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Title: Manual of Style governing Composition and Proof Reading in the Government Printing Office
Author: Office, United States Government Printing
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.
  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.
  Strikethru text is denoted by ++double plus signs++.
  A small box representing a space is denoted by the ▢ symbol.
  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{xx}, for example A^1 or ^{cm}.

  Some minor changes are noted at the end of the book.



  MANUAL OF STYLE

  GOVERNING

  COMPOSITION AND PROOF READING

  IN THE

  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

  PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE PUBLIC PRINTER.

  WASHINGTON:
  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
  1894.



CONTENTS.


                                                             Page.

  ABBREVIATIONS                                                  8

  BILL STYLE                                                 25-28

  CAPITALIZATION                                              9-16

  COMPOUNDING                                                   17

  COURT WORK                                                    22

  FOLLOW--FOLLOW LIT                                            22

  GENERAL TESTIMONY                                             23

  GEOGRAPHIC NAMES                                               7

  GREEK ACCENTS                                                 40

  GREEK ALPHABET                                                40

  GREEK CASE                                                    40

  JOURNAL WORK                                               29-32

  MATHEMATICAL, ASTRONOMICAL, AND PHYSICAL SIGNS                39

  MISCELLANEOUS                                                 24

  ORTHOGRAPHY                                                    7

  PREFACE                                                        5

  STANDARD PAGE MEASUREMENTS                                    39

  SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS                                         6

  SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITORS, READERS, AND REVISERS         33-38

  TABULAR WORK                                               19-21

  USE OF FIGURES                                                18

  USE OF ITALIC                                                 23



PREFACE.


Clear and positive rules for composition and proof reading are
needed in printing offices to prevent confusion and unnecessary
delay and expense. Inflexible rules for style in all works can
not be given, but for the general work of the Government Printing
Office the rules herein contained will be observed. When important
changes are to be made, written or printed instructions will be
furnished or there will be a special preparation of copy.

All persons connected with the typographical divisions of this
office are requested to preserve this book and study carefully and
well the rules and suggestions offered for their guidance.

Department editors are requested to make their copy conform as
nearly as possible to the style here presented, and to specify
fully when sending work to this office any general deviation
therefrom that may be desired.



SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS.


Authors are advised to so prepare their copy that it can be clearly
understood by the printer. Nothing should be left for conjecture.
Measurable perfection can be secured by first transcribing copy on
the typewriter, and before releasing it for publication giving it
as careful revision as is afterwards given proof sheets. In the
end this will not only save time, but Department printing funds
frequently exhausted in making author’s corrections in proof will
be available for other work. Typewritten copy is always preferable,
when not on paper too thin, but plain copy is absolutely essential
to good work.

The following are offered as suggestions which, if heeded, will
enable this office to achieve the best results:

1. All paragraphs should be clearly marked on copy, thus avoiding
vexatious misprints due to overrunning in proof.

2. Objects, photographs, or drawings for illustration should
accompany manuscript. Each should bear the name of the publication
to which it belongs, together with the figure or plate number, and
necessary titles or legends for the same should be inserted at the
proper place in copy. A complete list of plates and figures should
always accompany the paper.

3. When a work is made up of several parts, or papers, a carefully
prepared schedule of the desired arrangement should be forwarded
with the manuscript.

4. Proper names and technical terms should be plainly and carefully
written, using CAPITAL letters if necessary, and each should be
verified before the copy is sent to the printer.

5. Details of capitalization and punctuation may be safely left to
the printers and proof readers. It is part of their profession;
they make a study of the subject, and will generally meet the
author’s taste.

6. Write only on one side of the paper. When printed matter
covering more than one side of a sheet is used as copy, a DUPLICATE
should be furnished; otherwise much trouble is caused in cutting.

7. When, as an afterthought, new matter making more than a line is
inserted, it should be written on a separate sheet and the place
for its insertion clearly indicated.

8. Galley proofs will be furnished when desired. It is important
that all corrections be made on the first proofs; later ones should
be used only for purposes of verification.

9. Corrections in stereotype or electrotype plates usually do
more harm than good. They weaken the plate and render new errors
probable through damaged letters.

10. Authors and compilers are requested to direct those handling
their manuscript to transmit the same to the Printing Office in
flat form--never to roll it if it can be avoided.



RULES GOVERNING WORK IN THE DOCUMENT DIVISIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT
PRINTING OFFICE.

(Adopted December 3, 1894.)



ORTHOGRAPHY.


1. Follow Webster’s International Dictionary.

2. Observe the spelling of the following words:

  Arapahoe
  Arapahoes
  Navajo
  Navajoes
  upward
  downward
  backward
  forward
  toward
  aftward
  afterwards
  draft, drafting, etc.
  manila (city and product)
  canyon
  embed
  waterway
  employee
  missfire
  farther (distance)
  further (other than distance)

3. Use the following forms of words:

  O. K.
  taggers tin
  feet, B. M.
  Anderson & Co.’s invoice
  5 by (not x) 10 inches
  by day (not day’s) labor
  State (not State’s) prison
  quartermaster stores
  one-fourth (where ¼ is marked “spell” in copy)
  Jones’s (possessive)
  can not
  waterworks
  waterway
  cattleman

4. Omit the dieresis in such words as reexamine, cooperation,
preemption, zoology.

5. The following is a list of words in common use in which accented
letters occur. Follow it, except in works of the United States
Geological Survey and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in
which no accented letters are permissible:

  attaché
  bête noir
  blasé
  Champs Élysées
  chargé d’affaires
  confrère
  coup d’état
  coup de grâce
  débris
  élite
  en arriére
  en échelon
  en déshabille
  en règle
  entrée
  entrepôt
  eozoon
  exposé
  façade
  fête champêtre
  garçon
  matériel (Fr.)
  mêlée
  née
  papier mâché
  procés verbal
  protégé
  régime
  résumé
  rôle
  rôle d’équipage



GEOGRAPHIC NAMES.


1. In the spelling of geographic names give preference as follows:
Decisions of the United States Board on Geographic Names, United
States Postal Guide, Lippincott’s Gazetteer, and Rand, McNally &
Co.’s Atlas, in the order named.

2. The following are the general rules governing the decisions of
the Board on Geographic Names:

  The possessive apostrophe is dropped.
  The final “h” is dropped from names ending in “burgh”: Pittsburg,
        not Pittsburgh.
  Names ending in “borough” are contracted to “boro”: Boonsboro, not
        Boonsborough.
  Names are not compounded: Alluwe, not Al-lu-we; Hongkong, not
        Hong-Kong.
  “C. H.” is omitted as part of the names of county seats: Fairfax,
        not Fairfax C. H.
  Spell Center, not Centre.
  Accented letters are not used, except in rare instances, as Curaçao;
        Réunion; St. François.



ABBREVIATIONS.


1. Follow Postal-Guide contractions for States and Territories
(except Oregon, for which use Oreg.) after names of forts,
barracks, arsenals, navy-yards, naval stations, post-offices,
counties, military or Indian reservations, and Indian agencies.
Note the following examples:

  Fort Barrancas, Fla.
  Vancouver Barracks, Wash.
  Rock Island Arsenal, Ill.
  League Island Navy-Yard, Pa.
  Key West Naval Station, Fla.
  Albany, N. Y.
  Hudson County, N. J.
  Pyramid Lake Reservation, Nev.
  Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak.
  Springfield Armory, Mass.
  Fort Myer Military Reservation, Va.


POSTAL-GUIDE CONTRACTIONS.

  Alabama                          Ala.
  Alaska Territory                 Alaska
  Arizona Territory                Ariz.
  Arkansas                         Ark.
  California                       Cal.
  Colorado                         Colo.
  Connecticut                      Conn.
  Delaware                         Del.
  District of Columbia             D. C.
  Florida                          Fla.
  Georgia                          Ga.
  Idaho                            Idaho
  Illinois                         Ill.
  Indiana                          Ind.
  Indian Territory                 Ind. T.
  Iowa                             Iowa
  Kansas                           Kans.
  Kentucky                         Ky.
  Louisiana                        La.
  Maine                            Me.
  Maryland                         Md.
  Massachusetts                    Mass.
  Michigan                         Mich.
  Minnesota                        Minn.
  Mississippi                      Miss.
  Missouri                         Mo.
  Montana                          Mont.
  Nebraska                         Nebr.
  Nevada                           Nev.
  New Hampshire                    N. H.
  New Jersey                       N. J.
  New Mexico Territory             N. Mex.
  New York                         N. Y.
  North Carolina                   N. C.
  North Dakota                     N. Dak.
  Ohio                             Ohio
  Oklahoma Territory               Okla.
  Oregon                           Oregon
  Pennsylvania                     Pa.
  Rhode Island                     R. I.
  South Carolina                   S. C.
  South Dakota                     S. Dak.
  Tennessee                        Tenn.
  Texas                            Tex.
  Utah Territory                   Utah
  Vermont                          Vt.
  Virginia                         Va.
  Washington                       Wash.
  West Virginia                    W. Va.
  Wisconsin                        Wis.
  Wyoming                          Wyo.

2. Titles of courtesy and professional titles preceding names will
be contracted or spelled according to the following list:

  Mr.
  Messrs.
  Mrs.
  Dr.
  Professor (with surname)
  Prof. (with Christian name)
  Rev. (the Reverend)
  Right Rev.
  Very Rev.
  Hon. (the Honorable)
  Right Hon.
  * M. (monsieur)
  * MM. (messieurs)
  * Mme. (madame)
  * Mlle. (mademoiselle)
  * Mgr. (monsignor)
  * Sig. (signor)
  * Signora
  * Signorita
  * Señor
  * Señorita
  * Señora
  * Herr

  NOTE.--When any of the titles marked with an asterisk, with or
  without the Christian name, precedes “de,” use lower-case “d;”
  otherwise use capital “D.” This rule applies also to “du,” “von,”
  “van,” etc.

3. Military and official titles preceding names will be spelled
out in text when the Christian name or initial is not used, but in
tabular work and where the Christian name or initial is used the
annexed list will be the guide:

  President
  Governor
  Supt.
  Bvt. (brevet)
  Army titles:
    Gen.
    Lieut. Gen.
    Maj. Gen.
    Brig. Gen.
    Adjt. Gen.
    Surg. Gen.
    Judge-Advocate-Gen.
    Insp. Gen.
    Com. Gen.
    Q. M. Gen.
    P. M. Gen.
    Col.
    Lieut. Col.
    Maj.
    Surg.
    Chaplain
    Capt.
    Asst. Surg.
    First Lieut.
    Second Lieut.
    Sergt. Maj.
    Hosp. Steward
    Com. Sergt.
    Q. M. Sergt.
    Ord. (ordnance) Sergt.
    Sergt.
    First Sergt.
    Second Sergt.
    Orderly-Sergt.
    Corpl.
    Private
    Musician
  Navy titles:
    Admiral
    Vice-Admiral
    Rear-Admiral
    Commodore
    Capt.
    Commander
    Lieut. Commander
    Lieut.
    Lieut. (Junior Grade)
    Ensign
    Surg.
    P. A. Surg., etc.
    Asst. Surg.
    Chief Engineer
    Chaplain

4. Distinguishing titles and college degrees, following names, will
always be contracted, as jr., sr., esq.; Ph. D., LL. D.; U. S. A.,
U. S. N. (See also under “CAPITALIZATION.”)

  NOTE.--The contractions “U. S. A.” and “U. S. N.,” for United
  States Army and United States Navy will be used when so written.
  When written “U. S. Army” or “U. S. Navy,” spell in full, as--

  John L. Worden, U. S. N.
  R. W. Meade, United States Navy.
  N. A. Miles, U. S. A.
  G. G. Crook, United States Army.

5. In parenthetic references to books use “p.” and “pp.” for page
and pages, and “sec.” and “secs.” for section and sections.

6. “St.” will be used for Saint, but Fort and Mount will not be
abbreviated.

7. Use “etc.” instead of “&c.” Use the character “&” in firm names,
but not in titles of companies having geographic or commercial
words as part of the corporate name, nor in literary, scientific,
artistic, or musical companionships. Examples:

  Smith & Brown.
  George W. Johnson & Co.
  William Greene & Bro.
  Wigton Bros. & Co.
  Harlan & Hollingsworth Company.
  Brown & Jones Mining and Milling Company.
  Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company.
  Washington and Norfolk Steamboat Company.
  Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company.
  Washington Flour and Feed Company.
  Eastern and Western Transportation Company.
  Gilbert and Sullivan.
  Cuvier and Valenciennes.
  Hay and Nicolay.

8. Comprehensive examples of the use of the word “Company” and its
contraction “Co.” are given above. (See also “Contractions” under
“TABULAR WORK.”)

9. Do not use abbreviation “U. S.” except in connection with naval
and other vessels of the Government, as U. S. S. _Kearsarge_, U.
S. gunboat _Katahdin_, U. S. monitor _Miantonomoh_, U. S. torpedo
boat _Ericsson_, U. S. light-house tender _Maple_, etc.; but the
contraction may be used in signature and address lines where
extreme length makes it desirable.

10. Set references to scriptural texts as follows: Genesis xv, 24;
II Samuel viii, 9-13; St. Matthew vii, 5.

11. Streets of the District of Columbia: Fifth street NW.; Florida
avenue NE.; Four-and-a-half street SW.

12. Where compass directions are contracted, use the forms NE.,
NNW., etc.

13. Use “F.” for Fahrenheit and “C.” for centigrade when
temperatures are given.

14. Use “Pl.” and “Fig.” for plate and figure before roman
numerals, as Pl. VI, Fig. XII; “pl.” and “fig.” before figures, as
pl. 6, fig. 12.

15. Use “Rev. Stat.” for Revised Statutes, and “Stat. L.” for
Statutes at Large, in citations.

16. Set abbreviations for section, township, range, etc., thus: SE.
¼ sec. 5, T. 9 N., R. 2 E.

17. Use “loc. cit.” for loco citato; “op. cit.” for opere citato;
“sp. gr.” for specific gravity, and “sp. nov.” for species nova.

18. Where the metric system of weights and measures is used, follow
copy, and where contractions occur use roman lower-case or superior
letters, according to indicated preference, as “cm. or ^{cm},” for
centimeter; “mm. or ^{mm},” for millimeter; “c. c. or ^{cc},” for
cubic centimeter.

19. After “per cent” and “viz” omit the period.

20. References to Congressional documents: House Ex. Doc. No. 6,
Forty-seventh Congress, second session; Senate Mis. Doc. No. 10,
Forty-sixth Congress, first session.

