Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Historical record of the Sixth - or Royal First Warwickshire Regiment of Foot: from its - Formation in 1674 to 1838.
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Historical record of the Sixth - or Royal First Warwickshire Regiment of Foot: from its - Formation in 1674 to 1838." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



book was produced from images made available by the
HathiTrust Digital Library.)



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Some minor changes are noted at the end of the book.



  HISTORICAL RECORDS

  OF THE

  BRITISH ARMY.


  PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.


  THE SIXTH,

  OR

  ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT
  OF FOOT.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  14, Charing Cross.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836._

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars: _viz._,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable

  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
'London Gazette,' from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to every thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the
valiant,--the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilised people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen,--our brothers--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit, or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror, consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity.
When stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted
a considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways;
in every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty
"_shot_;" the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe
men, and thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590, was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen, in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of
the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers; and
the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the musket
then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the company for
skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number of companies
into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently amounted
to three thousand men; but each company continued to carry a
colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes, from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men; he
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandaliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but, so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the king added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those at
present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the Second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the seven
years' war. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crècy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarch, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British army
under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world; and
if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory of
persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons of the
present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities
which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of the brave
men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in Egypt
in 1801, under the brave Abercrombie, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crècy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with an halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign, have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to ensure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence, which Great
Britain has attained among the nations of the world, have in a
great measure been purchased by the valour of the Army; and to
persons, who have the welfare of their country at heart, the
records of the several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


1838.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
       20     20     20     30    2|0     30     20     20     20
                                            |
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.       Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10 of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25 of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his discourse on war, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt, to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield--that no circumstances can appal--and that will
ensure victory when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE SIXTH,

  OR

  ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE
  REGIMENT OF FOOT.

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN THE YEAR 1674,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1838.

  _ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES._


  LONDON:
  PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, ORME, AND CO.,
  PATERNOSTER ROW;

  AND BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS,
  14, CHARING CROSS;

  AND TO BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS.

  1839.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  Stamford Street.



  THE

  SIXTH,

  OR

  ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE

  REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON ITS COLOURS, AS A REGIMENTAL BADGE,

  "THE ANTELOPE;"

  ON THE THREE CORNERS OF THE SECOND COLOUR,

  "THE ROSE AND CROWN;"

  ON THE GRENADIER CAPS,

  "THE KING'S CREST;"

  ON THE DRUMMERS' COATS,

  "THE ANTELOPE;"

  ALSO THE FOLLOWING INSCRIPTIONS ON THE COLOURS:

  "ROLEIA,"    "VIMIERA,"    "CORUNNA,"
  "VITTORIA,"  "PYRENEES,"   "NIVELLE,"
  "ORTHES,"    "PENINSULA,"  "NIAGARA."



CONTENTS.


  Anno                                                        Page

  1673-4 Formation of the Regiment in Holland                    1

  1674  Siege of Grave                                           3

  1676  Siege of Maestricht                                      4

  1677  Battle of Mont-Cassel                                    7

  1678  ---- ---- St. Denis                                      8

  1685  The Regiment proceeds to England                        11

  ----  Returns to Holland                                      14

  1688  The Revolution.--The Regiment accompanies the Prince
           of Orange to England                                 15

  ----  Four companies captured by the Swallow                  19

  1689  Encamps on Hounslow Heath                               20

  1690  Proceeds to Ireland                                     21

  ----  Siege of Charlemont                                     --

  ----  Battle of the Boyne                                     22

  ----  Detached against Athlone                                --

  1691  Capture of Ballymore and Athlone                        23

  ----  Battle of Aghrim                                        24

  ----  Capture of Galway and Castleconnell                     25

  ----  ---- ---- Limerick                                      --

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  1692  Embarks for the Netherlands                             --

  ----  Battle of Steenkirk                                     26

  ----  Returns to England                                      27

  1693  Embarks for the Netherlands                             --

  1695  Siege of Namur                                          --

  1696  Proceeds to England                                     30

  1697  Embarks for the Netherlands, but returns to England
           after the Peace of Ryswick                           --

  1698  Proceeds to Ireland                                     --

  1702  Expedition to Cadiz                                     --

  ----  Storming the Forts at Vigo                              32

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  1703  Proceeds to the West Indies, but returns to England
           in the same year                                     33

  1705  Capture of Barcelona                                    --

  ----  Services in Catalonia and Valencia                      38

  1706  Defence of Barcelona                                    39

  ----  Capture of Requena and Cuenza                           41

  1707  Battle of Almanza                                       42

  ----  Action at Tortosa                                       46

  1708  Capture of Minorca                                      48

  1710  Battle of Almanara                                      50

  ----  ---- ---- Saragossa                                     51

  ----  Advances to Madrid                                      53

  ----  Disaster at Brihuega                                    54

  1713  Proceeds to Ireland                                     55

  1719  Capture of Vigo, Rondondella, and Pont-a-Vedra          57

  ----  Returns to Ireland                                      --

  1739  Embarks for England                                     58

  1740  Proceeds to the West Indies                             --

  1741  Attack on Carthagena                                    --

  ----  Descent on Cuba                                         61

  1742  Returns to England, and proceeds to Scotland            --

  1745  The Rebellion in Scotland                               --

  ----  Defence of Ruthven Redoubt                              63

  ----  Battle of Preston-pans                                  65

  1746  Defence of Forts Augustus and William                   67

  1747  Proceeds to England                                     68

  1751  Description of the Colours                              --

  1753  Embarks for Gibraltar                                   --

  1763  Returns to England                                      69

  1765  Proceeds to Scotland                                    --

  1769  Returns to England                                      --

  1772  Embarks for the West Indies                             --

  ----  Serves against the Charibbees of St. Vincent            --

  1776  Proceeds to New York                                    71

  1777  Embarks for England                                     --

  1782  Obtains the title of Sixth, or First Warwickshire
           Regiment of Foot                                     --

  1783  Embarks for Ireland                                     --

  1786  ---- ---- Nova Scotia                                   --

  1793  Embarks for the West Indies                             71

  1794  Capture of Martinico                                    72

  ----  ---- ---- St. Lucia                                     --

  ----  ---- ---- Guadaloupe                                    --

  1795  Returns to England                                      73

  1796  Embarks for Ireland                                     74

  1798  Services during the Rebellion in Ireland                --

  1799  Embarks for Canada                                      75

  1804  A Second Battalion added to the Regiment                --

  1806  First Battalion returns to England                      --

  1807  ---- ---- ---- embarks for Gibraltar                    76

  1808  ---- ---- ---- proceeds to Portugal                     --

  ----  ---- ---- ---- Battle of Roleia                         --

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Vimiera                        77

  ----  ---- ---- ---- advances into Spain                      78

  1809  ---- ---- ---- Battle of Corunna                        79

  ----  ---- ---- ---- returns to England                       80

  ----  ---- ---- ---- expedition to Walcheren                  --

  1810  ---- ---- ---- proceeds to Ireland                      --

  1812  ---- ---- ---- embarks for the Peninsula                --

  1813  ---- ---- ---- Battle of Vittoria                       81

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- the Pyrenees                   82

  ----  ---- ---- ---- distinguished conduct at Echalar         84

  ----  ---- ---- ---- Battle of the Bidassoa                   86

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Nivelle                        --

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Nive                           --

  1814  ---- ---- ---- actions at Hastingues and Oyergave       87

  ----  ---- ---- ---- battle of Orthes                         --

  ----  ---- ---- ---- advances to Bordeaux                     88

  ----  ---- ---- ---- embarks for Canada                       89

  ----  ---- ---- ---- siege of Fort Erie                       --

  1815  ---- ---- ---- proceeds from Canada to the
           Netherlands                                          91

  1815  The Second Battalion disbanded                          --

  1816  The Regiment forms part of the Army of Occupation
           in France                                            --

  1818  Returns to England                                      93

  1819  Proceeds to Scotland                                    --

  ----  Returns to England                                      --

  1821  Embarks for the Cape of Good Hope                       93

  1825  Proceeds to the East Indies                             95

  1832  Obtains the title of _Royal_                            98

  1838  The Conclusion                                          99


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  1673  Sir Walter Vane                                        101

  1674  Luke Lillingston                                       103

  1675  Thomas Ashley                                           --

  1678  Sir Henry Bellasis                                      --

  1689  William Babington                                      105

  1691  George Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt                       --

  1694  Henry Marquis de Rada                                  107

  1695  Ventris Columbine                                       --

  1703  James Rivers                                            --

  1706  William Southwell                                      108

  1708  Thomas Harrison                                         --

  1716  Robert Dormer                                           --

  1720  James Dormer                                           109

  1738  John Guise                                              --

  1765  William Rufane                                          --

  1773  John Gore                                              110

  1773  Sir William Boothby, Baronet                            --

  1787  Lancelot Baugh                                         111

  1792  Sir Ralph Abercromby                                    --

  1795  Prince William Frederick of Gloucester                 114

  1806  Sir George Nugent, Baronet                             115


LIST OF PLATES.

The Regimental Colours to follow the Regimental Title Page.

The present Costume of the Regiment to follow Page 100.


[Illustration: SIXTH (THE ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE) REGIMENT OF
FOOT.]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF THE

SIXTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


The spirit of enterprise, intrepidity, firmness, endurance,
physical strength, and innate love of fame exhibited by the British
troops, have not only contributed to elevate this Kingdom to its
present exalted station among the nations of Europe, but in the
numerous wars which have taken place in Christendom, other States
have evinced strong desires to obtain British aid. In the Dutch war
of independence, from 1572 to 1648, British valour was eminently
displayed in procuring the advantages of civil and religious
liberty for the inhabitants of the United Provinces: British
courage gave important aid to Henry IV. of France in his struggles
for the throne: in the splendid achievements of the great Gustavus
Adolphus of Sweden, the British had an important share: many of the
conquests of Louis XIV., surnamed "The Great," were achieved by the
aid of British troops; and the regiment which forms the subject of
this memoir is one of the English corps raised for the service of a
foreign state under the following circumstances.

[Sidenote: 1673]

The only remaining corps[6] of the numerous bands of English
lancers, cuirassiers, carabineers, archers, musketeers,
harquebusiers, pikemen, and battle-axemen, who fought in the Dutch
war of independence from 1572 to 1648, was recalled from Holland on
the breaking out of hostilities between the English and Dutch in
1665: during the negociations for the peace of London in the winter
of 1673-4, the States General pressed King Charles II. to recall
his troops from the service of France[7], and solicited permission
again to employ in their army a British division. The king refused
to recall his regiments from France; but his majesty engaged not to
permit any additional British corps to be levied for the service
of Louis XIV., and to prevent the others being recruited: at the
same time permission was given to the States to raise for their
service a body of troops in England and Scotland, to be commanded
by the colonel of the old HOLLAND REGIMENT, SIR WALTER VANE, who
was promoted to the rank of major-general in the Dutch army, and
appointed colonel of one of the regiments to be raised for this
service, now the SIXTH REGIMENT OF FOOT, his commission bearing
date the 12th of December, 1673.

[Sidenote: 1674]

The interests of the United Provinces and those of the reformed
religion being intimately connected, their cause was popular in
England; and when the king disbanded a great part of his army
on the settlement of the peace in 1674, many officers and men
voluntarily entered the Dutch service, particularly from the old
HOLLAND REGIMENT, which was reduced on that occasion from eighteen
to ten companies. Among the most zealous in this service were
Captains Sir Henry Bellasis, Thomas Monk, John Morgan, Philip
Savage, Roger M'Eligott, Alexander Cannon, and four others, who
arrived at the Briel during the summer of 1674 with a number of
men, who were formed into ten companies. The Prince of Orange had
in the meantime taken the field with the army, and Sir Walter Vane
proceeding to the camp to complete some arrangements with his
Highness, served as a volunteer at the battle of Seneffe on the 1st
of August, 1674 (O. S.), and was killed.

Sir William Ballandyne was next appointed to command the British
division, and the ten companies marched from the Briel to
Bois-le-duc; from whence they were suddenly called to join the
army and take part in the siege of _Grave_. They were commanded,
while on this service, by Captain Hugh Mackay (afterwards
lieutenant-general and commandant of the Scots brigade), who had
transferred his services a few weeks previously from the French
to the Dutch army; and was appointed major-commandant of the ten
companies _pro tempore_. On the second day after their arrival
before Grave, the ten companies were on duty in the trenches; and
such was the fervour and eagerness of some of the officers and
soldiers to signalize themselves, that Captain Savage and a few men
stormed the counterscarp in the night without orders: they evinced
great bravery, and gained some advantage, but were eventually
repulsed, and Captain Savage was put in arrest, and reprimanded for
his over-heated valour.

After the surrender of Grave on the 28th of October, the ten
companies returned to Bois-le-duc, where four British regiments
were formed during the winter;--two English, commanded by
Colonels Lillingston and Disney;--one Scots, commanded by Colonel
Graham;--and one Irish, of which the Viscount of Clare was
colonel. Two old Scots regiments in the Dutch service were purged
of foreigners and added to the above four: the six regiments
formed as fine a body of troops as any in Europe, and they soon
had opportunities of proving that they possessed the same heroic
spirit and contempt of danger as their predecessors in the war of
independence, and as the valiant English and Scots who so highly
distinguished themselves under the great Gustavus Adolphus. Such
was the origin of the SIXTH REGIMENT OF FOOT. Its commanding
officer was Colonel LUKE LILLINGSTON, whose appointment was dated
in August, 1674.

[Sidenote: 1675]

The campaign of 1675 was passed in marching, manœuvring, and
watching the operations of the enemy. During the winter the
regiment was in garrison in Holland, and the colonelcy was
conferred on Lieut.-Colonel THOMAS ASHLEY; the command of the
second English regiment was conferred on Colonel Ralph Widdrington;
and the Irish regiment having previously been given to Colonel
John Fenwick, it lost its designation of Irish, and the three were
accounted English regiments.

[Sidenote: 1676]

In the summer of 1676 the regiment marched to Bois-le-duc, where,
in the early part of July it was suddenly aroused about midnight
by the drums beating to arms; and assembling on its parade ground,
it immediately proceeded towards the province of Limburg. After
several days' march it arrived in the vicinity of _Maestricht_,
and, the Prince of Orange having joined the army, the siege of this
celebrated city was commenced.

The three English regiments were commanded by Brigadier-General
John Fenwick. Being proud of their national character, and jealous
of their fame, they obtained permission to act separately, and
to have a particular point of attack allotted them; "and they
made it appear, by their fierce attacks, that they deserved this
distinction[8]." They signalized themselves by the spirit with
which they beat back the sallies of the garrison; and on the 30th
of July they furnished two hundred men, in equal proportions
from each regiment, to storm the Dauphin Bastion. A lodgment
was effected; but the troops afterwards lost their ground, and
they had one hundred and fifty men killed and wounded out of the
two hundred. Colonel Widdrington was killed, and the command of
his regiment was given to Lieut.-Colonel Dolman. The brigade
was again on duty in the trenches on the 2nd of August, when
Brigadier-General Fenwick was wounded.

At three o'clock on the morning of the 4th of August, a storming
party of one hundred and eighty-three officers and men, with a
support of sixty men, furnished in equal proportions from each of
the three regiments, paraded at the head of the brigade; a similar
detachment of the blue Dutch foot-guards was also in readiness,
and at five this little band rushed forward in the face of a storm
of fire, and made a second attack on the Dauphin Bastion with
signal gallantry. The English, being emulous of fame, gained the
lead of the Dutch, and throwing forward a shower of hand-grenades,
assaulted the breach sword in hand, and effected a lodgment.
Suddenly the ground under the soldiers' feet was agitated, a
tremendous explosion blew a number of men into the air, and the
bursting of the mine being succeeded by a fierce attack of the
enemy, the storming party was driven back. Instantly rallying, and
being exasperated by this repulse, the English and Dutch returned
to the charge breathing vengeance and slaughter, by a powerful
effort drove back their antagonists, and re-established themselves
on the bastion, but with the loss of more than half their numbers
killed and wounded. English valour shone conspicuously on this
occasion, and the Dutch authorities acknowledged the superior
gallantry of the brigade. In the Hague Gazette it was stated "_the
English gained very great honour_;" and in the Brussels Gazette it
was stated, "the Prince of Orange having resolved to retake the
Dauphin Bastion, appointed two hundred English, and as many of his
guards, to make the attack, which they did with great courage and
resolution, and _with very great honour to the English, who first
entered the breach_." Sir William Temple, Harris, Boyer, Carleton,
Bernardi, and other authors, bore ample testimony to the native
valour of the English soldiers. A Scots regiment, commanded by Sir
Alexander Colyear, also distinguished itself at this siege.

A desperate sally was made from the town, on the morning of the
6th of August, by three hundred Swiss infantry, who, owing to the
neglect of a sentry, surprised and made prisoners the English guard
on the bastion; but a reinforcement coming forward, the Swiss were
overpowered and destroyed, except about twenty men, who escaped
into the town. The Prince of Orange complimented the English on
their bravery: and being desirous of conferring on merit a special
mark of his approbation, and of inciting other corps to emulate the
English brigade, he made each of the three regiments a present of
a fat ox and six sheep, which, however, occasioned some murmuring
among the Dutch.

A strong horn-work was afterwards captured by the Dutch, and
preparations were made for a general storm of the main breach; but
Marshal de Schomberg advancing at the head of a powerful French
army to relieve the town, the siege was raised, and the three
English regiments, having sustained a severe loss, were sent into
quarters in Holland.

[Sidenote: 1677]

The French monarch commenced the campaign of 1677 with great
vigour; and the advantage derived from an army being under the sole
direction of, and conducted by immediate orders from one head,
over a confederate force, which meets with delays and obstructions
from different interests, councils, negligences, and tempers, was
very conspicuous,--the feeble preparations of the Dutch, and the
apathy of the Spaniards, having left the Prince of Orange without
a force capable of contending with the immense army of the enemy.
Colonel ASHLEY'S regiment, after replacing its losses with recruits
from England, quitted Holland, and advanced with the remainder of
the brigade to West Flanders. It formed part of the army, under
the Prince of Orange, employed in the attempt to relieve the town
of St. Omer; and was engaged on the 11th of April at the battle
of _Mont-Cassel_, which was fought under great disadvantages in
numbers and the nature of the ground. Two newly-raised regiments
of Dutch marines, posted between the Prince's foot-guards and
the English brigade, gave way at the first onset, and, confusion
ensuing, the Prince retreated with the loss of his baggage and
artillery.

[Sidenote: 1678]

At the close of the campaign, the ministers of the confederate
states pressed King Charles II. to recall his troops from the
service of France, attributing many of the French monarch's
successes to the bravery of the British regiments; and in 1678 the
king acceded. At the same time the gallant Earl of Ossory, eldest
son of the Duke of Ormond, was appointed to the command of the
British brigade; and SIR HENRY BELLASIS succeeded Colonel Ashley
in the command of the regiment which is now the SIXTH FOOT. Ten
thousand English troops were also embarked for Flanders, to take
part in the war.

During the early part of the campaign of 1678, the British brigade,
under the Earl of Ossory, was employed on detached services in
Brabant and Flanders; and on the morning of Sunday, the 14th of
August, it moved from its camp near the little river Senne, to
attack the French army, commanded by Marshal Luxemburg, before Mons.

The French commander imagined himself safe in inaccessible
entrenchments; but he was surprised by a party of Dutch dragoons
while at dinner in the Abbey of _St. Denis_, near the village of
that name, and his army was unexpectedly attacked, with great
fury, about three o'clock in the afternoon. The Dutch, under
Count Waldeck, assaulted and carried the abbey; the Spaniards,
commanded by the Duke of Villa Hermosa, advanced by the village
of Castehau; and the Dutch foot-guards, with the Earl of Ossory's
brigade, prolonged the attack on the heights of Castehau, where
the action was maintained with particular obstinacy. The Earl of
Ossory drew his sword, and, pointing to the dark masses of the
enemy, whose polished arms gleamed on the distant heights, led his
British bands to the attack with signal intrepidity: his gallant
mien and lofty bearing infused a noble ardour into the breasts
of his officers and men, who urged, with resolute tread, their
way through every difficulty to encounter their adversaries. The
grenadiers of BELLASIS'S regiment (now SIXTH FOOT) headed by Major
William Babington, led the attack on a body of French troops,
posted in a hop-garden, with a spirit and resolution which were
imitated by the musketeers and pikemen, and a vehement struggle
ensued among the trees and umbrageous foliage which adorned the
scene of conflict. Sir Henry Bellasis and Lieutenant-Colonel Monk
were wounded, Major Babington was also wounded and taken prisoner,
and the contest was fierce and sanguinary; but British valour
prevailed, and the French were driven from among the hop-poles
with great slaughter. Another stand was made by the enemy beyond
the enclosure, and the storm of battle was renewed with additional
fury. The Scots, under Major-General Kirkpatrick, Sir Alexander
Colyear, and Colonel Mackay, vied with the English in their gallant
efforts, and the Prince of Orange and Duke of Monmouth arriving
at that part of the field, witnessed their heroic behaviour.
Attack succeeded attack, and as the shades of evening gathered
over the scene of conflict, the blaze of musketry and showers of
hand-grenades indicated the fury of the opposing ranks of war. At
length darkness put an end to the fight; and the French forsook
their entrenchments and retreated. The excellent conduct of the
British troops was appreciated by the Prince of Orange and the
States-General; and in the narratives of the battle, published at
the time, they received their meed of praise: in one account it was
stated,--"_the Earl of Ossory and his troops performed wonders_;"
in another,--"_the English and Scots regiments did things to the
admiration of those that beheld them_;" and in a third,--"_they
behaved themselves with that courage and bravery which are so
natural to them_." The regiment which forms the subject of this
memoir lost many non-commissioned officers and private soldiers,
and had the following officers killed and wounded:--Captains
Richardson and Vanderstraet, Lieutenants Price, Paul, and
Lepingault, and Ensign Drury, killed: Colonel Sir Henry Bellasis,
Lieutenant-Colonel Monk, Captain Penford, Lieutenant Lunnemon,
and Ensign Nelson, wounded. Major Babington was wounded and taken
prisoner: he was, in the first instance, included in the list of
the slain[9].

Preliminary articles for a treaty of peace had, in the mean time,
been agreed upon at Nimeguen; and the aspect of affairs was
suddenly changed, the spot of ground where fury and bloodshed raged
a few hours before was transformed, by the news of peace, to a
scene of hilarity and jocund mirth, which was only alloyed by the
remembrance of the loss of so many companions in arms, whose blood
had stained the grassy fields.

[Sidenote: 1679]

When the States-General reduced the strength of their army to a
peace establishment, the estimation in which the British troops
were held occasioned their being retained in the service of the
United Provinces; and in a treaty on this subject, the States
agreed to send the six regiments to England, when the King should
require their services.

