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Title: Report on the Dominion Government Expedition to Hudson Bay and the Arctic Islands on board the D.G.S. Neptune
Author: Low, A. P.
Language: English
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                         CRUISE OF THE NEPTUNE



[Illustration: THE CHIEF OF THE AIVILLINGMIUT.]



                                 REPORT

                                 ON THE

                     DOMINION GOVERNMENT EXPEDITION

                                   TO

                   HUDSON BAY AND THE ARCTIC ISLANDS

                              ON BOARD THE

                    D .   G .   S .   N E P T U N E

                              1903 - 1904

                                   BY

                       A. P. LOW, B.Sc., F.R.G.S.
                          _Officer in charge._


                                 OTTAWA
                       GOVERNMENT PRINTING BUREAU
                                  1906



                                             OTTAWA, September 8, 1905.
Hon. RAYMOND PRÉFONTAINE, K.C.,
  Minister of Marine and Fisheries.

SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the expedition
to Hudson Bay and northward thereof, in the steamship _Neptune_; to
which, on your kind recommendation, I was appointed officer in charge by
a commission authorized under an order in council of August 13, 1903.

Permit me to here acknowledge the kindly and valuable assistance
afforded me by Colonel F. Gourdeau, Deputy Minister of the Department of
Marine and Fisheries, by Commander G. O. V. Spain, and by all the
officers of the department at Ottawa and Halifax, with whom it was my
duty and privilege to work.

The greater part of the credit for the complete and successful
accomplishment of all the instructions for the voyage is due to Captain
S. W. Bartlett, the officers and the crew of the _Neptune_. Their prompt
and cheerful attention to orders and their willing co-operation in all
matters relating to the expedition deserve the highest praise.

I have great pleasure in calling attention to the valuable work of the
scientific staff of the expedition. Dr. L. E. Borden, by his skill and
attention, kept everybody in a good general state of health, and in
addition rendered great assistance in the collection of specimens and
data relating to ethnology, botany and zoology. Mr. Andrew Halkett,
Naturalist of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, was indefatigable
in the work of collecting specimens in all branches of natural history.
Mr. C. F. King, who was attached from the staff of the Geological
Survey, took charge in an able manner of the topographical work, and was
willingly assisted by Messrs. Caldwell and Ross and by the officers of
the ship.

In the preparation of this report, I have received much valuable
assistance from Dr. Robert Bell, Acting Director of the Geological
Survey, who has not only helped personally, but who also kindly allowed
the very necessary assistance of the following members of the staff of
that department: Mr. J. M. Macoun, who named and described the plants in
the collections brought home; Mr. L. Lambe and Dr. H. M. Ami, who
determined and named the collections of fossils, and Mr. F. Nicolas, who
kindly edited the report and prepared the index to it. The map which
accompanies the report was prepared under the direction of Mr. C. O.
Senécal by Messrs. C. F. King and P. Frereault.

My thanks are due to Mr. W. McMahon, Superintendent of Printing, for his
kindly advice and assistance in the publication of this report, and it
is entirely due to him that the volume presents its creditable
appearance.

                                       I have the honour to be, sir,
                                                  Your humble servant,
                                                             A. P. LOW.



  _MINTO._

                                CANADA.

    EDWARD THE SEVENTH, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom
    of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions
    beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India,
    etc.

    To ALBERT PETER LOW, of the City of Ottawa, in the Province of
    Ontario, in our Dominion of Canada, Esquire,—

GREETING:

                            E. L. NEWCOMBE,
                   Deputy of the Minister of Justice,
                                Canada.

Know you that reposing trust and confidence in your loyalty, integrity
and ability, We have constituted and appointed, and We do hereby
constitute and appoint you the said =Albert Peter Low= to be
officer in charge of the expedition to Hudson Bay and northward thereof
in the Steamship _Neptune_,—

To have, hold, exercise and enjoy the said office of officer in charge
of the expedition to Hudson Bay and northward thereof in the Steamship
_Neptune_ unto you the said =Albert Peter Low=, with all and
every the powers, rights, authority, privileges, profits, emoluments and
advantages unto the said office of right and by law appertaining during
pleasure.

    IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, We have caused these Our Letters to be
    made Patent, and the Great Seal of Canada to be hereunto
    affixed. WITNESS, Our Right Trusty and Well-beloved Cousin and
    Councillor the Right Honourable Sir GILBERT JOHN ELLIOT, Earl of
    Minto and Viscount Melgund of Melgund, County of Forfar, in the
    Peerage of the United Kingdom, Baron Minto of Minto, County of
    Roxburgh, in the Peerage of Great Britain, Baronet of Nova
    Scotia, Knight Grand Cross of Our Most Distinguished Order of
    St. Michael and Saint George, etc., etc., Governor General of
    Canada.

        At Our Government House, in Our City of Ottawa, this
        THIRTEENTH day of AUGUST, in the year of Our Lord one
        thousand nine hundred and three, and in the third year
        of Our Reign.

By Command,
   P. PELLETIER,
      _Acting Under Secretary of State_.



                               CONTENTS.


                               CHAPTER I.
                           VOYAGE TO THE BAY.
Introductory—Preparations—The _Neptune_—The Crew—Coast of
  Labrador—Port Burwell—Cumberland Gulf—Hudson Strait—Walrus
  Hunting—Hudson Bay—West Coast of Hudson Bay—Chesterfield
  Inlet—Arrival at Fullerton                                            1

                               CHAPTER II.
                      WINTER QUARTERS AT FULLERTON.
Fullerton Harbour—Preparations for Winter—Natives—Amusement and
  Work—Spring Explorations—Mr. Caldwell’s Trip to Wager Inlet—Surveys
  about Fullerton—Exploration of Coast to Chesterfield Inlet—Trip in
  Whaleboats to Southampton Island                                     25

                              CHAPTER III.
                     SUMMER CRUISE OF THE _NEPTUNE_.
Fisher Strait—Ice in Hudson Strait—Supply Ship at Port Burwell—Voyage
  North—North Greenland Coast—Parker Snow Bay—Smith Sound—Crossing to
  Cape Sabine—Peary’s Headquarters—_Neptune_ on the Rocks—Taking
  Possession of Ellesmere Island—East Coast of Ellesmere—Lancaster
  Sound—Franklin’s Headquarters at Beechey Island—Record of the
  _Gjoa_—Port Leopold—Ponds Inlet—Natives—Arctic Salmon—Baffin
  Bay—Cumberland Gulf—Wakeham Bay—Sugluk Bay—Salisbury Island—Voyage
  Home                                                                 35

                               CHAPTER IV.
                           HISTORICAL SUMMARY.
Frobisher—Davis—Weymouth—Knight—Hudson—Button—Baffin—Munck—Fox and
  James—Hudson’s Bay Company—Knight—Middleton and Dobbs—Hearne—Ross
  and Parry—Parry and Liddon—Parry and Lyon—Franklin—Ross—Back—Dease
  and Simpson—Rae—Franklin and Crozier—The Franklin
  Search—Kane—Hayes—Hall—Nares—Markham—Greely—Nansen—Peary—Sverdrup    71

                               CHAPTER V.
                             ARCTIC ISLANDS.
Divisions—Physical Features dependant upon Geology—Islands of Hudson
  Bay—Baffin and Bylot Islands—Islands south of Lancaster
  Sound—Ellesmere—North Devon—The Parry Islands—The Sverdrup Islands  112

                               CHAPTER VI.
                                ESKIMOS.
The Central Eskimos—Annual Routine—Winter Months—Snowhouses—Cooking
  Utensils—Dog Sled—Dogs—Seal Hunting—Seal Spear—Foxes—Trade—Spring
  Occupations—Summer—Summer Tent—Kyak—Umiak—Harpoon—Caribou Hunting   131

                              CHAPTER VII.
                          ESKIMOS—_Continued_.
Manners and Customs—Government—Marriage and
  Divorce—Murder—Death—Burial—Superstitions and Beliefs—The Goddess
  Nuliavok—Origin of Races—Future State—Taboos—The
  Angekok—Amusements—Garments—Adornments—Moral Characteristics        162

                              CHAPTER VIII.
                                GEOLOGY.
Sources of Information—Succession of the Rocks—Earth
  Movements—Archæan Backbone—Silurian Sea—Devonian and Carboniferous
  Uplift—Mesozoic and Miocene Tertiary—The Glacial Period—Details of
  Geology—Archæan—Hudson Bay, Baffin Island, Islands of Group III.,
  Ellesmere and North Devon Islands                                   183

                               CHAPTER IX.
                          GEOLOGY—_Continued_.
Silurian—West Coast of Hudson Bay, Baffin Island, Islands of Group
  III., Northeast Part of Ellesmere, Jones Sound, North Devon Island,
  Devonian. Carboniferous—Parry Island, Coal, Ellesmere Island.
  Mesozoic—Parry and Sverdrup Islands. Tertiary—Banks Island,
  Ellesmere Island, Coal, Baffin Island. Glacial—Distribution of
  Boulders—Ice Movements—Hudson Strait, West Coast of Hudson Bay,
  Labrador, Greatest Intensity of Ice-cap—Marine Terraces. Economic
  Minerals Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Mica, Graphite, Molybdenite,
  Lignite and Coal                                                    210

                               CHAPTER X.
                                WHALING.
History—The Whaling Fleet—Whaling in Davis Strait and Baffin
  Bay—Whaling in Hudson Bay—The Right Whale—Whalebone—Scottish
  Whalers—Ships and Methods—American Whalers—Ships, Crews and
  Methods—Whaleboats—Spring Whaling—Whaling Stations—Future of the
  Industry—Other Whales—Porpoises—The Seals—Walrus                    248

                               CHAPTER XI.
                        NAVIGATION OF HUDSON BAY.
Need of Hudson Bay Route—Historical—Navigation of Hudson
  Strait—Navigation in Hudson Bay—Ports—Currents—Ice from Davis
  Strait—Ice in Hudson Bay—Period of Navigation—Sailing
  Directions—Trade—Natural Resources—Advantages of Hudson Bay
  Route—Storage of Grain—Railway                                      283

                               APPENDIX I.
Meteorological Observations taken on the _Neptune_                    300

                              APPENDIX II.
List of Birds and Eggs collected on the Voyage                        314

                              APPENDIX III.
List of Plants collected in 1904                                      320

                              APPENDIX IV.
Notes on the Fossils collected on the Voyage                          322

                               APPENDIX V.
List of the principal Works and Papers consulted in the Preparation
  of the Report                                                       337

                              APPENDIX VI.
Notes on the Physical Condition of the Eskimos                        343



                         LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                Page.
     The Chief of the Aivillingmiut                    _Frontispiece_
     A Davis Strait Iceberg                                         1
     _Neptune_ and _Era_, Fullerton harbour                         4
     Crew of the _Neptune_ in winter costume                        6
     Head of Nachvak bay, Labrador                                  8
     Port Burwell at eastern entrance to Hudson strait             10
     Blacklead island, Cumberland gulf                             12
     Kekerten harbour, Cumberland gulf                             14
     Walrus in Smith Sound                                         16
     Fullerton harbour                                             18
     Wreck camp, Chesterfield inlet                                22
     _Neptune_ in winter quarters                                  24
     Southampton island                                            25
     Snowhouses on ice near _Neptune_                              28
     Hauling the winter water supply                               30
     Mr. Caldwell starting North                                   32
     American Whaleboats in Roes Welcome                           34
     A Greenland Iceberg                                           35
     Midnight in Smith sound                                       36
     Ice off Cape Wolstenholme                                     40
     Parker Snow bay, North Greenland                              42
     A Glacier of Bylot island                                     44
     Cape Herschel, Ellesmere island                               46
     Franklin Monument at Beechey island                           52
     Provisions left for the _Gjoa_ at Port Leopold                54
     Cliffs of Bylot island                                        58
     Eskimo Encampment at Ponds inlet                              60
     Women’s Boat at Wakeham bay                                   64
     South coast of North Devon island                             71
     At Beechey island                                             96
     Frenchman Cove, Cyrus Field bay                              112
     Head of Cyrus Field bay, Baffin island                       120
     Shore of Cumberland gulf from Blacklead island               122
     Kenipitu from Chesterfield inlet                             130
     Lower Encampment, Chesterfield inlet                         131
     Eskimos at Blacklead, Cumberland gulf                        136
     Aivillik Women at Fullerton                                  140
     Snowhouses at Fullerton                                      142
     Interior of Snowhouse at Fullerton                           144
     Loaded Sleds from Chesterfield inlet                         146
     A Small Team and a Heavy Load                                148
     Interior of Snowhouse at Fullerton                           150
     Eskimo kyak off Cape Haven                                   154
     Summer Tents at Wakeham bay                                  158
     At Ponds inlet                                               162
     Aivillik Woman in gala dress                                 168
     Nechillik Woman                                              170
     Kenipitu Belles at Fullerton                                 176
     Kenipitu Woman in winter dress                               178
     Upper Encampment, Chesterfield inlet                         183
     Contorted Gneiss and Granite at Fullerton                    196
     Cape Haven harbour                                           202
     Scottish Whalers in Ponds inlet                              210
     Limestone Cliffs of North Devon island                       220
     Scottish Whaler _Eclipse_                                    248
     Crew of the American Whaler _Era_                            250
     Bundles of whalebone on the _Era_                            260
     Preparing for Spring Whaling                                 264
     Whaleboats on the ice, in Roes Welcome                       268
     Scottish whaling station at Blacklead island                 270
     The Launch                                                   283
     Rafted Ice in Roes Welcome, June, 1904                       290
     Ice in Cumberland gulf, September, 1904                      292



                            SHIP’S COMPANY.


                           SCIENTIFIC STAFF.

               A. P. Low, Commander and Geologist.
               L. E. Borden, M.D., Surgeon and Botanist.
               G. B. Faribault, M.D., Assistant-Surgeon.
               A. Halkett, Naturalist.
               C. F. King, Topographer and Meteorologist.
               G. F. Caldwell, Photographer.

                           OFFICERS AND CREW.

S. W. Bartlett, Master.             W. Babstock,                  Seaman.
J. Hearn, First Mate.               F. Kearny,                       ”
M. Bartlett, Second Mate.           W. Crossman, First Engineer.
L. Guay, Third Mate.                J. Crossman, Second Engineer.
W. Aldred, Cook.                    S. Bruchett, Third Engineer.
J. Harding, Second Cook.            J. Killey,                    Fireman.
H. Borgle, Steward.                 A. Romaine,                      ”
D. Tierney, Second Steward.         M. Baldwin,                      ”
M. Ross, Purser.                    F. Froude,                       ”
M. Ryan, Carpenter.                 G. Willis,                       ”
C. King, Boatswain.                 J. Rousseau,                    Boy.
J. Clark,                   Seaman. L. Deschesneau,                  ”
J. Murphy,                     ”    E. Bourque,                      ”
C. Pomeroy,                    ”    J. Gouin,                        ”
F. Wells,                      ”    F. O’Connell,                    ”

                       NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE.

           Major J. D. Moodie, Acting Commissioner.
           Staff Sergeant Dee.
           Constable Tremaine.
                              ”                     Jarvis.
                              ”                     Connelly.
                              ”                     Donaldson.

H. Ford, who had served as Eskimo interpreter on the _Diana_ in 1896,
was again engaged in that capacity, at Port Burwell, on the way north.



GEOLOGICAL MAP of the NORTHEASTERN PART of the DOMINION OF CANADA

To illustrate the Report on the Cruise of the D.G.S. Neptune ——to——
HUDSON BAY and the ARCTIC ISLANDS ——by—— A.P. LOW B.Sc. Officer in
Command.

1905.

Scale: 50 statute miles to 1 inch = 1/3.168.000

10 5 0 10 50 100 150 200

_Projected on Oblique Secant Cylinder_

_Mean length of 1 degree of latitude = 69.337 stat.m._

C.-O. Senécal, B.A.Sc., _Geographer & Chief Draughtsman_



[Illustration: A DAVIS STRAIT ICEBERG.]



                               CHAPTER I.
                           VOYAGE TO THE BAY


The present report contains a narrative of the voyage of the D.G.S.
_Neptune_, during the seasons 1903-04, to the northern parts of Hudson
bay, and to the northeastern Arctic islands. Following this, under their
respective headings, are a short historical account of earlier
explorations and discoveries in northeastern Arctic America; a
geographical sketch, together with summaries of what is at present known
of the inhabitants and geology of the unorganized northeastern
territories of the Dominion; short descriptions of the important whaling
and sealing industries; and opinions as to the possible navigation of
Hudson strait and Hudson bay.

The appendices contain the meteorological observations taken on the
voyage, interesting notes on the thickness and growth of the ice; also
lists of the birds, plants and fossils collected in these northern
regions. All the collections, except that of the marine invertebrates,
have been fully determined. The amount of new material in the latter
required greater time for study than could be given before the
publication of this report, and the results will be included in a future
publication.

This report is based largely upon the knowledge obtained, during the
voyage, by the scientific staff of the expedition; this has been freely
supplemented by information taken from the reports of previous northern
explorations. For the convenience of the reader, constant references are
not made to these authorities in the text, a list of them being given in
an appendix.

Special mention is here made of the indebtedness of the author to the
valuable information contained in the works of Richardson, McClintock,
Dawson, Bell and Sverdrup.

The accompanying map has been compiled by Mr. C. Frank King. It contains
all the corrections to coastline made from his surveys. The ship’s track
marked on the map will be found convenient in following the text of the
narrative.

All bearings mentioned in the text refer to the true North, on account
of the confusion arising from the great change in the variation of the
compass at different localities included in the area covered by the
report. For example, at Chesterfield inlet the compass points true
North; while at Beechey island, in Lancaster sound, the variation
amounts to 160 degrees, so that the north end of the needle points
south-southwest.

The illustrations in the text of the report are from photographs taken
by the author.

Acknowledgment is made of the kindness of Admiral Sir Arch. L. Douglas
for his willing assistance in fitting out the _Neptune_ at Halifax,
where suitable Welsh coal and a fine steam launch, on his
recommendation, were supplied by the Admiralty.

To Captain George Comer, of the American whaler _Era_, special thanks
are due for his uniform kindness and courtesy during our long winter
together, and for the valuable assistance rendered, by advice,
information and services, to the expedition and to myself, personally.

The writer gratefully acknowledges a large amount of interesting details
relating to the natives, whaling industry, geography and natural history
obtained from the Rev. Mr. Peck, and from the Scottish whaling Captains
Milne, Adams, Guy and Murray.


           PRELIMINARIES TO AND PREPARATIONS FOR THE VOYAGE.

The Dominion government, in the spring of 1903, decided to send a
cruiser to patrol the waters of Hudson bay and those adjacent to the
eastern Arctic islands; also to aid in the establishment, on the
adjoining shores, of permanent stations for the collection of customs,
the administration of justice and the enforcement of the law as in other
parts of the Dominion.

To perform these last duties, Major J. D. Moodie, of the Northwest
Mounted Police, was appointed Acting Commissioner of the unorganized
Northeastern Territories. Under his command were placed a
non-commissioned officer and four constables of the Northwest Mounted
Police, as a nucleus of the force that in the future would reside at
these stations.

The _Neptune_, the largest and most powerful ship of the Newfoundland
sealing fleet, was chartered as the most suitable vessel for the cruiser
work. The _Neptune_ is a stout wooden ship, built entirely of British
oak, sheathed with ‘iron-bark’ and greenheart. Although built in 1873,
she is quite sound throughout, and of amazing strength. Her sides are
formed of an outer sheathing of four inches of greenheart, on top of
four inches of oak, covering heavy oak timbers, with an inside lining of
three inches; the space between the inner and outer skins and the
timbers is solidly filled with rock-salt, so that the sides of the ship
are practically eighteen inches thick in all parts where a contact with
the ice is expected. The bow is further reinforced by a heavy sheathing
of iron plates, and inside it is backed with deadwood, giving it a
thickness of eight feet. The _Neptune_ is of 465 tons net register, and
has engines of 110 nominal horse-power. This means that the ship will
carry about 800 tons of coal and cargo, and that her engines will
develop about 550 indicated horse-power; sufficient to drive the loaded
ship at the rate of eight knots an hour. The engines, unlike most of the
whaling and sealing ships, are placed amidships, while the vessel is
rigged as a three-masted schooner, with low masts and little sail power.

Early in June, 1903, I had the honour to be appointed, by the Honourable
Mr. Préfontaine, the Minister of Marine and Fisheries, to the command of
the expedition to Hudson bay and northwards, on board the _Neptune_. I
received instructions to proceed immediately to Halifax, to make
necessary alterations to the ship, and to purchase all the provisions
and outfit required for a two-years’ voyage in the Arctics.

The ship—which only had accommodation for a small crew—was in the same
state in which she had returned from the spring sealing voyage. After a
thorough cleaning, carpenters and machinists were put aboard, and the
work of alteration rushed day and night. A bridge-deck, covering the
boiler and engine, was erected, with a small chart-house upon it.
Alterations were made to the after cabin, and a new saloon and
staterooms, for the use of the scientific staff, were made
between-decks, forward of the main hatch. The remainder of the
between-decks forward was converted into storerooms and sleeping
quarters for the petty officers and the Mounted Police detachment. The
upper forecastle was fitted up for the crew and firemen. All the
sleeping quarters were arranged so that a small air space separated the
sides of the ship from the berths, and all ironwork was covered with
wood. The value of these preparations was appreciated during the ensuing
winter, when no frozen moisture was found in any part of the ship so
treated, while elsewhere the bare sides had a thick coating of frost.

[Illustration: ‘NEPTUNE’ AND ‘ERA,’ FULLERTON HARBOUR.]

All these additions and alterations were made in a month’s time, during
which the stores and provisions were purchased and delivered on board,
together with materials for the stations on shore.

The preparations being completed, the _Neptune_ hauled out from the dock
and anchored in the harbour on the evening of the 22nd of August.


              THE CRUISE TO WINTER QUARTERS IN HUDSON BAY.

All hands were busy during the morning of the 23rd of August, in
securing the heavy deck-load, consisting of lumber for the stations,
which was piled high on the afterdeck, and on both sides of the bridge.
Oil barrels and tins completely covered the quarterdeck, while potatoes
and other vegetables were stowed in all corners, even the rigging having
its load of fresh meat.

At noon the anchor was lifted, and we steamed out of the harbour of
Halifax, not to return until the middle of October of the following
year. A favouring breeze helped the ship along, and in the evening we
were well on our way eastward along the southern coast of Nova Scotia.
The following evening the eastern end of Cape Breton was passed, and we
stood northward to cross Cabot strait to Newfoundland. A strong breeze
from the northwest sprang up in the night, when, owing to our heavy
deck-load, the ship had to take shelter under St. Paul island, where we
remained until the morning of the 26th. Fine weather favoured the
passage across the gulf, and through the Strait of Belle Isle. Our first
stop on the Labrador coast was made at Dominoe, where it was expected
that a supply of codfish would be obtained. Unfortunately the season was
very backward, and no dry fish had yet been made on the coast; a few
pairs of sealskin boots were, however, obtained there. Continuing, with
fine weather, northward along this grandly picturesque coast, Nachvak
bay was reached on the 31st.

Our interpreter was supposed to reside here, but on reaching the small
Hudson’s Bay post, it was found that he was at Port Burwell, at the
mouth of Hudson strait. More sealskin boots and a couple of barrels of
trout were purchased from the agent; then, as our tanks were low, we
steamed some ten miles to the head of the bay, to a small river of
excellent water. The scenery about the bay is very grand; cliffs of
3,000 feet present their rugged barren faces on both sides, rising
directly from the water and terminating skywards in lofty mountains with
sharp peaks. Large patches of snow fill the upper valleys, where they
accentuate the rocky desolation of the peaks.

Another clear, calm day brought us to Port Burwell, a few miles inside
Cape Chidley, the northern point of the Atlantic coast, where the
division line is drawn between the territory to the eastward, under the
jurisdiction of Newfoundland, and that of the Dominion to the westward.
Between Nachvak and the cape, the mountains of the coast reach their
highest elevations, some of the peaks rising to upwards of 6,000 feet.
The outline is extremely rough, the land rises abruptly from the coast
and the scenery is very grand. As Cape Chidley is approached, the
general elevation becomes lower; the land finally sinks into the sea
with the Button islands, which form a group extending some miles beyond
the cape. The heavy tides of Ungava bay exhaust themselves in the
passages between the islands, and, in doing so, cause very dangerous
currents. Gray strait, lying between the cape and the inner islands,
would form an excellent ship canal, if it were not for these strong
currents, which cause a dangerous sea when the tide is running against
the wind, especially when the wind is eastward and the Atlantic swell
heaves into the strait.

[Illustration: CREW OF THE ‘NEPTUNE’ IN WINTER COSTUME.]

Port Burwell is an excellent harbour, sheltered from all but the
southwest winds, and, even with these, distant capes break the force of
the wind and sea. The harbour lies on the western side of Gray strait,
and about fifteen miles from Cape Chidley. It was originally discovered
by Commander Gordon, who erected one of the Observation Stations there
in 1885. The surrounding country, although low in comparison with that
to the southward, is rugged, with steep rocky cliffs, that rise from 100
to 500 feet above the water of the harbour. There is little level ground
in the neighbourhood, and the trading post established there is situated
on a small inside harbour, which cannot be seen from the anchorage.
Trade is carried on with some dozen families of Eskimos living on the
coast, and this is supplemented by the seals caught by the agent.

This is probably the most convenient and safest place for the
establishment of a customs station for the regulation of the shipping
trade, entering or leaving Hudson strait, and a small expenditure for
lights would make it a safe port of entry at all times. The south side
of the mouth of Hudson strait, during the season of ice, is much less
embarrassed than the northern side; as a rule, Port Burwell is free of
ice early and late in the season.

Some little trouble occurred in securing the services of Ford as
interpreter, he being under employment at the station; but the matter
was finally satisfactorily arranged with the agent.


                    PORT BURWELL TO CUMBERLAND GULF.

On the following day the voyage was continued northward from Port
Burwell. A fog came on shortly after we left, and continued for three
days, during which land was only sighted twice. When the fog partly
lifted, on the evening of the 4th, we found ourselves close to the shore
of Cumberland gulf, and about twenty miles east of Blacklead island. The
ship anchored in one of the many bays of the high rugged islands that
fringe the coast.

A landing was made near the anchorage, and a few hours spent in climbing
over the steep, high hills of gneiss and granite, which rise from 500 to
1,000 feet above the sea, while the summits of the hills on the mainland
behind often attain an elevation of 2,000 feet. Almost continuous inland
navigation is afforded by the channels, behind the islands, lying along
the entire southern coast of the gulf. The hills are very rugged, and
show signs of glaciation, though much less marked than those on the
hills of the Labrador coast. The higher valleys are filled with snow,
but there are no real glaciers.

The weather cleared about noon next day, and towards evening the mission
and whaling stations at Blacklead island were reached. A series of
photographs of the place and of its natives was taken while Major Moodie
was explaining the intentions of the Government to the missionaries and
to the agent of the whaling establishment.

The settlement consists of a dozen small, one-storied, wooden buildings,
comprising the house and storehouses of the whaling station, the church,
hospital, dwelling house and outbuildings of the missionaries. All are
located at the southeast end of the island, a few feet above tide water.
The surface is rock, or very moist boulder clay, without drainage, and
the refuse from the native encampment makes the surroundings very
filthy. The water supply is obtained from small ponds, in hollows of the
rocks on the hill behind the houses. As the neighbourhood is overrun
with dogs, and as the natives often build their snow houses directly
over the ponds, the quality of the water is very bad, and probably
accounts for much of the sickness prevalent here.

[Illustration: HEAD OF NACHVAK BAY, LABRADOR.]

The mission is under the charge of the Rev. Mr. Peck, who for many years
has devoted his life to the instruction and welfare of the Eskimo about
Hudson bay, and, of late years, on Baffin island. He is ably assisted by
two younger men, both of whom have had medical training. The
headquarters of the mission are at Blacklead, from which place the
missionaries travel, several times a year, to Kekerten, on the north
side of the gulf, and to Cape Haven, on Cyrus Field bay, to the south.
In this manner all the natives of the southeastern part of Baffin island
are reached. The work of combating ancient superstitions has been hard
and slow, but the results of the mission are beginning to tell, and the
natives are now taking rapidly to the teaching and precept of the
missionaries. The total number of Eskimos reached is about five hundred,
and they are all connected with, and depend upon, the whaling stations
of Blacklead, Kekerten and Cape Haven.

During the summer months all the able-bodied men, with some of the women
and children, proceed to the head of the bays, and thence far inland, to
hunt the barren-ground caribou, to secure a supply of skins for winter
clothing and bedding. They are absent until September. On their return
they are employed at the whale fishery until the gulf freezes fast,
usually early in December. During the remainder of the winter, they
maintain themselves by harpooning seal through breathing-holes in the
solid ice, or by killing them in the open water, at the edge of the
floe. Whaling is resumed in March and continues until the ice breaks up;
then the seal hunt begins and ends only when the time arrives to go
inland again.

The whaling operations are carried on in a similar manner at all of the
stations. At each, there are one to three white men in charge, but the
actual work is done by the natives. The whales are taken by harpooning
them from boats cruising among the broken ice, at the edge of the solid
floe. Each station has from four to six boats; consequently nearly every
able-bodied native is employed in them during the whaling season. They
and their families, at such times, are fed with biscuit, coffee and
molasses from the supplies of the station, but supply their own animal
food. The men are paid irregularly for their work, usually in tobacco,
ammunition and clothing, and they receive extra pay when a whale is
captured. Of course the pay alone does not at all represent the value of
the whale, but the expense of the station, and the few whales killed
prohibit a large expenditure. On the whole, the whalers may be taken as
beneficial to the Eskimos, and now that the latter have long been
dependent upon the whalers for guns, ammunition and other articles of
civilization, there is no doubt that many would perish should the
whaling stations be closed without other provision being made for the
accustomed supplies.

Having obtained a pilot at Blacklead, we crossed, the next morning, to
Kekerten, which is situated on one of a group of small islands forming a
harbour a few miles from the mainland of the north side of the gulf.
Owing to the rocks, cargo can only be landed here at high water; the
harbour is open to the south, so that the anchorage is not safe during
the continuation of winds from that quarter.

A three-masted Norwegian schooner was found at anchor, discharging
supplies, and loading the oil, whalebone and skins taken during the past
year. The captain of the schooner and Mr. Noble, the son of the owner of
the station, from Aberdeen, boarded us shortly after arriving; from Mr.
Noble we learned that two whales had been taken in Cumberland gulf
during the past year. The oil and bone from these, together with the oil
and pelts of 3,000 seals, and some bear, wolf, fox and walrus skins
would realize a handsome profit, and lend encouragement to the
continuation of the stations, which, for several years previous, had not
cleared expenses.

[Illustration: PORT BURWELL AT EASTERN ENTRANCE TO HUDSON STRAIT.]

Mr. Noble informed us that white whales are abundant at the head of the
gulf during the summer, where they frequent the flat, muddy mouth of a
river. They are driven by whaleboats up the river, on the rising tide,
and kept there until the tide falls, when they become stranded upon the
mud flats and are easily killed. This fishery has only been prosecuted
in a desultory manner, and would probably pay if handled with judgment.

Two rivers on the north side, and one at the head of the gulf, are
famous for their large Arctic trout, or salmon, which abound in the
mouths of these streams during August. There is no doubt that a
profitable fishery could be prosecuted in all these streams, as well as
in many others along the coast to the northward and southward of
Cumberland gulf, but as yet no attempt has been made to fish them for
export.

The station at Kekerten consists of the usual half-dozen small
buildings, all nicely painted, with the whaleboats ranged on skids, and
barrels and tanks alongside clean and ready for use.

The same evening a return was made to Blacklead, where, taking on board
Captain Jackson, the new master of Cape Haven station, and his boat’s
crew of natives, we left again, under a brilliant moon, for Cape Haven.
The south shore of the gulf was closely followed, past innumerable bays
and narrow channels formed by the islands and deeply indented shores of
that side.

Cyrus Field bay was reached late the next afternoon, with a strong
northwesterly breeze. As the approach to Cape Haven is filled with
dangerous shoals, it was thought unadvisable to attempt to enter it so
late in the day, and the ship was headed up the bay, for a harbour known
as Frenchman cove. We arrived at dusk, to find the narrow entrance
blocked by a large iceberg, and the water too deep to anchor outside. A
boat was sent off, and soon returned, reporting a narrow passage between
the ice and rocks; with some danger this was passed, and the ship
anchored safely in the small bay. Two small deserted houses perched on a
narrow ledge of rock, close to the water, with a number of oil barrels
in the rear, represent the remains of a former small trading station.
The diminutive harbour is surrounded by sharply ragged hills of granite,
whose summits are splotched with patches of snow; the valleys between
are narrow and irregular, and are so thickly strewn with boulders and
broken rock that nearly every trace of soil is hidden. The scant Arctic
vegetation and the deserted houses enhance the desolation of the scene.

Having taken on board the casks of oil and a supply of fresh water, the
ship was headed for Cape Haven, where a station, similar to those
already described, was found on a snug harbour, behind a large island,
near the end of the cape. This station belongs to Potter and
Wrightington, of Boston, United States. For several years past it has
been unlucky, and the few whales taken have paid neither the expenses of
maintaining the station nor the cost of supplying it by a special
vessel. Natives sufficient to man four whaleboats live about this
station.

The general aspect of the country about Cyrus Field bay is somewhat
similar to that of Cumberland gulf: high, rugged hills of gneiss and
granite rise from 500 feet to 1,000 feet above the sea. The land on the
northern side of the bay is lower, and the waters of this portion are
broken by low islands and reefs, many of which become connected at low
tide.

A long chain of islands separates this bay from Frobisher bay to the
southward. These islands are all high and rocky; strong tides rush
through the channels between them, and although several of the channels
are reported to be safe for large ships, they are only used by the
natives as short cuts to Frobisher bay.

[Illustration: BLACKLEAD ISLAND, CUMBERLAND GULF.]

Cape Haven was left late on the afternoon of the 8th, and Hall island,
at the eastern extremity of the chain separating the bays, was passed in
the early evening. The course was then laid across the mouth of
Frobisher bay, to pass to the eastward of the great island of
Resolution, lying on the north side of the entrance to Hudson strait.

Monumental and Lady Franklin islands lie some twenty miles off the mouth
of Cyrus Field bay, and are about ten miles apart. A continuous string
of large icebergs stretched in a line between the islands, and continued
for some miles beyond them, both north and south. They showed that the
islands were but the exposed portions of a long dangerous bank, upon
which the bergs had grounded. A similar line of bergs was observed about
ten miles inside and parallel to the outer line. As this is the only
knowledge possessed of these reefs, ships crossing them should use
caution, although, in most places, sufficient water will probably be
found.


                             HUDSON STRAIT.

The bold, rocky shores of Resolution were passed during the night and
early morning, and during the afternoon we steamed westward along the
southern shores of Baffin island.

The channel between Resolution and Baffin islands is some miles wide,
but is obstructed by a number of smaller islands. Very strong tides rush
backwards and forwards through the channel, rendering dangerous an
otherwise good passage.

The southern shore of Baffin island is indented with many bays, and no
doubt when this coast is surveyed excellent harbours will be found along
it. The land rises rapidly from the coast, to an elevation of upwards of
2,500 feet; far inland is seen the glistening white surface of the great
Grinnel glacier, which flows northward into Frobisher bay. Not being
very active, it does not discharge icebergs.

The Saddle-back islands were passed in the evening; they number at least
twenty, or double the number laid down on the chart. There are
indications of good harbours between them. Soundings taken in the
vicinity of the supposed Gripper shoal did not indicate any such
obstruction to navigation. A large number of icebergs were passed during
the day, having been apparently drifted into the strait by the westerly
current of its north side, probably aided by favouring easterly winds.
They were not very numerous to the westward of Big island.

The morning of the 10th the ship was off Douglas harbour, and, from
there, coasted along the south side of the strait to Cape Weggs, whence
a passage was taken for the east end of Charles island. The north side
of that island was closely followed, in order to survey it.

[Illustration: KEKERTEN HARBOUR, CUMBERLAND GULF.]

Near the western end of the island many walrus were seen in the water
and upon a small islet close to the shore. As several of these animals
were required for dog-food during the coming winter, the ship was
anchored in a small harbour near by, and early next morning the small
launch was lowered ready for the chase. Soon after leaving the ship,
several hundred walruses were seen sporting in the water about the
islet. They were in bands, varying in numbers from ten to twenty, each
band probably composed of an old male and his harem. A band would be
singled out, and the launch, at full speed would put after it. When the
animals became aware that they were being chased, they would endeavour
to escape by diving, always keeping close together. At first they would
remain under several minutes, and would travel four hundred yards; as
the chase became hotter and hotter, the length of the dives gradually
decreased, so that, finally, the animals could hardly remain below the
surface. The launch was forced among the tumbling mass of frightened
creatures, and when directly over them, a man in the bow would select a
large one, and drive a harpoon into it. The head of the harpoon was
fastened by a few fathoms of line to an empty water keg, and as soon as
the harpoon was fast the keg was thrown overboard. This harpooning is
necessary, as the animals sink as soon as they are killed, and the
buoyancy of the keg is required to keep them from being lost. When one
had been harpooned, the launch was stopped, and the rest of the band
continued to flee. Now comes the dangerous moment of the chase. The
wounded walrus rises to the surface, and immediately attacks the launch,
which it endeavours to capsize by fixing its tusk over the side. Quick
shooting is the order, and even with a storm of bullets, many a monster
has to be rapped over the head or pushed away with guns and spears.
After this experience with the few first killed, it was found that by
keeping the propeller in motion and the whistle blowing, they would not
attack the launch, but would waste their energies in an endeavour to
destroy the keg; consequently the danger of the sport was considerably
lessened. Upwards of half a dozen shots, at close range, were necessary
to kill each walrus. As soon as one was dispatched, it was towed to the
ship, or to a convenient cove at the shore. Seven were captured during
the day, and hoisted on board, where they completely filled the after
deck. Owing to the difficulty of securing these large animals, at least
twice that number, fatally wounded, were lost; we later found this to be
the usual proportion of killed to captured, where these animals are
hunted for their skins and blubber, a waste of life altogether too
great.

That evening the ship was headed for Cape Wolstenholme, and early next
morning came to anchor in Erik cove, close to that headland. Advantage
was taken of a fine convenient stream of fresh water to fill the nearly
empty tanks. During the day, two large white bears were killed by the
hunters. The first was seen climbing along the steep cliffs fronting the
harbour, the second being found in a deep hole that it had dug into a
large snowbank, on the side of a high hill, and into which it had
retired for a cool sleep.

Erik cove is an excellent harbour formed by a wide gully in the high
hills of this part of the coast. The bay extends inland about two miles
from the general coast-line; and good anchorage is found within a
quarter of a mile of its head. On both sides, hills from 800 feet to
1,500 feet afford good protection against all but north winds.
Unfortunately the bay is V-shaped, and quite open to the north, so that
with strong winds from that direction it would be unsafe, and, during
the season of ice, the danger would be considerably enhanced, as, owing
to its shape, the ice would be liable to block, and to force a ship on
shore without much chance of escape. A small river which flows down the
continuation of the gorge winds from side to side of a low plain, which
narrows as it extends backwards from the sea, up the valley. An
excellent site for houses might be found on the plain near the mouth of
the river.


                              HUDSON BAY.

Squalls of snow delayed us until the afternoon of the 13th, when we
steamed westward along the north side of Digges islands. A bear was seen
climbing over the cliffs, and a boat was lowered in chase, but the
animal escaped. In the evening, the course was changed to northward, up
Fox channel. At daylight the next morning ice was met with some ten
miles from Leyson point. Steaming slowly through it, Seahorse point, on
Southampton island, was reached at noon, and a landing was made with the
launch. During the absence of the launch, the ship was sent out into the
ice to the northeast, in order to examine its condition. It was found to
be in large cakes of heavy rafted ice, too solid to penetrate at such a
late date.

[Illustration: WALRUS IN SMITH SOUND.]

Seahorse point is at the junction of the granites and gneisses with the
Silurian limestones. There is here a marked difference between the
southern limestone area and the northern country, underlain by the
crystalline rocks, with its typical long, low, rounded hills, lying in
roughly parallel ridges, and separated by wide shallow valleys, dotted
with lakes and ponds, or filled with coarse boulder clay, with boulders
scattered in bewildering profusion everywhere. This land, although high
by contrast with the limestone country, seldom reaches an elevation of
500 feet, and that only far inland. There is one conspicuous peak, which
rises like a great sugar loaf, far inland, its snow-capped summit of the
lightest blue.

The limestone country occupies all the southern part of this great
island, and also underlies the large islands of Coats and Mansfield
farther to the south. The same physical characteristics prevail wherever
the limestone is found. The low shores are bounded by gradually
deepening water, broken by dangerous reefs that extend several miles
from the land. The country rises very slowly inland, from the shores, in
a succession of low, broad terraces, each a few feet higher than the one
in front. These terraces are covered to a depth of several feet by
broken limestone, which affords perfect drainage, and in consequence the
surface is so dry that it will not even support a covering of the hardy
Arctic plants. This absence of vegetation leaves the monotonous
light-yellow shingle quite unrelieved by any dash of other colour, and
the general view is one of dry desolation, much worse than that of the
hilly country. The limestone region never reaches an elevation of one
hundred feet within walking distance of the shore.

The ship lay-to during the night, among scattered pans of ice, about
five miles from the land, and in forty fathoms of water. Late in the
evening two walruses were killed on ice pans close to the ship.

A return to the southward was made at daylight, and the ice was finally
left after passing Leyson point. During the passage through the ice, in
the early morning, hundreds of walrus were seen asleep on the floating
pans, and were left undisturbed. Skirting the low shores of the
so-called Bell island, Evans strait was entered, and, late in the
afternoon, we passed close to Walrus island in Fisher strait. This
island is composed of crystalline rocks, and although not very high, it
is conspicuous in contrast to the low shores on both sides of the
strait. The island is much smaller than shown on the chart, and is only
one island, not two, as marked there.

While passing through Evans and Fisher straits, soundings were taken
every five miles. The bottom was found to be very even, and covered with
fine sand or limestone debris. During the day the low shores of
Southampton were in sight, without any feature sufficiently marked to
afford a triangulation point.

The absence of ice in any part of Fisher strait led to the belief that
no channel existed between Bell island and Southampton. This has since
been confirmed by the captains of the _Era_ and _Active_, both having
narrowly escaped trouble in trying to pass through this supposed
channel, which, if it does exist, is very shallow and narrow, even at
high tide, and is so obstructed with shoals as to be absolutely
dangerous.

During the night of the 15th we passed the western entrance of Fisher
strait, and turned northward, up the west coast of Southampton. Frequent
soundings, taken as the ship passed over, or very close to, the position
of Tom island on the chart, gave no indications of it.

This island was placed on the chart, on the authority of Captain Lyon,
but nobody has since seen it.

[Illustration: FULLERTON HARBOUR.]

The 16th was thick and foggy, so that when the distance to Cape
Fullerton had been run down in the evening, and the water had shoaled to
twenty-five fathoms, the ship lay-to for the night. In the morning,
standing to the westward, breakers were seen at nine o’clock; shortly
after, several low islands were passed, and at noon the launch was sent
ahead to sound the way into a long bay, which subsequently proved to be
Winchester inlet. A good harbour, sheltered by islands, was found on the
east side of the bay, and about three miles from its mouth, where the
anchor was dropped at six o’clock in the evening.

The country surrounding Winchester inlet is very similar to that
bounding the whole of the northwestern part of Hudson bay. The country
is underlain by Archæan crystalline rocks, and has all the physical
characteristics common to similar areas in the south. Long, gently
rounded hills, of slight elevation, form the higher grounds, with wide,
shallow valleys between them. The whole has been intensely glaciated,
and the abrasion of the great ice-cap has reduced the general surface to
as near a level surface as is possible, considering the varying
resisting properties of the different rocks found here.

There is no soil upon the rocky hills, while that of the valleys is
largely boulder clay, in which the coarser material predominates,
leaving little room for the growth of Arctic vegetation upon the finer
materials of the soil. Boulders scattered in profusion over the rocky
hills give to the latter a peculiar ragged appearance. Lakes and ponds
dot the valleys, and much of the land surrounding these is low and
swampy.

The shores of the bay are low, and are masked, in most places, by a wide
fringe of low rocky islands, while beyond the islands the danger zone is
continued several miles seaward by a labyrinth of sunken reefs. The
bottom of the bay, beyond these reefs, continues very uneven, so that in
the portion between Winchester and Chesterfield inlets there is danger
of a ship grounding, when beyond the sight of the low shores. The
proximity to the magnetic pole accounts for the sluggishness of the
compass in these waters, where no reliance can be placed on it. This,
with the uncharted, low coast, bare of prominent landmarks, renders the
approach to any of the harbours uncertain and dangerous.

Inland from the shores the country rises slowly; indeed, the general
elevation does not increase towards the interior above ten feet a mile,
while along the shores there are no hills more than fifty feet high.

Our instructions were to find, and, if possible, to pass the winter in
company with the American whaling ship known to be in Hudson bay. The
whalers formerly wintered at Marble island, or at Depot island; the
former is to the southward of the mouth of Chesterfield inlet, the
latter close to the entrance of Winchester inlet. Marble island has long
been abandoned, chiefly on account of its insufficient water supply.
Within the last few years a more convenient harbour was found close to
Cape Fullerton, and the large launch was fitted out to search for it,
the _Era_ not being in the harbour at Depot island.

A strong gale lasted from the 18th to the 22nd, and we were very lucky
to be in such a good harbour. While awaiting an abatement of the gale,
several Eskimos came overland to the ship, and were taken aboard. They
were from Cape Fullerton, and were going inland from Winchester inlet to
kill barren-ground caribou for their winter clothing. They had seen the
ship as she passed, but could not reach us with their whaleboats owing
to the gale. We learned from them that the _Era_ was already in winter
quarters at Fullerton. This information rendered the proposed trip in
the launch useless, and it was therefore determined to send her up
Chesterfield inlet, as the only place where a sufficient supply of
deerskins for our winter clothing could be procured from the natives.
The services of an old Eskimo, named Scotty, were secured as pilot for
the launch, while another, Gilbert, consented to pilot the ship to
Fullerton harbour.

The crew of the launch consisted of the second mate, third engineer, a
fireman, sailor, the interpreter, Scotty and myself. We left the ship
early on the morning of the 23rd, and the launch behaved admirably in
the heavy head sea raised by the recent gale. A southerly course was
followed, past Depot island, but the numerous shoals gradually forced us
away from the mainland, so that the boat was ten miles from the mainland
at the mouth of Chesterfield inlet, and even at that distance
considerable difficulty was experienced in keeping clear of the shoals.
They were eventually passed without mishap, and the course was changed
to westward along the south side of Promise island, and then along that
of the inlet, so that by dark we were fifty miles above its mouth. After
steaming twenty miles farther, on the following morning the lower Eskimo
settlement was reached, situated on a large bay on the north side of the
inlet. All the men were absent hunting deer, and although there were
many skins about the encampment, the women would not part with them
without the permission of the men. The latter were not expected back
until the next evening, so it was determined to continue on to the upper
encampment, located thirty miles above the lower, on the southern
channel, past Bowell island, where the inlet discharges from Baker lake.
This encampment was reached early in the afternoon, and the absent
hunters were signalled for with smoke. They arrived about two hours
after us, and a lively barter was kept up until after dark, upwards of
fifty skins and a considerable quantity of meat being purchased for
powder, tobacco, knives and files. Four tents of Eskimos were at this
place, which is a noted crossing of the deer in their annual migrations
to the north and south. Great numbers had already been killed, and
half-putrid heads were scattered in all directions about the tents.

Early next morning the launch was headed east, and, assisted by a strong
tide, soon reached the lower encampment. The men were still absent, and
did not return until the following morning, when we secured about as
many skins and as much meat as at the upper camp. Leaving early in the
afternoon, we continued down the inlet; at dark, the pilot became
confused amongst the many islands off Dangerous point, and advised
anchoring until daylight. An anchor watch was set, and the remainder of
the crew went to sleep, to be awakened at midnight by the startling news
that the launch was aground and the tide still falling. Efforts were
immediately made to float her, but without avail. She soon fell over on
her side, when the water rushed in, partly filling her. Some of the crew
were then set to ferrying the cargo to a neighbouring island, while the
rest bailed out the water and endeavoured to keep it out as the tide
rose again, but without success, so the energies of all were devoted to
saving everything possible. Many things were lost during the hurry and
darkness, and daylight came to a cold and forlorn party stranded on a
small island. Arrangements were made, during the morning, to erect the
boat mast as a Spanish windlass, and with the assistance of the small
boat to raise the launch upright with the next rising tide.
Unfortunately the tide did not fall low enough to free the boat of
water, or to permit a fair trial of our improvised tackle. The ponds of
fresh water were already frozen over, and the weather was becoming cold
and boisterous; not a day, therefore, could be lost in sending the
twelve-foot dinghy to Fullerton for assistance. The energies of the
party were now devoted to transferring the goods and cargo from the
island to the mainland, about a mile distant, as it would not do to
leave the party on an island without means of reaching the shores of the
inlet. This work continued until dark, when, after a hurried meal,
Wells, Ford and Scotty were sent off in the dinghy, with instructions to
reach the _Neptune_ as soon as possible; the remainder of the party,
wrapped in their blankets, laid down for a deserved rest. The following
days were spent in drying and cleaning the skins and other articles
saved from the wreck, and in hunting and fishing, neither of which was
successful.

[Illustration: WRECK CAMP, CHESTERFIELD INLET.]

During these days the weather became cold, and several inches of snow
fell, which added to the discomfort of our temporary shelter. Early on
the afternoon of the 3rd of October the smoke of the _Neptune_ was seen
far down the inlet, and she came to anchor at dark in a harbour about
ten miles to the east of the camp. Captain Comer, of the _Era_, in one
of his whaleboats manned by natives was the first to arrive the next
morning, and was followed later by three of the ship’s boats. Ropes were
fastened to the launch and boats, and as the tide rose the wreck was
lifted from the bottom and buoyed into shoaler water alongside the
island, where it was left until the next tide. Leaving sufficient men to
continue the work, Captain Bartlett and the writer started in the
whaleboat, double-manned, for the ship late in the afternoon. We had
gone only a short distance when a heavy snowstorm came on. We continued
rowing in this very thick weather until ten o’clock, when, within a
couple of miles of the ship, we were obliged to stop owing to the
intense darkness. We landed on a small island and made a partial shelter
from the storm by placing the boat sail against a low cliff. The
quarters were so small that all were obliged to stand, and so the night
was passed. Next morning it took two hours to dig the sail from under
the snow, after which we resumed our journey to the ship and only
reached it by the help of a long line attached to a keg, paid out to us
from the ship, which was reached at eleven o’clock, after an exciting
and exhausting twenty-four hours.

The crew of the dinghy had made excellent time on their trip to
Fullerton to seek relief. The first night they made only a few miles,
being very tired and having a strong tide against them. The next day the
mouth of the inlet was reached; the night following they slept at Depot
island. Next day with a fair wind and heavy sea they arrived close to
Fullerton, and reached the ship the following morning. The _Neptune_
started to our relief that afternoon, and anchored for the night off
Depot island, Captain Comer, who had kindly volunteered, acting as
pilot. The next day, when out of sight of land, on the north side of the
entrance to Chesterfield inlet, the ship struck twice, and was in
shallow water all the way to Promise island, after which the water of
the inlet was found to be uniformly deep.

The gale in which we reached the ship continued for three days. On the
evening of the 3rd of October the men with the boats returned to the
ship, and reported having had a very rough time of it, in the makeshift
camp there. On the 8th the ship steamed up the inlet and anchored close
to the sunken launch. Efforts to bring her alongside the ship were
immediately undertaken, and next morning she was successfully hoisted
aboard. In the afternoon we started down the inlet, and anchored for the
night a few miles above Promise island. On the 10th a heavy gale blew
from the westward, accompanied by frequent, thick snow squalls. The
anchor was raised at daylight on the morning following, when, keeping
well to the southward of the shoals beyond the mouth of the inlet, we
arrived safely at Fullerton at dusk that evening.

[Illustration: ‘NEPTUNE’ IN WINTER QUARTERS.]



[Illustration: SOUTHAMPTON ISLAND.]



                              CHAPTER II.
                     WINTER QUARTERS AT FULLERTON.


The _Neptune_ had safely arrived at Fullerton harbour on the 23rd
September, and had dropped anchor close alongside the _Era_. Major
Moodie, after looking over the ground, decided to erect a Police Post on
the large island at the rear of the harbour. The lumber for the building
was immediately landed, and before the ship left for Chesterfield inlet
the frame of the dwelling had been erected and its sides partly boarded.

The harbour of Fullerton is formed by a number of small islands,
situated on the east side at the mouth of a long bay, and about five
miles from Cape Fullerton, at the entrance to Roes Welcome. The harbour
is quite small, with room for about three ships, and is fully protected
by the islands and reefs surrounding it. The usual entrance is from the
westward, where the channel is not above fifty yards wide, and the water
at high tide is only five fathoms deep. The eastern entrance is
narrower, and a ship is obliged to make several sharp turns when passing
through it. Owing to the low even coast, without any landmark in the
vicinity, the position of the harbour is difficult to locate without
entering the wide danger-zone of shoals. The wide fringe of islands to
the westward practically ends at Fullerton, so that a ship making the
coast may know the position by the presence or absence of islands; but
as the islands are very low it is hard to distinguish them from the
mainland at a safe distance away, as the shoals and reefs extend more
than five miles beyond the harbour. The surveys made in the spring of
1904 show that a fairly safe channel will be found by keeping well to
the eastward of the harbour, and by then following a northwest course,
keeping in line the beacons on a small island about a mile outside the
harbour. When the Beacon island is reached the ship should pass in
mid-channel between it and the adjoining island to the westward; passing
these, the outer harbour island should be given a wide berth, until the
entrance to the harbour is opened fully, a long shoal extending from the
western point of the island.

On the return of the _Neptune_ to Fullerton, immediate preparations were
made for the coming winter. The first undertaking was the cutting of a
large quantity of ice, from a fresh-water pond close to the house and
about a mile distant from the ship. The ice was about nine inches thick,
and one day’s work, by the entire crew, sufficed to cut and to store
enough to supply the ship with fresh water until the ponds melted again
in the spring. The detachment of Mounted Police, assisted by some of the
crew of the _Era_, were busily engaged in finishing their house and
shed. Floating ice soon hampered landing operations. On the 17th October
the ice in the harbour set fast and, soon after, the work of
transporting materials to and from the shore was done with sleds.

By the end of the month, the ship had been placed in a north-and-south
position, so that her bow faced north into the prevailing cold winds.
The decks were covered with a temporary roof, made from a part of the
lumber intended for the police buildings. This housing kept the snow
from the decks, and greatly increased the inclosed space on the ship. It
later proved so comfortable that the carpenter worked in it, almost
without interruption, throughout the winter, at the repairs to the
launch. The house and shed were made weather-proof, and a supply of
provisions and outfit, sufficient to keep the ship’s company until the
following summer, was stored in them, as a precaution against the
destruction of the ship by fire. The galley was moved from the deck to
between-decks, and the range connected with two large copper tanks, in
which the daily supply of ice was melted; at the same time all the
provisions likely to be injured by frost were stored alongside the
range. All the oil and powder were stored on an island away from the
provisions, and the boats placed either on shore, or on the ice
alongside the ship.

Shortly after our arrival the natives congregated about the ships, and
to avoid misunderstanding, an agreement was made with Captain Comer,
that he should care for the Aivillik tribe, while the Kenipitu tribe
would belong to the _Neptune_. By this arrangement, about a dozen
able-bodied men and their families fell to our portion, and about double
that number to the _Era_. The men were employed, during our stay at
Fullerton, in banking the ship with snow, hauling ice and other
necessary outside work. Several of them hunted continuously, and at
small cost kept the ship in fresh caribou meat throughout the winter.
They received little pay beyond their food, which consisted chiefly of
the scraps left from the meals.

Dr. Faribault had shown signs of mild insanity, almost from the time of
leaving Halifax. On the 1st of November he became violently insane,
when, on the advice of Dr. Borden, he was placed in charge of the police
as a dangerous lunatic. The poor man had to be confined in a cell, and
watched continuously. His condition became worse and worse, until he was
happily released by death on the 27th of April following.

As soon as the ice became sufficiently thick to bear the load, a wall of
snow about three feet thick was erected around the ship, and raised to
the top of the temporary decking. Sails, spread on the roof, were
covered with about a foot of snow. By these means all draughts were
effectually kept out of the ship, and the temperature of the interior
was raised several degrees. Holes were cut in the banking to allow light
to enter the ports and windows, and snow porches were erected over the
exits on each side; the deep holes at the ports resembled embrasures,
and the general appearance of the ship was that of a floating fort.

When the labour for preparing for the winter was finished, the ordinary
work about the ship was hardly enough to keep the crew in health, and
all were encouraged to hunt or attend lines of fox-traps for exercise.
This proved much better than formal exercise at stated times, and the
general health remained good throughout this long period of enforced
idleness.

Only two meals were cooked daily during the short days of mid-winter,
breakfast being at ten and dinner at four, an informal supper being
provided in the evening.

Games and cards were provided for the use of all; musical instruments,
including a piano, were in frequent use, while a weekly lecture, dance
and newspaper went far to agreeably pass away the long winter evenings,
which were further relieved by visits between the ships, and to the
snowhouses of the natives built on the ice close alongside.

[Illustration: SNOWHOUSES ON ICE, NEAR THE ‘NEPTUNE.’]

On the night of the 11th of December a second sad occurrence happened.
When everybody was busy preparing letters for the mail about to be sent
to Churchill by a couple of Eskimos from Baker lake, James O’Connel, a
cabin-boy of weak mind, left the ship to go to the snowhouses, and
wandered away in a snowstorm, which commenced shortly after his
departure. He had been in the habit of hiding behind the launch, or in
other places about the decks, where he would remain for hours, and, in
consequence, his absence was unnoticed by his mess mates until the
following morning. Immediately upon the alarm being given, the crews of
both ships and all the natives turned out and searched systematically,
in all directions from the ship, but, owing to the blizzard, without
success. The storm continued to rage during the next two days, so that
it was only on the 15th that definite information concerning his fate
was obtained by the natives, who traced his track in the snow to the
open water in the southwest some three miles from the ship, where the
poor fellow had gone before the strong wind. There is no doubt that
death came quickly, and we were relieved of the thoughts of his possible
sufferings had he continued to wander about the country and finally died
of exhaustion and cold.

The short days of mid-winter and the excessive cold of the early spring
practically rendered impossible any surveying or other outside
scientific work until the month of April, when preparations were made
for exploratory and surveying work. During the winter Mr. Crossman made
a very efficient ice-boring machine, which worked admirably in making
holes for sounding through the thick ice. Weather observations were
taken five times daily during our stay at Fullerton, and these, together
with the readings taken on the voyage, are printed in Appendix No. I.,
where also will be found a summary of the climatic conditions, prepared
from the observations by Mr. Stupart, Superintendent of the Canadian
Meteorological Service. A list giving the thickness, week by week, of
the ice in the harbour, will also be found in that appendix, and is
interesting as showing to what a late date the ice continues to
increase, the maximum thickness of seventy-four inches having been
obtained on the 25th April.


                         SPRING  EXPLORATIONS.

On the 11th April Mr. Caldwell left the ship, accompanied by five
natives, with instructions to explore the coast northward to Wager
inlet; and if the conditions of weather, food and dog-food would permit,
to continue his work to Repulse bay, returning before the ice along the
coast broke up. His outfit and provisions were carried upon two dog
sleds, one of which was to return after helping him over the rough ice
of the shore of Roes Welcome. He succeeded in the exploration of Wager
inlet, but, owing to the delays caused by bad weather, was unable to
reach Repulse bay. Mr. Caldwell on his trip did a large amount of
excellent work in surveying the coast-line and examining the rocks met
with along the route.

At the same time Mr. King was engaged, when the weather permitted, in
making an accurate plan of Fullerton harbour, the channel of approach
and the environments within a radius of thirty miles of the ship.
Several hundred soundings were made with the aid of the boring machine,
the soundings being under the charge of Mr. Ross. As a result an
accurate chart of the harbour and channel has been prepared for the use
of the ships calling there.

Owing to the serious illness of Dr. Faribault, whose death was expected
daily, and to other causes, I could not leave the ship on any long trips
at this time, and my out-door work was confined to the superintendence
of the surveys, and to such geological work as could be accomplished
within a day’s journey of the ship.

[Illustration: HAULING THE WINTER WATER SUPPLY.]

On the 4th of May, accompanied by two Eskimos, I left for an exploratory
trip along the coast to the mouth of Chesterfield inlet, in order to
connect the work of Caldwell with that of Tyrrell. This work was
accomplished in ten days, during part of which we were confined to our
tent, and almost buried by the heaviest snowstorm of the year. A sketch
survey was carried to the mouth of the inlet, and all rock exposures on
the way were examined. The rocks met with were chiefly granite, with
masses of dark schists inclosed in the granite areas. Some of the
schists were cut by quartz veins, which carried small quantities of
pyrite, but nowhere sufficiently concentrated to be of value. The most
promising locality seen was on the islands a few miles to the westward
of Fullerton, where the veins were numerous, and where the natives
report some veins well mineralized.

On the return journey the country about Winchester inlet was examined
inland for a distance of forty miles. A description of its physical
character has already been given.

Mr. Caldwell arrived back safely on the 30th of May. The first rain fell
on the 21st, after which the weather gradually lost its wintry
character, and although by no means warm, was sufficiently moderate to
allow the surveying work to go on without much discomfort.

From the first week in June all hands were busy removing the winter
coverings, and getting the ship in order for the coming summer.


                 WHALEBOAT TRIP TO SOUTHAMPTON ISLAND.

Captain Comer had kindly invited me to accompany his boats on a whaling
trip to Southampton island, and for this purpose had lent me two boats
fitted with covers for the trip. Accompanied by Dr. Borden, two seamen
and six Eskimos, we left the ship on the morning of the 15th June, being
transported to Cape Fullerton over the shore-ice by dog-teams to where
the boats were found hauled out on the ice close to its edge. The
morning was quite cold and boisterous, and not at all pleasant for a
boat cruise. Our boats and the four belonging to the _Era_ were soon
loaded and launched. A fair wind allowed us to sail northward through a
narrow lead of open water between the shore-ice and the moving pack,
which completely covered the sea outside. Early in the afternoon we
reached the other boats, manned by natives, hauled out on the ice and
covered in for cooking operations. A cup of hot coffee soon reduced the
chill received in the boats. The journey was then resumed, but in a
short time the ice closed in on the shore, obliging us to haul our boats
on to the solid ice, where they were propped upright, and soon roofed
with cotton covers stretched over light wooden frames. This turned each
boat into commodious and comfortable sleeping quarters, and soon the
evening meal was being cooked over the oil stoves. The ice remained
tight on the coast, and it was only with great difficulty that the boats
were forced through it a few miles to Whale point, where we remained
hemmed in the next day.

At Whale point a small house was erected some years ago as a station by
one of the American whalers. It is situated on the summit of the point,
and a ladder leads to the roof, where a small platform served as a
lookout station for whales swimming in the ice-laden waters of Roes
Welcome. This is a favourite camping ground for the Aivillik natives in
the early summer, whales, seals and walrus being then plentiful in the
adjoining waters, and the barren-ground caribou numerous within a short
distance of the coast.

According to Captain Comer, more whales have been killed within sight of
Whale point than in all the rest of Hudson bay; on this account, and
from the ease with which it might be supplied, it would probably prove
an excellent place for a post from which to control the whale fishery.
The water supply, obtained from small pools in the rocks, is rather bad,
owing to the number of dogs and natives about.

[Illustration: MR. CALDWELL STARTING NORTH.]

Two days were occupied in crossing from Whale point to Southampton
island, and as Roes Welcome was full of floating ice, several exciting
moments were experienced when the ice came together with each change of
tide, threatening to crush the boats if not quickly hauled out on a
convenient heavy pan. The monotony was also broken by the capture of a
bear and several large seals. We remained in company with the whalers
for two days after reaching the island, and coasted southward to Cape
Kendall without seeing any sign of a whale. As our work was chiefly on
land, we then determined to part company, they continuing southward
while we made inland excursions. The ice was still fast to the shore,
from which it extended seaward from two to six miles. The boats were of
necessity at the edge of the ice, and the long tramp through deep slush
and water to and from the shore was fatiguing and cold. Only the ridges
on the land were free of snow, which was still deep in all the hollows.
The weather was now sufficiently warm to keep the snow soft and wet, and
to make a passage from one ridge to another necessitated wading waist
deep through the snow. Under these conditions extensive journeys inland
were impossible, and we were confined to the shores of the island. Good
collections of fossils from the limestones of the island were obtained,
and a large number of bird skins and eggs were collected. It was
unfortunately too early in the season for plants.

The western shores of Southampton are low. The land behind rises in a
succession of ridges each a few feet higher than the one immediately in
front. These ridges are formed of broken limestone, evidently the
surface portion of underlying ledges. Very little vegetation grows on
the ridges, but in the wide depressions between them there is a
profusion of grasses and other Arctic plants on the wet ground
surrounding the many ponds and lakes found there. The shores and islands
of these lakes are the breeding grounds of a number of rare birds, among
which may be mentioned Sabine’s Gull, Arctic Tern, Whistling Swan,
Hutchen’s Goose, Snow Goose, Jager, Little Blue Crane and Red Phalarope.

The water is usually very shallow for two or three miles from the land,
and reefs of limestone extend much farther out. About Cape Kendall
dangerous reefs are found at least eight miles from the land.

We remained on the island a week, gradually working northward, until we
were about ten miles to the north of our original landing place, or some
forty miles beyond Cape Kendall. Advantage was taken of a fine evening
to re-cross Roes Welcome, and we started at midnight in broad daylight.
Shortly after leaving, a large whale came to the surface close to the
boats and remained in the vicinity for upwards of thirty minutes. The
crossing was safely made during the day, the only incident being the
meeting in mid-channel of an extensive mass of very heavy ice, some of
its pinnacles being upwards of thirty feet above the water; the natives
said it was a large floe from Fox channel. We were obliged to sail
several miles to the northward in order to pass this floe, and so
reached the mainland a few miles south of the mouth of Wager inlet, and
a like distance from Yellow bluff, where the Aivilliks spend the late
summer. Nothing of note occurred on the passage down the coast, and the
ship was again reached on the 2nd of July.

Little change was apparent in the condition of the ice since our
departure, and the solid floe, extending a couple of miles beyond the
harbour, gave little hope of the ship being released by the approaching
high tides. The ship was now ready to leave as soon as the ice would
permit, but this did not happen until the 18th, a marvellous change
taking place daily in the condition of the ice for a week previous to
that date.

[Illustration: AMERICAN WHALEBOATS IN ROES WELCOME.]



[Illustration: A GREENLAND ICEBERG.]



                              CHAPTER III.
                 SUMMER CRUISE OF THE NEPTUNE IN 1904.


                              HUDSON BAY.

The anchor was hoisted and the moorings to the ice cast off at two
o’clock on the morning of the 18th of July, when the _Neptune_ proceeded
to break her way out of Fullerton harbour, after having been nine months
there fast frozen in the ice. Little difficulty was experienced in
breaking the harbour ice, when, following a pilot boat, the narrow
eastern entrance was soon passed and the ship was once more free. Loose
stringers of small ice extended a few miles from the shore, after which
only occasional lumps were seen during the day, as the ship steamed
across to Cape Kendall, and then followed the west coast of Southampton
southward. The southwest point of the island was passed before midnight.
This point lies well to the northward of its position on the chart, or
in about 63° N. latitude.

The low southern shore of Southampton was followed during the night, and
only a few stringers of ice were met with. At four o’clock in the
morning the island was lost to sight, and by noon we were steaming along
the equally low shores of Coats island, with the small but prominent
Walrus island in sight to the northward. Ice to the northward gradually
forced the ship closer to the shores of Coats, where, after passing a
wide bay, partly filled with large, low islands, we coasted within two
miles of a prominent headland about four hundred feet high, which forms
the northeast cape of Coats, and which was named Cape Préfontaine in
honour of the Honourable the Minister of Marine and Fisheries. These
highlands appear to traverse the island diagonally in a southwest
direction, coming out at a lower altitude on the south side of the
island several miles west of Cape Pembroke. This ridge is due to a band
of crystalline rocks, which rises from beneath the low flat limestones
forming the remainder of the island. A large whale was seen while
passing through Fisher strait.

Beyond Cape Préfontaine the ice became more plentiful, and many large
pans were met with. The ice had the appearance of being lately broken
up, and owing to its smooth unrafted condition we judged it came from
Fisher strait, rather than from Fox channel to the northward. During the
night this ice forced the ship southward into the channel between Coats
and Mansfield, so that the western shore of the latter was reached some
twenty-five miles to the south of its northern end.

Open leads in the ice were found from three to five miles from that
island, and no difficulty was experienced in gaining its north end. This
island of limestone is somewhat higher than Coats and Southampton,
rising inland in low broad terraces to an elevation of upwards of a
hundred feet. Small patches of snow were seen under banks and along the
faces of the terraces, but elsewhere the green colour showed that
considerable vegetation covered the greater part of its surface.

[Illustration: MIDNIGHT IN SMITH SOUND.]

Similar lanes of water, between large cakes of ice, afforded an easy
passage from Mansfield to Digges islands. A great amount of ice was seen
to the southward, apparently completely filling the channel between
Mansfield and the mainland. To the northward some open water occurred,
but the patches became smaller and smaller as Digges was approached, and
finally ceased to the eastward of these islands, the southern part of
the western end of Hudson strait being completely filled with ice.

A strong southerly wind had been blowing all day, and it was hoped that
it had loosened the ice along the southern shore of the strait. The ship
was taken under the land, but without success, so that after butting
through the slowly closing ice all night, we were finally tightly beset
in the early morning, about three miles from the eastern Digges island.
The 21st was foggy, with snow flurries in the morning and showers in the
afternoon; the ice remained tight about the ship all day, and she
drifted eastward with the ice, passing Cape Wolstenholme, and in the
evening being about five miles to the east of Erik cove. At that time
considerable open water could be seen about five miles from the ship to
the eastward, with a few narrow lanes in the rear, and other small
openings to the northward, where the dark sky showed considerable open
water beyond our view.


                             HUDSON STRAIT.

Persistent ramming forced the ship through about five miles of ice on
the morning of the 22nd, when she was again tightly beset until the
evening, at that time being about twenty-five miles to the eastward of
Cape Wolstenholme, this distance having been made by the drift of the
ice. The ice slackened again at eight o’clock in the evening, when after
an hour’s heavy work we got into a lead of open water under the land,
and continued at full speed all night, steaming east in a lane from two
to four miles wide.

At five o’clock next morning we were off Deception bay and the western
end of Charles island. The bold coast along which we had been passing
all night now became less abrupt, and this change was accompanied by
shallower water in the sea fronting it, so that when seven miles from
the mouth of the bay, soundings taken at the edge of the ice only gave
twelve fathoms, with indications of an uneven bottom, where it would be
dangerous to be caught in the ice if the wind should change and force it
upon the land. The ship was turned into the ice, and in an hour had
reached a place of safety. In the afternoon, with clearing weather, the
ice opened, and not much difficulty was experienced in forcing between
the loose pans, first towards the east end of Charles island and later
more easterly, so that when the ice again closed we were about ten miles
northeast of Cape Weggs.

During the night and following morning we continued to drift rapidly to
the eastward. Before noon we were opposite the mouth of Douglas harbour,
having made fully twenty miles of drift during that interval.

The ice began to slacken at ten o’clock, when we got under way, and
forcing the ship towards the north at noon we were in open water, with a
heavy northerly swell, which showed an open sea in that direction. Only
a few small icebergs and broken pans of ice were seen during the
remainder of the trip to Port Burwell, which we reached on the evening
of the 25th, but in crossing Ungava bay the lower temperature and an
ice-glint to the southward indicated some ice in the southern part of
that bay.

The following summary of the condition and extent of the ice met with on
the passage from Fullerton to Port Burwell may prove of interest and
value. The northwestern part of Hudson bay was quite free of ice, and
none to obstruct navigation was found in Fisher and Evans straits. Large
quantities of ice were encountered between the mouth of Evans strait and
Digges at the western end of Hudson strait, but without serious trouble
safe passages were found through it, and there is no doubt that an
ordinary unprotected iron steamship would have passed through it at that
time without trouble or danger. This ice, evidently the product of the
past winter, consisted chiefly, as has been mentioned, of large flat
sheets that had only a short time previously broken from their original
position, for there were no signs that it had been subjected to pressure
or to the action of a swell. The edges of these large cakes had not been
crushed, and many soft thin spots were seen which would disappear with
the slightest pressure or swell. Along with the predominating flat ice
was a considerable amount of rafted ice of the same character, and also
of portions apparently subjected to pressure during the past winter. All
the ice was comparatively light and thin, which led to the belief that
it had come out of Fisher strait, and from the southward up the channel
between Mansfield and the eastern mainland, the meeting of these streams
producing the blockade at the western end of Hudson strait. Owing to its
thinness and rotten character, the greater part of this ice would melt a
few days after we passed it.

The ice in the western part of Hudson strait was somewhat heavier than
that described above. Much of it was rafted ice in small cakes, and
there was a small number of ancient, heavy, discoloured pans that had
evidently come from Fox channel. This ice completely filled the side of
the strait, and probably extended to Nottingham island, but there was
open water on the north side of the strait through which the whaler
_Active_ had already passed on her way into Hudson bay. The important
point to be noted is that during all the times that the _Neptune_ was
beset by the ice during the passage east along the south side of the
strait, there was never any sign of the surrounding ice rafting by the
pressure occasioned at the change of tides, and never was the pressure
about the ship sufficient to cause damage to an unprotected iron ship.

There is little doubt that if a more northerly course had been taken on
the passage eastward much more open water would have been found,
including an unobstructed passage from at least the western end of
Charles island, while to the westward open lanes would probably have
extended from the neighbourhood of Nottingham island.

During the early part of July ships proceeding out of Hudson bay will
probably find on the southern side of Hudson strait, or rather on the
southern side of the mid-channel, the best and safest passage, owing to
the easterly currents of that side. Ships entering Hudson bay at this
time should follow the northern side of the strait, keeping as far as
possible away from the land, especially that of Big island, until that
island is passed, when the mid-channel should be held past Nottingham
island, and from there the course should be laid to pass within easy
distance of the north end of Mansfield island. The strong tides in the
eastern part of the strait, and especially about Big island, cause the
ice to close with considerable pressure at the change of tide, and this
dangerous pressure is most severe close to the land.

We arrived at Port Burwell on the date arranged before leaving Halifax
for meeting the relief ship. By a coincidence the _Erik_, bringing our
supply of coal and fresh provisions, arrived in port only an hour ahead
of the _Neptune_. The ships were soon moored alongside, and the mail
from civilization was distributed to the ship’s company, this being the
first news of the outside world received in eleven months.

[Illustration: ICE OFF CAPE WOLSTENHOLME.]


                     VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC ISLANDS.

A week was spent at Port Burwell, transferring the coals and provisions
from the _Erik_ to the _Neptune_, and in landing a large quantity of
coal and provisions for the use of the Northwest Mounted Police. All
this work having been finished, both ships weighed anchor early on the
morning of the 2nd of August, the _Erik_ bound south for Newfoundland
and the _Neptune_ northward for Smith sound.

Major Moodie having decided to return to Ottawa, left on the _Erik_, and
that ship also carried our second steward, who was invalided home, along
with a sailor of the _Era_ who, during the past winter, had nearly died
of scurvy.

The course was laid across the mouth of the strait, and at noon the
snow-covered cliffs of Cape Resolution bore north-northeast, distant
about twenty miles. A few icebergs were passed during the afternoon, but
no field ice was seen until the following evening, when a few heavy pans
were met. As the weather was thick with fog the ship slowed down for the
night, and the course was changed more to the eastward. Thick fog
continued until the afternoon of the 6th, when, the weather clearing, we
found ourselves about twenty miles to the westward of the great island
of Disko, on the coast of Greenland. The scenery of the island is very
grand; the shore-line is deeply indented by narrow bays, from which the
land rises abruptly into irregular mountain masses, terminating in sharp
peaks, whose loftier summits were hidden in the straight line of clouds
formed from the recently risen fog. All the higher valleys were filled
with great glaciers pouring slowly down into a sea dotted with numerous
fantastic icebergs. The contrast between the dark sombre rocks of the
hills and the dazzling whiteness of the glaciers was enhanced by the
streams of sunlight which flooded the interior, while the coast was
veiled by the fog clouds.

The weather remained clear throughout the night and next day, as we
passed northward along the rugged coast of Greenland, catching many
views of its great ice-cap behind the numerous high islands that fringe
the coast. The greater part of the surface of these islands was free
from snow; glaciers were only seen in the higher valleys. The ice in the
long fiords and the channels had broken up and been carried away, so
that only numerous icebergs were seen along the shores. In the afternoon
considerable heavy field ice was passed on the west. Our noon
observation placed us about twenty miles off the Danish settlement of
Upernivik, to the northward of which the sea was filled with great
icebergs, they being especially numerous in the neighbourhood of the
Devils Thumb island, so named on account of the prominent peak bearing
some resemblance to that member.

When the Duck islands had been reached the ship’s course was changed to
westward to cross the dreaded Melville bay. This great bay owes its bad
name to the quantities of heavy ice infesting its waters during the
early summer, and the whalers count themselves lucky if the delay does
not exceed three weeks.

We steamed directly across for Cape York, ahead of a strong gale of wind
accompanied by heavy rain and sleet, and saw no ice until within a short
distance of the cape, where broken floes and icebergs formed a fringe
extending a mile or so from the land. Continuing westward close along
the outer margin of the ice we were abreast of Cape York at three in the
afternoon, having made a record passage across the bay.

[Illustration: PARKER SNOW BAY, NORTH GREENLAND.]

