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´╗┐Title: Miller's Mind Training for Children, Book 2 of 3 - A Practical Training for Successful Living; Educational - Games That Train the Senses
Author: Miller, William Emer
Language: English
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  MILLER'S
  MIND TRAINING
  _for_
  CHILDREN


  _A Practical Training
  for Successful
  Living_


  _Educational Games
  That Train
  the Senses_


  WILLIAM E. MILLER
  _AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER_
  Alhambra, California.



  BY
  WILLIAM E. MILLER
  ALHAMBRA, CALIFORNIA

  AUTHOR OF

  _The Natural Method of Memory Training_


  COPYRIGHT 1920
  COPYRIGHT 1921


  WILLIAM E. MILLER
  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  INCLUDING FOREIGN COPYRIGHTS



CONTENTS--BOOK TWO


                                            Page

  Training the Memory                          7

  The Strongest Sense Is Sight                10

  Visual Impressions Most Accurate            12

  Nature's Special Memory Endowment           12

  A Memory Picture                            12

  The Visual Impression Strengthened          13
      Exaggeration                            14
      Motion                                  16
      Unusual Associations                    17

  Value of Improved Imagination               18

  First Picture Association                   19

  Two Mental Operations                       23

  Reversing the Process                       25

  Sharpening the Tools                        27

  List for Memory Exercise                    30

  To Develop Definite Pictures                31

  The Law of Association                      32

  Reminder Pictures                           34

  Forming a Health Habit                      35

  Beware of Procrastination                   39

  Attention and Memory                        40

  The Child's Code List                       41
      The Game of Code                        42

  Remembering Errands                         44
      Errands for Practice                    47

  Important Points to Be Followed             48

  Value of Forgetting                         50

  Alphabetical Hitching Posts                 50

  Filing Abstract Ideas                       51

  Thinking by Pictures                        53

  Uses of Hitching Posts                      54

  Speaking Without Notes                      55

  The Mind's Eye and the Story                56
      The Game of Story Telling               57

  Two Results of Visualization                57

  Learning Poetry and Prose                   58
      Exercises for Practice               59-60

  To Preserve Early Memories                  61

  How to Remember Figures                     63
      The Number Code                         66
      Forming Number Words                    69
      Number Value of Code Words              74
      The Game of Number Code                 76
      The Number Game                         78
      The Game of Solitaire                   78
      Code Words and Number Values            80
      All Hitching Posts Numbered             81
      Forming Larger Number Words             82
      Adjective as Helps                      85
      Telephone Numbers                       86
      Remembering Addresses                   88
      Remembering Fractions                   88
      The Game of Memory Demonstration        89

  Remembering People's Names                  92
      The Name of Pictures                    95
      Association Next Important Step         96
      To Remember Mr. King                    97
      Associating Name and Face Pictures      98
      Thought Channels                       111
      Review Is Essential                    112
      Methodical Review Best                 113
      A Review Test                          114
      Good Observation Necessary             115
      Systematic Observation of Faces        116
      The Game of Faces                      118
      The Name Game                          120
      The Game for Quick Naming              120
      The Game of Introductions              121
      Suggestions to Travelers               122
      Remembering the Initials               123
      The Price Must Be Paid                 125



TRAINING THE MEMORY


The memory is the most used of all the faculties, therefore it is very
important that it should have special attention and training. Almost
every exercise in the First Book, while developing the other faculties,
used the memory in some manner. It is necessary for the success of
most mental operations. Memory influences thought, and contributes to
character development.

A good memory is the greatest aid to the student at any age. Lack
of knowledge of how to use and improve the memory has been a great
handicap in the life of most of us. It is no longer necessary for your
children to be continuously dependent upon the operation of the memory,
without knowing how to properly use it. From this book you will get a
practical understanding of how to develop this faculty for them.

The young child has little conception of the importance of Memory.
Do not use your time trying to impress the value of memory upon him,
but rather in helping him to do the things which will result in the
development of this faculty. By training the child's memory you can
endow him with the knowledge and capacity which will be an ever
increasing source of profit, and for which he will never cease to thank
you.

     =To start your children in life with a trained and dependable
     memory is a greater endowment than a perfunctory education or even
     a fortune.=

This is not only your privilege but your duty. The decision to do so
must be yours. At first the principal effort and persistence must come
from you. Follow carefully the instructions of this book and you will
have no difficulty in accomplishing this desirable result.

First read the entire book, then apply the ideas and exercises
according to the age of the child. Let the children advance as rapidly
as they can master the work. Do not over urge them, or make the work
tedious. Above all, see that the children understand the principles and
apply them to all of their activities.

     =Memory is largely a habit. See to it that your children acquire
     this habit early.=

Let your effort be continuous and not spasmodic. Ten minutes a day is
far better than an hour once a week.


Memory Most Valuable Faculty

The development resulting from use of the games and exercises of the
first book has already influenced the memory faculty of the child. The
faculties of visualization, observation, attention and concentration,
all contribute to the proper operation of this faculty. They are the
tools with which the desired result can be accomplished. It is of
greatest importance that these tools be sharpened and tempered by use
of the exercises given in Book One. It is now important that you know
and understand the principles and methods of memory operation. Study
this book with your children, if they are old enough to understand it.

For smaller children follow the plan of making the instructions into
stories, and the exercises into games. Encourage the children in making
the effort necessary for improvement and to expect a great deal of
themselves.

The story of the success of great leaders of present day business and
industrial life reveals the fact that they had an unusually retentive
memory. That their minds were great storehouses of facts and figures
regarding their business.

Others who had worked along with them for years, but were not able
to absorb and retain the knowledge, could not progress as fast or as
far. All have the natural endowment of a good, dependable memory and
all have the faculties, which, if properly trained, will result in
conscious ability to use the memory for all the needs of successful
living.

     =Your memory is your ability to make an impression upon your brain
     which you can recall at will.=

This involves two mental processes; first, the making of an impression
upon the brain; second, the ability to recall it at will. The problem
of memory is to know how to accomplish these two things and to be able
to produce the result easily and quickly.

Five groups of nerves connect the brain with the outside world, these
are the five senses. They are the avenues of approach over which all
impressions or sensations are conducted to the brain.

     =The ease with which any impression can be recalled will
     depend,--first, upon how strongly it is made.=

Your senses are unequal in their ability to impress the brain. Some
make stronger impressions than others, not so much because of the thing
to be impressed, but because of the natural unequal strength of the
groups of nerves. All experience or knowledge that makes a strong,
definite impression is more easily recalled than in those cases where
the impression is less distinct.

Nature has endowed one of the senses with a peculiar ability to make
impressions upon the brain which are many times stronger than those
made by any of the others. To learn to properly use this one sense is
the greatest aid to memory improvement.


The Strongest Sense Is Sight

The nerves connecting the eye with the brain are many times larger than
the nerves of any of the other sense organs and can make an impression
which is many times stronger than the impression made by any of the
others. Without your conscious knowledge this fact has been operating
all your life. The things which you have seen are the things which you
have most easily remembered. For this reason the memory of your youth
consists principally of things which you saw, or impressions made upon
your brain by the use of your eye.

Prove this fact; recall some of your earliest recollections; how did
your brain accept these impressions? Was it through feeling, hearing,
or through seeing? It is an eye impression and is recalled in your
mind as a picture. You will find that most of the past which you can
remember is based upon the visual impression. The poet says, "How dear
to my heart are the scenes of my childhood." The scenes of childhood
are the memory of childhood.

"Travel is the greatest of educators." Why? One reason is because you
are gathering a group of eye impressions which are the most lasting.
One psychologist defines memory, "as the act of recalling the picture
of a past experience." The fact that the visual memory is most lasting
has been known for generations, but we have failed to take proper
advantage of the fact. In making a comparison of the eye and ear
impressions upon the brain Robert Mudie wrote in 1832: "That which is
told us we may forget because of the weakness of the impressions made,
but that which we see with our own eye is proof against accident,
against time and forgetfulness."


Visual Impressions Most Accurate

Besides being the strongest of all the senses, sight is the most
accurate. Psychological tests have shown the eye to be mistaken only
eighteen per cent of the time, and the ear, which is the second sense
in strength, is mistaken thirty-four per cent. Note that your sense
of sight is especially endowed with the power to make the strongest,
and at the same time, the most accurate impression upon your brain.
The first step in memory improvement is to learn the proper use of
this sense in impressing upon the brain those things which you wish to
recall.

     =For the purposes of memory, to see a thing once is equal to
     having repeated it eighteen or twenty times.=


Nature's Special Memory Endowment

We have a secondary or additional faculty which we call the mind's eye.
You can close your eyes and see many familiar scenes or you can combine
parts of these into new pictures that have never existed in fact. This
process of visualization produces the strongest impression upon the
brain that you are able to make.

The greatest step in the improvement of the memory is reached when the
child realizes the value of this visual impression and is conscious of
just how to use it.


A Memory Picture

Become familiar with the mind's eye picture and realize its value in
memory, then follow the exercises given here until you are able to use
it correctly for memory purposes. For practice visualize a House, use
one that is familiar to you, see it as clearly as possible. Build a
clear, definite picture as an artist would, first the outline, then add
the detail, see the slope of the roof, the chimney, the gables, then
see the shingles and the cracks between them, the bricks in the chimney
and the plaster veins between.

     =The more distinctly you can see this object, the stronger the
     impression upon the brain--the longer it will last and the easier
     it will be to recall it.=

The use of the exercises on Visualization in Book One will make it
possible for you to build at once a clear picture of the House. If you
have any difficulty in doing this, follow the instructions for drawing
the outline and other suggestions given for the development of the
faculty of visualization as they are found in the first book.


The Visual Impression Strengthened

To remember you must be able to make an impression upon the brain which
you can recall at will. This simple impression of the House may not be
recalled as easily as you wish, but there are three simple and natural
operations of the mind by the use of which you can strengthen this
impression to any degree necessary. By their use you can learn to make
an impression that is strong enough to be recalled at will.


The First Aid--Exaggeration

[Illustration]

A large object makes a stronger impression upon your mind than a small
one, a twenty-story building attracts your attention and impresses you
more than a two-story one. Things which you see exaggerated out of
their normal proportions make an unusually strong picture upon your
brain. The House, which you have seen standing in the yard is small;
if you wish to increase the strength of the impression, exaggerate
the size of the house and see it as large as a ten-story building.
The only limit to the size to which you can exaggerate the object is
the limitation of your imagination. You can in this way strengthen
the picture until the impression is strong enough to be recalled when
needed.


Others Make You Remember

This idea of exaggeration is not new or unusual. There are two
professions whose business it is to make us remember and they use this
principle in doing it. They are the advertiser and the cartoonist.
You have seen this same exaggeration of proportion in nearly every
cartoon, but you think nothing of it. The cartoonist, however, knows
that he can make a stronger impression upon your mind by its use.
You remember the cartoon longer and recall it more easily than most
anything you read.

One of the largest advertising companies of the country makes the
statement, "A picture is worth a thousand words when it comes to making
the public remember." Some of the most successful advertising campaigns
have been largely confined to pictures. Almost without exception
pictures drawn for advertising purposes take advantage of this
principle and strongly exaggerate the proportions. You have seen this
in the pictures used by the Goodyear Tire Company, the Bell Telephone
Company, and many others. It is illustrated in the picture given here.

[Illustration]


The Second Aid--Motion

You often pass a thing that is motionless without notice, but if it
moves it attracts your attention. While walking down the city street
you pay little attention to the show windows, but if there is something
moving in one you will stop to notice it. The sidewalk will even be
blocked by the simple motion of some thing in the display. This is the
use of motion to impel your attention. If you are in a crowd and see
a friend whose attention you wish to attract, you wave your hand or
handkerchief. Children like to see "the wheels go 'round," and we never
lose the fascination which motion has for us. A person lacking in the
power of concentration will fix his closest attention upon the moving
picture or object.

Just as the motion picture is more attractive than the old style
stereopticon, so motion introduced into the visual pictures for memory
purposes will increase the impression upon the brain and increase your
ability to recall it.

[Illustration]

To still further strengthen the impression of the House, see it in
motion instead of standing still. See it on wheels moving down the
street or blown from the foundation by a strong wind. The farther you
see the object move, or the more rapid the motion, the stronger the
impression.


Third Aid--Unusual Associations

[Illustration]

When you go home in the evening the first thing mentioned is the
unusual happening of the day. Those things which have been most out of
the ordinary are the first mentioned in your conversation. If some very
unusual circumstance has thrust itself upon those at home, they will
rush out to meet you, to tell you perhaps that "The cat devoured the
canary." All unusual circumstances impress the mind in such a manner
that they are very easily recalled. To see the House balanced on one
corner instead of in its usual position upon the foundation, will
strengthen the impression of the picture already made. Take advantage
of this natural fact and when you wish to remember make the picture an
unusual one, even make it grotesque or ludicrous.

There is no limit to the degree in which you can use these three
natural mental operations. Your exaggeration of a pin can make it
appear the size of a pencil or a telephone pole, or as tall as a
twenty-story building. You can see it move a foot or two or swinging in
a pendulum-like rhythm or dancing upon a hill.

Thus the use of these three principles makes it possible for you to
place upon your brain an impression of whatever strength you choose. If
the first one is not recalled readily you know how to make a stronger
one. Simply exaggerate the size, move it farther or more rapidly and in
a more unusual or ludicrous manner.


Value of Improved Imagination

The unusualness of this picture is dependent upon your imagination.
This idea of picture making for memory purposes is two-fold in its
value. It results in a better memory and strengthens the productive
imagination. The exercises in Book One will help you to use your
imagination for these memory pictures, and making them is one of the
best exercises for the development of the imagination.


Practice Makes Perfect

You now know how to make a strong impression upon your brain. This has
proven to be the most valuable aid to a better memory. Thousands of
successful men have learned to use it practically in their work. It
is the greatest aid to students in assimilating and recalling their
studies.

You have the knowledge, but to be of value you must practice with
it sufficiently to prove its usefulness and to learn to apply it
accurately. This practice can be gained in a variety of ways; the
essential thing is that you train yourself to make strong visual
impressions upon your brain, to see the pictures clearly and to know
that you are recalling them accurately. For practice let us use a list
of common objects.

In order to recall a list of objects or a series of any kind, instead
of making separate pictures of the objects, combine two in each
impression. If you will follow the method used in making the following
Memory Pictures you will find that it will enable you to recall the
objects at will. We will use a list of objects that have no natural
associations, that you could not easily remember by any other method,
yet when you use this visual process the matter is a simple one.


First Picture Association

The first word of the list will be the House, the second Clock. We have
already made a strong visual impression of the House, by seeing it in
an Exaggerated, Moving, Unusual picture. We could make as strong an
impression of the Clock in the same way, but to be able to recall the
word following House, we must see the two objects together in the same
picture. To see a large Clock standing alongside of the House, will
make a strong impression. A stronger one may be made by exaggerating
the size and proportion of the two objects. To further strengthen it
you can use unusual motion, such as balancing a huge Clock on the edge
of the House. Now introduce motion, see the Clock topple and roll
down the roof and fall to the ground. To get the full value of this
impression upon your brain, close your book and see the picture in
your mind's eye. If it does not seem distinct close your eyes, or take
a pencil and try to draw the picture. This will help you to see it
more clearly. See the Clock rolling down the roof, see it fall to the
ground, make it seem real and as distinct as possible.