[Sidenote: 1680]

During the five years succeeding the treaty of Nimeguen, SIR HENRY
BELLASIS'S regiment was employed in garrison duty. In 1680, its
Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas Monk, was promoted to the colonelcy
of the regiment, which is now the fifth foot, in succession to
Colonel Wisely, who was drowned on his passage to England; and
Major William Babington was appointed to the lieutenant-colonelcy.

[Sidenote: 1684]

In 1684, when the French aggressions in the duchy of Luxemburg
occasioned some alarm in the Netherlands, the regiment marched to
the vicinity of Brussels, where a body of troops was encamped a
short time, and subsequently near Malines: no war taking place, the
camp was broken up in November, and the regiment was again employed
in garrison duty.

[Sidenote: 1685]

In the summer of 1685, events transpired which occasioned the
removal of the regiment from the Netherlands to England: the Earl
of Argyle, and a number of other political exiles, who were zealous
advocates for civil liberty and the reformed religion, proceeded
in May from the Netherlands to Scotland, where they attempted to
organize a rebellion against the government of King James II., who
was a professed papist. His Majesty, in a letter to the Prince
of Orange, dated Whitehall, the 22nd of May, stated;--"I make
no doubt, by God's help, that the rebels will soon be mastered,
yet there is no harm in providing for the worst; and, therefore,
I have charged Mr. Skelton to propose to you the lending me the
three Scots regiments that are in your service, to be sent over to
Scotland; and if this is a thing you can do, the sooner it is done
the more reason I shall have to take it very kindly of you[10]."
The States acceded to this request: but before the Scots regiments
embarked, the Duke of Monmouth had landed at Lyme, in Dorsetshire,
and having erected his standard in the market-place, summoned the
people to join him in an appeal to arms against the government: the
destination of the three regiments was then changed to England. At
the same time the King made the following application to the Prince
of Orange, in a letter dated Whitehall, the 17th of June, 1685.

"When I wrote to you yesterday, I thought the militia would have
kept the Duke of Monmouth shut up in Lyme; but by the fault of
those of Devonshire, or Somersetshire, he has opened his way
towards Taunton, which is a very factious town, and where he
may increase his numbers; and though, with those troops I have
raised, and am raising, I make no doubt of mastering him in some
small time, yet, to make all sure, I desire you to lend me the
three English regiments that are in your service, and they may be
sent over with all speed[11]." Some of the towns of Holland were,
however, so jealous of King James's predilection to papacy, and
viewing the Duke of Monmouth in the light of a champion for the
reformed religion, their secret wishes for his grace's success
were so strong, that the Prince of Orange found some difficulty in
obtaining the consent of the States for the regiments to proceed
to England[12]; and when their consent had been procured, a new
obstacle arose. The officers and soldiers of SIR HENRY BELLASIS'S
regiment (now SIXTH FOOT) were so devoted to the protestant
interest, and so averse to becoming instruments by which the
ascendency of popish principles should be established, that they
objected to proceed to England[13]. Their scruples were, however,
overcome, and the King expressed the gratification which he
experienced on hearing they were ready for embarkation, in a letter
to the Prince of Orange, in the following terms. "I received on
Wednesday yours of the 6th, by which I see the English regiments
were to be embarked by the beginning of this week, and must again
thank you for them, and if they be but as good as the Scots
regiments, which I saw this morning, I shall be doubly pleased;
for, as to these I have seen, there cannot be, I am sure, better
men than they are, and they do truly look like old regiments; and
one cannot be better pleased with them than I am, and must again
thank you for them[14]." His Majesty, however, declined the Prince
of Orange's proposal to accompany the brigade to England, fearing
that His Highness might acquire too much influence in this country.

The three English regiments arrived in the early part of July;
and the rebel army having been overthrown at Sedgemoor on the
6th of that month, they were not required to draw their swords
in the contest; but the presence of this celebrated body of men,
at this critical juncture, could not fail to strengthen the
interest of the court and overawe the disaffected. The brigade
was encamped at Blackheath, and subsequently on Hounslow-heath,
where the King reviewed it, and expressed his approbation of its
warlike appearance, discipline, and good conduct; but the known
staunch protestant principles of many of the officers and men
gave his Majesty some concern. The three regiments (two of them
now the FIFTH and SIXTH foot) obtained rank in the English army
from the date of their arrival in England, and took precedence
of the regiments raised by King James during the rebellion, in
consequence of the latter not being completely organized when the
brigade arrived. The rank of SIR HENRY BELLASIS'S regiment (now
SIXTH FOOT) was afterwards disputed in consequence of the refusal,
in the first instance, to proceed to England[15]; but a board of
general officers decided this question in its favour in 1694.

The rebellion having been suppressed, the English brigade returned
to the Netherlands in August[16]; and the Scots a short time
afterwards. The King was desirous of procuring the appointment of
the Earl of Pembroke to the command of the six regiments, which was
acceded to; but soon afterwards his Majesty pressed the Prince of
Orange and States of the United Provinces to confer this important
trust on the Earl of Carlingford, who was objected to (as the Earl
of Dunbarton had been in the time of Charles II.), in consequence
of his being a papist: his Majesty was particularly urgent on the
subject; but the States did not acquiesce.

[Sidenote: 1686]

[Sidenote: 1687]

Soon afterwards events transpired which occasioned SIR HENRY
BELLASIS to be removed from his regiment, which was commanded,
_ad interim_, by the Lieut.-Colonel, WILLIAM BABINGTON. Although
this officer was not appointed to the colonelcy, it was usually
styled BABINGTON'S regiment. The prevalence of French councils at
the British court, and the advances made by the king towards the
establishment of papacy and arbitrary government, occasioned the
nation to look to the Prince of Orange as the only source from
whence deliverance could be expected, and on the 27th of May,
1687, Sir Henry Bellasis wrote to the Prince as follows: "I have
presumed by this worthy bearer to give your Highness the assurance
of my devotion to your service in particular. The testimony I have
given to the world of my loyalty and sufferings for the crown,
obliges me in duty to pay the same to those who are so nearly
related to it as the Princess Royal and your Highness. Though my
hand be weak to express it, or enlarge myself upon the subject, my
heart shall supply that defect, in the profession I make[17]."

[Sidenote: 1688]

The King felt some distrust at so efficient a body of British
troops being in the service of a protestant republic at the time
when he was meditating the subversion of the protestant religion
and established laws of the kingdom: he was desirous of recalling
them from Holland, and of transferring so many of them as would
return, particularly the officers and men who were of the Roman
Catholic religion, to the service of France. Louis XIV. had
experienced the inconvenience of having the regiments in his
service suddenly recalled, as the English and Scots corps were in
1678, and he declined the offer; but as the re-uniting of England
in the communion of the church of Rome would further his projects
of personal aggrandisement, he proposed to maintain a body of two
thousand men in England, to be principally of the Roman Catholic
church. This subject being arranged, King James wrote to the Prince
of Orange on the 17th of January, 1688, as follows:

"I have charged my envoy, Mons. d'Abbeville, who will give you
this letter, to give you an account that I think it for my service
to call home the six regiments of my subjects that are under your
command in the States' service; and have written to the States to
the same purpose, and hope you will do your part to further their
being embarked as soon as may be. What else I have to say on this
subject I refer to my envoy; which is all I shall say now, but that
you shall find me as kind to you as you can desire[18]."

The States well knowing the value of these favourite corps, and
anticipating the speedy arrival of a period when they would have
urgent occasion for the services of every regiment, refused to
comply with the King's demand, alleging they were not bound by
the treaty with the Earl of Ossory to send the six regiments to
England, unless the King was engaged in a foreign war, or an
insurrection at home, which was not the case. His Majesty was,
however, determined, if possible, to deprive the States of the
services of this select body of men; and, after some further
correspondence on the subject, the following proclamation appeared
in the London Gazette:--

  "JAMES R.

  "WHEREAS we think it for our service to call home all our
  natural-born subjects who are now in the service of the States
  General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, being either
  mariners and seafaring men, or officers and soldiers serving at
  land, We do, therefore, by this Our royal proclamation, by and
  with the advice of Our privy council, streightly charge, require,
  and command all and singular masters of ships, pilots, mariners,
  seamen, shipwrights, and other seafaring men whatsoever, and
  wheresoever, and also all commanders, officers, and soldiers
  serving at land, being our natural-born subjects, who have
  betaken themselves unto, and now are in the pay or service of,
  the States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands,
  or in the pay or service of any of their subjects,--That upon
  their known and bounden duty and allegiance, they, and every of
  them, do quit the said respective services by sea or land, and
  return home to their native countries, within the times hereby
  prescribed,--that is to say, that all officers and commanders
  at land, whatsoever, who are now in the service of the said
  States General, in any place or part of the Netherlands or Low
  Countries, do quit the said service and return home within the
  space of two calendar months from the date hereof, and all other
  persons hereinbefore mentioned, wherever they are or shall be
  hereafter, in as short a time, and with as much speed, as they
  shall be able, wherein We do and will expect all due obedience
  and conformity. And we do hereby further publish and declare,
  that all and every the offenders to the contrary shall not only
  incur our high displeasure, but be rigorously proceeded against
  for such their offence, by all ways and means, according to the
  utmost severities of the law.--And we do hereby also authorize
  and command all and every Our captains, masters, and other
  officers serving and employed in any of our ships or vessels at
  sea, or elsewhere, and all and every other Our subjects whom it
  may concern, to seize, take, and bring away all such officers,
  mariners, and soldiers, and other persons aforesaid, as shall be
  found to be employed, or continue in the service aforesaid, in
  contempt of, and contrary to, the true intent and meaning of this
  Our proclamation.

  "Given at Our Court at Whitehall, 14th March,
  "1687-8, in the fourth year of Our reign."

Notwithstanding this proclamation, the States continued stedfast in
their determination not to send the six regiments home; but as some
of the officers were members of the Roman Catholic church, and it
being probable a rupture on the subject of religion would shortly
take place, they gave permission for as many of the officers to
return to England as chose. About forty availed themselves of this
opportunity and quitted the Dutch service. The King sent a frigate
to bring them home. A few soldiers also withdrew from Holland, and
three regiments[19] were formed, of nearly all papists, and taken
into the pay of the King of France, but they remained in England.
The six British regiments in the Dutch service were thus purged
of Roman Catholics, the vacancies were filled with men of staunch
protestant principles, and this distinguished body of men was
considered stedfastly devoted to the protestant interest.

The Prince of Orange having been induced to proceed to England with
a powerful armament for the purpose of rescuing the kingdom from
the power of papacy, the six regiments were selected to form part
of the expedition, and they were considered the most formidable and
efficient portion of his army. They mustered about four thousand
officers and men, were commanded by Major-General Hugh Mackay, and
sailed under a red flag. A declaration was published, setting
forth the reasons which induced the Prince of Orange to engage in
this undertaking; and Captain LANGHAM of BABINGTON'S regiment[20]
(now SIXTH FOOT), arriving privately in England, was seized and
imprisoned, and a number of the declarations were found in his
portmanteau, which were shown to the King. When the expressions
importing that the Prince of Orange was "most earnestly invited
to come to England by divers of the lords, both temporal and
spiritual, and by many gentlemen and others," were read, the King
expressed great indignation, and sent for such noblemen and bishops
as were in London, but none of them would acknowledge that they had
given such an invitation.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The Dutch armament passed Dover and proceeded westward, while
the English fleet, under the Earl of Dartmouth, lay wind-bound
at the mouth of the Thames; but a tender, on board of which were
four companies of the regiment which forms the subject of this
memoir, commanded by Major Ventris Columbine, was separated
from the remainder of the Dutch fleet by a gale of wind, and
captured by Captain Aylmer in His Majesty's ship the Swallow. The
four companies were landed in Devonshire; they were treated as
prisoners, and measures were adopted to constrain them to enter
King James's service. Meanwhile the other eight companies of the
regiment continued their course, and landed on the 5th of November
with the remainder of the Prince's army on the Devonshire coast,
from whence they advanced to Exeter. The result may be told in
a few words. The English army refused to fight against the best
interests of the country. King James and his family fled to France,
and the Prince and Princess of Orange were elevated to the throne.
Thus the SIXTH REGIMENT had the honour of taking a conspicuous part
in the enterprise by which the established religion and laws of
Great Britain were preserved.

After his accession to the throne King William detained this
regiment in the south of England, and kept it upon the Dutch
establishment: consequently, in the lists of the army given by
Story and other historians of this period, it is designated a Dutch
regiment. Major Columbine, and the other officers and men who were
captured by the Swallow, were restored with honour.

In May, 1689, the regiment was quartered in London; in August it
was encamped on Hounslow heath; it afterwards returned to London
and was quartered in the Tower Hamlets.

Sir Henry Bellasis having been appointed to succeed the Duke
of Norfolk in the colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment (now
twenty-second foot), the colonelcy of the SIXTH was conferred on
the lieutenant-colonel, WILLIAM BABINGTON, by commission dated
the 28th of September, 1689; and Major Columbine was appointed
lieutenant-colonel.

[Sidenote: 1690]

Although England was delivered from the power of papacy and
despotism, a great part of Ireland was subject to King James and
his adherents, whose cruel proceedings towards the protestants
awakened the sympathies of the English nation, and King William
resolved to proceed to the rescue of the unoffending sufferers.
Colonel BABINGTON'S regiment was one of the corps selected
to proceed to Ireland: it embarked at Highlake on the 12th of
April, 1690, and immediately on landing marched to the siege of
_Charlemont_--a strong castle situate on the angle formed by the
confluence of the river Canlin with the Blackwater, on the eastern
side of the county of Armagh, and erected in 1602 by Lord Mountjoy,
as a curb on the Earl of Tyrone, whose chief mansion-house, with
a strong fort, was at Dungannon, about five miles north-west of
it. Under the shelter of this fort a town was built, which in 1689
was a corporation, sending members to parliament. It contained a
good garrison under Teague O'Regan, an old soldier and a great
humorist, who made a resolute defence. The garrison being in want
of provision, King James sent a small supply, accompanied by a
detachment of five hundred men under Colonel M'Mahon, who was
permitted to enter the castle, but not to return. On the third
night they attempted to force their way through the besieging
force, but were repulsed with the loss of an officer and eight men;
a second attempt made on the following day was also unsuccessful;
and during the succeeding night they made another attempt, and
were driven back with the loss of sixteen men. O'Regan was so
incensed at their ill success, that he fastened the gates upon
them, and refused to admit them into the castle; and they were
forced to make huts in the dry ditch within the palisadoes and on
the counterscarp. The place being closely invested, the garrison
was forced to surrender in the middle of May for want of provision;
and four companies of the SIXTH, commanded by the major, took
possession of the castle, where they found seventeen pieces of
cannon and a large mortar, also a good supply of ammunition: but
the fortress was found in so filthy a condition, that the officers
and men were forced to encamp until it was thoroughly cleansed.

In the early part of June the regiment pitched its tents on the
undulating grounds near Armagh; and the regiments of Lloyd, Cutts,
Hastings, and Fowkes, eleven regiments of Danish horse and foot,
and a brigade of Dutch cavalry, afterwards joined the camp.

King William arrived in Ireland, and, advancing to the banks of the
_Boyne_, forced the passage of that river on the 1st of July, and
overthrew the army of King James in a general engagement, in which
the SIXTH foot had the honour to take part. The regiment was in Sir
Henry Bellasis's brigade, and shared in the glory of this memorable
victory. The number of killed and wounded has not been ascertained;
but, as the regiment only mustered four hundred and eighteen men at
the general review at Finglass on the 7th and 8th of July, its loss
may be supposed to have been great.

After delivering Dublin from the power of the papists, the regiment
was detached against _Athlone_ with the division commanded by
Lieut.-General Douglas, who was a brave but rough soldier of
fortune, and had served under King William in the Netherlands. On
arriving before Athlone, a drummer was sent to summon the garrison
to surrender. The governor, Colonel Richard Grace, of Moyelly
castle, fired a pistol at the messenger, and said, "These are my
terms; these only will I give or receive; and, after my provisions
shall be consumed, I will defend Athlone until I eat my boots."
The siege was afterwards commenced; and a battery opened its fire
against the works: but the train of artillery proved too weak
to make a practicable breach; and, ammunition becoming scarce,
Lieut.-General Douglas raised the siege and retired. He did not
preserve strict discipline in the division committed to his charge,
which was accused of many outrages on the peasantry. On arriving
at Ballymore, in the county of Westmeath, BABINGTON'S (now SIXTH)
regiment was removed from Lieut.-General Douglas's command, and
ordered to proceed to Dublin to replace the regiments of Trelawny
(now fourth) and Hastings (now thirteenth), which were ordered to
embark for England.

The regiment remained a short time in garrison at Dublin, from
whence it was detached to occupy a line of posts along the
frontiers; and in November Lieut.-Colonel Columbine, advancing
from Roscrea, made an incursion into the enemy's quarters near the
Shannon, and in the neighbourhood of Nenagh, where he destroyed a
quantity of corn and captured two castles.

[Sidenote: 1691]

In April, 1691, Colonel Babington was succeeded in the colonelcy of
the regiment by GEORGE PRINCE OF HESSE D'ARMSTADT--an officer of
distinguished merit, who was appointed to serve on the staff of the
army in Ireland, with the rank of brigadier-general.

The regiment took the field with the army in May. The first
service of importance was the siege of _Ballymore_, which fortress
surrendered in the middle of June. The troops subsequently advanced
against _Athlone_, a large and well-fortified town, divided into
two unequal portions, or towns, by the river Shannon. Here the
regiment was formed in brigade with Lloyd's (now fifth), Cutts',
Nassau's, and three Danish battalions, commanded by Major-General
the Count of Nassau and Brigadier-General the Prince of Hesse
d'Armstadt. It furnished a detachment to attack by storm that part
of Athlone which stood on the side of the river next to the army,
called the English Town, which was captured in gallant style
on the 20th of June. Its grenadier company, and a detachment of
pikemen and musketeers, also formed part of the storming party
selected to attack the opposite side of the town on the 30th of
June. The tolling of the church-bell at six minutes after six
o'clock in the evening gave the signal for the attack, when the
forlorn hope, consisting of three officers and sixty grenadiers
in armour, sprang out of the trenches and plunged into the river,
which was waist deep, and rendered difficult by large stones.
Three thousand men, under Major-General Mackay, seconded their
efforts with signal intrepidity; and the soldiers, scrambling up
the breach in the face of a heavy fire, one helping another up,
soon overpowered all opposition, and in less than half an hour
were masters of the town. This gallant exploit was performed with
the loss of twelve men killed, and five officers and thirty men
wounded: among the latter was the colonel of this regiment--the
Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt, and Lieut.-Colonel Columbine. The
regiment remained at Athlone while the works were being put in
repair; and, during a severe thunder-storm on the 9th of July, it
had two men killed and three dangerously injured by lightning[21].

The Irish army, commanded by General St. Ruth, retired and took
up a position near _Aghrim_, where it was attacked on the 12th
of July, and the regiment had another opportunity of signalizing
itself in action. The Prince of HESSE D'ARMSTADT headed his own
corps, and his characteristic intrepidity was so conspicuous on
this occasion, that he has been accused of rashness. He was again
wounded; but had the gratification of witnessing the heroism of
his men, who emulated his example, and the overthrow of the Irish
army, before he quitted the field. Night having put an end to the
pursuit, the regiment halted on the scene of conflict: its loss was
ten men killed, and six officers and forty-five men wounded.

General St. Ruth having been killed in action, the main body of the
Irish army fled in terror and dismay towards Limerick, and King
William's forces followed. On arriving at _Galway_ the garrison
was summoned, and refused to surrender; but the river having
been passed in boats, and a fort captured by storm, the governor
capitulated on the 21st of July. The next service in which the
regiment was engaged was the second siege of _Limerick_: it was
one of the corps which appeared before the town on the 15th of
August, and on the 25th it was detached with the regiments of
Tiffin (twenty-seventh foot) and St. John, seven hundred horse and
dragoons, and five pieces of cannon, under its colonel, the Prince
of Hesse d'Armstadt, against _Castleconnell_, a strong fortress on
the river Shannon, four miles north of Limerick, which surrendered
after a siege of two days. The siege of Limerick was afterwards
prosecuted with vigour, and it was delivered up in the beginning
of October. This event terminated the war in Ireland. The regiment
marched from Limerick to Dublin, where it embarked for England on
the 20th of December, and after its arrival commenced recruiting
its numbers.

[Sidenote: 1692]

After reposing a short time in comfortable quarters in England, the
regiment received orders to embark for the Netherlands, to take
part in the war with France; and it served the campaign of 1692
with the army commanded by King William in person, by whom it was
reviewed at the camp at Genappe on the 29th of June, in presence
of the Elector of Bavaria and other distinguished persons. It
was engaged in the manœuvres of the main army, and formed part
of the division which attacked the French forces under Marshal
Luxemburg, in their position near _Steenkirk_, on the 24th of
July. It was one of the corps which supported the leading column
under the Duke of Wirtemberg, and, having traversed some difficult
grounds, formed with the cavalry of the left wing on the verge of
a large wood. A narrow valley appeared in front, beyond which were
several thick hedges, and the glittering arms and waving colours
of the French infantry were seen through the thick foliage. After
a sharp cannonade, the second battalion of the first foot guards,
the first battalion of the Royals, the regiments of Fitzpatrick
and O'Ffarrel, and two battalions of Danes, commenced the attack:
they were supported by the regiments of HESSE D'ARMSTADT (SIXTH),
Cutts, Mackay, Leven's (twenty-fifth foot), Angus (twenty-sixth
foot), Graham, and Lawder. These corps behaved with an intrepidity
and valour which redounded to their honour: they drove the enemy
from hedge to hedge, and gained considerable advantage. They were,
however, not promptly sustained by the main body of the army under
Count Solms, who neglected the King's orders, and occasioned the
loss of the battle. Harris, in his History of the Life of King
William, states, "The King, enraged at the disappointment of the
vanguard, expressed his concern by often repeating, 'Oh! my poor
English, how they are abandoned!' nor would he admit Count Solms to
his presence for many months after."

The SIXTH nobly sustained their reputation, and fought manfully,
resisting the superior numbers of the enemy with signal firmness:
their commanding officer, Lieut.-Colonel Foxon, fell mortally
wounded: the French legions--dragoons, musketeers, pikemen, and
grenadiers--crowded round this devoted corps in great numbers, and
it sustained considerable loss. The King ordered a retreat, and
the regiment withdrew from the field a mere skeleton. Its loss in
killed and wounded was so great, that on the 8th of August it was
ordered into quarters at Malines, and in September it embarked
for England. After landing at Gravesend, a number of officers and
serjeants were sent to various parts of England to procure recruits.

