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Title: Historical Record of the Fifth Regiment of Foot, or Northumberland Fusiliers - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in - 1674; with its Subsequent Services to 1837
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS
  14, Charing Cross.


  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars, _viz._,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy,

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in


  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable



The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples, to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
'London Gazette,' from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit du Corps_--an attachment
to every thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the
valiant,--the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen,--our brothers--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.


  [_To face page 1._







  IN THE YEAR 1674,
  TO 1837.













  "_Ciudad Rodrigo_"--"_Badajoz_"--"_Salamanca_"--"_Vittoria_"--


  Anno                                                        Page

  1674  The Dutch Government obtains permission to
          entertain British Troops in its service                1

  ----  Ten Companies formed--the siege of Grave                 2

  ----  The FIFTH, and three other regiments, formed            --

  1676  Siege of Maastricht                                      3

  1677  Battle of Mont-Cassel                                    7

  1678  Battle of St. Denis                                     --

  1685  The Regiment proceeds to England                        10

  ----  Returns to Holland                                      11

  1688  Accompanies the Prince of Orange to England             12

  ----  Revolution--Placed on the English Establishment         14

  1690  Proceeds to Ireland                                     --

  ----  Battle of the Boyne                                     15

  1691  Skirmish near Castle-Cuff, &c.                          --

  ----  Siege of Athlone                                        17

  ----  Siege of Limerick                                       18

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  1692  Proceeds to Flanders                                    --

  ----  Returns to England                                      19

  1693  Expedition to Martinico                                 --

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  ----  Proceeds to Flanders                                    --

  1695  Covering the siege of Namur                             20

  1697  Returns to England                                      22

  1698  Proceeds to Ireland                                     --

  1707  Embarks for Portugal                                    --

  1709  Battle of Caya                                          24

  1710  Capture of Xeres de los Cabaleros                       25

  1713  Embarks for Gibraltar                                   27

  1727  Defence of Gibraltar                                    --

  1728  Proceeds to Ireland                                     28

  1735  Embarks for England                                     --

  1737  Returns to Ireland                                      29

  1755  Proceeds to England                                     --

  1758  Expedition to the Coast of France--destruction
          of Shipping, &c., at St. Maloes                       --

  ----  Capture of Cherbourg, &c.--Returns to England           30

  1760  Proceeds to Germany                                     --

  ----  Skirmish at Corbach                                     31

  ----  Battle of Warbourg                                      --

  ----  Surprise at Zirenberg                                   32

  ----  Skirmish at Campen                                      --

  1761  Battle of Kirch-Denkern                                 --

  ----  Affair at Capelnhagen                                   33

  ----  Skirmish at Eimbeck                                     --

  ----  Skirmish at Foorwohle                                   --

  1762  Battle of Groebenstien, &c.                             --

  ----  Skirmish at Lutterberg                                  36

  ----  Skirmish at Homburg                                     --

  ----  Covering the siege of Cassel                            --

  1763  Marches through Holland and embarks for England         --

  ----  Proceeds to Ireland                                     37

  1767  The "Order of Merit" introduced                         --

  1771  Suppression of disturbances in Ireland                  39

  1774  Embarks for Boston in North America                     --

  1775  Affair at Concord and Lexington                         40

  ----  Attack on Bunker's Hill                                 42

  1776  Embarks from Boston for Nova Scotia                     44

  ----  Reduction of Long Island                                --

  ----  Action at White Plains                                  45

  1776  Capture of Forts Washington and Lee                     45

  ----  Reduction of New Jersey                                 --

  1777  Expedition to Pennsylvania--actions at Brandywine
          Creek and Germantown                                  46

  1778  Retreat through the Jerseys--skirmish at Freehold       48

  ----  Expedition to Little Egg Harbour                        --

  ----  Reduction of the Island of St. Lucie                    49

  ----  The men equipped with White Plumes                      51

  1780}  In various actions in the West Indies                  --

  1780  Proceeds to England                                     51

  1781  Embarks for Ireland                                     52

  1787  Proceeds to Canada                                      54

  1797  Returns to England                                      56

  1799  Second battalion formed--both battalions embark
          for Holland                                           --

  ----  Action at Walmenhuysen, Shoreldam, and Egmont-op-Zee    57

  ----  Action at Winkle                                        58

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  1800  Proceeds to Gibraltar                                   59

  1802  Returns to England--Second battalion disbanded          --

  1803  Proceeds to Guernsey                                    --

  1804  Returns to England--a Second battalion raised           --

  1805  Second battalion to Guernsey--First battalion
          embarks for Hanover                                   --

  1806  First battalion returns to England--embarks for
          South America                                         60

  1807  Attack on Buenos Ayres                                  --

  ----  Both battalions proceed to Ireland                      61

  1808  First battalion embarks for Portugal                    --

  ----  ---- ----       Battle of Roleia                        62

  ----  ---- ----       Battle of Vimiera                       --

  ----  ---- ----       Advances into Spain--Retreats to
                          the coast                             63

  1809  First battalion, battle of Corunna                      63

  ----  ---- ----        Returns to England--proceeds on
                           the Walcheren expedition             64

  ----  First battalion returns to England                      65

  ----  ---- ----       Detachment at the battle of Talavera    --

  ----  Second battalion from Ireland to Portugal               --

  1810  ---- ----        Battle of Busaco--Lines of Torres
                           Vedras                               66

  ----  First battalion proceeds from England to Ireland        --

  1811  Second battalion, affair at Redinha                     67

  ----  ---- ----         Battle of Sabugal                     --

  ----  ---- ----         Battle of Fuentes d'Onor              68

  ----  ---- ----         Siege of Badajoz                      --

  ----  ---- ----         Action at El Bodon                    --

  1812  ---- ----         Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo               74

  ----  ---- ----         Siege of Badajoz                      76

  ----  First battalion from Ireland to Portugal                78

  ----  Both battalions at the battle of Salamanca              --

  ----  ---- ----       advance to Madrid                       79

  ----  Chivalrous spirit of James Grant                        --

  ----  Second battalion proceeds to England                    80

  ----  First battalion retreats from Madrid to Portugal        --

  1813  ---- ----       Battle of Vittoria                      81

  ----  ---- ----       Battle of the Pyrenees                  82

  ----  ---- ----       Enters France--battle of Nivelle        --

  ----  ---- ----       Passage of the Nive                     --

  1814  ---- ----       Affair near the Gave d'Oleron           83

  ----  ---- ----       Battle of Orthes                        --

  ----  ---- ----       Battle of Toulouse                      --

  ----  ---- ----       Embarks for North America               84

  ----  ---- ----       Action near Plattsburg                  --

  1815  ---- ----       Proceeds from America to Flanders       85

  ----  ---- ----       Advances to Paris                       --

  ----  ---- ----       Forms part of the Army of Occupation
                          in France                             --

  1818  First battalion proceeds to England                     85

  ----  Reduced to one battalion in 1816                        86

  ----  Proceeds to the West Indies                             --

  1821  Reduced from ten to eight companies                     --

  1824  Privilege of wearing a distinguishing feather
          confirmed                                             87

  1825  Augmented from eight to ten companies                   --

  1826  Embarks for England                                     --

  1827  Proceeds to Ireland                                     88

  1829  To wear a red and white feather                         90

  1830  Good conduct during the Galway election                 91

  1831  Six companies embark for Gibraltar, and four
          companies remain in Ireland                           95

  1832  The "Order of Merit" sanctioned                         96

  1833  Colours destroyed by fire                               97

  1834  Service companies from Gibraltar to Malta               98

  ----  Facings changed to a lively green                       99

  1835  Correspondence relative to an additional banner        100

  ----  The reserve companies proceed to England               101

  1836  Equipped as Fusiliers, and styled the FIFTH REGIMENT
          OF FOOT, OR NORTHUMBERLAND FUSILIERS                  --

  ----  "Wilhelmsthal" inscribed on the Colours                102

  ----  New Colours presented to the regiment                  103

  1837  Service companies proceed to Corfu                     106

  ----  The Conclusion                                          --


  The Vignette--Badge--to follow                        Title Page

  The Colours to face                                      Page  1

  The Uniform of 1688 to face                              Page 12

  The Uniform of 1835 to face                                  100

  The Uniform of 1837 to face                                  106


  Anno                                                        Page

  1674  Daniel Viscount of Clare                               107

  1675  John Fenwick                                           108

  1676  Henry Wisely                                            --

  1680  Thomas Monk                                            109

  1688  Thomas Tollemache                                       --

  1689  Edward Lloyd                                           110

  1694  Thomas Fairfax                                          --

  1704  Thomas Pearce                                           --

  1732  John Cope                                              111

  1737  Alexander Irwin                                        112

  1752  Charles Whiteford                                       --

  1754  Lord George Bentinck                                   113

  1759  Studholme Hodgson                                       --

  1768  Hugh Earl Percy                                        114

  1784  Honourable Edward Stopford                              --

  1794  Sir Alured Clarke, G.C.B.                              115

  1801  Richard England                                        116

  1812  William Wynyard                                         --

  1819  Sir Henry Johnson, Bart., G.C.B.                       117

  1835  The Hon. Sir Charles Colville, G.C.B, and G.C.H.        --







[Sidenote: 1674]

When the treaty of peace between England and Holland was being
negotiated at London in February 1674,[1] the Dutch Government,
remembering the advantages which had been derived from the
Auxiliary British troops in former wars, obtained permission again
to entertain in its service certain regiments.

Peace having been concluded, King Charles II. disbanded part of
his army in the same year, when many of the officers and men
proceeded to Holland, and the formation of the British division
was commenced. The original design was to have a division of ten
thousand men, to be commanded-in-chief, under the Prince of Orange,
by Major-General Sir Walter Vane; but while the organization of
this force was in progress, Sir Walter was killed at the battle of
_Seneffe_, which was fought on the 11th of August, 1674; and Sir
William Ballandyne was appointed to succeed him in the command of
the British troops.

The formation making rapid progress, in the autumn, when the Prince
of Orange was besieging _Grave_ in North Brabant, he was informed
that ten English and Irish companies, complete and fit for service,
were at Bois-le-Duc, about 18 miles distant, and his Highness,
eager to avail himself of their services, immediately ordered them
to join the army. In this siege the ten companies gave presage of
that gallantry for which they afterwards became celebrated; they
lost several men, and Sir William Ballandyne was also killed by a

The capture of _Grave_, which took place on the 28th of October,
terminated the campaign; the troops were sent into quarters; and
during the winter four regiments of British subjects were formed at
Bois-le-Duc;--two English,--one Scots,--and one Irish;--the latter
FUSILIERS, and its services form the subject of this narrative.
Its first Colonel was Daniel O'Brien, Viscount of Clare; but
this nobleman resigned soon afterwards, and quitted Holland.
The regiment was commanded, _ad interim_, by Lieutenant-Colonel
Anselmne, who had previously served with much honour in the Spanish

[Sidenote: 1675]

In 1675 the command of this regiment was conferred on Colonel John
Fenwick, who had distinguished himself at the battle of Seneffe; at
this period the regiment discontinued the designation of "Irish,"
and many English gentlemen received commissions in it.

After leaving its quarters at Bois-le-Duc in the spring of 1675,
the regiment was encamped for a short time on one of the beautiful
plains of Louvain, and it was subsequently employed in manœuvring
near the frontiers of France and in the Principality of Liege. The
progress of the campaign was impeded by the severe indisposition
of the Prince of Orange; no engagement of importance occurred, and
in the autumn the regiment marched to the Dutch Netherlands and
passed the winter in garrison at Utrecht.

[Sidenote: 1676]

In the summer of 1676 the regiment marched to Brabant, and was
stationed at Bois-le-Duc, preparatory to some expedition of
importance. This occurred in the early part of July, and the men
were in high spirits, anticipating some splendid adventure. About
two o'clock in the morning the drums beat "to arms;" the regiment
immediately assembled at the alarm-post, and commenced its march
for the province of Limburg, being joined by other corps every
day. On the fifth day, the Prince of Orange appeared at the head
of the troops, and, to the surprise of the enemy, the famous city
of _Maestricht_ was besieged. This city, which was well fortified
with all the works which art could suggest, was defended by 8000
chosen men commanded by Monsieur Calvo, a resolute Catalonian. The
Prince of Orange attended to the progress of the siege; and after
the arrival of the battering train, the works were carried on with

The three English regiments[2] were formed in one Brigade, and
they soon distinguished themselves, beating back the sallies of
the garrison with great slaughter. On the 30th of July, a storming
party of two hundred men, furnished in equal proportions by the
three regiments, attacked the Dauphin Bastion, and after a severe
contest effected a lodgment, but afterwards lost their ground: this
proved a sanguinary affair, and 150 men were killed and wounded out
of the two hundred. On the 2nd of August the Brigade was again on
duty in the trenches, when Colonel Fenwick was wounded.

The Prince of Orange resolved to make a second attack on the
Dauphin Bastion on the 4th of August, when a detachment from
the Brigade, commanded by Captain Anthony Barnwell of Fenwick's
regiment, with another from the Dutch Foot Guards, commanded by
Baron Sparr, formed the storming party.[3] At three o'clock the
Brigade was under arms with the storming party in front; and
at five the gallant little band, advancing under a tempest of
bullets, went cheering to the attack and carried the bastion in
gallant style--the English, gaining the lead of the Dutch, first
made a lodgment. Scarcely, however, had the soldiers gained a
footing, when the French sprung a mine and blew many of the
men into the air, and following this up with a fierce attack,
regained possession of the works. The heroic English were, however,
"resolute to win;"--they returned to the attack, and fighting with
a strength and majesty which nothing could withstand, drove back
the French, and re-established themselves on the bastion; but their
commander, Captain Barnwell, was killed, and more than half the
officers and men of the party were killed and wounded.

About five in the morning of the 6th of August a desperate sally
was made by three hundred Swiss Infantry, and, owing to the neglect
of a sentry, they surprised and made prisoners the English guard
on the bastion; but a reinforcement from the Brigade came forward
to their rescue, and, after saluting the assailants with a few
volleys, and a shower of hand-grenades, made a furious charge,
retaking the bastion and chasing the Swiss Infantry with prodigious
slaughter to the palisadoes of the counterscarp, destroying
the whole detachment, except about twenty men who escaped into
the town. The Prince of Orange complimented the Brigade on its
distinguished bravery, and made each of the three regiments a
present of a fat ox and six sheep.[4]

On the 15th of August Colonel Fenwick's regiment, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel Wisely (the Colonel not having recovered
from his wounds) was on duty in the trenches, when the enemy
made another furious sally; but they were nobly received by the
regiment; a fierce combat ensued, in which the strength and
unconquerable spirit, of the English again excited the admiration
of the Prince of Orange, and a reinforcement arriving, the French
were driven back with great loss.

The progress of the siege had been marked by surprising energy,
but it was prolonged by the resolute defence of the garrison; and
when all things were ready for a general assault, a French army of
overwhelming numbers, commanded by Marshal Schomberg, advanced to
its relief. The Prince of Orange immediately raised the siege and
retired; and the three English regiments, having sustained a severe
loss, and having nearly half the number of the surviving officers
and men wounded, were sent into quarters of refreshment in Holland.
At the same time a misunderstanding occurred between Colonel
(afterwards Sir John) Fenwick and the Prince, and the Colonel
resigned his commission; when his Highness gave the Colonelcy of
the regiment to the Lieutenant-Colonel, Henry Wisely.

[Sidenote: 1677]

The French, while amusing the Allies with negotiations for a peace,
commenced the campaign of 1677, with great vigour, and with such an
immense army, that the feeble preparations of the Dutch, and the
apathy of the Spaniards, left the Prince of Orange without an army
capable of resisting the enemy. He, however, resolved to attempt
the relief of St. Omers, which was besieged by the French; the
English Brigade was ordered to West Flanders, to take part in the
enterprise, and it was encamped a short time on the plains of the
Yperlee. In the early part of April, the Prince advanced with his
little army, and on the 11th of that month he fought the battle
of _Mont-Cassel_ under great disadvantages in numbers, and in the
nature of the ground. The English Brigade behaved with its usual
gallantry; but the army was defeated, and the Prince retreated with
the loss of his baggage and artillery. The Brigade was afterwards
employed in manœuvring and in defensive operations until the
autumn, when it went into quarters. The Prince of Orange proceeded
to England, and was married to the Princess Mary on the 14th of
November, 1677.

[Sidenote: 1678]

Before the following spring, Major-General the Earl of Ossory
arrived from England to command the six British regiments in the
Dutch service, and ten thousand English troops, commanded by the
Duke of Monmouth, were ordered to proceed to Flanders to take part
in the war.

The Earl of Ossory's brigade was early in the field: it was
employed a short time on detached services in the Netherlands,
and was afterwards encamped near the ground where the battle of
Waterloo was fought in June, 1815. In the mean time the French
besieged _Mons_, the capital of the province of Hainault, and their
covering army occupied a strong position, with its right at the
Abbey of _St. Denis_, and its left at Mamoy St. Pierre. The Prince
of Orange assembled his army, and after advancing several stages,
he encamped near the little river Senne, about seven miles from
Mons; and on the morning of the 14th of August, 1678, his Highness
put the troops in motion to attack the enemy.

The British Brigade, led by the Earl of Ossory, moved from
its camp along a difficult tract of country, until it came in
front of a hill occupied by the enemy's left wing, where it was
destined to make its attack, in conjunction with the Dutch Foot
Guards. The signal for the attack was given, when the British
Grenadiers, springing forward with lighted matches, threw a shower
of hand-grenades, which, bursting amongst the ranks of the enemy,
did much execution. The Musqueteers followed, and opening a sharp
fire, were answered by the volleys of the enemy; their fire was
soon succeeded by the charge of the Pikemen, who went cheering
onward to the attack, while the Musqueteers, drawing their swords,
joined in the onset with admirable spirit and resolution,--and the
enemy gave way. One attack was succeeded by another; the French,
driven from field to field, still rallied and returned to the
fight. Pike to pike and sword to sword, the combatants maintained a
fierce conflict, while the hand-grenades flew in every direction,
and the heights of Castehau presented a varied scene of turmoil and
slaughter, in the midst of which the Prince of Orange and the Duke
of Monmouth appeared, mixed with the combatants, and urging forward
the storm of battle.[5] A French captain levelled his pistol at
the Prince, but General D'Auverquerque killed the captain before
he had time to fire, and thus saved his Highness's life, for which
service the States made him a present of a valuable sword. Night at
length put an end to the fight, and the French afterwards made a
precipitate retreat.

The regiment lost in this action Lieutenant-Colonel Archer,
Lieutenant Charlton, and about fifty men killed: also Major Hales,
Captain Charlton, Captain Coleman, Captain Floyd, Captain Dupuy,
Lieutenant Augerne, Lieutenant Marchany, Lieutenant Wilson, Ensign
Barnwell, Ensign Arnesby, and upwards of a hundred men wounded. The
loss in the other regiments of the Brigade was also equally great.

In the mean time preliminary articles for a treaty of peace had
been agreed upon at Nimeguen; a cessation of hostilities took place
on the day after the battle; and the Brigade, after encamping a
few months in Flanders, marched to Holland, where it received the
thanks of the States-General for its meritorious services.

The restoration of peace was followed by a reduction in the numbers
of the Dutch Army; but the Prince of Orange, and the States-General
of the United Provinces, were so sensible of the advantages they
had derived from the services of the British troops, that they were
desirous of retaining the six regiments in their service. A new
treaty was concluded on this subject, and the States agreed to send
the regiments to England, whenever the King required them to do so.

[Sidenote: 1679]

[Sidenote: 1680]

Colonel Wisely's regiment was marched to Grave, where it was
employed on garrison duty four years; and in 1680, its Colonel
having been drowned when on his passage to England, the Colonelcy
was conferred on Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Monk, of Sir Henry
Bellasis' regiment (now Sixth Foot).

[Sidenote: 1684]

Upon the prospect of hostilities with France, in 1684, the regiment
marched from Grave, and was encamped for a short time near
Brussels, and afterwards on the banks of the Dender; but no war
breaking out, it proceeded into quarters at Mechlin.

[Sidenote: 1685]

In the succeeding year the death of King Charles II. and the
accession of James II., a professed Papist, being followed by a
rebellion in Scotland, headed by the Earl of Argyle, and another in
England, headed by the Duke of Monmouth, the six British regiments
were applied for by the King, and they were accordingly embarked
for England under the command of the following officers:--

                { Colonel Thomas Monk,--now Fifth Foot.
  Three English { Colonel Sir Henry Bellasis,--now Sixth Foot.
    Regiments.  { Colonel Alexander Cannon,--afterwards disbanded.

                { Colonel Kirkpatrick.
  Three Scots   { Colonel Sir Alexander Colyear.
    Regiments.  { Colonel Hugh Mackay.

The three Scots regiments were, in the first instance, ordered for
Scotland, but the rebellion in the North having been suppressed,
they landed at Gravesend on the 30th of June, 1685, and having
been reviewed on Blackheath by the King, marched through London
towards the West.[6] The three English regiments landed a few days
afterwards; but the rebel army having been defeated at Sedgemoor,
on the 6th of July, they encamped on Blackheath, and afterwards
on Hounslow Heath, where the Brigade was assembled and reviewed
by his Majesty, and the efficiency, discipline, and appearance of
the several corps, excited universal admiration.[7] The rebellion
having been suppressed, the six regiments returned to Holland, and
were again employed in garrison duty. The three English regiments
were on the English establishment from the 5th of June, to the 3rd
of August, 1685, and the Scots' regiments a few days longer.

[Sidenote: 1686]

[Sidenote: 1687]

The arbitrary proceedings of King James, with his advances towards
the subversion of the Protestant religion, occasioned much anxiety
to the Prince of Orange, who was married to the presumptive
heiress to the throne; at the same time, the King was jealous of
the attachment of the nation to his son-in-law, and in 1687 his
Majesty demanded the return of the British regiments in the Dutch
service. The States-General, in concert with the Prince, resolved
not to part with these favourite corps, for whose services they
expected soon to have urgent occasion; at the same time they laid
no constraint upon the officers, but allowed them either to remain
in Holland or to return to England, at their own free choice. Out
of two hundred and forty officers,[8] only sixty[9] embraced the
latter alternative; the rest bound themselves "to stand by and
defend the Prince of Orange against all persons whatsoever."

[Sidenote: 1688]

[Sidenote: 1689]

The colonelcy of the regiment having become vacant by the death
of Colonel Monk, it was conferred by the Prince of Orange on
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Tollemache,[10] formerly of the
Coldstream Guards.

The violent proceedings of the British Court at length occasioned
many of the nobility to solicit the Prince of Orange to come with
an armed force to their aid; and as the fate of all the other
Protestant States in Europe appeared to depend on the preservation
of Great Britain from Papal domination, the Prince and the
States-General acquiesced. Thus the six British regiments had the
honourable and glorious privilege of engaging in an enterprise
for the deliverance of their native land from the attempts to
establish Popish ascendancy, and the consequent chances of civil
war. On receiving positive advice of the preparations in Holland,
"the King was speechless, and, as it were, thunderstruck. The airy
castle of a dispensing arbitrary power raised by the magic spells
of jesuitical councils vanished away in a moment, and the deluded
monarch, freed from his inchantment by the approach of the Prince
of Orange, found himself on the brink of a precipice, whilst all
his flatterers stood amazed and confounded."[11] The King at length
assembled an army of about 30,000 men, and sent Lord Dartmouth to
sea with the fleet.


