against all Schismatical and Rebellious Saints
whatever; Do Invite you Balthasar Turncoat, (of the Race of the
Seditious; Betrayers of their Country, and Rebels to their Lawful
Sovereign; Prolocutor and Contester for the Shameful and detested
Cause of Moderation; a Lukewarm Christian, and a False Brother of the
Ch----h; Dissenting from, and Prevaricating with, the Original
Ordinances thereof) to meet and Fight me at the seven several sorts of
weapons following, viz.:

       Sword & Cloak      }
       Schism & Hypocrisy }
       Tolleration        }
       Rebellion          } JEHU HOTSPUR
       Moderation         }
       Regicide and       }
       Anarchy            }

So putting Trust in the Justice of my Quarrel, expect to find you
at the Time and Place appointed, as you will answer the Contrary at
your Peril.

[Illustration: 'The Modern Champions.]

'I, BALTHASAR TURNCOAT, Chief Orator and Champion for the upright and
blessed Principles of Moderation; a True Blue Church Man, and
Jerusalem Whig; Receiving open Defiance from the said Jehu Hotspur
avow'd Champion and Maintainer of the High Church Jacobite Cause
(Sprung from the Loins of Jeroboam the Son of Nebat, who caused Israel
to Sin; a Race so wickedly malicious that they would have us all cut
off, Root and Branch; unless we fall down and worship the Calves of
Dan and Bethel, whereby the Seed of Amalek may come to be restor'd)
Will not fail, God Willing, to meet the Bold and Daring Inviter at the
Time and Place appointed, and Oppose him at the several Weapons
following, viz.:

       Sword & Warming pan}
       Non Resistance     }
       Passive Obedience  }
       Superstition       } BALTHASAR TURNCOAT
       Jacobitism         }
       Tyranny and        }
       Persecution        }

Desiring a Clear Stage, and from him no Favour.

'N.B. Whoever brings this Ticket, will be admitted on the Day of

     'London. Printed in the Year 1710--price 1_d._'

Should anyone care to see to what depth the Church of England had
sunk, as far as care of the fabric of the churches went, let him read
'Miscellany Accounts of the Diocese of Carlisle, &c., 1703-4,' by Wm.
Nicholson, late Bishop of Carlisle: London, Geo. Bell & Sons, 1877.

The two most notable events in the reign, in connection with the
Church, were the foundation of Queen Anne's Bounty, and the building
of fifty new churches. In the times of the Crusades, a tax of
firstfruits and tenths had been imposed for the purpose of prosecuting
the Holy Wars, and it had never been taken off. Henry VIII., of
course, seized upon it as his own royal perquisite, and so it
continued. Charles II. found it handy to provide for his seraglio; and
probably, had it not been for the very strenuous exertions of Bishop
Burnet with both William and Mary, and afterwards with Anne, it might
never have reverted to the Church.

As it was, Queen Anne surrendered it in a most graceful manner, making
it her birthday present to the nation in 1704. Her birthday (Feb. 6)
fell that year on a Sunday, but she kept it on the Monday, and on that
day sent a message to her faithful Commons that it was her desire to
make a grant of her whole revenue derived from the firstfruits, and
tenths, for the benefit of the poorer clergy. The Commons lost no time
in passing a Bill in acquiescence with the royal wish, even broadening
its basis--enabling other persons to make grants for the same purpose.
This latter addition encountered some opposition in the Lords, but
eventually became law.

The clergy were naturally grateful, and on Feb. 15 the clergy of both
Provinces waited on her Majesty, with addresses of thanks for her
kindness; and the lower House of Convocation for the Province of
Canterbury returned their thanks to the Commons for their readiness in
complying with the Queen's desire. On April 3 of the same year the
Queen gave her royal assent to the Act. That it was needed is
evidenced by the fact that the Commissioners found there were 5,597
livings under 50_l._ per annum, which were capable of augmentation.
The increase of the income of the poorer clergy was its first
intention: now the scheme has widened, and grants towards building
parsonage-houses, etc., are made. Still, Queen Anne's name remains
attached to it in grateful remembrance.

It was estimated that it would bring in an income of 6,000_l._ per
annum. How the fund is now administered may be learned from the
following extract from the _Globe_ of Feb. 15, 1882. 'In Convocation
of York yesterday a Committee was appointed to report upon the
constitution and management of Queen Anne's Bounty. It was stated that
the income of the Bounty is 15,000_l._, and that the cost of
management is between 7,000_l._ and 8,000_l._'[560] Comment on this is

          [Footnote 560: This statement was afterwards modified in the
          _Globe_ of June 21, 1882. 'The Report of the auditor, Mr.
          Charles Garlant, states that the cost of administration of
          the bounty fund is approximately 17_s._ 6_d._ per cent. on
          the receipts and payments generally, and £2 10_s._ per cent.
          if items on capital account are altogether excluded.']

London was growing bigger, but with the extension of house-building
there was no commensurate increase of church accommodation; so the
Upper House of Convocation presented an address to the Queen upon the
subject, and the Lower House petitioned the House of Commons. The
outcome of this was, that the Queen sent a message to the latter,
calling their attention to the state of spiritual destitution, and
recommending them to further 'so good and pious a work.' The Commons
dutifully replied that, although they had an expensive war on hand,
and heavy burdens to bear besides, yet they would be happy to do their
part, and consequently the session of 1711 saw the royal assent given
to an act for building fifty new churches within the Bills of
Mortality, to meet the expense of which was assigned the duty on
coals, which had defrayed the expenses of building St. Paul's.
Convocation returned thanks, and the fifty churches were eventually

The tone of the Church at that time was essentially Protestant. And no
wonder. William the Deliverer was warm in men's memory; and men,
fearing a repetition of Roman supremacy, as in the times of the second
James, unreasoningly went in the opposite direction, probably without
much absolutely religious feeling prompting them. More possibly it was

  'The Church God Bless,
  The Queen no less,
  And all that do Profess
  The same religion with Queen Bess.

But I'll warrant now, if we had a Bonfire in the Street, and such a
Whig as Tom Double shou'd pass by, he wou'd refuse this Health, and
then I shou'd break his Head.'[561]

          [Footnote 561: _The Weekly Comedy_, Jan. 2, 1708.]