[Sidenote: 1693]

[Sidenote: 1694]

During the winter of 1693 the regiment again embarked for the
Netherlands. It was employed in garrison duty in Flanders; and its
colonel, the Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt, being a Roman catholic,
transferred his services to the crown of Spain. He was succeeded,
in February, 1694, by Henry Marquis de Rada, son of the Marquis de
Montpouillan. During the winter of this year the regiment was in
garrison at Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1695]

On taking the field in May, 1695, the regiment left its colonel,
the Marquis de Rada, dangerously ill of a fever in Bruges. It was
encamped a short time on the canal between Ghent and Bruges, under
the orders of Lieut.-General Sir Henry Bellasis; and subsequently
with the main army, commanded by King William in person, near
Arseele, where it was formed in brigade with a battalion of the
Royals, and the regiments of Seymour, Granville, Saunderson, and
Colyear, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Colyear. The
King was at the head of one hundred and twenty thousand men, and
the French generals headed upwards of a hundred thousand men.
These two powerful armies confronted each other; and his Majesty,
having by skilful movements drawn the enemy to the Flanders
side of their line of entrenchments, invested _Namur_. This
fortress was accounted one of the strongest and most important
in the Netherlands, both by its situation and fortifications: it
commanded two great rivers, the Sambre and the Maese; and its
castle, which stood on a hill in an angle formed by the confluence
of these rivers, was deemed almost impregnable. Such stupendous
fortifications, defended by a numerous garrison, supplied with
every thing requisite for a protracted defence, and commanded by a
governor who was esteemed by his king, and beloved by the soldiers,
seemed to defy the most powerful and best-appointed army that could
be brought against it; and, when the veteran Marshal Boufflers
had thrown himself with a large reinforcement into the town, this
mass of fortifications was looked upon as a rock on which the
grand confederacy of the allies would split. These difficulties
stimulated the British monarch to greater exertions; and the SIXTH,
after remaining a short time with the covering army commanded by
Charles Henry of Lorraine, Prince of Vaudemont, was ordered to join
the forces employed in the siege, and to take part in the attack
of this vast fortress. While on the march the Marquis de Rada died
at Bruges, and King William conferred the colonelcy on an officer
who had formerly served with distinction in the regiment, VENTRIS
COLUMBINE, from captain and lieutenant-colonel in the foot guards.
This officer was highly esteemed in the corps, and, assuming the
command of it before Namur, he had additional opportunities of
signalizing himself.

The regiment was on duty in the trenches on the 6th, 10th, and 13th
of July; and on the 17th it lost a number of men while engaged in
storming the counterscarp: it had also Captain Young killed, and
Lieut. Dorrington and Ensign Drobas wounded. On the 19th it was
again on duty in the trenches, and lost several men; and during
the night of the 23rd it was engaged in extending the lodgment
to the right. A practicable breach having been made, the enemy
surrendered the town on the following day, and retired to the
castle, resolving to make a desperate defence. This was one of the
regiments engaged in the siege of the castle, and was encamped at
a place called Maison Blanche; but, having sustained considerable
loss, it was relieved on the 11th of August, and joined the
covering army under the Prince of Vaudemont, who had recently
quitted his position at Waterloo, and was encamped within seven
miles of Namur. A detachment from the grenadier company was engaged
in storming the breaches of the Terra Nova and Cohorne on the 20th
of August, under Lord Cutts. This proved a most severe service; a
lodgment was made along the covered way and entrenchments, but with
the loss of above a thousand English, besides Bavarians, Prussians,
and Dutch. The grenadier company of this regiment lost several men,
and had Captain Cummins killed, and Lieutenant Twinhoe wounded.

The fire against the castle was continued, and preparations made
for another assault, when the garrison beat a parley, and agreed to
surrender. Thus the capture of this important fortress, which was
accounted the bulwark of Brabant, was achieved, and the reputation
of the British monarch and his troops exalted. After the works were
repaired, Colonel COLUMBINE marched with his regiment into quarters
at Bruges, where he expected to pass the winter; but circumstances
occurred which occasioned his return to England.

[Sidenote: 1696]

The French monarch, finding his ambitious projects frustrated,
attempted to excite a rebellion in England in favour of King James,
who was residing at the French court, and prepared an armament to
second the malcontents. At the same time a plot was formed to
assassinate King William when on his return from hunting. On the
discovery of these designs, this, with a number of other regiments,
was ordered home. The SIXTH embarked at Ostend in the early part
of March, 1696, landed at Gravesend in the middle of that month,
and went into quarters. The plot was discovered, the designs of the
enemy were frustrated, and the King proceeded to the Netherlands to
take the command of the army.

In June, 1696, the regiment was on duty at Windsor; and in July it
was encamped in Windsor forest.

[Sidenote: 1697]

[Sidenote: 1698]

[Sidenote: 1699]

[Sidenote: 1700]

[Sidenote: 1701]

After passing twelve months in England, the regiment received
orders to return to the Netherlands: it landed at Williamstadt
in the beginning of July, 1697, and joined the confederate army
before Brussels, where it was reviewed by his Majesty: it remained
before Brussels until hostilities were terminated by the treaty
of Ryswick, when it was ordered to return to England. It landed
at Gravesend in November, 1697, and marched to Huntingdon. It
subsequently proceeded to Ireland, where it arrived in August,
1698, and remained until, another war breaking out in Europe, its
services were again required abroad in the defence of the crown and
kingdom against the projects of the court of France.

[Sidenote: 1702]

The hope of continued tranquillity, with the prospect that this
country would be enabled to develop its resources and make rapid
advances in arts, manufactures, and commerce, under the auspices
and benign influence of peace at home and abroad, soon passed away:
a Bourbon prince ascended the Spanish throne, when preparations
for war were made, and Colonel COLUMBINE received orders to
recruit his regiment to seven hundred rank and file. The decease
of King William, and the accession of Queen Anne, on the 8th
March, 1702, produced no alteration in the foreign policy of the
British court; and in a few weeks after Her Majesty's accession
the regiment proceeded to the Isle of Wight, where it pitched its
tents preparatory to some expedition, the destination of which
was kept secret. In the early part of June it was reviewed, with
nine other battalions of infantry, and two hundred dragoons, by
Prince George of Denmark, generalissimo of her Majesty's land and
sea forces, and was complimented on its appearance and discipline.
The Duke of Ormond assumed the command of the expedition, and the
regiment embarked on board the St. George, Jacob, and Gosport
transports[22], and put to sea. Arriving off the coast of
Andalusia, in Spain, the troops ascertained they were destined to
make an attempt on the strong fortress of _Cadiz_: a landing was
effected in the middle of August, during a high wind, and about
thirty boats, crowded with soldiers, were overturned by the surge.
The town of _Rota_, on the north side of Cadiz bay, the town
of _Port St. Mary's_, at the mouth of the river Guadalete, and
_Fort St. Catherine_, were captured. The wealthy and flourishing
town of Port St. Mary's was found deserted by the inhabitants;
positive orders had been given against plundering; but the officers
neglecting to enforce strict obedience occasioned the most
unfortunate results. The hungry and thirsty soldiers forced open
the houses in search of refreshment; finding abundance of excellent
wine, they drank freely, and, under its influence, commenced
plundering the town. An immense quantity of valuable merchandize
and other property was removed on board the fleet, and some of
the officers were guilty of securing for themselves many costly
articles: thus, such of the inhabitants as were previously disposed
to favour the allies became hostile, and the public cause suffered
by the want of strict discipline. Cadiz was found better prepared
for resistance than had been expected, and the expedition proved
of insufficient strength for the capture of this fortress. The
troops were re-embarked, and they subsequently proceeded to _Vigo_,
where a valuable Spanish fleet had arrived from the West Indies, in
charge of a French convoy. The grenadiers and eight battalions of
infantry landed on the south side of the river, seven miles from
the town: this regiment formed part of the first brigade, which
landed under the Duke of Ormond and Brigadier-General Hamilton; a
strong fort and a battery were carried by storm, the fleet forced
an entrance, and the French and Spanish shipping were all taken
and destroyed. Many Spanish seamen escaped on shore and took with
them much valuable property: a soldier of Captain Brown's company
of this regiment captured a Spanish mariner who was carrying off an
immense silver dish of curious workmanship, which was delivered up
to the proper authorities[23].

The expedition returned to England, where the regiment arrived in
the early part of November, and was stationed at Canterbury; it
received £561. 10_s._ prize-money. Queen Anne went in triumphal
cavalcade to St. Paul's cathedral to return thanks for this
success; and the troops received the thanks of parliament for their
conduct.

[Sidenote: 1703]

In a few weeks after its return from Vigo the regiment was ordered
to hold itself in readiness to proceed to the West Indies; and in
January, 1703, it marched to Portsmouth, where it embarked on board
the fleet under Vice-Admiral Graydon. The object of the expedition
was the capture of Placentia and Newfoundland; but the enemy's
force was found too strong, and, after remaining a short time in
the West Indies, the regiment returned to England. It landed in
October following at Portsmouth, from whence it was removed into
quarters at Southampton and other towns in that neighbourhood.

On the decease of Colonel Ventris Columbine, Her Majesty conferred
the colonelcy on the lieutenant-colonel, JAMES RIVERS, by
commission dated the 2nd of November, 1703: at the same time Major
WILLIAM SOUTHWELL was appointed lieutenant-colonel.

[Sidenote: 1704]

The quarters were extended to Worcester in April, 1704, and a
detachment was sent to the Isle of Wight: in August following the
regiment proceeded to Plymouth, where it passed the succeeding
winter.

[Sidenote: 1705]

Meanwhile the war was raging in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy,
and other parts of the continent, and an attempt was being made to
place Archduke Charles of Austria on the throne of Spain by force
of arms. Gibraltar had been captured by the combined English and
Dutch fleets, and in connexion with these events the regiment was
embarked at Plymouth in May, 1705, under the Earl of Peterborough,
to take part in the war. The design of this expedition was either
to aid the Duke of Savoy in driving the French out of Italy, to
make an attempt on Naples and Sicily, or to further the progress of
the Archduke in Spain. The fleet arrived at the capital of Portugal
in June, and additional forces were embarked: at the same time
Archduke Charles went on board the fleet to share in the toils and
dangers of the enterprise. From Lisbon the expedition proceeded
to Gibraltar, where it was joined by the former colonel of the
SIXTH--the Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt, and a reinforcement from the
garrison.

From Gibraltar the fleet proceeded to the bay of Altea, in
Valencia; and while at this small port the officers and soldiers
had opportunities of observing the attachment of the inhabitants
of that part of Spain to the house of Austria. A thousand
Catalonians and Valentians, who had thrown off their allegiance
to the house of Bourbon, and had acknowledged Archduke Charles as
the sovereign of Spain, seized on the town of Denia, while others
made demonstrations of giving effectual aid to the expedition;
and such a spirit of enterprise was evinced by King Charles, the
Earl of Peterborough, the Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt, and others,
that every officer and man caught the ardent zeal of the superior
officers, and resolved to do something great and noble. Under these
feelings the famous city of _Barcelona_, the capital of Catalonia,
and one of the most ancient towns in Spain, was selected to be the
scene of the first attempt. Its situation, on a plain near the
sea,--with a mole capable of containing only galleys and small
ships,--defended by ten bastions, several old towers and other
works,--with a strong castle and citadel, called _Montjuich_, on
a hill on the west side and commanding the town; the garrison
consisting of between five and six thousand men, under the viceroy
of Catalonia, Don Francis de Velasco;--and the besieging army
being unable to bring more than seven thousand men into the lines;
these circumstances, with the fact, that, in 1697, this fortress
resisted a French army of thirty thousand men eight weeks with open
trenches, and cost the French monarch twelve thousand men, gave an
interesting and romantic character to this enterprise, in which
the SIXTH gained much honour, and which produced a great sensation
throughout Europe.

The troops landed near the river Bassoz, about three miles east
of _Barcelona_, on the 23rd and 24th of August. On the 28th King
Charles came on shore, when the inhabitants of the neighbouring
towns and villages flocked to the camp with demonstrations of joy,
and many took arms to act as guerilla bands and miquelets; but the
progress of the siege was delayed by opposite opinions and views
among the superior officers. "Such were the unhappy circumstances
of the Earl of Peterborough in the camp before Barcelona:
impossibilities proposed; no expedients to be accepted; a court
reproaching; councils of war rejecting; and the Dutch general
refusing the assistance of the troops under his command."[24] Yet
all these difficulties were overcome; and an attack by storm on
the detached fortress of _Montjuich_ was resolved upon, in which
the grenadiers of the SIXTH, headed by their Lieutenant-Colonel,
WILLIAM SOUTHWELL, had the honour to take the lead. The storming
party of four hundred grenadiers, with a support of six hundred
musketeers, commanded by the Earl of Peterborough and the Prince
of Hesse d'Armstadt, commenced their march about ten o'clock on
the night of Sunday the 13th of September, round the mountains,
and were followed by another detachment and a party of dragoons.
After traversing many miles of rugged mountain scenery by difficult
tracts, the storming party appeared before the fortress, and
received a discharge of small arms and artillery from the garrison.
The Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt and Lord Charlemont directed
Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL of the SIXTH to commence the attack;
and instantly springing forward at the head of the grenadiers,
this gallant officer led the storming party to the assault with
signal intrepidity and resolution. The native energy and contempt
of danger of the British soldier was eminently displayed:
SOUTHWELL and his grenadiers climbed the steep rock in the face
of a storm of fire from the garrison,--entered the covered way
and the ditch, sword in hand,--ascended to the top of a curtain
which was not quite finished, one soldier helping another up,
and, notwithstanding the vigorous resistance of the enemy, gained
the bulwark of a new fortification. Here some sharp fighting took
place: thrice Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL was surrounded, but he
overthrew his adversaries with matchless valour, and the enemy
was driven from that post into the castle. The men, at the other
points of attack, had also proved successful,--a considerable
portion of the outworks were carried,--a temporary breastwork
and entrenchment were speedily constructed,--and three pieces of
cannon, which had been captured, were made use of to defend it.
The Prince of Hesse d'Armstadt afterwards advanced with a body
of men along the curtain which led to the ditch of the inward
fort, and fell mortally wounded; two hundred and fifty of the
men were made prisoners by the enemy; at the same time a large
reinforcement was seen advancing from the town to aid the garrison
in the castle, and the soldiers received orders to retire from
some of the inferior officers. The Earl of Peterborough rushed to
the spot, countermanded the order, seized the half-pike out of
Lord Charlemont's hands, and rallied and led back the soldiers to
the posts they had so nobly won: the Spaniards who were advancing
from the town turned back, and the out-works of the fortress of
Montjuich were thus gained. Batteries were constructed, and the
inner works were assailed with cannon-balls, bombs, and grenades.
On the 17th of September, Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL of the SIXTH,
being on duty in the trenches with his regiment, observed that the
bombs, thrown by a Dutch bombardier from a small mortar, fell to
the left of the fort, and concluding there was a magazine in the
place, he traversed the mortar a little to the right, himself,
and fired it; and the bomb falling into a little chapel where the
garrison had stored a great quantity of powder, it blew up, and the
governor, a Neapolitan named Don Charlete Caracholi, with a number
of other officers and men, were buried in the ruins. The intrepid
SOUTHWELL called a few soldiers forward, and, advancing sword in
hand to take advantage of the confusion, was met by the surviving
officers and men of the garrison, who laid down their arms and
surrendered the fortress; Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL took possession
of the works; and King Charles hastened to the spot and embraced
the lieut.-colonel in a transport of joy. Thus the strong castle
and citadel of Montjuich was captured; and Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL
of the SIXTH was rewarded with the appointment of governor.[25]

The capture of Montjuich facilitated the siege of the city of
Barcelona, which was persecuted with vigour: the miquelets and
armed Catalonians blocked up the avenues of the town, and the
soldiers were incessant in their exertions. "The admirals forgot
their element, and acted as general officers at land; they
came every day from their ships with a body of men formed into
companies, and commanded by captains and lieutenants of their
own."[26] Cannon and mortars were dragged up steep precipices by
men; and a practicable breach having been made, a body of soldiers
prepared to attack the city by storm; but the effusion of blood,
which would have attended this enterprize, was spared by the
surrender of the garrison. A number of miquelets entered the city
through the breach with the design of plundering the partisans
of the Bourbon dynasty. The governor being very unpopular, and
suspected of a design to remove many of the prisoners, was
surrounded by an enraged mob: but the Earl of Peterborough entered
the town on the 14th of October with a troop of dragoons and
the grenadiers of the army, put a stop to the plundering of the
miquelets, and prevented the slaughter of the governor and his
garrison; at the same time such excellent order and discipline were
preserved among the English soldiers, that their conduct has been
lauded by historians. The capture of Barcelona gave additional
reputation to the arms of the allies, and this splendid achievement
was the theme of conversation and a subject of astonishment
throughout Europe. It was accompanied by the submission of nearly
all Catalonia, the largest and richest province of Spain; and, as
Boyer, the historian of these wars, observes, "all the generals,
admirals, officers, private soldiers, and seamen, engaged in this
memorable expedition, deserved each their share of the honour."

King Charles commenced forming a Spanish army for his service:
he soon had five hundred dragoons for a guard, and six regiments
of foot. He was joined by Colonel Nebot, who forsook the service
of King Philip with a regiment of horse; and in a short time the
province of Valencia submitted to the Austrian prince.

[Sidenote: 1706]

The regiment continued under the immediate directions of the
Earl of Peterborough, with whose achievements its services are
connected; and his raising the siege of _St. Mattheo_, the capture
of _Morviedro_, his exploits in _Valencia_, and the relief of the
capital of that province--successes gained with a small body of
soldiers over a numerous army--carry with them the appearance of
fiction and romance more than of sober truth; but being supported
by abundance of collateral and direct evidence, the truth of these
achievements cannot be doubted. Unfortunately, no documents have
been met with to prove what particular corps his lordship left in
garrison, and what corps he took with him in his daring enterprise
in Valencia; the part taken by the first royal and eighth dragoons,
the thirteenth, thirtieth, and thirty-fourth foot, and a few other
corps, can be clearly made out from history; but whether the
SIXTH remained in garrison in Catalonia, or was employed in the
enterprise in Valencia, has not been ascertained.

While employed in this part of Spain, the colonel of the regiment,
JAMES RIVERS, died, and Lieut.-Colonel WILLIAM SOUTHWELL, having
been sent to England with despatches, was promoted by Queen Anne
to the colonelcy: he kissed her Majesty's hand on the appointment
on the 14th of March, 1706, and hastened back to Spain to join his
regiment.

King Charles and his counsellors, instead of exerting themselves
to provide for the security of the towns which had come into their
possession, and collecting the means for future conquests, spent
their time and money in balls and public diversions. The breaches
in Barcelona and the detached fortress of Montjuich were left
unrepaired, and the garrison unprovided for a siege. Meanwhile King
Philip was obtaining reinforcements from the frontiers of Portugal,
from Italy, Provence, Flanders, and the Rhine, and he soon
appeared at the head of above twenty thousand men to re-capture
the provinces he had lost. A powerful French and Spanish force
approached _Barcelona_ by land; a French fleet appeared before
the town; and, the garrison being weak in numbers, regiments were
hurried from other places, one English regiment travelling one
hundred and twenty miles on mules, in two days, to take part in
the defence of Barcelona. The siege was commenced in the beginning
of April, 1706, when the soldiers repaired the breaches, and a
desperate and resolute defence was made.

The Earl of Peterborough hastened from Valencia with a body of
select troops, but found the town so closely beset that he was
unable to force his way into it, when he took to the mountains,
and harassed the enemy with skirmishes and night-alarms. The
SIXTH was one of the corps which had the honour of sharing in
the defence of this important city, and British valour was
conspicuously displayed. When the garrison was nearly exhausted,
its numbers decreased from deaths, wounds, sickness, and other
causes, to about a thousand effective men, and a practical breach
was ready for the enemy to attack the place by storm, the English
and Dutch fleet arrived with five regiments of foot, the French
fleet hurried from before the town, and the reinforcements were
landed. Barcelona being thus relieved, the enemy, having lost five
thousand men before the town, made a precipitate retreat on the
12th of May, leaving two hundred brass cannon, thirty mortars, and
vast quantities of ammunition and provision behind them, together
with the sick and wounded of their army, whom Marshal de Tessé
recommended to the humanity of the British commander. During the
siege, the roads by which the enemy could return into the heart
of Spain had been broken up, and other obstructions raised among
the mountains and defiles, and the line of retreat so crowded
with armed peasantry, that the French army was forced to return
to France, and re-enter Spain by the passes of the Pyrenean
mountains. Thus Barcelona was preserved by British skill, valour
and perseverance; that part of Spain was delivered from the
presence of the enemy; and the forces were at liberty to engage in
new enterprises.

An immediate advance upon Madrid was resolved upon, and the Marquis
das Minas and Earl of Galway, who commanded a British, Portuguese,
and Dutch force on the frontiers of Portugal, were requested
to penetrate boldly to the capital of Spain. To engage in this
enterprise the SIXTH embarked from Barcelona, and proceeded by
sea to Valencia, where King Charles was expected to arrive with
the cavalry by land. While in Valencia the regiment furnished a
detachment of non-commissioned officers and soldiers, which, with
similar detachments from other regiments of foot, were formed into
a regiment of dragoons, called the Earl of Peterborough's regiment.

From Valencia the regiment was detached, under the orders of
Major-General Wyndham, to besiege _Requena_ and _Cuenza_, which
places lay on the line of march from Valencia to Madrid, and were
both captured after a short resistance. Meanwhile the army from
Portugal had penetrated to Madrid, and was anxiously awaiting the
arrival of King Charles, who, following the pernicious advice
of his Italian counsellors, delayed his journey, and eventually
proceeded by way of Arragon. This gave time for the French and
Spanish troops under King Philip to re-enter Spain; and, uniting
with the forces under the Duke of Berwick, the enemy had a great
superiority of numbers. The allies were forced to retire from their
forward position; and on the 13th of September, the SIXTH and other
corps under Major-General Wyndham joined the army at Veles. The
troops continued their route towards the frontiers of Valencia and
Murcia, where they remained during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1707]

The SIXTH now formed part of the allied army, which was composed of
English, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Dutch, commanded by the Marquis
das Minas and the Earl of Galway, and took the field for offensive
operations in the early part of April, 1707. After destroying
several of the enemy's magazines, the siege of the castle of
_Villena_ was undertaken; and while this was in progress, a French
and Spanish force, of very superior numbers, commanded by the Duke
of Berwick, advanced to the plains of _Almanza_. As the enemy
expected the arrival of reinforcements under the Duke of Orleans,
the allied generals, though much inferior in numbers to their
opponent, resolved to attack him without delay[27].

Advancing in four columns, on the 25th of April, over many miles
of rugged ground, and exposed to a burning sun, the army entered
a large plain, and about half-past two in the afternoon the
advanced-guard arrived in front of the enemy's camp: at three, the
soldiers, though faint, and their bodily strength exhausted with
the march, advanced boldly to the attack.