The Prince of Orange's army, consisting of about 15,000 men, of
which "the most formidable were the six British regiments,"[12]
put to sea, after some delay from tempestuous weather, on the 1st
of November, 1688; "the trumpets sounding, the hautboys playing,
the soldiers and seamen shouting, and a crowd of spectators on the
shore breathing forth their wishes after them."[13] Sailing in
three divisions, the first, consisting of the English and Scots,
commanded by Major-General Mackay, under a red flag; the second,
being the Prince's Guards and the Brandenburgers, commanded by
Count Solms, under a white flag; and the Dutch with a corps of
French Protestants, commanded by the Count of Nassau, under a blue
flag: they passed triumphantly through the British Channel and
landed on the Devonshire coast on the 5th of November. Colonel
Tollemache's regiment (the Fifth) landed at Brixham key, two miles
from Dartmouth, from whence it marched to Exeter and afterwards to
Honiton, where, on the night of the 13th, it was joined by a number
of men of the Earl of Oxford's and Duke of St. Alban's regiments
of horse, and of the Royal Regiment of Dragoons, who had quitted
the service of King James to espouse the national cause. These
desertions were followed by others of a more important character;
and King James, discovering that his army would not be subservient
to his designs against the kingdom, fled to France, William and
Mary, Prince and Princess of Orange, were solicited to ascend
the throne; and thus the Revolution was happily effected without
that sacrifice of human life which such events usually occasion.
Colonel Tollemache's regiment had, in the mean time, marched to the
vicinity of London, and it afterwards proceeded into quarters in
the western counties. It was now permanently placed on the English
establishment, and taking date from the 5th of June, 1685, the day
on which it first received pay from the British crown, as before
stated, it obtained rank as FIFTH REGIMENT OF FOOT in the British

Colonel Tollemache having been promoted to the command of the
Coldstream Guards, the Colonelcy of the FIFTH was conferred on
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Lloyd, by commission dated the 1st of
May, 1689; and in the following month the regiment marched from the
west of England for London, and was quartered in Southwark until
October, when it embarked at Deptford and Greenwich for Plymouth,
and in December marched into Cornwall, with detached companies in

[Sidenote: 1690]

In the mean time Ireland had become the seat of war, and King James
was at the head of the Roman Catholics, and a French auxiliary
force, in that kingdom, while the Duke of Schomberg commanded the
Irish Protestants and English troops; and in the spring of 1690
the FIFTH FOOT was ordered thither. The regiment, accordingly,
proceeded to Bristol, where it embarked; and having landed at
Belfast on the 20th of April, marched to Lisburn, and encamped
near the banks of the Lagan until the 9th June, when it proceeded
to Armagh and erected its tents on the undulating grounds in that
neighbourhood, where an encampment was formed of four regiments of
English infantry, with three regiments of Danish horse and eight of

King William having arrived in Ireland, the regiment marched to
Dundalk, where the army was assembled; and on the 1st of July
the enemy was attacked in his position on the banks of the river
_Boyne_. The FIFTH was in Brigadier-General Trelawny's brigade, and
by its gallant conduct it contributed to the signal victory gained
on this occasion. The enemy evacuated Dublin a few days after the
battle, when the regiment was ordered to proceed thither, and it
remained in garrison in that city during the remainder of the

[Sidenote: 1691]

The regiment left Dublin in the early part of 1691, and in April
it was stationed at Mountmelick. The troops quartered in that
neighbourhood were frequently disturbed by bands of armed Roman
Catholic peasantry, called _Rapparees_, who concealed themselves in
the day-time, and at night prowled about the country, committing
every description of depredation: to check these proceedings, a
detachment of 200 men of the FIFTH, commanded by Major Rider,
with 100 men of Lord George Hamilton's regiment, and 50 troopers
of Colonel Byerley's Horse,--now 6th Dragoon Guards,--the whole
commanded by Major Wood,[14] marched out of Mountmelick at nine
o'clock on the evening of the 4th of May, and, dividing themselves
into several small parties, they traversed the woods and bogs for
several miles, frequently encountering lurking parties of the
enemy, whom they attacked, killing seventy men and capturing a
quantity of cattle, which Major Wood sent to Mountmelick under a
guard of thirty men. The remainder continued their search until
about ten o'clock on the following day, when Major Wood, with one
party of 34 horsemen, and 30 foot, discovered two battalions of
the enemy's regular army of about 400 men each, marching silently
between the wood and mountains, not far from _Castle-Cuff_; at the
same time the enemy espied Major Wood and his little detachment.
The English, with a noble bearing and audacity, formed up in a
ploughed field to oppose this formidable host, and the Irish
instantly sent forward their grenadiers to commence the attack, but
perceiving the undaunted countenance of the detachment, they halted
at a distance. A sharp firing was at this instant heard beyond the
forest, and Major Wood, apprehending that the party with the cattle
was attacked, proceeded to its assistance; but Lieutenant Ellis and
the thirty foot, behaved like valiant men; and, having repulsed a
superior force, effected their retreat with the booty. The firing
had brought a detachment of 80 men of the FIFTH from the opposite
side of the forest, and Major Wood, having now 34 horsemen and 110
foot with him, resolved, notwithstanding the disparity of numbers,
to attack the enemy's column. He accordingly divided his foot
into two parties, and directed them to attack the enemy in front,
while he himself with the horse made a short compass to gain the
enemy's rear. This gallant little band, advancing boldly against
the enemy's masses, commenced the attack with a fury and resolution
which the Irish could not withstand, and they attempted to retreat;
but at that moment Major Wood with his thirty-four troopers came
galloping from amongst the trees and charged the flank of the
column with admirable courage and resolution; the heavy horse,
breaking through the ranks, trampled down the Irish in a terrible
manner. The column was now become a confused rabble, scattered in
wild disorder, and cut down by the English horsemen on every side;
while the English foot, slinging their muskets and drawing their
swords, joined in the pursuit and chased the enemy a considerable
distance. One hundred and fifty of the Irish were killed on
the spot; and 1 major, 5 captains, 9 lieutenants, 2 ensigns, 1
adjutant, 1 surgeon, 6 serjeants, 17 corporals, 3 drummers, and 82
private men, were made prisoners; 150 muskets were also collected,
which the Irish had thrown away to facilitate their flight. "And
all this was done by 110 of our foot and 34 horse. With the foot
were Major Rider, Captain Nenny, Captain Dixey, Lieutenant Barton,
and Ensign Russel. With the horse, were Cornet Jocelyn, Cornet
Hasleton, and Adjutant Robinson, with Quarter-masters Davies and
Cadford; who all, both horse and foot, behaved extremely well, and
with the loss only of one corporal killed, and Adjutant Robinson,
with two foot soldiers and one trooper, wounded[15]."

On the 12th of May, another party of the regiment was out scouring
the woods, when 18 Rapparees were killed and several made prisoners.

In June, the FIFTH advanced with the army to _Athlone_, and took
part in the siege, which was commenced on the 19th of that month:
on the 30th the Grenadier company formed part of the storming party
commanded by Major-General Mackay. The attack was made at six in
the evening, when the forlorn hope, consisting of Captain Sandys,
with 2 Lieutenants and 60 Grenadiers, all in armour, entered
the Shannon, which was breast high, under a sharp fire, and were
followed by the remainder of the storming party, who passed, some
at the bridge of boats, and others by planks laid across the broken
arches of the stone bridge. The party, having gained the opposite
shore, threw forward a shower of hand-grenades, which put the
Irish in confusion; then gallantly ascending the breaches forced
their way through every obstacle, and in less than half an hour
were masters of the town, with the loss of only 12 men killed, and
5 officers with 30 men wounded; but the enemy had about 500 men
killed. Colonel Lloyd was appointed Governor of Athlone, and when
the army advanced, the FIFTH, and Lieutenant-General Douglas's
regiments, were left in garrison; and the battering train was left
in their charge.

After the battle of Aghrim, when the army was about to besiege
_Limerick_, the FIFTH, and a party of Militia, were ordered to
advance with the heavy artillery; they, accordingly, left Athlone
on the 12th of August, and joined the army at Cariganless on the
16th. The siege was commenced a few days afterwards, and the FIFTH
was actively employed until the surrender of the place on the 3rd
of October. This conquest terminated the war in Ireland, and the
regiment, being immediately ordered to embark for England, landed
at Highlake, near Chester, on the 29th of December, from whence
it marched to Nottingham, Derby, and other inland towns, where it
commenced recruiting its numbers.

[Sidenote: 1692]

Three weeks, however, only elapsed before it was ordered to march
to London, where it remained but a few days, and towards the end of
February 1692 embarked for Flanders to join the army of the Allies,
who were engaged in a war with France. The regiment was scarcely
placed in cantonments in West Flanders, when the King of France
assembled about 20,000 men near La Hogue, and ordered his fleet to
prepare to convey them to England, with the view of replacing King
James on the throne; the Second, FIFTH, and Fourteenth regiments
of Foot were consequently ordered to return: and these corps,
having landed at Greenwich in the early part of May, were stationed
along the southern coast. In the mean time the British and Dutch
fleets had put to sea, and while England and France were gazing,
in anxious expectation, at these preparations, the French fleet
sustained a decisive defeat off La Hogue, and the alarm of invasion
vanished. The FIFTH continued in extensive cantonments near the
coast until October, when it marched to Portsmouth to perform duty
in that garrison.

[Sidenote: 1693]

During the summer of 1693 the regiment was embarked on board the
fleet, and, proceeding with an expedition to _Martinico_, it
effected a landing, drove the enemy's troops from the coast, and
laid waste several French settlements on that Island. In the autumn
it landed at Portsmouth and marched into cantonments in Berkshire
and Buckinghamshire.

The severe loss sustained this summer by the Allies at the battle
of Landen, occasioned a strong reinforcement to be sent to Flanders
during the winter, and the FIFTH was one of the regiments selected
for foreign service. It accordingly embarked at Greenwich and
Deptford in December, and, after landing at Ostend, marched to
Sluys, a fortified town situated on an arm of the sea, where the
regiment remained several months.

[Sidenote: 1694]

After leaving Sluys in the middle of May, 1694, the regiment
pitched its tents on the levels near Ghent, and afterwards at
Tirlemont in South Brabant, forming part of the army commanded by
King William III. in person. On the 15th of June it was detached,
with other corps, to take post near the Abbey of Lenthen. During
the subsequent part of the campaign it was employed in several
military operations, and in the autumn marched into barracks
at Bruges. The death of its Colonel having taken place on the
26th of August, his Majesty conferred the vacant Colonelcy on
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Fairfax, by commission dated the 6th of
November, 1694.

[Sidenote: 1695]

After remaining in garrison at Bruges until the 25th of May, 1695,
the FIFTH took the field and was encamped a short time on the
verdant plains near the river Lys; and when King William undertook
the siege of the strong fortress of _Namur_, the regiment formed
part of the covering army commanded by the Prince of Vaudemont.

While the King was carrying on the siege, a French force of
superior numbers, commanded by Marshal Villeroy, advanced to attack
the covering army. On the evening of the 14th of July the Allies
were formed in order of battle; the immense columns of the enemy
were seen in the open grounds in their front, and the hostile
armies passed the night under arms, expecting to engage at the
break of day; at the same time the French had detached a division
under Monsieur de Montal to turn the right flank of the allied
army. This occasioned the Prince to order a retreat, which he
masked with excellent judgment: the cavalry advancing to the front,
the dragoons dismounting and forming on foot; while the artillery,
and infantry with their pikes trailed, quietly withdrew. The enemy,
anticipating success, prepared for the attack; but in a moment, the
British dragoons, retiring a few paces, mounted their horses, and
when the enemy thought to have commenced the battle, the skeleton
squadrons withdrew; presenting to the surprised French the magic
spectacle of what appeared to be an army vanishing out of sight.
The enemy's cavalry galloped forward in pursuit; but the Allies
continued their retreat in good order, and at six o'clock on the
morning of the 16th were in position in front of Ghent.

The FIFTH was afterwards engaged in a series of manœuvres for
the preservation of the maritime towns of Flanders, and for the
protection of the troops before Namur. In the early part of August
it was encamped between Genappe and Waterloo, and subsequently
before Namur, which capitulated on the 22nd of August. From Namur
the regiment marched to Nieuport, and encamped on the sand-hills
near that town; and, remaining in the field until late in the
season, when the weather was particularly wet and cold, the men
were ordered to build straw huts; but towards the end of October
they marched to Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1696]

On the 12th of May, 1696, the regiment marched out of the barracks
at Bruges, and encamped behind the banks of the canal near the
town. During the campaign of this year its services were limited
to the protection of Ghent and Bruges from an attack which the
French commanders made several demonstrations of a design of making
on these towns; and it passed the winter in its former station at

[Sidenote: 1697]

From Bruges, the regiment marched, in the spring of 1697, to
Brussels; and on the 12th of April proceeded through the forest of
Soigne and pitched its tents near the village of Waterloo, where
an encampment was formed of twelve regiments of infantry under
the Count de Noyelles. The FIFTH was subsequently employed in a
series of defensive operations until September, when the war was
terminated by the treaty of Ryswick; and, being ordered to return
to England immediately afterwards, it landed in December,--eight
companies at Greenwich and two at Dover.

[Sidenote: 1698]

The regiment remained but a short time in England before it was
ordered to proceed to Chester, where it embarked for Ireland, and
in August, 1698, it arrived at Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1704]

On the 5th of February, 1704, Queen Anne appointed Colonel Thomas
Pearce from a newly-raised regiment of foot (afterwards disbanded)
to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH in succession to Thomas Fairfax.

[Sidenote: 1706]

[Sidenote: 1707]

During the early part of the war of the Spanish succession,
this regiment was stationed in Ireland; but the united English,
Dutch, and Portuguese armies having, in 1706, advanced to Madrid,
the enemy cut off their communication with Portugal; the troops
retired from Madrid to Valencia and Catalonia, and from that
period their only communication with Portugal was by sea. At the
same time it was found necessary to have a small army on the
frontiers of Portugal, and the FIFTH, Twentieth, Thirty-ninth,
and a newly-raised regiment commanded by Colonel Stanwix, having
been selected for this service, sailed from Cork on the 22nd of
May, 1707, and landed at the capital of Portugal on the 8th of
June[16]. This seasonable reinforcement arriving soon after the
defeat of the allied army at Almanza, in the south-east of Spain,
and at the moment when the enemy, having captured Serpa and Moura
in the Alentejo, had seized on the bridge of Olivenza in Portuguese
Estremadura, and menaced that important place with a siege, its
presence revived the drooping spirits of the Portuguese. The
four regiments, being the only British troops in that part of
the country, were disembarked with every possible expedition,
and marched to the frontiers under the command of the Marquis
de Montandre, when the enemy immediately ceased to act on the
offensive and retired[17]. The four regiments, having halted at
Estremos, a strong town of the Alentejo, situate on an agreeable
tract on the Tarra, remained in this pleasant quarter during the
summer heats, and afterwards encamped in the fruitful valley of the
Caya near Elvas, having detached parties on the flanks to prevent
the enemy making incursions into Portugal, in which service the
regiments were engaged until November, when they went into quarters
in the towns on the frontiers of Portugal.

[Sidenote: 1708]

The regiment again took the field in the spring of 1708, and was
encamped at Fuente de Sapatores between Elvas and Campo Mayor. The
British division was soon afterwards increased to six regiments,
by the arrival of the Thirteenth[18] and a newly-raised regiment
(Paston's) from England; and the little army in the Alentejo was
commanded by the Marquis de Fronteira; but the characteristic
inactivity of the Portuguese occasioned the services of the FIFTH
to be limited to defensive operations. It was encamped in the
autumn at Campo Mayor, and afterwards proceeded into cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1709]

After moving from its quarters in the spring of 1709, the regiment
was again engaged in active operations. It was first encamped near
Estremos, from whence it proceeded on the 23rd of April to Elvas,
and was subsequently encamped with the army on the banks of the
Caya, where the Earl of Galway, who had been removed from the army
in Catalonia, appeared at the head of the British division.

On the 7th of May the French and Spaniards, commanded by the
Marquis de Bay, marched in the direction of Campo Mayor, when the
Portuguese generals, contrary to the advice of the Earl of Galway,
resolved to pass the _Caya_ and attack the enemy. The Portuguese
cavalry and artillery took the lead, and, having passed the river
and gained the opposite heights, opened a sharp cannonade; but upon
the advance of their adversaries to charge, these squadrons faced
about and galloped out of the field, leaving their cannon behind.
The British division, arriving at the moment, repulsed the enemy;
and the leading brigade, consisting of the Thirteenth, Stanwix's,
and Galway's regiments, commanded by Brigadier-General Thomas
Pearce, charging with great fury, recaptured the Portuguese guns;
but the three regiments, pressing forward too far, were surrounded
and made prisoners, and with them Major-Generals Sankey and the
Earl of Barrymore, and Brigadier-General Thomas Pearce, fell into
the hands of the enemy[19]. At the same time the FIFTH, Twentieth,
Thirty-ninth, and Lord Paston's regiments, though deserted by the
whole of the cavalry, made a determined stand, bearing the brunt
of the enemy's reiterated attacks with admirable firmness, until
the Portuguese infantry had retired; then moving to the rear in
firm array--while the balls flew thick on every side, and the
Earl of Galway's horse was shot under him,--the enemy coming on
in full career, threatening the destruction of this little band;
yet, with ranks unbroken and steady tread, these undaunted English
calmly retraced their steps--exhibiting one of the most noble
spectacles of war,--and occasionally punishing the temerity of
their pursuers with a cool and deliberate resolution which laid
a thousand Spaniards dead upon the field[20], and impressed the
enemy, and also the Portuguese, with a sense of British courage and
magnanimity. Thus they effected their retreat, with the loss of
only one hundred and fifty men killed and wounded, and passed that
night at Arronches.

The FIFTH acquired great honour by its signal gallantry on this
occasion. It was afterwards encamped at Elvas, was subsequently in
position on the banks of the Guadiana, and again passed the winter
in cantonments in the Alentejo.

[Sidenote: 1710]

The casualties of the preceding campaign having been replaced by
recruits from England, the FIFTH again took the field in the spring
of 1710, and was employed in the Alentejo; but the army was weak
and unequal to any important undertaking, and the French having
had some success in the province of Tras os Montes, occasioned a
detachment to be sent thither. In the autumn the army advanced
across the Guadiana, and on the 4th of October arrived at the rich
plains of _Xeres de los Cabaleros_ on the river Ardilla in Spanish
Estremadura. It was resolved to attack this place by storm on
the following day, and the FIFTH, Twentieth, and Thirty-ninth,
British regiments, having been selected to perform this service
under the command of Brigadier-General Stanwix[21], advanced at
four in the afternoon to attack the works near St. Catherine's
gate by escalade: a few minutes after the regiments had commenced
the assault, the governor sent proposals to surrender, which were
agreed to, and the garrison, consisting of 700 men, were made
prisoners of war. The army afterwards retired to Portugal by the
mountains of Orlor, and went into quarters. This summer the army
on the other side of Spain gained two victories, and advanced to
Madrid, when the most pressing instances were made by King Charles
III. and General Stanhope, to induce the army of Portugal to
advance upon the Spanish capital; but the Portuguese generals were
unwilling to engage in so great an undertaking.

[Sidenote: 1711]

During the campaign of 1711, the FIFTH formed part of the army
which assembled at Olivenza in May, and, having passed the Guadiana
by a pontoon bridge at Jerumencha, advanced against the enemy, who
took refuge under the cannon of Badajoz. The FIFTH was afterwards
engaged in the capture of several small towns, and in levying
contributions in Spanish Estremadura; but the summer passed without
any occurrence of importance, excepting a discovery made by the
Earl of Portmore, who commanded the British troops in Portugal,
of a clandestine treaty in progress between the crown of Portugal
and the enemy, in which the former had agreed to separate from
the Allies; and, to give an excuse for this, a mock battle was
to have been fought, in which the British troops were to have
been sacrificed[22]. This treaty was broken off, but the British
Government soon afterwards entered into negotiations with France.

[Sidenote: 1712]

The FIFTH continued in Portugal, and was encamped during the
summer of 1712 on the pleasant plains of the Tarra. In the
autumn a suspension of hostilities was proclaimed at the camp by
Major-General Pearce, and the regiment went into cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1713]

From Portugal, the regiment proceeded to Gibraltar, which fortress
had been captured by an English and Dutch force in 1704, and was
ceded to Great Britain in 1713 by the treaty of Utrecht, when the
Earl of Portmore was appointed Governor; and the protection of
the place was confided to the FIFTH, Thirteenth, and Twentieth
regiments. Here the regiment remained in garrison for a period of
fifteen years; its establishment was 500 men, and it became as
celebrated for its excellent conduct in time of peace, as it had
been distinguished for its noble bearing and gallantry in war.

[Sidenote: 1726]

The crown of Spain had relinquished its claim on Gibraltar with
reluctance, and having, towards the end of 1726, resolved to
engage in a war with Great Britain, a Spanish army was assembled
in Andalusia under the command of the Count de la Torres, to
commence hostilities with the siege of this desirable entrepôt
to the Mediterranean. This gave the FIFTH another opportunity
of signalizing itself, and of adding to its honours already
acquired,--the proud distinction of a successful defence of this
important conquest.

[Sidenote: 1727]

The preparations of the enemy were made upon a most extensive
scale. Their troops were encamped before the place in January,
1727, the bringing up of cannon, mortars, and stores to the camp,
occupied several weeks, and the heavy artillery was removed from
the works at Cadiz and other fortified towns; at the same time the
whole disposable force, including part of the garrison of almost
every town in Spain, was assembled to take part in the siege. The
works having been commenced in February, before any declaration
of war was made, and persisted in against the remonstrance of
the Lieutenant-Governor, Colonel Jasper Clayton, a council of
war of the commanding officers of regiments was assembled, and a
determined opposition was resolved upon. On the 21st of February
the garrison opened its fire on the besiegers, and from that day
the storm of war raged round the rocks of Gibraltar with dreadful
violence, increasing in fury until the roar of a hundred cannon and
the fire of small arms became almost incessant in the day-time,
and was partially continued throughout the night, with the most
fatal effects to the Spaniards, whose loss was particularly great.
This contest was continued with a few partial intermissions until
many thousands of the besiegers had perished in the attempt; while
the tremendous fire of the Spaniards had produced little effect
beyond the bursting of many of their own cannon, and the enlarging
of the touchholes of others so as to render them useless. In the
early part of June the fire slackened, and on the 18th of that
month hostilities ceased. Thus the ostentatious vaunts of Spain
terminated in defeat and confusion.

[Sidenote: 1728]

The FIFTH embarked from Gibraltar on the 12th of April, 1728, and
proceeded to Ireland, in which country it remained seven years.

