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Title: Historical Record of the Sixth, or Inniskilling Regiment of Dragoons - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in 1689, and of Its Subsequent Services to 1846
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE SIXTH, OR INNISKILLING REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS:

Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in 1689,
and of Its Subsequent Services to 1846.

Compiled by

RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.

Adjutant General's Office, Horse-Guards.

Illustrated with Plates of the Guidons, and of the Uniform
in 1742, 1825, and 1843.



London:
Parker, Furnivall, & Parker,
30, Charing Cross.

M DCCC XLVII.

London:--Printed by W. Clowes & Sons, Duke Street, Stamford Street,
for Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars, viz.,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of
  Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the
  Enemy, specifying the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce,
and where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been
undisturbed by the _presence of war_, which few other countries
have escaped, comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of
active service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even
during peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the
globe, with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to every thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the
valiant,--the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen,--our brothers,--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION.


The ancient Armies of England were composed of Horse and Foot; but
the feudal troops established by William the Conqueror in 1086,
consisted almost entirely of Horse. Under the feudal system, every
holder of land amounting to what was termed a "knight's fee," was
required to provide a charger, a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield,
and a lance, and to serve the Crown a period of forty days in
each year at his own expense; and the great landholders had to
provide armed men in proportion to the extent of their estates;
consequently the ranks of the feudal Cavalry were completed with
men of property, and the vassals and tenants of the great barons,
who led their dependents to the field in person.

In the succeeding reigns the Cavalry of the Army was composed
of Knights (or men at arms) and Hobiliers (or horsemen of
inferior degree); and the Infantry of spears and battle-axe men,
cross-bowmen, and archers. The Knights wore armour on every part
of the body, and their weapons were a lance, a sword, and a small
dagger. The Hobiliers were accoutred and armed for the light and
less important services of war, and were not considered qualified
for a charge in line. Mounted Archers[1] were also introduced, and
the English nation eventually became pre-eminent in the use of the
bow.

About the time of Queen Mary the appellation of "_Men at Arms_"
was changed to that of "_Spears_ and _Launces_." The introduction
of fire-arms ultimately occasioned the lance to fall into disuse,
and the title of the Horsemen of the first degree was changed to
"_Cuirassiers_." The Cuirassiers were armed _cap-à-pié_, and their
weapons were a sword with a straight narrow blade and sharp point,
and a pair of large pistols, called petronels; and the Hobiliers
carried carbines. The Infantry carried pikes, matchlocks, and
swords. The introduction of fire-arms occasioned the formation of
Regiments armed and equipped as infantry, but mounted on small
horses for the sake of expedition of movement, and these were
styled "_Dragoons_;" a small portion of the military force of the
kingdom, however, consisted of this description of troops.

The formation of the present Army commenced after the Restoration
in 1660, with the establishment of regular corps of Horse and Foot;
the Horsemen were cuirassiers, but only wore armour on the head
and body; and the Foot were pikemen and musketeers. The arms which
each description of force carried, are described in the following
extract from the "Regulations of King Charles II.," dated 5th May,
1663:--

  "Each Horseman to have for his defensive armes, back, breast, and
  pot; and for his offensive armes, a sword, and a case of pistolls,
  the barrels whereof are not to be und^r. foorteen inches in
  length; and each Trooper of Our Guards to have a carbine besides
  the aforesaid armes. And the Foote to have each souldier a sword,
  and each pikeman a pike of 16 foote long and not und^r.; and each
  musqueteer a musquet with a collar of bandaliers, the barrell
  of which musquet to be about foor foote long, and to conteine a
  bullet, foorteen of which shall weigh a pound weight[2]."

The ranks of the Troops of Horse were at this period composed of
men of some property--generally the sons of substantial yeomen:
the young men received as recruits provided their own horses,
and they were placed on a rate of pay sufficient to give them a
respectable station in society.

On the breaking out of the war with Holland in the spring of 1672,
a Regiment of Dragoons was raised[3]; the Dragoons were placed on
a lower rate of pay than the Horse, and the Regiment was armed
similar to the Infantry, excepting that a limited number of the
men carried halberds instead of pikes, and the others muskets and
bayonets; and a few men in each troop had pistols; as appears by a
warrant dated the 2nd of April, 1672, of which the following is an
extract:--

  "CHARLES R.

  "Our will and pleasure is, that a Regiment of Dragoones which
  we have established and ordered to be raised, in twelve Troopes
  of fourscore in each beside officers, who are to be under the
  command of Our most deare and most intirely beloved Cousin Prince
  Rupert, shall be armed out of Our stoares remaining within Our
  office of the Ordinance, as followeth; that is to say, three
  corporalls, two serjeants, the gentlemen at armes, and twelve
  souldiers of each of the said twelve Troopes, are to have and
  carry each of them one halbard, and one case of pistolls with
  holsters; and the rest of the souldiers of the several Troopes
  aforesaid, are to have and to carry each of them one match-locke
  musquet, with a collar of bandaliers, and also to have and to
  carry one bayonet[4], or great knive. That each lieutenant have
  and carry one partizan; and that two drums be delivered out for
  each Troope of the said Regiment[5]."

Several regiments of Horse and Dragoons were raised in the first
year of the reign of King James II.; and the horsemen carried a
short carbine[6] in addition to the sword and pair of pistols: and
in a Regulation dated the 21st of February, 1687, the arms of the
Dragoons at that period were commanded to be as follows:--

  "The Dragoons to have snaphanse musquets, strapt, with bright
  barrels of three foote eight inches long, cartouch-boxes,
  bayonetts, granado pouches, buckets, and hammer-hatchetts."

After several years' experience, little advantage was found to
accrue from having Cavalry Regiments formed almost exclusively for
engaging the enemy on foot; and, the Horse having laid aside their
armour, the arms and equipment of Horse and Dragoons were so nearly
assimilated, that there remained little distinction besides the
name and rate of pay. The introduction of improvements into the
mounting, arming, and equipment of Dragoons rendered them competent
to the performance of every description of service required of
Cavalry; and, while the long musket and bayonet were retained, to
enable them to act as Infantry, if necessary, they were found to be
equally efficient, and of equal value to the nation, as Cavalry,
with the Regiments of Horse.

In the several augmentations made to the regular Army after the
early part of the reign of Queen Anne, no new Regiments of Horse
were raised for permanent service; and in 1746 King George II.
reduced three of the old Regiments of Horse to the quality and pay
of Dragoons; at the same time, His Majesty gave them the title of
First, Second, and Third Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_: and in
1788 the same alteration was made in the remaining four Regiments
of Horse, which then became the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh
Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_.

At present there are only three Regiments which are styled _Horse_
in the British Army, namely, the two Regiments of Life Guards,
and the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, to whom cuirasses have
recently been restored. The other Cavalry Regiments consist of
Dragoon Guards, Heavy and Light Dragoons, Hussars, and Lancers;
and although the long musket and bayonet have been laid aside by
the whole of the Cavalry, and the Regiments are armed and equipped
on the principle of the old Horse (excepting the cuirass), they
continue to be styled Dragoons.

The old Regiments of Horse formed a highly respectable and
efficient portion of the Army, and it is found, on perusing the
histories of the various campaigns in which they have been engaged,
that they have, on all occasions, maintained a high character for
steadiness and discipline as well as for bravery in action. They
were formerly mounted on horses of superior weight and physical
power, and few troops could withstand a well-directed charge of
the celebrated British Horse. The records of these corps embrace a
period of 150 years--a period eventful in history, and abounding in
instances of heroism displayed by the British troops when danger
has threatened the nation,--a period in which these Regiments have
numbered in their ranks men of loyalty, valour, and good conduct,
worthy of imitation.

Since the Regiments of Horse were formed into Dragoon Guards,
additional improvements have been introduced into the constitution
of the several corps; and the superior description of horses now
bred in the United Kingdom, enables the commanding officers to
remount their regiments with such excellent horses, that, whilst
sufficient weight has been retained for a powerful charge in line,
a lightness has been acquired, which renders them available for
every description of service incident to modern warfare.

The orderly conduct of these Regiments in quarters has gained the
confidence and esteem of the respectable inhabitants of the various
parts of the United Kingdom in which they have been stationed;
their promptitude and alacrity in attending to the requisitions of
the magistrates in periods of excitement, and the temper, patience,
and forbearance which they have evinced when subjected to great
provocation, insult, and violence from the misguided populace,
prove the value of these troops to the Crown, and to the Government
of the country, and justify the reliance which is reposed on them.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] In the 14th year of the reign of Edward IV. a small force was
established in Ireland by Parliament, consisting of 120 Archers on
horseback, 40 Horsemen, and 40 Pages.

[2] Military Papers, State Paper Office.

[3] This Regiment was disbanded after the Peace of 1674.

[4] This appears to be the first introduction of _bayonets_ into
the English Army.

[5] State Paper Office.

[6] The first issue of carbines to the regular Horse appears
to have taken place in 1684; the Life Guards, however, carried
carbines from their formation in 1660.--_Vide_ the 'Historical
Record of the Life Guards.'



  THE SIXTH,

  OR

  THE INNISKILLING DRAGOONS,

  BEAR, AS A REGIMENTAL BADGE,

  THE CASTLE OF INNISKILLING;

  WITH THE WORD "_INNISKILLING_" UNDERNEATH,
  COMMEMORATIVE OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH THE
  REGIMENT WAS FORMED IN 1689;

  ALSO THE WORD

  "WATERLOO,"

  AS A TESTIMONY OF THEIR DISTINGUISHED GALLANTRY
  AT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO,
  ON THE 18th OF JUNE,

  1815.



CONTENTS.


  Year                                                        Page

        The circumstances which gave rise to the Formation
          of the Regiment                                        1

  1688  The Revolution                                           3

  ----  The people of Inniskilling and Londonderry oppose
          the proceedings of King James II., and refuse
          admittance to his troops                               4

  1689  Various Skirmishes--the Siege of Londonderry             6

  ----  Battle of Newton Butler                                 12

  ----  The Sixth, or Inniskilling Regiment of Dragoons,
          embodied                                              13

  ----  Siege of Londonderry raised                             --

  ----  The Regiment joins the Army under Duke Schomberg        14

  1690  Placed on the establishment of the Regular Army         16

  ----  Capture of Belturbet--Action at Cavan                   17

  ----  Action at Butler's Bridge                               19

  ----  Capture of the Castles of Killeshandra and Ballingargy  20

  ----  Battle of the Boyne                                     21

  ----  Detached against Athlone--Siege of Limerick             25

  1691  Capture of Ballymore and Athlone                        26

  ----  Battle of Aghrim                                        --

  ----  Capture of Galway                                       27

  ----  Services before Sligo                                   28

  ----  Surprised at Coloony                                    29

  ----  Termination of the War in Ireland                       31

  1708  The Regiment embarks for England                        33

  1709  Marches to Scotland                                     --

  1713  Returns to England                                      --

  1714  Stationed in Scotland                                   --

  1715  Battle of Dumblain                                      34

  1728  Marches to England                                      37

  1729  Returns to Scotland                                     --

  1733  Stationed in England                                    --

  1742  Embarks for Flanders                                    39

  1743  Battle of Dettingen                                     40

  1745  ---- ---- Fontenoy                                      43

  1746  ---- ---- Roucoux                                       45

  1747  ---- ---- Val                                           46

  1748  Returns to England                                      48

  1751  Description of the Uniform and Guidons                  49

  1755  A Light Troop added                                     51

  1758  Expedition to St. Maloes                                53

  ----  ---- ---- Cherbourg                                     54

  ----  Embarks for Germany                                     --

  1759  Battle of Minden                                        56

  ----  Action at Wetter                                        57

  1760  Battle of Warbourg                                      58

  ----  Skirmish near Zierenberg                                60

  ----  Surprise at Zierenberg                                  --

  ----  Battle of Campen                                        61

  1761  ---- ---- Kirch-Denkern                                 62

  1762  ---- ---- Groebenstien                                  63

  1763  Returns to England                                      64

  ----  Light troop disbanded, and eight men per troop, of
          the heavy troops, equipped as Light Dragoons          --

  1764  Alterations in the equipment                            --

  1765  Stationed in Scotland                                   --

  1766  ---- ---- England                                       --

  1767  Reviewed by King George III.                            65

  1711  Stationed in Scotland                                   65

  1772  ---- ---- England                                       --

  1776  ---- ---- Scotland                                      66

  1777  ---- ---- England                                       --

  1779  Men equipped as Light Dragoons incorporated in the
          Twentieth Regiment of Light Dragoons                  67

  1793  Embarks for Flanders                                    68

  ----  Covering the Siege of Valenciennes                      69

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ---- Dunkirk                             --

  ----  Action at Menin                                         70

  1794  ---- ---- Vaux                                          71

  ----  Covering the Siege of Landrécies                        --

  ----  Battle of Cateau                                        --

  ----  ---- ---- Tournay                                       72

  ----  Action at Bauvines                                      73

  ----  Retreat through Holland to Germany                      74

  1795  Returns to England                                      77

  1798  Reviewed by King George III.                            78

  1808  Stationed in Scotland                                   79

  1809  Embarks for Ireland                                     --

  1814  Returns to England                                      --

  1815  Embarks for Flanders                                    80

  ----  Battle of Waterloo                                      83

  ----  Advances to Paris                                       89

  1816  Returns to England                                      90

  1818  Stationed in Scotland                                   --

  1819  Embarks for Ireland                                     --

  1821  Stationed at Dublin, on the occasion of the Visit
          of King George IV. to Ireland                         --

  1823  Embarks for Scotland                                    91

  1824  Stationed in England                                    --

  1829  Embarks for Ireland                                     --

  1833  Stationed in Scotland                                   92

  1834  ---- ---- England                                       --

  1838  Stationed in Ireland                                    92

  1841  ---- ---- England                                       93

  1842  ---- ---- Scotland, and furnishes the Royal Escorts
          on the Visit of Queen Victoria to Edinburgh, &c       --

  1843  Marches to England                                      --

  1846  Embarks for Ireland                                     95

        The Conclusion                                          --

        Succession of Lieutenant-Colonels                       96


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  1689  Sir Albert Cunningham                                   97

  1691  Robert Echlin                                           98

  1715  John Earl of Stair, K.T.                                --

  1734  Charles Lord Cadogan                                   100

  1743  John Earl of Stair, K.T.                               101

  1745  John Earl of Rothes                                     --

  1750  The Honourable James Cholmondeley                      102

  1775  Edward Harvey                                          103

  1778  James Johnston                                         104

  1797  George A. Earl of Pembroke, K.G.                       106

  1827  The Honourable Sir William Lumley, G.C.B.              107

  1840  Sir Joseph Stratton, K.C.H                              --

  ----  Sir George Pownall Adams, K.C.H.                       108


PLATES.

  Guidons of the Regiment                             to face    1

  Uniform of 1742                                        "      39

  Uniform of 1815                                        "      80

  Uniform of 1843                                        "      95


[Illustration: Colours of the Sixth (Inniskilling) Dragoons.

  [To face page 1.]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE SIXTH,

OR,

THE INNISKILLING REGIMENT

OF

DRAGOONS.


The circumstances under which the formation of the SIXTH, OR THE
INNISKILLING REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS, took place, derived their origin
from the political events of the reign of King James II., and from
the diversity of religious sentiments entertained by His Majesty's
subjects in Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1172]

[Sidenote: 1370]

[Sidenote: 1534]

[Sidenote: 1660]

[Sidenote: 1684]

In the twelfth century (1172) Ireland, which had been divided into
a number of independent states, of which Munster, Leinster, Meath,
Ulster, and Connaught were principal sovereignties, submitted to
the authority of the English monarch Henry II. The religion of the
people was the Roman Catholic, the same as generally prevailed
in other parts of Europe; but two centuries afterwards, the
introduction of the reformed religion commenced (1370), and was
completed in England in 1534, in the reign of Henry VIII.; it,
however, made little progress in Ireland, where the majority of the
inhabitants continued Roman Catholics. The English, having embraced
the Protestant religion, extended their reformed ecclesiastical
institutions to Ireland, where many Protestant families fixed their
residence and obtained possessions. The differences in religion,
unfortunately, created hostile feelings between the English and
Irish; commotions occurred, and a military establishment was
found necessary. This consisted of various numbers at different
periods: after the Restoration in 1660, the Army of Ireland was
composed of twenty troops of horse, a regiment of foot guards, and
seventy companies of foot; which were formed into three regiments
of cavalry and eight of infantry, including the (Irish) foot
guards[7], in 1684. In the following year King James II. ascended
the throne, and instead of overlooking the nominal distinctions
among his subjects, and seeking to promote the welfare of all,
he commenced his endeavours to re-establish the Roman Catholic
religion in the three kingdoms, by the most arbitrary proceedings
in Ireland. Opposite views and interests were thus brought into
collision; evil passions were called forth, which produced effects
contrary to those designed, and the results embroiled Ireland in
intestine war, and involved many families in misery. The King
also commenced arbitrary proceedings in England, where a number
of noblemen and gentlemen of property and influence, united in
soliciting the Prince of Orange to come to England with an army to
aid them in opposing the measures of the Court.

[Sidenote: 1688]

In the autumn of 1688 the Prince of Orange prepared an armament
for England, when the army in Ireland was augmented with men of
the Roman Catholic religion, who, not obtaining regular pay, were
permitted to seize on the property of Protestants for subsistence:
persecutions were also commenced against the latter, and a report
was circulated of a design to massacre all persons of the reformed
religion, on a named day, when many families fled to England, and
others prepared to defend themselves.

Appearing on the western coast of England, as the supporter of
civil and religious liberty, the Prince of Orange landed his army
on the 5th of November; he was welcomed by the people,--joined
by many noblemen,--by officers of rank and distinction, and by a
number of soldiers, and he advanced by triumphant marches to the
capital, where his arrival was celebrated with public rejoicings:
King James vacated the throne, and escaped to France.