Add Flowers to the List

To do this make a large moving picture of Clock and Flowers. See the
Clock decorated with flowers and large bunches tied to the end of each
of the hands. See them going around. Add the colors, make all the
detail bright, and become interested in the picture. Fix your attention
on it as you have learned to do in the first book. Note the changes.

[Illustration]

In each of these pictures there are two objects, never more and never
less. Do not see the House in this second picture. Always drop the
first object when adding a new one.

     =Memory Pictures Should Always Contain Two Objects.=


Flowers and Circus

Continue the list by adding the word Circus. Picture the new word with
the last one which was Flowers. Let your imagination see the Flowers
playing in the circus tent, see them riding the horses, or have the
performers all dressed in flowers; any picture clearly visualized and
concentrated upon for a moment will produce the desired result.

     =The length of time that an impression will last, depends first,
     upon the vividness of your picture.=


Circus and Soldier

Add this new word by exaggerated motion picture of the Circus and the
Soldier. Make your own picture, see that it is definite and let the
mind dwell upon it for a moment.


Soldier and Church

Proceed in the same way as before, but do not go on with the list until
you have visualized the picture clearly. A dim picture will not last
long and will be recalled with difficulty, if at all.


Church and Rocks

Not stones, but great, rough, rugged rocks piled high. See them
clearly, let them fall on the Church and damage it. When recalling
your pictures you will need to be sure of the object and to recall the
exact word. The ability to do this will depend upon the vividness and
definiteness of the picture as you see it the first time.


Rocks and Auto

Here is an opportunity to imagine and picture an auto accident. Make
your own picture and photograph it upon your mind.

Proceed with a few more pictures, making each clear and definite and
do not yet attempt to recall them; just visualize each two objects in
turn.


Auto and Shoes

Shoes and Dishes

See each two objects in a separate Memory Picture. Now review the list
beginning with House and Clock, Clock and Flowers, etc. Let one picture
suggest the next in which one object of the preceding picture always
appears. Repeat the list slowly, recalling the two objects in each
picture. Do this without looking at the list; there are ten separate
objects you can check by keeping count.

  House and Clock.
  Clock and Flowers.
  Flowers and Circus.
  Circus and Soldier.
  Soldier and Church.
  Church and Rocks.
  Rocks and Auto.
  Auto and Shoes.
  Shoes and Dishes.

Review the ten pictures until they can be recalled without difficulty,
and until all are clear and distinct. Each time you review, see the
same picture as originally made, do not change it, except to add more
Exaggeration, Motion or Detail each time and make it more distinct
and definite. You will have experienced the fact, that in each case
where you made and visualized a good picture you remembered the
words without difficulty. Where the picture is not strong you have
trouble in recalling the word. Any picture that can not be recalled
easily can be made to do so by adding more of the three elements,
Exaggeration, Motion and the Unusual. Take the poorest picture, the one
most difficult to recall, exaggerate the size of the objects, or make
them move farther or faster, stand them on their heads or do any thing
unusual and see how much easier you can recall it the next time.


Two Mental Operations

There are two distinct operations in this method. First the Imagination
takes the two objects and determines how they shall be arranged; what
they shall do; or how they are to look in the picture. Second, the
mind's eye photographs the picture so arranged by the imagination. The
impression is made upon the brain when the picture is photographed.
You may decide upon a good combination of the objects, but if you do
not SEE the picture you will not remember. The impression is made upon
the brain when the mind's eye actually sees the picture which your
Imagination has constructed. Just as the photographer first arranges
his group in the manner that he thinks will make the best effect, then
presses the bulb and exposes the plate. If he only arranged the group
and did not expose the plate he would have no picture, and so, if you
imagine the picture and do not SEE it, you will have poor memory.


Add to Your List

In the same way form pictures of the following objects. Use your own
imagination to bring the objects together into motion pictures. In
adding to your list, always begin with the last object and revisualize
it with the new object. Thus you will link all together in an endless
chain. Make memory pictures of the following:


Dishes and Wagon

Pile the dishes high upon the wagon and see them rattle off and break
as the wagon moves. Be a cartoonist, make unusual pictures.


Wagon and Table

Make your own picture, and fix your attention upon it for a moment by
seeing the details. What kind of a wagon is it? What color? How drawn?


Table and Carpet

See the color and pattern in the carpet.


Carpet and Fence

Fence and Bread

It will be easier for some to make the Memory Pictures into a story,
that is to see the Dishes thrown at the Wagon and fall off onto the
Table where they are put into a Carpet and hung up on a Fence, which
has a loaf of Bread on the top of a high picket. This story can
continue indefinitely, as long as your imagination adds to it. There is
a danger, however, in this kind of a picture; it is in the tendency to
see more than two objects in each picture. The idea may be continuous,
the picture must never be. It may be a continuous idea connecting
separate and distinct pictures but you must be sure to drop the first
object before you add the new one, so that there are but two objects in
each. Continue picturing these words in pairs as you did before, using
the story idea if it seems easier.

  =Bread and Walk.=
  =Walk and Lamp.=
  =Lamp and School.=
  =School and Stove.=
  =Stove and Piano.=

Now, go back to Dishes and review the pictures, naming both objects in
each picture. Can you see each clearly? If not, strengthen the picture,
put in more motion, or make it more unusual.

Without the aid of the list go back to the House and recall the
entire series from House to Piano. After you have succeeded in this,
try to see the series of pictures and speak them as a list, thus,
House--Clock--Flowers--Circus--Soldier, etc. Do this a couple of times
until it can be done without hesitation.


You Can Reverse the Process

Test the availability of these visual impressions that you have made
by starting with the picture of the Piano and follow each picture
carefully back to the House. Thus, Piano--Stove--School--Lamp--etc.

You now have a series of twenty unassociated words so impressed upon
your mind that you can say them forward or backward. You can as easily
begin in the middle and go either way, or you can think of any word at
random and tell which word precedes it or follows it in the list.

     =Strong visual impressions properly associated can be recalled at
     will.=

It has taken some time to make and photograph these pictures, practice
will soon make the process so easy and natural that the same result can
be accomplished in a few seconds. It is not unusual for children, after
a little practice, to take a list of twenty words and visualize them in
one careful reading, so that they can recall them in any order desired.
Practice will do the same for all regardless of how difficult they may
find the idea at first. All have the faculties, awaken them and make
them serve.

The important thing is not that the child has easily learned a list of
words which he can repeat forward or backward, but the fact that he
has experienced the memory value of a definite mental operation. The
learning of the list is merely the exercise through which the process
of visualization is applied to the memory. The child may possess the
knowledge, but practice is the only way to make it most useful. This
same kind of exercise should be continued and will later lead to many
practical applications.


Three Steps Necessary

All educational progress has three steps, To Know; To Do; To Be. What
a child becomes as he grows to manhood depends upon what he DOES, with
what he KNOWS.

Knowing is the first essential, but without the doing there is little
result. The purpose of this book is memory development.

     =The improvement of the memory will depend upon what the child
     does with the knowledge he receives.=


Sharpen the Tools

Your experience has proven that poor, weak impressions are recalled
slowly and with difficulty. At the same time when you succeed in
recalling a poorly made impression it is indistinct, it lacks that
clear definiteness which brings assurance and confidence. To overcome
this you need to sharpen the tools with which the impressions are made
upon the brain. You cannot expect the best results from untrained
senses any more than a carpenter can expect to do a fine quality of
work with dull tools.

The senses can be sharpened and improved as you have seen in the First
Book, but practice is the whetstone and every stroke will produce
its proportionate result; without it you can not expect to become
proficient in anything. The methods by which the senses can be trained
are suggested in the First Book, and if they have been overlooked, or
slighted, you can now see the importance of paying proper attention to
them.

     =Practice is the motive power which can propel you along the road
     of progress toward the goal of perfection.=


Continue the Memory Pictures

In the same manner in which you learned the first twenty words fix the
following in mind. Begin with the last object of the previous list,
Piano and add the next one, Spoon.

Now, add to Spoon, Road. See a Spoon with arms and legs running down
the Road. Make a real cartoon of it. Continue to picture the words in
pairs, always dropping the first when adding a new one. Now take Road
and Picture; Picture and Desk; Desk and Window; Window and Apple; Apple
and Book; Book and Door; Door and River.

Stop a moment and review these Memory Pictures, first in pairs as Piano
and Spoon; then as a list. Now go over the list backwards.

Add more words and be sure you stop each time to see a clear, definite
picture. You must fix your attention upon it for a moment, use motion,
exaggeration and the unusual.

Picture River and Dress; Dress and Hammer; Hammer and Ball; Ball and
Train; Train and Gun; Gun and Moon; Moon and Curtain; Curtain and
Pepper; Pepper and Bed; Bed and Scissors.

Review the series as before, those pictures which come slowly should be
improved. With the book closed, start with House and repeat the entire
list. See each picture clearly before you speak the word, even though
you may feel sure what the following word is, see the picture first,
this will insure accuracy. Then begin with Scissors and go through the
series of pictures backwards working your way, picture by picture, back
to House. Take time to be accurate, do not try to go rapidly at first.
See each picture and try to see it more clearly, adding all the detail
you can. Mental exercise is necessary to development. See that you
perform this one often and accurately.


Have Learned Forty Words

When the child can say the list he has learned a series of forty words
which he can repeat forward and backward. These words are unassociated
and would be difficult to learn by the old cumbersome method of
repetition. Yet the feat is accomplished easily by the application of
these simple and natural principles.


Be Gratified But Not Satisfied

Do not be satisfied that these simple facts, and the use which has been
made of them, has proven resultful. Ideas are only of value because of
the profit which comes from their continued use. Prove their worth to
your utter satisfaction and then by continuous effort make them a part
of the mental makeup. Become thoroughly familiar with these principles
and see that the child knows just how to proceed in the use of them.
Remember it is the visual faculty you are cultivating for great future
usefulness, not merely learning a list of words. Review these pictures
many times, use the same ones, do not make new ones.

Avoid the mistake of seeing only one object at a time; always see two,
as the House and the Clock, the Clock and the Flowers. This causes one
picture to recall the next, because the object appears in two pictures,
or is associated with two objects. One by natural mental operations
recalls the other.

For further practice and development add to the list of forty words now
learned, some of those following, or make a list of your own. Any words
will do, picture them two and two and review them after you have added
ten or so.


List for Memory Exercise

  House      Spoon      Fire      Brush      Pail
  Clock      Road       Hose      Salt       Ice
  Flowers    Pencil     Box       Paper      Sugar
  Circus     Picture    Bridge    Button     Porch
  Soldier    Window     Bell      Tooth      Log
  Church     Apple      Grass     Sack       Pump
  Rocks      Book       Soap      Letter     Rope
  Auto       Door       Boat      Ring       Barrel
  Shoes      River      Towel     Pipe       Corn
  Dishes     Dress      Pins      Street     Board
  Wagon      Hammer     Cannon    Spool      Spoon
  Table      Ball       Ladder    Penny      Shovel
  Carpet     Train      Cotton    Comb       Leaf
  Fence      Gun        Bicycle   Umbrella   Shell
  Bread      Moon       Ribbon    Chimney    Bank
  Walk       Curtain    Coat      Swing      Hat
  Lamp       Pepper     Hair      Sled       Cow
  School     Bed        Stove     Rake       Bat
  Store      Scissors   Bottle    Fish       Tree
  Piano      Chair      Pie       Nail       String


To Develop Definite Pictures

Some persons have difficulty in making their pictures definite enough
to avoid confusion between objects of similar shape. Overcome this
difficulty by teaching the child a few lists of objects somewhat
similar in shape. This will require making clear and definite pictures.
The exercise following is a good one for this purpose. Visualize the
following list and see to it that the pictures are definite, so that
they can be recalled in proper sequence, either forward or backward.


Exercise for definite Visualization

  Papa    Girl    Grandpa   Grandma
  Boy     Uncle   Sister    Brother
  Woman   Mama    Man


Animal Lists

The same kind of practice can be gotten by the use of lists of animals,
and at the same time another result may be attained. The child must
learn just what the animal looks like before he can picture it. In
learning these animal lists use the dictionary or encyclopedia, or
better still, good books on natural history, and show the child the
picture of each animal with which he is not familiar. Teach him all
that you can regarding each of these different animals. He will then
be able to picture them clearly and retain and recall them without
difficulty.


Memory Exercise

  Dog     Wolf      Mule   Lamb        Lion
  Camel   Giraffe   Bear   Alligator   Sheep
  Cat     Pony      Deer   Tiger       Colt


Memory Exercise

  Rabbit     Beaver   Frog   Muskrat    Badger
  Mouse      Mink     Mole   Chipmunk   Skunk
  Squirrel   Rat      Fox    Coyote     Possum


The Law of Association

The first requirement of memory is to make a strong impression upon
the brain, and this we have seen is accomplished by visualization.
We concentrate the strongest of our senses upon the thing we wish to
remember and thus make the strongest impression.

The second necessary step is the ability to recall the impression at
will. This is equally important in memory and is made possible by the
Law of Association. Prof. Kay states that, "Association is the means
by which what is in the memory is recalled and brought again before
consciousness."

Things which are impressed upon the mind, or which are active in the
mind at the same time, will return together, one will suggest or recall
the other. A voice, a sound, a sight will often recall a long train of
events. One event will recall another that took place at the same time,
or in the same place, or one similar in detail. These associations are
easily formed though you may be unconscious of the fact at the time.
When one of the associated facts is in your mind it becomes the means
by which the other is brought again into your consciousness.

The visual picture is the strongest impression that can be made upon
the brain, but to be able to recall a new impression at will, it should
be linked or associated with some already familiar picture which is
easily recalled, and this will bring the associated impression with it.

In the visual exercise in which a list of words was learned, beginning
with House, this principle was used. The strong impression was made
upon the brain by seeing the House. You also made a strong impression
of the Clock, by seeing it, but in order to remember that the word
Clock follows the word House the two were associated together by seeing
them in the same picture. This is an example of two things impressed
upon the mind at the same time. When you see the House it brings the
Clock into mind. If you wish to recall what word follows House see the
House, and the picture association will supply the second object.

The use of this Law of Association made it possible for you to recall
the list of objects. To be easily available the objects must be linked
together as strongly as possible, and this is accomplished by the
associated picture.

Association is one of the fundamental laws of mental activity, the use
of which is absolutely essential to memory operation. In the pages
following you will notice the application of this same principle,
always using the visual method because of its unusual strength and
accuracy.

Much has been written on the subject and some memory courses dwell on
it at great length. There are just two essentials to be always kept in
mind:

First, to be able to recall the new fact at will it must be impressed
upon the mind in association with some familiar knowledge that will be
easily recalled.

Second, the visual picture is the strongest association, therefore the
most lasting and easily remembered and at the same time it can be used
for all needs.

This law of association must be used continuously, without it there can
be no accumulation of knowledge or memory. Its operation is simple and
need not be in the least confusing.


Reminder Pictures

A simple use of the visual memory is to make a picture of the thing
which you wish to do, in the place where you wish to be reminded of
doing it, called Reminder Pictures. This principle can be applied to
errands and to very important ideas. Seeing the thing you wish to do
will form the strongest possible impression. By seeing this picture in
the place where you wish to be reminded of it, you have associated it
in your mind in connection with the thing which is to be used to bring
it again into your consciousness.

The latter half of the picture--the place in which you wish to be
reminded of it--must be familiar, at the same time a place or object
which is going to be physically visible at the time you want to be
reminded of doing the errand. This principle can most easily be
understood by the use of illustrations which are actual examples of how
others have used the idea.