The weather becoming very thick, we shortly after stood inside the outer
stringers of ice, and kept close to the ironbound coast in order to
sight Conical island, and so reach the fine harbour of Parker Snow bay
just inside the island; this was successfully accomplished, and the ship
was brought to anchor near the head of the bay. The wind freshened
during the night, and in the morning blew so strongly that it was
impossible to reach the shore with the ship’s boat. At noon the wind
registered forty-eight miles an hour, and some of the gusts were much
stronger.

The wind fell towards evening, allowing us to land. We were now well
north of the Arctic circle, and a bright sun remained visible all night.

An ascent of one of the glaciers at the head of the bay afforded
valuable information concerning the ice-cap and glacial phenomena,
discussed later in the report. A sharp rocky hill, 960 feet high,
divides the glaciers; this was crossed and the descent made by the
second glacier, where much trouble was experienced crossing the deep
gullies cut into it by surface streams of water. Neither of these
glaciers discharges into the sea, their fronts terminating against high
steep banks of boulder clay brought from above by the moving ice. A
light pink gneiss, cut by many veins of quartz apparently all quite
barren, is the chief rock of these hills. The hills surrounding Parker
Snow bay rise in abrupt cliffs nearly 1,500 feet above the water; the
country then rises less abruptly another thousand feet to the lower
level of the great ice-cap which covers the entire interior of
Greenland.


                              SMITH SOUND.

On our return to the ship the anchor was raised and we left the bay,
passing the great Petiwik glacier at midnight, with the sun shining over
the top of its five-mile front of ice, which ends in abrupt low cliffs
of ice rising directly from the sea. Large icebergs are frequently
broken from this long face, and hundreds of them are seen aground on
ledges for miles on both sides of the glacier.

The westward course was followed a few miles farther, after which the
ship turned north through the fine channel between Cape Atholl and
Wolstenholm island. A small amount of loose ice was met with in the
channel and in the crossing to Saunders island. The crystalline rocks
which occupy the coast from Cape York give place here and to the
northward to almost horizontal beds of sandstones and lighter coloured
rock, probably limestone. Large masses of dark trap are associated with
these bedded rocks, either as sills injected along the bedding, or as
dikes approaching more or less closely to the vertical.

Cape Parry was passed at eight o’clock on the morning of the 10th, when,
crossing the mouth of Whale sound, we followed the channel between
Northumberland and Herbert islands, having a fine view of their high
cliffs of sandstone and light-coloured rock, which rise almost
perpendicularly from 500 to 1,000 feet above the sea. Similar cliffs
occupy the coast of the mainland from the north side of Inglefield gulf
to the neighbourhood of Etah, at the narrowest part of Smith sound. The
day was very fine, and only a few loose pans of floe ice and many
icebergs embarrassed the course followed by the ship.

The upper portions of Whale sound, Inglefield gulf and McCormick bay
were filled with ice, which from a distance appeared to be still
unbroken from the shores. During the day walrus were frequently seen in
groups upon the floating pans of ice, where many large seals lay basking
in the sun. The walrus were most numerous on the ice between Cape
Alexander and Etah, where attempts were made to photograph the larger
groups, but without success, as it was late in the evening and the
animals were unusually wild.

As the coast is followed northward the cliffs and the mainland behind
become lower, so that about Cape Alexander the general level of the
front of the ice-cap does not appear to be greatly over 1,000 feet in
elevation.

[Illustration: A GLACIER OF BYLOT ISLAND.]

On the trip northward the ship passed close to several of the places
where the Eskimo usually reside during the summer months, but no signs
of them were seen as far north as the Littleton islands, whence we
crossed to Cape Sabine, after making a call into the harbour of Etah,
famous as the most northern human habitation on the earth, being 78° 30´
N. latitude. At Etah we saw a number of deserted underground houses,
where the natives live during the winter, and a small quantity of coal
left by Peary, who used this place as headquarters during one of his
attempts to reach the pole.

Our voyage northward was stopped by heavy sheets of Arctic ice coming
down Smith sound in the vicinity of the Littleton islands. Into this
neighbourhood it would be dangerous and foolish to force the ship for no
definite purpose. A crossing was therefore made to Cape Sabine, and
considerable anxiety for the ship’s safety was felt passing between the
great pans of thick solid ice, some of which were miles in extent, and
rose from three to six feet above the water, with pinnacles of much
greater height. Some very hard knocks were given to the ship as she was
forced through the heavy ice from one lead of water to the next, and
everybody felt relieved when the little harbour at Cape Sabine was
reached in safety.

A landing was made here, and a visit paid to the last winter quarters of
Peary, which are situated near the eastern end of the cape on the side
of Payer harbour, formed by a few small islands lying a short distance
from the cape. The harbour being full of ice, the ship could not enter
it, but stood off under steam, it being dangerous to anchor with the
large sheets of heavy ice passing southward on the tide. The landing was
made about a mile from the house, which was reached by climbing over the
granite cliffs of the shore, at two o’clock on a delightfully calm,
clear morning, with the sun well above the horizon.

The station consists of two small houses, that belonging to Peary being
the old deck-house of his ship the _Windward_, the other, a small
building with single-boarded sides, in which the Stein expedition spent
two winters. The houses were only a few yards apart, both about fifty
yards from the water, and surrounded with the usual heaps of old tin
cans and empty boxes found about northern quarters where the staples of
food are carried in cases. A large amount of putrid walrus blubber was
scattered everywhere about the place, and the smell from it was far
stronger than that of a deserted snowhouse in springtime, which was our
previous limit to pungent and disagreeable odours. On a low rocky hill,
a few yards behind the houses, were the burial-mounds of five Eskimos,
four adults and one child, all wrapped in musk-ox skins and loosely
covered with stones. An old gun, snow knives and other gear belonging to
the dead were placed alongside the graves. These must have been very
pleasant company during the long Arctic night, especially so close to
the scene of the Greely disaster, where many of that party died of
starvation and sickness before relief could reach them.

When one has been at the headquarters of these Arctic expeditions, a
good idea is gained of the difficulties and privations of those engaging
in polar research. Peary was here, over eight hundred miles in a
straight line from the pole, forced to make many trips to transport his
provisions and outfit to the farthest land before he could attempt his
dash across the rough Arctic pack for the pole. The pluck and daring of
such men are to be admired, but the waste of energy, life and money in a
useless and probably unsuccessful attempt to reach the pole can only be
deplored, as no additional scientific knowledge is likely to be gained
by this achievement.

[Illustration: CAPE HERSCHEL, ELLESMERE ISLAND.]

On our return to the boat, we found that a very large floe had come
between us and the ship, and in doing so a corner of it had caught on a
small island and had gone completely over it, showing the momentum of
these great cakes, and the hopelessness of the attempt to build a ship
sufficiently strong to withstand the pressure exerted by such ice moving
on the tide when suddenly arrested by land or by motionless ice. A
narrow lane of water still showed between the floe and the land, and by
hard rowing we got safely through before it closed, when the ship butted
the way through other ice and finally took us on board.

Ross bay was now crossed in order that a record might be left at Cape
Herschel on the mainland of the great island of Ellesmere, Cape Sabine
being on an island separated from the mainland by a narrow strait. When
about a mile from Cape Herschel, going full speed, and while an attempt
was made to pass between two small icebergs, the ship struck heavily on
a sharp point of rock. Luckily she did not hang, but bounced over it,
striking again amidships and finally on the stern post. A sounding taken
within two hundred yards of the rock gave a depth of seventy fathoms,
from which it was concluded that the rock was a sharp submerged peak,
with the icebergs grounded on two sides of it. The pumps were
immediately sounded, but the ship was found to be making very little
water, and the full extent of the damage was not known until the vessel
was placed in dry-dock at Halifax, when it was found that the blow in
the bow had loosened the iron stemplate, which was subsequently lost in
butting the heavy ice, and the lower stem was carried away to the ends
of the planking. Luckily the _Neptune_ is eight feet thick in the bow,
and could stand a great deal of damage there without serious danger to
her floating qualities. Seventy-five feet of the keel was removed by the
second blow and the stern-post twisted and broken by the third.

It took little time to attend to the duties of the landing at Cape
Herschel, where a document taking formal possession in the name of King
Edward VII., for the Dominion, was read, and the Canadian flag was
raised and saluted. A copy of the document was placed in a large cairn
built of rock on the end of the cape.

The return to the ship was made at half past six in the morning, when,
steaming southward, the heavy dangerous ice from Smith sound was soon
left behind. We continued southward all day, passing as close to the
land as the ice would allow, so as to make a chart of this badly
surveyed coast. The survey was carried to a point about fifteen miles to
the south of Cape Isabella, where the weather became foggy, and progress
through the ice was only possible by following leads of open water
running southeast or diagonally away from the coast.

The ice met with during the crossing of Smith sound and for a few miles
southward of Cape Sabine was chiefly large masses of thick Arctic ice,
lately brought south by the northern current from Kennedy channel, where
the fast ice appeared to have broken loose only a short time previous to
our arrival, and was quickly emptying out of the great channel leading
direct to the Arctic sea. All of this ice was solid, and from twenty to
forty feet in thickness, and could not be of the previous winter’s
formation as no ice of that thickness can be formed in one season. The
greater part of it probably had been formed on the surface of the Arctic
ocean, during one or more years’ drift across the polar regions before
it entered the northern part of Kennedy channel, where it had remained
during the past winter, and was now passing south to mingle with the
other ice of the ‘middle pack’ of Baffin bay. Much of the ice met with
to the southward was composed of large sheets of similar heavy Arctic
ice cemented together by thinner ice of one season’s formation,
evidently drifted out of some bay to the southward of Cape Sabine. It
had quite recently broken away in great sheets (one of which took
three-quarters of an hour to steam past) from the mouths of the bays
whose inner surfaces were still tightly frozen as we passed them. The
diverse character of these large sheets is further increased by the
number of small icebergs often seen frozen into the mass along with the
polar sea ice.

The eastern side of Ellesmere island is quite high, the probable general
elevation exceeding 2,000 feet and perhaps 3,000 feet. The coast-line is
broken by many deep bays and prominent headlands. The land rises
precipitously from the frozen sea into irregular mountains, whose partly
rounded peaks are as a rule masked by an ice-cap which appears to be
continuous along this eastern coastal region, although it is said not to
continue for any great distance inland. Great glaciers fill all the
valleys and actively discharge icebergs into the bays. Only the
projecting rocky headlands and some of the lower points facing south in
the bays are free of snow and ice, so that at least nine-tenths of the
surface is permanently covered by an icy mantle. This is in marked
contrast to the Greenland coast opposite, where all the outer cliffs and
the shores are comparatively free from snow and ice. The cause of this
marked difference of climate is probably due to a divergence of
direction of currents along these coasts. On the Greenland side a
southerly current, comparatively free of ice, allows the open sea to
raise the general temperature, while on the Ellesmere side the Arctic
current, with its continuous stream of ice, blocks the bays and does not
allow the open water to ameliorate the cold of the ice-covered lands.
The prevailing easterly winds also carry more moisture to the west side,
causing it to be masked by fog at the time of brilliant sunshine on the
opposite coast.

The 12th proved thick and dirty, with much rain. Land was only seen in
the early morning, and not again until five o’clock in the evening, when
a number of small islands showed our position to be off Cape Horsburg,
the northeastern point of Philpot island, on the northern side of the
entrance to Lancaster sound; we had therefore passed across the mouth of
Jones sound without a sight of the land on either side.


                            LANCASTER SOUND.

Short glimpses of the land on the north side of Lancaster sound were
obtained when the fog lifted at intervals during the night. These showed
a high country, with many moderately sharp peaks rising in the
foreground above the white mantle of ice of the great glaciers of the
valleys. Discharging glaciers were particularly numerous along the head
of the wide Croker bay.

At eight o’clock in the morning we arrived at the mouth of Cuming creek,
a long narrow bay a few miles west of Croker bay. Being short of fresh
water, and the weather promising to be bad, we proceeded ten miles up
the bay before finding a place sufficiently shallow to drop anchor, but
this was finally done on the edge of a bank formed by the material
brought down by a small river flowing into the head of the bay. We
remained at anchor here until the next evening, the wind during that
time blowing strongly from the eastward, accompanied with thick fog and
occasional flurries of snow.

The crystalline rocks, which occupy the eastern part of the great island
of North Devon, are overlaid by nearly flat-bedded limestones, in the
western part commencing on the west side of Croker bay. This change of
rock is accompanied by a change in the physical character of the coast
as the ragged irregular granite hills of the eastern land are replaced
by a flat tableland which rises in nearly perpendicular cliffs directly
from the sea to elevations varying from 800 to 1,200 feet. Behind these
the land rises in steps to nearly 2,000 feet, where it is lost beneath
the ice-cap of the interior. The cliffs of limestone have been deeply
sculptured by all the streams of water, great and small, so that the
coast resembles on a gigantic scale the banks of a stream flowing
through a clay country. This portion of the coast extending to Beechey
island at the southwest point of North Devon, is deeply indented with
many long narrow bays similar to Cuming creek, in which we were
anchored. While there, landings were made to collect plants and fossils,
and an attempt was made to reach the tableland, but proved unsuccessful
owing to the impossibility of scaling the perpendicular cliff near the
summit. The land about the bay was particularly desolate and barren, the
little vegetation found being along the courses of the small streams. No
trace of land animals was seen. Walruses and seals were observed
sporting in the waters of the bay, and a large colony of Burgomaster
gulls pointed to the presence of fish.

The anchor was lifted at eight o’clock on the evening of the 14th, and
two hours later we were steaming westward close under the cliffs in
order to make a survey of the coast. This was completed to Beechey
island by eleven o’clock next morning, when the ship again came to
anchor.

The cliffs to the westward of Cuming creek gradually become lower, and
the crystalline rocks below the limestones soon disappear beneath the
sea. A few small glaciers discharge into the sea in the neighbourhood of
that place, but as the coast is followed westward the ice-cap retreats
inland, and is finally lost sight of, nothing being left to break the
monotony of the dirty yellow colour of the limestone except a few
patches of struggling vegetation that increase towards the westward
where the climate is evidently milder.

As many of the crew as could be spared were allowed to land at Beechey
island to visit this historic spot, where the ill-fated and heroic
Franklin and the crews of the _Erebus_ and _Terror_ spent their last
winter on land, and where the headquarters of the search party was
established in subsequent years.

Beechey island is comparatively small, being only a square mile or so in
extent. It lies at the southwest end of North Devon, and is connected at
low tide by a narrow neck with the larger island, thus forming the good
anchorage of Erebus harbour. The southern side of the island is a small
hill, from three to four hundred feet high, with steep cliffs facing the
water and less abrupt slopes northward, where it falls to the level of
the low plain of the rest of the island. A flagstaff crowns the summit
of the hill. The lower part of the island rises from the waters of the
harbour in a succession of three or four low terraces each a few feet
above the one in front, and all covered with small loose limestone
shingle, where a few hardy flowers struggle for existence on the dry
barren surface.

The ancient settlement was placed on the edge of the plain, close to the
foot of the hill, and facing eastward. On the shore are the ice-battered
remains of a small sloop, now completely dismantled, and a large
mahogany lifeboat badly broken by the ice. On the first terrace, a few
yards above the high-water mark, stands the frame of the ancient house,
with a low stone wall along its north and west sides. Inside and between
the walls are many casks of provisions, all of which have been broken
open and the contents spoiled. A small platform cart, showing few signs
of its long exposure to the weather, stood beside the house, and was
brought home as a souvenir. Scattered in profusion over the terrace and
along the shore were the empty tins of the notorious Goldner’s Patent,
which had been opened, found rotten and condemned by Franklin, thus
reducing his stock of supposed tinned provisions. Old cask staves and
hoops were mingled with hundreds of leather boot soles, evidently left
by some of the relief expeditions.

[Illustration: FRANKLIN MONUMENT AT BEECHEY ISLAND.]

On the next terrace, a few yards in rear of the house, a wooden cenotaph
surmounted by a round ball and set in a small platform of cemented
limestone was erected to the memory of Franklin and his heroic
associates by one of the subsequent expeditions, and to-day stands in a
fair state of repair. Resting face-downward on the platform, alongside
of the cenotaph, was a large marble slab, inscribed, as a tribute to the
memory of Franklin and the crews of the _Erebus_ and _Terror_, by
citizens of the United States. A brass plate, affixed to the lower part
of the slab, records that it had been brought from Disko to its present
resting place by McClintock in the _Fox_, when he obtained final proof
of the total destruction of Franklin’s ill-fated party. The slab was
raised and photographed, and then replaced on the ground to avoid the
danger of its being broken by the winds. If another expedition visits
this place the material for a suitable foundation for the slab should be
taken, so that it may be erected as originally intended.

On the barren plain, a few hundred yards from the house, are four graves
marked by small wooden crosses, the last resting place of two of
Franklin’s crews and two belonging to the search parties.

A sealed tin case was found attached to the cenotaph, and on opening it
a record of the Norwegian Magnetic Pole Expedition was found. The record
stated that the _Gjoa_, with the expedition on board, had arrived here
in the latter part of August, 1903, after having picked up the
provisions left for them at Dalrymple island by one of the Scotch
whalers, and were proceeding immediately down Peel sound in order to get
their ship as near as possible to the magnetic pole before the sound
became frozen over. As this was the last tidings from this expedition
the record was taken away, and since our return has been forwarded to
the Norwegian government. The _Gjoa_ in which the expedition sailed is a
small but stout sloop, with auxiliary power supplied by a gasolene
engine. The only danger to the party is in event of the _Gjoa_ being
unable to free herself from the ice when the time comes for a return. As
the expedition is aware of the whaling and police establishments in the
northwestern part of Hudson bay a retreat there may be made without
great difficulty, if accompanied by natives.

We were forced to leave Beechey island hurriedly, owing to a large
quantity of ice being driven rapidly out of the harbour by a fresh
breeze and a falling tide, which threatened to separate us from the
ship.

From the island no ice could be seen to the westward or northward in
Wellington channel and Barrow strait. Our instructions limited the
cruise westward in Lancaster sound to our present position, and the
damaged condition of the ship, together with a supply of provisions
insufficient for another winter in the ice, all militated against the
desire to attempt the Northwest Passage, which under favourable
conditions seemed possible in our staunch powerful steamship.

We left Erebus harbour at half-past two in the afternoon, standing
southward across Lancaster sound for North Somerset island. At five
o’clock some loose stringers of ice were met, and the course was changed
to the eastward to avoid them. The north wind freshened to a gale
accompanied by fog, and trouble was experienced in making the channel
between Leopold island and Cape Clarence, at the mouth of Prince Regent
inlet. The cape was passed at ten o’clock. The ship then steamed south,
along the high cliffs of limestone, for Port Leopold, where we arrived
at midnight. These cliffs rise 1,000 feet perpendicularly, being formed
of nearly horizontal beds of limestone of different thicknesses and
various shades of yellow, so that the cliff has a marked horizontal
banding. The rocks appear to have long been submitted to the action of
the weather and of small streams, each of which has cut a more or less
marked gully into the face of the cliff, and the whole, taken together,
give the appearance of vertical fluting, while the weathered tops have a
castellated finish like that of some gigantic fortress. The cliffs fall
away abruptly into a long low point of shingle which partly closes the
mouth of the spacious and safe harbour of Port Leopold.

[Illustration: PROVISIONS LEFT FOR THE ‘GJOA’ AT PORT LEOPOLD.]

As we steamed into the harbour what appeared to be an overturned boat
with a wooden ‘lean-to’ built against it was seen at the end of the low
point, with a small Danish flag flying. The whistle was blown, but no
sign of life appeared about the place, and thinking that the Magnetic
Pole expedition might perhaps have met with some disaster and that the
survivors might be in want, a boat was lowered and the doctor was sent
ashore with stimulants and warm blankets. Happily his services were not
required; the supposed boat proved to be the boiler of a steam launch,
left here by one of the Franklin search parties. Against it were piled a
number of cases of provisions left a few days previously by the whaler
_Windward_ for the _Gjoa_, and marked by a small flag flying above them.

The light-coloured limestone forms the bottom of the harbour, and gives
the water a dangerous looking, light tinge, which is quite misleading,
as the depth is sufficient for the largest ships. The east and west
sides of the harbour are bounded by high cliffs, while at the northern
end the land is low, and it is not far across it to the bay on the
northern coast lying directly west of Cape Clarence.

North Somerset has physical characteristics closely resembling those of
North Devon; the limestone cliffs of the northern shore, however, appear
to be somewhat lower and more broken than those of the northern island,
while the amount of snow and ice of the land is considerably less. The
high perpendicular cliffs of the east side appear to continue far to the
southward down Prince Regent inlet.

The wind increased during the night, and blew a gale all next day,
strong and almost continuous gusts from the high hills sweeping the
crests from the waves and rendering a landing impossible. The wind fell
away towards morning. On the 17th a landing was made on the point, the
flag was hoisted and a copy of the Proclamation and of the Customs
Regulations was left in the boiler. Close alongside lay the wreck of the
launch, destroyed by the ice, only the keel, some of the timbers and
lower planking remaining. Signs of the whalers and of natives were
plentiful on the point, where the circles of stones and fireplaces
marked the tents of the former, and other fireplaces showed where the
whalers had been ‘trying-out’ whale blubber. A curious sled-runner of
teak was picked up on the beach. It was about six feet long and full of
holes bored for lashing on the shoeing, which was of walrus ivory, and
further secured to the runner by wooden pegs. The wood was either from
the wreck of the launch, or more likely from that of the _Fury_, lost
early in last century, some miles to the southward of Port Leopold, on
the western side of Prince Regent inlet. The evidence of great age in
the runner points to the latter origin.

Port Leopold was left shortly before noon, and we were soon tossing in
the head sea caused by the past gale. The wind changed to eastward, and
within an hour of leaving the harbour we were again inclosed in a thick
fog, which rendered a return impossible. The fog lasted until the next
evening. During the interval we steamed cautiously across the mouth of
Prince Regent, Admiralty and Navy Board inlets, and with clearing
weather found ourselves outside the Wollaston islands that lie a few
miles from the northwest corner of Bylot island. A parting between the
lower and upper fog gave a beautiful ribbon-like picture of the rough
snow-covered coast and peaks of Bylot island flooded with bright
sunshine, in marked contrast to the gloomy, foggy weather about the
ship.

A wide belt of heavy field ice, which was dangerous to enter in the low
fog that obscured the shores, lay along the land; consequently the
impressions of the northern part of the island were obtained from a
distant view between the banks of fog. The scenery was characteristic of
the northern lands occupied by the crystalline rocks, the principal
feature being sharp rugged peaks upwards of 1,500 feet in height, rising
above the deep glaciers of the valleys and backed by a continuous
ice-cap a few miles inland.


                             PONDS  INLET.

During the night much field-ice and many icebergs were passed as we
steamed along the shores. Next morning at eleven o’clock, having rounded
Cape Graham Moore, we came to an Eskimo encampment just inside Button
point on the north side of the entrance to Ponds inlet. A landing was
made at the mouth of a small stream, on the clay banks of which were
located thirteen cotton and skin tents of these natives. All the
able-bodied men were away in the whaleboats, either at Erik harbour, on
the south side of the inlet, or some distance up it. There were a large
number of women and children who, with a few sick men, completely filled
a whaleboat in which they visited the ship in search of food. Many were
sick with a disease resembling typhoid-pneumonia, being troubled by
internal bleeding and a high fever.

We secured the services of a very intelligent man as pilot to the place
some miles up the inlet where the Scotch whalers were anchored. From him
we learned that the sloop _Albert_ had wintered in Erik harbour, and
that two small whales had been captured by natives in her boats during
the early summer. Continuing our way up the inlet, a second encampment
of six tents was passed about six miles beyond Button point. From the
pilot we learned that the total native population about Ponds inlet
comprised thirty-five families, or one hundred and forty-four persons.
The only other band on the northern shores of Baffin island lived at
Admiralty inlet, and does not exceed forty persons in all. Members of
this band annually visit Ponds inlet to trade for the necessary supplies
of ammunition, knives and other articles to be obtained from the
whalers. At this time over one-half of the population of Ponds inlet
were away inland to the southwest after a supply of deerskins for winter
clothing, and would not return before the snow fell. The deer country is
free from snow during the summer, and consists partly of rolling
country, with a few high hills, but principally of a plain, cut by many
streams and dotted with numerous lakes, the deer feeding on the grass
and shrubs which are plentiful in the interior.

Bylot island is everywhere high and rough, and supports few deer except
in the northeastern interior. The ice-cap, seen everywhere from the
coast, does not extend far inland, where much of the land is bare in
summer. The natives of Ponds inlet frequently cross to Fox channel and
Repulse bay. During the past winter a party returning from the latter
place brought letters from the whaling station at Repulse bay. They also
occasionally cross to North Somerset, where of late years musk-oxen have
been killed. This journey is at rare intervals continued across
Lancaster sound to North Devon, where many deer and musk-oxen are found
along the western side, while bears and walrus are plentiful among the
ice of Wellington channel. In the winter all congregate at Button point,
where the early part of the season is spent in houses built half into
the ground, the low walls being made of boulders and whalebones cemented
together with clay and sods, the roof being a portion of the summer
tent. The ordinary snowhouse is used, as in other places, after the snow
falls and until the late spring. During the winter food is obtained by
killing narwhals and occasional seals and walrus in the open water at
the edge of the solid ice near the mouth of the inlet. The whales come
in July and sport about the mouth of the inlet until the ice breaks up,
when they either follow the solid edge in its retreat up the inlet, or
pass southward along the coast. In former years at least half of the
whales taken by the Scotch whaling fleet were captured in the vicinity
of Ponds inlet.

[Illustration: CLIFFS OF BYLOT ISLAND.]

Owing to the northwest trend of the south shore the inlet gradually
narrows as it is ascended, so that about fifteen miles above Button
point, where a high rocky island terminates the southern point, the
distance from shore to shore does not greatly exceed three miles.
Farther westward it again broadens to twice that distance, and so
continues until, turning north, it bounds the western side of Bylot
island, where it is known as Navy Board inlet. Two long narrow bays
pierce deep into the comparatively flat country of northern Baffin
island from the neighbourhood of the bend, and a very fine salmon river
empties into the more eastern bay. At the time of our visit the western
end of the inlet was still filled with ice, making it impossible to
visit this portion.

About ten miles beyond the narrows we came to anchor close under the
steep clay banks of the drift plain on the south side of the inlet, and
alongside the Scotch whalers _Eclipse_ and _Diana_. Shortly after, we
were visited by Captain Milne, Captain Adams and Mr. Much of the
_Albert_.

A great deal of valuable information concerning whales and whaling, as
well as about the ice currents and other points relating to the Arctics,
was obtained from these gentlemen, all of whom have had many years’
experience in these regions. Much of this information has been used in
the article on whaling, which is printed later in this report.

Finding that Arctic salmon were plentiful at the mouth of the little
river about a mile from the ships, a small net was borrowed, and two
boats were sent away to secure a supply of fresh fish. They returned
loaded in an hour, having made but four casts of the net, in which over
a thousand splendid fish were taken, varying in weight from three to ten
pounds and aggregating at least 5,000 pounds.

A strong gale from the eastward blew until the evening of the 21st, with
thick banks of fog covering the hills and filling the narrows, while the
weather about the ships remained fine and clear. The _Diana_ broke
adrift during the gale and lost an anchor and thirty fathoms of chain.
During our detention landings were made, and some trips were taken
inland over the high, terraced plain, which extends far to the south and
westward. The lowest terrace is two hundred feet above the sea. The
surface of the plain is uneven, and deeply cut by the valleys of several
small streams. The higher terraces flank the rocky hills to the
eastward, the highest being fully six hundred feet above sea-level. On
the plain and in the valleys there is considerable Arctic vegetation,
from which a very interesting collection of plants was made by Dr.
Borden.

A number of partly underground houses, similar to those already
described, were found at the mouth of a small stream close to the
anchorage. From several ancient graves along the banks of the stream a
short distance from the houses a good collection of skulls was obtained.

When the gale abated, we started down the inlet for Erik harbour,
accompanied by the other ships; the narrows once passed, we had to
literally feel our way to the harbour through the dense fog, and
anchored at its head alongside the whalers _Balaena_ and _Albert_.

A landing was made to collect specimens of the granites and their
associated rocks, which form the hills surrounding the harbour, and to
visit the glacier which fills over two-thirds of its head. The glacier
is a mile wide where it empties into the harbour, the ice along the
front being about a hundred feet thick. As there is now very little
motion to the ice, few icebergs break off, and those that do are too
small to cause danger to the vessels in the anchorage. The southern
corner of the bay is free of ice, and a small river discharges there
from a southern valley. The glacier comes down the northwest valley,
leaving its rocky wall about a mile inland; thence to the sea it is
bounded by a steep ridge of glacial drift full of large boulders; the
crest of this ridge gradually falls from two hundred feet to fifty feet
as it approaches the water. There are large quantities of mud on and
through the ice, so that all the streams discharging from it are very
dirty. At some former time this glacier filled the entire valley
extending to its mouth five miles away, and depositing against the rocky
walls banks of boulder drift to a height of four hundred feet above the
present level of the sea. There is no doubt that in the glacial period
the size and extent of the glaciers of Baffin island were much greater
than at present; at the same time the sharp outlines of the hills,
together with the absence of that intense polishing and striation of the
rocks so common in Labrador and more southern regions, point to a much
thinner ice-cap during the glacial period in these northern regions than
on the continental area to the south. This may be accounted for, in
part, by a smaller precipitation from the narrow, ice-laden seas in the
north.

[Illustration: ESKIMO ENCAMPMENT AT PONDS INLET.]


                   VOYAGE SOUTHWARD FROM PONDS INLET.

We left Erik harbour late on the afternoon of the 22nd, intending to
proceed southward along the coast in order to correct the chart, which
we were informed was very unreliable to Cumberland gulf. The fog closed
down shortly after leaving, and, soon, large sheets of heavy ice forced
us to the eastward away from the land, which was not seen again until we
were within a few miles of the northern side of Cumberland gulf, on the
morning of the 27th. Meanwhile the ship, continuously battling with
heavy floes of northern ice, had been forced nearly over to the
Greenland coast in the endeavour to find a passage southward, and then
had to work back to the western side in order to visit Cumberland gulf.
Continuing in this heavy ice, which completely filled the gulf, we
finally reached Blacklead island on the 31st, having passed a small
Norwegian brigantine tightly beset in the ice about twenty miles from
that place. We lay alongside this vessel during the night previous, and
were boarded by her captain, who rightly had much fear for the safety of
his small unprotected craft in the heavy pack. All the supplies for the
coming year belonging to the mission and whaling stations of the gulf
were aboard, and if she were crushed everybody living at those stations
would have a hard time until relief reached them in the summer of 1905.
We took on board the mail and ship’s papers for the stations, and left
her still tight in the ice.

At Blacklead we were visited by the Rev. Mr. J. Peck and the agent of
the whaling station, and learned from them that the past year had been
very unprofitable to the whalers and disastrous to the natives. Owing to
the quantity of broken ice that had been tightly jammed into the gulf
throughout the summer, and which prevented the boats from reaching the
open water, no whales had been captured, though a few had been seen. A
succession of heavy easterly gales occurred during the winter, causing a
heavy swell, which from time to time broke up the solid ice of the bay
and prevented the natives from going as usual to the edge of the open
water on their winter chase after seals and walrus; many, consequently,
were in a chronic state of starvation during the winter. The same cause
prevented relief reaching them from the stations, dog-travelling being
impossible. Late in the autumn a heavy gale, in conjunction with an
extra high tide, swept away several tents and other belongings of the
natives who were camped on the lower part of the island, the tide rising
twenty feet above the ordinary high-water mark. In March the heavy swell
broke up ice three feet thick, on which forty Eskimos were encamped.
During their retreat to a place of safety three of these people perished
from exposure or were drowned, while many more suffered from frost-bite
and exposure. All the survivors escaped with their lives only, losing
all their belongings on the ice.

The total returns from the two stations on Cumberland gulf comprise
about three thousand sealskins, twenty tons seal oil, two walrus skins,
one bearskin and a few white-fox skins. The value of the whole is less
than the cost of the provisions consumed.

A large amount of valuable information concerning the Eskimo living on
the eastern part of Baffin island was obtained from the Rev. Mr. Peck.
It has been used in the preparation of the article on the Eskimos.

A number of interesting photographs, some of which are reproduced in
this report, were taken on the following day, when a trip was made to
the summit of the island. From that point the northwestern part of the
gulf could be seen blocked with ice as far as and far beyond Kekerten.
The brigantine had drifted westward with the ice and now lay becalmed in
it, about twelve miles to the northward, with much ice between her and
Blacklead. No special object could be gained by a trip to Kekerten, and
we therefore started, outward bound, early on the afternoon of the 1st
of September. Heavy ice was encountered all the way to Cape Haven, which
was reached on the morning of the 3rd. The ship was stopped at the small
islands about four miles from the station, owing to the danger of
entering the harbour with so much heavy ice drifting about on the strong
tides. A boat load of natives came off to the ship about an hour after
our arrival, and reported that Captain Jackson had left with two boats
about ten days before on his way to Blacklead in search of supplies, all
the provisions at the station being exhausted, and no new supply having
come for the present year. No whales had been captured, and the year’s
hunt comprised a few bear and walrus skins. The same complaints were
made of the ice and easterly gales as at Blacklead, and the prospects of
the station looked very dark. The natives said that a letter for us had
been left at the station. A boat was sent for it, but returned with the
information that it was addressed to the captain of the vessel supposed
to be bringing supplies to the station from Boston.

The heavy Arctic ice, through which the _Neptune_ had been constantly
battling for the past two weeks, was finally left a few miles south of
Cape Haven, greatly to the relief of everybody.

According to the Scotch whaling captains and the people at the stations,
this season was the worst ever known as regards ice on the coast of
Baffin island, and fog and constant southeasterly gales. The last
mentioned account for the prevalence of ice.

Passing across the mouths of Cyrus Field and Frobisher bays, and to the
eastward of Resolution island, Port Burwell was again safely reached on
the 4th. We remained in the harbour three days, taking on board coal and
provisions previously landed for the Mounted Police.


                  PORT BURWELL TO FULLERTON AND BACK.

Having crossed the mouth of Ungava bay, a strong headwind greatly
delaying the ship, we put into Wakeham bay on the south side of the
strait, to test its capabilities as a harbour. A fine clear passage was
found into the bay on a line from the east end of Prince of Wales island
to the centre of the inlet; there are a few low shoals on both sides of
this line, but all are well beyond the course. A high, rounded point
connected by a sandy neck to the south side of the bay forms an
excellent protected anchorage just inside the heads. A second anchorage
was found about five miles farther up on the same side, opposite to an
Eskimo encampment and close to a good stream of water. Anchoring at the
lower place, we were visited in the evening by a number of natives from
the encampment. Several books, given for distribution by the Rev. Mr.
Peck, were handed out to them, and they immediately held on deck a
service of song and prayer. These natives had never seen a missionary,
but had learned to read from others at Fort Chimo who had come in
contact with the missionaries on the east coast of Hudson bay.

[Illustration: WOMEN’S BOAT AT WAKEHAM BAY.]

A pilot, well acquainted with the southern coast of the strait as far as
Cape Wolstenholme, agreed to accompany us to Fullerton and return again
on the ship.

We started early in the morning of the 8th, and passed through King
George sound, reaching Douglas harbour at eight o’clock, where we were
boarded by two natives, each in his kyak, one of which contained a bear
lately killed. A number of walrus were seen about the small islands a
few miles east of Douglas harbour. Continuing close to the coast,
shallow water was encountered while passing inside of Joy island, a few
miles east of Cape Weggs, where suspiciously low islands fringe the
shore. After considerable difficulty had been experienced in extricating
the ship from this dangerous position, deeper water was followed to the
cape, when the course was laid for Charles island. While steaming along
the island next morning a ship was seen passing out of the strait, but
too far away to signal. She afterwards proved to be the _Strom_,
belonging to the French Fur Company.

The walrus, so plentiful last year about the western end of the island,
were now absent; consequently we were unable to obtain a supply of
dog-food for Fullerton. The course was next directed southward for
Deception bay, in the mainland, opposite the western end of Charles
island. When within a few miles of its mouth the water became shallow
and the bottom uneven, so that the bay could only be approached with
safety by sending the launch ahead to sound. It was thought that too
much precious time would be lost in this undertaking, especially as it
was known that a good harbour existed in the bay, where the whaler
_Arctic_ had twice anchored, so we passed westward close to the land in
order to correct the survey made during the night on the trip eastward.
About thirty miles west of Deception bay the mouth of another long
narrow inlet, known as Sugluk bay, was entered, and the ship continued
five miles up it looking for a convenient place for water. A shallow
place was crossed at the mouth of the bay, probably due to the ship
being too close to the eastern shore, but, inside, the water was found
to be very deep, and an anchorage could only be obtained on the edge of
the narrow mud banks close under the rocky cliffs of both shores.

In the small launch, the survey of the bay was continued to its head,
some five miles beyond, where the ship anchored. At the head of the bay
three families of natives were found, living in a state of destitution.
This was their first direct contact with white men; they were somewhat
shy and frightened, but a present of tobacco and biscuit soon made all
good friends. These people do not visit any of the far away trading
posts, but trade their furs with their neighbours on the east or west
for guns and other articles of civilization.

Considerable difficulty was experienced returning against a very strong
tide, and the ship was not reached until long after dark.

The following afternoon the remainder of the south coast was surveyed to
Cape Wolstenholme, where we arrived at dark; then the ship was headed
north across the strait for Salisbury island, the eastern end of which
was reached early next morning. Following close along the steep rocky
shores of the northern side, the northeast point was reached at noon.
The weather throughout the morning had been bad, a strong northwest
breeze bringing down frequent heavy blinding showers of snow. These
showers became almost continuous, and towards noon only momentary
glimpses of the land were to be obtained at long intervals. The tides
here are very swift, and when the sky cleared a strong ice-glint was to
be seen ahead. It was considered dangerous to attempt to enter the ice
in such weather, with the unknown Mill islands directly in the course;
we therefore turned back to pass south of Nottingham island. This
decision proved wise, for next day the whole mouth of Fox channel was
found completely filled with heavy ice drifted south from the northern
parts of that channel. The condition of the _Neptune’s_ stem did not
warrant any contact with the ice that could possibly be avoided.

The northern side of Salisbury island rises directly from the water in
granite cliffs to elevations varying from 500 to 1,000 feet. The surface
of the island appears to be very rugged and barren. As a rule the shores
are without harbours along this side, but at both ends there are deep
bays protected by rocky islands, where safe harbours would be found if
the water did not prove too deep. In all of the many soundings taken
along the island, no bottom was obtained at two hundred and twenty
fathoms; this is consequently the deepest water in Hudson bay and
strait. Two large icebergs were grounded off the eastern end of the
island, while a third very large one had penetrated to the head of the
bay at the northeastern end and was aground close under the rocks. As
these bergs must have come from Davis strait, there being no glaciers on
the lands fronting on Hudson bay, they show a strong current from the
eastward along the northern side of the strait.

On the 13th, having rounded Salisbury and Nottingham during the night,
ice was met with at nine in the morning, twenty-five miles to the
westward of the last mentioned island. The course was changed to south
of west to skirt the edge of this great pack, and as it continued
unbroken to the westward, the idea of passing through Fisher strait was
abandoned, and the course was laid to the southward of Coats island. The
passage was encumbered by ice until dark, when the ship lay-to awaiting
daylight. The low southern shore of Coats was then followed westward to
Cape Southampton, after which we headed away direct for Fullerton. When
within a few miles of that place, on the evening of the 15th, we came up
with the Scotch whaler _Active_, now bound homeward from Repulse bay.
Captain Murray came on board, seeking the doctor. From him we learned
that the _Active_ had passed us, on our way out, on the 20th of July,
when leaving the eastern entrance to Evans strait. She had come in early
in the month, and after landing a number of miners at Lake harbour, on
the north side of the strait close to the eastern end of Big island, had
taken on board a large number of Eskimos from that place and from the
vicinity of Kings cape, at the entrance to Fox channel. Great difficulty
had been experienced in the ice while crossing Fox channel.
Subsequently, little ice was met with until the ship reached Repulse
bay, which was still solidly frozen, so that the _Active_ did not get
into the harbour there until the 10th of August. Frozen strait remained
full of ice all the season. The _Active_ and the whaling station in
connection with it at Repulse bay both had a successful season. The
catch of the steamer included thirty-three white whales, thirty-six
walrus, and one Right whale affording 1,300 pounds of bone. The returns
of the station were twenty-eight musk-ox skins, thirty white whales, and
one small Right whale with 500 pounds of bone. In 1903 the combined
catch included five Right whales with a total of 40,000 pounds of bone.

The _Active_ on her way out would pass through Fisher strait, in order
to hunt walrus at Walrus island and on the floating ice on the eastern
side of Fox channel. Part of the large crew of natives would be put
ashore at Kings cape and the remainder at the mica mine, where the
results of the season’s mining, some thirteen tons, would be taken on
board, together with the white men there, and the ship would leave for
home about the 1st of October.

The _Era_ had been met in Repulse bay, and had at that time not added to
her catch since we left Fullerton. Captain Comer was again to winter in
Fullerton harbour, and was on his way south to go into winter quarters.
Including the crew, the _Active_ had one hundred and twenty-three
persons on board; the ship is quite small, and the accommodation and
crowding can be imagined.

Fullerton was reached next morning, and we were soon boarded by the
police detachment and our old Eskimo friends of the past winter. During
our absence Staff-Sergeant Dee had made an exciting trip to Repulse bay
in a whaleboat manned by natives.

The day after our arrival the _Era_ entered the harbour, and Captain
Comer reported the lack of success mentioned above.

We remained at Fullerton until the 25th, being busily employed in the
meantime with landing provisions and coals for the police, shifting
coal, and taking aboard ballast. Two of the policemen who had been left
here in the spring were found to be seriously ill, and on the doctor’s
certificate were taken on board invalided home.

The homeward voyage from Fullerton to Port Burwell was made in fine
weather, and the only incident requiring mention was that the ice from
Fox channel had advanced southward and westward nearly twenty miles
since we last saw it. This necessitated our keeping close to Mansfield
island. Our pilot was safely returned to his home in Wakeham bay, and
Port Burwell was reached on the 1st of October.

The ship had not been at anchor in the harbour for an hour, when the
_Arctic_, with Major Moodie and Captain Bernier, came in. Major Moodie
brought the welcome word of recall to the _Neptune_, and after procuring
some articles of equipment from us left again that evening, being in a
great hurry to reach Fullerton before the harbour froze over.

A heavy gale of southeast wind kept us in the harbour until the morning
of the 4th, when we rounded Cape Chidley and turned south bound for
home. A fine passage was made down the Labrador coast, and on the
evening of the 7th we reached Chateau, where telegrams were sent
announcing our safe arrival. The trip across the Gulf of St. Lawrence
and along the coast of Nova Scotia was rough. We arrived in Halifax on
the 12th, looking somewhat weather-beaten, as was only natural after
nearly fifteen months’ absence.

I cannot close this narrative without expressing the deep feelings of
gratitude I bear towards Captain Bartlett and the officers and crew of
the _Neptune_, for their unfailing and cheerful attention to duty
throughout the voyage, an attention which rendered my leadership both
easy and enjoyable.



[Illustration: SOUTH COAST OF NORTH DEVON ISLAND.]



                              CHAPTER IV.
  AN HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF THE DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS IN ARCTIC
                                AMERICA.


A summary of Arctic explorations must be confined to a brief statement
of the objects and achievements of the various expeditions, and in
consequence loses the charm of the matter of fact manner in which the
dangers, difficulties and hardships are recorded in the different
narratives.

The history of the exploration of the American Arctics opens with the
first voyage of Sir Martin Frobisher, in 1576, and practically closes
with the return of Sverdrup in the _Fram_, in 1902. The great land
masses of the Arctic islands have now been outlined, and all that
remains to be done is to fill in minor details.

The acquirement by Spain of all the richer parts of America followed
close on the discovery of Columbus; at the same time Portugal laid claim
to the southern route, by the Cape of Good Hope, to India and China, in
consequence of the discoveries of Vasco da Gama.

England was thus debarred from these new fields of wealth, and it was
the search for a northern and unclaimed passage to the East which
stimulated, in the reign of Elizabeth, the awakening enterprise of
London and Bristol merchants to outfit expeditions under brave and
adventurous seamen.

The first attempt was made to the eastward, around the northern coasts
of Europe and Asia. Although failing in the main object, a large and
profitable trade was opened with northern Russia, which led to the
founding, by Sebastian Cabot, of the Muscovy Company of London in 1553.

This company, through selfish motives, was unfavourable to the
prosecution of a search for a northern passage to the westward, and
nothing was attempted in that direction until 1576. In that year Sir
Martin Frobisher, filled with enthusiasm by accounts of a mythical
Strait of Anian, which was said to afford a safe passage between the
Atlantic and Pacific, through the north temperate regions of America,
resolved to explore the strait. Aided by powerful friends, he overcame
the opposition of the Muscovy Company, and under the direct patronage of
the Queen, he succeeded in outfitting three small clumsy vessels, two
being of twenty-five tons burden each, the third being a pinnace of ten
tons. These he provisioned for twelve months, and with the combined
crews, numbering thirty-five persons, sailed from the Thames. High
pinnacle land, covered with snow, was seen on the 11th of July, in N.
latitude 61°. Off this land the pinnace foundered with all on board, and
his other consort, deserting, returned to England.

Continuing westward alone, in a leaky ship with a sprung mast, high land
was again seen on the 28th of July. Frobisher named this land Queen
Elizabeths Foreland, but it was not until the 10th of August that a
landing was effected. The following day, in N. latitude 63°, he entered
the bay which bears his name, thus being the first to reach the great
island of Baffin. He sailed a considerable distance up the bay,
believing the land on his right hand to be the coast of Asia, while that
to the left was the continent of America. The land on the north side of
the entrance to the bay he named the North Foreland, while Queen
Elizabeths Foreland forms the southern point. While in the bay four of
the crew landed without permission, and were never seen again; in
revenge for their supposed murder by the Eskimos, one of the latter was
seized and carried to England, where he died shortly after arriving.

On his return to England, Frobisher was greatly commended for his
voyage, especially for the hope he brought of a safe passage to China,
and the Queen named the lands bounding the supposed strait, Meta
Incognita.

A piece of ‘black earth’ picked up on Hall island was submitted to an
alchemist, Baptista Angello, who ‘by coaxing nature’ obtained some gold
from it, or said he did. On the strength of this discovery, money was
immediately raised for a second expedition, with the sole purpose of
bringing back ore. Three ships were again sent out under Frobisher, and
returned well laden with the supposed ore. During the stay of the
expedition in Frobisher bay several skirmishes took place with the
natives, a number of whom were killed.

Fifteen ships were fitted out in 1578 for the third voyage, to bring
home ore. Carried southward by strong currents, the fleet entered what
was later called Hudson strait, and sailed several days westward through
it before the mistake was discovered. If Frobisher had been on a voyage
of discovery he might easily have entered Hudson bay, but the search for
gold being the object he turned back, and entered Frobisher bay by
passing through the strait to the east of Resolution island. On the 1st
of August most of the fleet was assembled at the Countess of Warwick
island, where the ore was mined, and all the ships loaded by the end of
the month. The ore finally proving worthless, nothing further was done
to continue the discoveries of Frobisher.

Ten years after the last voyage merchants of London determined to fit
out another expedition to search for the northwest passage. The
enterprise was entrusted to John Davis, ‘a man well-grounded in the art
of navigation.’ Two vessels, the _Sunshine_ and the _Moonshine_, were
employed for the first voyage, with a combined crew of forty-two
persons. Davis, on his outward voyage, landed on the southern coast of
Greenland, and named the coast the Land of Desolation. One fiord in
latitude 64° 15´, where the mission stations of Godhaab and Nye Hernhut
are located, he named Gilbert’s Sound. Leaving here, Davis stood to the
westward and northward for five days, and on the 6th of August, 1585,
discovered land in latitude 66° 40´, quite free from ice. He anchored in
the mouth of Exeter sound under Mount Raleigh, calling the north
foreland Dier’s cape and the southern one Cape Walsingham. From here he
coasted southward along the land, and rounded the Cape of Gods Mercy
into Cumberland gulf, up which he sailed for sixty leagues to some
islands. On his return he discovered that Cumberland gulf was separated
from another long inlet, which, not recognizing as Frobishers bay, he
called Lumlie’s inlet. Having crossed the mouth of this inlet, Davis
then crossed to the south side of another great inlet, and renamed its
northern point Warwick’s Foreland, while the south cape was named after
John Chidley. Davis remarks on the strong tides met with in the entrance
to Hudson strait.

On his second voyage Davis coasted the American shore from the 67th to
the 57th degree of latitude, but added nothing to his previous
discoveries to the northward of Hudson strait. Keeping near the
Greenland coast, on his way northward, Davis on his third voyage reached
latitude 72° 15´. The northern coast of Greenland he called the London
coast. Leaving this, he sailed west for forty leagues, where he fell in
with the ice of the ‘middle pack’ of the whalers; a strong gale then
forced him south along the edge of the ice, so that no land was seen
either to the west or north.

George Weymouth was the next adventurer to seek the northwest passage.
He was fitted out by the Muscovy Company in 1602. On the 28th of June,
in the _Discovery_, he reached Warwicks island, between Frobisher and
Cumberland bays, and sailing northward he passed Cape Walsingham and
nearly reached the 69th parallel, when the crew mutinied and forced him
to return south. Passing around Hatton headland on Resolution island, he
sailed a considerable distance up Hudson strait, and then returned to
England, where he arrived on the 5th of August.

Captain John Knight, in the _Hopewell_, sailed in 1606, but the voyage
terminated speedily and disastrously by the death of Knight, his mate
and three of the crew, who were surprised and slain by the Eskimos.

Undeterred by these unsuccessful attempts, Sir John Wolstenholme and Sir
Dudley Digges, in 1610, resolved to employ the _Discovery_, of
fifty-five tons, in searching for the northwest passage, and nominated
Henry Hudson to the command. He had proved his worth on previous voyages
to Spitzbergen and to the Hudson river. On this, the last of his
voyages, he first sighted the south shores of Greenland; eleven days
later he entered Frobisher bay, but was soon turned back by ice, and so
passed south into Hudson strait, which he followed westward into Ungava
bay, where he was greatly obstructed by ice. Passing Akpatok island,
which he named Desire Provoketh, on the 11th of July, he reached the
islands of Gods Mercies, and thence sailed along the south shore of the
strait, naming it Magna Britannia. He passed into Hudson bay on the 2nd
of August, through a strait about two leagues broad. The southern head
of this was named Cape Wolstenholme and the northern one, on an island,
Cape Digges; a bold headland six leagues to the northward was called
Salisburies Foreland (Salisbury island). Hudson’s journal ends on the
3rd of August, and the remainder of the melancholy story is told by
Abacuk Pricket, who states that they were frozen in, on the 10th of
November, in the southeast part of the bay, after sailing three months
through a labyrinth of islands. Dissensions had early sprung up among
the crew, and in the June following a mutiny broke out headed by Robert
Juet and Henry Greene. On the 21st Hudson was seized by the
conspirators, and, with his young son, forced into a small boat. The
carpenter, John King, accompanied him voluntarily, while six sick men
were also forced into the boat, which was cut adrift, never to be heard
of again. On the way home Juet and other of the leading mutineers were
killed by the Eskimos at Cape Digges, and the remainder only reached
England after great sufferings from famine and other hardships.

In 1612, Sir Thomas Button, accompanied by Bylot and Pricket of Hudson’s
crew, entered Hudson strait through the channel between Cape Chidley and
Button islands. Having passed the strait, he continued westward, passing
the south end of Coats island, which he named Cary’s Swan’s Nest, and
reached the western side of the bay, to the northward of Chesterfield
inlet, where he named the land ‘Hopes Checked,’ because his progress
westward was thus arrested. Turning south, he followed the coast to the
mouth of the Nelson river, where he wintered. His crew suffered greatly
from scurvy, but an abundant supply of birds and fish in the spring
recruited the strength of the men sufficiently to allow them to continue
the voyage. This is memorable as the first instance of a crew wintering
in the north and being sufficiently healthy to remain the following
summer. This year’s voyage ended in latitude 65°, near Whale point in
Roes Welcome. On the homeward voyage Button passed close to a large
island south of Southampton, which he called Mansell, and not Mansfield,
as it is now written.

The following extract from Prince Henry’s instructions for Button, dated
5th of April, 1612, shows the accurate knowledge of Hudson strait
possessed at that early date: 8. ‘Being in; we holde it best for you to
keep the northern side, as most free from the pester of ice, at least
till you be past Cape Henry; from thence follow the leading ice, between
King James and Queen Anne’s Foreland, the distance of which two capes
observe if you can, and what harbour or rode is near them, but yet make
all the haste you maie to Salisbury island, between which and the
northerne continent you are like to meet a great hollowe billowe from an
opening and flowing sea from thence.’

In the same year, James Hall and William Baffin went to the west coast
of Greenland in search of a gold mine, at Cunningham fiord near the
Arctic circle, which was reported to have been worked by the Danes. No
ore was found, but traces of old workings were discovered.

Baffin, accompanied by Bylot, sailed through Hudson strait in 1615. He
then passed north by Mill island and traced the northeast shore of
Southampton island, from Sea-horse point to Cape Comfort, the last being
according to his observations in latitude 65° N., longitude 85° 22´ W.
Doubling this cape, the tide was found to set differently from what had
been expected, and gave no hope of a passage in that direction, so he
turned back. The following extract from Baffin’s journal gives his
opinion as to the possibility of a passage westward being found leading
from any of the channels entering Hudson bay:—‘And now it may be that
some expect that I should give my opinion concerning the passadge. To
those my answere must be, that doubtless there is a passadge. But within
this strayte, whome is called Hudson’s straytes, I am doubtfull
supposinge the contrarye. But whether there be or no, I will not
affirme. But this I will affirme, that we have not been in any tyde than
that from Resolutyon Iland, and the greatest indraft of that cometh from
Davis’ straytes; and my judgment is, if any passadge within Resoluyton
Iland, it is but som creeke or inlett, but the maine will be up _fretum
Davis_.’

In accordance with this opinion, in 1616, Baffin sailed up Davis strait,
his instructions being to reach if possible the 80th parallel before
turning westward. By following the Greenland coast he was able to reach
Horn sound in latitude 74° before being greatly embarrassed by ice. Here
he met a band of Eskimos, with whom he traded for narwhal horns and
walrus teeth. Being liberated from Horn sound, Baffin continued
northward past Cape Digges, in latitude 76° 35´, and across the entrance
of Wolstenholme sound to Whale sound, where he was again beset in the
ice during a gale. After being released, he passed Hakluyt island and
reached the offing of a great sound extending northward of the 78th
parallel of latitude; this he named after Sir Thomas Smith. This was the
northern limit of the voyage. He now turned south, passing Cary islands,
and on the 10th of July anchored at the mouth of Alderman Jones sound,
where a great number of walrus were seen, but no natives. On the 12th
Sir James Lancaster sound was discovered, but could not be entered on
account of the ice across its mouth. Baffin could not penetrate these
sounds owing to the strong westerly winds blowing out of them. Finding
the ‘middle pack’ immediately south of Lancaster sound, thickly jammed
on the western shore, Baffin stood across to the Greenland coast, in
more open water, and so returned home. In his report Baffin says that
after having coasted nearly all the way round, he considers it nothing
but a great bay, and draws attention to the importance of the whale
fishery, which soon after was begun, and lasts to the present day.

About this time a Danish expedition, under the command of Jens Munck,
sailed into Hudson bay and wintered in the mouth of Churchill river. The
ships were unprepared for a winter in the north, and, consequently, the
crew suffered terribly from the ravages of scurvy, so that in the
spring, out of fifty-two persons only Munck and two others survived.
These fortunately procured some grasses from under the snow, and as the
water opened killed ducks and fish enough to give them strength to
repair the smaller vessel, in which they reached home.

The Muscovy Company, in 1631, again decided to send out an expedition to
search for a passage from Hudson bay, and entrusted the command to
Captain Luke Fox. Having passed through Hudson strait he landed at
Cary’s Swan Nest, and then rounded the southwest point of Southampton
island, and proceeded to explore the channel between that island and the
mainland, up to latitude 64° 10´, where he saw an island near the
mainland, which he named Sir Thomas Roe’s Welcome, a name now applied to
the channel as a whole. Fox’s instructions limited him to the coast
south of latitude 63°, so he now stood to the south along the shore,
passing Marble island, which he called Brooke Cobham, and the mouth of
the Churchill river, and reaching Nelson river on the 10th of August.
Keeping a southerly course for a fortnight longer, he fell in with
Captain James near Cape Henrietta Maria. Having convinced himself that
there was no opening to the west between latitudes 65° 30´ and 55° 10´,
Fox turned northward and explored Fox channel to the east of Southampton
island, naming the prominent points on the west side of Baffin island,
King Charles his Promontory, Cape Maria, Lord Weston’s Portland and
Point Peregrine, the last being the most northerly point reached.

Captain James was in command of a rival expedition, fitted out the same
year, with instructions to explore to the south of the track taken by
Fox. After parting with Fox, he sailed southward along the west coast,
thoroughly examined it, and after several narrow escapes from shipwreck
through grounding on shoals, finally ran his ship aground on Charleton
island, and there passed the winter. James gives a woeful tale of the
hardships caused by cold, lack of food and scurvy. He states that the
cold was so intense that wine, sack, oil, vinegar and even brandy froze
solid; that the cook soaked his salt meat near the fire to prevent it
from freezing, and that the side near the fire was found to be warm
while the opposite side was frozen an inch thick. This is a sample of
James’ report, and shows what reliance may be placed on his other
statements.

From the time of Charles I. to that of George I. England was convulsed
with civil war and revolutions, and was at war with other nations
abroad, so that for nearly a century after Fox no maritime discoveries
were undertaken, and nothing would have been done in the north but for
the foundation of the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Two French Canadian fur traders, named Radisson and Chouart _dit_
Groseilliers, had for a number of years traded and lived with the
Indians in the country north and west of Lake Superior, learning much
about the great sea to the north, and the canoe routes leading to it.
They visited its southern shores in 1659, and on their return to Quebec
endeavoured to enlist prominent merchants there in a scheme to establish
permanent trading posts on the bay, to be supplied by ships from Canada
or France. Being unsuccessful, they crossed to Paris, where they found
no one to advance the capital necessary to start the project. The
English ambassador, hearing of their scheme, sent them to London, where
they interested Prince Rupert and several influential men of the court
and city.*  These advanced sufficient money to outfit a small vessel,
under the command of Zachariah Gillam, a New England captain, who,
accompanied by Groseilliers and Radisson, sailed through Hudson strait
and down the bay to the mouth of Rupert river. Here friendly intercourse
was held with the natives, and a small fort was built, in which the
party successfully wintered.

On the return of Gillam, in 1669, Prince Rupert and his associates
applied to Charles II. for a charter. This was granted on the 2nd of
May, 1670, to the Governor and Company of Adventurers trading from
England to Hudson bay. It states that

    ‘in consideration of their having at their own cost and charges
    undertaken an expedition to Hudson bay in the northeast parts of
    America, for the discovery of a new passage to the South sea,
    and for the finding of some trade for furs, minerals and other
    considerable commodities, and of their already having made by
    such their undertakings such discoveries as did encourage them
    to proceed farther in pursuance of the said design, by means
    whereof there might probably arise great advantage to the King
    and his Kingdom, absolutely ceded and gave up to the said
    undertakers, the whole trade and commerce of all those creeks,
    seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes and sounds, in what latitude
    soever they may be, which are situated within the entrance of
    the Hudson’s straits, together with all the countries, lands and
    territories upon the coasts and confines of the said seas, &c.,
    so that they alone should have the right of trading thither, and
    whoever should infringe this right, and be found selling or
    buying within the said boundaries, should be arrested and all
    his or their merchandises should become forfeit and confiscated,
    so that one-half thereof should belong to the King and the other
    half to the Hudson’s Bay Company.’

In 1670 the newly formed company sent out Charles Bayly, as Governor, to
establish Fort Rupert at the mouth of Rupert river, in latitude 51° 30´,
thus establishing their sovereignty by right of the first permanent
habitation of the territory granted to them by the King, whose right was
that of discovery by Hudson.

The French soon felt the competition of the English trading posts on
Hudson bay, and sought to oust them, claiming the territory about Hudson
bay by right of discovery and possession. They claimed that in 1656 the
Sovereign Council of Quebec authorized Jean Bourdon to make discoveries
in Hudson bay, and that he proceeded there, took possession in the name
of the King of France, and made treaties of alliance with the natives.
This claim is disproved by the journal of the Jesuits for that year,
which relates that Bourdon sailed on the 2nd of May, and returned on the
11th of August, having been stopped by ice on the coast of Labrador,
where a Huron Indian was killed by the Eskimos.

The Governor of Canada, D’Argenson, in 1661, despatched Dablon, a Jesuit
missionary, accompanied by Druillette de Vallière, to the country about
Hudson bay. They travelled by way of the Saguenay, but did not reach the
watershed, their guides refusing to proceed on account of Iroquois war
parties being between them and Hudson bay. The ravages of the Iroquois
were such that no travel was possible in the north until 1663, when
Sieur de la Couture with five men, it is claimed, proceeded overland to
the bay, took possession of the territory in the name of the King of
France, noted the latitude, planted a cross, and deposited His Majesty’s
arms engraved on copper at the foot of a large tree.   Sieur Duquet and
Jean L’Anglois are said to have visited the bay the same year, by order
of D’Argenson, and to have there set up the King’s arms. No mention of
these important expeditions occurs in the _Relations des Jésuites_. The
first Frenchman whose visit to the bay is undisputed, was the missionary
Albanel, who crossed by way of the Saguenay and Rupert rivers, arriving
at the mouth of the latter on the 28th of June, 1672, where he found a
small fort and a boat belonging to the English traders.

The Hudson’s Bay Company, always energetic in establishing trading posts
wherever the Indians congregated about the shores of the bay, had, by
1685, small forts at the mouths of the Albany, Moose, Rupert, Eastmain,
Severn and Nelson rivers. All were trading posts except Eastmain, where
a mica mine was worked for a few years, but finally abandoned as
unprofitable. No attempts were made to carry the trade inland in direct
competition with the French, whose _coureurs de bois_ the English appear
to have held in great respect.

Many complaints were soon made to the Governor of Canada by merchants
and missionaries that the English posts on the bay were ruining the fur
trade and demoralizing the natives; and he, knowing no affront in this
quarter would cause James II. to break with Louis XIV., resolved, in a
time of peace, to take possession of the English forts. The Governor
accordingly sent a detachment of soldiers, under the command of
Chevalier de Troyes, overland from Quebec, who, almost without a
struggle, took possession of Rupert, Moose and Albany forts. This was
the commencement of an intermittent warfare between French and English
on Hudson bay, lasting until the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713. In 1690
D’Iberville sailed from Quebec with two ships to capture Fort Nelson,
but was unsuccessful. War having been declared between England and
France in 1693, the Company, assisted by warships, retook Albany, Moose
and Rupert forts. The following year D’Iberville, with two ships and one
hundred and twenty men, took Fort Nelson from the English; while a
strong force, sent overland from Canada, easily recaptured Albany and
Rupert forts. These latter places were a second time recovered by the
assistance of the warships _Bonaventure_ and _Seaford_, in 1695: while
in the following summer Fort Nelson was recovered with the aid of four
warships.

In 1697 D’Iberville again visited the bay, where he destroyed the
English ships amongst the ice, and afterwards took Nelson, renaming it
Fort Bourbon. By the treaty of Ryswick, signed in this year, each
country returned to the other all places taken during the war, and
retained those captured previously, thus leaving to the company the
possession of Albany only.

Affairs remained in this condition until the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713,
when the French relinquished all claims to the territory about Hudson
bay.

The first attempt at exploration inland was made by the Hudson’s Bay
Company, in 1691, when Henry Kelsey, by order of the Governor at Nelson,
accompanied some Indians to the interior. From his diary, it would
appear that he journeyed, in a canoe, some distance up the Nelson river,
and then tramped overland to the open country north of the Saskatchewan.

In 1719, the Company made extensive preparations for an exploration of
the northern parts of Hudson bay. The expedition consisted of a frigate,
commanded by Captain Vaughan, and a sloop by Captain Barlow, the chief
command being entrusted to Captain James Knight, who had been governor
of a number of the forts, but who was eighty years of age. The
expedition sailed from England in June, well stored with provisions,
with a house in frame and a large stock of goods for trade. Their
instructions were to proceed to the northward, by Sir Thomas Roe’s
Welcome, as far as 64° latitude, in search of the Anian strait. As the
ships did not return to England in 1720, fears were entertained for
their safety, and orders were despatched by the next ship to send the
_Whalebone_, John Scroggs, master, in search of them. The instructions
reached Churchill too late to be acted upon that season, and Scroggs did
not sail until 1722. After considerable trouble with shallow water and
shoals along the coast, he managed to reach Marble island, where pieces
of wreck were found, but they were considered of no importance by
Scroggs, who returned without continuing the search. Hopes were long
entertained that Knight had made his way to the Pacific, and it was not
until 1767 that the fate of the expedition became known. That year the
Company started a whale fishery at Marble island, and one of the boats
engaged in the fishery accidently discovered a harbour near the east end
of the island; at its head guns, anchors, cables and many other articles
were found. The wrecks of the ships lay in five fathoms of water, and
the remains of the house were still in existence, with two skulls on the
ground near by. Hearne learned from the Eskimos that the ships arrived
late in the summer, that the larger one received much damage entering
the harbour, that soon after arriving the house was built and that the
white men numbered about fifty. When the natives again visited them,
during the following summer, their number was greatly reduced, and the
remainder were unhealthy. The carpenters were then at work on a boat. By
the beginning of winter the number was reduced to twenty, and in the
following summer only five remained alive, all of whom died within a few
days after the arrival of the natives. That such a disaster could occur
within two hundred and fifty miles of Churchill is astonishing at the
present day, when so much more is known of the comparative ease with
which long journeys may be made over the snow and ice in the springtime.

After this disastrous termination of their first expedition by sea, the
Company was not eager to undertake another, but they were practically
forced to do so by Arthur Dobbs, a zealous and enthusiastic advocate of
the northwest passage. On his insistence, two sloops were sent northward
from Churchill, in 1737, to open trade with the natives, and to look for
a northern passage to the westward; the latter seems never to have been
seriously undertaken, and did not at all satisfy Dobbs.

In 1741, Captain Middleton, who had been long in the service of the
Hudson’s Bay Company, was selected by the Admiralty to conduct an
expedition of discovery up the Welcome. He sailed with two small
vessels, and wintered at Churchill. The following summer he proceeded
northward, and discovered Wager inlet and Repulse bay, the south
headland of which he named Cape Hope. Being unable to proceed farther on
account of ice, he walked fifteen miles to a high point, from which he
saw a frozen strait, turning round the north end of Southampton island,
with the flood tide coming from Fox channel into Repulse bay. On
Middleton’s return, Dobbs was greatly disappointed, and preferred
charges against Middleton to the Admiralty, accusing him of want of
honesty in the report of his proceedings, and of concealing everything
that told in favour of a passage, so that he might serve the interests
of the Hudson’s Bay Company, which he, Dobbs, alleged would be injured
by the discovery of a northwest passage. The honest reply of Middleton
and the evidences which he adduced of the truth of his statements
satisfied the Admiralty, but it was not until eighty years later that
the correctness of his statements was verified by Parry. In the meantime
Dobbs had influence enough to procure the passage of an Act of
Parliament, offering a reward of £20,000 for the discovery of a
northwest passage; and was also instrumental in raising sufficient money
to outfit two ships to earn the reward. They sailed in 1746, and
wintered at Port Nelson. Their captains agreed only on one point, and
that was that they were not expected to explore Repulse bay and the
Frozen strait, and, after an examination, that Wager inlet could connect
only with the Welcome. On the 25th of August a council was held, and a
‘definitive resolution was taken to bear away without further delay for
England’—‘the discovery being finished,’ as the narrative puts it. Both
ships had entered Chesterfield inlet, which had been examined as far as
an overfall or cascade. The account of this was not thought satisfactory
in England, so, to settle the question the Hudson’s Bay Company sent
Captain Christopher in a sloop to examine it again, in 1761. On his
return he reported that he had navigated the inlet for more than 150
miles in a westerly direction, until he found the water fresh, but had
not seen its end. On this, Mr. Norton was sent, in 1762, to trace it to
its extremity, which he did, and found it to end at a distance of 170
miles from its entrance, in a fresh water lake seventy-two miles in
length, and from twenty to twenty-five miles wide. In 1791 Captain
Duncan examined, for the Hudson’s Bay Company, Corbets or Rankin inlet,
which proved to be a bay, and Chesterfield inlet, which he found to
agree with Norton’s description.

Samuel Hearne, a clerk in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company,
started, in 1770, with a party of Chipeweyan Indians, and travelled
overland on foot to the mouth of the Coppermine river, where the Indians
massacred a number of Eskimos. On his return journey he passed Great
Slave lake, and reached Fort Churchill in safety after one of the most
remarkable journeys ever accomplished.

This ended for many years the attempts of the Hudson’s Bay Company at
northern exploration, their undivided energies being required to
maintain the trade struggle with their energetic rivals, the North-west
Company.

Previous to the conquest of Canada, the French fur traders had carried
their trading posts beyond the great lakes, across the wooded country to
Lake Winnipeg, and thence up the Saskatchewan to the foot of the Rocky
mountains. Shortly after the cession, a number of Scotch and Canadian
merchants acquired the rights of the old French company, and prosecuted
the trade with such increased vigour as to greatly diminish that of the
Hudson’s Bay Company, who in self-defence were compelled to establish
trading posts inland close to those of their rivals. In this manner the
interior of British America was soon dotted with trading stations that
extended over the whole territory from the bleak shores of the Atlantic
to and beyond the Rocky mountains. The strong rivalry for furs soon led
to collisions between the partizans of both companies, and blood was
often shed; the natives were debauched with liquor, and general
lawlessness continued until the amalgamation of the companies in 1820.

The wars with the American colonies and with France occupied the
undivided attention of the British nation until after the final fall of
Napoleon, and during this period nothing was done to further the renewal
of the search for a northwest passage, until 1817, when Captain Scoresby
published an account of the great disruption of the ice in the Greenland
seas, and pointed to the ease with which explorations might then be
carried on in the Arctics. He was aided by Sir John Barrow, secretary to
the Admiralty, who, by his writings and personal influence, induced the
British government to again undertake a series of Arctic explorations.

Two ships, well equipped for wintering in the north, were fitted out to
explore the regions westward of Davis strait. The _Isabella_, commanded
by Captain John Ross, and the _Alexander_, by Lieutenant William Edward
Parry, were selected for this undertaking. They sailed on the 3rd of
May, and were first stopped by ice just north of Disko island on the
17th of June. Melville bay was crossed with some difficulty, and a delay
of a week occurred near Cape York. At midnight on the 19th of August the
_Isabella_ was in latitude 76° 54´ N., with the Cary islands bearing
southeast; this was the most northerly point reached. Ross considered
Smith sound a closed bay, and named the capes forming each side of it
Isabella and Alexander, after the ships. He stated that the sound
probably extended eighteen leagues; sailing down the western side, the
mouths of Jones and Lancaster sounds were passed, both free from ice,
but Ross did not enter them. He described Lancaster sound as closed by
the Crocker mountains. The expedition returned to England in October,
having practically accomplished nothing beyond confirming the statements
of Baffin made many years before.

The report of Ross was not thought conclusive by the Admiralty, and in
1819 the _Hecla_ and _Griper_ were commissioned to explore Lancaster
sound. Lieutenant Parry was given command in the _Hecla_, with
Lieutenant Mathew Liddon in the _Griper_. The ships, without much
difficulty, reached the mouth of Lancaster sound, and sailing over the
supposed Croker mountains, continued westward past Regent inlet on the
south, and Wellington channel and Byam Martin channel on the north,
reached the south side of Melville island, where the winter was safely
passed by both ships in a small cove called Winter harbour. The
following summer an attempt was made to penetrate the heavy arctic ice
which forms a perpetual barrier across the strait between Melville
island and Banks island; this proving impossible, the expedition
returned safely to England in October, 1820. Parry on his voyage passed
over nearly half the distance between the Atlantic and Pacific, and saw
from his farthest western point the shores of Banks island beyond the
middle of that distance. He laid down, on the north of his track, the
chain of islands bearing the names of North Devon, Cornwallis, Bathurst
and Melville; and on the south, North Somerset, Cape Walker and Banks.

Sir W. E. Parry, in 1821, made his third voyage to the Arctic islands,
in command of the _Fury_, having as second in command Captain G. F.
Lyon, in the _Hecla_. This time the attempt was made through Hudson
strait and up Fox channel. The first season, he examined Repulse bay and
went into winter quarters at Winter island, a few miles beyond the
eastern entrance of the Frozen strait of Middleton, whose accuracy was
proved after being long clouded by the reckless attacks of Dobbs. The
ships were released from the ice on the 28th of June, and no time was
lost in pushing northward, until stopped by the heavy ice off the
eastern mouth of Fury and Hecla strait, where the remainder of that
season and the early part of the next were spent in trying to pass
through the strait, the eastern part of which remained continuously
blocked with heavy ice.

A fourth time Parry tried to make the northwest passage, by way of
Regent inlet. This attempt was terminated by the shipwreck of the
_Fury_, commanded by Captain Hoppner. With great forethought, Parry
caused all the provisions to be landed from the wreck and safely housed
on Fury beach, where they were subsequently found by Ross, and were the
means of rescuing his crew from starvation.

During the time that Parry was making his important discoveries by sea,
Lieutenant John Franklin was employed in tracing the northern shores of
the American continent. From 1819 to 1822 Franklin was engaged in
leading an expedition overland from Hudson bay to the Arctic shores, in
the vicinity of the Coppermine river. The Admiralty, who planned the
expedition, knew practically nothing about the conditions for travel
through the regions that it purposed exploring, and depended for aid
solely upon the Hudson’s Bay Company. Unfortunately, at this time the
quarrel between the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North-west Company was
at its height, and the resources of both were consequently greatly
crippled. The North-west Company were far stronger in the Mackenzie
river valley, and their rivals, who were to help Franklin, were unable
to give him very efficient aid, or to supply him with a large stock of
provisions; in consequence, he started from the outposts with almost no
food, determining to trust to his hunters for the provisions required
for his party. This finally led to disaster, and on the retreat from the
Arctic sea, over one-half of the party, including Lieutenant Hood, died
of starvation. Franklin left England in the Hudson’s Bay Company’s ship,
accompanied by Lieutenants Back and Hood, Dr. Richardson and one seaman.
They arrived at York Factory, and there met four of the leading partners
of the North-west Company, who were held prisoners by their rivals. As
these men had spent a number of years in the Mackenzie river country,
Franklin obtained much valuable information from them. After a few days
at York, the party proceeded by canoes from there, 650 miles to
Cumberland House, on the Saskatchewan river, where the first winter was
passed. The following summer the party, reinforced by a number of
Canadian voyageurs, started northward in canoes, and reached Fort
Chipewyan, on Great Slave lake, before the ice had melted. The
expedition, now consisting of twenty-five persons, started away from
Fort Chipewyan with one day’s supply of provisions and a totally
inadequate amount of ammunition. Travelling to the north side of the
lake, the party was further increased by a band of the Copper Indians,
and all journeyed to Fort Enterprize, which was built near the edge of
the barren lands, in latitude 64° 30´ N. The total distance travelled
during this season was 1,350 miles. Venison was plentiful during the
winter, but the supply failed in the spring, so that a start was made
over the barrens without any food except such as fell to the hunters
from day to day. The distance from Fort Enterprize to the mouth of
Coppermine river is 334 miles. The first 120 miles were made by tramping
with canoes and outfit over the snow; the remainder was made in canoes,
and the mouth of the river was reached on the 21st of July. Turning
eastward, the shores of Bathurst inlet and Coronation gulf were surveyed
to Point Turnagain, in latitude 68° 19´ N. and longitude 109° 25´ W. The
canoes were detained here for several days by a snowstorm, and a retreat
was necessary as soon as the weather moderated. The course along the
coast was therefore retraced to Hood river, and that stream was ascended
for a short distance. The equipment was reduced to the smallest compass,
and a course was shaped overland for Fort Enterprize, the travelling
being through deep snow. Game was very scarce, and the hardships soon
began to tell on the weaker members of the party, with the result, as
before stated, that half the number succumbed to cold and starvation.
The survivors were succoured by Indians on the 7th of November, and
reached the Hudson’s Bay post on Great Slave lake on the 11th of
December, and England in October, 1822.

In 1825-27, Captain Sir John Franklin resumed his exploration of the
Arctic coasts of America in much happier circumstances. The rival fur
companies had now amalgamated, forming one powerful company, with full
control over the natives, and capable of rendering valuable assistance
to an exploring party in the far north. Franklin, profiting by his
former sad experience, had a large supply of pemmican prepared in
advance, and stored at Fort Chipewyan. The journey from England was made
by way of Montreal and the great lakes. After passing a winter at Great
Bear lake, Franklin descended the Mackenzie to its mouth, and then
surveyed the coast westward to Return reef, passing the northern end of
the Rocky mountains, leaving only 160 miles of unsurveyed coast between
his farthest point and Point Barrow, reached the same year by Captain
Beechey in boats from Bering straits.

While Franklin was thus engaged with one-half of his party, the other
half, under the command of Dr. Richardson and Lieutenant Kendall, were
exploring the coast between the mouths of the Mackenzie and Coppermine
rivers. These surveys carried the exploration from Bering strait to
Coronation gulf, with only a break of 160 miles between Return reef and
Point Barrow, or through sixty degrees of longitude. The eastern end of
these surveys was overlapped six degrees in longitude by the discoveries
of Parry to the northward, and only a channel running north and south
was required to connect them, and so complete the long sought northwest
passage.