These events afforded the strongest encouragement to the
Protestants of Ireland to make a bold resistance to the proceedings
of their opponents, and to join in the same REVOLUTION which
had secured the blessings of a constitutional monarchy, and of
religious liberty, for England. The principles of self-defence
stimulated them to make a daring effort for the preservation of
their liberties, in the hope of being aided from England; and from
the opposition thus made to illegal aggression, the SIXTH, OR THE
INNISKILLING, REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS, derived its origin.

The city of LONDONDERRY, so called in consequence of a number
of Londoners having settled there in the reign of James I., was
garrisoned by Lord Montjoy's regiment, which had many Protestants
in it: this corps was ordered to march towards Dublin, and the Earl
of Antrim's newly-raised corps, all Catholics, was expected to be
ready to take charge of the garrison; but some delay occurring, a
town guard was organised; and when the Earl of Antrim's regiment
approached, it was refused admittance: the gates of the city were
closed on the 7th of December, and the most determined resistance
evinced by the inhabitants, who were encouraged by David Cairnes,
Esq., of Knockmany, and other zealous gentlemen.

About the same period the inhabitants of INNISKILLING refused to
allow two companies of Sir Thomas Newcomen's regiment to enter
their town. Thus two important places were preserved from the power
of the adherents of King James, and a military force was organised
for their protection. Gustavus Hamilton, Esq., was elected governor
of Inniskilling, and colonel of the troops of horse and companies
of foot formed there, and Thomas Lloyd, Esq., lieutenant-colonel.
Colonel Lundy was governor of Londonderry, situate about fifty-five
English miles from Inniskilling. The Protestant inhabitants of the
north of Ireland enrolled themselves for their mutual defence;
but those who fell into the power of the adherents of King James
were deprived of their arms and property, and treated with great
severity.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The early part of the year 1689 was spent in active preparations
for defence: a corps of horse, another of dragoons, and eight
battalions of foot were formed, and applications were forwarded to
England for military stores.

In February, the Prince and Princess of Orange were elevated to
the throne, by the title of King William and Queen Mary, and their
accession was proclaimed at Inniskilling on the 11th of March.
On the following day King James landed at Kinsale from France;
he was accompanied by five thousand French troops, and made his
public entry into Dublin on the 24th of March, three days after the
accession of William and Mary had been proclaimed at Londonderry.

In the mean time several encounters had taken place between the
forces of King James and the newly-raised Protestant corps in the
north of Ireland, in which many of the latter were overpowered;
but the Inniskilling men were conspicuous for personal bravery,
which they evinced on several occasions, and by their valour they
preserved themselves from many of the calamities which befel
others. On the approach of Lord Galmoy with a detachment of King
James's army, the country people, fearing a general massacre, fled
with their cattle and effects to Inniskilling. King James's troops
besieged _Crom Castle_; but were driven from before the place with
loss; and a party of his dragoons was seized at Armagh; a most
gallant action was performed by two troops of horse and three
companies of foot, under Mr. Matthew Anketill, by which _Monaghan
Castle_ was preserved; and on the 12th of March Lord Blayney
defeated a body of the Irish at _Ardtray bridge_. The success was,
however, not always on one side: Captain Henry Hunter and a band of
armed Protestants were surprised and destroyed, near Comber; and
a party of Inniskilling men were slaughtered on the banks of the
_Aughaclane_.

The army of King James advanced against _Londonderry_, to which
city the Protestants of that part of the country fled as to their
last refuge, and they defended the place with heroic gallantry
against the numerous army by which it was besieged.

Colonels Thomas Cunningham and Solomon Richards arrived at Lough
Foyle in the middle of April, with their regiments, the ninth and
seventeenth foot, for the support of Derry; but in consequence
of the misrepresentations of the governor, Colonel Lundy, who
stated that there was not provision in the town for more than ten
days, and that an army of 25,000 men was near the gates, they
returned to England. The governor and town-council were desirous
of surrendering; but when King James approached the town with
his army, the garrison broke through all restraint--fired on
the besieging force, killed several men, threatened to hang the
governor and council for tampering with the enemy, and declared
their resolution to defend the place to the last extremity. The
governor escaped in disguise; a new council was chosen; and the
Reverend George Walker and Major Thomas Baker were nominated
joint-governors during the siege.

The attack made by the army of King James having been repulsed,
the town was invested on the 20th of April. The garrison of
LONDONDERRY consisted of seven thousand untrained countrymen,
without engineers; the town was not well fortified; twenty guns
only were on the walls, and not one of them well mounted; yet
the city was successfully defended, for more than three months,
against a formidable army, which proves how much depends on bravery
and resolution. The garrison made several gallant sorties, and
inflicted severe loss on the besieging troops.

Meanwhile the INNISKILLING men under Gustavus Hamilton were not
inactive. Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd made a successful incursion
into the enemy's quarters, took and burnt the fortifications of
_Augher_, and returned to Inniskilling with an immense number of
cattle. The same officer routed a body of King James's troops at
_Belleek_, killing a hundred soldiers, taking thirty prisoners, and
capturing two guns; and he threw a relief into Ballyshannon on the
8th of May, without the loss of a man, which proved a brilliant
commencement of aggressive warfare: he also captured the enemy's
garrison at Redhill, and the castle of _Ballynecarreg_, in the
county of Cavan; and Captains Francis Gore and Arnold Crosbie
brought off two hundred troop horses from a pasture at _Omagh_,
which mounted three troops of Inniskilling men.

The garrison of Londonderry becoming distressed for want of
provisions, the INNISKILLING men advanced to its relief; but the
approach of a body of troops, under Major-General Sarsfield, to
besiege Ballyshannon, and of another, under Colonel Sutherland, to
Belturbet, with the view of besieging the town of INNISKILLING,
obliged them to return and defend their own quarters. The gallant
Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd was detached against _Belturbet_, from
whence Colonel Sutherland fled, on the 15th of June, leaving a
detachment of dragoons to defend the church, who surrendered, and
the INNISKILLING men gained possession of a supply of ammunition
and provisions, eighty troop horses with accoutrements, and seven
hundred muskets, which enabled them to equip themselves better than
before, and to add several new companies to their levies.

Meanwhile the garrison of Londonderry continued to defend that
fortress with sanguinary perseverance, and few days passed without
King James's army sustaining severe loss from the sallies of the
resolute defenders of the place. The want of provisions occasioned
the loss of many men from dysentery; and Governor Baker dying on
the 30th of June, Colonel Mitchelburne was elected joint-governor
with the Reverend Mr. Walker. The cruelties exercised on the
inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and villages, to induce
the garrison to surrender, stimulated the men to resistance.
Major-General Kirke arrived on the 30th of June with two regiments
of foot (the second and eleventh), and a supply of arms, ammunition
and provisions, but was prevented from approaching the town by
forts on the banks, and a boom across the river. After waiting
a few days, he landed on the island of Inch, where he threw up
entrenchments, and being joined by a number of countrymen, he
formed the design of assembling a sufficient force for relieving
the town by land. On the 12th of July he was visited on board
his vessel by the Reverend Andrew Hamilton, and Mr. John Rider,
who represented to him the state of affairs at INNISKILLING, and
obtained a supply of arms, ammunition, and eight field-pieces;
also commissions for a regiment of horse to be commanded by
Colonel William Wolseley,--a regiment of dragoons of twelve
troops, commanded by Colonel James Wynne (afterwards the fifth, or
Royal Irish dragoons), and three regiments of foot, commanded by
Colonels Zachariah Tiffin (now twenty-seventh), Gustavus Hamilton,
and Thomas Lloyd, with a troop of cavalry to be attached to each
battalion of infantry.

Before these corps were embodied, King James's generals, designing
to crush the intrepid _Inniskilling_ bands at once, sent three
bodies of troops against them. Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd, by a
forced march of twenty miles, surprised one division, under
Major-General Sarsfield, in their camp by night, and although
his opponents were five times more numerous than his own party
he routed them with a dreadful slaughter. The Duke of Berwick,
advancing with the second body of King James's army, destroyed
two companies of Inniskilling foot sent forward to secure a pass,
but when he came to the defences made to cover the approach to
the town, he did not venture to attack them, but withdrew, and
was soon afterwards ordered to join the army before Londonderry:
he subsequently skirmished with a body of men which Major-General
Kirke had landed at Rathmetan, but failed to dislodge them.

The third division of King James's army advancing against
INNISKILLING was commanded by Major-General Justin M'Carthy, who
had been created Viscount Mountcashel, and it was more formidable
than the other two; but the INNISKILLING men had become emboldened
by success, and they fearlessly advanced to meet their more
numerous antagonists. Their leading column encountered and routed
the Viscount Mountcashel's advance-guard, between Linaskea and
Inniskilling on the 30th of July, slew two hundred men, and
took thirty prisoners. In the afternoon of the same day, the
INNISKILLING forces, amounting to about two thousand men, under
Colonel Wolseley, attacked the opposing army, of very superior
numbers, in a formidable position at _Newton Butler_. By forcing
their way over numerous difficulties, and traversing a dangerous
bog, the INNISKILLING men were enabled to assail the front of the
adverse host, and their attack was made with so much audacity and
heroic ardour, that the opposing ranks were panic-stricken, and
fled in dismay. The gallant INNISKILLING men pursued at speed,
and overtaking their adversaries among the bogs and loughs,
slaughtered two thousand fugitives; about five hundred were drowned
in attempting to escape across the deep waters, and nearly five
hundred more were taken prisoners, including Viscount Mountcashel,
and Colonel Anthony Hamilton. This surprising victory was gained
with the loss of twenty men killed, and fifty wounded. Among the
trophies of the day were one iron and seven brass guns, a number of
standards and colours, a quantity of military stores, and the whole
of the enemy's baggage.

Many of the INNISKILLING men, who had evinced great personal
bravery, had not been regimented, and SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM,
a gentleman highly esteemed in the county, and who had been
deprived of the appointment of Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance
in Ireland, by King James, for his adherence to the reformed
religion, was authorized to embody six hundred men, into a regiment
of dragoons of twelve troops, of which he was appointed colonel;
and the corps, thus formed of the distinguished champions for the
institutions of their country, having been retained in the service
of the Crown to the present period, now bears the title of the
SIXTH, OR THE INNISKILLING, REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS.

While the most signal success attended the gallant INNISKILLING
men, the garrison of Londonderry was distressed for want of
provisions, and on the day that the battle of Newton Butler was
fought, the ships Montjoy of Londonderry, and Phœnix of Coleraine,
convoyed by the Dartmouth frigate, forced the boom under a heavy
fire from the banks of the river, and, after encountering many
difficulties, anchored at the ship-quay, to the great joy and
relief of the brave defenders of the town. King James's generals
were so dispirited by this success, and the loss at Newton Butler,
that on the night of the 31st of July they raised the siege, which
had occupied one hundred and five days, and retired, having lost
from eight to nine thousand men, and many officers, in their
fruitless attempt to reduce the city.

Thus terminated the siege of LONDONDERRY, which from the
circumstances of its commencement, the sufferings endured during
its progress, and the determined conduct of its brave defenders,
ranks among the glorious achievements recorded in the annals of
war. Governor Walker proceeded to England with an address, on the
occasion, to King William and Queen Mary, and was received at Court
with all the honour due to his distinguished services.

In the mean time an army was raising in England to aid in rescuing
Ireland from the power of King James, and was placed under the
orders of the veteran Marshal Frederick Duke Schomberg, who
arrived in Ireland in August, with ten thousand men, and besieged
Carrickfergus, which surrendered before the end of the month.

Twelve troops of Wolseley's horse, six troops of Wynne's
(late fifth Royal Irish), and six of CUNNINGHAM'S (now SIXTH)
dragoons, Tiffin's (now twenty-seventh) Inniskilling foot, and
Mitchelburne's Londonderry regiment (afterwards disbanded), joined
the army commanded by the Duke Schomberg, and were employed in
the operations of the campaign. The INNISKILLING troopers had
made their name a terror to their opponents, and were highly
esteemed in the English army. Story, the historian of these wars,
states, 'I went three miles beyond the camp, where I met the
_Inniskilling_ horse and dragoons, whom the Duke had ordered to be
an advance-guard to his army. I wondered much to see their horses
and equipage, hearing before what feats had been done by them.
They were three regiments in all, and most of the troopers and
dragoons had their waiting-men mounted upon garrons (small horses);
some of them had holsters, and others their pistols hung at their
sword-belts.'

The same author adds, 'If these men had been permitted to go on in
their old forward way, it is probable they would have saved the
town of Newry being burnt.'

The INNISKILLING cavalry performed several feats of gallantry, on
detached services, during the period the army was at the unhealthy
camp at Dundalk; and subsequently returned to their own country for
winter quarters.

[Sidenote: 1690]

Previous to the 1st of January, 1690, the Inniskilling cavalry
had been considered more as corps of mounted militia, or of
yeomanry cavalry, than as regular troops; but at that period
the Inniskilling and Londonderry forces were placed on the
establishment of the regular army. The following is an extract from
King William's warrant on the occasion:--

  'WILLIAM R.

  'WHEREAS we have thought fit to forme a regiment of horse,
  together with two regiments of dragoons, and three regiments of
  foot, out of Our INNISKILLING forces, and to take them into our
  pay and entertainment, we do hereby pass this Our establishment
  of the said forces, to commence on the 1st day of January,
  1689-90, in the first year of our reign[8].'

                      INNISKILLING FORCES.

                                          Officers and       Amount
                                            Soldiers.      per Annum.

  A regiment of horse, of twelve troops        714       40,207  15  10

  Two regiments of dragoons, of eight
    troops each                               1162       41,415   6   8

  Three regiments of foot, of thirteen
    companies each                            2781       48,435  10   0

                       LONDONDERRY FORCES.

  Two regiments of foot, of thirteen
    companies each                            1854       32,290   6   8
                                              ----      ---------------
      Total                                   6511      162,348  19   2
                                              ====      ===============

CUNNINGHAM'S INNISKILLING dragoons formed part of the force with
which Colonel Wolseley captured the town of _Belturbet_, which was
occupied as a frontier garrison. The colonel having afterwards
learnt that his opponents were about to assemble at _Cavan_, to
attack his quarters, left Belturbet on the evening of the 10th of
February, 1690, with three troops of horse, two of the INNISKILLING
dragoons, and seven hundred foot of Kirke's (now second), Wharton's
(now twelfth), Tiffin's (now twenty-seventh), and proceeded by a
circuitous route towards Cavan, with the intention of surprising
his opponents in their quarters, before the arrival of their
expected reinforcements. Having passed the river at midnight, at
a ford two miles above Ballyhaise,--the infantry on horseback
behind the troopers,--he moved quietly towards Cavan, but met with
obstructions which delayed his march, and the day had dawned when
he drew near the town, when, to his great astonishment, he saw
upwards of three thousand men, commanded by the Duke of Berwick,
formed on a rising ground to oppose him. The disparity of numbers
was great; but trusting to the innate valour of his soldiers,
he sent forward a hundred INNISKILLING dragoons to commence the
action. As they advanced along a narrow lane, they were galled by
the fire of musketry from behind the hedges, charged by a body of
cavalry, and driven back; but a volley from the musketeers checked
the enemy, and the troops continued their march. After deploying
in front of the enemy, a reserve was ordered to halt, and Colonel
Wolseley advanced with the remainder in order of battle. As he
ascended the position, the enemy raised a loud shout and fired a
volley; but the balls passed over the heads of Wolseley's men,
who continued to advance until they arrived within forty paces of
their opponents, and then opened a sharp fire with good effect. The
infantry, slinging their muskets, were about to charge sword in
hand, when, the smoke clearing away, they discovered King James's
infantry flying to the fort in a panic, and the cavalry galloping
towards the town. Wolseley's men rushed forward, and entering the
town, found stores of provisions, shoes, ammunition, and brass
money; the temptation being great, they commenced plundering, when
the enemy's infantry sallied out of the fort, and resumed the
fight. Wolseley attacked them with his reserve, and the soldiers
hurrying out of the town, and joining in the contest, their
opponents were driven back with the loss of three hundred men
killed, and about two hundred taken prisoners; the Duke of Berwick
narrowly escaped, having had his horse killed under him.

Colonel Wolseley had about thirty men killed. He observed, in his
public despatch, 'Our men showed on this, as on former occasions,
a very great forwardness to engage the enemy, notwithstanding
the inequality of their numbers, and gave new proofs of their
courage and bravery, particularly Major-General Kirke's men[9].'
After destroying the stores and ammunition which they were unable
to remove, the detachment returned to its quarters; and the
enemy, having discovered the resolute character of the troops in
Belturbet, laid aside the design of attacking them.

On the night of the 4th of March, a detachment of INNISKILLING
cavalry, with fifty men of Colonel Erle's regiment, scoured the
country to the vicinity of Cavan; and on the following morning
attacked and carried a fortified post at _Butler's bridge_, killing
twenty men and taking sixteen prisoners; then joining another
detachment, drove a body of the enemy from the houses of Cavan, and
completed the destruction of the town.

Provisions becoming scarce at Belturbet, Colonel Wolseley sent
out two hundred INNISKILLING horse and dragoons, who scoured the
country beyond Cavan and captured a thousand head of cattle.
Returning with their booty, they found four hundred of the enemy
formed up at the river to oppose their passage; undaunted by
superior numbers, the INNISKILLING troopers rushed, sword in hand,
upon their antagonists, and a few moments' conflict decided the
fortune of the day; forty of King James's soldiers lay dead on the
field, eight were taken prisoners, and the remainder escaped; the
INNISKILLING men proceeded with their booty to Belturbet.

On the 6th of April another detachment of seven hundred men, from
the regiments of Kirke, Erle, and Groven's Danes, with a party
of INNISKILLING horse and dragoons, advanced from Belturbet to
the castle of _Killeshandra_, which they besieged and captured
after a slight resistance; and in May a detachment of CUNNINGHAM'S
INNISKILLING dragoons was engaged in the capture of the castle of
_Ballinacargy_. Thus these gallant horsemen succeeded in every
enterprise in which they were engaged, their fame spread to distant
parts, and they were a terror to their adversaries. They ventured
on the most dangerous undertakings, and a detachment scoured the
country to _Kells_, within twenty-seven miles of Dublin, and
returned with a supply of cattle and provisions.

