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Title: Our Intellectual Strength and Weakness - A Short Historical and Critical Review of Literature, Art and Education in Canada
Author: Bourinot, John George
Language: English
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Royal Society of Canada Series.

No. 1.

OUR INTELLECTUAL STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS.


      *      *      *      *      *      *

WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

Parliamentary Practice and Procedure, with a review of the origin,
growth, and operation of parliamentary institutions in Canada. And
an Appendix containing the British North America Act of 1867 and
amending acts, Governor-General's commission and instructions, forms of
proceeding in the Senate and House of Commons, etc.; 2nd ed., revised
and enlarged, 8vo., pp. 970, cloth and calf. Montreal: Dawson Bros.,
1892. $8.

A Manual of the Constitutional History of Canada, from the earliest
period to the year 1888, including the B. N. A. Act of 1867, and a
digest of judicial decisions on questions of legislative jurisdiction.
12mo. pp. 238. Montreal: Dawson Bros. Cloth, $1.25.

Canadian Studies in Comparative Politics: I. Canada and English
Institutions; II. Canada and the United States; III. Canada and
Switzerland. Large 4to. pp. 100. Montreal: Dawson Bros. Cloth, $1.

Local Government in Canada. 8vo. pp. 72. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Studies. Paper, 50c.

Federal Government in Canada. 8vo. pp. 172. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Studies, 1889. Paper, 50c.

Parliamentary Government in Canada: an historical and constitutional
study. Annals of American Historical Association. 8vo. pp. 98.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893. Paper, $1.

Descriptive and Historical Account of the Island of Cape Breton,
and of its Memorials of the French Regime, with bibliographical,
historical and critical notes, and old maps; plans and illustrations
of Louisbourg. Large 4to. pp. 180. Montreal: Foster Brown & Co., 1892.
Fancy cloth, $3.

      *      *      *      *      *      *


Royal Society of Canada Series.

OUR INTELLECTUAL STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS

A Short Historical and Critical Review of Literature,
Art and Education in Canada,

by

J. G. BOURINOT, C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L., D.L. (LAVAL).

Author of "Cape Breton and Its Memorials of the French Regime," and of
Several Works on Federal and Parliamentary Government
in the Dominion of Canada.



Montreal:
Foster Brown & Co.

London:
Bernard Quaritch.

1893

Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada by J. G. BOURINOT, in
the Office of the Minister of Agriculture, in the year 1893.

Gazette Printing Company, Montreal.



                             To my Friends
              SIR J. W. DAWSON, (C.M.G., F.R.S.C., LL.D.)
                                  AND
                  MONSIGNOR HAMEL, (M.A., F.R.S.C.),
   WHO REPRESENT THE CULTURE AND LEARNING OF THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH
                   ELEMENTS OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLE,
                              I dedicate
           THIS SHORT REVIEW OF THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
                         OF THE NEW DOMINION.



PREFATORY NOTE.


This monograph on the intellectual development of the Dominion was
delivered in substance as the presidential address to the Royal Society
of Canada at its May meeting of 1893, in Ottawa. Since then the author
has given the whole subject a careful revision, and added a number of
bibliographical and other literary notes which could not conveniently
appear in the text of the address, but are likely to interest those who
wish to follow more closely the progress of culture in a country still
struggling with the difficulties of the material development of half
a continent. This little volume, as the title page shows, is intended
as the commencement of a series of historical and other essays which
will be periodically reproduced, in this more convenient form for the
general reader, from the large quarto volumes of the Royal Society of
Canada, where they first appear.

  OTTAWA, 1st October, 1893.



ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.


  I.--P. 1.

  Introductory remarks on the overestimate of material success in
        America; citation from an oration on the subject by James
        Russell Lowell; application of his remarks to Canadians.

  II.--P. 4.

  Three well defined eras of development in Canada; the French regime
        and its heroic aspect; the works of Champlain, Lescarbot,
        Potherie, Le Clercq, Charlevoix and others; evidences of some
        culture in Quebec and Montreal; the foundation of the Jesuit
        College and the Seminaries; Peter Kalm on the study of science;
        the mental apathy of the colony generally in the days of French
        supremacy.

  III.--P. 9.

  The period of political development from 1760-1840, under English
        government; low state of popular education; growth of the press;
        influence of the clergy; intellectual contests in legislative
        halls; publication of "Sam Slick"; development of a historical
        literature.

  IV.--P. 14.

  An era of intellectual as well as material activity commences in 1840,
        after the concession of responsible government; political life
        still claims best intellects; names of prominent politicians and
        statesmen from 1840-1867; performance in literature and science;
        gross partisanship of the press; poems of Crémazie, Howe,
        Sangster and others; histories of Christie, Bibaud, Garneau and
        Ferland.

  V.--P. 19.

  Historical writers from 1867-1893--Dent, Turcotte, Casgrain, Sulte,
        Kingsford, etc.; Canadian poets--LeMay, Reade, Mair, Roberts,
        Carman and others; critical remarks on the character of French
        and English Canadian poetry; comparison between Canadian and
        Australian writers; patriotic spirit of Canadian poems.

  VI.--P. 27.

  Essay writing in Canada; weakness of attempts at fiction; Richardson's
        "Wacousta"; De Gaspé's "Anciens Canadiens"; Kirby's "Golden
        Dog"; Marmette's "F. de Bienville," among best works of this
        class; Professor De Mille and his works; successful efforts of
        Canadians abroad--Gilbert Parker, Sara Jeannette Duncan and L.
        Dougall; general remarks on literary progress during half a
        century; the literature of science in Canada eminently
       successful.

  VII.--P. 33.

  A short review of the origin and history of the Royal Society of
        Canada; its aim, the encouragement of the literature of learning
        and science, and of original ethnographical, archæological,
        historic and scientific investigation; desirous of stimulating
        broad literary criticism; associated with all other Canadian
        societies engaged in the same work; the wide circulation of its
        Transactions throughout the world; the need of a magazine of a
        high class in Canada.

  VIII.--P. 42.

  The intellectual standard of our legislative bodies; the literature of
        biography, law and theology; summary of general results of
        intellectual development; difficulties in the way of successful
        literary pursuits in Canada; good work sure of appreciative
        criticism by the best class of English periodicals like the
        "Contemporary," "Athenæum," "English Historical Magazine,"
        "Academy," etc.; Sainte-Beuve's advice to cultivate a good style
        cited; some colonial conditions antagonistic to literary growth;
        the necessity of cultivating a higher ideal of literature in
        these modern times.

  IX.--P. 49.

  The condition of education in Canada; speed and superficiality among
        the defects of an otherwise admirable system; tendency to make
        all studies subordinate to a purely utilitarian spirit; the need
        of cultivating the "humanities," especially Greek; remarks on
        this point by Matthew Arnold and Goldwin Smith; the state of the
        press of Canada; the Canadian Pythia and Olympia.

  X.--P. 53.

  Libraries in Canada; development of art; absence of art galleries in
        the cities, and of large private collections of paintings;
        meritorious work of O'Brien, Reed, Peel, Pinhey, Forster and
        others; establishment of the Canadian Academy by the Princess
        Louise and the Marquess of Lorne; necessity for greater
        encouragement of native artists; success of Canadian artists at
        the World's Fair; architecture in Canada imitative and not
        creative; the White City at Chicago an illustration of the
        triumph of intellectual and artistic effort over the spirit of
        mere materialism; its effect probably the development of a
        higher culture and creative artistic genius on the continent.

  XI.--P. 58.

  Conclusion: The French language and its probable duration in Canada;
       the advantages of a friendly rivalry among French and English
       Canadians, which will best stimulate the genius of their peoples
       in art and letters; necessity for sympathetic encouragement of
       the two languages and of the mental efforts of each other; less
       provincialism or narrowness of mental vision likely to gain
       larger audiences in other countries; conditions of higher
       intellectual development largely dependent on a widening of our
       mental horizon, the creation of wider sympathy for native talent,
       the disappearance of a tendency to self-depreciation, and greater
       self-reliance and confidence in our own intellectual resources.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, ART AND GENERAL NOTES.


    (1) P. 61.--Lowell's remarks on the study of the Liberal Arts.

    (2) P. 61.--Jamestown, Va.

    (3) P. 61.--Champlain's Works; his character compared with that of
                    Captain John Smith.

    (4) P. 62.--Lescarbot's "Histoire de la Nouvelle France."

    (5) P. 62.--Charlevoix's "Histoire et Description Générale de la
                    Nouvelle France."

    (6) P. 63.--Hutchinson's "History of Massachusetts."

    (7) P. 63.--Sagard's "Le Grand Voyage," etc.

    (8) P. 63.--P. Boucher's "Mœurs et Productions de la Nouvelle
                    France."

    (9) P. 63.--Jesuit Relations.

    (10) P. 63.--Père du Creux, "Historia Canadensis."

    (11) P. 63.--La Potherie's "Histoire de l'Amérique Septentrionale."

    (11_a_) P. 63.--The Jesuit Lafitau and his work on Indian customs.

    (12) P. 64.--C. le Clercq, "Etablissement de la Foy."

    (13) P. 64.--Cotton Mather's "Magnalia."

    (13_a_) P. 64.--Dr. Michel Sarrazin.

    (13_b_) P. 64,--Peter Kalm and the English colonies.

    (14) P. 65.--Education in Canada, 1792-1893.

    (15) P. 65.--Upper Canada, 1792-1840.

    (16) P. 66.--Canadian Journalism.

    (17) P. 66.--Howe's Speeches.

    (18) P. 66.--"Sam Slick."

    (19) P. 66.--Judge Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia.

    (20) P. 66.--W. Smith's History of Canada.

    (21) P. 67.--Joseph Bouchette's Topographical Works on Canada.

    (22) P. 67.--M. Bibaud's Histories of Canada.

    (23) P. 67.--Thompson's Book on the War of 1812-14.

    (24) P. 67.--Belknap's History of New Hampshire.

    (25) P. 67.--The poet Crémazie.

    (26) P. 68.--Chauveau as a poet.

    (27) P. 69.--Howe's Poems.

    (28) P. 69.--The poets Sangster and McLachlan.

    (29) P. 69.--Charles Heavysege's Works.

    (30) P. 69.--Todd's Parliamentary Government.

    (31) P. 69.--Christie's History of Lower Canada.

    (32) P. 70.--Garneau's History of Canada.

    (33) P. 70.--Ferland and Faillon as Canadian Historians.

    (34) P. 70.--Dent's Histories of Canada.

    (35) P. 71.--Turcotte's History since Union of 1841.

    (36) P. 71.--B. Sulte, "Histoire des Canadiens Français," etc.

    (37) P. 71.--Abbé Casgrain's Works.

    (38) P. 71.--Kingsford, Dionne, Gosselin, Tassé, Tanguay, and other
                    Canadian historians.

    (39) P. 72.--A Canadian Bibliography.

    (40) P. 72.--Later Canadian Poets, 1867-1893: Fréchette, LeMay, W.
                    Campbell Roberts, Lampman, Mair, O'Brien, McColl,
                    Suite, Lockhart, Murray, Edgar, O'Hagan, Davin, etc.
                    Collections of Canadian poems. Citations from
                    Canadian poems.

    (41) P. 77.--"In My Heart." By John Reade.

    (41_a_) P. 78.--"Laura Secord's Warning," from Mrs. Edgar's "Ridout
                    Letters."

    (42) P. 79.--Australian poets and novelists.

    (43) P. 80.--Howe's "Flag of Old England."

    (44) P. 81.--Canadian essayists: Stewart, Grant, Griffin and others.

    (45) P. 81.--W. Kirby's "Golden Dog" and other works.

    (45_a_) P. 82.--Major Richardson's "Wacousta," etc.

    (46) P. 82.--Marmette's "François de Bienville," and other romances.

    (47) P. 82.--De Gaspé's "Anciens Canadiens."

    (48) P. 82.--Mrs. Catherwood's works of fiction.

    (49) P. 83.--Gilbert Parker's writings.

    (50) P. 83.--DeMille's fiction.

    (51) P. 83.--Sara Jeannette Duncan's "A Social Departure," etc.

    (52) P. 83.--Matthew Arnold on Literature and Science.

    (53) P. 83.--Principal Grant's Address to Royal Society.

    (54) P. 84.--Sir J. W. Dawson's scientific labours.

    (55) P. 84.--Elkanah Billings as scientist.

    (56) P. 84.--Origin of Royal Society of Canada.

    (57) P. 84.--Sir D. Wilson, T. S. Hunt and Mr. Chauveau.

    (58) P. 84.--Canadian Literary and Scientific Societies.

    (58_a_) P. 85.--The Earl of Derby's farewell address to the Royal
                    Society. His opinion of its work and usefulness.

    (59) P. 86.--S. E. Dawson on Tennyson.

    (60) P. 86.--The old "Canadian Monthly."

    (61) P. 86.--Form of Royal Society Transactions.

    (62) P. 86.--Goldwin Smith on the study of the Classics.

    (63) P. 87.--Canadian Libraries.

    (64) P. 87.--List of artists in Canada. Native born and adopted. Art
                    societies. Influence of French school. Canadian
                    artists at the World's Fair. J. W. L. Forster on
                    Canadian art.

    (64_a_) P. 89.--Architectural art in Canada. List of prominent
                    public buildings noted for beauty and symmetry of
                    form.

    (65) P. 91.--"Fidelis."



[Illustration]

  OUR INTELLECTUAL
  STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS.

  A SHORT REVIEW OF
  LITERATURE, EDUCATION AND ART IN CANADA



I.


I cannot more appropriately commence this address than by a reference
to an oration delivered seven years ago in the great hall of a famous
university which stands beneath the stately elms of Cambridge, in
the old "Bay State" of Massachusetts: a noble seat of learning in
which Canadians take a deep interest, not only because some of their
sons have completed their education within its walls, but because it
represents that culture and scholarship which know no national lines
of separation, but belong to the world's great Federation of Learning.
The orator was a man who, by his deep philosophy, his poetic genius,
his broad patriotism, his love for England, her great literature and
history, had won for himself a reputation not equalled in some respects
by any other citizen of the United States of these later times. In
the course of a brilliant oration in honour[1][A] of the two hundred
and fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of Harvard, James Russell
Lowell took occasion to warn his audience against the tendency of a
prosperous democracy "towards an overweening confidence in itself and
its home-made methods, an overestimate of material success and a
corresponding indifference to the things of the mind." He did not deny
that wealth is a great fertilizer of civilization and of the arts that
beautify it; that wealth is an excellent thing since it means power,
leisure and liberty; "but these," he went on to say, "divorced from
culture, that is, from intelligent purpose, become the very mockery
of their own essence, not goods, but evils fatal to their possessor,
and bring with them, like the Nibelungen Hoard, a doom instead of a
blessing." "I am saddened," he continued, "when I see our success as
a nation measured by the number of acres under tillage, or of bushels
of wheat exported; for the real value of a country must be weighed in
scales more delicate than the balance of trade. The garners of Sicily
are empty now, but the bees from all climes still fetch honey from the
tiny garden-plot of Theocritus. On a map of the world you may cover
Judea with your thumb, Athens with a finger-tip, and neither of them
figures in the Prices Current; but they still lord it in the thought
and action of every civilized man. Did not Dante cover with his hood
all that was Italy six hundred years ago? And if we go back a century,
where was Germany outside of Weimar? Material success is good, but
only as the necessary preliminary of better things. The measure of a
nation's true success is the amount it has contributed to the thought,
the moral energy, the intellectual happiness, the spiritual hope and
consolation of mankind."

These eloquently suggestive words, it must be remembered, were
addressed by a great American author to an audience, made up of
eminent scholars and writers, in the principal academic seat of that
New England which has given birth to Emerson, Longfellow, Bancroft,
Prescott, Motley, Hawthorne, Holmes, Parkman, and many others,
representing the brightest thought and intellect of this continent.
These writers were the product of the intellectual development of the
many years that had passed since the pilgrims landed on the historic
rock of Plymouth. Yet, while Lowell could point to such a brilliant
array of historians, essayists, poets and novelists, as I have just
named, as the latest results of New England culture, he felt compelled
to utter a word of remonstrance against that spirit of materialism
that was then as now abroad in the land, tending to stifle those
generous intellectual aspirations which are best calculated to make a
people truly happy and great.

Let us now apply these remarks of the eminent American poet and thinker
to Canada--to ourselves, whose history is even older than that of New
England; contemporaneous rather with that of Virginia, since Champlain
landed on the heights of Quebec and laid the foundations of the ancient
capital only a year after the English adventurers of the days of
King James set their feet on the banks of the river named after that
sovereign and commenced the old town which has long since disappeared
before the tides of the ocean that stretches away beyond the shores of
the Old Dominion.[2] If we in Canada are open to the same charge of
attaching too much importance to material things, are we able at the
same time to point to as notable achievements in literature as results
of the three centuries that have nearly passed since the foundation of
New France? I do not suppose that the most patriotic Canadian, however
ready to eulogize his own country, will make an effort to claim an
equality with New England in this respect; but, if indeed we feel it
necessary to offer any comparison that would do us justice, it would
be with that Virginia whose history is contemporaneous with that of
French Canada. Statesmanship rather than Letters has been the pride and
ambition of the Old Dominion, its brightest and highest achievement.
Virginia has been the mother of great orators and great presidents,
and her men of letters sink into insignificance alongside of those
of New England. It may be said, too, of Canada, that her history in
the days of the French regime, during the struggle for responsible
government, as well as at the birth of confederation, gives us the
names of men of statesmanlike designs and of patriotic purpose. From
the days of Champlain to the establishment of the confederation, Canada
has had the services of men as eminent in their respective spheres,
and as successful in the attainment of popular rights, in moulding the
educational and political institutions of the country, and in laying
broad and deep the foundations of a new nationality across half a
continent, as those great Virginians to whom the world is ever ready
to pay its meed of respect. These Virginian statesmen won their fame
in the large theatre of national achievement--in laying the basis of
the most remarkable federal republic the world has ever seen; whilst
Canadian public men have laboured with equal earnestness and ability in
that far less conspicuous and brilliant arena of colonial development,
the eulogy of which has to be written in the histories of the future.

[Footnote A: In all cases the references are to the Notes in the
Appendix.]



II.


Let me now ask you to follow me for a short time whilst I review some
of the most salient features of our intellectual progress since the
days Canada entered on its career of competition in the civilization
of this continent. So far there have been three well defined eras of
development in the country now known as the Dominion of Canada. First,
there was the era of French Canadian occupation which in many respects
had its heroic and picturesque features. Then, after the cession of
Canada to England, came that era of political and constitutional
struggle for a larger measure of public liberty which ended in the
establishment of responsible government about half a century ago.
Then we come to that era which dates from the confederation of the
provinces--an era of which the first quarter of a century only has
passed, of which the signs are still full of promise, despite the
prediction of gloomy thinkers, if Canadians remain true to themselves
and face the future with the same courage and confidence that have
distinguished the past.

As I have just said, the days of the French regime were in a sense days
of heroic endeavour, since we see in the vista of the past a small
colony whose total population at no period exceeded eighty thousand
souls, chiefly living on the banks of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec
and Montreal, and contending against great odds for the supremacy on
the continent of America. The pen of Francis Parkman has given a vivid
picture of those days when bold adventurers unlocked the secrets of
this Canadian Dominion, pushed into the western wilderness, followed
unknown rivers, and at last found a way to the waters of that southern
gulf where Spain had long before, in the days of Grijalva, Cortez and
Pineda, planted her flag and won treasures of gold and silver from an
unhappy people who soon learned to curse the day when the white men
came to the fair islands of the south and the rich country of Mexico.
In these days the world, with universal acclaim has paid its tribute of
admiration to the memory of a great Discoverer who had the courage of
his convictions and led the way to the unknown lands beyond the Azores
and the Canaries. This present generation has forgiven him much in view
of his heroism in facing the dangers of unknown seas and piercing their
mysteries. His purpose was so great, and his success so conspicuous,
that both have obscured his human weakness. In some respects he was
wiser than the age in which he lived; in others he was the product of
the greed and the superstition of that age; but we who owe him so much
forget the frailty of the man in the sagacity of the Discoverer. As
Canadians, however, now review the character of the great Genoese, and
of his compeers and successors in the opening up of this continent,
they must, with pride, come to the conclusion that none of these men
can compare in nobility of purpose, in sincere devotion to God, King
and Country, with Champlain, the sailor of Brouage, who became the
founder of Quebec and the father of New France.

In the daring ventures of Marquette, Jolliet, La Salle and Tonty,
in the stern purpose of Frontenac, in the far-reaching plans of La
Galissonière, in the military genius of Montcalm, the historian of the
present time has at his command the most attractive materials for his
pen. But we cannot expect to find the signs of intellectual development
among a people where there was not a single printing press, where
freedom of thought and action was repressed by a paternal absolutism,
where the struggle for life was very bitter up to the last hours of
French supremacy in a country constantly exposed to the misfortunes
of war, and too often neglected by a king who thought more of his
mistresses than of his harassed and patient subjects across the sea.
Yet that memorable period--days of struggle in many ways--was the
origin of a large amount of literature which we, in these times, find
of the deepest interest and value from a historic point of view. The
English colonies of America cannot present us with any books which,
for faithful narrative and simplicity of style, bear comparison with
the admirable works of Champlain, explorer and historian,[3] or with
those of the genial and witty advocate, Marc Lescarbot,[4] names that
can never be forgotten on the picturesque heights of Quebec, or on
the banks of the beautiful basin of Annapolis. Is there a Canadian
or American writer who is not under a deep debt of obligation to the
clear-headed and industrious Jesuit traveller, Charlevoix,[5] the
Nestor of French Canadian history? The only historical writer that can
at all surpass him in New England was the loyalist Governor Hutchinson,
and he published his books at a later time when the French dominion had
disappeared with the fall of Quebec.[6] To the works just mentioned we
may add the books of Gabriel Sagard,[7] and of Boucher, the governor of
Three Rivers and founder of a still eminent French Canadian family;[8]
that remarkable collection of authentic historic narrative, known as
the Jesuit Relations;[9] even that tedious Latin compilation by Père
du Creux,[10] the useful narrative by La Potherie,[11] the admirable
account of Indian life and customs by the Jesuit Lafitau,[11_a_]
and that now very rare historical account of the French colony, the
"Etablissement de la Foy dans la Nouvelle France," written by the
Recollet le Clercq,[12] probably aided by Frontenac. In these and other
works, despite their diffuseness in some cases, we have a library of
historical literature, which, when supplemented by the great stores
of official documents still preserved in the French archives, is of
priceless value as a true and minute record of the times in which the
authors lived, or which they described from the materials to which
they alone had access. It may be said with truth that none of these
writers were Canadians in the sense that they were born or educated
in Canada, but still they were the product of the life, the hardships
and the realities of New France--it was from this country they drew
the inspiration that gave vigour and colour to their writings. New
England, as I have already said, never originated a class of writers
who produced work of equal value, or indeed of equal literary merit.
Religious and polemic controversy had the chief attraction for the
gloomy, disputatious puritan native of Massachusetts and the adjoining
colonies. Cotton Mather was essentially a New England creation, and
if quantity were the criterion of literary merit then he was the most
distinguished author of his century; for it is said that indefatigable
antiquarians have counted up the titles of nearly four hundred books
and pamphlets by this industrious writer. His principal work, however,
was the "Magnalia Christi Americana, or Ecclesiastical History of New
England from 1620 to 1698,"[13] a large folio, remarkable as a curious
collection of strange conceits, forced witticisms, and prolixity
of narrative, in which the venturesome reader soon finds himself
so irretrievably mystified and lost that he rises from the perusal
with wonderment that so much learning, as was evidently possessed
by the author, could be so used to bewilder the world of letters.
The historical knowledge is literally choked up with verbiage and
mannerisms. Even prosy du Creux becomes tolerable at times compared
with the garrulous Puritan author.

Though books were rarely seen, and secular education was extremely
defective as a rule throughout the French colony, yet at a very early
period in its history remarkable opportunities were afforded for the
education of a priesthood and the cult of the principles of the Roman
Catholic religion among those classes who were able to avail themselves
of the facilities offered by the Jesuit College, which was founded
at Quebec before even Harvard at Cambridge, or by the famous Great
and Lesser Seminaries in the same place, in connection with which, in
later times, rose the University with which is directly associated the
name of the most famous Bishop of the French regime. The influence
of such institutions was not simply in making Canada a most devoted
daughter of that great Church, which has ever exercised a paternal and
even absolute care of its people, but also in discouraging a purely
materialistic spirit and probably keeping alive a taste for letters
among a very small class, especially the priests, who, in politics
as in society, have been always a controlling element in the French
province. Evidences of some culture and intellectual aspirations in
the social circles of the ancient capital attracted the surprise of
travellers who visited the country before the close of the French
dominion. "Science and the fine arts," wrote Charlevoix, "have their
turn, and conversation does not fail. The Canadians breathe from
their birth an air of liberty, which makes them very pleasant in the
intercourse of life, and our language is nowhere more purely spoken."
La Galissonière, who was an associate member of the French Academy of
Science, and the most highly cultured governor ever sent out by France,
spared no effort to encourage a systematic study of scientific pursuits
in Canada. Dr. Michel Sarrazin,[13_a_] who was a practising physician
in Quebec for nearly half a century, devoted himself most assiduously
to the natural history of the colony, and made some valuable
contributions to the French Academy, of which he was a correspondent.
The Swedish botanist, Peter Kalm, who visited America in the middle of
the last century, was impressed with the liking for scientific study
which he observed in the French colony. "I have found," he wrote, "that
eminent persons, generally speaking, in this country, have much more
taste for natural history and literature than in the English colonies,
where the majority of people are entirely engrossed in making their
fortune, whilst science is as a rule held in very light esteem."
Strange to say, he ignores in this passage the scientific labours
of Franklin, Bartram and others he had met in Pennsylvania.[13_b_]
As a fact such evidences of intellectual enlightenment as Kalm and
Charlevoix mentioned were entirely exceptional in the colony, and
never showed themselves beyond the walls of Quebec or Montreal. The
province, as a whole, was in a state of mental sluggishness. The germs
of intellectual life were necessarily dormant among the mass of the
people, for they never could produce any rich fruition until they
were freed from the spirit of absolutism which distinguished French
supremacy, and were able to give full expression to the natural genius
of their race under the inspiration of the liberal government of
England in these later times.



III.


Passing from the heroic days of Canada, which, if it could hardly in
the nature of things originate a native literature, at least inspired a
brilliant succession of historians, essayists and poets in much later
times, we come now to that period of constitutional and political
development which commenced with the rule of England. It does not fall
within the scope of this address to dwell on the political struggles
which showed their intensity in the rebellion of 1837-8, and reached
their fruition in the concession of parliamentary government, in the
large sense of the term, some years later. These struggles were carried
on during times when there was only a sparse population chiefly centred
in the few towns of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Upper and Lower Canada,
on the shores of the Atlantic, on the banks of the St. Lawrence and
Lake Ontario, and not extending beyond the peninsula of the present
province of Ontario. The cities, or towns rather, of Halifax, St.
John, Quebec, Montreal, Kingston and York, were then necessarily the
only centres of intellectual life. Education was chiefly under the
control of religious bodies or in the hands of private teachers. In
the rural districts it was at the lowest point possible,[14] and the
great system of free schools which has of late years extended through
the Dominion--and is the chief honour of Ontario--was never dreamed of
in those times of sluggish growth and local apathy, when communication
between the distant parts of the country was slow and wretched, when
the conditions of life were generally very hard and rude, when the
forest still covered the greater portion of the most fertile districts
of Ontario,[15] though here and there the pioneer's axe could be
heard from morn to eve hewing out little patches of sunlight, so many
glimpses of civilization and better times amid the wildness of a new
land even then full of promise.