Captain John Ross, being anxious to remove the reproach of his former
failure, and having been provided by Sir Felix Booth with a well-fitted
ship, the _Victory_, of 150 tons, sailed, in 1829, with the intention of
seeking a passage through Regent inlet. The ship was set fast in the
ice, and finally abandoned in Victoria harbour, on the west side of
Regent inlet, nearly opposite Fury and Hecla strait. The expedition was
remarkable for the number of winters spent within the Arctic circle,
three of them on the _Victory_ and the fourth at Fury beach, where the
provisions thoughtfully housed by Parry were the means of saving the
crew from starvation. They at length escaped from the ice in their
boats, and were picked up by a whaler in Lancaster sound. Sir John Ross
surveyed the shores adjoining his winter quarters, and named the lower
part of Regent inlet the Gulf of Boothia.

The chief discoveries were made by Lieutenant James Clark Ross, who, by
several long sled journeys, traced a part of the shores of King William
island, and of the west side of the peninsula of Boothia, up to the
Magnetic Pole; also the shores of Lord Mayors bay and its vicinity in
the Gulf of Boothia. During the retreat to Fury beach, Brentford bay was
crossed several times without notice being taken of Bellot strait.

Considerable anxiety was felt in England, after two winters had passed
without any tidings of the _Victory_, and Captain Back was outfitted by
public subscription to descend the Great Fish river to its mouth, and
there if possible, with the help of natives, succour the crew of the
_Victory_. Back spent the winter of 1834 at Great Slave lake, and the
following summer crossed the height-of-land and descended Great Fish
river to its mouth in a heavy boat. Having been informed, by an express
from England, of the safe return of Ross, he confined himself to
geographical work, and traced the estuary of the river to Cape Britannia
on the one side and to Point Richardson on the other, leaving only a
short distance between his northern termination and the southern point
of James Ross’ southern sled journey. The result of this journey left
only 160 miles to the west of the Mackenzie, and thirteen degrees of
longitude between Franklin’s Point Turnagain and the Gulf of Boothia to
complete the northwest passage.

The Hudson’s Bay Company undertook to fill these gaps of unsurveyed
coast-line, and sent an expedition under the direction of Peter Warren
Dease and Thomas Simpson, an expert surveyor. The western section was
first completed in 1837. In 1838-39 the eastern portion between Point
Turnagain and the estuary of the Great Fish river was surveyed by the
same intrepid explorers, without any loss of life to their party, and
without other hardships than those incidental to travel in the Arctics.
The boat voyages, by which these surveys were completed, were the
longest ever undertaken in arctic waters, and embraced sixty-two degrees
of longitude between Point Barrow and Castor and Pollux river, the most
eastern point of Simpson. While surveying the coast to the eastward,
Simpson charted the south side of Victoria island and the south side of
King William island.

Unfortunately the advanced state of the season would not permit Simpson
to connect the mouth of Great Fish river with Regent inlet, or with King
William sea. This the Hudson’s Bay Company resolved to complete, and in
1845 selected Dr. John Rae for the work. Dr. Rae sailed in boats from
Churchill to Repulse bay, where he passed the winter, supporting his
party mainly by his own skill in hunting. The following spring he
portaged his boats, by a number of lakes, across the Rae isthmus to the
bottom of Committee bay, and surveyed the southern part of the Gulf of
Boothia to Fury and Hecla strait on the east side, and to Lord Mayors
bay on the west side, thus proving that land having the width of four
degrees of longitude intervened between the Gulf of Boothia and the
eastern bay of the sea explored by Dease and Simpson. Dr. Rae returned
in his boats to York factory in the autumn of 1847, without losing a man
of his party.

In 1824 Captain Lyon, in the _Griper_, made an unsuccessful attempt to
continue the work of Parry and himself in Fox channel. He left England
on the 20th of June, rounded Southampton island on the 30th of August,
and stood up Roes Welcome, where excessively bad weather was met with.
He reached Wager inlet on the 12th of September, and when riding out a
gale lost his last two anchors, while the ship was rendered very leaky.
In such a state he was unable to anchor, and was obliged to return home
immediately.

A second attempt to continue Parry’s work in the same region was made by
Captain Back, in 1836. He was in command of the _Terror_, and left
England on the 14th of June. On the first of August he was among heavy
ice, off Resolution island. On the 23rd he was working through heavy ice
on the east side of Southampton island, and finally nearly reached
Repulse bay, where he intended to winter, when he was driven back late
in September, past Cape Comfort, out into the middle of Fox channel,
where the ship became fast frozen in, and drifted all winter at the
mercy of wind, tide and ice. Towards the close of February the floe
broke up, and the ship was caught in a pressure ridge formed between
great pieces of the broken floe. In this manner the vessel continued to
be tossed about and squeezed until the 16th of March, when an extra
heavy squeeze lifted the ship up and left her stranded on the top of a
great mass of ice, caused by the piling of large broken cakes upon one
another. The _Terror_ remained embedded on this mass of ice, and drifted
with it until released, on the 13th of June, near Charles island, in
Hudson strait. Notwithstanding the terrible usage of the ship, Back
managed to caulk and fit her, so that he reached the coast of Ireland,
but there had to run the ship ashore to prevent her from sinking.

The Admiralty made no further attempt at Arctic exploration for nine
years after Back’s disastrous trip. In 1845, they fitted out the
_Erebus_ and _Terror_ with provisions for three years, and with the most
approved systems of heating and ventilating, and other means of
preserving the health and comfort of the crews. The command of the
expedition was given to Sir John Franklin, with Captain Crozier, of the
_Terror_, second in command. The other officers were carefully selected
from among the most promising and energetic of the junior officers of
the navy, while the seamen and petty officers were also of the best in
the navy. The crews leaving England amounted to one hundred and
thirty-four persons, of whom five were sent home from Greenland, leaving
a total of one hundred and twenty-nine on board the ships when they
entered Lancaster sound, and were seen for the last time. The fate of
the expedition remained for a number of years unknown, although the
British government spared no expense in the attempt to rescue the
unfortunate crews, and, when the hope of succouring was gone, in a
search for proof of their fate. Official relief expeditions were
supplemented by others under private auspices, due either to Lady
Franklin or to her appeals to the sympathy of the public for convincing
evidence as to the terrible fate of her unfortunate husband and his
companions. America joined forces with England in the attempt to rescue
the expedition, and sent out a number of ships, to act in conjunction
with the others, while France sent two gallant officers, one of whom,
Lieutenant Bellot, lost his life while engaged in this work. As the
conditions under which the searches were made were exceedingly difficult
and hazardous, much time and energy were spent, and many risked and lost
their lives. Twelve years passed before M’Clintock discovered undoubted
proofs of the complete loss of the ships and the death of the entire
crews. During this time thirty-five ships and five overland expeditions
carried a host of eager searchers to the Arctics, where, incidental to
their main object of rescuing the crews of the _Erebus_ and _Terror_,
they explored the entire northern coast-line of America and the shores
of the Arctic islands, with such minute care as only their mission would
warrant. To these search expeditions our intimate knowledge of Arctic
America is largely due, and when the search was finished only the most
northern islands remained for the future explorer.

[Illustration: AT BEECHEY ISLAND.]

Before entering upon a short statement of the work of the search
parties, the work and fate of Franklin’s expedition may be traced. His
instructions were to enter Lancaster sound, and, when in the vicinity of
Cape Walker, to penetrate to the southward and westward in a course as
direct as possible to Bering strait. A quick passage appears to have
been made through Lancaster sound to Wellington channel, up which the
ships sailed to the seventy-seventh parallel, and then down again on the
west side of Cornwallis island, returning eastward to winter at Beechey
island. Many traces of a winter residence were found there, including
sites of workshops, forge and observatory. Over 700 empty meat cans, all
labelled ‘Goldner’s Patent,’ were found piled in regular mounds. A large
quantity of similar tins supplied to the navy had been found to be
putrid, and were condemned. This had probably happened to the tins left
at Beechey island, and helped to hasten the starvation of the
unfortunate crews two winters later. Three seamen died during the first
winter, and were buried on the island. The next information concerning
the fate of Franklin was obtained from a brief record, found on King
William island by M’Clintock, in 1859. The record is as follows:

    ‘Lieutenant Graham Gore and Mr. Charles F. des Vœux, mate, left
    the ships on Monday, the 24th of May, 1847, with six men (to
    deposit papers on King William’s island)’—‘H.M. ships _Erebus_
    and _Terror_ wintered in the ice in latitude 70° 5´ N.,
    longitude 98° 23´ W. Having wintered in 1846-47 at Beechey
    island in latitude 74° 43´ 28´´ N., longitude 91° 31´ 15´´ W.
    After having ascended Wellington channel to latitude 77°,
    returned by the west side of Cornwallis island, (Sir) John
    Franklin commanding the expedition. All well.’

This was the original record, and a most mournful addition was made to
it, on the 25th of April, 1848, after another winter in the ice. Here is
the addition:

    ‘—(1)848. H.M. ships _Terror_ and _Erebus_ were deserted on the
    22nd April, 5 leagues NN. W. of this—(hav)ing been beset since
    12th Sept., 1846. The officers & crews consisting of 105 souls
    under the command ——tain F R M. Crozier landed here in lat.
    69° 37´ 42´´, long. 98° 41´—paper was found by Lt. Irving under
    the cairn supposed to have been built by Sir James Ross in 1831,
    4 miles to the northward, where it had been deposited by the
    late Commander Gore in June, 1847. Sir James Ross’ pillar has
    not, however, been found, and the paper has been transferred to
    this position which is that in which Sir J. Ross’ pillar was
    erected. Sir John Franklin died on the 11th June, 1847, and the
    total loss by deaths in the expedition has been to this date 9
    officers & 15 men. F. R. M. Crozier, Captain & Senior Offr., and
    start on to-morrow 26th, for Back’s Fish river. James Fitzjames,
    Captain H.M.S. _Erebus_.’

The rest of the sad story may be shortly told: the distance to the mouth
of the Fish river, from the spot where the ships were abandoned, is
about 250 miles. They started from the ships dragging heavy boats on
sleds. M’Clintock found one of the boats on the west side of King
William island with two skeletons inside it; and the Eskimos told him
that the men dropped down and died in the drag ropes. The Eskimos living
at the mouth of Fish river said that about forty white men reached the
mouth of the river, and dragged a boat as far as Montreal island in the
estuary, where the natives found it and broke it up. The last of the
survivors died shortly after the arrival of the summer birds. It is
exceedingly doubtful, if their strength had lasted, whether they could
have travelled over the thousand miles of barrens separating the month
of the river from the nearest trading post on Great Slave lake, but at
least a trial would have been made.

It is impossible to give in this report more than a mention of the
numerous searching expeditions, and a brief summary of the geographical
work accomplished by them.

1847-50—Sir John Richardson and Dr. Rae, overland, and along the coast
in boats from the mouth of the Mackenzie to that of the Coppermine.

1848-50—Captain Thomas Moore, of H.M.S. _Plover_, and Captain Henry
Kellett, of H.M.S. _Herald_, and Robert Shedden, in yacht _Nancy
Dawson_, to Bering sea.

1848-49—Captain Sir James Clark Ross, of H.M.S. _Enterprise_, and
Captain E. J. Bird, of H.M.S. _Investigator_, to Lancaster sound.

1849-50—James Saunders, Master of H.M.S. _North Star_, to Wolstenholme
sound and Ponds inlet.

1849—Dr. R. A. Goodsir, in the _Advice_, whaler, to Baffin bay.

1849—Lieutenant W. J. S. Pullen, of H.M.S. _Herald_, boat voyage from
Bering strait to the Mackenzie.

1850-51—Lieutenant De Haven, of United States navy, in the _Advance_;
S. P. Griffin, of the United States navy, in the _Rescue_; Captain
Horatio Austin, of H.M.S. _Resolute_; Captain Ommaney, of H.M.S.
_Assistance_; William Penny, Master of the _Lady Franklin_, under
Admiralty orders; Alexander Stewart, Master of the _Sophia_, under
Admiralty orders; Rear-Admiral Sir John Ross, in the _Felix_ yacht,
fitted at the expense of the Hudson’s Bay Company, all to Lancaster
sound.

1850—Captain C. C. Forsyth, R.N., commanding the _Prince Albert_,
belonging to Lady Franklin, to Regent inlet.

1850-54—Commander Robert M’Clure, of H.M.S. _Investigator_, to Bering
strait, Banks island and Lancaster sound. The crew abandoned the ship,
and by walking over the ice to Beechey island made the northern
northwest passage.

1850-55—Captain Richard Collison, C.B., of H.M.S. _Enterprise_, to
Bering strait, Banks island, and along the continental channel to
Cambridge bay, in Victoria island, near King William island.

1851—Dr. John Rae, employed by the Admiralty, descended the Coppermine,
and traced Victoria island up to the parallel of the north end of King
William island, in Victoria strait.

1851-52—William Kennedy, Master of the _Prince Albert_, belonging to
Lady Franklin, to Regent inlet, Bellot strait and Prince of Wales
island.

1852—Captain Charles Frederick, of H.M.S. _Amphitrite_, to Bering
strait.

1852—Captain Edward A. Inglefield, in the _Isabel_, Lady Franklin’s
vessel, to Lancaster sound.

1852-55—Captain Rochfort Maguire, of H.M.S. _Plover_, to Bering strait.

1852—Dr. R. M’Cormick, a boat excursion to Wellington channel.

1852-54—Captain Sir Edward Belcher, C.B., of H.M.S. _Assistance_, to
Wellington channel.

1852-54—Captain Henry Kellett, C.B., of H.M.S. _Resolute_, to Lancaster
sound, Melville and Banks islands.

1852-54—Lieutenant Sherard Osborn, of H.M.S. _Pioneer_, to Wellington
channel.

1852-54—Captain Francis Leopold M’Clintock, of H.M.S. _Intrepid_, to
Lancaster sound and Prince Arthur island.

1852-54—Captain W. S. J. Pullen, of H.M.S. _North Star_, to Beechey
island.

1853—William H. Fawckner, Master, _Breadalbane_ Transport, Beechey
island; crushed in the ice and foundered.

1853—Captain E. A. Inglefield, of H.M.S. _Phœnix_, and Lieutenant
Elliott, of the store ship _Diligence_, to Beechey island.

1853—Dr. John Rae, under Admiralty orders, by sled to Victoria island,
and by boat voyage to Victoria strait.

1854—Captain E. A. Inglefield, of H.M.S. _Phœnix_, and Commander
Jenkins, of H.M.S. _Talbot_, to Beechey island.

1853-54—Dr. John Rae, boat expedition at the expense of the Hudson’s
Bay Company, to Repulse bay, and the east side of King William island,
bringing the first intelligence of the loss of the _Erebus_ and
_Terror_, and of all their crews.

1853-55—Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, of the United States navy, to Smith
sound, Humboldt glacier and Grinnell land.

1855—Chief factor John Anderson, of the Hudson’s Bay Company, canoe
voyage down the Great Fish river to Montreal island and Point Ogle,
procuring further relics of the _Erebus_ and _Terror_.

1857-59—Captain F. L. M’Clintock, R.N., in the _Fox_, Lady Franklin’s
yacht, to Peel sound, Regent inlet, Bellot strait, King William island
and Montreal island, bringing precise intelligence of the fate of the
_Erebus_ and _Terror_, and a short record of their proceedings.

The above list is taken from ‘The Polar Regions,’ by Sir John
Richardson, and gives a very brief statement of the numerous expeditions
sent out in search of these ill-fated ships. Lengthy records of most of
these expeditions have been published, in which the trials and hardships
undergone are recorded in a matter-of-fact way, without any attempt to
excite sympathy, and all honour should be paid to the memory of these
men, many of them volunteers, for the dangers they passed through in the
endeavour to rescue their fellowmen from terrible death by starvation
and cold in the inaccessible Arctics. Many lost their own lives, while
others drifted all winter in ships crushed between great floes of arctic
ice; others, again, travelled through the northern winter, with its
short days and intensely cold nights, with only a fireless tent to
shield them from death in the howling storms which sweep the treeless
regions; all did their duty, and were faithful unto death.

A summary made shortly after the search ended, gives the length of
coast-line examined by the various searching parties as follows: Sir
James Ross, in 1849, explored 990 miles of coast-line on the eastern
side of Peel strait, in Lancaster sound and in Regent inlet; Captain
Austen traced 6,087 miles; Sir Edward Belcher and Captain Kellett, 9,432
miles; Sir Robert M’Clure, 2,350 miles; Captain Collison in his voyage
to Cambridge bay, and Dr. Rae on the same coasts, 1,030 miles, making in
all, 21,500 miles of coast-line examined, of which 5,780 miles were
previously unknown. From this summary the search of the American
expeditions is omitted, as well as those of Lady Franklin’s private
expeditions, all of which would add greatly to the total. Admiral Sir F.
L. M’Clintock has estimated the amount of money expended by the British
government on Arctic research, including the outfitting of the _Erebus_
and _Terror_, at £272,000, and on the relief and search expeditions,
£675,000; to this must be added the money subscribed for private
expeditions, amounting to £35,000. The expeditions fitted out in the
United States, mostly by private subscriptions, cost over $250,000.
Admiral M’Clintock has further estimated that the number of miles
traversed by sled expeditions only, over ice and land, is about 43,000
miles. His views as regards the economic and scientific value of the
Arctic explorations are as follows:

    ‘The benefits, doubtless, have been very great; to whaling
    commerce it has opened up all to the north and west of Davis
    strait and Hudson strait; also to the north of Bering strait.
    The value of these fisheries alone amounts to very many millions
    sterling into the pockets of English and American traders. The
    scientific results are very varied, and ample in almost every
    department, and peculiarly so in magnetism, meteorology, the
    tides, geographical discoveries, geology, botany and zoology, as
    shown by the general advance in each branch. Upon naval impulse
    the influence has been truly great; we could man an expedition
    with English naval officers.’

The exploration of Smith sound, the northern inlet to Baffin bay, was
commenced during the search for Franklin. In 1852, Captain Inglefield
left England, in the screw schooner _Isabel_, with the intention of
searching the deep northern inlets of Baffin bay for traces of Franklin,
and with the hope of reaching the open Polar sea through Smith sound.
Cape Farewell was sighted on the 30th of July, and Cape York on the 21st
of August where a number of natives were seen in the vicinity. At North
Omenak native caches of meat and winter clothing were found. On the 26th
Cape Alexander, the farthest point seen by Baffin, was passed, with an
open sea to the northward. On the 27th he reached latitude 78° 21´ N.
one hundred and forty miles beyond any previous navigator. He was forced
by a strong northerly gale and low temperature to retreat south, and on
his way entered Jones sound, which he explored to latitude 76° 11´ N.
and longitude 84° 10´ W. He then entered Lancaster sound, and visited
Beechey island, after which, turning homeward, he did not cross the
Arctic circle until the 12th of October.

In 1853, Dr. Elisha Kent Kane left New York in the brig _Advance_,
fitted out by Henry Grinnell and George Peabody, to assist in the search
for Franklin. The _Advance_ entered Smith sound on the 7th of August,
and, after considerable danger and trouble with ice, was moored in
Rensselaer bay, from which she never emerged. This wintering place was
about 120 miles north of any previously attained, being in latitude 78°
38´ and longitude 70° 40´. Kane confined his explorations to the
Greenland side of the sound, and personally reached the southern edge of
the great Humboldt glacier, while Dr. Hayes, surgeon to Kane, crossed
Kane basin to the neighbourhood of Cape Fraser, and William Morton, on
the Greenland coast, passed the Humboldt glacier and attained latitude
80° 35´ in the vicinity of Cape Constitution, where from an elevation of
500 feet he saw open water in Kennedy channel extending to the north as
far as the eye could reach. In July, 1854, the ice being still firm,
Kane attempted to reach Beechey island, where he knew that assistance
could be obtained, but had to return before reaching Cape Parry.   At
the end of August, Hayes and eight others of the crew left the ship with
the intention of reaching the Danish settlement of Upernivik; they
returned in December, nearly dead of starvation and cold. The vessel was
formally abandoned on the 20th of May following, and on the 17th of June
the boats were launched in open water near Cape Alexander. Cape York was
doubled on the 21st of July, and the greatly reduced party reached
Upernivik on the 6th of August.

Dr. I. I. Hayes was the next to attempt to reach the supposed open sea,
by way of Smith sound. He left Boston, in the schooner _United States_,
on the 7th of July, 1860, and on the 12th of August reached Upernivik,
where he added six natives to his crew, bringing the total number up to
twenty-one. Meeting with a succession of northerly gales off Cape
Alexander, Hayes was obliged to winter south of Littleton island, in
Foulke fiord, in latitude 78° 18´ N. He first tried to explore the
Greenland coast, but was obliged to abandon the attempt on account of
the very rough ice. He then determined to cross Kane basin and follow
the west coast northward. Thirty-eight days were occupied in crossing
the seventy miles between the ship and Cape Hawkes, after which he
claims that six days’ travel brought him to Cape Lieber, situated 170
miles beyond Cape Hawkes; this is evidently a mistake. The ship was
released on the 10th of July, and the passage north being barred by
solid ice, Hayes crossed to the west side, and explored the coast
southward from Cape Sabine to Cape Isabella before returning home. He
was thus making good the claim of being the first white man to tread the
shores of Ellesmere island.

The next expedition to Smith sound was commanded by Charles F. Hall, in
the _Polaris_. Hall had previously spent two years among the natives at
Frobisher bay, the charting of which is due to his efforts. On his
return from this first trip he went, in a whaler, to Roes Welcome, where
he again lived with and like the natives, in an attempt to recover the
logs and other records of the _Erebus_ and _Terror_. He remained in the
country for four winters before he succeeded in reaching the southern
shores of King William island; he was unsuccessful in his quest. Hall
throughout his journeys kept a voluminous journal; he took
meteorological observations and observations for his position. His
instruments appear to have been not of the best, and Hall seems to have
had a great faith in the statements of the natives, a faith that was
often abused; in consequence, much of his information from that source
is quite unreliable.

To return to the _Polaris_ expedition, fitted out by the United States
government, with the object of reaching the North Pole. She left New
York on the 29th of June, 1871, with a crew of twenty-three, which was
increased by ten Greenlanders. Melville bay was crossed in thirty-four
hours, and Smith sound being free of ice, an almost uninterrupted
passage was made through Kane basin and Kennedy channel, so that the
Polar ocean was reached on the 31st of August in latitude 82° 11´, to
the northwest of Repulse harbour, where heavy, ancient, arctic ice
stopped further progress. Returning southward, the _Polaris_ went into
winter quarters at Thank God harbour. Hall, in October, reached Cape
Brevoort, but died suddenly shortly after his return, and this calamity
put a stop to further efforts to reach the Pole. Some explorations were
made in the early spring before it was decided to return home. On the
way south the ship was caught in the ice in Kennedy channel, on the 14th
of August, and remained fast in the pack until the 15th of October, when
a furious gale broke up the pack, in sight of Northumberland island,
after nearly destroying her in the process of disruption. When this
occurred several of the party who were on the ice landing stores were
left, and drifted southward 1,500 miles on the ice, being rescued by the
_Tigress_, off the coast of Labrador, on the 30th of April, 1872. The
vessel was beached at Life Boat cove, and the remainder of the crew
passed the winter in safety in a house built from the wreck. During the
winter two boats were built, in which the party started to retreat on
Upernivik, but were fortunately rescued by a relief steamer in the
vicinity of Cape York.

The British Government, in 1875, fitted out an expedition with Captain
George Nares in command of the _Alert_, and Captain Stephenson, second
in command, on the _Discovery_, while the complete crews numbered one
hundred and thirty officers and men, with three native dog-drivers. The
instructions, which were to proceed up Smith sound, indicated that the
primary object of the expedition was to attain the highest northern
latitude, and, if possible, the North Pole, including explorations to
the adjacent coasts from winter quarters. The ships left England on the
29th of May, and Cape York was reached on the 25th of July, after very
little trouble with the ice. Here the first of a series of caches of
provisions was established, to provide for the safety of the crews in
case they were obliged to abandon the ships and retreat southward over
the ice. These caches were not used, and being left for future
explorations were the means of preserving life in the survivors of
Greely’s party some years later.

From Cape York the passage northward was a constant struggle with
immense floes of heavy ice, so that it was the 25th of August before the
_Discovery_ anchored for the winter in Discovery harbour. The _Alert_
pushed on, and reached Floeberg beach, in latitude 82° 25´ N., and
longitude 61° 30´ W., where further progress was barred by the heavy
ancient ice of the Polar sea, to which Nares has given the name
paleocrystic, to distinguish it from the ice of more southern waters,
which is formed annually. Here the _Alert_ was moored for the winter,
exposed to the crushing action and movement of these solid floes, in a
latitude far north of that before attained by any ship. Depots of
provisions were established during the autumn by sledging parties for
use in the following spring. On the 3rd of April seven sleds, manned by
fifty-three men and officers, left the _Alert_ for northern
explorations. One party, under Commander Markham, was to push northward
over the frozen ocean; the other, under Lieutenant Aldrich, to explore
the north coast of Grinnell land. Markham, after great toil and
hardships, hauling heavy sledges and boats over exceedingly rough ice,
and with five of his eighteen men helpless from the effects of scurvy,
succeeded in reaching a point on the ice in latitude 83° 20´ 26´´, the
farthest north to that date. The health of the men became worse on the
return journey, and if Lieutenant Parr had not, by a forced march of
twenty-four hours, reached the ship for assistance, all would probably
have been lost; as it was, one died and eleven others had to be dragged
to the ship.

Lieutenant Aldrich surveyed two hundred and twenty miles of new coast,
reaching, on the 18th of May, Point Albert, in 82° 16´, and 85° 33´ W.
His party, also attacked by scurvy, would not have reached the ship
without assistance.

Exploring parties were, at the same time, in the field from the
_Discovery_. Lieutenant Archer explored Franklin sound and reached the
head of Archer fiord. Lieutenant Beaumont left the ship with two sleds,
and, after first visiting the _Alert_, crossed Robeson channel to
Repulse harbour, on the coast of Greenland. He succeeded in reaching
with one man, the eastern side of Sherard Osborne fiord, in 82° 20´ N.
and 50° 45´ W., on the 20th of May. The return was made under
distressing circumstances; only Beaumont and one man were free from
scurvy when Repulse harbour was reached. The ice in Robeson channel was
too rotten to cross with his crew of invalids, and but for the timely
arrival of a relief party all would have perished. Two men died, and
only with great difficulty did the remainder reach the ship. Owing to
the scurvy, Captain Nares wisely determined to return home. The disease
had attacked almost every man on the ships outside the officers, but it
is a mystery why it should have played such ravages on an expedition
fitted out and provisioned with all possible precautions against the
disease; the only explanation given is that the men were over-worked,
slept in damp clothes, and were regularly served with a liberal ration
of spirits. The _Alert_ left Floeberg beach on the 31st of July, and on
the 9th of September both vessels safely reached the open sea, and
recrossed the Arctic circle on the 4th of October.

In 1881 the United States government determined to establish a
meteorological station in connection with the international polar
stations in the region of Smith sound. Congress voted an appropriation
of $25,000 for this expedition, a sum ridiculously small, as only $6,000
remained after paying for the transport of the party to their
destination. The expedition was under the command of Lieutenant A. W.
Greely, and was composed of officers and men from the United States
army, none of whom had had previous experience in Arctic work. The
party, numbering twenty-six, sailed from St. John’s, Newfoundland, in
the steam sealer _Proteus_, on the 4th of July, 1881. At Upernivik two
Eskimo dog-drivers were added to their number. Little trouble was
experienced from the ice until the ship reached Discovery bay, where the
station was to be located, and after a short delay the party was landed
on the 11th of August. Two men found to be physically unfit were sent
home. A house was soon erected, and the observation work carried on
regularly during the time that the expedition remained there. In the
spring of 1882 several sled journeys were made, the most important being
that of Lieutenant Lockwood, who crossed Kennedy channel, and passing
northeastward along the coast of Greenland pushed beyond the farthest
point reached by Lieutenant Beaumont, and succeeded in reaching latitude
83° 23´ N., the highest attained at that time. The _Neptune_ attempted
to relieve them during the summer of 1882, but found Smith sound blocked
with ice. The second autumn and spring were spent in making
explorations, chiefly in Ellesmere island. Lockwood attempted to pass
his previous record, but was prevented by the loose ice and the rugged
mountains along the northern coast. As no relief ship arrived and parts
of the supplies were running short, a retreat was decided upon, and the
party started south in a steam launch and two boats, on the 11th of
August. Great trouble was experienced in the heavy ice, and they were
obliged to abandon their boats on the 10th of September, after having
been beset by the ice for two weeks. Land was reached at Cape Sabine on
the 29th of September, where a poor shelter of stones and canvas was
erected, in which the party passed the winter. Their provisions
comprised the remainder of the food taken with them, and a small
quantity landed from the _Proteus_ after that vessel sank from an ice
nip while trying to reach Greely a few weeks earlier in the season. The
bulk of their provisions was obtained from the caches left by Nares in
1875. Exposure to the weather had nearly ruined everything left in the
caches, but their contents, even in this shape, were of great assistance
to these famished men; without them all would have succumbed; as it was,
only seven survived the hardships and starvation, when the rescue
steamer arrived on the 22nd of June, 1883.

The next Arctic work was the crossing of the Greenland ice-cap, in 1893,
by Nansen, who landed on the eastern side, and with a few companions
succeeded in passing over the immense fields of ice and snow, coming out
on the coast of the western side to the southward of Disko.

Lieutenant R. E. Peary, United States navy, spent eight winters in the
regions about Smith sound. During these years none of the ships engaged
to take supplies to him were able to penetrate more than the southern
portion of Smith sound, and consequently Peary had to haul all his
provisions and outfit over the very rough ice in dog-sleds two hundred
miles before he arrived at the original starting point of Beaumont and
Lockwood. This was a handicap of the severest description, and Peary
deserves the greatest credit for the manful way in which he overcame it,
and succeeded in not only crossing the ice-cap of the northern part of
Greenland, but also in tracing its northern outline far to the eastward,
and so establishing the certainty of the island character of that
supposed peninsula.

The last of the expeditions to the Smith sound region was that headed by
Captain Sverdrup, in the famous _Fram_. This expedition started with the
intention of exploring the northern part of Greenland, but found Smith
sound blocked with ice, and the _Fram_ was obliged to pass the winter of
1898-99 at Cape Sabine, where Greely’s party passed their last winter.
In the spring, parties from the ship explored Hayes sound, and crossed
Ellesmere island to its west coast. In 1899 Smith sound continued
closed, and Sverdrup returned south with the intention of exploring
Jones sound. Taking the _Fram_ up that channel, he went into the second
winter quarters on its north side, in a small fiord on the south coast
of Ellesmere island. During the following spring two long sled journeys
were made to the north and west, occupying seventy-six and ninety days
respectively. The _Fram_ broke out of winter quarters on the 9th of
August, 1901, and proceeding westward was beset off the north coast of
Grinnell peninsula until the middle of September, when she was again
released, and reached winter quarters in Belcher channel at the western
end of Jones sound. In the spring of 1902 two long journeys were again
undertaken by Sverdrup and Isacksen, involving important discoveries.
The _Fram_ could not be released, and a fourth winter had to be faced.
Sverdrup made his longest and most important journey in the spring of
1902, while his companions were making minor trips. On the 6th of August
the _Fram_ was released, and returned to Norway, after having completed
the last great and important work that remained to be done in the
Arctics, thus finishing the work begun three centuries ago. The
principal achievements were the mapping of Jones sound and the western
side of Ellesmere island, the discovery of a large island lying on the
west side of Ellesmere island, and two other large islands in latitude
79°, extending westward to longitude 106° W., which is that of the
eastern side of Melville island, while North Cornwall and Findlay
islands were seen to the south. To the westward and northward no signs
of land were seen, and the ancient Arctic ice was found pressing on the
coasts of these new northern islands, so that the line of drift pressure
can now be traced from Bering sea to the east coast of Greenland.

-----

* Another version, however, of the origin of the Hudson’s Bay Company,
states that the two Frenchmen went to Boston, New England, where they
met Sir George Carteret (or Cartwright), who gave them letters of
introduction to King Charles.



[Illustration: FRENCHMAN COVE, CYRUS FIELD BAY.]



                               CHAPTER V.
                          THE ARCTIC ISLANDS.


Little is known of the interior of even the more southerly of the Arctic
islands. Up to the present time exploration has been largely confined to
their coasts, with only a few isolated lines run across their interiors.
In this way, however, sufficient knowledge has been obtained to give a
general idea of the geography, which will probably be greatly modified
when future explorations have given more information.

Thanks to the work done by the numerous search parties for the
unfortunate Franklin and his companions, the coast lines of many of even
the most northern islands have been thoroughly explored. The work left
undone by these parties has since been practically finished by the
British expedition of 1875, and by the work of Greely, Peary and
Sverdrup.

The physical features of the coasts visited by the _Neptune_ have been
described in detail in the narrative of the voyage, and need not be
repeated here. All other information concerning the geography of these
northern lands has been obtained from the printed records of earlier
Arctic travellers, and is here used to give some general idea of the
extent and physical condition of these islands.

The islands of the Arctic archipelago extend from the north side of
Hudson bay and Hudson strait, in 62° N. latitude to 83° N. latitude, a
distance of 1,500 miles. Their greatest extension westward is along the
73rd parallel, from the west side of Baffin bay to 125° W. longitude, a
distance of 500 miles.

The islands have, for convenience, been divided into four natural
groups, as follows:—

GROUP I.—The islands situated in the northern parts of Hudson bay and
Hudson strait. These include the great island of Southampton, together
with the smaller islands of Coats, Mansfield, Nottingham, Salisbury,
Charles, Akpatok, Resolution and many other small ones still unnamed.

GROUP II.—Includes the islands lying between Hudson bay and Hudson
strait, on the south, and Lancaster sound on the north, the western
boundary of the group being Prince Regent inlet. The largest of all the
islands, Baffin, belongs to this group. The only other island of
considerable size is Bylot, while the remainder are small and fringe
these two large islands.

GROUP III.—This contains the islands lying west of Prince Regent inlet
and south of Lancaster sound, and its western continuation, Barrow
strait. These islands are almost inaccessible, as they lie to the west
and south of the ice-covered waters of Lancaster sound, the only channel
by which they may be reached from the eastward; while the western
islands of the group can only be reached by passing through the Arctic
ocean from Bering strait, a long distance to the eastward of them. They
are comprised of Banks, Victoria, Prince of Wales, North Somerset and
King William islands.

GROUP IV.—The islands north of Lancaster sound and Barrow strait. Those
include the great islands of Ellesmere and North Devon, whose eastern
sides front on Baffin bay and Smith sound; the Parry
islands—Cornwallis, Bathurst, Byam Martin, Melville, Eglinton and
Prince Patrick—all on the north side of Barrow strait; the Sverdrup
islands—Axel Heiberg, Ellef Ringnes, Amund Ringnes, King Christian and
North Cornwall—situated to the west of Ellesmere and to the north of
the Parry islands.

The following is a list of the islands of the archipelago, having an
area greater than 500 square miles:—

                                                Area
                                            square miles.
                Group   I.— Southampton....        19,100
                Group  II.— Baffin.........       211,000
                            Bylot..........         5,100
                Group III.— Banks..........        26,400
                            Victoria.......        74,400
                            Prince of Wales        14,000
                            North Somerset.         9,000
                            King William...         6,200
                Group  IV.— Ellesmere......        76,600
                            North Devon....        21,900
                            Bathurst.......         7,000
                            Cornwallis.....         2,700
                            Eglinton.......           700
                            Prince Patrick.         7,100
                            Melville.......        16,200
                            Axel Heiberg...        13,200
                            Ellef Ringnes..         4,800
                            Amund Ringnes..         2,200
                            King Christian.         2,600
                            North Cornwall.           600
                                                     ————
                            Total area.....       520,800

The configuration and the physical features of the islands depend upon
the character of the rocks that form them; in consequence, a brief
description of the geology of these northern regions is here given.

Granites, gneisses and other crystalline rocks, very similar to those
forming the Archæan system of more southern regions, occupy the eastern
shores of the great islands fronting on Baffin bay and Davis strait,
from Smith sound to Hudson strait. On Ellesmere island these rocks form
a wide band down the east side from the neighbourhood of Cape Sabine to
Jones sound, where the western boundary is upwards of fifty miles from
the mouth of the sound. They occupy the eastern part of North Devon,
reaching, on its south side, some seventy miles up Lancaster sound. The
whole of Bylot island and that part of northern Baffin island to the
eastward of Admiralty inlet is formed of these rocks. The great island
of Baffin has upwards of three-quarters of its area underlain by Archæan
granites and other crystalline rocks, while the eastern side of
Southampton belongs to that formation which is also found at Salisbury,
Nottingham and Charles islands of Group I.

To the westward of this wide rim of Archæan rocks is a great basin which
has been filled with deposits of limestone, sandstone and other bedded
rocks belonging to the Palæozoic or middle formations of the earth’s
crust. These rocks extend upward from the Silurian to the Carboniferous.

The lower rocks, consisting largely of limestones, are the most widely
distributed. They extend southward and westward far beyond the limits
included in this report. The rocks newer than these Silurian limestones
are not found south of Lancaster sound and Barrow strait, except on the
northern part of Banks island at the extreme west of the archipelago.
These rocks of Devonian and Carboniferous age occupy the Parry islands
and the western and northern parts of Ellesmere, and in many places
contain good deposits of coal.

A yet newer series of rocks belonging to the Mesozoic are found along
the western edge of Ellesmere and on the Sverdrup islands. Isolated
patches of later Tertiary age probably also occur along the northern and
eastern coasts of Baffin island, and are of importance in that they are
often associated with deposits of lignite coal. Small areas of this age
have been found in the Parry islands and on the western part of Banks
island.

On these northern islands the country underlain by the crystalline
Archæan rocks is very similar in physical character to like areas of
more southern regions. Where these rocks occur, the coast is usually
greatly broken by irregularly shaped bays and headlands. The shores are
often fringed with rocky islands, and the adjacent sea-bottom is liable
to be very uneven. The land, as a rule, rises rapidly from the coast
into an uneven plateau or tableland, whose general level is broken by
ridges of rounded hills which seldom rise more than a few hundred feet
above the general level. The elevation of the tableland varies from a
few hundred feet to an extreme height of nearly five thousand feet.

In the northern parts the surface of this Archæan tableland is usually
covered with a thick ice-cap, through which only the loftier hills
protrude. The valleys leading down to the coast from the ice-cap are
filled with large glaciers which project into the bays, where they
discharge numerous icebergs. As the ice-cap becomes thinner in the more
southern parts the glaciers become less active, and generally terminate
without reaching the sea, and consequently no icebergs are formed from
them.

The country, formed of the limestones and other Palæozoic rocks, differs
in its physical character from that already described. On the northern
islands, where these rocks attain a considerable thickness, the land
rises in abrupt cliffs directly from the sea. The summits of these
cliffs vary in elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet, while the country
behind is a tableland rising in steps inland, the front of each step
being a cliff usually of much less thickness than the initial one by
which the land rises from the sea. In the more northern islands the
higher portions of these tablelands support ice-caps generally much
thinner than those covering the adjoining Archæan tablelands. The coasts
composed of these flat-bedded limestones are deeply indented by narrow
bays or fiords in the valleys of the more important streams; each small
stream and rill flowing off the land has left its sculptured mark upon
the cliffs, so that the whole resembles, on a great scale, the banks of
a stream cut into a deep deposit of clay. This minute sculpturing of the
rocks points to their having been elevated above the sea for a very long
period, during which time the streams were actively at work cutting
their valleys down to the sea-level.

These high abrupt cliffs are characteristic of the islands on both sides
of Lancaster sound and to the northward of it.

The limestone islands of Hudson bay and that portion of southwest Baffin
underlain by these rocks are very low and flat, with shallow water
extending several miles from their shores.

Those northern islands, wholly or in part formed of the Mesozoic rocks,
are characterized by low shores and no great elevation inland. At Ponds
inlet, where an area of Tertiary deposits occurs, the country overlying
it forms a wide plain deeply cut into by the streams that drain it.


                          ISLANDS OF GROUP I.

The islands of Hudson bay and Hudson strait are, naturally, divided into
two sections by their physical characters, the first composed of those
formed from the crystalline Archæan rocks, the second of the low islands
of limestone. The first division includes Resolution, Big, Salisbury,
Charles and Nottingham islands, together with many smaller ones along
the north side of Hudson strait. These islands are physically alike,
being moderately high and having ragged shore lines.

Resolution island lies on the north side of the eastern entrance to
Hudson strait. It is nearly forty miles long, and averages twenty-five
miles in breadth. The general elevation of the interior is under five
hundred feet, and the land appears to rise quickly from the shores. The
island is fringed by many rocky islets, and a number of good harbours
are said to occur on all sides of it, but owing to the strong currents
about the coast it has been rarely visited, except by ships caught in
the ice.

Big island lies close to the north shore of the strait, and about one
hundred and forty miles beyond its eastern entrance. The island is
triangular in shape; the longest side, parallel to the mainland, has a
length of thirty miles, the other two sides being each about twenty-five
miles long. In physical character and elevation it is very like
Resolution.

Charles is a narrow island some twenty-five miles long, situated in the
southern part of the strait, being distant about twenty-five miles from
the south side; its west end is ninety miles from Cape Wolstenholme at
the western end of the strait. The eastern half of the island is high
and rugged, and is connected with the lower rocky western end by a
narrow sandy neck. The highest part of the western end does not reach an
altitude of two hundred feet, and terminates in a long low point with
shallow water extending from it for several miles.

Nottingham and Salisbury islands lie in the western entrance to Hudson
strait. Their longer axis lies northwest and southeast. Nottingham is
the more southward, and is about thirty-five miles long and averages
about ten miles across. Salisbury lies to the northeast of Nottingham,
and is separated from it by a deep channel about fifteen miles wide. The
northern island is the larger, being nearly forty miles long and
averaging fifteen miles across. Both are high and rugged, with a number
of bays affording good harbours, especially at the southeast and
northwest ends. The general altitude of these islands is nearly five
hundred feet.

The second division of the islands of Group I. includes the large island
of Southampton, together with Coats, Mansfield and Akpatok islands.

Southampton is situated in the northern part of Hudson bay, which it
divides into Fox channel on its east side and Roes Welcome on the other
side, being separated from the mainland at its north end by the narrow
Frozen strait. The island attains its greatest length from north to
south, covering three degrees of latitude, or a distance of two hundred
and ten miles. Its greatest breadth of two hundred miles is across its
southern part; its eastern side trends northwest, and its western shore
lies north and south, so that the shape is practically a triangle,
having an area of 19,100 square miles. The greater part of the island is
occupied by flat-bedded limestone, causing the southern and western
shores to be generally low and flat, with a margin of shallow water
extending several miles from the land. Along the eastern side a band of
crystalline rocks extends from Seahorse point to the north end of the
island, and this forms much higher land with bolder water adjoining than
is found elsewhere.

Coats island lies directly south of Southampton, from which it is
separated by Evans and Fisher straits. With the exception of a ridge of
moderately high land crossing the island diagonally at its eastern end,
the island is low and flat, having no elevation of over a hundred feet.
Its longer axis of one hundred miles lies nearly northeast and
southwest, while its greatest breadth is about twenty-five miles.

Mansfield island, being wholly composed of limestone, is everywhere low
and flat, with no elevations greatly exceeding a hundred feet. The
island, with a length of seventy-five miles, lies parallel to and about
that distance from the east coast of Hudson bay, its north end being on
a line with Cape Wolstenholme.

Akpatok island, included in this division on account of its being of
limestone formation, lies in the mouth of Ungava bay of Hudson strait.
It is nearly fifty miles long, and lies diagonally to the west coast of
the bay, so that its southern end is about thirty miles from the mouth
of Payne river, while the north end is nearly twice that distance from
Cape Hopes Advance. The limestone forming the island being more solid
than that of the western islands, the shore line is bolder and more
broken, the island rising in low cliffs directly from the sea, and
having a general elevation considerably higher than that of those just
described.


                          ISLANDS OF GROUP II.

Baffin island, with its area of 211,000 square miles, is the largest and
probably the most important and valuable of the Arctic islands. Its
southern shores form the north side of Hudson strait; its eastern side
extends from Hudson strait to Lancaster sound, or from 61° N. latitude
to 74° N. latitude, a distance of over 850 miles fronting on Davis
strait and Baffin bay. The island is bounded on the north by Lancaster
sound and on the east by Prince Regent inlet, Fury and Hecla strait and
Fox channel. As Archæan crystalline rocks occupy the greater part of the
island, the Silurian limestones being almost confined to the western
side, the coast is very irregular, and is indented by deep bays,
especially along the east and north sides. The larger ones on the
eastern side, passing northward, are Frobisher bay, Cumberland gulf,
Exeter sound, Home bay, Clyde river, Scott inlet, and Ponds inlet,
together with many more of considerable size and length. The principal
indentations of the northern coast are the long narrow bays named Navy
Board and Admiralty inlets. Much of the western coast is at present
unexplored, but enough is known of it to say that no very long bays are
to be found there.

[Illustration: HEAD OF CYRUS FIELD BAY, BAFFIN ISLAND.]

Islands are very numerous along those parts of the coast formed of the
crystalline rocks, and these vary greatly in size.

The coast between Ponds inlet and Cape Dier to the northward of
Cumberland gulf has never been properly surveyed, and the present charts
of this part are, according to the whaling captains, quite erroneous.

The eastern coast of Baffin island is generally high and rocky. The land
rises quickly from the sea, often in abrupt cliffs, to elevations of a
thousand feet or more, after which the upward slope is more gentle as
the land rises towards the interior tableland. The general elevation of
the tableland, to the south of Cumberland gulf, ranges from 2,000 to
3,000 feet, while to the northward this wide coastal area is much
higher, reaching a general elevation of 5,000 feet, with hills rising
above that perhaps one or two thousand feet higher. Inland to the south
of Ponds inlet the general elevation does not appear to exceed 3,000
feet, and to the westward is considerably lower. The land fronting on
Lancaster sound, between Navy Board and Admiralty inlets, is very rough
and broken, and rises in the interior to perhaps a general elevation of
2,000 feet. The remainder of this northern coast between Admiralty inlet
and Prince Regent inlet is formed of flat-bedded limestone, and rises in
steep cliffs about a thousand feet high to a comparatively flat plateau.
This plateau with its cliffs continues down the east side of Prince
Regent inlet nearly to Fury and Hecla strait, the land gradually
becoming lower towards the south. The eastern side of Fox channel is as
yet unexplored, and all information concerning it has been obtained from
the Eskimos. They describe the coast as generally low, and much the same
in character as that of the limestone islands of Hudson bay. The
limestone country terminates some distance north of King cape, which
marks the western limit of Hudson strait on its north side, and the
coast is again formed of crystalline rock, with its characteristic
broken outline and fringe of islands. The northern shores of Hudson
strait along its western half although bold are not high, and the
interior probably does not reach a general elevation of 1,000 feet. To
the eastward of Big island the coast becomes higher, and the land rises
slowly inland to elevations of 2,000 to 3,000 feet.

The highlands to the northward of Cumberland gulf, along the east side
of the island, appear to be covered with an ice-cap, from which glaciers
flow down the valleys leading to the many bays on this coast. These
glaciers are neither as heavy nor as active as those of the islands
north of Lancaster sound, and only rarely do they project into the sea
and discharge icebergs. The lower lands adjoining the coast are usually
free of snow during the summer. The ice-cap, according to the natives,
does not extend far inland, the interior being practically free of snow
during the summer months. About Cumberland gulf and to the southward the
highlands are partly snow-covered, but the patches are detached, and
there are no glaciers sufficiently large to discharge into the sea. The
Grinnell glacier is an ice-cap covering the summit of the highland
between Frobisher bay and Hudson strait. It is said to discharge by one
small glacier into a fiord on the south side of Frobisher bay, but the
ice from it rarely breaks off as icebergs.

[Illustration: SHORE OF CUMBERLAND GULF FROM BLACKLEAD ISLAND.]

The northern land between Admiralty and Navy Board inlets is
ice-covered, with glaciers filling its seaward valleys, and with the
separating rocky ridges rising dark and forbidding from the general
field of white. A thin ice-cap covers the northern part of the limestone
plateau on the east side of Prince Regent inlet.

The western interior of the northern half of Baffin island is described
by the Eskimos as a rough plain, probably less than 1,000 feet in
elevation, diversified by rolling hills with numerous lakes in the
valleys between. This country is well covered with an Arctic vegetation
which provides food for large bands of barren-ground caribou.

There are two large lakes in the lower country of the southwestern part
of the island called Nettilling and Amadjuak; both are upwards of a
hundred miles long, and the low lands surrounding them are the favourite
feeding grounds for large bands of barren-ground caribou. The natives
from Cumberland gulf, Frobisher bay and the north shores of Hudson
strait resort to the shores of these lakes annually to slaughter large
numbers of these animals for food and for their skins, which are used
for winter clothing and bedding.

Bylot island lies to the northeast of Baffin, being separated from the
latter by the Ponds and Navy Board inlets. It is roughly circular in
outline, with a diameter of nearly ninety miles. In physical character
it closely resembles the northeastern part of Baffin, already described,
being formed from crystalline rocks. The general elevation of the
interior ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, and the coastal highlands are
covered with an ice-cap which extends ten or fifteen miles inland, the
interior, according to the Eskimos, being free of snow during the
summer. The ice-rim feeds numerous glaciers, some of which discharge
bergs.


                         ISLANDS OF GROUP III.

As has been already stated, the islands of this group can only be
reached with considerable difficulty on account of their position.
Little is known of them beyond the outline of their shores, and even
these have not been fully traced in the case of the more western
islands.

North Somerset, separated from the northern part of Baffin by Prince
Regent inlet, is the best known of the group, and its northern and
eastern shores have long been resorts of the whalers in their search for
the valuable Right whale in the adjoining waters. The less valuable
white whales are often abundant along these shores, and are taken by the
whalers when the larger whales cannot be obtained. The greatest length
of this island is from north to south, being 140 miles, while its
extreme breadth in the northern part is about a hundred miles. In shape
it somewhat resembles a ham with the shank to the southward, where the
narrow Bellot strait separates it from Boothia peninsula, a northern
extension of the continent, remarkable for containing the North Magnetic
Pole within its area. The northern coast of North Somerset is formed of
limestone cliffs; these are lower and less abrupt than on the northern
Baffin coast, while the bays indenting them are wider and not so long as
is usual on such coasts. Along the eastern side the cliffs rise nearly
1,000 feet directly from the sea. To the south, along this shore, the
cliffs gradually decline, until the low lands about Creswell bay are
passed, when the country again becomes high and the coast bold. The
western side of the island, facing on Peel sound, is occupied by a wide
strip of Archæan rocks, and the physical character corresponds to that
of other like areas. This coast never rises above the 1,000 feet
contour, and towards the south is considerably lower. There does not
appear to be any continuous ice-cap upon North Somerset, and the glacial
conditions are confined to isolated snow patches, with small glaciers in
some of the larger valleys. These glaciers do not discharge icebergs.

Prince of Wales island is separated from North Somerset by the narrow
channel of Peel sound and Franklin strait. It is irregular in shape,
being broken by a number of large bays. The greatest length, 175 miles,
is from north to south, while the broadest part is 125 miles across. The
northeast corner is occupied by crystalline rocks, the remainder being
of limestone. In no place does the elevation of the interior plain
exceed 500 feet.

King William island lies to the southward of Prince of Wales island in
an angle formed by the northern coast of the continent and Boothia
peninsula. It is described as a low barren island of limestone, of
triangular shape, with a base seventy miles long on the northwest side,
the other sides having each a length of nearly one hundred miles. The
island is noted for the discovery on its shores of the bodies of several
of the ill-fated members of Franklin’s expedition, together with the
record of Franklin’s death and the crushing of the ships in the heavy
ice off the northwest coast of the island.

Victoria island is the third largest of the Arctic archipelago, its area
being 74,400 square miles. Only the western and southern shores of this
great island have been explored, and practically nothing is known of its
interior. It is 450 miles long from northwest to southeast, and is over
300 miles across in the widest part. With the exception of a small area
in the northwest, it is formed of Silurian limestone. The island is
generally level, the greater part of it being well below an elevation of
500 feet.

Banks island is the most western of this group; it is separated from
Victoria by the narrow Prince of Wales strait. Its greatest length from
northeast to southwest is about 250 miles, while the average breadth is
about 120 miles. The island is formed largely of the softer rocks of the
Carboniferous, and is considerably higher than those to the eastward,
the greater part of the interior being above 1,000 feet, while in the
southern part the plateau reaches an altitude of 3,000 feet. The soil
from the Carboniferous rocks being richer and deeper than that on the
bare limestone islands, supports a good growth of arctic vegetation, and
in consequence the valleys leading to the coast are the feeding grounds
of large bands of musk-oxen, barren-ground caribou and arctic hares,
this abundance of animal life being in marked contrast to that on the
barren limestone islands. The lowlands bordering the sea in the
northwest part of the island are formed of Miocene-Tertiary deposits,
containing numerous trees allied to those now covering the wooded
northern parts of the mainland, far to the southward. The presence of
these trees shows that, in the period before the Ice-age, the climate of
these northern islands must have been much warmer than at present.


                          ISLANDS OF GROUP IV.

The island of Ellesmere is only second in size to Baffin island, and is
remarkable for its north end extending to beyond the eighty-third
parallel of N. latitude, or to within 500 miles of the North Pole. Its
length from north to south covers nearly seven degrees of latitude, or
approximately 500 miles; its greatest breadth across the northern part
exceeds 200 miles. Being deeply indented by large bays both on its east
and west sides, its outline is quite irregular. Smith sound, and its
northern extensions Kennedy and Robeson channels, separate the eastern
shores of Ellesmere from the northern part of Greenland.

The general elevation of the island is high, and probably exceeds 2,500
feet. In the northern part the United States mountains are upwards of
4,000 feet high, while isolated peaks of this range reach a height of
almost 5,000 feet. It is remarkable that this high northern land is not
covered with a continuous ice-cap, but this is probably due to the small
precipitation of moisture derived from the ice-covered northern seas.
The first large ice-cap is situated in the interior, to the south of 81°
N. latitude, and extends southward to 79° N. latitude, where an area of
lower lands occurs near the junction of the Palæozoic rocks of the north
and the Archæan of the southeast. The southeastern quarter of the island
occupied by crystalline rocks has a general elevation of 3,000 feet or
over, and is covered by a great ice-cap, with numerous glaciers
discharging from it into the eastern bays. A great thickness of
Palæozoic extending upwards from the Silurian to the Carboniferous
occupies the southwest quarter of the island, where the rocks rise
abruptly to a tableland with an elevation of nearly 3,000 feet. The
cliffs of the southern coast are indented by many long narrow fiords.
Along the western side of the island is a wide margin of softer Mesozoic
rocks which form low plains extending from the seashore several miles
inland to the base of the high cliffs of older rocks. These plains are
covered with arctic vegetation. Musk-oxen, barren-ground caribou and
arctic hares are found there in large numbers, along with geese and
other aquatic birds.

North Devon island lies to the south of Ellesmere, being separated from
it by Jones sound; Lancaster sound bounds it on the south. The island,
in shape, somewhat resembles a swimming bird with the head to the
northwest and the body east and west. The body is about 220 miles long
and averages seventy-five miles across. Grinnell peninsula forms the
head, the neck being very irregular, and nearly pierced through by
several long bays; the length of head and neck is a hundred miles. The
eastern third of the island is composed of crystalline rocks, and rises
to an irregular ice-clad tableland some 3,000 feet in altitude. The rise
to the interior is somewhat abrupt, and the landscape, seen from the
sea, shows an interior ice-cap in the distance, with bare rocky hills
rising irregularly above the slopes of the glaciers flowing down the
valleys to the sea. The western part of the island is formed of
limestone, and is a flat tableland cut by deep narrow fiords that extend
inland many miles from the coast, and are continued beyond the salt
water as the valleys of small rivers. The general elevation of the
tableland in the eastern part is nearly 2,000 feet, but this decreases
in the westward, so that on the west side the cliffs are below, and in
the interior not much above, a thousand feet. The eastern part of this
limestone plateau is covered, at least along the coast, by an ice-cap,
and a few small glaciers discharge from it directly into the sea. The
ice-cap retreats from the fore part of the plateau, and finally
disappears before the western shores of the island is reached. There is
lower land along the west side of the island, where there is a good
growth of arctic plants on which large numbers of musk-oxen feed,
together with some barren-ground caribou and arctic hares. The Eskimos
from northern parts of Baffin island often cross Lancaster sound to hunt
these animals on the western side of North Devon. Walrus and white bears
are also plentiful amongst the ice of Wellington channel which separates
North Devon from Cornwallis island on the west. Sverdrup found the
remains of Eskimo encampments everywhere along the west side of
Ellesmere, and speculated as to where the people who made them came
from, and also how the Eskimos reached Greenland. The knowledge that the
Baffin natives cross to North Devon, and that some of them have joined
the arctic highlanders of Smith sound, disposes of these speculations.
Their road is across Prince Regent inlet from Baffin to North Somerset,
thence across Lancaster sound to the western part of North Devon. The
west side of that island is followed north to the narrows of the western
part of Jones sound, and a crossing then made to the western side of
Ellesmere, where game is plentiful. This coast of plenty would be
followed northward to Bay fiord, where the natural pass across Ellesmere
would lead to the fiords of the east side of the island a short distance
to the north of Cape Sabine, a place frequently visited by the north
Greenland natives.

The Parry islands—Cornwallis, Bathurst, Melville, Eglinton and Prince
Patrick—all lie immediately north of the western extension of Lancaster
sound—known in parts as Barrow strait, Melville sound and McClure
strait. These islands were first discovered by Parry in 1819, but it was
the diligent search parties for Franklin that minutely investigated
their shores, making them the best known of all the Arctic islands. With
the exception of the southern part of Cornwallis, which is formed from
Silurian limestone, these islands are composed of softer bedded rocks of
the Devonian and Carboniferous. They possess the same physical
characteristics, and a general description answers for all. The
shore-lines are very broken, being deeply cut by long irregular shaped
bays. The land rises in cliffs from 400 feet to 700 feet high, to a
plateau broken by many cross ravines, which render travel in the
interior difficult. The general level of the interior is under 1,000
feet, and only rarely does it rise above that altitude. In many places
coal has been found outcropping in the face of the cliffs of all the
islands west of Cornwallis. The practical impossibility of reaching
these coal fields precludes them from being counted among the economic
resources of Canada.

The Sverdrup islands include Axel Heiberg, Amund Ringes, Ellef Ringes,
King Christian and North Cornwall. With the exception of the last named,
these islands were discovered by the Norwegian expedition on the _Fram_
in 1899-1902. They form a group lying to the west of Ellesmere and to
the north of the Parry islands. The largest, Axel Heiberg, lies close to
the west side of Ellesmere, and has the same physical characters as
those of the western side of the great island; these are high lands in
the interior, composed of bedded rocks, and eruptives with low, wide
foreshore, where game is plentiful.

The other islands of the group, being formed of the softer rocks of the
Mesozoic, are lower in general elevation, and are characterized by wide
stretches of low land between the sea and the crumbling cliffs, which
rise to the uneven interior plateau, that rarely exceeds 700 feet in
elevation.

[Illustration: KENIPITU FROM CHESTERFIELD INLET.]



[Illustration: LOWER ENCAMPMENT, CHESTERFIELD INLET.]



                              CHAPTER VI.
                                ESKIMOS.


The Eskimos are a circumpolar race, and live in the treeless areas of
the northern parts of America and Greenland. Their present southern
limit, on the Atlantic coast of Labrador, is Hamilton inlet, in 54° N.
latitude. From there they inhabit the coast to Hudson strait, and thence
along the east coast of Hudson bay, as far south as Cape Jones, at the
entrance to James bay. On the west side of Hudson bay their southern
limit is much farther north, being at Churchill, in 57° 30´ N. latitude.
Northward of that place they are found at intervals along the entire
northern coast of the continent to Alaska. A large number inhabit Baffin
island and Nottingham island. The west part of Hudson strait is peopled
by a band of these natives, while occasional small parties cross
Lancaster sound to North Devon island, and, continuing northward, come
in contact with the natives of north Greenland at Smith sound. To the
westward of Hudson bay, the Eskimos are mostly confined to the
continent, and only make occasional visits to the southern shores of the
large islands off the Arctic coast.

A considerable number of Eskimos, forming small communities, inhabit the
east coast of Greenland from its southern end up to Melville bay, where
a stretch of uninhabited coast occurs between the southern settlements
and the home of the arctic highlanders at Smith sound, there forming the
most northern permanent settlement of the human race. This is on the
east side of the sound, between 74° and 77° N. latitude, or from Cape
York to the southern side of the great Humboldt glacier.

At the time of the European discovery of the northern parts of America,
the Eskimos extended along the coasts considerably south of their
present limits. They occupied the entire Atlantic coast of Labrador, and
lived far along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Eskimos
and Indians have always been open enemies. With the advent of the
whites, the Indians soon became possessed of firearms, which gave them a
great advantage over their northern foes, who were compelled to retreat
beyond the tree-limit in the northern regions; here they were safe, as
the Indians cannot live without firewood.

The Eskimos continued to inhabit the eastern part of the shore of the
gulf of St. Lawrence until about 1630, when they were expelled by the
French and Indians. Captain W. Coats, in his notes on Hudson bay, states
that in 1748 the Iroquois sent to the Indians of the bay for captive
Eskimos, to be used as human sacrifices at some great feast; that the
chief of the northern Indians proceeded forthwith on the war-path
against the Eskimos capturing seven and killing thirteen; the captives
were sent south to the land of the Iroquois in what is now New York
State.

In 1770-72, Samuel Hearne accompanied a band of Chippewyan Indians on a
journey from Churchill to the mouth of the Coppermine river. These
Indians were only induced to go to the Arctic coast on the chance of
killing Eskimos. This they did, by surprising a band busily engaged in
fishing at the first fall above the mouth of the river, massacring them
all.

This warfare appears to have continued until the Eskimos obtained
firearms, when, the conditions becoming equal, the Indians soon found
that the pleasure of the Eskimo chase did not compensate for the danger
incurred, and, for many years past, active hostilities have ceased,
though the two races are still unfriendly, and rarely, or never,
intermarry.

Scattered over such a wide area of country, with such poor means of
communication, it naturally follows that the Eskimo race is broken up
into a number of tribes, distinguished by difference in dialect, and by
slight differences in manners and customs. But these are so surprisingly
few, considering the conditions, that an Eskimo from the Atlantic coast
has no difficulty in conversing with the natives of the west coast of
Hudson bay, or with those of Greenland. Their religious beliefs and
ceremonies are also wonderfully alike everywhere, and only minor
differences are to be seen in their sleds, boats, tents and implements
of the chase, these being largely due to the materials used. In fact so
close are the essential resemblances that a description of the language,
manners and customs of any tribe requires only slight modifications to
suit those of the other tribes.


            DISTRIBUTION AND NUMBERS OF THE CENTRAL ESKIMOS.

Dr. Franz Boas, who has devoted much attention to the study of the
Eskimos, has named those of the eastern half of the continent the
Central Eskimos, to distinguish them from the natives of Greenland and
from those of the western Arctic coast and Alaska.

The following divisions are taken from Boas, with such modifications as
have been found necessary.

The numbers of the different divisions are in many instances only
approximate, as it is exceedingly difficult to arrive at a correct
census, even when actually on the ground, owing to the lack of
appreciation of the natives of numbers and to their want of interest in
such investigations.


                         THE  CENTRAL  ESKIMOS.

I. Northern Atlantic coast of Labrador. Population 900 to 1,000.

II. South shore of Hudson strait. Population 400 to 450.

(a) Kedlingmiut (Cape Chidley) 28.

(b) Koguangmiut (Ungava bay).

(c) Okomingmiut (Cape Hopes Advance to Cape Weggs) 115.

(d) Sedlingmiut (Cape Weggs to Cape Wolstenholme) 40.

(e) Nuvungmiut (Cape Wolstenholme) 35.

III. East coast of Hudson bay. Population 400 to 450.

(a) Itivimiut (natives of the mainland).

(b) Kittoktangmiut (Islands of eastern Hudson bay).

IV. The north shore of Hudson strait. Population 375 to 400.

(a) Sikosilingmiut (King Charles cape) 150.

(b) Akolingmiut (Gordon bay to Big island) 125.

(c) Kuamangmiut (Big island eastward) 80.

(d) Nottingham island, 30.

V. Davis strait. Population 470.

(a) Nugumiut (Frobisher bay) 120.

(b) Okommiut (Cumberland sound) 260.

(c) Akudnairngmiut (Padli fiord and Home bay) 90.

VI. Northern Baffin island. Population 180.

(a) Tunungmiut (Ponds inlet) 140.

(b) Tunurusungmiut (Admiralty inlet) 40.

VII. Northwest coast of Hudson bay. Population 700 to 750.

(a) Padlimiut (Churchill to Ranken inlet).

(b) Kenipitumiut (Chesterfield inlet) 140.

(c) Shaunuktungmiut (Doubaunt river).

(d) Aivillingmiut (Fullerton to Repulse bay) 138.

(e) Iglulingmiut (Fox channel) 60.

(f) Nechillingmiut (westward from Repulse bay to Back river) 450.

From the above table, it will be seen that the total Eskimo population
of the eastern half of Arctic America ranges between 3,400 and 3,700
individuals. These people are scattered along the coasts of the mainland
and northern islands, while a few live continuously inland to the west
of Hudson bay. The present northern limit of permanent settlement of the
Eskimos, in eastern Canada, is Lancaster sound and its western
extensions, in about 74° N. latitude. Many traces of their habitations
have been found on the islands north of Lancaster sound, and far north
along the west side of Ellesmere island, but these only represent the
temporary quarters of stragglers from the south, who return after a
short sojurn in the north.

On the west side of Hudson bay the natives extend southward to the
neighbourhood of Churchill, the most southern tribe being the Padlimiut,
who inhabit the country northward from Churchill to Ranken inlet, and
inland in a northwest direction along the edge of the forest-line to
about the latitude of Ranken inlet. Their northern neighbours are the
Kenipitumiut, who occupy the territory about Chesterfield inlet and
along the rivers tributary to that great bay. The Kenipitumiut are not
very numerous, and, according to Captain George Comer, who has made a
very careful census of the natives of the west part of Hudson bay, they
only number 140 persons. The Aivillingmiut are next northward, and are
more confined to the coast than the southern natives; they consequently
depend largely on the sea animals for food and clothing, the southern
people living mostly on the barren-ground caribou. The Aivilliks are
scattered along the coast from Cape Fullerton to Repulse bay. These are
the natives employed by the American whalers to assist in the whaling
industry, and who in consequence are more civilized than their
neighbours north and south. From long contact with the whalers, there is
an admixture of white blood in this tribe, although half-breeds usually
die young. The tribe has contracted some of the loathsome diseases of
civilization. They at present number 138 persons, and the population now
appears to be nearly stationary, though there was a considerable
decrease for some years after the whaling vessels first frequented the
bay and before the tribe became accustomed to the changes involved.

The Iglulingmiut are a small tribe occupying the east shore of Fox
channel, from Repulse bay northward to Fury and Hecla strait, and were
the tribe met with and described by Parry, who wintered among them in
1821-22. According to Captain Comer they now number only sixty persons,
and are not increasing.

The Nechillingmiut are the most numerous tribe to the westward of Hudson
bay, and number about 450 persons. They inhabit the country to the
westward of the Igluliks and Aivilliks, extending westward and northward
to Back river and the shores and islands of the Arctic sea. The Sinimiut
were a small independent tribe, living about the southern shores of
Committee bay, but they have now been absorbed into the Nechilliks.

Another small inland tribe is the Shaunuktungmiut, who occupy territory
to the southwest of Chesterfield inlet. Little is known about this
people, except that they are a small tribe allied to the Kenipitumiut.

Coming to the natives of Baffin island, the Nugumiut tribe inhabit the
country about Frobisher bay, and at present have their headquarters at
the whaling settlement at Cape Haven, being employed about the station,
during the periods of open water, in chasing whales, walrus and seals.
Their number is sufficient to man four whaleboats, requiring about
twenty able-bodied men, and the total population does not exceed 120
persons.

[Illustration: ESKIMOS AT BLACKLEAD, CUMBERLAND GULF.]

The natives of Cumberland gulf congregate about the whaling stations of
Kekerten and Blacklead, where they are employed for a large part of the
year by the whalers. According to the Rev. Mr. Peck, who has now resided
several years among them, the total population numbers about 380 souls.

The natives living on the north side of Hudson strait are not numerous,
and are split up into three tribes. The Sikosilingmiut live in the
inland region of King Charles cape, at the eastern entrance to Fox
channel. A number of families from this tribe crossed a few years ago to
Nottingham island, and are living there now, having been visited in
1901, when they were found to be without firearms, and were killing deer
by chasing them with dogs and shooting them with bow and arrow.

The Akolingmiut tribe reside in the neighbourhood of Big island, in the
central part of the north shore of Hudson strait. These are among the
oldest known Eskimos and came in contact with the earliest white
explorers of Hudson bay. Old writers mention their filthy habits, and
the present generation appears to keep up the reputation of their
ancestors, as being the most degraded of all the tribes. For a number of
years the American whalers had a station on the coast, at Spicer
harbour, some miles to the westward of Big island, but it has long been
abandoned. At present the Scotch whaling steamer _Active_ enters the bay
annually, and on arriving at Big island takes on board the entire tribe,
after which the ship proceeds to the whaling and walrus grounds of Fox
channel and Roes Welcome, where the men are employed in the chase of
these animals. A few years ago the firm to which the _Active_ belongs
established a station on the south side of Southampton, and imported a
number of the Big island natives. These natives, being provided with
modern rifles, soon killed off or frightened away the deer in the
neighbourhood. The old inhabitants of the island (Sagdlingmiut) being
armed only with bow and arrows and spears, were unable to compete with
the better armed strangers, and as a result the entire tribe, who
numbered 68 souls in 1900, died of starvation and disease during the
winter of 1902. The whaling station was abandoned in the summer of 1903,
after the death of the original natives, and the great island is now
uninhabited except by a few natives from Big island who stay at the old
whaling station.

The white men belonging to the whaling station have now been quartered
at Repulse bay, and a number of the Big island natives have also been
taken there; it is likely, therefore, that they will spread disease and
disaster among the Aivilliks and Nechilliks of that region. Some
regulation should be made to prevent this unauthorized movement of the
natives, or similar wholesale slaughter will again occur.

The Eskimos of the Atlantic coast of Labrador have long been under the
direct influence of the Moravian missionaries, and are in consequence
much more civilized than the others. The Moravians first arrived on the
coast in 1770, and since then have established mission stations along
the shores from Hamilton inlet northward to Cape Chidley. Their policy
has been to collect the natives into bands about these stations. To
accomplish this, they have erected each mission at some place where the
natural resources are abundant. The missionaries have kept the Eskimos
as free as possible from contact with the floating, white, fishing
population, and to do so, have obtained exclusive trading rights from
the Newfoundland Government. Their scheme is a sort of parent-hood, by
which they supply the natives with food and clothing, taking the product
of their hunt in exchange; this scheme seems to work very
satisfactorily, the natives being content, while their welfare is
attended to without their being pauperized. There is no premium put on
laziness and false piety, as is so often the case where the missionary
makes a free distribution of food and clothing to the natives. Then it
often happens that the good, industrious hunter, who goes away from the
station to provide for his family, receives none of the gifts, which are
given to the shiftless individuals who hang about the station in a state
of pious poverty. The Moravian Eskimos must provide for themselves by
work of one kind or another, and the shiftless ones only receive
sufficient to keep life going, without any of its luxuries. These people
have all been taught to read and write, there being a number of books
printed in the language; the majority of these are of a religious
character, but there are some on geography, history and other secular
subjects, so that all the natives have a fair knowledge of the outside
world. From their long contact with the missionaries, they are devout
Christians, have completely lost many of their ancient beliefs and
customs, and now conform closely to the manners and customs of
civilization.

The natives of Cape Chidley, some half-dozen families, have for a few
years been under the care of the Rev. Mr. Stewart. He has had some
difficulty instilling the Christian doctrines, and in weaning them from
their ancient customs and beliefs.

The Eskimos of Ungava bay and the south shore of Hudson strait are still
without knowledge of Christianity, beyond what has been spread by the
southern Christian natives. The Eskimos as a rule take kindly to
Christianity, and follow its precepts in a manner which shames the
average white Christian. All are exceedingly anxious to learn to read
the books printed by the Church Missionary Society. These books are
printed in a syllabic shorthand, very easy to read, and are supplied
from Great Whale river on the east side of Hudson bay, and from
Cumberland gulf. A great many Eskimos have never come in contact with
the missionaries; notwithstanding this, there are only a few of the
Labrador natives who cannot read and write, while the natives of Baffin
island are rapidly reaching the same state. Every native who learns to
read, and who possesses a book, becomes the teacher of the uninstructed;
in this manner education is spreading rapidly. A good example is found
in the natives on the northwest coast of Hudson bay, several of whom
have learned to read from the Big island natives on the Scotch whaler,
who were in turn instructed by visiting Eskimos from Cumberland gulf.

The Eskimos of the east side of Hudson bay and of the Belcher islands
annually come under the teaching of the missionary at Great Whale river,
and have to a great extent abandoned the practice of old customs and
beliefs. The only custom that they cling tenaciously to is that relating
to polygamy.

The Eskimos of the Atlantic coast, under the control of the Moravians,
number nearly 1,000 persons. Those at Nachvak and Cape Chidley do not
exceed fifty. A few families occupy the coast of Ungava bay from Cape
Chidley to the mouth of Koksoak river; these are engaged, during the
summer, fishing for salmon in the mouths of George and Whale rivers,
there being about a half-dozen families at each place. In 1893 there
were fifty-one families scattered along the shores of Ungava bay from
Cape Chidley to Cape Hopes Advance. Along the south shore of Hudson
strait, from Cape Hopes Advance to Cape Weggs, live some thirty
families, while to the westward of these, as far as Cape Wolstenholme
there are about seventy-five natives living on the coast, principally in
the neighbourhood of Deception and Sugluk bays and near Cape
Wolstenholme. About one hundred more, not included in the above, live
inland and trade at Fort Chimo.

The western Eskimos, who trade at Great Whale river, number about eighty
families, including a dozen families from the Belcher islands, together
with a few living about Fort George and on the islands of James bay.

Allowing four or five as the size of the average family, the total
Eskimo population in the Labrador peninsula amounts to about two
thousand persons, divided about equally between the Atlantic coast and
the remainder of the peninsula.

[Illustration: AIVILLIK WOMEN AT FULLERTON.]


                            ANNUAL ROUTINE.

The Eskimo, even to a greater extent than the Indian, depends upon the
chase for his existence. The Indian is dependent, in the uncivilized
state, on the animals he kills for food and clothing, while the Eskimo
must not only get his sustenance and raiment by the chase, but also his
fuel, which is either obtained from the blubber of seals and whales, or
from the fat of the barren-ground caribou.

The yearly round of life of the Eskimo differs but little anywhere,
except on the Atlantic coast of Labrador, where it has been modified by
the missionaries. A description of the annual life of an Eskimo of the
east coast of Hudson bay is typical of that of the other tribes, and
only accidental variations occur, due to the prevalence of particular
game, such as the musk-ox, in some regions.

During the winter the Eskimo lives in a snowhouse or _iglo_; in the
summer in a tent or _tupik_, made of seal or deer skins. The year begins
with the lengthening days of January, and this is usually a period of
hard times, lasting for a couple of months. The Eskimo of the southern
regions is then on his yearly journey to the trading post, where he will
exchange the proceeds of the past year’s hunt for ammunition, tobacco,
and a few luxuries of clothing and tools. The ice along the coast in
January does not extend far from the shore, and the seals keep in the
open water, where they can only be killed by being shot from the edge of
the ice. This is a very uncertain subsistence for the native, owing to
the storms of the season, which either break the ice from the shore, or
crowd its edge with small floating cakes, forming an impassable barrier
to the open water. If a good supply of deermeat has not been laid by
during the fall, periods of starvation are now frequent; these, when
severe and prolonged, result in death or disaster, more natives dying at
this time than throughout the rest of the year. The annual journey is
made in stages; the native remains in a suitable spot for killing seals
until enough of these animals has been secured to meet the requirements
of food for the family and dogs, for a few days; then everything is
securely lashed on the long, narrow sleds, and the party, usually
consisting of two or more families, travels slowly southward along the
shore ice, a woman often walking ahead of the dogs to encourage them.
The men wander about on the ice in search of seal-holes, and
occasionally secure a seal while on the journey. In the evening a halt
is made, and the men build a small snowhouse with blocks cut from a
convenient bank. These small houses, built only for the night, seldom
exceed nine or ten feet in diameter, and it is only when a considerable
stay is expected that larger houses are built.

The Labrador Eskimos rarely live more than one family in a house, but on
the west shore of Hudson bay and at Cumberland gulf two or more families
often live together, either in connected houses or in a single large
house. The largest single house, seen by the writer, at Cape Fullerton,
was twenty-seven feet in diameter and twelve feet from the floor to the
centre of the dome; it was inhabited by four families. This house was
too large for the material, and the roof had to be supported by props
shortly after being built; but several others, eighteen feet in
diameter, showed no signs of such weakness.

[Illustration: SNOWHOUSES AT FULLERTON.]

