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Title: Miller's Mind Training for Children, Book 3 of 3 - A Practical Training for Successful Living; Educational - Games That Train the Senses
Author: Miller, William Emer
Language: English
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  MILLER'S
  MIND TRAINING
  _for_
  CHILDREN

  _A Practical Training
  for Successful
  Living_

  _Educational Games
  That Train
  the Senses_

  WILLIAM E. MILLER
  _AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER_
  Alhambra, California.



  BY
  WILLIAM E. MILLER
  ALHAMBRA, CALIFORNIA

  AUTHOR OF
  _The Natural Method of Memory Training_

  COPYRIGHT 1920
  COPYRIGHT 1921

  WILLIAM E. MILLER

  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  INCLUDING FOREIGN COPYRIGHTS



HELPING YOUR CHILDREN IN SCHOOL

CONTENTS--BOOK THREE.


  Helping Your Children in School                  7

  To Remember What You Read                        8
      Visualization the Greatest Aid               9
      The Artist's Picture                        10
      The Author Is an Artist                     11
      The Dead Line                               13
      The Student's Review Sheet                  14
      Longfellow's Picture--Evangeline            16

  Helps for Learning Verbatim                     17
      Alliteration and Alphabetical Sequence      18
      "Thinking"                                  19
      "Vision"                                    20
      Bridging the Gaps                           21
      "The Things Divine"                         23

  Remembering What You Hear                       25

  Mastering Difficult Lists                       27
      Learning the Presidents                     29

  Studying Anatomy                                31

  Becoming a Good Speller                         32
      The Spelling Cards                          35

  The Game of Word Making                         37

  The Game of Salvaging Words                     38

  The Game of "The Camels Are Coming"             39

  Learning Synonyms                               39

  The Study of Geography                          40
      Learning the Groups of States               44
      Puzzle Maps                                 46
      The Blank Map                               47
      The Geography Game                          47
      The Travel Game                             50

  Studying History                                51
      Remembering Dates                           52
      The History Game                            56
      The Game of Famous Men                      57

  Studying Mathematics                            58
      The Mental Blackboard                       61
      Exercises in Manipulation                   61
      Learning Rules                              62
      Fractions                                   63
      The Multiplication Tables                   64
      The Multiplication Game                     64
      Tables of Weights and Measures              69
      Visualizing Geometry                        71

  Aids in Studying Chemistry                      73
      Chemical Formulae                           74
      Hardness of Substances                      74
      Atomic Weight Tables                        76

  Learning Foreign Vocabularies                   76

  Studying Music                                  79

  Speaking in Public--Outlines                    81

  Review Your Studies                             82

  A Word to Students                              84

  It Can Be Done (Poem)                           86

  Value for Forgetting                            87

  To Remember Playing Cards                       88

  Mastering Roberts' Rules of Order               91

  Aids for Bible Students                         95
      Books of Old Testament                      95
      Books of New Testament                      96

  Rhyme Often Helpful                             98

  Learning the Telegraphic Code                   99

  The Knight's Tour                              105

  A Last Word                                    110



HELPING YOUR CHILDREN IN SCHOOL


The principles given in books one and two, leading to the development
of the child's faculties find their greatest usefulness in school work.
They will apply to every part of the child's work and aid in solving
any of his problems.

This is the demonstration ground and the time and efforts spent in the
preceding games and exercises will manifest themselves in progress in
school.

It is best for the child to make his own applications. You can, of
course, suggest and aid, but he should make his own picture wherever
possible. The one making the effort receives the reward--which is
development. The child will recall the idea which he works out for
himself more easily than those worked out for him, even though the
latter may seem better.

The following pages will be given over to suggestive ideas as to how
the principles may be applied to different lessons. Only a certain few
concrete illustrations will be given, as the working out of the details
would rob the child of the opportunity and development to be gained by
doing the work himself.

Children always learn the alphabet by pictures. Alphabetical books and
blocks are made this way. This is because the child learns easily and
quickly by this method. What is true in the early years is true in the
later ones as well. Do not allow him to get away from this principle of
learning by pictures. Follow the plan of teaching every thing possible
by sight. Go out of your way if necessary to show him the thing he is
reading about.

The suggestions under "The Mind's Eye and The Story" in Book Two should
be continued. When the child has learned to read have him pause and
visually review what he has read, that is, to stop and see a mind's eye
picture while the book is closed.


To Remember What You Read

The inability to remember what we read is without doubt a general
failing and the greatest handicap to students.

Two of the objects to be gained by time spent in study are a thorough
understanding of the subject matter and to so fix the thought in mind
that it will be available for future use. It is well to realize that
the scanning of the modern newspaper and careless or rapid reading
causes many adults to forget what they read. We can so educate the
physical eye that it can read an entire paragraph, or page while the
brain is dormant and does not accept the impressions intended by the
author. Often the physical action of turning the page awakens you to a
realization of the fact that you have read the page but have absolutely
no knowledge of its contents.


Eye and Brain Must Work Together

This habit of careless reading must be avoided and for successful study
the child should be aided in forming the visualizing habit.


"Thought Leads to Knowledge"

We cannot gain knowledge merely by reading. The value of reading is
in the thought that it stimulates in the mind. We exercise muscles to
get strength. You must aid the child in exercising his mental muscles
by thinking in order to get mental strength. It is not what he reads,
but what he thinks concerning what he reads that becomes his, and
contributes to his education. Reading which stimulates no thought is a
waste of time.

The disappointment felt in the lack of progress after time spent in
study is not that we forget, but that we do not really "GET." This lack
can be largely avoided in the child's training if you are willing to
help in forming right habits.


Visualization the Greatest Aid

The principle of visualization, as discussed in the first book, will
prove of the greatest aid, because it is the natural method of using
the mind.

To visualize the thought of the author will stimulate thinking, will
increase the understanding of the subject matter, and at the same time
make the strongest impression upon the brain and thus help him to
remember.


The Mississippi Captain

An excellent illustration of the use and value of visualization in
learning and remembering was given by an old captain of a Mississippi
River steamer. "Do you know how I learned the river," he asked; "well I
just lay in bed nights and made a picture in my mind of the river and
the course I had to steer. Then I would go over the picture and see
every detail of it and review it several times. I'd sail up and down
that river several times each night, I'd see every landmark and every
danger point on each trip. That's the way I learned it and I became
a captain when I was younger than many men who had sailed the river
longer than I had."


The Artist's Picture

When an artist seats himself before a new canvas he knows definitely
what he is going to place upon it. He either has a model before him, or
in his mind's eye sees a beautiful picture. He will give weeks, months,
or even years of effort in order to place upon that canvas a picture
equal in perfection and beauty to the one which he sees.

Notice that a mind's eye picture is often the starting point of the
artist. He strives to place upon the canvas the reproduction of the
idea which he sees in his mind. He finishes and exhibits his work; you
look upon the picture with your physical eye and through its agency the
result of the artist's effort becomes a picture-impression upon your
brain. You see what he saw, and the longer you gaze at the painting and
the greater amount of detail you perceive, the more vivid it becomes
and the stronger the impression upon your mind, therefore, the more
perfect the memory of the picture. This is true of your own mind's eye
picture for memory purposes.

     =The more detail you see in your memory pictures and the longer
     you continue to visualize them, the stronger their impression.=


The Author Is an Artist

In a similar manner an author sits down with his paper and ink. He
sees in his mind a picture which he strives to paint. He endeavors by
his mastery of words to induce you to see what he sees. He also is an
artist, his canvas is your brain, and if he succeeds it is there he
must impress a picture. The words on the printed page and the function
of your eye are simply agencies through which he must work.

Words are vehicles of thought and they are the author's colors; their
function is to reproduce objects and conditions; by their use the
author conveys to your brain the impressions of size, color, form,
arrangement and every detail of his thought. A very few words will
create a wonderful picture, which would require hours for the artist to
paint.

When you look at the artist's painting your brain sees a picture. The
writer, however, is using a code requiring translation by the reader.
Words do not form pictures, they are merely agencies by the use of
which you can guide your mind's eye in the formation of a real mental
impression. The author succeeds in his effort just in proportion as
you succeed in forming a picture of what he is describing. When you
rob the canvas of your brain of the impression the author strives to
place there, by letting your eyes pass over the words so rapidly that
your mind's eye forms no picture, then the author has failed. The mere
reading of words makes no lasting impression upon the mind, but the
forming of visual pictures does. You remember best those books which
have consciously or unconsciously formed picture impressions on your
brain. What you can now recall of what you have read is largely the
recollection of these pictures.

Keep this illustration and these facts in mind in helping your
children. Urge them to properly use the visual faculties and train
their mind's eye to work with the physical eye.


Must Read Slowly

Words are vehicles of thought and are used by the author to convey
pictures to the mind, but at first the mind's eye is unable to picture
the thought as rapidly as the physical eye can read. The first
essential to remembering what you are reading is to read slowly,
hesitating occasionally, to be sure that a picture is being formed.


The Dead Line

Never read more than a single paragraph without stopping to test your
understanding of what you have read. At the end of each paragraph there
should be a dead line; in fact there is a dead line and he who reads
carelessly and quickly beyond this line need not expect to remember.
Put your finger between the pages, close the book, and review the
thought of the paragraph. Now make a definite effort to visualize the
picture in the author's mind. It is true that some passages make an
easier mind's eye picture than others, but all will make one which can
be used to help in formulating a definite understanding of the author's
thought.

You cannot visualize a thing which you do not understand. The aim
of your study is to comprehend the author. To visualize the thought
of the paragraph will test your understanding. Making of a definite
picture will increase your knowledge of the essentials. Form the habit
of visualizing what you read. Do not be handicapped by doubt. Make an
effort to formulate the main facts of the paragraph into an expression
of your own. If you are by yourself, where you can do so, state your
thought audibly, not in the words of the author, but express the
thought and the facts accurately in your own words.

     =No knowledge is yours until you can tell it to some one else.=

Use this test and tell it to some one, or if no one is handy tell it to
yourself, but do it audibly. This forces a definite expression which
can only come from a definite understanding. Parents should question
their children and encourage them in telling what they are reading and
studying about. The audible expression demands definite knowledge.


The Student's Review Sheet

If the child is reading something which he will wish to review, as in
studying a lesson, a good plan to follow is to have a pad of paper by
the side of the book. After reading the paragraph write down upon the
pad the expressions and thoughts which the paragraph conveys to you.
This is an excellent plan in all cases where the audible expression is
not practicable. After the lesson has been gone over in this manner,
preserve the review sheets containing the synopsis of the paragraph.
Then for review, before the examination, a quick reading of these
written expressions of thoughts, which the chapter contains, will
eliminate the necessity of a further reading of the entire text.


Apply These Methods

For a test read the following from "Brain and Personality" by W. Hanna
Thompson. Follow the idea just suggested. Make a test, read slowly,
form a mind's eye picture, think about it, and then tell the thought as
nearly as possible to some one. All this may take some time and effort
at first but the use of these ideas will quickly form the mental habit.
Once reading a lesson in this manner will give better results than many
careless repetitions.

"In some fishes, such as the carp, when the ganglia, which corresponds
to the cerebral hemispheres (brain) are experimentally removed, they do
not seem to mind it at all, for even then there is little, if anything,
to distinguish them from perfectly normal animals. They maintain their
natural attitude and use their tails and fins in swimming with the same
vigor and precision as before. They not only see, but are able to find
their food. If worms are thrown into the water where they are swimming
they immediately pounce upon them. If a piece of string similar in size
to a worm is thrown in, they are able to detect the difference and they
drop it after having seized it. They even, to some extent, distinguish
colors for when some red and some white wafers are thrown into the
water the fish almost invariably select the red in preference to the
white.

"It is much the same with a frog. If care be taken to keep the frogs
alive after the removal of their cerebral lobes until they are quite
recovered from the injury, brainless frogs will behave just like full
brained frogs under like circumstances. They will crawl under stones,
or bury themselves in the earth at beginning of winter, and after the
period of hibernation is over, they will come out and diligently catch
flies which are buzzing about in the vessels in which they are kept."


Longfellow's Picture "Evangeline"

Use this wonderful picture of Longfellow's. Let each word perform its
intended function and each sentence form a complete picture.

  "Firmly builded with rafters of oak, the house of the farmer
    Stood on the side of a hill commanding the sea; and a shady
  Sycamore stood by the door, with a woodbine wreathing around it.
    Rudely carved was the porch, with seats beneath; and a foot-path
  Led through the orchard wide, and disappeared in the meadow.
    Under the sycamore tree were hives overhung by a pent-house,
  Such as a traveler sees in regions remote by the road side,
    Built o'er a box for the poor, or the blessed image of Mary.
  Far down, on the slope of the hill, was the well with its moss-grown
    Bucket, fastened with iron, and near it a trough for the horses."

Read again the first three lines, have the child describe the picture.
An artist would spend hours to paint this picture, yet we with our
wonderful mental faculties can see it in an instant. Add to this
picture, and when finished have the child give a prose description of
it. Other examples for younger children are given in the Second Book on
The Memory.


Application of Visualization Limitless

By clear visualizations you can carry any amount of detail in your
memory. This faculty can be applied to all kinds of information
and study. All ideas do not suggest simple pictures, some are more
difficult to visualize than others. Some pictures are inspired by a
single word, some may be the result of a paragraph or even pages of
description.


Helps for Learning Verbatim

To learn prose or poetry should not be difficult for children who have
been trained in visualization. In some schools they will be urged
to use the fallacious method of repetition, some of it is always
necessary, of course, but most of it can be eliminated by the use of
visualization and the additional helps following.

It is the parents' duty to see to it that the child uses the methods
suggested in these books in all his school work. Help him at home to
apply them to his lessons so as to get results. At school he will, of
course, have to follow the teacher's instructions, and can silently add
the aids that you have given him.