21. Use “_v._” (_versus_) in all cases except “fol.” and “fol. lit.”

22. The symbol “m/n,” used in connection with South American
financial statements, will be spelled “national money,” in
parentheses, immediately following the amount, as $146 (national
money); Rs. 146 (national money).

23. English money will be expressed by the use of the symbols “£”
“s.” “d.” when amounts are given, as £227 14s. 6d.

(See also “Contractions” under “TABULAR WORK,” “Supreme Court
records,” and “Court of Claims opinions, briefs, and decisions.”)



CAPITALIZATION.


1. Use caps for roman numerals designating pages, chapters,
articles, or plates.

2. Use caps for college degrees, viz, D. D., Ph. D., LL. D., A. M.,
B. A., etc.

3. Use lower-case “r” in Sr. and Jr., and “sq.” in Esq. in
addresses and signatures.

4. Capitalize, both singular and plural, “department,” “bureau,”
“survey,” “corps,” and “service,” when referring to an Executive
Department or important bureau, of the United States Government;
“congress,” referring to the United States Congress; “house,”
referring to the United States Senate or House of Representatives.

5. Capitalize, singular and plural, Senator, Representative,
Delegate, and Member of the United States Congress and the
principal officers of both Houses. Observe the following:

  Architect of the Capitol
  President
  Secretary
  Chaplain
  Sergeant-at-Arms
  Speaker
  Clerk
  Doorkeeper

6. Capitalize the legislative bodies, with their sections, of
Governments:

  Parliament
  House of Lords
  House of Commons
  the Lords
  the Commons
  the Reichstag
  Rigsdag
  Reichsrath
  National Assembly
  Corps Législatif
  Bundesrath
  Skupshtina
  Cortes
  Legislature (Hawaii)
  the Right
  the Center
  the Left
  States-General (Holland)

7. The words “president,” “king,” “queen,” “czar,” “emperor,” etc.,
when used definitely and referring to rulers of countries, should
be capitalized, as the President, the Emperor, the Emperor of
China, the Chinese Emperor, etc.

8. Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation. Example:
Solomon says, “Pride goeth before destruction.” Do not capitalize
such indirect quotations as “a wise man says that pride goeth
before destruction.”

9. Capitalize the first word of such indirect quotations as the
following, but do not quote:

  The orator’s chief thought was, How shall we pay the debt?
  The penitent’s cry was, What shall I do to be saved?
  The subject for debate was, Which is the greater, the pen or the
        sword?

10. Capitalize all commissions and boards authorized by act
of Congress when given in full, singular and plural, as Fish
Commission, Civil Service Commission, Mississippi River Commission,
District of Columbia Board of Commissioners, Light-House Board,
etc.; also the words “commission,” “commissioner,” and “board”
where standing alone and referring to the above.

11. Capitalize all words denoting the Deity; “Reformation” (the),
“Revolution” (1776), “Revolutionary war,” “French Revolution.”

12. Capitalize the words “army” and “navy” only when they mean the
entire Army and Navy of the United States, and lower-case when used
as adjectives. Examples:

  The troops were supplied with army saddles and blankets.
  The army before Nashville was commanded by General Thomas.
  He spoke for the Army and Navy, as well as the Administration.
  Their clothes were made of navy cloth, and their general appearance
        was that of navy officials.
  He is at the head of the American Navy and conversant with
        everything pertaining to navy affairs.

13. When any word is used specifically as a synonym for
“Government” and refers to any nation, as “crown,” “empire,”
“kingdom,” “republic,” “administration,” or “state,” capitalize it,
singular or plural. When indefinite or applied to dependencies,
lower-case it. Examples:

  The Government of the United States, which Government is the best
        of Governments.
  President Cleveland’s Administration compared favorably with
        preceding Administrations.
  His estates were forfeited to the Crown, and his jewels were used
        to adorn the King’s crown.
  Upon the fall of the French Empire, the Empire of Germany was
        proclaimed.
  France, as a republic, strengthened the Republics of the world;
        as an empire, it weakened them.

14. Capitalize “state,” “territory,” “district” (applied to a
Federal district, as District of Alaska, District of Columbia),
“canton” (in Switzerland), “province” (in Canada and Australia),
etc., both singular and plural, when referring to administrative
divisions of any country.

15. When the word “state” is used in contradistinction to “church,”
lower-case it, as “A union of church and state;” also “secretary of
state of New York,” “state policy,” “affairs of state,” etc.

16. Capitalize heads of Departments and Bureaus (of the United
States Government only), but lower-case division and section
officers.

17. Capitalize names of political parties: Republicans, Democrats,
Tories, Home Rulers, Populists, People’s Party, Prohibition party,
Prohibitionists, Farmers’ Alliance, Liberals, etc.

18. Capitalize names of societies: Odd Fellows, B’nai B’rith, etc.

19. Capitalize names of geological ages, eras, and periods:

  Ages:
    Archæan
    Paleozoic
    Cenozoic
  Eras:
    Lower Silurian
    Upper Silurian
    Devonian
    Carboniferous
    Mesozoic
    Jura-Trias
    Jurassic--
      Lias
      Oolite
      Purbeck
    Triassic--
      Lower
      Middle
      Upper
      Rhætic
    Cretaceous--
      Lower
    Tertiary
    Quaternary
    Post-Tertiary
    Azoic
    Ezoic
    Cambrian
  Periods:
    Calciferous
    Chazy
    Corniferous
    Subcarboniferous
    Carboniferous
    Permian
    Eocene
    Oligocene
    Miocene
    Pliocene
    Glacial
    Recent

20. Capitalize all designations in connection with capital letters
or roman numerals, as Title XV, Schedule C, Finding VI, Exhibit K,
Statement B, Article IV, Art. V, Chapter IX, Chap. XI, Volume XX,
Vol. X, Section VII, Sec. VI, etc.; but lower-case when used with
figures, as chapter 10, volume 5, chap. 8, vol. 2, etc. “Exhibit,”
“Appendix,” and “Table” will be capitalized in all cases when
preceding numerals or figures.

21. Capitalize the principal words in full titles of books, plays,
and pictures, but do not quote. Also short titles of books, when
in the singular, as Brown’s Grammar, Bancroft’s History, Webster’s
Dictionary, etc. When referring to a subject in a book, quote, but
capitalize only the first word.

22. Capitalize “Presidential,” “Congressional,” “Senatorial,” and
“Territorial,” referring to the President, Congress, Senate, and a
Territory of the United States.

23. Signature and address names will be set in caps and small caps,
with title or direction following in italics, in the same line if
not over half the line is used for the purpose; otherwise hanging
two ems or more. Capitalize principal words in lines connected with
signatures and addresses. Make signatures and addresses compact,
using partially filled lines where the contiguous matter is open
enough to give a signature proper prominence. It is well to have a
white line between text and signature, but this is not imperative;
general appearance must govern. Signatures are placed at the right
of the page, indented 1, 3, or 5 ems from the right, as may be
necessary; addresses are placed to the left, flush if at the top of
a paper, indented one em if at the bottom, italic lines following
indented as much as necessary to a good appearance. Do not use
slugs to separate dash lines from signature or address lines where
the dash will bear off one or more blank lines if solid. The
following examples cover the most common forms:

  the Clerk of the House of Representatives on the 4th day of December,
  A. D. 1893.

  ▢▢▢Very respectfully,                             JAMES KERR,▢▢▢
                         _Clerk of the House of Representatives_.▢

  ▢Hon. CHARLES F. CRISP,
  ▢▢▢_Speaker of the House of Representatives_.


  ▢▢▢I am, very respectfully, yours, etc.,
                                                 JOHN RANDOLPH,▢▢▢
                               _Assistant Clerk Court of Claims_.▢


  disposed of, both as a record of the fact and as a limitation of the
  authority conferred.

  ▢▢▢(Signed)                                JOHN S. HENDERSON,▢▢▢
                                             JNO. A. CALDWELL,
         _Committee on the part of the House of Representatives_.▢
  [Observe lead.]                           WM. F. VILAS,
                                            JAMES MCMILLAN,
                           _Committee on the part of the Senate_.▢


  bia, on account of the sewer debt of the District of Columbia to the
        United States.

  ▢▢▢Very respectfully,
                                                A. C. MATTHEWS,▢▢▢
                                                _Comptroller_.
                                       By J. R. GARRISON,
                                            _Deputy Comptroller_.▢
  ▢JOHN JAY, _Washington, D. C._


  report, which has been received, and is herewith transmitted with my
        concurrence.

  ▢▢▢Respectfully, yours,
                                    J. G. CARLISLE, _Secretary_.
  ▢Hon. GEORGE D. WISE,
  ▢▢▢_Chairman Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,
                                     House of Representatives_.


  Brig. Gen. THOMAS L. CASEY,
  ▢▢_Chief of Engineers, U. S. A., Washington, D. C._

  ▢DEAR SIR:
         *       *       *       *       *
  of Maryland, this 28th day of May, A. D. 1885.
  ▢[SEAL.]                                      T. WATKINS LIGON.▢
  ▢By the governor:
  ▢▢▢NATHANIEL COX, _Secretary of State_.


  the day and year first above written.
                                   J. M. WILBUR.          [SEAL.]▢
                                   BARTLETT, ROBINS & CO.▢[SEAL.]▢
  ▢In presence of--
  ▢▢▢A. T. BROWN.
     A. B. W. DEW.


  ▢▢▢I am, General, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                                                 C. G. SAWTELLE,▢▢▢
  _Colonel and Chief Quartermaster Military Division of the Gulf_.▢
  ▢Maj. Gen. M. C. MEIGS,
  ▢▢▢_Quartermaster-General United States Army, Washington, D. C._


  ▢▢▢I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient
        servant,
                                       S. P. LANGLEY, _Secretary_.▢

NOTE.--In cases like the two preceding observe use of lead between
text line and signature.

24. Titles preceding names will always be capitalized: Senior
Warden Brown; Grand Master Williamson; Master Workman Sovereign;
Sergeant Murphy; Private O’Donnell; Boatswain Given; Tinsmith
Harris, etc.

25. Lower-case participles derived from proper names, such as
anglicized, frenchified, romanized, gallicized; also adjective or
qualifying nouns indirectly derived from and compounded with proper
names, as tropical, arctic, transatlantic, etc.

26. Geographic zones or sections of the world, when used as proper
nouns, take the capital, as the Tropics, the Arctics, the Levant,
the Orient. When used as adjectives, use lower-case, as antarctic
ice, tropical plants, oriental customs, levantine silk, morocco
or russia leather, china or wedgwood pottery. Such words as india
rubber, india ink, paris green, london purple, prussian blue,
venetian red, roman type, gothic letter (but Gothic architecture),
that describe things and are also used as nouns, do not take the
capital, although they are, or are derived from, proper names.

27. Capitalize titles clearly intended as synonyms of proper names.
Examples:

  You will go, Major, to New York.
  I am anxious about our friend, the Captain.
  Mr. Speaker, I rise to a point of order.
  I am, General, your obedient servant.

28. Titles not clearly used as synonyms, or when used in a general
way, will not be capitalized. Examples:

  He was taken before the judge.
  The captain was breveted.

29. Where the word “o’clock” occurs in phrases or headlines
involving the use of capitals, always set it “o’clock;” never use
the form o’Clock, O’Clock, or O’clock.

30. In caps-and-small-caps cross headings, or headings of any kind
in which capitals are used, capitalize principal words. [Copy
preparers will take full responsibility for uniformity in this
matter and mark copy plainly.]

31. In tables of contents which are set in small caps capitalize
only the first word and proper names.

32. Capitalize the titles of standing and select committees of the
Senate and House of Representatives of the United States and the
different forms of the same, both singular and plural, as Committee
on Ways and Means; Ways and Means Committees. The following list
gives the official nomenclature of Congressional committees, with
the proper capitalization:

HOUSE.

  Committee on--
    Elections.
    Ways and Means.
    Appropriations.
    the Judiciary.
    Banking and Currency.
    Coinage, Weights, and Measures.
    Interstate and Foreign Commerce.
    Rivers and Harbors.
    Merchant Marine and Fisheries.
    Agriculture.
    Foreign Affairs.
    Military Affairs.
    Naval Affairs.
    the Post-Office and Post-Roads.
    the Public Lands.
    Indian Affairs.
    the Territories.
    Railways and Canals.
    Manufactures.
    Mines and Mining.
    Public Buildings and Grounds.
    the Pacific Railroads.
    Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River.
    Education.
    Labor.
    the Militia.
    Patents.
    Invalid Pensions.
    Pensions.
    Claims.
    War Claims.
    Private Land Claims.
    the District of Columbia.
    the Revision of the Laws.
    Reform in the Civil Service.
    Election of President and Vice-President and Representatives
          in Congress.
    Alcoholic Liquor Traffic.
    Irrigation of Arid Lands.
    Immigration and Naturalization.
    Ventilation and Acoustics.
    Expenditures in the State Department.
    Expenditures in the Treasury Department.
    Expenditures in the War Department.
    Expenditures in the Navy Department.
    Expenditures in the Post-Office Department.
    Expenditures in the Interior Department.
    Expenditures in the Department of Justice.
    Expenditures in the Department of Agriculture.
    Expenditures on Public Buildings.
    Rules.
    Accounts.
    Mileage.
    the Library (also Joint Committee on).
    Printing (also Joint Committee on).
    Enrolled Bills (also Joint Committee on).
  Joint Commission of Congress to Inquire into the Status of Laws
        Organizing the Executive Departments.
  Joint Commission on Disposition of Useless Papers in Executive
        Departments.

SENATE.

  Committee--
    on Agriculture and Forestry.
    on Appropriations.
    to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate.
    on the Census.
    on Civil Service and Retrenchment.
    on Claims.
    on Coast Defenses.
    on Commerce.
    on the District of Columbia.
    on Education and Labor.
    on Engrossed Bills.
    on Enrolled Bills.
    on Epidemic Diseases.
    to Examine the Several Branches of the Civil Service.
    on Finance.
    on Fisheries.
    on Foreign Relations.
    on Immigration.
    on Improvement of the Mississippi River and its Tributaries.
    on Indian Affairs.
    on Indian Depredations.
    on Interstate Commerce.
    on Irrigation and Reclamation of Arid Lands.
    on the Judiciary.
    on the Library.
    on Manufactures.
    on Military Affairs.
    on Mines and Mining.
    on Naval Affairs.
    on Organization, Conduct, and Expenditures of the Executive
          Departments.
    on Pacific Railroads.
    on Patents.
    on Pensions.
    on Post-Offices and Post-Roads.
    on Printing.
    on Private Land Claims.
    on Privileges and Elections.
    on Public Buildings and Grounds.
    on Public Lands.
    on Railroads.
    on Relations with Canada.
    on the Revision of the Laws of the United States.
    on Revolutionary Claims.
    on Rules.
    on Territories.
    on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard.
  Select Committee--
    to Investigate the Condition of the Potomac River Front of
          Washington.
    to Inquire into all Claims of Citizens of the United States
          against the Government of Nicaragua.
    on Woman Suffrage.
    on Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress.
    on the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians.
    on Transportation and Sale of Meat Products.
    to Establish the University of the United States.
    on the Quadro-Centennial.
    to Investigate the Geological Survey.
    on National Banks.
    on Forest Reservations.
    on Corporations in the District of Columbia.
    to Investigate Trespassers upon Indian Lands.
    on Ford Theater Disaster.