The Eskimo first tests the snow of the neighbouring banks by probing
with his long snow-knife, often a twelve-inch butcher knife, and when he
finds a bank formed by the drift of a single storm, he cuts an oblong
hole about five feet long, two or three feet wide, and about twenty
inches deep, with a clean face on one of the longer sides. He next cuts
blocks from this face; these blocks are about five or six inches thick,
from twenty-four to thirty inches long and twenty inches deep. A line
the width of the block is first drawn on the surface, then cuts are made
at the ends and bottom of the block, after which the knife is thrust
down several times along the rear line and the block is wedged off. One
man usually cuts blocks, while another builds the house. A circle the
size of the intended house is traced on the surface of the snow, and the
first circle of blocks arranged around it. When this is completed, the
first few blocks are cut down diagonally, so that the next layer of
blocks will take a spiral form and continue to wind in a decreasing
curve until the dome is closed by an irregular key-block. This manner of
building is superior to a succession of lessening circles, as each block
is so cut as to be held by the one placed immediately before, and thus
one man only is needed at the work, whereas, if the circular method were
used, the different blocks of the circle would require to be held in
place until the circle was complete. The finished house is a snow-dome
of about two-thirds the height of the diameter of the base, with the
arch flattened towards the summit. When all the blocks are in place, the
cracks between them are chinked with loose snow, generally by the women.
A line of blocks is then placed across the centre of the floor-space
opposite to where the door will be, with other blocks at right angles to
thus reduce the floor-space to a rectangle extending from the door to
the centre of the _iglo_. On the far side of these walls, blocks of snow
are thrown, and cut to form a smooth platform about eighteen inches
higher than the original floor; this forms the bed of the family, while
the side platforms hold the camp and cooking utensils. A door is now cut
in the wall opposite the bed; it is about thirty inches high and
eighteen inches wide, and passes into a tunnel porch several feet long
and somewhat larger than the door, built later, and serves as a shelter
for the dogs. When the house is permanent, the porch is built with two
or more lobes with doors at each contraction.

While the men are finishing the porch and other work outside, the women
take the bedding and household goods from the sled and put the house in
order for the night. The bed is formed by laying, upon the snow, mats of
closely woven branches of a small willow, which separate the deerskins
from the snow. The bedding is composed of several thicknesses of
deerskins, dressed with the hair on; these completely prevent any cold
from penetrating from below. On the bed thus formed rest the deerskin
sleeping bags, which are only closed for about a third of the length at
the bottom, or not at all. The lamp is next put in position, on the
shelf at one side of the house between the door and bed. It is made of
stone, and rests upon three or four short sticks thrust into the snow.
When the soapstone, out of which the lamp is usually made, cannot be
obtained, any other easily worked rock is used. On top the lamp is
roughly triangular in outline, the sides of the triangle being long
concave curves. There is one long side and two equal short ones which
meet each other in a wide angle; this results in a triangle with a base
about twice the length of the vertical. The length varies from ten
inches to more than thirty inches, eighteen being an ordinary length.
The upper surface of the lamp is slightly hollowed to form a receptacle
for the blubber and oil. The lower side is curved so that the lamp has a
thickness varying from an inch to two inches. The lamp is fed with seal
blubber, or deer fat; the former most commonly. The blubber is cut in
thin strips, partly suspended above the lamp on a stick, and a part of
it bruised to start the extraction of the oil. A wick of dry, pulverized
moss is placed around the edge of the lamp, and squeezed deftly into
shape by the finger and thumb, after being moistened in the blubber.
When the wick has been properly arranged, it is usually set alight with
an ordinary match, or with a flint and steel, iron pyrites often taking
the place of flint. The old usage of making fire by friction is seldom
employed, and only in the case of the absence of the easier methods. At
first the flame from the lamp is small, but the heat soon warms up the
stone, and the blubber melts without much attention. As the flame
increases the wick requires considerable manipulation so that the flame
may burn evenly around the lamp and not cause smoke.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF SNOWHOUSE AT FULLERTON.]

The more remote Eskimos suspend an oblong kettle of soapstone over the
flame to melt ice and cook food, but most of the natives, having access
to traders, have largely given up the use of the stone kettle and use
tin ones in its place.

Cooked food, with its accompanying broths, is preferred to raw, but the
Eskimos are not averse to raw meat, especially liver, the fat portions
of the deer and all fish during the winter.

While the women are arranging the interior of the snowhouse, the men are
busy unharnessing the dogs, feeding them with large lumps of seal or
other meat, or with fish, which the dogs devour ravenously after their
twenty-four hours’ fast. The harness and other things liable to be eaten
by the dogs are either hung out of reach or taken into the house. If the
night is stormy a couple of blocks of snow are put to windward of the
hole from which they are taken, thus making a shelter for each dog. Many
of the dogs disdain such shelter, and on the coldest stormy nights lie
curled upon the highest place available, evidently preferring the cold
to being drifted under by the snow in the holes prepared for them. The
Eskimo, as a rule, is very considerate to his dogs, and only treats them
violently at rare intervals. Then he uses the long heavy dog-whip to
some purpose, and the dogs retain for all time the remembrance of it.

When more than one family live in a house, each has its independent
lamp, and the family cooking is kept separate. Seals and other food are,
to some extent, common property; that is, if an Eskimo kills an animal
when alone, he divides it amongst his neighbours, who return the
compliment. When hunting in company the customs vary with the animal
killed and with the tribes; there is a great deal of etiquette observed,
and as a rule each member of the party is entitled to some portion of
the carcass.

The dog-sled on the east coast of Hudson bay, where driftwood is
abundant, varies in length from twelve to twenty feet, sixteen feet
being an average length. The runner is usually formed of one piece the
length of the sled, but in the north, where wood is very scarce, the
sled is shorter, and the runners are frequently formed of two or more
pieces spliced and lashed together with seal line. Where wood cannot be
obtained, whalebones form a substitute, and even ice is sometimes used
as sled-runners.

The runners vary from two to three inches in thickness, and are four to
eight inches deep. They are placed about fifteen inches apart, thus
forming a long narrow sled. They are joined by a number of cross-bars,
which vary from three to six inches in width and are about an inch
thick. They are placed close together when possible, and cover the space
between the runners extending from the rear end for two-thirds the
length of the sled. These cross-pieces are securely lashed to the
runners with seal-line, no nails being used in the construction of the
sled. The ends of the bars project a short distance outside the runners,
and are there nicked for the lash-line with which the load is secured to
the sled. The runners are shod with ivory, bone from the jaw of the
whale, or with hoop iron or steel. Shoeing made of pieces of walrus
ivory is most prized. The ivory is cut into slabs about a half an inch
thick; holes are bored through the slabs at intervals of about an inch,
and the slabs are attached to the runner by wooden pegs through these
holes. The slabs are rarely more than eight inches long, and a great
deal of ingenuity is often displayed in the fitting of them to cover the
bottom of the runner. An ivory-shod sled is one the most valuable
possessions of an Eskimo.

When whalebone is used it is attached to the runner in the same manner
as ivory; that is, with small wooden pegs, but the slabs of bone are
usually several feet in length. Iron or steel are bad substitutes for
bone or ivory, as they offer much more friction in cold weather when the
snow is fine and gritty.

[Illustration: LOADED SLEDS FROM CHESTERFIELD INLET.]

During the period of intense cold, lasting from December to April, the
shoeing of the sled is of mud or lichens, frozen over the regular
shoeing. The best material for this purpose is the dark brown peaty muck
formed from the decay of mosses in swamps. Where this cannot be
obtained, the white reindeer moss is mixed to a thick paste with water.
This shoeing is attached to the runners in the following manner:—when
cotton rags are available, these are wetted and frozen to the bottom of
the runner, so as to cover the shoeing and extend a couple of inches up
both sides of the runner. The muck, which has been boiled to a thick
paste, is then applied warm over the cloth, and is roughly shaped by
hand, so as to have a thickness of about an inch, with a section
resembling the bulb of a heavy steel rail. After being roughly shaped,
the muck is allowed to freeze hard, when it is worked over with a wood
plane, and the inequalities are reduced to a smooth surface. It is then
covered with a thin film of ice, either by lightly running a rag wet
with warm fresh water over the surface, or by squirting a small even
stream from the mouth. Great care is taken to have the iceing uniform,
and every portion of the muck covered. This coating of ice is renewed
every morning, and a sled so shod slips over the intensely cold snow
with much less friction than when shod in any other known manner. As the
weather gets warmer this muck is removed, and the ivory, bone or iron
shoeing used.

The number of dogs in the team varies from eight to two or three, an
average team being six. Each dog has a separate trace. The harness is
formed of two loops of sealskins, which pass under the forelegs, and are
sewn together on the breast and joined by a strip about four inches long
over the shoulders, thus forming an opening for the head. The loops are
brought together in the middle of the back, and the trace is there
attached to their united ends.   The trace is made of a single length of
line cut from the skin of the Big seal (_Phoca barbata_), and varies in
length from ten to thirty feet. The traces are regulated in length, so
that the dogs when pulling straight ahead have the leading dog about two
yards in advance, and the others in pairs about a yard behind each
other. The traces are made long in order that the dogs may not be massed
in passing rough or thin ice, and for the same reason the traces are not
fastened to the front of the sled, but to a loop of walrus line which is
attached at the first bar, or nearly a third of the length back. By this
means the sled is easily turned, and allowed to run at a considerable
angle to the direction in which the dogs are travelling; advantage is
thus taken of the smoothest places when journeying along the broken ice
piled upon the shores. The use of individual traces is not without its
drawbacks. While travelling the dogs constantly cross from side to side
among themselves, and weave their traces into a single rope. Stops must
be made every few hours to untangle the traces. The long trace is also
constantly fouling hummocks while passing over rough ice; when this
occurs the dog is pulled back to the sled by the fouled trace, and if he
does not get hurt physically, at least his pride is offended, so that,
when freed, he usually has a little unpleasantness with every dog he
passes to regain his place in the team. The leading dog answers more or
less satisfactorily to the word of command, and is followed by the other
dogs. The usual commands are to swing right or left, to start and to
stop. The dogs are very acute of hearing, and the words are usually
given in a low tone. When a dog is to receive punishment he is pulled
back in the team and his shortened trace made fast to the sled; the
driver can then give his undivided attention to the whip. A great deal
of dexterity is shown in using the whip, and a lot of time is spent
practising with it. A good whip handler knows at least four or five
different cuts, and can hit within an inch or so anywhere inside the
length of the long lash. The blow is terrific.

[Illustration: A SMALL TEAM AND A HEAVY LOAD.]

When an Eskimo leaves a snow-house, his household goods are removed by
breaking a hole in the side of the wall. They are then loaded on the
sled, and retained by cross-lashings of sealskin passed from side to
side, where they are secured in the niches of the cross-bars.

When the ice has frozen several miles out from the shore many of the
seals remain in the shallow waters of the bays and sounds. In order to
do this they are compelled to keep holes open so that they may breathe
from time to time. They form these holes either by enlarging natural
cracks or, when such do not occur, by scraping with their front flippers
a conical hole big enough to admit their body and with a few inches to
spare at the surface. As the time approaches to bring forth her young,
the female enlarges a hole, usually in rough ice where the snow is
deeply drifted, and there clears away the snow about the hole, forming a
flat-domed house sufficiently large to accommodate herself and her
young. The pups are born in March and April. A seal does not necessarily
confine itself to one or more breathing holes of its own, but uses those
of other seals, so that the chances of killing a seal at any particular
hole varies. The Eskimo now forsakes the edge of the floe and hunts his
seals at these holes. In order to find the holes he employs his keenest
scented dog, harnessed, who soon smells a hole and rushes to it dragging
his master with him. If the hole appears well frequented, and the Eskimo
is anxious to obtain a seal, he takes the dog some distance away and
ties him securely by his trace to the ice. He then returns to the hole,
and clears the snow from about its opening, replacing it with a fresh
thin slab, on which the centre of the hole is plainly marked. If he
intends to remain until a seal comes, he often erects a low wall of snow
to windward, and sometimes places a block close to the hole as a seat. A
piece of deer or bear skin is put down to stand on; he then ties a thong
around his legs at the knees so that they may make no noise by striking
together when shivering with the cold. All preparations being complete,
he stands or sits absolutely motionless for hours until a seal comes to
the hole to breathe. The slightest movement or noise made as the seal
approaches raises suspicion and the animal goes elsewhere. The near
approach is heralded by strings of bubbles formed by the animal emptying
its lungs as it rises to the hole. When its nostrils are above the water
and it begins a series of long inspirations, the Eskimo noiselessly
brings his spear directly over the centre of the hole, and strikes down
with his full strength, hoping to drive the barb into the brain and
immediately kill the seal. This often happens with small ones, but with
the large ground-seal a single blow rarely kills it, and a struggle
between man and victim then takes place. The winter seal spear is from
five to six feet long. It consists of four parts, the barb, the iron rod
on which the head fits, the wooden shaft and the iron ice-chisel at the
end opposite to the spear. The head or barb is now almost always made of
iron, the ancient ones being of stone, or iron and ivory. It is about
three inches long, and quite narrow in proportion to the length; the
point is formed into a slender barbed spear, with a small hole at its
base which fits the iron rod of the handle. Near the centre is another
hole, at right angles to the length, to which is attached several
fathoms of seal line. The rod of the shaft is from fifteen to thirty
inches long, and is usually made from three-eighths or half-inch iron or
steel. At the upper end it is pointed to fit the hole in the base of the
spearhead; at the lower end it is securely fastened to the wooden handle
by being driven into it to the depth of three or four inches, and the
end of the wood is strongly bound with sinew. The wooden handle forms
the middle portion of the spear; it is usually about two feet long, and
of sufficient circumference to afford a strong and convenient grasp. A
small peg of ivory projects about half an inch from the side of the
wooden handle, and over this peg a small loop attached to the spear line
is passed. This keeps the line taut, and holds the head securely in
place on the end of the rod. When a seal is struck the loop slips from
the peg and the spearhead is detached from the handle. In striking a
seal, the handle is held in the right hand and the line in a coil in the
left. Immediately the animal is struck the hunter lays down the handle
and devotes himself to the line. If the seal is a large one and
struggles much, a turn of the line is taken around the waist, and the
hunter braces himself for an encounter, in which the seal is sometimes
the victor. Great care is necessary in paying out the line, for many a
finger has been lost by becoming entangled in a loop. The violently
struggling seal must soon breathe, and to do so is compelled to rise in
the hole; then the hunter endeavours to drive the pointed rod into its
brain, and usually does so very quickly. The hole is then enlarged with
the ice-chisel on the end of the spear handle. The chisel is commonly
made of half-inch square iron or steel firmly sunk into the wooden shaft
and fined down to a long chisel-edge. When the seal has been hauled on
the ice a number of ceremonies are gone through in order to propitiate
its spirit and to please the goddess of the marine animals. One of the
customs consists in bursting the eyes so that the seal’s spirit may not
see that it is being taken to the snow-house. Of course these customs
are falling into disuse among the Christianized Eskimos of Labrador and
Cumberland gulf, but there remains, even among the most enlightened, a
strong leaven of their ancient superstitions and customs.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF SNOWHOUSE AT FULLERTON.]

At every stopping place traps are set for foxes. The trap is usually a
single-spring steel one, of which each native usually has two or three.
The traps are set on the snow and covered with a thin sheet of hard
snow, the bait being hidden alongside. Where steel traps are not
available, long narrow boxes of stone or ice are constructed, with the
bait in the back part, and attached to a dead fall, so that when it is
disturbed, the door falls upon the fox. The Arctic fox is generally
plentiful in the early winter months, when many of them travel southward
along the coast.

The months of January and February are passed by the Eskimos on the
journey to the trading post, where a short stay of a few days is made to
dry the fox-skins caught during the winter, and to trade these along
with deer and other skins in the shop. There is no cash used in these
transactions; the skins are handed over to the trader, who values them
from a standard of a white fox skin. When the amount has been made up,
he hands to the native a number of tokens representing the value of his
hunt in fox-skins. The usual tariff is about as follows:—

         White fox = 1 skin.          Mink = 1 skin.
         Blue fox = 2 skins.          Marten = 2 skins.
         Cross fox = 5 to 15 skins.   White bear = 4 to 10 skins.
         Silver fox = 15 to 40 skins. Deerskin = ½ skin.
         Otter = 4 to 8 skins.

The Eskimo trades back, over the counter, the tokens received for his
hunt. The first purchase is a supply of tobacco; next comes ammunition,
and then follow tools, cheap clothing, needles, tin kettles, knives,
files, &c., until his stock of tokens is used up. The immediate profit
on the goods supplied is very great, but when the cost of transport and
the maintenance of the post are taken into account the profit, which
appears enormous at first, is found to be not excessive, considering the
precarious nature of the fur trade, with its fluctuating market and the
chances against good hunts.

The trading completed, the natives collect in large bands on the ice,
usually in the vicinity of some long crack or other place where seals
are abundant, and spend the next month going from encampment to
encampment visiting friends and exchanging the news. With the first
signs of mild weather a start is made northward. Life now is very
pleasant; the days are long and becoming mild; seals are killed in large
numbers on the ice, as they lie basking and sleeping in the warm sun. A
good deal of patience and some excellent mimicry is displayed in killing
seals at this time. When one is seen lying near its hole, the native
approaches as near as possible, say within 500 yards, when he lies down
and crawls and wriggles the remainder of the distance. During this
operation great care is taken not to excite the animal’s suspicion, and
an advance is only made when the seal’s head is down. A seal appears to
sleep in short naps, and raises his head every few minutes; when he does
so the hunter immediately hides his face, and with his arms and legs
imitates the motions of a seal scratching or lazily rolling, at the same
time mimicking the blowing and other noises made by the seals; by so
doing he soon lulls suspicion, and is enabled to crawl a little closer.
By advancing in this manner he can get within fifty yards of his prey,
when he shoots it. When the native has no gun, he continues to close in
until sufficiently near to kill with his lance; this must, however, be
done quickly, for the seal displays wonderful agility in falling into
the water when disturbed.

Early in May the few families who intend to pass the summer inland leave
the coast and hurry to their destination before the sun melts the snow.
The greater number pass the early summer on the coast.

With the advent of June the snow begins to melt, and soon after the land
becomes bare. This is a period of trial for the house-wife; the warmth
causes the roofs of the snow-houses to leak, and they can only be kept
up by a daily patching with loose snow, while the ground is not
sufficiently bare for the erection of the summer tent; it becomes a
constant fight with the heat and water, terminated only by the roof
falling in. The smell and general filthiness of one of these deserted
spring houses is better left to the imagination; it is indeed beyond
description. During this time, while the ice on the coast still holds,
the men are busily employed killing seals, whose skins are needed to
repair the summer tent and to cover the Eskimo’s boat or kyak. The men
bring in the animals and skin them, after which the skins are handed to
the women to dress. If they are to be used to repair the tent, or for
bags, they are simply dried by stretching them on wooden pegs about six
inches above the ground. If they are required to coyer the kyak, or for
boots, the hair is scraped off with an ordinary chopping knife, against
the grain, and the film is removed from the inner skin. For winter
boots, the hair is rotted off and the skin has a white colour, but it is
not water-proof.

As soon as a convenient level spot of ground is bare of snow the
snow-house is abandoned and the summer tent erected. The tent is of a
ridge-pole pattern, with the ridge from six to ten feet long, resting in
the front in the socket between two crossed poles and at the rear
terminating at the apex of a number of poles which form a half cone to
the back of the tent. The ridge is about six or seven feet high, and the
frame over all about twelve feet long and about nine feet wide on the
ground. The covering is made either of seal or deer skins, except in the
case of a man of wealth, who has a cover of cotton. Both the seal and
deer skins used for this purpose are dressed with the hair on, and are
used with the hairy side exposed.

This is the time to repair, and if necessary make new, wooden frames for
the kyak. The kyak is a long narrow boat sharply pointed at both ends,
and entirely decked over except a small well sufficiently large for the
entrance of a man’s body. The frame is of wood, and is covered with
sealskins sewn together to make a water-tight cover. Each tribe has a
slightly different model, the difference being in the shape of the bow
or stern or in the relative width. The Labrador kyak, common to the
Atlantic coast and Hudson bay and strait, is nearly twenty feet long,
and over two feet wide in the middle, or well section. It has a long
sharp bow, which leaves the water about six feet from the forward end,
where it stands about fifteen inches above the water. The stern is lower
and less sharp, terminating in a knob about a foot long, which projects
slightly above the water. The front of the well is situated about the
middle of the length, so that the opening is in the fore part of the
after-half of the deck. It is roughly oval in shape, and is surrounded
by a wooden combing about six inches deep, so placed as to slope upwards
towards the bow. The boat is propelled by a narrow double paddle. The
frame is made of thin strips of wood forming the gunwales, and of five
or seven additional strips, one of which is the keelson. These are kept
in place by light ribs placed about a foot apart, with corresponding
deck beams. Considerable mechanical skill is displayed in the making of
this frame, which is all fitted together without the use of a single
nail, wooden pegs and sinew lashings being alone used.

[Illustration: ESKIMO KYAK OFF CAPE HAVEN.]

The natives about Cumberland gulf and along the west side of Hudson bay,
who are employed by the whalers, are gradually giving up the use of the
kyak, and now do their hunting and travelling with whaleboats, which are
supplied to them by the whaling vessels. Each vessel at the end of her
voyage generally leaves all spare boats behind. These are distributed
among the natives, and the result is that nearly every family possesses
a boat. The Aivilliks and Kenipitus, of the west coast of Hudson bay,
still make use of the kyak for inland hunting, but the Cumberland people
take their whaleboats into the interior.

The Kenipitu kyak is extraordinary in shape. It is long and narrow and
quite deep, so that the midship section is almost semicircular. The ends
terminate in long narrow points, of which the bow end slopes downward
towards the water and the stern end is inclined upwards. This kyak is so
narrow that the combing of the well sometimes projects beyond the sides.
Being narrow and cranky, a good deal of skill is required to handle
these craft with safety, and accidents caused by upsetting are not
uncommon. These kyaks are covered with parchment deerskin, and are the
only ones painted, various colours being obtained for the purpose from
oxide of iron found in the interior.

As soon as the frame is complete, all the women of the encampment join
in sewing on the sealskin cover, as the operation when started must be
completed at one sitting, before the skins dry. The seams are made with
a double lap, and are quite water-tight. The skin shrinks on drying, and
becomes stretched like a drum over the frame.

The natives have another boat called the umiak or woman’s boat. This is
also made with a wooden frame covered with skins, but it is much larger
than the hunting kyak of the men. In shape it roughly resembles a large
square-ended punt, being often twenty feet and over in length, by six
feet or more across the middle section, and tapering towards the ends to
about half that width. It is made quite deep, and is capable of carrying
a very heavy load. Usually two or more families use a single umiak to
transport their goods from place to place, and as the poles and Big
sealskin covering of each tent weigh upwards of half a ton, the capacity
of these boats can be realized.

The framework is heavy, and the sides are kept in place by a number of
cross thwarts, which also serve as seats for the rowers. The covering is
made from the large skins of the Big seal (_Phoca barbata_), sewn
together in a manner similar to the covering of the kyak. This craft is
rowed by the women, usually with an old man as steersman. It is
propelled by rude oars made from small trees, the handle being formed
from the thick part, while the blades are made by attaching strips on
two sides of the smaller end. Two or more women pull each oar, which
vary in number from two to four.

The only place where such boats are known by the writer to be used is
along the south side of Hudson strait and about Ungava bay. Elsewhere
the whaleboat has been found more convenient, and when the planking is
worn out they are covered with sealskin.

During the month of June the weather is generally fine, and ducks and
geese are plentiful in the open water of the ponds and sea. The ice
becomes very rotten towards the end of the month, and soon after breaks
away from the shores, when the kyaks come into use. This is the most
pleasant season of the year for the Eskimos, and they always sing about
its pleasures in their sing-songs to be described later. Game of all
kinds is abundant; the deer come to the coast at this season; seals are
plentiful in the open water, and walruses are floating about on the
loose ice; the Arctic salmon swarm in the shallow water along the coast,
and thousands of eggs of the sea fowl may be collected from any of the
smaller outer islands. A little later the white porpoise enters the
mouths of the larger rivers in schools, and is killed with the harpoon
and gun from the kyaks. The summer harpoon differs from the winter one,
in that the iron work of the latter is replaced by ivory obtained from
walrus tusks. The handle is stout, and made of wood from four to six
feet long; at one end it is tipped with ivory, with a cone-like socket
in its upper side, into which a similar cone on the lower end of the
ivory shaft fits. The two are joined together by a thong of seal-line
passing through holes in the ivory of each piece about two inches from
their ends. This thong is made tight, and holds the cones in place while
the harpoon is in use and until the head enters some animal, when the
weight of the shaft causes the cones to slip and the shaft hangs loose
from the wooden handle. The shaft is usually made from a single tusk,
and is from twelve to eighteen inches long, but sometimes it is made by
splicing two pieces, and they are joined by bands of lead run through
mortised holes in the two pieces. The shaft in its lower end at the cone
is usually over an inch in diameter, and tapers slowly to the upper end,
where it is about a quarter of an inch thick. There is generally the
natural curve of the tusk in the shaft, so that it is not quite
straight. An ivory head fits the upper end of the shaft, and it is
tipped by an arrow-pointed piece of iron, usually an old knife blade,
let into a slit in the ivory and secured by rivets. The head is about
four inches long, and is pierced near the middle for a seal-line
attached to it. This line is several yards long, and is fastened at its
outer end to a whole sealskin blown up to act as a float and drag to the
animal harpooned. The head of the harpoon is kept in place by a loop on
the line, which fits tightly over a peg on the side of the wooden handle
when the head shaft and handle are adjusted in line. The harpoon is
thrown at the seal, walrus or whale, and its weight is sufficient to
drive the head completely through the skin; the cones between handle and
shaft then turn and disjoint allowing the line to slip off the peg on
the handle, so that the head separates from the remainder, which floats
away. The sealskin bladder is thrown overboard, and after a few wild
rushes the animal comes to the surface, dragging it along. The native
then either shoots, or kills with the lance. The lance is somewhat
similar in construction to the harpoon, but is without the head, the
ivory shaft terminating in a wide steel blade usually cut out of a saw
or large knife, and is without barbs.

The other weapon of the kyak is the duck dart used to entangle the eider
ducks when they become fat and lazy in the late summer. This instrument
consists of a light wooden shaft five or six feet long, with a trident
of deer horn at its upper end. The pieces of horn are from six to eight
inches long, and about half an inch in diameter; their sides are notched
by a number of barbs pointing downwards, and they are so set at the head
of the shaft as to project outwards at an angle of 45°, while each piece
of horn makes an angle of 120° with its neighbours. Similar barbed
prongs are attached to the shaft about a foot from the upper end. The
lower end of the shaft is flattened, and made tapering to fit a groove
in a throwing board held in the hand of the hunter. This dart is very
skilfully thrown many yards, and entangles itself about the necks or in
the wings of the ducks.

[Illustration: SUMMER TENTS AT WAKEHAM BAY.]

As the middle of August approaches, the natives who have been living on
the coast, and who have generally secured several sealskins full of
porpoise or seal oil for the next winter’s use, start inland for the
annual deer hunt, only leaving behind the old people who cannot tramp
long distances. These pick up a living during the absence of the younger
people by fishing and hunting birds. The barren-ground caribou collect
in great bands in September for the mating season and for their annual
migration southward. At this time their skins are in the best condition
for clothing, and the Eskimos kill them at certain localities where they
are known to pass on their way south. These places are often far away
from the summer hunting grounds on the coast. Going to the hunting
grounds the course of some river is generally followed, the men
travelling in their kyaks, while the women, children and dogs all carry
heavy loads overland. The early autumn is spent on the deer grounds, and
a return to the coast is not made until sufficient snow has fallen to
allow of the use of the dog sleds. The men first travel light to the
coast to fetch the sled left there the previous spring. On their return
the heavy, slow work of hauling out the meat and skins commences, and as
several loads are often necessary, with the days very short and the snow
soft, it often happens that Christmas arrives before the coast is again
reached, and the trip for the trading post again undertaken.

This is a short description of the life of an Eskimo living in the
northwestern part of the Labrador peninsula, and is typical of the life
of the free native in the north. Of course, the routine varies in
different localities. On the west side of Hudson bay the Kenipitus live
inland, and depend entirely upon the caribou for food, clothing and
fuel. A large number of these natives only leave their hunting grounds
for short visits to the whalers, to renew their supplies of ammunition
and tobacco, or go to the northward to hunt the musk-ox in the spring.

The Aivilliks of that coast confine themselves chiefly to the seaboard.
Their name signifies walrus hunters, and they go inland in the autumn
only to procure sufficient deerskins for their winter clothing.

The Nechilliks and Igluliks, living farther north, do not often come in
contact with the whalers, and depend largely on their southern
neighbours for ammunition and other articles of civilization. They are
in a much more primitive state, without any modifications in their
ancient customs and beliefs. The greater number are without guns, and
kill their game with the bow and arrow or with the spear.

The other natives on the shores of Fox channel rarely come in contact
with the whites, and are in a similar primitive state. These include the
Padliks and Sikosiliks, and in the same category were the natives of
Southampton island, now all dead.

The Eskimos living about Frobisher bay and Cumberland gulf congregate
about the whaling stations, and remain there for the greater part of the
year. The whaling season in these places is in the fall, spring and
early summer, so the natives have only the latter part of the summer in
which to hunt deer for their winter clothing. The animals are found
abundantly about the great lakes Nettilling and Amadjuak, which are
located far inland to the westward.

The natives of Big island and the north shore of Hudson strait are, as
before mentioned, employed on the Scotch whaling steamer, or at the
stations at Repulse bay and at Lake Harbour, where a mica mine is
worked; consequently they do not follow their old customs.

A whaling station was established in 1903, at Ponds inlet, and the
Eskimos of the northeastern part of Baffin island will soon have their
habits modified by contact with the white men; of all these northern
people only those of eastern Baffin island, together with those of the
Arctic coast to the northwest of Hudson bay, will remain practically
uninfluenced by civilization or Christianity.



[Illustration: AT PONDS INLET.]



                              CHAPTER VII.
                          ESKIMOS (CONTINUED).


The natives of the Labrador peninsula and those of Cumberland gulf,
under the influence of the missionaries, are gradually giving up many of
their ancient beliefs and customs. At present these can only be studied
among the tribes as yet unvisited by the missionaries, such as those of
the northwest coast of Hudson bay, who, although long acquainted with
the whalers, have not been so influenced by them as to change their
superstitions and beliefs.

The writer spent the winter of 1903-04 among the Aivilliks and Kenipitus
on that coast, and paid some attention to these matters, deriving at the
same time a large amount of information from Captain George Comer, of
the whaling schooner _Era_, wintering alongside the _Neptune_. Captain
Comer had already made several voyages to Hudson bay and Cumberland
gulf, on all of which he had made ethnological collections and notes for
the American Museum of Natural History, New York. A considerable amount
of his information has been published by Dr. Franz Boas. With the
exception of the Rev. Mr. Peck, at Cumberland, Captain Comer is probably
the greatest authority upon the manners and customs of the Eskimos.

The different tribes of Eskimos have no hereditary or elected chiefs.
Each tribe is divided into a number of small bands, usually close blood
relations. The head man of each band is nearly always advanced in years,
and holds a sort of patriarchal sway over his sons and younger
relations, altogether due to their willingness to be guided by his
advice and experience and not to any sense of duty. At other times, when
the older men are not forceful in character, a successful younger hunter
largely influences the actions of the band. The authority of the leader
is not great, and he never asserts it by direct orders issued to the
other men; if he wants anything done he asks them if they are willing to
do it; any member is quite at liberty to refuse, and to follow his own
judgment or inclinations.

The head man is usually an _Angekok_, conjuror or medicine man, and in
consequence derives some power over the band through their
superstitions. It is not quite clear if more than one angekok belongs to
each band, but they are quite numerous, and it seems likely, therefore,
that the number is not limited to one.

As regards the family relations among the uncivilized Eskimos, the
marriage tie is very loose, and can easily be broken by either party.
This is often done for the most trivial cause. The Eskimos practise
polygamy, and in some tribes, polyandry, where there are fewer women
than men. Many of the men have but one wife, owing to their inability to
support more, the successful hunter being known by the number of his
wives, although two is the usual limit. There does not appear to be any
ceremony in connection with marriage, beyond a present to the nearest
male relative, who gives his consent to the union.

Divorce is common, the chief causes being failure to produce male
children and incompatibility of temper. When a woman is divorced she
returns to her family, taking her children with her, and both parties
are free to form a new alliance.

Jealousy caused by infidelity on the part of the wife is exceedingly
rare, the man taking rather a pride in the appreciation of his wife’s
charms by others. The women are jealous of one another, and I have seen
a wife take away her husband whom she found dancing on board the ship
with another woman.

An exchange of wives is customary, after certain feasts, or after the
angekok has performed his conjuring tricks, either to cure sickness or
to take away the effects of the breaking of some of the many taboos.
These customs make polyandry easy where it is found necessary, as in the
case of the Nechilliks, or where only one woman accompanies a hunting
party.

As a rule the women are treated fairly by their husbands, and it is only
in the case of a shrew, or of constant neglect of attention to the
cooking and other household duties, that corporal punishment is resorted
to; but when administered, it is severe.

The missionaries are exerting their influence to make the Eskimos
monogamous; this is probably a mistake. In a greater number of the bands
there are more women than men. Under their old customs, a man had as
many wives as he could support, and all of them were nearly on an
equality. Under the new practice he has but one wife, and the other
women whom he supports have no standing in the household, being domestic
drudges and concubines.

The Eskimos display a great deal of affection for their children,
especially if they are boys. Corporal punishment is rarely, or never,
inflicted, and does not appear to be required. In the case of orphans,
or where a man is childless, adoption often takes place, a child
sometimes being bought from its parents. Adopted children are rarely
treated harshly. Instances of the destruction of female children are
known, but they are rare.

The aged are respected, and as a rule well looked after. In cases of
starvation, the aged sometimes voluntary elect to be left to starve, or
die of cold; in rare cases of this kind, old people, or cripples, have
been known to be abandoned, but it has generally been a choice between
being embarrassed by these weaklings and all perishing, or of leaving
them on the chance of the remainder of the party surviving.

Cases of murder and cannibalism during periods of starvation have been
authenticated among the natives of the west shore of Hudson bay, and
have been reported among other tribes, but are resorted to only in
extreme cases.

Murder from private reasons is very rare, and entails a blood feud
unless a settlement can be made by presents to the nearest relatives of
the murdered man.

If an individual becomes dangerously obnoxious, or insane, a
consultation of the men of the band is held, and one or more of them are
deputed to remove the criminal or lunatic; in such a case the
individuals acting are held blameless in the matter.

Supposed incurables commit suicide, which is not looked upon as a crime,
as suicides are supposed to go, after death, to an upper heaven along
with other good people.

When a death occurs, the body is sewn up and kept for some time in the
iglo, after which it is drawn to a convenient spot on the land, and
there covered with boulders as a protection against dogs, wolves and
foxes. The body is removed from the snowhouse through a hole cut in the
side, and not through the door. The reason for keeping the body a few
days is due to the belief that the spirit hovers about it during that
time before departing, and might be displeased if it were buried
immediately.

There appears to be a great deal of doubt in regard to the action of the
soul after death, and at times one is led to think that the Eskimos
believe in a dual soul, one of which leaves the body and its
surroundings shortly after death, the other remaining in its environment
and gradually departing for longer and longer periods as the body
decays.

A number of customs are observed after death among the Aivilliks and
Kenipitus. No work or hunting is permitted for five days, and the women
confine themselves closely to the house. During this period the snow
must not be scraped from the ice window, the bed must not be shaken, nor
the willow mats disturbed; the drippings from the lamp must remain, and
snow for melting must not be cut. The women are forbidden to wash faces,
comb hair or dry boots. The men must not work on iron, wood, stone or
ivory. Some of these regulations extend beyond the period of five days.
The belongings of the dead are not used by the others, and, if they
cannot be traded to the whites, are abandoned. When a man dies, his gun
and hunting implements are laid beside his grave, and allowed to remain
there for a certain time, until his spirit is supposed to have no
further use for them, having ceased to remain with the body, or until
the spirit is supposed to have forgotten about them. In the case of a
woman, articles of a personal nature of use to the spirit are put
alongside her grave. For some time after death visits are made to the
grave, and one-sided ‘conversations’ are held with the spirit there to
show respect and to keep it from becoming lonely; at the same time small
presents of tobacco or other articles are left at the grave.


                       SUPERSTITIONS AND BELIEFS.

It is an exceedingly difficult task to arrive at any sure idea of the
beliefs of the Eskimo. In the first place, they are themselves somewhat
hazy as to what they do believe concerning the soul and a future state;
secondly, an intimate knowledge of the language is needed to catch their
ideas on these subjects, and thirdly, one must be very intimate with
them and have acquired their respect before they will, from fear of
ridicule, discuss such subjects.

They all appear to have a belief in a supreme goddess, called Nuliayok
on the western side of Hudson bay, and Sedna by the eastern Eskimos. The
folk-lore in connection with these two goddesses points to the same
origin for both, and is almost identical. The tradition is that Nuliayok
was a coy Eskimo maiden who would not marry any of the young men. She
was wooed by the fulmar, a gull, who spoke in a pleasing manner of the
life she would lead with him. He so worked upon the senses and feelings
of the maiden that she consented to accompany him to his island home as
his wife. On arriving there she found that she had been cruelly
deceived, and that the splendid house was nothing but a nest of sticks
perched upon the high bare rocks, without any shelter from the snows or
winds. The abundant food promised turned out to be nothing but rotten
fish, and to add to her other discomforts she was jostled by the other
fulmars, so that she often had difficulty in preserving her place on the
rock. There was plenty of time for regret before she managed to send
word to her father, requesting him to come to her rescue, which he did.
Her father’s name was Anautelik, and he took her away in his boat during
the absence of the fulmar. When the latter discovered his loss, he
caused a great storm, and Anautelik, to preserve his own life, threw his
daughter overboard, but she clung to the side of the boat, and he cut
off her fingers, one by one, to make her release her hold. As her
fingers dropped into the sea they changed into the whale, walrus, big
seal and the small seal, so originating the sea animals. Her father next
knocked one of her eyes out, after which she let go of the side of the
boat and went to the world beneath the sea, where she became queen,
living in a house built of stone and whalebone, and guarded by her
husband, the dog. She cannot walk, but ‘hunches’ over the ground with
one foot beneath her body. Her father was also drowned later, and now
lives with her, wrapped up in his tent cover, and is employed torturing
the souls of the wicked. The souls of sea animals go to her after
remaining three days by the body after death. This is the reason a great
deal of respect is shown to the bodies of these animals, and is the
origin of a number of taboos in connection with them. If the soul is
displeased on its departure for the abode of Nuliayok it informs her,
and causes her hands to swell; then she revenges herself by bringing
ill-luck or sickness upon the Eskimos. If all the ceremonies are
properly observed they please the soul of the animal, and other animals
will allow themselves to be killed by such considerate people.

It thus appears that the Eskimos existed before their goddess, there
being no legend regarding the first Eskimo. The Eskimo story differs in
regard to the origin of the white race and the Indians, who are the
offspring of Nuliayok and her dog. One story runs that Nuliayok was
deceived by the dog, who took the form of a young man. When her father
found her with a litter of white and red pups he was very angry, and
placed her with her strange progeny upon an island, sending food to her
by the dog. Later he drowned the dog, and brought her food in his kyak.
Nuliayok, to revenge the death of the dog, set the pups on her father,
and so killed him. Being now without any source of food for herself or
the pups, she made two large slippers; into one she put the white pups
and into the other the red, and set them afloat before a north wind, so
that they landed on southern lands and became the ancestors of the
whites and the Indians.

There is a goddess of the land-animals called Pukimma, who appears to be
closely identified with Nuliayok, and may be the same personage under a
different name.

[Illustration: AIVILLIK WOMAN IN GALA DRESS.]

The Eskimos have in addition to a number of legends concerning the
creation of the animals many other folk-lore tales, all of a lewd
character, and often without point.

The ideas concerning the future state of the soul are confused and often
contradictory. There appear to be three degrees of heaven, all situated
above the earth. The conditions are heavenly according to the Eskimo
view, which pictures such places as being bright and warm, with plenty
to eat and wear, and little to do. It is probable that the idea of
eternity is beyond the comprehension of the Eskimos. They believe that
the soul of the departed will enter the body of a child named after it,
and remain for a year, with later continued influence upon the child’s
character.

As before mentioned, the souls of suicides go to the upper spirit world
along with those who have observed all the taboos. The transgressor of
the taboos, and men lost by being carried away on the ice, go to the
nether world, where they are tormented for a time by the father of
Nuliayok.


                                TABOOS.

The uncivilized native has a great many strict rules to observe in
regard to the modes employed in killing animals, and the manner and time
of eating certain flesh. There are also rules regarding work on
different materials. If these rules are not closely observed the souls
of the animals become displeased, and report the transgression to
Nuliayok, who shows her displeasure by bringing sickness, ill-luck in
hunting, or some other calamity upon the band in this life, and punishes
the individual in the next. When the taboos have been broken they can
only be condoned by open confession, in the presence of an angekok, who,
through his familiar spirit, reports the confession to Nuliayok, and the
sin is forgiven.

The following are a few of the many rules which must be observed: The
most heinous crime is the concealment by a woman of a miscarriage, and
is the source of the greatest calamities. A woman so unfortunate must
confess immediately to the angekok, but as the confession practically
ostracizes her for several months, the temptation to conceal her mishap
is great. A pregnant woman is debarred from eating several kinds of
meat. After childbirth she is unclean for two or three months, and for
the first month cannot visit any house in the community. A similar rule
applies to women during their menses. A woman who has recently lost a
relative must not work on deerskins, pluck ducks, take the hair off
sealskins nor mention the names of the animals. When the men are away
hunting on the ice the women must not disturb the bedding, as it will
make cracks in the ice, and seal-line used in hunting must be cut
diagonally for the same reason. When the sun first returns in the spring
the children blow out the lamp in the snow-house. During the time that
the sun is travelling south cat’s-cradle is played by the women and
children to entangle the sun in the meshes and prevent it being lost by
continuing south; the cup-and-ball game is played to hasten its return.

Among the many taboos relating to the killing of animals the following
may be mentioned: The bear is under the protection of two goddesses,
Angeakatille and Ouhowjawtil, who live in an iceberg. No work must be
done for three days after a bear is killed, and the women must not comb
their hair, nor disturb the bedding. No cannibal may eat bear flesh,
lest it should create a taste for human flesh. The newly-killed seal has
its eyes punctured, so that its spirit may not see that it is being
taken to the snow-house. When the carcass is brought into the house
fresh snow is dipped into the kettle and the water from it is dripped
over the seal’s mouth. Before going sealing, for the first time on the
ice, a fire of shrubs is made, and the clothing and implements of the
hunter are thoroughly smoked in it. The key block of the snow-house is
at the same time scored in all directions with the knife, to ensure good
luck in hunting and to keep away disease; a white piece of deerskin and
thread are put on the ice for the same purposes. Seal bones must not be
given to the dogs. The souls of the sea animals abhor dead bodies and
blood, which must therefore be avoided by hunters. This rule applies
especially to women during their periods. Everybody in the encampment
may eat freely of the seals killed by the successful hunter, but none of
the meat must be removed from his house.

[Illustration: NECHILLIK WOMAN.]

During the deer hunt no work must be done with sealskin. The winter
clothes and tents must be buried, while no seal or walrus line may be
taken inland. When hunting deer from the kyak on the inland lakes a
small piece of sealskin is deposited under a stone on the margin of the
lake.

When the musk-ox hunt is in progress, the hair must not be removed from
deerskins, and no work with iron may be undertaken.

All deerskin garments must be made on the land, and not after the family
has moved upon the ice, until the March moon, when the women are allowed
to work at deerskins in an iglo on the land, but not on a day when a
walrus has been killed. Soapstone is another material which must not be
worked on the ice. No work may be undertaken on sealskins killed during
the winter, until the seals have pupped. The tusks of freshly killed
walrus must not be removed from the skull until the winter, but work may
be done during the season on tusks taken before the new ice forms.

When on the ice, deer meat must be taken into the house through a hole
in the side and not by the door, until after the March moon, when both
deerskins and meat may be taken through the door. Deer must not be eaten
on the same day with seal or walrus, except in the walrus season, when
it may be eaten with the latter. Clothing must be changed before eating
seal in the walrus season.

The first salmon must be caught before work on bootlegs begins, and
boots worn while hunting walrus must not be used when salmon fishing.
Salmon is always cooked over shrub fires outside the tent, and in
vessels used only for that purpose; consequently fish taken in the
winter are eaten raw.

Amulets in the shape of small pieces of skin or cloth are sewn to the
under coat by the wife of an angekok to ward off sickness and to bring
good luck. Many of these are decorated with beads. The tip of the deer’s
tail is sewn to the tail of the coat for success in hunting, and when
sewn to the coat of a boy ensures his becoming a successful hunter. A
gull’s feather dipped in the drippings of the lamp is placed between the
harpoon and spear line, and so carried to the ice, where the hunter
sucks the feather and spits in the water in order that the walrus may
not know that it is being hunted. The dried skin of a newly-born
lemming, when attached to the float of a walrus harpoon, prevents the
animal from attacking the boat when wounded, and the skin of a lemming
carried in the boat ensures safety.

There are numerous other charms used, together with invocations and
songs for success in hunting.


                                ANGEKOK.

The angekok, or medicine man, is believed by the other Eskimos to
possess supernatural powers, whereby he can charm away sickness, lighten
the displeasure of Nuliayok when she sends famine and misfortune to the
band, put the evil-eye or something similar on those who displease him,
and see into the future. He is supposed to do this by the aid of a
familiar spirit called his tonwak, which usually assumes the form of
some animal—often that of a walrus.

To become an angekok it is necessary to receive instructions in the
mysteries from some other angekok, and usually more than one take part
in the instruction and initiation of the candidate. After being
instructed, the novice has a series of incantations performed over him
by the assembled angekoks, who dance round him, uttering charms. He is
then taken to his home and left for several days in solitude, during
which time he meditates and prays for his tonwak to appear; this usually
happens after several days, when all that remains to make him a
full-fledged angekok is to learn words used by them and unknown to the
uninitiated.

The angekok prepares for a séance, either behind a blanket in the tent
or in the porch of the snow-house. Some of them appear to be able to
work themselves into a sort of mesmeric trance, when they pretend to be
able to transport their spirits to distant scenes and tell what is
happening there. They also undertake to foretell the results of future
hunts, and whether success or failure will follow certain undertakings.
In sickness the angekok works all his cures by charms, the Eskimos being
entirely without medicines. He ascribes all sickness to the breaking of
certain taboos, either by the sick person or by some close relative.

They perform a number of simple conjuring tricks for the benefit of
their audience. I was present at a séance at Cape Fullerton, where two
angekoks officiated. They made their preparations in the porch out of
sight of the audience, who were arranged in rows on the bed, and who all
kept crying ‘atte atte,’ inviting the angekok to enter. Each woman wore
a small piece of deerskin on the top of her head. A long conversation
was held with the angekok outside, before he finally entered. He first
essayed to describe the place whence I came, and in this he was not very
successful. He then told us the locality of the Eskimos who had taken
our mail south some weeks before; this ended the first part of the
performance. The next time, he entered in the form of his familiar
spirit, the walrus, and to simulate it had a pair of small tusks
fastened into his mouth. Being angry, he tried to strike the natives
with the tusks, and was only prevented by considerable force. He was
finally ejected, and pursued by the other angekok, who could be heard
chasing the walrus several times over the iglo. A violent struggle
ensued. The pursuer returned to the iglo a few minutes later with his
hands and arms covered with blood, claimed to be that of the walrus
spirit. The other came in, a few minutes later, quite unconcerned about
the amount of blood he was supposed to have lost. The second angekok now
attempted the same trick, but during the scuffle inside the iglo caught
one of his tusks in a coat, which pulled it from his mouth. He
immediately retired, and felt very bad about the mishap. Later he came
to me and asked to be excused from working the next day, which he must
spend alone appeasing his tonwak, while all his household had to fast
for twenty-four hours. The final act was performed by the successful
angekok, who said that he would attempt to make some angekok tobacco.
While he was making his preparations a number of fresh blocks of snow
were brought in, and a depression hollowed out in each for cuspidors, as
no person must spit on the floor after smoking angekok tobacco. He
explained that angekok tobacco tasted differently from ordinary tobacco,
and that if we found this peculiar taste, of course the thing was
proved. He then clumsily palmed a small piece of black tobacco between
his hands, and shredded it fine, after which it was placed in a new clay
pipe, lighted, and passed round the assembly.


                              AMUSEMENTS.

The Eskimos are firm believers in the old adage that all work and no
play makes Jack a dull boy, and all join heartily in outdoor and indoor
sports. Football is the popular outdoor amusement, and men, women and
children join in kicking about the ice a ball of feathers or deer hair
covered with deerskin. There do not appear to be any rules, each playing
for himself. There is another ball game, where the ball is batted with
the open hand backwards and forwards, the object being to prevent it
from touching the ground. Wrestling is indulged in by the young men; in
this no tripping is allowed, and a throw must be made from a shoulder
hold. Boxing as we understand it is not practised, but they have hitting
contests, where one man stands unguarded and allows another to hit him
as powerful a blow as he is capable of, on the understanding that the
blow may be returned under similar conditions. When such a contest takes
place between strangers it often leads to the vanquished one, if at
home, revenging himself upon the stranger with his knife, and altogether
this is a rather dangerous pastime for grown men, although good for
boys. The children play out-of-doors during the daylight, having usually
miniature sleds to which they attach themselves, or the pups.

Among the indoor amusements are a number of games of skill. A very
popular game is played by suspending a small ring of ivory by a string
to the roof; another string, steadied by a weight, hangs below the ring,
often in a vessel of water to prevent it swinging too violently. The
string is twisted so that the ring revolves rapidly, and all stand round
and attempt to pierce it with small wooded lances. A prize is given to
the first successful one, who in turn donates a prize to the second, and
so on. Another game is a variety of the cup-and-ball game. A piece of
ivory, roughly carved to represent a bear or some other animal, is
pierced full of holes and is attached by a short string to a small ivory
pencil. The play consists in tossing the large piece into the air and
piercing it with the stylus, different values being assigned to the
different holes. Cat’s-cradle is the constant amusement of the women and
children, and they have a great number of figures unknown to the
ordinary player in civilization. The Eskimos do not appear to have the
gambling spirit strongly developed, and have few games of chance. One of
these consists in guessing the number of articles held in the closed
hand; another is played with small slabs of ivory, resembling dominoes,
but having a greater number of spots on them; the slabs are thrown in
the air, and the number of spots are counted on the slabs that fall
right side up. A circular disc of ivory, usually with sawn edges, is
threaded on a loop of sinew and made to revolve in the same manner as
our own small boy spins a large button.

The girls have dolls made of wood, and cleverly clothed to represent
their elders. The carving of walrus ivory passes many an hour of the
long winter. As a rule the carvings are rude representations of various
animals and other animate objects, and have no high value as objects of
art, but occasionally there arises a real artist, who when encouraged
will produce wonderfully artistic models of the various animals, men,
dog-sleds and almost anything suggested to him. Others are expert in
making models of kyaks and hunting gear.

A common amusement, accompanied by more or less ceremony, is the
sing-song. When such a performance takes place all the natives of the
band congregate in one of the larger houses, sitting around on every
available spot. The writer attended one of these sing-songs given in
honour of some visiting natives at Cape Fullerton. The ceremony
commenced by an elderly native standing out in the middle of the floor
space, and beginning to hop gently about. His wife then started the
song, being accompanied in the chorus by the other women of his band.
The song is sung a line at a time, in a minor key, the air being
confined to about three notes. After each line the chorus of two lines
is sung, and is somewhat like, ‘Ai yea yae yaeyaeya yae’ repeated twice.
While the song is in progress the man dances and hops about the floor,
occasionally uttering in a loud voice, we-hew! we-hew! The song belongs
to the man, and is his own composition, and is composed in a rough metre
to suit the air, but does not rhyme, and no great attention is paid to
the rhythm. The sentiments are at times poetic. In this particular song
praise was given to the springtime, and a longing was expressed for its
arrival; mention was also made of the trials of women at childbirth, and
wishes were formulated for good luck to the hunters. The song continued
upwards of an hour, after which one of the strangers was invited to
sing, and on his taking the floor was presented by the old man with a
hatchet as a mark of courtesy. The stranger was a Kenipitu from
Chesterfield inlet, and as he was not accompanied by his wife he had
himself to sing his song, which he did in a loud voice. The Kenipitu
women of the neighbourhood loyally supported him in the chorus. He first
thanked the donor of the hatchet for his magnificent present, of which
he would make valuable use. He next described the country from whence he
came, and said that he was acquainted with the hunting of the sea
animals. He expressed a wish to be a great and successful hunter, and
deprecated the waste of animals killed for food. By this time he was
fairly exhausted and his voice became very hoarse. He was followed by
another of the Aivillik tribe, but as there is a limit to the amount of
foul air and pungent odour that a white man can stand, it was at this
stage of the proceedings that the writer fled.

[Illustration: KENIPITU BELLES AT FULLERTON.]

The songs sometimes are varied; when the singer ridicules his neighbour
(and an Eskimo’s joke is often much broader than it is pointed), the
song is liable to breed ill-feeling; on this account the Christianized
Eskimos of the east side of Hudson bay no longer indulge in this
amusement, but sing hymns instead.

During the absence of the men on hunting expeditions, the women
sometimes amuse themselves by a sort of female ‘angekoking.’ This
amusement is accompanied by a number of very obscene rites, which were
better left unrecorded.


                               GARMENTS.

The winter garments of the Eskimo are made from the skins of animals,
while only those who can procure European clothing wear anything but
skins throughout the year. For winter clothing deerskin is by far the
best, and is always used where it can be obtained. When this material is
not available, sealskin, or the skins of foxes, wolves, bears and dogs
is used, and sometimes the skins of birds. For the summer garments,
sealskin is the common material, while waterproof clothing is made from
the intestines of the Big seal.

The clothing of both sexes consists of a coat, breeches, stockings and
boots. In the winter two suits are worn, the inner with the hair next to
the body and the outer one with the hair exposed. The man’s coat is
usually made to descend a short distance below the hips, and is cut
plain on the bottom. There are no openings in the coat, and it is drawn
on over the head. It terminates above in a hood, provided with a drawing
string, so that in cold weather the opening may be closed tightly about
the face. The bottom is often provided with a fringe hanging several
inches below the garment, and made by cutting a band of deerskin into
narrow thongs. This fringe becomes entangled with the hair of the lower
garment, and serves as a wind-break. The coat, or kulitang, varies
somewhat in shape in the various tribes, and the style seems at times to
be due to the fancy of the individual. On the east side of Hudson bay
the coats are of a moderate length; among the northern Eskimo of
Greenland they are quite short and barely reach the tops of the breeches
when the man is standing upright, while a wide section of the back is
exposed when he bends over. Along the west coast of Hudson bay, among
the Aivilliks and Kenipitus, the men’s coats are long, and often have a
short apron and tail like those of the women. They are also ornamented
by the insertion of white patches of deerskin in the backs and on the
sleeves. This white skin is only worn by the women of other tribes. The
inner suit is made from light summer skins, while the outer ones are
heavy and thick, and are from the deer killed late in the autumn.

The breeches are made loose, and reach from the thigh to a short
distance below the knee, where they are quite open to provide
ventilation. They are secured to the body by a string in the waistband
and have no openings.

[Illustration: KENIPITU WOMAN IN WINTER DRESS.]

The winter boots are usually made of the skin from the legs of the deer,
carefully matched and sewn, and the feet are made with the hair inside,
so that a pair of low shoes may be worn over them when travelling on the
sled. Deerskin socks are worn inside the boots; they are both long and
short, and are worn with the hair inside. A pair of deerskin mitts, worn
with the hair outside, complete the ordinary costume of a man, but
sometimes, in very cold weather, a pair of dogskin shoes are slipped
over the ordinary foot-gear when travelling on the sled, as the Eskimo
is very careful that his extremities are kept warm and dry.

A man’s summer clothing of sealskin corresponds closely to his deerskin
suit. All the garments, except the boots, are made from skins dressed
with the hair on, and the hairy side is worn outside. The skins of the
fœtid seal are commonly used for this purpose, and it is only a very
fortunate swell who has a suit from the skins of the harbour seal. The
boots are made of skins from which the hair has been shaved off. For the
tops, the skin of the fœtid seal is used, the bottoms being made from
the thicker skin of the big seal.

The women’s clothing consists of garments similar to those worn by the
men, but they are cut differently. The coat, in the body, is much
looser, and the hood is larger and more open, being prolonged into the
back to form a receptacle for the baby, who is carried naked there, the
weight being supported by two thongs sewn to the shoulders in front and
which, crossing the breast are attached under the arms. Unlike the men’s
coats, those of the women have an apron, reaching nearly to the knee in
front, and a longer tail behind. The inner coat is often ornamented with
beads or fancy strips of skin, while the outer garment is decorated with
strips and patches of white deerskin, all very neatly _appliqué_. On the
east side of Hudson bay the women wear breeches and boots very similar
in cut to those of the men, but on the west coast they are quite
dissimilar. There the breeches are very loose, and reach almost to the
ankles, where they are gathered in. Between the knee and ankle they have
a curious bag on the outer side of the leg, which is used for their feet
when seated within the snow-houses, the footwear being removed and the
feet withdrawn inside the breeches and thrust into these bags—a very
comfortable plan. With such long and clumsy looking breeches, short
shoes and socks must be worn.

The women arrange their hair in different fashions, often attempting to
follow those set by their more civilized sisters of the trading
stations. For example, the prevailing fashion on the east side of Hudson
bay is to wear the hair cut short, like that of the wife of the officer
of the Hudson’s Bay Company at Great Whale river. About Cumberland gulf
the hair is usually put up in a knot on the back of the head, and this
is sometimes varied by small side knots over the ears. Among the
Aivilliks and Kenipitus, the prevailing fashion is two rolled braids
wound with string or ribbon, one over each ear. The hair when dressed
for native state occasions is separated into two side locks, each of
which is covered by a highly ornamented covering sewn with beads, and
worn as long cylinders hanging down over the breasts.

The children’s clothing, when they wear any, is very similar to that of
the grown people, except that the girls, until they are nearly mature,
are not provided with tailed coats. Infants are carried perfectly naked
in their mother’s hoods until they are about two years old.


                         MORAL CHARACTERISTICS.

The Eskimo as a rule is strictly honest, and the occasional thief is
looked down upon by the wild native as well as by the partly civilized
one. Not quite as truthful as they are honest, they still compare
favourably in that respect with the white men. When the source of a lie
is traced it is found to be due to a mistaken politeness, the native
intending to please by answering in a manner which he thinks will be
agreeable to the questioner. Another cause is due to the etiquette of
the people, whereby a man always belittles his success in hunting or
other actions. When these reasons are unknown to the casual stranger
among these people he classes them as liars, when the case is not so,
for an Eskimo seldom, or never, makes a false statement to shield
himself from the consequences of ill-doing. Of course there are black
sheep in every flock, and the Eskimos have their share of them.

Judged by the standards of sexual morals of civilization, the Eskimo is
a minus quantity; but who is to say what is right in this respect among
a people situated as they are.

In temperament they are phlegmatic and slow to anger, being good-natured
rather than otherwise, but like all savages, liable to ungovernable
bursts of rage when roused. As a rule they are proud and independent,
with a greater sense of gratitude for favours received than their Indian
neighbours.

They are not cleanly in their habits, and this is not surprising
considering that for the greater part of the year they must melt all the
water they use. The length of time required for the decay of animal
matter in the cool northern regions renders personal or culinary
cleanliness a matter of sentiment and not of health, and they do not pay
great attention to sentiment.

Being accustomed from childhood to the strong odours of seal blubber and
rancid meat, they are not at all delicate in their senses of taste and
smell, and it occasionally happens that their liking for tainted meat
ends disastrously, especially when a rotten porpoise furnishes the food.
The writer knows of several deaths due to poisoning from this cause.

As a people, they are very hospitable and kind; but like other savages
would probably soon tire of continuous efforts to support helpless
whites cast upon them, especially when the guests assume a superiority
over their hosts.



[Illustration: UPPER ENCAMPMENT, CHESTERFIELD INLET.]



                             CHAPTER VIII.
                                GEOLOGY.


The following summary of the geology of the northeastern coast of
America and of the Arctic islands is based, so far as the southern and
eastern portions of that region are concerned, upon the observations
made on the cruise of the _Neptune_, and is supplemented by the reports
of previous explorers in the areas beyond the limit of the voyage of
that vessel. The geological work of the Arctic explorers until recent
years was necessarily poor and disconnected owing to the absence of
trained men, and to such work being of secondary importance among the
objects of the expeditions.

The observations of these earlier explorers were carefully gathered from
the different narratives, and ably summarized by Dr. G. M. Dawson in a
report on the Geology of the Northern Portion of the Dominion of Canada,
published in 1886. This work has been largely followed in the present
report, but such corrections have been made as are justified by the
knowledge gained in explorations since the date of its publication.

The notes on the geology of the southern part of Baffin island are from
the observations of Dr. R. Bell, while those on Ellesmere island and the
Sverdrup islands are based on the work of P. Schei, the geologist of the
_Fram_.

The rocks of the Arctic islands and of the northern coasts of the
continent present an almost continuous ascending series from the Archæan
to the Tertiary, while the upper loose material represents various
phases of the Glacial age and of the subsequent Post-Glacial deposits.

Only isolated attempts have been made to subdivide the Archæan complex
into Laurentian, Huronian and other members of the system. This lack of
subdivision is due to want of detailed knowledge; not to the absence of
the various members of the complex in these northern regions, where the
greater number of the members are known to occur.

The Palæozoic rocks are well represented on the islands by thick
deposits extending upwards in a continuous series from the
Cambro-Silurian to the upper beds of the Carboniferous. Rocks older than
the Galena-Trenton are only found in the northern part of Ellesmere
island, where a series of beds appears to connect the Upper Huronian
formations with the lower members of the Cambro-Silurian.

Mesozoic rocks are found on the northern Parry islands, on the Sverdrup
group and on the western and northern sides of Ellesmere island.

Tertiary formations occur on the northwestern islands, on the northern
part of Ellesmere, as well as on the northern and eastern parts of
Baffin island.

The former presence of a continental ice-cap is attested along the
northwestern shores of Hudson bay and in the southern part of Baffin
island, by the rounded and polished rock surfaces, which are everywhere
well marked by the ice striae, often in several sets showing changes in
the direction of the ice movement. On the east side of Baffin the rock
surfaces show signs of rounding and smoothing by ice, but the striae are
not well marked, and the glaciation does not appear to have been nearly
so intense as to the south and westward. Passing northward up the
western side of Davis strait and Baffin bay the evidence of intense
glaciation becomes less and less, that on Ellesmere the present
condition of the local ice-covering would appear to represent nearly as
great an amount of glaciation as ever occurred there.

The sequence of earth movements and physical conditions, read from the
geological formations of the northeast, are as follows: An ancient floor
of crystalline rocks, largely of igneous origin, represents the most
ancient crust of the earth. These, associated with ancient bedded
deposits and cut by dark basic intrusions of trap and allied rocks, were
at a very early period so crushed and foliated that it is now impossible
to separate them. Upon this ancient complex was laid down a series of
bedded deposits, chiefly sandstones and dolomites, associated with
contemporaneous traps, as may be seen along both the shores of Smith
sound. Following this came a great outburst of granite and other acidic
igneous rocks which, over large areas, inclosed, penetrated, compressed
and otherwise altered the sedimentary deposits to such an extent that it
is now impossible to separate them from the older complex upon which
they were originally deposited. Only in a few comparatively small areas
were the conditions of the granite intrusion such as to allow the
sedimentary deposits to preserve their original unaltered conditions.
All the above rocks are grouped in the Archæan, and further and closer
examination will probably show that it contains all the members of the
Laurentian and Huronian found in the more southern Archæan regions of
Canada.

Except in the northern part of Ellesmere, there is a considerable
time-break in the geological sequence in the northeast between the
Archæan rocks and the Cambro-Silurian strata which rest unconformably
upon them. Schei found at Bache peninsula, on the eastern side of
Ellesmere, a series of stratified sedimentary rocks resting upon the
northern flank of the Archæan and containing fossils of Cambrian age.
These deposits have a thickness of nearly 1,500 feet, and are overlaid
by limestones containing Cambro-Silurian fossils.

The Archæan rocks at the time of deposition of the lower beds of the
Cambro-Silurian limestones appear to have extended southward from the
vicinity of Bache peninsula in a gradually widening ridge along the
western side of Baffin bay and Davis strait. In this manner they
attained a width of seventy miles on the southern side of North Devon,
and occupied the entire southern shore of Baffin island, being separated
from the great area of Labrador by the depression of Hudson strait,
which probably existed at that early period. Islands of Archæan rocks
may also have risen above the surface of the Cambro-Silurian sea in the
present island of North Somerset and on Melville and Boothia peninsulas,
as well as on other portions of the northern coasts of the mainland, to
the west of Hudson bay.

The western Cambro-Silurian sea filled the present depression of Hudson
bay, and extended far to the south and westward of its present limits,
outliers of limestone containing fossils of this age, and very similar
in mineral character, being found in the valleys of the great lakes of
Manitoba. From Manitoba these rocks have been traced southward into the
United States, so that at the time of their deposition the
Cambro-Silurian sea occupied a great basin open to the Arctic ocean and
extending southward into the middle of the continent.

This was the time of maximum encroachment of the northern ocean, after
which the land gradually rose, and the sea slowly receded. Owing to the
great lapse of time and the eroding of the thick ice-cap in the more
southern regions, it is exceedingly difficult to now trace the
boundaries of the narrowing sea during Silurian and Devonian times.
Cambro-Silurian limestones containing fossils which refer them to the
Galena-Trenton, are widespread over the northern islands and in a wide
margin along the western and southern shores of Hudson bay. Outliers of
these rocks occur at the head of Frobisher bay in the southwest part of
Baffin island and on Akpatok island in Ungava bay. As before stated,
similar limestones are found in the lake valleys of Manitoba, and it is
quite possible that these limestones were once continuous with those of
Hudson bay, the present break having been caused by the erosion of the
glacier.

The upward continuation of these limestones containing Silurian fossils
occupies a corresponding but slightly circumscribed area. These Silurian
limestones form the characteristic abrupt cliffs of the islands on both
sides of Lancaster sound, and continuing southward occupy the larger
parts of Southampton, Coats and Mansfield islands in Hudson bay, as well
as the low lands of the western part of Baffin island. They are not well
marked, and are probably considerably thinner on the western side of
Hudson bay, but are found in the Winnipeg basin.

The Devonian gradually emerges from the Silurian in the cliffs of the
islands to the north of Lancaster sound, and forms the lower parts of
the cliffs of the southern side of Ellesmere. Devonian fossils are not
found in the limestones of the islands of Hudson bay, and only occur in
a narrow belt on the low lands to the west and southwest of James bay.
Similar rocks form the upper beds of the Winnipeg basin.

There is no break in the passage from Devonian to Carboniferous in the
rocks forming the Parry islands and the southern part of Ellesmere,
where Carboniferous rocks occupy wide areas on these northern islands,
but are not found to the southward of Lancaster sound, showing that the
Palæozoic sea had retreated that far north before the close of the
Devonian.

The land rose above the ocean at the close of the Carboniferous, and
with the exception of the northern parts of the Parry islands, the
Sverdrup group and the western part of Ellesmere has not been deeply
submerged since. Rocks of Mesozoic age, belonging to the Alpine
Triassic, have been found in the last-named places, but in no other
localities to the southward within the limits of this report.

Considerable earth movements occurred at the close of the Mesozoic
period, causing those and older rocks to be highly tilted and folded.

Another slight submergence took place in the Miocene Tertiary, when
shallow water deposits of sand, gravel and clay, associated with beds of
lignite, were laid down in the wide valleys along the margins of several
of the Arctic islands. Such deposits are known to exist in Banks island,
on the western side of Ellesmere and along the northern and eastern
sides of Baffin island. There is little doubt that other deposits of
this age will be discovered when more systematic search has been made
for them in these northern regions. From the character of the fossil
plants found in these deposits there can be little doubt that during the
Miocene the climate of these northern islands was much warmer than at
present, and approached a tropical condition.

The conditions of the land and water surfaces during the Glacial period
differed little from those at present, except that there has been a
considerable uplift of the land, as proved by the marine terraces found
along the coasts. The maximum uplift probably amounted to 700 feet along
the eastern side of Baffin island, and was perhaps slightly less on the
islands farther north, where Schei reports beaches 600 feet and upwards
above the present sea level. This being the case, a new explanation must
be found for the depression and subsequent uplift of the land covered by
ice, if the uplift be practically the same in northern Ellesmere, where
the accumulation of ice is nearly as great to-day as at any previous
time, while in the southern part of Baffin island a great thickness of
ice was present during the Glacial period and has now completely
disappeared. Perhaps we have been taking cause for effect, and the
uplift due to some unknown cause may have been the cause of a lessening
of the ice; certainly the almost equal rise of the land throughout the
Arctic islands is an argument against the subsidence of the northern
lands being due to the burden of the ice-cap, and the subsequent uplift
due to the disappearance of that burden.


                DETAILS OF THE GEOLOGY BY ISLAND GROUPS.

It is exceedingly difficult to write a readable, concise and
comprehensive account of the geology of the territory included in this
report without subdividing it in some manner. This has been attempted by
considering the different formations under their separate headings, and
dividing the territory, as has been done in the geographical
description, into groups of islands, and considering each of the great
geological divisions separately.


                                ARCHÆAN.

_Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait._

The territory comprised in this group includes the islands of
Southampton, Coats, Nottingham, Salisbury, Charles and Resolution, along
with the shores of the northwest part of Hudson bay, and the south shore
of Hudson strait.

The geological information concerning this group obtained prior to the
present voyage is contained in the reports of Dr. Bell, Tyrrell and the
writer.

Crystalline gneisses, schists and granites occupy the eastern and
northern parts of Southampton, extending northward from Seahorse point
to Frozen strait at the northern end of the island. The rocks near the
junction of the Archæan with the Silurian at Seahorse point are largely
a very quartzose, light-gray mica-gneiss, associated with bands of
rusty-weathering, fine-grained mica-gneiss holding graphite in small
flakes, the rusty colour being due to the decomposition of small grains
of pyrite disseminated through the rock. This rusty gneiss closely
resembles that found in the vicinity of Cape Wolstenholme at the
entrance to Hudson strait, and both appear to be similar to the
sillimanite gneiss of the Grenville series of southern Canada. Both of
the above rocks are cut and twisted by masses of a coarser
granite-gneiss pink to red in colour, with pearly feldspar and smoky
quartz. All are cut by dikes of feldspathic pegmatite containing much of
the pearly feldspar.

The only notes relating to the Archæan area to the north of Seahorse
point are those of Parry and Back, both of whom mention the occurrence
of granites and crystalline rocks in several places to the northward.

The band of Archæan rocks which crosses the eastern part of Coats island
has never been examined closely, and our knowledge of it is confined to
observations made from the ship in passing.

The high rocky shores of the eastern and northern sides of Salisbury
island were closely followed by the _Neptune_, so that the red,
crystalline rocks forming its cliffs could easily be seen. The
prevailing rock was red, or pink, and only occasionally were darker
masses seen.

Nottingham, which lies south of Salisbury in the western part of Hudson
strait, was visited by Dr. Bell in 1884 and 1885, when he examined the
rocks in the neighbourhood of Port De Boucherville, in its southeast
part, and he there found along with the common varieties of gneiss a
number of patches of fine-grained red syenite.

Charles island is wholly formed of Archæan gneisses. The prevailing rock
in the western part is a fine-grained light-gray, or pink mica-gneiss,
associated with medium to coarse-grained mica-hornblende granite-gneiss;
the latter cutting and altering the light-coloured gneisses.

Resolution island has never been visited by a geologist, and
consequently its rocks can only be described from observations made
while passing it in the ships. The rocks everywhere appear to be
crystalline Archæan, a red variety predominating.

The southern shores of Hudson strait from Douglas harbour to the mouth
of George river in the southeast part of Ungava bay were examined by the
writer in 1897, and a detailed statement concerning them is given in the
report of that year. The remaining portions of this side of Hudson
strait were examined on the voyage of the _Neptune_, the part westward
from Douglas harbour to Cape Wolstenholme while sketching the coast-line
from the ship, and the greater part of that between Cape Chidley and the
mouth of George river by Mr. Caldwell in a boat during the absence of
the _Neptune_ to the north in 1904. These examinations connect with the
work of the writer beyond Cape Wolstenholme, and thus practically finish
the examination of the north and west sides of the Labrador peninsula.

The rocks of the south coast of the strait westward from Cape Chidley,
as examined by Mr. Caldwell, show that large masses of red and pink mica
and mica-hornblende-granite, in a more or less foliated condition,
occupy the greater part of the coast area. These granites are newer than
the other crystalline rocks associated with them, which they have
inclosed and altered. The older rocks are largely of basic igneous
origin, and vary in composition from anorthosites almost free from
bisilicates, to hornblendic and chloritic schists containing very little
feldspar. A series of light-coloured, high quartzose gneisses is also
found, and probably represents altered bedded rocks associated with the
basic igneous ones.

The basic rocks and the light-coloured gneisses are penetrated by many
large dikes of pegmatite from the granites. In many places these dikes
are very quartzose, and where they cut the basic masses often contain
pyrite and give indications of other minerals. Associated with the
lighter gneisses are large long masses of rock, which carry in places
considerable quantities of graphite, in others an impure iron ore. The
study of these bands has not been sufficient to pronounce as to whether
they are veins or beds.

Ancient crystalline rocks occupy the entire coast-line from the mouth of
George river at Ungava bay to Cape Wolstenholme at the eastern entrance
to the strait. Mica-granite and, in less quantities, mica-hornblende
granite, both more or less foliated, occur along the greater length of
this coast. In many places these granites are associated with other
gneisses, which are usually lighter in colour, finer in texture, and
contain more quartz than the eruptive granite. These lighter gneisses
usually are garnet-bearing, the crystals of that mineral being often of
large size. In a greater number of places the gneisses of these two
series are so closely mingled as to render a separation impossible; but
there are localities, notably along the west side of Ungava bay, where
such a separation can be made, and the lighter coloured gneisses are
seen to be cut and foliated by the intrusion of the coarser and
garnet-free granite-gneisses. At the mouth of Payne river and about the
mouth of Hopes Advance bay the change from unaltered clastic rocks to
the light-coloured gneisses is plainly seen in a number of places. The
unaltered series consists of impure dolomites, sandstones, cherts and
bedded iron ores similar to the series of rocks found in the central
parts of Labrador and along the east coast of Hudson bay. This series
bears a close resemblance to the iron-bearing rocks of Lake Superior,
and there is little doubt that they are of the same age. In former
reports they have been termed so-called Cambrian, but by the new
classification they represent one or more members of the Huronian. These
rocks are associated, as elsewhere, with great outbursts of basic
igneous matter in the form of sills, dikes and irregular masses. Where
the newer granites have cut and inclosed masses of this series, the
different rocks forming it are seen to have undergone considerable
alteration. The bedding has been disturbed, so that the strata lie at
angles approaching the vertical, and have been broken, and minutely
penetrated by quartzose injections, both along and across the bedding
planes. Foliation and schistosity have been induced, and the arrangement
of the chemical constituents has been altered so that new minerals are
formed. The impure cherty limestone is changed to hornblendic schists,
the impure sandstone and quartzite to garnet-bearing quartzose gneisses,
and the cherty iron ores to a gneissic rock consisting of layers of
quartz and specular iron.

An examination of a number of the contacts between the granites and the
Huronian rocks shows an alteration, from a slight crumpling and baking
to highly tilted and contorted crystalline schist and gneiss. The
accompanying basic igneous rocks, originally fine-grained traps or
diabase, are changed in like manner to strongly foliated hornblendic and
chloritic schists, usually freely penetrated by quartz veins holding
quantities of pyrite and other minerals.

In passing westward from Ungava bay the granite predominates along the
coast, and the areas of the altered bedded rocks and their accompanying
traps are much smaller, and are so intimately intruded by the granite
that it is very difficult to separate them. The gneisses of the altered
Huronian rocks can only be guessed at, by their texture, light colour
and the presence of garnet in them. The ancient traps and greenstone
masses are more easily separated from the complex, but they are so
penetrated by the granites that it is impossible to trace them except on
a large scale detailed map, which would require many years’ work to
complete.

Large masses of these basic rocks occur along the coast in several
places between Cape Hopes Advance and Douglas harbour, most noticeably
about Wakeham and Fisher bays, where quartz veins are numerous, and
carry considerable quantities of sulphides.

The examination of the coast to the westward of Douglas harbour was only
such as could be made from the ship, and lacks all the detail of the
eastern portion. Red granite gneisses appear to occupy the greater
portion of the coast, with areas of dark basic rocks at intervals. At
Sugluk bay, where a closer examination was made, a medium to
coarse-grained pink to red mica and mica-hornblende granite-gneiss was
most abundant. This granite inclosed bands of a lighter coloured
quartzose-gneiss, and also intruded large masses of dark-green altered
diabase.

The granite-gneisses occupy the coast to within a few miles of Cape
Wolstenholme, when the prevailing rock is a rusty fine-grained
sillimanite-gneiss containing scales of graphite and considerable pyrite
in small grains disseminated through the rock. These dark gneisses are
inclosed and penetrated by the granite-gneisses, and probably represent
portions of the ancient bedded series.

Beyond Cape Wolstenholme, gneisses occupy the eastern coast of Hudson
bay to within a short distance of Cape Smith, where a high ridge of trap
runs inland in a northeast direction and has a width of several miles.
Further south the gneisses again predominate along the coast to the
Portland promontory in latitude 58° N.


             GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHWEST SHORES OF HUDSON BAY.

The following account of the geology of the northwest shores of Hudson
bay has been compiled from observations made during the trip of the
launch from Winchester inlet to Chesterfield inlet in September, 1903.
These are supplemented by the notes made in May, 1904, while making a
track survey from Cape Fullerton to the entrance of Chesterfield inlet.
The observations to the north of Fullerton were made by Mr. Caldwell, in
April and May, 1904, while on his surveying trip to the head of Wager
inlet; to these are added observations by the writer made on a boat trip
along the coast later in that spring, on the way to and from Southampton
island, when the rocks of the mainland were examined as far north as
Yellow bluff.

The rocks seen along the shore between Chesterfield and Winchester
inlets are largely a flesh-red to pink mica-hornblende granite-gneiss,
often only slightly foliated, and varying in texture from medium to
coarse-grained. These are associated with broken bands of dark-gray or
red gneisses, usually very quartzose, and containing a considerable
quantity of mica and hornblende, the latter often partly decomposed to
chlorite. These gneisses have evidently been cut and broken by the
intrusion of the granite-gneisses. Many veins of pegmatite cut all these
rocks; it consists chiefly of red or violet feldspar with much quartz,
and in some places large crystals of black hornblende.