Alliteration and Alphabetical Sequence

These are two guides for the mind which are often wonderfully helpful
although sometimes they do not apply, but use them where possible.
Notice the Alphabetical Sequence and the Repetitions in the following
example of the first verse of Walter D. Wintel's "Thinking":


"Thinking"

  If you think you are beaten, you are;
    If you think you dare not, you don't.
  If you'd like to win, but think you can't,
    It's almost a cinch you won't.

Notice that the first two lines are half repeated, also that each line
begins with "If" except the last one which changes to "It's."

In the first lines you have an example of reversed Alphabetical
Sequence in the "b" of beaten preceding the "a" of are, b-a instead of
a-b.

Alphabetical repetition occurs as a guide in the second line in the "d"
of "dare" and "don't". Again in the next lines of the "w" of "win" and
"won't."

Note the alphabetical arrangement of the guide letters of each line.
Write in front of each line its guide letter; first line "b" of
"beaten", second "d" of "dare"; third "w" of "win", fourth the "won" of
"won't", these can be used as guide letters, and if noted will help.

Take your pencil and mark the verse as suggested and use the words and
letters as guides, go over it a couple of times noting these helps and
you will be able to say it word for word.

Do the same with the other verses; if practical have the child learn
this poem. See that he gets its true lesson:


"Thinking"

  If you think you are beaten, you are;
      If you think you dare not, you don't.
    If you'd like to win, but think you can't,
    It's almost a cinch you won't.

    If you think you'll lose, you're lost;
      For out in the world we find
    Success begins with a fellow's will;
      It's all in the state of mind.

    If you think you're outclassed, you are;
      You've got to think high to rise;
    You've got to be sure of yourself before
      You can ever win a prize.

    Life's battles don't always go
      To the stronger or faster man;
    But soon or late the man who wins
      Is the one who thinks he can.


Poetry Easier Than Prose

To quote poetry is usually easier than to quote prose because in the
former you have the added helps of rhyme and rhythm. See the pictures
painted by Robert Loveman in the following verses; note the repetition,
alliteration and the help of the rhyme and see how easily you can learn
a few verses of this poem:


"April Rain"

  It isn't raining rain for me,
    It's raining daffodils;
  In every dimpled drop I see
    Wild flowers on distant hills.

  The clouds of gray engulf the day
    And overwhelm the town;
  It isn't raining rain to me--
    It's raining roses down.

  It isn't raining rain to me,
    But fields of clover bloom
  When any buccaneering bee
    May find a bed and room.

  A health unto the happy,
    A fig for him who frets;
  It isn't raining rain to me,
    It's raining violets.

See a man in the rain who points out the fact that it isn't raining
rain, "but daffodils". See the daffodils. See big "dimpled drops" and
paint upon them the "wild flowers on distant hills."

Repeat the picture a couple of times and then say the verse. Do the
same with the other verses. Do not learn this by repetition. Be true to
the method, make a picture and see it each time you review.

If a single word is omitted or substituted, put special auditory
emphasis on it, speak it louder than the other words of the line, and
you will have no trouble with it after that.


Bridging the Gaps

The greatest difficulty which is experienced in memorizing poetry is
to get from the end of one line to the beginning of the other, or from
one verse to the other. In prose, when you start a paragraph it is not
difficult to follow through to the end, because all of its sentences
are associated in thought. But the new paragraph begins with a new
thought and there is no association between the old thought and the new
one, consequently there is a gap between thoughts across which the mind
does not easily travel.

The natural tendency of the mind is to follow thoughts which are
associated in their ideas. One thought leads to a second which is
suggested by its close relationship to the first. By retracing the
processes you can discover the connecting thought, or bridge, over
which the mind naturally travels in order to connect two unrelated
thoughts.

In memorizing, when coming to the end of a thought, form a bridge
which will connect it and the following thought and thus guide the
mind to the next line or paragraph. This is a most helpful principle
in memorizing either poetry or prose. If you seek for it you can find
some similarity or contrast, a visual association, or some sequence, or
repetition, which can be used as the necessary bridge, or connecting
link between the two lines or paragraphs.

Always connect the last thought, the last word, or phrase of the line,
sentence or paragraph with the first word in the succeeding thought.
The process is much shorter and simpler than its explanation, as you
will learn by practice. Try this plan once or twice and it will be well
nigh impossible for you to memorize without it.


Examples of Bridging the Gap

From "The Buccaneer" by R. H. Dana the last line of the second verse,
and the first line of the third verse are easily connected by one word,
Sand, thus--

  "And silver waves go noiseless up the beach."
                   (Sand)
  "And inland rests the green, warm dell;"

The last word "beach" naturally suggests sand, drop the s and you have
the first word of the next verse, "and", also the "beach", sand, and
"inland" suggest a natural sequence. Sand here becomes a bridge of
thought over which your mind will easily travel. It is not always easy
to find one word for a bridge, but a visual picture, a thought, a word,
or repeated letter can be found to aid you.

The poem "Things Divine" by Jean Brooks Burke is used by students of
elocution as ideal for practice because of the difficulty which it
presents. The thoughts cover a wide range with apparently no relation
one with the other. Often two thoughts are expressed in one line, and
to get them all well fixed in mind so as to repeat them makes the poem
difficult, to say the least, yet you, who know how to apply your memory
intelligently, may learn it with comparative ease. Read slowly and note
the visual pictures and then go back and "bridge" them together. This
is an excellent example of a difficult poem to practice upon. It will
be an opportunity to use all of the principles given in this chapter.


The Things Divine

  These are the things I hold divine;
  A trusting child's hand laid in mine,
  Rich brown earth and wind-tossed trees,
  The taste of grapes and the drone of bees,
  A rhythmic gallop, long June days,
  A rose-hedged lane and lover's lays,
  The welcome smile on neighbors' faces,
  Cool, wide hills and open places,
  Breeze-blown fields of silver rye,
  The wild, sweet notes of the plover's cry,
  Fresh spring showers and scent of box,
  The soft pale tint of the garden flox,
  Lilacs blooming, a drowsy noon,
  A flight of geese and an autumn moon,
  Rolling meadows and storm-washed heights,
  A fountain murmur on summer nights,
  A dappled fawn in the forest hush,
  Simple words and the song of a thrush,
  Rose-red dawns and a mate to share
  With comrade soul my gypsy fare,
  A waiting fire when the twilight ends,
  A gallant heart and the voice of friends.

To link the second line with the first, think of the natural
association of thought between the words "Divine" and "trusting." Form
the definite visual picture of the "trusting child's hand laid in mine."

Your thought will quickly pass to the duplex meaning of the word
"mine." It means possession, my own, and also a mine in the earth.
When we start a mine the first thing to come out is "rich brown earth"
and that is the next thought. Let the word "mine" of the second line
suggest the picture of the opening to the mine and the pile of "rich
brown earth" beside it.

Behind a pile of rich brown earth, see the "wind-tossed trees", the
next thought. Hanging on the "trees" see huge bunches of grapes, you
pick and taste one, this is the next thought, "the taste of grapes."
Around the grapes flies a swarm of bees, hear their "drone," the next
thought, "the drone of bees." Let the drone of the bees suggest to
you a rhythm and this will bridge your mind over to the thought of a
"rhythmic gallop"; the answer to the question, "When do you like to
gallop?" suggests "Long June days" the next thought.

June is the time of roses, suggesting "A rose-hedged lane"--the
natural place for "lovers' lays." You can easily construct a "bridge"
which will bind all the independent thoughts together. Visualize each
thought, and watch for alliteration and alphabetical repetition.


Remembering What You Hear

It is also important that the child be trained to remember what he
hears. Ear impressions are comparatively light and easily lost. If
these ear impressions are quickly transferred into mind's eye pictures
they will be far more lasting.

Instructions, lectures, sermons, talks, can all be pictures in the
mind, just as you picture what you read. The act of visualization will
concentrate the attention and prolong it, so that the memory of what
is said will be greatly increased. The visual impressions will also be
much stronger than the auditory ones.

     =The attempt to visualize the thought of the speaker is the best
     method of directing your attention to his subject.=


Use the Hitching Post

When listening to instructions, or a lecture, in which there are
different points which you wish to carry away and later recall
accurately, use the Hitching Post idea. Run over a series of words so
as to be sure that they will come readily when wanted. When a point
is made which you wish to remember, transfer the thought into a quick
visual impression, and Hitch it to the first object of your list. When
a second important point is made, make a visual impression with the
next object. Make your picture strong by exaggeration and motion, and
be sure that you photograph each one.

In this manner you can file away any number of points. As soon as the
lecture is over review the pictures, see each clearly a second time. If
you have trouble recalling one make the picture stronger so that you
will recall it more easily next time. Review the entire list of points
visualized with the different Hitching Posts. If you wish to fix them
in mind review them several times in the next few days, so that you
make a permanent impression of them.


Transfer to Note-Book

A great many prefer the idea of transferring these points into a
classified note book, where they are available for use at any future
time.

One student tells of having written fifteen pages of notes from four
talks which he heard at a convention, and that some of these notes
were not transferred from his mind to the note-book for at least ten
days after the talks were heard.

Form the habit of letting the lecturer make you SEE what he describes.
The visual impression which you make will increase your understanding
of anything you hear or read, and at the same time very materially
assist you in remembering it.


Taking Instructions

When a person is giving you instructions about the things which he
would like to have you do, follow the same plan. Simply transfer
the words of the speaker into an exaggerated moving picture and the
impression will stay with you. Another student told me this experience:
"My employer often used to say to me, after having given some
instruction, 'Do you see?' I realize now that the reason that I made
so many mistakes was because I did not SEE. Now I make it a point to
SEE the things he asks me to do and my reply, 'Yes, I see,' has a very
different meaning. The results are also different."


Mastering Difficult Lists

In the child's studies there are often lists of different kinds
which need to be committed to memory and which present considerable
difficulty to say nothing of the time required. Following are aids and
illustrations which will show how these lists can be mastered with
comparatively small effort and little time.


Fix in Mind by Initialing

Take the initial letter of each of the words which you wish to remember
and use these as the first letter of simple words which will combine
into an expression which has a meaning. This is very helpful, and is
sometimes called "initialing." We have all learned the sentence:

  E     G    B   D        F
  Every Good Boy Deserves Food,

in order to remember the names of the lines of the treble clef; the
letters of the word F A C E are the spaces. In a similar way the lines
of the bass clef can be remembered by the following:

  G    B    D       F        A
  Good Bees Deserve Faithful Attention,

and the spaces by:

  A   C   E   G
  All Can Eat Goose.

These are simple examples of a principle which can with a little
ingenuity and imagination be applied to any list to be learned.


Elevated Stations

The following illustration shows how a student learned the stations on
the Northwestern elevated road in Chicago, and will give you a further
example of the use of this principle:

  I can see Chicago's Oak, divided between Schiller and
    Kinzie, Chicago,  Oak, Division,       Schiller

  Sedgewick for luring a bee to Halstead's willow
  Sedgewick,    Larrabee,       Halstead   willow,

  center, Webster, Fullerton, writes      Diversey that
  Center, Webster, Fullerton, Wrightwood, Diversey,

  Wellington  Belmont is the clerk to add three days'
  Wellington, Belmont        Clark,   Addison

  grace  to Sheridan's bill for Wilson.
  Grace, to Sheridan,  Buena,   Wilson.

Here only the principal words of the story are used as the names to be
remembered. The story simplifies the work of preparing and learning.


Learning the Presidents

A further plan is the following combination of the Reminder Picture
and the Visual Story used to learn the names of the Presidents of
the United States in the order of their term of service. Go over the
following Story Picture, visualize it clearly and then from the picture
repeat the capitalized words in their order. When you can say the list
readily, either forward or backward, go over it again slowly, seeing
the object and speaking the name of the President for which it is a
reminder.


The Picture

See some WASHING hanging on a line. See ADAM looking wonderingly at the
washing. Then see Little JEFF, of "Mutt and Jeff", come up behind Adam.
Jeff turns away, and falls over a MAT. Under it see some MONEY. Pick
up the money and you find an AD. Take the ad and paste on a SHACK. See
a moving VAN back up to the shack, and when the driver jumps down from
his seat you recognize HARRY (a friend of yours by that name). Harry
takes off his TIE and hangs it on a POLE, the pole falls over and hits
the TAILOR who runs up on a FILL, from which he sees a PIER extending
into the water. On the pier is a BIG CANNON from behind which jumps a
LYNX and almost catches JOHN, who runs away, and climbs on a piece of
GRANITE. On the other side of the granite is a pile of HAY, and rolling
off the hay is a GARFISH. There stands an ARTIST with a CLEAVER in his
hand, which he throws at HARRIS (a friend by that name). Harris picks
some CLOVER, and pins it on his MACKINTOSH, and it turns into a large
red ROSE. In the rose he finds some TAFFY, which he throws into a
WILLOW.

From this story the capitalized words are reminders for the names of
the Presidents, as follows:

  WASHING     ADAM     JEFF       MAT       MONEY
  Washington  Adams    Jefferson  Madison   Monroe

  AD          SHACK    VAN        HARRY     TIE
  Adams       Jackson  Van Buren  Harrison  Tyler

  POLE   TAILOR   FILL      PIER    BIG CANNON
  Polk   Taylor   Fillmore  Pierce  Buchanan

  LYNX     JOHN     GRANITE  HAY    GAR-FISH
  Lincoln  Johnson  Grant    Hayes  Garfield

  ARTIST  CLEAVER    HARRIS    CLOVER     MACKINTOSH
  Arthur  Cleveland  Harrison  Cleveland  McKinley

  ROSE       TAFFY  WILLOW
  Roosevelt  Taft   Wilson

Do this for practice and see how easily you can learn the names of the
Presidents in their proper order and say them backwards and forwards.


Studying Anatomy

Initialing has been used by medical students with splendid results and
has reduced the labor of learning to a minimum. The branches of the
external carrotid arteries can be remembered by the following sentence:

  Some      Try       Large     Feats,   Others      Prefer
  Superior  Thyroid,  Lingual,  Facial,  Occipital,  Pharyngeal,

  A           Simple        Task      In        Memory.
  Auricular,  Superficial,  Temporal, Internal  Maxillary.