Queen Bess was the Madonna of the Protestants, and 'her glorious
Memory' was a watchword of the party. Nov. 17, the anniversary of her
accession to the throne, was celebrated in the same manner as Nov. 5
used to be, until police control interfered with it. One Nov. 17 in
Queen Anne's reign, that of 1711, was rendered historically famous by
the steps the Government took in the suppression of this carnival. A
contemporary account[562] is as follows: 'Nov. 20. Upon information,
that the Effigies of the _Devil_, the _Pope_ and his _Attendants_ were
to be carry'd in Procession, and, according to Custom, burnt on
_Saturday_ last, the 17th Inst. being the Anniversary of Queen
ELIZABETH'S Accession to the Crown, of ever Pious and most Glorious
Memory, the Government apprehending that the same might occasion
Tumults in this Populous City, thought fit to prevent it. Accordingly,
on _Friday_ last, about Twelve a Clock at Night, some of Her Majesty's
Messengers, sustain'd by a Detachment of Grenadiers of the Foot
Guards, with their Officer, were order'd to go to an Empty House in
_Angel Court, Drury Lane_, which being broke Open, they found in it
the Effigies of the _Devil_, that of the POPE on his Right hand, and
that of a Young _Gentleman_ in a Blue Cloth Coat, with Tinsel Lace,
and a Hat with a White Feather, made of Cut Paper, seated under a
large Canopy; as also the Figures of Four Cardinals, Four Jesuits, and
Four _Franciscan Fryars_, and a large Cross about Eighteen Foot High;
all which, being put on several Carts were, about Two a Clock in the
Morning, carry'd to the _Cock Pit_, and there lodg'd in a Room between
the Council Chamber, and the Right Honourable the Earl of
_Dartmouth's_ Secretary's Office. Moreover, on _Saturday_, _Sunday_,
and _Monday_ the Trained Bands of _London_ and _Westminster_ were
under Arms; so that there was no Pope _Burnt_, tho' we hear of one
that was _Drown'd_. It may, perhaps, appear strange that a Popular
Rejoycing so grateful to this PROTESTANT City, which was never
attempted to be quash'd but in _K. James_ the Second's Reign, should,
at this Juncture, be interrupted: But, to be sure, those who did it
had very good Reasons for their Management.'

          [Footnote 562: _The Protestant Post Boy_, Nov 17/20, 1711.]

Swift, of course, gives Stella all the gossip about it, and says the
Whigs laid out about a thousand pounds upon the proposed show. 'They
did it by Contribution. Garth gave five guineas; Dr. Garth I mean, if
ever you heard of him.' Swift afterwards went to see the effigies, and
his report very much modifies his previous account: 'The fifteen
images that I saw were not worth forty pounds, so I stretched a little
when I said a thousand. The Devil is not like lord treasurer; they
were all your odd antick masks, bought in Common Shops.'

The last of them is told in a paragraph of the _Post Boy_, July 1/3,
1712: 'Yesterday, were disrobed at the Cockpit the Effigies of the
Devil, the Person who has pretended to disturb the Settlement of the
Protestant Succession of the House of Hanover, the Pope, Cardinals &c.
Our Enemies being now disarm'd, we will venture to say, that there
will soon be a General Cessation of Arms.'

Protestant throats yelled out--

  O! Queen Bess, Queen Bess, Queen Bess,
  Who sav'd us all from Popish Thrall?
  O! Queen Bess, Queen Bess, Queen Bess--

and bigoted, and intolerant Protestant legislators did their little
utmost to oppress their Roman Catholic fellow-subjects, even in
Ireland: 'Her Majestie, in council, has approved of several Irish acts
sent over hither, which are to be return'd, to passe into laws; among
them is that for preventing the further growth of popery in that
Kingdom, by which all the estates of Roman catholicks there after
their death, shall be equally divided among all their children, unless
the eldest turns protestant within a year after the father's decease,
and if so, to enjoy the whole; likewise by this bill all the Romish
clergy, who are now tolerated there, are to be registered, and when
they die, to be succeeded by protestants.'[563]

          [Footnote 563: _Luttrell_, Jan. 25, 1705.]

'Edinburgh, 14 Mar. 1704. Sir _James Stuart_, Her Majesty's Advocate,
having represented to the Council, that there were several Popish
Vestments, Trinkets, and others seized; And that they were given to
his Lordship, and in his Custody. The Lords of her Majesty's
Privy-Council do hereby appoint and ordain the Vestments, Crucifixes
and Trinkets, to be burnt at the Cross of _Edinburgh_ to-morrow, being
the 15th Instant, betwixt the hours of ten and twelve in the Fore
noon. And appoints and ordains the Magistrates of _Edinburgh_ to see
the same effectually done: And appoints and ordains the Chalice,
Patine, and such other of the said Trinkets, as are in Silver or Gold,
to be melted down and delivered to the present Kirk Treasurer of
_Edinburgh_, for the use of the poor thereof.'[564]

          [Footnote 564: _Flying Post._, Feb. 17/20, 1705.]

This order was duly carried out; 'An Inventor whereof follows,
_Imprimis_ An Chalice and Patine for the Ilastic (?). _Item_ Four
Crucifixes. _Item_ Two Surplices. _Item_ Three Colliers. _Item_ Four
pairs of Beeds, or Chapelets, with some Relicks of Saints. _Item_,
Several Pictures, with Indulgencies and Pardons; and particularly one
with this Indulgence following: _viz._ the Archbishop of Mechline has
granted Indulgence of forty days to those who shall bow their Knee
before this image once a day, considering devoutly the infinite
Charity of Jesus Christ, who has suffered for us the Bitter Death of
the Cross: And if any will perform this Devotion oftner, he shall so
oft have new Indulgence for five days more extracted.'

'Information being given of several priests lurking about this Citty,
the messengers the close of last week seized near Red Lyon Square 3
of them, viz, Gifford, Martin, and Matthews, the last is committed to
Newgate, but the others were admitted to bail, each in £1000, and 2
sureties in £500 apiece.'[565]

          [Footnote 565: _Luttrell_, Sept. 26, 1704.]

On April 4, 1706, the Privy Council sent a circular to the Archbishop
of Canterbury, which he in his turn sent round to the bishops, and
they to their clergy, stating that her Majesty being acquainted 'with
several Instances of the very great Boldness and Presumption of the
Romish Priests and Papists in this Kingdom,' directed them 'to Require
the Clergy in their several Dioceses to take an Exact and Particular
Account of the Number of the Papists and Reputed Papists in every
Parish with their Qualities, Estates and Places of Abode, and to
return the same to their respective Diocesans, who are to return the
same to your Grace, in Order to be laid before Her Majesty.'

This inquisitorial circular was followed on April 11, 1706, by 'A
PROCLAMATION For the Putting in Execution the Laws in Force against
such Persons as have or shall Endeavour to Pervert her Majesties
Subjects to the Popish Religion,' and it recites that the Acts to be
put in force were one of the 23 Eliz., 'An Act to Retain the Queen's
Majesties Subjects in their due Obedience,' and one of the 3 Jas. I.
'An Act for the Discovering and Repressing of Popish Recusants.'