In June, King William arrived in Ireland, accompanied by Prince
George of Denmark, and a number of noblemen; the eyes of all Europe
were fixed on that country, where two kings were to contend for a
crown on a public theatre, and the singular spectacle was exhibited
of two princes (the Prince of Orange and the Prince of Denmark)
fighting against the father of their wives (King James), and of a
nephew at the head of an army against his uncle; it was, however,
a contest between liberty and slavery,--between constitutional
freedom and despotism. King William headed his army of English,
Dutch, Brandenburgers, Danes, and French; and King James took up
a position behind the river _Boyne_, with his own forces, and six
thousand French and Swiss troops, furnished by Louis XIV.

On the 1st of July a general engagement took place, when the
INNISKILLING dragoons had the honour of distinguishing themselves
under the eye of their sovereign. On this occasion, the right wing
of the English army, under the Count de Schomberg, and the centre
under the Duke Schomberg, had forced the passage of the river, and
were engaged, when King William drew his sword, and placing himself
at the head of four troops of the INNISKILLING cavalry, told them,
that having heard a great deal of their bravery, he had no doubt
of witnessing it, and he led them towards the river, followed by
several other corps of cavalry and infantry. The four captains
requested His Majesty not to expose his person by crossing the
river within shot of the enemy, but his reply was, "I will see you
over." When in the middle of the stream, a volley from a regiment
of the enemy's dragoons brought down one man, killed Captain
Blashford's horse, and one bullet struck one of His Majesty's
pistols[10]. Arriving on the opposite bank, the King threw off the
bandage from his shoulder, which had been wounded on the preceding
day, and brandishing his sword, led the INNISKILLING men, and other
troops which had passed the river with him, against a body of
King James's soldiers, three times more numerous than themselves,
who were advancing towards him with fury. Intimidated by the
dauntless bearing of the soldiers with King William, the enemy
halted, faced about, and fled towards Donore; and the INNISKILLING
cavalry rushed forward, sword in hand, with great intrepidity.
The other corps which had followed His Majesty, pursued the enemy
as far as Donore, where they were charged by superior numbers,
and forced back. The King again placed himself at the head of
the brave INNISKILLING soldiers, and while leading them forward,
sustained a volley of musketry, from which several men and horses
fell; he then turned to his left to enable his men to charge; this
was mistaken for a signal for them also to wheel to the left, and
they fell back a short distance; but quickly discovering their
error, they confronted their adversaries, and dashing forward
with distinguished gallantry, overthrew the opposing ranks. The
battle exhibited all the horrors of civil war; English fought with
English, Irish with Irish, and French against French; at the same
time Dutch, Danes, Swiss, and Brandenburgers were mingled in the
fray,--the colours and standards of various nations floating over
the scene of combat. The Duke of Berwick's horse was killed, and
he was trampled upon by the combatants. King William was in the
hottest of the fight, encouraging his men, and the INNISKILLING
dragoons were seen bravely contending for the victory.

Scarcely had SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM'S dragoons (now SIXTH) reformed
their ranks after the charge, when General de Ginkell, and a party
of Dutch dragoons, were seen retreating in disorder along a narrow
lane, followed by crowds of the enemy, shouting and brandishing
their swords; part of the INNISKILLING regiment instantly
dismounted, also a detachment of Leveson's (now Third) dragoons,
and throwing themselves into an old house, and lining the hedge of
the lane, opened such a brisk fire, that the pursuing Irish faced
about and fled. The cavalry returned to the charge; the adverse
army sustained a decisive overthrow, and fled from the field.
Story observes of this action, "Those of our English forces that
were engaged, and had opportunity to show themselves, gave signal
demonstrations of their courage and bravery; the INNISKILLINERS
and French (protestants in King William's service), both horse
and foot, did good service; and the Dutch guards deserve no small
honour for their conduct on that day[11]."

No return of the loss of the regiment on this occasion has been met
with; but at the muster at Finglas, seven days after the battle,
it brought three hundred private dragoons into the field, which is
nearly one hundred less than the establishment.

King James fled to Dublin, and immediately afterwards embarked
for France; and King William, directing his march to the capital,
gained possession of that city without loss. After this success,
the SIXTH dragoons formed part of a body of troops detached under
Lieutenant-General Douglas against _Athlone_. Arriving before the
town, a summons to surrender was sent to the governor, the veteran
Colonel Grace, who fired a pistol at the messenger and declared
his determination to defend the place. Not having artillery and
ammunition sufficient to prosecute the siege, the troops withdrew
from before the town, and rejoined the army.

The regiment was subsequently employed before _Limerick_, which
city was besieged by the English army. On the 11th of August, as
the regiment lay encamped near Limerick, information arrived of the
destruction of the battering train on its march to join the army by
a numerous body of Irish cavalry under Brigadier-General Sarsfield
(formerly an officer of the English life guards); SIR ALBERT
CUNNINGHAM instantly issued from the camp with two squadrons of his
dragoons, and dashing across the country, intercepted one of the
enemy's detachments, which he charged with signal gallantry, slew
one major, one captain, and twenty men; but their main body escaped.

When King William raised the siege of Limerick and returned to
England, CUNNINGHAM'S dragoons were ordered into winter quarters;
but were suddenly recalled in consequence of Brigadier-General
Sarsfield having invested the castle of _Birr_, in the King's
County:--after the flight of the enemy from before this post, they
remained encamped near Birr, while additional fortifications were
being raised, and subsequently went into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1691]

In the month of May, 1691, several ships arrived at Dublin from
England with men and provisions, and great diligence was used in
preparing for an early and vigorous campaign: the INNISKILLING
dragoons took the field this summer, and joined the army commanded
by Lieutenant-General de Ginkell, on the 6th of June, on its
march towards _Ballymore_, which place was captured after a short
resistance. _Athlone_ was also taken, and the army advanced against
the French and Irish forces under General St. Ruth, in position
near _Aghrim_, in the county of Galway, about three miles beyond
Ballinasloe.

Arriving in front of the enemy about mid-day on the 12th of July,
the English and Dutch regiments of horse guards, and a squadron
of CUNNINGHAM'S dragoons, were sent forward to force the enemy
from a pass in the middle of a bog which lay in front of the Irish
army, in which service they succeeded; and two hundred men of the
regiment drove the enemy from a ford on the right of the opposing
army in gallant style, and from the pass of Urachree. St. Ruth
sent forward fresh troops, and the INNISKILLING dragoons being
also supported, a considerable body of troops was soon engaged
at this point, and the enemy was eventually driven back. The
English generals met, and after some deliberation, resolved on a
general engagement, and between four and five in the afternoon
the battle began. After several hours' sharp fighting, in which
the INNISKILLING men gave fresh proofs of their innate bravery
and contempt of danger, the adverse army sustained a decisive
overthrow, and was chased from the field of battle until the
darkness of the night and a thick misty rain put an end to the
pursuit. During the action, the French general, St. Ruth, was
killed by a cannon ball, as he rode down Kilcommoden hill, and his
fall so dismayed King James's army that it was soon thrown into
confusion and routed.

CUNNINGHAM'S INNISKILLING dragoons had one lieutenant, one cornet,
and forty-one non-commissioned officers and private soldiers
killed; one captain, one lieutenant, and twenty-seven men wounded
on this occasion.

After the victory at Aghrim, the army advanced to _Galway_, and the
INNISKILLING dragoons were employed before this fortress during the
siege, which was terminated on the 21st of July, by the surrender
of the place. The English forces subsequently moved towards
Limerick, where the wreck of King James's army was assembled; but
SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM was left with his regiment of dragoons in the
county of Galway.

_Sligo_ was subsequently invested by a circular chain of posts at a
distance from the town, and one troop of the INNISKILLING dragoons
was stationed at the abbey of Ashro, near Ballyshannon, and the
remainder at Loughrea, Hedford, and Shrewl. The governor of Sligo,
Sir Teague O'Regan, proposed conditions for surrendering the town;
but afterwards receded, when a closer blockade of the place was
resolved upon.

At the same time SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM was directed to proceed
with his regiment to Castlebar, to join the Irish forces under Sir
Baldearg O'Donnel, who had agreed to abandon the interests of King
James, and to join the English army with his brigade.

This Baldearg, or Balderick, O'Donnel, was descended from one of
the branches of the Tyrconnel family; his ancestors having fled
to Spain after the rebellion of 1607, he was born and educated in
that country. The Irish, with their characteristic superstition,
cherished an idle prophecy, that a descendant of that old family,
who would be distinguished by a red mark, as this man was, would
free their country from the English yoke. The coincidence of his
family and name,--Derg, or Darg, signifying red, induced them to
send for him from Spain, and he arrived at Limerick in September,
1690, when thousands flocked to him; but he disappointed their
expectations, and achieved nothing worthy of record. After the
battle of Aghrim, he was so alarmed, that he kept, with his
followers, in the mountains in the county of Mayo for some time,
and at length tendered his submission to the government of King
William, and promised to bring a considerable number of men over
with him, for a stipulated reward.

When the INNISKILLING dragoons arrived at Castlebar, O'Donnel's men
were found in a state of mutiny, many of them resolving to adhere
to the interest of King James; but the commotion was eventually
appeased, and they arrayed themselves under King William's banners.
On the 4th of September SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM took post with part
of his regiment at _Coloony_, five miles south of Sligo, intending
to join O'Donnel on the following day, and approach nearer the
besieged town. During the night seven hundred select men of King
James's army, commanded by Colonel Scott, issued from Sligo, and,
being favoured by a foggy morning, surprised the detachment of
INNISKILLING dragoons in their camp near Coloony, at day-break on
the following morning. The troopers finding themselves suddenly
assailed by superior numbers, mounted their horses and galloped
to Abbey Royle, in the county of Roscommon. The enemy killed about
twenty men, took SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM prisoner, and captured the
tents, cloaks, and baggage belonging to the dragoons.

After the brave and humane SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM was made prisoner,
an Irish serjeant approached him and said, 'Albert is your name,
and by an H--albert you shall die,' and instantly speared him on
the spot. 'Thus fell SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM, as gallant and worthy
an officer as any in the King's service[12].'

Part of O'Donnel's brigade arriving on the following day, the
enemy was driven back into Sligo, and all the baggage, &c., was
recaptured.

After the death of SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM the Regiment was
commanded, until King William's pleasure was made known, by the
lieutenant-colonel, ROBERT ECHLIN.

A body of troops was assembled for the reduction of _Sligo_,
and placed under the orders of the Earl of Granard, and Colonel
Mitchelburne, to whom this fortress was delivered up on the 13th of
September.

In the meantime the army commanded by General De Ginkell had
besieged _Limerick_, and the surrender of that city, and of all
other forts and garrisons, in September, terminated the war in
Ireland; the champions of constitutional liberty having triumphed
over all opposition.

Thus the gallant INNISKILLING men, who composed the SIXTH regiment
of dragoons, had the satisfaction of witnessing the deliverance
of their country from the continued effects of civil war, and
the blessings of peace once more diffusing themselves over the
land. They had purchased these advantages with their swords, many
of them had toiled, and fought, and bled in the cause of civil
and religious liberty, and they had the proud distinction of
receiving the expressions of their Sovereign's approbation and
their country's gratitude. King William also rewarded the services
of their lieutenant-colonel, ROBERT ECHLIN, with the colonelcy of
the regiment, by commission dated the 30th of December, 1691. The
thanks of Parliament were communicated to Lieutenant-General De
Ginkell, and the officers and soldiers who served under his orders,
and the lieutenant-general was afterwards created EARL OF ATHLONE,
Viscount Aghrim, and Baron of Ballymore.

[Sidenote: 1692]

Although the war in Ireland was terminated, yet the known hostile
spirit of a great portion of the inhabitants to the established
government, and the attempts made from time to time by Louis XIV.
to replace King James on the throne, rendered the presence of a
considerable number of troops, in whom the utmost reliance could
be placed, necessary in that country; and ECHLIN'S Inniskilling
dragoons, having proved their attachment and fidelity to King
William, their devotion to the principles of the Revolution, and
their usefulness in every description of service, were employed in
Ireland during the remainder of His Majesty's reign.

[Sidenote: 1694]

The first of the two regiments of Inniskilling dragoons, commanded
by Colonel James Wynne, served under King William in Flanders,
and obtained the title of 'THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS;'
Colonel ECHLIN'S regiment received no change of designation; but
has retained its title of "INNISKILLING DRAGOONS" to the present
time; it was numbered the "SIXTH DRAGOONS" in the reign of George
II.

[Sidenote: 1702]

[Sidenote: 1703]

During the early part of the reign of Queen Anne the INNISKILLING
DRAGOONS remained in Ireland; they were reviewed at Athlone, in
July, 1703, by the lord-lieutenant, General the Duke of Ormond,
who was pleased to compliment the commanding officer on their
appearance and discipline.

[Sidenote: 1706]

In the summer of 1706, the regiment was encamped on the Kurragh of
Kildare.

[Sidenote: 1708]

The King of France having made preparations, in the spring of 1708,
for landing the Pretender with a body of troops in Scotland, to
aid him in his projected attempt to ascend the British throne,
the INNISKILLING dragoons were held in readiness to embark for
Scotland; but the French fleet having been chased from the British
shores, the regiment remained in Ireland until the following
autumn, when it landed on the English coast, and was stationed,
during the winter, in Yorkshire and Lancashire.

[Sidenote: 1709]

[Sidenote: 1710]

[Sidenote: 1711]

[Sidenote: 1712]

The regiment was withdrawn from its cantonments in the early part
of 1709, and proceeded to Scotland, where it remained during the
three following years.

[Sidenote: 1713]

Returning to England after the peace of Utrecht, the regiment was
stationed in Cumberland.

[Sidenote: 1714]

In September, 1714, the regiment again occupied quarters in
Scotland, and the officers, with those of Brigadier-General Hans
Hamilton's (now Sixteenth foot), celebrated at Stirling the arrival
of King George I. from Hanover, with public rejoicings.

[Sidenote: 1715]

Lieut.-General Echlin retired from the regiment in March, 1715, and
was succeeded by JOHN EARL OF STAIR, who had been removed from the
Scots Greys, by Queen Anne's ministry, in April of the preceding
year.

The regiment was stationed in Lancashire in the spring of 1715,
and in June one squadron was employed in suppressing riots at
Manchester. Soon afterwards the Regiment marched to Scotland, and
in the autumn, it was encamped at Stirling, under Major-General
Wightman.

Encouraged by promises of aid from the Continent, the Earl of
Mar raised the standard of the Pretender in the Highlands, and
assembled an army of ten thousand men. The camp at Stirling was
afterwards augmented by additional forces, and the Duke of Argyle
assumed the command; but the rebels exceeded in numbers the king's
troops.

Ten thousand rebels, headed by the Earl of Mar, were on the march
to cross the Forth and penetrate towards England, when the Duke
of Argyle quitted the camp at Stirling, with a body of troops
of less than four thousand men, to oppose the progress of the
rebels, and on the morning of Sunday the 13th of November the two
armies confronted each other on _Sheriffmuir_ near _Dumblain_.
The Inniskilling dragoons formed two strong squadrons; the first
squadron was posted, with the Royal North British (second) and
Evans' (fourth) dragoons, on the right of the king's army; and the
second squadron, with Carpenter's (third) and Kerr's (seventh)
dragoons, was stationed on the left. The rebels attempting to
turn the right, the dragoons on that flank dashed forward sword
in hand, and commenced the action by a furious charge on the left
wing of the rebel army. A sharp conflict ensued; but soon the clash
of swords and report of pistols ceased, and the insurgent bands
were seen falling back in confusion; while the Greys, Evans',
and INNISKILLING dragoons, resolute men on powerful horses, rode
onward, sabring the astonished Highlanders, who fled in dismay,
and the Buffs (third foot) and other infantry corps on the right,
followed the victorious dragoons in their triumphant career. The
rebels, having great superiority of numbers, attempted to rally
several times; but the dragoons galloped forward with admirable
courage, and breaking through every opposition, pursued their
adversaries to the banks of the river Allan, where they were
ordered to halt.

In the mean time the left wing of the King's army had been
defeated; six hundred Highlanders surprised the infantry in the
act of forming, and put them into confusion; but Carpenter's,
Kerr's, and the squadron of INNISKILLING dragoons on the left
flank, charged and defeated the rebel horsemen opposed to them, and
captured a standard. The infantry of this wing being in disorder,
the advantage gained by the dragoons was not pursued any further.
Both armies claimed the victory, each having a wing victorious and
a wing defeated; but the King's forces succeeded in preventing the
march of the rebels southwards, and consequently the advantage was
on the side of the Royal army.

The INNISKILLING dragoons had seven men and twelve horses killed;
six men and fifteen horses wounded. In some of the numerous
accounts of this battle which were published at the time, the
INNISKILLING dragoons are styled the _black dragoons_, from which
it is presumed they were mounted on black horses exclusively.

[Sidenote: 1716]

Returning to Stirling with the army, the INNISKILLING dragoons
resumed their former station in the camp near that city, where
they remained until January, 1716, when, additional forces having
arrived, they advanced through snow and over ice to Perth. The
rebel army dispersed, and the leaders in the rebellion fled to
France.

[Sidenote: 1717]

After the suppression of this commotion, the regiment was quartered
at Aberdeen, from whence it marched southwards, and was stationed
in Cumberland; but returned to Scotland in June, 1717; and in the
autumn of that year occupied cantonments near Glasgow. At the same
time the establishment was fixed at six troops, of three officers,
one quarter-master, and forty-five non-commissioned officers and
soldiers each.

[Sidenote: 1718]

[Sidenote: 1725]

[Sidenote: 1726]

The regiment appears to have passed the succeeding ten years in
Scotland. In July, 1725, it was employed in suppressing riots at
Glasgow, and was encamped near that city; and in October, 1726,
the Greys and INNISKILLING dragoons were reviewed in brigade at
Musselburgh by Lieutenant-General Wade.