For practice make a sentence of your own from the initials of
the twelve pair of Cranial Nerves, which are Olefactory, Optic,
Motor Oculi, Pathetic, Trifacial, Abducent, Facial, Auditory,
Glosso-Pharyngeal, Pneumogastric, Spinal Accessory, Hypoglossal. For
example, Oh! Out Motoring Papa Took A Friend and Got Paul Some Heather.
Others can be made, but the one which the child makes for himself he
will remember easiest.



BECOMING A GOOD SPELLER


Poor spelling is largely a matter of inattention. Continual inattention
becomes a habit and the child soon finds himself decidedly handicapped
by his inability to spell correctly. This is largely caused by
uncertainty. He has no definite knowledge to resort to, the result
being doubt as to whether the word is properly spelled, and therefore
uncertainty as to what change to make. To read a word carefully and to
study the letters as they appear in the proper sequence will usually be
sufficient to fix the word in mind.

When you find that certain letters, or combinations, are bothersome,
use the principle of exaggeration. Have the child write the word and
exaggerate the letters that are causing trouble, making them three
or four times larger than the rest of the letters of the word. For
example, the word PRIVILEGE, often incorrectly spelled PRIVELEGE. Write
the word correctly and enlarge the "I," making it several times the
size of the other letters; now have him form the visual picture of the
word spelled in his way:

[Illustration]

In writing the word hereafter you will find that the visual picture of
the word with the exaggerated letter will come back to his mind and
give the correct spelling.

In cases where it is a question of a single, or double consonant, for
example, the word "fulfil" write it "full" and mark a large X through
the second "L."

This will impress upon his mind that one "L" is correct.

Rules in spelling as a general thing, are not as helpful as a little
care, observation and commonsense. The most troublesome is the "I"-"E,"
and this one rule should be clearly fixed in mind:

     ="I" always comes before "E," except when following "C," or when
     sounded as "A," as in "Neighbor" and "Weigh."=

Notice the word "Alice." Keeping this one word in mind will serve
largely to overcome this difficulty. "I" follows all letters except
"C," which is followed by "E" as it is in "Alice." To fix in mind the
"E" following "C" it will be helpful to show the child the similarity
of motion and appearance in writing "C" and "E." Many examples could
be given of this "I"-"E" rule. It will serve very largely to fix it in
mind, however, if you will have the child hunt out these examples for
himself and make a list of them.


Use Visualization

Teach the child to visualize the words which he studies each day in his
spelling lesson. You may not be able to visualize them yourself, but if
you have started early in training him, he will have little difficulty
in doing so. Exaggeration should be used as an aid in spelling. It will
be easier to see the words printed in letters from three to six feet
high on the wall of the room, than to see them in pica type on the
paper. If your child has difficulty in visualizing the words in the
spelling lesson have him exaggerate and color them in his mind's eye
picture.

Have the child take a piece of scratch paper and colored crayons and
print the difficult words in large letters, using two colors, one for
consonants and the other for vowels. If the child has difficulty in
learning the sequence of "ie" and "ei" have him follow the plan of
using two strong colors, such as red and blue for the two vowels. Have
him print all the words with which he has difficulty, using red for
the "e" and blue for the "i." This color impression combined with the
enlarged letter, will overcome the difficulty.


Spelling Exercise

In order to help the child to become sure of himself write a list of
words spelled incorrectly. Have him go over them and correct them, or
tell what the error is.

Spelling rules should be learned by making visual pictures of the word
to which the rule applies, and not by simply learning a group of words,
the meaning of which sometimes is not fully appreciated.


An Example

Rule--Final "y," when preceded by a consonant, is changed to "i" before
any suffix not beginning with "i."

To learn this rule have the child print out a few examples, as follows,
enlarging and striking out the important letters:

[Illustration]

Rule--Final "y" preceded by a vowel is not changed to "i" before any
suffix beginning with a vowel.

  plAy-ed      delAy-ed

Have the child print these examples and enlarge them. All rules should
be illustrated in graphic form.


The Spelling Cards

For younger children the brightly colored A, B, C, blocks and picture
books have always been helpful in teaching the alphabet and simple
words. These spelling cards have the advantage of self-instruction with
no possibility of mistake, so that the child teaches himself accurately
and uses the visual sense in doing so.

These spelling cards consist of a series of simple pictures on
cardboard with irregularly shaped holes cut beneath, a hole for each
letter in the name of the object in the picture.

[Illustration]

The needed letters of the alphabet can be made from cardboard, each on
a card of separate shape, so that it will not fit into any hole except
where it belongs to properly spell the word illustrated. The holes in
the picture will correspond to the shape of the cards which spell the
name. In this way there can be no error. The child can take the picture
cards and find the proper letter cards to fit the holes under the
picture and thus learn to spell the name. These Spelling cards can be
made by pasting pictures of common objects on cards about 4×6 inches.
Then cut the odd shaped pieces for the principal letters of the
alphabet, using the same shape for the same letters, mark the proper
shapes for the letters spelling the name of the object on the card, and
cut them out with a sharp knife.

The shapes for the letter cards can be similar to those suggested in
the Game of Matching Cards in Book One.

Suggested objects for the picture cards:

Cat, Rat, Boat, Apple, Boy, Girl, Fan, Pig, Car, Dog, Bird, Rose,
Bee, Egg, Spoon, Horn, Frog, Man, Cow, Ball, Baby, Chair, Watch, Saw,
Hammer, Nail, Coat, etc.


The Game of Word Making

This game was at one time quite popular and should be revived and used
often. It teaches spelling and increases the vocabulary.

The only equipment is a series of cards of any size larger than an
inch square. On these print letters of the alphabet or cut large black
letters from the headlines of the newspapers and paste them on. There
should be about six of each of the vowels, two of all the consonants,
and three or four more of those most used.

Turn all the cards face down on the table and mix them thoroughly.
The first player picks up a card and lays it face up in the center of
the table, the next player does the same, and so on. The first child
to make a word of the letters turned up speaks the word, selects the
letters to properly spell it and lays them side by side, spelling the
word. If it is properly spelled he gets one point, but if he has not
spelled it correctly he loses one point, and the letters go back into
the draw pile.

Each properly spelled word counts a point for the child first calling
it. A limit of points can be set and the first one reaching that score
wins. If older persons wish to play the game a limit may be set on the
size of the words spelled, as no word of less than 6, 8 or 10 letters,
whichever figure is decided upon.


The Game of Salvaging Words

Pick a large word to pieces and see how many smaller ones can be made
from the letters contained in it. This is a good exercise for persons
of any age and is often played at parties.

Give each player a paper and pencil, select some long word and let each
write it at the top of his paper. Determine on a time limit usually
five minutes, and see who will make the most words from the letters of
the larger word.

After the time is up the one having the longest list wins. It will
be interesting and helpful to have the long list read, each checking
the words on their list. Then let each one read the words which they
made and which no one else has read. It will be surprising how many
different words there will be. Use words like:

  Conflagration
  Consternation
  Understanding
  International
  Washington
  Gubernatorial
  Examination
  Immovability
  Imperceptibility
  Permeability
  Responsiveness
  Stenographer


The Game "The Camels Are Coming"

This game should never be allowed to grow old. It is "lots of fun" at
parties and helpful in vocabulary building, because it requires an
effort, and every time you induce yourself, or your child, to make an
effort good is accomplished.

Have the group sit around the room and then begin by selecting a letter
and a suffix, as B-ing. The one starting says to the one on his left
"The camels are coming." He replies "How are they coming?" The beginner
must then reply using one word beginning with B and ending with "ing".
For example: Buzzing--Bleating--Braying--Blushing--. Each player must
think of a word to give as his answer. All must remember the words
that have been given and must answer inside the limit of ten seconds
after the other has said, "How are they coming?" Any word that is in
the dictionary can be used. If a player cannot answer in ten seconds he
must sit on the floor of the room and pay a forfeit to the timekeeper.

This game can be varied in a great many ways, the words can begin with
any letter and end with any suffix or begin with any prefix.


Learning Synonyms

To help the child remember synonyms and to increase his vocabulary
write a list of words and have him write opposite them as many words of
similar meaning as he can. For example:

  HOUSE--residence--building--dwelling--abode.

  TRAVEL--journey--trip--tour.



THE STUDY OF GEOGRAPHY


Most children will like the study of geography if it is given to them
in stories and pictures as much as possible. Note how the more modern
geographies are literally picture-books compared with those of several
years ago.

Teach the child to make the pictures in the book his permanent
knowledge through visual reviews. When he is studying about an isthmus,
and there is no picture of one in the geography, find one elsewhere.
Have the child notice clearly that "An isthmus is a narrow strip of
land connecting two larger bodies." Take the outline maps and have the
child go over them and point out all the examples of the isthmus. Now
have him take a pencil and paper and draw one. Have him repeat the
definition as the teacher wishes it to be learned, but be sure that he
can SEE and explain it in his own words.

Fix one definite illustration of each geographical division in the
child's mind. Use the Isthmus of Panama for the isthmus, explaining to
him that this location was selected for the Panama Canal because it was
a narrow strip of land, etc. Make it interesting by stories.

In your walks with the children through the country take every
opportunity to explain the different geographical formations. Find
an illustration for an isthmus even if it is only a small puddle, or
if you have to make one in the back yard with a shovel and a pail of
water. The sand-box method, because it is visual, has always been a
successful one for teaching geography.


Visualize the Map

See clearly the outline of the country being studied, and note its
peculiarities. Put the map at arm's length and let your imagination
transform the contour of the country into the picture of some object.

Note that the continent of South America is very similar in shape to
the head and trunk of an elephant, the projection on the Northeast
corner being the ear. Note the similarity in shape between the outlines
of France, Spain and Portugal to a hog's head eating from a bucket. The
continent of Australia easily becomes the shape of two animals' heads,
back to back.

To study any country follow the plan outlined in the next two
paragraphs for the study of the states of Illinois and Indiana. Note
carefully the outline of the state, and see just the shape which
it forms. Note the location of the principal cities and get their
relationship to each other.


Illinois

[Illustration]

Take your pencil and draw an outline of this state, then a line from
Chicago to Rock Island, from Rock Island to East St. Louis, from East
St. Louis to Springfield and from Springfield back to Chicago. Notice
that the line connecting these cities forms a triangle. Get the visual
impression of the triangle in mind. Now close your eyes and see if you
can see the outline of the state clearly and upon it the line joining
the principal cities.


Indiana

In like manner note the state of Indiana, its outline and the triangle
formed by the line running from Indianapolis to Fort Wayne to South
Bend, to La Fayette, to Evansville, and back to Indianapolis. Any state
may be studied in this way, or any country or continent. Its size,
shape and the location of the principal cities may be indelibly fixed
in mind.

[Illustration]

You will find that impressions made upon the mind in this visual
manner are lasting, and that you can gather knowledge of geographical
locations which hitherto may have been difficult for you to retain.

After you have once impressed these pictures upon your mind, close your
eyes again and let your mind's eye see them. The location of cities,
mountain ranges, rivers, etc., need simply to be visually impressed in
this manner. Draw a line from one principal city to another. Notice the
length and direction of the line and the figure made by joining them.
Draw the lines with your eyes closed until you have a clear mind's eye
impression of the exact locations.

Follow this plan in teaching the child to visualize the map which he is
studying. Do it with each state, and each continent, island, or country.

Draw a plain outline map of the continent being studied, let the child
draw in the principal rivers and mountain ranges, writing the name of
each. Explain how these mountain ranges and large rivers, because of
the natural defence offered, have become the natural boundaries between
nations. Now have the child draw each country on a blank map, writing
the name of each and placing a dot where the capital of the country is
located, and naming it.

Of course it is not likely that the child will be able to do all this
without reference to the map. The map of the continent should be
visualized by a definite effort. Let him go over a section at a time
noticing the mountains and rivers, their use as boundaries and the
countries which they separate. After this detail study have the child
observe the map as a whole, and build its visual picture in his mind.
From this visual picture have him draw all the details possible on
the blank map. Let him go back to the map of the continent, study the
points missed, revisualize the picture, close the book, and add as much
as possible to the map he is drawing.

Do the same with the map of the United States. Have the child become
familiar with the outline, the rivers, mountains and Great Lakes. Next
have him become familiar with the groups of states, as the New England
States; the Middle Atlantic States; the Southern States, eastern and
western divisions, etc. Each of these divisions can be visualized
separately, the outlines of the states and the location of the capital
learned, so that an outline map of the group can be drawn as was done
in the case of the continent and its countries. If this process is
continued a very little study of the United States as a whole will
enable the child to draw the entire country and locate all the states
and their capitals, a thing which only a very few grown people can do.


Learning the Groups of States

The use of initialing will help in learning the names of the states in
their different geographical groups. Use the initial of the states in
the group and make a sentence using these initials as the first letter
of each succeeding word. Fix the sentence in mind and when you wish to
name the states let the initial or name act as a guide and suggest the
name of the state. Use the sentences following, or make others of your
own.


New England States

  May's  New Hampshire  Views    Might
  Maine  New Hampshire  Vermont  Massachusetts

  Connect      Rhode Island.
  Connecticut  Rhode Island.


Middle Atlantic States

  New York's  New Jest    Puts          Delaware
  New York    New Jersey  Pennsylvania  Delaware

  Many leagues  West (of)      Virginia.
  Maryland      West Virginia  Virginia.


Central States--Eastern

  Oh!   I        K(C)an take  Ill       With cousin
  Ohio  Indiana  Kentucky     Illinois  Wisconsin

  Mich.
  Michigan.


Central States--Western

  Miss      I O   Minnesota  K(C)an  Neighbor  North
  Missouri  Iowa  Minnesota  Kansas  Nebraska  North

  and     South Dakota.
  Dakota  South Dakota.


Southern States--Eastern

  No              Southern  Car       Goes     Far
  North Carolina  South     Carolina  Georgia  Florida

  All-a-board  Miss         Tennessee.
  Alabama      Mississippi  Tennessee.