33. Capitalize “county,” “township,” and “ward” (singular form
only), when used with the proper name.

34. Capitalize “river,” “bay,” “cape,” “harbor,” “mount,” “island,”
etc. (singular form only), when used with the proper name.

35. Capitalize such words as “building,” “asylum,” “bridge,”
“bank,” “school,” “hospital,” etc. (singular form only), when used
with the proper name.

36. The following list will be found convenient as a guide to
capitalization:

  Absentee Shawnees.
  Act, Thurman, Tucker, etc.
  Acting Secretary of the Senate.
  Acting Secretary of State, etc.
  Administration (National).
  Admiral.
  Admiralty (British).
  Agency, Chippewa, etc.
  Agricultural Report.
  Albany Penitentiary.
  Appendix IV.
  Appendix A.
  Appointment Office.
  Aqueduct, Washington, etc.
  Aqueduct Bridge.
  Army Gun Factory.
  Army:
    General of the
    Lieutenant-General of the
    Major-General Commanding the
    Adjutant-General (’s Office).
    Inspector-General (’s Office).
    Judge-Advocate-General.
    Quartermaster-General (’s Office).
    Commissary-General of Subsistence.
    Surgeon-General (’s Office).
    Paymaster-General (’s Office).
    Chief of Engineers.
    Chief Signal Officer.
    Chief of Ordnance.
    Regular Army.
    Volunteer Army.
  Army Medical Museum.
  army officer, nurse, wagon, etc.
  Architect of the Capitol.
  Architect of the Treasury Department.
  Armory (Springfield).
  Arsenal, Rock Island, etc.
  Articles of War.
  article of war, sixty-second.
  Artillery School (United States).
  assembly, Pennsylvania
  Assistant Attorney-General (United States).
  Assistant Commissioner of the General Land Office.
  Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
  Assistant Postmaster-General, First, Second, etc.
  Assistant Secretary of the Interior, etc.
  Associated Press.
  Atlantic Slope, Coast, and Seaboard (section of country).
  Attorney-General.
  Auditor, First, Second, etc.
  Auditor of Railroad Accounts.
  Band, Eastern, etc., of Cherokees.
  Bank, Central, etc.
  Bay, Chesapeake, etc.
  Bethlehem Iron Works.
  Bible or Scriptures.
  Black Friday.
  Board (when definite).
  Board of Engineers.
  Board of General Appraisers.
  Board of Ordnance and Fortification.
  board of public works (District of Columbia).
  Board of Underwriters (New York).
  Board of Managers of the Soldiers’ Home.
  Board of Trade of Philadelphia, etc.
  Board on Geographic Names.
  Book of Estimates.
  Botanist, the (Agr. Dept.)
  Botanic Garden.
  Bowman Act.
  Building, Winder, etc.
  buildings, Winder and Logan
  building, Treasury, etc.
  Bureau (when definite).
  Bureau of Accounts (and all other bureaus of the Navy Department).
  Cabinet, the
  Calendar, the
  Calendar of Bills and Resolutions.
  Calendar, Private.
  Capitol Grounds.
  Capitol, the
  Capitol police.
  Carnegie Steel Works.
  Cavalry and Infantry School (United States).
  Census Bulletin No. 420.
  Census, Tenth, Eleventh, etc.
  central Ohio.
  Chairman (Committee of the Whole).
  Chairman of the Light-House Board.
  Chamber (of House or Senate).
  Charles II of England.
  Chemist, the (Agr. Dept.)
  Cherokee Strip or Outlet.
  Chief of the Bureau of, etc.
  Chief Clerk, House or Senate.
  Chief Intelligence Officer.
  Chief of the Record and Pension Division.
  Chief Justice (of United States Supreme Court).
  Chief Magistrate.
  Christian.
  Christianity.
  Christendom.
  Christianize.
  Church, the Methodist, etc. (denomination)
  Church, St. Aloysius, etc. (congregation)
  church, St. Paul’s (building)
  Circle, Iowa, etc. (as a park)
  cisatlantic, etc.
  City of Mexico.
  Civil Service Commission (ers).
  Clerk of the House.
  Coast and Geodetic Survey.
  Code, the Mississippi
  College, Columbia, etc.
  Colonel Commandant (Marine Corps).
  Commissioner of Patents, etc.
  Commissioners of District of Columbia.
  Comptroller, First, Second, etc.
  Comptroller of the Currency.
  Confederate States.
  Consular Bureau.
  Congressional.
  Congressional Directory.
  Congressional Library.
  Constitution (United States).
  Continent, the (Europe)
  Contract Office.
  Corps of Engineers.
  Corps of Judge-Advocates.
  Council, Choctaw.
  County, Clarion, etc.
  Court of Claims.
  Court of Private Land Claims.
  Court of St. James.
  court of appeals.
  Court of Commissioners of Alabama Claims.
  Crown (referring to Government).
  Dalles, The
  Dam No. 4.
  Day, Thanksgiving, Independence, Memorial, etc.
  Dead-Letter Office.
  Delegate (in Congress).
  Democrat.
  Department of Justice.
  Deputy Second Auditor, etc.
  Diplomatic Bureau.
  Director of the Geological Survey, etc.
  district:
    First assembly
    Fifth Congressional
    Third light-house
  District of Columbia Jail.
  Dome (of Capitol).
  Dominion of Canada.
  Du Pont Powder Works.
  Eastern States, the
  Eastern Continent.
  Eastern Hemisphere.
  eastern New York, etc.
  Electoral Commission.
  Engine No. 6.
  Engineer in Chief.
  Engineer Corps.
  Engineer Department.
  Entomologist, the (Agr. Dept.)
  Evangelical Alliance.
  Executive, the
  Executive order.
  Executive Departments.
  executive department (one of the three coordinate departments of
        the Government).
  Executive Document No. 95.
  Federal Government.
  Fish Commission (er).
  Forty-seventh Congress.
  Fourth of July.
  Freedman’s Savings Bank.
  General Government.
  Gentile.
  General Assembly (Presbyterian Church).
  General Superintendent of Life-Saving Service.
  Geological Survey.
  gospel.
  governor.
  Government:
    Imperial
    Royal
    Federal
    General
    National
    British, etc.
  Government of Great Britain.
  Government Hospital for the Insane.
  Governor-General (of Canada).
  Grand Army post. (But Post No. 63, etc.)
  Great Lakes.
  Gulf Coast (section of country).
  Gulf, the (Gulf of Mexico)
  Hague, The
  Hall (of the House).
  Hall, Statuary (of Capitol)
  Harbor, Boston, etc.
  Headquarters of the Army.
  Health Bureau.
  Her Majesty the Queen.
  His Excellency the President.
  His Excellency Li Hung Chang.
  his excellency the governor.
  His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.
  Home and Branch (singular or plural, referring to Soldiers’ Home).
  Hospital, Providence, etc.
  Hotel, Metropolitan, etc.
  House Calendar.
  House Executive Document No. 12.
  House, Ebbitt, etc.
  Howard University.
  Hydrographic Office.
  imperial edict.
  india rubber.
  Isthmus, the (of Panama)
  Journal Clerk.
  Journal of the House (or Senate).
  Lafayette, General
  la Fayette, Marquis de
  Lafayette County.
  Lakes Erie and Huron.
  legislature, Connecticut, etc.
  Lake Michigan.
  Librarian of Congress.
  Library of Congress.
  Life-Saving Service.
  Light-House Board.
  light-house district, Fourth, etc.
  Line, Cunard, etc.
  london purple.
  Long Bridge.
  lower House of Congress.
  Lower Mississippi.
  Mall, the
  Marine Corps.
  Marine-Hospital Service.
  Medical Corps.
  Medical Department (Army or Navy).
  Members and Delegates.
  Merino (sheep).
  merino (goods, wool, etc.).
  Metropolitan police.
  Microscopist, the (Agr. Dept.)
  middle Tennessee.
  Military Academy (United States).
  Mikado.
  Miscellaneous Document No. 2.
  Mississippi Delta.
  Mississippi River:
    Pass
    Passes
    Head of Passes
  Money-Order Office (of P. O. Dept.).
  Monument Lot.
  Mormon.
  Nation, Choctaw, etc.
  National Board of Health.
  National Cemetery, Arlington, etc.
  national cemetery at Arlington.
  National Guard.
  National Legislature.
  National Government.
  National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers.
  National Medical Museum.
  National Park, Yellowstone, etc.
  national park in California.
  Naval Academy.
  Naval Asylum.
  Naval Militia (the entire body).
  Naval Observatory.
  Naval Reserves.
  Navy, the
  Navy-Yard, New York, etc.
  Netherlands, the
  New World.
  New York City.
  North, the
  North Pole.
  northern Illinois.
  Northwest, the
  Office of Experiment Stations.
  Office of Steamboat Inspection.
  Old World.
  One hundred and twenty-fifth street.
  Order of Business No. 56.
  Ordnance Department.
  Pacific coast (the sea line).
  Pacific Slope, Coast, and Seaboard (section of country).
  paris green.
  Parish, Caddo
  Park, Jackson, etc.
  Pay Corps.
  Pay Department.
  Penitentiary, Albany, etc.
  Pension Bureau.
  Pension Office.
  People’s Party.
  plaster of paris.
  Populist.
  Postal Union.
  Postmaster-General.
  Post-Office appropriation bill.
  Presidential.
  Prince of Monaco.
  prussian blue.
  Public Land Strip.
  Public Printer.
  Quartermaster’s Department.
  Railway Mail Service.
  Record and Pension Office (or Division).
  Reform School of District of Columbia.
  Reform School, Girls’
  Reformatory, Elmira, etc.
  Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.
  Register of the Treasury.
  Regular Army.
  Regular Navy.
  Reporter of the Senate.
  Republican.
  Reservation, Sioux, etc.
  Revenue-Cutter Service.
  Revenue-Marine Service.
  Revolutionary war.
  Revised Statutes.
  River, Ohio, etc.
  Rotunda (of Capitol).
  royal command.
  Rule XXI.
  Rules and Articles of War.
  Schedule B.
  schedule 6.
  School, Peabody, etc.
  schools, Peabody and Brent
  Scriptures (the Bible).
  Secretary of State, etc. (United States).
  Senate Chamber.
  Sergeant-at-Arms.
  Signal Corps.
  Signal Office.
  Signal Service.
  Six Companies (Chinese).
  Smithsonian Institution.
  Solicitor-General.
  Solicitor of Internal Revenue.
  Solicitor of the Treasury.
  Solicitor for the Department of State.
  Sound, the (referring to Long Island or Puget Sound)
  South, the
  Southern States, the
  southern Illinois.
  Southwest, the
  Square, Madison, etc. (as a park)
  square, Lafayette, etc. (as a street)
  star route.
  Stars and Stripes.
  Statistician, the (Agr. Dept.)
  Statistical Abstract.
  Statutes at Large.
  Straits of Magellan, etc.
  Streets, etc.:
    New York avenue.
    First street (northeast, etc.).
    Jackson alley.
    Phillips court.
    Mount Vernon place (as a street).
    Iowa circle (as a street).
    Pudding lane.
    Bennings road.
    Lafayette square (as a street).
  Subsistence Department.
  Superintendent of the Census.
  Superintendent of Coast and Geodetic Survey.
  Superintendent of Foreign Mails.
  Superintendent of Immigration.
  Superintendent of the Money-Order System.
  Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac.
  Superintendent of the Naval Observatory.
  Supervising Architect’s Office.
  Supervising Architect of the Treasury.
  Supervising Inspector-General of Steam Vessels.
  Supervising Surgeon-General United States Marine-Hospital Service.
  Supplement to Revised Statutes.
  Supreme Bench.
  Supreme Court (United States).
  supreme court (District of Columbia or of a State).
  surveyor-general.
  Survey, Geological, etc.
  Territorial assembly.
  Territorial legislature.
  transmississippi.
  transatlantic.
  Treasurer of the United States.
  Treasury building.
  Treasury Cattle Commission.
  Treasury (National).
  United Press.
  Upper Mississippi.
  Valley, Mississippi, etc.
  Vice-President (of United States).
  Vice-Admiral.
  war, Mexican
  war of the rebellion.
  Washington Aqueduct.
  Washington’s Headquarters.
  Western Continent.
  Western Hemisphere.
  White Lot.



COMPOUNDING.


1. In compounding words the International Dictionary will be
followed, with but few exceptions.

2. The following words are so common in the work of this office
that the usage of many years will be continued:

  post-office
  court-house
  custom-house
  light-house
  navy-yard
  attorney-general, etc.
  consul-general
  vice-consul
  lieutenant-general, etc.
  sergeant-major
  quartermaster-sergeant, etc.
  color-corporal
  lieutenant-commander
  rear-admiral
  flag-officer
  judge-advocate-general
  provost-marshal
  provost-marshal-general

3. Make one word of horsepower, candlepower, and hundredweight, and
use adjectively as laid down in the succeeding paragraph.

4. Compound adjectives take the hyphen: A 2-foot rule,
10-horsepower engine, 16-candlepower light, 6-hundredweight
load, many-colored coat, light-armed soldier, asked-for opinion,
fine-grained wood, light-green color, etc.