This seems to have been ineffectual, or the nation must have had
another attack of Protestant fever, for on March 2, 1710, in a
proclamation offering 100_l._ for the apprehension of some Sacheverell
rioters, there are clauses, 'And we do strictly charge and command all
Papists, who shall be above the Age of Sixteen Years, that they do,
according to the Statutes in that behalf made, repair to their
respective Places of Abode, and do not thence remove or pass above the
Distance of five Miles--And that all such Papists and Persons reputed
so to be (except Merchants, Traders, settled House holders, and other
Persons excepted in the Statutes made in this behalf) do, on or before
the eighth day of this Instant _March_, depart out of our said Cities
and Suburbs of London and Westminster, and from all Places distant ten
Miles from the Same.'

On March 15, 1711, another proclamation was issued for all Papists to
remove from the cities of London and Westminster, and, even at the
very close of Anne's reign, we read;[566] 'At the Assizes held at
Chelmsford in the County of Essex, a bill of Indictment was found
against Hanmer, formerly mention'd in this Paper, for that he, being a
Popish Priest, did say Mass according to the Custom of the Romish
Church in that Country; to which Indictment he pleaded not Guilty, and
gave Suretys to try the same at the next Assizes.'

          [Footnote 566: _The Flying Post_, July 17/20, 1714.]

Misson gives a formidable list of religious sects then in existence,
to which, of course, owing to the vastly superior wisdom and
knowledge of this nineteenth century, we have enormously added and
improved upon. He says that there were, in his time, in England,
'Antinomians, Hederingtonians, Theaurian Joanites, Seekers, Waiters,
Brownists, Reevists, Baronists, Wilkinsonians, Familists, Ranters,
Muggletonians, &c., &c. All these, and nothing at all, are just one
and the same thing: Christianity is overwhelm'd with Sects enough
already, without our studying to multiply them chimerically....
Besides the Religion which serves God in the Church of _England_, and
which is the reigning Religion in _England_, there are several Sorts
of Sectaries; the Presbyterians are the Chief and most numerous....
The Independents were a Branch of Presbytery, but they are now united
again. Arminianism (if the Propositions of _Arminius_ ought to give
the odious name of a Sect) is spread every where. Here and there also
you meet with a Millennarian; but I know there is a particular
Society, tho' it makes but little Noise, of People, who, tho' they go
by the Name of Sabbatharians,[567] make Profession of expecting the
Reign of a Thousand Years without participating in the other Opinions,
which are ascrib'd to the ancient Millenarians. These Sabbatharians
are so call'd, because they will not remove the Day of Rest from
_Saturday_ to _Sunday_. They leave off Work betimes on _Friday_
Evening, and are very rigid Observers of their Sabbath.... England
hath also Anabaptists of Several sorts.... Within these few Weeks
there is sprung up a new Sect of People, that say they are Mystical
Theologists, and that take the name of _Philadelphians_,' etc.

          [Footnote 567: The Common people call them Seventh Day Men.]

This is very far from being an exhaustive list of the sects then in
existence, and it is not worth while wasting time in hunting up the
names and history of any more.

[Illustration: A Nonconformist Minister.]

John Wesley was born in Anne's reign, and Matthew Henry died in it,
whilst Calamy lived during the whole of it; but the most prominent
nonconformist in London was Daniel Burgess, whose Theatre, or
meeting-house, in Carey Street was gutted by the Sacheverell mob, and
had to be repaired at the expense of Government. Of this meeting-house
Brown says: 'For as it is not properly call'd the House of God, but
Mr. _Burgess's_, so Mr. _Burgess_, not God, is there worshipped.
Prayer and Praise is the proper Worship of God, but here they meet to
hear _Daniel_ lay about him, with his merry Stories and Theatrical
Actions, which is at least an _Amusement_ they think worth their

And this is one of Daniel's 'merry Stories.' Preaching one day on 'the
Robe of Righteousness,' he said: 'If any of you would have a good and
cheap suit, you will go to Monmouth Street; if you want a _suit_ for
life, you will go to the Court of Chancery; but, if you wish for a
suit that will last to eternity, you must go to the Lord Jesus Christ,
and put on his Robe of Righteousness.'

Swift speaks of him in _Tatler_ 66. 'There is my friend and merry
Companion _Daniel_. He knows a great deal better than he speaks, and
can form a proper discourse as well as any orthodox neighbour.' And
this, probably, is a true estimate of his character. Anyhow, he
_drew_, and his meeting-house was the most popular in London.

[Illustration: A Quaker's Meeting.]

There was an insane dislike to Quakers in Queen Anne's reign, and I
have not met with one kindly or sympathetic remark about them in all
my varied reading of these times. On the contrary, they were
represented as thoroughpaced hypocrites, cheats, liars, immoral
livers. The generic term applied to a Quaker was Aminadab (why?), and
Aminadab was everything that was sly and repulsive. We, who know the
quiet, simple folk, whose sect is fast dying out, because they have
obtained all the points they strove for, can never for an instant
imagine that their forefathers were the sly hypocrites they were
painted. Nor were they only lampooned verbally--a Quaker could not be
drawn without being caricatured into an unctuous rogue; their very
plainness of apparel, the men's plain hats and absence of wigs, and
the women wearing the old country steeple-crowned hat and simply made
gowns, were made the vehicles of sarcasm; the poverty of their
meeting-houses was typified by their preaching and sitting on tubs.

[Illustration: A Quakers' Meeting.]

Still, all writers have their dab of dirt to throw at them, and to
show how universal it was, a few examples may be given. _Swift_:[568]
'My friend Penn came there, Will Penn the Quaker, at the head of his
brethren, to thank the Duke for his kindness to their people in
Ireland. To see a dozen scoundrels with their hats on, and the Duke
complimenting with his off, was a good sight enough.' _Misson_: 'The
Quakers are great Fanaticks; there seems to be something laudable in
them; to outward Appearance they are mild, simple in all respects,
sober, modest, peaceable, nay, and they have the Reputation of being
honest; and they often are so. But you must have a Care of being Bit
by this Appearance, which very often is only outward;' and afterwards,
talking of females preaching, 'the Moment Mrs. Doctor spies a Ribbon,
the Spirit moves her, and she falls into one of her Fits; up she gets
on the Bottom of some Tub; with her pinch'd up Cap, and her screw'd up
Countenance; she Sighs, she Groans, she Snorts through the Nose, and
then out she bursts into such a Jargon as no mortal Man can make Head
or Tale of.' Mrs. _Centlivre_, in the 'Beau's Duel': 'I carried her to
wait on a Relation of ours that has a Parrot, and whilst I was
discoursing about some private Business, she converted the Bird, and
now it talks of nothing but the Light of the Spirit, and the Inward
Man.' _Brown_: 'They would be thought the _only People of God_; tho'
their Chief Motive to that impudent Ambition, is, that they may claim
the Right of _Pillaging_ and _Cheating_ all the World besides, as
_Ægyptians_. They won't swear, because they may chance to pay for
that; but they will lie Confoundedly, because they may chance to get
by that.' _Ward_ gives an account of a visit to a Quaker's tavern,
which was 'intended chiefly for Watering the Lambs of Grace, and not
to succour the Evil offspring of a Reprobate Generation;' and he says
that 'when they were desirous to Elevate their Lethargick Spirits with
the circulation of a Bumper, one fills it, and offers the prevailing
Temptation to his left Hand Companion, in these Words, saying, Friend,
does the Spirit move thee to receive the good Creature thus
plentifully? The other replies, Yea, Do thou take and enjoy the Fruits
of thy own Labour, and by the help of Grace I will drink another as
full. Thus did the liquorish Saints quaff it about merrily, after
their precise Canting manner.' Even the _Tatler_ (262) has an
advertisement, 'Drop'd on Sunday last, a small Roll of Paper, in which
was inclos'd the Draught of a _Quaker_ holding forth in a Tub, &c.'
These examples are quite sufficient to show the universal dislike of
this harmless sect, which could only have been induced by the thorough
contrast of their homely attire, and plain speech, with the ornate
dress and exaggerated verbiage then in vogue.