The SIXTH were formed in brigade with the seventeenth,
thirty-third, and Lord Montjoy's regiments, under Major-General
Wade, and were posted between two brigades of cavalry, in the left
wing of the front line. The Earl of Galway commenced the action
by leading the left brigade through a hollow way to attack the
enemy's right: the British dragoons, after gaining some advantage,
and ascending a height on which a battery was placed, were
overpowered by superior numbers and forced to retire. The SIXTH and
thirty-third advanced to support the dragoons, and opening a sharp
fire on the flank of the French horse and Spanish life-guards, put
them in disorder; at the same time the English dragoons rallied
and returned to the charge, and the enemy was driven back with
great slaughter. The French and Spanish horsemen returned to the
charge; but were again driven back by the fire of the SIXTH and
thirty-third regiments. Meanwhile the battle was extending along
the line; the ground was contested with varied success; but the
British and Dutch battalions, in the centre, obliged the enemy to
give way. A few French squadrons advanced to charge the cavalry on
the right; the Portuguese squadrons faced about and fled from the
field without waiting to be attacked; and several battalions of
Portuguese infantry followed the example.

Nine battalions of French and Spanish infantry advanced to that
part of the field where the SIXTH and thirty-third were engaged;
the two regiments confronted the overwhelming numbers of the
enemy nobly, and being joined by the ninth, seventeenth, and Lord
Montjoy's regiments, disputed the ground with sanguinary obstinacy;
but while the contest was still raging, a body of fresh French and
Spanish cavalry overpowered and drove back the allied squadrons
on the left. The five regiments (SIXTH, ninth, seventeenth,
thirty-third, and Lord Montjoy's) were thus left unsupported:
they were attacked by nine battalions of the enemy, and, while
bravely contending with the seven battalions which assailed them
in front, they were charged in flank by the other two, broken, and
driven from the field with great loss: a few only of the officers
and men of the SIXTH escaped being killed or taken prisoners. The
two French battalions which attacked them in flank, pursuing with
eagerness, were cut to pieces by Harvey's horse, now second dragoon
guards, who were in turn overpowered by the superior numbers of the
enemy.

The fight still raged in the centre; but the flanks being defeated,
the enemy surrounded the centre and made a great slaughter.
Major-General Shrimpton, Brigadier-General Macartney, Colonels
Britton and Hill, and several other officers, collected the broken
remains of the English regiments, which fought in the centre, into
a body, and united them with some of the Dutch and Portuguese,
who had been rallied by Count de Dhona and Don Juan Emanuel, and
formed a body of nearly four thousand men, who retreated two
leagues; but were pursued by the enemy, whom they repeatedly
repulsed. Arriving at the woody hills of Caudete, the men were
so exhausted with fatigue that they were unable to proceed; they
passed the night in the wood, where they were surrounded by the
enemy; and on the following morning, being without ammunition,
ignorant of the country, destitute of provisions, and without the
hope of a supply, they surrendered prisoners of war. Such was the
result of this unfortunate battle, where the faint and wearied
soldiers were hurried forward to fight superior numbers of fresh
troops, commanded by a renowned general: but, notwithstanding
these disadvantages, the author of the Annals of Queen Anne
observes:--"Had the Portuguese bravely seconded the English and
Dutch, who, with unparalleled resolution and undauntedness broke
the enemy's centre, it is the opinion of many that victory would
have inclined to the confederate side; or, at least, that the
latter might have made an honourable retreat, and, considering the
vast disproportion of the forces, have gained the glory of the day."

The loss of the SIXTH was very great: Lieutenant-Colonel M'Neal,
Captains Columbine, Drake, Campbell, and Justiene, Lieutenants
Harvey and Emmery, and Ensigns Sarracen and Watts were killed;
Captains Bennett and Hussey were taken prisoners; and Lieutenants
Beauford, Columbine, Babington, Magee, M'Neal, and Campbell,
Ensigns Beckwith, Morgan, and Reynolds, Quarter-Master Begham,
Surgeon Dilpach, and Surgeon's-Mate Macdonald, were wounded and
taken prisoners.

The few officers and men of the regiment who escaped from the field
of battle proceeded to Alcira, a strong town on the river Xucar,
where they joined the cavalry with which the Earl of Galway had
made good his retreat; and the approach to the town being by almost
inaccessible mountains, they halted a few days to re-organise the
army. On the advance of the French and Spanish forces commanded
by the Duke of Orleans, the Earl of Galway placed a garrison in
Alcira, and removed to _Tortosa_, and the SIXTH were among the
troops which encamped on the banks of the river Ebro, about two
miles above the city. Meanwhile many of the men who had been taken
prisoners, escaped and returned to their regiments; detachments
were called in, and the troops took up a position beyond the Ebro.
On the 22nd of May the French light cavalry appeared on the hills;
on the following day their army encamped against the town, and the
SIXTH were engaged in the defence of a small village and _tête de
pont_ to the bridge of boats, which last post was held for several
days. The enemy having passed the Ebro, the regiment was removed to
Tarragona, and subsequently to Las Borgues.

The Duke of Orleans having besieged _Lerida_, some arrangements
were made to attempt to relieve the garrison, and the army encamped
within a few miles of the town; but a sufficient number of troops
could not be assembled to enable the Earl of Galway to attack the
besieging army with any hope of success. After the surrender of the
castle, the regiment marched back to Tarragona for winter quarters,
and its ranks were completed by drafts from the second foot and
other regiments which were ordered to return to England to recruit.

[Sidenote: 1708]

During the winter the Earl of Galway proceeded to Portugal,
where he remained in a diplomatic capacity. The British troops
in Spain were commanded by Major-General Carpenter, and in the
spring of 1708 by Major-General Stanhope--afterwards Earl Stanhope:
the united English, Germans, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Dutch,
comprising the army of King Charles in Spain, were commanded by
Marshal Count Guido de Staremberg, an officer who had commanded the
imperial troops in Hungary.

After quitting their quarters the SIXTH were encamped on the river
Francoli, between Monblanco and Tarragona, to defend a defile
leading to the plain near the town: they brought about eight
hundred officers and men into the field, and their weather-beaten,
hardy, and warlike appearance excited admiration. In a letter from
the army, dated 23rd of April, 1708, and published at the time, it
was stated:--"We cannot yet give any certain account of the number
of our forces, but those we have are the finest in the world: such
are the regiments of SOUTHWELL (SIXTH) commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Hunt; that of Blood (seventeenth), commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Bourguet; and that of Mordaunt (twenty-eighth), commanded by
Colonel Dalziel[28]."

The regiment was subsequently stationed with the army at
Constantino, from whence it proceeded to Cervera; and while in the
field, its colonel, WILLIAM SOUTHWELL, was succeeded by Colonel
THOMAS HARRISON, who was performing the duty of adjutant-general to
the British troops in Catalonia.

Tortosa and Denia were besieged and taken by the enemy; the allies
captured the fertile island of Sardinia in the Mediterranean; and
the SIXTH were withdrawn from the army in Catalonia to engage in an
expedition, under Major-General Stanhope, against _Minorca_, the
second of the Balearic islands, situate in the Mediterranean, near
the coast of Spain. This island had fallen successively under the
Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Moors, Arragonese, and Castilians;
and the object of the expedition was to rescue it from King Philip,
and place it under the dominion of King Charles.

The regiment marched from the camp to Barcelona, where it embarked
on board the fleet. The land forces consisted of the SIXTH, and
a few dismounted English dragoons, making 750 private men; 760
English marines, 750 Portuguese, 700 Neapolitans, 300 Spaniards,
and a train of English artillery, commanded by Major-General
Stanhope and Brigadier-General Wade.

A landing was effected on the island in the middle of September:
Cuidadella, the capital, and fort Fornellia, were captured with
little opposition, and the inhabitants declared in favour of King
Charles; but a thousand French and Spaniards garrisoned _Port
Mahon_, situated on a rocky promontory, very difficult of access on
the land side, and defended by _Fort St. Philip_, erected at the
entrance of the harbour, which has been stated to be one of the
finest in the world. After dragging the artillery along rocky and
difficult roads, the siege of _Fort St. Philip_ was commenced; the
artillery destroyed two small towers, and made a practicable breach
in the outer wall, which was built a quarter of a mile from Fort
St. Philip, and, extending from sea to sea, covered the approach to
the citadel. Major-General Stanhope intended that the breach should
be stormed on the following day; but the grenadiers of the SIXTH,
and another corps, being on duty near the spot, rushed forward
with such ardour and intrepidity, that the garrison was terrified
and dismayed. Ascending the breach sword in hand, they overpowered
all opposition, captured a redoubt, and, being supported by a
detachment under Brigadier-General Wade, effected a lodgment at the
foot of the glacis. A battery was constructed immediately, and the
garrison was so confused and alarmed at the fury and resolution
of their assailants, that they capitulated on the following day
(29th of September); but when, on marching out, they saw the small
body of men to whom they had surrendered, they were ashamed of
having given up so strong a fortress. Thus this valuable island was
captured with the loss of about forty men; and the SIXTH foot and
other troops were honoured with the thanks and approbation of King
Charles, and of her Majesty Queen Anne.

Minorca was garrisoned by English troops, and the SIXTH was one of
the corps selected to take charge of this important conquest.

[Sidenote: 1709]

In the following year Lieut.-General Stanhope having formed a
design against Cadiz, embarked two regiments of foot from Minorca,
and sailed for Gibraltar, where he expected to be joined by eight
battalions of foot and a regiment of dragoons from England; but
these troops were so long delayed by contrary winds, that the
enterprise was abandoned. The SIXTH proceeded to Barcelona, where
they landed, and reposed in quarters in Catalonia until the
following spring.

[Sidenote: 1710]

When the army took the field in the summer of 1710, the SIXTH
proceeded to the camp at Balaguer, where they were reviewed by
King Charles on the 10th of June. The two claimants to the throne
of Spain headed their respective armies, and King Philip had
the advantage in point of numbers; but after reconnoitring his
adversaries' fortified camp at Balaguer he retired. King Charles
moved forward, and on the 27th of July a cavalry action was fought
on the grounds near _Almanara_, when upwards of forty squadrons
of the enemy's best cavalry, and a brigade of infantry, were
overthrown with great slaughter. Harvey's horse (now second dragoon
guards), the royal dragoons, and several other corps, gained great
honour. The SIXTH foot hastened to the scene of conflict; but the
enemy was routed before the infantry had an opportunity to deploy
their ranks. Several corps, however, joined in the pursuit, and
made great slaughter.

This victory gave the allies an ascendancy over their opponents.
King Philip called in his detachments and retired, and was followed
by the forces under King Charles. In this advance the troops
underwent great fatigue and privation with patient resolution
and perseverance which redounded to their honour. At the town
of Candasmas the soldiers suffered from the scarcity of water
and wine. "We were glad to march out of this place" (observes an
officer who was present) "on the next morning; but found ourselves
in as great distress from the want of water as the day before, till
we came to Bacarolos, where we encamped, the enemy still retiring
before us. At break of day our army marched on in four columns, in
expectation of overtaking the enemy, but we were disappointed, and
had to encounter, on our march to Usera on the Ebro, violent thirst
and heat, without a drop of water; and to incommode us more, the
enemy had set fire to a very long heath we had to pass over. It
cannot be conceived what we suffered upon such a march, smothered
all the day with clouds of ashes, especially the foot[29]." At
night the men reached the banks of the Ebro, and quenched their
thirst at the stream. Continuing the march, on the 19th of August
they discovered the united French and Spanish forces in order of
battle in front of the city of _Saragossa_, and preparations were
made to attack the enemy on the following day. Several men, who
were so pressed with hunger and thirst as to venture to gather
grapes in a vineyard situated between the two armies, were shot by
the enemy's out-posts.

The enemy's lines extended from the banks of the Ebro to the brow
of a steep hill on their right; and the SIXTH, being formed in
Major-General Wade's brigade, were destined to attack the enemy's
right.

The sun had scarcely risen on the morning of the memorable 20th
of August, 1710, when the guns of both armies opened a tremendous
fire, and the deep tones of the artillery reverberated in the
mountains and valleys. The allied army stood prepared for action,
and King Charles rode along the ranks to stimulate the officers
and men to deeds of heroism. The SIXTH and other war-worn veterans
in Wade's brigade excited his Majesty's attention: fatigue and
privation had not quenched the native valour which glowed in
their breasts and beamed in their sun-burnt countenances, and
the King complimented the brigade as he passed. About mid-day,
Lieut.-General Stanhope, whose conduct on this occasion excited
applause[30], led forward a brigade of cavalry, and commenced the
action by a gallant charge on the squadrons on the enemy's right;
but the opposing horsemen having a great superiority of numbers,
gained some advantage. Six squadrons of Portuguese dragoons in
English pay, and clothed in scarlet uniforms, fled from the
field; the French and Spanish troopers pursued with eagerness,
and imagining they had routed the British cavalry, they concluded
that victory was certain; but the British, Dutch, and Palatine
foot, opposed to the enemy's right wing, were brought forward,
and they soon gave a decisive turn to the fortune of the day.
Advancing steadily up the rising ground, the SIXTH, and three
other battalions under Major-General Wade, gained the crest of the
enemy's position, and while the dragoons fought with deadly fury
in the vale below, the four regiments raised a British shout, and
rushing upon a brigade of the enemy's foot, broke its ranks with
a fearful crash. A few battalions made a resolute resistance,
but were overpowered and nearly annihilated. While the SIXTH
were fighting on the high grounds on the left, the battle became
general along the line; and eventually, King Charles gained a most
decisive victory. The wreck of the opposing army fled from the
field, leaving twenty-two pieces of cannon, a number of standards
and colours, all their baggage, and King Philip's equipage and
plate in possession of the victorious allied army. The behaviour of
the British troops was applauded: they exhibited thirty standards
and colours which they had captured from the enemy, as trophies
of their valour; and were thanked by King Charles for the eminent
service they had rendered to his cause. Colonel THOMAS HARRISON
of the SIXTH was sent to England with the news of this victory to
Queen Anne[31].

King Philip fled in consternation and dismay, and the allied army
advanced in triumph to the capital. A crisis had arrived, and the
destiny of Spain appeared to depend on the speedy advance to Madrid
of a body of British and Portuguese troops which were manœuvring on
the frontiers of Portugal; but the Portuguese generals disappointed
the hopes of the allies, and sent their troops into quarters.
Meanwhile King Charles occupied Madrid with a small army; the
enemy called to his aid additional troops; new armies and new
generals appeared in Spain, and the forces of King Philip were
soon so superior in numbers to the allies, that the latter were
forced to retire from the capital towards Catalonia. King Charles
consulted his own safety and proceeded to Barcelona, accompanied
by a detachment of the royal dragoons. The army was pressed by
the enemy in its retiring movements; the country people withheld
supplies of provisions and forage, and availed themselves of every
opportunity to attack small parties and to plunder the baggage.
Thus harassed on every side--worn out with the fatigues of a long
campaign--in a country hostile to their cause--exposed to inclement
weather, and without tents--the condition of the soldiers may be
more easily conceived than expressed. On the 6th of December, the
SIXTH and several other corps, forming the rear column on the
left, under Lieut.-General Stanhope, arrived at the village of
_Brihuega_, consisting of about a thousand houses, and situate on
the side of a hill near the river. Here the troops halted on the
following day, and at the moment when the officers and men were
expecting orders to march, the village was surrounded by the French
and Spanish forces under the Duke of Vendosme. The English, finding
their retreat thus cut off, prepared for a vigorous defence; but
unfortunately they had no artillery, and very little ammunition,
and the ruinous old wall which surrounded the village was but a
feeble bulwark to oppose to a powerful train of artillery. The
enemy forced one of the gates with their cannon, made a practicable
breach in the wall, and attacked the place by storm. But British
courage did not quail before the host of foes by which the village
was surrounded; and the enemy was driven back with great slaughter.
A second attack was made: eight hundred French infantry gained
access to the village, and a sharp conflict was maintained in the
houses and streets; and when the English had expended all their
ammunition, they hurled bricks, stones, and other missiles from
the tops of the houses upon their opponents. But being pent up in
a small village by a numerous army, and without ammunition, they
were forced to surrender prisoners of war. Such was the fate of
two thousand brave men, whose achievements are immortalized in
history; and the veterans of the SIXTH, who had so often signalized
themselves, were consigned to surveillance and to prison: but their
honour was preserved untarnished.

[Sidenote: 1711]

[Sidenote: 1712]

[Sidenote: 1713]

[Sidenote: 1714]

Lieut.-Colonel John Ramsay and about three hundred officers and
men of the regiment were thus made prisoners at the little walled
town of Brihuega, in the mountains of Castile; but the officers
and men on command and on detachment in the towns through which
the army advanced escaped this disaster. The enemy used every
means to induce the English, German, and Palatine soldiers, taken
prisoners, to enlist into their service, and withheld provision
from such as refused: this, however, proved advantageous to the
allies; the soldiers availed themselves of every opportunity to
desert the enemy's service, and returned in parties of thirty and
forty to their own army.[32] Recruits also arrived from England;
the officers and men who remained in captivity were exchanged, and
several of the corps were re-organized; but the SIXTH do not appear
to have been engaged in any important service in the years 1711 and
1712. On the decease of the Emperor of Germany, King Charles was
elevated to the imperial throne; one of the competitors for the
crown of Spain was thus removed; a cessation of hostilities took
place between the English and French in the campaign of 1712, which
was followed by a treaty of peace, called the peace of Utrecht; and
the SIXTH proceeded to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1715]

[Sidenote: 1716]

After the decease of Queen Anne, and the accession of King George
I., several alterations were made in the army, and Colonel Harrison
was succeeded in the command of the SIXTH by Colonel ROBERT DORMER,
from the lieut.-colonelcy of the first troop (now first regiment)
of life-guards, by commission dated the 7th of March, 1716.

[Sidenote: 1717]

[Sidenote: 1718]

[Sidenote: 1719]

During the rebellion of the Earl of Mar, and the alarm occasioned
by the proceedings of the courts of Spain and Sweden in favour of
the Pretender, the SIXTH remained in Ireland; but when the rash
and unjust proceedings of the Spanish minister, Cardinal Alberoni,
involved Great Britain and France in a war with Spain, the
regiment was selected to form part of an expedition against the
coast of Spain. The capture of Sardinia and the invasion of Sicily
by the Spaniards was followed by a naval war in the Mediterranean;
and the British government projected the capture of Corunna in
Biscay, and of Peru in South America. The attack on Corunna was
first determined on; and the SIXTH formed part of a land-force of
four thousand men, placed under the orders of General Viscount
Cobham for this service. The troops embarked in the beginning
of September, 1719; but, on arriving off the coast of Gallicia,
circumstances occurred which occasioned the attack on Corunna to
be laid aside, and an attempt on _Vigo_ determined on. The fleet
entered the harbour of Vigo on the 29th of September, and seized
on seven ships, three of which were fitting up as privateers; on
the following day the grenadiers landed on the south side of the
river, three miles above the town; a sharp fire of musketry was
opened upon them from the mountains, but at too great a distance
to produce effect, and the battalion companies having gained the
shore, the troops passed the night under arms. On the 1st of
October the army approached the town, and encamped with its left to
the sea near the village of Boas, and its right extending towards
the mountains; abundance of wine being found in the houses, which
were left without inhabitants, the soldiers drank freely, and
it was found necessary to enforce strict discipline to prevent
irregularities. The town of Vigo, and fort St. Sebastian, were
abandoned by the enemy and taken possession of by Brigadier-General
Honeywood, with eight hundred men. A thousand Spaniards retired to
the citadel, and held out; but after a heavy battery had opened
its fire, and the garrison had lost nearly three hundred men, the
lieut.-governor surrendered. Two thousand barrels of powder, eight
thousand muskets, and fifteen fine brass guns, which had been
prepared for the invasion of Britain in favour of the Pretender,
were found in the castle: the troops in garrison were also part of
the force which had been selected to serve in the expedition under
the Duke of Ormond. While the siege of the castle of Vigo was in
progress, five hundred men were detached against _Rondondella_,
and they captured and burnt the town. A thousand men embarked
under Major-General Wade, on the 12th of October, and, proceeding
to the upper end of Vigo bay, landed and marched thirty miles to
_Pont-a-Vedra_; thirteen companies of Spaniards in garrison fled in
a panic; the country was thrown into confusion, and the principal
inhabitants hurried from their homes. The town of Pont-a-Vedra,
the arsenal, barracks for two thousand men, thirteen pieces of
brass, and eighty-six of iron ordnance, five thousand small arms,
three hundred barrels of powder, and abundance of other stores,
were captured. The arsenal, barracks, and Fort Marine, four miles
from Pont-a-Vedra, with the iron ordnance, were destroyed; the
more valuable stores were removed on board the transports, and the
detachment returned to Vigo.

The king of Spain, being oppressed on every side, his sources
exhausted, and his projects defeated, dismissed his turbulent
minister and made pacific overtures. A treaty of peace was
concluded before the projected expedition against Peru was
undertaken, and the SIXTH were again stationed in Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1720]

[Sidenote: 1738]

On the 9th of April, 1720, Colonel Robert Dormer was succeeded in
the command of the regiment by his brother, Colonel JAMES DORMER,
from the fourteenth dragoons, who was promoted in February, 1738,
to the first troop of horse grenadier guards: the colonelcy
appears to have remained vacant until November following, when it
was conferred on Lieut.-Colonel JOHN GUISE.

[Sidenote: 1739]

[Sidenote: 1740]

The regiment was withdrawn from Ireland in the autumn of 1739, and,
after its arrival in England, another war between Great Britain and
Spain having become inevitable, its establishment was augmented,
and it was ordered to hold itself in readiness to proceed on
foreign service.

A formidable armament was prepared for the attack of the Spanish
colonies in the West Indies, and the land forces were placed under
the orders of General Lord Cathcart, a nobleman of approved courage
and experience in war. The troops having embarked in October, 1740,
sailed under the convoy of a naval force commanded by Sir Chaloner
Ogle; and the colonel of the SIXTH, JOHN GUISE, was appointed to
serve as brigadier-general in the expedition. This regiment did not
form part of the first embarkation, but it was subsequently ordered
to proceed to the West Indies to reinforce the troops employed in
this enterprise.

A tempest dispersed the fleet, consisting of about one hundred
and seventy sail, in the bay of Biscay; but the greater part
of the vessels were re-collected and proceeded on the voyage.
Arriving at the neutral island of Dominica, to provide wood and
water, the troops sustained the loss of their gallant leader,
Lord Cathcart, who died of dysentery; and the command devolved on
Brigadier-General Thomas Wentworth.

[Sidenote: 1741]

On arriving at Jamaica in January, 1741, the expedition was joined
by Vice-Admiral Vernon; but the season of the year for active
service in the West Indies was fast passing away, and several
circumstances concurred to create further delay. At length an
attempt on _Carthagena_, the capital of an extensive and wealthy
province in the country of Terra Firma in South America, was
resolved upon; and, although this place was found strongly
fortified, and the garrison reinforced by the crews of a squadron
of large ships, commanded by Don Blas de Leso; yet, the fleet
having silenced several small forts, eight regiments landed on
the 10th of March, on the island of Tierra Bomba, near the mouth
of the harbour, and commenced the siege of the principal fort, or
castle, called _Bocca-chica_. On the evening of the 25th of March
the grenadiers mounted the breach to storm the fortress, when the
Spanish garrison fled, and the place was captured without loss.