5. Compound the following:

  mid-channel
  double-loader
  single-loader
  pleuro-pneumonia
  national-bank notes
  re-treat (to treat again)
  ante-mortem
  micro-organism
  micro-millimeter
  micro-photograph
  acre-foot (plural acre-feet)
  foot-acre (plural foot-acres)
  pound-foot (plural pound-feet)
  post-mortem
  foot-pound (plural foot-pounds)
  foot-poundal (plural foot-poundals)
  foot-second (plural foot-seconds)
  second-foot (plural second-feet)
  foot-ton (plural foot-tons)
  pound-degree (plural pound-degrees)

6. Follow compounding, etc., in the appended list of fishes and
fishery appliances:

  alewife
  amber-fish
  angel-fish
  bag seine
  bass net
  bellows-fish
  black bass
  black-cod
  blackfish
  black perch
  blue crab
  bluefish
  boat fishermen
  boat-steerer
  bomb-gun
  bottom-feeding fish
  bowhead whale
  boxfish
  brook trout
  buffalo-fish
  bullhead
  bull’s-eye mackerel
  buoy line
  butter-fish
  candle-fish
  catboat
  catfish
  cigar-fish
  coast line
  codfish
  codfish fishery
  cod fishery
  cod fishing
  cod line
  crampfish
  crawfish
  crayfish
  crayfish pot
  cultus-cod
  cutting-in (of a whale)
  datefish
  dealfish
  devil-fish
  dingey
  doctor-fish
  dogfish
  dollar-fish
  drag net
  drag seine
  drift net
  drumfish
  fat-head
  fiddler-crab
  finback whale
  fish-culture
  fish eggs
  fishing-camp
  fishing-ground
  fishing-place
  fish roe
  fish-wheel
  flake-yard
  flatfish
  flying-fish
  food-fish
  frostfish
  garfish
  gill net
  gill-net fishing
  goldfish
  goosefish
  green crab
  greenfish
  ground line
  hagfish
  hair seal
  hand lance
  harbor porpoise
  harpoon gun
  hermit-crab
  hickory-jack
  hogfish
  hoop net
  horsefish
  horse-mackerel
  horseshoe-crab
  houndfish
  humpback whale
  jackfish
  jelly-fish
  jewfish
  jonah-crab
  kelp-crab
  kelpfish
  kingfish
  lady-crab
  lady-fish
  land-crab
  landlocked salmon
  live-car
  lobster pot
  lumpfish
  mollusk
  monkfish
  moonfish
  mossbunker
  mud-crab
  mudfish
  muskellunge
  mussel-crab
  mutton-fish
  nigger-fish
  nursefish
  oyster bed
  oyster-crab
  paddle-fish
  pan-fish
  parrot-fish
  peacock-fish
  pigfish
  pilot-fish
  pipefish
  purse seine
  ratfish
  red crab
  red-eye
  redfish
  red grouper
  red-horse
  red perch
  red snapper
  rock-bass
  rock-cod
  rock-crab
  rockfish
  rock lobster
  rose-fish
  round-fish
  rowboat
  rudder-fish
  salmon canning
  salmon-canning industry
  salmon trout
  sand-crab
  sawfish
  scallop
  sea bass
  sea-cucumber
  sea-horse
  seal oil
  seal skin
  sea moss
  sea mullet
  sea-urchin
  seaweed
  seine-haul
  seine-reach
  set net
  sheat-fish
  sheepshead
  shellfish
  shore-crab
  skipjack
  smelt net
  snake-fish
  snapping mackerel
  soft crab
  Spanish mackerel
  spearfish
  spider-crab
  squeteague
  squirrel-fish
  starfish
  steelhead
  stingray
  stone-crab
  striped bass
  sulphur-bottom whale
  sunfish
  swordfish
  tautog
  threadfish
  tilefish
  toadfish
  tomcod
  trammel net
  trawl basket
  trawling-ground
  treefish
  trigger-fish
  trumpet-fish
  trying-out (of a whale)
  try-works
  tubfish
  weakfish
  whaleboat
  whalebone
  whale line
  whistling buoy
  whitefish
  wolf-fish
  yellow-tail

7. Fractions, when spelled, will be compounded: One twenty-first,
one-fifth, eighty-one one-hundredths, one one-hundredth, the
one-hundredth part.

8. The words “well,” “so,” and “ill” will be used as follows:
He is an ill-tempered man; he is very ill tempered. Well-meant
intentions; his intentions are well meant. His so-called poem; his
poem (so called) is, etc. But generally adverbs are not compounded
with adjectives which they qualify: A divinely inspired book; a
finely modeled statue; a nicely kept lawn.



USE OF FIGURES.


1. Where figures are used to express the time of day, use the
period to separate the hours and minutes: It was 5.30 p. m.; 10.02
a. m.

2. Use degree and minute marks after figures in all cases referring
to degrees and minutes, and where whole numbers and decimals are
used place the marks after the decimals, as 14.25°; 13.5′; 24.36″.

3. In straight matter and reading columns of tables, where decimal
fractions occur without a unit, put a cipher in the unit’s place:
0.38; but a .38-caliber revolver.

4. Omit the comma in serial numbers: No. 165473; section 2436.

5. Use inferior figures in all chemical symbols, and omit spaces
between the letters and signs.

6. Use superior figures in connection with reference letters, as
A^1, A^2, _a_^1, _a_^2.

7. It is impossible to give definite rules that will govern in all
cases as to what should go in figures and what should be spelled
out. It is a question which must be left to the judgment of the
workman. General rules which will serve as a guide to the tendency
of the style follow:


PUT IN FIGURES--

  =Distances=: 50 miles; 17 yards; 8 leagues.

  =Clock time=: 10.25 p. m.; 12 o’clock and 30 minutes; half past 9.

  =Weights=: 12 pounds of beef; 4 hundredweight of stone; 8 centals
  of wheat; 2 grams of powder.

  =Measures=: 40 bushels of wheat; 1 gallon of wine; 15 knots; 6
  acres; 9 hectares.

  =Degrees, etc.=: 17° 24′ 17″; 10° below zero; in longitude 46°
  west (but tenth meridian of longitude, sixth degree of latitude,
  etc.).

  =Dimensions=: 16 feet square; 24 by (not x) 12 feet; 2 by 6 inch
  plank; 4 kilometers square.

  =Percentage=: 15 per cent; 27.4 per cent; but one-half of 1 per
  cent, etc.

  =Money=: $2 per 100 pounds; $1.37½ per bale; 35 cents apiece; a
  25-cent piece; 20 francs.

  =Age=: My age is 52 years and 6 months; a boy 6 years old;
  3-year-old colt; 3-months-old child; wine 8 years old (but a
  boy about six years old; wine four or five years old--where
  indefinite and isolated, spell out).

  =Population=: The population of Chicago is 1,000,000, of whom
  150,000 are voters; a hamlet of 18 persons. (But see paragraphs 9
  and 10 under “Spell out.”)

  =Bonds or stocks=: Gold is 109; Metropolitan Railroad, 109;
  5-20 bonds; 10-40 bonds; 7.30 bonds; 3.65 bonds; 4½ per cent
  bonds; 3 per cent bonds; 3½ percents; 4 percents. Where the word
  “bonds” does not follow the designating expression, spell out, as
  five-twenties, ten-forties, three-sixty-fives, four-and-a-halfs,
  threes, etc.

  =Votes, ballots, etc.=: 75 votes; 50 ballots; 300 voters; 167
  Democrats; 14 majority.

  =Definite enumerations= (when of a statistical character): 275
  persons, 6 sleek horses, 20 head of sheep, 9 dusty travelers; 43
  reports, covering 109 pages. (But see paragraph 9 under “Spell
  out.”)

  =Dates=: June 29, A. D. 1882; December 6, 1846; the 1st of
  January, 1883; June 12; the 5th instant; the 20th day of March;
  the 1st (day) of the month. July 4, 1776, was the great day which
  gave to the world the celebrated Declaration of Independence,
  and now our Fourth of July is something to be remembered by all
  patriotic Americans; 4th of July claims.

  =Serial numbers=: Section 3; No. 1728; paragraph 247; page 125;
  volume 6 (or Volume VI, as written); 1536 Ninth street; Route No.
  17342; clerk of class 3.


SPELL OUT--

1. Length of time: It lasted fifteen years; we were three days on
the way; four hours and ten minutes.

2. Amounts or numbers larger than 1,000, if spelled, are expressed
thus: One thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars; A. D. eighteen
hundred and fifty; number seventeen hundred and twenty-two. But
in serial numbers, where even multiples of one thousand occur, use
the word “thousand,” as section two thousand and four (not twenty
hundred and four); paragraph seven thousand and sixty-nine.

3. When beginning a sentence: Five million dollars’ worth; in other
cases, $5,000,000 worth.

4. All amounts beginning sentences or paragraphs, except when, in
testimony, an answer begins with a serial or complex number, in
which case use figures. Examples:

  Q. In what year was that?--A. 1876.
  Q. What was the amount involved?--A. $101.50.
  Q. How much was the sum?--A. Five (or fifteen, or sixty-seven)
         dollars.

5. Numbered streets of all cities, except in tabular matter.

6. Regimental numbers of United States Regular or Volunteer Army,
as Eighth Infantry, One hundred and ninth Ohio Regiment, Third
Massachusetts Cavalry.

7. Sums of money, when they are referred to in a general way, as
“four or five millions,” or “I would not contribute one dollar to
such a purpose.” [This is not to be construed as meaning round
numbers, but simply a general or indefinite statement.]

8. Isolated fractions not connected with whole numbers, as
one-fourth, three-tenths.

9. Isolated enumerations less than 10: “I saw three men at work.”
“There were four horses in the field.”

10. Number of persons, when not in statistical matter or when
general or indefinite: “There were thirty or forty persons in the
town.”

11. When numbers are mentioned casually, or by way of illustration,
or in connection with serious and dignified subjects, they should
be spelled out:

  In nine hundred and ninety-nine cases out of every thousand.
  It is now five years since I first took my stand in opposition to
        this measure, and if my stay among  you should be extended
        to twenty years instead of five, I shall still be found
        opposing it with the same earnestness as at first.
  Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.
  The twelve Apostles.
  The three Graces.
  The nine Muses.
  The seven wise men of Greece.
  For twelve years he struggled manfully and the thirteenth year
        crowned his efforts with success.
  Congress has now been in session two months and three weeks,
        lacking two days.
  It is twenty-four years since the rebellion turned the two sections
        of our country into two armed bodies composed of two or three
        million men.
  It is the twelfth hour which is dreaded most at night by
        superstitions mortals.
  At eleven and a half o’clock.
  In the thirtieth degree of latitude the thermometer reached the
        fifth degree above zero.

12. When a paper is divided into clauses numbered “1, 2, 3,” etc.,
in the copy, put in figures; but if written “1st, 2d, 3d,” etc.,
spell out.



TABULAR WORK.


=_Box heads_=.--Box heads should be run across whenever
practicable; if it is necessary to run them up, reduce to the
minimum depth.

In boxes of two or more lines which run across, or where two or
more boxes occur in the same head, use en quads above and below the
greater number of lines.

In boxes of three lines or more in depth and 10 ems or more in
width over reading columns or over several figure columns, and in
all run-up heads of three lines or more, make hanging indention;
otherwise center each line.

In boxes containing two lines the first line must be the longer
when possible.

=_Contractions_=.--In columns of names of persons, follow copy
in the use of contractions of given names; but to avoid overruns
always contract such names as William and Charles. Use “Co.” for
“Company” where the name of the company is given; use “R. R.” for
railroad and “Rwy.” for railway where the name of the railroad or
railway is given, and use Bro. and Bros. in firm names. Contract
names of months whenever the day of the month is given, excepting
in first columns consisting of dates only, which may, however, be
contracted to save overruns. All other well-known contractions
can be used, by direction of copy preparer, to save overruns. The
following contractions for months of the year will be used:

  January      Jan.
  February     Feb.
  March        Mar.
  April        Apr.
  May          May
  June         June
  July         July
  August       Aug.
  September    Sept.
  October      Oct.
  November     Nov.
  December     Dec.

=_Use of “dittoes.”_=--Ditto whenever it can properly be done, and
ditto under blank spaces in all cases excepting center heads, but
never ditto under leaders.

In columns less than 6 ems in width use 1½ ems of quads (in
addition to en quad used for bearing off) or 2 ems of leaders, as
may be required, before the “do.”; in columns of 6 ems and over,
use 2 ems of quads (in addition to en quad used for bearing off) or
2½ ems of leaders.

In first columns, where flush headings are used with indentions
under them, proportionate allowance must be made for those
indentions, and it will generally be indicated by the copy preparer.

=_Date columns._=--In 7-em date columns, bear off 3-em space
from rules, use only en commas after day of month, and put the
remaining space between month and day. Observe same style in 5-em
date columns, with the exception of using en quads instead of 3-em
spaces in bearing off from rules.

Ditto in both 5 and 7 em columns.

=_Leading from top or bottom lines_=.--Where there is only one
reading column, lead from the bottom; if more than one, from the
top.

Date columns are not classified as reading columns in connection
with leading from top line.

In parallel tables, where the lines are numbered on the outside of
each page, lead from the top.

Where the last word in a leader line runs close to the rule, use
en leader if space permits; if not, use a thin space, but never
use a full point, excepting where a reference mark follows an
abbreviation.

Unless specially directed otherwise, continue leaders across entire
width of tables when the right-hand columns are of figures; when
the last column is a reading column, omit the leaders from that
column only.

=_Figures in reading columns_=.--Numerical expressions in reading
columns will be expressed in figures, even at the beginning of the
sentence: 155 days from Dec. 1; trains 3 times a day.

=_Figures from or against rules._=--In figure columns bear off an
en quad from rules on right of figures; and so make the cast as
to bear off the longest line of figures an en quad from the rule
on the left where possible. If crowded, and but few figures will
touch, close up on the left; if still more crowded, close up on the
right. If found necessary to set the figures in one column against
the rule on the right (which, by the way, must always be done
before closing up on the left when the mass of figures is of nearly
even width), do the same with the remaining columns of the table.
Exceptions will be marked by copy preparer.

Common fractions to be set against rules unless otherwise indicated.

=_Decimals._=--In columns of figures containing decimals omit the
point and ciphers where no decimal occurs. This rule does not apply
to money columns consisting of both dollars and cents, where the
points and ciphers will be used. Always align the decimal points.

=_Dollar mark._=--Repeat dollar mark under rules in continuous
tables; also in leader work where center heads occur indicating a
separate or independent statement. But in statements where amounts
are added to make a general aggregate do not repeat the dollar
mark, even where center heads occur.

=_Parallel dashes._=--Use parallel dashes in figure columns in all
cases where necessary to cut off from figures following. This rule
will apply also to leader work.

=_Tables in rules._=--In tables inclosed in rules, where the first
column consists of figures, do not use leaders. [This rule will
not apply to date columns or to reading columns clearly requiring
leaders.] Bear off matter one em from side rules.

=_Full point in leader lines._=--Use full point between
abbreviation and reference mark in leader lines, as Boston, Mass.†
...

=_Blanks for center heads._=--Use full blank line above and below
all center heads in stubs or reading columns, excepting where
leaders run back far enough to clear the head, in which case use
only a line of en quads below.

=_Plus and minus marks._=--Plus and minus marks in figure columns
must be aligned when occurring at left of figures.

=_Dates and figures in reading columns._=--Do not range dates or
figures in first or reading columns unless figures are added up to
make a total. This rule will apply also to leader work.