          [Footnote 568: _Journal to Stella_, Jan. 15, 1712.]

Penn, indeed, was welcome at Court, and lived at Kensington, and
afterwards at Knightsbridge, till 1706. He lived all through Anne's
reign, not dying till 1716.



     The different branches of the law -- Briefless Barristers --
     Green bags -- Forensic wigs -- Attorneys -- Knights of the Post
     -- Lord Somers -- Lord Cowper: his abolition of New Year's gifts.

Speaking of lawyers, Addison says:[569] 'The Body of the Law is no
less encumbered with superfluous Members, that are like _Virgil's_
Army which he tells us was so crouded, many of them had not Room to
use their Weapons. This prodigious Society of Men may be divided into
the Litigious and Peaceable. Under the first are comprehended all
those who are carried down in Coach fulls to _Westminster Hall_ every
morning in Term time. _Martial's_ description of this Species of
Lawyers is full of Humour:

  _Iras et verba locant_.

          [Footnote 569: _Spectator_, 21.]

Men that hire out their Words and Anger; that are more or less
passionate according as they are paid for it, and allow their Client a
quantity of wrath proportionable to the Fee which they receive from
him. I must, however, observe to the Reader, that above three Parts of
those whom I reckon among the Litigious, are such as are only
quarrelsome in their Hearts, and have no Opportunity of showing their
Passion at the Bar. Nevertheless, as they do not know what Strifes may
arise, they appear at the Hall every Day, that they may show
themselves in Readiness to enter the Lists, whenever there shall be
occasion for them.

'The Peaceable Lawyers are, in the first place, many of the Benchers
of the several Inns of Court, who seem to be the Dignitaries of the
Law, and are endowed with those Qualifications of Mind, that
accomplish a Man rather for a Ruler, than a Pleader; These Men live
Peaceably in their Habitations, Eating once a Day, and Dancing once a
Year, for the Honour of their Respective Societies.

'Another numberless Branch of Peaceable Lawyers, are those young Men,
who being placed at the Inns of Court in order to study the Laws of
their Country, frequent the Play House more than _Westminster Hall_,
and are seen in all publick Assemblies, except in a Court of Justice.
I shall say nothing of those Silent and Busie Multitudes that are
employed within Doors in the Drawing up of Writings and Conveyances;
nor of those greater Numbers that palliate their want of Business,
with a Pretence to such Chamber Practice.'

Thus we see that the legal world then very much resembled the same
now. Briefless barristers were as numerous then, and this seems to
have been their life: 'Young Barristers troop down to _Westminster_ at
Nine; Cheapen Cravats, and Handkerchiefs, Ogle the Semstresses, take a
Whet at the _Dog_, or a Slice of Roast Beef at _Heaven_, fetch half a
dozen turns in the Hall, peep in at the Common Pleas, talk over the
News, and so with their Green Bags, that have as little in them as
their Noddles, go home again. Summon'd by pensive Sound of Horn to
rotten roasted Mutton at Twelve; Leave a Paper in their Doors to study
Presidents and Cases for them all the Afternoon; may be heard of at
the Devil, or some neighbouring Tavern till One in the Morning.'[570]

          [Footnote 570: _A Comical View of London and Westminster._]

We not only note, in this quotation, that the lawyers carried _green_
bags, but we find, in contemporary literature, frequent allusion to
these bags, which certainly had been of the same colour ever since
Charles the Second's time, and so continued until the reign of George
III. Bands were worn, but they were not the little things they are
now, and there was no distinctive wig--nay, some men were bold enough
to wear their own hair. Lady Sarah Cowper has left a memorandum[571]
respecting her father, Lord Cowper, which throws light on this
subject: 'The Queen after this was persuaded to trust a Whigg
ministry; and in the year 1705, Ocb{r.} she made my father L{d} Keeper
of the Great Seal in the 41{st} year of his age--'tis said the
youngest Lord Keeper that had ever been. He looked very young, and
wearing his own hair made him appear yet more so; which the Queen
observing, obliged him to cut it off, telling him the world would say
she had given the Seals to a Boy.' But it is said that when he
appeared at court in his wig, the Queen had to look at him more than
once before she recognised him.

          [Footnote 571: _Lives of the Lord Chancellors_, etc., Lord

So much for the barrister. Of the other branch, the attorney, we hear
very little. Ward certainly portrays him in no very bright colours.
'He's an Amphibious Monster, that partakes of two Natures, and those
contrary; He's a great Lover both of Peace and Enmity; and has no
sooner set People together by the Ears, but is Soliciting the Law to
make an end of the Difference. His Learning is commonly as little as
his Honesty; and his Conscience much larger than his Green Bag. Catch
him in what Company soever, you will always hear him stating of Cases,
or telling what notice my Lord Chancellor took of him, when he beg'd
Leave to supply the deficiency of his Councel. He always talks with as
great assurance as if he understood what he only pretends to know: And
always wears a Band, and in that lies his Gravity and Wisdom. He
concerns himself with no Justice but the Justice of a Cause: and for
making an unconscionable Bill, he out does a Taylor.'

The courts of law were conducted with as much decorum and dignity as
now; but there is no doubt that false witnesses could be hired--nay,
they had a regular name--'Knights of the Post'; a name which certainly
dates back as early as the time of Charles I., when 'a roaring gul and
Knight o' th' post' were coupled together. In Anne's time 'Knights of
the Post are to be had in the _Temple Walks_ from Morning till Night,
for two Pots of Belch, and a Sixpenny slice of Boil'd beef'; and
Ward's friend, the attorney, 'is so well read in Physiognomy, that he
knows a Knight of the Post by his Countenance; and if your Business
requires such an Agent, he can pick you up one at a small Warning. He
is very understanding in the Business of the _Old Bailey_ and knows as
well how to Fee a Jury Man as he does a Barrister. He has a rare knack
at putting in Broomstick Bail; and knows a great many more ways to
keep a Man out of his Money, than he does to get it him. Tricks and
Quirks he calls the cunning part of the Law; and that Attorney that
practises the most knavery, is the Man for his Money.'