The newspapers of those days were very few and came only at uncertain
times to the home of the farmer by the side of some stream or amid
the dense forest, or to the little hamlets that were springing up
in favoured spots, and represented so many radiating influences of
intelligence on the borders of the great lakes and their tributary
streams, on the Atlantic seaboard, or on the numerous rivers that form
so many natural highways to the people of the maritime provinces.
These newspapers were for years mostly small quarto or folio sheets,
in which the scissors played necessarily the all-important part;
but there was, nevertheless, before 1840 in the more pretentious
journals of the large towns, some good writing done by thoughtful
men who studied their questions, and helped to atone for the very
bitter vindictive partisan attacks on opponents that too frequently
sullied the press in those times of fierce conflict.[16] Books were
only found in the homes of the clergy or of the official classes, and
these were generally old editions and rarely the latest publications
of the time. Montreal and Quebec, for many years, were the only places
where bookstores and libraries of more than a thousand volumes could
be seen. It was not until 1813 that a successful effort was made to
establish a "social library" at Kingston, Bath, and some other places
in the Midland district. Toronto had no library worth mentioning until
1836. What culture existed in those rude days was to be hunted up among
the clergy, especially of the Church of England, the Roman Catholic
priests of Lower Canada, and the official classes of the large towns.
Some sermons that have come down to us, in pamphlets of very common
paper--and very few were printed in those days when postage was dear
and bookselling was not profitable--have no pretensions to originality
of thought or literary style: sermons in remarkable contrast with the
brilliant and suggestive utterances of such modern pulpit orators as
Professor Clarke, of Trinity. The exhaustive and, generally, closely
reasoned sermons of the Presbyterian divine had a special flavour of
the Westminster confession and little of the versatility of preachers
like Principal Grant in these later times when men are attempting to
make even dogma more genial, and to understand the meaning of the
sermon in the Mount. Then, as always in Canada, there were found among
the clergy of all denominations hardworking, self-denying priests and
missionaries who brought from time to time to some remote settlement
of the provinces spiritual consolation and to many a household, long
deprived of the intellectual nourishment of other days, an opportunity
of conversing on subjects which in the stern daily routine of their
lives in a new country were seldom or ever talked of. It was in the
legislative halls of the provinces that the brightest intellect
naturally found scope for its display, and at no subsequent period
of the political history of Canada were there more fervid, earnest
orators than appeared in the days when the battle for responsible
government was at its height. The names of Nelson, Papineau, Howe,
Baldwin, Wilmot, Johnstone, Young, Robinson, Rolph and Mackenzie recall
the era when questions of political controversy and political freedom
stimulated mental development among that class which sought and found
the best popular opportunities for the display of their intellectual
gifts in the legislative halls in the absence of a great printing
press and a native literature. Joseph Howe's speeches[17] displayed a
wide culture, an original eloquence, and a patriotic aspiration beyond
those of any other man of his time and generation, and would have done
credit to the Senate of the United States, then in the zenith of its
reputation as a body of orators and statesmen. It is an interesting
fact that Howe, then printer and publisher, should have printed the
first work of the only great humorist that Canada has yet produced. I
mean of course "The Clockmaker,"[18] in which Judge Haliburton created
"Sam Slick," a type of a Down-east Yankee pedlar who sold his wares by
a judicious use of that quality which is sure to be appreciated the
world over, "Soft sawder and human natur'." In this work, which has
run through ever so many editions, and is still found on the shelves
of every well-equipped library and bookstore, Sam Slick told some home
truths to his somewhat self-satisfied countrymen who could not help
laughing even if the humour touched them very keenly at times. Nova
Scotia has changed much for the better since those dull times when the
house of assembly was expected to be a sort of political providence,
to make all the roads and bridges, and give good times and harvests;
but even now there are some people cruel enough, after a visit to
Halifax, to hint that there still is a grain of truth in the following
reflection on the enterprise of that beautiful port: "How the folks to
Halifax take it all out in talkin'--they talk of steam-boats, whalers
and railroads--but they all end where they begin--in talk. I don't
think I'd be out in my latitude if I was to say they beat the womankind
at that. One feller says, I talk of goin' to England--another says,
I talk of goin' to the country--while another says, I talk of goin'
to sleep. If we Yankees happen to speak of such things we say, 'I'm
right off down East;' or 'I'm away off South,' and away we go jist
like a streak of lightnin'." This clever humourist also wrote the best
history[19]--one of his own province--that had been written in British
North America up to that time--indeed it is still most readable, and
worthy of a place in every library. In later days the Judge wrote many
other books and became a member of the English House of Commons: but
"Sam Slick" still remains the most signal illustration of his original
genius.

During this period, however, apart from the two works to which I have
referred, we look in vain for any original literature worthy of special
mention. A history of Canada written by William Smith,[20] a son of
an eminent chief justice of New York, and subsequently of Canada, was
published in excellent style for those days as early as 1815 at Quebec,
but it has no special value except to the collector of old and rare
books. Bouchette's topographical and geographical account of Canada[21]
illustrated the ability and zeal of an eminent French Canadian, who
deserved the thanks of his country, but these well printed books
were, after all, mere compilations and came from the English press.
Pamphlets were numerous enough, and some of them had literary skill,
but they had, in the majority of cases, no permanent value except to
the historian or antiquarian of the present day who must sift out all
sorts of material and study every phase and incident of the times he
has chosen for his theme. Michel Bibaud wrote a history of French
Canada,[22] which no one reads in these days, and the most of the other
works that emanated from the Canadian press, like Thompson's "War of
1812,"[23] are chiefly valued by the historical collector. It was not
to be expected that in a relatively poor country, still in the infancy
of its development, severely tried by political controversies, with
a small population scattered over a long stretch of territory, from
Sydney to Niagara, there could be any intellectual stimulus or literary
effort except what was represented in newspapers like the _Gazette_
of Montreal--which has always maintained a certain dignity of style
in its long journalistic career--the _Gazette_ and the _Canadien_, of
Quebec, the _Nova Scotian_ of Halifax, or displayed itself in keen
contests in the legislatures or court-houses of a people delighting
always in such displays as there were made of mental power and natural
eloquence. From a literary point of view our American neighbours had,
during this period, left us away behind, in fact no comparison can be
made between the two countries; laying aside the original creation
of Sam Slick. Towards the close of the eighteenth century Belknap
published his admirable history of New Hampshire,[24] while the third
volume of Hutchinson's history of Massachusetts appeared in 1828, to
close a work of rare merit alike for careful research, philosophic
acuteness and literary charm. That admirable collection of political
and constitutional essays known as the "Federalist" had attained a
wide circulation and largely influenced the destinies of the union
under the constitution of 1783. Chief Justice Marshall illumined the
bench by his great judicial decisions which have won a remarkable
place in legal literature, on account of their close, acute reasoning,
breadth of knowledge, insight into great constitutional principles, and
their immediate influence on the political development of the federal
republic. Washington Irving published, as far back as 1819, his "Sketch
Book," in which appeared the original creation of Rip Van Winkle, and
followed it up with other works which recall Addison's delightful
style, and gave him a fame abroad that no later American writer has
ever surpassed. Cooper's romances began to appear in 1821, and Bancroft
published in 1834 the first volume of what is a great history despite
its somewhat rhetorical and ambitious style. Hawthorne's "Twice Told
Tales" appeared in 1835, but his fame was to be won in later years
when he wrote the "Scarlet Letter" and the "House of Seven Gables,"
the most original and quaint productions that New England genius has
yet produced. If I linger for a moment among these men it is because
they were not merely American by the influence of their writings; but
wherever the English tongue is spoken and English literature is read
these writers of a past generation, as it may be said of others of
later times, claim the gratitude of the untold thousands whom they
have instructed and helped in many a weary and sad, as well as idle
hour. They were not Canadians, but they illustrated the genius of this
continent of ours.



IV.


It was in the years that followed the concession of responsible
government that a new era dawned on Canada--an era of intellectual
as well as material activity. Then common schools followed the
establishment of municipal institutions in Ontario. Even the province
of Quebec awoke from its sullen lethargy and assumed greater confidence
in the future, as its statesmen gradually recognized the fact that the
union of 1841 could be turned to the advantage of French Canada despite
it having been largely based on the hope of limiting the development
of French Canadian institutions, and gradually leading the way to the
assimilation of the two races. Political life still claimed the best
talent and energy, as it has always done in this country; and, while
Papineau soon disappeared from the arena where he had been, under a
different condition of things, a powerful disturbing influence among
his compatriots, men of greater discretion and wider statesmanship like
Lafontaine, Morin and Cartier, took his place to the decided benefit
of French Canada. Robert Baldwin, a tried and conservative reformer,
yielded to the antagonistic influences that eventually arrayed
themselves in his own party against him and retired to a privacy
from which he never ventured until his death. William Lyon Mackenzie
came back from exile and took a place once more in legislative halls
only to find there was no longer scope for mere querulous agitators
and restless politicians. Joseph Howe still devoted himself with
untiring zeal to his countrymen in his native province, while Judge
Wilmot, afterwards governor like the former in confederation days,
delighted the people of New Brunswick with his rapid, fervid, scholarly
eloquence. James W. Johnstone, long the leader of the Conservative
party in Nova Scotia, remarkable for his great flow of language and
argument; William Young, an astute politician; James Boyle Uniacke,
with all the genius of an Irish orator; Laurence O'Connor Doyle, wit
and Irishman; Samuel J. W. Archibald with his silver tongue, afterwards
master of the rolls; Adams G. Archibald, polished gentleman; Leonard
Tilley with his suavity of demeanour and skill as a politician;
Charles Tupper with his great command of language, earnestness of
expression and courage of conviction, were the leading exponents of the
political opinions and of the culture and oratory of Nova Scotia and
New Brunswick. In the upper provinces we had in addition to the names
of the distinguished French Canadians I have already mentioned, those
of John A. Macdonald, at all times a ready and incisive debater, a
great party tactician, and a statesman of generous aspirations, who was
destined to die very many years later with the knowledge that he had
realized his conception of a federation uniting all the territory of
British North America, from Sydney to Victoria, under one government.
The names of Allan McNab, Francis Hincks, George Brown, George Etienne
Cartier, Alexander Galt, D'Arcy McGee, Louis Sicotte, John Hillyard
Cameron, Alexander Mackenzie, Seth Huntington, William McDougall,
Antoine Dorion, Alexander Campbell, and of other men, eminent for their
knowledge of finance, their powers as debaters, their graceful oratory,
their legal acumen, their political skill and their intellectual
achievements in their respective spheres, will be recalled by many of
those who hear me, since the most eminent among them have but recently
disappeared from the stage of active life.

As long as party government lasts in this country men will be divided
into political divisions, and objection will be of course time and
again taken to the methods by which these and other political leaders
have achieved their party ends, and none of us will be always satisfied
with the conclusions to which their at times overweening ambition
has led them; but, taking them all in all, I believe for one who has
lived all my life among politicians and statesmen that, despite their
failings and weaknesses, the public men of our country in those days
laboured on the whole conscientiously from their own points of view
to make Canada happier and greater. Indeed, when I look around me and
see what has been done in the face of great obstacles during a half
century and less, I am bound to pay this tribute to those who laboured
earnestly in the difficult and trying intellectual field of public life.

But this period which brought so many bright intellects into the
activities of political life was distinguished also, not merely for
the material advance in industry, but notably for some performance
in the less hazardous walk of literature. The newspaper press with
the progress of population, the increase of wealth, the diffusion of
education, the construction of railways and telegraph lines, and the
development of political liberty, found itself stimulated to new energy
and enterprise. A daily press now commenced to meet the necessities
of the larger and wealthier cities and towns. It must be admitted,
however, that from a strictly intellectual point of view there was
not in some respects a marked advance in the tone and style of the
leading public journals. Political partisanship ran extremely high in
those days--higher than it has ever since--and grosser personalities
than have ever characterized newspapers in this country sullied the
editorial columns of leading exponents of public opinion. No doubt
there was much brilliant and forcible writing, despite the acrimony
and abuse that were too often considered more necessary than incisive
argument and logical reasoning when a political opponent had to be met.
It was rarely that one could get at the whole truth of a question by
reading only one newspaper; it was necessary to take two or three or
more on different sides of politics in order to obtain even an accurate
idea of the debates in the legislative halls. A Liberal or Conservative
journal would consider it beneath its legitimate functions even as a
newspaper to report with any fulness the speeches of its political
adversaries. Of course this is not newspaper editing in the proper
sense of the phrase. It is not the English method assuredly, since the
London _Times_, the best example of a well-equipped and well-conducted
newspaper, has always considered it necessary to give equal prominence
to the speeches of Peel, Russell, Palmerston, Derby, Disraeli,
Gladstone--of all the leaders irrespective of party. Even in these days
of heated controversy on the Irish question one can always find in the
columns of the London press fair and accurate reports of the speeches
of Gladstone, Balfour, McCarthy, Chamberlain, Morley and Blake. This is
the sound basis on which true and honest journalism must always rest
if it is to find its legitimate reward, not in the fickle smiles of
the mere party follower, but in the support of that great public which
can best repay the enterprise and honesty of a true newspaper. Still,
despite this violent partisanship to which bright intellects lowered
themselves, and the absence of that responsibility to public opinion
expected from its active teachers, the press of Canada, during the days
of which I am speaking, kept pace in some essential respects with the
material progress of the country, and represented too well the tone
and spirit of the mass in the country where the rudiments of culture
were still rough and raw. Public intelligence, however, was being
gradually diffused, and according as the population increased, and the
material conditions of the country improved, a literature of some merit
commenced to show itself. The poems of Crémazie,[25] of Chauveau,[26]
of Howe,[27] of Sangster[28] and others, were imbued with a truly
Canadian spirit--with a love for Canada, its scenery, its history and
its traditions, which entitled them to a larger audience than they
probably ever had in this or other countries. None of those were great
poets, but all of them were more or less gifted with a measure of true
poetic genius, the more noteworthy because it showed itself in the
rawness and newness of a colonial life. Amid the activities of a very
busy period the poetic instinct of Canadians constantly found some
expression. One almost now forgotten poet who was engaged in journalism
in Montreal wrote an ambitious drama, "Saul," which was described at
the time by a British critic as "a drama treated with great poetic
power and depth of psychological knowledge which are often quite
startling;" and the author followed it up with other poems, displaying
also much imagination and feeling, but at no time reaching the ears of
a large and appreciative audience. We cannot, however, claim Charles
Heavysege[29] as a product of Canadian soil and education, for he
was a man of mature age when he made his home in this country, and
his works were in no wise inspired by Canadian sentiment, scenery or
aspiration. In history Canadians have always shown some strength, and
perhaps this was to be expected in view of the fact that political
and historical literature--such works as Hamilton's "Federalist" or
Todd's "Parliamentary Government"[30]--naturally engages the attention
of active intellects in a new country at a time when its institutions
have to be moulded, and it is necessary to collect precedents and
principles from the storehouse of the past for the assistance of the
present. A most useful narrative of the political occurrences in Lower
Canada, from the establishment of legislative institutions until the
rebellion of 1837-38 and the union of 1841, was written by Mr. Robert
Christie, long a publicist of note and a member of the assembly of the
province. While it has no claim to literary style it has the great
merit of stating the events of the day with fairness and of citing at
length numerous original documents bearing on the text.[31] In French
Canada the names of Garneau[32] and Ferland[33] have undoubtedly
received their full meed of praise for their clearness of style,
industry of research, and scholarly management of their subject. Now
that the political passion that so long convulsed the public mind
in this country has disappeared with the causes that gave it birth,
one is hardly prepared to make as much a hero of Papineau as Garneau
attempted in his assuredly great book, while the foundation of a new
Dominion and the dawn of an era of larger political life, has probably
given a somewhat sectional character to such historical work. Still,
despite its intense French Canadian spirit, Garneau's volumes notably
illustrate the literary instinct and intellectual strength which have
always been distinguishing features of the best productions of the able
and even brilliant men who have devoted themselves to literature with
marked success among their French Canadian countrymen, who are wont to
pay a far deeper homage to such literary efforts than the colder, less
impulsive English Canadian character has ever shown itself disposed
to give to those who have been equally worthy of recognition in the
English-speaking provinces.



V.


As I glance over my library shelves I find indeed that historical
literature has continued since the days of Garneau and Ferland, to
enlist the earnest and industrious study of Canadians with more or
less success. In English Canada, John Charles Dent produced a work on
the political development of Canada from the union of 1841 until the
confederation of 1867, which was written with fairness and ability,
but he was an Englishman by birth and education, though resident for
many years in the city of Toronto.[34] And here let me observe that
though such men as Dent, Heavysege, Faillon, Daniel Wilson, Hunt,
D'Arcy McGee and Goldwin Smith were not born or educated in Canada
like Haliburton, Logan, J. W. Dawson, Joseph Howe, Wilmot, Cartier,
Garneau, or Fréchette, but only came to this country in the maturity
of their mental powers, yet to men of their class the Dominion owes a
heavy debt of gratitude for the ability and earnestness with which they
have elevated the intellectual standard of the community where they
have laboured. Although all of us may not be prepared to accept the
conclusions of the historian, or approve the judgment of the political
critic; although we may regret that a man of such deep scholarship and
wide culture as Goldwin Smith has never yet been able to appreciate
the Canadian or growing national sentiment of this dependency, yet who
can doubt, laying aside all political or personal prejudice, that he,
like the others I have named, has stimulated intellectual development
in his adopted home, and so far has given us compensation for some
utterances which, so many Canadians honestly believe, mar an otherwise
useful and brilliant career. Such literary men have undoubtedly their
uses, since they seem specially intended by a wise dispensation of
affairs to cure us of too much self-complacency, and to prevent us from
falling into a condition of mental stagnation by giving us from time to
time abundant material for reflection. So much, by way of parenthesis,
is due to the able men who have adopted Canada as their home and have
been labouring in various vocations to stimulate the intellectual
growth of this Dominion. A most accurate historical record of the same
period of our history as that reviewed by Dent was made in French about
the same time by Louis Turcotte of Quebec.[35] Mr. Benjamin Sulte, a
member of this society, has also given us the results of many years of
conscientious research in his "Histoire des Canadiens," which is not
so well known as it ought to be, probably on account of its cumbrous
size and mode of publication.[36] The Abbé Casgrain, also a member
of the society and a most industrious author, has recently devoted
himself with true French Canadian fervour to the days of Montcalm
and Lévis, and by the aid of a large mass of original documents has
thrown much light on a very interesting and important epoch of the
history of America.[37] Dr. Kingsford with patience and industry has
continued his history of Canada, which is distinguished by accuracy
and research.[38] It is not my intention to enumerate all those names
which merit remark in this connection, for this is not a collection
of bibliographical notes,[39] but simply a review of the more salient
features of our intellectual development in the well-marked periods
of our history. Indeed it is gratifying to us to know that the Royal
Society comprises within its ranks nearly all the historical writers in
Canada, and it would seem too much like pure egotism were I to dilate
on their respective performances. Of poets since the days of Crémazie
we have had our full proportion, and it is encouraging to know that the
poems of Fréchette,--whose best work has been crowned by the French
Academy,--LeMay, Reade, Mair, Roberts, Bliss Carman, Wilfred Campbell
and Lampman have gained recognition from time to time in the world of
letters outside of Canada.[40][B] We have yet to produce in English
Canada a book of poems which can touch the sympathies and live on the
lips of the world like those of Whittier and Longfellow, but we need
not despair since even in the country which gave these birth they have
not their compeers. Some even declare that the only bard of promise who
appears in these days to touch that chord of nature which makes the
whole world kin is James Whitcomb Riley, the Hoosier poet, despite his
tendency to exaggerate provincial dialect and make his true poetic
genius too subordinate to what becomes at last an affectation and a
mere mannerism which wearies by its very repetition. Even in England
there is hesitation in choosing a poet laureate; there are Swinburne,
Morris and other poets, but not another Tennyson, and it has been even
suggested that the honour might pass to a master of poetic prose,
John Ruskin, whose brilliant genius has been ever devoted to a lofty
idealism which would make the world much happier and better. At the
present time Canadian poets obtain a place with regularity in the best
class of American magazines, and not infrequently their verse reaches
a higher level than the majority of poetic aspirants who appear in
the same field of poetry; but for one I am not an ardent admirer of
American magazine poems which appear too often mere machine work and
not the results of that true poetic inspiration which alone can achieve
permanent fame.

The poems of the well known American authors, Aldrich, Gilder and
Stedman, have certainly an easy rhythmical flow and an artistic finish
which the majority of Canadian poetic aspirants should study with
far more closeness. At the same time it may be said that even these
artists do not often surpass in poetic thought the best productions of
the Canadians to whom I have referred as probably illustrating most
perfectly the highest development so far among us of this department
of _belles-lettres_. It is not often that one comes across more
exquisitely conceived poems than some of those written by Mr. John
Reade, whom the laborious occupation of journalism and probably the
past indifference of a Canadian public to Canadian poetry have for a
long while diverted from a literary field where it would seem he should
have won a wider fame. Among the verses which one can read time and
again are those of which the first lines are

      "In my heart are many chambers through which I wander free,
      Some are furnished, some are empty, some are sombre, some are
                light;
      Some are open to all comers, and of some I keep the key,
      And I enter in the stillness of the night."[41][C]

It would be interesting as well as instructive if some competent
critic, with the analytical faculty and the poetic instinct of Matthew
Arnold or Sainte-Beuve, were to study the English and French Canadian
poets and show whether they are mere imitators of the best models of
French and English literature, or whether their work contains within
itself those germs which give promise of original fruition in the
future. It will be remembered that the French critic, though a poet
of merit himself, has spoken of what he calls "the radical inadequacy
of French poetry." In his opinion, whatever talent the French poets
have for strophe and line, their work, as a rule is "too slight, too
soon read, too poor in ideas, to influence a serious mind for any
length of time." No doubt many others think that, in comparison with
the best conceptions of Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, Emerson, Browning
and Tennyson, French poetry is, generally speaking, inadequate for the
expression of the most sublime thoughts, of the strongest passion, or
of the most powerful imagination, and though it must always please
us by its easy rhythm and lucidity of style, it fails to make that
vivid impression on the mind and senses which is the best test of that
true poetic genius which influences generations and ever lives in the
hearts of the people. It represents in some respects the lightness
and vivacity of the French intellectual temperament under ordinary
conditions, and not the strength of the national character, whose
depths are only revealed at some crisis which evokes a deep sentiment
of patriotism. "Partant pour la Syrie," so often heard in the days of
the last Bonaparte regime, probably illustrated this lighter tendency
of the French mind just as the "Marseillaise," the noblest and most
impressive of popular poetic outbursts, illustrated national passion
evoked by abnormal conditions. French Canadian poetry has been often
purely imitative of French models, like Musset and Gauthier, both in
style and sentiment, and consequently lacked strength and originality.
It might be thought that in this new country poets would be inspired
by original conceptions--that the intellectual fruition would be fresh
and vigorous like some natural products that grow so luxuriantly
on the virginal soil of the new Dominion, and not like those which
grow on land which is renewed and enriched by artificial means after
centuries of growth. Perhaps the literature of a colonial dependency,
or a relatively new country, must necessarily in its first stages be
imitative, and it is only now and then an original mind bursts the
fetters of intellectual subordination. In the United States Emerson
and Hawthorne probably best represent the original thought and
imagination of that comparatively new country, just as Aldrich and
Howells represent in the first case English culture in poetry, and in
the other the sublimated essence of reportorial realism. The two former
are original thinkers, the two others pure imitators. Walt Whitman's
poems certainly show at times much power and originality of conception,
but after all they are simply the creations of an eccentric genius
and illustrate a phase of that Realism towards which fiction even in
America has been tending of late, and which has been already degraded
in France to a Naturalism which is positively offensive. He has not
influenced to any perceptible extent the intellect of his generation or
elevated the thoughts of his countrymen like the two great minds I have
just named. Yet even Whitman's success, relatively small as it was in
his own country, arose chiefly from the fact that he attempted to be an
_American_ poet, representing the pristine vigour and natural freedom
of a new land. It is when French Canadian poets become thoroughly
Canadian by the very force of the inspiration of some Canadian subject
they have chosen, that we can see them at their best. Fréchette has all
the finish of the French poets, and while it cannot be said that he
has yet originated great thoughts which are likely to live among even
the people whom he has so often instructed and delighted, yet he has
given us poems like that on the discovery of the Mississippi,[D] which
proves that he is capable of even better things if he would always
seek inspiration from the sources of the deeply interesting history
of his own country, or enter into the inner mysteries and social
relations of his own people, rather than dwell on the lighter shades
and incidents of their lives. Perhaps in some respects Crémazie had
greater capabilities for the poems of deep passion or vivid imagination
than any of his successors in literature; the few national poems
he left behind are a promise of what he could have produced had the
circumstances of his later life been happier.[E] After all, the poetry
that lives is the poetry of human life and human sympathy, of joy and
sorrow, rather than verses on mountains, rivers and lakes, or sweetly
worded sonnets to Madame B. or Mademoiselle C. When we compare the
English with the French Canadian poets we can see what an influence the
more picturesque and interesting history of French Canada exercises on
the imagination of its writers. The poets that claim Ontario for their
home give us rhythmical and pleasing descriptions of the lake and river
scenery of which the varied aspects and moods might well captivate the
eye of the poet as well as of the painter. It is very much painting
in both cases; the poet should be an artist by temperament equally
with the painter who puts his thoughts on canvas and not in words.
Descriptions of our meadows, prairies and forests, with their wealth
of herbage and foliage, or artistic sketches of pretty bits of lake
scenery have their limitations as respects their influence on a people.
Great thoughts or deeds are not bred by scenery. The American poem
that has captured the world is not any one of Bryant's delightful
sketches of the varied landscape of his native land, but Longfellow's
Evangeline, which is a story of the "affection that hopes, and endures
and is patient." Dollard, and the Lady of Fort La Tour are themes which
we do not find in prosaic Ontario, whose history is only a century
old--a history of stern materialism as a rule, rarely picturesque or
romantic, and hardly ever heroic except in some episodes of the war
of 1812-15, in which Canadians, women as well as men, did their duty
faithfully to king and country, though their deeds have never yet been
adequately told in poem or prose. The story of Laura Secord's toilsome
journey on a June day eighty years ago[41_a_] seems as susceptible of
strong poetic treatment as Paul Revere's Ride, told in matchless verse
by Longfellow.

I think if we compare the best Canadian poems with the same class
of literature in Australia the former do not at all lose by the
comparison. Thanks to the thoughtfulness of a friend in South Australia
I have had many opportunities of late of studying the best work of
Australian writers, chiefly poets and novelists,[42] and have come
to the conclusion that at least the poets of both hemispheres--for
to fiction we cannot make even a pretense--reflect credit on each
country. In one respect indeed Canadians can claim a superiority over
their fellow-citizens of the British Empire in that far off Australian
land, and that is, in the fact that we have poets, and historians, and
essayists, who write the languages of France and England with purity
and even elegance; that the grace and precision of the French tongue
have their place in this country alongside the vigorous and copious
expression of the English language. More than that, the Canadians have
behind them a history which is well calculated to stimulate writers to
give utterance to national sentiment. I mean national in the sense of
being thoroughly imbued with a love for the country, its scenery, its
history and its aspirations. The people of that great island continent
possess great natural beauties and riches--flowers and fruits of every
kind flourish there in rare profusion, and gold and gems are among
the treasures of the soil, but its scenery is far less varied and
picturesque than ours and its history is but of yesterday compared with
that of Canada. Australians cannot point to such historic ground as is
found from Louisbourg to Quebec, or from Montreal to Champlain, the
battle ground of nations whose descendants now live under one flag,
animated by feelings of a common interest and a common aspiration for
the future!

Perhaps if I were at any time inclined to be depressed as to the future
of Canada, I should find some relief in those poems by Canadian authors
which take frequently an elevated and patriotic range of thought and
vision, and give expression to aspirations worthy of men born and
living in this country. When some men doubt the future and would see
us march into the ranks of other states, with heads bowed down in
confession of our failure to hold our own on this continent and build
up a new nation always in the closest connection with England, I ask
them to turn to the poems of Joseph Howe and read that inspiring
poetic tribute to the mother country, "All hail to the day when the
Britons came over"--

      "Every flash of her genius our pathway enlightens,
        Every field she explores we are beckoned to tread,
      Each laurel she gathers, our future day brightens--
        We joy with her living and mourn with her dead."[43]

Or read that tribute which the French Canadian laureate, Fréchette, has
been fain to pay to the English flag under whose folds his country has
enjoyed so much freedom and protection for its institutions:

      "Regarde me disait mon père
      Ce drapeau vaillamment porté;
      Il a fait ton pays prospère
      Et respecte ta liberté.

      "C'est le drapeau de l'Angleterre;
      Sans tache, sur le firmament,
      Presque à tous les points de la terre
      Il flotte glorieusement."

Or take up a volume by Roberts and read that frequently quoted poem of
which these are the closing lines:

      "Shall not our love this rough sweet land make sure?
        Her bounds preserve inviolate, though we die.
                O strong hearts of the North,
                Let flame your loyalty forth,
      And put the craven and base to an open shame,
      Till earth shall know the Child of Nations by her name."

Even Mr. Edgar has forgotten the astute lawyer and the politician in
his national song, "This Canada of Ours," and has given expression to
the deep sentiment that lies as I have said in the heart of every true
Canadian and forces him at times to words like these:

      "Strong arms shall guard our cherished homes
            When darkest danger lowers,
      And with our life-blood we'll defend
                This Canada of ours,
                    Fair Canada,
                    Dear Canada,
                This Canada of ours."

Such poems are worth a good many political speeches even in parliament
so far as their effect upon the hearts and sympathies is concerned. We
all remember a famous man once said, "Let me make all the ballads, and
I care not who makes the laws of a people."

[Footnote B: A list of Canadian poems which have been printed in books
(from 1867-1893) appears in the Bibliographical Notes (40).]

[Footnote C: Given in full in Appendix.]

[Footnote D: See Appendix to this work, note 40, for an extract from
this fine poem.]

[Footnote E: See Appendix to this work, note 40, for an extract from
one of his national poems.]



VI.