=_En-quadded tables._=--Use en quads in runovers [copy preparers
will give instructions when change is desired]; scabbard will not
be allowed; all box heads solid.

=_Reference marks._=--Set off all reference marks a 5-em space when
preceding words or figures. Use superior figures (^1, ^2, ^3, etc.)
for reference marks and footnotes in all cases, unless otherwise
instructed. In a series of short footnotes range the reference
marks, and also the first letter of the note.

=_Words in figure columns._=--Range all words occurring in figure
columns one en from rule on right; also capitalize and use full
point.

=_Indention from rules._=--An indention from a rule means so many
ems in addition to the en quad used for bearing off.

=_Word “number.”_=--Spell the word “number,” referring to quantity
or things, in box heads where possible. Where necessary to
abbreviate or where used in connection with serial figures, use
“No.”

=_Flush and sub heads._=--Use colons after flush heads and em
dashes after heads subordinate thereto.

=_Units of quantity._=--Units of quantity to the right of reading
columns and over figure columns will be spelled where possible.
Where the space available demands a contraction, use the following
forms: Dolls., galls., lbs., oz., bbls., cwt., yds., ft., in.
(inches), doz., bush., M, sq. feet, M feet, cub. feet, kilo.,
kilos. Observe style of the following table:


              [[TABLE -- PART 1 of 2]]
  -------------------------------------------+-------------------+
                                             |  Between Chicago, |
                                             |     Ill., and--   |
                   Articles.                 +---------+---------+
                                             | Jackson-| Athens, |
                                             |  ville, | and Ma- |
                                             |   Fla.  | con, Ga.|
  -------------------------------------------+---------+---------+
  Agricultural implements:                   |         |         |
    C. L. (weight 20,000 pounds) per 100 lbs |   $0.87 |   $0.85 |
    C. L. (weight 20,000 pounds), released,  |         |         |
                              per 100 pounds |     .58 |     .58 |
  Apples, onions, potatoes, cabbage, beets,  |         |         |
    and turnips, straight and  mixed, C. L.  |         |         |
                                 per 100 lbs |     .43 |     .43 |
  Beans and pease, in barrels or sacks  do   |     .73 |     .71 |
  Butter:                                    |         |         |
      Dairy--                                |         |         |
          In wood                       do   |    1.35 |    1.47 |
          In wood, released             do   |    1.00 |    1.06 |
  Flour:                                     |         |         |
      In barrels                  per barrel |     .44 |     .74 |
      In sacks                per 100 pounds |     .28 |     .41 |
  Grain, in bulk, C. L.                 do   |     .27 |     .37 |
  Hominy and grits                per barrel |     .54 |     .73 |
  -------------------------------------------+---------+---------+

              [[TABLE -- PART 2 of 2]]
  -------------------------------------------+----------------------------
                                             |  Between St. Louis, Mo.,
                                             |          and--
                   Articles.                 +---------+---------+--------
                                             | Jackson-| Athens, |Atlanta,
                                             |  ville, |   Ga.   |   Ga.
                                             |   Fla.  |         |
  -------------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------
  Agricultural implements:                   |         |         |
    C. L. (weight 20,000 pounds) per 100 lbs |   $0.84 |   $0.82 |   $0.82
    C. L. (weight 20,000 pounds), released,  |         |         |
                              per 100 pounds |     .56 |     .56 |     .56
  Apples, onions, potatoes, cabbage, beets,  |         |         |
    and turnips, straight and  mixed, C. L.  |         |         |
                                 per 100 lbs |     .41 |     .41 |     .41
  Beans and pease, in barrels or sacks  do   |     .70 |     .68 |     .68
  Butter:                                    |         |         |
      Dairy--                                |         |         |
          In wood                       do   |    1.23 |    1.25 |    1.35
          In wood, released             do   |     .95 |    1.01 |    1.01
  Flour:                                     |         |         |
      In barrels                  per barrel |     .48 |     .68 |     .62
      In sacks                per 100 pounds |     .23 |     .38 |     .35
  Grain, in bulk, C. L.                 do   |     .22 |     .32 |     .29
  Hominy and grits                per barrel |     .56 |     .64 |     .58
  -------------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------

=_Leader work._=--Leader work is not classified as tabular work.

=_Continued heads._=--Continued heads over tables must be condensed
into one line where possible.



FOLLOW--FOL. LIT.


1. Copy marked “fol.” means to follow figures, italics,
abbreviations, idiomatic words and expressions, and &c. or etc.,
but not capitalization or punctuation. The exceptions are: (1)
Always spell out the & except in firm names; (2) always spell
out the % mark; (3) always use “at” or “to,” as the case may be,
instead of the commercial @. All orthography in “fol.” matter is
good that has the sanction of any dictionary.

2. Copy marked “fol. lit.” means follow everything--caps,
punctuation, and contractions.



COURT WORK.


COURT OF CLAIMS OPINIONS, BRIEFS, AND DECISIONS.

1. In the case of _The United States_ v. _Union Pacific Railroad
Company_ (99 U. S., 22), the court

2. In the case of _United States_ v. _The Union Pacific Railroad
Company_ (99 U. S., 33), the court

3. (_The United States_ v. _Union Pacific R. R. Co._)

4. (_United States_ v. _The Union Pacific R. R. Co._)

5. In _Taylor’s Case_ (16 C. Cls. R., 14) the claimant. (_Taylor’s
Case_, 16 C. Cls. R., 14.)

6. In _Taylor_ v. _Smith_ the court held

7. _Edwards’s Lessee_ v. _Darby_ (12 Wheat., 210)

8. _Legal-Tender Case_ (110 U. S., 334)

9. (_Ex parte_ Robinson, 19 Wall., 304)

10. In Taylor’s Case the court say; in the case of Taylor there was

11. In the case of _Payne_ (7 U. S., 252)

12. By the _Act of March 3, 1881_, chapter 34, section 4 (Rev.
Stat., § 33).

13. _Bowman Act_ (22 Stat. L., ch. 4, § 9, p. 284); the Bowman Act
was referred to.

14. _Act 5th August, 1882_ (Supp. Rev. Stat., 284; Stat. L., 84).

15. In the petition (Rec., p. 7) there is

16. In the record (p. 7; Test., p. 7; Ev., p. 7; Rec., p. 9; q. 7;
c. q. 7; int. 7; c. int. 7; qq. 6-9; c. qq. 7-9; ints. 9, 10)

17. Finding VI--the sixth finding; section 6--the sixth section.

18. Omit quotation marks for exhibits in all cases except “fol.
lit.”

19. “United States” to be used in the singular number where
practicable.

20. In Court of Claims records, when questions are numbered, let
the number precede the question: 23. Question.

21. Spell out “Question” and “Answer” and make separate paragraphs.

22. When the title of the case is braced to the left, the rule is
to have the braced portion occupy two-thirds of the line; but this
may be varied to avoid bad divisions or when there is but little
matter inside the brace.

23. Make sentences of citations, excepting (p. 84) or (pp. 90-95).

(See also “FOLLOW--FOL. LIT.”)


SUPREME COURT RECORDS.

  24. X Int.
  X Int. 1.
  X 20.
  24. X.
  24. Q.
  24. Question.
  X Q. 1.
  24. Int.
  1. X Q.
  X Ques. 1.
  1. Add. Direct.
  2. R. D. Q.
  3. Re D. Q.
  4. R. X Q.
  Re X Q. 1.
  R. X Int. 1.
  5. Re X Q.
  24th. Cross-ques.
  46th. Cross-int.
  46. Cross-int.
  46. Cross-ques.
  46. C. Int.
  46th. C. Int.
  Answer to Cross-int. 1.

1. Follow copy literally, except italics (which stand for errors
only), capitalization, and punctuation.

2. Use italic letters to indicate errors of orthography and
apostrophes to indicate errors of omission. In case of a doublet,
italicize the repeated portion. Use no dashes, but indicate blanks
with quads.

3. Make paragraphs of answers in Q. and A. matter.

4. Use apostrophes in unusual abbreviations, such as Feb’y, c’t,
etc.; but in well-established abbreviations use the period, as Mr.,
deft., plff.

5. Many words, although not spelled according to Webster, if
sanctioned by other authorities, should be set without italic
letters.

6. Italics should not be used to indicate errors of syntax, or
errors of orthography, in foreign languages, except in law terms,
as fi_a_ri f_e_cias; nor should italics be used in variations of
orthography of proper names of persons or places.

7. Where the name of a corporation occurs beginning with the word
“the,” use a cap. T, thus: the said The B. & O. R. R. Co.; The Sun
v. The Globe; The City of Washington v. The B. & O. R. R. Co.; the
defendant The Davies County Bank.

8. Errors in italics will always be indicated by roman letters,
thus: _fi_e_r_e _f_e_cias_, _co_n_plain_e_ants_.

9. Names of vessels will be set in roman, quoted.

10. Do not change the spelling of proper names, nor use italics to
indicate errors therein.

(See also “FOLLOW--FOL. LIT.”)



GENERAL TESTIMONY.


1. Contract the first Q. and A., as well as the following ones.

2. Make one paragraph of question and answer, connecting the
question and its answer by an em dash.

3. Where the answer is not introduced by the usual “A.,” “Ans.,” or
“Answer,” or where the name or title of a participant is used, make
a new paragraph.

4. The following examples illustrate the use of brackets, colons,
and parentheses:

  The CHAIRMAN (to Mr. Smith).
  Mr. KELLEY (to the chairman).
  The WITNESS. He did it that way [indicating].

  Q. (By Mr. SMITH.) Do you know these men [handing witness a list]?
  (Objected to.)
  A. (After examining list.) Yes; I do.

  Q. (Continuing.)--A. (Reads:)
  Question (continuing).--Answer (reads):
  A. (Interrupting.)
  Answer (interrupting).
  (Counsel objects to its admission.)

5. Observe punctuation in the following paragraphs:

  The defendant, George Brown, stated to the court, etc. [where there
        is only one defendant (or plaintiff) in the case].
  The defendant George Brown stated to the court, etc. [where there
        are two or more defendants (or plaintiffs) in the case].

(See also “FOLLOW--FOL. LIT.” and paragraph 3 under
“MISCELLANEOUS.”)



USE OF ITALIC.


1. Names of vessels and generic names should be set in italic,
except in tabular matter, indexes, lists set in columns, and
Supreme Court work.

2. The words “see,” “see also,” etc., in italic in indexes only.

3. Italic will not be followed in general work, either for foreign
words or for emphasis, unless special instructions to that effect
are given.

4. When letters are used as references in explaining diagrams,
figures, etc., use italic for lower-case references and roman for
caps, not quoted: Cogwheel _a_; pinion B; angle _ab_; line CD;
points _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_.

(See also “FOLLOW--FOL. LIT.”)



MISCELLANEOUS.


1. Use spaces in place of hyphens in Indian names.

2. Treat all side and cut-in notes as paragraphs.

3. Observe the following examples of punctuation:

  George G. Greene, being sworn and examined, on oath deposes
        and says:
  Isaac Fuller, sworn, and testified as follows:
  P. L. Rodier, sworn and examined.
  Colonel Seventh Cavalry.
  Captain, Seventh Cavalry.
  Respectfully, yours,
  Yours, respectfully,
  Congressional, No. 25.
  Congressional case No. 25.
  Record, case No. 384.
  Term No., 625.
  Indian Depredations, No. 25.
  Indian depredation case No. 625.
  French Spoliations, No. 18.
  French spoliation case No. 325.
  first session Fifty-third Congress.
  Jones & Co., Limited.
  Latitude, 40° 19′ 12″ north; longitude, 30° 8′ 14″ west.
  In latitude 40° 19′ 12″ north, longitude 30° 8′ 14″ west.
  Have you any interest in this case? If so, what?
  Have you any interest in this case? If so, state what.
  Have you any interest in this case; and if so, what?
  Have you any interest in this case? And if so, state what.

4. “Line of stars” means seven asterisks in a full-measure line,
indented two ems at each end, the remaining space to be evenly
divided between the stars. Exception: In briefs, etc., set in
“general-order” measure, use but five asterisks, indented two ems
at each end.

5. Avoid, by overrunning, the use of a dash at the beginning of a
line, two-letter divisions, and the repetition of divisions at the
end of three or more contiguous lines.

6. After addresses at the head of communications use the period,
as--

  Hon. AMOS J. CUMMINGS,
  _House of Representatives_.
  DEAR SIR: I have the honor, etc.

  Lieut. Commander RICHARD RUSH,
  _Navy Department_.
  DEAR SIR: The care shown by you, etc.

7. Use en quads in cap and small-cap lines in addresses and in
signatures, and a proportionate increase of space in heads of
extended type.

8. In illustrating certain shapes or forms, as ⟙ rails, use gothic
letters (case 288 cap. in long-primer text, and case 287 cap. in
brevier text).

9. In solid matter, when extracts, etc., are set in smaller type,
separate by using two leads; in leaded matter use three leads.

10. Use two leads before footnotes in all cases.

11. Where slugs are called for specially, use a slug of same body
as type.

12. Separate center heads from text by slugs one size less than
type used.

13. When two consecutive years are intended, set: 1875-76, 1801-2;
when more than two consecutive years are intended: 1875-1879,
1895-1904; when two or more distinct years are intended: 1894,
1895; 1873, 1876; 1888, 1891, 1894.

14. When laws are set in long-primer type, document measure, the
first line of the enacting clause must be set so as to conform to
the following examples:

  _Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
        United_

  _Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
        United States_

15. In indexes, when the page folios overrun, retain only the
first folio number in the leader line; but when necessary to save
an overrun, figures may be run back to within an em leader of the
words. When the folios overrunning make two or more lines, indent
evenly not less than seven ems on the left, the folios in excess
of even-length lines to be worked into the leader line. When the
figures extend back into the leader line, use an en quad between
the leaders and the first figure.

16. Never divide a word in a headline if it can possibly be
avoided. In subhead and legend lines it is not necessary to make
the first line full.

17. Always keep together, at the beginning or end of a line, such
abbreviations as U. S. N.; D. C.; N. Y.; N. J.; M. D., etc. The
contractions esq., sr., and jr. should always be in the same line
with the name they follow.

18. Never divide the last word of a paragraph if it can be avoided;
overrun if necessary. The last line of a paragraph should contain
at least a four-letter word.



BILL STYLE.


Unless special directions are given--sometimes necessary in
particular cases--the following rules govern the printing of bills:


Type.

1. Bills are always set in English type, full-slugged.

2. A new bill is always all roman, italic being used only for the
enacting clause and the word “_Provided_.”


Side Folios.