Two channels having been made through the sunk vessels with which
the Spaniards had blocked up the entrance of the harbour, the
troops and artillery were re-embarked, and commenced landing, on
the 5th of April, near the city. The country round Carthagena was
found covered with trees and herbage of the most luxuriant growth,
and the interwoven branches formed a shelter impenetrable both to
heat and light; as the troops, led by Brigadier-General Blakeney,
advanced along a narrow defile, several men were wounded by shots
from the tracts and openings into the wood; and, on diverging from
the defile, six hundred Spaniards were seen advantageously posted
to dispute the passage: but they were speedily driven from their
ground, and the British bivouacked within a mile of the castle of
_St. Lazar_, which commanded the town. The men passed three nights
in the open air, for want of tents and tools, which could not be
landed sooner, and the health of the soldiers was in consequence
seriously injured.

As the men were fast diminishing in numbers from hard duty and
the effects of climate, Brigadier-General Wentworth resolved to
attack _St. Lazar_ by escalade; to which dangerous experiment
he was urged by Vice-Admiral Vernon, who accused him of want of
resolution. Twelve hundred men, commanded by Brigadier-General
Guise, stormed the enemy's intrenchments under the walls of
the fort, and though assailed by a heavy fire of musketry, the
grenadiers, led by Colonel Grant, rushed forward with astonishing
bravery, and leaping into the lines among the thickest of their
adversaries, carried the works in gallant style. The Spaniards fled
over a drawbridge into the fort; the British pursued under a heavy
fire, and called for the ladders to storm the works; but so hot was
the fire, that the Americans who carried the ladders threw them
down and fled back to the camp. Meanwhile the soldiers were exposed
to a most destructive fire, and were unable to cover themselves:
at length three ladders were brought forward, and a serjeant and
ten grenadiers mounted the walls, but were instantly cut to pieces,
excepting the serjeant, who saved himself by leaping down again.
Several of the ladders were found too short; it was ascertained
that, owing to a guide having been killed, the attack was made
on the strongest part of the works; Colonel Grant fell mortally
wounded; and after sustaining a most destructive fire for several
hours with intrepidity and perseverance, the troops were ordered to
retreat, having lost six hundred men in killed and wounded.

This repulse was followed by the violent periodical rains, the
country was deluged with water, and the change of atmosphere (which
is always attended with epidemical distempers and the climate
becomes extremely unhealthy) produced the most fatal effects. The
soldiers were so drenched with rain, and their health so seriously
impaired, that they re-embarked, and all hope of further success
immediately vanished. The admiral was blamed for not stationing
four or five of his large ships within pistol-shot of the town,
when the troops advanced to attack fort St. Lazar; and if this had
been done (Smollett observes), "in all probability the town would
have surrendered."

After re-embarking, the distempers peculiar to the climate produced
great havoc among the soldiers. Smollett states,--"Nothing was
heard but complaints and execrations: the groans of the dying, and
the service for the dead: nothing was seen but objects of woe and
images of dejection." Such are the sufferings often endured by the
British soldier in the various countries to which he is called upon
to proceed, and are generally borne with exemplary fortitude.

The forts and castles of the harbour of Carthagena having been
demolished, the fleet sailed to Jamaica; and subsequently to the
south-east part of the island of Cuba, where the soldiers landed,
and a camp was formed twenty miles up one of the large rivers of
this island. At this camp the SIXTH were stationed some time, and
it was in contemplation to form a British settlement on this part
of Cuba; the country was reconnoitred, detachments were sent out,
and the Spanish villages were found deserted. For a short time a
plentiful supply of fresh provisions was procured; but the men were
afterwards rationed with salt and damaged meat and biscuit, and
their numbers were so reduced by sickness, that in November they
were put on board again, and re-conveyed to Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 1742]

[Sidenote: 1745]

The SIXTH, having suffered severely from the effects of climate,
returned to England in December, 1742, and commenced recruiting
their numbers. They subsequently proceeded to Scotland, where they
were stationed in the summer of 1745, when Charles-Edward, eldest
son of the Pretender, raised his standard in the Highlands, and
asserted his father's pretensions to the throne.

The head-quarters of the SIXTH were at Aberdeen; two companies
were at Inverness, which has been termed the capital of the
Highlands, being the only town of importance north of Aberdeen;
three companies were at Fort Augustus, situated on a plain at the
head of Loch Ness, between the rivers Tarff and Oich, and built at
the spot where they discharge themselves into the lake; a strong
party, commanded by Captain Millar, occupied Fort William, which
was built in the reign of King William III., in a plain on a
navigable arm of the sea, called Loch Eil, near the influx of the
Lochy and Nevis, in the county of Inverness; a serjeant's party
occupied a redoubt at Ruthven; and a working party was employed
on the newly-constructed roads in the Highlands. While in these
quarters information was received of the arrival of the Pretender's
eldest son with a few Scottish and Irish adventurers on the coast
of Lochabar, and of their being joined by a number of Highlanders,
under their respective chiefs. The news of this bold and hazardous
undertaking was at first disbelieved, but Captain SWEETMAN of the
regiment, walking out from Fort Augustus to gain information,
entered an inn in the Highlands, where he was surrounded by eight
rebels and conveyed a prisoner to the young Pretender's camp. There
he was civilly treated, and suffered to go away on his parole;
one of the Pretender's manifestos was given him, with a passport
directed to all sheriffs, sheriff-deputies, and constables in
Scotland, and signed _Charles Pr. Custos Reg._ After his release
Captain Sweetman proceeded by post to London, where he was examined
by the Privy Council, and the tidings of the rebellion were no
longer doubted. The working parties of the SIXTH and other corps
were then ordered to rejoin their regiments.

The young adventurer having assembled about fifteen hundred men,
encamped in the neighbourhood of Fort William: two newly-raised
companies, of the regiments of St. Clair and Murray, proceeding to
Fort William, were attacked by a body of mountaineers, and after
a resolute resistance, the soldiers, having expended all their
ammunition, were forced to surrender. Lieutenant-General Sir John
Cope, the commander-in-chief in Scotland, assembled the disposable
force under his orders at Stirling, and advanced towards the road
leading through the Highlands to Inverlochy, taking with him a
thousand arms, in the expectation of being joined at Crieff by
a body of well-affected Highlanders. A detachment of the SIXTH
accompanied Sir John Cope in this advance through a wild country,
where the soldiers were obliged to take their provision with them,
and being disappointed of the Highlanders, the spare arms were
sent back for want of carriage. On arriving at Dalwhinnie,--the
place where the Fort Augustus and Inverness roads meet, information
was received that the rebels were in force in a position in the
winding of the road up the mountain, of such difficult approach and
natural strength, that it was thought impossible to force it, and
the soldiers, having only two days' provision with them, retired by
Ruthven to Inverness.

A veteran serjeant of the regiment, named MOLLOY, and twelve men
were left in charge of the little fort at _Ruthven_, which they
defended against the rebel host with such distinguished bravery,
that the following letter from this brave man to Sir John Cope
deserves a place in this memoir.

  "_Ruthven Redoubt, 30th August, 1745._

  "HON. GENERAL,

  "This goes to acquaint you, that yesterday there appeared in the
  little town of Ruthven about three hundred of the enemy, and sent
  proposals to me to surrender this redoubt upon condition that
  I should have liberty to carry off bag and baggage. My answer
  was, '_I was too old a soldier to surrender a garrison of such
  strength without bloody noses_.' They threatened hanging me and
  my men for refusal. I told them I would take my chance. This
  morning they attacked me about twelve o'clock (by my information)
  with about a hundred and fifty men: they attacked fore-gate and
  sally-port; and attempted to set sally-port on fire with some old
  barrels and other combustibles, which took place immediately, but
  the attempter lost his life by it. They drew off about half an
  hour after three. About two hours after they sent word to me that
  two of their chiefs wanted to talk to me; I admitted and spoke
  to them from the parapet: they offered conditions; I refused;
  they desired liberty to carry off their dead men; I granted.
  There are two men since dead of their wounds in the town, and
  three more they took with them, as I am informed. They went off
  westward about eight o'clock this morning; they did the like
  march yesterday in the afternoon, but came back at night-fall.
  They took all the provisions the poor inhabitants had in the
  town, and Mrs. M'Pherson, the barrack-wife, and a merchant of the
  town, who spoke to me this moment, and who advised me to write to
  your honour, and told me there were above three thousand men, all
  lodged in the corn-fields west of the town, last night, and their
  grand camp is at Dalwhinnie. They have Cluny M'Pherson with them
  prisoner, as I have it by the same information. I lost one man,
  shot through the head by foolishly holding his head too high over
  the parapet. I expect another visit this night, I am informed,
  with their pateraroes; but I shall give them the warmest
  reception my weak party can afford. I shall hold out as long as
  possible. I conclude, honourable general, with great respect,

  "Your most humble servant,

  "J. MOLLOY, SERJT. 6TH.[33]"

From Inverness Lieut.-General Sir John Cope marched to Aberdeen,
where he embarked the troops in transports, in order to proceed
by sea to Leith, to oppose the progress of the rebels southwards;
and two companies of the SIXTH, commanded by Captains Pointz and
Holwell, were employed in this service. Arriving at Dunbar, on the
16th of September, they landed on the south side of the Firth, and,
to their great mortification and disappointment, learnt that the
rebel highlanders and their adventurous chief had gained possession
of Edinburgh, towards which city Sir John Cope commenced his march
on the 19th of September.

Information having been received of the approach of a rebel force
of very superior numbers, the King's troops took up a position a
short distance to the east of the village of _Preston-pans_, near
the sea, and seven miles from Edinburgh. Several changes of ground
were made as the rebels menaced various parts of the line; but the
attack was delayed, and the soldiers passed the night under arms:
the two companies of the SIXTH, and eight companies of Lascelles'
(forty-seventh) regiment, formed one battalion, and were posted in
the right centre of the front line[34].

About three o'clock on the morning of the 21st of September,
large bodies of rebel Highlanders were seen in motion, and before
day-break a chosen band of these hardy mountaineers was discovered
through the thick atmosphere, moving like a dusky phantom swiftly
along the undulating grounds to attack the right. As they drew
near they raised a dismal yell, fired a volley, threw down their
muskets, and rushed sword in hand upon the troops which guarded
the artillery. The sudden advance of the Highlanders in the dark,
their superior numbers, and peculiar mode of fighting, struck with
dismay the two hundred soldiers appointed to guard the artillery
on the right, who saw themselves assaulted by more than three
times their own numbers, and as they caught the gleam of steel
flashing in their faces, they gave way and fled. The two hundred
and fifty dragoons on the right, seeing the artillery lost, became
disheartened; they advanced to charge a large mass of Highlanders;
but observing the disparity of numbers, they were seized with a
panic and galloped out of the field. Their conduct damped the
courage of the infantry, and the panic spread from rank to rank;
but several companies made resistance, and feats of valour were
nobly displayed by individuals and small parties; all semblance
of order was, however, soon lost, and a confused rout ensued. The
two companies[35] of the SIXTH were among the troops who resisted
the Highlanders; Captain Hollwell was killed; Captain Pointz was
surrounded, dangerously wounded, and taken prisoner; Lieutenants
Cumming and Paton, and Ensigns Wakeman and Irwine, were also made
prisoners; and the two companies had nearly every man either
killed, wounded, or taken prisoner: such were the disastrous
results of this battle, that of the King's forces, not more than
one-half escaped from the field. The prisoners were removed to
Edinburgh, and afterwards to the Highlands.

[Sidenote: 1746]

With the advance of the rebels into Derbyshire, their precipitate
retreat back to Scotland, and the battle of Falkirk, the services
of the SIXTH are not immediately connected; but in the early
part of 1746, after the Duke of Cumberland had forced the young
Pretender to raise the siege of Stirling castle, and to retreat
to the Highlands, the three companies of the regiment stationed
in _Fort Augustus_ were besieged by the rebel army. As the young
Pretender had obtained a train of artillery, and the services of
a few French officers and engineers, the reduction of the fort
was not a difficult operation, and the three companies were made
prisoners: the works were afterwards blown up and abandoned by the
enemy.

[Sidenote: 1747]

A lieutenant and about fifty men of the regiment had, in the mean
time, assembled at Edinburgh: some of these men had escaped from
captivity, others were the remains of the two companies which had
fought at Preston-pans, and they were directed to proceed, by
forced marches, to Inverlochy, and throw themselves into _Fort
William_: a drummer and three men of the regiment, who were
made prisoners at Fort Augustus, also escaped from custody and
took refuge in Fort William. In March, 1746, the enemy besieged
the fort, and the garrison made a most resolute defence. By a
well-directed fire from the works, by sallies and other devices,
with the co-operation of a small naval force, the enemy was forced
to raise the siege and retire. This success was followed by the
overthrow of the rebel army at Culloden, which extinguished the
hopes of the Pretender, and the insurrection was thus finally
suppressed. The officers and men of the SIXTH were liberated
from captivity, the companies in garrison were relieved, and the
regiment proceeded to England to recruit its numbers, where it
remained for six years.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In the warrant of King George II., bearing date the 1st of July,
1751, for regulating the uniform, colours, and distinctions of
regiments, the facing of the SIXTH was directed to be of DEEP
YELLOW. "The first colour to be the great Union; and the second
to be of deep yellow, with the union in the upper canton; in the
centre of the colours the ANTELOPE, being the ancient badge of the
regiment, and in the three corners of the second colour the _rose
and crown_. The front of the grenadier caps to be of deep yellow,
with the antelope, as in the colours; the little flap to be red,
with the white horse, and motto, _Nec aspera terrent_, over it; the
back part of the cap to be red, and the turn-up deep yellow. The
same badge of the antelope to be painted on the drums and bells of
arms, with the rank of the regiment underneath."

[Sidenote: 1753]

[Sidenote: 1755]

[Sidenote: 1756]

The SIXTH were employed on home duty until the winter of 1753, when
they embarked for Gibraltar to relieve the thirty-second regiment;
and they were employed on garrison duty at that important fortress
during the whole of the Seven years' war. Hostilities commenced
in America in 1755, and in 1756 a French armament, commanded by
Marshal Duke of Richelieu, invaded the island of Minorca, in the
capture of which the SIXTH took so distinguished a part in 1708;
and a detachment of the regiment was held in readiness to proceed
to Port Mahon to reinforce the garrison. This service was, however,
delayed; and Lieut.-General Fowke, who commanded the forces at
Gibraltar, was dismissed the service for neglecting to strengthen
the troops in Minorca by a battalion from his garrison.

[Sidenote: 1763]

After the peace of Fontainebleau the SIXTH were relieved from duty
at Gibraltar, and returned to England, where they arrived in the
summer of 1763. Two years afterwards they proceeded to Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1765]

On the 14th of June, 1765, the colonelcy was conferred by King
George III. on Major-General William Rufane, from the half-pay of
the seventy-sixth foot (a corps raised in 1756, and disbanded after
the peace in 1763), in succession to General Guise, deceased.

[Sidenote: 1769]

[Sidenote: 1772]

The regiment left Scotland in 1769, and was stationed in England
during the three succeeding years: in October, 1772, it embarked
for the West Indies, to assist in reducing to submission to the
British government the refractory Charibbees in St. Vincent. This
island was ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of 1763, and
was found to contain two tribes of natives, called the red and
black Charibbees; the former being the aborigines, and the latter
having sprung from a cargo of African slaves who escaped from a
vessel which was wrecked on the island. The Charibbees were found
devoted to the French interest, and were dangerous and troublesome
neighbours to the English planters. A resolution was taken to
restrain their ambulations to a smaller range in the island, and
to enforce obedience to several necessary regulations: and if this
was found impracticable, to remove them to some other island, or
to the continent of Africa. The Charibbees were, however, of a
resolute spirit: they possessed many thickly-wooded fastnesses,
and they resisted the attempt to restrict the indulgence of their
roving propensities and mode of life so powerfully, that it was
found necessary to augment the military force on the island.

[Sidenote: 1773]

Soon after arriving at St. Vincent the SIXTH lost their colonel,
Lieut.-General RUFANE, who died on the 14th of February, 1773, and
was succeeded by Lieut.-General JOHN GORE from the sixty-first
regiment: this officer died in November following, when his Majesty
conferred the colonelcy of the SIXTH on Lieut.-General Sir WILLIAM
BOOTHBY, Baronet, from the fiftieth foot.

[Sidenote: 1774]

The regiment was employed in operations against the Charibbees of
St. Vincent; several skirmishes occurred among the thickly-wooded
parts of the country, and a few men were killed and wounded in
the bush-fighting which took place daily. At length the natives
were reduced to submission, and an agreement was concluded with
their chiefs in February, 1774, by which further hostilities were
prevented.

Having reduced the two refractory tribes to submission, the SIXTH
and forty-eighth regiments were stationed at the Charibbee islands
until after the breaking out of the war of independence in North
America.

[Sidenote: 1775]

[Sidenote: 1776]

[Sidenote: 1777]

Hostilities commenced in 1775, when the establishment of the SIXTH
was augmented from ten companies of thirty-eight private men each,
to twelve companies of fifty-six private men each. In the following
year they were withdrawn from the West Indies, and joined the
army commanded by Lieut.-General Sir William Howe at New York.
The health of the soldiers had, however, been impaired by their
residence in a tropical climate, and after transferring a few men
to other corps, they returned to England, where they arrived in
March, 1777.

[Sidenote: 1778]

[Sidenote: 1779]

[Sidenote: 1780]

During the summer of 1778, the regiment was encamped, with the
twenty-fifth, sixty-ninth, seventy-ninth, and ten militia corps,
at Warley, under the orders of Lieut.-General Pierson. In the
following year the regiment was encamped at Coxheath, with the
fourteenth, fiftieth, sixty-fifth, sixty-ninth, and sixteen corps
of militia; and in 1780 it was encamped at Rye, under Major-General
Sloper.

[Sidenote: 1782]

In 1782 county titles were given to regiments, in order to
facilitate the procuring of recruits; and the SIXTH were designated
the FIRST WARWICKSHIRE regiment: at the same time the officers
were directed to cultivate a connection with that division of the
county, so as to create a mutual attachment between the inhabitants
of Warwickshire and the regiment.

[Sidenote: 1783]

The SIXTH had previously proceeded to the islands of Jersey and
Guernsey, from whence they were removed to Ireland in the autumn of
1783.

[Sidenote: 1786]

On the 5th of May, 1786, the regiment embarked from Ireland for
North America, to relieve the seventeenth at Nova Scotia, and was
stationed in that island for several years.

[Sidenote: 1787]

[Sidenote: 1792]

General Sir William Boothby, Baronet, died at Bath on the 15th of
April, 1787, and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the SIXTH by
Lieut.-General LANCELOT BAUGH, from the fifty-eighth regiment;
after whose decease in 1792, Sir RALPH ABERCROMBY was appointed
colonel of the SIXTH, from the sixty-ninth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1793]

While the regiment was stationed in Nova Scotia a revolution took
place in France, and in 1793 the King and Queen were beheaded. The
dangerous doctrines of liberty and equality extended to the French
West India islands, and the SIXTH were withdrawn from Nova Scotia
and employed in delivering these valuable possessions from the
power of the republican government.

[Sidenote: 1794]

The forces engaged in this enterprise rendezvoused at Barbadoes in
January, 1794, under the orders of General Sir Charles Grey, K.B.
(afterwards Earl Grey), and the battalion companies of the SIXTH
constituted part of the third brigade, the flank companies being
formed in grenadier and light infantry battalions. A landing was
effected at three different points on the island of _Martinico_
in the early part of February, and after some sharp fighting, in
which the SIXTH had about half a dozen men killed and wounded, this
valuable possession was delivered from the power of republicanism.
Sir Charles Grey observed in his public despatch:--"The spirit,
unanimity, and perseverance of the navy and army never were more
conspicuous; nor has more cordial co-operation ever been manifested
between his Majesty's naval and land forces. In a word, the
general, and field-officers, and the commanding officers of corps,
have set such an example of zeal, activity, and animation in this
service, which has been so laudably imitated by all the officers
and soldiers of this little army, that they merit the greatest
praise."

From Martinico the grenadiers under Prince Edward (afterwards Duke
of Kent), the light infantry under Major-General Thomas Dundas,
with the SIXTH, ninth, and forty-third regiments, commanded by
Colonel Sir Charles Gordon, re-embarked on the 30th of March, and
arriving at _St. Lucia_ on the 1st of April, completed the conquest
of that fine island in three days. A detachment of the regiment
was next employed in the reduction of the island of _Guadaloupe_:
a determined resistance was made by the enemy, but the island was
captured before the end of April, and Sir Charles Grey declared in
his public despatch, that he "could not find words to convey an
adequate idea, or to express the high sense he entertained, of the
extraordinary merit evinced by the officers and soldiers in this
service."

Although the extension of revolutionary power in Europe engaged
the attention of the regicide government of France, yet the loss
of these valuable colonial possessions was not regarded with
indifference, and an expedition was fitted out at Brest for the
recovery of the conquered islands. In June a body of French troops
arrived at Guadaloupe, and the doctrines of liberty and equality
were so successfully disseminated among the mulattoes and blacks,
that they quickly flocked to the republican standard. The posts
occupied by the British were attacked, and in October the whole
island, except Fort Matilda, was re-captured by the French. This
fort was defended by the troops under Major-General Prescott until
December, when it was evacuated. The SIXTH had several men killed
and wounded in the defence of Guadaloupe, and had also Lieutenant
Ekins wounded.

[Sidenote: 1795]

The regiment having sustained considerable loss from the effects
of climate, transferred its service-men to the ninth foot, and
embarked for England, where it arrived in July, 1795, and landed
at Portsmouth, from whence it proceeded into Warwickshire to
recruit. In this service it was not, however, very successful, in
consequence of having transferred a number of Warwickshire men to
the ninth regiment in the West Indies.

The regiment marched to Southampton in September, for the purpose
of embarking for Gibraltar; but the order was subsequently
countermanded, and it returned to Warwickshire to re-commence
recruiting.

In November of the same year Sir Ralph Abercromby was removed
to the seventh dragoon guards, and the colonelcy of the SIXTH
was conferred on Prince WILLIAM FREDERICK, afterwards Duke of
Gloucester.

[Sidenote: 1796]

Ireland being, at this period, in a state bordering on rebellion,
the SIXTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Colin Campbell, were ordered
to proceed to that country. They embarked at Bristol in February,
1796, landed at Waterford, and in May proceeded to Kilkenny. The
French directory cherished a decided antipathy to the British
government, and sent a body of troops to Ireland to aid the
malcontents in an appeal to arms. In December, when the French
armament appeared in Bantry Bay, the SIXTH marched to oppose the
enemy, who returned to France without effecting a landing.