But if Canada can point to some creditable achievement of recent
years in history, poetry and essay-writing--for I think if one looks
from time to time at the leading magazines and reviews of the two
continents he will find that Canada is fairly well represented in their
pages[44]--there is one respect in which Canadians have never won any
marked success, and that is in the novel or romance. "Wacousta, or
the Prophecy: a Tale of the Canadas," was written sixty years ago by
Major John Richardson,[45_a_] a native Canadian, but it was at the
best a spirited imitation of Cooper, and has not retained the interest
it attracted at a time when the American novelist had created a taste
for exaggerated pictures of Indian life and forest scenery. Of course
attempts have been made time and again by other English Canadians to
describe episodes of our history, and portray some of our national and
social characteristics, but with the single exception of "The Golden
Dog,"[45] written a few years ago by Mr. William Kirby, of Niagara, I
cannot point to one which shows much imaginative or literary skill.
If we except the historical romance by Mr. Marmette, "François de
Bienville,"[46] which has had several editions, French Canada is even
weak in this particular, and this is the more surprising because there
is abundance of material for the novelist or writer of romance in her
peculiar society and institutions, and in her historic annals and
traditions. But as yet neither a Cooper, nor an Irving, nor a Hawthorne
has appeared to delight Canadians in the fruitful field of fiction that
their country offers to the pen of imaginative genius. It is true we
have a work by De Gaspé, "Les Anciens Canadiens,"[47] which has been
translated by Roberts and one or two others, but it has rather the
value of historical annals than the spirit and form of true romance.
It is the very poverty of our production in what ought to be a rich
source of literary inspiration, French Canadian life and history, that
has given currency to a work whose signal merit is its simplicity of
style and adherence to historical fact. As Parkman many years ago first
commenced to illumine the too often dull pages of Canadian history,
so other American writers have also ventured in the still fresh field
of literary effort that romance offers to the industrious, inventive
brain. In the "Romance of Dollard," "Tonty," and the "Lady of Fort St.
John," Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood has recalled most interesting
episodes of our past annals with admirable literary taste and a deep
enthusiasm for Canadian history in its romantic and picturesque
aspects.[48] When we read Conan Doyle's "Refugees"--the best historical
novel that has appeared from the English Press for years--we may well
regret that it is not Canadian genius which has created so fascinating
a romance out of the materials that exist in the history of the
_ancien régime_. Dr. Doyle's knowledge of Canadian life and history is
obviously very superficial; but slight as it is he has used it with a
masterly skill to give Canada a part in his story--to show how closely
associated were the fortunes of the colony with the French Court,--with
the plans and intrigues of the king and his mistresses, and of the
wily ecclesiastics who made all subservient to their deep purpose. It
would seem from our failure to cultivate successfully the same popular
branch of letters that Canadians are wanting in the inventive and
imaginative faculty, and that the spirit of materialism and practical
habits, which has so long necessarily cramped literary effort in this
country, still prevents happy ventures in this direction. It is a pity
that no success has been won in this country,--as in Australia by Mrs.
Campbell Praed, "Tasma," and many others,--in the way of depicting
those characteristics of Canadian life, in the past and present, which,
when touched by the imaginative and cultured intellect, will reach the
sympathies and earn the plaudits of all classes of readers at home and
abroad. Perhaps, Mr. Gilbert Parker,[49] now a resident of London,
but a Canadian by birth, education and sympathies, will yet succeed
in his laudable ambition of giving form and vitality to the abundant
materials that exist in the Dominion, among the habitants on the old
seigneuries of the French province, in that historic past of which the
ruins still remain in Montreal and Quebec, in the Northwest with its
quarrels of adventurers in the fur trade, and in the many other sources
of inspiration that exist in this country for the true story-teller who
can invent a plot and give his creations a touch of reality, and not
that doll-like, saw-dust appearance that the vapid characters of some
Canadian stories assume from the very poverty of the imagination that
has originated them.

That imagination and humour have some existence in the Canadian
mind--though one sees little of those qualities in the press or in
public speeches, or in parliamentary debates--we can well believe
when we read "The Dodge Club Abroad," by Professor De Mille,[50] who
was cut off in the prime of his intellectual strength, or "A Social
Departure," by Sara Jeannette Duncan,[51] who, as a sequence of a trip
around the world, has given us not a dry book of travels but a story
with touches of genial humour and bright descriptions of life and
nature, and who is now following up that excellent literary effort by
promising sketches of East Indian life. A story which attracted some
attention not long since for originality of conception and ran through
several editions, "Beggars All," is written by a Miss L. Dougall, who
is said to be a member of a Montreal family, and though this book does
not deal with incidents of Canadian life it illustrates that fertility
of invention which is latent among our people and only requires a
favourable opportunity to develop itself. The best literature of this
kind is like that of France, which has the most intimate correspondence
with the social life and development of the people of the country.
"The excellence of a romance," writes Chevalier Bunsen in his critical
preface to Gustav Freytag's "Debit and Credit," "like that of an epic
or a drama, lies in the apprehension and truthful exhibition of the
course of human things.... The most vehement longing of our times
is manifestly after a faithful mirror of the present." With us, all
efforts in this direction have been most common place--hardly above the
average of "Social Notes" in the columns of Ottawa newspapers.

I do not for one depreciate the influence of good fiction on the minds
of a reading community like ours; it is inevitable that a busy people,
and especially women distracted with household cares, should always
find that relief in this branch of literature which no other reading
can give them; and if the novel has then become a necessity of the
times in which we live, at all events I hope Canadians, who may soon
venture into the field, will study the better models, endeavour to
infuse some originality into their creations and plots, and not bring
the Canadian fiction of the future to that low level to which the
school of realism in France, and in a minor degree in England and the
United States, would degrade the novel and story of every-day life.
To my mind it goes without saying that a history written with that
fidelity to original authorities, that picturesqueness of narration,
that philosophic insight into the motives and plans of statesmen, that
study and comprehension of the character and life of a people, which
should constitute the features of a great work of this class,--that
such a history has assuredly a much deeper and more useful purpose
in the culture and education of the world than any work of fiction
can possibly have even when animated by a lofty genius. Still as the
novel and romance will be written as long as a large proportion of the
world amid the cares and activities of life seeks amusement rather
than knowledge, it is for the Canadian Scott, or Hawthorne, or "George
Eliot," or Dickens of the future, to have a higher and purer aim than
the majority of novel writers of the present day, who, with a few
notable exceptions like Black, Besant, Barrie, Stephenson or Oliphant,
weary us by their dulness and lack of the imaginative and inventive
faculty, and represent rather the demands of the publishers to meet the
requirements of a public which must have its new novel as regularly as
the Scotchman must have his porridge, the Englishman his egg and toast,
and the American his ice-water.

If it were possible within the compass of this address to give a list
of the many histories, poems, essays and pamphlets that have appeared
from the Canadian press during the first quarter of a century since the
Dominion of Canada has been in existence, the number would astonish
many persons who have not followed our literary activity. Of course
the greater part of this work is ephemeral in its character and has
no special value; much of the historical work is a dreary collection
of facts and dates which shows the enterprise of school publishers
and school teachers and is generally wanting in that picturesqueness
and breadth of view which give interest to history and leave a vivid
impression on the mind of the student. Most of these pamphlets have
been written on religious, political or legal questions of the day.
Many of the poems illustrate rather the aspirations of the school boy
or maiden whose effusions generally appeared in the poet's corner
of the village newspaper. Still there are even among these mere
literary "transients" evidences of power of incisive argument and
of some literary style. In fact, all the scientific, historical and
poetical contributions of the period in question, make up quite a
library of Canadian literature. And here let me observe in passing,
some persons still suppose that _belles-lettres_, works of fiction,
poetry and criticism, alone constitute literature. The word can take
in its complete sense a very wide range, for it embraces the pamphlet
or monograph on the most abstruse scientific, or mathematical or
geographical or physical subject, as well as the political essay, the
brilliant history, or the purely imaginative poem or novel. It is not
so much the subject as the form and style which make them worthy of a
place in literature. One of the most remarkable books ever written,
the "Esprit des Lois" by Montesquieu, has won the highest place in
literature by its admirable style, and in the science of politics
by the importance of its matter. The works of Lyell, Huxley, Hunt,
Dawson, Tyndall, and Darwin owe their great value not entirely to the
scientific ideas and principles and problems there discussed, but also
to the lucidity of style in which the whole subject is presented to
the reader, whether versed or not in science. "Literature is a large
word," says Matthew Arnold,[52] discussing with Tyndall this very
subject; "it may mean everything written with letters or printed in a
book. Euclid's Elements and Newton's Principia are thus literature.
All knowledge that reaches us through books is literature. But as I
do not mean, by knowing ancient Rome, knowing merely more or less
of Latin _belles-lettres_, and taking no account of Rome's military,
and political, and legal, and administrative work in the world; and
as, by knowing ancient Greece, I understand knowing her as the giver
of Greek art, and the guide to a free and right use of reason and to
scientific methods, and the founder of our mathematics, and physics,
and astronomy, and biology, I understand knowing her as all this, and
not merely knowing certain Greek poems, and histories, and treatises
and speeches, so as to the knowledge of modern nations also. By knowing
modern nations, I mean not merely knowing their _belles-lettres_, but
knowing also what has been done by such men as Copernicus, Galileo,
Newton, Darwin." I submit this definition of literature by a great
English critic and poet who certainly knew what he was writing about,
to the studious consideration of Principal Grant who, in an address
to the Royal Society two years ago,[53] appeared to have some doubt
that much of its work could be called literature; a doubt that he
forgot for the moment actually consigned to a questionable level also
his many devious utterances and addresses on political, religious and
other questions of the day, and left him entirely out of the ranks
of _littérateurs_ and in a sort of limbo which is a world of neither
divinity, nor politics, nor letters. Taking this definition of the
bright apostle of English culture, I think Canadians can fairly claim
to have some position as a literary people even if it be a relatively
humble one, on account of the work done in history, _belles-lettres_,
political science and the sciences generally Science alone has had
in Canada for nearly half a century many votaries who have won for
themselves high distinction, as the eminent names on the list of
membership of the Royal Society since its foundation can conclusively
show. The literature of science, as studied and written by Canadians,
is remarkably comprehensive, and finds a place in every well furnished
library of the world.

The _doyen_ of science in Canada, Sir William Dawson,[54] we are
all glad to know, is still at work after a long and severe illness,
which was, no doubt, largely due to the arduous devotion of years to
education and science. It is not my intention to refer here to other
well-known names in scientific literature, but I may pause for an
instant to mention the fact that one of the earliest scientific writers
of eminence, who was a Canadian by birth and education, was Mr. Elkanah
Billings,[55] palæontologist and geologist, who contributed his first
papers to the _Citizen_ of Ottawa, then Bytown, afterwards to have
greatness thrown upon it and made the political capital of Canada.



VII.


Here I come naturally to answer the questions that may be put by some
that have not followed the history and the work of the Royal Society
of Canada,--What measure of success has it won? has it been of value
to the Canadian people in whose interests it was established, and
with whose money it is mainly supported? Twelve years have nearly
passed away since a few gentlemen, engaged in literary, scientific and
educational pursuits, assembled at McGill College on the invitation of
the Marquess of Lorne, then governor-general of Canada, to consider the
practicability of establishing a society which would bring together
both the French and English Canadian elements of our population for
purposes of common study and the discussion of such subjects as might
be profitable to the Dominion, and at the same time develop the
literature of learning and science as far as practicable.[56] This
society was to have a Dominion character--to form a union of leading
representatives of all those engaged in literature and science in
the several provinces, with the principle of federation observed
in so far as it asked every society of note in every section to
send delegates to make reports on the work of the year within its
particular sphere. Of the gentlemen who assembled at this interesting
meeting beneath the roof of the learned principal of Montreal's
well-known university, the majority still continue active friends of
the society they aided Lord Lome to found; but I must also add with
deep regret that, within a little more than a year, two of the most
distinguished promoters of the society, Dr. Thomas Sterry Hunt and
Sir Daniel Wilson, have been called from their active and successful
labours in education, science and letters. As I know perhaps better
than any one else, on account of an official connection with the
society from the very hour it was suggested by Lord Lorne, no two
members ever comprehended more thoroughly the useful purpose which
it could serve amid the all-surrounding materialism of this country,
or laboured more conscientiously until the very hour of their death
by their writings and their influence to make the society a Canadian
institution, broad in its scope, liberal in its culture, and elevated
in its aspirations. Without dwelling on the qualifications of two
men[57] whose names are imperishably connected with the work of their
lifetime--archæology, education and chemistry--I may go on to say that
the result of the Montreal meeting was the establishment of a society
which met for the first time at Ottawa in the May of 1882, with a
membership of eighty Fellows under the presidency of Dr. (afterwards
Sir) William Dawson, and the vice-presidency of the Honourable P.
J. O. Chauveau, a distinguished French Canadian who had won a high
name, not only in literature, but also in the political world where
he was for years a conspicuous figure; noted for his eloquence, his
culture and his courtesy of manner. The society was established in no
spirit of isolation from other literary and scientific men because
its membership was confined at the outset to eighty Fellows who had
written "memoirs of merit or rendered eminent services to literature
or science"--a number subsequently increased to a hundred under
certain limitations. On the contrary it asks for, and has constantly
published, contributions from all workers in the same fields of effort
with the simple proviso that such contributions are presented with the
endorsation of an actual member, though they may be read before any one
of the four sections by the author himself. Every association, whether
purely literature or historical, or scientific, as I have already
intimated, has been asked to assist in the work of the society,[58] and
its delegates given every advantage at the meetings possessed by the
Fellows themselves, except voting and discussing the purely internal
affairs of the Royal Society. Some misapprehension appears to have
existed at first in the public mind that, because the society was named
"The Royal Society of Canada," an exclusive and even aristocratic
institution was in contemplation. It seems a little perplexing to
understand why an objection could be taken to such a designation when
the Queen is at the head of our system of government, and her name
appears in the very first clauses of the act of union, and in every
act requiring the exercise of the royal prerogative in this loyal
dependency of the crown. As a fact, in using the title, the desire was
to follow the example of similar societies in Australia, and recall
that famous Royal Society in England, whose fellowship is a title of
nobility in the world of science. Certain features were copied from
the Institute of France, inasmuch as there is a division into sections
with the idea of bringing together into each for the purposes of common
study and discussion those men who have devoted themselves to special
branches of the literature of learning and science. In this country
and, indeed, in America generally, a notable tendency is what may be
called the levelling principle--to deprecate the idea that any man
should be in any way better than another; and in order to prevent that
result it is necessary to assail him as soon as he shows any political
or intellectual merit, and to stop him, if possible, from attaining
that mental superiority above his fellows that his industry and his
ability may enable him to reach. The Royal Society suffered a little
at first from this spirit of depreciation which is often carried to an
extent that one at times could almost believe that this is a country
without political virtues or intellectual development of any kind.
The claims of some of its members were disputed by literary aspirants
who did not happen for a moment to be enrolled in its ranks, and the
society was charged with exclusiveness when, as a fact, it simply
limited its membership, and demanded certain qualifications, with the
desire to make that membership a test of some intellectual effort, and
consequently more prized by those who were allowed sooner or later
to enter. It would have been quite possible for the society to make
itself a sort of literary or scientific picnic by allowing every man
or woman who had, or believed they had, some elementary scientific or
other knowledge to enter its ranks, and have the consequent advantages
of cheap railway fares and other subsidiary advantages on certain
occasions, but its promoters did not think that would best subserve
the special objects they had in view. At all events, none of them
could have been prompted by any desire to create a sort of literary
aristocracy. Indeed, one would like to know how any one in his senses
could believe for a moment that any institution of learning could
be founded with exclusive tendencies in these times, in this or any
other country! If there is an intelligent democracy anywhere it is the
Republic of Letters. It may be aristocratic in the sense that there
are certain men and women who have won fame and stand on a pedestal
above their fellows, but it is the world, not of a class, but of all
ranks and conditions, that has agreed to place them on that pedestal
as a tribute to their genius which has made people happier, wiser and
better, has delighted and instructed the artisan as well as the noble.

For twelve years then the Royal Society has continued to persevere in
its work; and thanks to the encouragement given it by the government of
Canada it has been able, year by year, to publish a large and handsome
volume of the proceedings and transactions of its meetings. No other
country in the world can exhibit volumes more creditable on the whole
in point of workmanship than those of this society. The papers and
monographs that have appeared embrace a wide field of literature--the
whole range of archæological, ethnological, historical, geographical,
biological, mathematical and physical studies. The volumes now are
largely distributed throughout Canada--among the educated and thinking
classes--and are sent to every library, society, university and learned
institution of note in the world, with the hope of making the Dominion
better known. The countries where they are placed for purposes of
reference are these:

  The United States: every State of the Union and District of Columbia,
  Newfoundland,
  Mexico,
  Brazil,
  Costa Rica,
  Uruguay,
  Guatemala,
  Venezuela,
  Chile,
  Peru,
  India,
  Japan,
  Australia,
  New Zealand,
  Great Britain and Ireland,
  Ecuador,
  Italy,
  Greece,
  Norway and Sweden,
  Spain,
  South Africa,
  Germany,
  Roumania,
  Argentine Republic,
  France,
  Russia,
  Austria-Hungary,
  Mauritius,
  Denmark.

So well known are these 'Transactions' now in every country that, when
it happens some library or institution has not received it from the
beginning or has been forgotten in the distribution, the officers of
the society have very soon received an intimation of the fact. This
is gratifying, since it shows that the world of higher literature and
of special research--the world of scholars and scientists engaged in
important observation and investigation--is interested in the work that
is being done in the same branches in this relatively new country.
It would be impossible for me within the limits of this address to
give you anything like an accurate and comprehensive idea of the
numerous papers the subject and treatment of which, even from a largely
practical and utilitarian point of view, have been of decided value to
Canada, and I can only say here that the members of the society have
endeavoured to bring to the consideration of the subjects they have
discussed a spirit of conscientious study and research, and that, too,
without any fee or reward except that stimulating pleasure which work
of an intellectual character always brings to the mind.

In these days of critical comparative science, when the study of the
aboriginal or native languages of this continent has absorbed the
attention of close students, the Royal Society has endeavoured to give
encouragement and currency to those studies by publishing grammars,
vocabularies and other monographs relating to Indian tongues and
antiquities. The Abbé Cuoq, one of the most erudite scholars of this
continent in this special branch of knowledge, has nearly completed
in the 'Transactions' what will be a monumental work of learning on
the Algonquin language. A Haida grammar and dictionary are also now
awaiting the completion of the Abbé Cuoq's work to be published in
the same way. A great deal of light has been thrown on Cartier's and
Champlain's voyages in the gulf, and consequently on its cartography,
by the labours of the Abbé Verreau, Prof. Ganong and others. The
excellent work of the Geological Survey has been supplemented by
important contributions from its staff, and consequently there is to
be found in the 'Transactions' a large amount of information, both
abstract and practical, on the economic and other minerals of the
Dominion. Chiefly owing to the efforts of the society, the government
of Canada some time ago commenced to take tidal observations on the
Atlantic coasts of Canada--an enterprise of great value to the shipping
and commercial interests of the country--and has also co-operated in
the determination of the true longitude of Montreal which is now being
prosecuted under the able superintendence of Professor McLeod. It is
in the same practical spirit of investigation and action that the
society has published a treatise by that veteran scholar, Dr. Moses
Harvey, of St. John's, Newfoundland, on "The Artificial Propagation
of Marine Food-fishes and Edible Crustaceans"; and it is satisfactory
to understand from a statement made in the House of Commons last
session that a question of such deep interest to our great fishing
industry in the maritime provinces is likely to result in some
practical measure in the direction suggested. The contributions of
Sir Daniel Wilson on the "Artistic Faculty in the Aboriginal Races,"
"The Pre-Aryan American Man," "The Trade and Commerce of the Stone
Age," and "The Huron-Iroquois Race in Canada," that typical race of
American Indians, were all intended to supplement in a measure that
scholarly work, "Prehistoric Man," which had brought him fame many
years before. Dr. Patterson of Nova Scotia, a most careful student of
the past, has made valuable contributions to the history of Portuguese
exploration in North American waters, and of that remarkable lost
tribe known as Beothiks or Red Indians of Newfoundland. Sir William
Dawson has contributed to almost every volume of the 'Transactions'
from his stores of geological learning, while his distinguished son
has followed closely in his footsteps, and has made valuable additions
to our knowledge, not only of the geology of the Northwest, but also
of the antiquities, languages and customs of the Indian tribes of
British Columbia and the adjacent islands. The opinions and theories
of Dr. Thomas Sterry Hunt on the "Taconic Question in Geology" and
the "Relations of the Taconic Series to the later Crystalline and the
Cambrian Rocks," were given at length in the earlier volumes. Mr. G.
F. Matthew, of St. John, New Brunswick, who is a very industrious
student, has elaborated a work on the "Fauna of the St. John Group."
Not only have our geological conditions been more fully explained, but
our flora, ferns, and botany generally have been clearly set forth
by Professors Lawson, Macoun and Penhallow. All these and many other
papers of value have been illustrated by expensive plates, generally
executed by Canadian artists. The majority of the names I have just
given happen to be English Canadian, but the French language has
been represented in science by such eminent men as Hamel, Laflamme
and Deville--the two first illustrating the learning and culture of
Laval, so long associated with the best scholarship of the province
of Quebec. Without pursuing the subject further, let me say, as one
who has always endeavoured to keep the interests of the society in
view, that such monographs as I have mentioned represent the practical
value of its work, and show what an important sphere of usefulness
is invariably open to it. The object is not to publish ephemeral
newspaper or magazine articles--that is to say, articles intended for
merely popular information or purely literary practice--but always
those essays and works of moderate compass which illustrate original
research, experiment and investigation in all branches of historical,
archæological, ethnological and scientific studies, and which will
form a permanent and instructive reference library for scholars and
students in the same branches of thought and study all over the
world. In fact, the essays must necessarily be such as cannot be well
published except through the assistance granted by a government, as in
our case, or by the liberality of private individuals. The society,
in fact, is in its way attempting just such work as is done by the
Smithsonian Institute, on a large scale, at Washington, so far as
the publication of important transactions is concerned. I admit that
sometimes essays have appeared, but many more are offered from time
to time, better suited to the periodicals of the day than to the
pages of a work of which the object is to perpetuate the labours of
students and scholars, and not the efforts of the mere literary amateur
or trifler in _belles-lettres_. But while there must be necessarily
such limitations to the scope of the 'Transactions,' which are largely
scientific in their treatment, room will be always made for papers
on any economic, social or ethical subject which, by their acute
reasoning, sound philosophy and originality of thought, demand the
attention of students everywhere. Such literary criticism as finds
place now and then in the dignified old 'Quarterly Review' or in the
'Contemporary' will be printed whenever it is written by any Canadian
author with the same power of keen analysis and judicious appreciation
of the thoughts and motives of an author that we find notably in that
charming study of Tennyson's "Princess," by S. E. Dawson,[59] who is
a Canadian by birth, education and feeling. No doubt there is room in
the Dominion for a magazine combining the features of 'Blackwood,' the
'Contemporary' and the 'Quarterly Review'; that is to say, poetry,
fiction, criticism, reviews of topics of the day, and, in fact,
original literary effort of the higher order, which, though mostly
ephemeral in its character, must have much influence for the time being
on the culture and the education of the public mind. Since the days
of the old 'Canadian Monthly,'[60] which, with all its imperfections,
contained much excellent work, all efforts in the same direction have
been deserving of little encouragement; and, in fact, if such a venture
is to succeed hereafter it must have behind it sufficient capital to
engage the assistance of the best Canadian writers, who now send their
work to American and English periodicals. Such a magazine must be
carefully edited, and not made the dumping-ground for the crude efforts
of literary dabblers or for romantic gush and twaddle, but must be
such a judicious selection of the best Canadian talent as will evoke
comparison with the higher class of periodicals I have mentioned. We
have only one literary paper of merit in this country, and that is
'The Week,' which, despite all the indifference that is too apt to
meet a journal not influenced by party motives, has kept its literary
aim always before it, and endeavoured to do such a work as 'The New
York Nation' has been doing for years under far greater advantages
in the neighbouring country with marked success and ability. In the
meantime, until a magazine of the character I advocate is established,
the 'Transactions of the Royal Society' cannot be expected to occupy
the same ground unless it is prepared to give up that important field
which it and the societies with which it is associated alone can fill
in this country. In one respect, indeed, the Royal Society, in my
opinion--and I have endeavoured to impress it on my fellow-members--can
reach a much larger class of readers than it is now possible by
means of its somewhat formidable though handsomely printed and well
illustrated volumes, which necessarily are confined, for the most part,
to libraries and institutions, where they can be best consulted by
students who find it necessary to inform themselves on such Canadian
subjects as the society necessarily treats. It is quite possible that
by selecting a more convenient form, say royal octavo, and publishing
the purely scientific sections in one volume and the purely literary
department in another, a larger inducement will be given to the public
to purchase its 'Transactions' at a moderate cost and in a more
convenient shape for reading, whenever they contain monographs or large
works in which Canadians generally are interested or on which they
wish special information. Of course, in making this change care must
be taken to maintain the typographical appearance and the character of
the scientific illustrations and the usefulness of the cartography. Not
only may the Royal Society in this way reach a larger reading public,
but it may stimulate the efforts of historic and other writers by
giving them greater facilities for obtaining special editions of their
works for general sale. As it is now, each author obtains a hundred
copies of his paper in pamphlets, sometimes more; and if the form is
now made smaller and more handy, to use a common word, he will be
induced to order a larger edition at his own cost. Even as it is now,
some four or five thousand copies of essays and monographs--in special
cases many more--are annually distributed by authors in addition to
those circulated in the bound volumes of the 'Transactions'; and in
this way any value these works may have is considerably enhanced. If it
should be decided to continue the large form, at all events it will
be in the interest of the society, and of the author of any monograph
or history of more than ordinary value, to print it not only in the
'Transactions' but also in a smaller volume for general circulation.
Practically this would meet the object in view--the larger distribution
of the best work of the section devoted to historical and general
literature. But whether this change is adopted or not,[61] I think the
Royal Society, by showing even still greater zeal and earnestness in
the work for which it was founded, by co-operating with scholars and
students throughout the Dominion, by showing every possible sympathy
with all those engaged in the work of art, culture and education, can
look forward hopefully to the future; and all it asks from the Canadian
public at large is confidence in its work and objects, which are in no
sense selfish or exclusive, but are influenced by a sincere desire to
do what it can to promote historic truth and scientific research, and
give a stimulus in this way to the intellectual development of this
young Dominion, yet in the infancy of its literary life.[F]

[Footnote F: In the course of a speech by the Earl of Derby, in answer
to a farewell address from the Royal Society, he took occasion to make
some remarks with reference to its work and usefulness, which have been
given in full in the Appendix (Note 58_a_) as the impartial opinion
of a governor-general who always took a deep interest in all matters
affecting the intellectual as well as material development of the
Dominion.]



VIII.


This necessarily brief review of the work of the Royal Society could
not well be left out of an address like this; and I can now pass on to
some reflections that occur to me on the general subject.

In the literature of biography, so susceptible of a treatment full of
human interests and sympathies--as chatty Boswell's "Life of Johnson,"
and Lockhart's "Life of Scott," notably illustrate--we have little to
show, except it be the enterprise of publishers and the zeal of too
enthusiastic friends. Nor is it necessary to dwell on the literature
of the law, which is becoming in a measure more of a technical and
less of a learned profession in the larger sense, unless, indeed,
our university schools of political science eventually elevate it
to a wider range of thought. Several excellent books of a purely
technical character have been compiled from year to year, but no Kent,
or Story, or Cooley has yet appeared to instruct us by a luminous
exposition of principle, or breadth of knowledge. Those who know
anything of Dr. Edward Blake's great intellectual power, of his wealth
of legal learning, of his insight into the operations of political
constitutions, cannot deny that he at least could produce a work which
might equal in many respects those of the great Americans here named;
but it looks very much at present as if he, and others I could mention,
will give up their best years to the absorbing and uncertain struggles
of politics, rather than to the literature of that profession to which
they might, under different conditions, raise imperishable memorials.
From the pulpit many of us hear from time to time eloquent and well
reasoned efforts which tell us how much even the class, necessarily
most conservative in its traditions, and confined in its teachings,
has been forced by modern tendencies to enlarge its human sympathies
and widen its intellectual horizon; but the published sermons are
relatively few in number; and while, now and then, at intervals, after
a public celebration, an important anniversary or ceremonial, or as a
sequence of a controversy on the merits or demerits of creed or dogma,
we see a pile of pamphlets on the counter of a bookstore, we do not
hear of any printed book of sermons that appears to have entered of
recent years into the domain of human thought and discussion in the
great world beyond our territorial limits.