[Sidenote: 1728]

Leaving Scotland in the spring of 1728, the regiment proceeded
to Carlisle, Penrith, and Kendal, where it halted a week, and
afterwards continued its march southwards, and was quartered in
Berkshire. On the 3rd of June it was reviewed on Datchet Common by
King George II., who expressed his approbation of its appearance
and discipline.

[Sidenote: 1729]

[Sidenote: 1730]

[Sidenote: 1731]

[Sidenote: 1732]

After the review the INNISKILLING dragoons marched back to
Lancashire; in December their quarters were extended to
Northumberland; and in March, 1729, they were ordered to return to
Scotland, where they passed the succeeding three years.

[Sidenote: 1733]

In the spring of 1733, the regiment was ordered to march for
England, and in June furnished detachments on coast duty in Essex,
on which service it was employed during the following year.

[Sidenote: 1734]

The Earl of Stair having joined the opposition against Sir Robert
Walpole was removed from the regiment, and was succeeded in
the colonelcy by Charles Lord Cadogan from the Fourth foot, by
commission dated the 19th of June, 1734.

[Sidenote: 1735]

[Sidenote: 1736]

[Sidenote: 1737]

[Sidenote: 1738]

The regiment remained in the south of England, and was employed on
coast duty during the years 1735 and 1736; in May, 1737, it marched
to Nottingham and Derby; and in April, 1738, into Lincolnshire, and
furnished detachments for the prevention of smuggling along the
coast.

[Sidenote: 1739]

At this period the establishment was six troops of three officers,
one quarter-master, two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers,
one hautboy, and forty-nine private men per troop; but on the
breaking out of the war with Spain, in 1739, an augmentation of one
sergeant and ten men per troop was ordered, making a total of four
hundred and thirty-five officers and men, including the staff.

[Sidenote: 1740]

The regiment continued to occupy quarters in Lincolnshire in 1740.

[Sidenote: 1741]

In the summer of 1741, when the Elector of Bavaria, aided by the
French monarch, attempted to deprive the Archduchess Maria Theresa,
of Hungary and Bohemia, the INNISKILLING dragoons were directed
to hold themselves in readiness to proceed on foreign service,
and were encamped on Lexden Heath, with six other regiments of
cavalry and seven of infantry; but no embarkation took place, and
in the autumn they went into quarters.

[Illustration: Sixth (Inniskilling) Dragoons, 1742.

  [To face page 39.]

[Sidenote: 1742]

In 1742 King George II. sent sixteen thousand men to Flanders,
under Field-Marshal the Earl of Stair, to support the interests of
the house of Austria; and the INNISKILLING dragoons were selected
for this service. After landing at Ostend, the regiment marched
to Ghent, where it was quartered several weeks, and subsequently
proceeded to Brussels.

[Sidenote: 1743]

From Brabant, the INNISKILLING dragoons marched, in the beginning
of 1743, for Germany, and in May they formed, with the Third
dragoons, three battalions of foot guards, and two regiments of the
line, a detached camp below the town of Hochst.

While in Germany, the lieutenant-colonel, JAMES GARDINER, was
promoted to the colonelcy of the Thirteenth dragoons[13].

Lord Cadogan, having been removed to the second troop (now second
regiment) of life guards, was succeeded in the colonelcy by
Field-marshal the Earl of Stair, by commission dated the 25th of
April, 1743.

In the early part of June the INNISKILLING dragoons crossed the
Maine and encamped at Aschaffenberg, where King George II. and His
Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland joined the army.

Leaving Aschaffenberg on the morning of the 16th of June, the
army moved in columns along the banks of the Maine to join the
Hanoverians and Hessians at Hanau. The French under Marshal
Noailles crossed the river, and taking up a formidable position
between the Maine and the mountains near _Dettingen_, prepared
to oppose the march of the allies: at the same time the French
commander seized the bridge at Aschaffenberg, to cut off the
retreat of his opponents. These movements brought on a general
engagement, and the INNISKILLING dragoons had an opportunity of
signalizing themselves under the eye of their sovereign.

While the allied army was forming for battle, the INNISKILLING
dragoons and other cavalry covered the operation, and were exposed
to the enemy's cannon. The French household troops, headed by the
princes of the blood, became impatient of inactivity, and quitting
their advantageous position, galloped forward to commence the
action. The British cavalry advanced to meet their antagonists, and
were repulsed; but a volley from the British infantry destroyed
several French squadrons, and the English troopers returning to
the charge, drove back their opponents. The battle extended along
the line, and the British, Austrian, and Hanoverian infantry,
fiercely encountering the French battalions, gained advantage
after advantage, until the fortune of the day was so evidently in
their favour that the result was no longer doubtful. Meanwhile
the charges of the cavalry were frequent and sanguinary. Bland's
(third) dragoons, and the INNISKILLING troopers charged and
overpowered a superior body of horse, then rushed sword in hand
upon a line of French cuirassiers, whose polished armour proved
ineffectual against the prowess and resolution of the British
dragoons fighting in the presence of their King. The life-guards,
blues, King's horse (now first dragoon guards), and Ligonier's
troopers (now seventh dragoon guards), behaved nobly; the royals
and greys captured each a standard[14]; and Rich's (fourth) and
Cope's (seventh) dragoons had their share in the combat. Unable to
withstand the fury of the charging Britons, the French gave way,
and were driven across the Maine with such precipitation, that many
men were drowned in the river.

The INNISKILLING dragoons returned from the pursuit and bivouacked
near the scene of conflict. Their loss was two men and eighteen
horses killed; and one man and nine horses wounded. On the
following day they continued their march to Hanau, where they were
encamped until the beginning of August, when they proceeded towards
the Rhine, and having passed that river, were employed in West
Germany; the King having his head-quarters at the episcopal palace
of Worms, and afterwards at Spire. In October His Majesty marched
the army back to Mentz, from whence the INNISKILLING dragoons
continued their route to Flanders, where they passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1744]

The regiment served the campaign of 1744 with the army commanded by
Field-Marshal Wade; and after encamping for some time behind the
Scheldt, was employed in an incursion into the French territory,
and in collecting contributions. In October the regiment went into
winter quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1745]

Having been withdrawn from their cantonments in April, 1745, the
INNISKILLING dragoons encamped near Brussels, where they were
reviewed by the Duke of Cumberland, and subsequently advanced with
the army commanded by His Royal Highness to attack the French, who
had commenced the siege of Tournay with an immense body of troops
under the command of Marshal Saxe. One squadron of the regiment
formed part of the force which drove in the enemy's out-guards, on
the 28th of April (O.S.).

The French occupied a fortified camp, protected by immense
batteries, near the village of _Fontenoy_; and the INNISKILLING
dragoons supported the infantry in their attacks on this formidable
position; on which occasion the English foot-guards, and several
regiments of the line, displayed signal valour and intrepidity, and
carried the enemy's trenches in gallant style; but the Dutch having
failed in their attempt on the village of Fontenoy, and the French
battery in the wood of Barri not having been stormed according
to order, the troops, which had forced the position, were unable
to maintain their ground. Towards the close of the action, the
cavalry was ordered forward, and several corps charged with great
spirit and resolution, but were unable to retrieve the fortune of
the day; and a retreat having been ordered, the army withdrew to
Aeth. In this action the INNISKILLING dragoons evinced the same
forward bearing and firmness as on former occasions. Their loss was
Quarter-master Baird, three men, and nineteen horses killed; eleven
men and seven horses wounded.

The army encamped on the plains of Lessines; and while the
INNISKILLING dragoons were at this camp, their Colonel,
Field-Marshal the Earl of Stair, was removed to the Scots greys,
and was succeeded by John Earl of Rothes, by commission dated the
29th of May, 1745.

After the surrender of Fontenoy the French army advanced, and
having an immense superiority of numbers, the allies withdrew, and
took up a position to cover Brussels. The INNISKILLING dragoons
encamped near Meerbeck, and subsequently on the canal between Ghent
and Brussels.

[Sidenote: 1746]

Meanwhile a rebellion, headed by Charles Edward, eldest son of the
Pretender, had broken out in Scotland, and many British regiments
were ordered to return home. The INNISKILLING dragoons marched,
during the winter, to Williamstadt, in North Brabant, and towards
the end of February, 1746, embarked for England; but the transports
were driven by tempestuous weather back into the harbour, and the
troops disembarked. The rebellion having been suppressed shortly
afterwards, the order for their return was countermanded, and they
went into quarters on the frontiers of Holland.

Quitting their cantonments in the spring of 1746, the INNISKILLING
dragoons were employed in the operations of the army commanded by
Lieutenant-General Sir John Ligonier. In May they were encamped
behind the Dyle: the French having a great superiority of numbers,
the allies were forced to retire towards Antwerp; subsequently to
Breda; and many fortified towns were captured by the enemy. In
July, Prince Charles of Lorraine took the command of the army, and
the British dragoons were employed in manœuvring and skirmishing
with the French cavalry, in order to retard the operations of the
adverse army.

During the forenoon of the 1st of October (O.S.), the allies were
in position on the plain of Liege; several villages were occupied
by the infantry, and the INNISKILLING dragoons stood in line on
some open ground near the village of _Roucoux_. About mid-day
numerous columns of the enemy appeared advancing under Marshal
Saxe; and being emboldened by their superior numbers, their
artillery opened a tremendous cannonade, and about fifty battalions
attacked three villages on the left of the allied army with great
fury. Having carried the villages, the French infantry diverged
upon the open ground, where the Greys, INNISKILLING, and Seventh
dragoons appeared in line, headed by the gallant Earls of Rothes
and Crawford. As the enemy advanced in crowds, as if confident of
success, the three regiments dashed forward, overthrew the opposing
ranks, and chased the French musketeers to the hedges and thickets
near the village in gallant style. A retreat having been ordered,
the army withdrew across the river Maese, and encamped near
Maestricht.

The regiment was commended in orders for its conduct on this
occasion; it had three men wounded: and six horses killed and seven
wounded: one horse fell into the hands of the enemy.

After encamping a short time in the province of Limburg, the
regiment went into quarters in the country along the Lower Maese.

[Sidenote: 1747]

During the campaign of 1747 the allied army was commanded by the
Duke of Cumberland; and after encamping a short time near the
banks of the Scheldt, the INNISKILLING dragoons were employed in
operations on the Great Nethe, and on the Demer. The 1st of July
was passed in skirmishing near the frontiers of Liege; the two
armies confronted each other, and on the following day a sharp
action was fought, on which occasion the regiment acquired new
laurels.

Under the cover of a heavy cannonade, the French infantry attacked
the village of _Val_, which was occupied by four battalions (three
British and one Hanoverian), and the INNISKILLING dragoons were
formed behind the houses. Eventually the village was captured,
and the enemy broke the centre of the allied army. The cavalry
of the left wing was led forward by Sir John Ligonier, and
charged the French horsemen with signal intrepidity. The Greys
particularly distinguished themselves. The INNISKILLING dragoons,
vying in heroism with the Scots troopers, overthrew and routed the
squadrons opposed to them; and a sanguinary sword fight ensuing,
the British horsemen made great havoc among the discomfited ranks
of their opponents. Following up their first success, the Greys,
INNISKILLING, and other British dragoons, dashed forward; a volley
from some French musketeers posted on the low grounds, and behind
hedges, emptied several saddles; but the survivors rushed upon the
infantry and chased them from behind the hedges and from the low
grounds, with dreadful carnage. While pursuing the fugitives, a new
line of combatants appeared; but, with ranks confused and blended
together, the British dragoons galloped forward and dispersed these
also. This astonishing gallantry of the British cavalry produced
important results; but the enemy having broken the centre of the
allied army, the Duke of Cumberland ordered a retreat.

When the INNISKILLING, and other British dragoons, faced about to
retire, the enemy came down upon them in crowds, and they sustained
considerable loss. The army retreated to Maestricht, where it
arrived in the evening.

The casualty-return of the regiment on this occasion exhibited a
serious loss, viz., Lieutenant Armstrong, Quarter-master Seaman,
forty men, and twenty-two horses wounded; Lieutenant Gordon, Cornet
Hay, seventy-eight men, and ninety-eight horses killed and missing.
The conduct of the British cavalry on this occasion, was highly
commended in the accounts of the battle published at the time.

The INNISKILLING dragoons were subsequently encamped at Richel,
near the Maese, in the province of Limburg; in October they
proceeded to North Brabant, and pitched their tents behind the
lines at Terheyden; and at the end of the campaign they went into
cantonments among the Dutch peasantry.

[Sidenote: 1748]

A strong remount of men and horses having joined to replace the
losses of the preceding year, the regiment took the field to
serve the campaign of 1748 in a high state of efficiency, and
according to the publications of that date its warlike appearance
was much admired. It was employed in the province of Limburg, and
was encamped a short time near Ruremonde. Meanwhile preliminary
articles for a treaty of peace had been agreed upon; the regiment
proceeded to North Brabant, where it remained a short time, and
during the winter, returned to England.

[Sidenote: 1749]

After the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle the establishment was reduced
to two hundred and eighty-five officers and men.

[Sidenote: 1750]

The Earl of Rothes was removed in January, 1750, to the Royal
North British dragoons, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of
the INNISKILLING dragoons by Major-General the Honourable James
Cholmondeley from the Third Irish horse, now Sixth dragoon guards.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In 1751 a regulation was issued for insuring uniformity in the
clothing, standards, and regimental distinctions of the British
army, from which the following particulars have been extracted
relating to the INNISKILLING DRAGOONS.

COATS,--scarlet; double-breasted; without lappels; lined with _full
yellow_; slit sleeves, turned up with full yellow; the button-holes
worked with narrow _white lace_; the buttons of white metal, set
on two and two; a long slash pocket in each skirt; and a white
shoulder-knot, or aiguillette, on the right shoulder.

WAISTCOATS AND BREECHES,--full yellow.

HATS,--bound with silver lace; and ornamented with a white metal
loop and a black cockade.

BOOTS,--of jacked leather, and reaching to the knee.

CLOAKS,--of scarlet cloth, with a full yellow collar and lined with
yellow shalloon; the buttons set on two and two upon white frogs,
or loops, with a blue stripe down the centre.

HORSE FURNITURE,--of full yellow cloth; the holster caps and
housing having a border of white lace with a blue stripe down the
centre; the castle of Inniskilling embroidered upon a red ground
within a wreath of roses and thistles, on each corner of the
housing; and on the holster caps the king's cipher and crown, with
VI. D. underneath.

OFFICERS,--distinguished by silver lace; their coats and waistcoats
bound with silver embroidery; the button-holes worked with silver;
and a crimson silk sash worn across the left shoulder.

QUARTER-MASTER,--to wear a crimson sash round the waist.

SERJEANTS,--to have narrow silver lace on the cuffs, pockets, and
shoulder-straps; silver shoulder-knots, or aiguillettes, and yellow
and white worsted sashes tied round their waists.

DRUMMERS and HAUTBOYS,--clothed in full yellow coats lined with
scarlet, and ornamented with silver lace with a blue stripe down
the centre; their waistcoats and breeches of scarlet cloth.

GUIDONS,--The first or King's guidon to be of _crimson_ silk,
embroidered and fringed with gold and silver: in the centre the
rose and thistle conjoined and crown over them, with the motto
_Dieu et mon Droit_ underneath: the white horse in a compartment
in the first and fourth corners, and VI. D. in silver characters on
a yellow ground in a compartment in the second and third corners.
The second and third guidons to be of _full yellow_ silk, in the
centre the castle of Inniskilling within a wreath of roses and
thistles on a crimson ground; the white horse on a scarlet ground
in the first and fourth compartments, and VI. D. within a small
wreath of roses and thistles upon a scarlet ground in the second
and third compartments.

[Sidenote: 1752]

During the succeeding seven years, the regiment was employed
on home service in Great Britain, and was distinguished as an
efficient and well-conducted corps.

[Sidenote: 1755]

[Sidenote: 1756]

In 1755, when the aggressions of the French in North America led
to acts of open hostility, the establishment was augmented one
corporal and fifteen men per troop. Shortly afterwards a _light
troop_ was added on the same principle as light companies to
infantry corps: and the regiment consisted of six heavy troops
and one light troop. The light dragoons were sometimes styled
_hussars_. A periodical of this date (June, 1756) has the following
paragraph: 'On Monday morning the newly-raised light horse, or, as
they are commonly called, hussars, were exercised in Hyde Park, as
were also some life guards and horse grenadiers. The hussars in
particular made a very pretty and genteel appearance; went through
their peculiar method of exercise, both on horseback and on foot,
with the greatest vivacity and exactness, to the satisfaction of
many thousands of spectators.'

War was proclaimed, and the French monarch made such extensive
preparations for invading England, that some alarm was occasioned.

[Sidenote: 1757]

These preparations being continued in 1757, the country was
placed in a posture of defence. Seven battalions were encamped on
Barham Downs under the Duke of Marlborough; five at Chatham under
Lord George Sackville; six at Amersham under Lieutenant-General
Campbell; a regiment of cavalry and six battalions of infantry at
Dorchester under Sir John Mordaunt; another camp was formed on
the Isle of Wight; and the INNISKILLING dragoons, with the third
dragoon guards, and first, third, fourth, and eleventh dragoons
were encamped on Salisbury plain, under Lieutenant-General Hawley.
The formidable attitude assumed by the government, with the
increased military power prepared to oppose the invasion, induced
the French monarch to lay aside his design of landing troops on the
British coast, and he resolved to attack the possessions of his
Britannic Majesty in Hanover.