[Sidenote: 1732]

In September 1732, General Thomas Pearce, who had commanded the
regiment for twenty-eight years, was removed to the Fifth Horse,
now Fourth Dragoon Guards, and was succeeded by Colonel John
(afterwards Sir John) Cope from the Thirty-ninth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1735]

[Sidenote: 1737]

The regiment left Ireland in 1735, and was stationed in England
in that and the following year; but in 1737 it again proceeded to
Ireland. At the same time Colonel Cope was removed to the Ninth
Dragoons, and the Colonelcy of the FIFTH was conferred on Alexander

[Sidenote: 1738]

A period of seventeen years was now passed by the regiment in
Ireland, where it continued to retain its high state of discipline
and efficiency, and preserved untarnished the laurels it had
previously won.

[Sidenote: 1752]

[Sidenote: 1754]

After the decease of Colonel Irwin, in 1752, the command of the
regiment was given to Charles Whiteford; who was succeeded on the
20th of August, 1754, by Lord George Bentinck.

[Sidenote: 1755]

In the spring of 1755, the regiment left Ireland, and was quartered
in England; and in September of that year it had the honour to
receive King George II. at Chelmsford, on his way from Harwich to

[Sidenote: 1756]

[Sidenote: 1758]

The regiment remained in the south of England during the two
succeeding years; and in 1758, another war having broken out, it
formed part of an expedition designed to effect the reduction of
the maritime power of France, and to make a diversion in favour
of the Hanoverians. It accordingly proceeded to the Isle of
Wight,--the general rendezvous,--embarked at Cowes eight hundred
and eighty-eight men strong on the 25th of May, and its grenadier
company was the first to make good its landing on the coast of
France on the evening of the 5th of June, when seven companies of
French foot, and three troops of dragoons, were quickly dispersed.
On the 7th the army advanced in two columns;--the FIFTH, taking the
main road to _St. Maloes_, encamped in the evening about a mile
from the town, and after sunset furnished, in common with the other
regiments, a detachment, which, proceeding to the harbour, set fire
to the shipping, magazines, &c., when a grand yet dreadful scene
of conflagration presented itself. Having destroyed a valuable
fleet and all the stores, the troops re-embarked and returned to

In August of the same year, the FIFTH was engaged in a second
expedition to the coast of France, when _Cherbourg_ was captured,
and the harbour, forts, magazines, and ordnance, consisting of
173 pieces of iron cannon and 3 mortars, were destroyed: at the
same time 22 pieces of fine brass cannon, and two brass mortars,
were brought off as trophies, and sent to England; and these guns,
having been seen by King George II. in Hyde Park on the 16th of
September, were conducted in procession through the city to the
Tower of London.

The FIFTH was also engaged in the descent made on the coast of
Brittany on the 4th of September, when the batteries in the bay
of St. Lunaire were destroyed, and the troops, marching into the
interior, crossed the Drouette and Equernon, and advanced to
Matignon, while the fleet proceeded to the Bay of St. Cas; thus
alarming the country with the view of producing the return of the
French army from Germany. While the FIFTH was in France, some sharp
skirmishing occurred, and when the troops re-embarked at St. Cas,
the enemy attacked the rear-guard and occasioned considerable loss.
The loss of the FIFTH in these three descents was ninety-five men.
Towards the end of September the regiment landed at Cowes, and,
having encamped a short period near Newport, went into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1759]

The decease of Lord George Bentinck having occurred in 1759,
Studholme Hodgson was appointed to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH, from
the 50th regiment.

[Sidenote: 1760]

In the mean time the war was continued in Hanover and the
neighbouring States, and the FIFTH, having been ordered to proceed
to Germany, embarked at Gravesend on the 12th of May, 1760, and
arrived in the Weser on the 22nd of that month. After landing
near Bremen, the regiment marched up the country, and joined the
allied army commanded by Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick, at Fritzlar
in Hesse-Cassel, on the 17th of June; when the grenadier company
was detached to form, with the grenadier companies of the other
regiments, two Battalions, which, being united in Brigade with the
Scots Highlanders, usually formed the advance-guard of the army.

The regiment, after being employed in several manœuvres, formed
part of the corps commanded by the hereditary Prince of Brunswick,
which marched on the 10th of July to take post on the heights of
_Corbach_; but found the ground occupied by the enemy in force;
when a sharp skirmish occurred in which the FIFTH lost five men.[23]

Towards the end of July the regiment was encamped at Kalle. At 11
o'clock on the night of the 30th of that month it marched with the
main army for Liebenau, and, having crossed the Dymel, advanced at
five on the following morning to attack the enemy in his position
on the heights of _Warbourg_.

The German corps and British grenadiers in advance having commenced
the action, the French retired before the English infantry arrived.
"No troops could show more eagerness than they showed. Many of the
men, from the heat of the weather, and overstraining themselves
to get on through morasses and difficult ground, suddenly dropped
down on their march.[24]" The grenadier company of the FIFTH, being
in the column which commenced the attack, highly distinguished
itself[25], and had four men killed, and Captain Ross, Lieutenant
Baker, and twenty-six men, wounded.

The regiment remained for some time encamped near Warbourg; and
the grenadier company, being encamped on the heights of Wilda,
was engaged, on the night of the 5th of September, in surprising
a French force in the town of _Zierenberg_, which service was
performed with distinguished gallantry and success. The grenadiers
were afterwards detached to the Lower Rhine, and were engaged
in the attempt to surprise the enemy's camp at Rheinberg on the
morning of the 16th of October, when a sharp action was fought at
the Convent of _Campen_, in which the company of the FIFTH lost
several men. In December the regiment left the camp at Warbourg,
and went into cantonments in the villages on the bank of the Weser.

[Sidenote: 1761]

In February, 1761, it again advanced, and, having crossed the
Dymel, proceeded through a deep snow into Hesse-Cassel, where it
had great success in several actions with the enemy; but returned
to its former quarters in March.

The regiment again took the field in June, forming part of
the Marquis of Granby's corps, and, after some manœuvring and
skirmishing, it was encamped upon the heights in front of
_Kirch-Denkern_ in the bishopric of Paderborn. This post was
attacked on the 15th of July, and was defended by the British
troops with admirable firmness and resolution, and eventually the
enemy was driven back with great loss. The attack was renewed by
the enemy on the following morning with great fury, when the
FIFTH displayed its usual spirit and determination in the defence
of its post; and, after five hours' sharp fighting, some disorder
appearing in the enemy's ranks, the regiment advanced to the charge
and routed the enemy; at the same time the grenadier battalion, of
which the company of the FIFTH formed a part, took prisoners the
regiment of Rouge (formerly Belsunce) with its cannon and colours.
The FIFTH lost in this action, Lieutenant Lillewood, 2 serjeants,
and 9 men killed; also two officers, 5 serjeants, and 12 men

The regiment remained at its post near Kirch-Denkern until the 27th
of July; it was afterwards employed in manœuvring and skirmishing
in various parts of the bishopric of Paderborn and on the river
Weser, and in September, it was employed in a diversion in the
country of Hesse. It was engaged, on the 5th of November, in
forcing the enemy's post at _Capelnhagen_, and on the 6th and 7th
it took part in slight skirmishes at _Eimbeck_ in the Electorate
of Hanover. The grenadier company of the FIFTH was also engaged in
a skirmish at _Foorwohle_ on the 7th of November, and again on the
10th of that month, when the combatants were knee deep in snow.
On the 12th the regiment encamped on the banks of the Huve near
Eimbeck, from whence it proceeded in the early part of December
into cantonments in the bishopric of Osnaburg.

[Sidenote: 1762]

Having passed the winter amongst the rude peasantry of Osnaburg,
the regiment again took the field, and joined the camp on the
heights near Blumberg on the 4th of June 1762, from whence it
proceeded to Corbeke.

The enemy took post at _Groebenstien_, and Prince Ferdinand formed
a design of surprising them in their camp. For this purpose the
army was formed into several columns. The FIFTH forming part of
the centre column, left its camp before daylight on the morning
of the 24th of June, and crossed the Dymel at Liebenau at four
o'clock; then, advancing a distance of nine miles through a
rugged and woody country, arrived in front of the enemy's camp,
and commenced a sharp fire. The French, surprised and confounded,
abandoned their camp, leaving their tents standing, and commenced
their retreat: at the same time General Stainville threw himself
with his division into the woods of _Wilhelmsthal_ to favour the
movement. Against this division, the right column of the allies,
commanded by the Marquis of Granby, and the centre column under
Prince Ferdinand, immediately advanced.

The FIFTH, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Marlay, taking
the lead of the centre column, threw itself into the wood, and
opened its fire with good effect; at the same time the Marquis
of Granby's column attacked the enemy's rear. The French made
a spirited resistance; but the FIFTH pressed forward with a
conquering violence which overcame all opposition, while the
main body followed in full career, and the Marquis of Granby
intercepting the enemy's retreat captured many prisoners; when the
remainder of the French division (excepting two battalions that
escaped) after one fire, surrendered to the FIFTH[26]. After the
French had surrendered, an officer of the FIFTH regiment, who went
up to receive their colours from their standard-bearer, was shot
dead upon the spot by a French serjeant who was standing near. This
circumstance might have led to much bloodshed, but, fortunately,
little confusion resulted; the serjeant was instantly put to death,
and the colours were quietly taken possession of[27]. The loss
of the regiment was Lieutenant Robinson, killed; and 1 serjeant,
and 11 men wounded; also six men taken prisoners in the skirmish
at the commencement of the action. Its conduct on this occasion
excited much admiration;--as a mark of distinction the men were
permitted to exchange their hats for the French grenadier caps;
and the regiment for many years afterwards, wore a fusilier's
cap instead of the hat then used by the infantry of the line. In
commemoration of the gallantry displayed by the FIFTH Regiment on
this occasion, his Majesty King William IV. was graciously pleased,
in 1836, to authorize the regiment to bear the word 'WILHELMSTHAL'
on its Colours and Appointments.

After the action the FIFTH encamped on the heights of Wilhelmsthal;
it was subsequently employed in several operations; and on the 23rd
of July, the grenadier company was engaged in a gallant affair at
_Lutterberg_, when the Saxons under Prince Xavier were driven from
their post and thirteen pieces of ordnance were captured. On the
24th of the same month one hundred men of the regiment were engaged
with other corps in dislodging a detachment of the enemy from the
heights of _Homburg_. The regiment was subsequently employed in
operations on the Ohm, and the Lahn, and in several skirmishes
in which it lost many men. It also formed part of the covering
army during the siege of _Cassel_, which was terminated by the
surrender of the place on the 1st of November. Shortly afterwards
a suspension of hostilities took place; which was followed by a
treaty of peace, concluded at Fontainbleau, and the regiment was
ordered to return to England.

[Sidenote: 1763]

It accordingly marched from Germany, through Holland, to
Williamstadt, where it embarked on the 22nd of February, 1763[28],
and landed in England in the early part of the following month.
In May of the same year it proceeded to Bristol and embarked for
Ireland, where it arrived on the 2nd of June, and landed at Passage
near Waterford.

[Sidenote: 1764]

The regiment passed the next ten years in Ireland, and was
so remarkable for its cleanliness and attention to dress and
appointments, that the men were usually called "The Shiners."

[Sidenote: 1767]

Early in the year 1767 a system of honorary distinctions for
long-continued good behaviour was introduced into this regiment,
which was found to stimulate the indifferent to good conduct,
and those already worthy, to perseverance in well-doing, and it
produced such a body of non-commissioned officers as few corps
could boast of. These distinctions consisted of three classes of
medals[29] to be worn, suspended by a ribbon, at a button-hole of
the left lappel; the first, or lowest class, which was bestowed
on such as had served irreproachably for seven years, was of gilt
metal, bearing on one side the badge of the regiment, _St. George
and the Dragon_[30], with the motto "_Quo fata vocant_;" and on
the reverse, "Vth Foot, MERIT." The second was of silver, bearing
on one side the badge and motto, and on the other, "Reward of
fourteen years' military merit." The third was similar to the
second, but was inscribed with the name of the individual whose
conduct had earned it: "A. B., for twenty-one years' good and
faithful service as a soldier, had received from his commanding
officers this honourable testimony of his merit." These medals
were bestowed only upon soldiers who, for the respective periods
of seven, fourteen, or twenty-one years, had never incurred the
censure of a court-martial: they were given by the commanding
officer at the head of the assembled battalion; and if, which
rarely happened, the owner of a medal subsequently forfeited his
pretensions to enrolment among the men of merit, his medal was
cut from his breast by the drum-major as publicly as he had been
invested with it. Those who obtained the third, or twenty-one
years' medal, had also an oval badge of the colour of the facings
on the right breast, embroidered round with gold and silver
wreaths, and inscribed in the centre with the word "MERIT" in
letters of gold.

[Sidenote: 1768]

On the 7th of November, 1768, Lieutenant-General Hodgson was
succeeded in the Colonelcy of the FIFTH by Hugh, Earl Percy,
afterwards Duke of Northumberland. Earl Percy, when Colonel, duly
estimating the good effects produced by this Regimental "Order of
Merit," kept it up with all the liberality and dignity it deserved;
and the following order, issued by him on the subject, is referred
to in Adye's Essay on Rewards and Punishments, viz.: "Earl Percy
having perceived, with great pleasure, the happy effects of the
regimental Medals of Merit, influencing the non-commissioned
officers and soldiers of the FIFTH to deserve the favour of their
officers, and being anxious, as far as may be in his power, to
encourage them to persevere in such sentiments of honour, is
determined, for the future, to give them out every year, a short
time before the review, instead of the usual day, as it often has
happened that the regiment has been separated, which prevented the
men, who were entitled to that mark of honour, from receiving it in
so public a manner as his Lordship could wish."

[Sidenote: 1771]

[Sidenote: 1772]

During the stay of the FIFTH in Ireland it was frequently
engaged in the service of the revenue; and also in suppressing
the outrageous proceedings of bands of armed peasantry called
Whiteboys, Hearts of Steel, and Hearts of Oak, and particularly
against the latter in 1772, at and near Guildford in the north,
where the house of Richard Johnson, Esquire, was attacked and
reduced to ashes, and a clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Meroll, was
barbarously murdered by these misguided insurgents.

[Sidenote: 1774]

The regiment remained in Ireland until the unfortunate
misunderstanding between Great Britain and her North American
Colonies assumed an aspect so formidable, that it was deemed
necessary to send additional forces to that country. The FIFTH was
one of the corps selected to proceed on this service; and, having
embarked at Monkstown near Cork on the 7th of May, 1774, it landed
in the beginning of July at Boston, the capital of the state of
Massachusetts, which had recently been the scene of violence and
outrage, particularly of the destruction of an immense consignment
of Tea by the provincials. After landing, the regiment was encamped
near the town for some time; a body of troops was assembled at this
place under the Governor of the province, General Gage, and several
fortifications were constructed.

[Sidenote: 1775]

During the winter a determination to proceed to open resistance
became general in the American States; they embodied a militia
force, and in April 1775, a circumstance occurred which occasioned
the display of these hostile designs. The occasion was the
collection of some military stores at _Concord_, in Middlesex
county, about eighteen miles from Boston; when General Gage sent
the grenadiers and light infantry, including the companies of
the FIFTH, under the orders of Colonel Smith, to destroy those
stores. This detachment embarked in boats on the evening of the
18th of April, and, having proceeded a short distance up Charles
river, landed on the marshes of Cambridge and proceeded to the
village of _Lexington_, where it arrived at day-break and found a
company of the militia formed up near the entrance of the town.
These men were ordered to lay down their arms, but they did not
comply; some desultory firing immediately occurred, which was
followed by a volley from the troops which laid ten of the militia
dead upon the spot, wounded several others, and dispersed the
remainder: thus was the first blood drawn in this unhappy contest.
After this skirmish, the troops continued their march to Concord,
detaching six Light Infantry companies to take possession of the
bridges beyond the town, while the remainder of the detachment
effected the destruction of the military stores. In the mean
time the country had been alarmed by the firing of guns and the
ringing of bells: and a division of provincial militia was seen
advancing towards the bridges, but they avoided committing any
hostile act until the light infantry companies had killed two men,
when the Americans instantly opened a sharp fire, and by their
superior numbers forced the King's troops to retire. The country
now appeared swarming with armed men, who fired on the troops on
all sides, while numbers followed in their rear, and during the
six miles' march from Concord to Lexington, skirmish succeeded
skirmish, and a continued but irregular fire was sustained until
the detachment had expended nearly all its ammunition. Fortunately
it was met at Lexington by Earl Percy (Colonel of the FIFTH), who
had been sent forward to support the detachment with his brigade
and two pieces of artillery, and his lordship after a short halt
made dispositions for continuing the march to Boston[31]. But the
moment the troops were in motion the attacks became more frequent
and more violent than before, the Americans hovering in hundreds
upon the rear and keeping up a sharp fire from houses, from behind
walls, trees, and other coverts, on both sides of the road; yet
the troops, displaying a steady and noble bearing, united with a
high state of discipline and undaunted spirit, marched under all
these difficulties, in perfect order, a distance of fifteen miles
to Charlestown, where they arrived at sunset, quite exhausted from
a march of about thirty-five miles, on a hot day, and experiencing
the extraordinary fatigues already mentioned. From Charlestown the
troops crossed the river by the ferry to Boston, under cover of
the fire of the men-of-war. The loss of the FIFTH, in this day's
skirmishes, was five men killed; with Lieutenant Thomas Baker,
Lieutenant William Cox, Lieutenant Thomas Hawkshaw, and fifteen men
wounded; also one man taken prisoner[32].

This affair was followed by the appearance of the whole province
in arms;--an immense number of men invested Boston, where the
King's troops were stationed, on the land side; and on the morning
of the 17th of June, it was ascertained that they had constructed
works on _Bunker's Hill_--a high ground beyond the river. A body
of troops, of which the FIFTH formed a part, was ordered to attack
the heights; and this force, having embarked about noon, landed
without opposition and formed up on some high ground near the
shore. The enemy appearing resolved to defend this post, the ships
of war opened their fire upon the works, while the King's troops,
advancing under cover of the guns, went boldly to the attack; and
commenced one of the most sanguinary actions on record. The FIFTH,
ever emulous of glory, was seen ascending the hill on the side next
Charlestown with signal intrepidity, and bravely sustaining its
ancient reputation. Captain Harris (afterwards the conqueror of
the Mysore) while leading on the grenadier company, was severely
wounded, and obliged to quit the field, but he had in Lieutenant
Lord Rawdon (afterwards Marquis of Hastings) a successor in
command, who emulated and equalled the intrepidity of his disabled
captain. Eventually the troops were staggered by the resolute
tenacity of the defence, and the superior numbers of the enemy;
yet, recovering, they appeared in a moment fired by a new ardour,
and with fixed bayonets they went cheering forward with determined
bravery and resolution,--encountering the Americans in close combat
and driving them, after a sharp contest, out of the works. The
King's troops were now established on _Bunker's Hill_, which they
afterwards fortified and occupied in force. The loss of the FIFTH
was 22 men killed; Captain Harris, Captain Jackson, Captain Downes,
Captain Marsden, Lieutenant M'Clintock, Lieutenant Croker, Ensign
Charleton, Ensign Ballaguire, 10 Serjeants, 2 Drummers, and 116
rank and file wounded[33]. General Burgoyne, in a letter written
at the time to Lord Derby and subsequently published, says, in
reference to Bunker's Hill, "The FIFTH has behaved the best, and
suffered the most[34]."

Notwithstanding this success, the army at Boston remained in a
state of blockade, and the troops were eventually so distressed
for fresh provisions and other necessaries, that live cattle,
vegetables, and even fuel, were sent for their use from England.
The shipping with these supplies were, however, many of them
wrecked, or fell into the hands of the Americans, and, the
distress of the troops increasing, much sickness and loss of life

[Sidenote: 1776]

In the midst of this calamity, the provincial troops, being better
supplied with necessaries, began to act offensively with vigour,
and the appearance of new batteries with the opening of a heavy
cannonade, occasioned the King's troops to evacuate the place.
Accordingly, in the middle of March, 1776, the army embarked from
Boston, and proceeded to Halifax in Nova Scotia, but after their
arrival at that place the greater part of the troops remained on
ship board, the town not being capable of providing quarters, nor
of affording a sufficient supply of provisions.

The FIFTH remained at Halifax about two months, and leaving that
place early in June to engage in an extensive plan of operations,
formed part of the force which effected a landing on Staten
Island near New York on the 3rd of July. In the following month a
reinforcement of British and Hessian troops arrived, and on the
22nd of August a descent was made on the south-west end of _Long
Island_, when the enemy's detachments along the coast withdrew to
the range of woody hills which intersect the country from east to
west. In the manœuvres by which these hills were passed, and in the
defeat of the provincial corps on the 27th of August, the FIFTH
took an active and spirited part, but did not sustain any loss.
After this success, preparations were made to attack the enemy's
lines at _Brooklyn_; but the Americans, impressed with a sense of
the superiority of the King's troops, quitted their post during the
night of the 28th, and passed the troops in boats across the East
River to New York.

The reduction of Long Island having thus been effected with
trifling loss, the FIFTH was again embarked, and a landing was
made on the 15th of September, on New York Island, within a few
miles of the city; which General Washington immediately abandoned,
and retired towards the northern end of the island, designing to
remain on the defensive, and to avoid a general engagement. The
FIFTH was subsequently employed in several operations, and on the
28th of October, being on the march towards the American camp
at _White Plains_, it was engaged, with the 28th 35th and 49th
regiments, commanded by Brigadier-General Leslie, in forcing the
passage of the Brunx's rivulet under a sharp fire, and having
ascended the hill with admirable intrepidity, attacked and routed
a division of Americans, chasing them from behind walls and other
coverts, and driving them behind their entrenchments at the
entrance of White Plains: from whence they subsequently retreated.
The regiment only lost two men on this occasion, and had its
commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Walcott, wounded.

[Sidenote: 1777]

At length, it being found impossible to bring on a general
engagement, the army retired by the North River, to the heights
of Fordham; and on the 16th of November, the FIFTH supported
the storming party in the capture of _Fort Washington_. A few
days afterwards the regiment was detached across the North River
against _Fort Lee_, and on the flight of the American troops,
it was stationed a short time at English Neighbourhood: but was
soon called upon to take an active part in the reduction of _New
Jersey_; and in the early part of January, 1777, it was quartered
at Maidenhead.

The FIFTH passed the remainder of the winter in the island of
Jersey. "The weather was particularly severe; the duty unremitting
and hard; the enemy watchful; and provisions and forage were not
obtained without repeated skirmishes. Nevertheless the soldiers
endured these hardships with a fortitude and a perseverance that
acquired them infinite honour[35]." The campaign being opened in
the early part of June, 1777, the regiment took part in several
manœuvres, designed to bring on a general engagement, but the enemy
kept in the mountain fastnesses, by which he succeeded in defeating
the designs of the British commander; and on the 30th of June the
troops embarked from the Jerseys and proceeded to Staten Island.

An expedition to Pennsylvania having been resolved on, the FIFTH
formed part of the force ordered for this service, and, having
embarked at Sandy Hook on the 5th July, sailed to Chesapeak Bay,
thence proceeding up the Elk River, landed at Elk Ferry on the 25th
of August, and afterwards advanced on Philadelphia: at the same
time the enemy took up a position at _Brandywine Creek_, to oppose
the advance. But on the 11th of September the enemy's out-posts
were driven in and the position attacked. The FIFTH formed part
of the force, which advanced to Chad's Ford in the centre of the
enemy's line, forced the passage in gallant style, carried the
batteries and intrenchments with fixed bayonets, and captured five
pieces of cannon and a howitzer. The regiment encamped during the
night on the scene of conflict; its only casualties being Ensign
Andrews, 1 serjeant, and 12 men wounded.