I shall not attempt to dwell at any length on the intellectual standard
of our legislative bodies, but shall confine myself to a few general
observations that naturally suggest themselves to an observer of our
political conditions. Now, as in all times of our history, political
life claims many strong, keen and cultured intellects, although it is
doubtful whether the tendency of our democratic institutions is to
encourage the most highly educated organizations to venture, or remain,
should once they venture, in the agitated and unsafe sea of political
passion and controversy. The first parliament of the Dominion, and the
first legislatures of the provinces, which met after the federal union
of 1867, when the system of dual representation was permissible--a
system whose advantages are more obvious now--brought into public
life the most brilliant and astute intellects of Canada, and it will
probably be a long time before we shall again see assemblages so
distinguished for oratory, humour and intellectual power. A federal
system was, doubtless, the only one feasible under the racial and
natural conditions that met the Quebec Conference of 1864; but, while
admitting its political necessity, we cannot conceal from ourselves
the fact that the great drain its numerous legislative bodies and
governments make upon the mental resources of a limited population--a
drain increased by the abolition of dual representation--is calculated
to weaken our intellectual strength in our legislative halls, when
a legislative union would in the nature of things concentrate that
strength in one powerful current of activity and thought. A population
of five millions of people has to provide not only between six and
seven hundred representatives, who must devote a large amount of
time to the public service for inadequate compensation, but also
lieutenant-governors, judges and high officials, holding positions
requiring intellectual qualifications as well as business capacity if
they are properly filled. Apart from these considerations, it must
be remembered that the opportunities of acquiring wealth and success
in business or professional vocations have naturally increased with
the material development of the Dominion, and that men of brains
have consequently even less inducement than formerly to enter on the
uncertain and too often ungrateful pursuit of politics. We have also
the danger before us that it will be with us, as it is in the United
States and even in England under the new conditions that are rapidly
developing there; the professional politician, who is too often the
creation of factions and cliques, and the lower influences of political
intrigue and party management, will be found, as time passes, more
common in our legislative halls, to the detriment of those higher
ideals that should be the animating principles of public life in
this young country, whose future happiness and greatness depend so
much on the present methods of party government. Be all this as it
may be, one may still fairly claim for our legislative bodies that
their intellectual standard can compare favourably with that of the
Congress at Washington or the state legislatures of Massachusetts and
New England generally. After all, it is not for brilliant intellectual
pyrotechnics we should now so much look to the legislative bodies of
Canada, but rather for honesty of purpose, keen comprehension of the
public interests, and a business capacity which can grasp the actual
material wants and necessities of a country which has to face the
competition, and even opposition, of a great people full of industrial
as well as intellectual energy.

Nowhere in this review have I claimed for this country any very
striking results in the course of the half century since which we have
shown so much political and material activity. I cannot boast that we
have produced a great poem or a great history which has attracted the
attention of the world beyond us, and assuredly we find no noteworthy
attempt in the direction of a novel of our modern life; but what I do
claim is, looking at the results generally, the work we have done has
been sometimes above the average in those fields of literature--and
here I include, necessarily, science--in which Canadians have worked.
They have shown in many productions a conscientious spirit of research,
patient industry, and not a little literary skill in the management
of their material. I think, on the whole, there have been enough
good poems, histories and essays written and published in Canada for
the last four or five decades to prove that there has been a steady
intellectual growth on the part of our people, and that it has kept
pace at all events with the mental growth in the pulpit, or in the
legislative halls, where, of late years, a keen practical debating
style has taken the place of the more rhetorical and studied oratory
of old times. I believe the intellectual faculties of Canadians only
require larger opportunities for their exercise to bring forth a
rich fruition. I believe the progress in the years to come will be
far greater than that we have yet shown, and that necessarily so,
with the wider distribution of wealth, the dissemination of a higher
culture, and a greater confidence in our own mental strength, and in
the resources that this country offers to pen and pencil. The time
will come when that great river, associated with memories of Cartier,
Champlain, La Salle, Frontenac, Wolfe and Montcalm,--that river already
immortalized in history by the pen of Parkman--will be as noted in song
and story as the Rhine, and will have its Irving to make it as famous
as the lovely Hudson.

Of course there are many obstacles in the way of successful literary
pursuits in Canada. Our population is still small, and separated into
two distinct nationalities, who for the most part necessarily read
books printed in their own tongue. A book published in Canada then has
a relatively limited _clientèle_ in the country itself, and cannot
meet much encouragement from publishers in England or in the United
States who have advantages for placing their own publications which no
Canadian can have under existing conditions. Consequently an author
of ambition and merit should perforce look for publishers outside his
own country if he is to expect anything like just appreciation, or to
have a fair chance of reaching that literary world which alone gives
fame in the true sense. It must be admitted too that so much inferior
work has at times found its way from Canada to other countries that
publishers are apt to look askance at a book when it is offered to
them from the colonies. Still, while this may at times operate against
making what is a fairly good bargain with the publisher--and many
authors, of course, believe with reason that a publisher, as a rule,
never makes a good bargain with an author, and certainly not with a new
one--a good book will sooner or later assert itself whenever Canadians
write such a book. Let Canadians then persevere conscientiously and
confidently in their efforts to break through the indifference which at
present tends to cramp their efforts and dampen their energy. It is a
fashion with some colonial writers to believe that there is a settled
determination on the part of English critics to ignore their best
work, when, perhaps, in the majority of cases it is the lack of good
work that is at fault. Such a conclusion sometimes finds an argument
in the fact that, when so able a Canadian as Edward Blake enters the
legislative halls of England, some ill-natured critic, who represents
a spirit of insular English snobbery, has only a sneer for "this
Canadian lawyer" who had better "stay at home," and not presume to
think that he, a mere colonist, could have anything to say in matters
affecting the good government of the British Empire. But the time has
long since passed for sneers at colonial self-government or colonial
intellect, and we are more likely hereafter to have a Canadian House of
Commons held up as a model of decorum for so-called English gentlemen.
Such able and impartial critical journals as _The Athenæum_ are more
ready to welcome than ignore a good book in these days of second-rate
literature in England itself. If we produce such a good book as Mrs.
Campbell Praed's "Australian Life," or Tasma's "Uncle Piper of Piper's
Hill," we may be sure the English papers will do us justice. Let me
frankly insist that we have far too much hasty and slovenly literary
work done in Canada. The literary canon which every ambitious writer
should have ever in his mind has been stated by no less an authority
than Sainte-Beuve: "Devoted to my profession as a critic, I have tried
to be more and more a good and if possible an able workman." A good
style means artistic workmanship. It is too soon for us in this country
to look for a Matthew Arnold or a Sainte-Beuve--such great critics are
generally the results, and not the forerunners, of a great literature;
but at least if we could have in the present state of our intellectual
development, a criticism in the press which would be truthful and
just, the essential characteristics of the two authors I have named,
the effect would be probably in the direction of encouraging promising
writers, and weeding out some literary dabblers. "What I have wished,"
said the French critic, "is to say not a word more than I thought, to
stop even a little short of what I believed in certain cases, in order
that my words might acquire more weight as historical testimony." Truth
tempered by consideration for literary genius is the essence of sound
criticism.

We all know that the literary temperament is naturally sensitive to
anything like indifference and is too apt, perhaps, to exaggerate
the importance of its calling in the prosaic world in which it is
exercised. The pecuniary rewards are so few, relatively, in this
country, that the man of imaginative mind--the purely literary
worker--naturally thinks that he can, at least, ask for generous
appreciation. No doubt he thinks, to quote a passage from a clever
Australian novel--"The Australian Girl"--"Genius has never been truly
acclimatized by the world. The Philistines always long to put out
the eyes of poets and make them grind corn in Gaza." But it is well
always to remember that a great deal of rough work has to be done in a
country like Canada before its Augustan age can come. No doubt literary
stimulus must be more or less wanting in a colony where there is latent
at times in some quarters a want of self-confidence in ourselves and in
our institutions, arising from that sense of dependency and habit of
imitation and borrowing from others that is a necessity of a colonial
condition. The tendency of the absence of sufficient self-assertion is
to cramp intellectual exertion, and make us believe that success in
literature can only be achieved in the old countries of Europe. That
spirit of all-surrounding materialism to which Lowell has referred
must also always exercise a certain sinister influence in this way--an
influence largely exerted in Ontario--but despite all this we see
that even among our neighbours it has not prevented the growth of a
literary class famous for its intellectual successes in varied fields
of literature. It is for Canadian writers to have always before them a
high ideal, and remember that literature does best its duty--to quote
the eloquent words of Ruskin--"in raising our fancy to the height of
what may be noble, honest and felicitous in actual life; in giving
us, though we may be ourselves poor and unknown, the companionship
of the wisest spirits of every age and country, and in aiding the
communication of clear thoughts and faithful purposes among distant
nations, which will at last breathe calm upon the sea of lawless
passion and change into such halcyon days the winter of the world, that
the birds of the air may have their nests in peace and the Son of Man
where to lay his head."



IX.


Largely, if not entirely, owing to the expansion of our common
school system--admirable in Ontario and Nova Scotia, but defective
in Quebec--and the influence of our universities and colleges, the
average intelligence of the people of this country is much higher
than it was a very few years ago; but no doubt it is with us as with
our neighbours--to quote the words of an eminent public speaker whose
brilliancy sometimes leads one to forget his higher criticism--I
refer to Dr. Chauncey Depew--"Speed is the virtue and vice of our
generation. We demand that morning-glories and century plants shall
submit to the same conditions and flower with equal frequency." Even
some of our universities from which we naturally expect so much seem
disposed from time to time to lower their standard and yield too
readily to the demand for purely practical education when, after all,
the great reason of all education is to draw forth the best qualities
of the young man, elevate his intelligence, and stimulate his highest
intellectual forces. The animating principle with the majority of
people is to make a young man a doctor, a lawyer, an engineer, or teach
him some other vocation as soon as possible, and the tendency is to
consider any education that does not immediately effect that result
as superfluous. Whilst every institution of learning must necessarily
yield something to this pervading spirit of immediate utility, it would
be a mistake to sacrifice all the methods and traditions of the past
when sound scholars at least were made, and the world had so many men
famous in learning, in poetry, in romance, and in history. For one I
range myself among those who, like James Russell Lowell and Matthew
Arnold, still consider the conscientious and intelligent study of the
ancient classics--the humanities as they are called--as best adapted
to create cultured men and women, and as the noblest basis on which
to build up even a practical education with which to earn bread and
capture the world. Goldwin Smith very truly says, "A romantic age
stands in need of science, a scientific and utilitarian age stands in
need of the humanities."[62] The study of Greek, above all others of
the humanities, is calculated to stimulate the higher qualities of
our nature. As Matthew Arnold adds in the same discourse from which
I have quoted, "The instinct for beauty is set in human nature, as
surely as the instinct for knowledge is set there, or the instinct for
conduct. If the instinct for beauty is served by Greek literature and
art as it is served by no other literature or art, we may trust to the
instinct of self-preservation in humanity for keeping Greek as part
of our culture." With the same great critic and thinker, I hope that
in Canada "Greek will be increasingly studied as men feel the need in
them for beauty, and how powerfully Greek art and Greek literature
can serve this need." We are as respects the higher education of this
country in that very period which Arnold saw ahead for America--"a
period of unsettlement and confusion and false tendency"--a tendency
to crowd into education too many matters; and it is for this reason
I venture to hope that letters will not be allowed to yield entirely
to the necessity for practical science, the importance of which I
fully admit, while deprecating it being made the dominant principle in
our universities. If we are to come down to the lower grades of our
educational system I might also doubt whether despite all its decided
advantages for the masses--its admirable machinery and apparatus, its
comfortable school-houses, its varied systematic studies from form to
form and year to year, its well managed normal and model schools, its
excellent teachers--there are not also signs of superficiality. The
tendency of the age is to become rich fast, to get as much knowledge
as possible within a short time, and the consequence of this is to
spread far too much knowledge over a limited ground--to give a child
too many subjects, and to teach him a little of everything. These are
days of many cyclopædias, historical summaries, scientific digests,
reviews of reviews, French in a few lessons, and interest tables.
All is digested and made easy to the student. Consequently not a
little of the production of our schools and of some of our colleges
may be compared to a veneer of knowledge, which easily wears off in
the activities of life, and leaves the roughness of the original and
cheaper material very perceptible. One may well believe that the
largely mechanical system and materialistic tendency of our education
has some effect in checking the development of a really original and
imaginative literature among us. Much of our daily literature--indeed
the chief literary aliment of large classes of our busy population
is the newspaper press, which illustrates in many ways the haste and
pressure of this life of ours in a country of practical needs like
Canada. When we consider the despatch with which a large newspaper has
to be made up, how reports are caught on the wing and published without
sufficient verification, how editorials have to be written _currente
calamo_, and often after midnight when important despatches come in, we
may well wonder that the daily issue of a newspaper is so well done.
With the development of confederation the leading Canadian papers
have taken, through the influence of the new condition of things, a
larger range of thought and expression, and the gross personalities
which so frequently discredited the press before 1867 have now become
the exception. If I might refer to an old and enterprising paper as
an example of the new order of things, I should point to the Toronto
_Globe_ under its present editorial management and compare it with
two or three decades ago. It will be seen there is a deeper deference
to an intelligent public opinion by an acknowledgment of the right
of a community to hear argument and reason even on matters of party
politics, and to have fair reports of speeches on both sides of
a question. In point of appearance, make-up, and varied literary
matter--especially in its literary department, its criticisms of
new books in all branches of literature--the Australasian press is
decidedly superior to that of Canada as a rule. The Melbourne _Argus_
and the Sydney _Herald_ compare with the best London journals, and
the reason is mainly because there is no country press in Australia
to limit the enterprise and energy of a newspaper publisher. Perhaps
it is as well for the general instruction of a community like ours
that there should be a large and active country press, and the people
not too much under the guidance of a few great journals in important
centres of political thought and action. For one I have more faith
in the good sense and reason of the community as a whole than in the
motives and disinterestedness of a few leaders in one or more cities
or towns. But I must also add that when we consider the influence a
widely disseminated press like that of Canada must exercise on the
opinions and sentiments of the large body of persons of whom it is
the principal or only literature, one must wish that there was more
independence of thought and honesty of criticism as well as a greater
willingness, or capacity rather, to study a high ideal on the part of
the press generally. However improved the tone of the Canadian press
may have become of late years, however useful it may be as a daily
record of passing events--of course, outside of party politics--however
ably it may discuss in its editorial columns the topics of the day,
it is not yet an influence always calculated to strengthen the mind
and bring out the best intellectual faculties of a reader like a book
which is the result of calm reflection, sound philosophic thought,
originality of idea, or the elevated sentiment of the great poet or
the historian. As a matter of fact a newspaper is too often in Canada
a reflex of the average rather than of the higher intelligence of the
country, and on no other ground can we explain the space devoted to
a football match, or a prize fight, or a murder trial, or degrading
incidents in the criminal life of men and women. For one, I am an
admirer of athletic and other sports calculated to develop health and
muscle, as long as they are not pursued to extremes, do not become the
end and aim of youth, or allowed to degenerate into brutality. All of
us do not forget the great influence of the Olympian, the Pythian and
other public games on the Greek character when the land was "living
Greece" indeed; but we must also remember that art and song had a part
in those contests of athletes, that they even inspired the lyric odes
of Pindar, that the poet there recited his drama or epic, the painter
exhibited his picture, and the intellectual was made a part of the
physical struggle in those palmy days of Greek culture. I have not yet
heard that any Canadian poet or painter or historian has ever been so
honoured, or asked to take part in those athletic games and sports to
which our public journals devote a number of pages which have not yet
been set apart for Canadian or any literature. The newspaper reporter
is nowadays the only representative of literature in our Pythia or
Olympia, and he assuredly cannot be said to be a Pindaric singer when
he exalts the triumphs of lacrosse or the achievements of the baseball
champion.



X.


In drawing to a conclusion I come now to refer to a subject which is
naturally embraced in an address intended to review the progress of
culture in this country, and that is what should have, perhaps, been
spoken of before, the condition of Art in the Dominion. As our public
libraries[63] are small compared with those in the neighbouring union,
and confined to three or four cities--Montreal being in some respects
behind Toronto--so our public and private art galleries are very few
in number and insignificant as respects the value and the greatness
of the paintings. Even in the House of Commons, not long since,
regret was expressed at the smallness of the Dominion contribution,
one thousand dollars only, for the support of a so-called National
Art Gallery at Ottawa, and the greater part of this paltry sum, it
appeared, went to pay, not the addition of good paintings, but actually
the current expenses of keeping it up. Hopes were thrown out by more
than one member of the government, in the course of the discussion
on the subject, that ere long a much larger amount would be annually
voted to make the gallery more representative of the best Canadian
art, and it was very properly suggested that it should be the rule
to purchase a number of Canadian pictures regularly every year, and
in this way stimulate the talent of our artists. Montreal at present
has one fairly good museum of art, thanks to the liberality of two
or three of her rich men, but so public spirited a city as Toronto,
which numbers among its citizens a number of artists of undoubted
merit, is conspicuous for its dearth of good pictures even in private
collections, and for the entire absence of any public gallery. In
Montreal there are also some very valuable and representative paintings
of foreign artists in the residences of her wealthy men of business;
but whilst it is necessary that we should have brought to this country
from time to time such examples of artistic genius to educate our
own people for better things, it is still desirable that Canadian
millionaires and men of means and taste should encourage the best
efforts of our own artists. It is said sometimes--and there is some
truth in the remark--that Canadian art hitherto has been imitative
rather than creative; but while we have pictures like those of L. R.
O'Brien, W. Brymner, F. A. Verner, O. R. Jacobi, George Reid, F. M.
Bell-Smith, Homer Watson, W. Raphael, Robert Harris, C. M. Manly, J. W.
L. Forster, A. D. Patterson, Miss Bell, Miss Muntz, J. Pinhey, J. C.
Forbes, Paul Peel--a young man of great promise too soon cut off--and
of other excellent painters,[64][G] native born or adopted Canadians,
illustrating in many cases, as do those of Mr. O'Brien notably, the
charm and picturesqueness of Canadian scenery, it would seem that
only sufficient encouragement is needed to develop a higher order of
artistic performance among us. The Marquess of Lorne and the Princess
Louise, during their too short residence in the Dominion, did something
to stimulate a larger and better taste for art by the establishment of
a Canadian Academy and the holding of several exhibitions; but such
things can be of little practical utility if Canadians do not encourage
the artists who are to contribute. It is to be hoped that the same
spirit of generosity which is yearly building commodious science halls,
and otherwise giving our universities additional opportunities for
usefulness, will also ere long establish at least one fine art gallery
in each of the older provinces, to illustrate not simply English
and Foreign art, but the most original and highly executed work of
Canadians themselves. Such galleries are so many object lessons--like
that wondrous "White City" which has arisen by a western lake as
suddenly as the palaces of eastern story--to educate the eye, form the
taste and develop the higher faculties of our nature amid the material
surroundings of our daily life. No doubt the creative and imaginative
faculties of our people have not yet been developed to any noteworthy
extent; the poems and paintings of native Canadians too frequently
lack, and the little fiction so far written is entirely destitute of
the essential elements of successful and permanent work in art and
literature. But the deficiency in this respect has arisen not from
the poverty of Canadian intellect, but rather from the absence of
that general distribution of wealth on which art can alone thrive, the
consequent want of galleries to cultivate a taste among the people for
the best artistic productions, and above all from the existence of that
spirit of intellectual self-depreciation which is essentially colonial,
and leads not a few to believe that no good work of this kind can be
done in mere dependencies.

The exhibition of American art at the world's fair is remarkable on
the whole for individual expression, excellent colour and effective
composition. It proves to a demonstration that the tendency is
progressive, and that it is not too much to expect that a few decades
hence this continent will produce a Corot, a Daubigny, a Bonnat, a
Bouguereau or a Millais. Not the least gratifying feature of the
exhibition has been the revelation to the foreign world--and probably
to many Canadians as well--that there is already some artistic
performance of a much higher order than was believed to exist in
Canada, and that it has been adjudged worthy of special mention among
the masterpieces that surround the paintings of our artists. This
success, very moderate as it is, must stimulate Canadian painters to
still greater efforts in the future, and should help to create a wider
interest in their work among our own people, heretofore too indifferent
to the labours of men and women, whose rewards have been small in
comparison with the conscientiousness and earnestness they have given
to the prosecution of their art.

The opportunities which Canadian artists have had of comparing their
own work with that of the most artistic examples at the exhibition
should be beneficial if they have made of them the best possible
use. American and French art was particularly well represented at
the exhibition, and was probably most interesting from a Canadian
point of view, since our artists would naturally make comparisons
with their fellow-workers on this continent, and at the same time
closely study the illustrations of those French schools which now
attract the greater number of students from this country, and have
largely influenced--perhaps too much so at times--the later efforts of
some well-known painters among us. A writer in the New York _Nation_
has made some comparisons between the best works of the artists of
France and the United States, which are supported by the testimony
of critics who are able to speak with authority on the subject. The
French notably excel "in seriousness of purpose and general excellence
of work from a technical point of view, especially in the thorough
knowledge of construction in both the figure and landscape pictures."
On the other hand, the artists of the United States "show more
diversity of aim and individuality of expression, as well as colour
feeling." Some two or three Canadian artists give examples of those
very qualities--especially in their landscapes--which, according to
the New York critic, distinguish the illustrations of the art of the
United States. As a rule, however, there is a want of individuality
of expression, and of perfection of finish, in the work of Canadian
artists, as even their relatively imperfect representation at Chicago
has shown. The tendency to be imitative rather than creative is too
obvious. Canadian painters show even a readiness to leave their own
beautiful and varied scenery that they may portray that of other
countries, and in doing so they have ceased in many cases to be
original. But despite these defects, there is much hope in the general
performance of Canadians even without that encouragement and sympathy
which the artists of the United States have in a larger measure
been able to receive in a country of greater wealth, population and
intellectual culture.

Not only does the exhibition of paintings in the world's fair make one
very hopeful of the future artistic development of this continent,
but the beauty of the architectural design of the noble buildings
which contain the treasures of art and industry, and of the decorative
figures and groups of statuary that embellish these buildings and the
surrounding grounds, is a remarkable illustration of the artistic
genius that has produced so exquisite an effect in general, whatever
defects there may be in minor details. A critic in the July number
of the 'Quarterly Review,' while writing "in the presence of these
lovely temples, domes, and colonnades under the burning American sky
which adds a light and a transparency to all it rests upon," cannot
help echoing the regret that this vision of beauty is but for a
season, and expressing the hope that some one of the American money
kings "may perpetuate his name on marble, by restoring, on the edge
of this immense capital, amid parks and waters, that great central
square which, were it only built of enduring materials, would stand
without a rival in modern architecture." Perhaps the fine arts in the
Dominion--where sculpture would be hardly heard of were it not for the
French Canadian Hébert--may themselves even gain some stimulus from the
examples of a higher conception of artistic achievement that is shown
by this exhibition to exist in a country where a spirit of materialism
has obtained the mastery so long. Canadian architecture hitherto has
not been distinguished for originality of design--much more than art
it has been imitative. In Montreal and Quebec the old buildings which
represent the past have no architectural beauty, however interesting
they may be to the antiquarian or the historian, and however well many
of them harmonize with the heights of picturesque Quebec. Montreal
is assuredly the most interesting city from an architectural point
of view in Canada, simply for the reason that its architects have,
as a rule, studied that effect of solidity and simplicity of design
most in keeping with the grand mountain and the natural scenery that
give such picturesqueness to an exceptionally noble site. While we
see all over Canada--from Victoria on the Pacific to Halifax on the
Atlantic[64_a_][H]--the evidences of greater comfort, taste and wealth
in our private and public buildings, while we see many elaborate
specimens of ecclesiastical art, stately piles of legislative halls,
excellent specimens of Gothic and Tudor art in our colleges, expensive
commercial and financial structures, and even civic palaces, yet
they are often illustrative of certain well defined and prevalent
types of architecture in the eastern and western cities of the United
States. It cannot be said that Canada has produced an architect of
original genius like Henry Hobson Richardson, who was cut off in the
commencement of his career, but not before he had given the continent
some admirable specimens of architectural art, in which his study of
the Romanesque was specially conspicuous, and probably led the way to a
higher ideal which has reached some realization in the city which must
too soon disappear like the fabric of a vision, though one can well
believe that, unlike a dream, it will leave a permanent impress on the
intellectual development of the people who have conceived an exhibition
so creditable from a purely artistic point of view.

[Footnote G: Some extended notes on the artists of Canada and their
work appear in the Appendix, note 64.]

[Footnote H: See in Appendix 64_a_ references to our notable public
edifices.]



XI.


The Dominion of Canada possesses a noble heritage which has descended
to us as the result of the achievement of Frenchmen, Englishmen,
Scotchmen, and Irishmen, who through centuries of trial and privation,
showed an indomitable courage, patience and industry which it is our
duty to imitate with the far greater opportunities we now enjoy of
developing the latent material and intellectual resources of this fair
land. Possessing a country rich in natural treasures and a population
inheriting the institutions, the traditions and qualities of their
ancestors, having a remarkable capacity for self-government, enjoying
exceptional facilities for the acquisition of knowledge, having before
us always the record of difficulties overcome against great odds in
endeavouring to establish ourselves on this continent, we may well in
the present be animated by the spirit of hope, rather than by that
feeling of despair which some despondent thinkers and writers have
too frequently on their lips when it is a question of the destiny
in store for Canada. In the course of the coming decades--perhaps
in four or five, or less--Canada will probably have determined her
destiny--her position among the communities of the world; and, for
one, I have no doubt the results will be far more gratifying to our
national pride than the results of even the past thirty years, when we
have been laying broad and deep the foundations of our present system
of government. We have reason to believe that the material success of
this confederation will be fully equalled by the intellectual efforts
of a people who have sprung from nations whose not least enduring
fame has been the fact that they have given to the world of letters a
Shakespeare, a Molière, a Montesquieu, a Balzac, a Dickens, a Dudevant,
a Tennyson, a Victor Hugo, a Longfellow, a Hawthorne, a Théophile
Gauthier, and many other names that represent the best literary genius
of the English and French races. All the evidence before us now goes
to prove that the French language will continue into an indefinite
future to be the language of a large and influential section of the
population of Canada, and that it must consequently exercise a decided
influence on the culture and intellect of the Dominion. It has been
within the last four decades that the best intellectual work--both in
literature and statesmanship--has been produced in French and English
Canada, and the signs of intellectual activity in the same direction do
not lessen with the expansion of the Dominion. The history of England
from the day the Norman came into the island until he was absorbed
in the original Saxon element, is not likely to be soon repeated in
Canada, but in all probability the two nationalities will remain side
by side for an unknown period to illustrate on the northern half of
the continent of America the culture and genius of the two strongest
and brightest powers of civilization. As both of these nationalities
have vied with each other in the past to build up this confederation
on a large and generous basis of national strength and greatness, and
have risen time and again superior to those racial antagonisms created
by differences of opinion at great crises of our history--antagonisms
happily dispelled by the common sense, reason and patriotism of men of
both races--so we should in the future hope for that friendly rivalry
on the part of the best minds among French and English Canadians which
will best stimulate the genius of their people in art, history, poetry
and romance. In the meantime, while this confederation is fighting
its way out of its political difficulties, and resolving wealth and
refinement from the original and rugged elements of a new country,
it is for the respective nationalities not to stand aloof from one
another, but to unite in every way possible for common intellectual
improvement, and give sympathetic encouragement to the study of the
two languages and to the mental efforts of each other. It was on this
enlightened principle of sympathetic interest that the Royal Society
was founded and on which alone it can expect to obtain any permanent
measure of success. If the English and French always endeavour to
meet each other on this friendly basis in all the communities where
they live side by side as well as on all occasions that demand
common thought and action and cultivate that social and intellectual
intercourse which may at all events weld them both as one in spirit
and aspiration, however different they may continue in language and
temperament, many prejudices must be removed, social life must gain
in charm, and intellect must be developed by finding strength where
it is weak, and grace where it is needed in the mental efforts of the
two races. If in addition to this widening of the sympathies of our
two national elements, we can see in the Dominion generally less of
that provincialism which means a narrowness of mental vision on the
part of our literary aspirants, and prevents Canadian authors reaching
a larger audience in other countries, then we shall rise superior to
those weaknesses of our intellectual character which now impede our
mental development, and shall be able to give larger scope to what
original and imaginative genius may exist among our people. So with
the expansion of our mental horizon, with the growth of experience
and knowledge, with the creation of a wider sympathy for native
talent, with the disappearance of that tendency to self-depreciation
which is so essentially colonial, and with the encouragement of more
self-reliance and confidence in our own intellectual resources, we may
look forward with some degree of hopefulness to conditions of higher
development, and to the influence on our national character of what can
best elevate Canadians and make them even happier and wiser,

      "The love of country, soaring far above all party strife;
      The love of learning, art and song,--the crowning grace of
                life."[65]



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, ART AND GENERAL NOTES.


LOWELL'S ADDRESSES.

