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Title: Perfumes and their Preparation - Containing complete directions for making handkerchief - perfumes, smelling-salts, sachets, fumigating pastils;...
Author: Askinson, George William
Language: English
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                               PERFUMES
                        AND THEIR PREPARATION.

                              CONTAINING

         COMPLETE DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HANDKERCHIEF PERFUMES,
       SMELLING-SALTS, SACHETS, FUMIGATING PASTILS; PREPARATIONS
                 FOR THE CARE OF THE SKIN, THE MOUTH,
                  THE HAIR; COSMETICS, HAIR DYES, AND
                        OTHER TOILET ARTICLES.

                                WITH A

          DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES; THEIR
                NATURE, TESTS OF PURITY, AND WHOLESALE
                             MANUFACTURE.

                                  BY
                  GEORGE WILLIAM ASKINSON, DR. CHEM.,

                      MANUFACTURER OF PERFUMERY.

              TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION BY
                             ISIDOR FURST.

         (WITH CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS BY SEVERAL EXPERTS.)

                    Illustrated with 32 Engravings.

                               NEW YORK:
                          N. W. HENLEY & CO.,
                            150 NASSAU ST.

                                LONDON:
                           E. & F. N. SPON,
                             125, STRAND.

                                 1892.



                          COPYRIGHTED, 1892,
                                  BY
                        NORMAN W. HENLEY & CO.



PREFACE.


The great progress which the art of perfumery has made during recent
times is due to several causes, the chief one of which is fully
realized only by the manufacturer on a large scale, who stands, as
it were, behind the scenes and has access to facts and information
concerning the materials he uses, which are not so easily accessible
to the dilettante in perfumery, or remain altogether unknown to the
latter. This important factor is the advance in our knowledge of the
physical and chemical properties of the several substances used in
perfumery, whereby we can better discriminate between the genuine
and the spurious, the choicest and the inferior, thus insuring, at
the very start, a satisfactory result, instead of being compelled to
resort to wasteful experimentation and empiricism. A better knowledge
has also been gained of the sources of the commercial varieties of
many of the crude products, and a better insight into the conditions
affecting their qualities or properties. A more exhaustive study of
the proximate principles of many of the essential oils has thrown
an entirely new light upon this heretofore obscure class of bodies,
placing into our hands new products of definite chemical composition,
unvarying in physical properties, and many of them valuable additions
to the perfumer’s stock of ingredients. Synthetic chemistry has also
added to the list of materials required by the perfumer, and is surely
going to add many more to it hereafter. Though some of these, like
the new artificial musk, are not yet in a condition to enter into
serious competition with the natural products, yet it is merely a
question of time when the latter need no longer be depended upon. The
increasing demands for the staple articles used by the perfumer have
also caused a large increase in the cultivation of many important
plants in various parts of the world, and have led to the establishment
of new plantations, in some cases to such an extent that the commercial
relations have been entirely revolutionized, new territories producing
larger crops and a finer product than the old home of the plant. The
exploration of hitherto unknown or imperfectly known countries has
also largely added to the perfumer’s art, and is likely to continue to
do this for a long time to come, since it is now well known that vast
districts, more particularly in tropical Africa, are inhabited by a
flora abounding in new odoriferous plants.

In spite of all this expansion of the perfumer’s stock of trade,
however, which results in the periodical introduction of new compounds,
there is a very large number of popular odorous mixtures which remain
in steady demand, having taken such firm root among civilized nations
that they are not likely to be displaced. It is more particularly with
a view to afford information regarding these latter that a work like
the present is desirable and necessary. A treatise on perfumery is
expected to place into the hands of the purchaser reasonably reliable
processes for preparing the most generally approved simple or compound
perfumes, as well as accurate information concerning the origin and
properties of the various ingredients, together with practical hints
regarding the determination of their genuineness and purity.

It is a frequent complaint of those who make preparations after
formulas published in works like the present, that they do not
succeed in obtaining fully satisfactory products. Another complaint
of purchasers of such works is this: that they fail to find formulas
yielding preparations identical in every respect with certain
celebrated perfumes which have made the reputation and fortune of
certain firms. Regarding the first complaint, we would say that
the failure lies generally with the complainant himself, through
carelessness in the selection of the materials or disregard of
the given directions. Concerning the second complaint, a moment’s
reflection must convince any one that formulas which are the result
of the study and experimentation of years, and the products of which
are the main stock of trade of certain firms, are carefully guarded,
and not likely to be communicated to others. Moreover, in many cases
even a publication of the component parts would not be of much avail,
for the manufacturer on the large scale has facilities for blending
and seasoning his products which the maker on a small scale does not
possess, and it is this part of the art particularly upon which the
quality of the products depends.