Forming a Health Habit

[Illustration]

Believing in the value of a glass of water taken before meals one
person made a picture of a large glass of water covering a greater
part of the dining table, and when coming to the table he saw himself
spill the glass of water. It is essential to have two objects in the
picture--one, the thing you wish to be reminded of doing; and the
other, a familiar scene which you are going to see at the time. In this
case, when the person sees the table, which is half of the picture, it
brings back into consciousness the large glass of water. This reminds
him of drinking the water before sitting down to the meal.

[Illustration]

A lady had been forgetting to get a certain rug which had been put
away in a dark closet, and which she feared might be injured by the
moths if it was not taken out and used. As is often the case in such
circumstances, she thought of this rug many times, but always when
it was inconvenient to get it. She made a picture of the door of the
closet in which the rug was stored and also of herself passing this
door; the door flew open and the rug jumped out into the hall at her
feet. Later, when she was passing, seeing the closet door it reminded
her of the rug and she stopped, opened the door, took out the rug and
thus attended to the matter which she had been forgetting.

A business man had been forgetting to telephone an associate. He made
a picture of the desk in his office, and when he rolled up the top of
the desk the friend jumped out and scared him. This picture was made in
the library of his home in the evening. Next morning when he saw the
desk the rest of the picture came back to his mind and he took up the
telephone and attended to the matter.

These pictures may include more than one object, or even more than one
errand. What the average memory needs is a hint to start it on the
right track. A husband had been asked, when leaving the house, to order
some groceries before going to the train to meet some friends. He made
a picture, of his car standing where it would be when he was ready to
leave the office, and over the whole car he spread a large beefsteak,
on one end of the steak he saw a bag of sugar, on the other end he saw
a bag of coffee, then he broke an egg over the whole, for these were
the things which he was to order. When he came from his office, seeing
the car, a part of the picture, it reminded him of the groceries, and
he easily remembered the things wanted.

Pictures which are exaggerated, have strong motion, and are unusual or
even startling, are best for this reminder idea. The pictures must be
seen clearly in the mind's eye, and the part of the picture, which is
used as the reminder, must be something which you will see clearly at
the time you wish to do the thing. The illustrations given are from the
actual experiences of busy men who are using this idea in their daily
life.

This application of the visual memory can become invaluable to the
child. In cases where the desired result has not been procured the
difficulty, almost invariably, is a lack of vividness in seeing the
place, person, or thing which is to act as the reminder. It must be
familiar, definite, and clearly visualized. Practice will improve the
results. Make an effort to see detailed and distinct objects in your
pictures and use the strengthening elements. Here are a few additional
examples of how children have used this idea. It works.

A child was sent to the grocery store for four items, and instead of
carrying a list he made a picture of the counter in the store as his
reminder. The items to be purchased were a sack of Salt, a bottle
of Vinegar, some Fly Paper, and Potatoes. He pictured the Fly Paper
sticking on the edge of the counter and on it balanced the sack of Salt
and the bottle of Vinegar, then he saw himself throwing the Potatoes at
them.

A picture of this kind will enable the child to remember a few items
without difficulty. The Hitching Post idea which follows soon will be
more accurate and enable him to extend the list to any length.

A boy, who often went away to school without bringing in his wood, made
a picture of himself running out of the door to school, when slipping
off the porch he sailed through the air and landed on the wood pile.
The next morning, when he went out of the door and across the porch,
his picture flashed into his mind and he stopped and brought in some
wood before leaving.

A girl had formed the habit of throwing the towel on the chair instead
of hanging it up. She made a picture of herself throwing down the towel
when it became entangled in her feet and tripped her up as she walked
away, throwing her headlong.

Reminder pictures of this kind must be visualized by the child, even if
suggested by the parent. Do this pleasantly and even playfully, being
careful not to arouse the antagonism of the child. If he is stubborn
in the matter you can gain nothing, unless you secure his co-operation
and pleasant interest. To keep these pictures in mind and to use them
at every opportunity will aid in forming correct habits. Make them
startling and interesting, and when possible, put real feeling into
them. Induce the child to feel the pain of his fall; feelings give life
and power to visualized pictures.

A boy was told to stop at a neighbor's and deliver a note for his
mother on his way to school. He pictured the front gate of this
neighbor's fence swinging out and stopping him. He tried to go over the
gate and the more he climbed, the higher it became. Seeing the gate as
he passed on his way to school reminded him of the note.

A tablet was needed at school and had been forgotten several times. A
picture of the tablet barring the door of his home, so that he could
not get in, reminded the boy to go at once to the store and make the
purchase.

On her way to church a girl was given a message to deliver to a certain
lady, after the service. She pictured herself trying to get out of the
door of the church, but the lady blocked the way refusing to allow her
to crowd through. When she started out, seeing the door, which was part
of the picture, it reminded her of the lady, and she delivered her
message.


Beware of Procrastination

One of the most subtle foes of a good memory is procrastination.
Like conscience, memory can be dulled and almost ruined by continual
disregard of its suggestions. Failure to act when reminded ruins what
memory power you have and retards your progress and further development.

A Reminder picture will suggest an errand or duty one--two--or more
times, but there is an ever increasing lapse of time between each
reminder.

To Procrastinate--to put off doing the thing will dull the suggestive
power of the memory. It will clutter the mind with undone things which
will cause mental worry. It will weaken the will power.

To Act--to accomplish the thing at the first suggestion quickens and
improves the suggestive power of the memory. It clears the mind for new
thoughts and plans. It relieves the nervous strain and increases and
strengthens the volitional power.

It is the child's memory you wish to improve and this can only be
accomplished by his effort. You must help, of course, but do not do
too much, merely suggest. Get him to imagine and visualize his own
pictures, it will be better for him to make the effort than for you to
make it for him.


Attention and Memory

The subject of Attention and Concentration has been discussed in the
former book, but it will be well to note their relation to memory and
how we are using them here.

We have introduced motion into the mind's eye picture to strengthen its
impression; the result comes from a prolonged period of attention. In
the exercises for cultivating the power of attention we used the method
of change, or motion. It produced prolonged attention, which results
in memory. Exaggeration and the unusualness of the imaginary picture
inspires that quality of involuntary attention which helps to produce
concentration.

The quality of the stimulus to the attention is improved by introducing
anticipation, pleasure, or their opposites. The clear, vivid, mind's
eye picture creates a greater quantity of attention, and if the objects
are familiar they add to the possibility of clear visualization.

The attention should become fixed upon the picture and this can not
be done if they follow too rapidly. Take time to make the impression
and for best results become as much interested in it as possible.
Every means which results in prolonging or intensifying the attention
improves the scope and accuracy of the memory faculty.


The Child's Code List

For further practice in learning lists of words, by visualizing the
objects, use the one following. These words are selected to conform to
special requirements, and form a complete code which is to become of
great value later. It should be learned thoroughly so that each word
can be recalled quickly and in exact sequence. Use this list now in
preference to the previous one, as this one is to be used in future,
and the other will not be. Learn ten at a time and review them, then
take the next ten, joining them to the last word of the previous ten,
thus making an endless chain of the one hundred words.


Child's Code List

  Tie    Dot     Net     Meat     Heart
  Snow   Town    Nun     Moon     Horn
  Home   Dime    Enemy   Mama     Army
  Wire   Deer    Nero    Hammer   Rower
  Wheel  Towel   Nail    Mail     Roll
  Sash   Dish    Hinge   Mush     Roach
  Egg    Duck    Ink     Mike     Rock
  Ivy    Taffy   Knife   Movie    Roof
  Whip   Tub     Knob    Mop      Robe
  Toes   Nose    Mouse   Rose     Lasso

  Lady   Shed    Kite    Foot     Bath
  Lion   Ocean   Cane    Vine     Pony
  Limb   Jam     Gum     Foam     Bomb
  Lair   Chair   Car     Fur      Bear
  Lily   Jail    Glue    Veil     Pail
  Ledge  Judge   Cage    Fish     Beach
  Log    Chalk   Cook    Fig      Book
  Wolf   Chief   Coffee  Fife     Beehive
  Lap    Ship    Cap     Fob      Papa
  Ashes  Goose   Office  Puss     Daisies


The Game of Code

A game to develop accuracy and rapidity in the use of the words of this
Code List. Cut one hundred cards about two by three inches, or the size
of game cards. On one side of each print a word of the Code list.

Shuffle the cards, deal ten to each player and let the balance become
a draw pile. The one to the right of the dealer plays into the center
of the table any card which is the first of a series of ten Code words
as printed in the lists above, for example--Tie, Dot, Net, Meat, Heart,
Lady, Shed, Kite, Foot, Bath. All first cards as named must be played
first, then the cards containing words which follow consecutively in
the list must follow. All cards held by the player which can be played
on any series started on the table must be played in their proper turn,
including those in the played reserve piles.

If a card is played out of its proper sequence the first one noticing
the mistake calls "Code" and shall be entitled to give a card from his
hand into that of the player, who must correct the error and cease
playing.

When a player has completed his turn, has played all possible cards, or
has been stopped, he will place one card face up on the table in front
of him as a reserve pile. Each player is entitled to six reserve piles,
each lying face up and side by side. When a player cannot make at least
one play, he shall draw into his hand from the draw pile until he can
play or until the draw pile is exhausted. Each plays in turn until some
player has played all the cards from his hand, which entitles him to
the game. Any player who completes a series of Code words, puts on the
last word of the series of ten, takes away the set and these can be
shuffled and added to the draw pile if necessary.

The winner is entitled to one point for each card left in the hands and
reserve piles of the other players. The score of the game can be set
at any point above 200, and the first reaching this takes the set.


Remembering Errands

After the child has become familiar with the Code List he will be able
to use the words in a very practical way in remembering errands and
lists of groceries, etc. The objects of the list can easily be recalled
in exact sequence, and can now become Mental Hitching Posts to which
any errand or runaway idea may be safely hitched for future usefulness.
The thing to be remembered can be pictured with the object of the Code
list and when wanted it is simply necessary to recall the word of the
Code list and it will in turn recall the thing visualized with it.

[Illustration]

Let us take a practical example. You are sending the child to the
grocery store with an order. The first item is a loaf of Bread. Have
him picture this with the first word of the Code list, Tie. Take the
Tie and bind the loaf of Bread with it, tying a huge bow with the ends
moving in the wind. See this picture clearly, the color of the tie and
the shape and details of the loaf of Bread. Of course the Child is to
make his own picture wherever possible. A boy would probably use one
end of the tie around the loaf and swing the other over his shoulder.

The second item is a package of Matches. See the box lying on the Snow,
which is the second word of the Code. Let the box be open and some of
the Matches burning, see the black ends of the Matches in contrast with
the white snow.

[Illustration]

The third item is a box of Raisins. The third code word is Home. See
the box open and the Raisins spilling all over the Home.

The next item is Potatoes and the code word Wire. Have him imagine a
sharpened wire on which he is stringing the Potatoes.

The next item is a glass of Jelly and the next code word Wheel. See the
large Wheel run over the jelly and break the glass.

The next item is Flour and the code word Sash. Drop some Flour over a
new red Sash.

The seventh item is Coffee and the seventh code word is Egg. Break the
Egg and spill it all over the Coffee.

The eighth item is Butter and the code word ivy. Hang the Butter on the
Ivy and see it swinging there.

The ninth item is Soap and the ninth code word is Whip. Stand the soap
on end and strike it with the Whip--see the lash wind around the Soap.

The tenth item is a can of Corn and the code word is Toes. Let the boy
imagine himself balancing a can of Corn on his Toes.


The Visual Result

A picture of what is now in the mind should show a systematic filing
of ten grocery items, each hitched by picture to one of the familiar
Hitching Posts. The pictures may be somewhat like the following:

[Illustration]

Have the child run over the code words and tell the item that he sees
pictured with each. If the items are recalled once that is all the
review necessary if they are to be used in the same day the pictures
are made. He will be able to go to the store any time that day and by
recalling each word in its proper order will recall the ten items just
as they were pictured.


Another Practical Application

The same method can be used to fix in mind a list of errands which are
to be done at different stores and at different times. It is simply
necessary to hitch the errand to the Hitching Posts by picture and then
recall the Hitching Posts in order, each will remind you of the errand
visualized with it.

For practice, have the child begin with the second series of code words
and picture the following errands with them. Review them once and after
a few hours see how many he can recall.


Errands for Practice

  Dot--Buy some stamps.
  Town--Get toilet soap.
  Dime--Buy fish.
  Deer--Go to the Hardware store.
  Towel--Have shoes repaired.
  Dish--Get a spool of thread.
  Duck--Get some meat.
  Taffy--Get a Victrola record.
  Tub--Stop at the jewelry store.
  Nose--Buy some writing paper.


Always Be Systematic

The best results will be attained from using one list for groceries
and another for general errands. Always start with the first word of
a series of ten as printed in the code list. Never skip around. Any
picture will answer if it is clearly visualized and the attention fixed
upon it for a moment.

Review the list once to be sure that the child has made and visualized
a definite picture. One review is sufficient to be able to recall the
items accurately in the next twenty-four hours.


Applications Are Limitless

The principle involved here is one which will apply to any need of
adult, as well as child, life. Whenever there is a need for remembering
a list or series of any kind the mental Hitching Posts can be relied
upon to accomplish the result, if the method is properly applied.
Business men are using this idea every day of their lives and working
more efficiently because of time saved and increased accuracy. Use this
yourself and see to it that your children form the habit.


Important Points to be Followed

For best results in using this idea:

Always use the same series of code words for the same purpose, do not
change lists from day to day.

Be systematic, always file the first item or errand with the first
object of the series you are using; do not skip around.

Any Hitching Post will carry any impression which you wish to place
there. Your mind only needs a hint to start it right.

Be sure and photograph the picture which your imagination constructs.
You will not remember it unless you see it.

Review once for safety. If you are filing a list of items or errands
then review each picture and be sure you can recall it accurately
before going on to the next.

To file permanent information which you wish to retain and use
occasionally it is necessary to review your picture several times and
to concentrate upon it longer to strengthen the impression.

For temporary purposes, such as lists, errands, or things you wish to
recall once and then discard, do not review but once.

The difference between temporary and permanent information is in the
amount of review. Every repetition of your visual association deepens
the impression.

Start your new lists always with a new series of code words even though
you have not used all of the previous list. Begin always with Tie, Dot,
Net, Meat, Heart, or Lady, etc.

To forget, refuse to allow that with which you have finished to
re-enter your mind. Do not recall the old pictures, even for an
experiment, let them fade away after they have served their purpose.


Value of Forgetting

The reason that you find it impossible to forget certain incidents
and circumstances of life is that you have allowed your mind to go
over and over these incidents and thus to make the impression upon the
brain so deep that it has become a lasting one. Each review deepens
the impressions and makes them more and more indelible. For filing
information permanently in the mind this is the proper process. For all
temporary purposes, simply make the visual impression: review it to see
that it is properly filed, recall it when you wish to use it and then
refuse to review or again to see the picture.

To forget means to get-for. You must get some other thought or picture
into your mind in place of it. Do not waste time trying to force
thoughts or pictures from your mind. Get some other picture or thought
in its place as quickly as possible.


Alphabetical Hitching Posts

The list of code words given here is not the only thing which can be
used for this idea. The only essential is a series of easily pictured
objects which can be recalled quickly, with little effort, and in
accurate sequence. There is however an additional reason why these
particular words of the Child's Code List are better adapted to this
purpose than any others. This reason you will fully understand later in
this book.