[Sidenote: 1758]

The increased naval and military establishments of Britain enabled
King George II. to assail the coast of France, and an expedition
was prepared for that purpose under the command of Charles Duke
of Marlborough. The light troop of the INNISKILLING dragoons
was selected to take part in this enterprise, and having been
encamped some time on Southsea Common, and formed in brigade with
the light troops of eight other regiments, under the command
of Brigadier-General Eliott, (afterwards Lord Heathfield,) it
embarked towards the end of May, 1758, and sailed for the coast
of France on the 1st of June. On the evening of the 5th a landing
was effected in Cancalle Bay, in the province of Brittany; on the
7th the troops advanced to Paramé; and during the following night
the light dragoons and piquets of the infantry regiments proceeded
to the harbour of _St. Maloes_, and destroyed by fire one hundred
vessels with extensive magazines of maritime stores. The light
cavalry afterwards advanced to the town of Dol, and evinced signal
intrepidity in skirmishing with detachments of French troops. After
remaining five days in France the British re-embarked, and severe
weather rendering another descent impracticable, they returned to
Portsmouth. The light troop of the SIXTH dragoons having landed,
was encamped a short time at Portsmouth, and subsequently on
Southsea Common. In the beginning of August it sailed on a second
expedition under Lieutenant-General Bligh. A landing having
been effected in the Bay des Marées, _Cherbourg_ was taken, and
the fortifications and vessels in the harbour were destroyed.
The troops returned on board the fleet, and another landing was
effected in the bay of St. Lunar; but no advantage resulted from
this enterprise, and before the whole were re-embarked, the enemy
attacked the rear with such fury that the grenadiers and foot
guards sustained considerable loss. The expedition returned to
England, and the light troop of the SIXTH dragoons went into
cantonments in villages along the coast.

Disastrous events had, in the mean time, occurred in Germany; the
Hanoverian, Hessian, and Brunswick troops commanded by the Duke of
Cumberland, had been subject to a capitulation, and the electorate
of Hanover was taken possession of by the enemy. The French having
violated the conditions of the capitulation, the Hanoverians,
Hessians, and Brunswickers reassembled under Prince Ferdinand of
Brunswick; a body of British troops was sent to Germany under
Charles Duke of Marlborough; and the six heavy troops of the SIXTH
dragoons were selected for this service. The light troop of the
regiment was left in England on coast duty; and it was subsequently
employed in the travelling escort duty for the royal family.

The regiment was reviewed on Blackheath by King George II., who
expressed his royal approbation of its appearance and discipline;
it embarked at Gravesend on the 27th of July; and landed on the
3rd of August, a few miles above the city of Embden in Germany,
where it encamped two days, and subsequently marched up the
country to join the Hanoverians, Hessians, and Brunswickers. The
regiment joined the army at Coesveldt on the 17th of August, and
was reviewed on the 20th, with the other British corps, by His
Serene Highness Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, who expressed his
admiration of the condition of the several regiments after the
march. After taking part in the movements of the army, the regiment
went into winter quarters in the bishopric of Paderborn.

[Sidenote: 1759]

The INNISKILLING dragoons, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward
Harvey, took the field in the spring of 1759, and were formed in
brigade with the Blues and first dragoon guards; the British were
commanded by Lord George Sackville, and the allied army by Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick. The French monarch sent an immense body of
troops to Germany, under the Duke de Broglio and Marshal Contades;
and the allies, being so very inferior in numbers, were compelled
to retire before their opponents.

After a series of retreats and occasional skirmishes, the enemy
occupied a strong position near _Minden_, and the allied army
encamped on Petershagen heath. Prince Ferdinand advanced, and
having succeeded in drawing the French from their formidable post,
a general engagement was fought on _Minden_ heath on the 1st of
August, when the astonishing valour of the British infantry decided
the fortune of the day. The British cavalry were posted behind a
wood on the right of the army, and towards the close of the action
they were ordered forward to charge the French legions; but a
misunderstanding on the part of Lord George Sackville occasioned
some delay; the INNISKILLING and other British dragoons, who were
panting for an opportunity to distinguish themselves, were detained
in a state of inactivity, and the victory was rendered less
decisive than it otherwise would have been. The Marquis of Granby
was afterwards appointed to the command of the British troops in
Germany.

The allied army moved forward in pursuit of the enemy, whose
line of retreat might be traced by scenes of devastation and
the smoke of burning villages. The INNISKILLING dragoons formed
part of the division commanded by the Hereditary Prince of
Brunswick, who harassed and attacked the French during their
retreat, occasioning them serious loss on several occasions;
especially at _Grubenhagen_, _Eimbec_, and in the defiles of
_Minden_. On the 25th of August the SIXTH dragoons, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel EDWARD HARVEY, arrived, with the remainder of
the Hereditary Prince's division, at Schonstadt. During the night
between the 27th and 28th of August, the INNISKILLING dragoons,
with a detachment from the first dragoon guards and a battalion
of English grenadiers, commanded by Colonel Beckwith, marched
in the direction of _Wetter_ to surprise the corps commanded by
the celebrated Colonel FRISCHER, amounting to about two thousand
men, in quarters at that town. FRISCHER'S men were alarmed, and
attempted to make resistance, but the gallant Colonel HARVEY rushed
upon them at the head of the INNISKILLING dragoons, and Beckwith's
grenadiers, drawing their swords, joined in the charge;--the
French were overthrown; sixty were killed on the spot; many were
wounded; about four hundred were made prisoners; and the remainder
fled in confusion, towards Marpurg; leaving their camp-equipage,
baggage, and a number of horses in possession of the conquerors.
Lieutenant-Colonel HARVEY, of the INNISKILLING dragoons, had a
personal encounter with FRISCHER'S brother, whom he slew with his
broadsword; and both the dragoons and grenadiers distinguished
themselves in a particular manner[15].

The pursuit of the French army was continued a distance of nearly
two hundred miles; and operations were not suspended during the
winter. The weather becoming severe, the INNISKILLING dragoons went
into cantonments in the villages near the river Lahn.

[Sidenote: 1760]

During the campaign of 1760 the regiment was formed in brigade
with the tenth dragoons under Major-General the Earl of Pembroke;
and, after much manœuvring and some skirmishing was encamped at
Kalle. At the same time thirty thousand French troops, commanded
by the Chevalier de Muy, crossed the river Dymel, and took post
at _Warbourg_, to cut off the communication of the allies with
Westphalia. The INNISKILLING dragoons left the camp at Kalle
about eleven o'clock on the night of the 30th of June, passed the
Dymel near Liebenau, and about five on the following morning were
in position on the heights of Corbeke, from whence they advanced
to a wood within five miles of the enemy's position. The French
were attacked, and while the action was still raging, the British
cavalry were ordered forward. Traversing the five miles at a quick
pace, they speedily arrived at the field of battle, and charging
the enemy with signal intrepidity, routed the French cavalry,
put the opposing infantry into disorder, and chased them across
the Dymel. The conduct of the INNISKILLING dragoons and other
British cavalry regiments was such, that the Marquis of Granby
stated, in his public despatch, that _nothing could exceed their
gallant behaviour_; Prince Ferdinand declared in general orders
that _all the British cavalry performed prodigies of valour_; and
an historian of that date stated, that _they outdid all former
examples_.

The regiment had only two men and two horses killed; three men and
one horse wounded, and three horses missing.

The French retired from their camp beyond the Dymel on the 22nd of
August; when the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick crossed the river
with twelve thousand men to gain the enemy's left flank. His
leading corps encountered the enemy's rear-guard near _Zierenberg_,
and a sharp skirmish ensued. At length the Prince brought forward
the Greys and INNISKILLING dragoons; a gallant charge of the two
regiments decided the contest; and the French were driven into the
town.

The French army encamped beyond _Zierenberg_, and the volunteers
of Clermont and Dauphiné, amounting to about nine hundred cavalry
and a thousand infantry, were quartered in the town. After sunset,
on the evening of the 5th of September, the Greys, INNISKILLING,
and Bock's dragoons, two regiments of infantry, and one hundred and
fifty Highlanders, crossed the Dymel, and arriving at Zierenberg
before daybreak, forced the guard and entered the town. A dreadful
slaughter was made of the enemy in the streets, and a sharp
encounter with the bayonet took place in the churchyard; between
three and four hundred prisoners were captured; also two pieces of
cannon; and at three o'clock the assailants retired to Warbourg,
having lost only ten men. It was stated in the London Gazette, that
'_the behaviour of the officers and the bravery of the troops, on
this occasion, deserve the greatest commendation_.'

The Hereditary Prince of Brunswick marched with a body of troops
to the duchy of Cleves, and invested Wesel. The INNISKILLING
dragoons and several other corps left the camp at Warbourg, on
the 1st of October, under Major-General Waldegrave, to join the
prince, and take part in the operations on the lower Rhine. The
French, commanded by the Marquis de Castries, advanced to raise
the siege of Wesel, and encamped half a league behind the convent
of _Campen_, with Frischer's corps posted within the convent. The
INNISKILLING dragoons passed the Rhine by a bridge two miles below
Wesel, and having joined the Hereditary Prince, advanced at ten
o'clock, on the evening of the 15th of October, to surprise the
enemy's camp. It being necessary to dislodge the troops in the
convent, the firing alarmed the French army, which instantly formed
for battle. The allies having passed the convent, commenced the
action at five o'clock on the morning of the 16th; and a succession
of charges was continued with varied success until nine at night,
when the Prince ordered a retreat.

The SIXTH lost on this occasion two men and four horses killed;
Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey, Major Hepburn, Cornet Sayer, five men
and one horse wounded; and one man and horse taken by the enemy.

After repassing the Rhine, the regiment was encamped at Bounnen,
subsequently at Klein Reckum, and in December went into
cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1761]

In February, 1761, the regiment took part in a successful incursion
into the quarters occupied by the French army; when the allies,
advancing through a heavy snow, drove their opponents before
them many leagues, captured several strong towns with extensive
magazines of forage and provisions, but were subsequently obliged
to retire.

During the campaign of 1761 the regiment was brigaded with the
royals and tenth dragoons, commanded by Major-General Eliott. It
was employed in several manœuvres, and was in position in the
middle of July, on the rivers Asse and Lippe in Westphalia, forming
part of the division under the Prince of Anhalt. On the 15th of
July, the enemy attacked the Marquis of Granby's division at
_Kirch-Denkern_, when the INNISKILLING dragoons crossed the Asse
river to support the infantry, and the French were driven back. The
action was renewed on the following day, and the enemy was again
repulsed with serious loss; but owing to the scene of conflict
being in a thickly-wooded country, interspersed with marshy ground,
the services of the regiment were limited to supporting the
infantry.

The SIXTH dragoons were subsequently employed in operations on the
Dymel; in November they were engaged in the electorate of Hanover,
where several sharp skirmishes occurred, in which they took part,
in severe weather, and were sometimes encamped in the snow. They
eventually went into cantonments in Friesland.

[Sidenote: 1762]

Having taken the field to serve the campaign of 1762, the regiment
was formed in brigade with the fifteenth dragoons, under Colonel
Harvey. After encamping at Brackel in the bishopric of Paderborn,
and subsequently on the heights of Tissel, the brigade advanced, on
the morning of the 24th of June, with the view of surprising the
French camp at _Groebenstien_. This movement was conducted with
such address, that the French were instantly thrown into confusion,
and, abandoning their camp equipage, they fell back upon Cassel,
one division being surrounded and made prisoners in the woods
of _Wilhelmsthal_. The INNISKILLING dragoons pursued the French
towards Cassel, and afterwards encamped near Holtzhausen.

In the subsequent operations of the campaign, the INNISKILLING
dragoons were actively employed, and a series of successes was
followed by the capture of Cassel. A suspension of hostilities took
place in November, and the regiment went into cantonments in the
bishopric of Munster.

[Sidenote: 1763]

A treaty of peace was concluded at Fontainbleau. The regiment
received the thanks of Parliament for its conduct during the
war: and in January, 1763, commenced its march through Holland
to Williamstadt, where it embarked for England. It landed in
February, and was stationed in South Britain; the _light troop_
was disbanded; the establishment was reduced to six troops of
twenty-eight private men each, and eight men per troop were
equipped as light dragoons.

Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey, who had repeatedly distinguished himself
during the war, was rewarded with the colonelcy of the twelfth
dragoons, and was succeeded by Major Robert Rickart Hepburn, a most
meritorious officer, who had served with the regiment many years.

[Sidenote: 1764]

After the return of the regiment from Germany, its head-quarters
were established at Northampton; from whence they were removed,
in 1764, to York; at the same time orders were received for the
officers and men to wear epaulettes on the left shoulder instead of
aiguillettes; the jacked leather boots were directed to be replaced
by others of a lighter description; and the regiment was directed
to be mounted on long-tailed horses.

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1766]

In 1765 the INNISKILLING dragoons occupied cantonments in
Scotland; they returned to England in the following year, and the
head-quarters were stationed at Coventry, where an order was
received for the drummers on the establishment to be replaced by
trumpeters.

[Sidenote: 1767]

The regiment marched into village cantonments, near London, in May,
1767, and was reviewed on the 11th of that month, in brigade with
the fourth dragoons, on Wimbledon Common, by King George III., who
was pleased to express his high approbation of the appearance and
discipline of the two regiments.

[Sidenote: 1768]

[Sidenote: 1769]

[Sidenote: 1770]

After the review the INNISKILLING dragoons marched into cantonments
in Worcestershire; in 1768 the head-quarters were removed to Lewes;
in 1769 to Ipswich; and in 1770 to York.

[Sidenote: 1771]

[Sidenote: 1772]

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1774]

In the spring of the following year the regiment proceeded to
Scotland; but returned to England in the beginning of 1772, and was
stationed in Lancashire, the head-quarters being established at
Manchester; from whence they were removed in 1773 to Worcester, and
in 1774 to Canterbury.

[Sidenote: 1775]

A change of quarters took place in the summer of 1775, and the
regiment was stationed in Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire, with
the head-quarters at Northampton.

On the decease of General Cholmondeley, in October, 1775, King
George III. conferred the colonelcy on Lieutenant-General Edward
Harvey, who so highly distinguished himself at the head of the
regiment in Germany during the seven years' war.

[Sidenote: 1776]

[Sidenote: 1777]

In the early part of 1776 the SIXTH dragoons commenced their
march for Scotland; from whence they returned in the beginning of
1777, and were cantoned in Warwickshire and Staffordshire, the
head-quarters being at Coventry.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The colonelcy having become vacant by the decease of General
Harvey, it was conferred on Lieutenant-General James Johnston, from
the first Irish horse, now fourth dragoon guards, by commission
dated the 2nd of April, 1778.

Meanwhile the American war had commenced, and the French monarch
having agreed to aid the revolted colonies, war was declared
against France. The British army was augmented, and one hundred
men and horses were added to the INNISKILLING dragoons; but the
scene of conflict was so little adapted for cavalry, that the heavy
dragoon regiments were not called upon to quit the United Kingdom.

The head-quarters were removed to Salisbury in May, 1778; and a
further augmentation of forty-eight men, who were to be mounted
on small horses and equipped as light dragoons, was added to the
regiment.

[Sidenote: 1779]

In April, 1779, the men equipped as light cavalry were
incorporated, with the men of the third dragoon guards, and first
and eleventh dragoons, into a regiment, which was numbered the
twentieth light dragoons. During the following summer, the SIXTH,
and five other regiments of cavalry, were encamped on Salisbury
Plain, under Lieutenant-General Johnston.

[Sidenote: 1780]

[Sidenote: 1781]

[Sidenote: 1782]

[Sidenote: 1783]

In the two following years the regiment occupied quarters in
Gloucestershire and Worcestershire; in 1782 it was stationed in
Dorsetshire, with the head-quarters at Dorchester; and in 1783 it
was removed into Northamptonshire and Leicestershire.

The American war had, in the mean time, terminated, and the
establishment was reduced to two hundred and thirty-two officers
and men.

[Sidenote: 1784]

[Sidenote: 1785]

During part of the year 1784, the head-quarters were at Lincoln,
with detachments along the coast; in 1785 they were removed to
York, with detached troops in Northumberland, Durham, and on the
Yorkshire coast.

[Sidenote: 1786]

[Sidenote: 1787]

[Sidenote: 1788]

[Sidenote: 1789]

[Sidenote: 1790]

[Sidenote: 1791]

[Sidenote: 1792]

In 1786 and 1787 the regiment was stationed in Lancashire; in
1788 the head-quarters were at Exeter, with detachments on the
Devonshire coast; they were removed to Dorchester in 1789; to
Winchester in 1790; to Ipswich in 1791; and to York in 1792, with
detachments on coast duty.

[Sidenote: 1793]

A revolution had, in the mean time, taken place in France; and a
violent republican party had seized the reins of government, and
imprisoned their king. These indications of an approaching war
occasioned the establishment of the regiment to be increased sixty
men; in the beginning of 1793 it was augmented to nine troops, and
was held in constant readiness to proceed on foreign service; a
tenth troop was afterwards added.

The French republicans, pursuing a career of cruelty, spoliation,
and bloodshed, added to their multiplied enormities the
decapitation of their king. Infatuated by success in their
own land, they sought to subvert the liberties of other
countries,--to destroy the civil order of Europe,--to spread a
moral contamination of principle and practice which outraged the
nature of mankind,--and to involve every country in atheism,
despotism, and anarchy. They attacked Holland, when a British force
was sent to the assistance of the Dutch, and the INNISKILLING
dragoons marched from York in June, 1793,--embarked at Blackwall,
and having landed at Ostend, went into quarters for a short time
among the Flemish peasantry.

From Ostend the SIXTH proceeded to the vicinity of Bruges, and were
formed in brigade with the blues and royal dragoons. Meanwhile the
successes of the allies had removed the theatre of the war from
Holland, to the frontiers of French Flanders, and the INNISKILLING
dragoons advanced up the country and joined the forces commanded
by the Duke of York before _Valenciennes_, which fortress
surrendered to His Royal Highness a few days after the regiment
joined the army.