Southern States--Western

  Ark an    Louise     Take   Okla home.
  Arkansas  Louisiana  Texas  Oklahoma.


Western States--South

  Californians  Use        Colorado.
  California    Utah       Color.

  Never         A          Newly Made.
  Nevada        Arizona    New   Mexico.


Western States--North

  Why!     Ida    Might    Wash        Ore.
  Wyoming  Idaho  Montana  Washington  Oregon.

In order that there be no omission of any sentence it is only necessary
to note that there are eight groups and four pairs: New England and
Middle Atlantic; Central East and West; Southern East and West, and
Western North and South. As a further check for accuracy notice the
groups as in pairs above; the first pair has 6 and 7 states; the second
has the same, 6 and 7; the Southern has 7 and 4, and the Western has 6
and 5. The first two groups have 13 each and the second two groups have
11 each.


Puzzle Maps

The common jig-saw puzzle maps have value if accurately cut. A splendid
game for learning the states of the United States, their shape, size
and relative position, can be made at home. Lay a map of the United
States on a piece of good cardboard, trace the outline of each state
and then cut them out on the state lines with a sharp knife. Have the
child first learn to name the states by seeing the blank pieces of
irregularly shaped cardboard. Then let him learn to put the pieces
together, naming the states as he does so. This plan can be followed in
studying the counties in your state or the countries in a continent.


The Blank Map

Another helpful method is to draw an outline map of the United States
on blank paper, drawing in each state. This can best be done by using
impression paper. Now have the child take the map with the outlines of
the states and write in the name of each.


The Geography Game

Have cards cut on the lines of the different states of the United
States. You can use the ones made for the puzzle map above. On each
state card place three spots in the location of the capital and two
principal cities. Prepare a series of three cards about 2×3 inches for
each of the states, and on each print the name of one of the three
cities mentioned so that for each state there is a book of four cards,
the plain outline card of the state, a card bearing the name of the
capital, and a card for each of the two principal cities. Below the
name of the city can be drawn an object, or a word which will indicate
the approximate population of the city, by the Number Code. Make a
similar set of four cards for each state, the state cards to be cut on
the map outline, but not to have the name of the state on them; nothing
but three spots in the location of the cities mentioned.

Some states can best be made in a group because of their comparative
size. Vermont and New Hampshire can be on one card; Massachusetts,
Connecticut and Rhode Island on another, and Maryland and Delaware
another. Only three cities should be marked on the cards of these
groups, always using the capitals of the states.

The state cards and the city cards should be shuffled separately, the
state cards laid to one side as a draw pile, and the city cards divided
among the players. The first player draws a state card and lays it on
the table and has the first opportunity to play with it any city card
he holds. The player to the left has the next turn, and so on, until
someone has laid down the last of the three city cards belonging to
this state card and takes the book. The one playing the last city card
is entitled to the book and has the privilege of drawing the next state
card. The one securing the largest number of books wins.

Any player playing a wrong city card on a state card must forfeit the
card to the one who started with the state card.

This game requires that the players recognize the state by its outline
and know the name of the capital and the two principal cities of the
state, and of course, in which state each city card belongs.

The same game can be arranged for the countries of Europe, South
America or any other continent. The card can bear the names of the
capital, the principal river and mountain range, or the capital and two
principal cities.


Following the Travelers

Have the child follow the travelers in the following stories by
actually seeing the geographical formations as they are named. Then
have him repeat the itinerary by referring to the picture of the
geographical formations. You will find that he can visualize the
isthmus, plateau, etc., only after having clear knowledge of what each
is. This repeated visualization will make a lasting impression upon his
mind.


The Story

A man and a boy were out sailing when a strong wind blew them ashore
on a POINT, opposite a small ISLAND. They dragged their boat across an
ISTHMUS and soon reached the PENINSULA, where they landed in a BAY.
They started out in opposite directions looking for drinking water. The
boy followed up a RAVINE and found himself on a PLATEAU. He became lost
in a SWAMP and came out on a PRAIRIE, and inquired at a village where
he found that he could return by following a RIVER through the VALLEY.
He made a raft and floated down the river until he was stranded on a
DELTA. He waded ashore and was soon back at his boat.

The man climbed a MOUNTAIN and looked out over the DESERT, where he saw
an OASIS. Then he climbed over a CLIFF and followed a CANYON back to
the BAY.


The Travel Game

Give the child the blank outline of the country in which you are going
to tell the story of your travel. Have him locate on the blank map each
city you visit and draw a line from one to the other showing the route
which was followed.

An example: England. I went to England and landed at Liverpool. I went
by rail from there to London, stopping one day at Gloucester. From
London I went by water to Portsmouth.

[Illustration]

In this story you can ask the child to tell you what kind of houses
the inhabitants live in. You can take a ship and be collecting a cargo
at the ports. Ask the child what local products are most easily found,
and other questions which will show what these people export. Also the
customs and commerce of the country in which the story is located can
be discussed.



STUDYING HISTORY


The study of history is largely a matter of Remembering What You Read.
Children who have difficulty in remembering what they read, as a rule,
do not like to study history. The lesson made into a visual picture
will fix the points in mind with one reading, but this reading must
not be careless or hasty. Help the child to read slowly and to pause
long enough to make a mind's eye picture of each circumstance and
change. It will be helpful to take a piece of paper and draw the scene
of the battle. Mark in roughly the hills, mountains and rivers. Show
the positions of the opposing armies, then roughly sketch the changes
which take place. This drawing will help you to make a definite picture
impression.

Take advantage of the pictures on the page of the book. The child's
mind will naturally associate with the picture the many circumstances
happening before and after, if he hears or reads them while the picture
is visible.

For example, the picture of the landing of the Pilgrims on the shores
of Massachusetts will bring to mind the facts which led to their making
the journey. It will also suggest circumstances after the landing.

Those stories and facts which the child hears, while looking at the
picture, are joined with it in the mind by the law of association, and
the operation of the same natural law will tend to recall them whenever
the child sees the picture.

A series of large pictures, which all of the class can see while the
history lesson is being studied and recited, would help in fixing
the facts in the minds of the children. Children who are taught to
visualize can form their own pictures and have a wonderful advantage.


Remembering History Dates

This troublesome matter is easily mastered when the child understands
the use of the number code as given in the book on Memory. This
principle can be applied in every case. As a rule, the century in which
the date occurs is not confusing, and the effort can be confined to
the particular year. For example, in order to remember the date of the
Battle of Bunker Hill, it is only necessary to remember '75, for the
year, as every student will know that it was in 1775 and not 1875, or
1675.

A boy twelve years of age learned more history dates in one week after
knowing how to use the Number Code than he had learned in weeks before.
The knowledge of how to visualize the lesson and how to remember the
dates will overcome any prejudice or any difficulty which the child may
have with history lessons.

The following are samples of how the Number Code has been applied to
remembering history dates:

Landing of the English at Jamestown, 1607. During the first year
there was much sickness and the word SICK is '07. The picture of the
Jamestown settlers "sick on the beach" will fix the year in mind.

The following dates were in one lesson, and are the word-pictures which
a child used in remembering them. Marquette and Joliet explored the
Mississippi River in 1673. The word COMB is '73. They were "combing"
the river.

LaSalle reached the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1682. He planted
the French flag and had a celebration. FUN is '82, they had fun when
they planted the flag.

New Orleans was settled by Bienville in 1718. He had a hard time
finding a good place for the city, TOUGH (tuf) is '18, they had a tough
time.

Washington and the Virginian troops drove the French troops from Fort
DuQuesne in 1754. He drove them from their LAIR, '54.

General Braddock was defeated and killed in 1755. He was buried in the
woods of Pennsylvania. '55 is LILY, see a lily on his grave.

Some other examples follow: Alaska was purchased in 1867. 18 may be
DOVE and '67 CHECK, a picture of a DOVE flying to Russia with the
CHECK. Or if you prefer you can use the two words, STOVE-SHACK, or
TOUGH-JOKE, it was a tough joke on Russia to sell it for so little.

The Battle of Bunker Hill was June 17th, 1775. This can be remembered
by the association SHOOTING KILL. Sh is 6; TING is 17; KILL is '75.
6-17-'75 is the date and it is in the two words SHOOTING KILL, which is
easily remembered with Bunker Hill.

The Battle of Bull Run, July 21st, '61. This is 7-21-'61. CAN'T SHOOT
(because they ran so fast they couldn't shoot) and the two words CAN'T
SHOOT stand for 7-21-'61.

Peary reached the North Pole April 6th, 1909. This can be represented
by URGES UP. This is 4-6-'09. He urges his men up to the pole.

Panama Canal was officially opened August 15th, 1914. This is 8-15-'14.
VITAL DOOR will represent these numbers. The canal is a VITAL DOOR
between the two great oceans.

Examples of the dates of the reigns of the English kings at the end of
feudalism. The War of Roses.

  Order of Reign.               Code Words.

  1--Henry IV 1399-1413    Tie--Henry--hear, them pipe--their
                             doom.

  2--Henry V 1413-1422     Snow--Henry--lie, to redeem--true
                             nun.

  3--Henry VI 1422-1461    Home--Henry--show, true
                             nun to our chateau.

  4--Edward IV 1461-1483   Wire--Edward--hear, a deer
                             shout their fame.

  5--Edward V 1483         Wheel--Edward--hail, true
                             fame.

  6--Richard II 1483-1485  Sash--Richard--no, true fame--dare
                             fail.

Here the Code word TIE stands for I, the first king--Henry hear, for
Henry fourth; "them pipe" is 1399; "their doom" is 1413. The whole can
easily be visualized into a picture of Henry using the TIE to make an
ear trumpet to HEAR THEM PIPE THEIR DOOM. A peculiar idea, perhaps, but
it will accomplish the purpose. Use the same plan for other similar
lists and make strong picture associations and they will aid you
greatly. They can be recalled when the numbers can not.

The following are examples of dates of Greek and Roman History:

     Draco codifies Laws of Athens, 621. Joined--He joined the laws.

     Peloponnesian War, 431-404. Remote--Razor.

     Corinthian War, 395-387. Mabel--Moving.

     Alexander King of Macedonia, 336-323. May homage--My name.

     Founding of Rome, 753-(?). Column.

     Rome supreme in Italy, 264. New Chair.

     Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390. Mobs.

     Great Latin War, 340-338. Mars--May move.

     Peace between Rome and Carthage, 201. Nice Tie.

     Julian Emperors, 27 B. C.-41 A. D. INK Bottle Can--RIDE After Dark.

     Claudian and Flavian Emperors, 41-96. Red--Badge.

     Good Emperors, 96-180. Push--Thieves.

     Invasion of Barbarians, 337-376. May make--My cash.

     Charles the Great crowned Emperor of the Romans, 800 Vices.


The History Game

Secure pictures of the principal events in history and paste them
on a series of cards. Have nothing on the cards but the picture, no
printing, or names. Take three blank cards about 2×3 inches and on
the first place the date of the event; on the second the names of the
leaders; if a battle, the opposing generals; on the third put the name
of the peoples concerned.

For example, first card, a picture of the Battle of Bunker Hill; second
card, June 17th, 1775; third card, General Wm. Howe and General Joseph
Warren; fourth card, British and American colonists.

A series of such cards should be made covering the events that are
being studied at that time. The pictures are shuffled and laid in a
draw pile on the table, and the cards are shuffled and dealt to the
players. The one to the left of the dealer draws and plays a picture
into the middle of the table, and then any cards which he holds which
belong with it. The next player has the next opportunity to play, and
so on around the group. The player who places the fourth card takes the
book and is entitled to draw and play a picture into the center of the
table.

Any card which is played in error that does not belong with the event
in the picture shall be forfeited to the one who started the play with
the picture card. The one getting the most books wins.


The Game of Famous Men

Secure the pictures of a group of 48 or more men of the present and
immediate past who are well known in national or international circles.
Place the picture on one card, the name on another, on the third, his
nationality, and on the fourth, the thing for which he is best known.
The last card can contain more than one thing, if you wish.

The game is played like the History Game above, and requires the
players to be familiar with the well known men and their deeds, also to
be able to call them by name, and to know their nationality.

The same idea can be used by making a game of the famous men of
Colonial History; or of the period of the Civil War; or of the
great World War just passed. Do you know the face of Gen. Haig, his
nationality and principal event of his life? To look up the information
for the cards is a good history lesson in itself. Take the ideas of all
these games and by using your Productive Imagination make them fit the
needs of your study, or the things which you wish most to master.



STUDYING MATHEMATICS


Children learn to count by using objects, in the school room they count
the desks, the children, the number of cards, or blocks. The first
lessons are object-lessons dealing with objects which can be handled
and formed into groups. Digits are symbols which represent objects,
7+3=10, is an abbreviated form for 7 (Apples) and 3 (Apples) are 10
(Apples).

It is easier to teach addition and subtraction by the use of the
objects to add and to take away from. The realization of the process
comes by seeing the objects and the result of the change. The digits
become symbols for the objects that the child has been working with.
Counting boards are helpful in teaching children, for they enable you
to continue the visual process. All methods of teaching through the
visual processes should be continued as long as possible.

The child's interest in the problem will be stimulated if he deals with
objects, or things, and not with meaningless groups of figures. The
problem 127+323+417= , is a meaningless one and uninteresting, but if
you encourage him to think that this is the number of soldiers with
which a general is going out to meet an army of two thousand, then he
has some interest in finding out how many men the general really has to
meet the two thousand with. This makes the problem read thus, in his
mind.

127 (soldiers) + 323 (soldiers) + 417 (soldiers) = How large an army?

Figuring a page of problems will be uninteresting, but if you can
encourage the child to introduce the imaginary objects, it will
increase his interest.

Fractions are usually explained by the division of an apple or some
easily divided object. Division, as a process of dividing a group of
objects among a smaller group of children, is easily understood and
interesting to them. Encourage your child to continue to think of the
objects when dealing with fractions.