[Footnote 1: Page 1.--See "Democracy, and Other Addresses," by James
Russell Lowell (Boston and New York, 1887) pp. 235-237. The address
at the Harvard Anniversary, from which I quote in the commencement of
the text, should be carefully read and studied by all those who are
interested in education and culture in the Dominion, and do not wish
to see the classics superseded by purely scientific and utilitarian
theories. "Leave," he said, for instance, "in their traditional
pre-eminence those arts that were rightly called liberal; those studies
that kindle the imagination, and through it irradiate the reason:
those studies that manumitted the modern mind; those in which the
brains of the finest temper have found alike their stimulus and their
repose, taught by them that the power of intellect is heightened in
proportion as it is made gracious by measure and symmetry. Give us
science, too, but give, first of all and last of all, the science that
ennobles life and makes it generous.... Many-sidedness of culture makes
your vision clearer and keener in particulars. For, after all, the
noblest definition of Science is that breadth and impartiality of view
which liberates the mind from specialties, and enables it to organize
whatever we learn, so that it becomes real Knowledge by being brought
into true and helpful relation with the rest."]


JAMESTOWN, VA.

[Footnote 2: Page 3.--"Nothing remains of this famous settlement but
the ruins of a church tower covered with ivy, and some old tombstones.
The tower is crumbling year by year, and the roots of trees have
cracked the slabs, making great rifts across the names of the old
Armigers and Honourables. The place is desolate with its washing waves
and flitting sea-fowl, but possesses a singular attraction. It is one
of the few localities which recall the first years of American history;
but it will not recall them much longer. Every distinctive feature of
the spot is slowly disappearing. The river encroaches year by year, and
the ground occupied by the original huts is already submerged." Cooke's
"Virginia" ('American Commonwealths,' 1884), p. 19.]


CHAMPLAIN.

[Footnote 3: Page 6.--Editions of Champlain's works appeared at Paris
in 1603, 1613, 1619, 1620, 1627, 1632 and 1640; at Quebec in 1830 and
1870. An English translation was published by the Prince Society of
Boston in 1878-80. The Abbé Laverdière's edition, in six volumes, 4to.,
(Quebec, 1870), is the most perfect modern publication of the works.
It printed for the first time the text of the voyage of 1599-1601.
For bibliographical notes of Champlain's works see Bourinot's "Cape
Breton," 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. ix., Sec. II., App. VIII. (also
in separate form, Montreal, 1892); Winsor's 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,'
iv., 130-134; Harrisse's "Notes sur la bibliographie de la Nouvelle
France."

French Canadian writers like Garneau and Ferland have exhausted the
language of eulogy in describing the character and life of Samuel
Champlain, but no one who follows his career can doubt the truth of
this latest tribute to the French colonizer of Canada by Dr. N.
E. Dionne in "Samuel Champlain, fondateur de Québec et père de la
Nouvelle France: Histoire de sa vie et de ses voyages," Québec, 1891:
"Il possédait à un haut degré le génie colonisateur, et c'est dans ce
rôle, si difficile de tout temps, qu'il fit preuve de sagesse et de
clairvoyance, et dans le choix des colons, et dans la direction qu'il
sut imprimer à leurs premiers efforts. L'intelligence de Champlain
se révèle dans de nombreux écrits, où l'observateur judicieux et
pénétrant coudoie le savant et le marin aussi hardi qu'expérimenté.
Comme cosmographe il a eu l'immense mérite d'avoir surpassé tous ses
devanciers, par l'abondance des descriptions et l'agencement heureux
des données géographiques. C'est un nouveau titre de gloire que l'on
doit ajouter à sa couronne resplendissante de tant de rayons lumineux.
Plusieurs historiens, même de ceux qui ne comptent pas parmi les
admirateurs des œuvres françaises, lui out rendu le témoignage d'avoir
fait entrer la science cartographique dans une nouvelle ère de progrès.
Naturaliste, géographe, marin, cosmographe; Champlain était tout cela
à la fois, et dans une mesure hautement remarquable pour l'epoque où
il vivait.... Pas un gouverneur sous l'ancien régime n'a donné d'aussi
grands exemples de foi, de piété, et de droiture d'intention."

It is Captain John Smith of Virginia who, among the colonizers of
America, can best compare with the founder of Quebec. The following
estimate of his character, given by the historian George Bancroft (i.,
138-139, ed. of 1866), could be applied in almost every particular to
the Frenchman; all we need do is to read "New France" for "Virginia,"
"French" for "Saxon," "France" for "England," etc.: "He was the
father of Virginia, the true leader who first planted the Saxon race
within the borders of the United States. His judgment had ever been
clear in the midst of general despondency. He united the highest
spirit of adventure with consummate powers of action. His courage and
self-possession accomplished what others esteemed desperate. Fruitful
in expedients, he was prompt in execution. Though he had been harassed
by the persecutions of malignant envy, he never revived the memory of
the faults of his enemies. He was accustomed to lead, not to send his
men to danger; would suffer want rather than borrow, and starve sooner
than not pay. He had nothing counterfeit in his nature, but was open,
honest and sincere. He clearly discerned that it was the true interest
of England not to seek in Virginia for gold and hidden wealth, but to
enforce regular industry. 'Nothing,' said he, 'is to be expected thence
but by labour.'"]


LESCARBOT.

[Footnote 4: Page 6.--Editions of Lescarbot's "Histoire de la Nouvelle
France" appeared at Paris in 1609, 1611, 1617 and 1618; but the most
complete and available modern copy is that printed by Tross in three
volumes (Paris, 1866). For bibliographical notes of Lescarbot's works
see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv., 149-151; Harrisse's "Notes."]


CHARLEVOIX.

[Footnote 5: Page 6.--Editions of Charlevoix's "Histoire et description
générale de la Nouvelle France," etc., appeared at Paris in 1744,
three volumes, 4to., and six volumes in 12mo., with maps. Dr. Shea's
admirable English version and annotations were printed at New York in
six handsome volumes, 1866-1872. For bibliographical notes see 'Nar.
and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv., 154, 358.]


HUTCHINSON'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 6: Page 6.--For bibliography of Thomas Hutchinson's excellent
"History of Massachusetts Bay" (Boston, 1749, 1767, 1795; London, 1750,
1768, 1828, three volumes), see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iii., 344.
He was royal governor of the province, 1770-72, and died near London in
1789.]


SAGARD.

[Footnote 7: Page 6.--Editions of Sagard's works, "Le Grand Voyage,"
etc., appeared at Paris in 1632 and 1636, but Tross printed admirable
copies at Paris in 1864-66. Charlevoix has not a favourable judgment
of Sagard; but no doubt, while he is diffuse, he gives an excellent
insight into Indian life and customs. For bibliographical notes see
'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv., 290-291; Harrisse's "Notes."]


P. BOUCHER.

[Footnote 8: Page 6.--Pierre Boucher's "Mœurs et productions de
la Nouvelle France" appeared at Paris in 1664 (sm. 12mo.), and is
described by Charlevoix as a faithful, if superficial, account of
Canada. For bibliographical notes, see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv.,
298; Harrisse's "Notes."]


JESUIT RELATIONS.

[Footnote 9: Page 6.--The Canadian Government published at Quebec
in 1858, in three large 8vo. volumes, a series of the "Relations,"
from 1611-1672, and supplemental or complemental issues of allied and
later "Relations" were printed through the efforts of Mr. Lenox, Dr.
O'Callaghan and Dr. Shea, of New York. For bibliographical notes on
these invaluable collections, see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' 290 _et
seq._; Harrisse's "Notes."]


PÈRE DU CREUX.

[Footnote 10: Page 6.--Père du Creux or Creuxius published his prolix
work, "Historia Canadensis," with map and illustrations, in Latin, at
Paris in 1664. For bibliographical notes, see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist.
Am.,' iv., 296; Harrisse's "Notes." Despite its diffusiveness, it has
value for the historical students of his times.]


LA POTHERIE.

[Footnote 11: Page 6.--Bacqueville de la Potherie's "Histoire de
l'Amérique Septentrionale depuis 1534 jusqu'à 1701" was published first
at Paris in 1722, four volumes, 12mo.; but a later edition appeared in
1753. Charlevoix's opinion, that it is an undigested and ill-written
narrative, is prejudiced, as the work is on the whole a useful and
exact account of the French establishments at Quebec, Montreal and
Three Rivers, and especially of the condition of the Indians of the
time. For bibliographical notes see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv.,
299, 357-358.]


LAFITAU.

[Footnote 11_a_: Page 6.--The following note with respect to this able
priest's writing is taken from 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv., 298,
299: "The Jesuit Lafitau published at Paris in 1724 his 'Mœurs des
Sauvages Amériquains' in two volumes, with various plates, which in
the main is confined to the natives of Canada, where he had lived long
with the Iroquois. Charlevoix said of his book, twenty years later, 'We
have nothing so exact on the subject;' and Lafitau continues to hold
high rank as an original authority, though his book is overlaid with a
theory of Tartaric origin of the red race. Mr. Parkman calls him 'the
most satisfactory of the elder writers.'" Garneau, ii., 154, mentions
that he discovered in 1716 a plant in the Canadian forests which is
of the nature of ginseng, which for awhile was a valuable article of
export to Canton. Eventually it became valueless in China on account of
its being prepared improperly.]


C. LE CLERCQ.

[Footnote 12: Page 6.--Père Chrestien Le Clercq's "Etablissement de la
Foy" appeared in two volumes, 12mo., at Paris in 1691, and an excellent
translation by Shea at New York in 1881. He also wrote a work,
"Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspésie," which was also printed at Paris in
1691. For bibliographical notes see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' iv.,
291; Harrisse's "Notes."]


COTTON MATHER'S "MAGNALIA."

[Footnote 13: Page 7.--For bibliographical notes on this curious _olla
podrida_ of religion and history see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.' iii.,
345; Stevens's "Historical Nuggets," ii., 505.]


Dr. MICHEL SARRAZIN.

[Footnote 13_a_: Page 8.--An interesting account of the life and
labours of the eminent pioneer of science in Canada, who came to Quebec
in 1685 and died there in 1734, will be found in the fifth volume of
the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.' (section IV.), by the Abbé Laflamme. See
also Parkman's "Old Regime in Canada," p. 366, _n._ Also, pp. 390-393
for citations from Kalm and Charlevoix as to social condition of
the French colony. Also, pp. 160-163 and notes, for an account and
references to authorities on subject of the Seminary.]


PETER KALM.

[Footnote 13_b_: Page 8.--He was professor of Economy in the University
of Aobo, in Swedish Finland, and a member of the Swedish Royal
Academy of Sciences. His Travels in North America ("In Risa tel Nord
America"), 1748-51, first appeared in Swedish (Stockholm, 1753-61), and
subsequently in a translation, with the original somewhat abridged, by
John Reinhold Forster (Warrington and London, 1770; 2nd ed., 1772). A
translation in French by L. W. Marchand has also been published, and
it is from that I quote in the text. (For German and Dutch versions
see 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' v., 244.) I have since found that
Forster, in a note (ii., 185, 2nd ed.) on the remarks of the Swedish
savant with respect to the study of science in the English colonies,
calls attention to the fact that "Mr. Kalm has forgotten his own
assertions in the former part of this work." Dr. Colden, Dr. Franklin
and Mr. Bartram, he continues, "have been the great promoters and
investigators of nature in this country, and how would the inhabitants
have gotten the fine collections of North American trees, shrubs and
plants, which grow at present almost in every garden, and are as if
they were naturalized in old England, had they not been assisted by
their friends and by the curious in North America." Forster also refers
to the schools, colleges and libraries already existing in the English
colonies as evidence that Kalm hardly did justice to the men of culture
in those countries. No doubt La Galissonière, Sarrazin, Gauthier, and
others created, for a time certainly, much interest in the practical
pursuit of science in Canada. The interest, however, must have been
necessarily confined to a very small class in the two or three towns
and garrisons to which La Galissonière's influence extended. Some
of the Jesuit priests like Lafitau (see note 11_a_) had a taste for
natural history, and have left us much information on the subject. But
Lafitau, La Galissonière, Gauthier, Sarrazin and others were not native
Canadians, though, like Charlevoix and his predecessors who wrote of
the country, they have left imperishable memorials connecting their
names with the literary and scientific history of New France. On the
other hand, Franklin, Bartram, Stith, the Mathers and Beverley, whose
names will be always associated with the early culture of science and
literature in the old English colonies, were American by birth and
education. Still these men represented a very insignificant influence
in the practical, money-making population of New England and the
middle colonies of which Kalm chiefly spoke. Their influence would be
relatively trifling compared with that which was necessarily exercised
by a governor like La Galissonière in New France, with its sympathetic
officials and priests, and which was necessarily contrasted by Kalm
with the indifference of the English colonists. Kalm failed, however,
to recognize the public liberty, commercial enterprise and secular
education which in New England and other colonial communities gave the
people the advantage over the habitans and French Canadians generally.
Instead, the spirit of materialism that was a distinguishing feature
of the active, enterprising English colonists, must have grated on the
susceptibilities of a student like Kalm, and prevented him from doing
impartial justice to the strong qualities of a rising nation.]


SCHOOLS, 1792-1840.

[Footnote 14: Page 9.--For accounts of the deplorable condition of the
public schools in the rural districts of Upper Canada from 1791 to
the union of 1841 see Canniff's "History of the Province of Ontario"
(Toronto, 1872). Canniff Haight's "Country Life in Canada Fifty Years
Ago" (Toronto, 1885), and Bourinot's "Intellectual Development of the
Canadian People" (12mo., Toronto, and 'Canadian Monthly,' 1881). At
the present time there are 14 universities and 29 colleges in which a
classical education is given; 6 ladies' colleges, and 5 agricultural
colleges and schools of science. The value of their buildings,
endowments, etc., is upwards of $12,000,000, and the attendance is
about 9,000 students. The classical colleges of Quebec--which make up
the greater number of the colleges in Canada--are a combination of
school and college attended by both boys and young men. They confer
certain degrees and are generally affiliated with Laval University.
The effect of the classical studies encouraged in these colleges is
very perceptible in the culture of the well educated French Canadian.
At present there are in Canada upwards of 17,000 public, high, normal,
and model schools, attended by about 1,000,000 pupils, and costing a
total annual expenditure of between six and seven millions of dollars.
In Ontario (once Upper Canada) there are 16 universities and colleges,
including ladies' and agricultural colleges; about 6,000 schools of
all kinds, attended by over 500,000 pupils, and costing annually over
$4,000,000. See "The Statistical Year-Book of Canada," Ottawa, 1893.]


UPPER CANADA, 1793-1840.

[Footnote 15: Page 9.--Some interesting details of the early settlement
of Ontario will be found in Dr. Canniff's "History of Ontario"
(Toronto, 1872). As a local record or annals it is the most valuable
yet given to the public by a descendant of the pioneers and U. E.
Loyalists. Canniff Haight's "Country Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago" is
a readable and sketchy account of old times.]


CANADIAN JOURNALISM.

[Footnote 16: Page 10.--A brief historical sketch of Canadian
journalism will be found in Bourinot's "Intellectual Development of
the Canadian People" (Toronto, 1881); also in Dr. Canniff's "History
of the Province of Ontario" (Toronto, 1872), and in "Sketch of
Canadian Journalism," by E. B. Biggar, "Canadian Newspaper Directory"
(Montreal, 1892). Some of the statements in this article appear to
require verification. I have now in my possession a copy of the 'York
Gazette' printed in July, 1815, though Mr. Biggar states that no paper
was published in York after the capture of the town by the American
troops and the destruction of the press and type, in 1813, until
1817. The 'York Gazette' was originally the 'Upper Canada Gazette, or
American Oracle,' first printed in 1793 at Niagara (Newark), when it
was the political capital of Upper Canada after the passage of the
Constitutional Act of 1791. It was removed to York (Toronto) in 1800,
and became the 'York Gazette' a few years later. At the present time
there are in Ontario alone, of daily papers, 47; weekly, 386. In the
Dominion there are 98 daily papers, 1,035 weekly, bi-weekly, monthly,
etc. In 1838 there were in all British North America not more than 70
papers, of which 38 were in Upper Canada. In 1864 the total was about a
quarter of the present number.]


HOWE'S SPEECHES.

[Footnote 17: Page 11.--Joseph Howe's speeches were printed at Boston
in 1858, two volumes, 8vo. For bibliographical notes see 'Am. Hist.
Ass. Papers, 1892,' p. 396, at end of Bourinot's "Parliamentary
Government in Canada."]


"SAM SLICK."

[Footnote 18: Page 11.--Judge Haliburton's famous work has the title,
"The Clockmaker; or, Sayings and Doings of Sam Slick of Slickville."
London and Halifax, 1st ser. 1837, 2nd ser. 1838, 3rd ser. 1840.
Reprinted 1838-1843, three volumes. New edition 1845. Several later
cheap English and American editions have appeared from time to time.
A bibliography and sketch of the judge's life, written probably by
his son, Robert G., appears in the "Bibliotheca Canadensis" (Ottawa,
1872). The humorous sketches, to which he chiefly owes his fame, were
contributed anonymously to the 'Nova Scotian,' then edited by Joseph
Howe. The paper is still in existence as a weekly edition of the
'Morning Chronicle' of Halifax. The judge was educated in old King's
College, Windsor. See _infra_, note 31.]


JUDGE HALIBURTON'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 19: Page 12.--"An Historical and Statistical Account of Nova
Scotia," with maps and engravings. Halifax, two volumes, large 8vo. For
bibliographical note see Bourinot's "Cape Breton," App. X. A complete
copy, with maps and illustrations, is now becoming rare.]


W. SMITH'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 20: Page 12.--"The History of Canada, from its First
Discovery to the Peace of 1763; and from the Establishment of the
Civil Government in 1764 to the Establishment of the Constitution in
1796." By William Smith, Esquire, Clerk of the Parliament and Master in
Chancery of the Province of Lower Canada. "Ne quid falsi dicere audeat,
ne quid veri non audeat." In two volumes, large 8vo. (Quebec, 1815.) He
was a son of the historian of the province of New York, who after the
war of the revolution became chief justice of Canada.]


JOSEPH BOUCHETTE.

[Footnote 21: Page 12.--The works of this eminent Canadian surveyor and
hydrographer appeared under the following titles:

1. "A Topographical Description of the Province of Lower Canada, with
remarks upon Upper Canada and on the relative connection of both
Provinces with the United States of America." London, 1815, royal 8vo.,
with plates. Also an edition in French.

2. "The British Dominions in North America, or a Topographical and
Statistical Description of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward and
Cape Breton, including considerations on land-granting and emigration,
and a topographical dictionary of Lower Canada; to which is annexed the
statistical tables and tables of distances, published with the author's
maps of Lower Canada, in consequence of a vote of the Provincial
Legislature. Embellished with vignettes, views, landscapes, plans of
towns, harbours, etc.; containing also a copious appendix." London,
1831, three volumes, 4to., generally bound in two.]


MICHEL BIBAUD'S HISTORICAL WORKS.

[Footnote 22: Page 12.--"Histoire du Canada sous la Domination
Française." Montreal, 1837, 8vo. Do., 1843, 12mo.

"Histoire du Canada sous la Domination Anglaise." Do., 1844. The
third volume of the series appeared after the author's death, and was
published by his son, J. G. Bibaud, at Montreal, 1878, 12mo.]


THOMPSON'S BOOK ON THE WAR OF 1812.

[Footnote 23: Page 12.--"History of the Late War between Great Britain
and the United States of America, with a retrospective view of the
causes from which it originated, collected from the most authentic
sources; to which is added an appendix containing public documents,
etc., relating to the subject." By David Thompson, late of the Royal
Scots. Niagara, U. C. Printed by T. Sewell, printer, bookbinder and
stationer, Market Square, 1832, 12mo., pp. 300. This was for some
time believed to be the first book printed in Upper Canada, but Dr.
Kingsford, F.R.S.C., in "The Early Bibliography of the Province of
Ontario" (Toronto and Montreal, 1892), enumerates a list of some
thirty-three publications that antedated it, and Mr. Charles Lindsey,
a bibliophilist and _littérateur_ of Toronto, adds a number of others.
See Toronto 'Week,' Dec. 9, 1892, Dr. Kingsford's rejoinder, _ib._,
Dec. 30, and another article on same subject by Mr. Lindsey, _ib._,
Jan. 13, 1893. All these bibliographical notes are interesting, and
show how insignificant in point of intellectual and original ability
was the literature of Ontario for fifty years previous to 1841.]


BELKNAP'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 24: Page 13.--Mr. Jeremy Belknap's "History of New Hampshire"
was published in Philadelphia and Boston in 1784-92, three volumes. See
Bourinot's "Cape Breton," in 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. ix., p. 315,
and p. 147 in the separate volume (Montreal, 1892).]


THE POET CRÉMAZIE.

[Footnote 25: Page 17.--Octave Crémazie was one of the _vrai sang_
of French Canada, and a bookseller without the least aptitude for
business. He left Quebec after his failure, and lived under an
assumed name in France, where he died in poverty. His life was most
unfortunate, and in the gloomy days of his later French career he
never realized the expectations which his literary efforts in Canada
raised among his ardent friends. His poems appeared at first in the
'Soirées Canadiennes' and French Canadian journals, but his works were
published in full at Montreal, in 1882, under the patronage of the
Institut Canadien of Quebec, of which he was one of the founders. The
Abbé Casgrain has given the introduction for this edition, and added
some of the letters written to him by Crémazie from Paris. Crémazie,
and indeed many of his friends, considered the "Trois Morts" as the
best effort of his poetic genius; but the Abbé truly says: "Crémazie
has never really been original except in his patriotic poems; in them
must be sought the secret of his popularity and his strongest claim
to fame." And he goes on to say: "The old mother-country has so far
given a warm welcome to only one of our poets. She has acknowledged
Fréchette as the most emphatically French of our poetic aspirants; but
the time is not far distant when she will recognize in Crémazie the
most thoroughly Canadian of them all. His verses have not the exquisite
workmanship that is so much admired in Fréchette, but it is full of
a patriotic inspiration that is not so often found in the author of
'Fleurs Boréales.' Despite his inequalities and imperfections, Crémazie
must live among us as the father of our national poetry." The patriotic
poem which has touched most deeply the hearts of his countrymen is "Le
Drapeau de Carillon," in which he recalls the military achievements of
the days of Lévis and Montcalm--

                  "Les jours de Carillon,
      Où, sur le drapeau blanc attachant la victoire,
      Nos pères se couvraient d'un immortel renom
      Et traçaient de leur glaive une héroïque histoire.

      "O radieux débris d'une grande épopée!
      Héroïque bannière au naufrage échappée!
      Tu restes sur nos bords comme un témoin vivant
      Des glorieux exploits d'une race guerrière;
      Et, sur les jours passés, répandant ta lumière,
      Tu viens rendre à son nom un hommage éclatant.

      "Ah! bientôt puissions-nous, ô drapeau de nos pères!
      Voir tous les Canadiens, unis comme des frères,
      Comme au jour du combat se serrer près de toi!
      Puisse des souvenirs la tradition sainte,
      En régnant dans leur cœur, garder de toute atteinte,
                  Et leur langue et leur foi."

When we hear aspirations whispered nowadays that there may be only
one language in Canada, it is well to consider the influence of such
nervous poetic French on the national feelings of the large population
in the province of Quebec. The French language is likely to be deeply
seated for some generations yet while there are French Canadian poets.]


CHAUVEAU AS A POET.

[Footnote 26: Page 17.--Hon. Mr. Chauveau's poems appeared at different
times in the 'Canadien' of Quebec, 'Le Répertoire National,' 'Les
Soirées Canadiennes,' 'La Revue Canadienne,' and in other papers and
publications from 1838 until the year of his death, 1890. One of his
latest poems, "Le Sacré Cœur," was printed in the second volume of
the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' Sec. I. A valuable paper by the same
_littérateur_, "Etude sur les commencements de la poésie française au
Canada," appeared in the first volume of the 'Trans.,' Sec. I, p. 65.
In "Songs of the Dominion" (London, 1889, App., pp. 455-448) the editor
gives an illustration of his spirited style by citing "Donnacona" at
length.]


HOWE'S POEMS.

[Footnote 27: Page 17.--These were collected by his son after his
death, and printed in a little volume with the title "Poems and
Essays." Montreal, 1874, 12mo.]


THE POETS SANGSTER AND McLACHLAN.

[Footnote 28: Page 17.--Charles Sangster was a native of Kingston, and
consequently a native Canadian like the others mentioned in the text.
His principal poems appeared in the following books: "The St. Lawrence
and the Saguenay, and Other Poems." Kingston and New York, 1856, 8vo.
"Hesperus and Other Poems and Lyrics." Montreal, 1860, 8vo. Oliver
Wendell Holmes, Bayard Taylor and Jean Inglelow wrote of his verse in
terms of eulogy. See "Bibliotheca Canadensis," p. 337.

Alexander McLachlan was a poet contemporary with Sangster, and imbued
with much poetic fervour and Canadian sentiment, but he was born
and educated in Scotland, and came to Canada when a young man. His
"Emigrant and Other Poems" (Toronto, 1861) merited the praise it
received, though this, like his other poetic efforts, are now rarely
cited, and no new edition of his works has appeared of recent years.]


CHARLES HEAVYSEGE'S WORKS.

[Footnote 29: Page 18.--"Saul: a Drama in Three Parts." Montreal, 1857,
8vo. 2nd ed., 1859.

"Count Filippo; or, The Unequal Marriage: a Drama in Five Acts."
Montreal, 1860.

"Jephthah's Daughter." London and Montreal, 1865, 12mo.

"The Advocate: a Novel." Montreal, 1865, 8vo. This was a decided
failure.]


TODD'S WORKS.

[Footnote 30: Page 18.--The first edition of Todd's "Parliamentary
Government in England" appeared at London in 1867-68, two volumes,
8vo., and the second after his death in 1887. An abridged edition,
by Spencer Walpole, an English writer, was printed in 1893, two
volumes, 12mo. For bibliographical notes of this and other Canadian
constitutional works see the Appendix to Bourinot's "Parliamentary
Government in Canada: an Historical and Constitutional Study," 'Am.
Hist. Ass. Papers,' Washington, 1892.]


CHRISTIE'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 31: Page 18.--Mr. Christie's "History of Lower Canada"
embraced the period from the commencement of its political history as
a British dependency until it was reunited with Upper Canada in 1840
by act of the imperial parliament. It appeared in Quebec and Montreal
from 1849 to 1855, when the sixth volume, a collection of valuable
documents, completed the work. Previously the author had published
several memoirs and reviews of political events and administrations,
which were all finally embraced in the history. For bibliographical
notes see 'Am. Hist. Ass. Papers,' 1891, p. 393; "Bibliotheca
Canadensis," art. "Christie." It is noteworthy that Mr. Christie was,
like Judge Haliburton, born and educated in Windsor, Nova Scotia, where
old King's College still pursues its calm academic studies amid its
sheltering and ancestral elms. In 1890 this venerable and interesting
institution celebrated the centenary of its foundation. See Hind's
"University of King's College, Windsor, N.S., 1790-1890," New York,
"The Church Review Co.," 1890. But Robert Christie could not in those
times be educated in King's, as he was not a member of the Church of
England like the Judge.]


GARNEAU.

[Footnote 32: Page 18.--The first volume of François Xavier Garneau's
"Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours" appeared
at Quebec in 1845; the second in 1846; and the third, bringing the
history down to the establishment of constitutional government in 1791,
was printed in 1848. A second edition completed the work to the union
of the Canadas in 1841, and was published in 1852 at Montreal by Mr.
Lovell, the well-known publisher. A third edition appeared at Quebec
in 1859, and a somewhat slovenly translation was made by Mr. Andrew
Bell and printed at Montreal in 1860. The fourth edition appeared in
four volumes after the historian's death. It is the third edition, as
originally written by Mr. Garneau. The fourth volume of this edition
contains an eulogistic review of the author's life by Mr. Chauveau,
a poem by Mr. Louis Fréchette on "Notre Histoire"--also printed in
'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. i., Sec. I.,--and an analytical table
by Mr. B. Sulte. A portrait of Mr. Garneau is the frontispiece to the
same volume. The 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. i., Sec. I., has a paper
by Abbé Casgrain on Garneau and Ferland, "Notre Passé Littéraire, et
nos deux historiens." In the same volume appears a paper by Mr. J. M.
LeMoine on "Nos quatre historiens modernes, Bibaud, Garneau, Ferland,
Faillon," which, like the preceding essay, certainly does not fail in
the way of eulogy. French Canada assuredly is proud and not often too
critical of her eminent writers.]


FERLAND AND FAILLON.

[Footnote 33: Page 18.--"Cours d'Histoire du Canada. Première partie,
1534-1663." Par J. B. A. Ferland, prêtre, professeur d'histoire à
l'Université Laval. Québec, 1861, 8vo. Seconde partie, 1663-1759; do.,
1865, 8vo. The second volume was going through the press at the time
of the author's death, and subsequently appeared under the careful
supervision of his friend the Abbé Laverdière, to whose historical
labours Canada is deeply indebted. Indeed French Canada owes much to
Laval, with its able teachers, historians and scientists.

The Abbé Faillon, a Sulpician, who wrote a "Histoire de la Colonie
Française en Canada" (Paris, 1865) in four 4to. volumes, was not a
Canadian by birth and education like Ferland and Garneau, but came to
Canada in 1854, and, after residing there for over ten years, returned
to his native country, where he published his well known and valuable
work.]