3. The direction “Allow for two figures” means that TWO 1-EM quads
(not one 2-em quad) are to be used in allowing for side folios at
left of text. “Allow for three figures” means indent two 1-em quads
and 1 en quad.

4. Always supply the word “That” immediately following the section
number, and after the word “_Provided_” of a proviso.

5. Begin side folios with figure 1 at the first line of each
section. Exceptions to this are sometimes made for convenience in
handling, and side folios begun with figure 1 at the top of each
page; but in such cases special instructions will be given.


Engrossed and Enrolled Bills.

6. A bill is said to be _engrossed_ when it has passed one House of
Congress; to be _enrolled_ when final action has been taken in both
Houses.

7. Follow literally in engrossed and enrolled bills. This applies
to the title of the bill on the filing or indorsement as well as to
the text, but not to the caption of engrossed amendments.


Heads and Indorsements.

8. The “indorsement” on a bill is the form printed on the back for
convenience of reference when folded. “Document style” prevails
on indorsements until the bill reaches the “engrossed” stage.
Senate bills differ from House bills in the forms used in heads
and indorsements. As a bill progresses new “actions” appear, which
should be set in the same style as the “actions” that precede. The
“style” of a head or indorsement is governed by the “style” for the
branch of Congress in which the bill is pending. Examples of a new
bill in each House are given on the following page:


HEADING OF HOUSE BILL.

  --[Cast.]--             --[Cast.]--
  53D CONGRESS,           H. R. 9846.
  _3d Session_.

  [English caps--cast.]
  IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

  [Long primer type.]
  DECEMBER 22, 1894.

  Referred to the Committee on Claims and ordered to be printed.

  [English type.]
  Mr. WILSON, of West Virginia, (by request) introduced the following
        bill:

  --[Cast.]--
  A BILL

  [English type.]
  For the relief of George Washington Watkins, of Martinsburg, West
        Virginia.
  [Slug.]

  _Be it enacted, etc._, That


HEADING OF SENATE BILLS.

  --[Cast.]--             --[Cast.]--
  53D CONGRESS,           S. 4973.
  _3d Session_.

  [English caps--cast.]
  IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES.

  [Long primer type.]
  JANUARY 4, 1895.

  Mr. VOORHEES introduced the following bill; which was read
  twice and referred to the Committee on Pensions.

  --[Cast.]--
  A BILL

  [English type.]
  Granting an increase of pension to the survivors of the Mexican War.
  [Slug.]

  _Be it enacted, etc._, That


INDORSEMENTS.

  _House._                              _Senate._

  53D CONGRESS,}                        53D CONGRESS,} S. 4973
   _3d Session_. }  H. R. 9846.         _3d Session_. }

  ==================                    ==================

  A BILL                                A BILL

  For the relief of George Washington   Granting an increase of pension
    Watkins, of Martinsburg, W. Va.       to the survivors of the
                                          Mexican War.

  ==================                    ==================
  By Mr. WILSON, of West Virginia.      By Mr. VOORHEES.
  ==================                    ==================

  DECEMBER 22, 1894.--Referred to the   1895--JANUARY 4.--Read twice
    Committee on Claims and ordered       and referred to the Committee
    to be printed.                        on Pensions.

9. In indorsements on bills in the Senate use a 9-em dash under the
bill number; on bills in the House a parallel dash.

10. The name of the introducer of a bill or resolution is carried
under the title in the indorsement, in long primer caps and small
caps, between parallel rules, in both Houses, through each printing
until bill or resolution passes one House.

11. When the title of a bill on the indorsement makes more than two
lines, indent the runovers 1½ ems; center the title when it makes
but one or two lines. On the face of the bill where a title makes
more than one line, set the first line to full measure, centering
the runover if there be two lines in the title; if more than two
lines, indent the runovers 2 ems.

12. Titles for HOUSE BILLS are taken from the INDORSEMENT of copy;
for SENATE BILLS from the FACE of copy.

13. Preambles are set full measure, the first line of each
“whereas” being flush and the runovers indented 2 ems. Where an
agreement or treaty is part of a preamble, follow literally,
indenting the paragraphs 4 ems and runovers 2 ems, full measure.

14. Titles and preambles following the head of a bill are always
half-slugged.

15. Set “Calendar No.--,” on both face and indorsement of bills
which have reached the Senate Calendar, in each case at the upper
right-hand corner.

16. Set “Report No.” on both face and indorsement of reported bills
in both Houses, centering under the number of the bill.

[It is impracticable to give illustrations of the minutiæ of
headings and indorsements of bills in all their stages. Samples and
information can always be had upon inquiry at the foreman’s desk.
Compositors and others must familiarize themselves with the forms
called for by the clerks’ notes on copy.]


Amendments.

17. “Line type” and italic are used only to show amendments. When
it is proposed to strike out certain portions in a bill that is
“reported with amendments,” such portions will be set in “line
type.” Example:

  in accordance with ++existing++ _proposed_ plan, ++twenty++
  _twenty-five_ thousand dollars.

18. When new matter is inserted, it is set in italics.

19. When it is proposed to strike out and insert, always let the
italics FOLLOW the line type.

20. Do not complicate amendments. When one amendment can be made to
cover the sense, as in the complete changing of a sum of money, so
set it, rather than divide into two or more short amendments.

21. Proposed Senate amendments are printed in bill form, all roman.
The general style of the head may be either that of bills or of
“miscellaneous documents.” These headings are generally in proper
form as they come from the bill clerk.

22. When it is proposed in the Senate to make several short
amendments, the caption should read as follows:


  AMENDMENTS

  Intended to be proposed by Mr. HOAR to the bill (H. R. 4864) to
        reduce taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and
        for other purposes, viz:

  1 In line 24, page 19, strike out the words “per centum ad valorem”
        and insert the words
  2 “cents per pound;” in line 16, page 25, strike out the word “shall;”
        and in line 12, page 34, after
  3 the word “and,” insert the word “any.”

23. When a proposed amendment in the Senate is expressed by one or
more full paragraphs, the caption should read:

  AMENDMENT

  Intended to be proposed by Mr. GORMAN to the bill (H. R. 2476)
        entitled “An Act to establish a fish-hatching station at Port
        Tobacco, Maryland,” viz: After the word “Maryland,” in line 14,
        section 2, insert the following:

  1 To enable the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries to
        carry out the provisions
  2 of this act there is hereby appropriated the sum of seventy-five
        thousand dollars.


Reported Bills.

24. Observe the difference in _form_ of action taken on Senate and
House bills reported with amendments:

  _House._--

  DECEMBER 12, 1894.

  Reported with amendments, committed to the Committee of the Whole
        House, and ordered to be printed.

  Omit the parts struck through and insert the parts printed in
        _italics_.

  _Senate._--

  DECEMBER 13, 1894.

  Reported by Mr. HARRIS with an amendment, viz: Omit the part struck
        through and insert the part printed in _italics_.

[The wording varies with the necessities of the case, but the style
remains the same.]


General Instructions.

25. Spell out everything, except “Mr.,” “Mrs.,” and classification
of vessels, as “A 1.” On indorsements follow document style.

26. Make the contractions “&c.” and “etc.” read “and so forth,” and
in the title and body of a bill make “viz” read “namely.”

27. When, in the use of figures, the comma is used in ordinary work
to show notation, in bills thousands and hundreds are spelled; as,
for 1,750, make it “one thousand seven hundred and fifty.”

28. In serial numbers, or where the comma is not used in general
work, spell by hundreds all numbers less than 10000; as, for
2742, make it “twenty-seven hundred and forty-two;” but in serial
numbers where even multiples of one thousand occur, use the word
“thousand,” as “section two thousand and four,” “paragraph seven
thousand and sixty-nine” (not “twenty hundred and four” or “seventy
hundred and sixty-nine”).

29. Years and dates are expressed thus: June thirtieth, eighteen
hundred and ninety-three.

30. When the expression usually indicated by “No.” occurs, use the
word “numbered.” Observe, in this connection, the capitalization
for kindred expressions: House Executive Document Numbered Eighteen.

31. References to the Revised Statutes, Statutes at Large, court
reports, etc., are expressed thus: Revised Statutes, page two
hundred and forty-two; Twelfth Statutes, page eleven hundred and
sixteen; Tenth Court of Claims Reports, page ten.

32. Capitalize the word “act” wherever it occurs as a synonym for
“bill” or “law.”

33. The indorsement on a printed bill must always fall on an even
page. In House bills 4 lines of text may be worked in with the
indorsement, and in Senate bills 7 lines.


Special Instructions for Enrolled Bills.

34. Set in quarto measure, paragraphs indented 2 ems.

35. Lead with 3-to-pica leads. When center heads occur use a full
pica slug above and below.

36. Set entirely in roman type, except the enacting clause and
“Provided,” which go in _italic._

37. Avoid divisions of words and space evenly. Two-letter divisions
must not be made.

38. In enrolled bills of the _Senate_ place the bill number (using
the form “S. 146”) in pica antique, at the upper _left-hand_
corner. In enrolled bills of the _House_ the number goes at the
upper _right-hand_ corner, using the form “H. R. No. 4864.”

39. In enrolled bills of the Senate use a parallel dash above and
below title; in those of the House use the parallel dash above
only, with two full slugs below.



JOURNAL WORK.


GENERAL DIRECTIONS.

Spell out States after county in both Journals.

The Journals are set in brevier, solid, Record measure, and as a
rule Record style prevails.

Compositors will observe the style of the following paragraphs:


HOUSE.

MONDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1894.

A message from the Senate, by Mr. Cox, its Secretary, announced
that the Senate had passed a bill entitled:

S. 2905. An act for the relief of John M. Smith.

It also announced that the Senate had passed bills of the following
titles, in which the concurrence of the House was requested:

S. 2000. An act for the relief of James Robinson; and

S. 2001. An act granting a pension to Sam Jones.

It further announced that the Senate had passed, without amendment,
the bill (H. R. 10241) to amend “An act making appropriations for
the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works
on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes,” approved July 4,
1894.

The committees were called for reports;

When,

Bills were reported, the reports thereon ordered to be printed, and
referred to the Calendars as follows:

By Mr. Black, of Illinois, from the Committee on Military Affairs,
the bill entitled (S. 527) an act to construct a road to the
national cemetery at Dover, Tenn.--to the Committee of the Whole
House on the state of the Union.

The amendments recommended by the Committee of the Whole were then
agreed to, and as amended the bill was ordered to be engrossed, was
read a third time, and passed.

The Speaker laid before the House the bill entitled:

S. 1262. An act for the relief of Paul McCormick;

Which was referred to the Committee on Claims.

The Speaker pro tempore laid before the House the bill--with
amendments of the Senate thereto--entitled:

H. R. 3458. An act extending the time for final proof on land
claims under the public land laws.

On motion of Mr. Sweet the amendments were concurred in.

Mr. Pearson, from the Committee on Enrolled Bills, reported that
the committee had examined and found truly enrolled bills of the
following titles; which were thereupon signed by the Speaker, to
wit:

H. R. 868. An act for the relief of John Smith;

S. 1896. An act for the relief of Mrs. Lucinda Brown; and

H. R. 3858. An act to pension John Jones.

By Mr. Maguire: A resolution for the appointment of a special
committee to investigate Pacific railroads--to the Committee on
Rules.

By Mr. Holman:

Whereas it appears by an act passed June 4, 1894, the sum of
$10,000 was appropriated to enable the Secretary of War, etc.; and

Whereas it is alleged that trouble exists, etc.;

_Resolved_, That the Committee on Military Affairs be authorized to
settle the difficulty-- to the Committee on Military Affairs.

The Committee on Indian Affairs was called;

When,

On motion of Mr. Lynch, on behalf of said committee, the House
resolved itself into Committee of the Whole House on the state of
the Union for the consideration of the bill (H. R. 6557) providing
for opening the Uintah Indian Reservation in Utah; and after some
time spent therein, the Speaker resumed the chair, and Mr. Dockery
reported that the committee having had under consideration the said
bill (H. R. 6557) had come to no resolution thereon;

When the morning hour expired.

The question being on agreeing to the second resolution, to wit:

_Resolved_, That John J. O’Neill was not legally elected and is not
entitled to a seat in this House;

And being put,

Will the House agree thereto?

                                  { Yeas............................  23
  It was decided in the negative, { Nays............................ 160
                                  { Not voting...................... 168

After further debate,

The Speaker appointed Messrs. Bailey and Ray tellers.

The question being put,

Shall the bill be engrossed and read a third time?

The yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of the members present,

[One line only.]

                  { Yeas............................................ 123
                  { Nays............................................  55
  There appeared, { Answering “present”.............................   1
                  { Not answering................................... 172
                  { Reported by tellers as present and not answering.. 4

The Speaker laid before the House the following joint resolution of
the Senate:

S. R. 91. A joint resolution providing for printing a digest of the
laws relating to compensation of officials in United States courts;

Which was referred to the Committee on Printing.

Mr. Allen suggested that the House should take a recess, under Rule
XXVI.

And then, in pursuance of Rule XXVI, the House took a recess until
8 p. m.

A message from the President of the United States, by Mr. Pruden,
one of his secretaries, announced that the President had approved
and signed bills and a joint resolution of the following titles:

On June 29, 1894:

H. R. 4701. An act to incorporate the Supreme Lodge of the Knights
of Pythias; and

H. R. 274. An act to authorize the city of Hyattsville, Md., to
construct a wagon bridge.

On July 6, 1894:

H. Res. 196. Joint resolution to provide temporarily for the
expenditures of the Government.

The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two
Houses to the bill (H. R. 6518) making appropriations for rivers
and harbors do recommend to their respective Houses as follows:

That the House recede from its disagreement to the amendment of
the Senate numbered 27, and agree to the same with an amendment as
follows: Strike out all the matter preceding and insert on page 77,
after line 7, the following as a new item:

_Baltimore Harbor, Maryland: To widen the ship channel to one
thousand feet, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-nine dollars and
fifty-one cents._

And the Senate agree to the same.

That the House recede from its disagreement to the amendment of
the Senate numbered 20, and agree to the same with an amendment
as follows: Strike out “eight hundred dollars” and insert in lieu
thereof the following: _three hundred and fifty dollars;_ and the
Senate agree to the same.

Amend section 2 to read as follows:

SEC. 2. _For an exhibit by the Government of the United States at
the Cotton States International Exposition to be held at Atlanta,
Georgia, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five, one hundred
thousand dollars._

And the House agree to the same.

Leave of absence was granted to Mr. Cobb of Alabama and Mr. Black
of Illinois, indefinitely; to Mr. Pigott, for two days; to Mr.
Bartlett, until Saturday next; and to Mr. Lacey, for four days.