Visualization Always Aids

All mental processes should take form in pictures. The adding of 4
and 7 should be seen in the mind's eye, if the problem is not written
down. A parent tells the story of his difficulty with his son and this
simple problem. The child got the idea fixed in his mind that 4 and
7 were 12. The father had told the boy that the answer was 11, and
had the child repeat, 4 and 7 are 11, several times. But the original
impression was still the stronger, and the next day, when asked by the
father, "How many are 4 and 7?" the child's answer was 12. In some way
this impression had become a very strong one and was recalled before
the weaker one of the correct answer, 11. The idea of visualization
was brought to the father's attention during the day by his having
attended a lesson in Memory Training given by the author. That evening
he called the boy to him and said, "Son, how many are 4 and 7 tonight?"
He received the same incorrect answer, 12. Then he took a piece of
paper and wrote upon it the figures in exaggerated size, as illustrated
on the right. He had the boy look at the problem for a moment and then
look away and see it in his mind's eye, then look at the problem again.
Thus he placed a visual impression of the correct answer in the child's
mind and this became the stronger of the two impressions and was never
forgotten. The next morning the father asked the boy the same question,
"How many are 4 and 7?" and the answer was promptly given, "Eleven."
"Why, I can just see those figures in my mind and I never will forget
that."

   4
   7
  --
  11

This experience is the natural result of using the stronger sense of
sight in preference to the weaker one of hearing. The conscious use of
the mind's eye faculty in his arithmetic lessons brought this boy from
the bottom of his class up to a reasonable grade in a very short time.
Do not overlook the value of visualization. It can be applied with
helpful results in any lesson or problem.


The Mental Blackboard

The child can easily learn to visualize his problems in mental
arithmetic if he will begin while young. This is especially true if
you have used the exercises for visualization given in the First Book.
Those on mind's eye counting and the Number and Letter games are
especially helpful. Their importance now becomes apparent, and if you
have neglected them it will be well to go back and use them now.

Encourage the child to see the figures in exaggerated size on an
imaginary blackboard; see large white figures on the blackboard. As
soon as the problem is given, let the ear impression become a mind's
eye picture, as illustrated. The use of this visual method is gradually
being recognized as being valuable, and will in the future come into
general use. Give your children the advantage and have them use it now.

   7
   5
  --
  12
  ×2
  --
  24


Exercises in Manipulation

The mind's eye picture of the figures on the mental blackboard can be
enlarged by practice so that the child can visualize problems of some
complexity. This ability, of course, will come only after continued
practice. Start with simple problems and increase their difficulty as
the child progresses. You will be surprised to find how he will be able
to retain the figures in his mind and soon will be able to work with
them.

Write on the blackboard a column of figures as illustrated below. (A
small one in the house is of great value in child training. A yard of
blackboard cloth can be purchased and hung on the wall.) Allow the
child to look at them for a few seconds and write down the result
of his addition. Do not have him write the numbers as in previous
exercises, for visualization, but only the total.

Now, add the first two numbers of the first example, subtract the third
and add the fourth, then write the total.

In the second example let him add the first two, subtract the third and
multiply by the fourth, write the answer.

These exercises of manipulation can be varied in many ways. The length
of the columns can be accommodated to the ability of the child.

  10
  12
   9
  16
  --

  15
  10
  14
   7
  --


Learning Rules

All rules should be worked out in examples or illustrations and
visually impressed upon the child's mind. One visual impression is
equal to about twenty repetitions. Many times children get the idea
that the problem cannot be worked unless the exact "Rule in the book"
is followed. See to it that your children get a broader idea and
that they understand the reason for doing a thing. The training in
mathematics, that is of most value after school days are over, is,
where we understand the reason and have worked out for ourselves the
correct result, independent of any set rule for working the problem.
When helping the child at home give him practical examples from every
day life as well as those in the book.


Fractions

The first step in fractions are often confusing to children, but need
not be if they have been taught to be observing and to watch for the
little aids which help over the difficult places.

Nominator and Denominator are two confusing terms to many. If you will
show the child that most of the fractions that he has to deal with are
proper fractions, and that the Nominator, upper number, is smaller than
the Denominator, lower number, and that the same relationship exists
between the words.

  Nominator
  De-nominator

The Denominator is the denomination of the fraction, the Numerator
is the number of parts. Let the D of Denominator stand for Down and
remember that it is Down (lower) part of the fraction.

Many scholars have difficulty in giving the correct answer to the
question, What are the three kinds of fractions? The following is all
that is needed to fix the answer in mind.

Give the PROPER answer. If you give the IMPROPER you will be MIXED.
These capitalized words are the three kinds of fractions.

Think of a fraction as a part of a whole. When the fraction becomes a
whole, or more than a whole, it is Improper. It needs to be changed to
make it a unit, or a Mixed fraction, a unit and a part.


The Multiplication Tables

These are a problem which every one has to work with and because the
use of them requires speed to be most valuable there must be a certain
amount of repetition in learning them.


The Multiplication Game

The aim is to teach children their multiplication tables by visual
repetition and at the same time to introduce the game spirit, thus
to increase the interest and to prolong the period of effort without
fatigue.

The child can work with these cards himself and thus by self
instruction can learn this most difficult lesson of Arithmetic, and
without any possibility of error, accuracy is insured.

The equipment consists of a series of eleven pieces of cardboard about
2×6 inches on which are printed in large black numbers the tables
without the answers.

A series of ten odd shaped cards is then made and the digits printed on
them in bright red. The following are the suggested shapes for the ten
digit cards.

[Illustration]

(Digit cards should not exceed one and one half inches in height.)

The digit cards which are the correct answer to the table printed on
the larger cards are then laid in the correct position and the shapes
marked out. With a sharp knife cut out the shapes a trifle larger than
the marked size of the digit card. The result is a card as illustrated,
with the table and two holes of irregular shape into which the digit
cards with the correct answer in bright red will fit. No other card but
the correct one can be put into this opening, there is never any danger
of the child seeing a wrong answer to the table.

[Illustration]

The only cards which can be fitted into this table are the two and the
cipher making the correct answer 20. This card with the black 4×5= and
the bright red answer 20 will make a strong impression upon the brain
of the child, and by use of the strongest sense, that of sight. At the
same time he can repeat the table audibly and gain the added advantage
of the ear impression.

Give the child only one set at a time so that he learns one table
thoroughly. When he has learned it, mix the cards and place them one at
a time in front of the child and see how many correct answers he can
give without fitting the cards. In cases where there is hesitation have
him fit the digit cards and make sure. See to it that he is accurate
and certain.

After one table is well mastered make a similar set of cards for the
next table. If you do not wish to take time to cut out the irregular
shaped holes for the digit cards, the place can be blackened and the
digit cards laid carefully on. The cut outs are far better and well
worth the little effort necessary to make them.

For the tables up to 12's you will need the following number of digit
cards; with these you will be able to work out any complete table of
eleven cards. 10--1's; 8--2's; 6--3's; 6--4's; 10--5's; 4--6's; 4--7's;
5--8's; 4--9's; 16--0's.

After the child has learned two or three of the tables mix the cards,
take any six and see how quickly he can fit the correct digit cards
into place.

Keep him playing with these cards until he can give the correct answer
to any question and give the correct table as a whole. After the tables
have been learned you can make many tests of speed and competitive
games with several children of the same age or school grade.


The Difficult Tables

There are certain tables which seem harder for some than the others,
yet there is often a difference as to which are considered most
troublesome. The 2's, 3's, 5's, 10's, and 11's are easy for all of us.
The 9's are as easily learned with the aid which follows. This leaves
the 4's, 6's, 7's, 8's and 12's, remaining to work on. The combinations
that are new in these tables are the following; all other combinations
are known from the other tables:

  4 ×  4 = 16   6 ×  6 = 36   7 ×  7 = 49*    8 ×  8 =  64*
  4 ×  6 = 24   6 ×  7 = 42*  7 ×  8 = 56     8 × 12 =  96
  4 ×  7 = 28*  6 ×  8 = 48   7 × 12 = 84    12 × 11 = 132
  4 ×  8 = 32   6 × 12 = 72                  12 × 12 = 144
  4 × 12 = 48

The first help in mastering these few necessary combinations is
visualization. If you will print them in large figures and the answer
in red, each table on a sheet or page by itself so that they can be
handled and studied, they will form visual impressions that can be
recalled with ease by almost any one. This is especially true of
children at the ages when they will be learning these tables.

Repetition seems the most valuable aid, but to be most advantageously
applied it should be a combination of visual and auditory repetition.
Let the child look at the tables in the large form in which you have
made them, while he repeats them.

Use addition and subtraction. In learning the tables there are always
some which make a stronger impression and which the child will "never
forget." Use these as starting points or bases of operation. For
example, 4×5=20, all will recognize this at once. 4×4=16, just four
less than twenty, and the subtraction will quickly give the correct
answer. Also 4×6=24, or 4 more than the known point of 20. To take
advantage of this it will only be necessary at first to learn 4×7=28
in order to master the entire table of 4's. The 4×4, and 4×6, would be
figured from 4×5=20, and the 4×8 from the 4×7, and the 4×12, from the
known 4×11=44. With these known bases to work from it is only necessary
to fix the one starred combination in each table in mind indelibly at
the beginning, the others will be easily figured from the known bases
and will become fixtures from use.


The Table of 9's

There is a peculiar combination of figures in this table of 9's, which,
if once noticed and perceived, will make this one of the easiest of the
tables.

  9 × 2 = 18 (1 + 8 = 9)

  9 × 3 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9)

  9 × 4 = 36 (3 + 6 = 9)

  9 × 5 = 45 (4 + 5 = 9)

  9 × 6 = 54 (5 + 4 = 9)

  9 × 7 = 63 (6 + 3 = 9)

  9 × 8 = 72 (7 + 2 = 9)

  9 × 9 = 81 (8 + 1 = 9)

  9 × 10 = 90 (9 + 0 = 9)

  9 × 11 = 99 (2 9's)

  9 × 12 = 108 (1 + 0 + 8 = 9)

Notice that the two digits of each answer always add up to make 9,
and that each first digit of the answer is just one less than the
multiple. For example, 9×5=45, the answer will begin with one less than
the multiple 5, and the two digits of the answer must add to make 9,
therefore it can be nothing but 4 and 5, or 45. This is true in all
cases except 9×11 an already known answer, but also only 9's in this
answer. This simple idea, when once understood, will master the table
of 9's.

Be sure that the children realize that 7×4 in the tables of 7's are the
same in value as 4×7, so that the answer to 7×4 becomes familiar with
learning the table of 4's. Ask the question both ways 7×4 and 4×7.


The Tables of Weights and Measures

Some of these we learn easily and always retain; some always seem
confusing. These can be mastered by the use of the Number Code and the
Visual picture combined. Some examples follow:

24 sheets = 1 quire, and 20 quires = one ream. The picture of Two Dozen
Squires in a Nice Room, will fix these figures and terms in mind. Two
Dozen is 24, Squires is a reminder for Quires. Nice is 20 (2 is N and 0
is C) and room a reminder for Ream.

16-1/2 Feet = 1 Rod, 320 Rods = 1 Mile. Picture a Dish and a Half
balanced on a Rod. Dish is your code word for 16 (1 is D and 6 is sh)
and the Half Dish makes 16-1/2 Feet on (in) a Rod. Next--Many's the
Rod in a Mile. Many's is 320 or the number of rods in a mile.

30-1/4 Sq. Yards = 1 Sq. Rod. Picture--MISTER takes a yard stick and
measures off a Sq. Rod. Mister is 3-0-1-4, or 30-1/4.

160 Sq. Rods = 1 Acre. Picture--See a pile of Dishes out in the Acre
being broken up by a rod. Dishes is 160 the number of Sq. Rods in an
Acre.

640 Acres in a Sq. Mile. Picture--Take the Shears and cut up the mile
into squares. Shears is 640, the number of Acres in a Sq. Mile.

792 Inches--1 Link. Picture--792 is Cabin, see the link hanging on the
side of the cabin.

4 Rods = 1 Chain. Picture--See 4 Rods wrapped around with a chain. 80
chains = 1 mile. Your Code Word for 80 is Vase; put a chain around it
and drag it a mile.

A few picture associations like these will help in fixing the difficult
points in mind. Associations which you make yourself will help you
most. Be sure to repeat them at intervals; make them permanent.


Pictures for Answers

Familiarity with the Number Code given in the book on Memory, will
aid the child in keeping the result of a problem. The numbers of the
answer can quickly take the form of an object which can be translated
again into the correct numbers. Many children will not be able to hold
the visual picture of the digits for any length of time. There is
considerable difference in the ability to hold the visual picture of
the digit 127. Many children, and adults, will be far more accurate and
remember longer if they see a TANK, which is easily translated by the
Code into 127, when the answer is wanted.


Learning Rules

The exaggerated example illustrating the rule to be learned, will make
its meaning clear and thus make the problem of learning it many times
simpler than if it is learned as a group of words, the meaning of which
is not always well understood. It is always best to understand the rule
first and learn it afterwards. Use the suggestion given for learning
verbatim and the exaggerated example as given in the suggestions in
spelling. After you understand the rule it will not be difficult to
memorize.


Visualizing Geometry

The Theorem in geometry should have the visual process applied to it in
the same manner. Make a strong picture of the figure which illustrates
it. For example:

     =The square on the hypotenuse of a right angle is equal to the sum
     of the square on the other two sides.=

To visualize the figure, as illustrated, will aid in fixing this
Theorem in mind. Do the same with others. Another example of
emphasizing the important lines as in the Theorem:

Two rectangles are to each other as the products of their bases by
their altitudes.

[Illustration]

In the illustration below the bases and altitudes are emphasized to
remind you of the fact that they are the factors to be dealt with.
Notice that in the first pages of the Geometry all simple figures are
illustrated as explained or defined. Learn to visualize the problem
with your book closed, work until you can see it clearly, and you will
understand it better.