Queen Anne's reign was not prolific of great lawyers, although Lords
Somers, Cowper, and Harcourt were alive. The two former had the
felicity of being scarified by Mrs. Manley in the 'New Atlantis.' The
former, under the name of Cicero, is accused of seducing a friend's
wife, and then imprisoning, and finally making away with, her
husband; and the latter was charged with committing bigamy. His
brother Spencer Cowper, too, was unhappy in his connection with the
fair sex, he having been, with three others, arraigned for being
concerned in the murder of one Sarah Stout. He was acquitted, and
probably remembered the fact when afterwards he was a judge, in which
capacity he was very merciful. Lord Cowper put an end to an old
custom, by refusing to receive New Year's gifts from the officers of
his court and the counsel of his Bar; by which his wife says he lost
3,000_l._ per annum; but even then, although his salary was nominally
4,000_l._, he managed, by fees to which he was entitled, to make it up
to 8,000_l._ If Evelyn is to be believed, he knew how to take care of
himself. 'Oct. 1705. Mr. Cowper made Lord Keeper. Observing how
uncertain greate officers are of continuing long in their places, he
would not accept it unless £2000 a yeare were given him in reversion
when he was put out, in consideration of his loss of practice. His
predecessors, how little time soever they had the seal, usually got
£100,000, and made themselves barons.'



     Use as a highway -- River slang -- Rates of watermen --
     Description of wherries -- Pleasure parties and barges -- The
     Folly -- Its frequenters -- Gravesend tilt boat -- Fares at the
     Horse Ferry -- The Fleet Ditch.

The River Thames was then a veritable 'silent highway,' in the sense
of affording transport for passengers for short distances. In fact,
the wherries then took the places in a great measure of our present
cabs; and a cry of 'Next Oars' or 'Sculls,' when anyone made his
appearance at the top of 'the Stairs,' was synonymous with 'Hansom' or
'Four Wheeler.'

Poor Taylor, the Water Poet, had, more than half a century before,
sung the decadence of this highway, but it still fairly held its own,
and was in great request. When Sir Roger went with the Spectator to
Spring Gardens, Foxhall (that naughty place where the 'wanton baggage'
of a mask tapped the old knight on the shoulder, and asked him if he
would drink a bottle of mead with her, and where Sir Roger told the
mistress of the house 'He should be a better Customer to her Garden,
if there were more Nightingales, and fewer Strumpets'), he never
dreamed of going any other way than by boat. He chose out the boatman
with the wooden leg, and afterwards regaled him with the remains of
their luncheon, to the waiter's astonishment.

Addison was writing a _superfine_ paper 'for gentlemen, by
gentlemen,' so he softens down the language for which the river was
noted, and ignores the torrent of licentious ribaldry with which every
boat greeted each other, and which was known as 'River Wit.' He
certainly hints at it, but simply touches it, and then changes the
subject. When Sir Roger, in the kindliness of his heart and the
forgetfulness of custom, bids the passing boats Good Night, he merely
says, 'But to the Knight's great Surprize, as he gave the Good Night
to two or three young Fellows a little before our Landing, one of
them, instead of returning the Civility asked us what queer old Put we
had in the Boat, and whether he was not ashamed to go a Wenching at
his Years! with a great deal of the like _Thames_ Ribaldry. Sir Roger
seem'd a little shock'd at first, but at length assuming a Face of
Magistracy, told us, _That if he were a_ Middlesex _Justice, he would
make such Vagrants know that Her Majesty's Subjects were no more to be
abused by Water than by Land._

But Brown gives us the unadulterated slang, which cannot possibly be
reprinted for general perusal--indeed, his whole account of the river,
although it is far too graphic to be omitted, and it gives us
certainly the best contemporaneous description we have, must be
somewhat expurgated to fit it for modern tastes. 'Finding my Companion
thus agreeable to my Humour, I steer'd him down _Blackfryars_ towards
the _Thames_ side, till coming near the Stairs, where from their Dirty
Benches up started such a noisy multitude of old grizly _Tritons_, in
sweaty Shirts, and short-skirted Doublets, hollowing and hooting out
_Next Oars_ and _Skullers_, shaking their Caps over their bald
Noddles, seeming as overjoy'd to see us as if we had been Foreign
Princes come out of stark Love and Kindness to redeem them and their
Families from Cruel Popery and Slavery. I bawl'd out as loud as a
Speaking Trumpet, _Next Oars_, and away run Captain _Charon_ from the
Front of his wrangling Fraternity, with a Badge upon his Arm that the
World might behold whose Slave he was, and hollow'd to his Man _Ben_
to bring the Boat near, whilst the rest withdrew to their Seats,
calling one another _Louzy Rogue_ and _Sorry Rascal_, giving us a
clear passage without further Molestation.

'Upon my Word, says my friend, I am glad we are past them, for this is
one of the most ill looking Rabble, and from whom I had more
apprehensions of Danger, than from any I have yet met with. 'Tis all,
said I, but an _Amusement_, step into the Boat, sit down Watermen, row
us up to _Chelsea_: No sooner had we put off into the middle of the
Stream, but our _Charon_ and his Assistant (being jolly Fellows) began
to scatter their verbal Wildfire on every side of them, their first
Attack being on a Couple of fine Ladies with a Footman in the Stern,
as follows.... One of the Ladies taking Courage, pluck'd up a Female
Spirit of Revenge, and racing us with the Gallantry of an _Amazon_
made the following return' ... Well! that awful piece of river chaff,
which is still popularly supposed to arouse the ire of 'bargees.' 'Who
eat puppy pie under Marlow Bridge?' was milk and water compared to
the fearfully strong language this lady made use of, the mildest part
of her speech being, 'talk not to a Woman, you surly Whelp, for you
are fit for nothing, but like the Breed you come on, to crawl upon all
four, and cry Bow wow at a Bear Garden.' And so on with every boat
they met.

'After rowing for some time, we had arriv'd at that Port to which we
had consign'd our selves, where we quitted our Boat, and offering old
_Charon_ Three Shillings, he swore he would have a Crown; but having
the printed Rates in my Pocket, I was forc'd to lug out my Oracle
before the Freshwater Looby would be convinc'd of his Error; and
withal told him, Had it been in _London_, I would have carry'd him
before my Lord Mayor, and have had him punish'd, for making, contrary
to Law, so unreasonable a Demand. With that he takes the Money, and
putting off his Boat, gave us a notable Farewel after the following
manner--_viz._ You're a Couple of Niggardly Sons of ----; I care not a
---- for my Lord Mayor; ---- the Rogue that printed that Book;
----take you for a Book-learn'd Blockhead; and confound him that
taught you to read; and so we parted.'