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1798]

The regiment returned to Kilkenny in January, 1797, from whence
it marched in April to Loughlinstown, near Dublin, where a
considerable force was assembled in huts: it was subsequently
encamped in Phœnix Park, Dublin, and being very weak in numbers,
it was united to the first light infantry battalion in October it
returned to its huts at Loughlinstown; and in the early part of
1798, marched to Nenagh, and subsequently to Galway.

The long-suppressed rebellion broke out in May, 1798, and Ireland
became the scene of conflagration, rapine, and bloodshed, the
conduct of the insurgents being of the most cruel and inhuman
character. The SIXTH, and light battalion attached to them,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Colin Campbell, were employed in
suppressing this unnatural warfare. Scarcely was this accomplished,
when the French directory endeavoured to revive the contest by
sending General Humbert with about a thousand men to Ireland;
and Major Macbean, with eighty men of the SIXTH (who were not
attached to the light battalion) formed part of the force sent
against the French. In the action at _Castlebar_, on the 27th of
August, the eighty men of the SIXTH were the last that quitted
their ground; their commanding officer, Major Macbean, was taken
prisoner by the French and very cruelly treated; but he escaped a
few days afterwards and joined the regiment at Tuam. The French
having been surrounded and made prisoners, the rebellion was
finally suppressed, and the regiment passed the winter at Moate and
Athlone, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Bowes.

[Sidenote: 1799]

Tranquillity having been restored in Ireland, the regiment embarked
at Cork in June, 1799, for Canada, and landed on the 14th of
October at Quebec, where its ranks were completed by a draft from
the third battalion of the sixtieth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1803]

The SIXTH remained at Quebec until 1803, when they proceeded, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Bowes, up the country to Montreal,
Kingston, and St. John's.

[Sidenote: 1804]

[Sidenote: 1806]

In 1804 a second battalion was added to the regiment, and was
embodied at Liverpool, under the superintendence of the colonel,
His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester. It was formed of men
raised in the county of Lancaster for limited service, under the
additional force act, passed on the 29th of June, 1804; and was
placed on the establishment of the army from the 25th of December,
1804. In the same year the first battalion returned to Quebec, from
whence it embarked, in 1806, for England: it landed at Portsmouth
on the 7th of September, and marched to Deal barracks, where it was
joined by the second battalion.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester was removed in May,
1806, to the third foot-guards; and the colonelcy of the Sixth was
conferred on Major-General Sir GEORGE NUGENT, Baronet, from the
sixty-second regiment.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The first battalion having been completed to the war-establishment
by drafts from the second, marched, in October, to Dover Castle;
and in January, 1807, returned to Deal. In April following it
embarked for Gibraltar, where it arrived on the 2nd of June, in a
very complete and efficient state, and it passed the succeeding
twelve months at that important fortress.

[Sidenote: 1808]

While the SIXTH were in garrison at Gibraltar, the tyrannical
proceedings of Bonaparte in Portugal and Spain, and the resistance
which he met with in those countries, induced the British
Government to aid the patriots in their endeavours to shake off the
French yoke; and in June, 1808, this regiment, mustering upwards of
eleven hundred men, was placed under the orders of Major-General
Brent Spencer, with the view of being employed in this service. For
some time, however, the point at which a landing should take place
was not decided, and the troops appeared first off Ceuta, then
proceeded to Cadiz, subsequently to Lisbon, and back to Cadiz. At
length circumstances occurred which induced Major-General Spencer
once more to proceed to the vicinity of Lisbon, where he learnt
that Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Wellesley had arrived, with eight
thousand men from Ireland, in the Mondego river, and immediately
proceeded thither to join him.

Having landed on the shores of Portugal, the SIXTH were formed in
brigade with the thirty-second regiment, under Brigadier-General
Bowes; the advanced guard quitted the banks of the Mondego river,
on the 9th of August, and on the 17th attacked the French under
General Laborde in their position at _Roleia_.

On the morning of this day, which is memorable for being the
first of a series of victories gained by the British troops
in the Peninsula, the SIXTH issued from Obidos, a town with a
Moorish castle, built on a gentle eminence in the middle of a
valley, and, directing their march to the left, gained the ridge
of heights on the enemy's right. They formed part of the left
column of attack under Major-General Ferguson, destined to turn
all the enemy's posts on the left of the valley, and the right
of his post at Roleia; also to oppose the efforts of a body of
French troops under General Loison, should they arrive from Rio
Major during the action. The heights were cleared, the column
descended from the higher grounds in the rear of the centre, and
joining Brigadier-General Fane's brigade, were directed through the
mountains to outflank the French right. Meanwhile the troops which
attacked the enemy's centre were triumphant; the SIXTH and other
corps in the left column turned his right flank, and he fell back
fighting to the Quinta de Bugaliera, and soon after four o'clock
the action had ceased. The SIXTH were not seriously engaged: their
only loss was Captain John Currey and two men wounded, and one man
missing; but their gallant bearing, and eagerness to engage their
adversaries were conspicuous, and they were rewarded with the
honour of bearing the word "ROLEIA" inscribed on their colours.

On the 19th of August the SIXTH marched into position at _Vimiera_,
a village near the sea-coast, and situate in a valley through
which runs the little river Maceira; and the regiment was one of
the corps posted on a large mountain which commenced at the coast.
At seven o'clock on the morning of the 21st of August a cloud of
dust was observed beyond the nearest hills, and soon afterwards
the French army, commanded by Marshal Junot, was seen advancing in
order of battle.

The SIXTH, and several other corps, were directed to cross the
valley behind the village, and to take post on another height,
which overtopped the hill in front of the village; and, before the
regiment reached the summit, the battle had commenced. A sternly
contested action among rugged rocks and broken grounds ended in
an entire defeat of the French army; and the SIXTH were rewarded
with the honour of bearing the word "_Vimiera_" inscribed on their
colours.

These successes were followed by the convention of Cintra, and
the British soldiers saw their gallant efforts succeeded by the
deliverance of Portugal from the power of the enemy. On the
departure of the French, the SIXTH marched up the country to the
strong fortress of Almeida, situate on the river Coa, in the
province of Beira, where they remained in garrison four months.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In the mean time reports were circulated of the insurrection
against the French, and it was affirmed that enthusiastic
multitudes of Spaniards were pressing forward from every quarter
to complete the destruction of the legions of Napoleon, which were
stated to be baffled, dispirited, and on the eve of quitting Spain.
Although the accounts given by the Spaniards of their own strength
and power were absurdly exaggerated, yet the British government,
placing some confidence in the immense numbers of the patriots, and
in the goodness of their cause, sent Lieut.-General Sir John Moore
with an army into Spain to aid them in their laudable exertions
to effect their emancipation; and the SIXTH were withdrawn from
Almeida to take part in this hazardous enterprise. After passing
the frontiers of Portugal and pushing forward boldly into Spain,
the British troops met with disappointment and disaster. Bonaparte
had passed the Pyrenees with a powerful army, and rushing like a
tempest upon the undisciplined multitudes of patriots, he quickly
broke, destroyed, and dispersed them; then bending his course to
Madrid, entered the capital in triumph. Little remained to be
done to complete the conquest of Spain, but the destruction of
the army of Britons, who, by long and toilsome marches through a
difficult country, had ventured to menace his lines, and were the
only troops in Spain capable of resisting his veteran legions.
Quitting Madrid, he advanced with an immense army capable of
enveloping and of swallowing up the handful of British troops; but
Sir John Moore, with his characteristic energy and skill, withdrew
towards the coast, and escaped the toils of his adversary. The
SIXTH were nearly eight hundred strong; they were commanded by
Major Gordon, and were brigaded with the ninth, twenty-third, and
forty-third regiments, under Major-General Beresford: they suffered
most severely in the long and harassing retreat over mountains
and rivers, through narrow defiles, and along roads covered with
snow; but on arriving at _Corunna_, the men obtained shelter in
the neighbouring villages and recruited their wasted strength.
While the troops were waiting the arrival of transports, the French
army approached, and, on the 16th of January, 1809, was fought
the hard-contested battle of _Corunna_, in which British valour
and endurance were conspicuously displayed, and this disastrous
expedition was terminated by a glorious victory, which reflected
lustre on the British arms; but the officers and soldiers had to
lament the loss of their gallant leader, Lieut.-General Sir John
Moore, who was mortally wounded during the heat of the action.

After this victory the troops embarked for England: the SIXTH
were one of the last corps which went on board the transports,
having lined the walls of Corunna during the embarkation; and, on
arriving in England, it was ascertained that they had lost about
four hundred men in this arduous enterprise, in which they earned
the honorary distinction of bearing the word "CORUNNA" inscribed on
their colours.

The regiment remained in England until the middle of July, when
the first battalion, having been completed to its establishment
by drafts from the second, embarked with the expedition against
Holland commanded by Lieut.-General the Earl of Chatham. In the
siege and capture of Flushing and the reduction of the island of
Walcheren, the regiment had only Ensign Addison and a few men
wounded; but when the Walcheren fever broke out among the troops,
its ranks were thinned by the ravages of that pestilential disease.
The object of the expedition having been frustrated by delays,
the island was evacuated; and in December the SIXTH returned to
England so reduced in numbers, and the sick men so numerous, as to
be unable to furnish the usual reliefs of the ordinary regimental
guard.

[Sidenote: 1810]

[Sidenote: 1811]

[Sidenote: 1812]

In August, 1810, the first battalion embarked at Dover, for
Ireland, and was stationed at Cork and Kinsale until October, 1812,
when it embarked for the Peninsula. Previous to going on board the
transports it was inspected by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope, the
Commander of the Forces in Ireland, who was pleased to express
himself much gratified at witnessing the high state of discipline,
and the general appearance and efficiency of the corps.

The SIXTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Archibald Campbell, arrived
at Corunna on the 28th of October; but as the allied army,
commanded by Field-Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, had evacuated
Madrid, and was retiring from Burgos upon Salamanca, the transports
again put to sea, and proceeded to Lisbon, where the regiment
landed on the 15th of November, on which day it was joined by four
hundred men from the second battalion at Jersey.

[Sidenote: 1813]

After halting a short period at the capital of Portugal, the
regiment marched up the country to join the allied army; and
taking the field in May, 1813, had the honour of serving in one
of the most brilliant campaigns on record, in which the legions
of Buonaparte were overthrown in a pitched battle, the barrier
of the Pyrenees was forced, and the victorious British soldiers
trod the soil of France in triumph. The SIXTH, with a provisional
battalion (formed of the second battalions of the Twenty-fourth and
Fifty-eighth regiments), and the light infantry of the Brunswick
Oels, composed the brigade of Major-General Edward Barnes, in the
seventh division commanded by Lieut.-General the Earl of Dalhousie.

The Marquis of Wellington appeared at the head of a magnificent
and well-appointed army, and, after passing the frontiers of
Portugal, the tide of war, directed by the comprehensive mind
of so able a commander, flowed onwards with majestic violence:
formidable positions were turned; the rivers Esla, Tormes, Carion,
Pisuerga, Arlanzan, and Ebro, were crossed in succession; and the
obstructions of rocks, mountains, and deep ravines were overcome
with a facility which bespoke the ability of the commander and
the excellent quality of the troops serving under his directions.
As the allied army advanced, the enemy fell back in tumult and
disorder, evacuating strong posts without firing a shot, destroying
defensive works, and calling in detachments with precipitation,
until his forces were concentrated in the valley of _Vittoria_,
where he prepared to make a resolute stand.

On the morning of the memorable 21st of June, 1813, the SIXTH moved
from their camp on the river Bayas, and traversed the mountains
in the direction of _Vittoria_, to engage in the attack of the
enemy's formidable position; but so rugged was the country, and
the tracts along the hills so difficult, that the battle was
raging with great violence when the division, led by the Earl of
Dalhousie, arrived at their appointed station. They were, however,
in time to take part in forcing the passage of the Zadora; and the
seventh division, with one brigade of the third, having passed
the river, formed the left of the British line, and were engaged
with the French right in front of the villages of Margarita and
Hermandad. Finally a complete and most decisive victory was gained.
The conduct of the Earl of Dalhousie and his division was commended
in the public despatch; the commanding officer of the SIXTH,
Lieut.-Colonel Archibald Campbell, was presented with a gold medal,
and the gallantry of the regiment was rewarded with the honour of
bearing the word "VITTORIA" inscribed on its colours.

The SIXTH moved forward in pursuit of the wreck of the French army
in the direction of Pampeluna; but were subsequently detached
against a division of the enemy under General Clausel, who was not
at the battle, and had taken post at Logroño, from whence he made
a precipitate retreat to Saragossa, and effected his escape by the
pass of Jaca.

After returning from this enterprise the regiment penetrated the
_Pyrenean_ mountains; and the light and seventh divisions occupied
the heights of Santa Barbara, the town of Vera, and the Puerto de
Echalar, and communicated with the troops in the valley of Bastan.
The French army, having been re-organised under Marshal Soult,
attacked the British posts on the 25th of July. The SIXTH, with the
remainder of their brigade, moved forward to support two brigades
of the second division which had been forced from their ground at
the head of the valley of Bastan, and the enemy was driven back
with loss. But the brigades in Roncesvalles having been obliged
to retire, the troops in the valley of Bastan also fell back to
a very strong post in the mountains behind Irueta. The regiment
lost several men on this occasion, and had Major Gomm and Ensign
Radcliff wounded. Its conduct, with that of the other corps
engaged, was commended by the Marquis of Wellington, who observed
in his despatch:--"Notwithstanding the enemy's superiority of
numbers, they acquired but little advantage over these brave troops
during the seven hours they were engaged. All the regiments charged
with the bayonet."

From Irueta the SIXTH retired with their division to the Lizasso,
and on the 29th of July took post in the mountains near Marcolain,
to connect the operations of the main body of the army with
Lieut.-General Sir Rowland Hill's corps. Some sharp fighting took
place in the mountains on the following day. The SIXTH were engaged
in carrying the height which separated the enemy's right flank, and
had Lieutenant Sandys and several men wounded.

When Marshal Soult found himself frustrated in his attempt to
relieve Pampeluna, and retired with the main body of his army,
leaving a strong corps in an excellent position in the pass of
Donna Maria, the SIXTH moved forward in pursuit, and, with the
remainder of the seventh division and Sir Rowland Hill's corps,
ascended the two flanks of the mountain on the 31st of July, and
dislodged the enemy in gallant style.

The army continued to press on the rear of the French, and
the fourth and seventh divisions proceeded by the valley of
the Bidassoa towards the frontiers of France. The SIXTH, with
the remainder of the Earl of Dalhousie's division, marched on
the morning of the 2nd of August a distance of ten miles over
mountains and ridges, along paths frequented only by shepherds and
wild goats, from Sumbilla towards the Puerto de Echalar, where
two French divisions were found in a formidable position on the
height, with nearly the whole of their army posted behind the
Puerto. The division was in advance, and the enemy appeared in
force. But military ardour, with confidence in the prowess of the
officers and men, occasioned the prudential caution of waiting the
arrival of additional troops to be disregarded, and Major-General
Barnes formed his brigade for the attack. The SIXTH composed more
than half the brigade: having received drafts regularly from
the second battalion on home service, they appeared a fine and
gallant body of men, all eager to engage their opponents. The
provisional battalion and Brunswickers forming the remainder of
the brigade, though inferior in numbers, were animated with the
same spirit as the SIXTH, and the gallant Major-General Barnes led
the three battalions up a ridge which it appeared almost madness
to have attacked. The officers and men, ascending the heights
with cheerful alacrity, confronted, with firm and steady ranks,
their numerous opponents, and advanced to the charge with that
determined resolution for which Britons have been celebrated, and
which occasioned a distinguished officer to say, "Barnes set at
the French as if every man had been a bull-dog, and himself the
best bred of all." It was a moment of trial: the innate bravery
of the officers and men was put to the test; but by a powerful
effort, in which the national character was eminently displayed,
they forced the two divisions of the enemy from these formidable
heights, and were pursuing their victorious career, when orders
were received to halt. The Marquis of Wellington witnessed this
brilliant achievement with feelings of exultation, and expressed
his admiration in terms which occasioned the following order to be
issued immediately.

  "_Heights above Echalar, half-past three o'clock,_
  _2nd August, 1813_.

  "DIVISION ORDER.--The Lieutenant-general has just been desired by
  Lord Wellington to say to the brigade under Major-General Barnes'
  command, that '_Their attack on the enemy is the most gallant,
  and the finest thing he ever witnessed_.' These were the words of
  the Commander of the forces, and Lord Dalhousie feels the highest
  satisfaction in communicating them to Major-General Barnes, the
  officers, and men."

In his public despatch, the Marquis of Wellington
observed:--"Major-General Barnes's brigade was formed for the
attack, and advanced before the fourth and light divisions could
co-operate, with a regularity and gallantry which I have seldom
seen equalled, and actually drove the two divisions of the enemy,
notwithstanding the resistance opposed to them, from those
formidable heights. It is impossible that I can extol too highly
the conduct of Major-General Barnes and these brave troops, which
was the admiration of all who were witnesses of it."[36]

On this memorable occasion, of which every officer and soldier of
the SIXTH may be justly proud, the regiment had Captain William
Brownlow, two serjeants, and thirteen rank and file killed; Major
Guy Campbell, Lieutenants Everest, Tarleton, and Addison, four
serjeants, and one hundred and thirty-six rank and file wounded.
Majors Guy Campbell, Hugh Maurice Scott, and Henry Gomm were
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and the regiment was
rewarded with the honour of bearing the word "PYRENEES" inscribed
on its colours.

The SIXTH were stationed several weeks in the lofty Pyrenean
mountains: the corps at Roncesvalles and Maya stood in a most
commanding situation, and the Marquis of Wellington resolved to
place his left in an equally menacing position, by dispossessing
the enemy of some strong ground on the right of the _Bidassoa_,
the key of which was a steep mountain, called La Rhune. The attack
was commenced on the 7th of October, and completely succeeded.
A detachment of the SIXTH, sent forward through the Puerto de
Echalar, was partially engaged, and had Captain Shawe and one
man killed; Captain Rogers, one serjeant, and five rank and file
wounded.

In the attack of the enemy's position on the _Nivelle_, on the 10th
of November, the SIXTH were in the column under Marshal Sir William
Beresford, which carried the redoubts on the left of the enemy's
centre; advanced on the left of the river upon St. Pé; crossed the
stream at that place, and drove a body of French from the heights
beyond the village: in which service the regiment had one man
killed and six wounded; and its gallant bearing was rewarded with
the privilege of displaying the word "NIVELLE" on its colours.

In the passage of the _Nive_, and the actions of the 9th, 10th,
11th, 12th, and 13th of December, the regiment co-operated, but was
not brought into contact with the enemy; and the army afterwards
went into quarters until the severity of the weather was abated.

[Sidenote: 1814]

Operations were, however, recommenced in February, 1814, and the
regiment formed part of the corps under Sir William Beresford,
who attacked, on the 22nd of that month, the fortified posts at
_Hastingues_ and _Oyergave_, and obliged the enemy to retire within
the _tête de pont_ at Peyrehorade.

The enemy being in position at _Orthes_, the SIXTH, and other
corps under Sir William Beresford, crossed the Gave de Pau on the
morning of the 26th of February, and moved along the high road from
Peyrehorade towards Orthes. On the following day they advanced to
attack the enemy's right, on the heights on the high road to Dax,
and at the village of St. Boes. The village was carried by the
fourth division; and the SIXTH advanced in column to turn the head
of a ravine between themselves and the enemy; but on emerging from
the village they were ordered to form line. Colonel Ross's brigade
of horse artillery came up at full speed and unlimbered in the
rear of the regiment, when sections were thrown back to permit the
fire of the artillery to pass through the line. The ground was,
however, so low that the troops could not deploy to attack the
heights. The SIXTH moved forward, and in the after descent of the
back of the ravine the French fire told heavily on the regiment.
Several officers and many men fell; Lieut.-Colonel Gardiner, of
the SIXTH[37], who commanded the brigade on this occasion, had his
horse killed under him while leading the regiment forward, and
as a serjeant and a private were extricating him from under the
animal, the private was shot through the chest and died instantly,
and the serjeant's hands were both pierced by musket-balls: one of
the colour-staves was also damaged by a ball. At this moment the
Marquis of Wellington came galloping past the regiment, and cried,
"SIXTH, incline to your right;" which was obeyed; but the ground
was so rugged, and the enemy's fire so heavy, that some confusion
took place: the road was, however, boldly gained; and from a ditch
and earthen bank the regiment opened a destructive fire on the
enemy, who were in line on each flank, and, some kneeling and
others lying on the ground, kept up a heavy cross fire. Meanwhile
the left of the height on which the enemy's right stood had been
carried; Sir Rowland Hill had also forced the passage of the Gave
above Orthes; and the troops opposed to the SIXTH eventually gave
way, when the regiment moved forward in pursuit.

The regiment lost, on this occasion, Lieutenants Patullo and Scott,
five serjeants, and nineteen rank and file killed; Captains Rogers,
Thompson, Smith, and Fitzgerald, Lieutenants Jones, Craufurd, and
Gilder, with Ensigns St. Clair and Blood, sixteen serjeants, one
drummer, and a hundred and four rank and file wounded. Colonel
Gardiner, who commanded the brigade, and Lieut.-Colonel Scott,
who commanded the regiment, were presented with gold medals; and
the word "ORTHES" was inscribed on the regimental colours as a
testimony of its gallantry.

On the 8th of March the regiment was detached, with other forces
under Sir William Beresford, towards _Bourdeaux_: the French troops
in garrison withdrew to the right of the Garonne, and on the 12th
of that month, as the British approached the town, they were met
by the civil authorities and population of the place, and were
received into the city with acclamations; the magistrates and
city-guards removing the tri-coloured and displaying the white
cockade.

The SIXTH were subsequently employed against the French troops on
the Garonne and Dordogne; and on the 5th of April two companies
attacked the rear of a column of the enemy and took many prisoners.
The regiment was afterwards employed in investing the fort of
Blaye, which commanded the navigation of the Garonne; in which
service it was engaged when Buonaparte abdicated the throne of
France, and the Bourbon dynasty was restored, which gave peace to
Europe.