[Illustration]



AIDS IN STUDYING CHEMISTRY


Experiments in Chemistry are its most interesting phase. Let its
problems take form in your visual mind and you will add to the
enjoyment and also the ease of your understanding.

A teacher of this subject, after appreciating the value and ease of
visualization, worked out picture combinations of atoms which helped
him greatly. He could see the two atoms of Hydrogen floating through
the air and combining with the atom of Oxygen and could see the result
of the combination.


Using the Initialing Idea

The ideas which have been given in this and the preceding books can
be applied in many ways to the problems of any subject. There is
no attempt on the part of the author to work out all applications,
but merely to suggest a few possible ones and leave the rest to the
student. Each will think of different methods, and those aids which
each one works out for himself will be most valuable and most easily
recalled.


The Elemental Substances

The six elemental substances of the organic world are: Carbon,
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulphur, which can be
easily remembered by the following: The Organic World--Can Have No
Other Principal Story.

The initials of each of the words following "World" stand for one of
the elements.


Chemical Formulae

Remembering of chemical formulae can be simplified very greatly by
reducing the formulae to an idea using the initialing plan; for
example, the formula for Wood Alcohol is CH3OH. This formula in
itself has no meaning, and is difficult to carry in mind. By using
the initials you can easily make some ideas which will represent this
formula and help you to remember it, as for example: CAT HAD ham ON
HAND. In this formula the C of Cat stands for Carbon, the H of Had
for Hydrogen; Ham being a Code Word for 3 is indicative of 3 atoms of
Hydrogen, and the O. H. is represented by the O and H of On Hand.

The formula for Glycerine is C3H5(OH)3, and can be remembered by the
following idea: COME HEEL O HAM. In this example notice that the first
letter of the word initials the substance and the last letter the
number of atoms by the number code. As COME: C for Carbon, and M for 3.
HEEL: H for Hydrogen, and L for 5. O for Oxygen. HAM: H for Hydrogen,
and M for radicle 3 times. Use whichever method suits you best.

The formula for Carbolic Acid, C6H5OH, or CASH HAUL O, HAY. The formula
for Benzine, C6H6, or CASH HASH.


Hardness of Substances

It is often valuable to know the degree of hardness of different
substances, and these can easily be remembered by the following list.
In degree of relative hardness the list is as follows, the hardest
coming first.

  Diamond
  Corundum
  Topaz
  Quartz
  Iridium
  Apatite
  Bell Metal
  Boric Acid
  Rock Salt
  Kaolin

Take Kaolin as a basis. The number opposite each substance in the
following list indicates its comparative degree of hardness in relation
to Kaolin:

  1  Kaolin      TIE    See tie on Kaolin

  2  Rock Salt   SNOW   Poured over Rock Salt

  3  Boric Acid  HOME   Built of Boric Acid

  4  Bell Metal  WIRE   Swinging a Bell

  5  Apatite     WHEEL  With a big appetite for running

  6  Iridium     SASH   Irritating the wearer

  7  Quartz      EGG    Quartz taken from an Egg

  8  Topaz       IVY    To pass the Ivy

  9  Corundum    WHIP   Made Cora run

  10 Diamond     TOES   Set with Diamonds

In the list you have ten substances. Kaolin, the base, is 1, Rock
Salt is 2, which indicates that Rock Salt is twice as hard as Kaolin.
Iridium is 6, and six times as hard as Kaolin. Diamond is 10, which
means that it is ten times as hard as Kaolin.

Learning this list by picturing reminders with the word of the Code
list will enable you to easily recall these ten substances and the
degree of hardness compared with Kaolin.


Atomic Weight Table

Some students of Chemistry have learned the entire list of elements and
their atomic weights. The following are a few examples of how the list
can be arranged and learned. It will be excellent practice for you to
use this method and make a list of your own.

     Element     Code No.  Reminder       Wt.   Code Word

   1  Carbon      TIE      Carbine      12.005  Tin Sizzle
   2  Hydrogen    SNOW     Hydrant       1.008  The Saucy Foe
   3  Nitrogen    HOME     Night        14.01   Deer Sat
   4  Oxygen      WIRE     Ox           16.0    Dash
   5  Sulphur     WHEEL    Sulphur      32.06   Money Sash
   6  Phosphorus  SASH     Fuss for us  31.04   Mad Sir
   7  Sodium      EGG      Soda         23.0    Nome
   8  Potassium   IVY      Pot          39.1    Mop It
   9  Calcium     WHIP     Calsomine    40.07   Horse Sack
  10  Iron        TOES     I Run        55.84   Lily Fire
  11  Arsenic     DOT      Arson        74.96   Gray Page
  12  Gold        TOWN     Gold        197.2    Dipping In


Learning Foreign Vocabularies

The principle of using a reminder can be applied with advantage in
learning a foreign language. The majority may learn foreign words more
easily and permanently by the Reminder Link. In this case the reminder
is the connecting link between the English word and the foreign word.
Those who usually learn foreign words only by laborious repetition will
find a saving of time in learning by the reminder link.

Spanish words:

  English  Link       Spanish

  cold     freeze     frio
  drink    beer       beber
  written  inscribed  escrito
  sing     cantata    cantar
  full     complete   completo
  sweet    delicious  dulce
  window   ventilate  ventana
  keep     guard      guardar
  sell     vend       vender


Latin Vocabularies

Latin is the base from which most modern languages are derived, and
you will find in English a very large proportion of the words taken
directly from the Latin source. This makes the learning of Latin
Vocabularies simpler than any other.

In a great many cases the word is a direct derivative and needs no
reminder or intermediate step; for example, the Latin word ANIMAL is
the same as in English, although pronounced differently; or Latin:
ORNAMENTUM, and the English ORNAMENT. Be resourceful, draw upon your
imagination. Note the following suggestions:

  English    Reminder    Latin

  boyish     Puerile     puer
  crown      coronation  corona
  free       liberate    liber
  land       terrace     terra
  dog        canine      canis
  think      cogitate    cogito
  mind       mental      mentis (gen.)
  running    current     curro
  pleasing   gratifying  gratus
  soldiers   militia     milites (pl.)
  teaching   doctrine    doceo
  more       majority    maior
  unending   perpetual   perpetus
  shortness  brevity     brevis
  time       temporary   tempora (pl.)
  faith      fidelity    fides

German Vocabularies become very much less difficult if you search for
an intermediate step or reminder:

  English     Link        German

  fork        gobble      gabel
  coffee-pot  coffee-can  kaffekanne
  amusing     comical     komisch
  ancient     old timer   alterthuemlich
  easy        light       leicht
  meat        flesh       fleisch
  writing     scribed     schreiben
  gloves      hand shoe   handschuh
  quilt       bed cover   betdecke
  walking     going       gehen
  stove       oven        ofen
  flowers     blooms      blumen


Studying Music

The visual memory is the best memory for music. Many of the better
musicians who learn music readily and remember it well have the visual
memory. They can see the page, the bar, and the notes in the mind's
eye. This ability can be developed in the child by the use of the
exercises for visualization given in the first book. When the child
begins to study music give part of the time to practice of visualizing
and memorizing music.

First, teach him to visualize a perfect clef. Draw imperfect ones on
paper or slate and have the child tell what is the matter with them.
Draw different notes and have him become thoroughly familiar with them
by reproducing them. Have him draw the whole, half, quarter, and eighth
notes, etc.

Teach the child the division of time by grouping the notes with
reference to beats. Write a line of notes and have him divide them into
groups of whole note value. Then indicate a certain time to be followed
and have him divide other rows of notes into bars in accordance with
the time indicated.

Teach the child the different rests by the same visual process. Have
him write bars of music using the different rests and completing the
bar of given time by filling in with the proper notes. Teach the use of
sharps and flats and the difference in signatures by the same visual
process. Let all practice be simple in the beginning and increase in
complexity as he grows older.

Teach the child to combine the use of the eye and ear in musical
practice. Have him transfer ear impressions to visual ones by seeing
the notes on a staff as he hears the tone. Write a few bars of a
familiar tune and have the child tell what it is.

Another application of the visual memory is to look carefully at the
staff, then close the eyes and see it in the mind's eye, then look
back and correct and improve the picture. Another plan is to see the
staff exaggerated in size, covering the entire wall of the room. This
exaggerated picture can be colored according to the above suggestions.

It will be helpful to take the piece which is to be memorized, and
after fixing the picture of it in mind write it upon a blank staff.
Keep improving this written copy of music, writing only that part of
the score which is seen clearly. These methods will help to improve the
visual ability to carry a picture of the page; and continuous practice
with them will help in improving the ability to memorize in this way.

Be systematic in all your efforts. It is best first to memorize the
words, then the air, then the technical part. A thorough understanding
of the composition and its general plan will be of assistance.

In learning songs apply the principles given in the second book, and
learn the words thoroughly. This will enable you to devote all of your
time and attention to the technical part of the music. When you do not
know the words thoroughly your attention is divided between learning
the technical part of the music and recalling the words. Better master
one thing at a time and do that well.


Speaking in Public

When you have trained your child's memory and created in his mind a
feeling of confidence that he can remember what he wishes to say, there
will be very little embarrassment connected with speaking in public.

Teach the child to use the Hitching Post idea in all matters of public
speaking.

This subject was covered in Book Two and the following sample outline
of the points of a talk "Hitched" to the Code Words will be helpful.

A patriotic speech made after the Declaration of War with Germany.

     1 (Tie)--Volunteering for Service.

     Young men are taking off their ties and waving them in the air
     rushing into the Enlisting Office.

     2 (Snow)--Great Need of Shipbuilders.

     A partly built ship covered with snow which men are shoveling away
     so others can go on with the work.

     3 (Home)--Public Speakers for Propaganda.

     Speakers going from home to home calling out to people and
     addressing them.

     4 (Wire)--Conservation of Food.

     Boxes of food being wound around with wire so that they cannot be
     wasted.

     5 (Wheel)--Stopping Criticism of Government.

     Setting a lot of men gagged and bound upon a large wheel.

     6 (Sash)--Increasing Production.

     Factory boss offering a wide, red, white and blue sash to the
     worker who makes the greatest increase in production.

     7 (Egg)--Lend Your Savings.

     Putting your savings in a large Egg and taking out Liberty Bonds.

Be original and make an effort. You will soon learn that these simple
pictures will recall the points of the talk in the order in which you
have arranged them. The hint is all the mind needs, if it gets the
right start you will be able to say what you wish.


Review Your Studies

An excellent method of mental development is to make a practice of
recalling the occurrences of the day each evening. This is especially
important for students. Time should be taken to sit quietly and
review the facts and ideas of the day's lessons. Here is an excellent
opportunity to urge your mind to think them over for yourself. There
can be little growth of knowledge without independent thinking.

Review as much in detail as possible all of today's lessons before
starting on the new. One reason you do not remember more of what you
see, read, or hear, is that you do not review it. Reviewing carefully
will very largely increase your stock of knowledge. It is not
unreasonable to expect that some of the facts or experiences of the
day's work and lessons will later become as important and valuable as a
business man's papers. He does not hesitate to take time in the middle
of the day to file these papers, or even to carry them to the vault.
Teach the child to take a few minutes in the evening and review the
occurrences of the day and you will be surprised to see his mind begin
to take on the retentive power of a vault.

The necessity of repetition will never be eliminated; it may by better
methods be reduced to a minimum, but cannot disappear entirely. Some
knowledge must be so familiar that it can be used habitually (by the
subconscious mind) without the necessity of conscious effort, and this
cannot become true without repetition.


Review Improves Observation

Another result which is far from unimportant is the fact that this
effort will develop the ability and the inclination to take notice of
things as they transpire. Many examples can be given of the extreme
value of this exercise, as the experiences of Thurlow Weed. He had the
ambition to become a politician, but lacked one necessary requisite--a
retentive memory. The above idea was suggested to him by his wife.
Mr. Weed practiced by recalling to his wife in the evening all the
circumstances and happenings of the day. He was so greatly repaid for
this effort that he continued this for many years. Mr. Weed says,
"I am indebted to this discipline for a memory of unusual tenacity.
I recommend this practice to all men who wish to store up facts and
expect to have much to do in influencing men."


A Word to the Student

The greatest lesson of education is thought. The thing you should
be striving for and working toward is the ability to think clearly,
logically and deeply. One of the greatest aids is the knowledge which
is stored in your brain and which you are all able to recall at will.

Your brain is not like sticking plaster, it is like putty; you must
make an impression of the things you wish to retain. To make these
impressions will always require an effort, no help will ever be devised
which will enable you to remember without effort.

The ideas given to you in this book are aids, and you should become
able to use them as such. The principles of memory are scientifically
accurate and you need to become familiar with them and to use them to
add to your success in study and progress.

Do not be like the carpenter who "is too busy to sharpen his tools," or
like the drowning man who refused to grasp the rope because he feared
it was not strong enough.

Use every idea that proves helpful and apply it in every possible way.
There is no intent to give here all of the applications, but merely
to give principles and to suggest one or two ways in which they have
been used. The applications that are of most value to you are those you
make for yourself. The principles will cover every need, if you will be
resourceful in their use.


Get Out of the Rut

Make an effort. Insist upon your brain waking up and "getting on
the job" and doing its share. The old method of "learning by heart"
requires a maximum of time and mental effort.

This visual method requires only a minimum of time and mental effort.

Time is of the utmost value to you. Dr. James tells us that over
seventy-five per cent of our Mental power is dormant, asleep. Stir
yourself. Put a Maximum of Mental Effort into a Minimum of Time;
develop an accurate and retentive memory--a worthy servant to be at all
times relied upon--the very foundation of your success. You can work
wonders with yourself by intelligent and persistent effort.

The Capacity of the Visual Memory is Unlimited.

Faith is the Atmosphere in which Success lives.

Kill Mental Laziness. It has always been fatal--it is as deadly NOW!