Misson says, 'The little Boats upon the _Thames_, which are only for
carrying of Persons, are light and pretty; some are row'd but by one
Man, others by two; the former are call'd _Scullers_, and the latter
_Oars_. They are reckon'd at several Thousands; but tho' there are
indeed a great many, I believe the Number is exaggerated. The City of
_London_ being very long, it is a great Conveniency to be able
sometimes to make Use of this Way of Carriage. You sit at your Ease
upon Cushions, and have a board to lean against; but generally they
have no Covering unless a Cloth, which the Watermen set up
immediately, in case of Need, over a few Hoops; and sometimes you are
wet to the Skin for all this. It is easy to conceive that the _Oars_
go faster than the _Sculls_, and accordingly their pay is doubled. You
never have any Disputes with them; for you can go to no Part either of
_London_, or the Country above or below it, but the Rate is fix'd by
Authority; every Thing is regulated and printed.'

This, then, is a sample of the social amenities as then practised on
the river, and the following are the

  Rates of _Watermen_ as they are set forth by the _Lord Mayor_ and
  _Aldermen_ of the City of _London_.[572]

          [Footnote 572: 'An Useful COMPANION: or a _Help at Hand_.
          Being a Convenient POCKET BOOK.' Lond. 1709.]

                                                      |  Oars.| Skull.
  From London Bridge to Lime House, New Crane,        | s. d. | s. d.
       Shadwell Dock, Bell Wharf, Ratcliff Cross      |  1 -- |    6
  To Wapping Dock, Wapping new and old Stairs, the    |       |
      Hermitage, Rotherhith Church Stairs             |     6 |    3
  From St. Olave's to Rotherhith Church Stairs, and   |       |
      Rotherhith Stairs                               |     6 |    3
   From Billingsgate and St. Olave's to St. Saviour's |       |
       Mill                                           |     6 |    3
  All the Stairs between London Bridge and Westminster|     6 |    3
  From either Side above London Bridge to Lambeth and |       |
      Foxhall                                         |  1 -- |    6
  From Temple, Dorset, and Black-fryers Stairs or     |       |
       Pauls Wharf to Lambeth                         |     8 |    4
  Over the Water directly between Foxhall and         |       |
       Limehouse                                      |     4 |    1
                                                      |       |
            The Rates of OARS down the River.         |       |
                                                      |       |
                                                      | Wh. F |  Com.
  From London to                                      | s. d. | s. d.
                  Gravesend                           | 4   6 |     9
                  Grays or Greenhith                  | 4  -- |     8
                  Purfleet or Erith                   | 3  -- |     6
                  Woolwich                            | 2   6 |     4
                  Blackwall                           | 2  -- |     4
                  Greenwich, or Deptford              | 1   6 |     3
                                                      |       |
  Up the RIVER.                                       |       |
                  Chelsea, Battersey, Wandsworth      | 1   6 |     3
                  Putney, Fulham, Barnelms            | 2  -- |     4
                  Hammersmith, Chiswick, Mortlack     | 2   6 |     6
                  Brentford, Isleworth, Richmond      | 3   6 |     6
                  Twittenham                          | 4  -- |     6
                  Kingston                            | 5  -- |     9
                  Hampton Court                       | 6  -- | 1  --
                  Hampton Town, Sunbury, Walton       | 7  -- | 1  --
                  Weybridge and Chertsey              |10  -- | 1  --
                  Stanes                              |12  -- | 1  --
                  Windsor                             |14  -- | 2  --

The river, too, was naturally the place for picnics and pleasure
parties--although they were by no means so magnificent as the
following:[573] 'I took five Barges, and the fairest kept for my
Company; the other four I fill'd with Musick of all sorts, and of all
sorts the best; in the first were Fiddles, in the next Theorbo, Lutes,
and Voices. Flutes and such Pastoral Instruments i' th' third. Loud
Musick from the fourth did pierce the Air; Each Consort vy'd by turns,
which with most Melody shou'd charm our Ears. The fifth and largest of
'em all was neatly hung, not with dull Tapistry, but with green
Boughs, Curiously Interlac'd to let in Air, and every Branch with
Jessemins, and Orange Poesies deckt. In this the Feast was kept.'

          [Footnote 573: _The Lying Lover_, ed. 1704.]

These pleasure barges were more or less ornate, and varied from the
ordinary boat, with a tilt of canvas or green boughs to very
elaborately carved and gilded ones. The last remaining, in our time,
were the State barges of Her Majesty, the Trinity Barge, and the Lord
Mayor's and City Companies' State barges. The recollection of the
water pageant, on a sunshiny Lord Mayor's day, will never be effaced
from the memory of those among us who are old enough to have seen it.
It was one of the prettiest sights I ever saw; and a few of these
barges may still be seen, utilised at Oxford as College Club boats.

Misson says of barges, 'They give this name in England to a Sort of
Pleasure Boat, at one End of which is a little Room, handsomely
painted and Cover'd, with a Table in the Middle, and Benches round it;
and at the other End, Seats for 8, 10, 12, 30 or 40 Rowers. There are
very few Persons of Great Quality but what have their _Barges_, tho'
they do not frequently make use of them. Their Watermen wear a Jacket
of the same Colour they give for their Livery, with a pretty large
Silver Badge upon their Arm, with the Nobleman's Coat of Arms emboss'd
in it. These Watermen have some Privileges, as belonging to Peers; but
they have no Wages, and are not domestick Servants: They live in their
own Houses with their Families, and earn their Livelihood as they can.
The Lord Mayor of _London_, and the several Companies have also their
Barges, and are carry'd in them upon certain solemn occasions.'

[Illustration: 'The Folly on the Thames.']

Moored opposite Whitehall was a very large barge with a saloon, and
promenade on the top, called the Folly, and this was a favourite place
of entertainment. It was a fashionable resort in Pepys' time. He says,
'13 Ap. 1668. Spent in the Folly 1_s._'; and Queen Mary and some of
her attendants paid it a visit. In Anne's reign it was used as a
coffee-house, but it no longer was extremely fashionable, as the
company was very mixed. As D'Urfey sung:--

  When Drapers' smugged apprentices,
    With Exchange girls most jolly,
  After shop was shut and all,
    Could sail up to the Folly.[574]

          [Footnote 574: _A Touch of the Times._]

'Pray, says my Companion (pointing to the Folly), what noble
Structure is that floating upon the Water? I have often heard of
Castles in the Air, and this seems to me to be a kind of an Essay
towards such a windy Project. That Whimsical piece of Architect, said
I, was design'd as a Musical Summer House for the entertainment of
Quality, where they might meet.... But the Ladies of the Town, finding
it as convenient a Rendezvous for their purpose ... drove away their
private Enemies, and entirely possess'd themselves of this moveable
Mansion, which they have occupied ever since, very much to their
advantage.... We no sooner enter'd but we had as many Ladies staring
us in our Faces, as if we had been either handsom to admiration, or
ugly to a Miracle ... some dancing as they mov'd to show the Airyness
of their Temper; some ogling the Gallants, and others crowded into
Boxes like Passengers into a Western Wherry, sat smoaking their Noses,
and drinking Burnt Brandy, to defend their Stomachs from the chill Air
upon the Water.... In short, it was such a confused Scene of Folly,
Madness, and Debauchery, that we step'd again into our Boat without
Drinking to avoid the Inconveniences that attend mixing with such a
Swarm of Caterpillars, who are always dangerous to the Unwary, and
destructive to the Innocent.'[575]