The British were separated from the remainder of the allies, with
a view of undertaking the siege of _Dunkirk_; and the INNISKILLING
dragoons marched from Valenciennes to the vicinity of the coast for
the purpose of forming part of the covering army. On the evening
of the 22nd of August the French were driven from the camp at
Ghivelde, and the covering forces took up a defensive position
under Marshal Freytag, while the Duke of York carried on the
operations against the fortress. The delay which took place in the
arrival of the battering train, and of a British naval force, to
co-operate with the army, gave time for the government of France to
assemble men from various parts, crowd them into coaches, waggons,
and other vehicles, and hurry them day and night towards Dunkirk.
On the 6th of September the enemy attacked the covering army with
overwhelming numbers, and, owing to the nature of the ground, the
INNISKILLING dragoons dismounted and formed as infantry. Some
sharp fighting occurred during the day, and after sunset the
covering army withdrew to a new position. The night was dark and
tempestuous; the advance-guard took a wrong road, and on entering
the village of _Rexpoede_ it was found to be occupied by the
enemy. Some confused fighting took place, and Marshal Freytag and
Prince Adolphus were surrounded, but escaped with slight wounds.
Finally the French were repulsed with great slaughter, and the
army, continuing its route, arrived at Hondschoote on the following
morning, and took up a new position. The SIXTH dragoons lost one
quarter-master, their sick men, the women, and the baggage, which
fell into the enemy's hands.

On the 8th of September the covering army was again attacked, and
driven from its ground by superior numbers; when the Duke of York
raised the siege and retired.

The Dutch posts on the Lys having been forced on the 12th of
September, they abandoned _Menin_, which fortress was immediately
taken possession of by the French. The Duke of York advanced, on
the 14th of September, to drive the enemy across the Lys; and the
INNISKILLING dragoons formed part of the force under Major-General
Harcourt, which joined the leading column of Austrians and Hessians
under Lieutenant-General Ehrbach. The French were forced to
evacuate Menin, and were pursued by two British squadrons and the
Austrian hussars towards Roncq.

After bivouacking a few days in the fields, near Menin, the
regiment marched to Tournay, where it was stationed several weeks,
and subsequently passed the severe winter months at Drongen.

[Sidenote: 1794]

Leaving Drongen in February, 1794, the regiment marched to
Oudenarde; in April it joined the army at Cateau, where it was
seen in marching order by the Emperor Francis; and on the 17th of
that month it supported the column which attacked and carried the
heights of _Vaux_.

The INNISKILLING dragoons formed part of the covering army during
the siege of _Landrécies_; and on the 21st of April, when the enemy
attacked the Prince of Coburg's advanced posts at _Blocus_, the
regiment formed part of the force which proceeded to the support
of the Austrians; the French were repulsed at this point; but they
succeeded in driving the Imperialists from Nouvion.

Thirty thousand French, commanded by Lieutenant-General Chapuy,
attacked the Duke of York's post at _Cateau_ on the 26th of April,
and several cannon shot and shells fell among the SIXTH dragoons
before they were mounted; but did little injury. The Duke of
York watched the enemy's movements from the top of a redoubt,
and observing their left uncovered, he detached a body of troops
against that flank; and after a sharp contest the French general
was taken prisoner, and his army driven from the field with severe
loss.

On the 27th of April the INNISKILLING dragoons were detached to
support the troops at _Courtray_ under General Clairfait, whose
advance-posts at Mourcon were attacked two days afterwards by
the French under General Pichegru, who carried the post after a
severe engagement, and also gained possession of Courtray. The
INNISKILLING dragoons rejoined the army under the Duke of York.

On the 1st of May the INNISKILLING dragoons encamped in front of
_Tournay_, with their left to the road leading towards Lisle, where
the army arrived from the vicinity of Landrécies, and took up a
position to oppose the enemy.

About three o'clock on the morning of the 10th of May a few
pistol-shots from the advance-posts gave indication of an
approaching enemy, and soon afterwards thirty thousand republican
troops appeared in dark masses advancing to battle. The British
soldiers stood to their arms, and the INNISKILLING dragoons mounted
and prepared for the combat. The report of musketry with the deep
tones of the artillery succeeded, and the enemy's attempt to turn
the left was repulsed by the fire of the Austrians posted in a
wood. A shower of bullets from the French artillery assaulted the
British centre, and through the clouds of smoke the opposing
columns rushed to battle. During the conflict several cavalry
corps were detached against the enemy's right flank. The Queen's
Bays, Scots Greys, and INNISKILLING dragoons, forming one superb
brigade, were led forward by the Duke of York, in open column of
half-squadrons; on approaching the enemy they formed line under a
heavy cannonade, and rushed sword in hand upon their adversaries.
Deep lines, bristled with bayonets, opposed a formidable
resistance; but they were broken by the terrific charge of the
British heavy cavalry, and the heroic troopers riding furiously
among their adversaries, cut them down with a terrible carnage. The
enemy commenced a retreat, but was speedily broken and pursued from
the field with great loss.

Three men and seven horses of the SIXTH dragoons were killed; seven
men and nineteen horses were wounded, and three horses missing.

A combined attack on the French posts having been resolved upon,
the SIXTH dragoons joined the column under General Count Kinsky,
who advanced on the morning of the 17th of May from Cysoing to
the La Marque, and forced the passage of the river at _Bauvines_,
in which service the INNISKILLING dragoons were engaged; but
no decisive results followed the movements of the army on this
occasion. On the evening of the same day the regiment joined the
Austrians under Archduke Charles, and advanced on the 18th to form
a junction with the column under the Duke of York at Roubaix, but
was suddenly ordered to take the route to Tournay, where the army
was again assembled.

The enemy attacked the position with great fury on the 22nd of May,
but was repulsed. The INNISKILLING dragoons were formed in column
on their camp ground; but the French did not attack that part of
the line.

The extraordinary efforts made by the French government to collect
an army of overwhelming numbers, were eventually attended with
complete success. The Austrians were overthrown and forced to
retreat; the Duke of York was obliged to withdraw from his position
in front of Tournay, and a series of retrograde movements followed,
during which the INNISKILLING dragoons performed much severe duty.

After encamping a short period at Rosendael, the regiment
withdrew with the army, in the early part of August, beyond
Breda. Thirty-five thousand men under the Duke of York confronted
a hundred thousand opponents; and when the French had made
preparations for enveloping this small body of British troops, His
Royal Highness withdrew to another post beyond Bois-le-duc, where
the SIXTH dragoons encamped in the beginning of September.

Strenuous exertions were made by the allies for the preservation
of Holland; but the Dutch, having imbibed the revolutionary
principles and doctrines of equality from the French, did not
second these efforts with zeal and energy, and the British troops
were opposed by such immense masses, that no chance of ultimate
success remained. The Duke of York withdrew beyond the Maese in the
middle of September; and early in October concentrated his forces
about Nimeguen, through which fortress the INNISKILLING dragoons
marched a few days before the place was besieged by the French, and
eventually went into quarters in the villages between Rhenen and
Wyck.

At length a severe frost set in, the rivers became frozen, so as to
admit of an army passing on the ice, and the advance of the enemy
being facilitated thereby, the prospect of being able to defend the
passage of the Waal became hopeless, and the regiment was directed
to pass the Rhine and occupy cantonments beyond that river.

[Sidenote: 1795]

In the early part of January, 1795, a sudden thaw rendering it
probable the army would be enabled to maintain a more forward
position and defend the passage of the Waal, the INNISKILLING
dragoons were ordered to advance; they repassed the Rhine on
the ice on the 8th of January, and joined the forces under
Major-General Sir David Dundas near Geldermalsen. The frost,
however, set in with greater severity than before, the country was
converted into a plain, and after some sharp fighting the British
troops fell back before the superior numbers of their opponents.
The SIXTH dragoons withdrew from their forward position; they
were joined by the Queen's Bays, and Scots Greys, on the 13th of
January; harassing marches over a region of ice and snow followed,
and several men and horses perished from the severity of the
weather.

On the 17th of January the INNISKILLING dragoons halted at
Campen in Overyssel; on the 26th they were at Steenwyk in the
same province, and continuing this harassing march, they passed
the confines of Holland, and arrived on the 10th of February at
the banks of the Ems, a river of Westphalia. They were to have
halted at Warmer, but a thaw occasioned them to prosecute their
journey and pass the river on the ice. Continuing the march on the
following day, the country for a considerable distance was under
water, and several horses which had become exhausted, were lost in
the inundations.

The frost returning, the SIXTH dragoons countermarched, repassed
the Ems on the ice on the 20th of February, and on the 20th
skirmished with the van of the French army. Several manœuvres
followed, and on the 3rd of March a party of French failed in an
attempt to pass the Ems. On the following day the INNISKILLING
dragoons had to traverse a small river on the ice at a point which
was commanded by the enemy's cannon; but the regiment, being
favoured by a very thick fog, passed unperceived by the French.

[Sidenote: 1796]

[Sidenote: 1797]

Hostilities terminated in this quarter soon afterwards; in May
the regiment went into cantonments in villages near the banks of
the Weser, one of the principal rivers in Germany; and in July
it encamped near Delmenhorst, the chief town of a district of
that name in Westphalia, seven miles south-west of Bremen. On the
breaking up of the camp, the SIXTH dragoons marched through Bremen
into cantonments on the right bank of the Weser until November,
when they embarked for England, but were detained in the river
several weeks by contrary winds. They landed at Yarmouth and South
Shields about Christmas; in January, 1796, they marched to Norwich,
and in September following to Ipswich, where they passed the
succeeding winter. In the autumn of 1797 they proceeded to Romford.

General Johnston died on the 13th of December, 1797, and was
interred in great state in Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded in
the colonelcy by George, Earl of Pembroke, K.G., who commanded the
regiment during the succeeding thirty years.

[Sidenote: 1798]

[Sidenote: 1799]

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1801]

Leaving Romford in June, 1798, the regiment proceeded to Windsor,
and encamped in the forest, where a numerous body of troops was
assembled, and exercised in the presence of King George III.
and the royal family. His Majesty reviewed the regiment; and it
afterwards proceeded into cantonments, the head-quarters being at
Uxbridge. In December, 1799, it marched to Birmingham; in August,
1800, to Bristol; and in June, 1801, to Exeter.

[Sidenote: 1802]

The successes of the British forces in Egypt and the West Indies,
were followed by a treaty of peace, in 1802, when the establishment
of the SIXTH dragoons was reduced to eight troops, and the total
number of officers and men to five hundred and fifty-three. In
October the head-quarters were removed to Nottingham.

[Sidenote: 1803]

Before the following summer the ambitious policy of the French
republic involved Great Britain in another war, and the first
consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, assembled an army for the
invasion of England. This vain project was met by formidable
preparations on the part of the British government; an army of _six
hundred thousand men_ (including militia, yeomanry, volunteers, and
troops on foreign stations) was embodied; and the establishment of
the INNISKILLING dragoons was again augmented.

[Sidenote: 1804]

[Sidenote: 1805]

In the summer of 1803 the regiment marched to Birmingham; in
January, 1804, it proceeded to Brighton, and was stationed near the
Sussex coast during the two following summers, while the French
army lay at Boulogne, on the opposite side of the channel. In 1805
Napoleon withdrew his legions from the coast, and marched against
the Russians and Austrians; and in October the SIXTH dragoons
proceeded to Lewes.

[Sidenote: 1806]

[Sidenote: 1807]

[Sidenote: 1808]

[Sidenote: 1809]

The danger of foreign invasion passed away, the arts, sciences,
agriculture, manufactures, and commerce flourished throughout
the British dominions; while the other countries of Europe
became successively scenes of war, rapine, and spoliation. The
INNISKILLING dragoons proceeded, in March, 1806, to Ipswich; during
the winter of 1807 to York, and in the summer of 1808 they marched
to Scotland, and occupied Piershill barracks, Edinburgh. In June,
1809, they embarked at Portpatrick for Ireland; they landed at
Donaghadee, and marched to Dundalk.

[Sidenote: 1810]

[Sidenote: 1811]

[Sidenote: 1813]

[Sidenote: 1814]

While the British troops were triumphant over the legions of
Napoleon, in Portugal, Spain, and the south of France, the
INNISKILLING dragoons were detained on home service in Ireland.
In the summer of 1810 they marched to Dublin; in November, 1811,
to Ballinasloe; in March, 1813, to Belturbet; in May following,
to Tullamore, and in April, 1814, to Dublin, from whence they
embarked for Liverpool, where they arrived on the 3rd of May,
and proceeding to York, halted there three months, and afterwards
marched to Nottingham.

While the regiment was in Ireland, the cocked hats and feathers
were replaced by brass helmets, and the high boots and breeches by
cloth trousers and short boots.

Meanwhile the victories of the British army had been followed
by the removal of Napoleon from the throne of France, and the
re-establishment of tranquillity in Europe: the numbers of the
regiment were consequently reduced from ten to eight troops.

[Sidenote: 1815]

The return of peace was followed by public rejoicings throughout
the country; but scarcely had these subsided, when news arrived
of the return of Bonaparte to France; of the flight of Louis
XVIII. from the capital; and of the re-assumption of the imperial
dignity by the usurper. Preparations for war immediately commenced;
the establishment of the INNISKILLING dragoons was augmented,
and six troops, mustering four hundred and fifty officers and
men, under the command of Colonel Joseph Muter, were selected to
proceed on foreign service; the depôt troops commanded by Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonel Ellice, were stationed at Ipswich.

[Illustration: Sixth (Inniskilling) Dragoons, 1815.

  [To face page 80.]

The six troops destined for service abroad proceeded, in April,
1815, to Gravesend, where they embarked for Ostend; some delay
was occasioned by contrary winds; but the whole reached Flanders
in safety, and on the first of May they were in quarters beyond
Bruges, from whence they removed a few stages further up the
country. A British, Hanoverian, and Brunswick force was assembled
in Belgium under Field-Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington,
and the King of the Netherlands placed his troops under the orders
of the British commander. The SIXTH were formed in brigade with
the royal dragoons and Scots greys, commanded by Major-General
Sir William Ponsonby, K.C.B. They were reviewed by the Prince of
Orange, and Lieutenant-General the Earl of Uxbridge, commanding the
cavalry, on the 24th of May; and on the 29th of that month they
were seen, together with the other cavalry corps and the royal
horse artillery, by the Duke of Wellington, who was accompanied by
Marshal Von Blucher, the commander of the Prussian army.

The INNISKILLING dragoons reposed in cantonments among the Belgic
peasantry about six weeks; being stimulated by the fame acquired by
several corps in the Peninsular campaigns, from 1808 to 1814, they
were eager for an opportunity to signalize their intrepidity and
prowess against the enemies of their country, and this opportunity
was soon afforded them. About four o'clock on the morning of the
16th of June, they were suddenly aroused by the notes of the bugle
summoning them to assemble, mounted, at the alarm posts. Springing
from their beds with alacrity, they were speedily equipped, and,
as the Belgic husbandmen commenced their labours in the field,
the INNISKILLING dragoons were seen directing their march towards
_Quatre Bras_, where the French divisions, under Marshal Ney, had
suddenly attacked the advance-posts, while Bonaparte assailed the
Prussians at Ligny with the main body of his army. Continuing
its route by Enghien, Brain-le-Conte, and Nivelles, the regiment
arrived at the scene of conflict a little before midnight;
the hostile forces were reposing on their arms; and the SIXTH
bivouacked behind the position, in a corn-field on the left of the
road from Charleroi to Brussels.

The Prussians having retreated, the Duke of Wellington made a
corresponding movement, and the INNISKILLING dragoons were employed
in covering the retreat of the infantry and artillery to the
position of Mont St. Jean, in front of the village of _Waterloo_.
On passing through Genappe, a heavy thunder-storm deluged the
country and put a stop to the firing; but as the atmosphere
cleared, the scene became particularly interesting; the cavalry
brigades were manœuvring in the face of the adverse army; the loud
tones of the artillery, the fire of skirmishers in the fields,
the seventh hussars and first life guards charging the French
lancers in the streets, while Bonaparte urged forward his numerous
squadrons, thinking to overwhelm the British horsemen, presented
to the eye an animating and splendid spectacle. On arriving at the
heights of Mont St. Jean, an opposition was presented to the French
emperor, which he despaired to overcome that evening, and the
hostile forces confronted each other during the night, the men and
horses being exposed to a continual rain.

On the morning of the memorable 18th of June, the army appeared in
order of battle. The Royals, Greys, and INNISKILLING dragoons, were
formed on the left of the road leading from Brussels to Charleroi,
to support Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton's division of
infantry, which crowned the heights in front of the brigade. At ten
o'clock the French appeared on the opposite heights, from whence
a cloud of skirmishers was sent forward; the artillery gradually
opened its fire, and about noon the enemy's columns traversed the
intervening space, and one of the most sanguinary, hard-contested,
and important battles recorded in the annals of war commenced: a
battle in which the fate of kingdoms, and the destiny of millions,
was decided by British skill, and by British valour.

After failing in reiterated assaults on the post of Hugomont,
simultaneous attacks were formed; one of cuirassiers against the
centre, which was defeated by the British household cavalry; and
one of infantry against the left of the position occupied by the
allied army. The formation of columns was partly concealed by the
nature of the ground; but the glistening of bayonets was seen at
intervals, above the undulations which form the features of this
sanguinary field.

Twenty thousand infantry appeared on the heights opposite the
spot where the INNISKILLING dragoons were formed, and rushing
forward with that eager velocity which characterizes the first
attack of French soldiers, they traversed the intervening space
with astonishing expedition, dispersed a Belgic brigade with
which they first came in contact, broke through parts of the
British supporting infantry, and ascended the position occupied
by the allied army. A favourable opportunity for the Royals,
Greys, and INNISKILLING dragoons to charge presented itself; the
Earl of Uxbridge galloped up to the three regiments, and they
instantly deployed and advanced against the dark masses of the
enemy. A spirit of emulation, and a thirst for glory, beamed in
the countenances of the officers and men, as they moved forward
in firm array, presenting a noble spectacle of nine squadrons of
superb heavy cavalry, whose warlike appearance and resolute bearing
excited admiration. The French columns were urging forward with
rapid steps as to certain victory; crowds of infantry and artillery
fled before them; and as they ascended the crest of the position,
they presented a menacing and alarming aspect. An important crisis
in the battle had arrived, and stupendous results depended on the
valour of the Royals, Greys, and INNISKILLING dragoons. The three
regiments advanced steadily to meet these numerous and formidable
bands of opponents, who were concealed from their view by the
rising ground: they paused a short time to permit the retreating
infantry and artillery to pass through the intervals of squadrons,
and the next moment these powerful horsemen raised a loud and
terrific shout, and rushed furiously upon the adverse ranks of war.
The spectacle was grand, and the result glorious to the British
arms. The French masses being unable to deploy, the heads of
columns were instantly broken and forced back; confusion ensued,
the firing ceased, a general flight commenced, and as the smoke
cleared away the British dragoons were seen plunging their horses
into the midst of the broken columns, and cutting down the French
musketeers with a terrible carnage, until the slope of the position
was literally covered with slain. Crowds of French soldiers threw
down their arms and surrendered; while others cast themselves on
the ground to escape the victorious troopers. The Royals and Greys
took each an eagle: the INNISKILLING dragoons cut off from their
own lines and made prisoners a numerous body of French infantry,
with whom part of the regiment was detached to the rear. The
brigade continued its victorious course, spreading terror, carnage,
and dismay over the field: it crossed the ravine, carried several
batteries, and penetrated to the rear of the enemy's position.
Pursuing their opponents too far, the INNISKILLING dragoons were,
on returning, charged by a numerous body of the enemy's lancers,
and sustained considerable loss.