The distinguished part which the SIXTH had taken in the splendid
achievements by which the kingdoms of Portugal, Spain, and France
had been delivered from the despotic rule of Buonaparte was
rewarded with the honour of bearing the word "PENINSULA" on their
colours. Soon after the termination of the contest in Europe they
were destined to transfer their services across the Atlantic, to
take part in the war between Britain and the United States of
America, which commenced in 1812, in consequence of the resistance
of the Americans to the British orders in council respecting the
trade of neutral nations, and to the impressing of British seamen
on board of American ships. The regiment embarked from Bourdeaux
on the 5th of May, arrived in Canada in the beginning of July, and
proceeded to Montreal, from whence it was removed to the Niagara
frontier to reinforce the division commanded by Lieut.-General
Gordon Drummond, who was engaged in the siege of _Fort Erie_.
Having joined this division of the army, the SIXTH formed part
of the reserve brigade; and on the 6th of September the eighth
company, commanded by Captain Pattison, cut off a strong piquet
of Americans close under the walls of the fort, in a manner very
creditable to the discipline, spirit, and enterprise of the
officers and men. On the 17th of the same month the regiment was
engaged in repelling a very bold sortie made by a numerous body of
Americans, with the view of carrying by assault, and afterwards
destroying, the British works and batteries; on which occasion the
following order was issued:--

  "_Camp before Fort Erie,
  18th September, 1814._

  "DISTRICT GENERAL ORDER.--Lieut.-General Drummond, having
  received the report of the general officer in the immediate
  direction of the troops engaged yesterday, begs to offer his best
  acknowledgments for their very gallant conduct in repulsing the
  attack made by the enemy on our batteries with his whole force,
  represented as consisting of not less than five thousand men,
  including the militia.

  "The brilliant style in which the battery No. 2 was recovered,
  and the enemy driven beyond our entrenchments by seven companies
  of the Eighty-second, under the command of Major Proctor, and
  three companies of the SIXTH regiment, detached under Major
  Taylor, excited Lieut.-General Drummond's admiration, and entitle
  those troops to his particular thanks."

Thus the SIXTH were triumphant in the interior of France and on
the frontiers of Canada in the same year, and their gallantry on
the last occasion procured for them the royal permission to bear
the word "NIAGARA" inscribed on their colours. This honour was,
however, purchased with the loss of many lives: Captain Pattison
was numbered among the slain; Captain Smith and Lieutenant Andrews
were wounded, and the last-mentioned officer died of his wounds.

A treaty of peace having been concluded with the Americans,
hostilities ceased, and the SIXTH reposed a short period in
quarters.

[Sidenote: 1815]

In the summer of 1815, the return of Buonaparte to France having
rekindled the flame of war in Europe, the SIXTH were directed
to embark from America, in order to engage once more in actual
warfare. They left Canada in the beginning of July, landed at
Ostend on the 10th of August, and proceeded to Ghent, from whence
they continued their march to Paris, and joined the army commanded
by Field-Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington, encamped near
that city. The SIXTH, sixteenth, fifty-eighth, and eighty-second
regiments formed the fifteenth brigade, and were posted in the
seventh division, commanded by Major-General Thomas Brisbane.

When the definitive treaties between France and the allied powers
were settled, the SIXTH were selected to form part of the army
of occupation in France, and constituted, with the twenty-ninth
and seventy-first regiments, the sixth brigade of infantry,
under Major-General Sir Thomas Bradford, in the second division,
commanded by Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton. The SIXTH were
quartered at Versailles, from whence they marched, in December, to
Ecouen, a village on the road from Paris to Luzarches.

On the 24th of December, 1815, the second battalion was disbanded
at Winchester.

[Sidenote: 1816]

The SIXTH remained in the neighbourhood of Ecouen until the 23rd
of January, 1816, when they marched for St. Pol in the _Pas de
Calais_, and in February three companies occupied Lillers, and
seven the adjacent villages.

In August, 1816, the regiment proceeded to the vicinity of St.
Omer, and encamped, with the remainder of the second division of
the British contingent of the army of occupation, on Helfant Heath.
In October it proceeded to the plains of Denain, near Valenciennes,
where the British contingent was reviewed by Field-Marshal His
Grace the Duke of Wellington on the 22nd of that month. After the
review the regiment returned to its former cantonments at Lillers
and the neighbouring villages.

[Sidenote: 1817]

[Sidenote: 1818]

The SIXTH were again encamped on Helfant Heath in July, 1817; in
September they pitched their tents on the glacis of Valenciennes,
near the Quesnoy gate; and on the 6th of that month were reviewed,
with the remainder of the British infantry, by the King of Prussia.
They removed in October to the plains of Denain, where the British
contingent was reviewed by the Duke of Wellington on the 15th of
October; on the 20th the SIXTH returned to their former quarters
at Lillers, &c. In these quarters they remained until June, 1818,
when they once more pitched their tents on Helfant Heath, where
they were reviewed by Lieut.-General Lord Hill on the 24th of
June, and by the Duke of Wellington on the 31st of July. In August
they again pitched their tents on the glacis at Valenciennes. On
the 10th of September the British, Saxon, Danish, and Hanoverian
armies, commanded by the Duke of Wellington, were reviewed by His
Royal Highness the Duke of Kent; and on the 23rd of October, the
same troops, and also the Russian contingent, were reviewed by the
Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, &c. After the review, the army
of occupation was withdrawn from France. The SIXTH embarked at
Calais on the 29th of October, landed on the morning of the 30th
at Dover, and marched to Romford in Essex, where the establishment
was reduced to ten companies, of thirty-nine officers, thirty-five
serjeants, thirty corporals, twenty-two drummers, and six hundred
and twenty private men.

[Sidenote: 1819]

[Sidenote: 1820]

From Romford the SIXTH marched in November to Sunderland and
Carlisle, and in June, 1819, to Edinburgh Castle, with one company
detached to Stirling, another to Aberdeen, and in the autumn a
company was detached to Berwick. In consequence of the disturbed
state of the northern counties of England, seven companies were
ordered into Yorkshire--four companies proceeding to Leeds, and
three to Halifax: the company left at Berwick arrived at Halifax,
and the two companies left at Edinburgh at Leeds, in January, 1820.
At an inspection on the 27th of April following, Lieut.-General Sir
John Byng expressed his approbation of the appearance, discipline,
and interior economy of the regiment; and also at the inspection on
the 22nd of May, 1821.

[Sidenote: 1821]

The SIXTH remained at Leeds and Halifax until June, 1821, when
they proceeded to Hull, and embarked for the island of St. Helena.
Two companies had sailed for their destination when information
arrived of the death of Napoleon Buonaparte in exile at St. Helena.
The remainder of the regiment then proceeded to the Downs, where
its destination was changed to the Cape of Good Hope, and after
a tedious voyage arrived on the 3rd of November at Table Bay,
where it was joined by the two companies from St. Helena. Having
landed, the regiment was inspected by Lieut.-General Sir Rufane
Donkin, K.C.B., at Cape Town, and was commended for its appearance,
conduct, and efficient state--its effectives being only one
man less than on its embarkation from England. After remaining
a few days on shore, five companies, under Brevet-Major Rogers,
re-embarked and sailed to Algoa Bay, from whence they proceeded to
Graham's Town, and marched from thence to several posts and forts
along the frontier line. The establishment had, in the mean time,
been reduced to eight companies of thirty-three officers and six
hundred and eighteen non-commissioned officers and private soldiers.

[Sidenote: 1822]

In January, 1822, the head-quarters, under Brevet Lieut.-Colonel
Scott, embarked from Cape Town, and arrived at Graham's Town
towards the end of the same month; at the same time Lieut.-Colonel
Scott took the command of the troops on the frontier line of
Caffreland. The regiment was stationed along the frontiers, and
was much employed in patrolling and other duties to prevent the
aggressions of the natives. When not thus occupied, the men were
engaged as labourers and artificers at the government works.

[Sidenote: 1823]

In October, 1823, the flank companies proceeded to Cape Town,
and were followed by the head-quarters in November. Colonel
Mark Napier, having arrived at the Cape, assumed the command of
the regiment; Lieut.-Colonel Scott was nominated commandant at
Simonstown, and the command of the six companies left on the
frontiers of Caffreland devolved on Captain Cox.

[Sidenote: 1824]

[Sidenote: 1825]

In August and September, 1824, four companies were withdrawn from
the frontiers and joined the head-quarters: in January, 1825, the
regiment was inspected at Cape Town by Lieut.-General Lord Charles
Henry Somerset, who was pleased to express himself much gratified
at witnessing its good appearance after being so long detached, and
the men employed in working parties.

The regiment had in the mean time been placed on the India
establishment; and the usual augmentation of officers arrived
at the Cape of Good Hope in March, 1825. On the 22nd of March
it embarked at Table Bay on board the Windsor and Vansittart,
Indiamen, and landed on the 31st of May at Bombay. It occupied
the barracks at Fort George, and, Colonel Napier having been
appointed commandant of the fort and garrison, it was commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Scott. It was inspected on the 9th of June by
Major-General Samuel Wilson, of the Hon. East India Company's
service, who expressed himself much pleased with the steady and
veteran appearance of the men, and particularly commended its
interior economy.

In June, 1825, the establishment was augmented to a thousand and
eight rank and file. During that and the following months the
regiment suffered severely from the cholera morbus, which carried
off many of the finest and strongest men: the mortality was
particularly great among the women and children.

At the close of the rainy season, in September, the regiment
was suddenly ordered from Bombay to form part of a field-force
assembling at Cutch, with a view to the invasion of Scinde, between
the umeers of which country and the Bombay government serious
differences had arisen, in consequence of the incursions of a tribe
of Mayanas on the Cutch frontier. The regiment embarked from Bombay
on the 21st of September, four hundred and sixty-eight strong,
landed at Mandavie, in the gulf of Cutch, between the 10th and
15th of October, and marched towards Bhooj, the capital, beyond
which city it pitched its tents, on the 2nd of November, near the
village of Juruck, where eight thousand men were assembled under
the command of Colonel Mark Napier of the SIXTH. It was formed
in brigade with the Twenty-first regiment of Sipahees and the
flank companies of the second Bombay European regiment, under the
orders of Lieut.-Colonel Scott of the SIXTH; and the command of the
regiment devolved on Major Algeo.

On the 3rd of December the troops moved from Juruck to the
neighbourhood of Raddiapoor, and, Colonel Napier being obliged
to leave the army from indisposition, the command devolved on
Lieut.-Colonel Scott of the SIXTH. While at this camp six officers
and seventy-seven fine recruits, from Yorkshire and Lancashire,
joined the regiment.

[Sidenote: 1826]

In January, 1826, the army removed to Madapoor; in February it
encamped near the fort and city of Bhooj; and, in March, the umeers
of Scinde having yielded to the demands of the Bombay government,
the regiments were ordered back to their different stations. The
SIXTH embarked from Mandavie on the 20th and 21st of March, in
pattimars (small craft with open decks); arrived at the presidency
on the 26th and 30th of that month, and occupied the barracks on
the little island of Colaba. Its loss from sickness, during the
first six months after its arrival in India, was one officer and
sixty-nine men, and forty-one invalided.

Brevet-Major Thompson, Lieutenant Gordon, and one hundred and
forty-six recruits, joined from England in the beginning of May;
and, at the inspection on the 18th of that month, Major-General
Wilson commended the appearance and orderly conduct of the regiment
in quarters, which he repeated at the inspection on the 14th of
December. During the year 1826 the regiment lost four officers and
fifty men.

[Sidenote: 1827]

Lieut.-Colonel Scott, commandant of the fort and garrison of
Bombay, inspected the regiment on the 3rd of May, 1827, and
expressed his satisfaction at its appearance and condition. On
the 8th of that month six officers and one hundred and eighty men
joined from England. The decease of Lieut.-Colonel Scott occurred
in October following, and Major Algeo of the SIXTH assumed the
command of the fort and garrison of Bombay, until the arrival of
Colonel Henry Sullivan in November, when Major Algeo resumed the
command of the regiment. Colonel Sullivan inspected the regiment on
the 15th of December, and every department met with his approval.
During the year 1827 the regiment lost two officers and forty men;
and invalided twenty-three men.

[Sidenote: 1828]

Seven officers and two hundred and eleven men joined from England
in May, 1828. During the heavy rains many men were carried off
by the cholera morbus; in the month of July alone the SIXTH lost
fifty-eight men from this disease. This was a year of general
sickness all over India; but at no station did any regiment
suffer so much as the SIXTH on Colaba island; their loss being
two officers and one hundred and twenty one men, and they sent
sixty-two invalids to England.

[Sidenote: 1829]

The very sickly state of the regiment, from its having been
stationed during four monsoons at Bombay, occasioned it to be
removed to the more healthy station of Poona in the Deccan: it
embarked from Colaba on the 6th of February, 1829, landed at
Panwell on the opposite coast in the evening, and marched for
Poona, where it arrived on the 17th, and was stationed in the lines
then recently occupied by the twentieth regiment. The health of the
men began to improve rapidly, and in a few months the SIXTH were
one of the most healthy and efficient corps in India. In May one
hundred and thirty-five volunteers from the forty-seventh regiment
joined the SIXTH in camp at Poona; and at the inspection, on the
10th of June, Major-General Sir Lionel Smith, K.C.B., expressed
himself much gratified with the appearance and efficiency of the
corps. The loss from disease during this year was thirty-two men.

[Sidenote: 1830]

The condition of the regiment was also much commended by Sir
Lionel Smith at the inspections in January and June, 1830. In July
the flank companies were ordered to be completed to one hundred
rank and file each, under the command of Captain Murphy, with
the second or Queen's royal, and flank companies of the eleventh
and thirteenth native infantry, the whole to be commanded by
Colonel Willshire, to march against Ukkulcote; but this fort
having surrendered to the troops under the President of Sattara
(Lieut.-Colonel A. Robertson, the Resident at the court), the
march was countermanded. In December the strength of the regiment
was increased by the arrival at the camp at Poona of fourteen
volunteers from the first, or the royals, and ninety-two from the
eighty-ninth regiment. Its loss from disease this year was three
officers and twenty-four men.

[Sidenote: 1831]

At the inspections in January and June, 1831, Colonel Henry
Sullivan, commanding the Poona division, expressed his unqualified
approbation of the condition of the regiment. This year it was
particularly healthy, its loss being only one officer and eight
men; and when inspected in November, by Major-General Sir James
Stevenson Barns, K.C.B., commanding the forces in the Bombay
presidency, its appearance, discipline, efficiency, and general
good conduct in quarters, were commended.

[Sidenote: 1832]

The regiment remained at Poona during the year 1832, and on the
24th of May, 1832, His Majesty King William IV. was graciously
pleased to confer upon it the title of SIXTH, OR ROYAL FIRST
WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT[38]; at which time its facings were
changed from yellow to blue.

[Sidenote: 1833]

[Sidenote: 1834]

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 1837]

[Sidenote: 1838]

In January, 1833, the regiment was at Panwell, in February it was
encamped near Dungah, and in March at Deesa, where it remained
during that and the two succeeding years, when it proceeded to
Colaba. It was stationed at Colaba during the years 1836 and
1837[39]; and in the beginning of 1838 returned to cantonments
at Poona, where it has remained until the end of the year; which
brings this record to a conclusion.

The formation of the SIXTH, OR ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT,
in 1674, to support the cause of civil and religious liberty in
Holland against the power of the ambitious Louis XIV. of France,
gives an interesting character to its origin, and also to its
early services in support of the Protestant interests. At the
Revolution, in 1688, it had the honour to compose part of the army
which appeared in England to rescue the country from the dangers by
which it was menaced. It aided in delivering Ireland from the power
of papacy, and afterwards fought under King William III. in the
Netherlands. In the war of the Spanish succession it performed much
sharp fighting and arduous duty in Spain. Its services at home, and
in the West Indies, have been of an important character. It had the
honour to gain laurels under Lieut.-General Sir John Moore, and
also under the Duke of Wellington, in Portugal, Spain, and France,
and acquired distinction on the distant shores of Lake Erie in
North America. During the last eighteen years it has been employed
in protecting the British colonial possessions in Africa and Asia,
a service from which important commercial advantages are derived by
the country.


[Illustration: SIXTH (THE ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE) REGIMENT OF
FOOT, M DCCC XXXIX.]


FOOTNOTES:

[6] Then called the _Holland Regiment_, and now the _Third Foot_,
or the _Buffs_.

[7] A corps of cavalry, and two brigades of infantry, one English,
and one Scots, of which the _First_, or _the Royal Regiment_, is
the only remaining corps.

[8] Boyer's Life of King William III.

[9] Return of officers of the Earl of Ossory's brigade killed and
wounded at the battle of St. Denis, 14th August, 1678.

                                               Killed. | Wounded.
                                               --------+---------
  The Earl of Ossory's regiment                     3  |   10
  Colonel Henry Wisely's ditto (now 5th foot)       2  |   10
  Sir Henry Bellasis's ditto (6th)                  6  |    6
  Sir Alexander Colyear's ditto                     2  |    4
  Major-General Kirkpatrick's ditto                 3  |    6
  Colonel Hugh Mackay's ditto                       4  |    3
                                               --------+---------
                                   Total           20  |   39
                                               --------+---------


[10] Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.

[11] Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.

[12] Bishop Burnet.

[13] Millan.

[14] Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.

[15] Millan.

[16] The pay of the Regiment _for sixty days_, from the 5th June to
the 3rd August, 1685, amounting to £1014. 8_s._, was charged in the
Accounts of the Army in England.

[17] Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.

[18] Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.

[19] The first was an English regiment, commanded by Colonel John
Hales, and contained ten officers and two hundred soldiers of the
Roman Catholic religion; the second was commanded by John Wachop,
and contained twelve Roman Catholic officers and about three
hundred soldiers, who were principally Scots; and the third was
commanded by Roger M'Eligott: it was an Irish corps, and nearly
every officer and man was of the Roman Catholic religion.

[20] In the list of the Prince of Orange's army published by
authority, the regiment, which is now the SIXTH FOOT, is styled
"The regiment which was formerly Bellasis's;" in the ephemeral
publications of that date it is styled "Babington's regiment."

[21] Story's History of the War in Ireland.

[22] The original embarkation return of the regiment is preserved
among the Harleian Manuscripts, No. 7025.

[23] A note acknowledging the receipt of this dish is preserved in
the British Museum.--Bibl. Harl., 7025.

[24] Carleton's Memoirs.

[25] It seems remarkable that the distinguished conduct of
Lieut.-Colonel SOUTHWELL of the SIXTH has not been alluded to
by many historians who have written accounts of the capture of
_Barcelona_: his personal bravery and success were, however,
recorded in the "Annals of Queen Anne;" in the "Present State of
Europe;" and in a few other works published at the time.

[26] Carleton.

[27] Effective strength of the British forces in Spain at the time
of the battle of Almanza, from the weekly return dated 22nd of
April, 1707.

AT THE BATTLE

                                                  Men.

  Harvey's Horse, now 2nd Dragoon Guards          227
  Carpenter's Dragoons, now 3rd Light Dragoons }  292
  Essex's ditto, now 4th Light Dragoons        }
  Killegrew's ditto, now 8th Hussars               51
  Pearce's ditto, disbanded                       273
  Peterborough's ditto, ditto                     303
  Guiscard's ditto, ditto                         228
  Foot Guards                                     400
  Portmore's, now 2nd Foot                        462
  Southwell's, 6th ditto                          505
  Stewart's, 9th ditto                            467
  Hill's, 11th ditto                              472
  Blood's, 17th ditto                             461
  Mordaunt's, 28th ditto                          532
  Wade's, 33rd ditto                              458
  Gore's, 35th ditto                              616
  Alnutts', 36th ditto                            412
  Montjoy's, disbanded                            508
  Macartney's, ditto                              494
  Bretton's, ditto                                428
  John Caulfield's, ditto                         470
  Lord Mark Kerr's, ditto                         419
  Count Nassau's, ditto                           422
                                                 ----
                                       Total     8910

_In Garrison and Quarters._

  Royal Dragoons, at Culera                       302
  Royal Fusiliers,        } at Girone            1200
  Two Battalions Marines, }

  Hotham's,               }
  Sybourg's,              } at Alicant           1200
  Blossett's,             }
  One Battalion Marines,  }

  Eliott's,               } at Gibraltar          800
  Watkin's,               }
  Detachments at Denia                            200
                                                 ----
                                       Total     3702

[28] State of Europe, for June, 1708.

[29] Journal of the War in Spain, by a Chaplain of the army.

[30] See Lieut.-General Carpenter's letter, published in the Daily
Courant of the 16th of September, 1710.

[31] Tradition has connected the badge of the ANTELOPE, borne on
the colours of the regiment, with its services in Spain; and as the
SIXTH captured several colours at SARAGOSSA, which colours were
taken to England by their Colonel, THOMAS HARRISON, and presented
to Queen Anne, it is not improbable but that an ANTELOPE was on
one of the captured colours, and that Colonel HARRISON obtained
her Majesty's permission for his regiment to bear the badge of an
ANTELOPE in commemoration of the event. No documentary evidence
has, however, been met with to substantiate the tradition.

[32] The Complete History of Europe, vol. 22, pages 111 and 152.

[33] Martial Recorder.

[34] The following return of the strength of the King's forces at
Preston-pans was published in Douglas' History of the Rebellion:

  Gardiner's (13th) and Hamilton's (14th) dragoons              567
  2 Companies of Guise's (6th) and 8 of Lascelles'(47th) foot   570
  5 Companies of Lee's (44th)                                   291
  Murray's (46th) regiment                                      580
  Highlanders                                                   183
                                                               ----
                                                     Total     2191

[35] In the account of this battle, published by the rebels, it is
stated that four companies of the regiment were present.

[36] Tradition affirms that the SIXTH formerly bore the Motto
of "VI _et_ ARMIS," and on no occasion did the regiment more
vigorously support its claim to bear it than at the Heights of
Echalar. A pack, bearing that Motto under the Antelope, was
preserved by the regiment so late as the year 1825.

[37] Now Major-General Sir John Gardiner, K.C.B., Deputy
Adjutant-General of the Forces.

[38] The SIXTH foot, previous to their being styled "ROYAL," bore
on their colours and appointments many "ROYAL" marks of favour,
viz. "The Rose and Crown"--"The King's Crest"--"_Nec aspera
terrent_"--"The Antelope within the Garter," and motto "_Honi soit
qui mal y pense_." See page 68.

[39] On the 15th of June, 1837, authority was given for the badge
of the "ANTELOPE" being resumed on the coats of the drummers of the
SIXTH OR ROYAL FIRST WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT.



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

SIXTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


SIR WALTER VANE,

_Appointed 12th December, 1673_.

SIR WALTER VANE, fifth son of the celebrated Sir Henry Vane,
secretary to King Charles I., served in the royal cause during the
rebellion. He afterwards distinguished himself on the continent,
and having acquired the character of a brave and meritorious
officer, was advanced to the rank of marshal of the field in the
Spanish service. On the decease of Colonel Robert Sidney, in 1668,
King Charles II. conferred the colonelcy of the Holland regiment
(now third foot, or the buffs) on Sir Walter Vane; who, in the
winter of 1673-4, was promoted to the rank of major-general in the
English army, and appointed commandant of the British troops in
the pay of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and colonel of
one of the English regiments (now SIXTH foot) ordered to be raised
for the service of the States-General. He joined the army in the
field, commanded by the Prince of Orange, and signalized himself
on the 1st of August, 1674, at the battle of Seneffe, where he
was mortally wounded. He was interred in the great church at the
Hague, and a mural monument was erected in the cloister of the said
church, with the following inscription:--

  Hic juxta reponuntur exuviae
  WALTERI VANE,
  militis,
  filii quinti;
  Henrici Vane
  militis,
  Carolo Primo Magnae Britanniae Regi
  A sacris conciliis et secretarii Principal.
  Qui a serenissimo principe
  Auriaco
  Campo præfectus,
  media inter agmina,
  forti manu, sed fortiori animo
  in
  Prælio Seneffensi
  Hostium impetum et rabiem repellens,
  Cæco sed inexpugnabili marte percussus,
  Montii oppido quod est Hannoniæ
  Anno Dom. CIƆ.IƆC.LXXIIII
  Ætatis suæ LV.
  III Nonas Augusti
  Invictam ver vulnera reddidit
  Animam Deo[40].