For the use of children and adults who are not familiar with the Code
list it is simple and practical to use the A, B, C's as Hitching Posts.
In this case it is simply necessary to have an easily visualized object
beginning with the letter of the alphabet, so that, for example, the
letter A will without hesitation bring to mind the object Ant, which
can be pictured with the errand. For the majority of children it is not
practical to visualize the letter A with the errand, but the Ant can be
easily used by all.

Following is a list of suitable objects to represent the letters of the
alphabet. It will be good practice to learn them all, though you may
only use the first few.


Alphabetical Hitching Posts

  Ant      Hand     Owl      Vine
  Bee      Ink      Pig      Wolf
  Cannon   Jockey   Quilt    X-Ray
  Door     Kettle   Rat      Y. M. C. A.
  Engine   Lamb     Snow     Zebra
  Fire     Monkey   Tea
  Goose    Nun      U-Boat


Filing Abstract Ideas

Everything which you wish to remember does not take form in a definite
object which can be visualized and often presents a more difficult
problem. Fortunately the mind only requires a hint or suggestion to
start the Law of Association into operation which will bring the
thought not in itself easily pictured. As the child progresses his
imagination will find many original ways in which to create Reminder
Pictures to aid him in remembering abstract ideas. This ability will
not come except by practice and effort; if he is allowed to consider
the remembering of abstract ideas an obstacle to success it will be so;
but if he tries to master these he will find it is not difficult to
create a picture which will remind him of what he wishes to remember.


Reminder Pictures

It is of course more difficult to construct a picture for an abstract
thought or word than for a simple object, but it can be done, and
becomes easier with each effort. In some cases it may require an
elaborate picture to remind you of a single word. Note the following
abstract words and example of how a reminder picture aided in recalling
them.

  Contest--A footrace.
  Noisy--Boys pounding tin pans.
  Stuck--An auto stuck in the mud.
  Melancholy--A watermelon and a collie dog.
  Success--See a well known successful man.
  Financial--A pile of money in a bank.
  Secrecy--Two people whispering together.
  Contrary--A mule refusing to move.
  Immovable--An Egyptian Pyramid.

Christianity may be represented by a cross; cold by a piece of ice;
heat by a fire; light by a lamp; love by a heart; pride by a peacock;
spring-time by green grass and budding trees.

You are familiar with the old man with the sickle and forelock used
to represent Time; the maiden with the balance and sword representing
Justice; and the little scantily clad fellow who represents the New
Year. These are examples of successfully used reminder pictures.


Thought the Desired Result

In some cases you may not succeed in constructing a definite picture
for the thing which you wish to remember. Memory is brought about
by interested attention and concentration. In cases where the
visualization proves to be difficult or even impossible, you will
experience the fact that the effort made to form the picture has
produced sufficient concentration to help wonderfully in the problem of
remembering.


Thinking by Pictures

If you have never given it thought it will surprise you to notice
how much of our thinking is in picture form. The architect sees the
completed building, sees it in detail and puts this creation of his
brain on paper to guide the builder in reproducing it. The engineer
sees the completed bridge spanning the chasm before a workman has
turned a hand to rear it. All successful captains of industry think
largely in pictures. Children do so naturally and lose the ability by
lack of use and substitution of the "more modern methods," some of
which are most detrimental. See to it that your children appreciate the
value of visualization, that they use it continuously in their thinking
and study.


Uses of Hitching Posts

This picturing your errands with code words is a principle of mental
operation the uses of which are almost limitless. It will be profitable
to note how business men apply it in their business.

A physician lists his calls and the appointments he has made.

A factory manager hitches up the many instructions he wishes to give
during the day.

A lawyer uses six words for the six days of the week and hitches up his
court appointments.

A salesman makes a list of his calls, arranges them in the best order,
and fixes one with each word of the list.

A groceryman uses it for remembering the things he needs to buy for his
stock.

A real estate man lists some of the places he has for sale to be able
to talk about them when away from his office.

A salesman lists his selling points systematically and does not leave
out any important ones.

Anecdotes and stories can be listed and easily recalled when wanted.

Points of a sermon or lecture can be quickly pictured with definite
words and recalled later.


Speaking Without Notes

One of the most valuable applications of the "Hitching Post Idea" is
its use for fixing in mind the points of a talk, sermon or lecture.
Most of the nervousness of talking in public is caused by the fear of
forgetting. It is doubt of your ability to recall the points you wish
to talk about. This is easily overcome by the use of your Hitching
Posts. If you wish to make five points in a talk, make a picture to
remind you of each point and hitch them in turn to the first five words
of a list. Review the picture a couple of times, be sure that you can
recall them easily; before you are to speak, review them again.

When you are called upon, see the first word of your list and with it
you will see a picture which will remind you of the first point you
wish to make. The picture made with the next word of your list will
suggest your next point, when you are ready for it. There is no limit;
use as many words of the list as you have different points in your
speech. When you have used this idea once you will never do without it;
you will remember all the points of your talk and you will use them
in the order you intended. Hundreds, who have never spoken in public
without notes, are now doing so by the use of this method. Others, who
have been able to speak without notes have been troubled by getting the
points out of order or after sitting down have realized that they have
omitted an important one. With this idea you can entirely overcome such
a difficulty.


Originality and Effort

Help the child to cultivate the habit of originality and not to be
afraid of trying new ideas. Do not always suggest a picture, let him
work and create one for himself.

     =Effort is the price of increased mental power--the result will be
     secured in no other way.=

Make lists of groceries, errands, etc., for the child to practice with.
If he has no need of using the Hitching Posts now, deliberately make
the need, so that he can form this valuable habit.


The Mind's Eye and the Story

An excellent time for the development of the child is "story time."
Have him use his imagination and make mind's eye pictures while you are
reading stories. The story book naturally becomes a picture book in the
child's mind. When you are reading a story, stop occasionally and have
him form his own picture of it. You will find that he can easily see
little Red Riding Hood going down the road to her grandmother's house.
Encourage this habit of mental picturing of all stories and rhymes read
to the child.

This is a natural mental operation but the lack of knowledge of its
importance and consequently the failure to continue it after we have
learned to read is one of the great causes of our forgetting what
we read so easily. If you will see to it that your child visualizes
what you read to him, and as he learns to read for himself stops
occasionally to picture what he has read, he will develop a wonderful
memory along this line. He will study easily, retain accurately and
make more progress with less effort than any child who does not
visualize and is forced to depend upon repetition.


The Game of Story Telling

Read a story from the child's story book; have him make pictures of
the story as you read; when you have finished, let him tell the story
from his Mind's Eye picture, and see how completely he can retell it.
If points are omitted, call the child's attention to them and help him
to include them in his picture. When several children are together have
one retell the story and the others add what they can to it. See to it
that the retelling is from visual pictures. This is excellent training
for future school work.


Two Results of Visualization

Beside the memory value of visual impressions of the story there is
another important result. You cannot visualize the thing that you do
not understand. If you do know about it you can see it clearly.

If the child has difficulty in picturing what you have been reading it
may be because he does not understand it. Here is your opportunity to
explain and add to his definite knowledge. Visualization results in
increased understanding and in a greater ability to remember. These are
the important results sought in study and the formation of this habit
in your children will pay wonderful dividends in their education.


Learning Poetry and Prose

The value of the mind's eye picture will be much appreciated when the
child comes to learning verbatim. Every author has a picture in mind
which he describes in words. He attempts to make the word description
so clear that those who read will also see the picture.

Children who have not yet learned to read will naturally form pictures
in their minds as you read the story. When you wish to have the child
learn the story or poem, the mind's eye picture will be of the greatest
aid. Practice with some of the examples following; make clear pictures
and review them several times; aid the child in understanding the words
that he finds are difficult.

Note the pictures described by the authors in the following poems and
prose selections.


The Land of Story Books

  At evening when the lamp is lit,
  Around the fire my parents sit;
  They sit at home and talk and sing,
  And do not play at any thing.

  Now with my little gun I crawl,
  All in the dark, along the wall,
  And follow round the forest track
  Away behind the sofa back.

  There in the night, where none can spy,
  All in my hunter's camp I lie,
  And play at books that I have read,
  Till it is time to go to bed.

         *       *       *       *       *

  So, when my nurse comes in for me,
  Home I return across the sea,
  And go to bed with backward looks
  At my dear land of story books.

                      --Robert Louis Stevenson.


The Hare and the Tortoise

A hare boasted loudly to a tortoise of her speed in running, at the
same time giving him a look of scorn because of his slowness.

"Let us have a race," answered the tortoise. "I will run with you five
miles, and the fox over yonder shall be the judge."

The hare with a scornful smile agreed, and away they started together.

Soon the hare left the tortoise far behind, and feeling a little tired,
lay down on a tuft of grass that grew by the way. "If that slow-coach
passes, I shall see him and easily catch up with him again," she said
to herself, and fell asleep.

In the meantime the tortoise plodded on, slowly but surely. After a
time, he passed the hare, who, sure of reaching the goal first, still
slept, and who awoke only to find the tortoise had reached it before
her.


Somebody's Mother

(From Harper's Weekly--Author Unknown)

  The woman was old, and ragged and gray,
    And bent with the chill of the winter's day.
  The street was wet with the recent snow,
    And the woman's feet were aged and slow.

  She stood at the crossing and waited long
    Alone, uncared for, amid the throng
  Of human beings who passed her by,
    Nor heeded the glance of her anxious eye.

  Down the street with laughter and shout,
    Glad in the freedom of "School let out,"
  Came the boys like a flock of sheep,
    Hailing the snow piled white and deep.

  Passed the woman so old and gray,
    Hastened the children on their way,
  Nor offered a helping hand to her,
    So meek, so timid; afraid to stir,
  Lest the carriage wheels or the horses' feet
    Should crowd her down in the slippery street.

  At last came one of the merry troop,
    The gayest laddie of all the group;
  He paused beside her and whispered low,
    "I'll help you across if you wish to go."

         *       *       *       *       *

  And "Somebody's Mother" bowed her head,
    In her home that night, and the prayer she said,
  Was, "God be kind to the noble boy,
    Who is somebody's son and pride and joy."

These examples will serve to show the attempt of the author to paint a
picture with words, just as does an artist with paint. Have the child
make his own picture and repeat the story as fully as possible. Older
children should learn them so as to repeat them verbatim. In the next
book on--How to Study and Remember--this subject will be taken up more
fully.


To Preserve Early Memories

We sometimes doubt when people tell us of things which happen when
they were five years old. Children that are eight or nine can
often tell of things that took place when they were two or three.
Almost without exception you will find that these memories are eye
impressions--pictures. Have the child review those which you wish him
to retain and he will preserve the memory of them.

It is often the case that children have advantages of travel and see
many things that older people have not. Many of these advantages,
however, are wasted because the child does not review these interesting
things which he has seen. Children are seldom interested in
remembering. Parents should preserve the child's memory of important
sights and circumstances by asking him to carefully revisualize the
scene--to see it again in the mind's eye. Thus can the impression be
deepened and the child's memory and appreciation of the thing be made
to continue throughout his life.

Especially all unusual scenes which he may not have the opportunity of
seeing again for a long time should be visually reviewed a couple of
times during the first week and a number of times during the following
month. Two children had been camping in the north, where they one
evening saw a particularly brilliant display of Northern Lights. A
few months after this the children were asked, "What are the Northern
Lights? What do they look like?" The younger one had forgotten, but the
older one could describe them. When the two had thoroughly reviewed the
picture they had re-impressed it upon their minds. By doing this a few
times the children were able to permanently retain this memory.



HOW TO REMEMBER FIGURES


A child soon comes to the necessity of remembering numbers. With some
this is not difficult for they possess unusual powers of visualization
and can see the numbers clearly in their mind's eye and thus recall
them with ease. There are many examples of men and women who have
this visual memory for figures. On the other hand only a very small
proportion can do this.

It is a common failing among children, as well as adults, to be unable
to remember numbers easily. The reason is simple. Numbers have no
meaning, they convey no impression to the mind which can be retained.

Words convey the picture of objects, thoughts and actions which you can
visualize. Numbers are cold, inanimate things which have no life nor
interest, they do not present a picture and are not easily retained.

     =Things that have no meaning are difficult to remember.=

The simple transference of the meaningless number into something of
interest and within the child's knowledge and experience will be
helpful. He will remember 15 apples easier than just the number 15.
Numbers are easily dealt with when they become objects. You teach the
child to add and subtract by the counting board, or by using a group of
objects. Fractions are most easily explained by cutting an apple, or
something which we can see.

A man had received a new auto license number and wondered how he could
remember it, 218515. He knew the easiest way was to make it mean
something. He thought that 21 was the age when a young man reaches his
majority. If he lives to be 85 he will be an old man, and he might be
entirely destitute but for the 15c. So he had the figures 21-85-15.
After that he had no difficulty in recalling this number at any time.

Be original and make the figures mean something.


Familiar Numbers Helpful

Any number which has come to mean something to you is easily recalled
and may be helpful in remembering other numbers. As 1492, the date of
the discovery of America by Columbus. 57 immediately recalls "Heinz 57
varieties" and if you wish to remember 59 you can easily associate it
as being two more than the 57. 1775 means something to you, it conveys
a definite thought, but it is more likely that 1947 does not and will
be quickly forgotten.

If you have lived in a house with the number 1947 for a good while you
will remember it as easily as the number 1775.


Analyze Numbers

There are many helpful ideas which can be used to aid in remembering
numbers. To divide the number into pairs of digits, keeping them below
one hundred, is helpful. It is easier to remember 14-67 than 1,467.

Even numbers which are familiar to us are easily remembered as 10,
20, 30, 40, or 100, 200, 300, or 1000, 5000, 10,000. To compare other
numbers with these familiar groups will help, as 29 is one less than
30, 996 is just four less than 1000.

Numbers having sequence of digits if noted carefully will be recalled
accurately, as 1357 or 2468.

The telephone number 2430 is easily remembered because of the even
numbers, 24 and 30. Also 2+4=6 and 24+6=30.

Sometimes the first digits added together make the other, as the
license number 1247, the first three added make the fourth.

All these ideas are at times helpful, but we need a method which can
be used any time, by any one, for any figures. This need is adequately
met by the Number Code following. It is not new, but supposed to
have originated among the Romans and has been used by almost every
generation since that time. You find it easy to impress upon the brain
any thing which has a meaning and which can be visualized.

Figures carry with them no associations, no images. It becomes
necessary, therefore, to devise some means by which they may be
photographed upon the brain in such a manner that they will mean
something, as definitely as a word represents an object.


The Number Code

The simplest and most practical basis which can be selected is the idea
of choosing a SOUND to represent each one of the ten digits. These
sounds can in turn be indicated by various consonants of the alphabet.
By combining the ten digits we are able to make all figures, and by
similarly combining the SOUNDS we can easily convert the figures which
we wish to remember into words. The words will represent objects and
can easily be impressed upon the brain. Your use of this idea is based
upon your becoming thoroughly familiar with the ten SOUNDS representing
the ten digits.

By combining these sounds corresponding to the arrangement of the
digits, words can be formed to represent the figure. The word can be
remembered. It has a meaning. It can be visualized and recalled, then
easily translated into the corresponding digits.