And then,

On motion of Mr. Cummings, at 5 o’clock and 20 minutes p. m., the
House adjourned.


SENATE.

MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE.

A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. Towles, its
chief clerk.

_Mr. President:_ The House of Representatives has disagreed to
the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. R. 6913) making
appropriations for the current expenses of the Indian Department.
It asks a conference with the Senate thereon, and has appointed Mr.
Holman, Mr. Allen, and Mr. Wilson of Washington managers at the
same on its part.


ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED.

Mr. Caffery reported from the committee that they had examined and
found duly enrolled the following bill:

H. R. 2350. An act making appropriations for the Military Academy;

Whereupon,

The President pro tempore signed the same, and it was delivered to
the committee to be presented to the President of the United States.

The Senate proceeded, by unanimous consent, to consider the said
bill as in Committee of the Whole; and no amendment being made, it
was reported to the Senate.

_Ordered,_ That it pass to a third reading.

The said bill was read the third time.

_Resolved_, That it pass, and that the title thereof be as
aforesaid.

The Senate proceeded to consider, as in Committee of the Whole, the
bill (S. 1296) for the relief of Andrew Gray; and

On motion by Mr. White,

_Ordered_, That it be postponed indefinitely.

Mr. Allison called for a division of the question; and

On the question to recede from the amendment No. 87, viz: Insert as
an additional paragraph the following:

_109. Iron ore, forty cents per ton,_

                                     { Yeas........................... 2
  It was determined in the negative, { Nays........................... 5

On motion by Mr. Hill,

The yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of the Senators
present,

[One line only.]

Those who voted in the affirmative are,

Messrs. Allen, Hill, Irby.

Those who voted in the negative are,

Messrs. Jones of Arkansas, Jones of Nevada, Mitchell of Wisconsin.

[NOTE.--Observe that commas are left out after names when there are
a number of them, like the above.]

The question being on the motion of Mr. Hill that the Senate recede
from its amendment No. 87,

Pending debate,

Mr. Jones, of Arkansas, raised a question as to the presence of a
quorum;

[NOTE.--Observe that comma is used when but a single name occurs.]

Whereupon,

The Presiding Officer (Mr. Mitchell, of Oregon, in the chair)
directed the roll to be called;

When,

Fifty-nine Senators answered to their names.

A quorum being present,


EXECUTIVE SESSION.

On motion of Mr. Jones, of Arkansas,

The Senate proceeded to the consideration of executive business; and

After the consideration of executive business the doors were
reopened;

When,

On motion of Mr. Gorman, at 3 o’clock and 40 minutes p. m.,

The Senate adjourned.



Suggestions for Compositors, Readers, and Revisers.


HELP EACH OTHER.

Workmen in every department should follow instructions in spirit
as well as in letter. Unthinking performance--the listless doing
of just what has been told and no more--is not satisfactory. It is
believed the good workman will take interest in his duties. He is
expected at suitable times to help others in their work. The excuse
that it is “none of my business,” or that “it was the reader’s
business,” or that “it was the foreman’s business” to give a word
of warning or a helping hand to prevent delay, error, or other
trouble is a poor one. It is the business of every man to do what
he can to prevent error in any department, and as faulty work is
usually done through inattention or unfamiliarity with the style,
suggestions should be courteously offered and received.


TYPESETTING.

For the successful maintenance of a high standard of workmanship
and for the correctness of the work done in the office, not a
little depends upon the care, judgment, skill, and intelligence of
the compositors. Indifferent, careless men are not in demand in an
office where important publications are constantly being prepared
for press, and where the slightest neglect on the part of those
handling the work may cause serious delay and confusion in some
other division of the office. Recollect that one badly justified
line may stop a press; a careless correction spoil the whole
edition of a book.

_Study the rules._--Compositors are expected to carefully study the
rules governing composition. A failure to do this will show plainly
in the proof. It must be remembered, however, that all work done in
the office is not in accordance with the regular or office style.
Special instructions will invariably accompany copy of this kind,
and a compositor should ascertain when taking out copy whether it
is to be set according to office style; if it is not, he should
read instructions carefully and confer fully with the foreman or
man at the desk about doubtful questions. The kind of type for the
text (other than long primer) and the use of leads are indicated in
the preparation of the copy, as are indention, type for headlines,
“cast” of tables, and other minor details. The compositor should
not go wrong on these matters, nor should his type contain many
errors, if he will apply himself, think, make certain of his
instructions, and use care.

_Divisions._--Frequent divisions of words are undesirable, but do
not avoid them entirely at the expense of uniform spacing.

Do not divide compound words except at the compounding hyphen in
any but extreme cases.

Divisions at the ends of three adjacent lines will not be passed by
readers except in extreme cases or in narrow measure.

Divisions on syllables of two letters should be made but rarely.

_Spacing and justifying._--The spacing of matter must be governed
by the leading.

Solid matter should be spaced with 3-to-em spaces, and when about
to divide a word prefer to take in.

Leaded matter should also be spaced with 3-to-em spaces, but when
about to divide a word prefer to drive over.

In double-leaded matter en quads should be used and divisions
driven over.

Avoid, if possible, the very thin or very wide spacing of the first
line of a paragraph.

All lines of composition must be justified so tightly that they
will stand unsupported in the stick.

Observe in spacing the various formations of letters. There should
be less space between final “y” and initial “w,” for instance,
than between final “d” and initial “h;” less between final “o” and
initial “c” than between final “f” and initial “b.” When a little
extra spacing is necessary, never place it between a comma and
the first letter of succeeding word. The spacing between capital
letters in headings should also be governed by letter formation.

Do not do all the spacing at either the right or left of the line,
but distribute it in conformity with the foregoing suggestions. The
appearance of a page as a whole depends very much upon the care
shown in spacing.

Compositors should take every precaution to prevent the soiling of
proof sheets, as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly
every mark on the margin of a proof after it has been corrected.

Do not try to cover up or hide an accident. After a proof is read
the first time, if a word or line is pied, or if a “dropout”
occurs, or any accident happens to the type, it is the duty of the
workman to call attention to it in writing on the latest proof
sheet, whether it be a galley revise, page revise, stone revise,
press revise, or foundry revise. If a proof sheet be not available
or immediately at hand, put the types involved FEET UPPERMOST when
returning them to the galley, page, or form. This direction is
intended for all who handle type--laborers, compositors, makers-up,
imposers, and electrotypers--and will be insisted upon. Accidents
will happen, and correctness can be assured only by faithfully
following the instruction here given.


READING.

Readers are expected to be alert, clear-headed, diligent, and
thoughtful.

Proofs that are overinked, pale, smeared, or that have margins too
narrow for proper marking, or for any reason are not good proofs,
must be refused.

When a proof is taken out, the reader should inform himself fully
as to the character of the work, whether there are any special
instructions or peculiarities concerning it, whether proof will
be sent out or the work go directly to press, and get such other
information as he may think will assist him; and before beginning
to read he should make sure that copy agrees with proof and that
the entire proof is legible. It is well to do preparatory work and
take a general survey of a proof before beginning to read it.

The style in which correction marks are made on a proof is an
element of considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical
characters, disconnected marks placed in the margins above or
below the lines to which they relate, irregular lines leading from
an incorrect letter or word to a correction, large marks, marks
made with a blunt pencil, indistinct marks, a frequent use of the
eraser to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly made, are all
faults to be avoided. Corrections so made are not respected by the
compositor, and he is frequently annoyed and delayed in deciphering
what they mean and to what they refer. In reading proof of wide
tables the reader should take advantage of white space as near as
possible to the error and place the correction therein, thus aiding
all who have occasion to handle the proof afterwards.

The time to be spent in reading a proof should be governed, in
a great measure, by its importance. While in certain classes of
ordinary work the reader is not expected to detect more than the
plainer errors and make his proof correct to copy, in work of value
he should read critically and try to discover more serious blunders
than spelling, capitalization, punctuation, etc. But speed should
never be greater than is consistent with practical correctness.

A single reading of figures, either in columns or lines, should be
sufficient. The failure of first reader and copyholder to detect
wrong figures is a serious fault; confidence in them is immediately
strained, the second readers become suspicious of all proofs read
by them and feel compelled to reread entire proof by copy, and many
far-reaching annoyances are liable to follow. When a reader does
not feel positive that figures are correct to copy, or if his sight
becomes confused by a multiplicity of figures or from other cause,
he should request that the proof be reread by copy by someone else.
Physical weakness is not a fault; carelessness and indifference are
always culpable.

The substance of the preceding paragraph applies also to “fol.
lit.” matter, especially bills, laws, and court work.

When an entire “take” or proof seems to have been set uniformly, a
reader should never make important changes in indentions of tables
or make like corrections which will cause a great deal of work
without consulting the foreman, the copy preparer, or the man at
the proof table.

The reader should endeavor to verify, by the reference books in the
office, all proper names, whether they are of people or places, or
whatever they may be; every date; every quotation from standard
works; every foreign word or phrase, and the ordinary nomenclature
of science. When this can not be done and he has a reasonable
doubt, he should request the author to verify it. But when the
reader does discover errors of this class or when he detects
inconsistent and erroneous statements, obviously made by the writer
through lapse of the memory or slip of the pen, it is his duty
to correct. He does so at his peril, however. He must know, not
suspect, that they are errors, and be prepared, if called upon, to
vindicate the soundness of his correction by recognized authority.
If he does not know, he should query.

When a reader is unable to decide positively as to the correctness
of a date, phrase, name, quotation, etc., or if he does not feel
at liberty to make the desired change because of instructions to
“follow” or “follow literally,” or because he is reading a bill or
law, he should query. This should not always be done by a simple
question mark (for that is sometimes so confusing to the author
that he feels like raising a query of his own as to its meaning),
but by writing the suggested amendment or explaining the reason for
the query in full.

In work of particular value--historic or scientific publications,
books that may be used for reference, etc.--the reader should
be on the lookout for faulty construction of sentences, bad
metaphors, inconsistent statements, the misuse of words, and
defects of similar character. These he should query. The proofs
of this class of work always go out, and the author will probably
welcome reasonable suggestions; but the reader must not worry
himself or the author about the extreme niceties of grammar or
suggest pedantic emendations. Discrimination should be made and the
author’s style not confounded with his lapses.

Readers will carefully note the instructions to compositors as to
spacing, division of words, etc., and never hesitate to mark when
work is imperfect.

Second readers are enjoined to keep in full sympathy with first
readers and copy preparers. They must always consult with the
latter before making important changes in proof, and they should
feel free to respectfully call the attention of a first reader
to errors in style or blunders of any kind that may have been
frequently overlooked by him. The marks of the copy preparer must
be given consideration by all. He has probably handled the entire
work and is in a position to know more about its peculiarities than
the man who reads but a small portion.


GALLEY-PROOF REVISING.

The importance of revising proofs well can not be overestimated.
While a reviser is not expected to read proof, it is not enough for
him to slavishly follow the marks found on the proof sheet which
has been to the composing room for correction. His aim should be to
discover new errors, if possible, make the matter uniform in all
essential points, and correct inconsistencies, due perhaps to a
difference of opinion among the readers. At the same time he should
see that all corrections have been properly made in the type, that
words or lines have not been transposed by the compositor in making
the corrections, and that the rules governing spacing, division of
words, and good printing generally have been observed. Compositors
have no excuse for the neglect of even spacing, either when setting
the type or when making corrections, and the reader or reviser who
passes bad spacing will be held in fault.

A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the readers or make
any serious changes in the work unless the matter apparently
needing correction is of unmistakable importance. If he thinks it
necessary that an important change should be made, he should submit
the change proposed to the foreman for his decision.

All queries made by readers must be carefully transferred to the
proof to be sent out, which should always be clean and well printed.

Every paragraph containing an alteration in a proof that makes
one or more overruns must be reread as first proof. It must
be read aloud by copyholder, word for word, to the end of the
paragraph, or at least far enough to satisfy the reviser that the
proper correction has been made and no new errors have slipped in
while the lines were being handled. The practice of revising the
alteration only and of rereading without copyholder has been the
source of many errors, and will no longer be permitted.

Revising should be done with reasonable dispatch, but good work
must not be sacrificed to haste. The “hurry” excuse for passing bad
work will not be accepted, as assistance will be furnished whenever
necessary.


PRESS REVISING.

Press revising is a branch of proof-room work requiring special
adaptability and great diligence and care. Not only must the
reviser observe that the rules governing the work of those who
precede him have been followed, but he must be on the alert for a
multiplicity of points not coming within their sphere. Hence, a
clear head, quick eye, knowledge of the style, acquaintance with
the make-up of various publications, a high sense of order, an
ability for detail, and mind and nerves not easily disturbed are
prerequisites to success in the work.

A few general rules only can be given to guide the press reviser.
He handles a variety of work and must decide each point as it
presents itself. He is cautioned never to allow his work to get
behind (calling for assistance when rushed), but not to make a
sacrifice of correctness for the sake of speed.

The following rules should be carefully studied:

1. See that galley slips connect before beginning the page or press
revise.

2. See that page folios are continuous, that running heads are
correct and uniform, and that the proper signature is correctly
placed.

3. See that the series of proof sheets is clean and clear; send for
another proof in case they are not.

4. Revise carefully, observing connections between pages, carrying
all unanswered queries, and taking care that continued and repeated
lines are free from errors.

5. If a revise is badly corrected or is from any cause not
reasonably free from error, call for another correction and proof
(stating number wanted), and destroy all duplicates.

6. Be on the lookout for “dropouts,” doublets, and transpositions,
applying the rules laid down for first revisers.

7. Read by copy all running heads, and box heads in continuous
tables; see that all leading lines are carried at the top where
subordinate matter turns over; that dollar marks and italic
captions of columns are properly placed and uniform; that the
matter is as compact as circumstances will permit, and that
footnotes fall on the page containing the corresponding reference,
and are symmetrically arranged.

8. Preserve complete files of all proofs returned to the desk in
the ordinary course of business, especially of the final proofs
from which a work is sent to the press or foundry.

9. On first page of a signature of a stone or press revise carry
the number of copies and kind of paper, with any special directions
that may be necessary; and see that the form is properly imposed.

10. Be particular in making the “mark-off” on a galley slip when
the first page proofs are sent out, cutting the proof sheet and
noting upon it the connecting galley slug, the folio of the
succeeding page, and the proper signature of the same. Retain the
“mark-off” and deliver the galley slips with the clean proof to the
proof clerk.

11. Always make sure that different sets of proof sheets on any
work are correctly marked in series, as “R,” “2d R,” “3d R,”
etc., and when a sheet is stamped “another proof” carry the same
designating “R” on the corresponding clean one, and destroy the
stamped proof when it has served its purpose.