It Can Be Done

  Somebody said that it couldn't be done,
    But he with a chuckle replied,
  That maybe it couldn't, but he would not be one
    To say so until he tried.
  So he buckled right in with a bit of a grin
    On his face; if he worried he hid it,
  He started to sing as he tackled the thing
    That couldn't be done--and he did it.

  Somebody scoffed, "Oh, you'll never do that--
    At least, no one ever has done it,"
  But he took off his coat and he took off his hat,
    And the first thing we knew he'd begun it.
  With a bit of a grin and a lift of his chin
    Without any doubting or quit it
  He started to sing as he tackled the thing
    That couldn't be done--and he did it.

  There are thousands to tell you it cannot be done,
    There are thousands to prophesy failure,
  There are thousands to point out, one by one,
    The dangers that wait to assail you;
  But just buckle in with a bit of a grin,
    Take off your coat and go to it;
  Just start in to sing as you tackle the thing
    That cannot be done--and you'll do it.

                                      --Edgar Guest.

While you are thinking it can't be done--somebody else is doing it.



CHAPTER TWO


In this last chapter will be given applications of the memory
principles which have been made by students. Some will be helpful to
you, others will suggest ideas which you can change and adapt to your
own problems.


Value of Forgetting

Sometimes it is of as great value to be able to forget as it is to be
able to remember. You have seen that each time you review a mental
impression it becomes stronger and more deeply implanted in the brain.
When using your Hitching Post for temporary purposes refuse to see the
pictures after having used them, and your Hitching Posts will be free
for filling any other information.

The unfortunate or embarrassing situations of life which you wish to
eliminate from your mind can be forgotten by the same process. Each
time you allow this circumstance to enter your mind you see again the
conditions which you are trying to forget. This is just the thing you
should not do. Each time you rehearse the subject you drive it deeper
and deeper into your mind.

To forget you must refuse to review or to revisualize. There must
be an utter absence of this circumstance from your mind. This will
require some determination upon your part, and a little application of
WILL POWER, but it is not a difficult thing to accomplish. The best
method of eliminating a troublesome thought is to fill your mind with
a pleasant one. When there is a tendency to recall that which you wish
to forget do not deny it, but rather begin immediately to think of
something entirely different and keep your mind continuously upon the
new thought and the old will be completely eliminated.


To Remember Playing Cards

Those who are interested in card playing will find in the following
idea an excellent method of entertaining friends. It will also prove
valuable in playing certain games, and above all, it is good practice
for the development of your memory.

Remembering all the cards of a shuffled deck in proper order is an
application of the Hitching Post idea and the Number Code. Have a word
to represent each card in the deck, beginning with the first letter of
the series and ending with the Code Letter for the number of the card.
For example HEAD would represent 1 of Hearts, H for Heart, and D the
Code Letter for 1.

In this way the 2 of Hearts would be represented by Honey; the word Hem
would stand for the 3 of Hearts. The word Hero would stand for the 4
of Hearts.

In the same way a list of words may be made to represent the Spade
cards, each word beginning with S to stand for the Spades, and ending
in a letter of the number Code to represent the number of the card.

A similar list may be made for the Club cards, beginning with C for
Clubs and for the Diamond cards beginning with D.

The following list of words has been prepared to cover the entire deck:


Card Words

  Cards  Spades  Hearts  Clubs   Diamonds

  Ace   Seat     Head    Caddy   Dad
   2    Sun      Honey   Coon    Dawn
   3    Seam     Hem     Comb    Dam
   4    Soar     Hero    Cur     Deer
   5    Sail     Heel    Coal    Duel
   6    Sage     Hash    Cage    Ditch
   7    Sack     Hog     Cake    Dyke
   8    Safe     Hive    Cave    Dive
   9    Soup     Hobo    Cap     Daub
  10    Seeds    Hods    Cuts    Deeds
   J    Statute  Heated  Cadet   Dotted
   Q    Stein    Hidden  Cotton  Detain
   K    Steam    Hit'em  Cut'em  Daytime

By use of these words it is not difficult to take a deck of cards
previously shuffled by some one, and to learn the position of each card
in the pack. The first card will be represented by its corresponding
word and visually associated with the first word of the Code List Tie.
For example, the first card you find in the pack is the 6 of Hearts,
which is represented by the word HASH, and you simply make a picture of
a TIE & HASH.

The second card might be the 4 of Clubs, which is represented by the
word Cur, and made into a picture with the second word of the Code
List, Snow.

The third card might be the 3 of Spades, in which case you would make a
picture of Home and SEAM.

In a similar manner proceed to make a visual picture for each card
in the pack, as you come to it, with the following word of your Code
List. Then when you have gone as far as you wish, pick up the cards,
being careful to keep them in the order in which you have learned them,
holding them with their backs to you and their faces to those who are
watching. In order to name the first card simply recall your picture
with Tie which will bring to mind the word HASH, which stands for the 6
of Hearts. The second card will be Snow and CUR for the 4 of Clubs. The
third card will be Home and SEAM or the 3 of Spades.

With practice you will be able to take the fifty-two cards of the
deck. At first it is advisable to take only twenty or twenty-five, so
that you can recall your pictures soon after they have been made. The
more cards you take, the stronger picture you must make to hold it
accurately in mind without review.

     =When the Pictures Is Clear and Vivid the Memory Is Dependable.=


Mastering Robert's Rules of Order

Everyone should be well posted regarding precedence of motion in
Parliamentary Law. You may be called upon to decide such questions at
any time. The worries of officiating in public will be reduced to a
minimum if you will learn the proper sequence of motions through the
following suggestions. It will require but a few minutes to do this.
The following is a list of motions given in the order in which they
take precedence. The motion which has precedence over all others is the
motion, To Fix the Time to Adjourn, and is Number 1. The motion which
takes precedence over all motions, except Number 1, is the motion, To
Adjourn, and is Number 2.


Privileged Motions

   1--To fix the time to adjourn (non-debatable).
   2--To adjourn (non-debatable).
   3--Questions of privilege (debatable).


Incidental Motions

   4--Call for orders of day (non-debatable).
   5--Appeal (debatable).
   6--Objection (non-debatable).
   7--To read paper (non-debatable).
   8--Leave to withdraw motion (non-debatable).
   9--To suspend the rules (non-debatable).


Subsidiary Motions

  10--To lay on the table (non-debatable).
  11--The previous question (non-debatable).
  12--To postpone to a certain day (debatable).
  13--To refer to committee (debatable).
  14--To amend (debatable).
  15--To postpone indefinitely (debatable).
  16--Main or principal motion (debatable).

In order to learn the sequence, it is simply necessary to make a
Reminder Picture of the motion, and Hitch it to the corresponding
number, which of course, must be represented by the words in your Code
List. For this purpose the following pictures are suggested, using the
list of Code Words. The pictures given here are merely suggestions.
Make any pictures which will serve to call the motion to mind.

1--TIE.--To Fix the Time to Adjourn.

See some men seated around a table playing a game of cards. The prize
for the winner is a large red TIE lying on the table. One man points to
the clock and says, "We will play until ten-thirty o'clock, and then go
home." The TIE stands for 1, and the picture suggests fixing the time
to adjourn.

2--SNOW.--To Adjourn.

See some people seated around a dinner table. Their attention is
directed to the fact that it is snowing and they all rise and go home.

3--HOME.--Questions of Privilege.

See some people leaving a meeting and starting HOME, other jumping up
and objecting, raising the question of their privilege to leave.

4--WIRE.--Call for Orders of Day.

See a messenger boy all bound up with WIRE, calling the orders of the
day.

5--WHEEL.--Appeal.

See a man waving a WHEEL to gain attention and calling for an appeal.

6--SASH.--Objection to the Consideration of the Question.

See a member of the assembly pulling another away by a SASH, to keep
him from getting a chance to ask a question which he wishes to have
considered. The first man objects to the consideration of the second
man's question.

7--EGG.--The Reading of Papers.

See an officer taking the papers out of a large EGG shell and reading
them.

8--IVY.--Leave to Withdraw Motion.

See a man reaching over with a piece of IVY and trying to get a copy of
the motion off from the desk.

9--WHIP.--To Suspend the Rules.

See a WHIP dangling a ruler suspended at its end.

10--TOES.--To Lay on the Table.

See a member come up and put his TOES on the table.

11--DOT.--The Previous Question.

See a man trying to cover the previous question with a large DOT.

12--TOWN.--To Postpone to a Certain Day.

See a town with posters all over it, with a large date referring to a
day set for meeting.

13--DIME.--To Refer to Committee.

See a committee standing up in line and a large dime being handed to
them.

14--DEER.--To Amend.

See some hunters trying to mend the DEERS antlers.

15--TOWEL.--To Postpone Indefinitely.

A TOWEL is rolled up and placed on a high shelf, its use is
indefinitely postponed.

16--DISH.--The main or Principal Question.

See a large DISH carried in and put in the middle of the table,
indicating that it is the principal dish.

The question of whether or not these motions are debatable is an
important one. You will notice that each question is marked "debatable"
or "non-debatable." The easiest way to fix this in mind is to take them
in groups. Notice that the motions from 1 to 11 are non-debatable, and
that the motions from 12 to 16 are debatable.

The exceptions to this fact are the motions 3 and 5 which are
debatable. In our Number Code M stands for 3 and L for 5, represent
the motions 3 and 5, by M and L, made into the word MULE. These are
debatable, or can be "kicked" about, which idea is easily associated
with MULE. This will always keep in mind that the only debatable
motions of the first set are the motions Mule.

Another question is, which motions require a two-thirds vote to carry?
They are the motions 6, 9 and 11. These three Numbers are represented
by the words SASH, WHIP and DOT, which can easily be fixed in mind.

Whether the motion, TO LAY ON THE TABLE, or the motion, TO SUSPEND
RULES, should have precedence can be decided by referring to your
pictures. To suspend the Rules brings the picture of the Whip
Suspending the Ruler from a string. To lay on the Table brings the
picture of a man putting his Toes on the Table. Whip is 9 and Toes is
10, therefore you know that to Suspend the Rule has the precedence.


Aids for Bible Students

Many very helpful ideas for Bible study may be worked out by combining
the different principles you have been studying in memory development.
The whole Bible can become one great, moving Panorama. The picture can
contain all the detail which you wish to remember.

     =The More Detail the Picture, the More Complete and Accurate Your
     Memory.=


Books of the Old Testament

The following Reminder Picture story will aid in learning the sequence
of the books of the Old Testament.

  Genesis asked to leave a   number of duties
  Genesis Exodus   Leviticus Numbers   Deuteronomy

  And for Joshua to Judge  Ruth.  Samuel saw Saul
          Joshua    Judges Ruth 1 Samuel   2 Samuel

  First and Second Kings Chronicle   a crisis for Ezra
    1   and    2   Kings 1 Chronicle 2 Chronicles Ezra

  Nehemiah. Esther's Job with Psalms and Proverbs is to
  Nehemiah  Esther   Job      Psalms     Proverbs

  equalize the Songs of Solomon for Isaiah and Jeremiah.
  Ecclesiastes Song  of Solomon     Isaiah     Jeremiah.

  The lamentations of Ezekiel dared  Hosea and Joel
      Lamentations    Ezekiel Daniel Hosea     Joel

  to be a most Obedient Jonah. Micah and Nahum
          Amos Obadiah  Jonah  Micah     Nahum

  had a cook Zephaniah haggard from carrying a
  Habakkuk   Zephaniah Haggai

  sack of rye a mile.
  Zechariah   Malachi.


New Testament

The following story will help in learning the books of the New
Testament.

  Matthew and Mark like the way John acts
  Matthew     Mark Luke         John Acts

  with Romans and one or two Corinthians. The
       Romans      1 and  2  Corinthians

  Galatians at Ephesus   fill a      Colossal
  Galatians    Ephesians Philippians Colossians

  first and second thesis         two  times.
    1   and   2    Thessalonians 1 & 2 Timothy

  When Titus follows men He brews Games for two
       Titus Philemon    Hebrews  James   1 & 2.

  Peters, three Johns and Jude's relation.
  Peter   1,2,3 John      Jude   Revelation.


Location of Passage

The location of a verse can be fixed in mind by the use of Reminders
and the Number Code. For example, remember the idea, "THE APOSTLES MADE
A DOZEN." In this sentence "made" stands for Matthew, "dozen" stands
for 10 and 2; or the Apostles are named in Matthew 10:2.

The names of the Apostles can be easily remembered by the following
Reminder Story:

  Peter and       James join     Philip Bartholomew
  Peter Andrew    James John     Philip Bartholomew

  to make Matthew James Thaddeus Zion's Justice.
  Thomas Matthew  James Thaddeus Simon  Judas.

To remember where to find the Ten Commandments remember the two words
"Extra Nice." Extra is a reminder for Exodus and Nice stands for 20th
Chapter.

The story of the Prodigal Son found in the 15th Chapter of Luke is
easily remembered by the idea, "PRODIGAL SON LOOK DAILY." Look is a
reminder for Luke, and Daily stands for 15th Chapter.

The idea that the fond father looked daily for the Prodigal Son will be
easily remembered.


Rhyme Often Helpful

In every case possible take advantage of the fact that rhyme is easy to
remember. There are many examples of this fact which have aided you in
the past, as for example:

  "Thirty days has September,
  April, June and November," etc.

There are many other common examples. The following is a good
illustration of how information can be arranged in rhyme and thus aid
materially in fixing it in mind.


Grammar by Rhyme

  Three little words you often see
  Are Articles A, AN, THE.

  A Noun's the name of anything.
  As SCHOOL or GARDEN, HOOP or SWING.

  Adjectives tell the kind of noun,
  As GREAT, SMALL, PRETTY, WHITE or BROWN.

  Instead of nouns the Pronouns stand:
  HIS head, HER face, YOUR army, MY hand.

  Verbs tell something to be done:
  To READ, COUNT, LAUGH, SING, JUMP or RUN.

  How things are done the Adverbs tell:
  As SLOWLY, QUICKLY, ILL or WELL.

  Conjunctions join the words together,
  As men AND women, wind OR weather.