          [Footnote 575: _A Walk Round London and Westminster._]

The ordinary freight barges were, both as to build and rig, extremely
similar to those of the present day, and there was one passenger and
freight sailing boat which went to the then _Ultima Thule_ of a
Londoner's experience--the Gravesend Tilt boat--of which we have an
interesting reminiscence in the

'Rates for Carrying of Goods in the _Tilt Boat_ between _Gravesend_
and London[576]--

          [Footnote 576: _An Useful Companion._]

                                                           s.  d.
  An Half Firkin                                           --  1
  An Whole Firkin                                          --  2
  An Hogshead                                               2  --
  An Hundred Weight of Cheese, Iron, or any Heavy Goods    --  4
  Sack of Salt, or Corn, Ordinary Chest, Trunck or Hamper  --  6
  Every Single Person in the Ordinary Passage              --  6
  The Hire of the Whole Tilt Boat                          22  6

There was a horse ferry (from whence the name Horseferry Road) between
Westminster and Lambeth for passengers, horses, coaches, etc. The
rates were--

                               s. d.
  For a Man and Horse         --  2
    "   Horse and Chaze        1  --
    "   Coach and 2 Horses     1  6
    "      "   "  4   "        2  --
    "      "   "  6   "        2  6
    " a Cart Loaden            2  6
    " a Cart, or Waggon each   2  --

Whilst on the subject of the river Thames, mention of one of its
tributaries, the Fleet Ditch, should not be omitted. Taking its rise
in Hampstead it meandered along, until it fell into the river at
Blackfriars, where it formed a wide and shallow mouth called a Fleet,
which was once of such extent that ships of considerable burden could
get up it some little distance. In Anne's time, however, it had become
a black and fetid sewer. Nobody had a good word for it. Gay never
mentions it without abuse.

  Or who that rugged Street would traverse o'er,
  That stretches, _O Fleet Ditch_, from thy black Shore.[577]


  If where Fleet Ditch with Muddy Current flows.

          [Footnote 577: _Trivia._]

Ward says, 'from thence we took a turn down by the Ditch side, I
desiring my friend to inform me what great advantages this Costly
Brook contributed to the Town, to Countervail the Expence of Seventy
four Thousand Pounds, which I read in a very Credible Author was the
Charge of its making; He told me he was wholly unacquainted with any,
unless it was now and then to bring up a few Chaldron of Coles to 2 or
3 pedling _Fewel Merchants_, who sell them never the cheaper to the
poor for such Conveniency: And as for those Cellers you see on each
side, design'd for Warehouses, they are rendered by their dampness so
unfit for that purpose, that they are wholly useless, except for
Lightermen to lay themselves in, or to harbour Frogs, Toads and other
Vermin. The greatest good that ever I heard it did, was to the
undertaker, who is bound to acknowledge he has found better Fishing in
a muddy Stream, than ever he did in clear Water.'



     Size of London -- Pall Mall -- London in wet weather -- Early
     morning -- Street cries: a list of them -- Roguery in the streets
     -- Orderly regulations -- State of the roads -- Rule of the road
     -- Street signs -- Description of the streets -- Milkmaids on May
     Day -- Hyde Park; its regulations -- Lighting the streets -- The
     streets at night.

London, it is scarcely necessary to remark, was very circumscribed in
its area compared to its overgrown present dimensions. The northern
bank of the river was well occupied from Shadwell to Westminster,
opposite Lambeth. On the west the houses went down the northern side
of Piccadilly, as far as Apsley House; but Bond Street was only
partially built, and there were no houses westward of it. The Edgware
Road and Tottenham (or, as it was then called, Hampstead) Road were in
existence, but few were the houses in either of them. At the Back of
Montague and Southampton Houses, and generally north of Theobald's
Road and Clerkenwell, there was nought but fields, dotted here and
there with farmhouses--with the hills of Hampstead and Highgate for a
background. Houses ceased, on the eastern side, after Shoreditch, and
shortly after passing Whitechapel Church; so that a walk all round
inhabited London--skirting the north bank of the river to begin
with--might be done in about twelve miles.

Covent Garden was the centre of social life. Soho and Leicester
Squares, and thence westward, comprised the limits of the court and
fashionable society--that land of luxury for which Gay sighed, but
which yet was not perfect.

  O bear me to the Paths of fair _Pell Mell_,
  Safe are thy Pavements, grateful is thy Smell!
  At distance, rolls along the gilded Coach,
  Nor sturdy Carmen on thy Walks encroach;
  No Less would bar thy Ways, were Chairs deny'd,
  The soft Supports of Laziness and Pride;
  Shops breathe Perfumes, thro' Sashes Ribbons glow,
  The Mutual Arms of Ladies, and the Beau.--
  Yet still ev'n Here, when Rains the Passage hide
  Oft' the loose Stone spirts up a Muddy Tide,
  Beneath thy careless Foot; and from on high,
  Where Masons mount the Ladder, Fragments fly;
  Mortar, and crumbled Lime in Show'rs descend,
  And o'er thy Head destructive Tiles impend.

[Illustration: A Street Scene.]

If, when it was wet weather, the ground was so bad in 'fair Pell
Mell,' what was it elsewhere? Here is a little scene out in the fields
going to St. Pancras Church--a wedding party.[578] 'The morning being
rainy, methought the march to this wedding was but too lively a
picture of Wedlock itself. They seemed both to have a month's mind to
make the best of their way single; yet both tugged arm in arm: and
when they were in a dirty way, he was but deeper in the mire, by
endeavouring to pull out his companion, and yet without helping her.
The bridegroom's feathers in his hat all drooped; one of his shoes had
lost an heel. In short, he was, in his whole person and dress so
extremely soused, that there did not appear one inch or single thread
about him _unmarried_.'[579]

          [Footnote 578: _Tatler_, No. 7.]

          [Footnote 579: A play upon the word unmarred (unspoilt).]

Swift[580] gives an excellent metrical description of a shower in
those days.

          [Footnote 580: _Tatler_, 238.]