The granite-gneisses are also most abundant inland, as was seen along
the lower part of Chesterfield inlet and in the country forty miles
inland from Winchester inlet.

The granites occupy the shores and islands between Winchester inlet and
the west side of Island bay, about half way to Fullerton, when they give
place abruptly to a series of dark schists. These schists are largely
micaceous, but there are also frequent bands containing considerable
quantities of hornblende, and these are more basic than the more common
mica-schists, which always contain quartz in varying amounts. These
mica-schists appear to have been clastic rocks associated with bands of
trap, all having been altered and foliated by the granite intrusion. The
schists are very regular, and have a constant strike of N. 10° W. Many
of the basic bands contain varying quantities of pyrite, but it was
never seen in sufficient abundance to constitute a mine. All the schists
carry dark-red garnets, some of which are regular in their
crystallization and of good size.

The islands about Fullerton harbour are formed partly of granite and
partly of these dark schists. On this eastern contact of the granite
with the area of schistose rocks, the latter have been greatly disturbed
by the intrusion, being squeezed, contorted and broken by granite
masses, as may be seen from the illustration. Areas of coarser basic
rocks now occur in the rocks along the coast, usually in the form of
coarse gabbro, but often in a more altered condition as coarse
hornblende-gneisses. The granites are the prevailing rocks along the
coast as far north as the mouth of Wager inlet, and have generally a red
or pink colour. Associated with them and evidently altered by their
intrusion are patches of gray quartzose gneiss, and less frequently
areas of old basic intrusive rocks.

At Whale point, where the rocks were closely examined, the oldest rock
was represented by a medium to fine-grained, gray and pink, very
quartzose gneiss. This had been cut by a coarse diabase, and both had
been foliated and broken by the intrusion of the newer granite. Dikes of
a newer diabase cut all the other rocks.

[Illustration: CONTORTED GNEISS AND GRANITE AT FULLERTON.]

The granites prevail about Wager inlet, but there are more and larger
areas of the dark basic rocks about that great bay than to the
southward, making it a more promising field for economic minerals,
especially as these basic rocks generally carry sulphides, and Rae
reported free gold to have been found about the head of the inlet.

All the geological information concerning the western coast of Hudson
bay to the northward of Wager inlet is contained in the narratives of
the voyages of Parry and Dr. Rae. The explorations of Rae ended at
Repulse bay. He reported only Laurentian rocks along the coast, with
granite-gneisses predominating, these being accompanied by considerable
areas of greenstones, showing the rocks in the northern part to be very
like those along the southern shores of Roes Welcome.

Parry explored the west side of Fox channel from Frozen strait to Fury
and Hecla strait. The result of his observations has been summarized by
Dr. Dawson as follows:

    ‘The geological specimens brought back were examined by Prof.
    Jameson, and the detailed maps of the expedition include
    indications of the character of the rock at so many places, as
    to afford the means of tracing the geological outlines with very
    considerable accuracy. Granitic and gneissic rocks occupy the
    whole of the southern part of the east shore of Melville
    peninsula, and are continued northward behind a low track of
    limestone country, forming a range of mountains in the centre of
    the peninsula to Hecla and Fury strait. They also form the south
    shore of this strait, and most of the islands in it, and
    apparently the whole eastern shore of the adjacent south part of
    Cockburn “island.”

    ‘The rocks referred above, in a general way, to the Archæan,
    probably include areas of Huronian. Jameson mentions as among
    the prominent varieties of rocks derived from this region,
    “Granite, gneiss, mica-slate, clay-slate, chlorite-slate,
    primitive-trap, serpentine, limestone and porphyry.” In
    association with these the following minerals occur: “Zircon and
    beryl, also precious garnet, actinolite, tremolite, diallage,
    coccolite, rock crystal, calc-spar, rhomb-spar, asbestos,
    graphite or black lead, specular iron ore, magnetic iron ore,
    chromic ore or chromate of iron, titanic iron, common and
    magnetic iron pyrites.” Some of the “transition rocks” noticed
    by Jameson should probably also be classed with the Archæan, and
    in addition to several of the minerals above mentioned, in these
    were found tourmaline (schorl) and molybdenite.’

The coast between the mouth of Chesterfield inlet and Churchill, was
examined by Tyrrell, and the following summary of the geology is taken
from his report:—

    ‘On the low flat shores of Hudson bay between Seal river and
    Cape Esquimaux few rock exposures occur, but those seen
    consisted of granites and gneisses of typical Laurentian aspect.
    For forty miles north of Cape Esquimaux no rock in place was
    seen, and thence northward to Baird bay some of the points
    consisted of granite and gneiss, though the shore generally
    consisted of Huronian rocks.’

    ‘The largest area of Huronian rocks found in this district
    extends more or less continuously for 120 miles along the west
    coast of Hudson bay, from near Baker’s foreland to a point 45
    miles north of Cape Esquimaux.’

    ‘The rocks constituting this system may be divided into three
    more or less distinct groups, viz.: The Marble island
    quartzites, the greenish quartzites and graywackes, and the more
    or less highly altered, and often schistose diabases and
    gabbros.’

    ‘The Marble island quartzites are composed of hard white
    quartzite, consisting of more or less rounded grains of quartz,
    of moderately regular size, cemented together by interstitial
    silica. They are very distinctly bedded in thick and thin beds,
    and the surfaces of the beds are often covered with beautiful
    ripple-markings. The heavier beds also often show distinct false
    bedding. They are usually in a more or less inclined attitude,
    but they were nowhere seen to be very much crumpled or squeezed
    into minute folds. Their total thickness was not determined.’

    ‘These quartzites were first noted by Dr. Bell from Marble
    island, and although this island was not examined by the writer,
    rocks of undoubtedly similar character to those described by Dr.
    Bell, were seen in many places along the shore, and consequently
    the name is here retained.’

    ‘In one place near the _cache_ on the west side of Hudson bay, a
    thickness of sixty feet of this quartzite, in a nearly vertical
    attitude, was seen almost in contact with the Laurentian gneiss,
    there being but a narrow, drift-filled gap between the two. This
    would indicate either the existence of a fault, or that here the
    quartzites are the base of the Huronian, or that the gneiss
    represents an eruptive rock which has risen through or into the
    Huronian subsequent to the deposition of the quartzite.’

    ‘Dark-green eruptive rocks, chiefly diabases, often very much
    squeezed and altered, are largely developed in the Huronian,
    composing a considerable proportion of the rocks of this system.
    On the west coast of Hudson bay these rocks are cut by many
    veins of white quartz, highly charged with iron and
    copper-pyrite.’

    ‘Associated with the massive diabases, and often
    indistinguishable from them except on close examination, are
    many beds of fine-grained, often schistose graywacke, or
    greenish quartzite, which appear to have been caught up in, or
    surrounded by the eruptive rocks.’


                      GEOLOGY OF ISLAND GROUP II.

This group is comprised of the great island of Baffin, with Bylot island
lying off its northeast corner, and the many smaller islands which lie
as a fringe around both.

Geological specimens from the east side of Baffin were collected by the
expedition under Ross and Parry, and were described by Dr. McCulloch.
They consisted of loose specimens collected in two localities, and give
little information. Specimens collected by Parry on the same coast were
described by Koning as gneiss and micaceous quartz rock, also some
ambiguous granitic compound in which hornblende seems to enter as a
subordinate ingredient.

Dr. P. C. Sutherland, in 1853, describes the east coast of Baffin island
between Lancaster sound and Cumberland gulf as follows:

    ‘On the opposite shore (south) of Lancaster sound, at Cape
    Walter Bathurst, the crystalline rocks are again recognized, and
    from this point they occupy the whole coast south to Cumberland
    strait and probably considerably beyond it. To this, however, I
    believe there is one exception, at Cape Durban, on the 67th
    parallel, where coal has been found by whalers; and also at
    Kingaite, two degrees to the southwest of Durban, where from the
    appearance of the land as viewed from a distance, trap may be
    said to occur on both sides of the inlet. Graphite is found
    abundant and pure in several islands situated on the 65th
    parallel of latitude, in Cumberland strait, and on the west side
    of Davis strait.’

C. F. Hall brought home a considerable collection of rocks and minerals
picked up during his explorations about Frobisher bay and the southeast
coast of Baffin island. These were named by Prof. B. K. Emerson, and
consist of ordinary Laurentian rocks, including granite, gneiss and
schists. The minerals were magnetite, apatite, bornite and pyrite from
Frobisher and Cyrus Field bays. Lower Silurian limestones were found in
a small outlier at Silliman’s Fossil Mount near the head of Frobisher
bay. This locality was visited in 1897 by a party from the Peary Arctic
expedition of that year. In the course of a few hours they obtained
fifty-four species of fossils from this locality, which were later named
by C. Schuchert.

Dr. Franz Boas describes the nucleus of the mountain masses of Baffin
island to be everywhere gneiss and granite, with Silurian limestones
about the region of the large lakes of the interior and along the low
lands of the west coast.

Dr. R. Bell visited the north shores of Hudson strait in 1884 and 1885,
and again in 1897, when he made a close examination of the coast from
the neighbourhood of Big island to Chorkbak inlet near Gordon bay. Dr.
Bell describes the prevailing rocks of the southern shore of Baffin
island as consisting of well stratified hornblende and mica-gneiss,
mostly gray in colour, but sometimes reddish, interstratified with great
bands of crystalline limestones, parallel to one another and conformable
to the strike of the gneiss, which in a general way may be said to be
parallel to the coast in the above distance. The direction, however,
varies somewhat in different sections of the coast.

    ‘The distinguishing feature in the geology of the southern part
    of Baffin land is the great abundance, thickness and regularity
    of the limestones associated with the gneisses. At least ten
    immense beds, as shown on the accompanying map, were recognized,
    and it is probable that the two others, discovered in North bay,
    are distinct from any of these. There would, therefore, appear
    to be twelve principal bands as far as known, to say nothing of
    numerous minor ones, between Icy cape and Chorkbak inlet. The
    limestones are for the most part nearly white, coarsely
    crystalline, and mixed with whitish feldspar.————The
    limestones usually contain scattered grains of graphite, and
    among the other minerals which commonly occur in the various
    bands are mica, garnet, magnetite, pyrite and hornblende.’

    ‘Although white is the prevailing colour of these limestones,
    this, in some localities, is replaced by light-gray and
    occasionally by mottled varieties.’

    ‘The limestone bands have not suffered greater denudation than
    the gneisses, and they form hill and dale alternately with the
    latter.————Owing to the scantiness of vegetation in Baffin
    land, the white colour of the limestones on the sides and tops
    of the hills and ridges renders them very conspicuous in the
    landscape. Seen from a hill-top at a distance of fifteen or
    twenty miles, they might be taken for glaciers.’

    ‘As to the total thickness of the twelve bands of crystalline
    limestone which have been mentioned as occurring in this part of
    Baffin land, the available data on the subject are not
    sufficient to form a correct estimate, but on adding together
    their probable approximate widths it seems to be no exaggeration
    to place their possible total volume, great as it may appear, at
    about 30,000 feet, or on an average of 2,500 feet for each of
    the principal bands, taking no account at all of the smaller
    ones.’

From his observations made along the coast to the eastward of Big island
in 1885, and from the finding of crystalline limestone fragments by Hall
in Frobisher bay, Dr. Bell concludes that the crystalline limestones
extend eastward to Resolution island, giving a very extensive
development of the Grenville series of the Laurentian in the southern
part of Baffin island.

At present we know that the limestones of the typical Grenville series
are only the highly crystalline equivalents of some of the Huronian
limestones. This probably is the case in Baffin island, where these
rocks with some of the accompanying gneisses represent a highly
metamorphic phase of portions of the Huronian, while other of the
gneisses are the foliated state of the granite masses which caused the
alteration of the limestones. This would correlate the rocks on the
north side of Hudson strait with the altered Huronian rocks of northern
Labrador, where in places similar crystalline limestones occur.

[Illustration: CAPE HAVEN HARBOUR.]

The Huronian rocks of Labrador are marked by the number of repetitions
of the strata caused by thrust faults in all the areas examined, and
this repetition of measures by similar faults may account for the number
of bands of limestone found in the southern part of Baffin island.

The crystalline rocks appear to form the southwest coast of Baffin
island for some distance beyond King cape on the east side of Fox
channel, when they give place to a wide area of low lands extending
nearly to the head of Fox channel, where the crystalline rocks again
form the higher lands to the north and east of Fury and Hecla strait.

On the late voyage of the _Neptune_ the rocks of the east side of Baffin
island were examined at Ponds inlet, on the islands on both sides of
Cumberland gulf, and at Cape Haven and Frenchmans cove on Cyrus Field
bay. In other places the ship passed sufficiently near the shores to
allow of a good idea being formed of the rocks by the aid of powerful
glasses.

Examinations of the rocks were made at Button point, the southeast part
of Bylot island, on the north side of the entrance to Ponds inlet; also
in the vicinity of Salmon river some thirty miles up the inlet and on
its south side, and at Erik harbour on the same side near the mouth of
the inlet. At all these places typical Laurentian gneisses and schists
were obtained. Among the specimens brought home from these localities is
a light-coloured coarse-grained augen-gneiss consisting largely of white
and pink feldspar, with thin bands of biotite and little quartz. Another
seeming variety of this rock is a well-banded fine-grained mica-gneiss
composed of pink and white bands of feldspar separated by thin bands of
mica. Associated with these are bands of very quartzose gneiss varying
in colour from light to dark from the varying proportions of mica
present. These gneisses are usually found containing a considerable
number of dark-red garnets; and they probably represent a metamorphic
series. A fine to medium-grained rock, usually somewhat foliated, and
composed largely of dark-red feldspar with much mica, little hornblende
and quartz, cuts the foregoing gneisses, and probably was the granite
which altered them by intrusion to their present state. The basic
intrusive rocks are represented by dark-green diabase, or its alteration
products, dark hornblendic and chloritic schists and gneisses. Taken as
a whole, this series of specimens would answer for any of the typical
Laurentian regions of northern Canada.

At Cumberland gulf the rocks were examined at Kaxodluin on the south
shore, some twenty miles from Blacklead station; also at Blacklead and
at Kekerten islands. At Kaxodliun light and dark-coloured mica schists
and gneisses were found, cut by a light-pink mica-granite-gneiss. The
dark schistose rocks were decomposed near the surface, and contained a
considerable amount of disseminated pyrite. Between this place and
Blacklead the ship followed the shore-line closely, so that the
prevailing dark, rusty gneisses were distinctly seen.

The most abundant rock on Blacklead island is a coarse-grained, pink
mica-granite-gneiss, containing large feldspar crystals. This cuts, and
is foliated with, coarse, dark mica-schists, and finer-grained
lighter-coloured quartzose gneisses. Some of the dark schists contain
flakes of graphite, and this mineral is said to be abundant in places on
the islands and shores of the gulf farther to the westward, where
attempts have been made to work some of the mica and graphite deposits,
without much success.

At Kekerten similar gneisses are found, along with large masses of
diabase and greenstone, somewhat decomposed near the surface, where it
weathers reddish.

At Frenchman cove at the head of Cyrus Field bay, the prevailing rock is
a coarse-grained, red mica-granite-gneiss, associated with bands of
coarse mica-schist.

At Cape Haven station near the northern entrance to the bay, pink and
gray mica-gneiss prevails, and is cut by many large dikes of red
pegmatite composed largely of perthite, with some quartz and mica.
Schists forming one of the islands of the harbour contain many
well-developed crystals of pyrite, up to an inch cube.

The northern and eastern sides of Bylot island appear to be wholly
formed of crystalline rocks, without any of the capping limestones found
upon the other islands of Lancaster sound.


                         ISLANDS OF GROUP III.

This group contains the large islands of Bank, Victoria, Prince of
Wales, North Somerset and King William, all situated south of Lancaster
sound and west of Prince Regent inlet. North Somerset alone was visited
by the _Neptune_; all geological information concerning the others being
from the observations made by the several parties engaged in the search
for the Franklin expedition.

Dr. G. M. Dawson collected this information from the narratives of these
search expeditions, and printed a concise summary of it in his report on
the northern portions of the Dominion, from which the following notes
have been taken:—

    ‘Archæan rocks are found only on Prince of Wales and North
    Somerset islands, where a spur from the great mass of
    crystalline rocks forming the northeastern mainland extends
    northward through the peninsula of Boothia and forms the land on
    both sides of Peel sound.

    ‘The granitoid rocks are again found on the west side of North
    Somerset, where they form the eastern boundary of Peel sound.
    Boulders of the granite are found at a considerable distance
    (100 miles) to the northeastward of the rock _in situ_, as at
    Port Leopold, Cape Rennell, &c. The general characters of the
    granitic rocks in the north and west of North Somerset are thus
    described by Capt. M’Clintock: “Near Cape Rennell we passed a
    very remarkable rounded boulder of gneiss or granite; it was six
    yards in circumference, and stood near the beach, and some
    fifteen or twenty yards above it; one or two masses of rounded
    gneiss, although very much smaller, had arrested our attention
    at Port Leopold, as then we knew of no such formation nearer
    than Cape Warrender, 130 miles to the northeast; subsequently we
    found it to commence _in situ_ at Cape Granite, nearly 100 miles
    to the southwest of Port Leopold. The granite of Cape Warrender
    differs considerably from that of North Somerset, the former
    being a graphic granite, composed of gray quartz and white
    feldspar, the quartz predominating, while the latter, a North
    Somerset granite, is composed of gray quartz, red feldspar and
    green chloritic mica, the latter in large flakes. Both the
    granite and gneiss of North Somerset are remarkable for their
    soapy feel.’

    ‘To the east of Cape Bunny, where the Silurian limestone ceases,
    and south of which the granite commences, is a remarkable valley
    called Transition valley, from the junction of sandstone and
    limestone that takes place there. The sandstone is red, and of
    the same general character as that which rests upon the
    granitoid rocks of Cape Warrender and at Wolstenholm sound.
    Owing to the mode of travelling, by sledge on the ice, round the
    coast, no information was obtained of the geology of the
    interior of the country, but it appears highly probable that the
    granite of North Somerset, as well as that of the other
    localities mentioned, is overlaid by a group of sandstones and
    conglomerates, on which the Upper Silurian limestones repose
    directly. A low sandy beach marks the termination of the valley
    to the northward, and on this beach were found numerous pebbles,
    washed from the hills of the interior, composed of quartzose
    sandstone, carnelian and Silurian limestone.’

    ‘Cape Granite is the northern boundary of the granite, which
    retains the same character as far as Howe harbour. It is
    composed of quartz, red feldspar and dark-green chlorite, and is
    accompanied with gneiss of the same composition.’

    ‘The granitoid rocks extend across Peel sound into Prince of
    Wales island in the form of a dark syenite, composed of quartz,
    greenish-white feldspar passing into yellow, and hornblende.’


                          ISLANDS OF GROUP IV.

Archæan rocks are found only in the eastern part of this group, on the
large islands of Ellesmere and North Devon. They rise from beneath the
newer rocks on the south side of Hayes sound a few miles north of Cape
Sabine, and then occupy the remainder of the eastern coast of Ellesmere
and that of North Devon. This area appears to form a wedge-shaped mass
expanding southward, so that on Jones and Lancaster sounds they extend a
considerable distance to the westward, until they become capped by
limestone, and then gradually sink below the level of the sea.

Both the Laurentian and Huronian divisions of the Archæan are
represented in the area. A series of bedded rocks consisting of several
thousand feet of sandstones, limestones and other sediments occupies the
coast and islands of the east side of Smith sound, from Cape Atholl
northward to Foulke fiord. On the west side the northern limit of these
rocks is Cape Isabella, from which they occupy the shore of Ellesmere
for upwards of twenty miles to the south, the southern limit not having
yet been determined on that side.

These bedded rocks are associated with dark coloured traps and diabase,
which are present in the form of sills between the bedding; as dikes
cutting the bedded rocks and as large intrusive masses. Dr. Sutherland
classified these rocks as the equivalents of the Tertiary sandstones of
Disko on account of their lithological resemblance and from the
occurrence of traps with both. The southern junction of these bedded
rocks with the granites and gneisses forming the Greenland coast to the
southward was not seen, but at Foulke fiord and at Cape Isabella the
northern contact is quite plain. In both places the bedded series, for
some considerable distance from the contact, has been tilted and
fractured, while near the contact the sandstones and limestones appear
to have been changed into quartzite and crystalline limestones by the
injection of great masses of granite. This granite seen at Cape Sabine
and Cape Herschel is an ordinary Laurentian granite, and in no way
resembles the acidic rocks of Tertiary or Post-Tertiary age, which they
should do if the bedded series were of the age assigned to them by Dr.
Sutherland. The sandstones, limestones and their associated traps bear a
close resemblance to portions of the Huronian series found on Hudson bay
and in the interior of Labrador. There is also a similarity between
their contacts with the Laurentian granite and some of the contacts
found in those more southern localities. No fossils have as yet been
found in these rocks, and until such are found it is thought best to
remove this series from the Tertiary and place it in the Huronian.

On the past voyage the coast of Ellesmere island was lost sight of about
twenty miles south of Cape Isabella, and no land was again seen on the
west side of Baffin bay until Philpots island, lying off the east end of
North Devon, was reached, where the ship passed sufficiently close to
the small outlying islands to show that they were composed of Laurentian
gneisses and granites. From thence similar rocks were seen forming the
southern shores of North Devon as far as the west side of Croker bay,
where they begin to sink slowly to the westward, and are capped by a
considerable thickness of flat-bedded limestone, which rests
unconformably upon the rounded surface of the older rocks. The
Laurentian rocks finally dip below the sea a few miles to the westward
of Cuming creek.

The specimens from the Laurentian area, which extends southward from
Hayes sound to Cape Isabella, were collected at Capes Sabine and
Herschel. The specimens from both localities are very similar, the
prevailing rock being a moderately coarse-grained granite, of a dark-red
colour, composed largely of red feldspar and bluish quartz, with a small
quantity of biotite in diminutive scales. These rocks are only slightly
foliated in a few places.

The specimens from the Laurentian measures beneath the Silurian
limestones at Cuming creek show a greater variety. A red gneiss, varying
in texture from fine to coarse, predominates. It is composed largely of
feldspar, with quartz and considerable biotite. It cuts a
lighter-coloured, more quartzose gneiss, and also bands of dark
mica-diorite-gneiss.



[Illustration: SCOTTISH WHALERS IN PONDS INLET.]



                              CHAPTER IX.
                               SILURIAN.


                         _Islands of Group I._

Flat-lying beds of light-coloured yellow and drab limestone occupy the
lowlands of the southern and western parts of Southampton island, and
also form outliers in depressions in the crystalline rocks on the north
side of the island, notably at Duke of York bay.

A considerable collection of fossils was brought home from the beds
forming the southern half of the west coast of the island. These have
been examined by Dr. Ami and Mr. Lambe, whose determinations will be
found in Appendix iv. The fossils show that the rocks contain a fauna
closely resembling that of the Lake Winnipeg basin, and extend over a
period from the Galena-Trenton to the Guelph and Niagara, or from the
upper part of the Cambro-Silurian to high up in the Silurian.

Soundings taken on the even bottom of Fisher strait show that the
limestones extend without a break to Coats island (to the southward of
Southampton), where they occupy all of its surface except the portion at
the east end of the island where the Archæan ridge crosses it. A few
fossils from Mansfield island show that it also is formed of limestones
of these horizons.

At Cape Chidley a collection of fossils from loose pieces of limestone
corresponds with fossils from Akpatok island, and the direction of ice
movement out of Hudson strait leaves little doubt that the loose
limestone of Chidley came from that island. These fossils show a
slightly wider range in age than the rocks of Southampton do; they
extend from the Lower Galena-Trenton to the Lower Heidelberg.

                      _West Coast of Hudson Bay._

The wide fringe of limestones which is found along the west shores of
Hudson bay to the southward of Churchill do not come within the limits
of this report. To the northward only Archæan rocks are found along the
mainland until the northern half of Melville peninsula is reached, where
Parry describes a wide area of sandstone, probably the base of the
Cambro-Silurian, as separating the highlands of the interior from the
western shores of the northern part of Fox channel. These rocks are
continued on the north side of Fury and Hecla strait, where they are
found on the west side of Baffin island fronting on Prince Regent inlet.

                         _Islands of Group II._

The only known occurrence of Silurian limestone on the eastern side of
Baffin island is at Silliman’s Fossil Mount, near the head of Frobisher
bay, where the limestone forms a hill 1,000 yards long and 350 feet
high, resting almost flat upon the crystalline rocks. Seventy-two
species were identified by Schuchert from fossils brought back from this
locality; he refers them all to the Galena-Trenton.

Little is known of the limestone about the great lakes, Nettilling and
Amadjuak, in the interior of Baffin, beyond the meagre observations of
Boas, who briefly refers to the limestone about Nettilling and along the
east side of Fox channel. These limestones are probably an eastern
extension of the Southampton area, but their exact age will remain
unknown until fossils have been collected from them.

On the east side of Prince Regent inlet the rocks composing the high
cliffs of Baffin island are the basal sandstone and shale overlaid by
limestones, which in places are interbedded with beds of gypsum. These
high cliffs of limestone extend eastward along the south shore of
Lancaster sound to the mouth of Admiralty inlet, when they give place to
the Archæan crystalline rocks, which rise slowly to the eastward from
beneath the level of the sea, in a manner similar to that already
described, on the north side of Lancaster sound.

                        _Islands of Group III._

The large islands of this group are mainly built of Silurian limestones.
North Somerset was the only island of this group visited in the
_Neptune_, and all information concerning the others is derived from the
observations made on earlier expeditions, and contained in Dawson’s
summary of the northern geology.

Silurian limestones form the southern third of Banks island, being
overlaid in the northern part by beds of Devonian and lower
Carboniferous age. Dr. Rae reports the entire southern coast of Victoria
island as being composed entirely of Silurian limestone.

    ‘The northern part of King William land, with Matty island to
    the east of it, are described by Sir John Ross as of limestone.
    Simpson states the eastern part of the south shore to be also of
    limestone, and Haughton dealing principally with the results of
    M’Clintock’s voyage writes as follows: “The east side of King
    William island, though composed of Silurian limestone like the
    rest of the island, is strewed with blocks of black and red
    micaceous gneiss, like that of Montreal island, and black
    metamorphic clay-slate, in which the crystals of mica are just
    commencing to be developed. It is probable that the granitoid
    rocks appear at the surface somewhere to the eastward of this
    locality.”

    ‘Numerous excellent though brief notes on the geology of the
    eastern and southwestern coasts of the Boothian peninsula occur
    in Sir John Ross’ remarkable narrative referred to. From these
    we learn that the eastern shore is composed of limestone to Port
    Logan (latitude 71° 21´), where a high range of hills—which is
    seen at a distance estimated at thirty miles inland at Creswell
    bay (further north) and runs north-and-south—impinged on the
    shore, and was found to consist of granitoid and gneissic rocks.
    Thence southward, from notes given in the body of the narrative,
    a narrow border of limestone may skirt the shore to about
    latitude 70° 35´, though the geological appendix does not make
    any mention of this.’

    ‘The narrow neck of the Boothian peninsula, which was crossed by
    Ross on several lines, is, from his description, composed of
    granitic rocks, with some outliers of limestone. One of these,
    definitely mentioned in the narrative but not in the geological
    appendix, is shown on the present map. On the coast of the
    mainland, west of the isthmus, the limestone formation is found
    resting on the granites of Lake Wittersted. Northwest from the
    isthmus the southwest coast of Boothia presents a range of
    granitoid hills, running northward, but becomes fringed by a low
    border of limestone near Cape Isabella, and this increases in
    width to the north, till an extensive flat limestone region is
    found in the vicinity of the magnetic pole.’

At Bellot strait a junction occurs between the granite and horizontal
beds of Silurian limestone.

    ‘The entire western portion of Prince of Wales island is
    composed of Silurian limestone, which in the extreme west, at
    Cape Acworth, becomes chalky in character and non-fossiliferous,
    resembling the peculiar Silurian limestone found on the west
    side of Boothia Felix.’

The northern and eastern shores of North Somerset are of limestone,
usually rising from the water in precipitous cliffs. These were examined
at Port Leopold, where the cliffs rise sheer 1,000 feet from the sea.
The bedding of the limestone is very distinct, and the face of the cliff
has been sculptured by every runlet, so that between the horizontal and
vertical markings the cliffs resemble on a gigantic scale the fluted
walls of a castle. Fossils were collected from the lower beds of the
cliff by M’Clintock, but none were collected on the present voyage.

                         _Islands of Group IV._

The discovery of the Silurian limestone of the southern cliffs of North
Devon and Cornwallis was made by Parry, while his collection of fossils
was supplemented by those found by the Franklin search expeditions. Our
knowledge of the geology of Ellesmere was, previous to the Sverdrup
expedition, mainly due to the work of Feilden and De Rance in connection
with the British expedition of 1875-76. Mr. P. Schei, the geologist who
accompanied Sverdrup, collected much valuable information concerning the
rock formations of Ellesmere. A summary of his observations is published
as an appendix to Sverdrup’s ‘New Land,’ and is freely quoted from in
the following.

The rocks found on the north side of the Archer plateau, in the eastern
part of Ellesmere to the north of Cape Sabine, are very interesting
geologically, as they show the only trace of an unbroken sequence of
beds from the Huronian up through the Cambrian to the Silurian
limestones so widely distributed on the Arctic islands. These rocks are
described by Schei as follows:

    ‘At Cape Camperdown, on Bache peninsula, is found granite
    overlain by an arkose-like conglomerate sandstone, in flat
    strata, the dip being north-northwest. Its thickness here
    probably does not exceed 500 feet, though the contour swells to
    considerably greater magnitude by reason of intrusions of
    diabase, occasioning an additional thickness of perhaps 300
    feet. At its upper part this sandstone merges gradually, by
    interstratification, into a series of gray, sandy and marl-like
    schists and limestone conglomerates. From a few inches up to a
    couple of yards in thickness these conglomerates and schists,
    continuously interstratified, build up a series 600 to 900 feet
    in thickness, interrupted by two compact beds of yellowish-gray
    dolomitic limestone about 150 feet in thickness. These are again
    overlain by a series similar to the underlying one, excepting
    that here the limestone conglomerates exceed the schists.’

    ‘In a detached block, in all probability originating from one of
    the two 150-foot beds, were traces of fossils, of which one,
    _Leptoplastus_ sp., can be identified. In another detached
    block, whose mother rock is not known, was found _Anomocare_ sp.
    It may be said with certainty after the finding of these fossils
    that this series contains deposits of the Cambrian age.’

    ‘The second series of conglomerates is overlain by a light
    grayish-white limestone in a bed some 300 feet in thickness,
    observed in the midst of the section of Cape Victoria Head.
    Indistinct Orthoceras, Lichas and Symphysurus assign this
    limestone to the Lower Silurian period.’

    ‘Above the othoceras-bearing, light-coloured limestone bed are
    some less extensive strata of alternating limestone and
    quartz-sandstone, and finally a 100-foot bed of close brown
    limestone of which certain layers are fossiliferous, and gave an
    _Asaphus_, traces of other Trilobites and some Gasteropods.’

    ‘Following the direction of the dip to the north side of
    Princess Marie bay we find it again, though seemingly somewhat
    abrupter, in the limestone beds of Norman Lockyer island. A
    fauna with _Halysites_ sp., _Zaphrentis_ sp., _Orthisina_ sp.,
    _Rhynchonella_ sp., _Leperditia_ sp., _Illœnus_ sp., &c.,
    assigns this limestone to Lower Silurian. It is again found with
    its fauna at the base of Cape Harrison; in this case with a
    thick super-incumbent bed of marly sandstone, quartz-sandstone,
    and finally extensive limestone conglomerate. This also occurs
    near the shore in Cape Prescott, indicating by its presence in
    the strike of the limestone of Norman Lockyer island the
    disturbance undergone by these tracts.

    ‘The line along which this disturbance took place is refound on
    the west side of Franklin Pierce bay, where the beds of
    limestone conglomerate dipping from the heights of Cape Harrison
    are cut off in the strike by a limestone, dark-gray in colour
    and broken into a breccia.’

In another place Schei hints that the rocks of the Cape Rawson beds,
consisting largely of dark shales and impure limestones, found along the
northern parts of the eastern shores of Ellesmere, may be of Triassic
age, in sharply folded troughs of the older rocks, and consequently much
younger than Cambrian, to which age they were referred by Fielden and De
Rance.

Writing of the Silurian beds found on the southern coast of Ellesmere,
Schei describes them as answering to the northern series, and their
occurrence is as follows:—

    ‘There are at Havnefjord, in Jones sound, above some layers of
    quartz-sandstone, which entirely cover the gneiss-granite there,
    a series of limestone conglomerates with marly schists and pure
    limestones of a thickness of 1,200 to 1,500 feet. These are
    again overlain by a series of beds at least 2,000 feet thick, of
    hard, impure limestones, brown or yellowish-gray in colour, and
    often remarkably heavy.’

    ‘At South cape, which is entirely composed of this brown
    limestone, are found in the lower parts _Maclurea_ sp., and
    _Halysites_ sp., referable to the Middle Silurian, while west of
    it, at Bjorneborg, the upper parts of the series contain badly
    preserved remains of Orthocerata, Corals, and _Pentamerus_ cfr.
    _tenuistriatus_. Hereafter the upper part of the limestone seems
    to be equivalent to the older Upper Silurian (Landovery). This
    brown limestone occurs from South cape westward to Kobbebugten
    in Hell Gate, and is broken at Lille Sandor, tectonic
    disturbance bringing up the underlying conglomerate series, and
    even the Archæan.’

    ‘On the south side of Rendalen appears the brown limestone of
    the capes, Series A, with a flat dip to the north-northwest; but
    on the north side of the valley is a division of dark schist,
    Series B, lying conformably above the beds of brown limestone.
    Associated with these schists, particularly in their lower and
    upper parts, are numerous layers of pure dark limestone,
    frequently fossiliferous. In Rendalen and in Kobbebugten, where
    this same division also appears, a quantity of material was
    collected, of which fifteen species are provisionally
    determined, among them being _Favosites_ sp., _Strophomena_ cfr.
    _euglypha_, _Meristella_ in numbers, _Rhynchonella_ cfr.
    _borealis_, _Pentamerus_ cfr. _galeatus_, _Spirifer_ cfr.
    _elevatus_. The period of this division in Series B is Wenlock.’

    ‘The upper part of Series B appears, among other places, at the
    headland north of Tunneldalen, in Hvalrosfjord. Above a black
    shale containing _Monograptus_ sp. and _Leperditia_ cfr.
    _phaseolus_ is a bed of fragmentary limestone with _Favosites_,
    _Strophomena_ cfr. _pecten_, _Atrypa reticularis_, _Pterniea_
    cfr. _Sowerbyi_. From a locality in Gaasefjord, on the same
    horizon, were taken _Favosites_ cfr. _Hisingeri_, _Favosites
    Gothlandicus_, _Thecia Swinderenana_, _Spirifer elevatus_,
    _Spirifer_ cfr. _crispus_, _Strophomena corrugatella_, _Dav._,
    _Pterinea_ sp. According to these, the period of this upper part
    of Series B should be Ludlow. The thickness of the series is
    about 1,000 feet.’

    ‘In Hell Gate, as well as in Gaasefjord, these strata are
    overlaid by Series C; in its lower parts consisting of
    interstratified light and dark marl schists, which are somewhat
    sandy, while in its upper part appear pure quartz-sandstone beds
    and argillaceous sandstone. The collective thickness of these
    strata is about 1,000 feet in Gaasefjord, while in Hell Gate it
    is probably somewhat greater. No fossils were found in this
    series.’

    ‘At the base of the high cliffs at Indra Eide and Borgen appears
    Series C. In both of these places it is overlain by a dark
    limestone and black shale, partially fossiliferous. This dark
    limestone and shale are the lowest layers in a series of strata
    at least 1,500 feet in thickness, Series D, which appears in the
    profiles on both sides of Gaasefjord, from Borgen to the foot of
    Vargtoppen (Wolf Top), and from Indre Eide to Skrabdalen.’

    ‘In Series Da occurs _Atrypa reticularis_ in great quantities,
    but little else. On the other hand, there are preliminary
    determined in Db about fifty-five species, of which may be
    mentioned: _Favosites_ sp. div., _Columnaria_ sp.,
    _Cyathophyllum_ sp. cfr. _hexagonum_, _Recaplaculites_ sp.,
    _Fenestella_ sp., _Homalonotus_ sp., _Burmeisteria_ sp.,
    _Dechenella_ sp., _Proetus_ sp., _Orthis striatula_, _Leptaena_
    sp., _Strophomena_, _Streptorhyncus_, _Atrypa reticularis_,
    _aspera_; _Rhynchonella (Pugnax)_ cfr. _reniformis_, _pugnus_,
    _Productus_ cfr. _prolongus_, _Spirifer_ of the _Verneuilli
    Murch._ type, a peculiar _Pentameride_, _Terebratula_ cfr.
    _Dielasma_, _Pterinea_ sp., _Modiolopsis_ sp., _Lucina_ sp.
    div., _Bellerophon_ sp., _Platyceras_ sp., _Orthoceras_ sp.,
    _Gomphoceras_, gigantic nautilus and ganoid scales.’

    ‘The fauna in Dc is merely a repetition, and in the case of
    certain species, a further development, of the forms found in
    Db. It will thus be seen that there is a spring in regard to the
    fauna between the upper layers in Series B and the lower ones in
    Series D, which more particularly resemble Lower or Middle
    Devonian. The concordantly embedded (?) Series C might,
    therefore, be thought to represent uppermost Silurian as well as
    lowest Devonian.’

    ‘Divisions Dd and Df are poor in fossils, and are partly shale
    divisions. In the impure limestone of Dg occur again numerous
    fossils, among which are _Atrypa reticularis_, _Rhynchonella_
    cfr. _cuboides_, _Spirifer_ cfr. _undifera_, _Productus_ sp.,
    _Terebratula_ cfr. _Dielasma_, _Pterinea_ sp., _Avicula_ sp.,
    _Modiolopsis_ sp., _Pleurotomaria_ sp., _Proetus_ sp. Traces of
    placoderm fish are also met with. Above these strata are beds of
    purer limestone Dh, and above these again some less pure, Di.
    The uppermost strata of Di alternate with strata of light-gray
    quartz-sandstone terminating in a clay-sandstone, which in
    places is richly fossiliferous, though the fossils are in a bad
    state of preservation. Among these are lamellibranchiata,
    _Dechenella_ sp., remains of _Holoptychius_, &c.’

    ‘This argillaceous sandstone is simultaneously the last link in
    Series D and the first in Series E. This is a huge collection of
    quartz-sandstone strata building up the mountains on both sides
    of the inner part of Gaasefjord. The lowest part, which is 900
    to 1,200 feet in thickness, consists almost exclusively of
    quartz-sandstone. On the north side of Skrabdalen, in the
    sandstone profile, occur conglomerate strata, half an inch to an
    inch in thickness. In these were found considerable remains of
    _Coccosteus_ sp., _Holoptychius_ sp., and _Modolia angusta_. In
    the same strata with these were also seen indeterminable
    plant-fossils. Slightly higher up in the profile, however, in a
    black shale which occurred in two lentiform masses, eighteen
    inches and six feet in thickness, were found numerous
    plant-fossils.’

    ‘Professor Nathorst, of Stockholm, who has kindly undertaken the
    examination of these, says that among others are _Archœopteris
    fissilis_ Schmalh. and _Arch. archetypus_ Schmalh., both
    characteristic of Upper Devonian. In examining the material
    collected, Professor Nathorst also found with the plant remains
    some remains of fishes.’

From the above it will be seen that on the southern side of Ellesmere
there is a complete succession of strata, bearing fossils from Middle
Silurian age up to the Upper Devonian. These strata have an aggregate
thickness of 8,000 feet, and form the thickest and most carefully
measured section of the Silurian and Devonian beds of the Arctics.

On the southern and southwestern parts of North Devon the Silurian
strata are much thinner than those described by Schei. At Cuming creek
the Archæan gneisses were found overlain unconformably by red and purple
arenaceous shales and thin bedded sandstones having an aggregate
thickness of fifty to one hundred feet. These in turn were succeeded by
beds of impure limestone of light-gray or creamy colour. The beds are
usually under two feet in thickness, and separated by thinner beds
containing a considerable amount of clay. These light-coloured
limestones have a thickness of over 1,000 feet in the cliffs on both
sides of the creek. The sides of the cliffs are covered with broken
limestone, so that it was impossible to measure a section up them, but
in two or three places a darker coloured limestone conglomerate was
found, made up of small pebbles cemented by a dark shaly matrix. Fossils
are only found in the beds immediately overlying the dark shales and
sandstones of the base. These show that the lower limestone is of
Silurian age, about the horizon of the Niagara.

[Illustration: LIMESTONE CLIFFS OF NORTH DEVON ISLAND.]

Similar conditions prevail in the cliffs at Beechey island, where a
large collection of fossils was obtained from the lower limestone beds,
while others, picked up loose, but evidently fallen from the cliffs
above showed that the upper beds passed close to if not into the
Devonian, as stated in Appendix IV.

Similar Silurian limestones constitute the island of Cornwallis, to the
westward of North Devon, while in the remaining Parry islands farther
west the Silurian strata are lost beneath the Devonian and Carboniferous
rocks of those islands.


                               DEVONIAN.

The work of the older geologists, which was summarized by Haughton and
later by Dawson, took no account of the Devonian in their divisions of
the Palæozoic rocks of the islands north of Lancaster sound. All the
lower limestones were classed as Silurian, while the overlying
sandstones were placed in the Carboniferous. Fossils of Devonian age
were collected, by the expedition of 1876, from the northern part of
Ellesmere, but their occurrence and relations were only finally settled
by Schei as given above. From his observations it is plain that the
upper part of the limestones and the lower 1,000 feet of the overlying
sandstones are of Devonian age. The early explorers were not trained
geologists, and it could hardly be expected that they would discover the
thin bands containing fossils in these great thicknesses of barren beds.
Owing to this supposed lack of fossils the rocks were separated into
Silurian and Carboniferous almost wholly on lithological differences,
the limestones being classed as Silurian and the sandstones as
Carboniferous.

There is no doubt that Devonian rocks are included in the Carboniferous
of the western Parry islands, but as they occur only in the cliffs
underlying the Carboniferous beds that cover the surface of the islands,
it would be impossible to map them on the scale used in illustrating
this report, and in consequence the old colouring is followed here.


                             CARBONIFEROUS.

The southern boundary of the Carboniferous sandstones with their
included coal seams crosses the southern part of Banks island in a
north-northeast direction, and they consequently cover the northern
two-thirds of that island, while the extreme northwest portion of
Victoria island is also occupied by these rocks. The western Parry
islands on the north side of Melville sound are almost wholly formed of
these rocks, whose southern boundary strikes northeast across the
northern half of Cornwallis island. They are found again in Grinnell
peninsula, the northwest portion of North Devon, and again on the
western side of Ellesmere, in the vicinity of Store Bjornekap, being
probably largely developed in the northeast part of that great island.

These rocks are described as follows by Professor Haughton:

    ‘The Upper Silurian limestones, already described, are succeeded
    by a most remarkable series of close-grained, white sandstone,
    containing numerous beds of highly bituminous coal and but few
    marine fossils. In fact the only fossil shell found in these
    beds, as far as I know, in any part of the Arctic Archipelago is
    a species of ribbed _Atrypa_, which I believe to be identical
    with the _Atrypa fallax_ of the Carboniferous slate of Ireland.
    These sandstone beds are succeeded by a series of blue limestone
    beds containing an abundance of marine shells, commonly found in
    all parts of the world where the Carboniferous deposits are at
    all developed. The line of junction of these deposits with the
    Silurian on which they rest is N. E. to E. N. E. (true). Like
    the former, they occur in low flat beds, sometimes rising into
    cliffs, but never reaching the elevation attained by the
    Silurian rocks in Lancaster sound.’

Coal, sandstone, clay-ironstone and brown hematite, were found along a
line stretching E.N.E. from Baring island, through the south of Melville
island, Byam-Martin island and the whole of Bathurst island.
Carboniferous limestones, with characteristic fossils, were found along
the north coast of Bathurst island, and at Hillock point on Melville
island.

From the comparison of different coal exposures noted by M’Clintock,
M’Clure, Austin and Parry in the Parry islands, Professor Haughton has
laid down the approximate outcrops of some of the coal beds. These he
finds to agree remarkably well with the trend of the boundary of the
formation drawn from totally different data. Lists of fossils and rocks
from the following places, with notes, are given:

    ‘Hillock point, Melville island (latitude 76° N., longitude 111°
    45´ W.). Bathurst island, north coast, Cape Lady Franklin
    (latitude 76° 40´ N., longitude 98° 45´ W.). Princess Royal
    island, Prince of Wales strait, Baring island (latitude 72° 45´
    N., longitude 117° 30´ W.). In connection with this place it is
    noted that the Carboniferous sandstones underlie the limestones,
    and that it is probable that the coal beds of Melville island
    are very low down in the series, and do not correspond in
    geological position with the coal beds of Europe. Cape Hamilton,
    Baring island (latitude 74° 15´ N., longitude, 117° 30´ W.).
    Cape Dundas, Melville island (latitude 74° 30´ N., longitude
    111° 45´). Cape Sir James Ross, Melville island (latitude 74°
    45´ N., longitude 114° 30´). Cape Providence, Melville island
    (latitude 74° 20´ N., longitude 120° 30´ W.). Winter Harbour,
    Melville island (latitude 75° 35´ N., longitude 110° 45´ W.).
    Bridgeport inlet, Melville island (latitude 75° N., longitude
    109° W.). Skene bay, Melville island (latitude 75° N., longitude
    108° W.). Hooper island, Lyddon gulf, Melville island (latitude
    75° 10´, longitude 112° W.). Byam-Martin island (latitude 75°
    10´ N., longitude 104° 15´ W.). Graham-Moore bay, Bathurst
    island (latitude 75° 30´ N., longitude 102° W.). Bathurst
    island, Bedford bay (latitude 75° N., longitude 95° 50´ W.).
    (Vesicular scoriaceous trap rocks were found here by M’Clintock,
    though no such rocks are mentioned elsewhere in connection with
    the Carboniferous.) Cornwallis island, McDougall bay. Silurian
    and Carboniferous fossils were found together at the last
    mentioned place.'————

Professor Haughton also notes that

    ‘the sandstone of Byam-Martin island is of two kinds—one red,
    finely stratified, passing into purple slate, and very like the
    sandstone of Cape Bunny, North Somerset, and some varieties of
    the red sandstone and slate found between Wolstenholm sound and
    Whale sound, West Greenland, latitude 77° N. The other sandstone
    of Byam-Martin island is a fine, pale-greenish, or rather
    grayish-yellow, and not distinguishable in hand specimens from
    the sandstone of Cape Hamilton, Baring island.’

Parry also describes Byam-Martin island as essentially composed of
sandstone, with some granitic and feldspathic rocks, these last being
probably erratics.

Respecting the coal seams which have been discovered in the Arctic
Archipelago, Professor Haughton further remarks:

    ‘If the different points where coal was found be laid down on a
    map, we have, in order, proceeding from the southwest, Cape
    Hamilton, Baring island; Cape Dundas, Melville island, south;
    Bridgeport inlet and Skene bay, Melville island; Schomberg
    point, Graham-Moore bay, Bathurst island; a line joining all
    these points is the outcrop of the coal-beds of the south of
    Melville island, and runs E.N.E. At all the localities above
    mentioned, and indeed in every place where coal is found, it was
    accompanied by the grayish-yellow and yellow sandstone, already
    described, and by nodules of clay-ironstone, passing into brown
    hematite, sometimes nodular and sometimes pisolitic in
    structure.’

Dr. Armstrong, of the _Investigator_, referring to the northern part of
Banks island, states that outliers of Carboniferous limestone are found
at Cape Crozier and near Mercy bay, along with the sandstones and shales
with coaly streaks.

It is doubtful if the Carboniferous rocks occur on the northwest part of
North Devon, though placed there by De Rance and Dawson. Schei found
only Silurian and Devonian on the northern part of that island explored
by him, and the Carboniferous rocks do not show on the west coast of
Ellesmere until Store Bjornekap is reached. If a line were carried from
the outcrops of these rocks on Bathurst island northward to Store
Bjornekap it would cross the western part of Grinnell (island)
peninsula, but there is no reason to suppose that the outcrop would
follow such a line.

The Carboniferous rocks of western Ellesmere appear to be isolated areas
resting upon the underlying Devonian, and in turn covered by Mesozoic
rocks. Schei describes the area at Store Bjornekap as consisting in its
lowest part of beds of brownish-gray, hard, fossiliferous limestone;
higher up, of a white pure limestone, flinty limestone and pure flint
strata, richly fossiliferous, among the fossils being _Lithostrotion_
sp., _Fenestella_ sp., _Streptorhynchus crenistria_, _Rhynchonella
(Pugnax)_ sp., _Spirifer_ cfr. _ovalis_, _cuspidatus_, _mosquensis_,
_Productus_ cfr. _semireticulatus_, _costatus_, _punctatus_, _cora_, &c.

The extreme northeast part of Axel Heiberg island is marked as
Carboniferous by Schei, but there are no notes concerning this locality
in his geolocigal summary.

The Carboniferous sandstones have not been found in the northeast part
of Ellesmere island, but limestones of that age were found in several
localities to the west of Dana bay, and there is every likelihood that
rocks of this age extend across the northern part of the island to join
those of the western shore and the northern part of Axel Heiberg island.


                               MESOZOIC.

The discovery of the Sverdrup group of islands has greatly extended our
knowledge of the Mesozoic rocks of the Arctic basin. The Franklin search
parties discovered rocks of this age on the northern shores of the Parry
islands; at Point Wilkie, in Prince Patrick island; Rendezvous Hill,
near the northwestern extreme of Bathurst island and at Exmouth island
and places in the vicinity, near the northwest part of North Devon. The
explorations from the _Fram_ now show that these are but the southern
edge of a wide basin of these rocks which form the islands of King
Oscar, Ellef and Amund Ringes, while they constitute the lowlands of
Axel Heiberg and the western shores of Ellesmere along both sides of
Eureka sound. There they consist largely of sandstones with shales,
schists and limestones.

As before stated, Schei hints that their eastern extension to the shores
of Kennedy channel may be marked by the tilted and folded strata,
classed by De Rance as the Cape Rawson Series, of supposed Cambrian age.


                               TERTIARY.

Deposits containing fossil wood were discovered by M’Clintock, M’Clure
and Armstrong in the southwestern part of Prince Patrick island and on
the northwest side of Banks island.

    ‘At Ballast beach, on Banks land, large quantities of fossil and
    sub-fossil wood occur, which Prof. Heer refers to the Miocene in
    his Flora Fossilis Arctica, in which the following species are
    described by Cramer: _Pinus MacClurii_, _Pinus Armstrongi_,
    _Cupressinoxylon pulchrum_, _Cupressinoxylon polyommatum_,
    _Cupressinoxylon dubium_, _Betula M’Clintockii_.

    In many places along the western side of Ellesmere, in the
    depressions between the mountains, thick deposits of sand with
    embedded strata of lignite were found. Similar deposits were
    found in the lowlands east of Blaamanden, and at the head of
    Stenkulfjord in Baumann fjord. In addition to the lignite,
    masses of slaty clay were found in the latter place, in which
    were well preserved remains of _Sequoia Langsdorfii_, _Taxodium
    distichum_ var. _miocenum_ and some others, well known witnesses
    to a southern vegetation in these regions in a geologically late
    period, i.e., the Miocene.’

The knowledge of the Tertiary deposits of the east side of Ellesmere is
summarized as follows by Dawson:

    ‘Small outlying areas of Tertiary (Miocene of Heer) are noted as
    occurring at Water-course bay, at the entrance of Lady Franklin
    sound, and in two places on the north shore of the sound. Coal
    is found in these beds in association with black shales and
    sandstones, and from collections made by Capt. Fielden and Dr.
    Moss, Prof. Heer describes thirty species of plants closely
    allied to the Spitzbergen Tertiary flora, and indicating rather
    colder conditions than are expressed by the character of the
    Disko island Tertiary plants. The coal appears to be an
    excellent fuel, containing only 2·01 per cent of water.’

    ‘Capt. Greely’s expedition (1881 to 1884) though so important in
    its results from a geographical point of view, has added
    comparatively little to our geographical knowledge of Grinnell
    land and the northern coast of Greenland, a fact due to the
    absence of a geologist and the enforced abandonment of the
    specimens collected. From a careful perusal of Capt. Greely’s
    narrative ('Three Years of Arctic Service, 1886'), and from
    information obligingly supplied by him and by Lieut. Brainard,
    in answer to inquiries made by correspondence, some facts of
    importance are, however, brought out. The Tertiary coal-bearing
    formation is evidently much more widely spread in the part of
    Grinnell land, in the vicinity of Lady Franklin sound, than the
    previously quoted map of Messrs. Fielden and De Ranco would
    indicate, though it may probably be regarded as forming detached
    outliers (which I do not venture to outline) on the Cape Rawson
    beds, shown by these authors to characterize the region
    generally. Bituminous coal was found at Lincoln bay, half a
    degree north of the mouth of Lady Franklin sound, on the east
    Grinnell land coast, in different parts of the Bellows valley
    (which runs inland to the north of the same sound) to the head,
    and in the neighbourhood of Lake Hazen, to the westward, by
    Capt. Greely. Lieut. Brainard also describes in an appendix a
    fossil forest discovered by him in Archer fiord, a few miles
    west of Cape Baird, which, with the associated rocks, is without
    doubt referable to the Tertiary. Toward the head of Chandler
    fiord (running west of Lady Franklin sound) Greely mentions high
    cliffs of ‘schistose slate,’ and in Ruggles river, the outlet of
    Lake Hazen, large slabs of ‘slate,’ which had been used by the
    Eskimos in building their huts. Brainard speaks of the cliffs of
    Beatrix bay as dark, those of Ella bay as very light, in colour.
    These bays constitute the termination of Archer fiord. He
    remembers the cliffs on Musk-ox valley to have been again of
    dark colours. Respecting Greely fiord, on the west coast of
    Grinnell land, he quotes from his diary: ‘On the north shore of
    this fiord the line of cliffs presents a feature of marked
    peculiarity; horizontal lines or strata of different colours run
    uniformly for miles along their face.’ He adds: ‘The
    predominating colours in these lines and of the cliffs was a
    pale-yellow. On the south side, where we were camped, the cliffs
    were of about the same colour as those spoken of above, but the
    strata were not noticed. They were from 1,500 to 8,000 feet
    above the sea-level, and presented a castellated appearance.
    Fossils in great numbers were found here.’

To the west of the narrows of Ponds inlet, the high hills of crystalline
rock retreat from the southern shore of the inlet, leaving a wide plain
of stratified sand, gravel and clay, which extends far to the west and
southwest, and is penetrated by a number of deep bays on that side of
the inlet. This plain is indented by all the water-courses traversing
it, and in the beds of the principal streams broken lignite is found,
evidently fallen from beds of that mineral in the banks above. The
presence of lignite in these stratified deposits points to their being
Tertiary in age, and corresponding with the northern areas of this
formation already described as lying undisturbed in the wide valleys of
the older rocks. This area in the northern part of Baffin island is,
according to the natives, quite extensive, and probably extends in a
southwest direction to the lowlands of the northern and western sides of
Fox channel.

Capt. Adams, of the whaler _Diana_, said that lignite was to be found in
similar deposits near Cape Hay, on the east side of Bylot island, and
also at Durban island on the eastern coast of Baffin island. There is
little doubt that other areas of these Tertiary deposits occur on the
Arctic islands, but owing to no lignite or fossils having been found in
them they have not been separated from the drift and newer Post Tertiary
deposits of sand, gravel and clay of these coasts.

If Tertiary deposits were laid down on the lands of the western side of
Hudson bay, there is little chance of more than small protected areas
having escaped the intense glaciation to which the western shores of the
bay were subjected. Any such remaining areas are now probably hidden
beneath the mantle of drift so universal on the low lying portions of
this region.


                             POST TERTIARY.

Little or no attention was given by the earlier explorers to the
markings of ice-striae and other glacial phenomena, and the only records
of the movement of the glacial ice noted by them was the distribution of
erratic boulders. These observations have been summarized by Dawson as
follows:

    ‘Along the Arctic coast, and among the islands of the
    archipelago, there is a considerable volume of evidence to show
    that the main direction of movement of erratics was northward.
    Thus, boulders of granite supposed by Prof. Haughton to be
    derived from North Somerset are found 100 miles to the
    northeastward, and pebbles of granite, identical with that of
    Granite point, also in North Somerset, occur 135 miles to the
    northwest. The east side of King-William land is also said to be
    strewn with boulders like the gneiss of Montreal island, to the
    southward. Prof. Haughton shows the direction and distance of
    travel of some of these fragments by arrows on his geological
    map of the Arctic archipelago, and reverts to the same subject
    on pages 393-394, pointing out the general northward movement of
    ice indicated, and referring the carriage of the boulders to
    floating ice of the glacial period.’

    ‘Near Princess Royal island, in Prince of Wales strait, and also
    on the coast of Prince of Wales island, the copper said to be
    picked up in large masses by the Eskimos may be supposed to be
    derived from the Cambrian rocks of the Coppermine river region
    to the south, as it is not probable that it occurs in place
    anywhere in the region of horizontal limestone where it is
    found.’

    ‘Dr. Armstrong, previously quoted, notes the occurrence of
    granitic and other crystalline rocks, not only on the south
    shore of Baring land, but also on the hills inland. These, from
    what is known of the region, can scarcely be supposed to have
    come from elsewhere than the continental land to the southward.’

    ‘In an account of the scientific results of the _Polaris_
    expedition, it is stated of the west coast of Smith sound, north
    of the Humboldt glacier, that “wherever the locality was
    favourable the land is covered by drift, sometimes containing
    very characteristic lithological specimens, the identification
    of which with rocks of South Greenland was a very easily
    accomplished task. For instance, garnets of unusual large size
    were found in latitude 81° 30´, having marked mineralogical
    characters by which the identity of some garnets from
    Tiskernaces was established. Drawing a conclusion from such
    observations, it became evident that the main line of the drift,
    indicating the direction of its motion, runs from south to
    north.”’

Dr. Bell in his report on the geology of Hudson bay and Hudson strait,
1885, draws attention to the flow of the ice from the land on both sides
of the strait into that body of water, while the striæ on the islands in
the strait show that a great stream of ice passed eastward through the
strait from Hudson bay into the north Atlantic. These observations have
since been confirmed by observations of the striæ on other islands of
the strait.

Tyrrell’s observations on the glacial phenomena of the barren-land
region west of Hudson bay show that the country was intensely glaciated;
that the centre of glaciation was on a nearly level plain now elevated
some 400 or 500 feet above sea-level, there being no evidence to show
that it was much more elevated during the period of glaciation. The
centre of ice distribution was situated close to the western shores of
Hudson bay, and the moisture sufficient to allow of such an accumulation
of ice was probably derived from an open Arctic sea. The glacier moved
south and southwest from this centre up a gradual grade to Manitoba,
where morainic accumulations are found on the summits of the Duck
mountains at elevations from 1,800 to 2,400 feet above present
sea-level. Striæ evidently formed by moving ice from this centre have
been found by Dr. Barlow and the writer on the branches of the Moose
river to the south of James bay, where the movement was from the
northwest.

There is little doubt that the ice also moved northward from the centre
of glaciation, and that the evidence quoted above of the erratics found
in the western Arctic islands is proof of this.

From a study of the different sets of glacial striæ, Tyrrell concluded
that the centre of glaciation was, in the early part of the glacial
period, somewhere to the north and west of the head of Chesterfield
inlet; that later, when the ice increased in thickness, the centre of
dispersion moved to a position southwest of Baker lake; while as the
glacier diminished the centre moved nearer the seashore, and the final
stage was probably represented by the ice-cap breaking up into a number
of distinct glaciers, each with local movement of its own.

These conclusions of Tyrrell as to the southern movement of the centre
of glaciation are borne out by the writer’s observations of the striæ
along the shores of Roes Welcome, where as many as six sets of striæ
were found at Whale point, the usual number being three. The oldest set,
found only at Whale point, showed that the ice movement was from the
northwest. The next in age were from N. 50° E., or almost at right
angles to the oldest; following in order of age come striæ from N. 25°
E., N., N. 30° W., and N.W. The last three sets are found in a number of
places between Winchester inlet and Whale point; the others only at
Whale point. The direction of the above sets of striæ apparently shows
that the earliest accumulation of ice in the region north of the western
side of Hudson bay was somewhere to the northwest; this was followed by
an abrupt change in the ice-movement, which was next from almost
northeast, after which the centre of movement of the ice-cap gradually
shifted, by way of north, to northwest. It would also appear that the
centres of dispersion were much greater in area than the limits placed
upon them by Tyrrell.

This southern movement of the centre of dispersion of the ice is
diametrically opposite to what occurred in the case of the ice-cap of
Labrador, where the striæ along the east side of Hudson bay show that
the centre of ice-movement changed from a position near the central area
of the peninsula, a short distance north of the southern watershed, to
one some three hundred miles north, in the vicinity of the headwaters of
the Koaksoak river.

The glaciation of Labrador seems to have been later than that of the
western side of Hudson bay, as the striæ from the western glacier are
almost obliterated by those from the east and northeast along the rivers
south of James bay.

There is a marked difference in the evidence of the intensity of glacial
action between the southern regions and the eastern and northern
portions of the great area embraced in this report. On the shores and
islands of Hudson bay and Hudson strait the crystalline rocks have been
denuded of every trace of rotted surface material; they have been
smoothed, polished and intensely striated, and their present condition
is such that little or no change has taken place since the disappearance
of the ice, which once covered them deeply, the striæ being so fresh as
to appear of the formation of yesterday. When the eastern mouth of
Hudson strait is left, a change is soon seen in following the eastern
side of Baffin island northward. The hills are less rounded, and talus
lies on the slopes of the cliffs; about Cumberland gulf and Cyrus Field
bay there is evidence of a universal ice-cap having been present, but
the rounding, polishing and striation of the rocks are markedly less
than to the south and westward. In these places it is exceedingly
difficult to find striæ upon the rock surfaces, and these when found
show that the movement was local and from the highlands towards the open
sea. In the northern part of Baffin island the hills become more
serrated in outline, and many of the higher points appear to have never
been subjected to glaciation, the glaciers having only filled the
valleys; if an ice-cap existed the ice-movement to the coast was
determined by the course of the local valleys, and there is no evidence
of a movement not depending upon local conditions as is the case in the
region about Hudson bay. At Erik harbour, on the south side of the mouth
of Ponds inlet, there is evidence that the glacier which now terminates
at the head of the harbour once extended five miles farther seaward, and
filled the valley to a height of 400 feet above the present level of the
sea. Above that height the rocky walls of the harbour are not glaciated,
and are covered by slopes of disintegrated rock. Passing north of
Lancaster sound to the south of North Devon, there is little evidence to
show that the glaciation was ever much more severe than at present. At
Cuming creek, a narrow fiord cut some twelve miles into the limestone
cliffs, there is evidence that a glacier once covered its bottom, and
rose some two or three hundred feet above the present level of the sea;
but it was purely local, and the limestone cliffs everywhere show that
they have been long subjected to subaerial denudation, and that the
broken rock covering their sides has never been displaced by ice.

Very little time was given to the study of glaciation at Cape Sabine,
and the only evidence to show that it was more intense formerly was a
low moraine in the rear of Peary’s house at Payer harbour. Schei, who
devoted considerable attention to the glaciation of Ellesmere, is of the
opinion that the ice covering never greatly exceeded its present limits,
if it did so at all.


                            MARINE TERRACES.

Marine terraces are found along the coasts of the northern mainland and
islands wherever the conditions are suitable. Fronting the highlands
about Wager inlet and Repulse bay, on the western side of Hudson bay,
terraces are found cut into the drift deposits up to elevations varying
from 500 to 700 feet. The highest terrace seen by Dr. Bell on the north
side of Hudson strait had an elevation of 528 feet above the present
sea-level. At Cape Wolstenholme, on the south side of the western
entrance to Hudson strait the terraces rise to 800 feet above the sea.
At Douglas harbour on the same side and near the middle of the strait
the highest terraces noted were little over 400 feet. Along the eastern
shores of Baffin island terraces were constantly seen, which were
estimated to rise from 500 to 700 feet above the sea. Schei found
terraces with Post-Pliocene fossils at an elevation of 650 feet along
the shores of Ellesmere.

The foregoing evidence shows that at the close of the period of maximum
glaciation an uplift occurred to the land throughout the northeastern
Arctic region. This uplift is marked by the terraces existing on all the
shores, but they fail to agree with the theory that the uplift was
greatest where the accumulation of ice was greatest. There appears to be
no great difference in the height of the terraces in Ellesmere, where
the glaciation, never excessive, remains in nearly the same state as
when it was at its maximum thickness and of those about the shores of
Hudson bay, where an enormous thickness of ice once covered the land and
has now entirely disappeared.

The uplift, which took place in comparatively recent times, geologically
speaking, does not appear to be going on at present, as all the
historical evidence relating to the Hudson bay region points to a
remarkable stability in the coastal regions from the time of the first
records dating back to the voyage of Munck in 1619.

The present glacial conditions of the Arctic islands has been noted in
another part of this report, and it need only be here stated that the
lands fronting upon Hudson bay and Hudson strait are now free from
glaciers, the nearest approach being the occurrence of detached snow
banks in protected positions, which remain throughout the year. The most
southern glacier is the Grinnell glacier situated on the north side of
the high land separating Hudson strait from Frobisher bay, and plainly
seen crowning the summit of the north shore of Hudson strait for a
distance of more than fifty miles. This glacier is not very active, and
is said to discharge only a few small icebergs into one of the fiords on
the south side of Frobisher bay. Passing northward along the eastern
coast of Baffin island, the snow patches upon the hills become larger
and more numerous, but it is not until Cumberland gulf is passed that
real glaciers appear in the valleys leading down to the sea. These are
not very active, and seldom shed icebergs except on the northern part of
the island. Active glaciers are found along the southern side of North
Devon westward to the neighbourhood of Cuming creek, west of which the
ice-cap retreats, and the shores and cliffs are free of ice. The valleys
of the eastern and southeastern coasts of Ellesmere are filled with
active glaciers that discharge many large icebergs. In the southwestern
part the glaciers are not very active, and usually terminate at a
considerable distance from the sea.


                           ECONOMIC MINERALS.

With the exception of the area of iron-bearing rocks on the islands
along the east coast of Hudson bay, no systematic prospecting has been
done for minerals in the wide region covered by this report. Active
mining at the present is confined to a mine of mica, situated at Lake
harbour, on the north side of Hudson strait, a few miles east of Big
island. Earlier mining consisted of the extraction of small quantities
of coal from the outcrops of that mineral on Melville and Ellesmere
islands by expeditions wintering there. Our knowledge of the minerals
extends only to the chance observations of the earlier explorers, and to
the hurried examinations made by members of the staff of the Geological
Survey in the southern parts of the region under consideration.

The occurrence of Laurentian and Huronian rocks over large portions of
the area, both on the islands and mainland, leads to the belief that
important mineral deposits exist there in the same manner as in more
southern regions of similar rocks; in fact, specimens of the more
important minerals are reported from the north.

_Gold._—The occurrence of gold is reported only from the head of Wager
inlet, where specimens of free gold were found in the dark rocks of that
locality by Dr. Rae.

The presence of large areas of undisturbed Tertiary sands and clays in
the northern part of Baffin island and elsewhere are favourable to the
accumulation of placer gold deposits, if the precious metal occurs in
the underlying Laurentian and Huronian rocks. It would be well to test
the beds of the streams flowing through these deposits when they are
again visited.

_Silver._—A small quantity of silver is found in the galena, which
occurs in pockets in the limestone along the Whale river coast on the
east side of Hudson bay. The amount of galena is small, and so widely
scattered that it would probably be unprofitable to mine even in
favourable circumstances.

_Copper._—Tyrrell discovered large masses of Huronian rocks along the
western shores of Hudson bay, to the south of Marble island. In these
were many bands and masses of dark schists, all carrying quantities of
iron and copper sulphides. Of these deposits he reports as follows:

    ‘At a point northeast of Rabbit island the character of the
    shore changes, and dark-green Huronian schists crop out from
    beneath the boulders.’

    ‘North of Rabbit island is a high point, on which the Eskimos
    are accustomed to camp while waiting for the traders from
    Churchill. The point is composed of green calcareous, chloritic
    schist, striking S. 55° W., and dipping N. 35° W. at an angle of
    60°. The schist is cut by a dike seventy-five feet wide, of
    massive green, highly altered diabase, containing a large amount
    of mispickel. This diabase also outcrops along the shore, where
    it incloses many bands of schists.’

    ‘The rock at the point south of Corbett inlet is a massive
    green, fine or medium-grained diabase, which is now almost
    entirely altered into a mass of chlorite, epidote, zoisite and
    calcite.————This diabase is cut by many small veins of
    quartz and calcite, which contain large quantities of pyrite,
    arseno-pyrite and chalcopyrite.’

    ‘From Term point westward the shore is rocky, and the steep
    rocky cliffs descend into rather deep water. The rock is a
    dark-green diabase almost entirely altered to sausserite, and is
    cut by many veins of quartz and calcite, holding
    copper-pyrites.’

    ‘On the northern shore of Mistake bay, nine miles west of Term
    point, is a long point of similar diabase. Seven miles further
    southwest, about the middle of the west shore of Mistake bay, is
    a high point of similar dark-green diabase, containing in many
    places a large amount of copper-pyrites, and cut by small veins
    of quartz studded with iron pyrites.’

    ‘Two miles south of Sir Biddy island is a prominent rocky point,
    with a high rocky island lying a short distance off it. From
    this prominent point the shore turns westward, and is bold and
    rocky, being composed of dark-green fine-grained diabase,
    studded with copper-pyrites.’

The above extracts from Tyrrell’s report show that on his hurried
journey southward from Chesterfield inlet he found Huronian rocks
occupying the shores of the bay for a distance of nearly a hundred
miles. At haphazard landings along this shore traces of copper deposits
were found in a number of places, and these would point to important
discoveries as likely to follow systematic search on this area.

A considerable amount of magnetic pyrites was found in the squeezed
diabase rocks along the east coast of Hudson bay, but careful analyses
failed to show any contained gold, nickel or copper in a number of
specimens from various localities on that coast, and it is highly
probable that no important deposits will be found in the basic rocks of
that side of the bay.

Small quantities of copper-pyrites were observed in the diabase schists
of the south side of Hudson strait, but never in sufficient amounts to
constitute mines of that mineral.

I was informed by Captain Adams, of the whaler _Diana_, that he had
picked up specimens of copper ore lying loose on the surface a few miles
in rear of Clyde river on the east coast of Baffin island.

Among the specimens brought home by Hall from Frobisher and Cyrus Field
bays, in the southeast part of Baffin island, were bornite and pyrite,
showing that copper ores also occur in that portion of the island.

_Iron._—Mention has been made of the iron ores on the west shores of
Ungava bay, on the north side of Payne river. The rocks in which these
ores are found have been altered by the intrusion of granites. They now
consist of quartzites, mica-hornblende schist and crystalline limestone,
and are the metamorphic representatives of the unaltered iron-bearing
rocks of the interior of Labrador peninsula and the east coast of Hudson
bay. In localities where the rocks are unaltered the iron ores occur
either as carbonates in a cherty rock, or as a mixture of magnetite and
hematite intimately associated with chert and jasper. At Payne river the
iron-bearing beds have a thickness of 420 feet. The upper 70 feet is a
light-yellow, fine granular quartzite containing patches of ankerite and
lime. Towards the top the rock shades to a dark bluish-gray, from the
presence of large quantities of magnetite in small flattened grains,
together with small scales of specular iron. These are usually mixed
with quartz with evidence of foliation, and at other places are in large
masses of nearly pure ore. Underlying these beds is 350 feet of
dark-bluish slaty quartzite holding considerable magnetite and hematite,
and shading upwards into a barren quartzite. Most of the ore of this
locality would probably require separation and concentration from the
admixed quartz before being of a grade sufficiently high for smelting.
The position of the deposits on the west side of Ungava bay, where the
tide rises and falls forty feet or more, is not very promising for
shipping.

More attention has been given to the iron deposits of the east side of
Hudson bay than to any other of the mineral deposits of the north. In
1877, Dr. Bell explored the east shore of Hudson bay as far north as
Cape Dufferin, and in his report on this exploration called attention to
the deposits of iron ore found in a bedded series of rocks, chiefly
sandstones, cherts and dolomites. These rocks he found forming the
islands along that coast from Cape Jones, at the mouth of James bay, to
Cape Dufferin, some 300 miles farther north. A strip of the same rocks
occupies the mainland from the vicinity of Great Whale river to beyond
the head of Richmond gulf, a distance of 120 miles.

The iron ores of value were found to be confined to the Nastapoka chain
of islands, which extend northward from Little Whale river for a
distance of 100 miles.

A further examination of these iron-bearing rocks was made by the writer
during the summers of 1898 and 1899, and more closely during the summers
of 1901 and 1902 when engaged in this work for a private company.

These iron-bearing rocks of the east side of Hudson bay have a close
resemblance to those of Lake Superior, so famous for the amount and
quality of their associated ores of iron. They consist of bedded
sandstones, cherts, shales, graywackes and dolomites, associated with
great outflows and sills of trap. The following general section of the
rocks of the Nastapoka islands will give a good idea of the rocks there,
while on the mainland other strata, free from or poor in iron, are
found.

Descending order:—

                                                         feet.
          1. Rusty weathering, dark gray, siliceous
               rock containing ankerite (carbonate of
               iron and magnesia) and magnetite         20 to 100
          2. Dark gray siliceous rock, containing
               magnetite with small quantities of
               ankerite                                 50 to 250
          3. Red jaspilite rich in hematite ore         10 to 100
          4. Red jaspilite poor in hematite ore          5 to  20
          5. Purple or greenish weathering,
               dark-green graywacke shales              10 to  70
          6. Red jaspilite poor in hematite ore          0 to   5
          7. Light greenish-gray sandstone and shale    10 to 300
          8. Fine grained dolomite                       0 to  50

The iron ores have a greater thickness and are richer on the islands in
the middle of the chain than elsewhere.

The rusty weathering, dark-gray siliceous rocks of division I. are found
on all the islands from Flint to McTavish, being wanting only on Cotter
island. The typical rock is a dark-gray chert made up of finely divided
silica showing under the microscope small grains of quartz filled in by
later accessions of that material in a finely divided state. It contains
minute crystals of magnetite scattered through the mass, and also
patches of crystalline carbonates. At the southern end of the chain it
is cherty and sometimes light-green in colour. These rocks are usually
in thin beds, the parting between the beds filled with brownish
ankerite, which also occurs in flat lenticular masses inclosed in the
cherts; many of these masses are several inches in thickness and several
square feet in area, so that the rock usually contains from twenty to
fifty per cent of ankerite. These ores are too much broken and too
intimately mixed with the cherts for profitable mining. The rusty
character of the rock is due to surface decomposition of ankerite to
limonite. The beds increase in thickness as the islands are followed
northward, and reach their maximum development on Davieau island and
northward to McTavish island, where they have a thickness of fifty feet.
These measures can be traced southward from the Nastapoka chain in the
outer islands lying along the coast for upward of 150 miles, being last
seen on Long island just north of Cape Jones, where they are overlaid by
a considerable thickness of trap.

The second division of the section is an arbitrary one, and was made to
embrace all the beds containing important deposits of magnetite. The
upper beds of the division grade into those of division I, while the
lower pass gradually into division III.

The typical rock of these measures is a dark-gray, fine-grained variety
of quartzite chert, containing considerable magnetite scattered through
it in minute crystals; it also contains small quantities of carbonates
of iron, magnesia and lime. The beds are usually thin (from one to
twelve inches) and the partings between them are filled with a mixture
of silica and magnetite with small quantities of ankerite. These
partings vary in thickness, but are generally thin between the upper
beds of the division, and quite thick (six inches to forty-eight inches)
towards the bottom, where they form important ores of iron; as the beds
of chert are often quite thin between two or more thick partings of ore,
they might easily be neglected in mining. The mixture of silica and
magnetite in the ore is an intimate one, with the silica usually in a
finely divided state.

The proportion of these substances is not constant, so that the ores
vary from a lean ferruginous chert to a rich ore containing upwards of
sixty per cent of iron. Large quantities of the better ores occur in the
lower beds of the division. The occurrence of these ores between the
beds of gray siliceous rock, and their intimate association with finely
divided silica, point to their deposition and enrichment from the
infiltrations of waters carrying solutions of iron and silica which were
deposited in the waters in cracks and between the bedding of the
already-formed siliceous rocks. This mode of formation has been
described by Van Hise for similar ores in the Lake Superior region.

On the three southern islands of the chain there is a gradual change in
the nature of these measures. They pass into a brownish-black siliceous
shale, rich in iron and containing considerable carbon as small scales
of graphite. This is the form in which they are found to the southward
on the islands as far as Long island. The thickness of the division is
very constant on the islands northward to McTavish, but it does not
occur on Cotter island.

The rocks belonging to the third division, as before stated, grade into
the division above them, and the line between them cannot be drawn
sharply.

The typical rock of the division is fine-grained and very siliceous,
with minute particles of silica coated with red oxide of iron, forming a
coarse impure red jasper.

These jasper rocks usually occur in thin broken bands, the partings
between them being filled with a finely-divided mixture of hematite,
magnetite and jasper. The hematite is greatly in excess of the
magnetite. The association of the iron ores and the jasper is intimate,
and they must have been deposited simultaneously from aqueous solutions
probably leached from the cherty carbonate measures above. Microscopic
sections from these rocks are almost identical with those of jaspilite
figured by Van Hise in his monograph on the iron-bearing rocks of the
Lake Superior region; and they must have had the same origin that he has
assigned to these rocks, namely, enrichments deposited by water
subsequent to the formation of the bedded rocks in which they are found
as partings, and filling the most minute cavities.