This success was followed by the capture of Philadelphia: at the
same time the army occupied a position near _Germantown_, and the
FIFTH had its post in the right wing of the line. The troops at the
head of the town were attacked by the enemy in force at daybreak
on the morning of the 4th of October, when the FIFTH was ordered
forward to their aid. The enemy had already gained some advantage,
and the Fortieth regiment, which had thrown itself into a stone
building, was surrounded by an American brigade, when the FIFTH and
Fifty-fifth regiments, advancing from the right, opened their fire
with good effect, and being seconded by several other corps from
the centre and left, drove back the enemy and pursued them through
some woody grounds and strong enclosures with signal bravery. The
FIFTH lost on this occasion, 1 drummer and 9 men killed; also
Lieutenant-Colonel Walcott, Captain Charlton, Ensign Thomas, Ensign
Stuart, 5 serjeants, and 37 men wounded: Lieutenant-Colonel Walcott
died of his wounds six weeks afterwards.

On the 18th of October the army quitted Germantown and encamped in
the immediate vicinity of Philadelphia, until after the capture of
two forts on the river. In the mean time the enemy formed a strong
camp at White Marsh, fourteen miles from Philadelphia; and in the
early part of December the FIFTH took part in several operations
and skirmishes designed to bring on a general engagement; but the
enemy remaining behind his trenches and _abbatis de bois_, the
regiment returned to Philadelphia on the 8th of that month. After
the retreat of the King's troops, the enemy removed to Valley
Forge, where he built huts and passed the winter in the woods,
while the British lay in comfortable quarters in the capital of
Pennsylvania, where the want of strict discipline during the
period of a temporary repose produced several evil consequences,
particularly the estrangement of many persons previously in the
interest of the royal cause.

[Sidenote: 1778]

Before the commencement of active operations in 1778, the King
of France had concluded a treaty with, and agreed to aid, the
Americans, which so completely changed the nature of the contest,
that the evacuation of Philadelphia was resolved upon, and the
FIFTH had to take part in the difficult service of retreating
through a wild and woody country intersected by rivers, and
abounding in narrow and ragged passes. The army accordingly crossed
the Delawar on the 18th of June, and directing its march along
the eastern bank of that river, afterwards proceeded through the
Jerseys, while the enemy hovered near the rear and menaced an
attack in force. No action of importance, however, occurred until
the 28th of June, when, as the last division descended from the
heights above _Freehold_ in New Jersey, the enemy appeared in the
rear, and on both flanks, and some sharp fighting took place. At
this time the FIFTH was in advance, but it was recalled to take
part in the action, and the enemy was eventually repulsed. The
regiment had Captain Gore of the grenadier company and several men
killed on this occasion.

After the action the army continued its march, and having crossed
the channel to Sandy Hook, in the beginning of July, embarked from
thence for New York; from whence the FIFTH advanced to a post
beyond the town.

In September, part of the regiment was detached on an expedition
to _Little Egg Harbour_ in New Jersey--a noted rendezvous for
privateers. This detachment, consisting of 300 men of the FIFTH
and New Jersey Volunteers, commanded by Captain Ferguson, embarked
in transports towards the end of September, and, on arriving at
the harbour, went on board small vessels which, with several
row-galleys, proceeded twenty miles up the river, to Chesnut Neck,
where the troops landed under cover of the fire from the galleys,
and by a spirited attack, routed the enemy's force assembled to
oppose the descent, and chased them into the woods. After returning
from the pursuit, the troops destroyed the village, with several
storehouses, and armed vessels:--having only sustained the trifling
loss of one man of the FIFTH, wounded. A night excursion was
afterwards made ten miles farther up the river, when the troops,
surprising some companies of the enemy in their quarters, made a
dreadful slaughter with the bayonet, and reduced the houses to
ashes, with the loss of only two men of the FIFTH killed, and
two wounded. "It is but justice to inform you," observes the
commanding officer in his despatch, "that the officers and men,
both British and Provincials, behaved on this occasion in a manner
to do themselves honour. To the conduct and spirit of Captain Cox,
Lieutenant Littleton, and Ensign Cotter, of the FIFTH regiment,
and of Captain Peter Campbell of the Third Jersey Volunteers, this
little enterprise owes much of its success[36]."

Immediately after the return of this detachment, the regiment was
ordered to form part of an expedition against the French West India
Islands, and embarking on this service under the command of its
Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards Sir William) Medows, sailed from
Sandy Hook on the 3rd of November.

After stopping two days at Barbadoes, during which time the land
and sea commanders, General James Grant and Admiral Barrington
arranged their plans of attack, the expedition arrived at _St.
Lucie_ on the 13th of December, and the reserve, consisting of the
FIFTH regiment, the grenadiers and light infantry being immediately
landed under the command of Brigadier-General Medows, forced
some heights occupied by a French force under the governor, the
Chevalier de Micoud, and took a field-piece and a four-gun battery.
On the following morning, the rest of the army being landed, the
FIFTH advanced and took possession of the town of Morne Fortuné,
the governor's house, hospital and barracks; and from thence,
after a short halt, proceeded to occupy an important post, called
La Vigie, situated on a tongue of land commanding the north side
of the Carenage harbour, and separated by that harbour from the
rest of the army. In the mean time, the French fleet under Count
D'Estaing arrived off the island, and disembarked a force of nine
thousand men, by the whole of which General Medows' little band
was attacked on the 18th. The enemy, commanded by MM. de Bouillé
and Lavendahl, advanced in three columns; their first two attacks
were made, to use the words of General Grant's despatch, "with the
impetuosity of Frenchmen, and repulsed with the determined bravery
of Britons." They made a third attempt, but were soon broken, and
they retired in confusion.

The conduct of the FIFTH regiment and its Lieutenant-Colonel
on this occasion, was of the most distinguished description.
Brigadier-General Medows, though severely wounded in the right arm
early in the day, would not quit his post, but continued in the
field, riding about and giving orders, till the attack was over.
At one moment, finding his ammunition nearly expended, he drew up
his little phalanx in front of their colours, and waving his sword
in his hand, emphatically exclaimed, "Soldiers, as long as you
have a bayonet to point against an enemy's breast, defend these
colours." They did so, and secured the conquest of St. Lucie. It
was in this action that the FIFTH by its gallant conduct acquired
the privilege of wearing a _White Plume_ in the cap instead of the
red and white tuft worn by the other regiments of the line; having
taken from the bodies of the slain French grenadiers, the advance
and élite of the enemy's force, as many white feathers as sufficed
to equip every man in the regiment with the new decoration. The
loss of the French amounted to about four hundred killed and eleven
hundred wounded, while the killed on the side of the British was
only ten, and one hundred and thirty wounded; amongst whom were
Lieutenants Pratt and Harris. The sense General Grant entertained
of the services of Brigadier-General Medows and the detachment
under his command, was expressed in the following letter, dated
from Morne Fortuné, the 19th of December, 1778:


  "I cannot express how much I feel obliged to you, and the troops
  under your command, for repulsing, with so much spirit and
  bravery, so great a body of the enemy, and own it was just what
  I expected from you and them; and I am sure, under your command,
  they will always behave in such a manner as to do honour to you,
  themselves, their king, and their country; and I must beg of you
  to express my gratitude."

[Sidenote: 1779]

[Sidenote: 1780]

During the year 1779, the regiment was sometimes embarked on board
ship, and at others employed on shore at St. Lucie and Antigua,
and was engaged with the enemy on the 19th of June, 6th of July,
and 7th and 8th of September. From January to July, 1780, it was
occasionally in Gros Isle Bay, St. Lucie, at Martinique, St.
Kitt's, and Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, and was engaged on the 17th
of April, and on the 15th of May. It was then ordered home, and
after a boisterous passage, landed on the 16th of September at
Portsmouth, from whence it embarked again for Ireland in December,
and arrived at Cork in January, 1781.

[Sidenote: 1781]

[Sidenote: 1782]

Towards the end of 1781, a detachment was employed at the mouth
of the Shannon, in protecting a foreign vessel, stranded on the
coast, from plunder by the natives. The regiment was afterwards
quartered at Kilkenny, where its conduct was such that, on its
being ordered to a different part of the country, the inhabitants
petitioned the Government successfully for its return; at Limerick
also, and several other places, its soldier-like and orderly
behaviour received the official thanks of the civil authorities.
With the volunteers of Ireland, at that time in the height of
their popularity and the heyday of their zeal, the FIFTH was
on the best footing; whenever it marched through any town, the
volunteers turned out to receive it with all due honours, and so
great was their respect for the regiment and confidence in its then
commander, Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards Lord) Harris, who had
served in the corps from the rank of Ensign upwards, that when,
on the report of an intended landing of the French near Cork, the
FIFTH was marched to Youghal, several volunteer corps offered to
join it in case a landing was effected by the enemy.

[Sidenote: 1783]

In March, 1783, the regiment was marched from Kilkenny to Dublin,
and at the first installation of the newly-founded order of St.
Patrick, its grenadier company furnished the guard of honour at the
Cathedral. A detachment was about the same time sent, under the
command of Major Battier, to Carlow, in support of the fencibles,
who had been insulted by the volunteers at Kilkenny.

[Sidenote: 1784]

In 1784, the regiment lost a distinguished leader, a powerful
patron, and an attached and sincere friend, by the promotion of
Earl Percy to the Colonelcy of the second troop of Horse Grenadier
Guards. The FIFTH had been his first command; he had held that
command for sixteen years, including the whole of the American
war of independence, and in compliment to him, the regiment
had received the denomination, which it still retains, of the
"NORTHUMBERLAND" Regiment. He took leave of his old comrades in the
following very complimentary and affectionate letter:--

  "_Alnwick, Nov. 5, 1784._


  "His Majesty having been pleased to appoint me Colonel of the
  Second Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards, in succession to His
  Royal Highness Prince Frederick, I take the earliest opportunity
  of acquainting you with it: and although this new appointment
  is a very flattering mark of His Majesty's approbation of my
  services, yet I cannot help feeling the greatest regret at
  quitting the FIFTH regiment of Foot, which I have had the
  pleasure of commanding for sixteen years with great satisfaction
  to myself, and, I trust, with some advantage to the corps. The
  very uncommon attention which I have always met with, both from
  the officers and men of the FIFTH, will ever be remembered by me
  with the greatest pleasure; and however changed my situation may
  be with respect to them, my regard, esteem, and affection for
  them will ever continue the same, and I shall always be happy in
  having an opportunity of convincing them of it.

  "I am, with the greatest regard,
  "Yours most sincerely,
  (Signed)      "PERCY.

  "Officer commanding FIFTH Foot."

Earl Percy was succeeded by Major-General the Honourable Edward
Stopford, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixty-sixth Foot, whose
commission as Colonel of the FIFTH is dated 1st November, 1784.

[Sidenote: 1785]

The colours of the FIFTH being worn out by time and numerous
honourable perforations received in action, a new set was presented
to it with the usual solemnities, on St. George's day, 1785, in the
parish church of Belfast, where the regiment was then stationed.
In the evening the men dined sumptuously in the barrack-yard by
companies, at the expense of their lately promoted Colonel, Earl
Percy. In the same year, the assistance rendered by the FIFTH on
the occasion of a great fire which broke out in Belfast called
forth the public thanks of the corporation and inhabitants.

[Sidenote: 1787]

The FIFTH remained in Ireland, earning, by its discipline and
conduct, the repeated commendations of the several general officers
by whom it was commanded or reviewed, till May the 24th, 1787, when
it embarked at Monkstown, near Cork, for Canada, and after a voyage
of two months, touching by the way at Newfoundland, arrived at
Quebec on the 26th of July.

After a short stay at the capital of Lower Canada, the regiment
was encamped on the heights above Silleri, and after being
reviewed there on the 29th of August, 1787, by his Royal Highness
Prince William Henry (afterwards King William IV.), was embarked
at Wolfe's Cove on the 6th of September, in batteaux, for the
interior, where it remained for nine years.

[Sidenote: 1790]

[Sidenote: 1791]

From June, 1790, to the same month in 1792, it was quartered at
Detroit, on the Straits of St. Clair, above Lake Erie, in Upper
Canada. While the regiment was at this station, under the command
of Lieutenant-Colonel Smith[37]; the first aggression was made by
the troops of the United States on the Indian territory; and his
humane interference and exertions rescued many Americans from the
Indians, into whose hands they had fallen, for which he received
the thanks of the President.

[Sidenote: 1792]

From Detroit the regiment moved, in June, 1792, down to Niagara,
where it was reviewed by his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent and
Major-General Simcoe, who made a highly favourable report of it to
the Commander-in-Chief, declaring it to be "most fit for actual
service." From Niagara, Lieutenant Sheaffe[38] of the FIFTH, was
detached to coast the shore of Lake Ontario, and protest against
the settlements made by the Americans at Sodius, and other places,
during the suspended execution of the first American treaty.

[Sidenote: 1794]

General Stopford died in 1794, and was succeeded in the Colonelcy
of the FIFTH, by Sir Alured Clarke, G.C.B., whose commission was
dated the 25th of October, in that year. The regiment was still
at Niagara, where it remained till that post was given up to the
Americans in 1796, when it was ordered to Quebec.

[Sidenote: 1796]

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1798]

In the winter of 1796 it was employed against the insurgent
Canadians at Point Levi, on which occasion it crossed the St.
Lawrence on the ice. In 1797, the corporals and privates were
drafted into the Twenty-fourth regiment, while the officers and
serjeants returned to England, and on their disembarkation were
ordered to Grantham, in Lincolnshire, to recruit; which service
was very successfully carried on in all the principal towns of
the county. From Grantham it was moved to Boston, and from thence
suddenly ordered to Norman Cross barracks, where some disturbances
had broken out among the French prisoners. After a few months,
however, at the particular request of the inhabitants of Boston, it
was again quartered in that town, on which occasion the volunteer
corps lined the streets through which the regiment had to pass,
and a splendid dinner and ball were given to the officers by the
inhabitants. This kindly feeling between Lincolnshire and the FIFTH
regiment has continued ever since, and more recruits have joined
its ranks from that county than from any other.

[Sidenote: 1799]

When the expedition sent out with the view of delivering Holland
from the power of France was determined on in 1799, the FIFTH
regiment, already in a high state of efficiency, both with
respect to numbers and discipline, was selected to form part of
the army destined for that service, and was accordingly marched
to the camp on Barham Downs. It was immediately after divided
into two battalions, upwards of eight hundred each, in strength,
Major-General George Hewett being appointed on the 5th of August,
1799, Colonel-Commandant of the second battalion; and in September
both battalions embarked at Deal for Holland, where they landed
on the 14th and 15th, and formed with the Thirty-fifth regiment,
the eighth brigade of the army, under the command of His Royal
Highness Prince William of Gloucester.

In the general attack made on the 19th of September on the whole
line of the French positions in North Holland, the FIFTH regiment
formed part of the column under Lieutenant-General Dundas,
destined to carry the intrenched villages of _Walmenhuysen_, and
_Schoreldam_, in the attack upon the latter of which, the first
battalion took an active part, and had one Lieutenant (Harris)
mortally, and its Lieutenant-Colonel (Stephenson) severely wounded;
sustaining, besides, a loss of five killed, four wounded, and four
missing. Of this action the Duke of York observed, in his public
despatch, "The gallantry displayed by the troops engaged, the
spirit with which they overcame every obstacle which nature and art
opposed to them, and the cheerfulness with which they maintained
the fatigue of an action, which lasted without intermission,
from half-past three o'clock in the morning, until five in the
afternoon, are beyond my power to describe or extol. Their
exertions fully entitle them to the admiration and gratitude of
their King and country."

In the battle of _Egmont-op-Zee_ on the 2nd and 6th of October,
Prince William's brigade was not actively engaged; but the flank
companies of the FIFTH, which were attached to the grenadier and
light infantry battalions of the line, and formed part of the
reserve under Colonel Macdonald of the Fifty-fifth regiment, had
an opportunity of distinguishing themselves; they had several men
killed and wounded, also Captain Pratt wounded on the 2nd, and
Lieutenant Hamilton on the 6th of October; and on both occasions
behaved so well as to receive the particular thanks of their

On the 10th of October the posts occupied by the two battalions
of the FIFTH, in front of the village of _Winkle_, were attacked
by the enemy in great strength. The French troops had succeeded
in forcing a passage over a canal which covered the village, when
Colonel Bligh, who commanded the first battalion, perceiving that
if the advance of the enemy was not checked, the remainder of
the brigade was in danger of being cut off, planted the colours
of the FIFTH on the top of the dyke, and kept his ground till he
had secured and covered the retreat of the brigade; the second
battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel Talbot, in the mean time
maintaining its positions till ordered to retreat by Prince
William, who on this occasion, issued the following general order:--

  "_Oude, Sluys, 12th October, 1799._

  "Prince William desires Colonel Bligh and the first battalion
  of the _Fifth_ Regiment will accept his thanks, for the gallant
  manner in which they attacked the enemy when he was passing
  the canal opposite Winkle; and Lieutenant-Colonels Talbot
  and Lindsay, of the second battalion of the FIFTH, for their
  exertions on the 10th instant."

[Sidenote: 1800]

The Dutch did not second the gallant exertions thus made to effect
their deliverance from foreign domination, and the evacuation of
Holland was resolved on. As late as the 12th of October, the FIFTH
Regiment was still in front of the enemy, and eventually occupied
the works at the Helder, during the retreat and final embarkation
of the army; being, according to Sir James Pulteney's letter of the
20th of November, among the last of the British troops who quitted
Holland, and exhibiting to the end, persevering good conduct and
unwearied courage, under hardships which his Royal Highness the
Duke of York, in general orders, dated 8th of October, 1799,
designated as "insupportable." On its arrival in England, the
regiment was stationed at Silver Hill barracks, and the following
year both battalions were ordered to Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: 1801]

In August, 1801, Sir Alured Clarke was removed to the Colonelcy
of the Seventh Foot, and the command of the FIFTH was bestowed on
the 20th of August, on Major-General Richard England, who, from
the 14th of April, 1800, had been Colonel-Commandant of the second

[Sidenote: 1802]

[Sidenote: 1803]

[Sidenote: 1804]

At Gibraltar the regiment continued till the peace of Amiens, when
it returned to England. The second battalion was then disbanded at
Winchester, and the first ordered to Guernsey, where it remained
till 1804, when it returned to England, and was stationed first,
for a short time, at Hilsea, and afterwards at Colchester. The
war with France having been resumed, a second battalion was again
raised, in 1804, and embodied at Horsham in Sussex.

[Sidenote: 1805]

In 1805, the establishment of the first battalion was augmented to
1000 rank and file; and it was, with other regiments, reviewed in
the autumn at Colchester, by his Royal Highness the Duke of York.

In the same year the second battalion was stationed at Chichester,
and recruited successfully in Petworth, Steyning, Midhurst, Lewes,
and Rye; in February, 1806, it was sent to Guernsey, and from
thence in August following, it was removed to Alderney.

[Sidenote: 1806]

In November, 1805, the first battalion embarked at Deal, with the
forces under Lord Cathcart, destined for the defence of Hanover.
During the voyage the "Helder" transport, containing the left wing
of the battalion, was unfortunately wrecked off the Helder, and the
officers and men were made prisoners by the Dutch. The right wing
returned to England in 1806, and was stationed at Rye, in Sussex,
where it was joined in September, by the left wing, which had been
liberated by an exchange of prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1807]

In 1806, the first battalion sailed in the expedition under
Brigadier-General Robert Craufurd, to join the British forces at
Monte Video, in the province of Buenos Ayres, in South America;
and after being embarked upwards of nine months, landed on the
28th of June, 1807, at Ensenada de Barragon, and was formed in
Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Achmuty's brigade, for the attack made
by Lieutenant-General Whitelocke, on the capital of the province.

After some fatiguing marches through a country much intersected by
swamps and deep muddy rivulets, the troops crossed the Rio Chuelo,
and formed in the suburbs of _Buenos Ayres_, when the FIFTH had
its post towards the convent of Recoleta; and in the plan for
the general attack, the regiment was formed in two divisions,
and directed to penetrate the streets immediately in its front.
Accordingly, at half-past six o'clock on the morning of the 5th
of July, the regiment advanced: the streets were found deserted
by the inhabitants; the houses and shops closed; and a death-like
silence, interrupted only by the firm tread of the British soldier,
reigned in the midst of this populous city; but at a given signal,
the whole male population suddenly appeared, and the windows and
tops of the flat-roofed houses were crowded with armed men, who
commenced a destructive fire; at the same time the streets were
found intersected by ditches, and protected by cannon; but the
FIFTH, pressing onward with a conquering might which overcame all
resistance, forced its passage through the streets with fixed
bayonets, and, after penetrating to the river, took possession of
the church and convent of St. Catalina, from whence it moved to the
Plaza de Toros, where thirty-two pieces of cannon and a quantity of
ammunition were captured. In the mean time several other corps, not
able to overcome the opposition they met with, had been repulsed
or overpowered, and made prisoners by the Spaniards; and on the
following day Lieutenant-General Whitelocke agreed to vacate the
place. In this affair the FIFTH sustained a loss of fourteen
killed, also forty-seven wounded, amongst the latter was Major the
Honourable Henry King; and twenty-four missing. On the conclusion
of the treaty between General Whitelocke and General Liniers, the
English army re-embarked, and, after a tedious voyage, during
which it was exposed to considerable want both of provisions and
water, the 1st battalion of the FIFTH Regiment landed at Cork, in
December, 1807, where the 2nd battalion also arrived from Alderney
on the 3rd of the same month.

In the same year, the sanction of his Royal Highness the Prince
Regent was obtained for clothing the drummers of the regiment in
white, with white and red lace, instead of gosling green.

[Sidenote: 1808]

The second battalion was quartered at Charles Fort, Kinsale,
from whence it marched in February, 1808, to Fermoy. In the
summer of the same year, the first battalion, under the command
of Lieutenant-Colonel John Mackenzie, was ordered to proceed to
the aid of the Portuguese in their resistance to the tyrannical
power of Buonaparte; it accordingly embarked at Cork, and sailed
on the 12th July for Portugal; where it landed on the 9th of
August, and immediately joined the army of Lieutenant-General Sir
Arthur Wellesley. In the action at _Roleia_, on the 17th, it was
one of the few corps whom circumstances and the nature of the
ground permitted to come to actual engagement with the enemy; and
advancing by the right-hand path to the heights of Zambugeira, it
climbed the rugged rocks in the face of a French force, which,
after a gallant resistance, was driven from the heights. Thus by
its conduct on that day, wherein two of its officers, Major Emes
and Lieutenant Doyle were wounded, it earned the Royal permission
to have the word "ROLEIA" inscribed on its colours. Its further
loss was three killed, and two serjeants and thirty-nine rank and
file wounded. Sir Arthur Wellesley, in his despatch, observed, "I
cannot sufficiently applaud the conduct of the troops throughout
this action. The enemy's positions were formidable, and he took
them up with his usual ability and celerity, and defended them most
gallantly. I must observe, that although we had such a superiority
of numbers employed in the operations of this day, the troops
actually engaged in the heat of the action were, from unavoidable
circumstances, only the FIFTH, Ninth, Twenty-ninth, the riflemen
of the Sixtieth and Ninety-fifth, and the flank companies of
Major-General Hill's brigade, being in number by no means equal to
that of the enemy;--their conduct therefore deserves the highest

In the subsequent battle of _Vimiera_, fought on the 21st of
August, the first battalion of the FIFTH forming, with the Ninth
and Thirty-eighth Regiments, the first brigade, was posted on the
mountain on the right of the village. The enemy was defeated, and
the regiment was rewarded by royal permission to inscribe the word
"VIMIERA" also upon its colours.