In preparing the present treatise for the American public many changes
were found necessary in the original text, in order to make the
information given more correct or definite, and so bring the work more
abreast of the present time. In addition to various improvements and
additions made in the working formulas comprising the second portion of
the work, the description of the natural products used as ingredients,
upon the quality and selection of which the success of the perfumer
mostly depends, has been carefully revised, and so far as the objects
of this work required, completed by Dr. Charles Rice, Associate Editor
of _American Druggist_, etc., in consultation with several experts in
the art of perfumery.



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.                                                       PAGE

  The History of Perfumery                                            1

  CHAPTER II.

  About Aromatic Substances in General                                6

  CHAPTER III.

  Odors from the Vegetable Kingdom                                   13

  CHAPTER IV.

  The Aromatic Vegetable Substances Employed in Perfumery            20

  CHAPTER V.

  The Animal Substances Used in Perfumery                            57

  CHAPTER VI.

  The Chemical Products Used in Perfumery                            63

    A. Chemicals Used for the Extraction of Aromatic Substances      64
    B. Chemical Products Used for the Preparation of Perfumes        68
    C. The Colors Used in Perfumery                                  87

  CHAPTER VII.

  The Extraction of Odors                                            87

  CHAPTER VIII.

  The Special Characteristics of Aromatic Substances                118

  CHAPTER IX.

  The Adulteration of Essential Oils and their Recognition          139

  CHAPTER X.

  The Essences or Extracts Employed in Perfumery                    146

  CHAPTER XI.

  Directions for Making the Most Important Essences and Extracts    150

  CHAPTER XII.

  The Division of Perfumery                                         166

  CHAPTER XIII.

  The Manufacture of Handkerchief Perfumes, Bouquets, or Aromatic
  Waters                                                            167

  CHAPTER XIV.

  Formulas for Handkerchief Perfumes                                169

  CHAPTER XV.

  Ammoniacal and Acid Perfumes                                      199

  CHAPTER XVI.

  Dry Perfumes                                                      207

  CHAPTER XVII.

  Formulas for Dry Perfumes (Sachets)                               209

  CHAPTER XVIII.

  The Perfumes Used for Fumigation                                  214

  CHAPTER XIX.

  Hygienic and Cosmetic Perfumery                                   225

  CHAPTER XX.

  Preparations for the Care of the Skin                             227

  CHAPTER XXI.

  Formulas for the Preparation of Emulsions, Meals, Pastes,
  Vegetable Milk, and Cold-Creams                                   230

  CHAPTER XXII.

  The Preparations Used for the Care of the Hair
  (Pomades and Hair Oils)                                           245

  CHAPTER XXIII.

  Formulas for the Manufacture of Pomades and Hair Oils             247

  CHAPTER XXIV.

  Preparations for the Care of the Mouth                            257

  CHAPTER XXV.

  Cosmetic Perfumery                                                269

  CHAPTER XXVI.

  Skin Cosmetics and Face Lotions                                   270

  CHAPTER XXVII.

  Hair Cosmetics                                                    280

  CHAPTER XXVIII.

  Hair Dyes and Depilatories                                        285

  CHAPTER XXIX.

  Wax Pomades, Bandolines, and Brillantines                         294

  CHAPTER XXX.

  The Colors Used in Perfumery                                      297

  CHAPTER XXXI.

  The Utensils Used in the Toilet                                   301



                    PERFUMES AND THEIR PREPARATION.



CHAPTER I.

THE HISTORY OF PERFUMERY.


The gratification of his senses is peculiar to man, and it is to this
trait that we are indebted for all the arts. The activities which
aimed at the gratification of the eye and ear developed into the
creative arts and music, and in like manner human endeavor directed
toward the stimulation of the sense of smell has in our time assumed
the proportions both of an art and a science; for it was nothing but
the advancement of chemistry that made it possible to fix all the
pleasant odors offered by nature and to create new perfumes by the
artistic combination of these scents. The preparation of perfumes is a
very ancient art that is met with among all peoples possessed of any
degree of civilization. It is particularly the ancient nations of the
Orient which had in truth become masters in the manufacture of numerous
perfumes.