DENT'S WORKS.

[Footnote 34: Page 19,--John Charles Dent was an English journalist,
who subsequently became connected with the Toronto press. He wrote the
two following works: "The Last Forty Years: Canada since the Union of
1841," Toronto, 1881, two volumes, sm. 4to.; "The Story of the Upper
Canada Rebellion," Toronto, 1885-86, two volumes, sm. 4to. He also
edited the "Canadian Portrait Gallery," Toronto, 1880-81. Although not
a Canadian by birth or education, he identified himself thoroughly with
Canadian thought and sentiment, and was made a Fellow of the Royal
Society of Canada before his too sudden death. A criticism of his
work on "Canada since the Union" by the Abbé Casgrain ('Trans. Roy.
Soc. Can.,' vol. iii., Sec. I.) indicated that his opinions did not
always meet with the warm approval of the French Canadians of a very
pronounced type.]


LOUIS TURCOTTE'S HISTORY.

[Footnote 35: Page 20.--This work appeared at Quebec in two 12mo.
volumes in 1871. Mr. Turcotte was a French Canadian by birth and
education, and connected with the legislative library at Quebec when he
died. See a favourable review of his literary work by Mr. Faucher de
Saint-Maurice, F.R.S.C., in 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. i., Sec. I.]


B. SULTE.

[Footnote 36: Page 20.--"Histoire des Canadiens-Français, 1608-1880.
Origine, Histoire, Religion, Guerres, Découvertes, Colonisation,
Coutumes, Vie domestique et politique, Développement, Avenir. Par
Benjamin Sulte. Ouvrage orné de portraits et de plans." Eight volumes,
4to., Montreal, 1882-1884. Mr. Sulte is also the author of several
poems, (See Note 40) and numerous essays and monographs of much
literary merit and historic value. He is one of the most industrious
members of the Royal Society of Canada.]


ABBÉ CASGRAIN.

[Footnote 37: Page 20.--The Abbé H. R. Casgrain's best known works are
the following:

"Légendes Canadiennes." Quebec, 1861, 12mo. New ed., Montreal, 1884.

"Histoire de la Mère Marie de l'Incarnation, première supérieure des
Ursulines de la Nouvelle France. Précédée d'une esquisse sur l'histoire
religieuse des premiers temps de cette colonie." Quebec, 1864, 8vo. New
ed., Montreal, 1886.

"Guerre du Canada, 1756-1760. Montcalm et Lévis." Quebec, 1891, two
volumes, 8vo.

The Abbé has been a most industrious historical student, and to
enumerate all his literary efforts would be to occupy much space.
He has been a principal contributor to the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.'
His monographs, "Un pèlerinage au pays d'Evangeline" (vol. iv.) and
"Les Acadiens après leur dispersion" (vol. v.), are particularly
interesting, and the former has been crowned by the French Academy,
and appeared in book form at Quebec. He is very much imbued with the
national spirit and fervour of his countrymen.]


KINGSFORD'S AND OTHER HISTORICAL WORKS.

[Footnote 38: Page 20.--Six volumes of Dr. Kingsford's "History of
Canada" have appeared since 1887. Volume i. embraces the period from
1608 to 1682; vol. ii., 1679-1725; vol. iii., 1726-1756; vol. iv.,
1756-1763; vol. v., 1763-1775; vol. vi., 1776-1779. Toronto and London,
8vo. For bibliographical notes on various works relating to the
political and general history of Canada see Bourinot's "Parliamentary
Government in Canada," 'Am. Hist. Ass. Papers,' 1891, App. References
are there made to McMullen, Withrow, Murdoch, Campbell, Hincks, etc.
Also 'Nar. and Crit. Hist. Am.,' viii., 171-189. As usual, the learned
editor, Dr. Winsor, supplies by his notes many deficiencies in the
text. Also, Edmond Lareau's "Histoire de la Littérature Canadienne"
(Montreal), c. 4, and Mr. J. C. Dent's "Last Forty Years; or, Canada
since the Union of 1841," c. 42, on "Literature and Journalism." Among
the later French Canadian writers who are doing excellent historical
work is Dr. N. E. Dionne, F.R.S.C., author of several books on Cartier
and his successors and Champlain. Mr. Hannay of St. John has written
a "History of Acadia," which has been well received (St. John, N.B.,
1879, 8vo.) The Abbé Auguste Gosselin is another industrious French
Canadian writer. Mr. Joseph Tassé, whose "Canadiens de l'Ouest"
(Montreal, 1878, two volumes) was distinguished by much research and
literary skill, has of late years devoted himself mainly to politics
and journalism, though he has found time to write several essays for
the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' and a small volume, "38^{me} Fauteuil,
ou Souvenirs Parlementaires" (Montreal, 1891), a series of political
sketches, written in excellent French. A monumental work is the
"Dictionnaire Généalogique des familles canadiennes" by Mgr. Tanguay,
F.R.S.C., invaluable to students of French Canadian history and
ethnography.]


CANADIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY.

[Footnote 39: Page 20.--A bibliography of the members of the Royal
Society, on the plan of one given in the sixth volume (1892) of the
'Papers of the American Historical Association,' is now being prepared
for the eleventh volume of the 'Transactions.' It will be much fuller
necessarily than the bibliographical notes that appear in this
monograph.]


LATER CANADIAN POETS, 1867-1893.

[Footnote 40: Page 20.--Dr. Louis Fréchette's poems are admitted to
be the most finished illustrations of French poetic art yet produced
in the Dominion; and one who reads them can easily understand that
"Les Fleurs Boréales" and "Les Oiseaux de Neige" (now in the third
edition, Montreal) should have been crowned by the French Academy in
1880, and that he should have been accorded the Monthyon prize as a
matter of course. His other volumes of poems are these: "Mes Loisirs,"
Quebec, 1863; "La Voix d'un Exilé," Quebec, 1869; "Pêle-Mêle,"
Montreal, 1877; "Les Oubliés" and "Voix d'Outre-Mer," Montreal, 1886;
and "Feuilles Volantes," Montreal, 1891. His poem on the discovery of
the Mississippi is probably his best sustained effort on the whole. A
number of his poems have appeared in the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vols.
i., ii., iii., iv. He has published some dramas and comedies (see 'Am.
Cyclopædia of Biography,' vol. ii., p. 539), which have not been as
successful as his purely poetic essays. He has also written several
essays of merit in 'Harper's Monthly' and other periodicals of the day,
as well as in the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.'

The following is an extract from his poem on "La Découverte du
Mississippi":

      "Tantôt je croyais voir, sous les vertes arcades,
      Du fatal De Soto passer les cavalcades
      En jetant au désert un défi solennel;
      Tantôt c'était Marquette errant dans la prairie,
      Impatient d'offrir un monde à sa patrie,
            Et des âmes à l'Eternel.

      "Parfois, sous les taillis, ma prunelle trompée,
      Croyait voir de La Salle étinceler l'épée,
      Et parfois, groupe informe allant je ne sais où,
      Devant une humble croix--ô puissance magique!--
      De farouches guerriers á l'œil sombre et tragique
            Passer en pliant le genou!

      "Et puis, berçant mon âme aux rêves des poètes,
      J'entrevoyais aussi de blanches silhouettes,
      Doux fantômes flottant dans le vague des nuits:
      Atala, Gabriel, Chactas, Evangeline,
      Et l'ombre de René, debout sur la colline,
            Pleurant ses immortels ennuis.

      "Et j'endormais ainsi mes souvenirs moroses....
      Mais de ces visions poétiques et roses
      Celle qui plus souvent venait frapper mon œil,
      C'était, passant au loin dans un reflet de gloire,
      Ce hardi pionnier dont notre jeune histoire
            Redit le nom avec orgueil.

      "Jolliet! Jolliet! deux siècles de conquêtes,
      Deux siècles sans rivaux ont passé sur nos têtes,
      Depuis l'heure sublime où, de ta propre main,
      Tu jetas d'un seul trait sur la carte du monde
      Ces vastes régions, zone immense et féconde,
            Futur grenier du genre humain!

      "Oui, deux siècles ont fui! La solitude vierge
      N'est plus là! Du progrès le flot montant submerge
      Les vestiges derniers d'un passé qui finit.
      Où le désert dormait, grandit la métropole;
      Et le fleuve asservi courbe sa large épaule
            Sous l'arche aux piles de granit.

      "Plus de forêts sans fin: la vapeur les silonne!
      L'astre des jours nouveaux sur tous les points rayonne;
      L'enfant de la nature est évangélisé;
      Le soc du laboureur fertilise la plaine;
      Et le surplus doré de sa gerbe trop pleine
            Nourrit le vieux monde épuisé."

Mr. Pamphile LeMay, one of the best known French Canadian poets,
has published the following: "Essais Poétiques," Quebec, 1865; "La
Découverte du Canada," Quebec, 1867; "Poèmes Couronnés," Quebec, 1870;
"Les Vengeances," Quebec, 1875, 1876 and 1888 (also dramatized); "Une
Gerbe," Quebec, 1879. He has also written "Fables Canadiennes," Quebec,
1882. A number of his poems have appeared in the 'Trans. Roy. Soc.
Can.,' vols i., iii., v., vi., ix. He has also written several stories
of Canadian life: "L'Affaire Sougraine," Quebec, 1884; "Le Pèlerin de
Sainte-Anne," new ed., Montreal, 1893; and "Rouge et Bleu," comedy. One
of his best works was a translation of Longfellow's "Evangeline."

The following is a list of other Canadian books of poems, of varying
merit, which have appeared within a quarter of a century:

"The Songs of a Wanderer." By Carroll Ryan. Ottawa, 1867. Indicated
much poetic taste, but the poet has been submerged in the busy
journalist.

"Songs of Life." By Rev. E. H. Dewart. Toronto, 1867. He was author
of the first collection of Canadian poems made in this country. See
_infra_.

"The Prophecy of Merlin and other Poems." By John Reade. Montreal,
1870. In many respects the best sustained poems written by a Canadian
can be read in this book.

"Les Laurentiennes." By Benjamin Sulte. Montreal, 1870.

"Les Chants Nouveaux." By the same. Ottawa, 1880.

"The Legend of the Rose." By Samuel J. Watson. Toronto, 1876. Mr.
Watson was a writer of promise who died in the maturity of his power.

"The Feast of St. Anne, and other Poems." By P. S. Hamilton. Montreal,
1878; 2nd ed. 1890. Has some interest from its description of the
ceremonies at the feast of Sainte-Anne du Canada--the tutelary saint of
the Canadian aborigines--which is held by the Micmacs on the 26th day
of July in each year on Chapel Island, in the beautiful Bras d'Or Lake
of Cape Breton. See Bourinot's "Cape Breton."

"Waifs in Verse." (Ottawa, ed. in 1878, 1887 and 1891.) By G. W.
Wicksteed, Q.C., for fifty years the able law clerk of the Canadian
Commons.

"A Collection of Poems." By Miss Williams of Grenville, P.Q., 1879.

"The Coming of the Princess, and Other Poems." By Kate Seymour Maclean
of Kingston. 1880.

"Lyrics, Songs and Sonnets." By A. H. Chandler and C. Pelham Mulvany.
Toronto, 1880.

"The Times, and Other Poems." By J. R. Newell of Woodstock. 1880.

"The Consolation." By George Gerrard. Montreal, 1880.

"Poems of the Heart and Home." By Mrs. J. C. Yule. Toronto, 1880.

"Poems, Songs and Odes." By Archibald McAlpine Taylor. Toronto, 1881.

"The New Song, and Other Poems." By Mrs. W. H. Clarke. Toronto, 1883.

"Zenobia. A Poem in Rhymed Heroics." By Rev. Æ. McD. Dawson, F.R.S.C.
1883.

"The Mission of Love, and Other Poems." By Caris Sima. 1883.

"Lorenzo, and Other Poems." By J. R. Pollock of Keswick, Ont. 1883.

"Caprices Poétiques et Chansons Satiriques." Par Rémi Tremblay.
Montréal, 1883.

"Les Echos." Par J. B. Routhier. Québec, 1883, 12mo. Judge Routhier is
a member of the Royal Society of Canada, in whose 'Trans.' (vol. iv.,
Sec. I.) appeared "Lettre d'un Volontaire du 9^{ieme} Voltigeurs campé
à Calgary." His literary reputation stands high among his countrymen.

"Old Spookse's Pass, and Other Poems." By Isabella Valancy Crawford.
Toronto, 1884.

"Marguerite, and Other Poems." By George Martin. 1886.

"Laura Secord: a Ballad of 1812." By Mrs. Curzon. Toronto, 1886.

"Songs, Sonnets and Miscellaneous Poems." By J. Imrie. Toronto, 1886.

"Dreamland, and Other Poems" (Ottawa, 1868), and "Tecumseh: a Drama"
(Toronto and London, 1886). By Charles Mair, a poet of original
talent, and descriptive power, who is now a resident of the North-west
Territories.

"Orion, and Other Poems" (Philadelphia, 1880), and "In Divers Tones"
(Montreal, 1887). By Prof. C. G. D. Roberts, who is the best known
abroad of all Canadian poets, and represents that Canadian or national
spirit which has been slowly rising from the birth of Confederation.
Since the days of Crémazie--over thirty years ago--there are other
poets who recognize the existence of a Canadian people in a large
sense--a Canadian people of two races, born and educated in the
country, and having common aspirations for a united, not an isolated,
future. Prof. Roberts is now bringing out a new volume of poems in
London.

The poetic taste of the Archbishop of Halifax, the Most Rev. C.
O'Brien, F.R.S.C., is well illustrated in the following volume:
"Aminta: a Modern Life Drama," New York, 1890. The Archbishop is
also the author of a novel, "After Weary Years," (Baltimore and New
York, 1885), the scenes of which are laid in Rome and Canada, and are
described with much power of invention and fervour. As the author
himself says, "historic places and events are accurately described." He
has, it will be seen from his preface, great confidence in the future
national greatness of the Dominion.

"A Gate of Flowers." By T. O'Hagan. Toronto, 1887. He has another
volume in press.

"The Masque of Minstrels, and Other Pieces, chiefly in verse." By B.
W. and A. J. Lockhart. Bangor, Me., 1887. These two brothers are Nova
Scotians by birth and education, who lived their youth in the land of
Evangeline. The Gaspéreaux and Grand Pré are naturally the constant
theme of their pleasing verse. "Among the Millet, and Other Poems." By
Archibald Lampman. Ottawa, 1888. Some of Mr. Lampman's most finished
sonnets have appeared in the best American periodicals, to which he is
still a frequent contributor; his work shows the true poetic instinct.
He holds a position in the Civil Service at Ottawa.

"The Water Lily. An Oriental Fairy Tale." By Frank Waters. Ottawa, 1888.

"De Roberval: a Drama. Also the Emigration of the Fairies, and the
Triumph of Constancy: a Romaunt." By John Hunter Duvar. St. John, N.B.,
1888. Mr. Duvar, who has fine literary tastes, has been a resident of
Prince Edward Island for some years.

"The Epic of the Dawn, and Other Poems." By Nicholas Flood Davin.
Regina, N.W.T., 1889. Mr. Davin is the clever "Irishman in Canada,"
and while the most pretentious of his poems in this little book were
written across the ocean, others are the product of Canadian thought
and sentiment.

"Lake Lyrics, and Other Poems." By W. Wilfred Campbell. St. John,
N.B., 1889. Mr. Campbell, who was originally a clergyman of the Church
of England, is now in the public service at Ottawa, and has written
some of his best poems for American magazines. One on "The Mother,"
in 'Harper's Monthly' is full of poetic thought and deep pathos, and
should be better known by Canadians than it appears to be. At this
time of writing his new volume of poems entitled "The Dread Voyage"
(Toronto, 1893), has appeared; it sustains his reputation, though one
can hardly encourage his effort to imitate Tennyson in such poems as
"Sir Lancelot." Canadian poets too frequently are imitative rather than
original. Mr. Campbell's verses on the varied scenery of the lakes of
the West show the artistic temperament.

For instance:

      "Domed with the azure of heaven,
        Floored with a pavement of pearl,
      Clothed all about with a brightness
        Soft as the eyes of a girl.

      "Girt with a magical girdle,
        Rimmed with a vapour of rest--
      These are the inland waters,
        These are the Lakes of the West."


ON THE LEDGE.

      "I lie out here on a ledge, with the surf on the rocks below me,
      The hazy sunlight above and the whispering forest behind;
      I lie and listen, O lake, to the legends and songs you throw me,
      Out of the murmurous moods of your multitudinous mind.

      "I lie and listen, a sound like voices of distant thunder,
      The roar and throb of your life in your rock-wall's mighty cells;
      Then after a softer voice that comes from the beaches under,
      A chiming of waves on rocks, a laughter of silver bells.

      "A glimmer of bird-like boats, that loom from the far horizon;
      That scud and tack and dip under the gray and the blue;
      A single gull that floats and skims the waters, and flies on,
      Till she is lost like a dream in the haze of the distance, too.

      "A steamer that rises a smoke, then after a tall, dark funnel,
      That moves like a shadow across your water and sky's gray edge;
      A dull, hard beat of a wave that diggeth himself a tunnel,
      Down in the crevices dark under my limestone ledge.

      "And here I lie on my ledge, and listen the songs you sing me,
      Songs of vapour and blue, songs of island and shore;
      And strange and glad are the hopes and sweet are the thoughts you
                bring me
      Out of the throbbing depths and wells of your heart's great
                store."

"Pine, Rose and Fleur-de-Lis." By S. Frances Harrison ("Seranus").
Toronto, 1891.

"Songs, Lyrical and Dramatic." By John Henry Brown. Ottawa, 1892, 12mo.
The New York 'Nation' truly says of this new poetic aspirant that
he has Walt Whitman's tendencies, but nevertheless he "writes in a
generous spirit, and may yet have thoughts and expression all his own."
The fact is, I repeat, most Canadian poets are too imitative and too
rarely original.

"Tendres Choses. Poésies Canadiennes." By Dr. R. Chevrier. Montreal,
1892, 12mo. That an author unknown to fame should give us his portrait,
as in this case, is perplexing. Still the verse is frequently
melodious, though it represents what is a feature of French poetry,
melodious rhythm, rather than strength and thought.

"This Canada of Ours, and Other Poems." By J. D. Edgar, M.P., Toronto,
1893. This little volume contains "The White Stone Canoe: a Legend of
the Ottawas," which had been published in separate form some years
previously. His French and Latin translations are full of taste.

"Les Perce-Neige, premières poésies." By Napoléon Legendre. Montreal,
12mo. He is a member of the Royal Society of Canada, and constant
contributor (generally in prose) to its 'Transactions.'

"Mes Rimes." By Elzéar Labelle. Montreal, 1886, 8vo.

Selections of Canadian poems have appeared of recent years in the
following publications:

1. "Selections from Canadian Poets: with occasional critical and
biographical notes and an introductory essay on Canadian poetry." By
the Rev. E. H. Dewart. Montreal, 1864, 8vo.

2. "Songs of the Great Dominion: Voices from the Forests and Waters,
the Settlements and Cities of Canada." Selected and edited by W. D.
Lighthall, M.A., of Montreal. London, 1889, 12mo.

3. "Younger American Poets, 1830-1890." Edited by Douglas Sladen, B.A.,
Oxon. With an Appendix of Younger Canadian Poets. Edited by G. B.
Roberts of St. John, N.B. New York, 1891, 12mo.

4. "Later Canadian Poems." Edited by J. E. Wetherell, B.A. Toronto,
1893.

In the first mentioned work, which is judiciously edited, the poets
until 1864 obtain a place. In the three other books we have selections
from John Reade, Geo. Frederick Cameron, Prof. Roberts, Bliss Carman
(now a resident of the United States), A. H. Chandler, Isabella Valancy
Crawford, Mrs. Leprohon, Hereward K. Cockin, John Hunter Duvar, Rev.
A. W. H. Eaton, Louis Fréchette, James Hannay, Sophie M. Hensley,
Charles Sangster, M. Richey Knight, Archibald Lampman, W. D. Lighthall,
A. J. Lockhart, B. W. Lockhart, Agnes Maude Machar ("Fidelis"), W.
McLennan, Charles Mair, Mary Morgan ("Gowan Lea"), Charles P. Mulvany,
Rev. F. G. Scott, Philip Stewart, H. R. A. Pocock, Barry Stratton, A.
Weir, Mary Barry Smith, John T. Lespérance ("Laclède"), W. Wye Smith,
Ethelwyn Wetherald, John E. Logan ("Barry Dane"), George Martin, Mrs.
Harrison ("Seranus"), D. Campbell Scott, James D. Edgar, E. Pauline
Johnson, George Murray, William Kirby, Annie Rothwell, W. A. Sherwood,
Isidore G. Ascher, P. J. O. Chauveau, B. Sulte, P. LeMay, and others.
I enumerate these names to show how many Canadians have ventured upon
the field of poesy despite the practical realities of life in this
relatively new country. The selections in the second of these works
would have been more valuable had they contained "Our Fathers" by
Joseph Howe--the most spirited poem in some respects ever written by a
native Canadian. To the names of poetic aspirants, too, must be added
those of M. J. Katzmann and of M. J. Griffin, whose fugitive pieces
have attracted notice. Mr. Griffin has fine literary tastes and his few
poems, only the relaxation of leisure hours, show he might win fame
in this delightful department of letters. The reader will obtain some
idea of the standard of Canadian poetry by reading the selections, and
should not be carried away by the too obvious enthusiasm that has at
times stifled the critical faculty in the editors. The poetic genius
of Canadians is to be stimulated, not by sentimental gush, but by a
judicious criticism that is not sufficiently cultivated by our writers
who review the efforts of our poets, historians and essayists. These
remarks also apply to such articles as that by the late Mr. Lespérance
on "The Poets of Canada" in 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. ii., Sec. II.

Mr. Evan McColl, F.R.S.C., is the Gaelic poet of Canada. Three editions
have appeared of the "Clàrsach nam Beann," which was printed as far
back as 1838 in Glasgow. The same was also published in English in the
same year, under the title of "The Mountain Minstrel," of which six
editions have been printed. In 1883 he published in Toronto "Poems and
Songs chiefly written in Canada." Mr. McColl is a great favourite among
his Scotch countrymen everywhere; but his decidedly original poetic
genius, rude and wild as it is at times, is not a Canadian product, for
he was born at Kenmore, Lochfyne-Side, Scotland, in 1808, and it was
not until he was forty years of age that he made Canada his home. He is
now a resident of Toronto, and still comes to the annual meetings of
the Royal Society, of which he was one of the original members.]


[Footnote 41: Page 21.--"IN MY HEART." BY JOHN READE.

      "In my heart are many chambers through which I wander free;
      Some are furnished, some are empty, some are sombre, some are
                light;
      Some are open to all comers, and of some I keep the key,
      And I enter in the stillness of the night.

      "But there's one I never enter--it is closed to even me!
      Only once its door was opened, and it shut for evermore;
      And though sounds of many voices gather round it like a sea,
      It is silent, ever silent, as the shore.

      "In that chamber, long ago, my love's casket was concealed,
      And the jewel that it sheltered I knew only one could win:
      And my soul foreboded sorrow, should that jewel be revealed,
      And I almost hoped that none might enter in.

      "Yet day and night I lingered by that fatal chamber door,
      Till--she came at last my darling one, of all the earth my own;
      And she entered--then she vanished with my jewel which she wore;
      And the door was closed--and I was left alone.

      "She gave me back no jewel, but the spirit of her eyes
      Shone with tenderness a moment, as she closed that chamber door,
      And the memory of that moment is all I have to prize--
      But _that_, _at least_, is mine for evermore.

      "Was she conscious, when she took it, that the jewel was my love?
      Did she think it but a bauble she might wear or toss aside?
      I know not, I accuse not, but I hope that it may prove
      A blessing, though she spurn it in her pride."]

LAURA SECORD'S WARNING.

[Footnote 41_a_: Page 24.--In Mrs. Edgar's excellent annotations to
the Ridout Letters in "Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War,
1805-1815," (Toronto, 1890), appears the following account of a
courageous woman's exploit which brought disaster to the Americans soon
after their defeat at Stoney Creek:

"At a place called Beaver Dams, or Beechwoods, (about twelve miles in a
direct road from Queenstown), where is now the town of Thorold, was a
depot for provisions for the Canadian troops, guarded by a detachment
of thirty of the 49th regiment under Lieutenant Fitzgibbon with some
Indians and militia, in all about 200 men. In order to surprise and
dislodge this outpost, an American force of 500 men, with fifty cavalry
and two field-pieces, under Colonel Boerstler, set out from Fort George
(Niagara) on the 23rd of June [1813]. A surprise was meditated, in
retaliation, no doubt, for the affair of Stoney Creek. Laura Secord,
wife of a Canadian farmer, who had been wounded in the battle of
Queenstown Heights, accidentally heard of the designs of the Americans,
and determined to give the outpost timely warning. She set out alone
before day-break, on the 23rd June, from her house at Queenstown, and
arrived at Fitzgibbon's headquarters, a stone house known as DeCew's,
near the Beaver Dams, at sunset of the same day. On account of the
American sentries and outposts, she had to avoid the high roads and
beaten paths, thus making her toilsome journey nearly twice as long.
In spite of weakness and fatigue, this heroic woman went on her way
through pathless woods, over hill and dale and unbridged streams, till
she reached her destination. Her warning came just in time. Lieutenant
Fitzgibbon disposed of his little force to the best advantage possible,
placing them in ambush on both sides of the road, and taking every
precaution to make it appear that he had a large force in reserve.
Between eight and nine in the morning of the 24th June, the advance
guard of the American riflemen appeared. A volley from the woods
received them and emptied their saddles. Soon firing came from all
directions, and bugle calls, and Indian yells. The bewildered Americans
imagined themselves in the presence of a much superior force. Finding
that his men were losing heavily from the fire of the unseen foe,
and that they were suffering from fatigue and heat, he consented to
surrender. By the capitulation 542 men, 2 field-pieces, some ammunition
waggons, and the colours of the 14th U.S. regiment were delivered over
to the Canadians. For this brilliant achievement Lieutenant Fitzgibbon
[afterwards a military knight of Windsor] received his Company and a
Captain's commission. As to Laura Secord, her reward has come to her
in fame. The heroine lived until the year 1868, and sleeps now in that
old cemetery at Drummondville, where lie so many of our brave soldiers.
There is no 'Decoration Day' in Canada, but if there were, surely this
woman is entitled to the laurel wreath." Pp. 198-201.]


AUSTRALIAN POETS AND NOVELISTS.

[Footnote 42: Page 25.--The Canadian reader can profitably and easily
compare his own poets with those of Australia by reading Slade's
"Australian Poets, 1788-1883, being a selection of poems upon all
subjects written in Australia and New Zealand during the first century
of the British colonization, with brief notes on their authors, etc."
(London and Sydney, 1889.) It will be seen, however, that nearly all
the so-called "Australian" poets are English born, while with one or
two exceptions, those of Canada best known to fame are the product
of Canadian life and thought. Henry Clarence Kendall, "the poet of
New South Wales," was born at Ulladulla, on the coast of that colony,
in 1842. He is the one Australian poet of reputation, except his
forerunner, Charles Harpur, who was actually born under the Southern
Cross. Kendall's verses on "Coogee," a striking natural feature of
Australian scenery, show true poetic instinct and rhythmical ease:

      "Sing the song of wave-worn Coogee-Coogee in the distance white,
      With its jags and points disrupted, gaps and fractures fringed
                with light;
      Haunt of gledes and restless plovers of the melancholy wail,
      Ever lending deeper pathos to the melancholy gale.
      There, my brothers, down the fissures, chasms deep and wan and
                wild,
      Grows the sea-bloom, one that blushes like a shrinking, fair,
                blind child,
      And amongst the oozing forelands many a glad green rockvine runs,
      Getting ease on earthy ledges sheltered from December suns."

But among the many spirited poems written in Australia since its
settlement not one can equal the "Sick Stock-rider," by Adam Lindsay
Gordon, who came to South Australia in his early manhood, and attempted
sheep-farming, with the result of "owning nothing but a love for
horsemanship and a head full of Browning and Shelley." This is a
quotation from an introduction to his book by Marcus Clarke, himself a
novelist and poet. One can see in the mind's eye the scenes described
in the following verses, so full of real life and genuine poetry:

      "'Twas merry in the glowing morn, among the gleaming grass,
        To wander as we've wandered many a mile,
      And blow the cool tobacco cloud and watch the white wreaths pass,
        Sitting loosely in the saddle all the while;
      'Twas merry 'mid the backwoods, when we spied the station roofs,
        To wheel the wild scrub cattle at the yard,
      With a running fire of stockwhips and a fiery run of hoofs.
        Oh! the hardest day was never then too hard!

      "Aye! we had a glorious gallop after 'Starlight' and his gang,
        When they bolted from Sylvester's on the flat;
      How the sun-dried reed-beds crackled, how the flint-strewn ranges
                rang
        To the strokes of 'Mountaineer' and 'Acrobat';
      Hard behind them in the timber, harder still across the heath,
        Close behind them through the tea-tree scrub we dashed;
      And the golden-tinted fern-leaves, how they rustled underneath!
        And the honeysuckle osiers, how they crash'd!"