These successes being followed by the Convention of Cintra, and
the evacuation of Portugal by the French, the first battalion of
the FIFTH was afterwards stationed in Lisbon, where it remained
several weeks.

Portugal being now free from the presence of an enemy, an army,
commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore, was sent up the
country in the autumn, to assist the Spaniards in their resistance
to the armies of France, and the first battalion of the FIFTH
Regiment was selected to form part of this expedition.

[Sidenote: 1809]

Passing through Portugal by a rapid march, the troops traversed
four hundred miles in a short time, and were soon engaged
in operations in Spain; but the Spaniards, who were to have
co-operated, had in the mean time been defeated and dispersed; and
the little British army was eventually obliged to retire before
the superior numbers of the enemy. The FIFTH Regiment took its
full share in the disasters and privations of the retreat from
Sahagun to _Corunna_, as well as in the glories of the 16th of
January, 1809, when the steady firmness of the British army, by
repulsing at all points an assailant, superior in numbers and
artillery, and commanded by one of the ablest generals[39] that
France could boast, proved to the world that even a forced retreat
of two hundred and fifty miles, made under circumstances the most
disheartening, and accompanied by privations the most appalling,
though it might wear the sinews and exhaust the physical strength
of the British soldier, had no power to shake his resolution or
daunt his courage.

In the battle of _Corunna_, Colonel Mackenzie particularly
distinguished himself: after having one horse shot under him, he
remounted another, and was at length mortally wounded, whereupon
the command of the battalion devolved on Major Emes, who received
a medal for this service, while the regiment itself acquired
another honorary inscription for its colours, 'CORUNNA' being by
royal permission borne upon them. The number of killed and wounded
of the first battalion of the FIFTH, in the battle of Corunna, has
never been exactly ascertained; but on mustering after its return
to England, one serjeant, two corporals, three drummers, and one
hundred and twenty-six rank and file were found to be missing.

The first battalion landed in February, 1809, at Ramsgate, and
after a halt of a few days at Margate, was ordered to Steyning,
in Sussex, where it was fully equipped and completed to upwards
of one thousand rank and file, and embarked in July following at
Portsmouth, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Pratt, to form
part of the expedition under the Earl of Chatham designed to effect
the destruction of the enemy's shipping and arsenal on the Scheldt.

During the siege of _Flushing_, on the Island of Walcheren, the
first battalion of the FIFTH was very actively employed, and
although bivouacked without tents during the whole time (with the
exception of one week that it was in garrison in Flushing, after
its surrender) had very few sick; but on being embarked to proceed
up the Scheldt for the projected attack upon Antwerp, the Walcheren
fever broke out in its ranks with dreadful violence, attacking
about six hundred men. In the active operations it lost one captain
(Talbot) killed, and Captain M. Hamilton and Lieutenant Galbraith
were wounded, the former losing a leg: its loss from disease was
much more severe, for before its return to England, in December
following, two captains (Philips and William Hamilton), and three
lieutenants (Brown, MacDonough, and Cary) and many men had been
carried off by the fever. On its return to England, the battalion
was stationed at Bexhill.

In the mean time a detachment of the regiment left in Portugal,
when the first battalion advanced into Spain, had been added to a
battalion of detachments under Lieutenant-Colonel Copson of the
FIFTH, and warmly engaged at the battle of _Talavera_, on the 27th
and 28th of July, for which Lieutenant-Colonel Copson received a

The second battalion had been removed from Fermoy, in April of
this year, to Coloony in the King's County, and from thence in
June to Cork, and, embarking at Cove, landed on the 4th of July
at Lisbon; and on the 3rd of August marched, under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel the Honourable Henry King, to join the army in
the field under Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, and take
its share in the subsequent operations of the campaign. About the
end of September it was reinforced by nearly one hundred men of the
first battalion, who had been left behind as before stated, and it
passed the winter in quarters near the Portuguese frontiers.

[Sidenote: 1810]

The immense preparations of the enemy for the ensuing campaign
induced Lord Wellington[40] to limit his operations in 1810 to
the defence of Portugal. The second battalion of the FIFTH formed
part of Major-General Lightburn's brigade of the third (Sir
Thomas Picton's) division of the army, and was stationed for some
time behind the Mondego river, from whence it advanced to Pinhel
behind the Coa to support the light division; and was afterwards
employed in a series of operations to retard the advance of the
overpowering numbers of the enemy. At length Lord Wellington made a
stand on the rocks of _Busaco_; and the third division had its post
on the heights near the village of St. Antonio de Cantara. Here
the second battalion of the FIFTH was first under fire, and its
light company, under Lieutenant Shadwell Clerke, was thrown out to
repulse the advancing skirmishers of the enemy, a service which it
most promptly and gallantly performed.

The French, after astonishing efforts, gave way before the superior
valour and tactics of the British troops. For this victory,
Lieutenant-Colonel the Honourable Henry King, commanding the
battalion, received a medal, and the word "BUSACO" was authorized,
on the 31st of December, 1825, to be inscribed upon the colours of
the regiment. Its loss in the battle of Busaco was one killed and
seven wounded.

After the battle, the French having made a flank movement, Lord
Wellington retired to the celebrated lines of _Torres Vedras_,
where he posed an insurmountable barrier to the further progress
of the enemy; and the second battalion of the FIFTH passed the
remainder of the year in these stupendous works.

The first battalion remaining on home service was removed, in
March, 1810, from Bexhill to Lewes, and on the 12th of August
was, with several other corps, reviewed on Brighton Downs by
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, attended by his Royal
Highness the Duke of Clarence, (afterwards King William IV.,) who
expressed themselves in terms of approbation of its appearance
and discipline. Two days afterwards the battalion marched to
Portsmouth, where it embarked for Ireland, and on its arrival was
quartered at Fermoy.

[Sidenote: 1811]

During the early part of 1811, the second battalion remained in
the lines of Torres Vedras, where Major-General the Honourable
Charles Colville took command of the brigade. The enemy, defeated
in his purpose, reduced in numbers by sickness, and in want of
provisions, was obliged to retreat; and the second battalion of the
FIFTH, moving with its division from the lines, was employed in
the pursuit of Marshal Massena towards the frontiers of Portugal.
It was frequently engaged with the enemy's rear guards, and on the
12th of March had a sharp affair at _Redinha_, where, descending
from the woody heights on the enemy's left, it cleared the grounds
in its front in fine style, and forded a deep and rapid river,
under the fire of the enemy, when Lieutenant Clerke, already
mentioned as commanding the light company at Busaco, was severely
wounded in the leg, which he lost in consequence.

The battalion continued to take an active part in the pursuit; and
in the action at _Sabugal_, on the 3rd of April, it forded the
river Coa, and immediately afterwards, on ascending the heights,
and while the brigade was forming on one of the centre companies
of the FIFTH, the skirmishers were rapidly driven in. The FIFTH,
commanded by Major Ridge, suddenly found itself in presence of a
strong French column, upon which it instantly advanced, opening
at the same time a heavy fire; the enemy was repulsed with severe
loss, and driven precipitately, and in the greatest disorder, down
the hill. In this affair Lieutenant Sinclair was killed, and Ensign
Williams, one serjeant, and five rank and file, wounded.

Almeida having been blockaded by the British, the French advanced
to relieve the place, and crossed the frontiers of Portugal on
the 2nd of May. On that day the battalion of the FIFTH was again
in sight of the enemy, and on the 5th of the same month it was
present, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel King (who had
rejoined), at the battle of _Fuentes d'Onor_, where the enemy was
defeated, and his design to relieve Almeida frustrated. In this
action the battalion had four rank and file wounded.

Immediately after the battle of Fuentes d'Onor, the second
battalion of the FIFTH was detached to the south to join the forces
under Marshal Beresford, and it was employed in the second siege
of _Badajoz_, where it was one of the first corps to break ground.
In the operations of this siege, which was raised on the morning
of the 17th of June, Lieutenant Sedgwick of the FIFTH (acting as
engineer) and three rank and file were killed, and one serjeant and
three rank and file were wounded.

Returning to the north, the battalion commanded by Major Ridge
was stationed, during the month of August and part of September,
in the village of Fuente Guinaldo, then the head-quarters of Lord
Wellington: it was the only British corps in the village, and was
considered such a favourite as to have acquired the _nom de guerre_
of "Lord Wellington's body-guard."

It was afterwards employed in the blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo;
and on the 24th of September it was ordered to a position on
the heights near the village of _El Bodon_, on the left of the
Agueda and within a few miles of Ciudad Rodrigo. The enemy, having
assembled an immense force to relieve the place, advanced on
the morning of the 25th, and the second battalion of the FIFTH
sustained an attack from a vastly superior French force, consisting
of cavalry, infantry, and artillery, in so distinguished a manner,
that its conduct was held up in General Orders as an example to
the whole army. The behaviour of the battalion on this proud
occasion is described by Lord Wellington in his public despatch as

  "The enemy's attention was principally directed during this day
  (the 25th) to the portion of the third division on the hills
  between Fuente Guinaldo and Pastores. About eight in the morning
  they moved a column, consisting of between thirty and forty
  squadrons of cavalry, and fourteen battalions of infantry, and
  twelve pieces of cannon, from Ciudad Rodrigo, in such a direction
  that it was doubtful whether they would attempt to ascend the
  hills by Encina, El Bodon, or by the direct road towards Fuente
  Guinaldo, and I was not certain by which road they would make
  their attack till they actually commenced it upon the last. As
  soon as I saw the direction of their march, I had reinforced
  the second battalion of the FIFTH regiment, which occupied the
  post on the hill, over which the road passes to Guinaldo, by the
  Seventy-seventh regiment, and by the Twenty-first Portuguese
  regiment, under the command of Major-General the Honourable
  Charles Colville, and Major-General Alten's brigade, of which
  only three squadrons remained, which had not been detached,
  drawn from El Bodon, and I ordered there a brigade of the fourth
  division, from Fuente Guinaldo, and afterwards from El Bodon the
  remainder of the troops of the third division, with the exception
  of those at Pastores, which were too distant. In the mean time,
  however, the small body of troops at this post sustained the
  attack of the enemy's cavalry and artillery. One regiment of
  French dragoons succeeded in taking two pieces of cannon, which
  had been posted on a rising ground on the right of our troops;
  but they were charged by the second battalion of the FIFTH
  regiment, under the command of Major Ridge, and the guns were
  immediately re-taken.

  "While this operation was going on on the flank, an attack was
  made on the front by another regiment, which was repulsed in a
  similar manner by the Seventy-seventh regiment, and the three
  squadrons of Major-General Alten's brigade charged repeatedly
  different bodies of the enemy, which ascended the hill on the
  left of the two regiments of British infantry, the Portuguese
  regiment being posted in the rear of their right.

  "At length the division of the enemy's infantry, which had
  marched with the cavalry from Ciudad Rodrigo, was brought up to
  the attack on the road to Fuente Guinaldo. The second battalion
  of the FIFTH regiment, and the Seventy-seventh regiment, were
  formed into one square, and the Twenty-first Portugese regiment
  into another, supported by Major-General Alten's small body of
  cavalry and the Portuguese artillery.

  "The enemy's cavalry immediately rushed forward, and obliged our
  cavalry to retire to the support of the Portuguese regiment, and
  the FIFTH and Seventy-seventh regiments were charged, on three
  faces of the square, by the French cavalry, but they halted and
  repulsed the attack with the utmost steadiness and gallantry.
  We then continued the retreat, and joined the remainder of the
  third division, also formed in squares, on their march to Fuente
  Guinaldo; and the whole retired together in the utmost order, and
  the enemy never made another attempt to charge any of them, but
  were satisfied with firing upon them with their artillery, and
  with following them.

  "I cannot conclude this report of the occurrence of the last
  week, without expressing to your Lordship my admiration of
  the conduct of the troops engaged in the affair of the 25th
  instant. The conduct of the second battalion of the FIFTH
  regiment, commanded by Major Ridge, in particular, affords a
  memorable example of what the steadiness and discipline of the
  troops, and their confidence in their officers, can effect, in
  the most difficult and trying situations. The conduct of the
  Seventy-seventh regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Bromhead was
  equally good; and I have never seen a more determined attack
  than was made by the whole of the enemy's cavalry, with every
  advantage of the assistance of a superior artillery, and repulsed
  by these two weak battalions."

The following are extracts from General Orders issued by command of
Lord Wellington on this memorable occasion.

  "_Head-Quarters, Regidsa, 2nd October, 1811._

  No. 3. "The commander of the forces is desirous of drawing the
  attention of the army to the conduct of the second battalion
  of the FIFTH regiment, and Seventy-seventh regiment, and
  Twenty-first Portuguese regiment, and Major Arentschildt's
  Portuguese artillery, under the command of the Honourable
  Major-General Colville, and of the Eleventh Light Dragoons and
  First Hussars, under Major-General Alten, in the affair with the
  enemy on the 25th of September ultimo. These troops were attacked
  by between thirty and forty squadrons of cavalry, with six pieces
  of cannon, supported by a division, consisting of fourteen
  battalions of infantry, with cannon."

  No. 4. "The Portuguese artillery-men were cut down at their guns
  before they would quit them; but the second battalion of the
  FIFTH regiment attacked the cavalry, which had taken their guns,
  and retook them; at the same time the Seventy-seventh regiment
  was attacked in front by another body of cavalry, upon which body
  they advanced, and repulsed them."

  No. 5. "While those actions were performed, Major-General Alten's
  brigade, of which there were only three squadrons on the ground,
  was engaged on the left with numbers infinitely superior to
  themselves. These squadrons charged repeatedly, supporting each
  other, and took about twenty prisoners, and, notwithstanding
  the immense superiority of the enemy, the post would have been
  maintained, if the commander of the forces had not ordered the
  troops to withdraw from it, seeing that the action would have
  been still more unequal, as the enemy's infantry were likely to
  be engaged in it before the reinforcements ordered to support the
  post could arrive."

  No. 6. "The troops then retired with the same determined spirit,
  and in the same good order, with which they had maintained their
  post--the second battalion of the FIFTH and Seventy-seventh
  regiments in one square, and the Twenty-first Portuguese in
  another, supported by Major-General's Alten's cavalry, and the
  Portuguese artillery. The enemy's cavalry charged three faces of
  the square of the British infantry, but were beaten off; and,
  finding from their fruitless efforts that those brave troops
  were not to be broken, they were content with following them at
  a distance, and firing upon them with artillery, till the troops
  joined the remainder of the third division, and were afterwards
  supported by a brigade of the fourth division. Although the
  Twenty-first Portuguese regiment was not actually charged by
  the enemy's cavalry, their steadiness and determination were
  conspicuous, and the commander of the forces observed with
  pleasure the order and regularity with which they made all their
  movements, and the confidence they showed in their officers."

  No. 7. "The commander of the forces has been particular in
  stating the details of this action in the general orders, as
  in his opinion it affords a memorable example of what can be
  effected by steadiness, discipline, and confidence. It is
  impossible that any troops can be exposed at any time to the
  attack of numbers relatively greater than those which attacked
  the troops under Major-General Colville and Major-General
  Alten, on the 25th of September; and the commander of the
  forces recommends the conduct of these troops to the particular
  attention of the officers and soldiers of the army, as an example
  to be followed in all such circumstances."

  No. 8. "The commander of the forces considers Major-General
  Alten and Major-General Colville, and the commanding officers
  of regiments under their command respectively, _viz._
  Lieutenant-Colonel Cummins, Lieutenant-Colonel Arentschildt,
  Lieutenant-Colonel Bromhead, Major Ridge, and Colonel Bucella,
  of the Twenty-first Portuguese, and the officers and soldiers
  under their command, to be entitled to his particular thanks, and
  assures them that he has not failed to report his sense of their
  conduct, in the action of the 25th of September, to those by whom
  he trusts that it will be duly appreciated and recollected."

Further eulogium, or even comment, on the brilliant conduct of the
second battalion of this regiment at EL BODON it must be felt, is
unnecessary, and would be supererogatory: its loss was five rank
and file killed, and Captain Ramus, one serjeant, and twelve rank
and file, wounded. The army moved forward on the 26th to occupy
other positions, and the battalion, for the remainder of 1811, was
posted in the village of Payo, near the pass of Perales.

[Sidenote: 1812]

The first operation of the year 1812 was the siege of _Ciudad
Rodrigo_, in the storming of which fortress, on the 19th of
January, the second battalion of the FIFTH had another glorious
opportunity of distinguishing itself and earning one more
honourable inscription for the regimental colours. On this
occasion, moving from its post behind the convent of Santa Cruz, it
entered the ditch at the extremity of the counterscarp, then, after
escalading the wall and scouring the _fausse braye_ to the great
breach, it rushed forward in the face of a thundering discharge
of shells, grape, and musketry, which thinned the ranks; yet,
continuing its course with unabated fury, it drove the French, with
fixed bayonets, behind the entrenchments. Here the enemy rallied,
some hard fighting occurred, but at length the British, by a mighty
effort, burst through the entrenchment. In the mean time the other
attacks had also succeeded. The garrison fought for a moment in the
streets; but eventually fled to the castle and surrendered. The
Commander-in-Chief, in his despatch to the Earl of Liverpool, dated
Gallegos, 20th of January, 1812, says:--

  "Major Ridge, of the second battalion, FIFTH regiment, having
  escaladed the _fausse braye_ wall, stormed the principal breach
  in the body of the place, together with the Ninety-fourth
  regiment[41], commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, which
  had moved along the ditch at the same time, and had stormed the
  breach in the _fausse braye_, both in front of Major-General
  Mackinnon's brigade. Thus these regiments not only effectually
  covered the advance from the trenches of Major-General
  Mackinnon's brigade by their first movements and operations, but
  they preceded them in the attack.

  "The conduct of all parts of the third division in the operations
  which they performed with so much gallantry and exactness, on
  the evening of the 19th in the dark, affords the strongest proof
  of the abilities of Lieutenant-General Picton and Major-General
  Mackinnon, by whom they were directed and led; but I beg
  particularly to draw your lordship's attention to the conduct
  of Lieutenant-Colonel O'Toole, of the second Caçadores; of
  Major Ridge, second battalion FIFTH Foot; of Lieutenant-Colonel
  Campbell, Ninety-fourth regiment; of Major Manners, of the
  Seventy-fourth; and of Major Grey, second battalion FIFTH Foot,
  who has been twice wounded during the siege."

The loss of the battalion during the siege, and at the storming
of Ciudad Rodrigo, was heavy, Captain McDougal, one serjeant, and
thirty-four rank and file, being killed, and Major Grey, Captain
Dubourdieu, Lieutenants Wylde, McKenzie, D. E. Johnson, Fitzgerald,
and Fairtclough, Ensigns Ashford and Canch (who carried the colours
at the assault), and Volunteer Hillyard, with three serjeants, and
fifty-five rank and file, wounded. Major Ridge obtained the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel, and the words 'CIUDAD RODRIGO' are authorized,
under date October the 25th, 1817, to be borne on the colours of
the regiment.

As soon as the breaches in Ciudad Rodrigo were repaired, and the
place put in a state of defence, the Earl of Wellington undertook,
for a third time, the siege of _Badajoz_, and on the 16th of March
the second battalion of the FIFTH, with the remainder of Sir
Thomas Picton's division, having marched to the Alentejo, crossed
the Guadiana, and took up its position in the investing force. In
the assault, which took place at ten o'clock on the night of the
6th of April, General Picton's division was directed to file out
of the trenches, cross the Rivillas river, and scale the castle
walls, which were from eighteen to twenty-four feet high; furnished
with all means of destruction, and so narrow at the top that the
defenders could easily overturn the ladders. The second battalion
of the FIFTH led the brigade to which it belonged, and, passing
the Rivillas by a narrow bridge under a hot fire of musketry, the
troops reared their ladders against the lofty castle, and with
undaunted courage ascended amidst a shower of heavy stones, logs
of wood, and bursting shells from the parapet, while the enemy
plied a heavy fire from the flanks, and with pikes or bayonets
stabbed the leading assailants in front, or pushed the ladders
from the wall. Yet, amidst the deafening noise of musketry, the
crash of breaking ladders, and the sound of falling weights, the
men were seen striving who should first ascend, until, all being
overturned, a pause ensued, and the French shouted "Victory."--A
vain shout:--for in a few moments the heroic Lieutenant-Colonel
Ridge, who commanded the FIFTH, springing forward, and calling
on his men to follow, raised a ladder against the castle on the
right of the former attack, Ensign Canch raised a second, and the
next moment these two, with Colonel Campbell of the Ninety-fourth
(commanding the brigade), followed by the grenadiers, were on the
rampart. The remainder of the men followed cheering, and, when
a sufficient number had succeeded in gaining the summit of the
wall, the gallant Ridge, calling out "Come on, my lads, let us be
the first to seize the governor," led them along the ramparts and
drove the garrison before them with terrible slaughter through the
double gate into the town. The enemy sent a reinforcement, but it
was driven back. Thus the castle was nobly won, and the grenadiers
of the FIFTH had the honour of having led the successful escalade,
under circumstances which gave an interesting character to this
daring exploit. A shot in the breast unfortunately closed the
mortal career of Lieutenant-Colonel Ridge even in the moment of
victory, and deprived the regiment, and the service in general,
of a most valuable officer[42]. His family had the melancholy
satisfaction of receiving the medal which, had he survived, would
have graced his own breast: another medal was given to Major
Bishop, who, on the death of his Lieutenant-Colonel, succeeded
to the temporary command of the battalion; and, in reward and
commemoration of its services on this occasion, the word "BADAJOZ"
is, by authority dated July the 4th, 1818, borne on the colours.
During the siege and assault, the battalion lost, besides its
lamented Lieutenant-Colonel, one Lieutenant (Fairtclough), one
serjeant, and sixteen rank and file, killed; and two captains,
Bennett (aide-de-camp to Major-General Kempt) and Doyle, Lieutenant
John Pennington, and Ensign Hopkins, with three serjeants, and
twenty-seven rank and file, wounded.

After the capture of Badajoz, the second battalion accompanied
the army towards the north of Portugal and into Spain; it was in
position on the heights of St. Christoval until after the capture
of the forts at Salamanca. It was afterwards in position on the
Douro, and was for a time posted, with the remainder of the third
division, to observe the ford of Pollos, while the opposite bank of
the river was occupied by the French army; and it was occasionally
under the enemy's fire in the course of the movements which
preceded the battle of Salamanca.

During this period, the first battalion, which had embarked at
Cork in May, landed at Lisbon, and, advancing by forced marches,
joined the army about the 20th of July, a few leagues in front of
Salamanca, taking the right of that brigade of the third division
which had been hitherto formed by the second battalion of the
FIFTH, the Eighty-third, and the Ninety-fourth regiments.