  Now in contiguous drops the flood comes down,
  Threatening with deluge this devoted town.
  To shops in crouds the draggled females fly,
  Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy.
  The Templar spruce, while every spout's abroach,
  Stays till 'tis fair, yet seems to call a Coach.
  The tuck'd up sempstress walks with hasty Strides,
  While streams run down her oil'd umbrella's sides.
  Here various kinds, by various fortunes led,
  Commence acquaintance underneath a shed.
  Triumphant Tories and desponding Whigs
  Forget their feuds, and join to save their wigs.
  Box'd in a Chair the Beau impatient sits,
  While spouts run clattering o'er the roof by fits;
  And ever and anon with frightful din
  The leather sounds; he trembles from within.

Those gutter spouts, sending their streams not quite clear of the
pavement, must have been a terrible nuisance to a generation of men
innocent of umbrella or Mackintosh; and Gay advises anyone, in wet
weather, to maintain his privilege of taking the wall, but not to
quarrel for it.

  When from high Spouts the dashing Torrents fall,
  Ever be watchful to maintain the Wall;
  For should'st thou quit thy Ground, the rushing Throng
  Will with impetuous Fury drive along;
  All press to gain those Honours thou hast lost,
  And rudely shove thee far without the Post.
  Then to retrieve the Shed you strive in vain,
  Draggled all o'er, and soak'd in Floods of Rain.
  Yet rather bear the Show'r, and Toils of Mud,
  Than in the doubtful Quarrel risque thy Blood.

Let us take the streets throughout the day; and let, as usual,
contemporary writers give their own account of them in their own
language. Steele[581] begins with a description of London in the

          [Footnote 581: _Ibid._, No. 9.]

  Now hardly here and there an hackney Coach
  Appearing, show'd the ruddy morn's approach.
  The slipshod 'prentice, from his master's door,
  Had par'd the street, and sprinkled round the floor;
  Now Moll had whirl'd her mop with dextrous airs,
  Prepar'd to scrub the entry and the Stairs.
  The youth with broomy stumps began to trace
  The kennel edge, where wheels had worn the place.
  The small coal man was heard with cadence deep,
  Till drown'd in shriller notes of Chimney sweep.
  Duns at his Lordship's gates began to meet;
  And brick dust Moll had scream'd thro' half a street:
  The turnkey now his flock returning sees,
  Duly let out a' nights to steal for fees.
  The watchful bailiffs take their silent stands;
  And school boys lag with satchels in their hands.

It is only in the poorer neighbourhoods that street cries, nowadays,
flourish, and it is only by a visit to them that we can at all realise
the babel of sounds that the streets gave forth in the reign of Anne.
Luckily, as they differ so much from anything we know of, and are so
suggestive of the petty industries then practised, they have been
preserved for us by Marcellus Lauron, in his somewhat scarce
book,[582] from which many illustrations used in this book have been
taken. Here is a list of them:--

          [Footnote 582: _Habits and Cryes of the City of London_,

  Any Card Matches or Save Alls.
  Pretty Maids, Pretty Pins, Pretty Women.
  Ripe Strawberryes.
  A Bed Matt or a Door Matt.
  Buy a fine Table Basket.
  Old Shoes for some Broomes.
  Hot bak'd Wardens Hott.[583]
  Small Coale.
  Maids, any Cunny[584] Skins.
  Buy a Rabbet, a Rabbet.
  Buy a Fork or a Fire Shovel.
  Chimney Sweep.
  Crab, Crab, any Crab.
  Oh Rare Shoe.[585]
  Lilly White Vinegar 3 pence a quart.
  Buy my Dutch biskets.
  Ripe Speragas.
  Maids, buy a Mopp.
  Buy my fat Chickens.
  Buy my flounders.
  Old Cloaks Suits or Coats.
  Fair Lemons and Oranges.
  Old Chairs to mend.
  Twelve pence a peck Oysters.
  Troope, every One.
  Old Satten, Old Taffety or Velvet.
  Ha, Ha, Ha, Poor Jack.
  Buy my Dish of great Eeles.
  Buy a fine Singing bird.
  Buy any Wax or Wafers.
  Fine Writeing Inke.
  A Merry new Song.
  Buy a new Almanack.
  Buy my fine singing Glasses.[586]
  Any Kitchen Stuffe have you, Maids.
  Knives, Combs or Ink hornes.
  Four for six pence, Mackrell.
  Any Work for John Cooper.
  Four paire for a Shilling, Holland Socks.
  Colly Molly Puffe.[587]
  Six pence a pound fair Cherryes.
  Knives or Cissors to grinde.
  Long thread Laces, long and Strong.
  Remember the Poor prisoners.
  A Brass Pott, or an Iron Pott to mend.
  Buy my four Ropes of Hard Onyons.
  London Gazettes here.
  Buy a White line, a Jack line, or a Cloathe line.
  Any old Iron, take money for.
  Delicate Cowcumbers to pickle.
  Any Baking Pears.
  New River Water.

          [Footnote 583: Pies.]

          [Footnote 584: Rabbit.]

          [Footnote 585: Raree Show.]

          [Footnote 586: Glass Horns.]

          [Footnote 587: An itinerant pastrycook, mentioned in
          _Spectator_, 362, &c.]

This does not pretend to be an exhaustive list; in fact, they were so
numerous and varied that, as Addison says (_Spectator_, 251), 'There
is nothing which more astonishes a Foreigner, and frights a Country
Squire, than the Cries of London. My good friend Sir ROGER often
declares, that he cannot get them out of his Head, or go to sleep for
them, the first Week that he is in Town. On the contrary, WILL.
HONEYCOMB calls them the _Ramage de la Ville_, and prefers them to the
sounds of Larks and Nightingales, with all the Musick of the Fields
and Woods.' The whole of this _Spectator_ is on street cries, and is
very interesting reading.

Trim, in Steele's comedy of 'The Funeral' tells a lot of ragged
soldiers: 'There's a thousand things you might do to help out about
this Town, as to cry--Puff--Puff Pyes. Have you any Knives or Scissors
to grind--or, late in an Evening, whip from _Grub Street_ strange and
bloody News from _Flanders_--Votes from the House of Commons--Buns,
rare Buns--Old Silver Lace, Cloaks, Sutes or Coats--Old Shoes, Boots
or Hats.

  Successive Crys the Season's Change declare,
  And mark the Monthly Progress of the Year.

There was yet another noise in the streets, that of the ballad-singer,
or singers, for they generally went in couples. People were warned
against them.

  Let not the Ballad-Singer's shrilling Strain
  Amid the Swarm thy list'ning Ear detain:
  Guard well thy Pocket; for these _Syrens_ stand,
  To aid the Labours of the diving hand;
  Confed'rate in the Cheat, they draw the Throng,
  And _Cambrick_ Handkerchiefs reward the Song.

The streets ought to have been kept in fair order, if the inhabitants
had complied with the law; but they evidently neglected it, and had to
be reminded of their duties by a notice in the _Gazette_, April 12/14,
1711. According to 8 & 9 Will. III. cap. 37, everyone had, on
Wednesdays and Saturdays, to sweep and cleanse the road in front of
his house, building, or w