The best known novels of Australian life are these: "For the Term of
His Natural Life," by Marcus Clarke, who was an Englishman born and
educated; "The Miner's Right," "The Squatter's Dream," "A Colonial
Reformer," and "Robbery Under Arms," by Thomas A. Browne ("Rolf
Boldrewood"), who was also English born: "Uncle Piper of Piper's
Hill," by Madame Couvreur ("Tasma"), who is of Belgian descent, and is
now a resident of Belgium, though she was born in Australia and there
studied its social conditions; "The Australian Girl" and "A Silent
Sea," by Mrs. Alick McLeod. Mrs. Campbell Praed, who is colonial born,
has, in addition to several novels, written "Australian Life," which is
described by Sir Charles Dilke ("Problems of Greater Britain," i., 374)
as "a vivid autobiographical picture of the early days of Queensland."
Copies of these and other Australian books the writer owes to the
thoughtfulness of Chief Justice Way, D.C.L., Oxon., of Adelaide, South
Australia. For many years he has been the recipient of these graceful
attentions from friends in that fair land of the Southern Cross, and
though it looks very much as if he will never meet some of them face
to face--for the time is passing rapidly with us all--he takes this
opportunity of now sending them his thanks across the seas.]


HOWE'S "FLAG OF OLD ENGLAND."

[Footnote 43: Page 26.--This spirited song was written for the one
hundredth anniversary of the landing of Lord Cornwallis at Halifax. As
many persons in old Canada do not know it--for it is not reproduced
in recent collections of Canadian poems--I give it in full for the
benefit of the youth of this Dominion, on whom the future destiny of
the country depends:

      "All hail to the day when the Britons came over,
        And planted their standard with sea-foam still wet,
      Around and above us their spirits will hover,
        Rejoicing to mark how we honour it yet.
      Beneath it the emblems they cherished are waving,
        The Rose of Old England the roadside perfumes;
      The Shamrock and Thistle the north winds are braving,
        Securely the Mayflower blushes and blooms.

                CHORUS.

                "Hail to the day when the Britons came over,
                  And planted their standard with sea-foam still wet,
                Around and above us their spirits will hover,
                  Rejoicing to mark how we honour it yet.
                    We'll honour it yet, we'll honour it yet,
                    The flag of Old England! we'll honour it yet.

      "In the temples they founded their faith is maintained,
        Every foot of the soil they bequeathed is still ours,
      The graves where they moulder no foe has profaned,
        But we wreathe them with verdure, and strew them with flowers!
      The blood of no brother, in civil strife pour'd,
        In this hour of rejoicing, encumbers our souls!
      The frontier's the field for the Patriot's sword,
        And cursed be the weapon that Faction controls!

                CHORUS--"Hail to the day, etc.

      "Then hail to the day! 'tis with memories crowded,
        Delightful to trace 'midst the mists of the past,
      Like the features of Beauty, bewitchingly shrouded,
        They shine through the shadows Time o'er them has cast.
      As travellers track to its source in the mountains
        The stream which, far swelling, expands o'er the plains,
      Our hearts, on this day, fondly turn to the fountains
        Whence flow the warm currents that bound in our veins.

                CHORUS--"Hail to the day, etc.

      "And proudly we trace them: no warrior flying
        From city assaulted, and fanes overthrown,
      With the last of his race on the battlements dying,
        And weary with wandering, founded our own.
      From the Queen of the Islands, then famous in story,
        A century since, our brave forefathers came,
      And our kindred yet fill the wide world with her glory,
        Enlarging her Empire and spreading her name.

                CHORUS--"Hail to the day, etc.

      "Ev'ry flash of her genius our pathway enlightens--
         Ev'ry field she explores we are beckoned to tread--
       Each laurel she gathers our future day brightens--
         We joy with her living, and mourn for her dead.
       Then hail to the day when the Britons came over,
         And planted their standard, with sea-foam still wet,
       Above and around us their spirits shall hover,
         Rejoicing to mark how we honour it yet.

                CHORUS--"Hail to the day," etc.]


ESSAYISTS.

[Footnote 44: Page 27.--The principal contributors to the English
and American periodical press of late years have been George Stewart
of Quebec, Principal Grant, J. G. Bourinot, Martin J. Griffin, W. D.
LeSueur, G. M. Dawson, S. E. Dawson, Arnold Haultain, John Reade, J. M.
Oxley and Sir W. Dawson. Dr. Stewart of Quebec, despite the demands of
journalism, has been always a most earnest literary worker, foremost by
his own contributions and by his efforts to encourage the labours of
others in the too indifferent little Canadian world. Goldwin Smith has
always been a contributor of note, but he is rather an English than a
Canadian writer. Among the names of the French Canadian general writers
are those of Fréchette, Sulte, Marmette, Faucher de Saint-Maurice, J.
Tassé, DeCelles, Dionne, Casgrain and LeMoine; but their efforts have
been confined as a rule to the numerous French Canadian periodicals
which have appeared for the last thirty years, and after a short
career died for want of adequate support. In the numerous periodicals
of England and the United States English Canadian writers have great
advantages over French Canadians, who are practically limited to their
own country, since France offers few opportunities for such literary
work.]


WILLIAM KIRBY'S WORKS AND OTHER ROMANCES BY CANADIANS.

[Footnote 45: Page 27.--"The Golden Dog: a Legend of Quebec." New York
and Montreal, 1877, 8vo. Also translated by Pamphile LeMay, the French
Canadian poet, Montreal, 1884. Mr. Kirby is also the author of several
poems of merit: "The U. E.: a Tale of Upper Canada. A Poem in XII.
Cantos." Niagara, 1859, 12mo. "Canadian Idylls," Toronto, 1878, etc.
He was born in England in 1817, but came to Canada at the early age of
fifteen. He was one of the original members of the Royal Society of
Canada.

Mr. Lespérance, F.R.S.C., was the author of the "Bastonnais" and
other historical romances of some ability, but not of that high
order of merit which gives a permanent reputation. The Hon. L. Seth
Huntington, long known in Canadian political life, was the author of
a semi-political novel, "Professor Conant" (Toronto, 1884), which had
its merits, but it fell practically still-born from the press. Many
other efforts have been made in the same branch of literature, but the
performance, as stated in the text, has not been equal to the ambition
that prompted the experiment.]


MAJOR RICHARDSON.

[Footnote 45_a_: Page 27.--Major Richardson was born at Niagara Falls
in 1797, and educated at Amherstburg, U.C., where some of the scenes
of "Wacousta" are laid. He served in the war of 1812, in the West
Indies and in Spain, where he belonged to the British legion. He came
back to Canada in 1838, and was for years connected with the press. He
wrote a number of novels and short histories of Canadian events, but
they are now all forgotten. His historical narrative is not generally
trustworthy, while his later romances never even came up to the merit
of "Wacousta." He died in obscurity some time after 1854--I cannot find
the exact year--in the United States, where he attempted to continue a
career of literature.]


MARMETTE.

[Footnote 46: Page 27.--Mr. Joseph Marmette, F.R.S.C., is the author of
several works of fiction, viz.:

"François de Bienville. Roman historique." 1^{ere} ed., Québec, 1870;
2^e ed., Montréal, 1882.

"L'Intendant Bigot. Roman historique." Montréal, 1872.

"Le Chevalier de Mornac. Roman historique." Montréal, 1873.

"La Fiancée du Rebelle. Roman historique." Published in 'La Revue
Canadienne,' Montreal, 1875.]


DE GASPÉ'S WORKS.

[Footnote 47: Page 27.--"Les Anciens Canadiens." By Philippe Aubert de
Gaspé. Quebec, 1863, 8vo.

Several translations have appeared since 1863. That by Prof. Roberts
(New York, Appleton & Co., 1890) omits the notes and addenda, which,
if not interesting to the general reader, have much value for the
historical student. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens," vol. vi.,
contains a portrait of the old French Canadian novelist. He also wrote
"Mémoires" (Ottawa, 1886, 8vo.), which have also much historic value on
account of their fidelity and simplicity of narrative.]


MRS. CATHERWOOD.

[Footnote 48: Page 28.--Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood, whose home is
in Hoopeston, Ill., has so far written and published the following
admirable romances of the old days of New France and Acadie:

"The Romance of Dollard." Illustrated. New York, 1889, 12mo.

"The Story of Tonty." Illustrated. Chicago, 1890, 16mo.

"The Lady of Fort St. John." Boston and New York, 1891, 16mo.

"Old Kaskaskia: An Historical Novel of Early Illinois." Boston and New
York, 1893, 16mo.

She has now commenced in 'The Century' Magazine a new romance with the
title, "The White Islander," a story of old Fort Michillimackinac, and
in 'The Atlantic Monthly' another story, "The Chase of Saint Castin."
Her romances are never long, but bear the impress of close study of the
subject and of much careful writing.]


GILBERT PARKER.

[Footnote 49: Page 28.--He is a most industrious worker in various
branches of literature in London. After a residence of a few years in
Australia, where he was connected with the Sydney press, he went to
England, where he wrote many sketches of Australian life which were
well received. Recently he has been studying the interesting phases
of French Canadian and Northwest life, and has produced, among other
stories, "The Chief Factor," the principal scenes of which are laid in
the great territories of the Dominion before they were opened up to the
farmer, the rancher and the railway.]


DE MILLE'S WORKS.

[Footnote 50: Page 29.--James De Mille was a native of New Brunswick,
and a professor in Dalhousie College, N. S., at the time of his death.
His first work of fiction was "Helena's Household: a Tale of Rome in
the First Century" (New York, 1858). His most popular works, "The Dodge
Club Abroad" (1866), "Cord and Creese" (1867), "The Cryptogram" (1871),
and "A Castle in Spain" (1883), first appeared in 'Harper's Monthly.' A
strange, imaginative work, "A Curious MS. Found in a Copper Cylinder,"
was published in New York in 1888, and is understood to have been
written by him. It was not until Rider Haggard's fiction became popular
that the New York publishers ventured to print a book which so severely
taxes the credulity of the reader. As a work of pure invention it is
in some respects superior to those of the English author. Mr. De Mille
died in 1880, at the age of 43, when much was expected of him. See
Appleton's "Cyclo. Am. Biogr.," ii., 138, for a list of his published
works except the one just mentioned.]


SARA JEANNETTE DUNCAN.

[Footnote 51: Page 29.--She is the author of three books. "A Social
Departure" and "An American Girl in London" have had many readers and
are full of promise. Miss Duncan, in company with another young lady,
in 1889-90, went around the world, and made numerous contributions to
the press of Canada during that tour, but its noteworthy result is the
first mentioned volume. She is now married and a resident of India,
whose striking aspects of social life she is studying and portraying
in print. Her latest story, or rather sketch, of Indian customs, "The
Simple Adventures of a Memsahib" (New York, 1893), has many touches of
quiet humour. One must regret that her talent has not been directed to
the incidents of Canadian life.]


MATTHEW ARNOLD ON LITERATURE AND SCIENCE.

[Footnote 52: Page 31.--The extract given in the text is taken from
"Literature and Science," one of Mr. Matthew Arnold's "Discourses in
America," published in book form in London, 1885. See pp. 90-92.]


PRINCIPAL GRANT'S ADDRESS.

[Footnote 53: Page 32.--This address to the Royal Society of Canada,
to which reference is made in the text, is given in the ninth volume
of the 'Transactions,' pp. xxxix-xl. Dr. Grant could never be
uninteresting, but the address shows his ideas can now and then be a
little chaotic or enigmatic. It is quite evident he has never studied
with much care the volumes of the 'Transactions,' or comprehended the
useful work the Society is doing in its own way. Never an active member
himself, he has not done adequate justice to those who have been at all
events conscientious labourers in the vineyard where he has planted no
seed.]


SIR J. W. DAWSON.

[Footnote 54: Page 32.--This distinguished scientific man is a Nova
Scotian by birth, who, before he became so closely identified with
the prosperity of McGill College at Montreal as its principal, was
superintendent of education in his native province. His scientific
works are numerous, but the one which first brought him fame was his
"Acadian Geology: an Account of the Geological Structure and Mineral
Resources of Nova Scotia and Portions of the Neighbouring Provinces
of British America" (Edinburgh and London, 1855, 8vo.), which has run
through many editions, and is now a very large volume compared with the
little modest book that first ventured into the world of literature
nearly forty years ago.]


MR. BILLINGS.

[Footnote 55: Page 33.--He was born on his father's farm, in the
township of Gloucester, near Ottawa. A bibliography, evidently prepared
by his own hand, is to be found in "Bibliotheca Canadensis," pp.
31-34. His most important memoirs are on the third and fourth Decades
and the Palæozoic fossils of the Canadian Geological Survey, in which
nearly all the genera and species of the fossils there described were
discovered by himself.]


ORIGIN OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA.

[Footnote 56: Page 33.--The first volume of the 'Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.'
(1882-83), pp. i-lxxiv., contains an account of the proceedings before
and after the foundation of the Society, with the addresses in full of
the Marquess of Lorne and of the first President and Vice-President of
the body. On the occasion of the Montreal meeting, 1891, a handbook was
largely circulated by the Citizens' Committee with the view of giving
information of the object and work of the Society. It was written
by Mr. John Reade, F.R.S.C., and contains a succinct history of the
origin and operations of the body until May, 1891. It contains plans
of McGill College grounds and of Montreal in 1759, and sketches of the
old Seminary towers, St. Gabriel-street church, St. Ann's, besides some
interesting facts relating to Montreal's historic places.]


SIR D. WILSON, T. S. HUNT AND MR. CHAUVEAU.

[Footnote 57: Page 34.--Dr. Kingsford has given a paper, "In Memoriam,
on Sir Daniel Wilson" ('Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.,' vol. xi.) in which
he briefly reviews the excellent literary work and the wide culture
of that eminent man. In volume ix. of the 'Trans.,' Sec. I., pp.
53-58, there is a well-written paper on the late Mr. Chauveau, by his
successor, Mr. L. O. David of Montreal. The presidential address of
Abbé Laflamme in 1892 (see 'Trans.,' vol. x.) was devoted to a review
of the scientific attainments of Dr. T. Sterry Hunt.]


CANADIAN SOCIETIES.

[Footnote 58: Page 34.--At the present time there are over twenty
Canadian scientific and literary societies associated with the Royal
Society in its work. Mr. John Reade, in the "Montreal Handbook of 1891"
(see Note 56), gives the following list of societies established
before 1867: Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, 1824; Natural
History Society of Montreal, 1827--act of incorporation five years
later; Institut Canadien, Quebec, 1846; Canadian Institute, Toronto,
1851; Institut Canadien, Ottawa, 1852; Hamilton Association, 1856;
Société Historique, Montréal, 1858: Nova Scotia Institute of Natural
Science, 1862; Natural History Society, St. John, N.B., 1862;
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Montreal, 1862; Entomological
Society of Ontario, 1863.]


THE EARL OF DERBY AND THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA.

[Footnote 58_a_: Page 42.--Four years ago you were good enough, in
offering me the position of your honorary president, to ask the
sympathy and encouragement which the governor-general, as Her Majesty's
representative, might rightly be asked to manifest towards the
representatives of science and of the liberal arts. I am afraid that my
contributions to literature and science have been few. I do not know
they are such as would have merited the notice of the Royal Society,
but I can assure you that none of the members of your body take a
deeper interest in all that concerns the welfare of your Society than
he who is now laying down the office of honorary president. (Cheers.)
There were some persons who considered that in a comparatively new
country like Canada it was ambitious on her part when the foundations
of the Royal Society were laid, but there must be a beginning of all
things, and I think I may appeal to the work which has been and is
being done by the different branches of the Society as evidence that
its establishment was in no sense premature, but that it was fittingly
determined that the progress of science and literature should take
place coincidently with that of the country. In a new country like
this--I think you have touched upon it in your address--there is a
great tendency to further one's material wants, to promote trade and
commerce, and to put aside, as it were, literature and the sciences;
but here the Royal Society has stepped in and done good work by uniting
those who were scattered by distance and who find in the meetings
of our Society a convenient opportunity of coming together for the
exchanging of ideas and renewing of those friendships which, though
perhaps only yearly meetings permit, are nevertheless enduring. If we
look back we shall best see what good work is being done. If we could
imagine the existence of such a society as this in the older countries
in olden times, what a mine of wealth of information would have been
afforded us! We see that from the very first, whether in literature,
which forms so important a part in our Society; whether it be in the
constitutional studies, in which our President is such an adept--and I
was glad to see his authority has been quoted on the other side of the
Atlantic as well as on this--whether it be in the literature of the
chivalrous pioneers of France, who first led the way into the unbroken
wilderness, or whether it be in the latter days of constitutional
progress of this country and its relations both to the old world and
the country growing up alongside of us.

In literature, history and poetry, also, the Society will from the
first have its stamp, as we trust, upon the future of the Canadian
race. (Cheers.) That science and the arts to an equal extent may find a
place here is our earnest wish, in order that by sentiment and feeling
we may bind together in the closest ties that by which she must achieve
a great and enduring success. I must not detain you from your other
duties, but I could not refrain from saying in a few words how heartily
and truly I appreciate and believe in the work of the Royal Society. At
your next meeting, as you truly say, I fear I shall not be amongst you;
but though the Atlantic may roll between us, you may be certain that
in spirit, at least, I hope to be present at your meeting, and shall
follow with the liveliest and deepest interest any record you may be
good enough to send me of what takes place on that occasion. * * * * *
I appeal not the less to my French colleagues than to my English ones
in all matters which relate to the welfare of the Society. Science,
art and literature, it is true, are cosmopolitan, but they are well
knit together in this Society. We who have experienced in Canada the
hospitality of its people are grateful for it. We have admired the
greatness of the resources of this country, and we look forward to a
society like this as having ample work to do in the future. As in every
respect Canada seems to be disposed always to take a forward part, so I
hope the Royal Society will ever press on to a higher and higher goal;
and, gentlemen, I can wish to the Royal Society, to all my friends and
brothers of the Society, to whom I once more tender my hearty thanks,
no greater blessing than, like Canada itself, that they may be happy,
united and prosperous. (Loud and prolonged cheers.)]


S. E. DAWSON ON TENNYSON.

[Footnote 59: Page 40.--"A Study, with Critical and Explanatory
Notes, of Lord Tennyson's Poem, The Princess." By S. E. Dawson.
Montreal, 1882, 12mo. 2nd ed. 1884. The preface contains a long and
interesting letter from the poet, which "throws some light upon some
important literary questions regarding the manner and method of the
poet's working." Tennyson describes the "Study" truly as an "able and
thoughtful essay."]


THE OLD 'CANADIAN MONTHLY.'

[Footnote 60: Page 40.--It first appeared in Toronto in 1872 (Adam
Stevenson & Co.), soon after Prof. Goldwin Smith took up his permanent
residence in that western city. Much of its reputation for years
necessarily depended on the contributions of a writer who, if he has
failed to identify himself of late with the national or Canadian
sentiment of the people, has at all events done something in the past
to improve the style of Canadian _littérateurs_ and to elevate the tone
of journalism. The 'Monthly' was the ablest successor of a long list
of literary aspirants in the same field, the majority of which had a
still shorter existence. See Bourinot's "Intellectual Development of
the Canadian People" (Toronto, 1881), chap. iv. and 'Canadian Monthly,'
March, 1881.]


FORM OF ROYAL SOCIETY 'TRANSACTIONS.'

[Footnote 61: Page 42.--Since the delivery of the presidential address
the Royal Society decided by a considerable majority--chiefly made up
of the two scientific sections--to continue the quarto form for the
present. Under these circumstances the compromise suggested may be
adopted--that of printing separate editions of important monographs and
works from time to time by some understanding with the author.]


THE STUDY OF THE CLASSICS.

[Footnote 62: Page 49.--The following is a fuller quotation from Prof.
Goldwin Smith's very apposite remarks delivered before the Classical
Association of Ontario (see 'The Week,' April 28th, 1893): "No age has
stood more in need of humanizing culture than this, in which physical
culture reigns. One of the newspapers the other day invited us to take
part in a symposium the subject of which was 'How to Produce a Perfect
Man.' The problem was large, but one help to its solution might have
been a reminder to keep the balance. A romantic age stands in need
of science, a scientific and utilitarian age stands in need of the
humanities. Darwin avows that poetry gave him no pleasure whatever.
This surely was a loss, unless the whole side of things which poetry
denotes is dead and gone, nothing but dry science being left us; in
which case the generations that are coming may have some reason, with
all their increase of knowledge and power, to wish that they had lived
nearer the youth of the world." See _supra_, Note 1, for Mr. Lowell's
remarks on the same subject.]


CANADIAN LIBRARIES.

[Footnote 63: Page 53.--Some interesting facts as to the evolution of
libraries in the Dominion can be gathered by reference to Bourinot's
"Intellectual Development in Canada" (Toronto, 1831); Canniff Haight's
"Country Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago"; Dr. Canniff's "History of
Ontario"; and Dr. Kingsford's "Early Bibliography of Ontario." The
principal results of the Ontario law providing for the establishment
of free libraries by votes of ratepayers in a community have been the
opening of two excellent libraries in Hamilton and Toronto--the latter
under the judicious superintendence of Mr. James Bain.]


CANADIAN ARTISTS.

[Footnote 64: Page 54.--An Art Society was founded in Upper Canada as
far back as 1841, but its exhibitions were necessarily representative
of British works of art. The present Art Association was founded in
Montreal in 1860, and the Ontario School of Arts, which is doing
excellent work, twelve years later, with its headquarters in Toronto.
The Royal Canadian Academy, mentioned in the text, was established in
1880. The influence of these and two or three minor institutions in
Canada has been on the whole in the direction of stimulating art, but
their efforts are not adequately encouraged by government or people in
the provinces.

The following is a list of the painters in oils and water colours whose
pictures now make the principal features of the annual exhibitions
in Ontario and Quebec, and the majority of whom were inadequately
represented at Chicago: F. A. Verner, whose Indian and Canadian scenes
are excellent; H. M. Matthews, who has made a high reputation for his
Rocky Mountain paintings; L. R. O'Brien, essentially the most finished
painter of picturesque Canada; T. Mower Martin, an industrious painter
of wild sports and Canadian scenery; E. Wyley Grier, who has done some
good work in portraits and natural scenery; W. Brymner, one of the
most promising younger painters of Canadian scenes: George Reid, whose
"Foreclosure of the Mortgage" is one of the best pictures produced in
the Dominion; John Hammond of St. John, N.B., a painter of water life;
Percy Woodcock, whose efforts at sketches of Canadian rural life are
praiseworthy: F. M. Bell-Smith, who has a decided artistic faculty
for the portraiture of our noblest scenery; Homer Watson, a favourite
for his rustic landscapes and romantic pastorals; J. W. L. Forster,
in some respects the best figure painter, but also capable of good
landscapes; G. Bruenech, a careful artist of scenery; Ernest Thompson,
who has made some good efforts at prairie subjects; J. C. Forbes, who
painted Mr. Gladstone's portrait, and is one of the best artists of
the class that Canada has so far known; W. Raphael and O. R. Jacobi,
two of the oldest and best known painters of Canadian landscape. To
these we must add Miss Minnie A. Bell, A. Watson, Miss Sidney S. Tully,
Mrs. M. H. Reid, J. T. Rolph, R. F. Gagen, T. C. McGillivray Knowles,
Forshaw Day, L. Huot, Mlle. Colombier, E. Dyonnet, C. Macdonald Manly,
D. P. MacKillsan, J. W. Morrice, A. D. Patterson, Miss G. F. Spurr,
F. S. Challener, Paul J. Wickson, Mrs. M. B. Screiber, W. Revell, D.
Fowler, Miss E. May Martin, Miss Laura Muntz, Miss F. M. Bell-Smith,
Miss Florence Carlyle, Miss I. M. F. Adams, Owen P. Staples, Mrs. M. E.
Dignam, Charles Alexander, W. E. Atkinson, J. C. Mills, J. A. Fraser
(in New York), Carl Ahrens, W. A. Sherwood, Miss Fannie Sutherland,
T. C. V. Ede, H. Sandham (in New York), Mr. Harvey, Mr. Cruickshank,
Mr. Seavey, A. Cox, Miss Edwards, J. Griffith, Colin Scott, J. Wilson,
James Smith, C. J. Way, F. Brownell, A. P. Coleman, R. Harris, Miss
Holden and Miss Houghton. Many of these artists, whose merits, of
course, vary much, are not native Canadians. One of the strongest
landscape painters, Mr. Matthews, is an Englishman, who has now, after
some years, thoroughly understood the light and colour of Canadian
scenery. O'Brien, Brymner, L. Huot, Forbes, Forster, Pinhey, Sidney
Tully, G. Harris, Gagen, Knowles, Watson, Alexander, A. D. Patterson,
C. M. Manly, E. May Martin and George Reid are Canadians. G. T.
Berthon, who died recently in Toronto at an advanced age, and was known
as a painter of numerous portraits, the best of which are to be seen in
Osgoode Hall, was of French origin and education. Raphael is German by
birth and education. Jacobi is a painter of the Dusseldorf school, and
was at one time employed in the court of the King of Bavaria. Bruenech
is a native, I understand, of Denmark, though educated in Canada. E.
W. Grier is an Englishman by birth and education, with a knowledge of
French art derived from study in Paris. So is Ernest Thompson, who
also studied in Paris. Mower Martin is an Englishman, educated in that
country and in Canada, with whose scenery he has been always enamoured.
Carl Ahrens was born and educated in the United States. Miss Minnie
Bell and Miss Laura Muntz are among the most promising younger artists
of Canada. Both were born and received their elementary education in
Canada. Miss Bell, after studying in Paris, is now in Montreal. Miss
Muntz is still studying in Paris. Robert Harris is a native of Prince
Edward Island. Mr. N. Bourassa, who is a French Canadian artist, has
of late years devoted himself to ecclesiastical decoration. His best
work is to be seen in the architecture and decoration of the churches
of Notre Dame de Nazareth and Notre Dame de Lourdes, in Montreal, and
he has the credit of having first applied probably in America "the art
of painting to the adornment of Christian churches in the broad and
thorough manner so common at one period in central Italy." (See Dr. S.
E. Dawson's "Handbook of Canada," Montreal, 1888, pp. 183, 184.) The
influence of the French schools of painting can be seen in the best
works of Paul Peel (now dead), Forster, Harris, Geo. Reid and John
Pinhey (born at Ottawa), all of whom have had success at the salons. At
the present time there are some twenty-five Canadians, more or less,
studying in Paris, and the majority are French Canadians. In fact, the
French schools draw students from Canada as well as from the United
States, and England is relatively ignored. The artistic temperament is
more stimulated by the _ateliers_ and the student life of Paris than
among the more business-like and cold surroundings of a student in
London. In sculpture the names are very few, Hamilton McCarthy, Hébert
and Dunbar having alone done meritorious work, but of these three
Hébert is the only native Canadian. One of the very first painters
to draw attention, years ago, to Canadian scenery, especially to the
wonderfully vivid tints of autumn, was Krieghoff, whose pictures have
been so much copied that it is difficult now to tell the originals from
the reproductions. He was, however, not a native Canadian but a Swiss
painter from the German-speaking cantons, I believe. The name of Paul
Kane (born in Toronto) will be always identified with Indian life and
customs, and as the pioneer of art in Canada. A fine collection of his
paintings is in the possession of Hon. G. W. Allan, who has always
taken an active interest in the development of art in the city of
which he has been so long an honoured citizen.

Among other Canadian artists who laboured in the commencement of art
studies in this country may be mentioned the following: Dulongpré,
Samuel Berczy, Audy, William Berczy, Vincent Zacharie Thelariolin
(Indian of Lorette, 1812-1886), Hamel, Carey, T. H. Burnett, J.
J. Girouard, P. Leber--many of whose artistic efforts are already
forgotten though their work was meritorious. With respect to Berthon,
the following note by Col. G. T. Denison, F.R.S.C., of Toronto, which I
have received since writing of the artist above, will be of interest:
"His father was a court painter under the great Napoleon, and several
of his pictures are now in Versailles. He was a Frenchman, and I think
was in Vienna when his son, my old friend, was born; for I am under
the impression Berthon told me he was born in Vienna. I think he was
brought up in France, and went to London when comparatively young,
and there set up as a portrait painter. He was induced to come out
to Canada about the year 1843 or 1844, and settled in Toronto soon
after, where he died about a year ago, over eighty years of age. He was
certainly, when in his prime, the best portrait painter we ever had
in Canada, and in my opinion was better than most of the men of great
celebrity in London to-day."

The successful artists at the World's Fair, where 113 works in all were
presented from Canada, were the following: Mr. G. Reid, whose great
picture mentioned above could not fail to attract much notice, Mr.
Harris, Mr. Ede, Miss Holden and Mr. J. A. Fraser. This is satisfactory
in view of the fact that the best work of the majority of leading
Canadian artists was not represented in the exhibition. Apart from
Mr. Reid's painting, the pictures that were signalled out for special
notice were not equal in some respects to other efforts of the same
artists that have been seen in our annual exhibitions.