Major-General Sir William Ponsonby having been killed by the
lancers, the command of the brigade devolved on Colonel Muter
of the INNISKILLING dragoons; and that of the regiment on
Lieutenant-Colonel Fiennes Miller, who had previously had his
horse killed under him, and had received several bayonet wounds,
but having had his wounds dressed, and procuring a horse which had
belonged to a French officer of lancers, he kept his post at the
head of the regiment.

The brigade having re-formed, was stationed behind a little wood,
where it remained, protected from the enemy's incessant fire of
shot and shells by some high ground and by the trees, until about
four o'clock in the afternoon, when it was ordered to the right of
the position, and there suffered severely from a heavy cannonade.

Lieutenant-Colonel Miller was again wounded about five o'clock, and
withdrew, leaving the regiment under the command of Captain Madox.
About half-past five Colonel Muter was wounded, and the command of
the brigade devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel Clifton, of the royal
dragoons.

In the general attack made on the French army at the close of the
day, the brigade had another opportunity of distinguishing itself,
and, although it was reduced to a very small number of officers
and men by casualties and parties detached to the rear with
prisoners, yet it proved victorious over every description of force
which opposed its advance. The French army sustained a decisive
overthrow. The troops under the Duke of Wellington halted on the
field, surrounded by cannon and other trophies of victory, while
the Prussians, who had arrived at the close of the action, pursued
Bonaparte's discomfited legions throughout the night.

Thus ended a battle, the greatest of past or present times,
the character and importance of which may be estimated by the
splendid results, and by the continued peace which has followed.
The brigade, of which the INNISKILLING dragoons formed part, was
commended by the Duke of Wellington in his public despatch.

The regiment had Lieutenant and Adjutant Clusky, two
troop-serjeant-majors, three serjeants, four corporals, one
trumpeter, seventy-five privates, and one hundred and sixty-four
horses killed; Colonel Muter, Lieutenant-Colonel Miller, Captains
W. F. Browne, and the Honourable S. Douglas, Lieutenant Hassard,
and Cornet Ruffo, three serjeant-majors, six serjeants, five
corporals, two trumpeters, eighty-five men, and twenty-seven horses
wounded.

Colonel Muter and Lieutenant-Colonel Miller had the honour of
receiving the riband and badge of companion of the order of the
Bath. Colonel Muter was further rewarded with the decoration of the
fourth class of St. Wladimir of Russia, Captain Madox was promoted
to the rank of major in the army.

Serjeant-Majors William Seney, John Laws, and Matthew Marshall,
Serjeants Hugh M'Mahon, and Johnston Marlow, with Privates William
Penfold and Robert Potters, particularly distinguished themselves.

Every officer and soldier present at this engagement received a silver
medal; and the subaltern officers, with the non-commissioned officers
and privates, were allowed to reckon two years' service for that
battle[16].

The royal authority was also given for the regiment to bear the
word "WATERLOO" on its guidons and appointments.

The regiment advanced in pursuit of the wreck of the French
army on the following day; on the 22nd of June it bivouacked at
Malplaquet, a village which is celebrated in history as the scene
of a desperate engagement, on the 11th of September, 1709, when the
army commanded by the Duke of Marlborough gained a victory over the
French under Marshals Villars and Boufflers.

Continuing the pursuit of the French army, the INNISKILLING
dragoons arrived, in the beginning of July, at the vicinity of
Paris, and after the surrender of the capital, they went into
quarters at the village of Nanterre, where they remained three
weeks, and subsequently marched to Rouen. They took part in
several reviews of the army commanded by the Duke of Wellington, at
which the sovereigns of Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France, were
present.

[Sidenote: 1816]

The war having terminated with the restoration of the Bourbon
dynasty to the throne of France, and the conclusion of a treaty of
peace, the regiment marched to Calais. It embarked for England on
the 1st of January, 1816, and after landing at Dover, proceeded to
Salisbury, and subsequently to Exeter. At the same time its numbers
were reduced to a peace establishment.

[Sidenote: 1817]

[Sidenote: 1818]

[Sidenote: 1819]

In October, 1817, the regiment marched to Birmingham; during
the summer of 1818 it proceeded to Scotland and was stationed
at Piershill barracks, near Edinburgh. Leaving this station in
June, 1819, for Portpatrick, it embarked for Ireland,--arrived at
Donaghadee on the 1st of July, and marched into quarters at Gort,
in the county of Galway.

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: 1821]

The INNISKILLING dragoons passed the four succeeding years in
Ireland. In 1820 their head-quarters were removed to Longford; and
in July, 1821, to Dublin, on the occasion of the auspicious visit
of His Majesty King George IV. to this part of his dominions.
In August the regiment marched to Newbridge, for the purpose of
attending His Majesty at the race-ground of Kildare.

[Sidenote: 1822]

On the 9th of November the SIXTH dragoons left Newbridge for
Fermoy; in February, 1822, they proceeded to Cahir, and in June
following returned to Newbridge, where they remained till December,
when they proceeded to Dublin and occupied the royal barracks.

[Sidenote: 1823]

Leaving Dublin in May, 1823, the regiment proceeded to Donaghadee,
where it embarked for Scotland on the 6th of June, landed on the
same day, and proceeded to Glasgow, where it passed the succeeding
twelve months.

[Sidenote: 1824]

[Sidenote: 1825]

[Sidenote: 1826]

[Sidenote: 1827]

From Glasgow the regiment marched in July, 1824, for York; in the
summer of 1825 the head-quarters were removed to Manchester; in
April, 1826, to Dorchester; and in the following year to Nottingham.

The Earl of Pembroke died in the autumn, and was succeeded in the
colonelcy by the Hon. Sir William Lumley, G.C.B., by commission
dated the 3rd of November, 1827.

[Sidenote: 1828]

[Sidenote: 1829]

Leaving Nottingham in March, 1828, the regiment proceeded to
Ipswich, but returned to Nottingham in October following; and in
the summer of 1829 proceeded to Liverpool and embarked for Ireland.
After landing at Dublin, it proceeded to Dundalk, where it passed
the winter.

[Sidenote: 1830]

[Sidenote: 1831]

[Sidenote: 1832]

In the summer of 1830 the regiment proceeded to Dublin; in July,
1831, the head-quarters were at Longford; and in 1832 at Cahir,
many detachments being furnished in aid of the civil power during
these years.

[Sidenote: 1833]

The Regiment proceeded, in March, 1833, to Dublin, where it
embarked for England, and after landing at Liverpool, marched to
Scotland, and was stationed at Edinburgh.

[Sidenote: 1834]

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 1837]

From Scotland the regiment marched in the summer of 1834 to
England, the head-quarters, proceeding to Nottingham; in 1835 to
Ipswich; in 1836 to Brighton; and in 1837 to Dorchester.

[Sidenote: 1838]

[Sidenote: 1839]

In the summer of 1838 the regiment marched to Bristol and embarked
for Ireland; it landed at Cork on the 4th of June, and proceeded
from thence to Cahir. In April, 1839, it was removed to Newbridge,
and in July to Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1840]

In April, 1840, General the Honourable Sir William Lumley, G.C.B.,
was removed to the first dragoon guards, and was succeeded in
the colonelcy of the SIXTH dragoons by Lieutenant-General Sir
Joseph Straton, K.C.H., from the eighth hussars; and this officer
dying in October following, the colonelcy was conferred on
Lieutenant-General Sir George Pownall Adams, K.C.H., by commission
dated the 26th of October, 1840.

In the summer of this year the head-quarters were removed to
Newbridge, and several detachments were furnished in aid of the
civil power.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The regiment proceeded to Dublin in the spring of 1841, embarked
for Liverpool, and the head-quarters were afterwards established at
Birmingham.

[Sidenote: 1842]

In May, 1842, the regiment commenced its march for Scotland, and
was quartered at Glasgow and Edinburgh; the whole assembling at
Edinburgh in August.

On the visit of QUEEN VICTORIA to Scotland in September of this
year, the INNISKILLING dragoons had the honour to receive Her
Majesty on landing at Granton Pier, and to furnish guards of
honour, and all the Royal escorts at Edinburgh, and as far as
Perth, on Her Majesty's journey to the north of Scotland. The
regiment also attended the Queen to Granton Pier, when Her Majesty
re-embarked for London on the 15th of September.

[Sidenote: 1843]

Routes were received in the spring of 1843, for the regiment to
march to England, when the following general order was issued, dated

  "_Edinburgh, April 1, 1843._

  "Major-General Sir Neil Douglas cannot permit the INNISKILLING
  dragoons to quit the North British district without expressing
  to Lieutenant-Colonel White, the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and soldiers of that regiment, his perfect satisfaction
  with their conduct during the time they have been under his
  command. It appears very evident that the exertions of the
  officers have succeeded in instilling into the minds of their
  men, that, next to distinguished valour in the field, nothing
  can more fully establish the character of a British soldier than
  quiet, peaceable, and subordinate behaviour in quarters, which
  the SIXTH dragoons have so eminently displayed while stationed
  in North Britain. Nor can the Major-General forget the manner
  in which the regiment performed the honorable duties assigned
  to it during Her Majesty's visit to her northern dominions,
  which called forth approbation from the highest authorities. In
  taking leave of the regiment the Major-General begs to assure
  the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the SIXTH
  dragoons, that they carry with them his sincere and hearty wishes
  for their prosperity and honour, wherever their country may
  require their services.

  "By order of Major-General Sir NEIL DOUGLAS, K.C.B. and K.C.H.

  (Signed)      "RT. KERR, _Colonel_,
  "_Assistant Adjutant-General_."

On arriving in England the head-quarters of the regiment were
established at Leeds; in October the regiment marched from that
station to Nottingham.

[Sidenote: 1844]

[Sidenote: 1845]

The Regiment remained at Nottingham until June 1844, when it
proceeded to Brighton, and remained there until April 1845, when it
marched to Birmingham.

[Illustration: Sixth (Inniskilling) Dragoons, 1843.

  [To face page 95.]

[Sidenote: 1846]

In April, 1846, the regiment embarked at Liverpool for Ireland, and
on its arrival at Dublin it proceeded to Newbridge, from whence
it marched in May to Longford, where the head-quarters are now
stationed.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIXTH, OR THE INNISKILLING REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS, was originally
composed of men who evinced an example of valour, constancy, and
devotion to the interests of civil and religious liberty, as
established by law, at a period of peculiar difficulty and danger,
such as seldom has been witnessed in the United Kingdom; and
their heroic gallantry ensured to their country the blessings of
constitutional monarchy. Loyalty, courage and obedience, have been
evinced by the officers and soldiers of the regiment from that
period to the present time; and whether in the war of the Austrian
succession,--in the seven years' war in Germany,--the early
campaigns of the war of the French revolution,--or on the memorable
field of WATERLOO, the same valour and constancy have been
displayed, which shone so brilliantly in the first members of the
corps. Being equally conspicuous for good conduct on home service,
the regiment has always possessed the confidence, and ranked high
in the estimation, of the sovereign and of the country.


1846.


FOOTNOTES:

[7] The second battalion of the Irish foot guards came to England
at the Revolution, in 1688, and was disbanded by the Prince of
Orange: the first battalion remained in Ireland until the treaty of
Limerick, in 1691, when it followed King James to France, and was
for many years in the service of Louis XIV. and his successsors.

[8] The regiment of horse was disbanded after the treaty of
Ryswick, in 1697.

The two regiments of dragoons were retained on the establishment of
the army, and were subsequently numbered as--

  The V. Royal Irish Dragoons, and
  The VI., or the Inniskilling Dragoons.

The three regiments of foot were consolidated into one, which is
now the _Twenty-seventh_, or the Inniskilling regiment of foot.

The Londonderry regiments were disbanded.

[9] _London Gazette._

[10] _Narrative of the Battle of the Boyne_, by Captain RICHARDSON.

[11] STORY'S _Continuation_, p. 25.

[12] HARRIS'S _Life of King William_. This author states, that
Colonel Sir Albert Cunningham was the father of General Henry
Cunningham, of the Eighth Dragoons, who was killed in Spain. _Vide
the Record of the Eighth Hussars._

[13] A memoir of this distinguished officer is given in the Record
of the Thirteenth Light Dragoons.

[14] Four other standards were also captured, and several pairs of
kettle drums; but the regiments which captured them are not known.

[15] 'By yesterday's mail we have advice that Prince Ferdinand has
continued his pursuit as far as Wetter; that Colonel Harvey, at the
head of a body of about five hundred English dragoons, fell in with
a large body of Frischer's corps, under the command of Frischer's
brother; that Colonel Harvey attacked them sword in hand, killed
a great number, and took between four and five hundred prisoners.
It is said, that Colonel Harvey, upon coming up to the troops, and
being saluted in a haughty manner by Frischer, drew his sword and
killed him on the spot.'--_Dublin Gazette._

'Colonels Harvey and Beckwith, at the head of some British
cavalry and grenadiers, distinguished themselves in a particular
manner.'--_History of the Campaigns of Prince Ferdinand of
Brunswick._

N.B. Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey was appointed to the
lieutenant-colonelcy of the INNISKILLING dragoons, 29th May, 1754.

[16] List of Officers who obtained _Waterloo_ medals.

  Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Muter--_Brevet-Colonel_.
  Major Fiennes Miller--_Lieutenant-Colonel_.

  _Captains._
  Henry Madox.
  Wm. F. Browne.
  Thomas Macky.
  Wm. F. Hadden.
  Edward Holbech.
  Hon. S. Douglas.

  _Lieutenants._
  Theo. Biddulph.
  Aug. S. Willett.
  John Linton.
  Henry Petre.
  Alex. Hassard.
  Samuel Black.
  Richard Brown.

  _Cornets._
  Paul Ruffo.
  John D. Allingham.

  _Paym._ Wm. Armstrong.
  _Surgeon_, John Bolton.
  _A.-Sur._ W. H. Ricketts.
  _Vet. Sur._ R. Vincent.
  _Qu. Ma._ James Kerr.



  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                 SUCCESSION OF LIEUTENANT-COLONELS                    |
  |                                                                      |
  |                                 OF                                   |
  |                                                                      |
  |        THE SIXTH, OR THE INNISKILLING REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS.          |
  +-----------------------+---------------+------------------------------+
  |          NAMES.       |    Date of    |           REMARKS.           |
  |                       |  Appointment. |                              |
  +-----------------------+---------------+------------------------------+
  |Robert Echlin          | Dec. 31, 1689 | { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |                       |               | { Regiment in 1691           |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Henry Cunningham       | Dec. 30, 1691 | { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |                       |               | { 8th Dragoons in 1693       |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Sir Richard Vernon     |               |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |John Upton             |               |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Alexander Montgomery   | March 30, 1711|                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |James Gardiner         | Jan. 24, 1730 | { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |                       |               | { 13th Dragoons in 1743      |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Cuthbert Ellison       | April 19, 1743|                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Sir John Whitefoord,   | March 19, 1745| { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |  Bart.                |               | { 12th Dragoons in 1750      |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Charles William Tonyn  | Jan. 3, 1750  | Died May, 1754               |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Edward Harvey          | May 29, 1754  | { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |                       |               | { 12th Dragoons in 1763      |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Robert Rickart Hepburn | March 18, 1763| Retired in 1768              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |John Whitemore         | June 24, 1768 |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Lord Robert Kerr       | July 23, 1773 | Died in 1781                 |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Francis Augustus     } |               | { Promoted Colonel of the    |
  |  Eliott, afterwards } | March 23, 1781| { 29th Dragoons in 1795      |
  |  second Lord        } |               |                              |
  |  Heathfield         } |               |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |William Gunn           | March 1, 1794 | Augmentation--Retired in     |
  |                       |               |   1796                       |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |John Prince            | March 25, 1795| Promoted Major-General in    |
  |                       |               |   1809                       |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Ralph Bates            | Oct. 26, 1796 | Retired in 1799              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |George Richard Martin  | June 12, 1799 | Retired in 1800              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Richard O'Donovan      | May 2, 1800   | Promoted Major-General in    |
  |                       |               |   1813                       |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Joseph Muter, after- } |               | { Promoted Major-General in  |
  |  wards Sir Joseph   } | June 4, 1813  | { 1825, afterwards Colonel   |
  |  Straton, K.C.H.    } |               | { of the Regt.               |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Edward Keane           | June 2, 1825  | Appointed to the 7th Hussars |
  |                       |               |    in 1830                   |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Lord George Lennox     | June 15, 1830 | Retired in 1832              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Edmund Meysey Wigley } | July 27, 1832 | Died in 1833                 |
  |  Greswolde          } |               |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Henry Madox, K.H.      | Jan. 18, 1833 | Exchanged to half-pay in 1838|
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Jeremiah Ratcliffe,    | June 9, 1838  | Exchanged to half-pay in 1840|
  |  K.H.                 |               |                              |
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Raymond White          | July 17, 1840 | Exchanged to half-pay in 1843|
  |                       |               |                              |
  |Willoughby Moore       | July 28, 1843 |                              |
  +-----------------------+---------------+------------------------------+



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

SIXTH, OR INNISKILLING REGIMENT

OF

DRAGOONS.


SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM.

_Appointed 31st December, 1689._

SIR ALBERT CUNNINGHAM is represented by historians as a gentleman
of great personal merit. He held a commission in the army in
Ireland, and was appointed lieutenant-general of the Ordnance in
that country; but he was removed from his appointment by King James
II., for his stedfast adherence to the established institutions of
his country. His cordial co-operation with the INNISKILLING men in
the defence of their civil and religious liberties, occasioned him
to be commissioned by King William III. to raise from among their
numbers a corps of dragoons, now the SIXTH, or the INNISKILLING
Regiment. He evinced distinguished courage and ability at the head
of his regiment in several battles and skirmishes in Ireland; and
was killed by an Irish serjeant in King James's service, after
having been taken prisoner at Coloony, near Sligo, in September,
1691, as narrated at page 30, in the Record of the SIXTH Dragoons.


ROBERT ECHLIN.

_Appointed 30th December, 1691._

This officer held the commission of lieutenant-colonel in the
INNISKILLING dragoons, and was so conspicuous for personal bravery,
attention to duty, and devotion to the principles of the Revolution
of 1688, that after the death of Sir Albert Cunningham, King
William III. promoted him to the colonelcy of the regiment. He
was advanced to the rank of brigadier-general in 1703; to that of
major-general in 1704; and of lieutenant-general in 1707. A change
in the political sentiments of Lieutenant-General Echlin appears to
have taken place towards the close of Queen Anne's reign, and soon
after the accession of King George I. he was required to dispose of
his commission of colonel of the INNISKILLING dragoons.


JOHN EARL OF STAIR, K.T.

_Appointed 4th March, 1715._

LORD JOHN DALRYMPLE served as a volunteer under King William III.,
in Flanders, and was with the Cameronian regiment (twenty-sixth
foot) at the battle of Steinkirk, in 1692. Immediately before the
decease of His Majesty, he was nominated lieutenant-colonel of the
Scots foot-guards, and his commission was one of the first signed
by Queen Anne after her accession. He served as aide-de-camp to
the Earl of Marlborough during the campaign of 1702, and in the
following year he obtained the colonelcy of a Dutch regiment, which
he exchanged, on the 1st of January, 1706, with Colonel James
Borthwick, of the Cameronian regiment. In the same year he obtained
the rank of brigadier-general; served in that capacity at the
battle of Ramilies; and in August he was promoted to the colonelcy
of the Scots Greys. On the decease of his father, in January, 1707,
he succeeded to the title of EARL OF STAIR. He commanded a brigade
at the battle of Oudenarde, in 1708; and was sent to England with
the news of that victory.

Having been appointed major-general on the 1st of January, 1709,
he served in that capacity at the battle of Malplaquet; and
was advanced to the rank of lieutenant-general on the 1st of
January, 1710. He passed the winter of 1709-10 in Poland, as envoy
extraordinary to that court; but returning to the army in the
spring, he served at the siege of Douay, and was honoured in the
same year with the order of the Thistle. He was promoted to the
rank of general on the 5th of April, 1712, and afterwards served in
Flanders under the Duke of Ormond; but having subsequently opposed
the ministry, he was ordered to sell the colonelcy of his regiment
to the Earl of Portmore.

Shortly after his accession to the throne, King George I. appointed
the Earl of Stair, one of the lords of the bedchamber, a member
of the privy council, and commander-in-chief in Scotland in
the absence of the Duke of Argyle; and in the following spring
conferred upon his Lordship the colonelcy of the INNISKILLING
dragoons. In the same year he was sent to France in a diplomatic
character, and afterwards displayed great abilities as ambassador
extraordinary at that court, from which he was recalled in 1720. In
1729 he had the appointment of vice-admiral of Scotland; but having
joined the opposition against Sir Robert Walpole, his lordship was
removed in 1733 from that post, and in the following year from the
colonelcy of the INNISKILLING dragoons.

After his return from France, in 1720, the active mind of the Earl
of Stair was turned to agricultural improvements; but on the
dissolution of the Walpole administration, in 1742, his lordship
was called from his retirement, appointed governor of Minorca,
field-marshal of the forces, and commander-in-chief of the troops
sent to Flanders; also ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary
to the States General of Holland. In April, 1743, he was restored
to the colonelcy of the INNISKILLING dragoons; and he commanded
the British troops on the continent during the early part of the
campaign of that year. He also commanded, under King George II.,
at the battle of Dettingen; but, observing that His Majesty gave
preference to the advice of the Hanoverian generals, he shortly
afterwards obtained permission to resign.

In 1744 the Earl of Stair was appointed commander-in-chief in Great
Britain. After the death of his gallant brother-in-law, Sir James
Campbell, who fell at Fontenoy, the colonelcy of the Scots Greys
was again conferred upon his lordship, and he was appointed general
of the marine forces in 1746. He died in 1747.


CHARLES LORD CADOGAN.

_Appointed 19th June, 1734._

CHARLES CADOGAN entered the army in 1706, and served in Flanders
under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. He was a member
of parliament for the borough of Reading, also for Newport, in
Hampshire. In 1715 he was appointed captain and lieutenant-colonel
in the second foot-guards; and in 1719 he purchased the colonelcy
of the King's own regiment of foot. He succeeded, on the decease
of his brother, the celebrated William Earl Cadogan, in 1726, to
the dignity of LORD CADOGAN, Baron of Oakley; and in 1734 he was
removed to the INNISKILLING dragoons. In 1739 he was promoted to
the rank of major-general; in 1742 he was appointed colonel of
the second troop of life guards, which gave him the privilege of
taking the court duty of Gold Stick; and in 1745 he was promoted
to the rank of lieutenant-general. The government of Sheerness was
conferred upon his lordship in 1749, that of Gravesend and Tilbury
in 1752, and in 1761 he was promoted to the rank of general. His
lordship was a fellow of the Royal Society, and one of the trustees
of the British Museum. He died in 1776.


JOHN EARL OF STAIR, K.T.

_Re-appointed 25th April, 1743.--Removed to the Scots Greys in
1745._


JOHN EARL OF ROTHES.

_Appointed 29th May, 1745._

LORD JOHN LESLIE was appointed to the captaincy of a troop of
dragoons in 1715, and in 1717 he obtained the command of a company
in the foot guards. Two years afterwards he was appointed to the
lieut.-colonelcy of the Royal North British Fusiliers. On the
decease of his father, in 1722, he succeeded to the title of EARL
OF ROTHES, and was appointed governor of Stirling castle. He
obtained the colonelcy of the twenty-fifth regiment in May, 1732,
and the rank of brigadier-general in 1739. In 1742 he proceeded
with the forces under the Earl of Stair to Flanders; was appointed
major-general on the 1st of January, 1743, and served in that
capacity at the head of the second line of infantry at the battle
of Dettingen. In April, 1745, he was removed to the colonelcy of
the Scots horse grenadier guards, and in the following month to the
INNISKILLING dragoons. His lordship distinguished himself at the
head of a brigade of cavalry at the battle of Roucoux in 1746; was
advanced to the rank of lieutenant-general in 1747; and, in 1750,
obtained the colonelcy of the Scots Greys. In the succeeding year
he was appointed governor of Duncannon fort, and lieutenant-general
on the staff of Ireland; and in April, 1752, he was removed to the
colonelcy of the third, or Scots, foot guards. He was constituted a
Knight of the Thistle in 1753; and obtained the rank of general in
1765. He died on the 10th of December, 1767.


THE HONOURABLE JAMES CHOLMONDELEY.

_Appointed 16th January, 1750._

THE HONOURABLE JAMES CHOLMONDELEY, third son of George, second
Earl of Cholmondeley, was appointed guidon and major in the
first troop (now first regiment) of life guards on the 12th of
May, 1725; in 1731 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and
lieutenant-colonel in the third troop of life guards; and in
January, 1741, King George II. conferred upon him the colonelcy
of a newly-raised regiment, then numbered the fifty-ninth, and
now the forty-eighth foot; from which he was removed in December,
1742, to the colonelcy of the thirty-fourth regiment. In 1744 he
proceeded with his regiment to Flanders, and served the campaign
of that year with the allied army under Field-Marshal Wade. He was
at the battle of Fontenoy on the 11th of May, 1745, and on the
8th of the following month he was appointed brigadier-general, in
which capacity he served the remainder of that campaign. On the
breaking out of the rebellion in Scotland, in the winter of the
same year, he was ordered to England, with a brigade of infantry,
and after his arrival he was sent to Chester to take command of
two battalions which had recently arrived from Ireland, with which
he joined the army commanded by Field-Marshal Wade, in Yorkshire.
After the flight of the rebels from Derby, he was detached to
Scotland, where he served under Lieutenant-General Hawley, and
signalized himself in a most conspicuous manner at the battle of
Falkirk, on the 17th of January, 1746; but the excessive fatigue he
underwent, with continued exposure to severe weather, deprived him
of the use of his limbs for some time. On the 23rd of September,
1747, he was promoted to the rank of major-general; on the 24th of
July, 1749, he was removed to the twelfth dragoons; and in November
of the same year to the third Irish horse, now sixth dragoon
guards. He was again removed on the 16th of January, 1750, to the
SIXTH dragoons; and on the 2nd of May, 1754, he was promoted to the
rank of lieutenant-general. He was many years lieutenant-governor
of Chester; and died on the 13th of October, 1775.


EDWARD HARVEY.

_Appointed 18th October, 1775._

EDWARD HARVEY was many years an officer of the SIXTH, or
INNISKILLING regiment of dragoons, with which corps he served at
the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, Roucoux, and Val. On the 29th
of May, 1754, he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the
regiment; and under his care and attention to all the duties of
commanding officer, the INNISKILLING dragoons became celebrated as
a corps of heavy cavalry. Proceeding with his regiment to Germany,
in the summer of 1758, he was present at nearly every action during
the remainder of the seven years' war, and was twice wounded,
viz., at Wetter, in August, 1759, where he highly distinguished
himself, and at Campen, in October, 1760. He commanded a brigade of
cavalry during the summer of 1762, and was highly commended for his
signal gallantry and ability at the dislodging of a French corps
from Homburg in August of that year, when he led the Blues to the
charge in gallant style, and overthrew all opposition. On the 17th
of March, 1763, King George III. promoted him to the colonelcy of
the twelfth dragoons, and in the following year he was removed
to the third Irish horse, or carabineers. He was promoted to the
rank of major-general in 1762, and to that of lieutenant-general
in 1772. He performed the duties of adjutant-general of the forces
several years, to which appointment he was nominated by King George
III. soon after the termination of the seven years' war. On the
decease of General Cholmondeley, His Majesty gave him the colonelcy
of the INNISKILLING dragoons, with which corps his early services
were connected. He died in 1778.


JAMES JOHNSTON.

_Appointed 2nd April, 1778._

This officer obtained the commission of cornet in the thirteenth
dragoons on the 5th of October, 1736, and was removed to the royal
dragoons in 1739, in which corps he rose to the rank of major,
and was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the thirteenth
dragoons on the 2nd of December, 1754. In April, 1759, he was
re-appointed to the first royal dragoons, and proceeding in command
of the regiment to Germany, served in the battles and skirmishes
of that and the two succeeding campaigns under Prince Ferdinand
of Brunswick. He particularly distinguished himself at the battle
of Warbourg, and was wounded at the battle of Campen. In 1762 he
was promoted to the local rank of major-general in Germany, and he
commanded a brigade of cavalry during the campaign of that year.
He was distinguished alike for the sterner military virtues,--for
a gentlemanly deportment,--and an amiable disposition, which
procured him the esteem of all ranks; and on the breaking up of
the army on the continent he received a flattering mark of the
approbation of the hereditary Prince of Brunswick,[17]--namely, a
valuable gold snuff-box embellished with highly-chased military
trophies, accompanied by an autograph letter from the prince. His
services were rewarded with the appointment of lieutenant-governor
of the island of Minorca in 1763, and he was promoted to the rank
of major-general in 1770. In the following year this meritorious
officer was rewarded with the colonelcy of the ninth dragoons;
in 1774 he was constituted governor of Quebec; and in 1775 he
obtained the colonelcy of the first Irish horse (now fourth dragoon
guards). Two years afterwards he was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-general; in 1778 he was removed from the first Irish
horse to the SIXTH INNISKILLING dragoons; and was further promoted
to the rank of general in 1793: he is stated to have been one of
the most celebrated swordsmen of his time. The decease of this
distinguished veteran occurred on the 13th of December, 1797, at
Hampton, from whence he was removed with great state for interment
in Westminster Abbey on the 21st of that month.


GEORGE AUGUSTUS EARL OF PEMBROKE, K.G.

_Appointed 15th December, 1797._

GEORGE AUGUSTUS LORD HERBERT entered the army on the 10th of
September, 1775, as ensign in the twelfth foot, then stationed at
Gibraltar, and obtained the rank of lieutenant in 1777. In January,
1778, he obtained a company in the seventy-fifth, or Prince of
Wales's regiment of foot, then being raised, and in December
following he was removed to the royal regiment of dragoons. In 1781
he was appointed major of the twenty-second light dragoons, and in
the following year he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of
the second dragoon guards.

In 1793 he proceeded with his regiment to Flanders, and soon after
his arrival, he was detached by the Duke of York, with the second
and third dragoon guards, to join the Prussians. Having united the
two regiments with Lieutenant-General Count Hohenzollern's corps,
he was employed in covering the left flank of the Prussian army
during the siege of Valenciennes, in which service he was several
times engaged in skirmishes with the French, and evinced signal
ardour and gallantry. He subsequently rejoined the Duke of York's
army, and was employed in covering the siege of Dunkirk; having
under his command four British and Hanoverian squadrons and four
pieces of flying artillery, he dislodged a body of French from
Hundschuyt. His lordship was principally employed in the out-post
duty during the remainder of the campaign.

On the decease of his father, in January, 1794, he succeeded to the
dignity of EARL OF PEMBROKE AND MONTGOMERY. In 1795 he was promoted
to the rank of major-general, and was employed, in 1797, on the
staff under General Sir Charles (afterwards Earl) Grey, and in the
same year he was nominated to the colonelcy of the INNISKILLING
dragoons. He commanded the south-west district in 1779, was
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general in 1802, and was
invested with the order of the Garter in 1805. In 1807 he was sent
on a special embassy to Vienna. His lordship was also appointed
governor of Guernsey in the same year; and in 1812 he was promoted
to the rank of general. He died on the 26th of October, 1827.


THE HONORABLE SIR WILLIAM LUMLEY, G.C.B.

_Appointed 3rd November, 1827.--Removed to the First, or King's
Dragoon Guards, 30th April, 1840._


SIR JOSEPH STRATON, K.C.H.

_Appointed 30th April, 1840._

JOSEPH MUTER entered the army as cornet in the second dragoon
guards in December, 1794; he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant
in December, 1795, and to the commission of captain of a troop in
the thirteenth light dragoons on the 2nd of March, 1797; in 1801
he was appointed major in the same corps. In the years 1804 and
1805 he studied in the Royal Military College, High Wycombe, and on
his examination he obtained a diploma of the first qualification.
He was appointed to the staff of the Duke of Gloucester at the
same period, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel
in 1808. In February, 1810, he embarked for Portugal with his
regiment, with which he served three campaigns in the Peninsula,
and was present at the several actions in which his regiment
took part during that period. He commanded the thirteenth light
dragoons at the gallant affair at Arroyo dos Molinos on the 28th
of October, 1811, and was commended in the public despatch of
Lieutenant-General Sir Rowland Hill. On the 4th of June, 1813, he
was nominated to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the SIXTH dragoons,
and was promoted to the rank of colonel in June, 1814. He commanded
the INNISKILLING dragoons at the battle of WATERLOO, until the
fall of the gallant Major-General Sir William Ponsonby, when the
command of the brigade, consisting of the first, second, and sixth
dragoons, devolved on Colonel Muter. This brigade was mentioned
in the Duke of Wellington's despatch as having particularly
distinguished itself; and towards the close of the action Colonel
Muter was wounded; his horse received two wounds. He received a
Waterloo medal, was honoured with the dignity of Companion of the
Bath, the fourth class of the Order of St. Wladimir of Russia,
and Knight Commander of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic order. He
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1825, and to that of
lieutenant-general in 1838. On succeeding to the property of his
aunt, Miss Straton, at Kirkside, near Montrose, in 1816, he was
permitted to assume the sirname of STRATON. He was promoted to the
colonelcy of the EIGHTH HUSSARS in 1839, and was removed to the
SIXTH dragoons in April, 1840. He died in October of the same year.


SIR GEORGE POWNALL ADAMS, K.C.H.

_Appointed 26th October, 1840._


  LONDON:--Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford-street,
  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


FOOTNOTE:

[17] His Highness was afterwards reigning Duke of Brunswick; he
married the Princess Augusta, sister to King George III.; and died
of wounds received at the battle of Jena in 1808.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
the text and consultation of external sources.

Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
day-break, daybreak; foot guards, foot-guards; riband; sirname.

Pg xxiv (PLATES), 'Uniform of 1825' replaced by 'Uniform of 1815';
and 'to face 91' replaced by 'to face 80'.
Pg xxiv (PLATES), to face '93' replaced by '95'.
Pg 7, 'it was beseiged' replaced by 'it was besieged'.
Pg 24, 'nearly one huudred' replaced by 'nearly one hundred'.
Pg 36, 'and conseqently' replaced by 'and consequently'.
Pg 37, 'supppressing riots' replaced by 'suppressing riots'.
Pg 44, 'while the INNISKILING' replaced by 'while the INNISKILLING'.
Pg 67, 'the head-quaters were' replaced by 'the head-quarters were'.
Pg 79, 'marched to Birminghan' replaced by 'marched to Birmingham'.
Pg 84, 'favourable oppportunity' replaced by 'favourable opportunity'.
Pg 95, 'civils and religious' replaced by 'civil and religious'.





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