Here are the ten digits and their corresponding SOUNDS. The sounds are
indicated by the letters. Use the sound as spoken in the word, as "T"
in "Ten." The sound used is always the same as in the spoken word, but
not as a single letter. Not the sound "en" as a letter, but the sound
of "N" in "Nell." Note this difference; it is important. Following is
the Number Code:

[Illustration: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
               T N M R L J K F P C]

Note carefully this cut in which the digit and letter used to represent
the sound is made into a combined figure. This places the digit and
the corresponding sound into your mind together. The picture of the
combination should be impressed by concentration. Look at the digit
letter and then close your eyes and see the same picture in your
mind's eye. Exaggerate them. Take a pencil and paper and draw them for
yourself. Note that the second letter N if stood on its side is 2, in
the picture it is half way, which will suggest both to your mind. The
M and 3 are the same. Become familiar with these so that there is no
possibility of hesitation in recalling the SOUND for each digit.

The T and 1 are simple. The 2 and N and the 3 and M have been
explained. The 6 turned to the left makes a J. The K for 7 is made of
two 7s back to back, one leaning against the other. The P for 9 is
turned as the 6 and J. Dwell a moment on this picture and you will know
the Code.

There are other associations which will help to fix the digits and
their corresponding sounds in mind.

T is selected for 1 because both are made with one down stroke. One
down stroke with a short cross stroke makes the T.

N, for 2 is the same, two down strokes make the N.

M represents the 3 and there are three down strokes in the written M.

R is the last letter and principal sound in the word fouR, which has
four letters.

L is the Roman numeral representing 50, similar to 5.

F selected for 8 has the two loops, when written.

C is the first letter and sound of the word Cipher.


Acquaint Yourself With the Code

Work entirely by SOUND, remember it is the sound M in the word Make
that has the value of 3, and if not =sounded= would have no value.
Become familiar with these ten digit sounds so that when you see a
digit you can immediately recall the sound. Then practice sounding
words and telling the number value of each SOUND in the word. Pay no
attention to the letters; only the sounds have value.

The ten sounds alone will not form words, but will by adding the vowels
A, E, I, O, U. The vowels have no figure value and can be used at any
time and in any manner desired without altering the number value of
the word. In the same manner we use the consonants W, H and Y. These
have no figure value and with the vowels may be used to bind the digit
sounds into words.


A, E, I, O, U and W, H, Y Are Valueless

For practice translate the following numerals into their corresponding
sounds.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 3 6 5 8 3 2 8 0 5 3 6 8 7 4 2 8 5 1 7.

In the same manner translate the following letters into their
corresponding digit value. Remember the vowels and W, H, Y have no
figure value.

T N M R L J F P C E F H R K Y F R N L Y F W K N R T E O K L A Y E R P M
U N P L T H F Y E R O M I N K O U N L P T R N W M F.

Keep up this practice with both digits and letters until you can
translate each without hesitation.


Forming Number Words

It is a simple matter to form a word for a figure by selecting the
sounds which represent the digits and fill in vowels until the word is
found.

14 is represented by the sounds T-R. Between the consonants T and R run
the vowels a, e, i, o, u. Do this by sound and the result is TaR, TeaR,
TiRe, ToR (tore), TuR (tour). In this way you have three or four words
which will represent the number 14.

15 can be converted into TaiL, TiLe, TeLl, or TooL.

41 into the words RaT, RaTe, wRiTe, RooT, RuT.

91 into the words PaT, PeT, PiT, PoT, PuT.

Make yourself thoroughly familiar with the Number Code. Master the
ten digit sounds and you have the foundation with which to work. This
is not a difficult problem. Children learn without difficulty the 26
letters of the alphabet and their many combinations. In this case
there are but ten to be mastered and many combinations to choose from.
A little practice will work wonders in the ability to use this Code.
Change the following words into their figure value:

  PaN................   JaR................   NoTe...............
  RaiN...............   CoaL...............   TaN................
  KiTe...............   PiLe...............   MoP................
  RaKe...............   PoP................   JaiL...............
  LaP................   TaNK...............   PaiL...............
  LeTTeR.............   PiNK...............   PeaR...............

Note the following translation of numbers into words. Do the last sets
yourself, make others for practice in this idea:

   38   M F           MuFf.
   92   P N           PaN.
   63   J M           JaM.
  142   T R N         TuRN.
  315   M T L         ............
  415   ............  ............
  912   ............  ............
  951   ............  ............
  421   ............  ............

Add the necessary vowels to make these into words:

  82   F N     921   P NT      327   M NK
  21   N T     627   J NK     9521   PL NT
  48   R F     295   N PPL   91420   P T RNS

Make complete words for the following:

   29..............     97..............     57..............
  470..............    742..............    515..............


Additional Letters

The simplicity and ease with which you will be able to use this idea
can be increased by noting that there are certain letters which have
practically the same sound as those selected to represent the digits.
Yet these sounds are entirely different from any other digit sound. You
can greatly increase the list of words which you can make for certain
numbers by taking advantage of this idea. This is a very helpful
suggestion; note it carefully.

All letters having the same sound stand for the same digit value:

D and T are similar in sound and therefore either can be used to
represent the digit 1.

G as in George (known as soft G) has the same sound as J, therefore
soft G also represents 6.

Sh as in Shot, and Ch as in Chain are similar to J in sound so Sh or Ch
represent 6.

C as in Can, hard C, has the sound of K and is 7.

G as in Gag, is the same as K and also is valued as 7. K, hard C or
hard G are all used for 7.

V has the sound of F, and either may be used for 8.

B has the sound of P and is 9.

S as in Sauce, and Z are sounded as C (soft) so that either C, S or Z
can be used for 0.


The Complete Code

[Illustration:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

  T N M R L J K F P C
  D         G G V B S
           CH C     Z
           SH
]

Letters and Sounds Seldom Used

The following are sometimes used and from their SOUND have digit value
and should be noted for completeness:

Q sounds similar to K and is 7.

X is pronounced EKS, has the KS sound and is 70.

Hard Ch as in ACHE has the K sound and is 7.

Gh and Ph as in Cough and Phone have the F sound and are 8.

By using the suffix ING to represent 7, which is an arbitrary exception
to fill a need, you can get a great deal of help in forming words for
difficult numbers which end in 7, as 447 RoaRING, 117 DoTING, 577
LacKING, 397 MoPING.


Silent Letters Have No Figure Value

In addition to a, e, i, o, u, and w, h, and y, which have no figure
value, all silent letters have none, because they are not SOUNDED.
SOUND is the one and only indicator of digit value.

  NIGHT is 21 for the GH is silent.
  KNIFE is 28 for the K is silent.
  MADGE is 36 for the D is silent.


Double Letters Are Sounded as One

Because they have but the one letter SOUND they have but the single
digit value. This is merely another fact which is unalterable, because
the basis of the Code is sound.

  HUMMER has the sound of HUMER and is 34.
  BITTER has the sound of BITER and is 914.
  SPARROW has the sound of SPARO and is 094.
  BILL has the sound of BIL and is 95.

The important thing to keep in mind in the use of this Code is the fact
that all is based upon SOUND. Silent letters and double letters are
treated as they are, simply because of the SOUND basis. There are many
exceptions to the number value of the letters but none to the number
value of the sounds of the word.

The word NATION is a good example. NATION is 262. In this case the T as
a letter would represent 1, but as a SOUND it is "SH" and is 6. C is 6
in OCEAN.


Number Value of Code Words

You now need to have a series of words, the figure value of which you
are thoroughly familiar with, to use as a basis for quickly forming
word pictures for numbers which are given you to remember. A list of
words representing the number 1 to 100 would be of the greatest value
to you. These words you would be familiar with and as soon as any
number of two digits was mentioned a word-picture of this value would
come into your mind. The word-picture you could easily retain in mind,
the number you could not.

Take for example the number 1. This is represented by either T or D.
For this illustration we select the T. Now in order to make a word
which you can visualize you use the vowels or the extra consonants W, H
or Y. From these we can make a word for 1.

Let us take the T and the vowels I, E, which have no value, and we have
the word TIE, which has the value of 1. Many other words could have
been made which would have the same number value as Hut, Hat, Head,
Hood, Weed, Wheat, Tea, Toe, Dew, Dye.

  SNOW is 2; the S, O and W have no value, leaving the N for 2.
  HOME is 3; H, O and E have no value, leaving the M for 3.
  WIRE is 4; W, I and E have no value, leaving the R for 4.
  WHEEL is 5; W, H, EE have no value, leaving the L for 5.
  SASH is 6; S, A have no value, leaving the Sh for 6.
  EGG is 7; E has no value, GG has but one sound and is 7.
  IVY is 8; I and Y have no value and V is 8.
  WHIP is 9; W, H and I have no value, leaving P for 9.
  TOES is 10; O and E have no value and T and S are 1-0.

By the use of the Number Code each of the words selected for the
Child's Code List has a number value running consecutively from
Tie which is 1 to Daisies, which is 100. Each word stands for its
corresponding number always; by sound they are interchangeable with the
number at any time for any purpose.

Figure out, by the Number Code, the value of each word of the Code List
as given here, in disorganized form, and write it opposite the word.

  Tie........   Lair.......   Nail.......   Veil.......
  Dime.......   Judge......   Roach......   Bomb.......
  Sash.......   Lap........   Movie......   Cook.......
  Taffy......   Meat.......   Mouse......   Beehive....
  Lady.......   Enemy......   Bath.......   Puss.......
  Jam........   Rower......   Foam.......   Home.......
  Ledge......   Mush.......   Glue.......   Towel......
  Chief......   Knife......   Beach......   Ivy........
  Dot........   Robe.......   Fife.......   Nose.......
  Horn.......   Foot.......   Office.....   Limb.......
  Hammer.....   Gum........   Town.......   Jail.......
  Hinge......   Pear.......   Wheel......   Wolf.......
  Rock.......   Fish.......   Duck.......   Goose......
  Mop........   Coffee.....   Toes.......   Moon.......
  Kite.......   Papa.......   Ocean......   Nero.......
  Pony.......   Snow.......   Lily.......   Roll.......
  Fur........   Deer.......   Chalk......   Mike.......
  Cage.......   Egg........   Ashes......   Knob.......
  Book.......   Tub........   Nun........   Lasso......
  Fob........   Lion.......   Army.......   Vine.......
  Net........   Chair......   Mail.......   Car........
  Wire.......   Log........   Ink........   Pail.......
  Dish.......   Ship.......   Roof.......   Fig........
  Whip.......   Heart......   Rose.......   Cap........
  Shed.......   Mama.......   Cane.......   Daisies....

After you have worked out the number value of each of the Code Words,
turn back to them on page 80 and check them there, noting how each
follows in proper sequence by number value.


The Game of Number Code

After becoming familiar with the values of the number Code, the Game
Code, given on page 42, can be very much improved in its complexity,
and consequently, in its resulting mental development.

[Illustration: Front]

[Illustration: Back]

Have the one hundred words on one side of the card and the
corresponding numbers from one to one hundred on the reverse side as
illustrated. Deal all the cards, have no draw pile. All cards in the
hand and in reserve piles on the table are to be with the words up and
the numbers down. Start by playing the cards into the middle of the
table with the numbers up, beginning with cards which bear numbers
ending in 1. The next card is played word up upon the pile; then, if
no one calls "Code," turn the card over and if it should be that this
card does not bear the following consecutive number the card must be
replaced in the player's hand and the player ceases with no penalty.
If, when the word is played, some other player, who knows by the number
value of the word that it is an error, calls "Code" before the card is
turned over, then, if correct, he is entitled to give the player a card
from his hand. The game is played and scored as in Code, but has the
added value of requiring the players to know the number value of all
the words.


The Number Game

This game will assist in learning the number value of the words and the
word for each number. Shuffle the cards from the Code Games, have one
person hold these cards out of sight of the players. The reader turns
all cards with the words up and reads the word on the top card. The
first one to tell the proper number value of the word gets the card. In
this way go through the entire pack, each person retaining the cards
which he obtains by first speaking the number. The one holding the most
cards at the end of the game is the reader for the next game.

The same game may be played by reading the numbers and seeing who can
first speak the Code Word.


The Game of Solitaire

If you wish to practice alone, take the Code cards and shuffle with the
words up, noting the time when you begin. See how quickly you can go
through the entire set, naming the numbers for the words. Then reverse
the process and name the words for the numbers.

Now try it again and see if you can cut a few seconds off the
time. Keep a record of the time required to go each way and strive
continuously to reduce it. Keep at this until you can go through the
100 cards in two and a half minutes or less.


Another Game of Solitaire

Take the Code cards and shuffle them thoroughly then arrange them in
their consecutive order, beginning with Tie and following with each
word in its proper place. For another test start ten rows of cards upon
the table, each starting with a Code word ending in one, as Tie, Dot,
Net, Meat, Heart, etc. Now follow each card with the next word in its
list, placing the cards in their proper lists as you come to them. This
will help you to become acquainted with the words in their proper order
and to become familiar with them.

The above exercises will increase in interest if you consider them
from the number value. Shuffle the set and arrange them in consecutive
order, thinking of the number value of the word, but not referring to
the number on the back of the card unless forced to do so. The second
test will be arranging them in sets of ten, beginning with 1, 11, 21,
31, 41, etc.

Shuffle the cards again and arrange them in the following order, always
using the words but figuring their number value for your guide in the
arrangement. Arrange them in horizontal lines thus:

  1-11-21-31-41-51-61-71-81-91
  2-12-22-32-42-52-62-72-82-92
  3-13-23-33-43-53-63-73-83-93
  4-14-24-34-44-54-64-74-84-94
  5-15-25-35-45-55-65-75-85-95
  6-16-26-36-46-56-66-76-86-96
  7-17-27-37-47-57-67-77-87-97

Follow through the set in the same manner. After you have completed any
of these tests, reverse it and do the same, beginning with the larger
numbers and working back to the smaller ones.

Vary these exercises in as many ways as you can and keep track of how
long it takes you to do a certain test, then do it again and see how
much you can reduce the time required. For a guide in these tests the
Code List is printed here with each corresponding number value.


Code Words and Number Values

  1-Tie     11-Dot     21-Net     31-Meat     41-Heart
  2-Snow    12-Town    22-Nun     32-Moon     42-Horn
  3-Home    13-Dime    23-Enemy   33-Mama     43-Army
  4-Wire    14-Deer    24-Nero    34-Hammer   44-Rower
  5-Wheel   15-Towel   25-Nail    35-Mail     45-Roll
  6-Sash    16-Dish    26-Hinge   36-Mush     46-Roach
  7-Egg     17-Duck    27-Ink     37-Mike     47-Rock
  8-Ivy     18-Taffy   28-Knife   38-Movie    48-Roof
  9-Whip    19-Tub     29-Knob    39-Mop      49-Rope
  10-Toes   20-Nose    30-Mouse   40-Rose     50-Lasso

  51-Lady   61-Shed    71-Kite    81-Foot     91-Bath
  52-Lion   62-Ocean   72-Cane    82-Vine     92-Pony
  53-Limb   63-Jam     73-Gum     83-Foam     93-Bomb
  54-Lair   64-Chair   74-Car     84-Fur      94-Bear
  55-Lily   65-Jail    75-Glue    85-Veil     95-Pail
  56-Ledge  66-Judge   76-Cage    86-Fish     96-Beach
  57-Log    67-Chalk   77-Cook    87-Fig      97-Book
  58-Wolf   68-Chief   78-Coffee  88-Fife     98-Beehive
  59-Lap    69-Ship    79-Cap     89-Fob      99-Papa
  60-Ashes  70-Goose   80-Office  90-Puss    100-Daisies

After you have become familiar with the number values of the Code words
it will guide you in case of any doubt as to the sequence of any words.
If you should be in doubt as to whether Chief or Ship comes first you
can prove the point by referring to the number value; Chief is 68 and
Ship is 69, therefore the sequence is correct.