The amount of ore in this admixture of hematite and jasper varies
greatly. Where the ore is poor, the jaspery rock predominates and
incloses lenses of hematite, while where the hematite is most plentiful
it incloses similar lenses of jasper. The detailed description of these
rocks shows that the measures of this division contain an immense amount
of hematite. The rocks of the division do not occur on all the islands,
being wanting on Flint, Belanger and Ross. On Anderson they are
represented by a few thin beds not rich in ore, while on Clarke they
form the summit of the section with a thickness of eighty feet. They
reach their maximum development on Gillies and Taylor, where their ores
are richest and most concentrated. Farther northward they become thinner
and poorer in ore, being twenty feet thick on Davieau and only eight
feet thick on McTavish, where they die out. No trace of these measures
is found underlying the upper rocks on the islands south of the
Nastapoka group.

The fourth division, consisting of red jaspilites, is an arbitrary one,
of use only as a subdivision of the iron-bearing rocks. Wherever the
jaspilites are well developed the richer beds are underlain with leaner
measures, unfit for working, and these poorer ores constitute this
division. On Clarke island these beds are twenty feet thick; on Gillies
they vary from ten to twenty feet in thickness, on Taylor they are ten
feet, while to the northward they merge into the overlying division, all
poor in iron ores.

The richest ores are found in division III, where extensive beds several
feet in thickness are found containing ore practically free from jasper,
and ranging in iron values from thirty per cent to sixty per cent. Most
of these ores, however, would require separation from the bands and
lenses of jasper before becoming sufficiently rich to be economically
treated in the furnace. The position of the ores on the islands
separated from the mainland by a sound varying from a mile to four miles
in width, with excellent, almost tideless, harbours, constitute ideal
conditions for shipment. The mining of the ores would also be easy and
cheap, if advantage were taken of the great waterpower of the Nastapoka
river, which falls 160 feet into the sea within a few miles of the best
ore deposits, and from which electrical power might be generated easily
and cheaply. Owing to the distance of these ores from the nearest
furnaces, and the want of experience in the navigation of Hudson strait,
the shipment of them is at present out of the question. No coal is found
in Hudson bay, so that economical smelting near the mines cannot be
attempted, until electrical smelting becomes practicable some time in
the future.

In all the fields where extensive areas of iron-bearing rocks occur in
the Lake Superior region, the search by drilling has disclosed large
deposits of concentrated ore, and there is little doubt that such a
search in the Hudson bay region would lead to similar discoveries, as
the manner in which the ores occur is favourable for such
concentrations.

_Mica._—Active mining operations for mica are being carried on at Lake
harbour, on the north side of Hudson strait. This mine is being worked
in connection with the whaling steamer _Active_. A number of white men
are brought to the place from Scotland in the early summer, who, with
the assistance of the Eskimos, work the mine, and then return home in
the fall. Last summer thirteen tons of excellent mica were taken out in
this manner. Other deposits of this mineral will probably be found on
that coast to the westward in association with the crystalline
limestones so largely developed there. A mica mine was opened some years
ago on the west side of Cumberland gulf, but for some reason was shortly
after abandoned.

_Graphite._—Extensive bands, or veins, of this mineral were discovered
by Mr. Caldwell to the south of Port Burwell along the east shore of
Ungava bay. Graphite has also been found in the neighbourhood of Cape
Wolstenholme, and along the east side of Baffin island, but no attempt
has been made to develop any of the outcrops.

_Molybdenite._—Flattened crystals of molybdenite have been found in
many localities in the pegmatite veins penetrating the Laurentian rocks,
but in no place has the quantity been sufficient for mining.

There is no doubt that the combined areas of Carboniferous and Tertiary
coals are very extensive, and that they would form a valuable addition
to the mineral wealth of the Dominion if they were located in a more
accessible region. Situated as they are in the northern Arctic islands,
where navigation is at all times uncertain and unusually perilous, it is
very doubtful if they will ever prove of economic value.

_Lignite._—Attention has been drawn to the occurrence of lignite of an
excellent quality in the sand and clay deposits of Tertiary age along
the northern and eastern shores of Baffin island and on the east side of
Bylot island.

Little is known of these deposits, as the only information concerning
them is derived from small float specimens picked from the beds of the
streams that flow over these sands and clays. These lignites probably
correspond to the bituminous coal found in the folded Tertiary rocks of
the far north, and may prove to be quite extensive and of economic
value, as the localities at which they have been found, although within
the Arctic circle, are by no means so dangerous of access as the coal
beds of the north.

_Coal._—The presence of extensive deposits of coal on the island north
of Lancaster sound has already been mentioned in the discussion of the
Carboniferous and Tertiary formations of the northern islands. The
Carboniferous rocks cover all the western islands of the Parry group,
and extend northwesterly into the northwest part of Ellesmere. Parry
first discovered coal in the cliffs at Winter harbour on Melville
island, and used it for fuel on his ships. The Franklin search parties
later found outcrops of coal in other places along the southern and
eastern shores of that island and in the cliffs of Bathurst island.

These outcrops of coal indicate that the seams seen in the southern
cliffs will be found extending inland over the greater portion of the
islands, where they are covered by several hundred feet of newer rocks.
No coal has been found in the Carboniferous rocks of Ellesmere island.

The mineral occurs in thin beds along with sandstones and shales, and is
a good quality of bituminous coal.

In the folded Tertiary rocks found in the vicinity of Lady Franklin
sound on the west side of Kennedy channel several outcrops of excellent
bituminous coal have been discovered. The beds in the neighbourhood of
Fort Conger have been mined along the outcrop and used for fuel by the
Nares expedition and by Greely and Peary.



[Illustration: SCOTTISH WHALER ‘ECLIPSE.’]



                               CHAPTER X.
                                WHALING.


The pursuit of the Right whale in the Arctic seas calls into play all
the instincts and resources of the hunter; the dangers of ice and
climate add zest to the chase, while the value of the quarry is the
incentive which has brought forth all the daring and ingenuity of the
whaler in his efforts to capture this most valuable and wary animal, and
has caused him to assume risks unequalled in any other calling. The
capture of a single whale repays the expenditure incurred in outfitting
a steam whaling ship, and if more than one is killed on the voyage, it
means large dividends to the owners and small ones to the officers and
crew of the ship.

Several species of whales are found in the waters of the northern
ice-laden seas, but there is only one prize, known amongst other common
names as the Greenland whale, Right whale and Bowhead whale, and
scientifically called the _Balaena mysticetus_, L. From its mouth is
obtained the precious whalebone. An average whale carries nearly a ton
of this material, which at present is worth about $15,000 a ton, with
the price rising from year to year. The principal uses of the whalebone
are to stiffen the bodices of the better-made gowns, and to weave into
expensive silk fabrics. The wealth of the world is increasing and the
supply of whales is decreasing; no idea, therefore, can be formed of the
value of whalebone in the future, as no good substitute has been
discovered. An adult female whale will furnish blubber sufficient for
nearly thirty tons of oil, while a male will supply about twenty tons;
the value of oil also is on the increase, and may be taken at about $100
per ton. Thus, the total value of a large whale varies from $15,000 to
$20,000, but even at that the chase is becoming unprofitable, owing to
the few whales remaining, and to the frequent ‘empty’ voyages made of
late years.

The whaling ‘grounds’ of the eastern side of America are situated in
Davis strait and Baffin bay and in the northern parts of Hudson bay.

The memorable voyage of Baffin, in 1616, first showed the value of the
whale fishery of Davis strait, and as early as 1619 the first Dutch
whaler was fishing in those waters. A few years later they were joined
by British whaling vessels, but their operations were confined to the
waters off the south coast of Greenland for nearly two hundred years,
until the voyages of Ross and Parry disclosed the more valuable waters
of Baffin bay and of the western side of Davis strait.

These discoveries led to a rapid increase of the British whaling fleet,
and vessels were fitted out from the ports of Hull, Dundee, Kirkcaldy,
Peterhead, Fraserburg and Aberdeen.

The introduction of steamships in the early sixties, and the combination
of the whale fishery with the sealing industry of Newfoundland and
eastern Greenland, led to further increases in the fleet, which, in
1868, totalled thirty steam and sailing vessels as follows: Dundee, 13
steam and 1 sailing ship; Peterhead, 4 steam and 8 sailing ships;
Fraserburg, 2 sailing ships; Aberdeen, 1 sailing ship; Hull, 1
steamship. This was the last year in which ships sailed from Hull; since
then the British whaling fleet has been from Scotch ports only. Steam
soon altogether replaced sails, so that in 1877 only the former was
employed. The fleet at that time had been reduced to thirteen vessels,
all sailing from the port of Dundee. No new ships have been built during
the past twenty-five years, and the construction of these strong oak
vessels, sheathed with greenheart or ironbark, is fast becoming a lost
art in these days of steel and iron ships. The Dundee fleet is now
reduced to five, without much prospect of their being replaced by
British-built ships. The future ships of the whaling fleet will probably
be Norwegian-built. Four of the above vessels were, in 1904, whaling in
Baffin bay, the fifth was in Hudson bay.

The American whalers did not attempt Arctic whaling until 1846, and have
since confined their operations to the waters on the west side of Davis
strait (Cumberland gulf and southward) and to those of Hudson strait and
Hudson bay.

The American ships have always been sailing vessels, and the American
methods differ considerably from those of the Scotch whalers, the chief
difference being that their ships are provisioned for two years, and
remain one or two winters in the north on each voyage. Americans were
the first to erect permanent stations in the eastern Arctics.

[Illustration: CREW OF THE AMERICAN WHALER ‘ERA’.]

The attention of the Hudson’s Bay Company was early directed to the
whale fishery of Hudson bay. In 1719 a frigate and sloop, under the
command of Knight, were despatched from Churchill, to explore the
western shores of the bay to the northward and to prosecute the whale
fishery in those waters. The disastrous ending of this venture, the
entire crews dying of scurvy and starvation on Marble island, put a stop
to all projects of the Company as regards whale fishing, until one was
undertaken in recent years, but so little success attended the venture
that it was abandoned after three years’ trial.

Public attention was first called to the whale fishery of Hudson bay by
Dr. Rae, in the publications on his voyages in 1846 and 1854 along the
northwestern coast of the bay in search of traces of the Franklin
expedition.

In 1860 the first American ships visited the northwestern part of Hudson
bay, wintered there, and returned with full cargoes. Their success led
other whalers to the same waters, so that in 1864 there were fourteen
American ships in Hudson bay and Cumberland strait.

Whaling in Hudson bay has since been almost wholly in the hands of the
Americans, and an idea of the value taken by them from those waters may
be obtained from the tabulated statement at the end of this article.

The first British vessel of modern times to visit Hudson bay for whales
was the Newfoundland steamer _Nimrod_, which, according to Hall, was at
Repulse bay in 1867. The Scotch steamer _Arctic_ made two or three
voyages to the bay, the last being in 1897, when she struck a rock in
Hudson strait, and was damaged to such an extent that she subsequently
sunk in Cumberland gulf. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s ship _Perseverance_,
already alluded to, was in Hudson bay from 1894 to 1896, and only took
five small whales. Changing hands, a couple of years later, this ship
was at Cumberland gulf, and sailing from there for Scotland must have
struck an iceberg, as no tidings have since been had of her. This, or
being crushed in the ice or being wrecked by striking sunken rocks upon
these uncharted coasts, is the usual fate of the whaling vessels, and
some such loss, entailing excessive hardships and often death upon the
crews, is almost an annual occurrence in these Arctic waters, so that a
high rate of remuneration is necessary to compensate for the risks.

Since 1898 the Scotch steamer _Active_ has made annual voyages to Hudson
bay, and has established two stations, one on the north side of Hudson
strait and the other first at Southampton island, but later removed to
Repulse bay. Walrus hunting was the first object of this undertaking,
with whaling as a secondary consideration. Success appears to have
crowned this enterprise, as in addition to a few whales, a goodly number
of walrus are taken annually, and the profits of these are enhanced by
the furs obtained from the natives, and by mica from a mine worked on
the north shore of Hudson strait.

Whaling in Hudson bay appears to have reached its height about 1870,
after which the disappearance of the whales from the more accessible
waters led to a diminution of the catch, and many of the American
whaling vessels were transferred to the Arctic whaling waters reached
from the Pacific, which were also discovered and made known by the
British ships in search of the ill-fated Franklin. At present only one
of the American whalers is in Hudson bay, and none of them have visited
Cumberland gulf for some years past; the only connection with the
industry now on that coast is the small and unprofitable station at Cape
Haven, on Cyrus Field bay, owned by a firm in Boston.

The movements of the whales appear to depend largely upon the ice of
these northern waters, and that in turn is modified by the currents and
configuration of the seas, so that a short geographical description is
necessary to a proper understanding of the movements and habits of these
animals.

Davis strait and Baffin bay separate Greenland from the great Arctic
islands of Baffin, Bylot, North Devon and Ellesmere. Their combined
length stretches from the mouth of Hudson strait to the entrance of
Smith sound, or from latitude 60° N. to latitude 78° N., a distance of
1,200 miles. In shape they may be compared to a sack loosely drawn in
about a third of the distance from its mouth, which opens widely to the
southward, where it has a breadth of nearly 500 miles between the
southern part of Greenland and the island of Resolution on the north
side of Hudson strait. Both shores then gradually approach, until in the
neighbourhood of latitude 66° N. the distance across is 200 miles. To
the northward of this the Greenland coast runs nearly due north, while
the western coast trends towards the northwest, and in consequence when
latitude 75° N. is reached Baffin bay is nearly 400 miles wide from the
Greenland coast to the shores of North Devon. Beyond this the Greenland
coast sweeps to the westward, around Melville bay, and after Cape York
is passed turns northwest until Cape Alexander, at the entrance to Smith
sound, is reached. The western coast, in the meanwhile, first runs north
and then northeast to Cape Isabella, which is only twenty-five miles
distant from Cape Alexander on the Greenland coast.

Like all the great northern bays, Baffin bay has a current flowing
northward along the eastern or Greenland coast, and a cold Arctic
current setting southward along the western shores. These currents have
a considerable influence upon the climate of the adjoining land, and the
mean annual temperature at points of corresponding latitude is several
degrees higher on the Greenland side. This difference of climate is
marked along the middle and northern coasts, that of Greenland being
practically free from ice and snow, except where glaciers from the great
central ice-cap flow down into the sea. The fiords and bays are open
early in summer, while the current sweeps northward all the ice
accumulated along the coast during the winter, leaving an open sea,
usually early in July, as far as Melville bay.

A portion of this southern current evidently comes from the North
Atlantic, and the remainder sweeps around the southern end of Greenland,
bringing with it a stream of Arctic ice brought south on the Arctic
current of east Greenland. This stream of ice is soon deflected from the
west coast, and appears to melt in the southeastern part of Davis
strait, as there is a lane of open water separating the southern ice
from that of the west coast.

The distance from Wilcox head to Cape York, across Melville bay, is 180
miles; that from the centre of this line to the head of the bay is
upwards of 100 miles. Much of the shore-line of the bay is still
unexplored, but sufficient is known to state that it is an almost
unbroken line of glaciers, which constantly discharge large icebergs
into the waters of the bay. A large number of rocky islands break its
surface, and the bottom appears to be very uneven, with much shallow
water; in consequence, many of the icebergs are grounded in the
shallower parts of the bay. The islands and grounded bergs break the
winds and waves, and so allow of the formation of heavy sheets of ice
between them during the winter months, while in the summer they act as
anchors for this sheet, or floe ice. As before stated, the southerly
current carries a great part of the shore ice of central Greenland north
to Melville bay, where it acts as an aggravation to the congestion of
ice there, so that it is always late in the season before the bay is
even partly clear of ice, which must pass westward, until being
influenced by the northern current from Smith sound, it is deflected
south and goes to increase the great mass of ice known as the ‘middle
pack,’ which all summer fills the southwestern part of Baffin bay. In
the days of sailing ships the whalers made their way across the bay by
tracking, or sailing along the edge of the solid land-ice, and many a
vessel was lost there. Even with steam-power this is a place of terror
to the whalers, and they never feel safe until they have reached the
‘north water’ at Cape York. As an illustration of the dangers and
difficulties of this crossing, the _Vega_ was crushed and sunk in the
summer of 1903, and the _Balaena_ was at the same time eighty days
tightly jammed in the ice. In 1904 the _Eclipse_ took thirty days to
cross the bay, and the _Diana_ was thirty-five days in crossing. The
_Neptune_, on the 8th of August, crossed in twenty hours, when little
ice was seen until within a few miles of Cape York; and from there to
Cape Alexander, at the entrance to Smith sound, only ‘pan’ or sheet ice
was observed at the heads of the larger bays, all the eastern side of
the northern part of Baffin bay being free of ice. This open ‘north
water’ is caused as follows: The ice to the southward of Cape Alexander
breaks up towards the end of June or early in July, and is soon carried
southward on the southerly current of the west side. Smith sound and its
continuation northward remain tightly frozen until August, when it sends
its heavy ice southward; in consequence there is always a wide interval
of open water between these two streams of ice from the north. The Smith
sound ice continues to pour out in heavy floes, often square miles in
area, until the end of the year, and this stream finally joins the
earlier ice in the western part of Baffin bay, where other streams of
Arctic ice gather from Jones, Lancaster and Ponds inlet sounds. All
these form the great mass of the ‘middle pack,’ which slowly empties on
the northern current, flowing southward along the west side of Davis
strait, blocking the mouths of Cumberland gulf and Frobisher bay in the
late summer, later appearing on the coast of Labrador, and finally
forming the heavy pack upon which the seals are found in March and April
off the shores of Newfoundland.

The whaling grounds of Hudson bay have been confined to the north side
of Hudson strait and to the northwestern part of the bay. The great
island of Southampton lies in the north part of the bay and divides it
into two unequal portions. The eastern or Fox channel is by far the
larger, extending northward from latitude 64° to latitude 70°, and
exceeds 200 miles in width. The western, or Roes Welcome, is much
smaller; its length from Cape Fullerton to the head of Repulse bay is
150 miles, while it rarely exceeds 40 miles across.

In the early days of the Hudson bay fishery, whales were plentiful as
far south as Marble island, and from there northward to Repulse bay. Of
late years few whales have been taken in these southern waters, and the
whalers now confine themselves to the southern shores of Southampton and
the waters of Roes Welcome.

The northern and eastern parts of Fox channel are still unexplored, and
owing to the large masses of ice found there continuously, and to the
numerous shoals and reefs in the known parts, it has never been a
favourite place for whalers, its waters being the only portion of the
bay where the whales have been left undisturbed.

The favourite resort for whales both in Baffin and Hudson bays is along
the edge of the ice still fast to the shore, with an abundance of loose
ice outside. When the shore ice is all melted or loosened they prefer to
remain about the edge of the large masses of floating ice. This habit of
remaining close to the ice-masses appears to be due to two causes—food
and protection. The whale is a very timid animal, and is easily
frightened by anything out of the ordinary; it then either takes to the
protection of the tightly packed ice, or leaves for distant parts. The
food of the whale consists of small crustaceans (called sealice by the
whalers), and swimming pterepods known as ‘whale-food’ and
‘blackberries.’ These creatures in turn feed upon minute animal
organisms, known as diatoms, which are found in countless numbers in
these northern waters, where they are so numerous as to discolour large
areas of the sea, giving it a light-green, or a brownish hue. The
diatoms are known to be propagated in the fresh-water pools upon the
large pans of ice, and it would appear that they thrive best in the
comparatively fresh surface-water in the vicinity of melting ice; this
may be the chief reason for the whales frequenting such localities.

The whales are known to enter Hudson strait early in the spring; they
have been captured around Big island in April and May, and at the
western end of the strait in the latter part of May. They then cross to
the west side of the bay along the edge of the open water, being found
in June and early July along the land-floe on both sides of the southern
part of Roes Welcome. As the Welcome clears of ice they proceed north to
Repulse bay, and, still later, pass through Frozen strait into Fox
channel. Late in the autumn they again pass through Hudson strait going
eastward. By far the greater number of whales taken in Hudson bay have
been killed in the vicinity of Whale point near the southern entrance to
the Welcome.

Some whales are supposed to remain during the winter in the waters of
Hudson bay, as they have been reported by the Eskimos as being seen in
the depth of winter off Mansfield and some of the more southern islands
of the east side of the bay.

The migration of the whales in Davis strait and Baffin bay is fairly
well known. In March they are found along the edge of the land-floe of
Cumberland gulf and Frobisher bay, where they remain until the beginning
of May, when they cross to the Greenland coast, and in June are found on
the ‘middle ground’ to the south of Disko. From there they follow the
shore ice north to Melville bay, and then cross along the southern edge
of the ‘north water’ to the western shores of Baffin bay. Should there
be a good land-floe in Jones and Lancaster sounds, they are found there
late in July and in the beginning of August, but the greater number go
south to the mouth of Ponds inlet, where the principal summer catch is
made. During September and October they are found along the western edge
of the ‘middle pack,’ and the whalers pass southward from Ponds inlet,
making use of a number of good harbours known only to themselves on the
eastern side of Baffin island, and going out only in fine weather.
According to the season they remain on that coast, to the northward of
Cumberland gulf, until the middle or end of October, when they leave for
Scotland. In October the whales again enter Cumberland gulf, and remain
along the edge of the newly-formed land ice until December, when their
position is unknown until their return in the following March. They are
supposed to go in the meantime, to the southward, off the mouth of
Hudson strait and along the northern Atlantic coast of Labrador, but the
weather then is too severe to permit of the use of open whaleboats.

The Greenland whale, commonly called a ‘fish’ by the whalers, is, as all
know, a mammal, warm-blooded, reproducing and suckling its young like
any of the land mammals. Its outward resemblance to a fish is merely a
provision of nature, whereby its shape is adapted to the conditions in
which it lives; that is, for a wholly marine life. Its swimming ‘fins’
when stripped of their covering, are found to correspond to the
fore-limbs of quadrupeds, and although the whale does not possess any
hind-limbs, there are rudiments of such to be found in their place, or
at least the rudiments of the pelvis to which the after limbs were
attached.

In colour the whale is usually black or bluish-black above, and whitish
or piebald below. Sometimes white spots occur on the upper parts, and
the markings frequently vary with the individual. The young are
lighter-coloured, being bluish.

An adult whale varies from forty to sixty feet in length; extra large
ones run to sixty-five feet, and the largest recorded reached eighty
feet in length.

The whalers have different names for differently sized whales. _Suckers_
are the young under a year old; _Shortheads_ is also applied to the
young as long as they continue to be suckled. _Stunts_ are two years
old; _Scull-fish_ have bone less than six feet in length; _Size-fish_
have the bone exceeding that length.

The following are the measurements given by Dr. Robert Goodsir of a
large female whale killed in Ponds bay:—

                                                                   ft. in.
Length from the fork of the tail, along the abdomen, to tip of
  lower jaw                                                         65   0
Girth behind swimming-paws                                          30   0
Breadth of tail, from tip to tip                                    24   0
Greatest breadth between lower jaws                                 10   0
Length of head, measured in a line from articulation of lower jaw   21   0
Length of vulva                                                      1   2
From posterior end of vulva to anus                                  0   6
From anterior end of vulva to umbilicus                              8   0
Mammæe placed opposite the anterior third of vulva and six inches
  from tip of it.
Length of sulcus of mammæ                                            0   3
Breadth of sulcus, on each side of it                                0   2
From tuberosity of humerus to point of pectoral fin                  8   0
Greatest breadth of fin                                              3  11
Depth of lip (interior of lower)                                     4   7
From the inner canthus of eye to extreme angle of fold of mouth      1   5
From inner to outer canthus                                          0   6
Length of block of laminæ beleen, measuring round the curve of the
  gum, after being removed from the head                            16   6
Length of longest lamina on each side                               10   6
Distance between the laminæ at the gum                               0  0⅞
Breadth of pulp cavity of largest lamina                             1   0
Average length of pulp when extracted from one side of the largest
  laminæ                                                             0   5
Number of laminae on either side, about 360.

Female whales are larger and fatter than the males, so that a female
will have an average of about ten more tons of blubber than an ordinary
male. As will be seen from the above measurements, the head equals about
a third of the length of the body, and the upper jaw, which carries the
baleen or whalebone, is only a few feet shorter. The baleen is in the
form of thin slabs or ‘splits’ set close together in the gum at
right-angles to the length of the jaw-bone. At the base the splits are
from six to twelve inches wide and from a quarter to nearly an inch in
thickness. They taper slowly to their free end, and terminate in long
hairs which extend upwards of six inches beyond the solid bone. Similar
hairs are found along the inside of the bone. There are about 360 of
these splits on each side of the jaw, and they are placed so as to slope
backwards. The longest or ‘size split’ is in the middle of the side of
the jaw, and the others decrease in length in front and behind. It
derives its name from being the split by which the length and weight of
the bone is computed. The longest split recorded measured fourteen feet
in length, but the ordinary length in adult whales is from nine to ten
feet. Bone of that length will average nearly a ton weight to a whale.
Bone six feet and under brings only half the price of longer bone. The
laminæ are usually pale-blue; in the young they are sometimes green and
black; in older whales nearly black, and occasionally striped white and
black.

This bone in the whale’s mouth acts as a swab or sieve to entangle and
collect the small animals upon which it feeds. The lower lip is very
deep, and when closed fits close to the head, the edge forming a bow as
it curves backwards from the front. When feeding, this lip is let down,
so that it projects nearly at right-angles, forming a sort of trough and
conducting the water, as the whale moves through it, to the tangle of
hairs of the exposed bone. When sufficient food has been collected the
lip is closed and the food removed from the baleen by the broad tongue.
A whale when feeding travels at, or near the surface, at a rate varying
from two to four miles an hour. The speed at which a free whale travels
through the water appears to have been greatly exaggerated. When
harpooned, and dragging a whaleboat, the speed rarely exceeds six miles
an hour, and as the mass of the whale greatly exceeds that of the boat
the latter cannot to any great extent retard its speed, especially as
the whale is then exerting its utmost power in its efforts to escape.

[Illustration: BUNDLES OF WHALEBONE ON THE ‘ERA.’]

The body is everywhere covered with a thick skin, which varies from an
inch to an inch and a half in thickness. This thick ‘blackskin’ forms a
luxury in the diet of the Eskimos and whalers. It is eaten boiled, a
small amount of blubber being attached to give it flavour. When cooked
it has the appearance of thick black india-rubber, and is soft and
glutinous, while its flavour approaches that of the clam.

The fat or blubber is found everywhere directly below the skin, and is
thickest towards the tail. It bears a resemblance to very fat pork, and
is from twelve to eighteen inches in thickness. The flesh of the whale
is coarse and tough, and is used largely for dog-food; although often
eaten by the Eskimos, it is only when seal or walrus meat cannot be
obtained.

Whales are gregarious, and when plentiful travel in large bands, but
they are now so rare that a band of three or four is the greatest number
seen together of late years.

There are two methods employed in the chase after whales. The Scotch
whalers of Baffin bay cruise about in small steamers, and depend wholly
upon their own white crew to man their boats. The American whalers and
the stations depend more or less upon the Eskimos to form their boats’
crews.

The Scotch steamers are small, stout vessels, from 300 to 400 tons
register. Those, British-built, are of hardwood throughout, while the
Norwegian ships have hardwood frames and softwood planking. The timbers
and planking in all are very heavy, and the sides are further
strengthened by a sheathing of greenheart or ironbark, both exceedingly
hard, tough woods. This sheathing extends from above the water-line to
near the keel; the planks forming it are from three to six inches thick,
and are capable of resisting great pressure from the ice, as well as
withstanding its cutting action which would soon wear through
unprotected sides. The bows are further strengthened by being backed by
several feet of solid timber, while, outside, thick plates and bands of
iron protect the bow and stem. The sides are also strengthened by a
layer of rock-salt, filled in between the timbers and between the skin
of the ship, and by an inside sheathing fastened to the timber, so that
with the outside sheathing of greenheart, the planking and the
salt-filling, the sides are from eighteen to twenty-four inches thick.
Notwithstanding this great strength, the usual fate of these ships is to
be crushed in the ice.

The ships are three-masted and barque rigged, differing in appearance
from an ordinary wooden barque by the presence of large barrels fitted
to the tops of the fore and main masts, and used for observation
stations when working the ship through ice or when chasing whales. The
small engine and boiler are placed aft, between the main and mizzen
masts, where the strong deck beams can be best spared. The engine works
a two-bladed propeller, which drives the ships at rates varying from
four to seven knots an hour.

The lower hold of the ship is filled with a number of iron tanks that
rise to the level of the middle deck, and which are used to store the
blubber. On leaving home all these tanks are filled with coal, which is
also stowed in every other available space, the usual amount of coal for
the voyage being from 250 to 300 tons. The between-deck space is used
for stowing provisions, and for the quarters of part of the crew.

The officers and crew usually number about fifty persons, sufficient to
man six whaleboats and to leave men on board to work the vessel.

The boats are narrow, and are pointed at both ends. Their length is
about twenty-six feet. They are propelled by five oars, or by sail. When
rowing the steersman uses a long sweep oar, and when sailing a rudder,
so arranged as to be easily unshipped and hung on the side of the boat.
Scotch whaleboats are built of larch, while the American are made of
cedar. Another difference is that the latter are centre-board boats,
while the former have fixed keels.

On the whaling grounds the boats hang ready in davits, three on a side,
with all their whaling gear in place, and ready to be lowered at a
moment’s notice. A man is always on the lookout in the barrel, and when
a whale is sighted the captain takes his place there and directs the
movements of the boats from the ship by signals made with sails and
other signs. He is also in connection with the engine-room, and controls
the ship from that lofty perch.

A whale is usually sighted by the column of spray which it throws up in
breathing, and which often rises twenty feet in the air, accompanied by
a puffing sound. A whale usually spouts or breathes five or six times
when it comes to the surface for that purpose, and so remains up for
several minutes. It then goes down to feed, and remains under the water
for fifteen or twenty minutes, during that time travelling perhaps at
most a mile. If possible, advantage is taken of the wind to approach the
whale, to avoid the noise made in rowing. For that purpose ordinary
metal row-locks are not used, their place being taken by stout pins, to
which the oar is attached by a ‘grummet’ or loop of rope. Both ear and
eye of the whale are very small, but in the water they are very acute,
and any strange noise instantly arouses suspicion. The eye is so placed
that the animal can only see ahead, and care is therefore taken to
approach it from behind.

The Scotch whalers use guns, both for the harpoon and for the bomb, with
which the whale is killed after the harpoon is fast. The harpoon has but
one barb, and is so attached to the shank that when it has entered the
skin and the line begins to pull, it swings at right-angles to the
wound, and cannot be removed without cutting a large hole. The shank is
about two feet long, and is split from the head to butt. In this split
runs a ring to which the line is attached. The butt is a circular disc
the diameter of the bore of the harpoon gun. This gun is mounted on a
stanchion in the bow of the boat, and, working on a swivel, may be
pointed in any direction. It is a muzzle-loader, and its discharge is
insured by a double primer. When the gun is loaded, only the head of the
harpoon and a short length of the stock protrude, sufficient for the
ring with attached line. When it is fired the ring slips back to the
butt and the head is buried deep into the side of the whale.

The harpoon line is generally made of manilla, and has a circumference
of about three inches. It is carefully coiled in tubs between the seats,
each tub holding a line 120 fathoms long. After the whale has been
struck, the line is passed aft and a turn taken around a post in the
stern, from which the line is payed out as required. The bomb gun has a
bore about an inch in diameter, and fires an explosive shell, so
arranged as to explode shortly after coming in contact with the body of
the whale, and thus well inside. This gun is rarely used before the
whale makes its first plunge, and frequently several dives are made
before the boat can get close enough to give this _coup de grâce_.

[Illustration: PREPARING FOR SPRING WHALING.]

As soon as life is extinct, the boats form in line and tow the whale,
tail first, to the ship, where its tail is made fast to the quarter, and
an effort is made to reach a harbour, where the carcass may be stripped
with safety. When this is impossible, the body is brought alongside the
ship and secured by the head and tail. Work is then commenced with
long-handled blubber spades, about six inches wide and very sharp. The
blubber is removed in long strips cut around the body, and when one side
is finished the whale is turned over. The great lips are cut away, and
then, with cheers, the prize in the upper jaw is hoisted on board. The
blubber, as it is taken from the whale, is stored in the empty tanks and
is taken home in this condition. It is not reduced to oil immediately,
as is the practice with the Americans.

The Scotch whalers of Hudson bay differ in their methods from those of
Baffin bay only in the employment of Eskimos to man a part of their
boats, and consequently they do not carry so large a white crew. The
natives employed by the _Active_ belong to the north side of Hudson
strait and come from the vicinity of Big island. Several families of
these Eskimos are taken on board the ship when she arrives in the early
summer, and remain on board until she leaves for home in October. These
natives are employed partly in whaling and walrus hunting, and are very
useful in skinning and preparing the hides of the walrus.

At present there is only one American vessel engaged in whaling on the
eastern side of America, the topsail schooner _Era_ of New Bedford. This
ship entered Hudson bay during the summer of 1903, wintered in the
harbour of Fullerton, and intended to pass the winter of 1904 in the
same harbour, returning home in the following September. As the
_Neptune_ wintered alongside at Fullerton, and as the writer made a trip
lasting two weeks to Southampton island, in June, 1904, in company with
four of the whaleboats belonging to the _Era_, he is personally better
acquainted with the life and methods of the American than with those of
the Scotch whalers.

The _Era_ is over fifty years old, and was originally built for a
coasting packet. When her usefulness in that trade was passed, some
thirty years ago, she was sheathed with about three inches of hardwood,
and further reinforced with iron plate in the bow. Little expenditure
seems to have since been made by the owners. The ship is now very leaky,
and in such a condition that she could not get a British rating. During
the winter, when tightly frozen in, the pumps were going daily, and when
at sea they are almost constantly going to keep the vessel afloat, while
the forecastle, the home of a crew of twelve men, has several inches of
water on the floor, and every bunk is soaking wet. This forecastle is
very small, and when the small stove and table are set up, the men have
to crawl over one another to get to their small double-decked bunks. The
air is exceedingly bad, and these quarters probably account, in part,
for the scurvy prevalent amongst the crew. The food is as antiquated as
the accommodation, and is confined to the staples, barrelled pork and
beef with biscuit left over from the Spanish-American war, and returned
from Cuba more or less alive; to these are added coffee and molasses of
the cheapest kind, and a small quantity of tinned meats, preserved
potatoes and dried apples, none in quantities sufficient for anything
approaching a daily ration; no antiscorbutics, such as lime-juice, are
carried. These antiquated rations are supplemented by fresh meat of the
deer, seal and walrus obtained from the natives, but during the winter
this supply is often very inadequate.

The officers and crew numbered twenty on leaving New Bedford. They
consist of the captain, two mates, three boat-steerers, cook, steward
and twelve seamen. None of the officers hold certificates, and as far as
their qualifications to navigate the ship are concerned, have passed no
official test.

The officers and boat-steerers are ‘old hands,’ having made previous
voyages, either to Hudson bay or to the western whaling. The crew are
all landsmen without any knowledge of the sea, and are obtained for the
voyage through the agency of crimps. Some were signed on under false
statements and others put on board while drunk. In some cases the ship’s
articles were signed after the vessel was at sea, and the majority of
the men when they signed had not had the articles read to them. Advances
made by the crimps at extravagant rates are paid by the owners without
the knowledge or consent of the crew as soon as the vessel leaves port.
No wages are paid, all being on shares; and the share of the crew is so
small and the advance account and articles supplied from the
‘slop-chest’ so great that it is the usual thing for each man to find
himself in debt to the owners on his return from no matter how
successful a voyage. None of these practices are allowed on board the
British vessel, and the crew are not only paid monthly wages, but
participate in the profits of the voyage.

The _Era’s_ crew was composed of a gunsmith, a clerk in a wholesale drug
business, an iron moulder, a mechanic, an ex-soldier, a railway
brakesman, an Armenian and several nondescripts ‘about town.’ Of the
entire lot only one had ever been to sea before.

The treatment of the crew by the officers was as good as circumstances
permitted, and was in strong contrast to their general treatment by the
owners.

The methods of the American whalers differ considerably from those
already described. When the ship arrives in the northwestern part of the
bay, the Aivillik Eskimos are looked for somewhere in the vicinity of
Whale point, and enough men, practically half of the tribe, are engaged
for the time the ship remains in the bay. The ship’s crew are sufficient
to man three whaleboats, and three others are manned by the natives.
Four boats are brought on the ship every voyage, and only two are taken
home, the other two, equipped for whaling, being left with the natives,
and any whales caught during the ship’s absence are supposed to belong
to the ship furnishing the boats.

The natives and their families and dogs are taken on board the schooner
and conveyed to the harbour where it is proposed to spend the winter.
About seventy persons of this tribe were at Fullerton during the winter
of 1903-04, and twice a day received a meal of biscuit and coffee on the
ship. These people were fed in the cabin after the officers, and two or
three extra tables were required to accommodate all, so that the meal
continued for nearly two hours, and the atmosphere of the cabin was
anything but sweet. No regular wages are paid to the natives either
during the winter when hunting, or when in the boats in the summer, but
they are given such articles as the captain thinks they should have or
deserve, everything being left to his judgment or caprice. On the whole
they are fairly well treated, and although they only get a very small
percentage of their catch, still the presence of the whaler ensures them
from starvation, and provides them with boats, guns and ammunition, all
of which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain.

While with the ship the entire hunt of the natives is supposed to belong
to the ship, and no definite payment is made for whales or fur taken
during that period.

During past years a goodly number of boats have been left to the natives
by the American whalers, and at the present time the Eskimos scattered
from Chesterfield inlet to Repulse bay must have upwards of twenty
serviceable boats. The Aivilliks have for so long become possessed of
boats in this manner, that they have lost the art of building kyaks, and
none of the younger men know anything about handling these craft.

Very little use is made of the ship in the catching of whales, and it
usually only serves as a convenient base of supply, or as a means of
transport from one locality to another.

[Illustration: WHALEBOATS ON THE ICE, IN ROES WELCOME.]

As the crews live during the greater part of the open season in the
boats, these are fitted with cotton covers supported on hoops, and are
thus completely roofed in, affording very comfortable if somewhat
cramped quarters. Cooking is done with oil stoves, and sleeping is
arranged for by placing wide boards across the intervals between seats.
The boats leave the ship early in May, long before the ice along the
coast begins to break up, and they cruise up and down along the edge of
the solid land-floe looking for whales. During stormy weather, and at
night, the boats are drawn out on the smooth ice, props are placed on
each side to keep them upright, and the cover being drawn on and snugly
secured, afford secure and comfortable quarters, provided that the
temperature does not drop too low; in that case, resort is made to the
deerskin sleeping bags for greater warmth.

The west coast of the bay is patrolled in this manner until about the
middle of June, the cruise extending from Chesterfield inlet to Whale
point, supplies being renewed every week or so. Each of the ship’s boats
is in charge of an officer, who always attends to the steering. The
‘boat-steerers’ are in reality the harpooners, and have nothing to do
with the steering of the boat.

Towards the end of June the boats cross through the floating ice to
Southampton island, where they remain until compelled to return for
fresh supplies, usually about three weeks. A second trip to that island
is sometimes made, and in August the ship, now free from the ice, is
taken to Repulse bay or the Frozen strait connecting it with Fox
channel. The ship is again left in harbour under the charge of the cook
and steward, and the boats cruise about until the beginning of
September, when the ship is taken to winter quarters or sails for home.
If the intention is to remain all winter, the harbour is reached before
the middle of the month.

This is the routine, and it is only varied by the capture of a whale. As
will be seen from the above description, the boats cruise nearly all the
time in the in-shore waters, and the greater number of whales are taken
within the three-mile limit, and not on the high seas as is the rule in
Baffin bay. If the whale is killed within reasonable distance of the
ship, it is either towed alongside by the boats, or the ship comes for
it, and an endeavour is made to get the body into a safe harbour in
order to save the blubber. A number of whales are killed in inconvenient
places, and only the bone is then taken, all the blubber going to waste.
When the blubber is taken, it is immediately cut up and ‘tried out’ into
oil on board the ship, a large boiler being carried for that purpose.
The hold of the schooner is filled with large casks, made in different
sizes to fit the shape of the hold. On the outward voyage these are
partly filled with the provisions; returning, they carry the oil and
furs collected on the voyage.

During the long winter a part of the natives remain at the ship, and are
employed hunting seals, walrus, and deer to help feed the women and
children and the crew of the ship. The remainder are sent away after
musk-ox, and remain away several months, having to go a long distance
before reaching the country where those animals are found. A successful
party will return with at least twenty musk-ox skins, and these add to
the profits of the voyage. Stranger Eskimos also visit the ship to
trade, and in this manner a considerable number of musk-ox, fox, wolf,
bear and wolverine skins are added.

Unlike the Scotch whalers, where the captain remains on board ship to
direct the movements of the boats from the barrel, the American captain
goes in charge of one of the boats. This works well in open water, but
when the whale is among loose ice very little can be seen from the
boats.

The Americans make use of a hand harpoon, and as it is very heavy and
has a gun attached to it, the boat must approach within a few feet of
the whale before it can be thrown with any certainty of success;
otherwise the manner of capture is similar to that already described.

[Illustration: SCOTTISH WHALING STATION AT BLACKLEAD ISLAND.]

Station whaling, which is very similar to that practised by the American
ships, is carried on both in Baffin bay and Hudson bay. The stations are
either permanent establishments on land, or are small ships that remain
constantly in the country, and serve only as a convenient dwelling for
the small number of whites with each.

At the present time land stations are operated at Kekerten and
Blacklead, in Cumberland gulf and at Cape Haven, all on the east side of
Davis strait. At the mouth of Ponds inlet in Baffin bay a small ketch is
stationed; in Repulse bay a similar vessel is used as a whaling station.
With the exception of Cape Haven these are owned in Scotland, the Cape
Haven station belonging to a firm in Boston, U.S.

Only one or two white men are employed at each, and the whaling is
altogether in the hands of the natives.

None of these stations are making great profits, and some of them are
being maintained at a loss. They are of great assistance to the natives,
and it is to be hoped that nothing will be done to discourage the
owners, who according to present returns should be helped rather than
hindered in their work.

The natives have for years looked for assistance to the whalers both on
Baffin island and Hudson bay. They have quite given up the use of their
primitive weapons, and there is no doubt that a withdrawal of the
whalers would lead to great hardship and many deaths among these people
if the Government did not in some manner take their place and supply the
Eskimos with the necessary guns and ammunition.

The influence of the whalers upon the natives does not appear to have
been as bad as in the western part of the Arctics. The excessive use of
alcohol has never been practised, and has now been totally stopped.
Disease due to sexual intercourse has been introduced and has, no doubt,
led to many deaths. Other diseases introduced have carried away numbers
of these people. It is doubtful if the morals of the Eskimo, which are
of a different standard from those of Europeans, have deteriorated
through sexual intercourse with the sailors.

The future of the whaling industry appears to be very gloomy. The annual
catch is decreasing regularly, and only the high price of whalebone
makes it at all profitable. No certainty of a single whale can be had,
and the enterprise is reduced to almost a gambling chance. During the
past season the following returns were collected from the various ships
and stations visited:—

_Era._—One small whale taken at Southampton up to the 20th July. To
this must be added the bone of a large and small whale taken by natives
before the _Era’s_ arrival in 1903.

_Balaena._—One medium whale, three-quarters of a ton of whalebone, to
23rd August.

_Diana._—Three whales, two and a quarter tons of whalebone to 23rd
August.

_Eclipse._—Two whales, one and a half tons of whalebone, to 23rd
August.

_Windward._—One whale, three-quarters of a ton of whalebone, to 23rd
August.

Ponds inlet station.—Two small whales, a quarter of a ton of short
whalebone, to 23rd August.

Kekerten station.—No whales to 1st September.

Blacklead station.—No whales to 1st September.

Cape Haven station.—No whales to 1st September.

_Active._—One whale, 1,300 pounds bone.

Repulse bay station.—One small whale, 500 pounds bone.

Several other species of the larger whales are known to frequent the
southern and eastern waters of Davis strait and Baffin bay, but do not
go into the densely ice-covered seas of the western side, nor are they
found in Hudson strait or bay.

None of these whales possess the precious whalebone. They are also of
comparatively little value for oil, and only when hunted by steamers in
conjunction with shore factories, where all the products can be turned
to profitable account, as is done in Norway and Newfoundland, can the
chase for them be profitable. Such ships and stations will require to be
operated from the Greenland coast.

The following species of whales are the most common and important:—

_Physalus antiquorum_, Flem.—Big Finner, is found in Davis strait,
chiefly on the cod-banks, where it devours immense numbers of fish. For
its size it gives a remarkably small quantity of oil. On this account it
is not killed by the whalers, and seldom by the natives.

_Balaenoptera sibbaldii._ Gray.—This whale is usually confounded with
the one last mentioned; has the same range and habits, and is rarely
killed by the natives.

_Balaenoptera rostrata_, Fab.—The Little Finner has the same range as
the above, being well known to the Eskimos of Greenland and unknown to
those of Baffin island.

_Megaptera longimana_, Gray.—The Humpback, appears on the Greenland
coast in summer. Its whalebone is very short and of a poor quality, so
that its price in no way compares with that of the Right whale. The
blubber also is poor and makes little oil in comparison to its size.

_Orca gladiator_, Sund.—The Killer (Grampus, or Swordfish), is very
voracious, and lives largely upon fish, seals, porpoises and white
whales. It also attacks large Right whales, and on this account is
disliked by the whalers, as the presence of a single Killer means the
immediate flight of all creatures in that vicinity. Luckily it will not
penetrate among the heavy floes, where the Right whales retreat for
safety. Some idea of the destruction to life caused by the Killer may be
formed from the fact that in the stomach of one were found fourteen
porpoises and fourteen large seals; it choked to death swallowing the
fifteenth. They chase seals and White whales on shore, and the seals are
often seen jumping clear out of water in their endeavour to escape.


                               PORPOISES.

_Phocaena communis_, Brookes.—The porpoise arrives on the Greenland
coast early in the spring, but does not go north of latitude 69° N., nor
does it frequent the ice-laden seas of Baffin bay; it is unknown in
Hudson strait and bay.

_Beluga catadon_, Gray.—The White whale or White porpoise (Kellulauak,
Eskimo) is common to all the Arctic coasts, and remains throughout the
year. It usually travels in large schools, frequenting the bays and
mouths of rivers. In the north large numbers have been taken by the
whalers along the coast of North Somerset, both in Prince Regent inlet
and in Barrow strait. It is plentiful in the rivers at the heads of
Cumberland gulf and Frobisher bay. Many are killed annually by the
natives along the south shore of Hudson strait. The Hudson’s Bay Company
has for several years past made successful fisheries in the mouth of the
Koksoak river and in Leaf bay, both in the southwest part of Ungava bay.
Similar fisheries were formerly conducted in the mouths of Great and
Little Whale rivers on the east side of Hudson bay, but after some
success the whales would not enter these rivers over the nets, and the
fisheries were abandoned. The writer has seen great numbers of White
whales in the mouths of the rivers to the northward of Little Whale
river, notably so in that of the Nastapoka. The Eskimos depend upon the
White whale for part of their food and lamp oil. The meat is coarse and
dark, being, like that of the seals, highly charged with blood and
having a fishy flavour. The boiled skin is a native dainty, and is in
the same class as beaver-tail or moose nose, soft and gelatinous. There
is little doubt that, with the opening of Hudson bay, the White whale
fishery will become an important industry in many places in the bay and
strait, and also along the coast to the northward.

_Monodon monoceras_, Linn.—The Narwhal has habits very similar to those
of the White whale. It generally travels in bands, and appears to prefer
the proximity of ice, so that its summer range is more northern than
that of the White whale. The Baffin bay whalers obtain a considerable
number of narwhal horns from the natives of north Greenland, the best
place being in the vicinity of Cape York, or to the eastward of Melville
bay.

The narwhal appears to replace the White whale in the waters of Ponds
inlet, only the former being killed there. Numbers are taken in the ice
by the whalers of Baffin bay; they are not uncommon about Cumberland
gulf when the ice still covers its waters. The natives of Hudson strait
kill numbers of these animals in the early summer, and after the
shore-ice has formed in the early winter, but none are seen on the south
shore during the open waters of summer. The narwhal is only found in the
northern waters of Hudson bay, where it is abundant in the ice-laden
waters of Fox channel and Frozen strait.

The narwhal is distinguished in the water from the White whale by its
darker colour, its white spots and its horn. The colour becomes lighter
with age, so that very old individuals become dirty white. According to
the Eskimos, the horn is confined to the males, and its chief use is for
domestic battle. Only one horn is usually developed, growing out of the
upper jaw, and projecting directly forward. A second horn on the other
side of the jaw is not uncommon, but it is always shorter, and is often
malformed or rudimentary. The horns vary in length up to eight feet, and
are composed of a very fine quality of ivory. At the base the average
thickness is from two to three inches; it tapers gradually to a point,
having a spiral twist throughout the length. There is a large pith core
at the base, which gradually fills after the horn has reached maturity,
so that in old animals the horn is almost completely solid. This ivory
is much more valuable than that obtained from the tusks of the walrus,
being worth from $2.50 to $3 a pound. The ultimate destination of the
ivory is China, where it is used for ornamental purposes as well as for
medicine, and for the manufacture of cups supposed to absorb all poisons
placed in them.

The flesh and skin of the narwhal are put to the same uses by the
Eskimos as those of the White whale.



TABULATED STATEMENT of information concerning the Whale Fishery in Baffin
                         bay and in Hudson bay.

                        BRITISH WHALING FLEET.*

                 ━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━┯━━━━━
                 Year.│Steamer.│Sail.│Whales.│Oil. │Bone.
                 ─────┼────────┼─────┼───────┼─────┼─────
                      │        │     │       │Tons.│ Cwt.
                 1865 │      11│   12│     66│  742│  710
                 1866 │      15│   11│     81│  848│  933
                 1867 │      17│   11│     24│  228│   60
                 1868 │      18│   12│    134│1,228│1,164
                 1869 │      16│   10│     22│  266│  207
                 1870 │      14│    8│     79│  962│1,111
                 1871 │      15│    6│    152│1,348│1,544
                 1872 │      17│    5│    138│1,393│1,486
                 1873 │      18│    4│    172│1,426│1,475
                 1874 │      16│    3│    190│1,662│1,680
                 1875 │      18│    2│     98│  975│  970
                 1876 │      17│    3│     82│1,115│1,132
                 1877 │      13│ ....│     81│  955│  850
                 1881 │      11│ ....│     48│  514│  495
                 1882 │       9│ ....│     79│  670│  560
                 1883 │       6│ ....│     17│  524│  190
                 1884 │       9│ ....│     79│  755│  780
                 1885 │      12│ ....│     28│  359│  200
                 1886 │       8│ ....│     15│  375│  240
                 1887 │       8│ ....│     ..│  496│  140
                 1888 │       7│ ....│      6│  308│   43
                 1889 │       3│ ....│      8│  125│  110
                 1890 │       5│ ....│     11│  403│  265
                 1891 │       5│ ....│      6│  167│   70
                 1892 │       5│ ....│      7│  228│   78
                 1893 │       4│ ....│     30│  391│  410
                 1894 │       5│ ....│     15│  218│  250
                 1895 │       5│ ....│      3│  233│   36
                 1896 │       3│ ....│      3│   60│   15
                 1897 │       3│ ....│      8│  102│  110
                 1898 │       4│ ....│      8│  235│  100
                 1899 │       7│ ....│     26│  419│  330
                 1900 │       7│ ....│     17│  290│  230
                 1901 │       6│ ....│     15│  260│  164
                 1902 │       6│ ....│     13│  212│  187
                 1903 │       6│ ....│     14│  145│  175
                 1904 │       6│ ....│     11│  110│  107

-----

* The returns from 1865 to 1877, inclusive, are from the Report of the
U. S. Consul at Dundee, 1877. The returns from 1881 to 1904 have been
furnished by Captain W. F. Milne, of the British whaler _Eclipse_.

                        AMERICAN WHALING FLEET.

1846-52—One ship yearly to Cumberland gulf. 350 tons oil and 2·5 tons
  bone.
1853-58—Fiveships””750”5·75”
1860—First two ships to winter in Hudson bay.   Value of catch $60,000.
1863—Fourteen ships in Hudson bay and Cumberland gulf.
1864—Fifteen ships in Hudson bay.
1865—Two ships in Repulse bay. Killed 8 whales.
1866—Four ships wintered in Repulse bay. Little success.

                              HUDSON BAY.

            1889—One ship.
            1890—
            1891—One ship,         4 whales,  4,400 lbs. bone.
            1892—One ship,         2    ”     1,600     ”
            1893—Two ships,        8    ”    18,500     ”
            1894—One ship,         8    ”     4,500     ”
            1895—Three ships,      6    ”    10,300     ”
            1896—Two ships,        4    ”     4,100     ”
            1897—Three ships,     19    ”    20,175     ”
            1898—
            1899—One ship,         6 whales,  6,000 lbs. bone.
            1900—One ship,         8    ”     7,500     ”
            1901—One ship.    Burnt.
            1902—
            1903—Two ships,        2 whales,  1,800 lbs. bone.
            1904—One ship,         1    ”       500     ”

The information to 1866 has been taken from the narrative of C. F.
Hall’s second Arctic expedition. That from 1889 to 1904 has been
furnished by Captain George Comer, American whaler _Era_.

Eight American whaling ships have, to the knowledge of Captain Comer,
been lost in Hudson Bay.


                                 SEALS.

There exists at present considerable confusion in the number of species
and the classification of the northern seals. A scientific argument on
classification is beyond the province of this report, and it need only
be mentioned that, after careful inquiry from the Eskimos of Baffin
island and Hudson bay, there is no doubt that, including the walrus,
there are but six species of seals in the northern seas of eastern
America, and that the other species named are simply due to varieties of
age, size and colour.

The present account is confined to the distribution, habits and uses of
these animals.

_Callocephalus vitulinus_, Linn.—The Harbour seal, Freshwater seal, or
Ranger (Kassigiak, Eskimo), is common but not plentiful on all the
coasts. It is found usually about the mouths of rivers, and in bays and
fiords. It is also found in some of the larger lakes of Labrador and
Baffin island. These lakes are often far inland and high above the
present level of the sea, and there is no doubt that in a number of them
the seals reside permanently. The young, unlike those of the other
seals, are produced in July on the rocks about the banks of rivers.

The skins are prized by the natives owing to their fur-like character
and beauty of colour. They are dressed with the hair on, and are chiefly
used for women’s garments, fancy bags and for the boot-legs of dandies.

The flesh and blubber, especially of the older and larger freshwater
seals, have a disagreeable odour and taste, and consequently are not so
highly prized by the natives as are those of the following species.

_Pagomys foetidus_, Fab.—The Ringed seal, or Jar (Nietshik, Eskimo), is
the common small seal of all the coasts.

The variations in size, markings and colour, due to age, have led to
this seal being classed under several species.

Its flesh is the chief article of diet of the natives the year round,
while its skin when dressed with the hair is used for clothing, tentings
and bags; when dressed by removing the hair, it is used as covering for
the kyak and for boot-legs. The blubber, burned in stone lamps, is the
chief source of artificial heat.

The young are born in March in snow-houses scraped out by the female
from a snow-bank, close to an air-hole on the ice. When born they have a
glistening white coat of soft hair.

_Pagophilus groenlandicus_, Mull.—The Harp seal, Saddle-back,
Bedlamiers, (Kirolik, Eskimo,) supplies fully two-thirds of the seals
taken annually off the coasts of Newfoundland in the spring, when the
females give birth to their young on the floating ice of the Arctic
pack. The Harp seal is more or less common on the northern coasts, and
southward along the Atlantic coast of Labrador, at all seasons. In
Hudson strait they are rare in summer, but are not uncommon after the
shore-ice forms in the autumn, and before it leaves in the early summer.
These seals commonly travel in bands, and are known by their habit of
frequently leaping from the water. They are rare in Hudson bay,
especially during the summer season, and are only occasionally seen at
other times.

The flesh and blubber are used by the natives for food and fuel. The
skins are used mostly for tentings and boot-legs, and where the skin of
the Ground seal is not available for boot-bottoms.

_Phoco barbata,_ Fab.—The Bearded seal, Big seal, Ground seal,
Square-flipper, (Oujuk, Eskimo,) is common on all the coasts, and is the
most abundant seal at Cape Haven, and Cape Chidley on the eastern coast.

It brings forth its young, which are born near an opening in the
shore-ice, about a month later than the Ringed seal. This seal is next
in size to the walrus, and its capture always brings gladness to the
Eskimos, providing, as it does, a large amount of meat and blubber,
while from its hide is cut an exceedingly strong line used for
dog-traces and other purposes. The dressed skin is used for the soles of
boots, for covering kyaks and women’s boats, for tentings, and many
other purposes. The flesh is coarser in texture, but less fishy in
flavour, than that of the smaller seals. The liver is said to be
somewhat poisonous, and is not often eaten.

_Cystophera cristata_, Erxl.—-The Hooded seal, or Bladder-nose,
(Nietshivok, Eskimo,) is a large and ferocious seal, second in size only
to the Big seal. It produces its young about two weeks later than the
Harps, and usually on ice farther off the coast. These seals make up the
remainder of the catch of the Newfoundland sealers. In the summer they
are common at Ponds inlet, and become rarer along the coasts to the
southward. The Hooded seal is unknown to the natives of Hudson bay, and
is an exceedingly rare visitor in Hudson strait.

_Trichechus rosmarus_, Linn.—The walrus, (Aivik, Eskimo,) is found in
all the northern waters, where it appears to prefer the presence of
floating ice, and rarely or never comes out on the shore-ice. During the
past voyage of the _Neptune_ many walrus were seen; the most northern
locality was at the entrance to Smith sound, where large numbers were
congregated on pans of floating ice, between Etah and Cape Sabine.
Numbers were seen along the coast of Ellesmere island and in the waters
of Lancaster sound. The whalers and natives report them as very
plentiful in Wellington channel. They are common along the coast of
Baffin island, a considerable number being killed annually at the
station at Cape Haven, and in Cumberland gulf. They are very numerous in
Fox channel and Frozen strait, where they are captured while on the
floating ice usually found in these localities throughout the summer.
When the ice leaves Hudson bay and Hudson strait, the walrus resort to
favourite localities, usually small rocky islands, where they are
frequently found in large numbers. Such islands are located in King
sound, near Douglas harbour, on the south side of the strait; at the
west end of Charles island, also in the strait; at Walrus island in
Fisher strait, and at several small islands of the Belcher and other
outer islands of the east coast of Hudson bay.

When the St. Lawrence was discovered the walrus was found as far south
as the Magdalen islands, and, within a comparatively recent time, they
were common on the Atlantic coast of Labrador; now they are only killed
rarely at Cape Chidley, the northern point of that coast. On Hudson bay
they were formerly found as far south as Paint islands on the east side
of James bay, but now they do not frequent that coast south of latitude
60° N., and their southern limit is about latitude 57° N., on the
Belcher islands. There has been a rapid diminution in the number of
walrus in the northern part of the bay during the past few years, since
the _Active_ has been engaged in their capture, and it is only a
question of a few years, if the present methods of killing are
continued, before the walrus will become as rare as the Right whale in
the waters of Hudson bay. It is acknowledged that, with present methods
of capture and the difficulties of the chase, only one in four or five
of the animals killed is eventually secured. The walrus is necessary for
the subsistence of the northern Eskimo and his dogs. The flesh is strong
and sustaining, the blubber is abundant and good, while the tusks are of
great use for shoeing sleds and the manufacture of spears and harpoons,
and other hunting and domestic gear. The present value of the walrus to
civilization is small. Oil is made from the blubber, and the skins are
used chiefly for ‘buffing’ metal goods. The ivory of the tusks is
inferior, and only worth about fifty cents a pound. The present price
for hides is from eight to ten cents a pound, and consequently the
entire products of a large walrus is under fifty dollars in value.

Taking into consideration the value of the animal to the native, the
great waste of life in the killing, and the comparative small value to
civilization, it might be well to pass regulations reserving this animal
wholly for the use of the Eskimos.



[Illustration: THE LAUNCH.]



                              CHAPTER XI.
                       NAVIGATION OF HUDSON BAY.


The question of the navigation of Hudson bay and Hudson strait has been
before the Canadian public for a period extending back almost to the
time of Confederation. An answer to this question has become more and
more pressing, as the latent wealth of the grain-fields of the Northwest
has been proved, and as the present means of transport of this great
volume of grain to the eastward become yearly less capable of handling
it expeditiously and cheaply.

Within the past few years the yield of Northwest grain has increased
enormously, and a second line of rails is being laid across the
continent to aid in the rapid transport of this wealth to the seaboard.
If the increase in the area of land opened annually to cultivation
continues as at present, a few years will show such a volume of grain to
be transported that the new outlets will be unable to give free exit to
it, and a new lane by which it can be taken to the European markets must
be found.

The route by rail to the port of Churchill, on the western side of
Hudson bay, and from thence to Europe in ships, is the shortest, and is
likely to prove the best, of all those outside the present routes by
rail to the headwaters of the St. Lawrence navigation.

Ships go wherever cargoes can be obtained, and all that is needed to
open Hudson bay for ordinary commercial navigation is a line of rails to
carry freight to one of its ports. At present the Hudson’s Bay Company
and the Revillon Fur Company have ships going annually to the bay, and a
greater amount of freight would attract more steamers.

As stated in the historical summary, the London merchants opened
communication with northern Russia by ships trading in the White sea in
the days of Queen Elizabeth. Spurred on by the success attending this
adventure to the northeast, a few years later they sent vessels to the
northwest, in the hopes of opening up a similar trade, and of
discovering a short and safe passage to the rich markets of China and
India.

Hudson’s voyage in 1610 resulted in the discovery of Hudson bay, and in
the knowledge that no great opportunities existed there for extensive
commerce, owing to the lack of civilized natives. James and Fox
completed the exploration of the bay, without coming in contact with any
of the natives residing on its shores.

The formation of the Hudson’s Bay Company was due to the knowledge of
the French fur traders, that a profitable trade might be carried on with
the natives frequenting the shores of the bay. This trade from its
nature never required a large fleet of ships in its carrying trade, but
since 1668 the company have sent annually one or more ships to supply
its posts, and to bring back the valuable furs obtained from the
inhabitants; and it is remarkable that with the imperfect charts of its
waters so few ships have been lost in the last two hundred and fifty
years; of these only a small number have met with disaster from contact
with the ice in the bay or strait. From the time of the Treaty of
Utrecht to the transfer of the lands of the Hudson’s Bay Company to the
Dominion, the bay and strait were a closed sea belonging exclusively to
the Company, and other ships entered these waters unlawfully, and
navigation by outsiders was practically prohibited there. The American
whalers visited the northern portions of the bay as early as 1860, and
within a few years their number had increased to fourteen ships
wintering in its northern waters. As these vessels did not directly
interfere with the fur trade they were left undisturbed, and are only
mentioned here to show that other ships besides those of the Hudson’s
Bay Company have for a considerable period been navigating the bay, but
being intent upon a paying enterprise did not herald their achievements
to the public.

The Dominion Government, in 1885-86, sent out steamers under Commander
Gordon to test the period of navigation of Hudson strait, and at the
same time established observation stations along the length of the
strait, where the action of the ice was studied during these two years.
Commander Gordon reported that the strait was open for three or four
months for navigation by specially constructed ships. In 1897 a second
expedition was sent out under the charge of Commander Wakeham, who was
accompanied by Mr. Fisher, a representative of the Manitoba government.
Both reported on the navigation of the strait and bay, and practically
upheld all the statements of Commander Gordon.

I was attached to the second expedition as a geologist, and performed
some exploring duties on the southern coast of the strait in the late
summer, having been on board the ship during her first passage through
the strait. This experience in the navigation of these waters was
further increased by a passage westward through the strait during the
following summer in the Hudson’s Bay Company’s steamer _Erik_, and still
further by the four trips of the past voyage.

Hudson strait has a length of nearly five hundred miles from Cape
Chidley, on the south side of its eastern end, to Cape Wolstenholme on
the same side of its western end. The general trend of the strait is a
little north of west, so that the western cape is about a degree and a
half to the northward of the eastern one, and is in 62° 30´ N. latitude.
At its eastern entrance the strait has a practical channel nearly
thirty-five miles wide between the outermost Button island off Cape
Chidley, and the shores of Resolution island on the north side. Gray
strait is a narrower channel between the Button islands and the southern
mainland. Immediately to the westward of Cape Chidley the southern shore
falls away to the southward to form the great bay of Ungava, which is
one hundred and forty miles wide, and somewhat more than that distance
in length. The large island of Akpatok lies in this bay, but as its
north end is to the southward of a line drawn across the mouth of the
bay, it does not seriously interfere with navigation in the strait.

From Cape Hopes Advance, the western point of Ungava bay, the southern
shore of the strait has a northwest direction to Cape Weggs, situated
one hundred and fifty miles beyond. The northern shore opposite has the
same general trend, and the strait for this distance averages sixty
miles across. Big island, situated on the north side in the western half
of this portion, extends southward, so as to reduce the width to thirty
miles.

To the westward of Cape Weggs the general trend of the south coast is
nearly due west, while the opposite side continues northwest to form
Gordon bay, after which it bends to the west and south, so that at its
western end the strait is about one hundred miles from mainland to
mainland, but of this distance the practical channel is limited to that
portion between the south coast and the large island of Nottingham, a
distance of thirty-five miles.

In the western half of the strait, Charles island, which lies about
twenty-five miles beyond Cape Weggs, is the only obstruction to
navigation. This island is twenty-five miles long, and lies nearly due
east-and-west, some twenty miles from the south shore of the strait. The
ship channel passes to the northward of the island, although there is a
good channel on its south side.

The depth of water in the ship track through the strait varies from
fifty to two hundred fathoms. There are no shoals, and with ordinary
precautions, there is little danger from stranding on the bold shores of
either side of the strait, or on the few islands that bound the channel.

A number of safe harbours easy of approach have been explored on the
southern side of the strait, and others equally good and safe are known
to be located on the north side, although they are at present
unsurveyed.

The passage from the western entrance of the strait to the port of
Churchill, on the western side of Hudson bay, is five hundred miles.
From the mouth of the strait the course is due west for seventy miles to
the eastern end of the wide channel between Coats and Mansfield islands.
This channel is practically one hundred miles long, and varies in width
from fifty miles at the eastern end, to over a hundred at the other.

The general course of the ship track from the eastern end of this
channel to Churchill is nearly southwest, and there are nowhere any
dangerous shoals or other obstructions to navigation.

In the track across Hudson bay the depth of water varies from fifty to
two hundred fathoms, while the approach to the low shores of Coats and
Mansfield and those of the western mainland is signalled by the gradual
lessening of the depth of water, which gives ample warning to ships
approaching the land.

It will be seen from the above description that there is no natural
difficulty in the navigation of the bay and strait so far as the depth
of water, presence of obstructions and width of channel are concerned,
and if situated in a more southern region the route would be an ideal
one for the navigator.

The western coast of Hudson bay is low and flat. It rises very slowly
inland from swampy shores, while the water deepens slowly, and there are
numerous shoals and bars that extend for a considerable distance from
the shore-line and render coastwise navigation dangerous. This character
of coast extends from the southern end of James bay to beyond the mouth
of Churchill harbour. Further north the character of the coast changes
somewhat, being still low, but much more uneven in outline, with a
corresponding unevenness in the sea-bottom. Beyond Eskimo point, in 61°
N. latitude, the straight shores of the southward give place to a ragged
coast-line broken by large bays, and fringed with rocky islands having
shallow water between them, and a broken bottom very dangerous to
navigation. On this account, and because of the danger from outlying
shoals and strong currents, the navigation of Chesterfield inlet and
that of the other northern bays and harbours is debarred from
consideration.

The mouths of all the large rivers to the southward of Churchill are
more or less blocked by deposits of sand and clay brought down by the
streams and deposited in the quieter waters at their mouths in the form
of bars or flat shoals. In consequence of these obstructions, only small
craft can enter the harbours inside the mouths of these rivers, and
larger ships are obliged to lay in the dangerous roadsteads usually
several miles away from the nearest dry land.

The approach to the harbour of Churchill, if aided by a few beacons and
lights, would be comparatively safe, as the channel of approach is
fairly deep and wide. Once inside the points of the mouth, the harbour
extends up stream about a mile, and has an average width of half a mile,
with a couple of shallow places in the upper part that might easily be
removed by dredging; the general depth of the harbour being from four to
four and a half fathoms.

Some knowledge of the currents is desirable in discussing the
navigability of Hudson strait and Hudson bay, for on them depend largely
the character and amount of ice met with in these northern waters.
Observations on the drift of the ice that covers the Arctic seas point
to a general law governing the currents. This law, briefly stated, is,
that no matter what the size, shape or direction of one of these
northern bodies of water may be, the direction of flow of the current
will be such that one facing with it will have the land on the right
hand. This may be differently stated by saying that with bodies of water
having a general north-and-south trend, the current will flow north on
the east side and south on the west, while in east-and-west bodies the
direction of flow will be west on the north side and east on the south
side. This law has been found to apply to the waters of Hudson strait
and Hudson bay as well as to those of the more northern bays and straits
visited on the _Neptune_. The mere statement of this law is made here,
as the discussion of the causes producing it, be they due to the earth’s
motion or wind action, is outside the province of this report.

The current from the eastward along the northern side of Hudson strait
was known to the early navigators of those waters, who took advantage of
it when passing through the strait from the Atlantic. The presence of
icebergs in the northern waters of the strait can only be accounted for
by this current, for they must all come from Davis strait, there being
no glaciers to produce them on the lands fronting on the strait or bay.
These icebergs have been seen as far west as the western end of
Salisbury island, almost to the entrance of Hudson bay.

The east-flowing current of the south side of the strait was proved by
the drift of the _Neptune_ when beset in the ice off Cape Wolstenholme,
and later, off Cape Weggs. In the former instance the drift of the ship
was thirty miles in twenty-four hours, while in the latter it was twenty
miles in twenty hours. Driftwood borne north on the current of the east
side of Hudson bay is not rare on the southern shores of the western
part of the strait, while large quantities of it are found on the
eastern shores of Ungava bay, having been drifted east and north from
the mouths of the rivers emptying into the head of that bay.

The current flowing westward along the north side of the strait sweeps
northward up the east side of Fox channel, rounds the head of that large
northern bay, and then flows southward along the east side of
Southampton, bringing with it the heavy ice from the northern parts of
Fox channel, so that heavy drift ice is almost always found to the north
of the eastern entrance to Evans strait, and often comes sufficiently
south to partly block the channel between Mansfield and Coats islands.

The current from the north along the western shores of Hudson bay is not
important as regards navigation, as it comes from the narrow waters of
Roes Welcome and does not transport a large quantity of field ice.

[Illustration: RAFTED ICE IN ROES WELCOME, JUNE, 1904.]

Similar currents follow the shores of Baffin bay and Davis strait; on
the east, or Greenland side, the flow is northward, while along the west
side or that of the Arctic islands the current is southward, and carries
on its surface great quantities of heavy field ice formed in these
northern waters, together with extensive masses of Arctic ice which have
passed south or east through the wide sounds connecting the northern
parts of Baffin bay with the Arctic ocean. Many icebergs discharged from
the northern glaciers are also found in this heavy ice of the ‘middle
pack’ of Baffin bay and Davis strait. This Arctic current closely
follows the eastern shores of Baffin island, branches of it sweeping
into Cumberland gulf and Frobisher bay. When it reaches the latitude of
the mouth of Hudson strait, the part adjacent to the land turns westward
through the channel between Resolution island and the north shore of the
strait, while another stream sweeps westward around the island of
Resolution, where, meeting the current flowing out of the strait, the
strong cross currents, tides and ‘overfalls’ noted by the earliest
navigators are formed.

The main stream of the Arctic current passes southward across the mouth
of Hudson strait, and forms the northern current of the Atlantic coast
of Labrador. It bears on its surface the wide stream of ice which in the
summer forms the ‘middle pack’ of Baffin bay, and which later in the
year passes the mouths of Cumberland gulf and Frobisher bay, and in
November, or early in December, closes the eastern entrance to Hudson
strait. At that time a considerable area of this northern ice may enter
the eastern part of the strait, but is prevented from completely filling
the strait by the amount of locally formed ice already covering its
waters. Continuing southward on the current, this stream of ice, often
upwards of fifty miles in width, blocks the coast of Labrador during the
early months of the year, and by the end of March arrives off the coasts
of Newfoundland, bearing on its surface an immense number of newly-born
seals to make the important seal fishery of Newfoundland. Part of this
ice is carried through the Strait of Belle Isle into the northern
portion of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while the greater portion passes
south along the east coast of Newfoundland to Cape Race. Here the
western part of the ice is deflected to the westward along the southern
shores of the island, and finally enters the southern part of the Gulf
of St. Lawrence, while the remainder is soon melted in the warmer waters
of the Atlantic south of Newfoundland.

Ice commences to form in the smaller bays of the northern parts of
Hudson bay and Hudson strait early in October, and by the end of that
month the northern harbours are frozen over. The more southern ones,
especially those at the mouths of the larger rivers, do not close until
late in November or early in the following month. By the beginning of
January, James bay is frozen across, and at the same time solid ice
usually extends from the east coast of Hudson bay to the outer line of
islands, some sixty or seventy miles from that coast. In other parts of
Hudson bay, and in Hudson strait a margin of solid ice usually extends
from one to five miles from the shore, except where the coast is high
and bold with deep water close to the base of the cliffs. In such
places, especially at headlands, solid ice does not form, and the
natives in winter often have to make long and difficult detours inland
to pass them.

The main body of Hudson bay does not freeze solid, and the same may be
said of Hudson strait. Although this is the case, these waters are quite
unnavigable for ordinary ships during the winter and spring months owing
to the great sheets of heavy ice borne backwards and forwards by the
tides and currents, and drifted about by the winter gales. There is
little doubt that a specially constructed ship for ice navigation might
pass through Hudson strait at any season, but the voyage would be a long
one, and the difficulties and dangers would be great.

[Illustration: ICE IN CUMBERLAND GULF. SEPTEMBER, 1904.]

The ice of Hudson bay and the greater part of that of Hudson strait is
of local origin, being formed by the freezing of the surface of the sea
near-by. Observations on the growth in thickness of the ice were made in
Fullerton harbour throughout the winter of 1903-04, and a record of the
weekly observations is given later in the report. These observations
show that the thickness increases steadily until the month of June, when
a maximum of seventy-four inches was measured. The conditions under
which this was obtained were very favourable for the ice, and only in
similarly protected northern harbours does it attain such a thickness.
In the larger bays and along the unprotected coasts, where the ice
freezes later, and is frequently broken up by gales during the winter,
the thickness rarely exceeds three or four feet. This thinner ice makes
up the greater part of that found in the spring-time covering the waters
of Hudson bay and strait.

As the ice continues to increase until June, winter conditions continue
well into that month, and it is not until its last days that the heat of
the sun is sufficiently strong and sustained to begin the melting
process. With the advent of July this process is well under way, and the
daily change in the condition and amount of the ice is then marvellous,
so much so, that where everything was fast frozen in the beginning of
the month, by the middle not a vestige of ice remains.

If a single thickness of sheet ice covered these northern waters they
would be completely clear early in July, but unfortunately much of the
floating ice is ‘rafted’ or piled up, sheet on sheet, and the whole
cemented solidly together to form large masses often twenty feet or more
in thickness. This rafting is caused by the pressure formed by large
masses of ice driven together, or against ice attached to the shores,
which causes the ice along the margins to break and buckle, cake on
cake. These pressure areas are often of considerable size, and usually
are many times longer than broad. They serve as a framework to hold
together large fields of single sheet ice. When the thinner ice melts,
these pressure masses remain, and are dangerous to shipping until the
water has become sufficiently warm to melt the ice cementing the cakes
together; then they are harmless, as the slightest shock causes the mass
to fall to pieces with a great commotion but with little danger. This
disintegration is known as ‘calving.’

The northern ice which occasionally enters Hudson strait in the early
part of the winter as before described, is much more complicated and
much heavier in character than the local ice. Some of this ice may be
met with in the early period of navigation to the eastward of Big
island, and should be treated with respect. The icebergs included with
it often remain until late in the season, and form a source of danger in
foggy weather, but they are usually so few as to be negligible,
especially in the western half of the strait.

To summarize the foregoing: Hudson strait and Hudson bay do not freeze
solid, but are so covered with masses of floating ice as to be
practically unnavigable for at least seven months in the year. The ice
does not begin to melt until well into the month of June, and is not
sufficiently melted for safe navigation with ordinary steamers until the
middle of July. No ice is formed in the strait and bay sufficiently
heavy to obstruct ordinary navigation until the latter part of November,
but towards the close of this period there is danger from the early
passage of the northern pack across the mouth of the strait, and also,
to a much less degree, from the ice from Fox channel partly closing the
western entrance to the strait.

When the temperature of the air falls several degrees below zero, as it
does in November, a thick mist or fog rises from the open water and
renders navigation somewhat dangerous. In the early part of the season
before the ice has completely melted, fogs are liable to occur in
proximity to the ice fields. At other times fogs are not prevalent, and
the weather is ordinarily fair.

The worst storms come from the south and east, and these are usually
accompanied by rain in the summer, and by snow later in the season.
Northerly winds bring clear cold weather as a rule.

The period of safe navigation for ordinary iron steamships through
Hudson strait and across Hudson bay to the port of Churchill, may be
taken to extend from the 20th of July to the 1st of November. This
period might be increased without much risk by a week in the beginning
of the season and by perhaps two weeks at the close.