The two battalions of the FIFTH were thus united in time for
the whole regiment to share in the honours and triumphs of the
22nd of July, 1812, the glorious victory of _Salamanca_. In the
course of this day, while the French were manœuvring, the third
division, being suddenly ordered to cross their line of march,
sprang forward with an energy and force which broke the half-formed
French lines into fragments, and drove them in confusion upon the
support. The shock of this gallant and unexpected attack threw the
enemy into confusion; and the division continuing its spirited
advance, the right flank of the first battalion of the FIFTH was
threatened by a charge of cavalry, when three companies were
thrown back _en potence_, and, coolly allowing the enemy's horse
to advance so close that every shot would tell, opened so steady
and well-directed a fire, that they were instantly repulsed, and
they fled in disorder. The division again bearing onwards in its
victorious course, its attack was rendered decisive by a brilliant
charge of the heavy cavalry; and finally the enemy sustained an
entire overthrow. Lieutenant-Colonel Pratt, of the first battalion,
Lieutenant-Colonel the Honourable Henry King, of the second (who
in the course of the day succeeded to the temporary command of
the brigade), and Captain Bishop (on whom at the same time the
temporary command of the second battalion devolved), obtained
medals; and the good conduct of the regiment in general was
rewarded by authority, under date October the 25th, 1817, to bear
the word "SALAMANCA" inscribed on its colours. Its loss amounted to
one serjeant and ten rank and file killed; and Captain Simcocks,
Lieutenants Bird, McPherson, O'Dell, Gunn, Hamilton, and Hillyard,
Ensign Pratt, and eleven serjeants, one drummer, and one hundred
and nineteen rank and file, wounded.

The loss of the second battalion in the brilliant but severe
service in which it had now for three years[43] been constantly
engaged was so serious, that, on the arrival of the army in
Madrid, the capture of which capital was the first fruit of the
victory of Salamanca, it was ordered to England to recruit its
thinned ranks. After transferring the effective privates to the
first battalion, it took leave of the army at Madrid on the 3rd
of September, embarked at Lisbon in November, and on the 1st
of December landed at Plymouth, from whence it marched, on the
following day, to Kingsbridge, to join its depôt, and finally, in
January, 1813, took up its quarters in Exeter. The estimation in
which this battalion was held by the Earl of Wellington will be
best shown by the following extracts from general orders, dated
Arcala, July 27th, 1812.

  "The Commander of the Forces cannot part with the officers and
  non-commissioned officers of the second battalion of the FIFTH
  regiment, without again requesting them to accept his thanks for
  their uniform good conduct and brilliant and important services
  since they have been under his command."

The first battalion remained stationary in Madrid, while the
Marquis of Wellington marched with part of the army and commenced
the siege of Burgos; and, when the advance of the enemy's immense
force rendered a retreat necessary, the battalion marched on the
24th of October, with the rest of the third division, to join the
army, then retiring from the siege, and, returning with it into
Portugal, was stationed for the winter in the villages of Ferrerina
and Faya.

Lieutenant-General Richard England died on the 7th of November
this year, and on the 27th of the same month Major-General William
Wynyard, from the Royal West India Rangers, was appointed to the
Colonelcy of this regiment.

[Sidenote: 1813]

On the 16th of May, 1813, the first battalion of the FIFTH broke
up from its cantonments, and (brigaded with the Eighty-third,
Eighty-seventh, and Ninety-fourth, under the Honourable Sir Charles
Colville,) advanced with the rest of the army into Spain. At the
memorable and decisive battle of _Vittoria_, it forded the river,
and advancing against the right of the French army at Margarita
and Hermanded, displayed its usual spirit and intrepidity, driving
in a superior force of the enemy in gallant style. The Marquis of
Wellington, in his despatch, notices the conduct of the brigade in
these terms:--"Major-General the Honourable Sir Charles Colville's
brigade of the third division was seriously attacked in its advance
by a very superior force, well formed, which it drove in, supported
by Major-General Inglis's brigade of the seventh division,
commanded by Colonel Grant, of the Eighty-second. These officers,
and the troops under their command, distinguished themselves." In
this battle, the battalion had Captain Adams, Lieutenant Higgins,
Ensign Bolton, Volunteer Rees, and twenty-two rank and file,
killed; with Captain Bateman, Lieutenants Galbraith, Welch, and
Arthur Johnson, six serjeants and one hundred and twenty-seven rank
and file, wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Pratt obtained a medal, and
by authority, dated October the 25th, 1817, the word "VITTORIA" is
borne upon the colours of the regiment.

After the battle of Vittoria, the FIFTH pursued the enemy in the
direction of Pampeluna; if was subsequently sent against a French
force under General Clausel, which however escaped to France.
The battalion afterwards proceeded to Pampeluna, and was engaged
towards the end of July near the village of Hörte del Reigen in
front of that fortress. Having advanced along the gloomy passes
of the lofty Pyrenean mountains, the regiment was stationed a
short time at Olaque, in the pass of Roncesvalles, from whence
it retired, on the advance of the enemy under Marshal Soult, to
a position in the _Pyrenees_, in front of Pampeluna. Here the
troops were attacked by the enemy, and after much hard fighting had
occurred, the third division advanced across the heights in its
front to turn the enemy's left flank, when the French were driven
from their ground and pursued along the defiles in the mountains.

After passing through the Pyrenees the troops crossed the
frontiers, and the interior of France resounded to the firm tread
of the conquering British soldier. At the battle of _Nivelle_,
on the 10th of November, the third division, under Major-General
Colville (in the absence of Sir Thomas Picton), formed the right
centre of the combined army, and advancing by the left of the
village of Sarré carried the redoubts on the left of the enemy's
centre, driving the French from their ground, and afterwards moving
by the left of the river Nivelle upon St. Pé; in which affairs,
the usual gallant conduct of the battalion earned a medal for
its Lieutenant-Colonel Pratt, and permission by authority, dated
October the 25th, 1817, for the word "NIVELLE" to be borne on the
colours. In this battle, its loss consisted of one serjeant and
fourteen rank and file, killed; Captain Clarke, Lieutenant Bird,
three serjeants, and one hundred and nine rank and file, wounded;
and Captain John Hamilton taken prisoner.

The regiment was afterwards employed in the operations connected
with the passage of the river _Nive_; and was partially engaged in
the action, on the 13th of December; after which it was cantoned in
and about Hasparen, a town in the south of France, 13 miles from

[Sidenote: 1814]

On the 14th of February, 1814, the battalion broke up from its
cantonments, and on the 24th, it was sharply engaged with the
enemy. Captain Culley, of the FIFTH, with the light companies of
his own battalion, the Eighty-seventh, and Ninety-fourth, was
ordered to force a deep ford of the river _Gave d'Oleron_; he
effected the passage, but, being attacked by superior numbers, was
driven back with considerable loss. Captain Culley, and Lieutenant
R. Pennington, of the FIFTH, were severely wounded on this
occasion, and the battalion lost seven rank and file, killed, and
thirteen taken prisoners.

The battalion took part in the battle of _Orthes_, on the 27th
of February; also in frequent and successful skirmishes with the
French rear guard during its retreat through the vineyards between
Pau, Vicq, and Tarbes, and finally, in the battle of _Toulouse_,
the closing struggle and crowning victory of the Peninsular war, on
which occasion the first battalion of the FIFTH behaved with its
usual gallantry; its commanding officer, Colonel Pratt, received
medals for the battles of Orthes and Toulouse, and by authority,
dated July the 4th, 1818, the names of these battles are inscribed
upon the colours. The loss of the battalion in the battle of Orthes
was one Lieutenant, Hopkins, and eleven rank and file, killed; and
thirty-three wounded: in subsequent actions it had one rank and
file, killed, and twelve wounded.

The gallant exploits of the British troops having caused the
overthrow of the tyrannical power of Buonaparte, hostilities ceased
on the continent: the regiments went into quarters of refreshment,
and the veterans of the FIFTH could now look back with exultation
at the scenes of victory and triumph which had attended their
career in this war. They could reflect with delight on the fame
they had acquired, but especially at the glorious result, that
their valour had preserved their native land from the presence of
war, and their efforts had acquired peace for Europe.

On the extension of the most honourable military order of the
Bath in 1815, Colonel Charles Pratt, of the FIFTH, was nominated
a Knight-Commander, and Colonels the Honourable Henry King, and
Edward Copson, Companions of the Order. The regiment also, in
reward and commemoration of its services throughout the Peninsular
war, received permission by authority, dated April the 22nd, 1815,
to inscribe, in addition to its other distinctions, the word
"PENINSULA" upon its colours.

Although peace had been restored to Europe, war was continued in
America, and the first battalion of the FIFTH was allowed but a
few days repose, before it was ordered to the scene of conflict.
It marched out of quarters on the 11th of May, and arrived on
the 20th at Bourdeaux, from whence, after a halt of eleven days,
it embarked, and sailed for Canada, disembarking on the 7th of
August at Sorel, on the river St. Lawrence, about one hundred
miles above Quebec. From Sorel it marched to Chambly to join the
troops encamped there under Lieutenant-General Sir George Prevost,
and formed, with the Third, Twenty-seventh, and Twenty-eighth
regiments, the brigade of Major-General Sir Manley Power. It was
present at the unsuccessful attack made by Sir George Prevost on
the Americans near _Plattsburg_, in the early part of September,
and afterwards went into barracks at La Prairie; in November it
marched to Montreal, detaching five companies to Coteau du Lac.

[Sidenote: 1815]

Early in February, 1815, the first battalion moved from Montreal to
Upper Canada, where three companies were stationed at Johnstown,
and the remaining seven quartered at the farmers' houses along the
St. Lawrence, and scattered over a space of nearly twenty-eight
miles. But in May, these seven companies and head-quarters were
re-assembled in Fort Wellington. Peace having been concluded with
the Americans, early in June the battalion marched to Montreal,
and sailing down the St. Lawrence in steam vessels to Quebec, it
embarked on the 8th in four transports for Europe.

In the mean time the return of Buonaparte to France, in violation
of the treaty of 1814, had rekindled the war on the continent, and
the first battalion of the FIFTH was immediately ordered to France.
After touching at Portsmouth, it disembarked on the 11th of July at
Ostend; proceeded by the canal to Ghent, and marching from thence
to Paris, joined the British troops encamped at St. Denis on the
24th of August, thus missing being present at the glorious and
decisive victory of Waterloo, which, to a regiment, that had so
conspicuously shared in all the peninsular campaigns, was at once a
disappointment and a misfortune.

[Sidenote: 1816]

[Sidenote: 1817]

[Sidenote: 1818]

Peace having again been concluded, an army of occupation was
directed to remain in France for a few years; and in January, 1816,
the first battalion of the FIFTH formed part of the garrison of
the fortified city of Valenciennes; in July, August, and September
it was encamped in the vicinity of that town, but returned to
Valenciennes in October, and remained there till the month of
April, 1817, when it went to Bapaume and the adjacent villages,
and thence in July into camp at Cambray. In October it returned
to Bapaume, and in June 1818, again joined the camp near Cambray,
where the army was reviewed by the allied sovereigns. In October
the first battalion of the FIFTH marched to Calais, and having
embarked on the 31st for England, landed at Dover on the 1st of
November, and marched for Winchester, where it arrived on the 10th
of the same month.

In the mean time the second battalion, after recruiting to nearly
its full numbers, in Exeter barracks, marched in November, 1813, to
Chelmsford, and thence in the following month to Windsor, where it
remained till October, 1815, when it was ordered to Gosport, and
was there finally disbanded on the 24th of June, 1816.

[Sidenote: 1819]

On the 4th of February, 1819, the regiment, now reduced to one
battalion, embarked at Portsmouth for the West Indies; arrived on
the 3rd of April in Carlisle bay, Barbadoes, and sailed again on
the 5th (after being reviewed on the 4th by Lieutenant-General Lord
Combermere) for the following destinations, _viz._, five companies
and head-quarters to Antigua, four to St. Christopher's, and one
company to Montserrat.

On the 10th of July, 1819, Lieutenant-General Wynyard died, and on
the 12th General Sir Henry Johnson, Bart., G.C.B., was appointed
Colonel of the FIFTH.

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: 1821]

The regiment occupied the stations before mentioned, until March,
1821, when five companies with head-quarters were ordered to St.
Vincent's, three to Dominica, and two to St. Lucia. On the 25th of
October this year, the establishment of the regiment was reduced
from ten to eight companies.

[Sidenote: 1822]

[Sidenote: 1823]

[Sidenote: 1824]

After remaining on the above station until January, 1824, two more
companies with head-quarters were ordered to Dominica, and the
remainder to St. Lucia.

The privilege which the corps for a long series of years enjoyed,
of wearing a distinguishing feather, was this year confirmed to it
by a letter from the Adjutant-General of the army, of which the
following is a copy.

  "_Horse-Guards, 2nd July, 1824._


  "I have had the honour to receive and submit to the
  Commander-in-Chief, your letter of 28th ultimo, and enclosure,
  and in reply am directed to signify to you, that under the
  circumstances therein stated, His Royal Highness has been pleased
  to approve of the _White Feather_, which for a long series
  of years has been worn as a mark of distinction by the FIFTH
  Regiment of Foot, being continued to be used by that corps.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "H. TORRENS, Adj.-Gen.

  "Colonel Sir C. PRATT, K.C.B.,
  "5th Foot."

[Sidenote: 1825]

On the 25th March, 1825, the regiment was augmented from eight to
ten companies.

In May, 1825, Colonels the Honourable Henry King, C.B., and Sir
Charles Pratt, K.C.B., who during the Peninsular war had led the
corps in so many days of glory and of victory, were promoted to
the rank of Major-Generals in the army: Sir Charles Pratt had been
at the head of one or other of the battalions since 1808, and was
succeeded in the command of the regiment by Lieutenant-Colonel
William Sutherland, from the second West-India Regiment.

[Sidenote: 1826]

On the 16th of March, 1826, the head-quarters embarked at Dominica
for England. The regiment landed at Portsmouth on the 12th and 22nd
of April and 3rd of June, according as the transports arrived:
marched in three divisions on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th of June,
from Cumberland Fort, and arrived on the 29th, 30th, and 31st, at
Weedon, in Northamptonshire, where it was joined on the 24th of
July by the depôt, consisting of four captains, four subalterns,
one surgeon, one serjeant, and sixty-nine rank and file, from
Tynemouth Castle. The corps remained at Weedon during the remainder
of the year, and was joined during its stay in Northamptonshire, by
one hundred and fifty-six recruits from its different recruiting

[Sidenote: 1827]

The FIFTH regiment marched from Weedon barracks in three divisions,
on the 1st, 3rd, and 4th of January 1827, by route, to Hull, in
Yorkshire, where it arrived on the 10th, 12th, and 13th of the same
month, detaching one company to Bradford, one to Halifax, and on
the 27th, one company to Brigg. At Hull one hundred and twenty-four
men joined as recruits.

On the 28th and 29th of March, and 4th of April the regiment
marched from Hull and the detached stations, and arrived on the 5th
of April at Bolton, in Lancashire, having one field-officer and
three companies detached at Blackburn, one company at Haslington,
and one company at Accrington. During its stay at Bolton, the
regiment received seventy-seven recruits from its parties, &c., and
arrived at its full establishment, having recruited nearly five
hundred men during the eleven months which had elapsed since its
return from the West Indies.

[Sidenote: 1828]

On the 10th and 17th of September, the regiment marched from
Bolton, on route to Liverpool, and on the 19th and 20th the
detached companies marched into Liverpool, in which town the
regiment remained in billets until the morning of the 25th, when
it embarked on board the "Britannia" and the "Birmingham" steam
vessels for Ireland, and landed on the 26th at Dublin, where it was
quartered in Richmond barracks. On the 15th of October it moved
from the Richmond to the Royal barracks, and there remained until
it was ordered to Athlone, for which station it marched on the
5th, 7th, and 17th of May, 1828, detaching one company to Shannon
Bridge, from which a subaltern and twenty-five men were sent to
Tullamore, one company to Ballymahon, (sending small parties to
Ballinacarrig and Abbeyshrule,) and one company to Roscommon,
having a subaltern and thirty rank and file at Strokestown. The
detachment at Tullamore was ordered to head-quarters on the 6th of

[Sidenote: 1829]

A party of one hundred men under Major Tovey, marched from Athlone
on the 6th of October to Shannon Bridge, and remained there during
the fair at Ballinasloe. The detachment at Strokestown joined
head-quarters on the 18th of October, and was again sent out on the
26th of January, 1829. On the 22nd of the same month, the company
at Ballymahon was withdrawn, and joined the head-quarters at

The colours of the regiment having been worn out in the course of
its long and honourable service, a new set, after being solemnly
consecrated in St. Peter's Church at Athlone, was presented
on parade with the usual ceremonies, and a suitable address
by Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, K.C.B., commanding the
Connaught district. The General was pleased on this occasion to
speak in the most flattering terms of the distinguished gallantry
of the regiment in the field, and its good and orderly conduct in

The regiment marched to Castlebar, in the county of Mayo, on the
30th and 31st of March, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 9th of April, detaching
two companies to Westport, under a field-officer; one company
to Foxford, sending a subaltern and eighteen rank and file to
Ballaghadareen, and one company to Dunmore. On the 2nd of May, two
companies proceeded, per route, to Ballinrobe.

The distinction of wearing a white or grenadier feather, which
the FIFTH regiment had proudly won for itself, having become
extinct by the regulations of the 10th of February of this year
(1829), which directed a white feather to be worn by the whole
of the infantry of the army, rifle regiments and light infantry
excepted, the commanding officer (Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland)
lost no time in applying, through General Sir Henry Johnson, Bart.,
G.C.B., the Colonel of the regiment, for an equivalent; this was
graciously conceded by his Majesty, George the Fourth, and the
distinction of wearing a feather different from the rest of the
army, was continued to the corps in the following handsome terms
in a letter from Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert Taylor, G.C.H.,
Adjutant-General of the Forces.

  "_Horse Guards, July 11, 1829._


  "I have had the honour to receive and lay before the General
  Commanding-in-Chief your letter of the 6th of May last, with
  its enclosures, representing the anxiety felt by the officers
  and men of the FIFTH regiment, of which you are Colonel, to be
  allowed some distinction, as an equivalent for that which the
  regiment has lost in consequence of the regulations of the 10th
  of February last, prescribing a white feather to be worn by the
  whole of the infantry of the army, rifle regiments and light
  infantry excepted.

  "On this occasion, Lord Hill commands me to say, that his
  Lordship enters fully into the feelings of the FIFTH regiment,
  and adverting to the gallantry of the exploits which obtained
  for that corps its original distinction, his Lordship has been
  pleased to submit to His Majesty, that the FIFTH regiment shall,
  in future, wear a feather half red and half white, the red
  uppermost, instead of the plain white feather worn by the rest
  of the army, as a peculiar mark of honour, whereby its former
  services will still be commemorated, and a perpetual incitement
  be afforded to a continuance of its good conduct.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "H. TAYLOR, Adj.-Gen.

  "General Sir H. Johnson, Bart., G.C.B.
  "&c. &c."

[Sidenote: 1830]

From Castlebar, Westport, and Foxford, the regiment marched on
the 10th and 11th of September, agreeably to routes received, for
Galway. Two companies, under a field-officer, were stationed at
Oughterard; one company at Tuam, one at Ballinasloe, detaching
one subaltern, one serjeant, and twenty rank and file to Mount
Shannon, and a similar party to Kinavara. The company at Dunmore
did not move on this change of the quarters of the regiment. On the
17th of November, the detachment at Kinavara joined the company
at Ballinasloe, and on the 5th of April, 1830, one company from
Oughterard proceeded to Banagher.

In August, 1830, whilst the regiment was stationed in Galway,
a general election took place, and the representation of both
the town and county was keenly contested; during the fortnight
the elections lasted, the corps was constantly under arms and
patrolling, and performed the harassing duty of that period with
so much temper, conduct, and forbearance, that a public meeting
was held, composed of the most respectable inhabitants of the
town and its vicinity, including the several candidates and their
supporters, and the following resolution, declaratory of their
grateful sense of the good conduct of the regiment unanimously


  "That having witnessed the prompt, active, and efficient
  exertions of Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, the officers,
  non-commissioned officers, and privates of the FIFTH REGIMENT,
  in preserving peace and good order during the late contested
  election for the representation of this town, we deem it an act
  of justice thus to put upon public record the high value we
  entertain of their services; and that our worthy chairman is
  requested to convey to the gallant Commander of our garrison this
  expression of our warmest gratitude and thanks, and we request he
  will convey these sentiments to the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and privates of the corps."

It may not be irrelevant to mention, that the FIFTH REGIMENT has
always been remarkable for the good feeling that has subisted
between it and the inhabitants of the different stations at which
it has been quartered.

The regiment being ordered to Cork, the head-quarters and
detachments marched from their respective stations on the 19th,
20th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd of October, and on the 26th it was
countermanded to Buttevant barracks, where the several divisions
arrived on the 27th, 28th, and 29th of the same month.

[Sidenote: 1831]

A detachment was furnished by the corps to Mitchelstown on the 14th
of February, 1831, and being removed on the 2nd of May to Galbally,
it rejoined at Buttevant on the 15th of June.

On the 14th of March, the head-quarters, with four companies,--and
on the 16th, four more companies, marched per route to Clare
Castle, where they arrived to preserve order during the Clare
election on the 17th and 19th, detaching one company to Kilrush,
one to Corrofin, and subalterns' parties to Kildysart, Quinn,
Kilkeshan, and Six Mile Bridge. The head-quarters marched to Ennis
on the 30th of March; and the detachments at Quinn, Kilkeshan, and
Six Mile Bridge, to the same place on the 6th of April. On the
5th of May the head-quarters returned to Buttevant, leaving eight
companies detached in various directions (some being afterwards
encamped) in the county of Clare, which was then, and had for some
months been, in a very disturbed state--in fact, bordering on open
rebellion. A small party of fifteen, half military (of the FIFTH)
and half police, who were almost unarmed, having only a pistol and
five rounds of ammunition each (being employed on a particular
service), were attacked on the morning of the 8th of May, by some
hundreds of the turbulent peasantry of the parish of Clondegad,
in the county of Clare, and, in the course of a running fight,
which was bravely sustained by these few men for several miles,
Colour-Serjeant James Robinson of the grenadier company, was basely
and barbarously murdered. His remains were buried at Ennis, and a
handsome tomb with an appropriate inscription, placed over them by
the regiment.

While the counties of Clare and Galway were in this disturbed state
many of the magistrates declined to act. Under these circumstances,
Lieutenant-Colonel Tovey and Captains McDonald and Spence, of the
FIFTH regiment, were selected as gentlemen in whose firmness,
prudence, and discretion, the Government could confide, and they
received Commissions of the Peace for the above counties. The
judicious conduct of those gentlemen as magistrates reflected
credit on the regiment; their exertions were followed by happy
results;--the two counties became tranquil, and the inhabitants
returned to their peaceful and industrious habits[44].