All Hitching Posts Numbered

Note that when you have the Number Code to work with that each Hitching
Post has a corresponding number so that each item in your list is
numbered. For purposes of filing information this is very helpful. You
think of the Hitching Posts now as 1-2-3-4-5-etc. The word is simply an
interchangeable object with a fixed value and 1 automatically becomes
Tie in the picture. And when it appears in the picture it means 1.
So on with all other numbers and words under one hundred. For use as
Hitching Posts each list of ten in the list can be used as having the 1
to 10 value by dropping the first digit, as Net (2)1, Nun (2)2, Enemy
(2)3, Nero (2)4, etc.

In working with the Code bear in mind every moment that the word is
synonymous with the number. The number stands for the word and the word
for the number, they never change. They mean now and always the same
thing. Each stands for the other. This statement can not be made too
strong. Neither can you be urged too strongly to practice with your
children in the use of it. Become so familiar with it that when you
hear the sound T it immediately means 1 and so on through the entire
list. Words now have an added significance; for this purpose they have
become and from this time they will be NUMBERS, as well as WORDS.

Always keep in mind that SOUND determines the number value of the word
regardless of how it is spelled.


Forming Larger Number Words

In order to form words for larger numbers first become familiar with
the figure value of the one hundred code words. These will often
combine to form the larger number pictures. For example:

   695  Sash--Pail
  1291  Town--Bat
  2499  Nero--Papa
  8240  Vine--Rose

A combination picture of Nero and Papa would represent 2499. The danger
of transposing the figures by recalling the picture as Papa--Nero 9924
instead of 2499, can be avoided by having the first object much larger
than the second. In the case of 2499 picture Nero larger than Papa, or
see Nero above Papa, or in front or preceding Papa. Adopt one of these
methods and use it.

After a little practice you will often form one word for a number
instead of combining the Code words. The beginner would represent 1210
by the Code words Town--Toes. Later he will recognize 1210 as the
sounds T-N-T-S. Combining these sounds the word TENTS will suggest
itself.

If 1210 were a phone number and you made a clear picture association
of Tents with the Person or Place you would have no difficulty in
recalling the number.

Already you have an object representing the figures from 1 to 100,
but very often you will wish to use figures far in excess of this.
Any number in excess of 100 and below 10,000, or any number of three
or four digits will be most easily handled by translating it into two
words of the Number Code, or if you choose can be later worked into
a single word. In the beginning you will find help by working in the
following manner. Take the number 347. A combination of the Code words
would be Home Rock, you could also use My Rock or Some Rock. Or you can
make the numbers into a single word. Put down the figures thus:

  3  4  7
  M  R  K

Combining these letters with vowels you have the word MARK. Now take
the number 994, the code combination for this number is Whip-Pear, or
you could make the single word Paper.

The number 315 can be made into a single word. 315 is MoDeL. Translate
the following into single words; refer to the Number Code, on page
72, when in doubt or in need of a suggestion. First, always sound the
digits then let the sounds form into a word.

  101............    510............    121............
  415............    195............    745............
  941............    994............    426............
  624............    140............    925............
  315............    147............    015............
  410............    412............    649............
  953............    150............    539............
  300............    074............    751............
  741............    942............    642............
  211............    210............    951............


Further Practice in Word Forming

It is not always necessary to put a vowel between the code sounds. Some
letters combine into words without vowels between, as--

  CuRTaiN--7412  CLuTTeR--7514   FaRMING--8437
  BRaND--9421    PReaCHeR--9464  SPeNT--0921
  PLaNT--9521    BuRGLaR--94754  SiLKS--0570

Also note that some words begin with vowels: Envelope for 2859; Amber
for 394.

If at first you cannot easily form words for all numbers, do not be
discouraged. Practice will give you most words instantaneously. Soon
you will instantly recognize numbers like 285 as Novel; 741 as Cart;
101 as Toast. This ability will come quickly if you practice and in no
other way will you acquire it.


Adjectives as Helps

You have already found that some numbers of three digits cannot be
made into a single word. Others that can be translated into words are
sometimes difficult of visualization. To overcome these difficulties
and to add greatly to the rapidity with which you can form large
numbers, use adjectives for the first digits and the words of the
Code list for the others. The combination is quickly made and easily
recalled. You will find that in larger figures of six digits the idea
works equally well.

  1 Hot, Wet, White       6 Huge, Shy, Ashy
  2 New or No             7 Sick, Gay, Weak
  3 My or May             8 Heavy, Few, Wavy
  4 Sour, Raw, Hairy      9 Happy or Webby
  5 Low, Oily, Yellow    10 Dizzy

Select one of the adjectives for each digit and become familiar with it
and use it continuously, unless another improves the sense materially.

  165 Hot Jail          666 Shy Judge
  263 New Jam           776 Weak Cage
  333 My Mama           829 Heavy Knob
  498 Hairy Beehive     993 Happy Bomb
  568 Yellow Chief     1035 Dizzy Mail

The adjectives will be of great assistance as well in forming words for
four digit numbers:

  1149 Hot Trap        7195 Weak Table
  2262 New Engine      8941 Heavy Bird

A few additional examples of adjectives will show how helpful this idea
can be made:

  12--Thin    21--Neat    72--Keen
  13--Dim     32--Mean    77--Quick
  14--Dear    46--Rich    82--Fine
  15--Tall    58--Live    65--Jolly
  16--Dutch   62--Shiny   97--Big

For practice translate the following by use of adjectives and Code
words, where possible, or adjectives and three digit words.

  127............    1147............  21147............
  932............    1932............  29595............
  478............    2746............  32649............
  531............    9127............  61492............
  397............    1392............  45921............
  729............    7146............  72952............
  635............    6592............  15864............


Telephone Numbers

Remembering telephone numbers is a practical application of the Number
Code which can be helpful to all. There is probably no combination of
figures you are more often called upon to remember than these. When you
need them you need them at once. Master the Number Code and you will
find that it has paid you many times in this application alone.

Translate the phone number into words and associate them with person,
office, place of business, or in any way that will make a good picture
which will be easily recalled. The illustrations which follow are
instances taken from actual practice.

Hotel--phone number 1740, THE CARS may be used to represent 1740. This
hotel, the Brown Palace, in Denver, is a triangular building with cars
running on every side, suggesting "THE CARS."

Fire Department--phone number 3084. MISS FIRE stands for 3084. An easy
association is that the fire men miss the fire.

Bank--phone number 9795. Here we substitute BIG BILL for 9795, a bank
which has many a BIG BILL.

Railroad--phone 1784. TAKE FARE association. The railroad always takes
your fare.

Laundry--phone 7540 COLLARS. Association. Collars are in the laundry.

Butcher--phone 531. ALL MEAT. The butcher sells ALL MEAT.


Telephone Exchanges

Knowing the district in which the phone is located will often suggest
the exchange, but when necessary make a Reminder Picture for the
exchange. Following are some examples which have been used by students:

  Main--The Battle Ship   Harrison--Hair or Hare
  East--Yeast             Randolph--Ran off
  Beacon--Lighthouse      Champa--Champion
  Wabash--Wash            Proctor--Doctor

These are suggestions only, much depends upon the individual; make
your own reminders. The same exchange may be more easily remembered
by different visual images for each of us. Use the means that suits
you best. If the exchange is represented by a reminder make the double
visual impression, as--

    An Abstract Co., Champa 1208
  They have the Champion TIN SAFE
     A Restaurant, Main 8518
  They have Main(ly), VEAL TOUGH


Remembering Addresses

A student was asked to call upon a party at 2214 Third Street, and was
cautioned by the man giving the address that he had better write it
down. The student remarked, "It isn't necessary, I can easily remember
it." Which remark, needless to say, created a favorable impression. 22
is NUN, 14 is DEER. The student made a mental picture of a NUN leading
a DEER HOME (Third Street).

Another address was 1939, which is quickly transferred to a picture of
a TUB and a MOP.


Remembering Fractions

Fractions can be converted into words and thus carried in the mind with
exactness. A great many are illustrated in the following list. These
words all begin with the letter S for uniformity and to make it easy to
remember that the word represents a fraction:

  1/2--Stone    1/5--Steel    9/10--Spats
  4/5--Sorrel   1/8--Stave    1/6--Stage
  1/4--Steer    5/6--Sledge   3/5--Sawmill
  3/4--Summer   1/3--Stem     7/8--Skiff

Other words can be made for the other fractions. 1/7 would be Stock and
2/7 Sneak, and 3/7 Smack. A combination of these words with the Code
list will help with fractions. 9-1/4 would be WHIP STEER. 12-2/5 is
TOWN SNAIL. 54-1/2 is LAIR STONE. 35-1/6 is MAIL STAGE.


Remembering Department Numbers

In learning the department numbers in a large department store it
is simply necessary to associate the goods sold in the particular
department with the Code word, and if desirable, the name of the buyer
can be associated also.


Remembering Color Numbers

The color numbers in a wholesale house, some sixty of them, were
learned by one student while reading them over slowly. Color Number
1 is Black, BLACK TIE. Color 12 is Gold, a GOLD TOWN. A little more
difficult is 51, Gettysburg gray. Here a man is wandering over the
fields of Gettysburg in the Gray dawn with a LADY (51).


The Game of Memory Demonstration

Excellent practice and a great deal of pleasure can be had by letting
some one give the child a series of ten words to be remembered in
connection with the numbers which are written opposite them. They can
be given out of order and this will make a stronger impression and be
as easy for the child.

The numbers 1 to 10 will be represented in his mind by the Code words
TIE to TOES. Each will be pictured in turn with the word given for
the number. Let the one giving the words write the numbers 1 to 10
in a vertical line, and as he writes the word opposite tell them to
the child taking the demonstration. For example--5 is Window. This
immediately becomes a picture of the WHEEL (5) and a Window. Throw the
Wheel through the Window. Next he might be given 10, BOOK. A picture of
TOES and Book. 3 is FIRE, a picture of a HOME (3) on Fire. 1 is CANDY,
sticks of Candy bound up in a TIE (1).

Each word and number are to be visualized together. When the ten have
all been given, the child begins with 1 (TIE) and recalls the object
he pictured with it; next 2 (SNOW) and recalls the word pictured with
it, and so on to the end of the ten. Recall each one in sequence even
though given out of order.

A practice demonstration:

   5--Window   1--Candy   4--Bank
  10--Book     9--Fish    6--Apple
   3--Fire     8--Auto    2--Stone
                          7--Horse

Begin with 1 and recall them in sequence.


A Number Demonstration

Instead of the words, as used in the preceding game, follow the same
plan as with two digit numbers, as--

  1 is 29   4 is 100    7 is 35
  2 is 93   5 is 61     8 is 12
  3 is 57   6 is 44     9 is 98
                       10 is 86

This is simply a combination picture of two Code words. One is TIE and
29 is KNOB, a picture of a huge red TIE hanging on a KNOB will answer
the purpose.

2 is SNOW and 93 is BOMB, a big, black, sizzling BOMB in the SNOW bank.
Picture each pair as given and recall them by first recalling the
Code word for the position in the list and it will be associated with
another object in the picture, the number value of which is the number
as given.

Accuracy in this game is dependent upon being familiar with the Code,
know the sounds, and if the Code word for 57 does not come to mind
easily use any word with the two sounds L and K and it will represent
57. You could use the word Lake, Elk, or Leg, any one of which will
enable you to remember the number.

Other uses of the Number Code will be given in the next book, and there
will be found many applications of it to the needs of the child in his
school work. It is helpful in many ways and should be mastered both for
its usefulness and for the value in mental development which will come
from practicing with it.



REMEMBERING PEOPLE'S NAMES


To forget names is a common failing. Many people can remember faces but
fail when it comes to recalling the name. This is mostly the result of
inattention. Remembering names is more difficult than remembering some
other things, and for this reason many have fallen into the habit of
not trying.

One thing which contributes largely to this neglect is a lack of
definite knowledge of how to accomplish the result. The principles of
memory, as given previously in this book, can be applied to prevent
this common failure.

While children do not have to remember names as much as adults do they
should have the principles well in mind and be trained in the use of
them. They should form the habit of paying attention to the names
and remembering them. Parents should require them to call the people
they meet by name and to realize the value of being able to do so.
Almost every one can remember faces of strangers more easily than they
remember names. This is because of the difference in strength of the
two senses used in making the impressions. The eye nerve carries the
picture of the face to the brain. The ear carries the sound of the
name. As we have learned, the eye impression is nearly twenty times
stronger than the one made by the ear.

     =Eye impressions are lasting and can be recalled when the
     impressions by the other senses can not.=

It may be helpful to illustrate the result of your meeting with a Mr.
Penn in the following graphic way. In the following drawing let the
curve represent the surface of the brain, and the depth of the groove
the comparative impressions made by the two senses.

[Illustration]

This could illustrate the strength of the two images under the
conditions, where the face was seen only as the name was heard. On the
other hand, this is not usual, as a rule you hear the strange name but
once, but you see the face for several minutes, sometimes for half
an hour. During the time that you are looking at the face the eye is
making a deeper and deeper impression upon your brain.

The ear never has had and never can have the same ability to impress
the brain as the eye. It will never be possible to remember names
as easily, or for as long a time as faces, if you depend upon the
impressions as normally placed upon the brain by the senses.


To Remember Names

The problem then is to first equalize the impressions of the face and
name so that each will last and can be recalled with equal ease. The
impression of the face was made by your physical eye; at the same time
there is your mind's eye faculty which is dormant, not being used. With
it you can learn to make an impression of the name upon your brain
which will be as strong as the face impression made by the eye.

     =In order to recall with equal ease two mental impressions, they
     must be made with equal strength.=

When you meet a stranger his face becomes a picture impression upon
the brain, the first impression of the name is made by the ear, but it
can easily and quickly be made into a mind's eye picture which will
be many times more available. This mind's eye picture can be unusual,
exaggerated, and moving, so that its strength can be regulated at will.
The result will be two visual impressions, the face by the eye, the
name by the mind's eye. These can be equalized by repetition so that
when you recognize the face it will be possible to recall the name as
well. Let us adapt the former illustration and we have a picture of the
face and a picture of the name impressed upon the brain.

[Illustration]

Instead of retaining only the slight impression made by the ear, you
can have two impressions, both made by the sense of sight. Apply this
knowledge, and remembering names will become a much simpler matter.


The Name Picture

When you heard the word Tie spoken you quickly transferred the ear
impression into a mind's eye picture of a TIE. Do the same with the
name of Mr. Penn. This is a word which has a definite meaning and it
suggests a concrete picture. You can see the pen; see all the details
of its shape, size, markings, etc. See this in your mind's eye,
visualize this picture of the word pen. It can be exaggerated and you
can animate it and put it into motion with many unusual or ludicrous
circumstances. In other words, this Name Picture can be as firmly
impressed upon your brain as you wish it to be.


Association Next Important Step

When you wish to remember the Tie and Snow together, or to use the Tie
to recall the Bread, you took advantage of the Law of Association. The
two were pictured together and thus impressed upon the brain at the
same time. If you wish to be able to recall the name when you see the
face you must associate the Face Picture and the Name Picture together
in the same impression.