In closing this note I cannot do better than give the following
judicious remarks on art in Canada, delivered before the Canadian
Institute, by an able Canadian artist, J. W. L. Forster: "The art of
Canada to-day is a mingling of elements.... The influence of the old
world may be seen in the work of many who cherish still the precepts
of their masters. Yet it is due to those who have adopted Canada as
their home to say they are as Canadian in the faithful reproduction
of the pure glories of our climate as those who first saw the sun
in our own sky. Our native artists who have studied abroad are much
inclined to paint a Canadian sky with the haze of Western Europe, and
our verdure, too, as though it grew upon foreign soil. Our art is not
Canadian.... Material is certainly not wanting, nor _motif_ of the
grander order. The first requisite is for a stronger national spirit.
Events are slowly developing this; and the signs are full of promise
in this direction. The second great need is for a museum equipped with
well-chosen specimens of the world's art. Our government and citizens
are establishing schools of industrial and fine art, yet when we would
point our pupils to examples of pure art, lo! there are none; and
when we would know what art has been, in order to discover what art
may be, we must go as exiles and pilgrims to foreign cities. A museum
that gives the best of their art history and achievement will greatly
strengthen our hope and give rein to our ambition. A third need is for
capable and generous criticism. There are many men whose discernment
and sympathies fit them eminently for the role of art critic; but as
yet journalism has not opened wide the door to advancement in such a
specialty."]


ARCHITECTURAL ART.

[Footnote 64_a_: Page 57.--While Canadian architecture is generally
wanting in originality of conception, yet it affords many good
illustrations of the effective adaptation of the best art of Europe
to the principal edifices of the large cities. These are the most
noteworthy public buildings:

In _Ottawa_.--The parliament and departmental buildings, admirable
examples of Italian Gothic of the 13th century, with a fine central
tower, the effect of which has been marred by a later tower in the
western block out of harmony with the general design of an otherwise
perfect group.

In _Quebec_.--The legislative building in the French style of the 17th
century, noteworthy for its niches containing statues of men famous in
French Canadian history.

In _Montreal_.--The parish church of Notre Dame, on the Place
d'Armes, of a simple Gothic style, attractive for its stateliness and
massiveness.

Christ Church Cathedral, on St. Catherine street, worthy of study as
an admirable specimen of the early English style of ecclesiastical
architecture, exhibiting unity of design and correctness of proportions.

Notre Dame de Lourdes, whose interior has been already spoken of (see
preceding note); a good example of the Byzantine order, combined with
effects of the Italian Renaissance recalling Venetian architecture.

The Montreal Bank, on St. James street, an artistic illustration of the
Corinthian order, with an interior interesting for the artistic effort
to illustrate on the walls remarkable scenes in Canadian history.

The Canadian Pacific Station, on Windsor street, a fine example of an
adaptation of old Norman architecture to modern necessities.

In _Toronto_.--The University, perhaps the best example in America of a
modern conception of Norman architecture, with a tower of much beauty.

Trinity University, whose graceful Tudor-Gothic design, in which the
tower is a conspicuous feature, is marred by the clumsy projection of a
later chapel building, entirely out of harmony with the admirable front.

Osgoode Hall, of the Ionic order, modified by additions of the Italian
Renaissance.

St. Andrew's Church, a combination of the Norman and Byzantine orders,
more suitable for a great library or a hall than an ecclesiastical
edifice. As a specimen of architecture, apart from its purpose, it is
harmonious and artistic.

The new legislative buildings, which are the most pretentious in
Canada after the Ottawa parliament house, are a praiseworthy effort to
illustrate the Romanesque, with details of the Celtic and Indo-Germanic
schools.

The Methodist Metropolitan Church, a judicious example of a modern form
of the Gothic style which distinguished the 13th century in France.
It is at once simple and harmonious in its general design, and has a
massive tower which adds to the general effect of the whole structure.

St. James's Church, often cited as a good example of ecclesiastical
Gothic, with a graceful and well-proportioned tower and steeple,
conspicuous from all points of view.

In _Hamilton_.--The court-house is in some respects the best designed
of its kind in Canada. The head office of the Canada Life Assurance
Company is noteworthy for its graceful simplicity, in its way not
equalled in Canada.

In _Fredericton_.--The Church of England Cathedral, a perfect specimen,
on a small scale, of pure early English Gothic on the Continent.

The new library building which McGill University owes to the public
spirit of Mr. Redpath, of Montreal, is distinguished by the graceful
simplicity of its external form, and the conveniences of its beautiful
interior. Apart from this fine edifice, however, and the parliamentary
library at Ottawa, whose external design is harmonious and whose
internal fittings illustrate the effectiveness of our natural woods,
Canada has no such libraries--in special buildings I mean--noteworthy
for beauty of architecture and convenience of arrangements as we find
among our neighbours, illustrating their public and private spirit.
Neither have we an art gallery of special architectural features, for
the building at Montreal is simple in the extreme. Such as it is,
however, it is an object of imitation to other cities in Canada.]


"FIDELIS."

[Footnote 65: Page 60.--The poetic citation which closes the
presidential address is taken from Miss Machar's ("Fidelis") verses
on "Dominion Day," which appear in "Songs of the Great Dominion," pp.
15-17, and merit a wide audience for their patriotic spirit and poetic
taste.]



INDEX.


  "Acadia, History of," by J. Hannay, 71.

  "Acadian Geology," by Sir J. W. Dawson, 84.

  "After Weary Years," romance by Archbp. O'Brien, of Halifax, N.S., 74.

  Ahrens, Carl, artist, 88.

  Algonquin Grammar, by Abbé Cuoq, 37.

  Allan, Hon. G. W., his love of art, 88.

  "An American Girl in London," by Sara J. Duncan, 83.

  "Aminta," poem by Archbishop O'Brien, 74.

  "Anciens Canadiens," by P. de Gaspé, 27, 82.

  Archibald, Sir Adams J., statesman, 15.

  Archibald, S. J. W., statesman, 15.

  Architecture in Canada, imitative rather than original, 57;
    special buildings of architectural beauty mentioned, 89, 91.

  Art in Canada, 53;
    names of eminent painters, 54, 87;
    want of art galleries, 53, 54;
    establishment of art associations in Montreal and Toronto, 89;
    the Canadian Academy of Art, 54;
    some general remarks on its use, ib.;
    J. W. L. Forster cited on the subject, 89;
    success of Canadian artists at the Chicago World's Fair, 55, 89.

  Art gallery in Montreal, 53, 91.

  Arnold, Matthew, on the large meaning of "Literature," 31, 32, 83.

  Australian novelists, superior to those of Canada, 25;
    names, 79.

  Australian poets compared with those of Canada, 25;
    names, 79;
    extracts from, 79.


  Baldwin, Hon. Robert, statesman, 14.

  Bank of Montreal Building at Montreal, its architecture, 90.

  "Bastonnais, The," romance by J. Lespérance, 82.

  "Beggars All," by L. Dougall, 29.

  Belknap, Jeremy, his "History of New Hampshire," 13, 67.

  Bell, Miss Minnie, artist, 87.

  Bell-Smith, F. M., artist, 88.

  Beothiks, or Red Indians of Newfoundland, essay on, by Dr. Patterson,
            38.

  Berthon, G. T., artist, 89.

  Bibaud, Michel, his History of Canada, 12, 67.

  Bibliography of the writings of members of the Royal Society, 72.

  "Bienville, François de," romance by M. Marmette, 27, 82.

  Billings, Elkanah, geologist, 33, 84.

  Biography, literature of, weak in Canada, 42.

  Blake, Edward, mentioned, 17, 43.

  Boucher, Pierre, his account of the customs and natural productions of
            Nouvelle France, 6, 63.

  Bouchette, Joseph, his works on the topography of Canada, 12, 67.

  Bourassa, N., artist, 88.

  Brown, J. H., poet, 76.

  Bruenech, G., artist, 87.

  Bunsen, Chevalier, his opinion on what constitutes the excellence of a
            romance, 29.

  Brymner, W., artist, 54, 88.


  Campbell, Wilfred, his poems, 20;
    quotations therefrom, 75.

  Canada Life Assurance Building at Hamilton, its architecture, 90.

  Canada, three eras of development, 4.

  "Canadian Idylls," poems by W. Kirby, 82.

  Canadian Literary and Scientific Societies, the oldest in Canada,
            34, 84.

  "Canadian Monthly," its usefulness, 40, 86.

  Canadian Pacific RR., Station at Montreal, its architecture, 90.

  "Canadiens de l'Ouest," by J. Tassé, 72.

  "Carillon, le Drapeau de," poem by O. Crémazie, quoted, 68.

  Carman, Bliss, his poems, 20.

  Cartier, Sir George Etienne, statesman, 14.

  Casgrain, Abbé, his historical works, 71;
    his opinion of Crémazie, 20.

  Catherwood, Mary Hartwell, writer of fiction, 28, 82.

  Champlain, compared with Columbus, 5;
    with Captain John Smith, 62;
    his works, 6, 61.

  "Chants Nouveaux," poems by B. Sulte, 73.

  Charlevoix, his history of Nouvelle France, 6, 62;
    his opinion of society in Quebec, 8.

  Chauveau, P. J. O., his poems, etc., 17;
    one of the founders of the Royal Society, 34, 67.

  Chevrier, R., poet, 76.

  Christie, Robert, his history of Lower Canada, 18, 69.

  "Chief Factor, The," novel by Gilbert Parker, 28, 82.

  Christ Church Cathedral at Fredericton, its architecture, 90.

  Christ Church Cathedral at Montreal, its architecture, 90.

  Classics, Study of;
    Goldwin Smith on, 49, 86;
    Matthew Arnold on, 50;
    J. Russell Lowell on, 61;
    should be encouraged in Canadian colleges, 49;
    its results in French Canada, 65.

  Clarke, Professor, mentioned, 10.

  "Clàrsach nam Beann," Gaelic poems by E. McColl, 77.

  Clercq, Père Chrestien le, his "Etablissement de la Foy," 6, 64.

  "Coogee," poem by H. C. Kendall, the Australian poet, cited, 79.

  "Cours d'Histoire du Canada," by Abbé Ferland, 18, 70.

  Crawford, Isabella Valancy, poet, 76.

  Crémazie, Octave, his poems, 17, 68.

  Creux, Père du, his _Historia Canadensis_, 6, 63.

  Criticism, necessity for a spirit of genuine, in Canada, 47;
    reference to S. E. Dawson's essay on "The Princess," 40;
    Sainte-Beuve quoted, 47.

  Cuoq, Abbé, his works on the Algonquin language, contributed to Royal
            Society, 37.


  Davin, Nicholas Flood, poet, 75.

  Dawson, Æneas, poet, 74.

  Dawson, G. M., his contributions to Royal Society, 38.

  Dawson, S. E., his criticism on "The Princess," 40, 86.

  Dawson, Sir W., _doyen_ of Science in Canada, 19, 32, 34, 38, 84.

  "Découverte du Mississippi, La," poem by L. Fréchette quoted, 72.

  Dent, John C., his histories, 19, 70.

  Derby, the Earl of, his farewell address to the Royal Society of
            Canada, 85.

  Deville, E., his contributions to Royal Society, 39.

  Dewart, E. H., poet, his collection of Canadian poems, 73.

  Dionne, N. E., his writings, 62, 72.

  "Dodge Club Abroad," by Professor De Mille, 29, 83.

  Doyle, Conan, his "Refugees" held up to imitation of Canadian writers
            of romance, 28.

  "Dread Voyage," poem by W. Campbell, 75.

  "Dreamland" and other poems by C. Mair, 74.

  Dunbar, sculptor, 88.

  Duncan, Sara Jeannette, author, 29.

  Duvar, John Hunter, poet, 75.


  Ede, T. C. V., artist, wins success at Chicago World's Fair, 89.

  Edgar, James D., poet, 26.

  Edgar, Mrs., her "Ridout Letters" quoted, 78.

  Education, in French Canada under old regime, 7, 8;
    in Canada from 1760-1840, 9;
    from 1840-1893, 65;
    its present condition and defects, 49-51.

  Emerson, representative of original American genius, 23.

  "Epic of the Dawn," poem by N. F. Davin, 75.

  Essayists, names of principal French and English, 81.


  Faillon, Abbé, his history of the "Colonie française," 19, 70.

  Fauna of St. John Group, geological work by G. F. Matthew, 39.

  Ferland, J. B. A., his "History of Canada," 18, 70.

  "Flag of Old England," poem by Joseph Howe, quoted, 80.

  Flora and Botany of Canada, essays on, by Professors Lawson, Macoun
            and Penhallow, 39.

  Forbes, J. C., artist, 87.

  "Foreclosure of the Mortgage," painting by G. A. Reid, 87.

  Forster, J. W. L., artist, his remarks on the tendency of Canadian
            art, 89.

  Fraser, J. A., artist, wins success at Chicago "World's Fair," 89.

  Fréchette, L., his poems, 29;
    quotation from his "Découverte du Mississippi," 72;
    essayist, 81.

  French Canada: early writers of her history, Champlain, Boucher, Le
            Clercq, Charlevoix, etc., 6, 7, 61-64;
    culture and science during French regime, 8;
    historians and poets from 1760-1840, 17, 18;
    from 1840 to 1867, 20, 74;
    from 1867-1893, 72-74;
    writers of romance few in number, 27;
    influence of the French language, 58-60;
    its probable duration, 59.

  French language in Canada, remarks on, 58-60.

  French Canadian poetry, an estimate of its merits, 22-24.


  Gagen, R. F., artist, 87.

  "Gazette" of Montreal, 13.

  Galissonière, La, his culture and scientific spirit, 8, 64, 65.

  Ganong, Prof., contributor to Royal Society of Canada, 38.

  Garneau, F. X., his "Histoire du Canada," 18, 70.

  Gladstone, Right Hon. Mr., portrait of, painted by J. C. Forbes, 87.

  "Globe" of Toronto, 51.

  "Golden Dog, The," romance by W. Kirby, 27;
    translated by P. LeMay, 81.

  Gordon, A. Lindsay, his spirited poem, "The Sick Stock-rider," quoted,
            79.

  Grant, Principal, author and lecturer, 10, 32, 83.

  Greek, study of, desirable, 50, 61.

  Grier, E. W., artist, 88.

  Griffin, M. J., essayist and poet, 77, 81.


  Haida Grammar, to be printed by Royal Society, 37.

  Haliburton, Judge, his "Sam Slick," 11, 66;
    his "History of Nova Scotia," 12, 66.

  Hamel, Mgr., contributor to Royal Society, 39.

  Hamilton Court-house, its architecture, 90.

  Hamilton, P. S., poet, 73.

  Hammond, John, artist, 87.

  Hannay, J., his "History of Acadia," 71.

  Harris, George, artist, 88.

  Harrison, S. Frances ("Seranus"), poet, 76.

  Harvey, Moses, his contributions to Royal Society, 38.

  Haultain, Arnold, mentioned, 81.

  Hawthorne, N., representative of original American genius, 23.

  Heavysege, Chas., his poems, 17, 18, 69.

  Hébert, French Canadian sculptor, 57, 88.

  Historians of Canada: W. Smith, 66;
    M. Bibaud, 67;
    Haliburton's Nova Scotia, 12, 66;
    Garneau, 70;
    Ferland, 70;
    Faillon, 70;
    B. Sulte, 71;
    J. C. Dent, 70;
    L. Turcotte, 71;
    Withrow, 71;
    Kingsford, 71;
    McMillan, 71;
    Hannay, 71;
    Murdoch, 71;
    Tanguay, 71;
    Dionne, 71;
    Casgrain, 37, 71;
    Gosselin, 72.

  "Histoire des Canadiens Français," by B. Sulte, 71.

  "Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada," by Abbé Faillon, 19, 70.

  Holden, Miss, artist, wins success at Chicago World's Fair, 89.

  Houghton, Miss, artist, wins success at Chicago World's Fair, 89.

  Howe, Joseph, as poet and orator, 11, 17, 26, 66, 69;
    one of his poems quoted in full, 80.

  Hunt, Thomas Sterry, his contributions to the Royal Society of Canada,
            39;
    one of its founders, 33.

  Huntington, Hon. L. S., statesman and novelist, 82.

  Huot, L., artist, 88.

  Hutchinson, Governor, his "History of Massachusetts," 6, 13, 63.


  "In Divers Tones," poem by C. G. D. Roberts, 74.

  "In the Millet," poems by A. Lampman, 75.

  Intellectual Development in Canada: under the French regime, 5-8;
    books, newspapers, education and culture from 1760-1840, 9-18;
    from 1840-1893, 19-27;
    statesmen of intellectual power, mentioned, 14, 15;
    historical literature, 18, 20;
    poets, 20;
    essayists, 81;
    humorists, 11;
    novelists, 27;
    biographers, 42;
    pulpit literature, 43;
    legal literature, 43;
    newspaper development, 52;
    the Royal Society and its work, 33-42;
    success of scientific writers, 32;
    want of good magazines, 40;
    no very striking results yet achieved, 45;
    obstacles in the way of successful literary results in Canada, 46;
    artistic achievement, 54, 55;
    architectural work lacking originality, 57;
    general remarks, on the intellectual conditions of Canada, 58;
    what is wanted to stimulate mental effort in the Dominion, 60;
    intellectual standard of our legislative bodies, 43;
    the great drain on our intellectual strength by the legislative
            bodies of the Dominion, 44;
    business capacity now chiefly conspicuous in legislative halls, 45.


  Jacobi, O. R., artist, 88.

  Jamestown, Va., in ruins, 3, 61.

  Jesuit College, founded at Quebec, 7.

  Jesuit Relations, 6, 63.

  Johnstone, James W., statesman, 15.


  Kalm, Peter, his reference to culture and science in French Canada,
            8, 64.

  Kane, Paul, painter of Indian scenes, 88.

  Katzmann, M. J., poet, 77.

  Kingsford, W., his "History of Canada," 71;
    his address, _In Memoriam_, Sir D. Wilson, 34, 84.

  Kirby, W., his "Golden Dog," and other works, 27, 81.

  Knowles, G., artist, 88.

  Krieghoff, painter of Canadian scenery, 88.


  Laflamme, Prof., contributor to Royal Society, 39.

  Lafitau, his account of Indian life and customs, 6, 63.

  Lafontaine, Sir Louis Hypolite, statesman, 14.

  "Lake Lyrics," poems by W. Campbell, 75.

  Lampman, Archibald, poet, 20, 75.

  "Later Canadian Poems," collected by J. E. Wetherell, 76.

  Laval University, mentioned, 7, 39, 70.

  Law, literature of, in Canada, 43.

  Legendre, N., author, 76.

  "Légendes Canadiennes," by Abbé Casgrain, 71.

  "Legend of the Rose," poem by S. J. Watson, 73.

  Legislative Buildings at Quebec, their architecture, 90.

  Legislative Buildings at Toronto, their architecture, 90.

  LeMay, P., his poems, 20, 73.

  Lescarbot, Marc, his "Nouvelle France," 6, 62.

  Lespérance, John, novelist, 77.

  "Les Echos," poems by Judge Routhier, 74.

  "Les Fleurs Boréales," prize poems by L. Fréchette, 72.

  "Les Laurentiennes," poems by B. Sulte, 73.

  LeSueur, W. D., essayist, 81.

  Libraries in Canada, before 1840, 10;
    at present time, 53, 87, 90.

  Lighthall, W. D., his collection of Canadian poems, 76.

  Lockhart, B. W. and A. J., poets, 74.

  Logan, Sir William, geologist, born in Canada, 19.

  "London Times," an example of a perfect newspaper, 16.

  Lorne, Marquess of, establishes the Royal Society of Canada, 33;
    and the Canadian Academy of Art, with the Princess Louise, 54.

  Louise, H. R. H. the Princess, her labours in connection with Art in
            Canada, 54.

  Lowell, James Russell, his remarks on the measure of a nation's true
            success, 1, 2;
    on the study of the classics, 61.


  Macdonald, Sir John A., statesman, 15.

  Machar, Miss ("Fidelis"), one of her poems quoted, 60, 90.

  Mackenzie, Hon. Alexander, statesman, 15.

  Mackenzie, William Lyon, politician and agitator, 14.

  Magazine, need of, in Canada, 40, 41;
    the old "Canadian Monthly," 40.

  Mair, Charles, poet, 20, 74.

  Manly, C. M., artist, 54.

  Marmette, J., works cited, 82.

  Martin, E. May, artist, 88.

  Martin, Mower, artist, 87.

  "Masque of Minstrels," poems by the Lockhart Brothers, 74.

  Mather, Cotton, his _Magnalia_, 7, 64.

  Matthew, G. F., his contributions to the Royal Society, 39.

  Matthews, H. M., artist, 87.

  McCarthy, Hamilton, sculptor, 88.

  McColl, Evan, his Gaelic poems, 77.

  McGee, T. D'Arcy, statesman and author, 15.

  McLachlan, Alexander, his poems, 17, 69.

  Metropolitan Methodist Church at Toronto, its architecture, 90.

  "Montcalm et Lévis," history by Abbé Casgrain, 20.

  Montesquieu, his "Esprit des Lois," its high place in literature, 31.

  Montreal, its Art Gallery, 53;
    its architectural features, 57, 91.

  Morin, Augustin Norbert, statesman, 14.

  Muntz, Miss, artist, 54, 88.


  Newspapers in Canada, previous to 1867, 9, 16, 66;
    at present time, 51;
    their character, 52.

  Novel-writing in Canada, not generally successful, 27;
    exceptions, "Golden Dog" by Kirby, 27;
    "François de Bienville" by Marmette, 27;
    "Les Anciens Canadiens" by De Gaspé, 27;
    De Mille's works, 29;
    Sara Jeannette Duncan, 29;
    Gilbert Parker, 28;
    L. Dougall, 29.

  Notre Dame de Lourdes, in Montreal, decorated by N. Bourassa, 88.


  O'Brien, L. R., artist, 54.

  O'Brien, Most Rev. Dr., author, 74.

  O'Doyle, L. O'Connor, orator, 15.

  O'Hagan, T., poet, 74.

  "Oiseaux de Neige, Les," poems by L. Fréchette, 72.

  "Orion" and other poems, by Professor Roberts, 74.

  Osgoode Hall in Toronto, its architecture, 90.

  "Our Fathers," by Joseph Howe, mentioned, 77.


  Papineau, Louis Joseph, statesman, 14.

  Parkman, Francis, his vivid historical pictures of Canada, 4.

  Parish Church of Notre Dame at Montreal, its architecture, 90.

  Parliament and Departmental Buildings at Ottawa, their architecture,
            90.

  Parliamentary Library at Ottawa, its architecture, 90.

  Patterson, A. D., artist, 54, 88.

  Patterson, Dr., his contributions to Royal Society of Canada, 38.

  Peel, Paul, artist, 88.

  "Pine, Rose and Fleur-de-Lis," poems by S. Frances Harrison,
            ("Seranus"), 76.

  Pinhey, John, artist, 54, 88.

  Poets of Canada;
    previous to 1867, 17;
    from 1867-1893, 20, 72;
    estimate of their productions, 20-25;
    patriotic strain of many of their efforts, 25-27.

  Political Life in Canada, attracts best intellects in old times,
            11, 43;
    also at present, 43, 44.

  Potherie, La, his "Amérique Septentrionale," 6, 63.

  "Professor Conant," novel by L. S. Huntington, 82.

  "Prehistoric Man," by Sir D. Wilson, 81.

  Pulpit, literature of, in Canada, 43.


  Raphael, W., artist, 54.

  Reade, John, his poems, 20, 21, 73;
    his "In My Heart" quoted at length, 77;
    essayist, 81.

  Redpath Library at Montreal, 90.

  Reid, G. A., Canadian artist, his "Foreclosure of the Mortgage," his
            success at the World's Fair, 87.

  Religious literature, 10.

  Richardson, A. H., the architect, a lover of the Romanesque,
            mentioned, 57.

  Richardson, Major, his romances, 82.

  Riley, James Whitcomb, the poet, 20.

  Roberts, C. G. D., his poems, 20, 26, 74.

  "Roberval," poem by J. H. Duvar, 75.

  Routhier, J. B., poet, 74.

  Royal Society of Canada, its foundation, 33;
    its objects, 33-36;
    its success, 36;
    its Transactions and their circulation, 36, 37;
    some of its most prominent contributions to the literature of
            learning and science, 37-39;
    its connection with "Tidal Observations," and the determination of
            the true longitude of Montreal, etc., 38;
    asks for sympathetic encouragement, 42;
      see note 58, p. 84.

  Ruskin, John, 21;
    quoted, 48.

  Ryan, Carroll, poet, 73.


  Sagard, Gabriel, his "Grand Voyage," etc., 6, 63.

  Sainte-Beuve on French poetry, 22;
    on good workmanship in literature, and criticism, 47.

  Saint-Maurice, Faucher de, mentioned, "Sam Slick," by Judge
            Haliburton, 11, 12, 66.

  Sangster, Charles, his poems, 17, 69.

  Sarrazin, Dr. Michel, his scientific labours in Canada, 8, 64.

  Schools in Canada, number of, 65;
    pupils at same, 65.

  Science, Canadians achieve notable success therein, 32.

  Sculptors in Canada, 57, 88.

  Secord, Laura, her toilsome journey in 1813, described by Mrs. Edgar,
            78;
    worthy of a poet's pen, 24.

  Selections from Canadian Poets, by E. H. Dewart, 73.

  Seminary, The Great and Lesser, founded at Quebec, 6.

  "Simple Adventures of a Memsahib," by Sara J. Duncan, 83.

  Sladen, Douglas, his collection of American poems, 76.

  Smith, Captain John, compared with Samuel Champlain, 62.

  Smith, Goldwin, on the study of the classics, 49.

  Smith, William, his History of Canada, 12, 66.

  "Social Departure, A," by Sara J. Duncan, 29, 83.

  "Songs of the Great Dominion," collection of poems by W. D. Lighthall,
            76.

  "Songs of Life," by E. H. Dewart, 73.

  "Songs of a Wanderer," by Carroll Ryan, 73.

  St. Andrew's Church at Toronto, its architecture, 90.

  St. James's Cathedral at Toronto, its architecture, 90.

  Statesmanship in Canada, 15, 42.

  Stewart, Dr. George, his literary efforts, 81.

  Suite, historian and poet, 20, 71, 73.


  Tanguay, Abbé, his "Dictionnaire Généalogique des Canadiens Français,"
            72.

  Tassé, Joseph, his writings, 72.

  "Tecumseh," poem by C. Mair, 74.

  "Tendres Choses," poem by R. Chevrier, 76.

  "This Canada of Ours," poem by J. D. Edgar, 76.

  Thompson, David, his book on the War of 1812, 12, 67.

  Thompson, Ernest, artist, 87.

  Tilley, Sir Leonard S., statesman, 15.

  Todd, A., his "Parliamentary Government," 18, 69.

  Trinity College at Toronto, its architecture, 90.

  "Trois Morts," poem by O. Crémazie, 68.

  Tully, Sidney, artist, 87.

  Tupper, Sir Charles, statesman, 15.

  Turcotte, L., his "History of Canada," 20, 71.


  Uniacke, J. Boyle, statesman, 15.

  Universities and Colleges in Canada, 65.

  University of Toronto, its architecture, 90.


  Verner, F. A., artist, 54.

  Verreau, Abbé, contributor to Royal Society, 38.


  "Wacousta, or the Prophecy," romance by Major J. Richardson, 82.

  Waters, Frank, poet, 75.

  Watson, Homer, artist, 54.

  Watson, S. J., poet, 73.

  Way, Chief Justice, of Adelaide, S. A., mentioned, 80.

  "Week, The," its literary work in Canada, 40.

  "White Stone Canoe," poem by J. D. Edgar, 76.

  Whitman, Walt, as poet, 23.

  Wicksteed, G. W., poet, 74.

  Wilmot, Judge, statesman, 14.

  Wilson, Sir D., one of the founders and constant workers of the Royal
            Society, 33, 38.

  Woodcock, Percy, artist, 87.

  World's Fair at Chicago, 54;
    beauty of architecture, and excellence of exhibition of paintings
            and statuary, 55-57;
    must help to develop higher artistic achievement in America, 57;
    Canadian painters at, 55, 56.


  "Younger American Poets," collection by D. Sladen, 76.

  Young, Sir William, statesman, 15.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

  Footnotes placed at end of their respective chapter

  Obvious punctuation and spelling errors corrected

  Pg. 6: Note 11 for "... the admirable account of Indian life and
  customs by the Jesuit Lafitau," changed to 11_a_

  Pg. 27: Note 44_a_ for "... written sixty years ago by Major John
  Richardson," changed to 45_a_

  Pg. 42: Note/Footnote 58 * for "... yet in the infantry of its literary
  life." changed to Footnote F

  Pg. 63: In "(8) Page 6.--The Canadian Government...." changed to "(9)
  Page 6.--The Canadian Government...."





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