On the 20th of September these companies were all concentrated
at Buttevant; and a letter conveying the high sense entertained
by Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot of the good conduct of the
regiment, of which the following is a copy, was received with the
notification of their march from Clare:--

  "_Ennis, September 6th, 1831._


  "In transmitting you the annexed notification of the arrival
  at Buttevant of several of your detachments from Clare, I am
  directed by Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot to express to you
  the very great pleasure he feels in having to assure you, that
  both the officers and men of the FIFTH REGIMENT performed their
  duty, under most trying circumstances, during the disturbances in
  this county, to his perfect satisfaction in every respect.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "W. VINCENT, Lt.-Col., A.Q.M.G.

  "Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland,
  "Commanding FIFTH FOOT."

On the 16th of September, orders were received at Buttevant to hold
the six service companies in readiness to embark for Gibraltar,
and in consequence, the reserve, or depôt, was with great
promptitude formed on the same day. On the 23rd the regiment was
reviewed by Lieutenant-General Sir Hussey Vivian, K.C.B., Commander
of the Forces in Ireland; and on the 29th it was inspected by
Major-General Sir George Bingham, K.C.B., commanding the district,
when both these distinguished officers expressed their unqualified
approbation of its appearance, movements, and interior economy.

[Sidenote: 1832]

The reserve marched on the 7th of November to Fermoy, being
destined to remain for the present in Ireland, which continued
in a very disturbed state; and the service companies moved to
Cork towards the end of the month, and there embarked under the
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, on the 29th of November
and 5th and 6th of December, on board the "Marquis of Huntley,"
(head-quarters,) "William Harris," and "Sylvia," transports; sailed
from Cove on the 26th of December, arrived in the bay of Gibraltar,
after a very quick but boisterous passage, on the 2nd, 3rd, and
5th, and disembarked on the 9th, 10th, and 12th of January, 1832,
to do duty in that far-famed fortress.

Previous to the embarkation of the FIFTH from Ireland, the
circumstance of the regiment having an "Order of Merit," a
privilege established in this regiment in the year 1767 (as
explained in page 37), attracted the attention, and elicited the
representations, of the local military authorities. The commanding
officer, after the arrival at Gibraltar, was in consequence called
upon by the General Commanding-in-Chief, Lord Hill, to explain
under what regulations and arrangements the Order was conferred,
candidates selected, medals provided and distributed, and other
particulars connected with this most laudable institution. The
required information was promptly afforded, proved satisfactory,
and the following gratifying letter was the result, viz.:--

  "_Horse-Guards, 20th June, 1832._


  "I have had the honour to submit to the General
  Commanding-in-Chief, your letter of the 4th instant, with its
  enclosure, on the subject of the 'Order of Merit' existing in the
  FIFTH FOOT, and am directed to acquaint you, that the explanation
  afforded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, shows that the order
  in question is dispensed under the most laudable regulations, and
  has been productive of the best effects, during the long period
  since its original establishment in the regiment.

  "It is considered highly desirable, however, that both officer
  and soldier should, under all circumstances, be taught to expect
  professional honours from the sovereign alone; and under this
  impression, Lord Hill has been induced to recommend to the king
  to give the royal authority for the confirmation and continuance
  of this regimental Badge of distinction, an arrangement, which,
  while it bestows upon it legitimate existence, will, at the same
  time, no doubt, enhance its value in the estimation of those on
  whom it is conferred.

  "You will, therefore, be pleased to communicate this decision to
  Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, and acquaint him, that he is at
  liberty to proceed in the distribution of the medals and badges
  as heretofore.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "JOHN MACDONALD,

  "Sir William Houstoun, G.C.B., and G.C.H.,
  &c. &c. &c.,
  "Commanding at Gibraltar."

The "Order of Merit," which has been so long held by the regiment,
consecrated and enhanced by purity and justice of distribution, and
the real worth of the meritorious though humble individuals who
earn so honourable a mark of good conduct, and brightened by the
numerous distinguished services of the FIFTH REGIMENT since its
foundation, is thus confirmed by the sanction of the Sovereign, the
legitimate fount of honour, distinction, and reward.

[Sidenote: 1833]

On the 27th of July, in this year (1832), the reserve companies of
the regiment marched from Fermoy to Kilmallock, and in August to
Bruff, where they continued until the 24th of January, 1833, when
they proceeded to Nenagh: and from thence, in October to Templemore.

On the night of the 24th of April, 1833, whilst at Gibraltar, the
roof of the Line Wall House, in which were the mess-rooms and the
quarters of Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, suddenly burst out into
an immense blaze of fire, in consequence of one of the wooden
wall-plates, which had been carelessly built into the flue of a
chimney, imperceptibly igniting the joists, lathing, couples, and
lining of the roof over the ceiling: from the quantity of timber
used in its construction, the house burnt with such fierceness and
rapidity, that the ceilings of the rooms, almost instantly falling
in, it was found impossible, notwithstanding the utmost exertions
of the garrison, to save even the colours of the regiment, which
were thus unfortunately, although accidentally, consumed.

[Sidenote: 1834]

In June and July, 1834, that scourge, the cholera, attacked the
garrison with such violence that the FIFTH lost one officer, two
serjeants, one drummer, forty-one privates, three women, and four
children, in all fifty-two souls, some of the former being among
the finest and best-conducted young men in the regiment, whilst
it may be mentioned, as a somewhat singular fact, that during the
whole period of its ravages, not one case of cholera occurred in
the Provost prison, at that time crowded with the most dissipated
characters of the garrison, although it raged in the Artillery
barracks, and the civil habitations in its immediate vicinity--an
undeniable proof of the efficacy of abstemiousness and temperance,
even though forced, on such occasions.

In the autumn of this year, the regiment having received orders
to be prepared for removal to Malta, on the eve of embarkation
the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir William Houstoun, G.C.B. and G.C.H.,
expressed his approbation of its conduct whilst under his command,
in the following flattering terms:--

  "_Head-Quarters, Gibraltar_,
  _14th October, 1834._


  No. 1. "His Excellency, the Lieutenant-General Commanding,
  cannot suffer the FIFTH REGIMENT to embark from hence, without
  expressing his approval of the general conduct of this corps,
  during the period it has been under his command in this
  garrison, and he desires to offer his thanks to the officers,
  non-commissioned officers, and privates of this regiment, and
  more particularly, he begs to acknowledge his sense of the
  zealous and constant exertions of Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland,
  which have so essentially contributed to maintain the discipline
  and good order of the corps under his command."

The regiment embarked in His Majesty's troop ship, "Romney," on the
15th October,--sailed on the next day,--and anchored on the 26th,
after a very stormy passage, in the harbour of Valetta, under those
stupendous fortifications which had been rendered famous by the
prowess of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and had for some
generations been designated by the proud title of "the Bulwarks of
Christendom:"--it disembarked without any accident or casualty on
the 27th of the same month,--and for a short time occupied Fort

The colour of the regimental facings was this year authorized by
the subjoined letter to be changed to a handsome and lively green,

  "_Horse-Guards, 30th June, 1834._


  "With reference to the correspondence that has taken place
  respecting the Colour of the Facing of the FIFTH REGIMENT
  OF FOOT, of which you are Colonel, I have now the honour to
  acquaint you, that the Colour of the pattern exhibited by
  Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland, with your sanction, has been
  approved by the King, and the General Commanding-in-Chief desires
  that the clothing of the regiment for the ensuing year may
  therefore be prepared accordingly.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "JOHN MACDONALD,

  "General Sir Henry Johnson, Bt., and G.C.B.
  "Colonel of the FIFTH FOOT."

In September of this year (1834) the reserve companies marched from
Templemore to Cork, where they remained ten months.

[Sidenote: 1835]

General Sir Henry Johnson, Bart., G.C.B., having died on the
18th of March, 1835, at a very advanced age, was succeeded in
the Colonelcy of the regiment, on the 25th of the same month, by
Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Charles Colville, G.C.B. and
G.C.H., who with much distinction, and especially in the affair at
El Bodon, commanded the brigade in which the FIFTH served during a
considerable period of the Peninsular war.

New colours having been received early this year to replace those
accidentally consumed with the Line Wall House at Gibraltar, as
before narrated, Major-General Sir Frederick Ponsonby, K.C.B., the
Lieutenant-Governor, was requested to present them, but, a question
having arisen relative to an additional banner[45] which the
regiment had long carried, the subject was, after some discussion
and correspondence, submitted to the decision of His Majesty, whose
commands and pleasure on this head will be found in the following

  "_Horse-Guards, 31st July, 1835._


  "I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter,
  dated 4th April last, which I have laid before the General
  Commanding-in-Chief, and by his Lordship's command the same has
  been submitted to the King.

  "In reply to which, I am directed to acquaint you, that
  His Majesty considers it quite contrary to the established
  regulations, for any regiment to bear a _third Colour_, and on
  that ground he cannot consent to a flag or banner, which is
  stated to have been borne by the FIFTH REGIMENT since the
  year 1762, and which was accidentally destroyed by a fire at
  Gibraltar on the 24th of April, 1833, being replaced.

  "His Lordship has received the King's commands to direct it to be
  made known to the officers and men of the FIFTH REGIMENT, that
  His Majesty has the strongest reason to be satisfied with the
  general conduct of the regiment, and, although His Majesty feels
  that he cannot comply with the request made on this occasion, by
  authorizing the additional flag, or banner, being retained by
  the corps, which, it must be stated, has never been sanctioned
  either by the Royal warrant of the 19th of December, 1768, or by
  any subsequent grant, yet his Majesty is desirous of conferring
  a mark of distinction on the regiment, which shall tend to
  perpetuate the record of its services at _Wilhelmsthal_ in June,
  1762: with this view his Majesty has commanded, that the regiment
  shall be distinguished by wearing grenadier caps, with the King's
  Cipher, _W. R._ IV., in the front, and the ancient badge of the
  regiment, _viz._ _St. George killing the Dragon_, on the back

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "JOHN MACDONALD,

  "Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland,
  "Commanding the FIFTH Regiment, Malta."

The reserve companies embarked from Cork on the 1st of August,
1835, and proceeded to Dover, where they passed the succeeding
fifteen months, and in October, 1836, marched to Gosport.


[Sidenote: 1836]

His Majesty King William IV. having been pleased, in 1836, to
approve of the corps being equipped as Fusiliers, and designated
commissioned the Ensigns as second Lieutenants accordingly,
and gave his Royal permission that the word "WILHELMSTHAL," in
commemoration of _the field_ on which it originally took its
grenadier caps from the enemy, should be borne on its colours and
appointments, as will appear by the subjoined copies of letters.

  "_Horse-Guards, 4th of May, 1836._


  "I have the honour to acquaint you, by direction of the General
  Commanding-in-Chief, that his Majesty has been graciously pleased
  in future equipped as a Fusilier Regiment, and being styled the

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "JOHN MACDONALD,

  "Officer commanding the Fifth Regiment of Foot,
  "or Northumberland Fusiliers."

  "_Horse-Guards, 14th of May, 1836._


  "I have the honour to acquaint you, by direction of the General
  Commanding-in-Chief, that his Majesty has been graciously
  FUSILIERS, to bear on its colours and appointments, in addition
  to any other badges or devices which may have heretofore been
  authorized, the word 'WILHELMSTHAL,' in commemoration of the
  gallantry displayed by the regiment while serving with the
  allied army, under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, at the battle
  of Groebenstein, on the 24th of June, 1762, particularly in
  the capture of a great number of prisoners belonging to the
  grenadiers of France, and the regiment d'Aquitaine, in the woods

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "JOHN MACDONALD,

  "Officer commanding Fifth Foot,
  "or Northumberland Fusiliers,

On the 14th of December, 1836, the Governor of Malta, Major-General
Sir Henry Bouverie, presented the new colours to the regiment,
drawn up for the purpose in review order on the Florian Parade.

His Excellency, on arriving in front of the line, was received with
a general salute, the band playing and drums beating, after which
the company on the right flank closed ranks, and was marched by
its Captain in quick time (the band playing the grenadier's march)
to the point in the front of the line, where the new colours were
stationed, under a guard, and an escort of colour-serjeants; on
arriving at which the company was halted, its ranks opened, and the
colours, which appeared for the first time displayed, were saluted
with presented arms, the music playing "God save the King."

The march was then resumed in open order, and the colours escorted
in slow time towards the left flank of the line, and thence to
their appointed station in front of the centre, whilst the band and
escort filed through the ranks to their posts on the right; the
colours were received by a general salute from the regiment; arms
were then shouldered, three sides of a square, open to the front,
formed, and the service of consecration read in a most appropriate
and impressive manner by the Rev. J. T. H. Le Mesurier, Chaplain
to the Forces; the children of both sexes of the soldiers of the
regiment, attired in uniform suits of new clothes that had lately
been presented to them, repeating the responses.

Prayers being ended, His Excellency Sir Henry Bouverie handed the
colours to the Lieutenants, under a general salute from the square,
and then addressed the regiment in nearly the following terms:--

  "Officers and Soldiers of the FIFTH Fusiliers,

  "I am happy that it has fallen to my lot to present to you these
  colours. I do it in the full confidence that they will never
  be disgraced by insubordination, by loss of discipline, or
  misconduct in garrison, or in the field.

  "The glorious deeds which are recorded in your annals, and
  inscribed upon these colours, will serve to incite in you the
  determination to equal them; to surpass them I believe to be

  "The inspection, which I shall this day finish, of your regiment,
  will, I have no doubt, furnish me with the opportunity of
  reporting my entire satisfaction with the interior economy and
  management of the regiment, as well as with your movements in the
  field; and I trust that I shall never have occasion to alter the
  high opinion I have formed of you, not only here, but in scenes
  on service, of which I was myself a witness."

His Excellency having concluded his appropriate address,
Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland replied to the following purport.

  "Permit me, Sir, on behalf of myself and the regiment, to return
  our best thanks for the very kind and flattering terms in which
  you have been pleased to present these colours. It must be a
  great additional source of gratification to all ranks to receive
  so honourable a charge from the hand of a distinguished officer,
  who, having personally witnessed the regiment in conflict with
  the enemy, can therefore duly appreciate its conduct; and this
  will doubtless prove a strong incitement to such a discharge
  of their duty, whenever they may have the good fortune to be
  similarly circumstanced, as will emulate those deeds to which
  your Excellency has so handsomely alluded."

The square was then reduced, and his Excellency having rode down
the line, ranks were closed, open column formed, and the review
commenced by marching past in slow and quick time, and in column at
quarter distance. The manual and platoon exercises (the latter also
kneeling as light infantry) were then performed, under the orders
of Brevet Major Johnson, after which the Lieutenant-Colonel put
the regiment through a variety of manœuvres and firings, in close,
extended, and skirmishing order, of which his Excellency expressed
his unqualified approbation.

In the evening his Excellency dined with the officers of the
regiment at the mess, where a large party of about fifty persons,
consisting of Vice-Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, the Captains of the
squadron, commanding officers of corps, heads of departments, and
staff, was assembled to meet him.

On the following Sunday the colours were, according to custom on
such occasions, taken with the regiment to church; when the duties
of soldiers, both as men and Christians, were inculcated by the
chaplain to the forces in the most impressive manner.

[Sidenote: 1837]

The regiment embarked from Malta on the 28th of March, 1837, and
arrived on the 4th of April following at Corfu, where it has
continued until the end of the year 1837, which brings this memoir
to a conclusion.

The foregoing pages show that the FIFTH REGIMENT OF FOOT, OR
NORTHUMBERLAND FUSILIERS, has preserved by its conduct in time of
peace, untarnished, the laurels which it has acquired in war. Soon
after its formation it availed itself of the opportunities which
then occurred of acquiring a reputation for gallantry in action;
and, under the influence of zealous officers and an excellent
_esprit de corps_, it has conducted itself, in the various
situations in which it has been placed during a period of more than
one hundred and sixty years, so as to preserve its character and
acquire additional honour. The distinctions which have, from time
to time, been conferred on this corps, show the estimation in which
its services are held:--the inscriptions which it bears on its
colours are memorials of its gallantry in battles and sieges, where
the British troops have acquired never-fading laurels, and have
elevated the military character of their country, to the admiration
of the nations of Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

  The Compiler of the Records of the Army feels it his duty
  to state, that Colonel Sutherland, of the FIFTH FOOT, OR
  NORTHUMBERLAND FUSILIERS, has evinced great zeal and devotedness
  in procuring information on all subjects in which the honour
  of his regiment is concerned, and furnished a statement of its
  services which has facilitated the preparation of this narrative
  for publication. The most effective assistance has also been
  afforded by Captain John Spence, of the same regiment, in the
  completion of this memoir.


  [_To face page 106._


[1] This treaty was conducted, on the part of Great Britain, by Sir
William Temple, whose memoirs and correspondence on the subject are

[2] "In this siege the Prince and the Rhingrave were ever at the
head of the attacks, and made great use as well as proof, of the
desperate courage of the English troops."--_Sir William Temple's

"Amongst the rest of the troops that lay before the town, the
English under Colonels Fenwick, Widdrington, and Ashley, to the
number of 2600 men, petitioned his Highness to assign them a
particular quarter, that they might be commanded separately,
that so, if they behaved themselves like valiant men, they
might have all the honour, and if otherwise, all the shame to
themselves. This request his Highness readily granted, and they
made it appear, by their fierce attacks, that they deserved this
distinction."--_Boyer's Life of King William._

[3] The English made their attack in the following order:--

2 Serjeants and 10 Firelocks.

1 Serjeant and 12 Grenadiers.

1 Officer, 1 Serjeant, and 12 Grenadiers.

1 Lieutenant, 2 Serjeants, and 30 Firelocks.

1 Serjeant and 12 men with Half-pikes.

1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, 2 Serjeants, and 50 Firelocks.

1 Serjeant and 12 men with Half-pikes.

1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, 1 Serjeant, and 28 men with spades and

The support:

1 Captain, 1 Serjeant, and 58 Men.--_London Gazette._

[4] "The English Brigade being frequently put on the most
desperate attacks, and always behaving themselves according to
their accustomed bravery; his Highness, after a very sharp night's
service performed by them, gave each regiment a fat ox, and six
sheep, which they killed and hung upon poles in sight of the army,
to divide into equal parts to each company. Some of the Dutch
murmuring at this bounty to the English in particular, were told
that the same was given to save Dutchmen's lives, and therefore
they ought to be thankful to his Highness for it."--_Life of Major
John Bernardi._

[5] "The Earl of Ossory with his troops performed
wonders."--_London Gazette_, No. 1329.

Brussels.--"Many wounded men have been brought hither, which are
most of the Prince of Orange's Guards, and the English and Scots
regiments, who did things to the admiration of those that beheld
them."--_London Gazette_, No. 1330.

"The Earl of Ossory, with the English and Scots regiments, engaged
in the attack on the side of Castehau, in which the Officers and
Soldiers, in imitation of his Lordship, who always charged with
them, behaved themselves with that courage and bravery which is so
natural to them, and consequently suffered much."--_Account of the
Battle of St. Denis._


  "Whitehall, 4th July, 1685.

"This day three Scots Regiments of Foot, consisting of about 1500
men, lately come from Holland, marched through the city, on their
way to Hounslow Heath, where they are to encamp. They are the best
men, and best prepared for service, that ever were seen, having
their tents, and all other necessaries of their own with them.
To-morrow the three English Regiments are expected from Holland.

"I send your Grace the Articles of War, prepared by his Majesty's
order for the present occasion.

  "Secretary at War.

  "To the Duke of Albemarle."

  _War-Office Records._

[7] While the Fifth was in England one of its officers, Cornet
George Carleton, quitted the Dutch service, and obtained a
commission in a newly-raised regiment on the English establishment.
This officer served as a volunteer with the Fleet under the Duke
of York in 1672 and 1673; and in the same capacity with the army,
commanded by the Prince of Orange, from 1674 to 1676, when he
obtained a commission in the Fifth. He saw much service in the
reign of King William III.; and served during the war of the
Spanish succession, as engineer, with the army in Valencia and
Catalonia; and was made prisoner at the surrender of Denia in 1708.
In 1728 he published an interesting narrative of his services,
interspersed with many curious anecdotes, under the title of
_Military Memoirs_, which are allowed to contain the best account
extant of the services of the Earl of Peterborough in Spain. These
memoirs were reprinted in 1741 with the title of _History of the
two last Wars_, and again in 1743, with that of _Memoirs of Captain
George Carleton_; and a new edition appeared in 1809, with the
latter title.

[8] One of the officers who quitted the Dutch service on this
occasion was Captain John Bernardi, of the Fifth. He obtained
a commission in the regiment at its formation in 1674; had
distinguished himself on several occasions, and had received many
honourable wounds.

At the Revolution in 1688, he adhered to King James, and served
in his cause in Ireland and Scotland. He subsequently resided
in London, and being implicated in the plot to assassinate King
William, in 1696, he was imprisoned. Although his guilt could not
be established, and he was never brought to trial, yet he was
detained in prison by authority of an Act of Parliament passed
expressly for that purpose. After remaining upwards of thirty years
in confinement, he wrote his life, which was published in 1729;
and contains many interesting particulars relative to the early
services of the regiment.

[9] _Life of Major John Bernardi._--Rapin says only forty declared
for King James.

[10] This officer's name is sometimes written Talmash.

[11] Boyer's Life of King William.

[12] Dalrymple.

[13] Boyer.

[14] Afterwards the celebrated General Wood, who was many years
Colonel of the 4th Horse, now 3rd Dragoon Guards.

[15] London Gazette, No. 2661; Dublin Intelligencer; and Story's
History of the Wars in Ireland.

[16] Inquiry into the Management of the War in Spain, Part II.
Account of Embarkations, page 9.--_London Gazettes_, 4340, 4347,
and 4348.

[17] "Estremos.--The enemy, having resolved to besiege Olivenza,
or oblige the Portuguese to a battle, had all their heavy cannon
and fascines in readiness before the town; but upon the approach
of the four regiments lately arrived from Ireland, they retired in
great precipitation, and sent away their cannon to Badajoz. These
regiments are in very good condition, and will be able to do great
service."--_Ibid._ No. 4350.

[18] In 1706, six hundred and sixty men of the Thirteenth Foot were
formed into a regiment of Dragoons by the Earl of Peterborough, in
Catalonia, and the Colonelcy conferred on the Lieutenant-Colonel,
Edward Pearce. The remainder of the regiment returned to England
to recruit, and, having completed the establishment, arrived in
Portugal as above stated. The regiment of Dragoons thus formed was
disbanded at the peace of Utrecht.

[19] Annals of Queen Anne, and London Gazette.

[20] The Monthly Mercury for May, 1709.

[21] London Gazette.

[22] Annals of Queen Anne, Vol. 10, page 95.

[23] London Gazette.

[24] The Marquis of Granby's Despatch.

[25] "The Brigade formed of the English Grenadiers and
Scotch Highlanders greatly distinguished itself, performing
wonders."--_Operations of the Allied Army_, page 161.

[26] "The FIFTH Foot behaved nobly, and took above twice its own
numbers prisoners."--_Letter from an Officer of the Artillery._

"Prince Ferdinand pursued and pressed upon them as close as
possible: and they would, without doubt, have been entirely routed,
if M. de Stainville had not thrown himself, with the Grenadiers of
France, the Royal Grenadiers, the regiment of Aquitaine, and other
corps, being the flower of the French infantry, into the woods
of Wilhelmstahl to cover their retreat. That resolution cost him
dear; his whole infantry having been taken, killed, or dispersed,
after a very gallant defence, excepting two battalions which found
means to get off; some of these troops had before surrendered
to Lord Granby's corps, and upon the coming up of the army, the
remainder, after one fire, surrendered to the FIFTH regiment of
Foot."--_London Gazette._

[27] Return of Prisoners taken in the action at Groebenstien, and
in the woods of Wilhelmsthal, on the 24th June 1762.