  The Preposition stands before
  The noun, as IN or THROUGH the door.

  The Interjection shows surprise,
  As OH! How pretty! AH! How wise!

  The whole are called nine parts of speech
  Which reading, writing, speaking teach.


Learning the Telegraphic Code

An interesting and valuable application of the A, B, C, Hitching Posts
and Visualization is made on the following pages as a basis of learning
the International Code as used by the army and navy.

Many persons have learned the code in a few hours by this method, where
it has taken days to master it by repetition. The Morse Code has only a
few changes and can be learned by the same plan.


The Code in Pyramid Signal Form

     1       2       3         4
  E.        T_       R._.      K_._
  I..       M_ _     L._..     Y_._ _
  S...      O_ _ _   P. _ _.   C_._.
  H....                        X_.._

  A._       N_.      U.._      G_ _.
  W._ _     D_..     F.._.     Z_ _..
  J._ _ _   B_...    V..._     Q_ _._

Note the Pyramid arrangement of the signals in groups of three and
four. Also note that the signals in columns 1 and 3 begin with DOTS,
and those in columns 2 and 4 begin with DASHES. Note that the signals
in the adjacent columns are opposite. A is ._; opposite in the adjacent
column is _. N.

Learn the signals in groups as arranged.

As it is more difficult to translate from signal to letter, the
following instructions are based upon learning from signal to letter.
To learn in this manner will shorten the time necessary in becoming
able to "receive" messages. Follow the instructions closely.


How to Learn the Code

Each DOT or DASH of the signal is to be represented by an object which
you can see or visualize. The alphabet letter is represented by an
Object beginning with that letter.

The signal objects and the letter objects are then grouped into a
picture. This picture visualized and reviewed a few times can easily be
recalled either from letter to signal, or from signal to letter.

In all signals beginning with a DOT or DOTS, the dots are represented
by big Yellow Oranges and the dashes by thick board Planks.

In all signals beginning with a DASH or DASHES, the dashes are
represented by Baseball Bats, and the dots by big red Apples.


Picture Illustration

[Illustration]

A in this picture is represented by an ANT. The dot is represented by
an ORANGE on which the PLANK is resting, the plank represents the dash.
Down the plank walks the Ant. See the picture and the motion of the Ant
walking on the plank. See all pictures large in size and in motion. To
close your eyes will help you to see the picture clearly. In each case
make a large Moving Cartoon of the objects. Review by seeing the same
picture each time.

ANT--ORANGE--PLANK, ._ is A.

B is Honey Bee, with a BAT (dash) batting three APPLES (dots) along the
ground. See the BEE--BAT--APPLE--APPLE--APPLE. _... is B.

C is a Cannon out of which is being shot a BAT (dash),
an APPLE (dot), a BAT (dash) and an APPLE (dot). See the
CANNON--BAT--APPLE--BAT--APPLE. _._. is C.

In the same manner see clearly the pictures described for the code
signals following.

. E, an Orange balanced on the smokestack of an Engine, . is E.

.. I, two Oranges rolled at an Ink bottle. See ink spilled on the
oranges, .. is I.

... S, three Oranges sticking in a Snowdrift. See bright yellow
oranges, ... is S.

.... H, four Oranges, one between each of the fingers of your Hand,
.... is H.

._ A, an Orange, a Plank, and an Ant, as pictured above.

._ _ W, an Orange with two Planks leaning on it, a Wolf runs up one
plank and down the other, ._ _ is W.

._ _ _ J, a Jockey picks up a big yellow Orange and carries it across
the street by walking upon three Planks laid zig-zag, ._ _ _ is J.

._. R, an Orange on each end of a Plank, a Rat is carrying the Plank in
his mouth, ._. is R.

._.. L, an Orange on the left end of a Plank and two Oranges on the
other end, all are balanced on the back of a lamb, ._.. is L.

._ _. P, an Orange placed on the ground by a Pig, he then walks across
two Planks and places an Orange at the other end, ._ _. is P.

.._ U, two Oranges floating on the sea, up comes a U-boat, pushes them
apart and crashes into a Plank, .._ is U.

.._. F, two Oranges left on the end of a Plank and one on the other
end, a Fire burns the Plank in two, see the Oranges roll into the Fire,
.. _. is F.

(Note the difference in location of the two oranges in L and F.)

..._ V, three Oranges hanging on a Vine, you take a Plank and knock
them off, ..._ is V.

_ T, a Bat used for pounding Tea leaves, _ is T.

_ _ M, two Bats being swung in the air by a wild Monkey, _ _ is M.

_ _ _ O, three Bats stacked on end, along comes an Owl and carries them
away, _ _ _ is O.

_. N, a Bat being used to knock an Apple from a tree by a Nun, _. is N.

_.. D, a Bat used to bat two Apples against a Door, _.. is D.

_... B, a Bat and three Apples pictured with a Bee, as given above,
_... is B.

_._ K, a Bat sticking on one side of a Kettle and a big Apple between
it and another Bat on the other side of the kettle, _._ is K.

_._ _ Y, a Bat used to bat an Apple into the YMCA hut, two fellows
inside pick up two more Bats and swing at the Apple as it passes, _._ _
is Y.

_._. C, a Bat, an Apple, a Bat and an Apple, pictured with a Cannon
above, _._. is C.

_.._ X, a Bat, two Apples and a Bat laid out upon a table to be
photographed by an X-Ray machine, _.._ is X.

_ _. G, two Bats leaning together with an Apple placed on top, along
comes a Goose and grabs the Apple, _ _. is G.

_ _.. Z, two Bats with two Apples tied on the other end and swung over
the back of a Zebra, the Bats on one side, the Apples on the other, _
_.. is Z.

_ _._ Q, two Bats and an Apple roll into a Quilt and swung on the end
of another Bat to carry over your shoulder, _ _._ is Q.

Go over the pictures a section at a time as pyramided. See them in
large size and in motion. Do this several times. Have some one call
the signal to you. See the ORANGES and PLANKS, or the BATS and APPLES
and the picture they form. The object pictured with them brings the
corresponding letter to you.

Note that all signals beginning with a DOT are pictured with ORANGES
and PLANKS. All signals beginning with a DASH are pictured with BATS
and APPLES.

By this simple method you are guided at once to your picture. When this
signal is given .._ at once you know it is two oranges and a plank.
This brings the picture of the U-boat dashing between the oranges and
striking the plank. After a few repetitions the process will become
instantaneous.

Go over the alphabet forward and backward and in each case SEEING and
speaking the object used to represent the letter. Thus:

  A--Ant
  B--Bee
  C--Cannon
  D--Door
  E--Engine
  F--Fire
  G--Goose
  H--Hand
  I--Ink
  J--Jockey
  K--Kettle
  L--Lamb
  M--Monkey
  N--Nun
  O--Owl
  P--Pig
  Q--Quilt
  R--Rat
  S--Snow
  T--Tea
  U--U-Boat
  V--Vine
  W--Wolf
  X--X-Ray
  Y--YMCA
  Z--Zebra

For practice go over the alphabet and see the object and picture of the
signal. Thus, A is Ant, see the ant walking down the plank which is
resting on the orange. Repeat the signal A ._ Orange, Plank. Do this a
few times till all pictures are clear and come quickly.

Let all your alphabetical practice be by seeing the picture and
speaking the signal. Thus, A, see the picture and speak the signal,
Dot, Dash.

See to it that most of your practice is from signal to letter. This is
"receiving" and requires the most practice.

In your odd moments go over signals, thus, _ _._ two bats, an apple and
a bat (wrapped in a Quilt) Q.

._ _ an orange and two planks (the Wolf walks over) W.

     =Pictures insure accuracy, depend upon the picture. Practice is
     the only possible method for developing speed.=


The Knight's Tour

Chess players find a great deal of interest and amusement in being able
to remember the moves necessarily made by the Knight in touring the
board, stopping once on each square, and never more than once on any
square.

One of our great mathematicians put in a great deal of time working out
the proper moves of the Knight in touring the board in this manner. It
is a simple matter for the memory student to keep in mind the necessary
moves in their proper order. This would be an almost impossible feat
without the aid of your number code, as there are sixty-four different
moves to be made by the Knight in this tour.

The problem is to call from memory each move of the Knight, beginning
either at square No. 1, or in fact any square of the board. Notice
that the squares are numbered from 1 to 64, each row of squares always
numbering from left to right. The following cut illustrates the method
of moves. The Knight always moves two squares in one direction, and one
in the other, indicated by a diagonal line drawn from 1 to 11, and from
11 to 5. Thus you will see, beginning with square No. 1 that the move
of the Knight will be as follows:

     1, 11, 5, 15, 32, 47, 64, 54, 60, 50, 35, 41, 26, 9, 3, 13, 7, 24,
     39, 56, 62, 45, 30, 20, 37, 22, 28, 38, 21, 36, 19, 25, 10, 4, 14,
     8, 23, 40, 55, 61, 51, 57, 42, 59, 53, 63, 48, 31, 16, 6, 12, 2,
     17, 34, 49, 43, 58, 52, 46, 29, 44, 27, 33, 18 and back to 1.

[Illustration]

To remember these moves in their proper order is an excellent
application of the Hitching Post idea, and use of the Code List
representing the moves in consecutive order as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and
any word with it that will represent the number of the square to which
the Knight is to move. The list following begins with the first square
as the starting place:

  Tie   and  Hut     Town   and  Riot
  Snow  and  Dude    Dime   and  Hinge
  Home  and  Owl     Deer   and  Ape
  Wire  and  Doll    Towel  and  Ham
  Wheel and  Maine   Ditch  and  Team
  Sash  and  Rug     Duck   and  Oak
  Egg   and  Cherry  Taffy  and  Snare
  Ivy   and  Lawyer  Depot  and  Imp
  Whip  and  Chess   Nose   and  Latch
  Toes  and  Lace    Net    and  China
  Dot   and  Mill    Nun    and  Reel

Follow on through the sixty-four moves using the code words for the
sequence of the move and any words you wish that stand for the number
of the squares on the board.

When you have pictured all the objects together, the first object will
keep the sequence of the moves clearly in mind, and the second will
reveal the number of the square to which the Knight is to move. You can
very quickly go over the pictures and give the moves of the Knight.
The first move, Tie, begins with Hut or square No. 1. The second move,
Snow, is Dude or square 11; the third move, Home, is Owl, or square 5;
the fourth move, Wire, is Doll, or square 15; the fifth move, Wheel, is
Maine, or square 32. Each move is represented by the picture which you
have with the succeeding word of your code list.

As soon as you are familiar with these pictures you can begin with any
square designated. If you are asked to begin with square 24 you know
that 24 is Snare, which is pictured with Taffy. Taffy is 18, so you
begin with the 18th move.


Knight's Tour by Story

Another method of following the Knight's tour is to learn the following
story, the words of which are based upon the Number Code, each word
giving the number of the square to which the Knight should move next.
The story begins with the square 1. After you have learned the story,
go over it and instead of saying the words, speak the number of the
square as represented by the word of the story. This first sentence
is an example: The TIDE IS LOW, a TALL MAN is ROWING. These words
represent the following figures: 1, 11, 5, 15, 32, 47.

First learn the story, then practice until you are able to go over
the whole thing and speak the figures 1, 11, 5, etc. After you are
thoroughly acquainted with the number values of the words you can
allow the persons looking on to select any square on the board as the
starting place. For instance, if square 32 should be selected you would
know that the word MAN stands for 32, and so you would begin with MAN.
The next move would be the next word, ROWING (47), and so on through
the story. When you come to the end of the story you must go back to
the beginning and work forward to the word MAN, so as to cover the
entire board.

To learn the Knight's tour is excellent training, and gives you an
excellent method of entertaining your friends, as they will scarcely
believe it possible that you can remember the 64 moves without error.


The Story for the Knight's Tour

  The Tide is Low a Tall Man is Rowing. A Cheery
   1   11      5     15   32      47        64

  Lawyer Chose Lazy Mollie Reed. A Hinge By My Team.
    54     60   50    35    41      26    9  3  13

  A Key Near a Mop. A Slouchy Jane Roll a Mouse to a
     7   24     39      56     62   45     30

  Nice Meek Nun. Knave Move Not so Much Stop as a
   20   37   22   28    38   21     36   19

  Snail Does. Her Dear Foe Nome, Rose Slyly Shot Lead
    25   10    4   14   8   23    40   55    61   51

  Like Rainy Slop. A Lame Chum Arrive Mad as Dutch.
   57   42    59      53   63    48    31      16

  Joe Dine Now, Take More Ripe Rum. A Live Lion Rush
   6   12   2    27   34   49   43     58   52   46

  a Snob. Warrior Sneak Mama a Dove.
     29     44      27   33     18


A Last Word

"Memory is the foundation without which there can be no structure of
knowledge." On the other hand, there can be a good foundation and very
little structure. The story is told of a fool who was placed under the
charge of a country clergyman. The young fellow would sit in church on
the Sabbath and was able to remember almost every word of the sermon.
He could tell afterwards, where every one sat, and what they wore, but
he was good for very little of anything else.

A reporter in the House of Commons could sit for hours without taking
notes and write the full speeches for his paper, but he had very poor
judgment and was an utter failure in life.

Do not neglect the development of your memory, but do not go to the
extreme, so that you neglect other factors of mentality and character.
Strive always to gain a fully rounded education and development.
Develop the Common Senses; make them keen, alert and useful, and you
will not lack in Common Sense.

Great buildings, great characters, great minds and great memories are
not built in a day. But a few minutes a day of persistent effort will
win. In the words of Michael Angelo:

"Trifles make perfection, but perfection is no trifle."



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:


  Italicized words are surrounded with underscores: _italics_
  Emboldened words are surrounded with equals signs: =bold=

  There are inconsistencies in the Table of Contents regarding chapters
    and sections, as well as incorrect page references. The Table of
    Contents is presented as it appears in the original with page
    references corrected.

  Obvious spelling and punctuation errors have been standardized.





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