Ships entering Hudson strait from the Atlantic during the early part of
the season, when ice is present in the strait, should keep in the
northern half of the channel between Resolution and the Button islands.
Care should be taken to keep some miles from Resolution, as the strong
currents close to the island cause the ice to come together and open
again with considerable violence. The north side of the strait should be
followed as far as Big island, keeping at a respectful distance from the
land in order to avoid the pressure when the ice is pressed on the land
by southerly winds. There are frequently large quantities of ice in the
neighbourhood of Big island, with at times considerable pressure; on
this account ships should not approach close to the island. From Big
island the course should be so laid that the ship may pass a few miles
to the northward of Charles island, and from there the middle channel
should be followed to pass between Nottingham island and Cape
Wolstenholme. The southern side of the channel between Mansfield and
Coats is usually freer of ice than the north side.

In passing eastward through Hudson strait, advantage should be taken of
the favourable current on the south side, and that shore followed to
Charles island, where the channel to the south of the island may be
used, taking care to keep well away from the mainland until Cape Weggs
is passed. The southern half of the centre channel should then be
followed to beyond Big island, when the mid channel across the mouth of
Ungava bay will probably be found clear of ice.

The fur trade with the Indians and Eskimos living about Hudson bay or
along interior routes tributary to it, has for a period extending over
two centuries and a half furnished cargoes for two or more ships
belonging to the Hudson’s Bay Company. At the present time two ships are
engaged in this trade for the Company, while Revillon Bros. employ two
more. The whale fishery now supports two ships. These four ships
represent the developed trade of the bay and strait at the present time.

The undeveloped natural resources of the regions surrounding these
waters appertain to mining and fisheries, and to the forestry of the
territory surrounding the rivers flowing into the southern parts of the
bay. Iron ores have been found on the islands and shores of the eastern
side of Hudson bay, where they cover large areas and where valuable
deposits corresponding to those of the hard ores of Lake Superior will
be discovered when sought for. On the western shores of the bay between
Chesterfield inlet and Churchill, extensive deposits of copper-bearing
rocks have been located, and there is every prospect of valuable mines
being discovered in that region when the ground has been properly
prospected. A valuable mica mine is being worked at a profit on the
north shore of Hudson strait, and the condition and character of the
rocks there point to the discovery of similar deposits on that side of
the strait. Iron ores are known to occur along the west side of Ungava
bay, and the rocks of the southern side of the strait in many places are
favourable to the occurrence of valuable minerals. The greater part of
the coastal region has only been geologically examined in a hurried
manner, while large stretches are practically unknown inland.

Nothing is at present known of the fisheries of the deeper waters of the
strait and bay, and the knowledge of the fisheries of these waters is
confined to the coasts and rivers. In the southern part of the bay,
large quantities of sea-run trout and whitefish are taken by the
natives. The Arctic salmon, a fish superior to the best Pacific salmon,
is plentiful along the eastern side of the bay to the northward of James
bay, as well as in the mouths of the rivers of the northern and
northwest coasts, and also along both shores of the strait. Lake trout
is a common fish in these northern rivers and lakes. Cod have been taken
in several places along the east side of Hudson bay as far north as Cape
Smith; on the western side little is known of this fish beyond the
occurrence of a few in Roes Welcome, and some small specimens taken
among the ice at Fullerton. A cod fishery has been carried on for a
number of years at Cape Chidley, and these fish are said to be plentiful
along the east side of Ungava bay, but do not appear to go farther
westward through the strait from the Atlantic. Cod are reported to be
abundant in some of the fiords of the south side of Frobisher bay.

The forestry of the southern rivers is outside the scope of this report,
and it need only be mentioned that large areas of pulpwood and
merchantable spruce occur along the banks of these streams, awaiting a
suitable outlet to market by way of Hudson bay and strait.

These undeveloped resources of the north will no doubt when developed
add greatly to the annual shipping of Hudson bay, but the main increase
to the fleet will be due to the products of the great plains of the
Northwest, now rapidly filling with robust settlers. These products of
the western farms, grain, butter, and cattle, will naturally seek the
shortest road to the European markets; a road not only shorter, but
owing to its cool climate, capable of landing perishable products and
grain in a better condition than the more southern routes.

Taking Regina as a convenient centre for these northwestern farming
lands, the distance from there by way of Prince Albert to Churchill is
about 800 miles, or the same distance as from Regina to Fort William on
Lake Superior, and a thousand miles shorter than the distance from
Regina to Montreal at the head of sea navigation on the St. Lawrence.
The distance from Churchill to Liverpool is almost the same as that from
Montreal to Liverpool; consequently there is a saving in distance of a
thousand miles of rail or river carriage in favour of the northern
route.

The question of the storage of the grain until the season following the
harvest, is at first sight a serious one, but when it is known that not
twenty per cent of the grain at present reaches the seaboard before the
opening of navigation of the year following that in which it is
harvested, this objection practically disappears, for the grain may be
as well stored on the shores of Hudson bay as in the elevators on the
plains, or at Fort William. The question of storage is reduced to the
length of time between the opening of navigation of Hudson strait, and
the time required to transport grain from Fort William to Montreal after
the opening of navigation on the great lakes, and this difference in
time may be measured by days.

The country through which a railway must run to reach the port of
Churchill is known to offer no serious difficulties, and although the
local freights between the bay and the head of Lake Winnipeg may be
small, the district traversed is equal in fertility and natural
resources to much of that through which the Canadian Pacific Railway
runs to the northward of the great lakes. Given a good harbour, such as
that of Churchill, and an adequate number of tramp steamships, there
will be no difficulty in removing from that port during the season of
safe navigation all the grain and other supplies that can be drawn there
by a single line of rails.

The object of this article on the navigation of Hudson strait and Hudson
bay is to point out the period of safe navigation, and the advantages
and drawbacks of this route to Europe; other problems of transportation
and usefulness being left to those in a better position to judge and
pronounce upon them.



                               APPENDICES


                              APPENDIX I.

 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN ON BOARD DOMINION GOVERNMENT STEAMER
                               ‘NEPTUNE.’
      (_By Messrs. C. F. King, L. E. Borden and G. B. Caldwell._)

━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━
   Date.│Barometer: │Thermometer│Tem│ Direction │Anemome│ Clouds.│Location│Remarks.
        │  at Sea   │           │per│  of Wind  │ ter.  │        │   .    │
        │   Level   │           │atu│           │       │        │        │
        │           │           │re │           │       │        │        │
        │           │           │of │           │       │        │        │
        │           │           │Sea│           │       │        │        │
        │           │           │ . │           │       │        │        │
────────┼───┬───┬───┼───┬───┬───┼───┼───┬───┬───┼───┬───┼──┬──┬──┼────────┼────────
    1903│ 7.│ 1.│ 7.│Mea│Max│Min│   │7. │1. │7. │Mil│Rat│7.│1.│7.│        │
        │   │   │   │ n.│  .│  .│   │   │   │   │es │ e │  │  │  │        │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │per│p. │  │  │  │        │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │day│hr.│  │  │  │        │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ . │   │  │  │  │        │
 Aug. 26│ ..│ ..│29·│51·│ ..│ ..│.. │.. │.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│ 3│Bay of  │
        │   │   │782│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Island│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  s,    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Nfld. │
  ”   27│29·│29·│30·│50·│60·│ 45│.. │ W │NE │NE │.. │.. │ 5│ 5│ 9│Strait  │
        │893│877│030│  4│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  of    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Belle │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Isle. │
  ”   28│30·│30·│29·│48·│55·│ ..│.. │ N │SSE│NW │.. │.. │ 4│ 1│ 8│        │
        │038│003│987│  5│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│29·│29·│30·│45·│54·│ ..│.. │NW │NW │NW │.. │.. │ 1│ 9│ 8│10 m. N │
        │889│947│073│  8│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Turnav│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ik    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Island│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  s.    │
  ”   30│30·│29·│30·│48·│51·│ ..│.. │NW │NW │WNW│.. │.. │ 2│ 5│..│C.      │
        │167│956│005│  5│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Mugfor│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  d.    │
  ”   31│29·│29·│ ..│52·│52·│ ..│.. │ W │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 1│ 5│..│Nachvak.│
        │961│948│   │  0│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │167│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │782│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│49·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │970│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 Sept. 1│29·│ ..│29·│43·│56·│ ..│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 5│..│..│Port    │
        │945│   │939│  5│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Burwel│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  l.    │
  ”    2│29·│ ..│29·│36·│52·│ ..│.. │ESE│.. │ESE│.. │.. │ *│..│..│Frobishe│
        │926│   │844│  6│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  r Bay.│
  ”    3│29·│ ..│29·│39·│39·│ ..│.. │SE │.. │.. │.. │.. │ *│..│10│Cumberla│
        │763│   │828│  3│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  nd    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  G’lf  │
  ”    4│29·│ ..│29·│37·│40·│ ..│.. │NE │.. │ESE│.. │.. │ *│..│10│     ”  │
        │799│   │749│  7│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│29·│ ..│29·│38·│40·│ ..│.. │ E │.. │SE │.. │.. │10│..│ 6│     ”  │
        │714│   │731│  8│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│ ..│29·│39·│41·│35·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 8│..│ 3│     ”  │
        │786│   │831│  3│  5│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│29·│ ..│29·│44·│46·│33·│.. │.. │.. │SW │.. │.. │ 3│..│ 8│Cyrus   │
        │898│   │850│  3│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Field │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Bay.  │
  ”    8│29·│ ..│29·│41·│48·│40·│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │ 5│..│ 3│Hall    │Rain
        │819│   │928│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Is.,  │  shower
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Baffin│  s.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”    9│29·│ ..│29·│36·│48·│35·│.. │.. │.. │SE │.. │.. │ 2│..│10│Icy     │      ”
        │944│   │610│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Cove, │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Baffin│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”   10│29·│ ..│29·│44·│48·│42·│.. │ S │.. │ S │.. │.. │ 8│..│ 5│Charles │      ”
        │358│   │331│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Island│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”   11│ ..│ ..│29·│41·│48·│38·│.. │.. │.. │ S │.. │.. │..│..│ 9│     ”  │      ”
        │   │   │434│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   12│29·│ ..│29·│37·│ ..│36·│.. │NW │.. │WSW│.. │.. │10│..│ 7│Eric    │      ”
        │686│   │766│  7│   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Cove  │
  ”   13│29·│ ..│29·│37·│39·│34·│.. │ S │.. │ S │.. │.. │ 5│..│10│Nottingh│Snow.
        │642│   │565│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  am    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Isd.  │
  ”   14│29·│ ..│29·│33·│39·│32·│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │10│..│10│Bell    │Fog.
        │797│   │924│  8│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Island│
  ”   15│30·│ ..│30·│32·│37·│27·│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │10│..│10│Fisher  │
        │041│   │198│  9│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Str.  │
  ”   16│30·│ ..│29·│36·│37·│ ..│.. │NW │.. │SW │.. │.. │ 8│..│ 5│S. of C.│Snow
        │166│   │915│  2│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Fuller│  flurri
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ton   │  es.
  ”   17│ ..│ ..│29·│41·│43·│36·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│10│Near    │Rain.
        │   │   │675│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Whitne│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  y     │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Inlet.│
  ”   18│29·│ ..│29·│39·│41·│37·│.. │SW │.. │SW │.. │.. │10│..│ 8│     ”  │  ”
        │656│   │650│  9│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│29·│ ..│29·│38·│41·│37·│.. │WSW│.. │ S │.. │.. │10│..│ 9│Winchest│
        │650│   │657│  8│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  er    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Inlet.│
  ”   20│29·│ ..│29·│35·│37·│35·│.. │ E │.. │NE │.. │.. │10│..│10│”       │Rain and
        │514│   │499│  5│  0│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  snow.
  ”   21│29·│ ..│29·│36·│37·│35·│.. │ N │.. │ N │.. │.. │10│..│ 9│     ”  │Rain.
        │537│   │688│  2│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│ ..│ ..│30·│35·│40·│33·│.. │NE │.. │NE │.. │.. │ 8│..│10│     ”  │Snow.
        │   │   │075│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│30·│ ..│30·│36·│40·│30·│.. │SE │.. │SE │.. │.. │..│..│..│Cape    │  ”
        │149│   │176│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Fuller│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ton   │
  ”   24│30·│ ..│30·│26·│28·│25·│.. │Eby│.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│..│     ”  │
        │084│   │057│  5│  0│  0│   │ N │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│29·│ ..│29·│28·│33·│25·│.. │NE │.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│..│     ”  │
        │892│   │890│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│ ..│29·│27·│33·│25·│.. │NE │.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│..│     ”  │
        │895│   │829│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│ ..│29·│30·│35·│26·│.. │NE │.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│..│”       │Small
        │774│   │729│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ponds
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  frozen
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”   28│29·│ ..│29·│29·│34·│27·│.. │NNE│.. │NNE│.. │.. │..│..│..│     ”  │Snow.
        │695│   │675│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│29·│ ..│29·│29·│34·│22·│.. │ESE│.. │ESE│.. │.. │..│..│10│     ”  │ ”
        │685│   │430│  0│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│ ..│29·│34·│39·│30·│.. │ S │.. │Sby│.. │.. │ ‡│..│ ‡│”       │Rain and
        │131│   │068│  5│  0│  0│   │   │   │ W │   │   │  │  │  │        │  snow.
        │Average│29·│36·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │763│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│ ..│56·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │198│   │  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│ ..│ ..│22·│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │068│   │   │  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  Oct. 1│29·│ ..│29·│33·│ 39│ 32│.. │ N │.. │WSW│.. │.. │..│..│..│N. W.   │Rain and
        │136│   │368│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Hudson│  snow.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Bay.  │
  ”    2│29·│ ..│30·│20·│ 33│ 12│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │..│..│..│Chesterf│
        │937│   │181│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ield  │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Inlet.│
  ”    3│30·│ ..│29·│23·│ 29│ 17│.. │NE │.. │ E │.. │.. │..│..│..│    ”   │Snow.
        │234│   │926│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│ ..│29·│32·│ 33│ 31│.. │ESE│.. │NE │.. │.. │..│..│..│”       │Rain and
        │430│   │093│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  snow.
  ”    5│28·│ ..│28·│22·│ ..│ ..│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │..│..│ 8│    ”   │
        │843│   │990│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29.│ ..│29·│22·│ 34│ 21│.. │ W │.. │WSW│.. │.. │ 5│..│ 8│    ”   │Snow.
        │325│   │634│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│29·│ ..│29·│17·│ 26│ 13│.. │ W │.. │NW │.. │.. │ 2│..│ 3│    ”   │Fog.
        │832│   │882│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│29·│ ..│29·│18·│ 21│ 14│.. │NW │.. │ N │.. │.. │ 3│..│ 8│    ”   │
        │797│   │707│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│29·│ ..│29·│21·│ 23│19·│.. │NNW│.. │SW │.. │.. │10│..│ 4│    ”   │Snow.
        │430│   │513│  5│   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│29·│ ..│30·│20·│ 26│ 16│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │ 8│..│ 2│Outside │
        │779│   │017│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Fuller│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ton   │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Harbou│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  r.    │
  ”   11│30·│ ..│30·│13·│ 24│ 13│.. │ W │.. │ N │.. │.. │ 2│..│..│Fullerto│
        │333│   │444│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  n and │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  winter│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  quarte│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  rs    │
  ”   12│30·│ ..│30·│23·│27·│  9│.. │SE │.. │SE │.. │.. │ 2│..│10│ ”      │
        │341│   │051│  3│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│29·│ ..│29·│26·│30·│ 23│.. │ N │.. │ENE│.. │.. │ 7│..│10│    ”   │
        │889│   │785│  5│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│ ..│29·│30·│32·│ 23│.. │ E │.. │ E │.. │.. │10│..│10│    ”   │Snow.
        │406│   │174│  7│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│29·│ ..│29·│16·│24·│  5│.. │NW │.. │WNW│.. │.. │10│..│..│    ”   │  ”
        │179│   │523│  8│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│29·│ ..│29·│3·0│15·│-3·│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │..│..│..│”       │H’bour
        │684│   │924│   │  0│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  frozen
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  over.
  ”   17│29·│ ..│29·│2·5│18·│-8·│.. │SE │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 5│..│..│    ”   │
        │839│   │765│   │  0│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│ ..│ ..│29·│1·5│18·│-8·│.. │.. │.. │NW │.. │.. │..│..│..│    ”   │
        │   │   │331│   │  0│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│29·│ ..│29·│6·5│10·│ -3│.. │NW │.. │ W │.. │.. │..│..│10│    ”   │Snow.
        │340│   │111│   │  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│28·│ ..│29·│11·│14·│  9│.. │WSW│.. │ W │.. │.. │10│..│10│    ”   │
        │765│   │032│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│29·│ ..│29·│8·5│14·│  4│.. │ W │.. │.. │.. │.. │10│..│..│    ”   │  ”
        │321│   │590│   │  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│ ..│29·│2·0│6·0│ -3│.. │.. │.. │ W │.. │.. │..│..│..│    ”   │
        │774│   │973│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│ ..│29·│11·│23·│ -2│.. │ E │.. │SE │.. │.. │..│..│10│    ”   │  ”
        │971│   │352│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│29·│ ..│29·│23·│27·│  8│.. │ESE│.. │NNE│.. │.. │10│..│ 3│    ”   │  ”
        │383│   │714│  5│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│ ..│ ..│30·│8·0│18·│5·5│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│    ”   │
        │   │   │234│   │  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│ ..│29·│15·│19·│ 15│.. │ N │.. │NE │.. │.. │ 5│..│ 5│    ”   │  ”
        │941│   │909│  0│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│ ..│29·│28·│30·│ 16│.. │SSE│.. │SSE│.. │.. │10│..│10│    ”   │
        │767│   │206│  8│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│28·│ ..│29·│23·│32·│  3│.. │SE │.. │NW │.. │.. │..│..│..│”       │Rain and
        │969│   │213│  7│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  snow.
  ”   29│29·│ ..│29·│1·0│15·│-6·│.. │NW │.. │NW │.. │.. │ 3│..│..│    ”   │
        │638│   │869│   │  0│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│ ..│29·│3·0│7·0│  1│.. │NE │.. │NE │.. │.. │ 5│..│ 5│    ”   │
        │931│   │810│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   31│29·│ ..│29·│16·│25·│  6│.. │NE │.. │ S │.. │.. │ 5│..│10│    ”   │
        │721│   │656│  3│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│16·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │648│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│ ..│39·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │444│   │  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │28·│ ..│ ..│-8·│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │765│   │   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  Nov. 1│29·│ ..│29·│27·│ 30│ 25│.. │SW │ S │SE │219│9·1│10│10│10│Fullerto│
        │704│   │372│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  n.    │
  ”    2│ ..│29·│29·│27·│ 32│ 22│.. │ W │ W │ N │380│15·│10│ 5│10│    ”   │Snow.
        │   │404│346│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│29·│29·│29·│11·│ 26│  5│.. │ W │NW │ W │360│15·│ 3│..│ 2│    ”   │
        │444│684│828│  9│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│30·│30·│5·5│ 11│ -3│.. │ W │NW │NW │330│13·│ 1│..│ 1│    ”   │
        │957│094│220│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│30·│29·│29·│10·│ 24│ -2│.. │NW │ W │SSW│410│17·│ 2│..│10│    ”   │
        │156│980│689│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│26·│ 30│ 21│.. │ W │SW │SW │650│27·│10│10│10│Fullerto│  ”
        │209│097│120│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │  n     │
  ”    7│29·│ ..│29·│15·│ 29│  6│.. │NW │.. │NE │150│6·2│10│ 3│..│        │
        │255│   │350│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│29·│29·│29·│8·0│ 10│ -2│.. │NE │NW │NW │70 │2·9│ 1│ 1│ 2│        │
        │448│554│627│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│29·│29·│29·│6·3│  8│ -2│.. │NW │NW │.. │80 │3·3│ 6│ 8│..│        │
        │616│627│611│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│29·│29·│29·│9·3│ 12│  5│.. │NE │NE │NE │100│4·1│10│10│10│        │
        │654│721│715│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│29·│29·│29·│6·8│ 11│ -2│.. │NE │NE │NE │770│32·│ 9│ 9│10│    ”   │Blizzard
        │651│663│633│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │08 │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”   12│29·│29·│ ..│ 11│ ..│ ..│.. │NE │NE │.. │860│47·│10│10│..│”       │Anemomet
        │523│393│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │77 │  │  │  │        │  er out
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  of
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  order.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Record
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  for 18
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  hours.
  ”   13│ ..│ ..│ ..│20·│ 24│ 12│.. │NE │NE │NE │.. │.. │10│10│ 8│        │
        │   │   │   │  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│29·│ ..│14·│ 25│ 12│.. │NE │NE │NE │.. │.. │ 7│10│10│        │
        │528│680│   │  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│30·│30·│30·│-4·│  8│-15│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│”       │Aurora.
        │156│220│247│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Snow.
  ”   16│30·│29·│29·│-8·│  5│-16│.. │.. │ W │NW │295│32·│..│ 3│..│”       │Anemomet
        │044│977│909│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │77 │  │  │  │        │  er
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  readin
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  g for
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  3
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  hours.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  13 in.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ice in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   17│29·│29·│29·│-1·│  2│ -8│.. │ N │ N │NW │75 │3·1│..│ 2│..│        │
        │730│728│756│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│29·│29·│29·│-13│  4│-18│.. │ N │NW │ N │90 │3·7│ 1│..│..│    ”   │Aurora.
        │727│656│668│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│29·│29·│29·│-12│ -8│-18│.. │ W │ N │.. │90 │3·7│ 3│..│..│    ”   │  ”
        │647│669│727│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│29·│29·│29·│-3·│ -1│-20│.. │NE │ N │.. │100│4·1│ 8│ 8│ 8│        │
        │785│861│928│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│29·│30·│30·│-2·│  3│ -8│.. │ N │ N │.. │120│5·0│10│10│..│”       │Snow.
        │988│072│122│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Aurora
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”   22│30·│30·│30·│-15│ -4│-20│.. │NW │NW │NW │100│4·1│ 9│ 1│..│        │
        │124│070│076│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│29·│30·│-9·│ -8│-20│.. │.. │.. │NW │105│4·3│ 5│ 2│..│        │
        │942│025│025│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│30·│30·│30·│-1·│ -1│-12│.. │NE │NE │NE │155│6·4│10│10│10│        │
        │206│340│465│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│30·│30·│30·│4·5│ 11│ -4│.. │NE │ S │SE │230│9·5│10│ 8│ 5│        │
        │542│563│020│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│30·│30·│29·│1·6│ 11│ -9│.. │NE │ E │ E │210│8·7│..│ 6│10│        │
        │187│127│907│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│14·│ 15│  0│.. │ S │SE │ S │560│23·│ 7│10│10│        │
        │734│772│869│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│30·│30·│30·│15·│ 19│ 12│.. │ E │ S │ E │205│8·5│10│10│10│        │
        │100│281│392│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│30·│30·│30·│6·1│ 11│  0│.. │ N │ N │ N │75 │3·1│ 9│ 3│ 9│        │
        │422│376│338│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│30·│29·│29·│-6·│ 11│-10│.. │ N │NW │ W │230│9·5│..│..│..│”       │21” ice
        │073│975│907│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
        │Highest│30·│ ..│ 32│-20│   │   │   │   │Gr’│Ave│  │  │  │        │
        │,      │563│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ate│rag│  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │st │e, │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │190│6·3│  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │mil│ 3 │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │es │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │in │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │hou│   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │rs.│   │  │  │  │        │
        │Lowest,│29·│ ..│ ..│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │120│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│4·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │609│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  Dec. 1│29·│29·│29·│-8·│ -6│-12│.. │NW │NW │NW │130│5·4│..│ 2│..│Fullerto│Aurora.
        │746│638│616│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │  n     │
  ”    2│29·│29·│29·│ 4·│  9│-11│.. │NW │SE │NE │60 │2·5│ 4│10│10│    ..  │Snow.
        │578│724│727│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│30·│30·│30·│-19│  7│-24│.. │ N │ N │NW │220│9·1│ 1│..│..│    ..  │
        │124│750│261│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│30·│30·│29·│-5·│  3│-25│.. │ W │SW │ E │260│10·│ 5│10│ 8│    ..  │Aurora.
        │273│009│850│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│29·│29·│29·│-7·│  5│-25│.. │ N │ N │ N │330│13·│ 3│10│..│    ..  │
        │539│560│735│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │75 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│-26│-15│-29│.. │ N │NW │ N │415│17·│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │806│734│720│ ·0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │29 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│29·│29·│29·│-18│-15│-26│.. │ N │ N │NW │435│18·│..│ 2│ 1│..      │24” ice
        │578│562│593│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │12 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    8│29·│29·│29·│-13│-11│-20│.. │NW │NNW│NW │230│9·5│..│..│..│Fullerto│Aurora.
        │477│559│653│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │  n     │
  ”    9│29·│29·│29·│-20│-15│-25│.. │NW │WNW│WNW│100│4·1│ 1│..│..│    ..  │
        │750│742│660│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│29·│29·│29·│-17│-15│-26│.. │ N │NW │.. │135│5·6│ 3│ 1│..│    ..  │
        │586│594│585│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│29·│29·│29·│-8·│ -2│-22│.. │ N │NE │WNW│215│9· │..│ 6│..│    ..  │Snow.
        │641│613│480│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   12│29·│29·│29·│13·│ 15│ -5│.. │NNE│ N │ N │610│25·│10│ 4│10│    ..  │
        │329│112│256│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│29·│29·│29·│11·│ 15│  7│.. │ N │NE │ N │610│25·│ 8│10│10│    ..  │
        │366│492│542│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│ 2·│ 10│ -2│.. │ N │NE │ N │360│15·│10│ 8│10│    ..  │
        │698│743│858│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│29·│29·│29·│-3·│  8│ -9│.. │.. │NW │NW │185│7·7│10│ 5│10│    ..  │
        │875│857│933│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│29·│29·│29·│-1·│  5│ -6│.. │NW │NW │NW │165│6·8│ 8│10│..│    ..  │
        │916│929│951│  7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│29·│29·│29·│-0·│  2│ -6│.. │NW │ N │NE │110│4·5│10│10│ 8│    ..  │Snow.
        │930│937│935│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│29·│29·│29·│9·4│ 15│  0│.. │NE │NE │NE │550│22·│10│ 9│10│    ..  │
        │812│708│537│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│29·│29·│29·│8·3│ 11│  0│.. │NE │SE │ E │350│14·│..│ 2│10│    ..  │
        │532│562│525│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │58 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│29·│29·│29·│3·8│ 12│ -2│.. │NE │NE │NE │510│21·│ 9│ 5│10│    ..  │Aurora.
        │429│498│579│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│29·│29·│29·│-1·│  2│ -5│.. │ N │ N │NE │170│7·0│ 5│ 3│ 3│    ..  │
        │448│382│350│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│29·│29·│ -4│  0│ -6│.. │ N │NNW│ N │300│12·│ 6│10│..│    ..  │
        │334│306│314│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │50 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│29·│29·│-15│  3│-20│.. │ N │NW │.. │90 │3·7│ 2│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │346│418│414│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│29·│29·│29·│-17│ -8│-20│.. │.. │ N │.. │120│5· │ 2│ 1│10│    ..  │
        │530│609│654│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│ ..│29·│29·│-5·│ -5│-10│.. │.. │.. │.. │200│8·3│..│10│..│    ..  │
        │   │588│611│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│-1·│  3│ -6│.. │.. │.. │.. │280│11·│ 3│ 2│..│    ..  │
        │681│638│621│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│-12│  3│-21│.. │.. │NW │.. │80 │3·3│ 2│ 3│..│    ..  │
        │619│603│602│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│-19│-16│-22│.. │ W │ W │ W │150│6·2│..│..│..│..      │31” ice
        │575│600│715│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   29│ ..│29·│29·│-23│-19│-27│.. │ W │ W │ W │250│10·│..│ 3│..│    ..  │
        │   │630│548│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│29·│29·│-31│-21│-38│.. │ W │.. │ N │140│5·8│ 1│..│..│    ..  │
        │288│194│232│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   31│29·│29·│29·│-20│-15│-37│.. │ N │ N │ N │490│20·│ 3│..│..│    ..  │
        │382│505│625│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│-8·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │634│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ H.│ L.│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │750│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│ ..│-15│-38│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │112│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 Jan.  1│29·│29·│29·│-23│-19│-25│.. │.. │ W │.. │220│9·1│..│ 2│ 1│Fullerto│Aurora.
        │827│849│915│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │  n.    │
  ”    2│30·│30·│30·│-27│-23│-33│.. │ N │ W │.. │70 │2·9│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │068│115│207│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│30·│30·│29·│-22│-10│-35│.. │.. │.. │ESE│140│5·8│..│..│10│    ..  │
        │214│110│964│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│29·│29·│-6·│ -2│ -9│.. │SE │SE │ E │330│13·│..│10│ 4│..      │33” ice
        │550│634│463│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │75 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    5│29·│29·│29·│-22│ -8│-30│.. │ N │ W │ W │205│8·5│..│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │716│777│889│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│-10│ -3│-32│.. │ E │SE │ S │135│5·6│10│10│..│    ..  │
        │571│456│381│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│29·│29·│29·│-16│ -4│-30│.. │NE │NE │.. │505│2·1│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │457│654│714│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│29·│ ..│29·│-16│-10│-26│.. │.. │.. │.. │30 │1·2│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │829│   │845│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│29·│29·│29·│-0·│  3│-12│.. │SE │SE │SE │285│11·│10│..│10│..      │Haze.
        │860│841│881│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │87 │  │  │  │        │  Aurora
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”   10│29·│29·│29·│-1·│  3│ -2│.. │ E │NE │ E │480│20·│ 5│10│..│    ..  │
        │900│917│786│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│29·│29·│29·│9·1│ 12│ -1│.. │ E │ E │ E │470│19·│10│10│10│..      │38” ice
        │533│500│453│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   12│29·│29·│29·│-6·│ 11│-19│.. │.. │.. │NW │130│5·4│ 1│..│..│..      │Sun dogs
        │411│446│534│  1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  10
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  a.m.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Aurora
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”   13│29·│29·│29·│-25│ -5│-30│.. │NW │ W │ W │450│18·│..│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │757│833│899│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│-30│-28│-34│.. │ W │ W │ W │310│12·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │950│949│990│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│30·│30·│30·│-29│-26│-33│.. │ W │.. │.. │60 │2·5│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │014│042│088│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│30·│30·│30·│-35│-26│-40│.. │NW │NW │NW │230│9·5│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │172│191│243│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│30·│30·│30·│-35│-32│-41│.. │ W │WSW│WSW│420│17·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │284│367│294│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│30·│30·│30·│-25│-16│-41│.. │ W │NW │SW │250│10·│ 4│ 5│..│..      │39½” ice
        │278│214│070│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   19│30·│30·│30·│-26│-13│-38│.. │ E │ N │NE │410│17·│ 4│ 5│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │644│672│869│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │08 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│30·│30·│30·│-39│-38│-42│.. │NE │ W │SW │70 │2·9│..│..│..│    ..  │Snow.
        │390│115│152│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│29·│29·│29·│-16│-12│-38│.. │ S │ S │ E │390│16·│ 5│10│10│    ..  │Aurora.
        │961│887│844│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │92 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│30·│30·│-14│-11│-18│.. │ E │NNE│NE │380│15·│ 6│ 9│ 8│    ..  │  ”
        │890│014│087│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │85 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│30·│30·│30·│-25│-20│-29│.. │ N │NE │NE │360│15·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │255│267│272│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │00 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│30·│30·│30·│-29│-26│-33│.. │ N │.. │.. │100│4·1│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │237│215│166│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│29·│29·│29·│-26│-23│-34│.. │.. │ W │ W │80 │3·3│..│..│..│..      │41” ice
        │990│948│931│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│-30│-19│-34│.. │ W │ W │NW │30 │1·2│ 2│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │826│831│909│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│-34│-28│-39│.. │.. │.. │ W │40 │1·6│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │996│942│861│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│-22│-22│-38│.. │.. │ W │ W │160│6·6│..│10│..│    ..  │Snow.
        │520│538│572│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│29·│29·│29·│-29│-26│-34│.. │ W │ W │ W │265│11·│..│ 3│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │595│536│497│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │46 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│29·│29·│-33│-25│-40│.. │ N │.. │ N │135│5·6│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │492│500│545│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   31│29·│29·│29·│-33│-28│-40│.. │.. │.. │.. │80 │3·3│ 3│..│ 1│    ..  │
        │568│551│554│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│-23│-12│-42│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │906│ ·0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │869│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │361│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 Feb.  1│29·│29·│29·│-35│-33│-42│.. │NE │ N │ N │150│6·2│ 3│..│..│Fullerto│45” ice
        │409│470│444│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │  n     │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    2│29·│29·│29·│-32│-26│-43│.. │NNE│.. │.. │130│5·4│ 6│..│..│    ..  │
        │451│486│492│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│29·│29·│29·│-37│-35│-42│.. │NNE│NNE│ N │70 │2·9│..│..│ 7│    ..  │
        │494│515│565│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│29·│29·│-11│  1│-38│.. │WNW│NW │ N │460│19·│10│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │691│032│165│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │17 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│29·│29·│30·│-23│-10│-30│.. │NE │NE │ N │400│16·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │700│912│110│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
 Feb.  6│30·│30·│30·│-13│  1│-32│.. │ W │ W │ N │170│7·0│ 5│ 7│10│Fullerto│Snow.
        │254│186│076│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │  n.    │
  ”    7│30·│30·│30·│1·3│  7│ -4│.. │ N │ N │NE │440│18·│ 8│ 3│..│..      │Aurora.
        │105│211│255│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │33 │  │  │  │        │  48”
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ice in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    8│30·│30·│30·│-3·│  6│ -9│.. │NE │NE │.. │110│4·5│ 1│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │389│447│529│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│30·│30·│30·│-12│ -2│-18│.. │NW │NW │ W │30 │1·2│ 1│ 1│..│..      │62” ice
        │618│650│678│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  on
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  fresh
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  water
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ponds.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Au.
  ”   10│30·│30·│30·│-19│-17│-25│.. │ W │ W │ W │320│13·│..│ 4│10│    ..  │Aurora.
        │516│450│421│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │33 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│ ..│30·│30·│-23│-17│-31│.. │.. │ W │ W │270│15·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │   │322│343│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   12│30·│30·│30·│-25│-22│-33│.. │ W │.. │NE │200│8·3│10│ 8│..│    ..  │
        │242│162│091│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│30·│30·│30·│-29│-22│-32│.. │ N │NE │.. │210│8·7│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │027│074│141│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│30·│30·│30·│-34│-22│-37│.. │ N │ N │.. │120│5· │..│..│..│    ..  │
        │156│141│102│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│29·│29·│29·│-33│-30│-39│.. │ W │ W │ W │90 │3·7│..│..│ 4│    ..  │
        │994│942│957│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│30·│30·│30·│-30│-26│-38│.. │ W │NE │.. │50 │2·0│..│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │118│313│408│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│30·│30·│30·│-15│-10│-37│.. │ E │ E │SSE│210│8·7│ 9│10│ 9│    ..  │Snow.
        │367│251│077│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│29·│29·│30·│-22│-12│-36│.. │NE │ N │ N │220│9·1│ 1│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │880│944│089│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│30·│30·│30·│-38│-29│-46│.. │WNW│WNW│NW │510│21·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │185│240│232│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│30·│30·│30·│-34│-30│-44│.. │ W │ W │ W │370│15·│..│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │243│271│249│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│30·│30·│30·│-35│-27│-39│.. │ W │ W │ W │230│9·5│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │710│136│021│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│29·│29·│-29│-24│-35│.. │ W │ W │ W │240│10·│ 8│..│..│..      │53” ice
        │647│523│415│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   23│29·│29·│29·│-32│-26│-37│.. │ W │ W │ W │270│11·│ 1│ 1│..│    ..  │
        │298│305│223│ ·9│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│ ..│29·│29·│-30│-22│-42│.. │.. │NW │NW │460│19·│..│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │   │313│446│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │17 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│29·│29·│29·│-40│-38│-46│.. │NW │ W │ W │260│10·│..│ 1│..│    ..  │  ”
        │457│556│649│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │83 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│-37│-26│-46│.. │.. │.. │.. │70 │2·9│..│ 3│..│    ..  │
        │593│540│512│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│-37│-33│-43│.. │.. │ W │NW │110│4·5│ 1│..│..│    ..  │
        │520│564│687│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│30·│-39│-35│-46│.. │ W │ W │NW │140│5·8│..│..│ 4│..      │55” ice
        │934│992│005│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   29│30·│29·│29·│-39│-36│-45│.. │ W │ W │.. │100│4·1│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │004│978│946│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│-27│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │932│ ·0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │  7│-46│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │710│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │032│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 March 1│29·│29·│29·│-38│-30│-46│.. │.. │NE │NE │80 │3·3│..│..│..│Fullerto│
        │793│680│658│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  n.    │
   ”   2│29·│29·│29·│-46│-40│-52│.. │ W │ W │ W │210│8·7│ .│ .│..│..      │Mercury
        │691│700│710│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  frozen
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  at
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  -50°
   ”   3│29·│29·│29·│-40│-32│   │.. │ W │ W │ W │650│27·│ .│ .│..│  ..    │
        │725│642│681│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │85 │  │  │  │        │
       4│29·│29·│29·│-35│-35│-40│.. │ W │ W │ W │345│14·│ .│ .│..│  ..    │Aurora.
        │738│718│730│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │95 │  │  │  │        │
   ”   5│29·│29·│29·│-33│-26│-41│.. │ W │ W │ W │185│7·7│ .│ .│..│  ..    │
        │828│966│953│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”   6│30·│30·│30·│-7·│  1│-32│.. │ E │ E │SE │190│7·9│10│10│10│  ..    │
        │115│135│124│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”   7│30·│30·│30·│ 0·│  5│ -3│.. │SE │SE │SE │210│8·6│10│10│10│..      │58” ice
        │080│099│015│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
   ”   8│30·│30·│30·│-27│ -2│-34│.. │NE │ N │ N │440│18·│..│..│..│  ..    │
        │062│210│324│ ·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │35 │  │  │  │        │
   ”   9│30·│30·│30·│-26│-13│-38│.. │ W │ W │ W │100│4·1│..│..│..│  ..    │Aurora.
        │432│557│606│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  10│30·│30·│30·│-24│-13│-35│.. │ W │ W │.. │30 │1·2│..│..│..│  ..    │  ”
        │758│767│804│ ·5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  11│30·│30·│30·│-18│ -4│-32│.. │ W │.. │.. │10 │·42│..│..│ 1│  ..    │  ”
        │733│825│835│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  12│30·│30·│30·│-9·│ -3│-23│.. │.. │.. │.. │ 0 │ 0 │..│..│10│  ..    │
        │777│760│738│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  13│30·│30·│30·│-10│  1│-19│.. │.. │ W │.. │15 │·62│ 4│ 6│..│..      │62” ice
        │630│614│628│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
   ”  14│30·│30·│30·│-12│ -2│-25│.. │ W │.. │.. │ 5 │·28│..│..│..│  ..    │
        │655│583│613│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  15│30·│30·│30·│-12│ -9│-17│.. │.. │SW │SW │45 │1·8│..│ 4│ 4│  ..    │
        │444│381│312│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  16│30·│30·│30·│-8·│ -1│-19│.. │.. │NE │NNE│105│4·3│ 8│..│..│  ..    │
        │071│101│177│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  17│30·│ ..│30·│-15│  1│-26│.. │NNE│.. │ W │50 │2·0│..│..│ 1│  ..    │
        │142│   │010│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  18│29·│29·│29·│-22│-10│-33│.. │ W │.. │ W │45 │1·8│..│..│..│  ..    │
        │824│760│752│  ·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  19│29·│29·│29·│-26│-15│-34│.. │ W │ W │ W │235│9·8│ 5│ 3│..│  ..    │
        │614│564│648│ ·3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  20│29·│29·│30·│-28│-23│-38│.. │ W │NW │ W │350│15·│..│..│..│  ..    │
        │688│821│002│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  21│30·│30·│30·│-19│ -8│-36│.. │.. │ N │NE │120│5· │..│..│ 2│..      │64” ice
        │224│240│282│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
   ”  22│30·│29·│29·│-2·│  4│-20│.. │ N │NE │NE │200│8·3│..│ 7│..│  ..    │
        │008│910│857│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  23│29·│29·│29·│-8·│ -2│-16│.. │NE │NE │.. │250│9·1│..│..│ 3│  ..    │
        │807│847│907│  7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  24│30·│30·│30·│-26│-11│-34│.. │NE │NW │NW │200│8·3│..│..│ 1│  ..    │
        │049│200│330│ ·8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  25│30·│30·│30·│-29│-20│-40│.. │SW │NE │NW │150│6·2│10│..│..│  ..    │
        │146│041│031│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  26│29·│29·│29·│-26│-17│-41│.. │NW │NW │ W │200│8·3│..│..│ 3│  ..    │Aurora.
        │882│822│771│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  27│29·│29·│29·│-18│-10│-41│.. │ E │SE │NW │245│10·│ 8│ 5│ 3│  ..    │
        │369│369│208│ ·4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
   ”  28│29·│29·│29·│-21│-14│-29│.. │ W │ W │ W │145│6·4│..│..│ 2│..      │68” ice
        │327│361│505│ ·7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
   ”  29│29·│29·│29·│-26│-15│-37│.. │ W │ W │ E │80 │3·3│..│..│ 1│  ..    │
        │646│668│731│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  30│29·│29·│29·│-9·│  2│-32│.. │ E │ E │ E │110│4·5│ 8│ 8│10│  ..    │
        │770│772│831│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
   ”  31│29·│29·│30·│-7·│  1│-16│.. │NE │ E │ N │330│13·│10│..│..│  ..    │
        │716│824│120│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│30·│-20│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │036│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │835│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │-53│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │176│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 April 1│30·│30·│30·│-14│ -2│-30│.. │ W │ W │SW │30 │1·2│..│..│ 6│Fullerto│
        │474│469│361│ ·6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │  n.    │
   ”   2│30·│29·│29·│4·0│  8│ -9│.. │SW │ S │SE │290│12·│ 9│ 9│10│  ..    │
        │102│968│556│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │00 │  │  │  │        │
   ”   3│29·│29·│29·│ 14│ 18│  7│.. │.. │ E │NW │150│6·2│..│10│10│  ..    │
        │354│262│096│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
 April 4│29·│29·│29·│-13│ 18│-18│.. │NW │NW │NW │665│27·│..│..│..│Fullerto│70” ice
        │602│781│963│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │  n.    │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    5│30·│30·│30·│-10│  2│-18│.. │ W │ W │ W │290│12·│..│..│..│    ..  │Aurora.
        │170│227│219│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│30·│30·│30·│-1·│  9│-10│.. │.. │.. │.. │20 │0·8│..│..│ 5│    ..  │
        │267│387│244│  7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│30·│30·│30·│1·3│ 11│ -8│.. │ W │ W │ W │130│5·4│10│..│..│    ..  │  ”
        │115│169│177│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│30·│30·│30·│  3│ 16│-11│.. │ W │.. │ E │208│8·6│ 8│ 4│ 9│    ..  │
        │227│252│244│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│30·│30·│30·│  4│  7│ -2│.. │NE │ E │ E │307│12·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │329│166│154│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│30·│30·│30·│ -2│  5│ -5│.. │ E │NE │NE │388│16·│ 5│ 2│ 1│    ..  │
        │141│131│223│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│30·│30·│30·│3·3│ 12│ -9│.. │.. │NE │.. │144│6·0│10│ 3│..│..      │71” ice
        │223│194│261│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   12│30·│30·│30·│5·3│19·│-20│.. │ N │.. │NW │69 │2·9│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │275│307│352│   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│30·│30·│30·│8·3│ 26│-11│.. │NW │.. │.. │ 6 │0·2│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │296│287│331│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│30·│30·│30·│7·6│ 25│ -9│.. │ W │ W │NW │128│5·3│..│ 1│..│    ..  │
        │375│342│363│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│30·│29·│29·│8·3│ 14│ -2│.. │ W │ W │SW │281│11·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │100│897│526│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│29·│29·│29·│11·│ 16│ -4│.. │ N │ N │ N │280│11·│10│10│ 1│    ..  │
        │355│462│603│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │66 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│29·│29·│30·│5·6│ 12│ -9│.. │ N │ N │ N │299│12·│ 3│ 5│..│    ..  │
        │723│847│186│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │46 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│30·│30·│30·│8·3│ 21│-10│.. │ N │ N │NW │123│5·2│ 6│ 5│ 5│..      │73” ice
        │232│121│129│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   19│29·│29·│29·│10·│ 17│-10│.. │ W │SW │ W │237│9·8│ 5│ 9│..│    ..  │
        │952│935│742│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   20│29·│30·│30·│5·0│ 12│ -2│.. │NE │NE │NE │290│12·│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │914│031│149│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │09 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│30·│30·│30·│7·3│ 13│-11│.. │NE │ E │SE │238│9·8│ 2│ 9│10│    ..  │
        │198│123│002│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│30·│30·│11·│ 16│  5│.. │NE │NE │NE │312│13·│10│10│ 6│    ..  │
        │948│027│070│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│30·│30·│30·│8·6│ 19│ -9│.. │.. │NE │.. │90 │3·7│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │244│312│364│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│30·│30·│29·│12·│ 18│-13│.. │ W │SW │SW │260│10·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │316│112│915│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│30·│30·│30·│13·│ 19│  2│.. │NE │NE │ E │230│9·5│..│ 9│10│..      │74” ice
        │166│202│172│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   26│30·│30·│30·│17·│ 20│ 11│.. │NE │ E │ E │400│16·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │112│058│056│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│20·│ 28│ 15│.. │SE │SE │.. │450│18·│10│10│..│    ..  │
        │811│596│534│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │75 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│23·│ 30│ 19│.. │ W │ W │ W │380│15·│10│ 9│ 1│..      │Ptarmiga
        │444│496│712│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │  n
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  first
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  seen.
  ”   29│30·│30·│30·│15·│ 20│ ..│.. │NE │ E │ E │248│10·│ 6│10│10│    ..  │
        │078│128│143│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│29·│29·│25·│ 31│ 13│.. │ E │SE │SE │510│21·│ 4│10│10│    ..  │
        │941│778│650│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│30·│7·1│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │101│  7│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ 31│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │474│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │-30│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │096│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 May   1│29·│30·│30·│22·│ 30│  8│.. │NW │NW │NW │283│11·│ 1│ 3│10│Fullerto│
        │940│017│077│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │  n.    │
  ”    2│30·│30·│30·│21·│ 30│ 14│.. │SW │ W │ W │385│16·│10│10│..│..      │74” ice
        │081│015│066│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    3│30·│30·│30·│7·3│ 15│ -3│.. │NW │NW │NW │427│17·│..│..│..│    ..  │
        │149│176│143│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│30·│30·│30·│12·│ 20│ -7│.. │.. │NW │ W │255│10·│..│..│10│    ..  │
        │164│219│226│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │62 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│30·│30·│30·│21·│ 31│  9│.. │NW │.. │NE │202│8·4│ 9│10│10│    ..  │
        │177│177│117│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 2 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│18·│ 20│ 14│.. │NE │NE │NE │386│16·│10│10│10│..      │Solar
        │965│825│632│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │08 │  │  │  │        │  corona
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  , 4.30
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  p.m.
  ”    7│29·│29·│29·│20·│ 23│ 16│.. │NE │NE │ N │654│27·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │444│479│552│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│29·│29·│29·│11·│ 19│ 10│.. │ N │ N │NW │660│27·│10│10│10│..      │70½” ice
        │626│630│656│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    9│29·│29·│29·│14·│ 19│  9│.. │NW │ W │NW │480│20·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │577│548│558│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│29·│29·│30·│11·│ 15│  0│.. │ W │ W │ W │745│31·│..│ 9│10│    ..  │
        │813│974│121│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │04 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│30·│30·│30·│13·│ 15│  7│.. │ W │.. │ W │305│12·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │226│276│226│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   12│30·│30·│30·│18·│ 28│ 14│.. │ W │ W │ W │236│9·8│10│ 2│ 3│    ..  │
        │149│106│050│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│30·│30·│29·│12·│ 19│  4│.. │ W │ W │ W │264│11·│ 9│ 8│..│    ..  │
        │103│005│946│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│13·│ 22│ -2│.. │.. │ W │ W │130│5·4│..│..│10│    ..  │
        │867│838│890│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│30·│30·│30·│26·│ 37│  5│.. │.. │.. │ N │50 │2·0│..│..│10│    ..  │
        │020│045│154│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 8 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│30·│30·│30·│18·│ 24│  3│.. │NE │ E │ E │140│5·8│..│ 1│10│..      │71½” ice
        │296│347│378│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   17│30·│30·│29·│23·│ 27│  9│.. │ E │ E │SE │510│21·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │277│130│978│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│29·│29·│29·│27·│ 34│ 22│.. │ S │SW │ W │370│15·│10│ 3│ 2│    ..  │
        │891│832│895│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│30·│30·│30·│31·│ 40│ 14│.. │.. │ E │NE │165│6·8│10│10│10│..      │Gulls,
        │062│164│126│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │  geese
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  &
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  shore
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  larks
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  first
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  seen.
  ”   20│30·│30·│29·│24·│ 31│ 16│.. │ E │.. │SW │155│6·4│10│10│10│..      │Hawk
        │145│067│973│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  first
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  seen.
  ”   21│29·│29·│29·│30·│ 32│ 25│.. │SW │SW │SW │270│11·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │686│546│410│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │25 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│28·│28·│31·│ 33│ 29│.. │ S │ S │ W │370│15·│..│..│10│    ..  │
        │076│925│942│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │41 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│28·│29·│29·│29·│ 38│ 23│.. │SW │NE │ N │360│15·│..│10│ 5│..      │75 in.
        │994│105│123│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  │  │  │        │  ice in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   24│29·│29·│29·│19·│ 23│11·│.. │NW │NW │ W │650│27·│..│ 6│10│    ..  │
        │184│143│141│  3│   │  5│   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│29·│29·│29·│20·│ 22│ 17│.. │SW │SW │SW │400│16·│..│10│10│    ..  │
        │182│252│370│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│23·│ 24│ 15│.. │.. │ S │SW │150│6·2│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │412│459│514│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│ ..│29·│29·│27·│ 32│ 22│.. │ S │ E │.. │150│6·2│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │   │523│568│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│28·│ 31│ 15│.. │NE │ E │NE │320│13·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │532│543│569│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│29·│29·│29·│31·│ 38│ 23│.. │.. │.. │ W │32 │1·3│ 9│ 4│ 2│..      │Fresh
        │658│688│718│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │  water,
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  pools
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  open.
  ”   30│29·│29·│29·│29·│ 31│ 16│.. │.. │ E │ E │88 │3·6│10│10│10│..      │72 in.
        │765│822│775│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │  ice in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   31│29·│29·│29·│30·│ 35│ 22│.. │.. │SE │ E │90 │3·7│ 9│10│10│..      │Snow
        │815│836│848│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │  geese
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  seen.
        │Average│29·│21·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │802│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ 40│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │378│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │28·│   │   │ -7│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │925│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 June  1│29·│29·│29·│28·│ 34│ 24│29·│NE │NNE│ N │340│14·│10│10│10│Fullerto│Snow.
        │740│673│676│  6│   │   │ 2 │   │   │   │   │17 │  │  │  │  n.    │
  ”    2│29·│29·│29·│35·│ 44│ 29│29·│NNW│ N │.. │225│9·3│ 7│ 5│ 5│    ..  │
        │838│911│978│  6│   │   │ 6 │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│30·│30·│30·│32·│ 37│ 29│29·│NNE│NE │NE │125│5·2│10│10│ 9│    ..  │
        │110│137│433│  5│   │   │ 7 │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│30·│30·│30·│33·│ 38│ 21│29·│ E │.. │SE │60 │2·5│10│ 1│ 8│    ..  │Snow.
        │273│525│377│  3│   │   │ 9 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│29·│29·│29·│29·│ 47│ 25│29·│ S │ S │.. │370│15·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │992│968│883│  3│   │   │ 9 │   │   │   │   │42 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│ ..│30·│35·│ 47│ 25│29·│NE │.. │.. │25 │1·0│ 9│ 5│ 2│..      │70” ice
        │994│   │070│  2│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”    7│29·│29·│29·│29·│ 33│ 20│29·│SE │ S │ S │405│16·│10│10│10│    ..  │Rain.
        │820│780│473│  8│   │   │ 3 │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │  Fog.
  ”    8│29·│29·│29·│37·│ 38│ 31│29·│ N │ N │SW │395│15·│..│ 5│ 4│    ..  │Snow.
        │707│839│962│  5│   │   │ 8 │   │   │   │   │62 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│30·│30·│30·│34·│ 37│ 28│.. │SW │ S │ S │250│10·│ 3│ 9│ 9│    ..  │  ”
        │176│212│186│  8│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│30·│30·│30·│35·│ 42│ 28│29·│ S │ E │ E │285│11·│ 5│..│ 4│    ..  │
        │100│176│213│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│30·│30·│30·│33·│ 46│ 29│29·│ E │ E │ E │520│21·│10│10│10│    ..  │Rain.
        │164│110│045│  6│   │   │ 7 │   │   │   │   │66 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   12│29·│29·│29·│32·│ 36│ 29│29·│NE │NE │.. │735│30·│ 4│10│10│    ..  │  ”
        │938│952│921│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │62 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│29·│29·│29·│30·│ 32│ 27│29·│NNE│NE │NE │695│28·│10│10│10│..      │66” in
        │712│631│606│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │96 │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│30·│ 37│ 28│29·│NNE│NNE│ N │340│16·│10│ 8│ 6│..      │Anemomet
        │590│556│621│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 1 │  │  │  │        │  er
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  readin
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  g for
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  21
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  hours.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Sleet.
  ”   15│29·│29·│29·│34·│ 38│ 28│29·│ N │ N │NNE│225│9·3│ 5│ 4│ 6│    ..  │
        │729│752│810│  2│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│29·│29·│30·│36·│ 42│ 28│29·│ N │ N │.. │105│4·3│ 4│..│10│    ..  │
        │845│912│211│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│30·│30·│30·│35·│ 46│ 29│29·│SW │SW │SSW│50 │2·0│10│ 8│..│    ..  │Rain and
        │081│095│089│  6│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │ 9 │  │  │  │        │  Sleet.
  ”   18│30·│29·│29·│31·│ 35│ 27│29·│ S │ S │ S │245│10·│10│10│10│    ..  │
        │614│868│810│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │21 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   19│29·│29·│29·│36·│ 49│ 32│29·│SW │SW │NW │325│13·│ 7│ 5│ 4│..      │58” ice
        │713│704│666│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │54 │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   20│29·│29·│29·│49·│ 60│ 30│30·│ W │ W │NW │350│14·│ 4│ 3│ 3│    ..  │
        │679│678│729│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│29·│29·│29·│54·│ 63│ 34│30·│ W │ W │ W │100│4·1│ 4│ 6│ 4│    ..  │Rain.
        │753│753│746│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│29·│29·│43·│ 46│ 32│29·│.. │.. │NW │205│8·5│10│..│ 8│    ..  │
        │724│616│725│  6│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│29·│29·│42·│ 50│ 31│30·│NNE│NNE│ E │275│11·│ 3│ 3│ 3│    ..  │
        │729│750│837│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │46 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│30·│30·│30·│40·│ 48│ 29│30·│ E │ E │SE │85 │3·5│ 6│ 6│ 9│Fullerto│
        │219│419│438│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │  n     │
  ”   25│29·│29·│ ..│37·│ 41│ 33│29·│.. │.. │SSE│115│4·8│ 6│..│10│..      │Fog.
        │897│810│   │  5│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  (high)
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Rain.
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│41·│ 48│ 33│31·│ W │ W │NW │100│4·1│ 4│ 9│ 3│  ..    │
        │793│720│715│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│29·│29·│43·│ 47│ 34│30·│NE │NE │ N │165│6·9│ 3│ 2│ 5│..      │45” ice
        │669│619│698│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│42·│ 44│ 36│30·│NW │ N │ N │185│7·7│ 8│ 8│ 3│  ..    │
        │723│619│637│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   29│29·│ ..│29·│42·│ 43│ 36│30·│ N │.. │ N │130│5·4│ 2│..│ 3│  ..    │
        │679│   │915│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   30│29·│29·│30·│44·│ 49│ 33│31·│ W │NW │ W │170│7·8│..│..│..│  ..    │
        │936│957│021│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│37·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │894│  4│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ 63│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │614│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │ 20│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │473│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 July  1│30·│29·│29·│45·│ 48│ 33│31·│ W │ W │ W │160│6·6│ 1│ 1│ 3│Fullerto│
        │015│866│965│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  n     │
  ”    2│30·│30·│30·│46·│ 51│ 32│30·│ S │SW │ W │80 │3·3│ 2│ 1│ 4│  ”     │
        │522│506│453│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    3│30·│30·│30·│44·│ 57│ 34│31·│ E │ E │.. │90 │3·7│ 1│ 3│..│  ”     │
        │013│029│448│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│29·│29·│46·│ 52│ 34│31·│.. │NW │NE │140│5·8│ 5│ 6│ 3│  ”     │22” to
        │926│821│671│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 3 │  │  │  │        │  45”
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ice in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Mirage
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  .
  ”    5│29·│29·│29·│43·│ 51│ 38│31·│NE │ E │.. │165│6·8│ 3│ 4│ 3│  ”     │
        │678│684│718│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 7 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│40·│ 47│ 33│31·│ E │ E │ E │100│4·1│ 4│ 5│ 5│  ”     │Rain.
        │758│774│740│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 6 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    7│29·│29·│29·│33·│ 38│ 32│31·│ E │SE │ S │205│8·5│ 9│10│10│  ”     │  ”
        │768│772│710│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 4 │  │  │  │        │
  ”    8│29·│29·│29·│35·│ 37│ 32│31·│SE │SE │SE │190│7·9│10│10│10│  ”     │Fog.
        │713│769│597│  6│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    9│29·│29·│29·│42·│ 43│ 34│32·│NE │NE │NE │160│6·6│10│ 9│10│  ”     │Rain.
        │417│309│322│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   10│29·│29·│29·│42·│ 46│ 36│31·│NE │ N │NE │160│6·6│10│10│10│  ”     │  ”
        │211│152│197│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   11│29·│29·│29·│37·│ 41│ 35│31·│ E │.. │.. │180│7·5│10│10│10│”       │30” ice
        │220│727│341│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  in
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  harbou
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  r.
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  Rain.
  ”   12│ ..│29·│29·│41·│ 47│ 33│31·│ N │.. │ E │300│12·│ 5│..│10│  ”     │Showers.
        │   │561│867│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 5 │  │  │  │        │
  ”   13│29·│29·│29·│40·│ 42│ 31│31·│ E │ E │ E │230│9·5│10│10│10│  ”     │
        │492│504│447│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│39·│ 43│ 33│32·│ E │ E │NE │.. │.. │ 9│ 4│ 3│  ”     │
        │406│467│512│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   15│29·│ ..│29·│39·│ 42│ 33│32·│ S │SW │ S │.. │.. │ 9│ 5│ 6│  ”     │
        │514│   │543│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   16│29·│29·│29·│41·│ 46│ 34│31·│SW │SW │.. │.. │.. │ 4│..│ 4│  ”     │
        │629│717│745│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   17│29·│29·│29·│48·│ 50│ 31│32·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 2│..│ 2│  ”     │
        │814│803│779│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   18│29·│29·│29·│47·│ 52│ 34│35·│NNW│.. │ N │.. │.. │ 2│ 2│ 2│Southamp│
        │733│715│686│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ton I.│
  ”   19│29·│29·│29·│44·│ 47│ 35│34·│NNE│NNE│ N │.. │.. │ 3│..│ 3│Fisher  │
        │615│528│630│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  strait│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”   20│29·│29·│29·│39·│ 43│ 34│30·│ N │ N │.. │.. │.. │ 6│ 3│..│Digges  │In ice.
        │679│566│422│   │   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  island│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”   21│29·│29·│29·│34·│ 38│ 31│32·│.. │WSW│SW │.. │.. │10│10│10│  ”     │  ”
        │393│467│570│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│29·│29·│41·│ 54│ 37│.. │ W │SW │ S │.. │.. │ 5│ 3│10│  ..    │  ”
        │480│480│445│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│29·│29·│39·│ 46│ 34│.. │ S │NW │NW │.. │.. │ 9│ 6│ 4│  ..    │Showers.
        │414│478│441│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   24│29·│29·│29·│36·│ 39│ 36│.. │NW │ N │NW │.. │.. │10│ 8│10│  ..    │Rain and
        │655│729│747│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  fog.
  ”   25│29·│30·│ ..│39·│ 43│ 31│36·│WNW│WNW│.. │.. │.. │ 1│..│..│Port    │
        │879│418│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Burwel│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  l.    │
  ”   26│30·│ ..│29·│49·│ 64│ 39│37·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│  ”     │
        │422│   │815│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   27│29·│ ..│29·│66·│ 72│ 42│37·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│  ”     │
        │797│   │703│  5│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   28│29·│29·│29·│54·│ 68│ 47│36·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 8│ 9│..│  ”     │Showers.
        │672│649│650│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 July 29│29·│29·│29·│45·│ 53│ 39│36·│SW │ W │.. │.. │.. │10│ 7│ 3│Port    │Rain.
        │751│773│810│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Burwel│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  l.    │
  ”   30│29·│29·│29·│46·│ 46│ 36│35·│NE │NE │ N │.. │.. │10│10│10│  ”     │  ”
        │572│495│522│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   31│ ..│29·│29·│48·│ 60│ 36│35·│.. │ N │NW │.. │.. │ 4│ 3│ 4│  ”     │  ”
        │   │567│406│  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│43·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │683│ 07│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ 72│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │522│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │ 31│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │152│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
 Aug.  1│29·│29·│29·│44·│ 50│ 42│.. │ S │ S │.. │.. │.. │10│10│10│        │
        │327│428│506│  6│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    2│29·│29·│29·│42·│ 47│ 35│36·│.. │ S │ S │.. │.. │ 5│ 5│ 5│Resoluti│
        │526│521│568│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  on    │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Isd.  │
  ”    3│ ..│29·│29·│38·│ 42│ 27│33·│SE │SE │.. │.. │.. │..│ 5│..│        │
        │   │771│820│  5│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    4│29·│29·│29·│39·│ 42│ 35│37·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ *│ *│..│        │
        │896│895│910│  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    5│29·│29·│29·│41·│ 42│ 32│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ *│ *│ 7│        │
        │930│929│926│  0│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”    6│29·│29·│29·│40·│ 48│ 34│40·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ *│ *│..│Off     │
        │924│934│940│  3│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Disko,│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Greenl│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  and.  │
  ”    7│29·│ ..│29·│42·│ 45│ 30│40·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│Devils  │
        │951│   │433│  5│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Thumb.│
  ”    8│ ..│29·│29·│39·│ 43│ 25│34·│SW │SW │SW │.. │.. │10│10│10│N. of   │Rain.
        │   │892│935│  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Cape  │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  York  │
  ”    9│30·│29·│30·│47·│ 53│ ..│36·│WSW│WSW│WSW│.. │.. │..│ 4│..│Parkers │
        │001│995│009│  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Snow  │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  bay.  │
  ”   10│ ..│29·│29·│46·│ 53│ 38│36·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│Englefie│
        │   │912│917│  5│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  ld’s  │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  gulf. │
  ”   11│29·│29·│29·│36·│ 43│ 31│38·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│ 5│Cape    │
        │929│928│877│  3│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Sabin.│
  ”   12│29·│29·│29·│39·│ 42│ 23│36·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │10│10│10│Lancaste│
        │684│618│554│  3│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  r     │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Sound.│
  ”   13│29·│ ..│29·│42·│ 50│ 34│37·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │10│10│10│Cuming  │
        │442│   │424│  3│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Creek.│
  ”   14│29·│29·│29·│40·│ 47│ 37│35·│Strong │.. │.. │.. │10│10│10│  ”     │
        │136│215│343│  0│   │   │ 0 │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │   ”    │
  ”   15│ ..│ ..│ ..│ ..│ 48│ 30│32·│Moderat│.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│Beechey │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │ 0 │  ing  │   │   │   │  │  │  │  island│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │  .     │
  ”   16│29·│29·│29·│40·│ 43│ 36│32·│ Gale  │SW │.. │.. │..│..│..│Pt.     │
        │457│592│687│  0│   │   │ 0 │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Leopol│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │  d.    │
  ”   17│29·│29·│29·│34·│ 40│ 30│32·│SW │SW │SW │.. │.. │ 5│ 7│ 8│Prince  │Fog.
        │758│770│832│  3│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Regent│
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  s     │
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  inlet.│
  ”   18│30·│30·│30·│37·│ 39│ 30│32·│Various│.. │.. │.. │..│ 2│..│Byan    │Rigging
        │001│032│023│  6│   │   │ 0 │   .   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Martin│  coated
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │  Is.   │  with
        │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │       │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  ice.
  ”   19│ ..│29·│29·│37·│ 44│ 30│36·│Various│.. │.. │.. │..│10│10│Ponds   │
        │   │996│881│  6│   │   │ 0 │   .   │   │   │   │  │  │  │  inlet.│
  ”   20│29·│29·│29·│43·│ 48│ 35│34·│Various│.. │.. │.. │10│10│10│  ”     │
        │881│838│749│  6│   │   │ 0 │to gale│   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   21│ ..│29·│ ..│43·│ 48│ 35│32·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│10│10│  ”     │Fog.
        │   │693│   │  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   22│29·│29·│29·│35·│ 38│ 32│32·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ *│ *│..│  ”     │
        │773│772│777│  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   23│29·│29·│29·│32·│ 37│ 27│32·│ E │.. │.. │.. │.. │..│..│..│  ”     │Snowstor
        │771│694│640│  6│   │   │ 5 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  m.
  ”   24│29·│29·│29·│35·│ 39│ 25│31·│ N │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 5│ 8│ 8│  ”     │
        │720│735│754│  3│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   25│29·│29·│29·│38·│ 42│ 29│34·│.. │.. │.. │.. │.. │ 2│ 3│..│  ”     │
        │701│709│756│  0│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
  ”   26│29·│29·│29·│36·│ 42│ 21│36·│.. │.. │ S │.. │.. │..│10│10│  ”     │Rain and
        │837│813│811│  6│   │   │ 0 │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │  fog.
  ”   27│29·│29·│ ..│34·│ 35│ 31│.. │NNW│ N │ N │.. │.. │10│ 9│10│  ”     │Fog.
        │717│680│   │  3│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Average│29·│38·│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │,      │475│ 02│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │High,  │30·│   │ 53│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │032│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │Low,   │29·│   │   │ 21│   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │
        │       │136│   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │   │  │  │  │        │

Key to symbols: * Fog.    ‡ Partly.


                              APPENDIX II.

  LIST OF BIRDS AND EGGS IDENTIFIED OR COLLECTED ON THE VOYAGE OF THE
                 ‘NEPTUNE’ TO HUDSON BAY AND NORTHWARD.

Skins and eggs of a large number of the following species were collected
and preserved by Mr. Andrew Halkett, naturalist to the expedition. He
has been assisted in the identification by Prof. Macoun and the Rev. Mr.
Eifrig.

The notes on the distribution, etc., are supplied by Mr. Low.

_Gavia arcticus_ (Linn.).—Black-throated Loon.

    Skins and eggs collected at Fullerton and Southampton island,
    Hudson bay. Very common in the waters of Roes Welcome,
    especially on the east side along Southampton island. Seen in
    the bays of Baffin island. Breeds abundantly on Southampton;
    nests built on islands or along the swampy edges of ponds not
    far from the coast. Feeds in the sea.

_Gavia lumme_ (Gunn.).—Red-throated Loon.

    Common along the shores and islands of Hudson bay and Hudson
    strait, to the northward of James bay. Seen on the north coast
    of Greenland and in all the northern waters. Breeds on islands
    or shores of ponds, not far from coast. Feeds in the sea and
    fresh water. Skins and eggs from Fullerton and Southampton.

_Cepphus mandtii_ (Licht.).—Mandt Guillemot.

    Common everywhere in Hudson Bay and in smaller numbers
    northward. Breeds on islands under large broken rocks, usually
    talus, at the bottom of cliffs. Skins and eggs collected at
    Fullerton and obtained at Cape Chidley.

_Uria lomvia_ (Linn.).—Brunnich Murre.

    Common everywhere in the north where the coasts are sufficiently
    high to afford nesting places. Not common in the northwest part
    of Hudson Bay, owing to the low shores. Seen in numbers at the
    mouth of Fox channel and in Hudson strait. Plentiful on the
    Greenland coast as far north as Smith sound. Common along
    Ellesmere and North Devon and southward along east coast of
    Baffin. Breeds in great numbers at Cape Wolstenholme, Digges
    islands and other places in Hudson strait. Remains in the open
    water of Hudson bay throughout the winter, numbers having been
    killed at that time at Fullerton. Skins and eggs, the latter
    from Cape Chidley.

_Alle alle_ (Linn.).—Dovekie.

    Not common in Hudson bay or strait. Found there in the winter,
    but rarely seen in the summer. Very abundant along the north
    Greenland coast, less so along the western side of Baffin bay.
    Seen in Lancaster sound. Eggs from Cary island in Smith sound.

_Megalestris skua_ (Brunn.).—Skua.

    Common in Davis strait and Baffin bay; also seen in the eastern
    part of Hudson strait. Not seen in Hudson bay.

_Stercorarius parasiticus_ (Linn.).—Parasitic Jaeger.

    Common about Roes Welcome, where it preys on the Arctic terns;
    less common farther north. Eggs from Southampton. Nest on
    islands in ponds. Skins from Roes Welcome.

_Stercorarius longicaudus_, Vieill.—Long-tailed Jaeger.

    Less common than the former species in Roes Welcome, and seen
    occasionally in the waters to the northward. Skins from
    Fullerton and Southampton; eggs from Southampton and Cape
    Chidley.

_Pagophila alba_ (Gunn.).—Ivory Gull.

    Occasional birds of this species are seen in the early summer
    among the heavy ice on the Atlantic coast of Labrador and in
    Hudson strait. A specimen of the young in full plumage was shot
    at Fullerton in the end of September.

_Rissa tridactyla_ (Linn.).—Kittiwake.

    Not very common in the northern part of Hudson bay or elsewhere
    in the north. Specimen from Fullerton.

_Larus glaucus_, Brunn.—Glaucous Gull.

    The common big gull of the north. Common about Fullerton and
    frequently seen along the northern coasts. Skins and eggs from
    Fullerton and Cape Chidley.

_Larus marinus_ (Linn.).—Great Black-backed Gull.

    A large colony seen on the high cliffs of Cuming creek, North
    Devon, and in other inaccessible places on the northern islands.
    Eggs from the islands off Cape Chidley.

_Larus argentatus_, Brunn.—Herring Gull.

    Very common everywhere in Hudson bay; less so in the northern
    waters, where its place appears to be taken by the Fulmars and
    Skuas. Skins and eggs from Fullerton.

_Xema sabinii_ (Sab.).—Sabine Gull.

    Common in Roes Welcome, about Whale point and on the Southampton
    side. Flies with the Arctic Terns and also builds its nest along
    with those birds on the small islands in the ponds of
    Southampton. Skins and eggs from Southampton island.

_Sterna paradisœa_, Brunn.—Arctic Tern.

    Very common along both sides of Roes Welcome. Breeds on the
    islands along the west coast and on islands in the ponds of
    Southampton island.

    Common in Roes Welcome, about Whale point and northward.

_Fulmarus glacialis_ (Linn.).—Fulmar.

    Very common along the Atlantic coast of Labrador, especially
    about Cape Chidley. Common northward to Smith sound; very
    numerous off Hall island, on the north side of Frobisher bay.

_Harelda hyemalis_ (Linn.).—Old-squaw.

    Very common in the northern parts of Hudson bay and on the
    Arctic islands. Breeds on the islands of the ponds. Remains in
    the open water of Hudson bay throughout the winter. Numbers
    killed at that season at Fullerton. Skins and eggs from
    Fullerton and Southampton.

_Somateria mollissima borealis_ (Brehm.).—Northern Eider.

    A number shot along with the American Eider, in the
    neighbourhood of Fullerton. Skins from Fullerton.

_Somateria dresseri_, Sharpe.—American Eider.

    Common everywhere in Hudson bay and to the northward, wherever
    small islands are found along the shores suitable for breeding.
    Very common on the west side of Roes Welcome, but rare on the
    opposite side owing to the absence of small islands fringing
    Southampton. Skins and eggs from Fullerton.

_Somateria spectabilis_ (Linn.).—King Eider.

    Common in the northern part of Hudson bay, especially so about
    the limestone islands, where they breed on the islands of the
    numerous ponds. Do not breed on the islands like the American
    Eider. Very numerous on the east side of Roes Welcome. Skins and
    eggs from Fullerton and Southampton.

_Branta canadensis hutchinsii_ (Rich.)—Hutchins Goose.

    Numerous in the spring about Fullerton. Found breeding on
    Southampton in end of June. Nests in swampy ground, built up of
    moss and grass. Skins and eggs from Southampton.

_Branta canadensis hutchinsii_ (Rich.).—Hutchins Goose.

    Common about Fullerton in the spring. Breeds along with the
    Lesser Snow Goose on Southampton. Skins from Fullerton and
    Southampton.

_Olor columbianus_ (Ord.).—Whistling Swan.

    Common on Southampton island, where it breeds in a large nest of
    moss and grass in the swampy ground about the ponds. Skins and
    eggs from Southampton.

_Grus canadensis_ (Linn.).—Little Brown Crane.

    Several pairs seen on Southampton island. Breeds there. Skins
    from Southampton.

_Crymophilus fulicarius_ (Linn.).—Red Phalarope.

    Very common about Fullerton and on Southampton island, breeding
    in swampy ground. Skins and eggs from Fullerton and Southampton.

_Tringa fusicollis_, Vieill.—White-rumped Sandpiper.

    Breeds in the swampy ground about Fullerton. Skins and eggs.

_Tringa minutilla_, Vieill.—Least Sandpiper.

    Found breeding about Fullerton. Skins and eggs.

_Tringa alpina pacifica_ (Coues).—Red-backed Sandpiper.

    Found breeding about Fullerton. Skins and eggs.

_Ereunetes pusillus_ (Linn.).—Semipalmated Sandpiper.

    Common everywhere in Hudson Bay. Skins and eggs from about
    Fullerton.

_Calidris arenaria_ (Linn.).—Sanderling.

    Found breeding about Fullerton. Skins and eggs from Fullerton.

_Squatarola squatarola_ (Linn.).—Black-bellied Plover.

    Found at Whale point, Roes Welcome, evidently breeding there.

_Arenaria interpres_ (Linn.).—Common Turnstone.

    A few small flocks seen about Fullerton.

_Lagopus ruspestris_ (Gmel.).—Rock Ptarmigan.

    The Rock Ptarmigan is found throughout the year in the
    neighbourhood of Fullerton, but only in small numbers during the
    winter, the main body migrating southward early in October.
    Thousands at that date were seen crossing Chesterfield inlet, in
    flocks numbering up to several hundreds. They return from the
    south in May, usually in pairs or small flocks. Skins from
    Fullerton. Eggs from Cape Chidley.

_Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis_ (Gmel.).—Rough-legged Hawk.

    A few seen about Fullerton in the spring. A young bird remained
    on board the ‘Neptune’ for two days, coming aboard several miles
    off Cape Chidley, in a dense fog.

_Falco islandus_, Brunn.—White Gyrfalcon.

    Seen along the highlands of the south side of Hudson strait.
    Skins and eggs from Cape Chidley.

_Falco peregrinus anatum_ (Bonap.).—Duck Hawk.

    The Duck Hawk is more common than the Gyrfalcon, breeding on the
    face of steep cliffs, and making its presence known by its
    shrill cries. Skin from Fullerton. Eggs from Cape Chidley.

_Nyctea nyctea_ (Linn.).—Snowy Owl.

    A few specimens were seen in the early spring about Fullerton.
    They are reported by the natives to breed inland. At Cape
    Dufferin on the east side of Hudson bay, upwards of thirty of
    these birds were caught by placing fox traps on the top of short
    poles, at intervals along the coast, during the southern
    migration of the birds in October, 1901.

_Octocoris alpestris hoyti_, Bishop.—Hoyt Horned Lark.

    This species was common at Fullerton in June, feeding along with
    Snowflake and Longspur on the garbage about the ship. A number
    were caught in traps. Skins and eggs from Fullerton.

_Corvus corax principalis_, Ridgw.—Northern Raven.

    The Raven is found sparingly everywhere in the north. A pair
    remained throughout the winter in the neighbourhood of
    Fullerton. Skin from Fullerton. Eggs from Cape Chidley.

_Acanthis linaria_ (Linn.).—Redpoll.

    A few seen about the ship in the spring at Fullerton. Common on
    the east side of Hudson bay, to the northern tree-limit. Skins
    and eggs from Cape Chidley.

_Passerina nivalis_ (Linn.).—Snowflake.

    Very common everywhere in the north. Comes from the south at the
    first signs of spring. Nests everywhere; nests, on grass and
    feathers, usually hidden beneath a large boulder. Skins and eggs
    from Fullerton and Cape Chidley.

_Calcarius lapponicus_ (Linn.).—Lapland Longspur.

    Found everywhere along with the Snowflake. Eggs and skins from
    Fullerton. Nest of grass with few feathers, not hidden.

_Anthus pensilvanicus_ (Lath.)—Pipit.

    The Pipit is common along the shores of Hudson bay. Skins and
    eggs from Fullerton.


                             APPENDIX III.

   LIST OF PLANTS COLLECTED IN 1904 DURING THE CRUISE OF THE NEPTUNE.
       (_By L. E. Borden, M.D., and named by Mr. J. M. Macoun._)

The letters after the species indicate the localities at which they were
collected. The localities and dates at which collections were made are
shown below.

                     July  10,    Fullerton island F.
                       ”   28-29, Port Burwell.... D.
                     Aug.  9,     Parker Snow bay. S.
                       ”   11,    Cape Sabine..... A.
                       ”   13,    Cuming creek.... C.
                       ”   15,    Beechey island.. B.
                       ”   20,    Ponds inlet..... P.
                     Sept. 31,    Wakeham bay..... W.

         ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━┯━━┯━━┯━━┯━━┯━━┯━━┯━━
                                        │F.│D.│S.│A.│C.│B.│P.│W.
         ───────────────────────────────┼──┼──┼──┼──┼──┼──┼──┼──
         Ranunculus nivalis, L.         │..│..│* │..│* │..│* │*
             ”      pygmæus, Wahl       │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Arabis alpina, L.              │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Draba alpina, L.               │..│..│..│* │* │* │* │..
           ”   Bellii, M. H. M.         │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
           ”   Wahlenbergii, Hartm.     │* │..│..│..│* │..│..│..
         Cochlearia Groenlandica, L.    │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│*
         Cerastium alpinum, L.          │* │* │* │..│..│..│* │..
         Lychnis apetala, L.            │..│* │..│* │..│..│* │..
         Silene acaulis, L.             │* │..│* │..│..│..│..│..
         Stellaria longipes, Goldie.    │* │* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Astragalus alpinus, L.         │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Oxytropus Bellii, (Britt.)     │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│..
            ”      leucantha, Pers.     │..│..│..│..│..│..│* │..
         Dryas integrifolia, Ch. & Schl.│* │* │..│..│* │* │* │..
         Potentilla emarginata, Pursh.  │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
             ”      maculata, Pour.     │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Saxifraga Aizoon, Jacq.        │..│..│..│..│..│..│* │..
             ”     caespitosa, L.       │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│..
             ”     cernua, L.           │..│* │..│..│..│* │* │..
             ”     flagellaris, Willd.  │..│..│..│* │..│..│..│..
             ”     Hirculus, L.         │..│..│..│..│* │..│* │..
             ”     oppositifolia, L.    │* │..│* │* │..│..│* │..
             ”     rivularis, L.        │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│*
             ”     tricuspidata, Retz.  │..│..│* │..│..│..│* │..
         Sedum Rhodiola, DC.            │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Epilobium latifolium, L.       │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
             ”     spicatum, Lam.       │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Antennaria alpina, Gaertn.     │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Arnica alpina, L.              │..│..│..│..│..│..│* │..
         Erigeron uniflorus, L.         │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
             ”    debilis, Gray.        │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Taraxacum ceratophorum, Lange. │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Campanula uniflora, L.         │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Arctostaphylos alpina, Spreng. │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Cassiope tetragona, Don.       │* │..│..│..│..│..│* │..
         Bryanthus taxifolius, Gray.    │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Pyrola pumila, Hook.           │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Vaccinium uliginosum, L.       │* │* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Diapensia Lapponica, L.        │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Armeria vulgaris, Willd.       │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Pedicularis hirsuta, L.        │..│..│* │..│* │..│* │..
             ”       flammea, L.        │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
             ”       lanata, Cham.      │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│..
         Veronica alpina, L.            │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Oxyria digyna, Hill.           │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Polygonum viviparum, L.        │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
         Empetrum nigrum, L.            │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Salix anglorum, Cham.          │* │* │* │..│* │..│* │..
           ”   herbacea, L.             │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
           ”   Labradorica, Rydb.       │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
           ”   reticulata, L.           │..│* │..│..│..│..│* │..
           ”   Uva-ursi, Pursh.         │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Tofieldia borealis, Wahl.      │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Luzula campestris, DC.         │..│..│* │..│..│..│..│..
         Carex hyperborea, Drej.        │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Eriophorum capitatum, Host.    │..│..│* │..│..│..│..│..
             ”      polystachyon, L.    │* │..│* │..│* │..│* │..
             ”      vaginatum, L.       │..│* │..│..│..│..│..│..
         Alopecurus alpinus, L.         │..│..│..│..│..│..│* │..
         Colpodium latifolium, R. Br.   │..│..│* │..│..│..│* │..
         Hierochloa alpina, R. & S.     │* │* │* │..│..│..│* │..
         Poa arctica, R. Br.            │..│* │* │..│..│..│..│..
         Equisetum arvense, L.          │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│*
         Lycopodium Selago, L.          │* │..│..│..│..│..│..│*
         ───────────────────────────────┴──┴──┴──┴──┴──┴──┴──┴──


                              APPENDIX IV.

NOTES ON THE FOSSIL CORALS COLLECTED BY MR. A. P. LOW AT BEECHEY ISLAND,
             SOUTHAMPTON ISLAND AND CAPE CHIDLEY, IN 1904.
               (_By Lawrence M. Lambe, F.G.S., F.R.S.C._)

                    BEECHEY ISLAND, LANCASTER SOUND.

   _Acervularia austini_ (Salter). 1852. Sutherland’s voyage*,
   appendix, p. ccxxx, Strephodes? Austini, pl. 6, figs. 6, 6a.

The type specimens of this species were obtained at Cornwallis, Beechey
and Griffiths islands. A number of corals in Mr. Low’s collection, from
Beechey island, appear to belong to this species, judging from Salter’s
description and figures and those of Houghton in the Journal of the
Royal Dublin Society, vol. 1, 1856-57 (1858), p. 246, pl. X., figs. 2,
2a.

In Mr. Low’s specimens the inner structure is fairly well shown. The
larger septa pass to the centre of the corallites where they are
slightly twisted, and together with the arched, rather vesicular tabulæ,
form a definite central area that appears at the bottom of the cups as a
more or less distinct boss. The septa (averaging from thirty to forty in
number) bear arched carinæ on their sides. The corallites are slightly
larger than those of _A. gracilis_† (Billings), from Grand Manitoulin
island, Lake Huron (Niagara group), otherwise the specimens could with
equal propriety be referred to the Lake Huron species. The size of the
corallites varies in _A. austini_ from about 3 to 8 mm. in diameter, in
Mr. Low’s specimens up to about 10 mm. across, but in _A. gracilis_ the
corallites seldom reach a diameter of 7 mm. If by a direct comparison it
is found that Mr. Low’s specimens are without doubt properly referable
to _A. austini_, and if it can be shown that the size of the corallites
cannot be relied on as a specific character, then _A. gracilis_ may have
to be regarded as identical with _A. austini_.

Two specimens of corals from Beechey island are not referable to any
genus with which the writer is acquainted. In these specimens the
structure is revealed, by weathering at the calicular surface and in
horizontal and longitudinal sections, as well as in sections obtained by
rubbing down and polishing. As the writer is unable to place this coral,
to his satisfaction, in any described genus, it is thought best to
establish a new genus for its reception. The main generic characters are
enumerated below with a brief description of the species which the
writer has much pleasure in naming after Mr. Low.

-----

* Journal of a voyage in Baffin’s bay and Barrow straits in the years
1850-1851 by Peter C. Sutherland, M.D., M.R.C.S.E., 1852.

† _Strombodes gracilis._ 1865 Geological Survey of Canada, Palæozoic
Fossils, vol. 1, p. 113, fig. 94, by E. Billings; and _Acervularia
gracilis_, 1900, Contributions to Canadian Palæontology, vol. IV, pt.
II, pl. XIV, figs. 2, 2a, by Lawrence M. Lambe.

                         _Boreaster._ Gen. nov.

Corallum composite, massive (or thickly incrusting), made up of
intimately connected polygonal corallites communicating with each other
by means of mural pores. Septa in the form of longitudinal lamellæ,
twelve in number. Tabulæ simple.

This genus resembles _Favosites_ in having numerous pores in the walls
of the corallites, but differs from it in the possession of lamellar
septa somewhat similar to those of _Columnaria_, _Nyctopora_ and
_Lyopora_. From these three genera, however, _Boreaster_ differs in
having 12 septa only, of two alternating sizes, to a corallite.
_Columnaria_ and _Lyopora_ are without mural pores. _Nyctopora_ was
described by Nicholson as having pores, but in well preserved specimens
from the type locality, examined by the writer, mural pores were not
seen; it possesses 16 septa of two orders. _Boreaster_ and _Calapœcia_
resemble each other in both having pores, but in the latter genus the
corallites are not intimately united under any circumstances, and the
septa are in the form of spine-bearing ridges.

This interesting coral may be conveniently grouped, with the
_Favositidæ_, as its generic affinities appear to place it close to
_Calapœcia_.

                       _Boreaster lowi._ Sp. nov.

Corallum growing in irregularly shaped masses with an unevenly
undulating surface; composed of small, polygonal corallites so closely
united that all trace of the line of contact between contiguous walls is
apparently lost. Corallites opening at right angles to the surface,
averaging about 75 mm. in diameter and generally five or six sided, as
seen in transverse section, the sides of the polygons being distinctly
unequal. Walls of corallites thin but less so where they bound the
calyces. Septa lamallar, apparently 12 in number, of two sizes, primary
and secondary, alternating, the former stout and relatively large, the
latter rudimentary and observed with difficulty, especially in the
calyces where the six primary septa are paramountly evident, are
slightly exsert and apparently connect with the nearest and
corresponding ones of contiguous corallites. Pores relatively large,
oval, their greater diameter vertical, in a single longitudinal row
between each pair of primary septa so as to interrupt the continuity of
the secondary septa which are greatly reduced and in transverse sections
are only observed in places. Tabulæ not numerous, in the form of simple,
flat transverse diaphragms.

[Illustration: X20]

The two type specimens have a maximum length of 50 and 70 mm. with a
thickness or height of 25 and 30 mm. respectively.

                   _Favosites gothlandica_, Lamarck.

There are three examples of this coral, of which two show spiniform
septa in the corallites. The smaller of the two specimens, in which
septa are seen, is preserved with a small corallum of _Acervularia
austini_ in the same piece of limestone.

The horizon indicated by the first and last of the above three species
of corals from Beechey island would be about that of the Niagara
formation.


                    SOUTHAMPTON ISLAND, HUDSON BAY.

                  _Streptelasma robustum_, Whiteaves.

This large and well marked species, described originally from the
Galena-Trenton of the Lake Winnipeg region, is represented by a number
of more or less fragmentary specimens. The inner structure is well shown
in transverse and longitudinal sections.

                   _Favosites gothlandica_, Lamarck.

Over forty specimens from this locality are referable to this well known
species. In many of them are seen the spiniform septa, characteristic of
all Silurian favosites, and distinguishing them from all Devonian forms
which apparently without exception possess linguiform septa. It is
possible that more than one species may be here represented. The range
in size of the corallites in _F. gothlandica_ has been noticed by the
writer in his ‘Revision of the genera and species of Canadian Palæozoic
corals*,’ 1899-1900, but in the present collection the fragmentary
condition of most of the specimens does not admit of characters
dependent on the outward form of the corallum being used with any degree
of certainty.

-----

* In this report the reader will find extended references to the
structure of the majority of the species mentioned in these notes.

                 _Syringopora verticillata_, Goldfuss.

A single specimen of this species was obtained at Southampton island.
Its corallites average about 4 mm. in diameter and are rather lax and
irregular in their growth, the result of which is that the connecting
tubes are poorly developed and comparatively distant. This particular
mode of growth is admirably shown in specimens, in the possession of the
Survey, from the north end of Lake Timiskaming.

                      _Halysites catenularia_, L.

Represented by a small corallum, round which has grown a stromatopora.
This coral exhibits the structure characteristic of the typical form of
the Niagara formation, viz., moderate sized corallites, oval in
transverse section with narrow tubules intervening. Four corallites are
included in a space of 8 mm.

This form also occurs in the Guelph limestone of Ontario.

A second and particularly interesting specimen was obtained by Mr. Low
at Southampton island. It differs from the typical form in having
corallites of noticeably large size, and agrees in this particular with
a specimen from the Guelph limestone at Durham, Ont. (J. Townsend,
1884), in the museum of the Survey. The Durham fossil has not the finer
details of structure sufficiently well preserved to show the minute
tabulæ of the tubules, but in Mr. Low’s specimen longitudinal sections
of the tubules clearly reveal the highly arched, close set tabulæ
within. There are three corallites in a space of 12 mm., as in the
Durham specimen, and the tubules have a width of about ·75 mm.

                   _Plasmopora follis_, M.-E. and H.

To this species is referred a small specimen showing the inner structure
fairly well. The corallites vary in diameter from slightly under to a
little over 1 mm., and they are mostly less than their own diameter
apart with from one to three tubules, in the shortest line, between
neighbouring corallites. This species is generally considered to be
typical of the Niagara group.

                   _Pycnostylus elegans_, Whiteaves.

A few specimens weathered so as to show only the inside of the
corallites which vary in diameter from 7 to 15 mm. An interesting
feature of these specimens is the preservation of the free edges of the
septa which are seen to be denticulated, about seven denticles occurring
in a space of 2 mm. A re-examination of the type material reveals the
presence of these denticles, although they are poorly preserved. Mr.
Low’s specimens are referable to the species from the Guelph limestone
of Ontario with large corallites (from 13 to 17 mm. in diameter) as in
the other and type species from the same horizon and district, the
corallites are generally smaller (from 3 to 7 mm. in diameter). As
suggested by Dr. Whiteaves in his original description, additional
material with corallites of intermediate size may prove the two forms to
be specifically identical.

Of the corals from Southampton island, _Streptelasma robustum_ indicates
the presence of beds at this locality that belong to the same horizon as
those that have been assigned to the Galena-Trenton in the Lake Winnipeg
region, and similar beds exposed over a large area to the west of Hudson
bay. The beds from which the other species from the same island are
derived belong to higher horizons which are, on the evidence of these
species, of about the same geological age as those of the Niagara and
Guelph formations of Ontario.


                      CAPE CHIDLEY, HUDSON STRAIT.

A single coral from this locality is represented by two fragments that
have apparently been broken from a larger mass. The exact form of the
corallum is unknown, but the structure of the corallites is well
preserved and clearly seen in longitudinal and traverse sections. Its
structural characteristics are quite different from those of any form
known to the writer, and it is regarded as representing a new genus and
species named and characterized as follows:—

                       _Labyrinthites._ Gen. nov.

Corallum massive, made up of very slender, long, columnar corallites,
upwardly directed and parallel, each one connected along the whole of
its length with two or three adjacent corallites in tortuous series
separated by narrow interspaces. Tabulæ, complete, distant. No septa nor
tubules.

Although the manner of growth of this coral resembles somewhat that of
_Halysites_ it could scarcely be referred to that genus, on account of
the absence of septa and tubules, although in _Halysites catenularia_
var. _gracilis_ tubules are apparently wanting. The small size of the
corallites would not necessarily be considered a character sufficient to
constitute generic distinction. Another genus, _Fletcheria_, may be
considered, but _Labyrinthites_ has little in common with it. In both,
the tabulæ are distant and simple, practically the only point of
resemblance unless we notice the small size of the corallites of
_Fletcheria_ and the stated rudimentary condition of its septa.

As the want of septa in the Cape Chidley specimens may be due to
imperfect fossilization, _Labyrinthites_ is, on account of its mode of
growth, provisionally classed with the _Halysitidæ_.

[Illustration: X30]

                  _Labyrinthites chidlensis._ Sp. nov.

Corallum massive, composed of slender, straight, upright corallites with
numerous interspaces. Corallites a little less than ·33 mm. in average
diameter, quadrangular or five or six sides in transverse outline, with
rather thick walls. Each corallite coalesces along its entire length
with two or three adjacent ones, giving rise to a meandering succession
of tubes inclosing narrow spaces not wider than the corallites
themselves. In the specimens examined the corallites reach a maximum
length of ·30 mm. In longitudinal sections tabulæ, in the form of thin,
flat, transverse plates across the corallites, are observed, between ·5
and 1·5 mm. apart. There are no tubules between contiguous corallites,
and the mural union appears to be complete.

Dr. Ami, who is studying the groups of fossils, other than the corals,
obtained by Mr. Low at Cape Chidley, informs me that the majority of the
Cape Chidley fossils are referable to the Ordovician, whilst two
specimens are of Silurian age. The lithological character of the rock in
which the coral is preserved appears to more nearly approach that of the
Ordovician specimens.

PRELIMINARY LIST OF ORGANIC REMAINS FROM BEECHEY ISLAND, LANCASTER SOUND,
                      IN THE DISTRICT OF FRANKLIN.
         (_Determined by H. M. Ami, Assistant-Palæontologist._)

(_A_)—From the bluish-gray impure limestones.

                             COELENTERATA.

1. _Acervularia austini_ (Salter).

2. _Boreaster lowi_, Lambe.

3. _Clathrodictyon? franklinense._ N. sp.

                             ECHINODERMATA.

4. Crinoidal fragments.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

5. _Hindella phoca_, (Salter).

                              GASTEROPODA.

6. _Hormotoma arctica_, N. Sp.

7. _   ”      affinis_, N. Sp.

8. _Lophospira salteri_, (Haughton)

9. _Loxonema rossi_, Haughton.

10. _Holopea borealis_, N. Sp.

11. _Euomphalus beechiensis_, N. Sp.

                              PELECYPODA.

12. _Orthonota? desiderata_, N. Sp.

                               TRILOBITA.

13. _Encrinurus arcticus_, (Salter).

                               OSTRACODA.

14. _Leperditia hisingeri_, Schmidt.

15. _     ”     balthica_, (Hisinger) var. _arctica_, Salter.

16. _Isochilina grandis_, (Schrenk) Jones, var. _canadensis_, N. var.

17. _Primitia mundula_, Jones, var. _arctica_, N. Var.

18. _Beyrichia kloedeni_, McCoy.

Besides the above, there are remains of the tracks and trails of
Annelida which cannot be identified with any described form, and to them
have been given specific designations as follows:—

19. _Eugyrichnites lowi_, N. Sp.

20. _Planolites arcticus_, N. Sp.

(_B_)—From the yellowish-gray, semi-crystalline, limestone:

                             COELENTERATA.

1. _Strephodes pickthornii_, Salter.

2. Obscure remains of some form of hydroid which appears to indicate the
presence of a species of graptolite, too imperfectly preserved for
identification.

                             ECHINODERMATA.

3. Crinoidal fragments.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

4. _Orthothetes donnettii_, (Salter).

5. _Rafinesquina_? sp. indt.

6. _Hindella phoca._ (Salter).

7. _Glassia_? sp. indt.

8. _Plectambonites_? sp. indt.

                              GASTEROPODA.

9. _Hormotoma arctica_, N. Sp. Resembles the form figured by Salter in
his ‘Geology’ in the Appendix to Sutherland’s ‘Journal of a Voyage,’ &c.
Pl. V., fig. 18, 1852.

10. _Hormotoma_, sp., cf. H. _affinis_, N. Sp.

11. _Loxonema_, sp. Resembles some of the forms classed under the
designation _L. rossi_, Haughton, but separable from the narrower types
to which the species is restricted.

                               TRILOBITA.

12. _Proetus_, sp. indt. Pygidium.

13. _Encrinurus_??, sp. indt. Portion of the head of an individual, not
sufficient for identification.

                               OSTRACODA.

14. _Primitia_, sp. A very elongate form resembling _P. cylindrica_,
(Hall).

15. _Primitia_, sp. No. 2. Distinct from above.

   PRELIMINARY LISTS OF THE SPECIES OF ORGANIC REMAINS FROM BLOCKS OF
                   LIMESTONE FROM SOUTHAMPTON ISLAND.

(_A_)—From a piece of yellowish limestone:

                             ECHINODERMATA.

1. Crinoidal fragments.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

2. A strongly camerate form of strophomenoid shell, probably a
_Strophodonta_.

3. _Orthothetes_? sp.

4. _Camarotœchia ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

5.        ”       sp.

6. _Retzia_, sp.

                              GASTEROPODA.

7. _Pleurotomaria_, sp. of the type of _P. alta._ Hisinger.

8.    ”     sp. of the type of _P. perlata_, Hall.

                               TRILOBITA.

9. _Encrinurus_, sp., cf. _Encrinurus punctatus_, Emmrich.

10. _Proetus_, sp. indt.

                               OSTRACODA.

11. _Primitia_, sp. indt.

(_B_)—From a small piece of drab coloured dolomitic limestone:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Orthis_, sp. of the type of _Orthis (Dinorthis) subquadrata_, Hall.

2. _Rhynchonella_, sp.

3. _Glassia_?, sp. indt.

                               OSTRACODA.

4. _Primitia_, sp. indt.

(_C_)—From a small piece of dark-brown bituminous shale:

                                PISCES.

1. Obscure remains of some species of fish, too imperfectly preserved
for identification. This shale appears to resemble the Niobrara-Benton
shale of the Manitoban region.

(_D_)—In a small piece of buff limestone:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. Small shell of the type of _Glassia_, possibly the same as the
_Glassia variabilis_, (Whiteaves) from the Silurian of the Ekwan river
district.

2. _Rhynchospira_, sp. or _Retzia_, sp. A finely ribbed shell, not
sufficiently well-preserved to be identified with any degree of
certainty.

3. _Conchidium_, sp. a small and immature form of what appears to be the
_Conchidium decussatum_, Whiteaves.

                              GASTEROPODA.

4. _Murchisonia_ (_Hormotoma_), sp. indt.

5. _Loxonema_, sp. An imperfect individual with seven whorls preserved,
having an apical angle of 10°, and would require at least three more
volutions to complete the shell at this stage.

                       (_E_)—In impure limestone:
                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Strophomena (Rafinesquina) alternata_, (Emmons) Conrad. Three valves
of this species appear to be represented in this small slab of rock, and
exhibit the characteristic sculpture and other surface characters.

(_F_)—In cream-coloured dolomite:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Camarotœchia_, sp. possibly the same as the _Camarotœchia
ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

                               OSTRACODA.

2. A very large Ostracod, which is not in a good state of preservation,
but which, from its size and general characters appears to be close to
_Isochilina grandis_.

(_G_)—In a drab-coloured limestone.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Strophomena_, sp. of the type of _Strophomena euglypha_, Sowerby.
The sculpture of this shell is very much like that of _Strophomena
(Rafinesquina) alternata_, Conrad.

2. Pentameroid shell, not sufficiently well preserved to state
definitely whether it is _Pentamerus oblongus_ or not, but it strongly
resembles a dorsal valve of this well-known form from the Silurian of
Europe and North America.

This rock resembles strongly the rock of Mansfield island, where Dr.
Bell obtained a number of fossils, determined by the writer to be
Silurian, and possibly homotaxial with the Wenlock and Niagara
formations.

(_H_)—In a dark dolomitic limestone.

                                BRYOZOA.

Some species of bryozo appear in the collection.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Strophomena_. sp.

2. _Strophomena_, sp., cf. _S. acanthoptera_, Whiteaves.

3. A rhynchonelloid form which appears to be the _Camarotœchia
ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

4. A smooth form of shell which may be the _Glassia variabilis_,
Whiteaves.

                               OSTRACODA.

5. Undetermined forms or imperfectly preserved forms.

(_I_)—In a rather dark buff-weathering limestone:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Leptæna (Plectambonites) sericea_, Sowerby. A form with winged
extremities of hinge area.

2. _Strophomena_, of the type of _S. nitens_, Billings.

3. _Orthis_ (_Dalmanella_), sp., cf. _D. testudinaria_, Dalman.

4. _Rhynchonella_, sp. type of _R. neglecta_, Hall. This may be the
_Camarotœchia ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

5. A smooth brachiopod which may be a _Glassia_.

(_J_)—In a small slab of drab-coloured limestone.

1. Obscure remains of _algæ_ or other plants.

(_K_)—In a slab of yellow weathering dolomite:

1. _Camarotœchia ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

2. Smooth and small _Glassia_-like brachiopod, too imperfect for
identification.

3. Obscure remains of a trilobite, indeterminable.

(_L_)—In a drab-coloured limestone:

1. _Pentamerus oblongus_, Sowerby. These forms resemble closely those
determined by the writer in Dr. Bell’s collections from Mansfield
island.

(_M_)—In a dark mottled buff and gray dolomitic limestone:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Strophomena_, sp., of the type of _S. hecuba_, Billings.

2. ” _(Rafinesquina) alternata_, (Emmons) Conrad. This limestone appears
to be homotaxial with the Trenton of Ontario and the Galena-Trenton of
the Manitoba region.

(_N_)—In a yellow weathering dolomitic limestone:

                              BRACHIOPODA.

1. _Strophomena_, sp., or strophomenoid shell with _alternata_-type of
sculpture.

2. _Camarotœchia_, sp., cf. _C. ekwanensis_, Whiteaves.

3. _Glassia_?, sp. indt.

                               OSTRACODA.

4. _Leperditia_, sp., cf. _Leperditia hisingeri_, Schmidt.

5. _Primitia_, sp. indt.

(_O_)—In a drab coloured dolomitic limestone:

                              CEPHALOPODA.

1. A portion of some gyroceran or orthoceratite shell; resembles in some
respects the external characters of _Orthoceras nicolleti_ figured in
Vol. iii., part 11, of the Palæontology of Minnesota, Pl. 55, fig. 1.

(_P_)—In a yellowish-gray dolomitic limestone:

                              CEPHALOPODA.

1. _Actinoceras keewatinense_, Whiteaves. Several siphuncles of this
species recently described by Dr. Whiteaves occur in the collections
from Southampton island.

(_Q_)—Collections of Stromatoporoids from Southampton Island:

Sixty-three microscopic sections have been submitted to a preliminary
examination, and the following species among others, appear to occur:—

1. _Clathrodictyon regulare_, Rosen.

2.       ”      _fastigiatum_, Nicholson.

3.       ”      sp., cf. _C. striatellum_, Nicholson.

4.       ”      (?) _crassum_, Nicholson.

Some of these are parasitic on _Favosites Gothlandicus_, Lamarck. They
are referable to the Silurian, about the age of the Niagara.

PRELIMINARY LIST OF ORGANIC REMAINS FROM LOOSE BLOCKS OF LIMESTONE, CAPE
                                CHIDLEY.

(_A_)—From the drab-coloured limestone:

                                POLYZOA.

1. _Pachydictya_, sp. indt.

                              BRACHIOPODA.

2. A strophomenoid shell with sculpture of _Strophomena varistriata_
type occurs in the collection with _Sieberella galeata_.

3. _Trematospira_, sp. indt.

4. _Conchidium decussatum_, Whiteaves.

5. _Clorinda_, sp. probably a new form which I would designate,
_Clorinda lowi_, N. Sp.

6. _Sieberella galeata_, Dalman. A form which is very near the type of
this cosmopolitan species. If it prove a variety or mutation, I should
designate the same as var. _Chidleyensis_, N. var.

The above are all of Silurian age.

(_B_)—From a dark gray impure limestone resembling that of the Black
River and Trenton formations of southern Canada:

                              CEPHALOPODA.

1. _Eurystomites undatus,_ Emmons.

2. _Plectoceras obscurum_, Hyatt; or some closely related species.

3, 4 and 5. Three species of _Orthoceras_, as yet undetermined. They are
not well preserved and require better specimens before they can be
identified. These are probably of the age of the Trenton of southern
Canada.

(_C_)—From a slab of bituminous shale:

1. _Asaphus latimarginatus_, Hall. I cannot distinguish this form from
the species usually designated in Canada as _Asaphus canadensis_,
Chapman, from the Utica shale.


                              APPENDIX V.

=List of the Principal Works and Papers Consulted in the
Preparation of the Report on the Dominion Expedition to Hudson Bay and
the Arctic Islands.=

In the following list are included the full titles and dates of
publication of works and papers affording information which has been
embodied in the foregoing pages or in the accompanying map:—

A Voyage of Discovery, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, etc.,
by Sir John Ross, in 1818, London, 1819. Geological appendix by Dr.
McCulloch.

Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar sea in the years
1819-22, by Capt. J. Franklin, London, 1823. Appendix i., by J.
Richardson, M.D.

Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage,
etc., 1821-23, by Captain Parry, London, 1824.

A Supplement to the Appendix to Capt. Parry’s Voyage for the Discovery
of a Northwest Passage in the year 1819-20 (Natural History), London,
1824. Notes on Rock Specimens by Charles Koning.

A Brief Account of an Unsuccessful Attempt to reach Repulse Bay, etc.,
by Capt. G. F. Lyon, London, 1825.

Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage,
etc., by Capt. W. E. Parry, London, 1826. Appendix by Prof. Jameson on
Geology of Countries discovered during Capt. Parry’s Second and Third
Expeditions.

Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the
years 1825-27, by Capt. J. Franklin, London, 1828. Appendix i., by J.
Richardson.

Narrative of Discovery and Adventure in the Polar Seas and Regions, by
Professors Leslie, Jameson and Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, 1830.

Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a Northwest Passage, etc.,
1829-33, by Sir John Ross, London, 1835. Appendix on Geology, by Sir J.
Ross.

Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America, etc.,
1836-39, by Thomas Simpson, London, 1843.

Narrative of an Expedition to the Shores of the Arctic Sea in 1846-47,
by Dr. John Rae, London, 1850.

Journey from Great Bear Lake to Wollaston Land and Explorations along
the South and East Coast of Victoria, by Dr. J. Rae, Journ. Royal Geog.
Soc., vol. xxii., 1852.

Journal of a Voyage in Baffin’s Bay and Barrow Straits in 1850-51, by P.
C. Sutherland, M.D., London, 1852. Geological appendix, by J. W. Salter.

On the Geological and Glacial Phenomena of the Coasts of Davis’ Strait
and Baffin’s Bay, by P. C. Sutherland, M.D., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,
vol. ix., 1853, p. 296.

On Arctic Silurian Fossils, by J. W. Salter, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,
vol. ix., 1853, p. 312.

A Summer Search for Sir J. Franklin, by Capt. Inglefield, 1853.
[Contains a geological appendix. I have seen only the notices derived
from this work in the “Arctic Manual” of 1875.]

The Last of the Arctic Voyages, etc., 1852-54, by Sir E. Belcher,
London, 1855. Appendix by J. W. Salter on Arctic Carboniferous Fossils,
and by Prof. Owen, on Remains of Ichthyosaurus, from Exmouth Island.
(See also notes on the Discovery of Ichthyosaurus and other Fossils in
the Late Arctic Searching Expedition, by Capt. Sir E. D. Belcher. Report
of British Association, 1855.)

On Some Additions to the Geology of the Arctic Regions, by J. W. Salter.
Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1855.

Further Papers Relative to the Recent Arctic Expeditions in search of
Sir John Franklin, etc. London, Government, 1855.

On the Geology of the Hudson’s Bay Territories and of Portions of the
Arctic and Northwestern Regions of America, by A. K. Isbester, Quart.
Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xi. (Also reprinted, without map, in Am. Journ.
Sci. and Arts, second series, vol. xxi., 1856, p. 313.)

The Discovery of a Northwest Passage by H.M.S. “Investigator,” Capt. R.
M’Clure, 1850-54, London, 1857. Geological appendix by Sir R. Murchison.

A Personal Narrative of the Discovery of the Northwest Passage, by A.
Armstrong, M.D., late surgeon and naturalist to H.M.S. “Investigator,”
London, 1857.

Arctic Explorations by Dr. E. K. Kane, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, second
series, vol. xxiv., 1857, p. 235.

Report from the Select Committee on the Hudson’s Bay Company, etc.,
London, Government, 1857. (Geological map.)

A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin, by
Captain M’Clintock, London, edition of 1859. Geological appendix by
Prof. Samuel Haughton. (Geological map.) [Notes on the geological
results of M’Clintock’s voyages were first published in the Journ. Royal
Dublin Society, vol. i., 1857, and vol. iii., 1860. The first mentioned
paper is accompanied by a geological map which formed the basis of that
subsequently produced in connection with the Appendix to M’Clintock’s
“Narrative.” I have seen only the abstract of these papers by Prof.
Haughton, which appears in the “Arctic Manual” of 1875.]

The Polar Regions, by Sir John Richardson, Edinburgh, 1861. (Reprinted
from Encyclopedia Britannica. Eighth Edition, 1860)

Report on the Geological and Mineralogical Specimens collected by C. F.
Hall in Frobisher Bay, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, second series, vol.
xxv., 1863.

Preliminary notice of a small collection of Fossils found by Dr. Hayes
on the West Shore of Kennedy Channel, by F. B. Meek, Am. Journ. Sci. and
Arts, second series, vol. xl., 1865, p. 31.

Flora Fossilis Arctica, Dr. Oswald Heer, vol. i., 1868; vol. ii., 1871,
Fossile Flora des Baren Insel; vol. v., 1878, Die Miocene Flora des
Grinnell-Landes; vol. vi., 1880, Beiträge zur Miocenen Flora von
Nord-Canada.

Scientific Results of the “Polaris” Arctic Expedition. Nature, vol. ix.,
1874, p. 404.

A Whaling Cruise to Baffin’s Bay, etc., by A. H. Markham, London, 1874.
Appendix C., List of Geological Specimens, by R. Etheridge.

Manual of the Natural History, Geology and Physics of Greenland and
neighbouring Regions, etc., edited by Prof. T. R. Jones, London, 1875.
[This volume, prepared for the use of Nares’ expedition under the
direction of the Arctic Committee of the Royal Society, contains
reprints of portions of several of the works and papers above referred
to, with occasional important remarks and memoranda by the editor.]

Arctic Geology, by C. E. De Rance. Nature, vol. xi., 1875. (Geological
map.)

On a Fossil Silurian Vertebra from the Arctic Regions, by Prof. A. L.
Adams, Proc. Royal Irish Acad., second series, vol. ii., 1875.

L’Expédition Polaire Américaine, sous les ordres du Capitaine Hall.
Letter by Dr. E. Bessels. Bul. Soc. Géog., Paris, vol. ix., 1875, p.
297.

Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar Sea During 1875-76, etc., by Capt.
Sir G. S. Nares, London, 1878, Appendix xv., Geology, by C. E. De Rance
and H. W. Fielden.

Geology of the Coasts of the Arctic visited by the late British
Expedition under Capt. Sir George Nares, etc., by Capt. H. W. Fielden
and C. E. De Rance, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxiv., 1878, p. 556.
(Geological map)

Palæontology of the Coasts of the Arctic Lands, visited by the late
British Expedition, etc., by R. Etheridge, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,
vol. xxxiv., 1878, p. 568. (Abstracts of this and the foregoing paper
appear in Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, third series, vol. xvi., p. 139.)

Notes on Fossil Plants Discovered in Grinnell Land, by Capt. H. W.
Fielden, etc., by Prof. O. Heer, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxiv.,
1878, p. 66.

Narrative of the Second Arctic Expedition made by C. F. Hall,
Washington, Government, 1879. Appendix iii., by Prof. B. K. Emmerson.

Dr. Franz Boas, Baffin Land. Petermanns Mitteilungen, Ergänzungsheft,
Nr. 80, 1885.

Die Geographische Verbreitung der Juraformation, by Neumeyr.
Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akadamie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, vol.
l., 1885.

Encyclopedia Britannica (ninth edition), Greenland, by Robert Brown.
Polar Regions, by C. R. Markham. (Geological sketches appended to both
these articles.)

Three Years of Arctic Service, an Account of the Lady Franklin Bay
Expedition, by Lieut A. W. Greely, New York, 1886.

The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay, by Franz Boaz. Bul. Am. Mus.
of Nat. Hist., vol. xix.

On the Lower Silurian (Trenton) Fauna of Baffin Land, by Chas.
Schurchert. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxii., p. 143-177.

A Biological Investigation of the Hudson Bay Region, by Edward A.
Prebles, U.S. Biological Surv. North American Fauna, No. 22, 1902.

The Second Norwegian Polar Expedition in the Fram, 1898-1902, by Capt.
Otto Sverdrup. Roy. Geog. Journ., vol. xxii., No. 1, pp. 38-56, 1903.

Field Work of the Peary Arctic Club, by Com. R. E. Peary. Bul. Geo. Soc.
of Phila., vol. iv., with map.

New Land, Four Years in the Arctic Regions, by Capt. Otto Sverdrup,
1904.

Report on the Hudson Bay Expedition, by Lieut A. R. Gordon, Dept. Marine
and Fisheries, 1884-5.

Report on the Second Hudson Bay Expedition, by Com. W. Wakeham, Dept.
Marine and Fisheries, 1897.

_Reported by the Staff of the Geological Survey of Canada_:—

Report on an Exploration of the East Coast of Hudson Bay, by Dr. R.
Bell, 1877-8.

Report on the Churchill and Nelson Rivers, by Dr. R. Bell, 1878-9.

Report on Hudson Bay and some of the Lakes and Rivers lying to the West
of it, by Dr. R. Bell, 1879-80.

Observations on the Labrador Coast, and on Hudson Strait and Bay, with
appendices i-v., Dr. R. Bell, Part DD, 1882.

Observations on the Labrador Coast, and on Hudson Strait and Strait and
Bay, with Appendices i-iv. A. P. Low, Part J., vol. iii, 1887-8.

Report on the Labrador Peninsula, A. P. Low, Part L., vol. viii., 1895.

Report on the Doobaunt, Kasan and Ferguson Rivers, and the Northwest
Coast of Hudson Bay. J. B. Tyrrell, Part F., vol. ix., 1896.

Report on a Traverse of the Northern Part of the Labrador Peninsula. A.
P. Low, Part L., vol. ix, 1896.

Reports on Explorations of the Coasts of Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay.
Dr. R. Bell and A. P. Low, Parts L. and M., vol. xi, 1898.

Report on an Exploration of the East Coasts of Hudson Bay and James Bay.
A. P. Low, Part D., vol. xiii., 1900.

Report on the Geology and Physical Characters of the Nastapoka Islands,
Hudson Bay. A. P. Low, Part DD., vol. xiii.


                              APPENDIX VI.

                NOTES ON PHYSICAL CONDITION OF ESKIMOS.
           (_By L. E. Borden, M.D., Surgeon to the Neptune._)

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
                      │Aivillingmiut.    │Aivillingmiut.    │Aivillingmiut.
                      │   (Male.)        │  (Female.)       │   (Male.)
──────────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────
Age.                  │  30 years.       │ 25 years.        │  35 years.
Weight.               │  168 lb.         │ 142 lb.          │  177 lb.
Height.               │5 ft., 4·375 in.  │ 4 ft., 11 in.    │5 ft., 6·25 in.
Chest expanded.       │  43  inches.     │ 3 ft., 4 in.     │  42 inches.
  ”   contracted.     │  40    ”         │   ..             │  37    ”
Girth at navel.       │  32·5  ”         │   ..             │    ..
Neck circumference.   │  14·5  ”         │ 12·5 inches.     │  14    ”
Upper arm—length.     │  15    ”         │ 12     ”         │  15    ”
  ”  circumference.   │  13    ”         │ 10·5   ”         │    ..
Forearm—length.       │  17·5  ”         │ 15·5   ”         │  17·75 ”
   ”    circumference.│  11·5  ”         │  9·5   ”         │  11·5  ”
Leg—length.           │  35·5  ”         │ 30     ”         │  29·5  ”
 ”  calf              │  14·5  ”         │   ..             │  14·5  ”
  circumference.      │                  │                  │
 ”  thigh    ”        │  20·5  ”         │   ..             │  22·5  ”
Foot—length.          │   ..             │   ..             │    ..
Head—circumference.   │  22·5 inches.    │ 21·5 inches.     │  22    ”
Remarks.              │About average     │A fair average    │Rather taller and
                      │  height in region│  young married   │  heavier than the
                      │  and of good     │  woman of this   │  average.
                      │  build, of fair  │  tribe; lips     │
                      │  intelligence and│  rather thick,   │
                      │  a good hunter.  │  forehead low,   │
                      │  Abundance of    │  nose short, ears│
                      │  heavy black hair│  rather small,   │
                      │  worn, according │  hair heavy and  │
                      │  to custom,      │  black.          │
                      │  falling over    │                  │
                      │  shoulders, and  │                  │
                      │  protects ears.  │                  │
──────────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────



━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
                      │Kenipitumiut.     │Kenipitumiut.     │Kenipitumiut.
                      │   (Male.)        │  (Female.)       │   (Male.)
──────────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────
Age.                  │  20 years.       │ 65 years.        │  35 years.
Weight.               │  172 lb.         │ 136 lb.          │  158 lb.
Height.               │5 ft., 8·5 in.    │4 ft., 11·5 in.   │5 ft., 7 in.
Chest expanded.       │  40·5 inches.    │ 38·5 inches.     │  41 inches.
  ”   contracted.     │  37·5  ”         │ 37     ”         │  39·5  ”
Girth at navel.       │  33·5  ”         │   ..             │  35    ”
Neck circumference.   │  14    ”         │ 11·5 inches.     │  13·5  ”
Upper arm—length.     │  13·5  ”         │ 11     ”         │  13    ”
  ”  circumference.   │  11·75 ”         │ 11     ”         │  10·5  ”
Forearm—length.       │  19    ”         │ 16     ”         │  17·5  ”
   ”    circumference.│  11    ”         │  9     ”         │  10    ”
Leg—length.           │  36·5  ”         │   ..             │    ..
 ”   calf             │  14    ”         │   ..             │    ..
  circumference.      │                  │                  │
 ”   thigh      ”     │  22    ”         │   ..             │    ..
Foot—length.          │   9·75 ”         │  7·5 inches.     │    ..
Head—circumference.   │  22·5  ”         │ 21     ”         │  22  inches.
Remarks.              │Tallest of the    │Typical old woman,│Teeth perfect,
                      │  band at 5 ft.,  │  two-thirds teeth│  though large;
                      │  8·5 in., and    │  remaining and   │  eyes bad, due to
                      │  muscular and    │  perfect; hair,  │  snow-blindness;
                      │  well built, but │  slightly gray,  │  eyebrows heavy,
                      │  slow mind and   │  no baldness;    │  black; slight
                      │  limb.           │  eyebrows, arched│  moustache; nose,
                      │                  │  and thin; eyes  │  straight, well
                      │                  │  sight fairly    │  formed except
                      │                  │  well preserved; │  bridge, low;
                      │                  │  nose-bridge low │  forehead, low
                      │                  │  and lumpy and   │  but broad and
                      │                  │  prominent;      │  square; an
                      │                  │  forehead, low,  │  intelligent man
                      │                  │  narrow, arched; │  and a good
                      │                  │  cheek bones     │  workman as kyak
                      │                  │  project forward;│  builder, &c.;
                      │                  │  lower jaw       │  unable to hunt,
                      │                  │  prominent; chin,│  owing to
                      │                  │  pointed and     │  rheumatism;
                      │                  │  short; breasts, │  ears, large and
                      │                  │  long and flabby;│  stand out from
                      │                  │  no hair on body │  head.
                      │                  │  except in       │
                      │                  │  axillæ; arteries│
                      │                  │  hard.           │
──────────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────



━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
                      │ Kenipitumiut.    │ Kenipitumiut.    │ Kenipitumiut.
                      │    (Male.)       │   (Female.)      │   (Female.)
──────────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────┼──────────────────
Age.                  │  60 years.       │  30 years.       │  17 years.
Weight.               │  138 lb.         │  123 lb.         │  117 lb.
Height.               │4 ft., 11·5 in.   │  5 ft.           │4 ft. 10·5 in.
Chest expanded.       │  37 inches.      │  32·5 inches.    │  32·5 inches.
  ”   contracted.     │  33   ”          │  31     ”        │  29     ”
Girth at navel.       │  33   ”          │   ..             │  23·5   ”
Neck circumference.   │  14   ”          │  11·5 inches.    │  12·5   ”
Upper arm—length.     │  11·12”          │  11     ”        │  11     ”
  ”  circumference.   │  12   ”          │  10·5   ”        │  10     ”
Forearm—length.       │  16   ”          │  15·5   ”        │  16     ”
   ”    circumference.│  10   ”          │   9     ”        │   9     ”
Leg—length.           │  ..              │  33     ”        │  ...
 ”   calf             │  ..              │  12     ”        │  13·5   ”
  circumference.      │                  │                  │
 ”   thigh      ”     │  ..              │  ..              │  ...
Head—circumference.   │  21 inches.      │  21·5 inches.    │  21     ”
 ”    width of face.  │   5·06 ”         │   4·75 ”         │   4·5   ”
 ”    length of face. │  ..              │   6·75 ”         │  ...
Foot—length.          │  ..              │   8    ”         │   7·5   ”
Remarks.              │Very shrewd and   │Typical young     │Typical girl;
                      │  reliable native;│  married woman;  │  teeth,
                      │  well preserved; │  teeth,          │  irregular;
                      │  head, very well │  discoloured and │  cheeks, not very
                      │  shaped; eyes,   │  large, though   │  prominent; face,
                      │  bright; hair,   │  sound; eyes,    │  flat; nose,
                      │  black and heavy;│  good; nose,     │  small; ears,
                      │  nose, straight; │  flat; cheek     │  left, small,
                      │  cheeks,         │  bones, low and  │  right, no
                      │  prominent; chin,│  prominent,      │  external opening
                      │  square and not  │  making face look│  and all external
                      │  short; eyebrows,│  square; no hair │  ear except lobe
                      │  heavy, black;   │  on body except  │  wanting; eyes,
                      │  ears, large,    │  slight trace in │  good, dark
                      │  prominent.      │  axillæ; ears,   │  brown; hands and
                      │                  │  large; chin,    │  feet well
                      │                  │  short; mouth,   │  formed; breasts
                      │                  │  large, wide,    │  well developed;
                      │                  │  corners         │  no hair on body.
                      │                  │  drooping; lips, │
                      │                  │  not thick; hands│
                      │                  │  and feet well   │
                      │                  │  formed and      │
                      │                  │  small; breasts, │
                      │                  │  very flabby and │
                      │                  │  hang down 4½    │
                      │                  │  inches; instep, │
                      │                  │  arched.         │
──────────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────┴──────────────────


                                 INDEX

Aberdeen, 250
Actinolite, 198
_Active_, 40, 68, 245, 252
Acworth cape, 214
Adams, Capt., 3, 59, 229, 239
Admiralty, 3, 85, 90
Admiralty inlet, 56, 115, 121-123
_Advance_, 99, 103
_Advice_, 99
Aivillingmiut, 27, 32, 34, 135-138, 155, 160, 162, 177-180
Akolingmiut, 134, 137
Akpatok island, 76, 113, 120, 187, 211, 286
Akudnairngmiut, 34
Alaska, 132
Albanel, Charles, 82
_Albert_, 59, 60
Alderman Jones sound, 78
Aldrich, Lieut., 107
_Alert_, 106, 107
_Alexander_, 88
Alexander cape, 44, 88
Alpine Triassic, 188
Amadjuak lake, 123, 162, 212
American whalers, 285
Ami, H. M., fossils, 211, 329
_Amphitrite_, 100
Amund Ringes, 226
Anautelik, 167
Anderson, John, 101
Anderson island, 244
Angeakatille, 170
Angekok, 163, 164, 169, 172, 173
Angello, Baptista, 73
Anian strait, 72, 84
Anorthosites, 192
Apatite, 200
Archæan, 115, 127, 184, 186, 190-209, 211-220
Archer, Lieut., 107
Archer fiord, 107, 228
_Arctic_, 70, 251
Arctic circle, 43, 77
Arctic ice—
  Smith sound, 45
  Cape Sabine, 48
  Kennedy channel, 64
  drift, 111
Arctic islands, The—
  description and geology of, 112-130
Arctic Research—
  historical summary of, 71-111
  amount expended on, 102
Arctic trout, 11
  salmon, 59, 157
Armstrong, Dr., 225, 226, 230
Arsenopyrite, 238
Asbestus, 198
_Assistance_, 99, 100
Atholl cape, 44
Austin, Capt. Horatio, 99, 102
Axel Heiberg island, 114, 129, 226


Bache peninsula, 186
Back, Capt. R. W., 90, 93, 95, 190
Back river, 136
Baffin, William, 77, 78, 103, 249
Baffin bay, 99, 102, 113-121, 185, 186
  currents, 290, 291
  fisheries, 249, 253, 255, 271
  shipping fatalities, 255
Baffin island, 13, 59, 73, 113-116, 120-123
  geology, 185-189, 200-203, 211, 233-239, 246
  Eskimos, 58, 134, 136
Baird bay, 198
Baker lake, 21
_Balaena_, 60, 258
Banks island, 99, 100, 114
  geology, 115, 125, 205, 213, 222, 226
Baring island, 223, 224, 230
Barlow, Dr., 231
Barlow, Capt., 84
Barrow, Sir John, 88
Barrow strait, 54, 113, 114, 128
Bartlett, Capt., 23, 70
Bathurst island, 89, 114, 129
  geology, 223-226, 247
Bayly, Charles, 81
Beaches, 189, 206
Beacon island, 26
Bears, 16, 58, 65, 128
Beaumont, Lieut., 107, 108
Beechey, Capt., 92
Beechey island, 2, 51, 52, 103, 221
  fossils, 322, 329
Belcher, Capt. Sir Ed., 101, 102
Belcher channel, 110
Bell, Dr. R., 184, 190, 191, 199, 201, 202, 231, 234, 240
Bell island, 18
Belle Isle strait, 6
Bellot strait, 124, 214
Bering sea, 99, 111
  strait, 99, 100, 114
Bernier, Capt., 70
Beryl, 198
Bibliography, Appen. V.
Big island, 40, 118, 122, 137
  geology, 201, 202
Big seal, 280
Biotite, 209
Bird, Capt. E. J., 99
Birds, 76, 127, Appen. II.
Blaamanden, 227
Blacklead island, 8, 9, 62, 204
Blue crane, 34
Boas, Dr. Franz, 133, 134, 163, 201, 212
_Bonaventure_, 83
Booth, Sir Felix, 92
Boothia peninsula, 124
  geology, 205, 213, 214
Borden, Dr., 28, 32, 60
  botany, 320
  meteorology, Appen. I.
Boring machine, 29
Bornite, 200
Botany, Appen. III.
Boulders, 205, 206, 229, 230
  clay, 8, 19, 43
  drift, 81
Bourdon, Jean, 82
Bowell island, 21
Bowhead whale, 249
Brainard, Lieut., 227, 228
_Breadalbane_, 100
British whalers, 249, 250
Brooke Cobham (Marble island), 79
Burgomaster gulls, 51
Button, Sir Thomas, 76, 77
Button islands, 7, 76
Button point, 57, 59
Byam Martin channel, 89
  island, 114, 223, 224
Bylot, —, 76, 77
Bylot island, 56, 58, 59, 113, 115, 123
  geology, 200, 205, 229, 246


Cabot, Sebastian, 72
Cabot strait, 6
Calc-spar, 198
Caldwell, G. F., 29, 31, 191-195, 245, 300
  meteorology, 300
Cambrian, 186, 193, 215, 226, 230
Cambridge bay, 99, 102
Cambro-Silurian, 184, 186, 187, 211
Cape Chidley, 6, 70, 76, 139, 211
  fossils, 327, 336
Cape Haven, 9, 12, 63
Cape of God’s Mercy, 74
Cape Rawson series, 226, 228
Carboniferous, 115, 125, 126, 128, 184, 188, 221, 222, 225, 246
  lower, 213
Caribou, 23, 126, 127, 128, 159
  hunting, 27
Carnelian, 206
Cary islands, 78, 88
Carys Swans Nest, 76, 79
Chalcopyrite, 238
Charles island, 14, 38, 113-118, 190, 191, 287
Charleton island, 79
Charting—
  Frobisher bay, 104
  Jones sound, 110, 111
Chert, 193
Chesterfield inlet, 2, 20, 22, 86, 87, 135, 195-198, 232, 288
Chidley, John, 74
Chippewyan Indians, 133
Chouart, _dit_ Groseilliers, 80, 81
Christianity, 139
Christopher, Capt., 86
Chromic ore, 198
Churchill, 131, 135, 198, 284, 287, 288, 297, 298
Churchill river, 79, 85
Clarence cape, 54
Clarke island, 244
Clay, 59, 188, 228, 288
  ironstone, 223, 224
  slate, 198, 213
Climate, 126, 188, 253
Clyde river, 120
Coal, 116, 129, 200, 222-228, 240, 247
Coats, Capt. W., 132
Coats island, 17, 68, 76, 113, 119, 120, 187, 190, 211, 287
Coccolite, 198
Cockburn island, 197
Collison, Capt. Richard, 99, 102
Comer, Capt. George, 3, 23, 24, 27, 31, 32, 69, 135, 136, 163
Comfort cape, 77
Conglomerate, 219
Conical island, 43
Constitution cape, 103
Copper, 230, 237-239
  pyrite, 199
Coppermine river, 87, 90, 98, 230
Corals, 217, Appen. IV.
Corbets (or Rankin) inlet, 87
Cornwallis island, 28, 89, 114, 128-129
  geology, 214, 221-224
Countess of Warwick island, 74
Couture, Sieur de la, 82
Creswell bay, 124
Crew of _Neptune_, xvii.
Crocker bay, 50
  mountains, 88, 89
Crossman, M., 29
Cumberland gulf, 8, 62, 63, 74, 121, 122, 137, 204, 245
  strait, 200
Cuming creek, 50, 51, 209
Cunningham nord, 77
Currents, 7, 40, 49, 67, 253-255, 288-292, 295
Cyrus Field bay, 11, 64, 200, 204, 205


Dablon, Claude, 82
Danes, 77
Danish expedition, 79
  settlement, 104
Dangerous point, 22
D’Argenson, Pierre, 9, 82
Davieau island, 242, 244
Davis, John, 74, 75
Davis strait, 102, 120, 185, 200
  currents, 67
  tribes on, 134
  whaling, 249, 253
Dawson, Dr. G. M., 197, 205, 227, 229
Dease, Peter Warren, 93, 94
Deception bay, 38, 66, 67
Dee, Staff-Sergeant, 69
Deer, 21, 58
  hunting, 159, 160
Depot island, 20, 24
De Rance, 214, 216, 225, 226
Desire Provoketh (Akpatok island), 76
Devil’s Thumb island, 42
Devonian, 116, 129, 187, 188, 213, 219, 221, 222
  Upper, 220
Diabase, 198, 199, 204, 207, 215, 237, 238
Diallage, 198
_Diana_, 59, 60, 255
Diatoms, 257
D’Iberville, 83
Diers cape, 74
Digges, Sir Dudley, 75
Digges cape, 76, 78
Digges island, 16, 37
Dikes, 193, 197, 207, 237
_Diligence_, 100
_Discovery_, 75, 100, 107
Discovery bay, 108
  harbour, 106
Disko island, 41, 88, 109, 207, 227
Dobbs, Arthur, 85, 86, 89
Dogs, 142-145
Dog-sled, 146-148
Dolomite, 185, 193
Dominoe, 6
Douglas, Admiral Sir A. L., 2
Douglas harbour, 14, 38, 65, 191, 194
Drift, 229-231
Driftwood, 290
Ducks, 79, 157
Duck islands, 42
  mountains, 231
Duncan, Capt., 87
Dundee, 250
Duquet, Sieur, 82
Durban cape, 200
  island, 229
Dutch whaler, 249


_Eclipse_, 59, 255
Economic minerals, 197, 236-247, 296
Eggs, sea fowl, 157, Appen. II.
Eglinton island, 114, 128
Eider ducks, 158
Eifrig, Rev., 314
Ellef Ringnes, 114, 129, 226
Ellesmere island, 47-49, 104, 108, 110-116, 126, 127, 236, 246, 184-189,
  207, 215, 222-227, 234, 236, 246
Elliott, Lieut., 100
Emerson, Prof. B. K., 200
_Enterprise_, 99
_Era_, 3, 69, 265-267
_Erebus_, 95, 96, 101
Erebus harbour, 52, 54
Erik cove, 15, 16, 37
  harbour, 57, 60, 61, 234
Erratics, 224, 230, 231
Eskimos—
  areas inhabited by, 131
  Baffin island population, 57, 58
  clothes, 177-180
  customs, 141, 165-169, 174-177
  character, 136, 138, 163, 170, 171, 182, 272
  dwellings, 45, 60, 142-145, 153, 154
  education, 139, 140
  food, 145, 181, 261
  history, 66, 73-78, 87, 132, 133
  population, 131-141
  physical condition, Appen. VI.
  religion, 9, 138, 139
Esquimaux cape, 198
Etah, 44, 45
Evans strait, 18, 39, 120
Exeter sound, 74
Exmouth island, 226


Faribault, Dr. G. B., 28, 30
Fauna, 216
Fawckner, William, 100
Feilden, Capt., 214, 216, 227
Feldspar, 190, 195, 201, 204
_Felix_, 99
Fish, 76, 79
Fish river, 98
Fisher, Mr., 285
Fisher bay, 194
Fisheries, 296, 297
  _See_ also ‘Whaling and Seals.’
Fisher strait, 39, 120
Flint island, 241
Floeberg beach, 106, 108
Flora, Appen. III.
Fog, 41, 42, 48, 54, 56, 60, 64, 294
Ford, H., 7
Forestry, 296, 297
Forsyth, Capt. C. C., 99
Fort Churchill, 87
Fort Conger, 247
Fort Rupert, 81
Fossils, 51, 186, 187, 201, 210-228, 234, Appen. IV.
  plants, 188, 220
  wood, 226, 228
Foulke fiord, 104, 208
Fox, Capt. Luke, 79, 80, 284
_Fox_, 101
Fox channel, 16, 67, 79, 86, 89, 119-122, 138, 197, 256
Fox hunting, 151
_Fram_, 71, 110, 129
Franklin, Lady, 96, 99, 100
Franklin, Sir John—
  expeditions, 90, 97
  memorial, 52, 53
  record of death, 125
Franklin Pierce bay, 216
Franklin sound, 107
  strait, 125
Frederick, Capt. Charles, 100
French Fur Co., 65
Frenchman cove, 12
Fresh water pools, 257
Frobisher, Sir Martin, 71-74
Frobisher bay, 13, 64, 73-75, 121-123, 200
Fullerton—
  _Neptune_ in winter quarters, 25-34
  _Neptune’s_ return to, 69
  ice in harbour, 292-293
  shoals, 26
Fur trade, 296
_Fury_, 56, 89
Fury beach, 69-93
Fury and Hecla strait, 89, 92, 94, 121, 122


Gaasefjord, 218, 219
Gabbro, 198
Galena, 237
Galena-Trenton, 184, 187
  Lower, 211
Gales, 43, 56, 60-64, 70, 103-105
Gama, Vasco de, 72
Game, 128, 157
Ganoid scales, 219
Garnet, 192-198, 201, 203, 230, 231
Gasteropods, 216
Geese, 127, 157
Geology, 183-287
Geological Survey of Canada—
  work by, in Arctic regions, 341
George river, 140, 191, 192
Gilbert, 21
Gilberts sound, 74
Gillies island, 244
Gillam, Zachariah, 81
_Gjoa_, 53
Glacial striæ, 185, 230-233
Glaciation, 8, 9, 184, 188, 189, 229-235
Glaciers—
  Disko island, 41, 42
  Parker Snow bay, 43
  Ellsmere island, 49
  Lancaster sound, 50
  North Devon, 51
  Erik harbour, 60, 61
  other references, 116, 122-128, 236, 253, 254
Gneiss, 8, 12, 17, 43, 115, 190-208
Godhaab, 74
Gods Mercies island, 76
Gold, 73, 77, 197, 237
Goldener’s Patent, 52, 97
Goodsir, Dr. R. A., 99, 259
Gordon, Commander, 7, 285
Gore, Lieut. Graham, 97
Graham Moore cape, 57
Grain shipment, suggested route, 283, 298
Granite, 185-298
  Cumberland gulf, 8
  Frenchman cove, 12
  Cyrus Field bay, 12
  Seahorse point, 17
  Salisbury island, 67
Granite cape, 297
Graphite, 190-204, 243, 245
Gravel, 188, 288
Gray strait, 7
Great Bear lake, 92
Great Fish river, 93, 94, 101
Great Slave lake, 87, 91, 93
Greely, Capt. A. W., 108, 113, 227, 228, 247
Greene, Henry, 76
Greenland, 74, 75, 77, 109, 110
Greenland whale, 249, 258
Greenstone, 197, 204
Grenville series, 190, 202
Griffin, S. P., 99
Grinnell, Henry, 103
Grinnell glacier, 14, 122
  land, 227, 228
  peninsula, 127, 222
_Griper_, 88, 94
Gripper shoal, 14
Guelph, 211
Guy, Capt., 3
Gypsum, 212


Halifax, 4, 5, 70
Halkett, Andrew, 314
Hall, Charles F., 104, 105, 200, 202, 251
Hall, James, 77
Hall island, 13, 73
Harbour seal, 278-279
Hares, 125-128
Harp seal, 279, 280
Haughton, Prof., 213, 222-224, 30
Hawkes cape, 104
Haven, Lieut D., 99
Havnefjord, 17
Hayes, Dr. I. I., 103, 104
Hearne, Samuel, 85, 87, 133
_Hecla_, 89
Heer, Prof., 226, 227
Hell Gate, 218
Hematite, 223, 224
_Herald_, 99
Herbert island, 44
Herschel cape, 47, 48, 208
Historical Summary of Arctic Research, 71-111
Home bay, 121
Hood, Lieut., 96
Hooded seal, 280
Hope cape, 86
Hopes Advance bay, 193
  cape, 194
Hopes Checked, 76
_Hopewell_, 75
Hoppner, Capt., 89
Hornblende, 195, 201
Horn sound, 78
Horsbury cape, 50
Hudson, Henry, 75, 76, 82, 284
Hudson’s Bay Co.—
  fisheries, 85, 251, 274
  Franklin expeditions, 99-101
  history, 80-87, 92
  posts, 6, 83, 91
  surveys, 93, 94
  trading, 284, 285, 296
Hudson bay—
  depths, 67, 288
  Eskimos, 134, 135
  fisheries, 249, 251, 256, 271, 274, 281
  geology, 185-211
  history, 79-84, 90, 284
  islands, 113, 117, 119
  iron, 239, 240
  ice, 39, 285
  navigation (bay and strait) 283-298
  policing, 3
  resources, 296
  trade, 296
Hudson Bay and strait—
  climate, 297
  currents, 73, 288-290
  explorations, 73-89
  fisheries, 259, 296, 297
  glaciation, 231
  ice, 39, 292, 293
  minerals, 237
  navigation, 283-298
Hudson strait—
  Eskimos, 134
  ice, 37, 40, 285, 292
  navigation, 285, 286
  tides, 13
  whaling, 252
Humboldt glacier, 101, 103, 230
Huronian, 184-208, 215, 236-238
Hutchen’s goose, 34
Hyalrosfjord, 217


Ice—
  Bylot island, 57
  Coats island, 36
  Cumberland gulf, 61-63
  Fox channel, 67-69, 256
  Fullerton and Port Burwell, 39, 40
  Fury and Hecla strait, 89
  Hudson strait, 37, 40, 285, 292
  Ponds inlet, 59
  Resolution island, 94
  Sabine cape, 45, 47
  Smith sound, 48, 49
  Southampton island, 94
  Whale point, 59
  formation, 292, 294
  movement, 254, 255
  middle pack, 75, 78, 254, 258, 291
Icy cape, 201
Iglulingmiut, 135, 136, 160
Indians, 87, 296
Indra Eide, 218
Inglefield, Capt. E. A., 100, 102
Inglefield gulf, 44
Interpreter, 6
_Intrepid_, 100
_Investigator_, 99
Iron ore, 156, 192, 198, 238-245
Iroquois, 82, 132, 133
_Isabel_, 100, 102
_Isabella_, 88
Isacksen, 110
Island bay, 196
Itivimiut, 134


Jackson, Capt., 11, 63
Jaegar, 34
James, Capt., 79, 80, 284
Jameson, Prof., 197, 198
James bay, 188, 292
Jenkins, Commander, 100
_Jesuits, Relations of_, 82
Jones cape, 131
  sound, 88, 103, 111
Joy island, 65
Juet, Robert, 76


Kane, Dr. Elisha Kent, 101, 103
Kane basin, 103, 105
Kaxodliun, 204
Kedlingmiut, 134
Kekerten harbour, 10, 11, 204
Kellett, Capt. Henry, 99, 102
Kelsey, Henry, 84
Kendall, Lieut., 92
Kendall cape, 33
Kenipitumiut, 27, 135, 136, 155, 159, 162-180
Kennedy, William, 100
Kennedy channel, 103, 108
King, C. F., 2, 30
  meteorology, 300
King, John, 76
Kingaite, 200
King cape, 122
King Charles cape, 137
King Charles His Promontory, 79
King Christian island, 114, 129
King George sound, 65
King Oscar island, 226
King William island, 98, 114, 124, 125, 205, 213
Kittoktangmiut, 134
Knight, Capt., 75, 84
Knight, James, 251
Kobbebugten, 217
Koguangmiut, 134
Koksoak river, 274
Koning, 200
Kuamangmiut, 134
Kyaks, 154-156


Labrador Eskimos, 131-135, 138
_Lady Franklin_, 99
Lady Franklin island, 13
Lake harbour, 68, 236, 245
Lakes, 123, 201
Lake Superior, 193, 240, 243, 245
Lambe, Lawrence M., 211
  on Corals, Appen. IV.
Lancaster sound, 50, 88, 93-101
L’Anglois, Jean, 82
Laurentian, 184, 186, 197-209, 236, 237, 246
Leopold, Capt. Francis, 100
Leopold island, 54
Liddon, Lieut. M., 88
Lignite, 188, 226-228, 246
Lockwood, Lieut., 108, 109
_Lord Weston’s Portland_, 79
Low, A. P., viii., ix., xvii.
Lower Heidelberg formation, 211
Lyon, Capt. G. F., 18, 89
Lumlie inlet, 74


McCulloch, Dr., 200
Mackenzie river, 90, 92, 93, 99
McClintock, Admiral Sir F. L., 53, 96, 98, 101, 102, 206, 214, 223, 226
McClure, Sir R., 99, 102, 223, 226
McClure strait, 129
McCormick, Dr. R., 100
McCormick bay, 44
Macoun, Prof. J., 314
Macoun, J. M., 320
McTavish island, 242, 244
_Magna Britannia_, 76
Magnetic Pole, 93, 124
Magnetic iron ore, 198-201, 238
Maguire, Capt. Rochfort, 100
Manitoba, 186, 231
Mansfield island, 36, 37, 69, 77, 113, 187
Mansell island, 77
Marble island, 79, 84, 85
  quartzites, 198, 199
Marine shells, 222
  terraces, 189, 234-236
Markham, Commander, 107
Matty island, 213
Melville bay, 42, 88, 105
  channel, 89
  island, 89, 100, 114, 128, 223, 224, 236, 246
  peninsula, 197, 211
Mesozoic, 116, 117, 130, 184, 188, 226
_Meta Incognita_, 73
Meteorological stations, 108, 285
Meteorology, Appen. I.
Mica, 69, 83, 160, 201, 204, 236, 245, 252, 296
Middleton, Capt., 85, 86, 89
Mill islands, 67
Milne, Capt., 3, 59
Miocene, 188, 226, 227
  Tertiary, 126, 128
Mission work, 9
Molybdenite, 198, 246
Montreal island, 98, 101
Monumental island, 13
Moodie, Major J. D., 3, 8, 25, 41, 70
_Moonshine_, 74
Moore, Capt. Thomas, 98
Moravian missionaries, 138, 139
Morton, William, 103
Mudflats, 11
Munck, Jens, 79, 235
Murray, Capt., 3, 68
Muscovy Company of London, 72, 75, 79
Musk oxen, 58, 126, 127, 128


Nachvak bay, 6
_Nancy Dawson_, 99
Nansen, 109
Nares, Capt. G., 106, 107, 109
Narwhals, 275, 276
Nastapoka islands—
  iron ores, 240, 254
Nastapoka river, 245
Nathorst, Prof., 220
Navigation—
  Hudson bay, 16-24, 35-37, 283-296
    strait, 13-16, 37-40, 283-296
  Lancaster sound, 50
  Melville bay, 45
  Ponds inlet, 57
  Port Burwell to Cumberland gulf, 8-13
  Port Burwell to Fullerton, 64-69
  Port Leopold, 54
  Smith sound, 44
Navy Board inlet, 120
Nechilliks, 135, 136, 138, 160, 164
Nelson river, 76, 84
_Neptune_, officers and crew, xvii.
  description, 3-5
  mishap off Cape Herschel, 47
  recall, 70
  summer cruise, 35-70
  winter quarters, 25-34
  voyage north, 524
Netilling lake, 123
Newfoundland seal fishery, 291
Niagara, 211, 221
_Nimrod_, 251
Noble, Mr., 10, 11
Norman Lockyer island, 216
North Devon, 50, 51, 89, 114, 115, 127, 207, 208, 220, 222
North Pole, 126
North Omenak, native caches, 103
North Somerset island, 89, 114, 124, 205, 214
_North Star_, 99, 100
Northumberland island, 44
North-West Company, 87, 90, 92
  grain fields, 283, 284
  Passage, 75, 86, 88, 89
North-West Mounted Police, List of, xvii.
Norton, Mr., 86, 87
Norway, 273
Norwegian expedition, 53, 129
Nottingham island, 113-119, 137, 190, 191
Nugumiut, 134, 136
Nuliayok, 167, 168, 169, 172
Nuvungmiut, 134
Nye Hernhut, 74
Observation stations, 108, 285
O’Connel, James, 29
Officers of _Neptune_, xvii.
Okomingmiut, 134
Okommiut, 134
Ommaney, Capt., 99
Osborn, Lieut. Sherard, 100
Ouhowjawtil, 190


Padlimiut, 135, 160
Palaeozoic, 115, 116, 126, 184, 188, 221
Paleocrystic ice, 106
Parker Snow bay, 43
Parr, Lieut., 107
Parry, Sir W. E., 88-90, 129, 136, 190, 197, 211, 214, 224, 246
Parry cape, 44, 103
Parry islands, 114-116, 129, 184, 226, 246
Payer harbour, 45
Payne river, 193
Peabody, George, 103
Peary, Lieut. R. E., 45, 46, 109, 110, 113
  expedition, 201
Peck, Rev. J., 3, 9, 62, 65, 137, 163
Peel sound, 101, 124
Pegmatite, 190, 192, 195
Penny, William, 99
_Perseverance_, 251
Perthite, 205
Petiwik glacier, 43
Philpot island, 50, 208
_Phœnix_, 100
Pilot, 57, 65
Pioneer, 100
Plants, 51, 60, Appen. III.
_Plover_, 98, 100
_Polaris_, 104, 105, 230
Police, North-West Mounted, xvii.
Ponds inlet, 57, 117, 121
Porphyry, 198
Porpoises, 274-276
Port Burwell, 6, 8, 38, 41, 64
Port de Boucherville, 191
Port Logan, 213
Port Leopold, 54-56
Post-Glacial, 184
Post-Tertiary, 229-234
Potter and Wrightington, Messrs, 12
Préfontaine, Hon. Raymond, 4
  cape, 36
Pricket, Abacuk, 76
_Prince Albert_, 99, 100
Prince Arthur island, 100
Prince Henry, 77
Prince of Wales island, 114, 125, 205, 207, 214
Prince Patrick island, 114, 129, 226
Prince Regent inlet, 56, 120-124
Princess Royal island, 223, 230
Promise island, 21, 24
_Proteus_, 108, 109
Pukimma, 168
Pullen, Capt. W. J. S., 99, 100
Pyrite, 31, 190-204, 238


Quartzite, 198, 199
Quartz, smoky, 190
Queen Elizabeth, 72
  foreland, 73


Radisson, 80, 81
Rae, Dr. John, 94, 98-99, 100, 102, 197, 213, 237, 251
Ranken inlet, 135
Red phalarope, 34
Reefs and shoals—
  Cyrus Field bay, 12, 13
  Fox channel, 256
  Fullerton, 26
  Kendall cape, 34
  Winchester inlet, 19
Regent inlet, 93, 100, 102
Rendalen, 217
Rensselaer bay, 103
Repulse bay, 68, 85, 89, 100, 105, 107, 138
_Reserve_, 99
_Resolute_, 99, 100
Resolution island, 13, 75, 95, 113, 118, 190, 191
Revillon Fur Co., 284, 296
Rhomb-spar, 198
Richardson, Sir John, 98, 101
Richardson, Dr., 90, 92
Right whale, 123, 246, 249
Ringed seal, 279
Robeson channel, 107
Rock crystal, 198
Rocky mountains, 92
Roes Welcome, 26, 33, 79
Ross, Capt. Sir James Clark, 93, 99, 213
Ross, Rear Admiral Sir John, 88, 90-93, 99
Ross, Mr., 30
Rosse bay, 47
Rupert river, 81
Ryswick, Treaty of, 83


Sabine cape, 45, 208
Sabine’s gull, 34
Saddle-back islands, 14
Sagdlingmiut, 138
Saguenay river, 82
St. Paul island, 6
Salisburies Foreland, 76
Salisbury island, 66, 113-119, 190, 191
Salmon, 59, 140
Salmon river, 203
Sandstone, 185, 193, 206-227
Saskatchewan river, 84, 87
Saunders, James, 99
Sausserite, 238
Scenery, 6, 41, 56, 57, 127, 202
Schel, P., 184, 186, 189, 214-226, 234, 235
Schuebert, C., 201
Scoresby, Capt., 88
Scott inlet, 121
Scotty, 21
Scroggs, John, 84
Scurvy, 107, 108
_Seaford_, 83
Seahorse point, 16, 17, 77
Seal river, 198
Seals, 44, 51, 149-152, 157, 278-280
Sedlingmiut, 134
Sedna, 167
Serpentine, 198
Shannuktungmiut, 135, 136
Shedden, Robert, 99
Sherard Osborne fiord, 107
Shoals. _See also_ ‘Reefs’—
  Cape Haven, 12
  Chesterfield inlet, 21, 288
  Hudson bay, 288
  Wakeham bay, 64
Sikosilingmiut, 134, 137, 160
Sillimans Fossil Mount, 201, 212
Silurian, 115, 120-128, 187, 190, 201, 206, 210-221
  Lower, 200, 216
  Middle, 217, 220
  Upper, 216, 217, 222
Silver, 237
Simpson, Thomas, 93, 94
Sinimiut, 136
Sir James Lancaster sound, 78
Sir Thomas Roes Welcome. _See_ ‘Roes Welcome.’
Skrabdalen, 218, 219
Slate, 228
Smith, Sir Thomas, 78
Smith sound, 88, 101-110, 185
Snow goose, 34
Snow-houses, 142-144
Soapstone, 144, 145
_Sophia_, 99
Southampton island, 16, 33, 34, 77, 79, 86, 113, 115, 119, 187, 190, 210,
  211
  fossils, 325, 331, 335
Sovereign Council of Quebec, 82
Specular iron, 193, 198
Spicer harbour, 137
Spring explorations, 30, 31
Stein expedition, 46
Stephenson, Capt., 106
Stewart, Rev., 139
Stewart, Alex., 99
_Strom_, 65
Sugluk bay, 66, 194
Sulphides, 194
_Sunshine_, 74
Surveys, 48, 51, 66, 92, 93, 94, 107, 195
Sutherland, Dr. P. C., 200, 207, 208
Sverdrup, Capt., 71, 110-113, 128, 214, 215
  islands, 114, 116, 129, 184, 188
Swan, whistling, 34
Syenite, 191


_Talbot_, 100
Talus, 233
Taylor island, 244
Tern, Arctic, 34
_Terror_, 95, 96, 101
Tertiary, 116, 117, 184, 185, 226-229, 246, 247
Tides—
  Blacklead, 62, 63
  Chesterfield inlet, 22
  Cyrus Field bay, 13
  Deception bay, 66
  Hudson strait, 13, 40, 74
  Wolstenholme cape, 67
  Ungava bay, 7
Tom island, 18
Tourmaline, 198
Trading returns—
  Cumberland gulf, 63, 64, 68
  Repulse bay, 68
Transition valley, 206
Trap, 185, 194-208
Tree limit, 135
Trees, 125, 126
Tremolite, 198
Trilobites, 216
Troyes, Chevalier, 83
Tunungmiut, 134
Tunurusungmiut, 134
Tyrrell, J. B., 31, 190, 198, 231, 232, 237, 238


Ungava bay—
  fishery, 274
  geology, 191-193
  graphite, 245
  iron ores, 239
  tides, 7
United States expeditions, 102
  mountains, 126
_United States_, 104
Upernivik, 42, 104, 108
Utrecht, Treaty of, 83, 84, 285


Vallière, Druillette de, 82
Van Hise, 243
Vaughan, Capt., 84
_Vega_, 225
Vegetation, 12, 33-37, 51, 52, 58, 60, 123, 128, 202, 227
Victoria island, 99, 114, 205, 213, 222
_Victory_, 92, 93
Vœux, Charles des, 97


Wager inlet, 85, 197, 237
Wakeham, Commander, 285
Wakeham bay, 64, 194
Walker cape, 89
Walrus, 44, 51, 58, 65, 78, 128
  description of, 280-282
  hunt, 14, 15
Walrus island, 18
Walsingham cape, 74, 75
Warwicks foreland, 74
Weggs cape, 14, 65
Wellington channel, 97, 100
Weymouth, George, 75
_Whalebone_, 84
Whales, 11, 124
  general description of, 256-261
  whalebone, 249, 260
Whaling, 248-278
  statistics of catch, 272
    of British fleet, 277
    of American, 277, 278
  stations, 8-12, 32, 58, 78, 136-138, 160, 271
Whale point, 32, 196, 232
  river, 237
  sound, 44
White sea, 284
Wittersted lake, 214
Winnipeg basin, 187, 188, 210
  lake, 87
Winter island, 89
Winchester inlet, 19, 20, 31, 195, 196
Wind register, 43
_Windward_, 46, 55
Wollaston islands, 56
Wolstenholme, Sir John, 75
Wolstenholme cape, 66, 190, 192, 245
Wolstenholm island, 44
  sound, 99


York cape, 42, 88, 104
  Factory, 90, 94


Zircon, 198



                           TRANSCRIBER NOTES


Mis-spelled words and printer errors have been fixed.

Old style spellings for such words as _kyak_ and _iglo_ as well as older
forms of geological and metallurgical terms have been left as is.

Inconsistency in hyphenation has been retained.

Illustrations have been relocated due to using a non-page layout.

Some photographs have been enhanced to be more legible.

Appendix I and IV were in landscape mode, and have been reformatted to
be usable in this eBook form.

For a higher resolution version of the map found at the beginning of
this book, see

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For a very high resolution version of the map found at the beginning of
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[The end of _Report on the Dominion Government Expedition to Hudson Bay
and The Arctic Islands On Board the D. G. S. Neptune [The Cruise of the
Neptune]_ by A. P. Low]





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