12. In Court of Claims and Supreme Court records the index must be
filled in by the press reviser, the first signature being retained
for that purpose.

13. When two or more jobs are imposed in one form, the reviser
should separate the parts to verify the imposition. Until familiar
with the “fold,” however, caution must be exercised in cutting the
sheet.

14. Press, stone, and foundry revises are equally important. In the
latter especial care must be taken that rules do not lap, that work
is not jammed in the “lockup,” that damaged letters and “slips” are
indicated, and that the matter is ready in all respects to pass
severe criticism.

15. Government publications are usually made up in the following
order:

  Page 1. Title.
  Page 2. Blank.
  Page 3. Table of contents. If ending on an odd-numbered page, then--
  Page 4. Blank.
  Page 5. Letter of transmittal.
  Page 6. Blank.
  Page 7. Text proper.

In the body of the work new pages will be properly indicated on the
proof sheet. Tables of contents, letters of transmittal, lists of
illustrations, the text proper of a book, and all matter following
half titles (except parallel tables) should begin on a new odd page.


SIGNATURES.

16. All signatures are designated by consecutive numbers--2, 3,
4, etc.--from the first to the last. The distinguishing feature
is usually the jacket number, preceding the signature number and
connected with it by a 2-em dash. For some works contractions
of the title are used, especially in annual or other periodical
reports, forms for which can be had upon reference to the last one
issued. House and Senate documents take the following signature
forms:

  H. Ex. 123----7             S. Rep. 13----9
  H. Rep. 247----3            S. Ex. 27----3
  H. Mis. 17----2             S. Mis. 123----2
  H. Ex. 13--pt 2----5        S. Mis. 42--pt 3----9

Signatures are usually worked in sixteens, but with large pages the
form of eights is the standard when printed from type.


BILL REVISING.

17. In sending bills to press there are points to be watched
which do not appear in other work. The open character of the
pages makes the form peculiarly liable to accident, and each page
must be closely scanned for faults. A press reviser must be fully
conversant with all the details and peculiarities of bill work and
be ready to correct or take counsel upon any seeming error of style
or apparent fault. He must see that the indorsements on bills fall
on “even” pages and that they back up properly and have the proper
make-up; also compare the number of the bill on the indorsement
with that on the face, as a safeguard against error. When any
change has been made in the side folios, he must run the same to
the end of the series and answer for their correctness. He must
see that the proper number of copies is written on each signature
page, according to the schedule or memorandum furnished him. In
short, the reviser is an umpire on bill work whose alertness is his
qualification for the work. He is not expected to read the proof,
but he must train his eye to detect errors at a glance.

18. Bills are worked in forms of eights. The signatures are made up
like the following:

  Senate bills:               Senate amendments to House bills:
      S. 2433----2                A. H. R. 4864----2

  Senate resolutions:         House bills:
      S. R. 196----2              H. R. 2142----3

  Senate Mis. Docs.:          House resolutions:
      S. Mis. 24----2             H. Res. 194----3

19. When a bill is reprinted on account of some error or change, an
asterisk is used at the foot of the first page. When more than one
signature is reprinted, the asterisk follows the signature number.

20. Committee bills are always confidential. If of more than eight
pages the distinguishing signature must be invented and placed on
the first as well as succeeding forms. There are usually several
prints of committee bills, each of which must be distinguished by
serial additions to the signature, as A, B, C, etc.

21. Every paragraph which has been overrun in correcting must
be read aloud by copyholder from the proof sheet, which must be
followed literally.


SIGNATURE NUMBERS FOR EIGHTS.

   1   TITLE  |  26     201  |  51     401  |  76     601  |  101    801
   2       9  |  27     209  |  52     409  |  77     609  |  102    809
   3      17  |  28     217  |  53     417  |  78     617  |  103    817
   4      25  |  29     225  |  54     425  |  79     625  |  104    825
   5      33  |  30     233  |  55     433  |  80     633  |  105    833
   6      41  |  31     241  |  56     441  |  81     641  |  106    841
   7      49  |  32     249  |  57     449  |  82     649  |  107    849
   8      57  |  33     257  |  58     457  |  83     657  |  108    857
   9      65  |  34     265  |  59     465  |  84     665  |  109    865
  10      73  |  35     273  |  60     473  |  85     673  |  110    873
  11      81  |  36     281  |  61     481  |  86     681  |  111    881
  12      89  |  37     289  |  62     489  |  87     689  |  112    889
  13      97  |  38     297  |  63     497  |  88     697  |  113    897
  14     105  |  39     305  |  64     505  |  89     705  |  114    905
  15     113  |  40     313  |  65     513  |  90     713  |  115    913
  16     121  |  41     321  |  66     521  |  91     721  |  116    921
  17     129  |  42     329  |  67     529  |  92     729  |  117    929
  18     137  |  43     337  |  68     537  |  93     737  |  118    937
  19     145  |  44     345  |  69     545  |  94     745  |  119    945
  20     153  |  45     353  |  70     553  |  95     753  |  120    953
  21     161  |  46     361  |  71     561  |  96     761  |  121    961
  22     169  |  47     369  |  72     569  |  97     769  |  122    969
  23     177  |  48     377  |  73     577  |  98     777  |  123    977
  24     185  |  49     385  |  74     585  |  99     785  |  124    985
  25     193  |  50     393  |  75     593  | 100     793  |  125    993


SIGNATURE NUMBERS FOR SIXTEENS.

   1   TITLE  |  39     609  |  77    1217  | 115    1825  | 153    2433
   2      17  |  40     625  |  78    1233  | 116    1841  | 154    2449
   3      33  |  41     641  |  79    1249  | 117    1857  | 155    2465
   4      49  |  42     657  |  80    1265  | 118    1873  | 156    2481
   5      65  |  43     673  |  81    1281  | 119    1889  | 157    2497
   6      81  |  44     689  |  82    1297  | 120    1905  | 158    2513
   7      97  |  45     705  |  83    1313  | 121    1921  | 159    2529
   8     113  |  46     721  |  84    1329  | 122    1937  | 160    2545
   9     129  |  47     737  |  85    1345  | 123    1953  | 161    2561
  10     145  |  48     753  |  86    1361  | 124    1969  | 162    2577
  11     161  |  49     769  |  87    1377  | 125    1985  | 163    2593
  12     177  |  50     785  |  88    1393  | 126    2001  | 164    2609
  13     193  |  51     801  |  89    1409  | 127    2017  | 165    2625
  14     209  |  52     817  |  90    1425  | 128    2033  | 166    2641
  15     225  |  53     833  |  91    1441  | 129    2049  | 167    2657
  16     241  |  54     849  |  92    1457  | 130    2065  | 168    2673
  17     257  |  55     865  |  93    1473  | 131    2081  | 169    2689
  18     273  |  56     881  |  94    1489  | 132    2097  | 170    2705
  19     289  |  57     897  |  95    1505  | 133    2113  | 171    2721
  20     305  |  58     913  |  96    1521  | 134    2129  | 172    2737
  21     321  |  59     929  |  97    1537  | 135    2145  | 173    2753
  22     337  |  60     945  |  98    1553  | 136    2161  | 174    2769
  23     353  |  61     961  |  99    1569  | 137    2177  | 175    2785
  24     369  |  62     977  | 100    1585  | 138    2193  | 176    2801
  25     385  |  63     993  | 101    1601  | 139    2209  | 177    2817
  26     401  |  64    1009  | 102    1617  | 140    2225  | 178    2833
  27     417  |  65    1025  | 103    1633  | 141    2241  | 179    2849
  28     433  |  66    1041  | 104    1649  | 142    2257  | 180    2865
  29     449  |  67    1057  | 105    1665  | 143    2273  | 181    2881
  30     465  |  68    1073  | 106    1681  | 144    2289  | 182    2897
  31     481  |  69    1089  | 107    1697  | 145    2305  | 183    2913
  32     497  |  70    1105  | 108    1713  | 146    2321  | 184    2929
  33     513  |  71    1121  | 109    1729  | 147    2337  | 185    2945
  34     529  |  72    1137  | 110    1745  | 148    2353  | 186    2961
  35     545  |  73    1153  | 111    1761  | 149    2369  | 187    2977
  36     561  |  74    1169  | 112    1777  | 150    2385  | 188    2993
  37     577  |  75    1185  | 113    1793  | 151    2401  | 189    3009
  38     593  |  76    1201  | 114    1809  | 152    2417  | 190    3025



APPENDIX.



STANDARD PAGE MEASUREMENTS.


WIDTH OF PAGE.

         |                                       |         |  Bulletins
         | Pica.                                 | Record  |  Bureau of
         |    | Small pica, old style.           |  type.  |  American
         |    |    | Long primer.                |         |  Republics.
         |    |    |    | Long primer, old style.+---------+---------------
         |    |    |    |    | Brevier.          |         |
         |    |    |    |    |    | Brevier, old style.    |
         |    |    |    |    |    |    | Nonpareil.        |
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | Nonpareil, old style.
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | Brevier.
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | Nonpareil.
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | Brevier.
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | L.primer.
         |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Pica.
---------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
Census   | 42 |    | 53 |    | 66½|    | 84 | 65 | 85½|    |    |    |
Quarto   | 36 |    | 45½| 45½| 57 | 55¼| 72 | 72¾| 55½| 73½|    |    |
Statutes | 32 |    | 40½|    | 50⅔|    | 64 |    | 49½| 65½|    |    |
Prof. papers       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  (new)  | 31½|    | 39½| 39½| 50 |    | 63 |    | 48½| 64 |    |    |
Document | 26 | 30 | 33 | 33 | 41¼| 39½| 52 | 52¾| 40 | 52¾| 40 | 32⅔| 26⅖
Court decisions[1] |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
12mo     | 22 |    | 28 | 28 | 35 |    | 44 |    |    |    |    |    |
Law[2]   | 21½|    | 27¼| 27¼| 34⅓| 33¼| 43 | 43¾| 33 | 43½|    |    |
General  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  order  | 20¼|    | 25½| 25½| 32 | 31¼| 40½| 41¼| 31⅓| 41¼|    |    |
Record[3]| 20⅞| 24 | 26⅓| 26⅓| 33 | 33 | 41½| 41½| 32 | 42¼|    |    |
---------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----

LENGTH OF PAGE.[4]

---------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----
Census   | 58 |    | 72 |    | 91 |    |116 |    | 88 |116 |    |    |
Quarto   | 52 |    | 65 | 65 | 82 | 80¼|104 |106 | 80 |106 |    |    |
Statutes | 50 |    | 62½| 62½| 78½|    |100 |    | 76 |100 |    |    |
Prof. papers  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  (new)  | 44⅔|    | 56½| 56½| 71 |    | 89⅓|    | 69 | 91 |    |    |
Document | 44¼ {51½} 56 | 56 | 70¼| 68⅓| 88½| 90 | 68 | 90 | 58¾| 48 | 38¾
         |     {44⅕}    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | [5]| [5]| [5]
         |    | [5]|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Court    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
 decisions 40½|    | 50½| 50½| 64 |    | 81 |    |    |    |    |    |
12mo     | 40 |    | 49¾| 50 | 62½|    | 80 |    |    |    |    |    |
Law[6]   | 44¼|    | 56 | 56 | 70 | 68⅓| 88½| 90 | 61 | 81 |    |    |
General  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  order  | 31½|    | 40 | 40 | 50 | 48¾| 63 | 63 | 49 | 63 |    |    |
Record   | 58 | 65 | 72 | 72 | 89 | 89 |113 |113 | 87 |114 |    |    |
---------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----

FOOTNOTES:

[1] The same width as document, indented 2 ems primer on each side.

[2] Text only.

[3] Width of column.

[4] Does not include head or foot slug.

[5] Bulletins Bureau of American Republics in length.

[6] When made up with side notes.



SIGNS.


MATHEMATICAL, ASTRONOMICAL, AND PHYSICAL.

[Illustration]



GREEK ALPHABET.


  +---------+-------------+------------+------------+
  | CAPS.   |  LOWER      |   GREEK    |  ENGLISH   |
  |         |   CASE.     |   SOUND.   |   SOUND.   |
  +---------+-------------+------------+------------+
  |   Α     |   α         |   Alpha.   |   A.       |
  |   Β     |   β ϐ       |   Beta.    |   B.       |
  |   Γ     |   γ         |   Gamma.   |   G.       |
  |   Δ     |   δ         |   Delta.   |   D.       |
  |   Ε     |   ε ϵ       |   Epsilon. |   E short. |
  |   Ζ     |   ζ         |   Zeta.    |   Z.       |
  |   Η     |   η         |   Eta.     |   E long.  |
  |   Θ     |   θ ϑ       |   Theta.   |   Th.      |
  |   Ι     |   ι         |   Iota.    |   I.       |
  |   Κ     |   κ ϰ       |   Kappa.   |   K.       |
  |   Λ     |   λ         |   Lambda.  |   L.       |
  |   Μ     |   μ         |   Mu.      |   M.       |
  |   Ν     |   ν         |   Nu.      |   N.       |
  |   Ξ     |   ξ         |   Xi.      |   X.       |
  |   Ο     |   ο         |   Omicron. |   O short. |
  |   Π     |   π ϖ       |   Pi.      |   P.       |
  |   Ρ     |   ρ         |   Rho.     |   R.       |
  |   Σ     |   σ ς       |   Sigma.   |   S.       |
  |   Τ     |   τ         |   Tau.     |   T.       |
  |   Υ     |   υ         |   Upsilon. |   U.       |
  |   Φ     |   φ ϕ       |   Phi.     |   F.       |
  |   Χ     |   χ         |   Chi.     |   Ch.      |
  |   Ψ     |   ψ         |   Psi.     |   Ps.      |
  |   Ω     |   ω         |   Omega.   |   O long.  |
  +---------+-------------+------------+------------+



GREEK CASE.

[Illustration]



PRINCIPAL GREEK ACCENTS.

[Illustration]



  TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

  The only Footnotes in the book refer to the first Table on pg 39 and
  have been kept at the bottom of that Table.

  The Table on pg 21 was very wide and has been split into two parts,
  with the first column repeated in each part.

  The ‘STANDARD PAGE MEASUREMENTS’ Table on pg 39 had vertical column
  headings, which have been made horizontal in this etext.

  The ‘GREEK ALPHABET’ Table on pg 40 is missing three lower-case letter
  variants (two for zeta and one for psi) that were present in the
  original book, but have no modern representation in Unicode.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

  Pg 24, ‘even. length’ replaced by ‘even-length’.
  Pg 31, ‘itsert in lieu’ replaced by ‘insert in lieu’.





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