[Illustration]

You will remember that success in the use of associated picture
impressions depend upon one of the objects in the picture being
familiar and easily recalled. In this case the Name Picture is
associated with, or hitched to, the Face Picture. The Face Picture will
always be present when the name is wanted. The person may come into
your home, or you may meet him outside, in each case when you see the
face it will bring to your mind the picture of the name.


To Remember Mr. King

When you meet a stranger take this opportunity to get a Face Picture of
this person impressed upon the brain. When you hear the name, King, you
have a light temporary ear impression of it. Take this ear impression
of the name and quickly transfer it into a mind's eye picture of the
king. Then into this picture of the king place the face picture, see
the face of this Mr. King sitting on the throne, wearing the crown
and robes and waving the scepter. Make this Name Picture strong,
exaggerated and unusual. Here you are combining a mind's eye impression
with a physical eye impression and the one is definite, a real thing,
while the mind's eye impression seems, in comparison, to be vague and
indistinct. It is a strong impression, nevertheless, and very little
experience and practice will be necessary to prove its value and
availability.

[Illustration]

You must, of course, hear the name distinctly. You can not remember it
if you do not know what it is. The first impression of the name must be
definite and certain, do not hesitate to ask to have the name repeated
or even spelled. The person will be complimented that you are making an
attempt to remember him.

It will help you to become conscious of these mind's eye pictures if
you will look away from the stranger's face for a moment and see both
the face and name pictures in the visual impression which you have been
forming. This can be done for an instant during the conversation, or at
some other opportunity.


Associating Name and Face Pictures

Go into any savage or semi-civilized tribe today and you will find
that names are given because of some trait of character; some peculiar
characteristic; some unusual appearance or accomplishment. About fifty
per cent of the names you meet with are nouns, words with a meaning
which suggests definite, concrete pictures, which can easily be
associated with the faces of the persons just as we have done here with
the name King. Note these examples:

  Mr. Gun      Mr. Starr    Mr. Wells
  Mr. Stone    Mr. Ring     Mr. Bell
  Mr. Cotton   Mr. Street   Mr. Penn

There are thousands of names just as simple, including colors, animals,
birds, fish, fruits, and almost every object. All these can be easily
visually associated with the face.


Obtain a Meaning by Change

Many names do not come under the classification of a direct and simple
meaning because of a little change which may have been made in the
manner of spelling them. Others can be converted into some simple
meaning which can be easily impressed upon the mind by making a slight
change and spelling the names as they sound. In other words, by
remembering them as they sound rather than as they are spelled.

The following examples are common:

  Mr. Rhodes--roads
  Mr. Coyle--coil
  Mr. Knoble--noble
  Mr. Reuter--rooter
  Mr. Baran--baron
  Mr. Asche--ash
  Mr. Lyon--lion

[Illustration]

Use the picture here as Mr. Perrett. The name as it sounds calls to
your mind a bird. See the bright green parrot flying around his head
and perching on his shoulder; see the vivid color of the bird. Close
your eyes and review this picture association of the face and the name.
Do this until you can see it with your eyes open.


Meaning in First Syllable

Many names which seem to present difficulties upon first hearing them
simply need a little attention and analysis. At times when names have
escaped you, you have gone back to the alphabet and by running over
the letters have found that the first letter suggested the name wanted.
Some names which are apparently difficult will be easily remembered if
you will notice that the first syllable of the name is a noun and has a
definite meaning.

You meet Mr. Carruthers. This name presents considerable difficulty
until you notice that the first three letters spell the simple word
"car." By visually associating the object "car" with his face and
repeating the name Carruthers a couple of times, you will find no
difficulty in recalling the name.

Note these examples of this method of using the first syllable for the
Name Picture:

  Mr. Bellamy--bell
  Mr. Reardon--rear
  Mr. Raymond--ray
  Mr. Seagraves--sea
  Mr. Ringling--ring
  Mr. Burroughs--burr
  Mr. Dennison--den
  Mr. Bushnell--bush
  Mr. Boardman--board
  Mr. Pierson--pier

[Illustration]

Practice with this idea by using the face here as Mr. Woodhead. See a
stick of wood on his head, pile it there and see it roll off, don't be
afraid to make strong, unusual Name Pictures. You will not have to
tell the man how you remembered his name, but to do it will be one of
your greatest business assets.


Meaning of Vocations

Almost every vocation has been used as a proper name. Undoubtedly the
name comes from the fact that the forefathers followed that vocation.
In every such case see the person working at the trade. For practice
use this man as Mr. Smith, suggesting a blacksmith; see him working at
his forge, see the anvil, the sparks, the hammer, see him strike. Make
a strong, vivid picture. (Smith comes from the word Smythe--meaning
hitter.)

[Illustration]

Other examples:

  Mr. Miller      Mr. Fisher    Mr. Shoemaker
  Mr. Carpenter   Mr. Plumber   Mr. Butcher
  Mr. Gardner     Mr. Painter   Mr. Walker

Each name picture of a vocation should contain the scenes which are
familiar to you. Mr. Carpenter has a hammer and nails, working at the
carpenter trade; Mr. Gardner, with hoe and spade, is caring for his
garden.


Familiar Name Pictures

There are many names which do not have a meaning and are not readily
changed to suggest a picture to be associated with the Face Picture. On
the other hand, these names will suggest Name Pictures with which you
are thoroughly familiar. They will suggest a location, article, place,
or some familiar fact that can be used for the Name Picture and which
will recall the name to your mind when you see the face.

     =Make it a rule to associate the unknown with the known.=


Geographical Name Pictures

The first one of five groups of familiar pictures of proper names is
the Geographical group. You meet a stranger by the name of Mr. Lansing,
and the name immediately suggests the city of Lansing, Mich. If you are
familiar with the city of Lansing you can very easily make a visual
picture of this person standing in some particular street or familiar
corner of the city.

It is not necessary, however, to have a personal knowledge of the
geographical location. The picture association of a stranger's face
with the geographical location will be sufficiently strong if you see
him holding the map of Michigan and pointing out the spot where Lansing
is, or any other similar picture which may suggest itself to you.

Use this picture for Mr. Holland. This name immediately suggests
a picturesque country of Europe. See this strange face by a Dutch
windmill and the people in their distinctive costumes grouped around,
see motion in your picture, the windmill turning and the people passing
by.

[Illustration]

A few common geographical names follow:

  Mr. Birmingham (Ala.)   Mr. Ogden (Utah)
  Mr. Billings (Mont.)    Mr. Platte (River)
  Mr. Davenport (Ia.)     Mr. Cleveland (Ohio)
  Mr. Lyons (France)      Mr. Patterson (N. J.)
  Mr. Hudson (River)

In some cases you can make a change in the spelling of the name and in
this way associate it easily with a geographical picture. As:

  Mr. Bostrom (Boston, Mass.)
  Mr. Knoble (Knoblesville, Ind.)
  Mr. Molan (Moline, Ill.)
  Mr. Haig (Hague, Holland)
  Mr. Jameson (James River)
  Mr. Bixby (Bisbee, Ariz.)


Advertised Name Pictures

[Illustration]

There are scores of proper names which, as soon as mentioned, will
bring to your mind the picture of an object which has been constantly
advertised. Having seen this article so often has fixed its picture and
name indelibly in your mind. As soon as you see the article you can
without hesitation speak the name. When you meet a stranger by the same
name, as you often will, associate the Face Picture of the stranger
with the familiar object for your Name Picture. When you see this face
again you will recall the object which you can name without difficulty.
For example, the face here may be of a Mr. Gillette, who may not be
familiar to you, but if you hear the name Gillette it suggests the
picture of a Safety Razor. When you meet a stranger by this name, see
him shaving himself with a Gillette Razor. Review your picture a few
times and when you meet the man again his face will suggest your Name
Picture and you can call his name from the object in the picture. There
are many opportunities to use this method, your own city will have many
familiar trade marks and signs which you can use, as well as those
nationally advertised.

A few examples:

  Mr. Hudson (auto)      Mr. Sanford (ink)
  Mr. Campbell (soups)   Mr. Douglas (shoes)
  Mr. Armour (meats)     Mr. Cluett (shirts)
  Mr. Knox (hat)         Mr. Parker (pens)


Names Suggest Familiar Faces

Many names immediately suggest familiar faces, which you can name any
time, anywhere. You often compare the strangers you meet with them and
note the similarities. Constant repetition has fixed these faces so
thoroughly in mind that there will be no confusion in naming them. You
pass a stranger on the street and some one says: "How much that man
looks like Lincoln," and you reply, "Yes, but Lincoln was taller and
did not have such large eyes, and his nose was entirely different in
shape. And Lincoln's mouth was fuller, too, not so thin and straight."
This comparison is possible, because of the clear, definite picture
which has been formed in your mind of President Lincoln.

These familiar faces which you can recall so definitely in your mind's
eye will be of wonderful assistance in remembering strangers by the
same name. Practice with this picture as Mr. Grant. His face may be
strange to you, but the name immediately suggests a familiar face.
Now see these two faces in the same picture, see the familiar face
looking over the face of the stranger, see them meeting, shaking hands,
talking, laughing. Exaggerated, moving, unusual pictures are best. See
the familiar faces clearly as possible, and compare the two; one is
tall and the other short, one dark the other light, one has a beard and
the other has not, etc. All comparison helps to make the mind's eye
picture more definite and to strengthen the associated picture through
prolonged attention.

[Illustration]


Historically Known Faces

The faces of these familiar names are fixed in your mind by reading
history, as--

  Gen. Sherman    Thos. Jefferson   Gen. Kitchener
  Gen. Lee        Geo. Washington   Benj. Franklin
  Gen. Sheridan   Wm. McKinley      Admiral Dewey

Some names suggest both geographical and historical reminders. For
example:

  Livingston   Raleigh   Chester
  Columbus     Decatur   Hannibal


Other Well-Known Faces

A much larger number of names will suggest faces which have become
fixed in your mind by your having seen their pictures in magazines,
papers, cartoons, etc.; men who are active in politics and the
accomplishments of the present day. These you can connect in the
same way; use the known face as the name picture; see the two faces
together; put your mind to the comparison, make it active, feel
interested. When meeting strangers do not allow your mind to be
dormant, make it work, this is imperative.

     =A dormant mind is impregnable; an active mind is absorbent.=

Notice how the cartoonist observes the peculiarities of appearance
and exaggerates them in his pictures; don't be afraid to use your
imagination in your mind's eye pictures for remembering men's names.

Examples of well-known faces:

  Mr. Bryan      Mr. Balfour     Mr. Ford
  Sen. Kitchen   Gen. Pershing   Mr. Edison
  Mr. Hoover     Mr. Baker       Mr. Wright
  "Joe" Cannon   Mr. Daniels     Mr. Schwab

How many of these faces can you see clearly in your mind's eye? How
definite are they?


Make Use of Your Friends' Names

The names of your friends with which you are thoroughly familiar will
bring to your mind a clear visual impression. You can see the face
as soon as the name is mentioned, not of the few but literally of
hundreds of people. Learn to take advantage of this great series of
Name Pictures, which you can indelibly hitch to the Face Picture of
the stranger who chances to bear the same name. Use the same method
as before, see the two faces clearly, compare them to make the mind's
eye picture of the friend's face definite. Use motion, think, become
interested, and every other means to make a strong, lasting impression.


Observe the Facial Appearance

The peculiarities of appearance which are easily detected by the
physical eye constitute one of the most helpful methods of associating
the face and the name together. You will find as you practice that this
means is very often available. It is not possible to take advantage of
this opportunity, however, unless you are observing. In fact, to the
unobserving person there is no peculiarity about the appearance and
therefore no aid.

For this purpose it will pay to give considerable attention to the
development of the observation. You will find the stranger's appearance
more and more helpful to you as you develop your ability to observe
keenly the faces of the persons whom you meet. Many people have some
distinctive or prominent characteristic which will directly suggest
the name, or with which the name may be associated.

[Illustration]

Note this peculiarity of the stranger's face, and quickly associate it
with the name as you hear it. Use your imagination and strengthen the
association as much as possible, enlarge and make more prominent the
peculiarity which you have noticed. If you meet a Mr. Cole and his hair
is dark, note the fact. See his hair as black as coal, in your picture.
Imagine taking a big piece of soft coal and rubbing it over his hair to
blacken it. The picture here is for Mr. White; note his snow-white hair
and mustache; note these facts carefully, they will suggest the name
immediately upon your seeing the face again.

Sometimes you can use the whole face, sometimes only certain
peculiarities, a deep wrinkle, a scar, a blemish, etc. Sometimes it
will be the general build of the body or the expression of character.
Sometimes the similarity will be very noticeable. Other times the
decided contrast will be as useful in fixing them in mind.

Color of hair or complexion is often helpful and may be more apparent
if you use the idea of changed spelling, or taking the name as it
sounds rather than as it is spelled. A few examples follow:

  Mr. Short is a small man--short.

  Mr. Biggar is short and slender, suggesting that he could be
  bigger.

  Mr. Stout--is very slender.

  Mr. Smiley--is stern and cross looking.

  Mr. Gray--has gray hair.

  Mr. Redman--has rosy, pink cheeks.

  Mr. Molar--has a large mole(r).

  Mr. Fisher--has deep wrinkles, fissures.

  Mr. Baldy--is very bald.

  Mr. Reddish--has sandy hair, reddish.

  Mr. Remlinger--is bald with a rim of hair lingering.

  Mr. Eyer--has bright, keen eyes.

  Mr. Cloes--looks close and stingy.


Other Helpful Associations

The circumstances under which you meet a stranger may easily lead you
to a strong association which will impress the face and name strongly
upon your mind.

To meet--

  Mr. Dombville (dumbbell) in a gymnasium suggests a good picture.

  Mr. Long--keeps you a long time talking, and you easily remember
  the name when you meet him again.

  Mr. Pugh (pew) you may meet at church.


Vocational Hints

Something about a man's business or the things he sells may help you.
When you meet a man and find difficulty in picturing his name ask him
what business he is in; this is well to know and may be helpful in
remembering the name. All the examples given in this lesson are actual
circumstances, not flights of imagination. This vocational idea is
helpful because it starts you thinking about the name. Thought is the
important factor. If you will learn to think intently you will remember.

  Mr. McCash--is employed in a bank.

  Messrs. Puls & Puls--are dentists.

  Mr. Caution--is a banker.

  Mr. Kamerer--sells Kodaks (cameras).


The Thought Channels

The law of association is wonderful in its operations, and the
principles upon which it operates can be relied upon to help in cases
where it seems almost impossible to make a picture impression. The
thoughts you think when you see the face will return when you see it
again, just as the conversation and other circumstances do. In trying
to remember names that are difficult to picture, think intently about
them, silently ask and answer questions about the person or his name,
think of the peculiarity and just how it is spelled. See the name
spelled in large letters, clear and definite. The Law of Association
will tend to recall these impressions when you see the face, and by
their aid you will in most cases be able to recall the peculiar and
difficult name.

Because a name is difficult few remember it, and its possessor is
"bored to death" by continually repeating and spelling it. Here is
your greatest opportunity; to remember this name will make a greater
impression than if it were an easy one. When you feel that you cannot
do anything else with a name think intently about it, make your mind
active, become interested, stimulate some strong feeling of pleasure at
meeting him, give the impression a strong stimulus.