              CORPS.              Number of

  Grenadiers of France                  635
  Royal Grenadiers. Rochelambert        208
       "            L'Espinasse         135
       "            Le Camus            121
       "            Narbonne             60
  Aquitaine                             432
  Poictou                                29
  Royal Deux-Ponts                       30
  Waldner                               108
  D'Epring                               55
  Choiseul,--Dragoons                    64
  Royal Picardy,--Cavalry                30
  Fitz-James',--Cavalry                  77
  Chamboran                              28
  Monnet                                112
  Of different corps                    446
                              Officers  162
                                 Total 2732

Also one standard, six pair of colours, and two pieces of cannon,
were taken.--_Operations of the Allied Army._

[28] According to the embarkation return the strength of the
regiment when it quitted Germany was, 27 officers, 692 men, 54
women, and 67 horses.

[29] A full account of these medals is given in a work published in
America by General Donkin in 1777.

[30] How the badge of St. George and the Dragon with the motto
"_Quo fata vocant_" above mentioned, were first acquired by the
regiment, has not been ascertained. There is a tradition in the
corps that they were conferred as an honorary distinction for
gallant conduct either in the German war or that of the Spanish
succession; but it is probable they might have been assumed when
the regiment in 1675 was given to Colonel John Fenwick, and became
English. A portrait of Major Bernardi (who was an Ensign in this
corps at its formation in 1674, and rose to the rank of Captain in
it) prefixed to his Memoirs published in 1729, is surmounted by
the motto "_Quo fata trahunt_," evidently a metamorphosis of, and
borrowed from the "_Quo fata vocant_" of the regiment. The Royal
Warrants of the 1st of July, 1751, and 19th of December, 1768,
while they recognise and confirm the badge, are silent respecting
the motto; an omission, however, not confined to the FIFTH Regiment
only, for the warrants do not notice the motto of any one infantry
regiment, though others (the Royal Scots for instance,) must have
had mottoes. It will be seen in the text that the motto surmounted
the badge on the medal of merit, one of which from the original
die with the date 10th of March, 1767, is now (1837) in possession
of Colonel Sutherland, commanding the regiment. This motto and
badge has for many years been borne on the officers' and men's
appointments, and there is no doubt but they form one whole, and
are coeval with each other.

[31] "Lord Percy now formed his detachment into a square, in which
he enclosed Colonel Smith's party, who were so much exhausted with
fatigue that they were obliged to lie down for rest on the ground,
their tongues hanging out of their mouths like those of dogs after
a chase."--_Stedman's History of the American War._

[32] London Gazette.

[33] London Gazette.

[34] "If any thing had been wanting to show the bravery and
discipline of the British troops, the action at Bunker's Hill
furnished an ample proof of both. Twice they were stopped and
twice they returned to the charge. In the middle of a hot summer's
day; encumbered with three days' provisions, their knapsacks on
their backs, which, together with cartouch-box, ammunition, and
firelock, may be estimated at 125lbs; with a steep hill to ascend,
covered with grass reaching to their knees, and intersected with
walls and fences of various enclosures; and in the face of a hot
and well-directed fire,--they gained a complete victory over three
times their own numbers."--_Stedman._

[35] Stedman.

[36] London Gazette.

[37] Lieutenant-Colonel Smith continued in the command of the
fortress of Niagara until the 19th November, 1795, when he died,
and was buried with military honours, in a vault prepared for
the family on the Canada side of the Niagara River. His son, Sir
David William Smith, baronet, was born in the regiment, and having
obtained a commission at an early age, he attained the rank of
Captain in it before he quitted the service; he afterwards settled
in the province of Upper Canada, and was called to the bar there.
He communicated to the compiler of this record, with great zeal and
kindness, several interesting particulars relative to the history
of the regiment. He died on the 19th of May, 1837, at Alnwick, in

[38] Now (1837) Lieutenant-General Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe, Bt.

[39] Marshal Soult, Duc de Dalmatia.

[40] Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, K.B., was created
a Peer on the 26th August, 1809, by the titles of Baron Douro of
Wellesley, and Viscount Wellington of Talavera.

[41] Late Scots Brigade, formed from the three Scots regiments,
mentioned at page 10.

[42] "Ridge fell, and no man died that night with more glory:--yet
many died, and there was much glory."--_Napier._

[43] The chivalrous spirit displayed throughout these campaigns
by private James Grant, of the second battalion, deserves to be
recorded in these memoirs. This brave fellow was a native of
Strathspey; being a musician in the band, he was, as usual, left
with it in the rear whenever there was any expectation that the
battalion might be seriously engaged. On such occasions, however,
Grant uniformly stole away from the band, appropriated to himself
the arms of the first man he found in the field disabled from using
them himself, and, being a tall, fine-looking soldier, fell in on
the right of the grenadier company, and there fought till the day
was won, when he returned to his instrument. In this manner he took
part in the actions of Busaco, Sabugal, Fuentes D'Onor, El Bodon,
and Salamanca, the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo, and was amongst the
foremost in the escalade of the castle of Badajoz. From all these
he escaped without a wound: he was appointed serjeant-major of the
regiment in 1828; and he died in 1835 from the effects of a fall,
at Malta, where a handsome tomb was erected by the regiment, on
which his achievements were recorded.

[44] On the 21st May, 1831, Captain Spence (being a magistrate)
was directed to proceed with his company to _Kilfenora_, by the
following letter, viz.:--

  "_Ennis, 21st May, 1831._


  "I am desired by Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot to acquaint
  you, that as it is very desirable to have a magistrate stationed
  at _Kilfenora_, and as, moreover, he was extremely pleased
  with your zeal and exertions, while in command of a post, he
  has directed Lieutenant-Colonel Tovey to send your Company to
  Kilfenora, having every expectation that your services there will
  prove of much benefit to the country.

  "I have, &c.
  (Signed)      "W. VINCENT, Lt.-Col., A.Q.M.G.

  "_To Captain Spence_, FIFTH FOOT."

[45] The FIFTH regiment for many years carried a _small green silk
banner_, inscribed with the badge, motto, number, and designation
of the corps, at the head of the regiment, amidst the corps of band
and drummers. This distinction is supposed to have originated from
the battle of Wilhelmsthal, where the regiment took the colours of
the French grenadiers--as stated at page 34.







_Appointed in 1674_.

Daniel O'Brien was one of the distinguished loyalists who attended
King Charles II. during the period His Majesty was in exile on the
continent, and he obtained at the Restoration the title of Viscount
of Clare for his grandfather, who had frequently given proofs of
his loyalty and attachment to his King, in the reign of Charles
I. Daniel, the third Viscount of Clare, succeeded to the title in
1670, and having proceeded to Holland, after the treaty of London,
in 1674, he obtained the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT, then newly
raised; but, being afterwards charged with holding a treasonable
correspondence with the French, he relinquished his commission and
returned to Ireland.

After the Revolution in 1688, the Viscount of Clare displayed great
zeal in the cause of King James,--having raised two Irish regiments
of foot and one of dragoons for the service of that unhappy
monarch; he was also a member of the Privy Council in Ireland, and
Lord-Lieutenant of the county of Clare. He served under King James
at the battle of the Boyne, in 1690: and died in the same year.


_Appointed 2nd August, 1675_.

John Fenwick was many years an officer of the Queen's troop (now
Second Regiment) of Life Guards, in the reign of Charles II., and
he served under the Duke of Monmouth in the campaigns of 1672 and
1673. In the succeeding year he obtained permission to proceed
to Holland, and in 1675 he was appointed to the Colonelcy of the
FIFTH FOOT, retaining, at the same time, his commission of Guidon
and Major in the Life Guards.[46] After his recovery of a wound
received during the siege of Maestricht, some angry expressions
occurred between him and the Prince of Orange, when he quitted the
Dutch service, returned to England, and resumed his duties in the
Life Guards; and shortly afterwards he succeeded to the dignity of
a Baronet.

In 1678 Sir John Fenwick was promoted to the rank of
Brigadier-General, and appointed Colonel of a newly-raised
regiment of foot, which was disbanded after the peace of
Nimeguen. He was subsequently governor of Holy Island, one of the
Inspecting-Generals of cavalry, and a member of Parliament for
the county of Northumberland: and in 1687 he was promoted from
the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Queen's troop of Life Guards, to
the Colonelcy of the Fourth regiment of Horse, now Third Dragoon
Guards, from which he was removed by the Prince of Orange at the
Revolution in 1688. In 1695 he engaged in a conspiracy to raise an
insurrection in behalf of King James, for which he was apprehended
and brought to trial before the Parliament. No direct proof of his
guilt could be produced, yet a bill of attainder for high treason
was passed against him; and he was beheaded on Tower Hill on the
28th of January, 1697.


_Appointed 11th September, 1676_.

Henry Wisely was an Officer of repute in the Dutch service, and
his meritorious conduct was rewarded with the Lieutenant-Colonelcy
of the FIFTH. After the resignation of Colonel (afterwards Sir
John) Fenwick, he was promoted, at the recommendation of the Prince
of Orange, to the Colonelcy of the regiment, by commission from
the States-General of Holland dated the 11th of September, 1676.
He served with his regiment against the French until the peace of
Nimeguen, acquiring, by his zealous exertions on all occasions,
the character of a good officer. He was drowned on his passage to
England in the winter of 1680.


_Appointed 10th December, 1680_.

This Officer also served with distinction under the Prince of
Orange, and was advanced to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of Sir Henry
Bellasis' regiment (now Sixth Foot), from which he was promoted to
the Colonelcy of the FIFTH in December, 1680; but his death appears
to have occurred before he acquired any higher rank.


_Appointed 9th October, 1688_.

Thomas Tollemache (or Talmash), son of Lionel third Earl of Dysart,
was an officer in the English army in the reign of King Charles
II., and in January, 1678, he obtained the rank of Captain in the
Second Foot Guards. In March of the same year he was appointed
Lieutenant-Colonel of Lord Arlington's newly-raised regiment,
which was disbanded after the peace of Nimeguen. He was afterwards
Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Foot Guards; but subsequently
entering the Dutch service, he was promoted to the Colonelcy of the
FIFTH in October, 1688; from which he was removed to the Colonelcy
of the Second Foot Guards in May following. He was advanced to
the rank of Major-General in December, 1690; and to that of
Lieutenant-General in January, 1692. He commanded an expedition to
the coast of France in the summer of 1694, was wounded at Cameret
Bay on the 8th of June, and died on the 12th at Plymouth.


_Appointed 1st May, 1689_.

Edward Lloyd became proficient in the duties of his profession in
active service under the Prince of Orange, who promoted him to
the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT in May, 1689. While serving with
his regiment in Ireland, and in the Netherlands, he acquired the
confidence and esteem of his superior officers, and he had every
prospect of rising to high military rank; but his mortal career was
terminated by death on the 26th of August, 1694.


_Appointed 6th November, 1694_.

This Officer, after a progressive service in the subordinate ranks,
obtained, on the 8th of March, 1689, the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of
Lord Castleton's regiment, from which he was promoted by King
William III., in November, 1694, to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH
FOOT. He served with his regiment in Flanders, was promoted to
the rank of Brigadier-General in 1696, and commanded a brigade of
infantry during the campaign of the following year. He was removed
from the FIFTH in 1703, was afterwards promoted to the rank of
Major-General; and died on the 6th of January, 1710.


_Appointed 5th February, 1704_.

Thomas Pearce obtained the commission of Ensign in a regiment of
Foot on the 28th of February, 1689; and in October, 1694, he was
appointed Captain of the Grenadier Company in the Second Foot
Guards. He served at the siege of Namur in 1695, and, being engaged
in storming the covered-way on the night of the 8th of July, he
advanced, in the heat of the conflict, too far in front of his
men, and was wounded and taken prisoner.

In 1702 he served under the Duke of Ormond in the expedition to
Cadiz; and, commanding a brigade of Grenadiers at the storming of
the forts of Vigo, he was wounded in the thigh by a cannon-ball.
His gallantry was rewarded on the 10th of April in the following
year with the Colonelcy of a newly-raised Irish regiment of
Foot;[47] from which he was removed to the FIFTH, on the 5th of
February, 1704. He was promoted on the 1st of January, 1707, to
the rank of Brigadier-General, and, proceeding with his regiment
to Portugal, he highly distinguished himself at the head of
a brigade of infantry at the battle of Caya in 1709, and was
taken prisoner. He was shortly afterwards exchanged for a French
Brigadier-General, and on his return to England he was promoted to
the rank of Major-General. He was further promoted to the rank of
Lieutenant-General on the 5th of March, 1727; and in 1732 he was
removed to the Colonelcy of the Fifth Horse, now Fourth Dragoon
Guards. He was several years a member of Parliament for Melcomb
Regis, and died in 1739.


_Appointed 15th December, 1732_.

This Officer entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and was
several years Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second troop of Horse
Grenadier Guards. He obtained the rank of Colonel in the army on
the 15th of November, 1711; and was promoted to the Colonelcy of
the Thirty-ninth Foot on the 10th of November, 1730, from which
he was removed to the FIFTH FOOT on the 15th of December, 1732.
In 1735 he obtained the rank of Brigadier-General; in 1737 he was
removed to the Ninth Dragoons; and on the 2nd of July, 1739, he was
advanced to the rank of Major-General. He was several years on the
staff of Ireland, and, after having been removed to the Colonelcy
of the Seventh Dragoons in 1741, he proceeded in the summer of
1742 to Flanders with the army commanded by Field-Marshal the Earl
of Stair. In the beginning of the following year he was promoted
to the rank of Lieutenant-General; and, having signalized himself
at the battle of Dettingen under the eye of his sovereign, he was
constituted a Knight of the Bath.

In 1745 Sir John Cope was Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, and a
small body of troops under his immediate command were defeated by
the Highlanders under the Young Pretender at Preston Pans; which
unfortunate circumstance enabled the rebels to penetrate into
England and advance as far as Derby. He retained the Colonelcy of
the Seventh Dragoons until his decease in 1760.


_Appointed 27th June, 1737_.

Alexander Irwin commenced his military career as Ensign on the 1st
of October, 1689, and, after serving the crown nearly forty-eight
years in various parts of Europe, he was promoted to the Colonelcy
of the FIFTH FOOT, by commission dated 27th of June, 1737. He was
promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 24th of February,
1744; he was subsequently on the Staff of Ireland, and also held
the appointment of Lieutenant-Governor of Kinsale. He was further
advanced to the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1748, and died four
years afterwards.


_Appointed 25th November, 1752_.

Charles Whiteford entered the army as Cornet on the 3rd of May,
1720; and on the 27th of April, 1741, he was promoted to the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Fifth regiment of Marines, with which
corps he served several years on the continent of America and in
the West India islands. In 1752 King George II. conferred the
Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT on Colonel Whiteford, who did not long
enjoy the promotion; his decease having occurred in the summer of


_Appointed 20th of August, 1754_.

Lord George Bentinck, second son of Henry first Duke of Portland,
received the appointment of Ensign on the 3rd of November, 1735;
and having been promoted on the 12th of April, 1743, to the
command of a company in the First Foot Guards with the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel, he served at the battle of Dettingen in June
of the same year. He obtained the appointment of Aide-de-camp to
the King on the 17th of March, 1752; and the Colonelcy of the FIFTH
FOOT, in August, 1754. He was afterwards promoted to the rank of
Major-General; and died at Bath on the 2nd of March, 1759.


_Appointed 24th of October, 1759_.

Studholme Hodgson, after serving several years in the army, was
appointed, in 1745, Aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumberland, whom
he attended at the battles of Fontenoy and Culloden. He obtained
the command of a company, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel,
in the First Foot Guards, on the 22nd of February, 1747; and on
the 30th of May, 1756, he was promoted to the Colonelcy of the
Fiftieth Foot. He obtained the rank of Major-General on the 25th
of June, 1759; and was removed to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH
FOOT in October of the same year. In 1761 he was advanced to the
rank of Lieutenant-General, and he commanded the land forces of
a successful expedition against Belle-Isle in the same year, for
which he obtained the approbation of the King, and was appointed,
in 1765, Governor of Forts George and Augustus. In 1768 he was
removed to the Fourth Foot; in 1778 he was promoted to the rank of
General; and in 1782 he was removed to the Colonelcy of the Fourth
Irish Horse, now Seventh Dragoon Guards. He was again removed,
in 1789, to the Eleventh Light Dragoons, and on the 30th of July,
1796, he was promoted to the rank of Field-Marshal. He enjoyed this
elevated rank two years, and died in the autumn of 1798, at the
advanced age of ninety years.


_Appointed 7th November, 1768_.

Earl Percy entered the army at an early age, and was first
engaged in actual warfare under the Duke of Brunswick during the
seven years' war in Germany. He obtained the rank of Captain
and Lieutenant-Colonel in the First Foot Guards, on the 17th of
April, 1762; and was promoted on the 7th of November, 1768, to
the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT, the command of which corps he
retained nearly sixteen years, displaying, during that period,
such distinguished military virtues, with a kind liberality, and a
constancy of attention to, and interest in, the welfare and credit
of the regiment, as endeared his name in the grateful remembrance
of the officers and men. His Lordship commanded a brigade in
America, and distinguished himself in the retreat from Lexington to
Boston, and in the storming of Fort Washington near New York. In
1784 he was promoted to the Colonelcy of the Second troop of Horse
Grenadier Guards; and succeeded, in 1786, to the dignity of DUKE OF
NORTHUMBERLAND. In 1788 the Second troop of Horse Grenadier Guards
was incorporated in the Second Regiment of Life Guards; and in 1806
his Grace was appointed to the Colonelcy of the Royal Regiment
of Horse Guards, which he resigned in 1812. The decease of this
respected nobleman occurred in 1817.


_Appointed 1st November, 1784_.

This Officer entered the army as Ensign in the Twenty-ninth
regiment on the 16th of December, 1750, and, having attained the
rank of Captain, he was promoted on the 17th of January, 1760, to
the Majority of the Seventy-sixth regiment. On the 3rd of October,
1766, he obtained the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Sixty-sixth
regiment, with which corps he served several years in Jamaica,
and was promoted to the rank of Major-General in 1782. In 1784
King George III. conferred the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT on
Major-General Stopford, who retained this appointment until his
decease in 1794.


_Appointed 25th October, 1794_.

Alured Clarke entered the army on the 20th of March, 1755, as
Ensign in the Fiftieth regiment of Foot; he obtained the rank of
Lieutenant in 1760; and his regiment proceeding to Germany in the
same year, he served during the remainder of the seven years' war
with the army commanded by Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick. On the 7th
of January, 1767, he obtained the command of a company in the FIFTH
FOOT. He was promoted to the Majority of the Fifty-fourth regiment
in 1771; and to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Seventh Fusiliers
on the 10th of March, 1777. He served with his regiment in America,
during the war with the United States; and was promoted to the rank
of Colonel on the 16th of May, 1781. He was further advanced to
the rank of Major-General on the 28th of April, 1790; and obtained
the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT in 1794. During the war of the
French Revolution, when Holland had become subject to France, the
British Government resolved to take the Dutch settlement at the
Cape of Good Hope; and this place was captured, in the autumn of
1795, by a body of troops under Major-General Sir Alured Clarke,
and a naval force commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir George Keith
Elphinstone. The services of Major-General Clarke were afterwards
transferred to the East Indies, in which country he held the local
rank of Lieutenant-General from the 3rd of May, 1796; and he was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General in the army on the
26th of January, 1797. In 1801 he was removed to the Colonelcy
of the Seventh Fusiliers; and in the following year promoted to
the rank of General. He was subsequently advanced to the rank of
Field-Marshal; and died on the 16th of September, 1832.


_Appointed 21st August, 1801_.

Richard England entered the service in 1766, as an Ensign in
the Forty-seventh Foot, in which regiment he attained the rank
of Major on the 3rd of August, 1781, and was promoted to the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Twenty-fourth Foot on the 20th
of February, 1783. In 1796 he was advanced to the rank of
Major-General; in April, 1800, he was appointed Colonel-Commandant
of the second battalion of the FIFTH FOOT, and in the following
year he succeeded Sir Alured Clarke in the Colonelcy of the
regiment. In August, 1803, he was appointed Governor of Plymouth;
he obtained the rank of Lieutenant-General in September of the same
year, and died on the 7th of November, 1812.


_Appointed 27th November, 1812_.

William Wynyard was appointed to a Lieutenancy in the Sixty-fourth
Foot on the 12th of June, 1777: he was afterwards Captain in
the Forty-first regiment; and in April, 1795, he was appointed
Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel in the Second Foot Guards. In 1802
he attained the rank of Colonel in the army, and was appointed
Colonel of the Royal West India Rangers on the 25th of October,
1806. His commissions of General Officer were dated--Major-General,
25th October, 1809, and Lieutenant-General, 4th of June, 1814. He
was appointed Deputy Adjutant-General to the Forces, on the 9th
of January, 1799, which situation he held (much respected by his
official brethren at the Horse-Guards) until June, 1814, when,
having been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General, he was
appointed to the command of the Yorkshire District. He retained the
Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT, to which he was appointed in 1812,
until his decease, on the 10th of July, 1819.


_Appointed 12th July, 1819_.

After serving in the subordinate commissions, this officer was
promoted to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Seventeenth Foot on the
4th of October, 1778, and, serving with his regiment in America and
the West Indies, he obtained the rank of Colonel in the army on
the 25th of December, 1782. In 1793 he was promoted to the rank of
Major-General; and he obtained the Colonelcy of the Eighty-first
Foot on the 18th of June, 1798. He commanded a body of troops in
Ireland during the rebellion of 1798, and obtained great credit for
his conduct in an action at New Ross. In the succeeding year he was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General; and to that of General
on the 25th of April, 1808. After the decease of Lieutenant-General
Wynyard, the Colonelcy of the FIFTH FOOT was conferred on General
Sir Henry Johnson: he was many years Governor of Ross Castle; and
died in 1835.


_Appointed 25th March, 1835_.


[46] War-Office Records.

[47] This regiment was disbanded in 1711.


  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  14, Charing-Cross.


  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  day-break, daybreak; Horse-Guards, Horse Guards; inchantment; coeval;

  Pg ix, added to list of PLATES, 'The Colours to face  Page 1'.
  Pg 5, 'to thei rescue' replaced by 'to their rescue'.
  Pg 13, Illustration moved from page 100 to this page, as indicated in
     the list of PLATES. The year '1688' has been added to the caption.
  Pg 24, 'Thomal Pearce, fell' replaced by 'Thomas Pearce, fell'.
  Pg 34, 'Lieutant-Colonel Thomas' replaced by 'Lieutenant-Colonel
  Pg 66, 'where he opposed' replaced by 'where he posed'.
  Pg 74, 'Lieutenant-Colonel Campell' replaced by 'Lieutenant-Colonel
  Pg 91, Sidenote '1830' has been moved up one paragraph.
  Pg 99, '30th June, 1824' replaced by '30th June, 1834'.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Historical Record of the Fifth Regiment of Foot, or Northumberland Fusiliers - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in - 1674; with its Subsequent Services to 1837" ***

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