TRANSLATION.

  Close to this spot are deposited the remains of
  WALTER VANE,
  a soldier,
  Fifth son of
  Henry Vane
  soldier,
  Privy Councillor and chief secretary to
  Charles the first, King of Great Britain.
  He was made marshal of the field,
  by his serene highness
  Auriacus.

And while repelling, in the midst of his troops, with a brave hand,
but with a braver soul, a furious attack of the enemy, at the
battle of Seneffe, was struck with a blind, but inevitable blow,
and in the town of Montium, which is a town of Hannonia,

  In the year of our Lord 1674
  In the 55th year of his own age
  On the 3rd day of August,
  He gave up his soul, unconquered by his wounds,
  To God.


LUKE LILLINGSTON,

_Appointed in 1674_.

This officer commanded a company in one of the regiments raised by
King Charles II, in 1672; after the peace of London his regiment
was disbanded, when he proceeded to Holland with a number of men of
his company, and entered the Dutch service. He served at the siege
of Grave, and during the following winter he was appointed colonel
of one of the English regiments raised on that occasion, now the
SIXTH foot; but his decease occurred before he attained any higher
rank.


THOMAS ASHLEY,

_Appointed 13th September, 1675_.

THOMAS ASHLEY held a commission in the English army previous to
the treaty of London in 1674; when his regiment was disbanded, and
he entered the Dutch service. He served under the Prince of Orange
(afterwards William III.), and towards the end of the campaign of
1675 he was promoted to the colonelcy of a regiment, now the SIXTH
foot. He distinguished himself at the siege of Maestricht in 1676,
and was at the disastrous battle of Mont-Cassel in the following
year.


SIR HENRY BELLASIS, KNIGHT[41],

_Appointed 3rd April, 1678_.

SIR HENRY BELLASIS was educated in strict principles of loyalty
and attachment to monarchical government, and though but a youth
at the time, he suffered in the royal cause during the usurpations
of Cromwell. Soon after the restoration he was appointed captain
of an independent company of one hundred men, in garrison at Hull,
of which fortress the Lord Bellasis (or Belasyse) was appointed
governor; who resigned, in 1673, in consequence of the Test-act,
he being a Roman Catholic. In the summer of 1674 Sir Henry Bellasis
raised a company of musketeers and pikemen for the service of the
United Provinces of the Netherlands, and was engaged at the siege
of Grave in the autumn of that year. He also served at the siege
of Maestricht in 1676; at the battle of Mont-Cassel in 1677; and
in the following spring he succeeded Colonel Ashley in the command
of the regiment which is now the SIXTH foot. At the battle of
St. Denis, in 1678, he evinced signal valour and ability, vying
in feats of gallantry with his commanders the Prince of Orange
and the celebrated Earl of Ossory, and was wounded. During the
rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, in 1685, he accompanied his
regiment to England; and in 1687 circumstances occurred which
occasioned him to withdraw from the Dutch service; but he preserved
his attachment to the protestant interest and to the Prince of
Orange. In 1689 he succeeded the Duke of Norfolk in the colonelcy
of a newly-raised regiment (now twenty-second foot), with which
corps he served in Ireland under the veteran Duke Schomberg. He
served as brigadier-general under King William in 1690; was at the
battle of the Boyne; and at the siege of Limerick, where he again
distinguished himself. In 1691 he acquired new honours at the siege
of Athlone; he also displayed bravery and judgment at the battle of
Aghrim; and on the reduction of Galway he was appointed governor
of that fortress, and took possession of the town on the 26th of
July, with his own and two other regiments of foot. The rank of
major-general was conferred on this distinguished officer in April,
1692, and he commanded a brigade under King William in Flanders,
in the autumn of that year. He acquired additional reputation at
the battle of Landen, in 1693; also in the command of a brigade
under King William during the following campaign; and in October,
1694, his Majesty rewarded him with the rank of lieutenant-general.
His meritorious conduct procured him the favour and confidence of
his sovereign, by whom he was employed on important services.
He commanded the camp on the Bruges canal in May, 1695; and a
division of the covering army was placed under his orders during
the siege of Namur. At the close of the campaign he was appointed
president of the general court-martial which tried the officers
who surrendered Dixmude and Deinse to the enemy, and sentenced
Major-General Ellemberg to be shot. He continued to serve in the
Netherlands until the peace of Ryswick. In 1701 he obtained the
colonelcy of the Queen Dowager's regiment (now second foot) in
exchange with Colonel Selwyn. In 1702 he was second in command
of the British troops in the expedition to Cadiz; and having
been charged with participating in the plunder of Port St. Mary,
he was tried by a court-martial and dismissed the service. His
reputation was thus unfortunately tarnished; but his crime does
not appear to have been considered of a heinous nature, as he was
subsequently elected a member of parliament for the city of Durham;
was appointed by Queen Anne, in 1711, one of the commissioners to
inquire into several particulars respecting the accounts of the
army in Spain; and in June, 1713, he was appointed governor of
Berwick. He died on the 14th of December, 1717.


WILLIAM BABINGTON,

_Appointed 28th September, 1689_.

This officer served with distinction under the Prince of Orange
in the Netherlands; he was rewarded with the lieut.-colonelcy of
Sir Henry Bellasis' regiment (now SIXTH foot), and in September,
1689, he was promoted to the colonelcy. He commanded the regiment
in Ireland; but retired in 1691, and his decease appears to have
occurred before he attained any higher rank than that of colonel.


GEORGE PRINCE OF HESSE D'ARMSTADT,

_Appointed 15th April, 1691_.

GEORGE PRINCE OF HESSE D'ARMSTADT descended from an ancient and
illustrious family in Germany, and was brother of the reigning
landgrave of that name. Having entered the service of the emperor
of Germany, he gave early proofs of innate valour in 1685, in
the war with the Turks; he also signalized himself in the three
succeeding campaigns,--particularly at the famous siege of
Negropont; and in 1689 he served against the French with the army
on the Rhine, and was wounded at the siege of Bonn, and also at
the siege of Mentz. In the following year he visited England, and
attending King William during the campaign in Ireland, he was
wounded on the evening preceding the battle of the Boyne, by the
cannon-ball which grazed his Majesty's shoulder. In April, 1691,
the King rewarded him with the colonelcy of the SIXTH foot, and
the appointment of brigadier-general on the staff of the army in
Ireland, where he highly distinguished himself at the head of the
grenadiers at the storming of Athlone; and led his regiment to the
charge with surprising intrepidity at the battle of Aghrim, and
was wounded. He also added to his rising reputation by his conduct
during the siege of Limerick. King William was anxious to reward
such distinguished merit, but the Prince, being a Roman Catholic,
was not eligible for promotion in the British army: his Majesty,
therefore, procured him an appointment in the Spanish service; and
having signalized his valour, zeal for the confederate cause, and
ability to command, during the siege of Barcelona, in 1697, the
King of Spain constituted him viceroy of Catalonia.

The Prince quitted Spain on the accession of the Duke of Anjou, in
1701, to the throne of that kingdom, and proceeding to England,
was consulted by King William respecting the best mode of
recovering that monarchy from the power of the house of Bourbon.
He accompanied the expedition commanded by the Duke of Ormond, to
Cadiz, in 1702, in the capacity of plenipotentiary from the emperor
of Germany; and he was subsequently employed on a mission to the
court of Portugal. He had the honour of taking a distinguished
part in the capture of Gibraltar in 1704; and the valour, skill,
indefatigable industry, and unshaken resolution, with which he
afterwards defended that fortress, were commended by the historians
of that period. He accompanied the Archduke Charles of Austria in
the expedition against Barcelona in 1705, and was killed at the
head of the storming party at the capture of Fort Montjuich on the
13th August, 1705.


HENRY MARQUIS DE RADA,

_Appointed 1st February, 1694_.

This nobleman was the son of the Marquis de Montpouillan; he
served at the head of the SIXTH foot, under King William, in the
Netherlands, and died of a fever at Bruges, in the beginning of the
campaign of 1695.


VENTRIS COLUMBINE,

_Appointed 23rd June, 1695_.

VENTRIS COLUMBINE served with reputation under the Prince of Orange
in the Netherlands, and was promoted to the commission of major in
the regiment which is now the SIXTH foot. He accompanied the Prince
in the expedition to England in 1688, but the transport in which
he was embarked was captured by the British ship, the Swallow. He
was rewarded with the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment in 1689;
served under King William in Ireland, in 1690; and, in 1691, was
wounded at the storming of Athlone. He subsequently exchanged to
the foot guards; served under King William in the Netherlands, and
while engaged in the memorable siege of the strong fortress of
Namur he was promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment in which
he had formerly served with honour to himself and advantage to
his Majesty's interest. He served at the head of his regiment in
1702, in the expedition to Cadiz, and was engaged in storming the
forts at Vigo; but his decease occurred before he was promoted to a
higher command.


JAMES RIVERS,

_Appointed 2nd November, 1703_.

JAMES RIVERS had the honour of serving under King William in
Ireland and the Netherlands, and his meritorious conduct was
rewarded with the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment which now ranks
as SIXTH foot, with which corps he served in the expedition to
Cadiz, and at the storming of the forts at Vigo. In 1703 Queen Anne
promoted him to the colonelcy of the regiment; but he only enjoyed
that honourable command two years, and died in the winter of 1705-6.


WILLIAM SOUTHWELL,

_Appointed 6th February, 1706_.

This officer entered the army previous to the Revolution in
1688, and rose to the rank of major in the regiment which is
now the SIXTH foot. He served in the expedition to Cadiz and at
the storming of the forts at Vigo, in 1702; and was promoted
to the lieut.-colonelcy in 1703. He commanded the regiment in
the expedition under the Earl of Peterborough, in 1705; and his
distinguished conduct at the siege of Barcelona (as narrated in
the record of the SIXTH foot) was rewarded with the colonelcy of
the regiment. He afterwards served in Catalonia and Valencia; but
retired in 1708. In 1714 he was appointed commandant of the company
of foot-guards armed with battle-axes, and instituted for the guard
of the lord-lieutenant of Ireland.


THOMAS HARRISON,

_Appointed 14th June, 1708_.

THOMAS HARRISON served under King William in the Netherlands, and,
during the war of the Spanish succession, he was adjutant-general
to the British forces in Spain. He was promoted to the rank of
colonel in the army on the 6th of February, 1706, and was rewarded
with the colonelcy of the SIXTH foot in June, 1708. He was sent
to England with the news of the victory at Saragossa in 1710; and
after the peace of Utrecht he was employed on the staff of the army
in South Britain.


ROBERT DORMER,

_Appointed 7th March, 1716_.

After serving many years in the life-guards, and rising to the
rank of lieut.-colonel of the first troop (now first regiment),
Robert Dormer was promoted by King George I. to the colonelcy of
the SIXTH regiment of foot, which he retained four years.


JAMES DORMER,

_Appointed 9th April, 1720_.

JAMES DORMER entered the army in 1701, and while serving under
the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough was promoted to the rank
of colonel in the army in 1707, and to that of brigadier-general
in 1711. After the decease of Lord Mohun, who was killed in a
duel with the Duke of Hamilton, Brigadier-General Dormer was
appointed colonel of his Lordship's regiment of foot. This corps
was, however, disbanded at the peace of Utrecht; and in 1715 he
was commissioned by King George I. to raise, form, and discipline
a regiment of dragoons (now the fourteenth light dragoons); from
which he was removed, in 1720, to the SIXTH foot. In 1727 he was
promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1735 to that of
lieut.-general. In 1738 he was removed to the first troop of horse
grenadier guards, the command of which troop he retained until his
decease in 1742.


JOHN GUISE,

_Appointed 1st November, 1738_.

JOHN GUISE obtained a practical knowledge of the profession of
arms in the wars of Queen Anne; he served many years in the first
foot guards, and was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of that
regiment in 1736. In 1738 King George II. rewarded him with the
colonelcy of the SIXTH foot. In 1739 he was promoted to the rank
of brigadier-general, in 1742 to that of major-general, in 1745 to
that of lieut.-general, and in 1762 to that of general. He held the
appointment of governor of Berwick several years; and died in June,
1765.


WILLIAM RUFANE,

_Appointed 14th June, 1765_.

WILLIAM RUFANE entered the army in 1721, and served many years
in the twenty-fourth regiment of foot, of which corps he was
appointed major in 1741, and lieut.-colonel in 1751. On the 16th of
January, 1761, he was appointed colonel of the seventy-sixth foot,
then newly raised; and he served under Lieut.-General Hodgson, at
the capture of Belle Isle, and highly distinguished himself. He
also served in the West Indies, and was promoted to the rank of
major-general on the 10th of July, 1762. In 1763 his regiment was
disbanded; and in 1765 King George III. gave him the colonelcy of
the SIXTH foot. He was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general in
May, 1772, and died in February following.


JOHN GORE,

_Appointed 19th February, 1773_.

The early services of this officer were in the third regiment
of Foot Guards, in which corps he was appointed captain and
lieut.-colonel in 1750, first major in 1760, and lieut.-colonel in
1761. In 1762 he was promoted to the rank of major-general; in 1768
he obtained the colonelcy of the sixty-first regiment; in 1772 he
was advanced to the rank of lieut.-general, and in February of the
following year he was removed to the colonelcy of the SIXTH Foot.
He died in November, 1773.


SIR WILLIAM BOOTHBY, BARONET,

_Appointed 18th November, 1773_.

Having entered the army in the reign of King George II., Sir
William Boothby served with reputation several years, and was
promoted on the 19th of March, 1750, to the lieutenant-colonelcy
of the thirtieth foot. In 1760 he succeeded General Watson in the
colonelcy of the sixty-third regiment, was promoted to the rank
of major-general in 1762, was removed to the fiftieth regiment in
1764, and to the SIXTH Foot in 1773; the command of which corps he
retained until his decease on the 15th of April, 1787.


LANCELOT BAUGH,

_Appointed 18th April, 1787_.

This officer served many years in the first foot guards, in which
regiment he was appointed lieutenant and captain in 1747, and
captain and lieut.-colonel in 1758. In 1771 he was promoted to the
rank of colonel, in 1777 to that of major-general, and in 1779
to that of lieut.-general. The colonelcy of the SIXTH Foot was
conferred by King George III. on Lieut.-General Baugh in 1787; and
he retained this appointment until his decease in April, 1792.


SIR RALPH ABERCROMBY, K.B.,

_Appointed 26th April, 1792_.

This distinguished officer commenced his military career as cornet
in the third dragoon guards in 1756; in 1762 he was appointed
captain in the third horse (now sixth dragoon guards), and was
promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment in 1773. Under
his vigilant care and attention to all the duties of commanding
officer, his regiment became distinguished as an efficient cavalry
corps; and he was rewarded with the rank of colonel in the army
in 1780; in the following year he was appointed colonel of the
103d regiment, or King's Irish infantry, which corps was disbanded
at the peace in 1783. In 1787 he was promoted to the rank of
major-general; and in September, 1790, he was appointed colonel of
the sixty-ninth regiment, from which he was removed in 1792 to the
SIXTH foot.

On the breaking out of the war with France in 1793, he was promoted
to the local rank of lieut.-general on the continent, and he held
a command under the Duke of York, in Flanders. In this service he
highly signalized himself, and his conduct was spoken of in the
warmest terms of commendation in his Royal Highness's despatches;
particularly his gallantry at the battle of Cateau on the 26th
of April, 1794, and in the general attack made on the French
posts on the 11th of May following. He also took an active and
distinguished part in conducting the unfortunate retreat through
Holland, and was wounded before Nimeguen on the 27th of October,
1794.

Shortly after his return to England he was sent with an expedition
to the West Indies, to complete the deliverance of the French West
India islands from the power of the republican government, and to
reduce to obedience the insurgents in the islands of St. Vincent
and Grenada. In this service he had distinguished success: he took
Grenada--obtained possession of the settlements of Demarara and
Essequibo--completed the capture of St. Lucia and St. Vincent--and
afterwards reduced the Spanish colony in the island of Trinidad,
and placed it under the dominion of the British crown. In the
mean time he had been appointed to the colonelcy of the Princess
Royal's dragoon guards, and created a Knight of the Bath; and in
November, 1796, he was removed to the command of the Scots Greys.
His distinguished merit was also rewarded with the appointment of
lieut.-governor of the Isle of Wight, and the government of Forts
George and Augustus.

In 1799 he was selected to command the first division of the
Anglo-Russian army destined to attempt the deliverance of Holland
from the power of France; and in effecting a landing on the 27th of
August,--in repulsing the troops assembled to oppose him,--and in
gaining possession of the forts of the Helder, which was followed
by the surrender of the Dutch fleet, he evinced the abilities of a
consummate general and the valour of a hero. He was also successful
in the action of the Zyp on the 10th of September. After the
arrival of the Duke of York he commanded a division under His Royal
Highness with reputation; and in the accounts of the engagements
which followed, his conduct was mentioned in terms of the highest
praise.

After his return from Holland he was appointed to the command of
an expedition sent into the Mediterranean. He captured Malta, and
appeared before Cadiz; but an epidemic disease raging in the city
at the time, the attempt on this fortress was desisted in for
fear of infection. He subsequently directed his course towards
Egypt, with the view of driving the French army from that country;
and while the fleet anchored in the bay of Marmorice, in Asiatic
Turkey, he arranged a plan of co-operation with the Turks. In
February, 1801, he again put to sea, and on the 8th of March he
effected a landing in the bay of Aboukir, and defeated a body of
French troops. On the 13th he drove the French from their position
beyond Mandora Tower, on which occasion he had a horse shot under
him; and on the 19th Fort Aboukir capitulated. On the 21st of
the same month he repulsed a furious attack of the enemy on the
position which he occupied near Alexandria, and during the action
he received a mortal wound which deprived his king and country of
his most valuable services. He appears to have been wounded in
the early part of the day, but continued in the field giving his
orders with that coolness and perspicuity which had ever marked his
character, till after the action was over, when he fainted through
weakness and loss of blood, and died on the 28th of March, 1801.

Thus fell one of the most honourable military men whose lives
have been commemorated in history. His character was held up to
the admiration of the army in general orders, in which it was
observed,--"The illustrious example of their commander cannot
fail to have made an indelible impression on the gallant troops,
at whose head, crowned with victory and glory, he terminated his
honourable career; and His Majesty trusts that a due contemplation
of the talents and virtues, which he uniformly displayed in the
course of his valuable life, will for ever endear the memory of
SIR RALPH ABERCROMBY to the British army. His steady observance of
discipline,--his ever-watchful attention to the health and wants
of his troops,--the persevering and unconquerable spirit which
marked his military career,--the splendour of his actions in the
field,--and the heroism of his death,--are worthy the imitation of
all who desire, like him, a life of honour and a death of glory."


PRINCE WILLIAM FREDERICK OF GLOUCESTER,

_Appointed 4th November, 1795_.

PRINCE WILLIAM FREDERICK, only son of William Henry Duke of
Gloucester, third son of Frederick Prince of Wales, was born
at Rome in 1776. His first commission was that of captain and
lieut.-colonel in the first foot guards, and was dated the 11th
of March, 1789. He held also the rank of colonel in the army. In
March, 1794, he proceeded to Flanders to join his company in the
first battalion first foot guards, and having a letter of service
as colonel on the staff, and to do duty with the army as a general
officer, he was appointed to the command of a brigade of infantry
of the line, under his Royal Highness the Duke of York. In the
general attack of the French positions preparatory to the siege
of Landrecies, he was employed in the column under Sir William
Erskine, and attacked and carried the village of Premont and
the wood on its left, for which he was thanked on the field. In
the following month he was appointed colonel of the hundred and
fifteenth regiment, then first raised; but he continued to serve
with the army commanded by the Duke of York during the remainder of
that campaign.

In February, 1795, his Highness was promoted to the rank of
major-general, and in November following he obtained the colonelcy
of the SIXTH regiment of foot. When the attempt was made in 1799 to
rescue Holland from the power of France, Prince William Frederick
was appointed to the command of a brigade in the Anglo-Russian
army commanded by his Royal Highness the Duke of York. In the
action of the 19th of September he supported the Russians. Having
re-captured the village of Schorel and the wood skirting the
village, he pursued the enemy up the sand-hills, and drove them
back upon Bergen; and when the army fell back he made good his
retreat, bringing off his guns, ammunition, and wounded men in
the face of the enemy. On the 24th of September he relieved the
reserve, occupying the advanced posts on the left; and on the 4th
of October he made a rapid advance to Schermerhorn, and obtained
possession of three of the enemy's guns. On the 6th he fell back
to his former position, and sustained for some time the attack
of a body of the enemy of very superior numbers. When ordered to
withdraw, he effected his retreat without loss. His Highness's
brigade was also engaged on the 10th of October, and remained
in front of the enemy until the army withdrew from Holland. His
gallant conduct was rewarded with the rank of lieut.-general on
the 13th of November, 1799. He was employed as lieut.-general upon
the staff of Great Britain, and had the command of the north-west
district from July, 1803, to May, 1807.

On the decease of his father in 1805 he succeeded to the title of
DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. In May, 1806, he was removed to the colonelcy
of the third foot guards, and was promoted to the rank of general
on the 25th of April, 1808. His Royal Highness was further advanced
to the rank of field-marshal on the 24th of May, 1816. He was
governor of Portsmouth, Knight of the most noble Order of the
Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of the Bath, and
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order. He was
a munificent patron of many public charities; and his universal
benevolence was the subject of great praise. He died in December,
1834.


SIR GEORGE NUGENT, BARONET, G.C.B.

_Appointed 26th May, 1806_.


London: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street.


FOOTNOTES:

[40] Copied from the monumental tablets in the cloister and great
church at the Hague, by the Rev. William Stevens, 1838.

[41] This officer's name is frequently spelt BELASYSE.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  foot-guards, foot guards; States-General, States General; scituate;
  unoffending; negociations.

  Pg 42, Sidenote '707' replaced by '1707'.
  Pg 46, 'tête du pont' replaced by 'tête de pont'.
  Pg 92, 'on the 22d' replaced by 'on the 22nd'.
  Footnote 27, 'Mackartney's, ditto' replaced by 'Macartney's, ditto'.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Historical record of the Sixth - or Royal First Warwickshire Regiment of Foot: from its - Formation in 1674 to 1838." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home