Review Is Essential

In an earlier chapter we found that a mind's eye picture would last for
hours, but if discarded, or not reviewed, it would gradually fade away,
time will inevitably erase it.

We also learn that to retain an impression permanently it must be
reviewed several times and preferably at frequent intervals. Names of
the people you meet, whom you wish to remember, must become permanent
knowledge and must be reviewed or you cannot expect to accomplish
the result. While the visual picture can make the strongest possible
impression it will not become permanently available unless reviewed.

This review and practice in the use of the visual faculty will
gradually improve the strength of the mind's eye picture and develop
the habit of attention and concentration. The first review should be
made shortly after the first impression, to insure its being distinct
and vivid. Even while talking with the party see again your name
picture associated with the face. Most names get away from you during
the first thirty seconds after hearing them. Quickly make your Name
Picture, associate it with the face and then review it. After a short
interval do it again; when the party leaves call him by name and as
soon as he is gone review the mind's eye picture of his Face and Name.

It is helpful to call a stranger by name during the conversation,
speaking it clearly and distinctly. This will be of special value to
those who have found that they are ear minded.

When being introduced to a group of people whose names you wish to
remember, do not go rapidly, take a reasonable time to each name.
After you have met four or five find some opportunity to glance back
and review the faces of their associated Name Pictures, then meet a
few more. As soon as possible review all the names in your mind. In no
other way can you expect to remember a number of them. At least not
until you have gotten considerable practice, and this is the way to
practice.


Methodical Review Best

This review of the names of the strangers you have met is one of the
very necessary links in your success. You should do so each evening, or
at some other convenient time of the day. Quietly go over the day's
experiences and recall the faces and names of all the people whom you
have met. Each name should be reviewed several times, by means of this
review you can meet and name the stranger often enough to make his name
as familiar as you wish. When he meets you the second time, you will
surprise him by readily calling him by name. He may say, "Why, how
do you remember my name; you only met me once?" The fact is you have
met him as many times as you have visually reviewed his name and face
together.

The most accurate method of review is to write the name of each
stranger into a small note book, or on a pad on your desk. Each time
you review the name check it off; after you have checked it five or six
times you will be familiar with it and can dispense with further review.

Merely to go over the list and check the names is of very little
value, the review that will get results is the visual review of your
associated picture. See both the name and face pictures again, review
names and faces just as you would House and Clock by seeing the picture.


A Review Test

Use the pictures of men given in this chapter, and review; as you read
each name stop a moment and see the face as clearly as possible in your
mind's eye.

  Mr. King       Mr. Smith      Mr. Grant
  Mr. Perrett    Mr. Holland    Mr. White
  Mr. Woodhead   Mr. Gillette


Good Observation Necessary

While it seems easy to retain a picture of the face, yet the value of
the impression for quick and accurate recognition will depend upon the
observation of it. The games and exercises given in the first book
will have developed this faculty in the child, but you should call his
attention to the value of it here and urge the importance of making a
special effort with the faces of the people whom he meets.

After the person, to whom the child has been introduced, has gone,
see how much of a description he can give you of him. Help him to be
systematic in his observation. First, estimate his height, weight, and
general build. Second, tell the color of his hair, eyes and complexion;
size and shape of his nose, chin, etc. Third, how did the child like
him? Encourage him to form a definite conclusion as to just what kind
of a person the visitor is. This is important and will be helpful
later, but will need careful guidance in the formative years. Helps
which you can give in reading character should be imparted to the
child. Tell him all that you can of how you judge and estimate people,
encourage him to study this important subject as he grows older. There
are very helpful and scientific books available on this subject.

The ability to recognize and remember people, without regard to their
name, is based upon just this kind of an observation and study of them.
Observation is the resulting mental image after the removal of the
object from view. Your ability to observe people is measured by what
you can definitely recall about them when they are gone. Recognition
of them will be based upon the memory of just these points mentioned
and in turn the memory, of course, can be no more distinct than the
impressions made upon the brain while the person was before you.
Observation then is the basis for the recognition of people, and to
improve it is of utmost importance.


Systematic Observation of Faces

There are three principal steps or points to be noticed. First,
the size and general build. This can be done while the person is
approaching as well as at the introduction. Because of the similarity
of faces the size and build of a person will often be the point that
will insure accuracy in recognition. You see a person at a meeting who
looks very much like Mr. A whom you met yesterday, but Mr. A was a
tall, slender man, this man is of medium build, and so the difference
in size helps greatly in determining the identity. When meeting a
stranger get a general outline picture of him. It will be helpful to
make a mental comparison between the stranger and yourself, as to size,
etc.

Second, the observation of the face should be especially keen and
attentive, both for purposes of recognition, and because the face
becomes the Hitching Post for the name. When being introduced, and
during the conversation, study the face carefully. First as a whole
for a general impression, and then in detail. Notice the hair first,
determine its color, condition, heavy, sparse, bald or curly, and
note any peculiarity. Then observe the eyes, nose, mouth, ears and
complexion. Form the habit of starting at the top of the head; be
systematic; and let the attention move from one feature to another.

What is the result, how much will you later recall? No more, and in
fact no less than you can now see in your mind's eye picture when you
look away or close your eyes for a moment. Apply this test and then
look back again and improve the mind's eye picture. Add to it as much
more detail as possible. Be especially careful about noticing the
peculiarities of this face; any wrinkle, blemish or oddity of any kind
will be helpful in later remembering it.

A natural memory for faces may be good, but it can be improved,
this kind of definite effort will get results. Any uncertainty in
recognizing people will be largely eliminated by improved observation.
For practice in this observation of faces use pictures in magazines or
papers as well as the faces of the people you meet.

Third, let the observation of the face be crystallized into a definite
opinion regarding this person. Instead of considering him as an object
of which you are trying to get an especially good mental picture,
consider him now as an individual and decide how you like him. Help
the child to form correct opinions. To know the business in which he
is engaged, place where he lives, his avocation, and favorite form of
recreation will all aid in forming a strong and definite impression of
this person. It is not always possible to go to this extent, but get
as far as you can with it, the more you succeed the more help you will
have in remembering. Each effort will aid the memory in that particular
case--and help to form the valuable habit of close observation.


The Game of Faces

Get a number of pictures of strange faces, such as you often see of a
convention, or take them from magazines. Cut them apart and take five
of these faces and observe them carefully. Make a deliberate effort to
note any peculiarity of these faces or anything about them that will
help you to identify them. Mix the five among the rest, now run through
the entire group of pictures and see if you can, without hesitation,
pick these five from the others. Practice until you can do this. Leave
these five faces out of the group and select five more; observe these
in the same manner. Now mix the last five with the large group and
identify them as you did the first five. Now take the ten and shuffle
them into the large group and identify them the second time. Divide the
ten in the two original groups of five so that you have the first five
and the second five separate. When several children are playing this
game together a score may be kept.

Mental operation becomes habitual and such practice will help the child
form the habit of close observation of faces. The more difficulty he
has in accomplishing this the more it shows his need of just such
mental training. Let a week or so elapse and then go back to this same
group of pictures and try the same exercise again, urge the child to
look away once or twice and to make a real effort to build up his
mind's eye picture.

Have several sets of pictures of faces so that this exercise can be
continued as often as possible.


Progress by Practice

To recognize people accurately and to be able to call by name is a
wonderful asset in business or in social life. Your children can have
this advantage if you will see to it that they realize its importance
and make a deliberate effort while young. They will easily form the
habit and thank you for it all their lives.

The ideas and principles in this chapter should be studied by the
parent and imparted to the child as he advances in years and becomes
able to use them. Do not make the common error of waiting too long
or expecting the child to get this for himself. We all like to have
children remember our names as well as to have elders do so. The
pictures which appear on the preceding pages were for the purpose of
practice and should be learned.


The Name Game

Take the same pictures used in the Face Game, on page 116, and put the
names of each on the back. Now learn the name of five, making good
strong name pictures, use every idea suggested in the chapter. Review
the five and learn five new ones, now review the ten, and follow this
plan until you have learned not less than twenty names.

Take the twenty learned and shuffle them and lay them one at a time on
a table in front of you. Try to name the person instantly; wait only a
moment and if you do not recall his name, place the card in a pile by
itself. Go through the twenty and see how many you can name; do this
often for practice. Use this group every day until you are familiar
with all. Enlarge the group by learning ten new ones each day. When
possible have some one hold the pictures for you. Try always to improve
the score and also to decrease the time necessary to name the group. If
there is more than one person learning the names, make a game of the
idea, each taking the picture which he names first, seeing who can get
the largest number.


The Game for Quick Naming

After several persons have learned the names of the pictures shuffle
the cards and deal equally to the players. The one to the right of
the dealer lays a picture in front of the player on his right and
immediately starts counting slowly from one to ten. The person on his
right must name the picture before the other counts ten. If he succeeds
in doing so he takes the card and starts a pile in front of him on the
table face down. If he fails, the one on his right has an opportunity
to name the face while the one showing the card again counts ten. The
opportunity to name this card passes on to all players, the first one
giving the correct name keeping the card and continuing the play by
showing one of the dealt cards to the person on his right. If no one
succeeds in naming the card, the one playing it tells the name and adds
the card to his pile on the table and shows another. The play continues
as long as any one has any of the cards dealt. When all are out each
counts his pile on the table, secured by properly naming them, and the
one having the largest number wins.


The Game of Introductions

Take a group of strange pictures and have someone show five or more to
you and name them as if you were being introduced to strangers. Use
your knowledge of how to impress the faces and names upon your mind.
Do not pass them too quickly; take time to be sure. Just this practice
which you are now doing will make it possible for you to go more
rapidly and at the same time to be accurate.

After you have been introduced to the group of pictures, let the person
hold up any one, you naming it, and so on through the group. Keep at
this Introduction Game until you have become able to meet ten strangers
and later name each.

Think what this ability will mean to you in business and in winning the
favorable attention of your fellow men. Carry a few small pictures in
your pocket, using odd moments in which to practice with them. Paste
them on cards and use them while riding on the street car. Practice for
profit.


Suggestions to Travelers

Traveling salesmen or others whose work takes them back to a city
occasionally will find great help in keeping a written list of the
names of those whom they have met in each city. Carry the book with
you and as you are traveling towards the city, exercise your mind by
going over the list and making a visual review of the faces and names
of those whom you may expect to meet when attending to your business
in this city. It will prove to be valuable to refresh your memory from
time to time.


Same Principles Involved

The problem of remembering names is the same as remembering anything
else and can be solved by the use of the same general principles.
Attention and concentration are necessary and produced by the visual
picture. To recall this name at will you take advantage of the Law of
Association, and hitch the Name Picture to the Face Picture. The face
becomes our Hitching Post and when you see it you see with it the
mind's eye picture of the name.

Name should become permanent knowledge and this is accomplished by an
occasional review until you have made a permanent impression.


Remembering the Initial

It is sometimes necessary to remember the initial as well as the name.
Often it is as hard to remember initials as it is figures, because they
have no definite meaning. An inquiry as to the names which the initials
stand for, will be very helpful. It is much easier to remember George
Henry than the initials G. H.

Initials which occur in alphabetical sequence are easily remembered and
many times you will find that the first letter of the name continues
the sequence, as: R. S. Thompson; F. G. Hibbard; D. E. Ferris.

Sometimes you will find the initials spelling a single word, as E. D.
which can be taken to represent the given name "Ed", which is short for
Edward. You will find many cases where the initials will spell a simple
word such as:

  R. A. Gunn (Rag).   P. A. Scott (Pas-s).
  R. I. Pitt (Rip).   J. A. Marks (Jam).

At other times the initials will be those of names which are
familiar to you because of historical, political or other well known
associations, as:

  S. A. Burke--will remind you of Samuel Adams Burke.

  W. J. Casper--will suggest William Jennings Casper.

There are many initials which will represent titles or well known ideas
such as the names of lodges and societies:

  D. A. Rasmussen can easily be associated with the D. A. R.--Daughters
  of the American Revolution.

  C. E., Christian Endeavor or Civil Engineer.

  D. R., Doctor.

  A. D., Anno Domini.

  P. M., Post Master.

  N. W., North West.


Make Initials Into Words

Another helpful idea is to make words beginning with the initial,
either descriptive words, or those that can be associated with the
business. You meet a Mr. R. E. Pasley in a real estate business--R. E.
Pasley, Real Estate Pasley.

  R. I. Sterns (a printer)--Red Ink Sterns.

  H. R. Paul (hat dealer)--Hat Retailer Paul.


Both Initials In One Word

In many cases the two initials can be formed into the same word, the
first letter of the word being the first initial and the last letter
the last initial. The following are some examples:

  H. R. Gray. His hair is gray which helps to remember his name and the
  initials can be made into the word HaiR--HaiR Gray.

  L. T. Robinson, LighT Robinson. (Mr. Robinson is a light blond.)

  M. L. Harber, MilL Harber.

  C. D. Dauchy, CarD Dauchy.


The Price Must Be Paid

You realize full well the value of the ability to call people by name.
You have often wished that you had this ability. It is one of the
priceless assets in a successful business career, and to attain it is
to reach one of the high principles of mental development.

     =The ability to remember proper names is not an exceptional gift,
     but is an acquired faculty based upon the use of simple means and
     of personal effort.=

Knowledge is power, but only when applied. All the knowledge in the
world is of no value to its possessor unless used. You are successful
in life just in proportion as you are using the knowledge which you
have.

A dependable memory for names as well as faces is within your grasp.
The knowledge imparted in this lesson, simple as it may seem, has been
used by thousands of business men to develop reliable memories for
Names and Faces.

You will have many opportunities to prove it in the next few days. Be
true to the method. Make a deliberate attempt in each case. Force your
mind to wake up and get on the job. Do not be content until you have
a definite association which you are going to use to remember each
particular name.

Under no circumstances allow yourself to neglect the review. Each
review adds new strength to the impression. Only strong impressions can
be recalled at will. Make it a part of your business to remember the
names of the people to whom you are introduced. Know every customer; if
the list is a long one, do not expect to learn them all in a week, but
do not let a day pass without fixing definitely in your mind the names
of several. Children should learn the names of every scholar in the
room and of all the teachers in the school.

The persistent use of this definite knowledge will accomplish results
that now seem impossible. It is the use of the knowledge that will
bring progress.

     ="He who learns and learns and acts not what he knows is like the
     man who plows and plows and never sows."=

You may feel yourself handicapped in life because of a poor memory.
This shortcoming can reasonably be charged to a lack of right knowledge.

You cannot say as much for your children now. What will you do to
help them form the Memory Habit early in life? Do not wait for them
to do this for themselves; it should be done now. You are the child's
guide--you are largely his will power. The responsibility is squarely
up to you.

Nature's rewards are ample. You will both be fully repaid for every bit
of effort.

Nature's rewards are just. You or your children will never reap the
reward of a good memory until both have paid the price of effort.

Your child WILL grow--he cannot stand still or wait for your
convenience.

He will form the Habit of Remembering or the Habit of Forgetting--which
shall it be?

You can multiply the profits of his life by helping him to master his
Memory--otherwise it will master him.

Practice is the great need. Play the games and develop the brain.



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:

  Italicized words are surrounded with underscores: _italics_
  Emboldened words are surrounded with equals signs: =bold=

  There are inconsistencies in the Table of Contents regarding chapters
    and sections, as well as incorrect page references. The Table of
    Contents is presented as it appears in the original with page
    references corrected.

  Obvious spelling and punctuation errors have been standardized.





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