The first perfume was the fragrant flower; it has continued to be so
to the present day: the sprig of dried lavender flowers which we lay
in the clothes-press was probably used for the same purpose by the
contemporaries of Aristotle. In the Orient, which we may look upon as
the cradle of the art of perfumery, the idea suggested itself early to
substitute for the delicious fragrance of the flowers some substances
of lasting odor; various sweet-scented resins supplied the material
for this purpose. The use of these aromatic resins must have been
very extensive: the ancient Egyptians alone consumed extraordinary
quantities for embalming their dead. How highly the Oriental peoples
in general prized perfumes can be learned from the Bible: the Jews
(like the Catholics to the present day) employed an aromatic gum-resin
(olibanum, frankincense) in their religious ceremonies; in the Song of
Solomon mention is made of Indian perfumes, for instance, cinnamon,
spikenard, myrrh, and aloes.

Altogether, incense played a prominent part in the religious ceremonies
of the ancient Western Asiatic nations—among many peoples under a
theocratic government it was even believed to be sinful to use incense
for other than religious purposes. The Bible teaches us that Ezekiel
and Isaiah protested against it, and that Moses even prescribed the
preparation of certain kinds of incense for use in the tabernacle.

Among the most highly civilized people of antiquity, the Greeks, a
large number of fragrant substances, as well as oils perfumed with
them—that is to say, perfumes in the same sense as we still understand
the term—was known; this will be no surprise to those familiar with the
culture of this remarkable people. The odor of violets was the favorite
among the Greeks; besides this they used the scent of the different
mints, thyme, marjoram, and other aromatic plants. This was carried
so far as to become a matter of fashion for the Greek fop to use only
certain odors in the form of ointments for the hair, others for the
neck, etc. In order to prevent this luxury which was carried to such
an excess, Solon even promulgated a law that interdicted the sale of
fragrant oils to Athenian men (the law did not apply to the women).

The Romans, who were the pupils of the Greeks in all the arts, carried
the luxury with perfumes perhaps even farther. In ancient Rome there
was a very numerous guild of perfumers called _unguentarii_; they
are said to have had a street to themselves in Capua. A Patrician
Roman anointed himself three times daily with precious, sweet-scented
oils which he personally took along into his bath in golden vessels
of exquisite workmanship, so-called nartheciæ. At the funeral of
his wife Poppæa, Nero is said to have used as incense more odorous
substances than could be produced in one year in Arabia, at that time
the only reputed source of perfumes. This luxury went so far that
during the games in the open amphitheatres the whole air was filled
with sweet odors ascending from numerous censers arranged in a circle.
The apartments of well-to-do Romans always contained large and very
valuable urns filled with dried blossoms, to keep the air permanently
perfumed.

Roman extravagance with perfumes was carried to such an excess that
under the consulate of Licinius Crassus a law was passed which
restricted the use of perfumery, there being good reason to fear that
there would not be enough for the ceremonies in the temples.

With the migration of the almost savage Huns and Goths, the refinement
of morals ceased, progress in civilization was retarded for centuries,
and at the same time the use of perfumes disappeared entirely in
Europe; but it was otherwise in the Orient. As an instance we may
mention the prophecy of Mohammed, who promised in the Koran to the
faithful in paradise the possession of black-eyed houries whose bodies
were composed of the purest musk.

The Arabs, the ancient masters of chemistry, were also the first
founders of the art of perfumery. Thus the Arabian physician Avicenna,
in the tenth century, taught the art of preparing fragrant waters from
leaves, and Sultan Saladin, in 1157, on his triumphal entry, had the
walls of the mosque of Omar washed with rose water.

It was the intercourse with the Orient brought about by the Crusades
that made Europeans again more familiar with the art of perfumery, and
a number of new odors rapidly became known. Italy and France, in those
times the representatives of culture, were the countries in which the
preparation of perfumes was carried on on a large scale. Thus, for
instance, we find the name of a Roman family preserved to the present
day because one of its members had combined a sweet-scented powder,
called Frangipanni after its inventor, which is still in favor, and
because his grandson Mauritius Frangipanni had made the important
discovery that by treating this powder with spirit of wine the fragrant
substance could be obtained in a fluid form.

The fact has been frequently related and repeated, that Catherine de
Medici, the wife of Henry II., had made use of the fashion of perfuming
the body for the purpose of ridding herself of objectionable persons,
by giving them scented gloves prepared and at the same time poisoned by
a Florentine named René (Renato?). We think this tale to be simply a
hair-raising fable—modern chemistry knows no substance the mere touch
of which could produce the effect of a fatal poison; and it is scarcely
credible that such a material had been known at that time and lost
sight of since.

In the sixteenth century, especially at the court of Queen Elizabeth,
perfumes were used with great extravagance; in fact, were looked upon
as one of the necessaries of life. This luxury was carried still
farther at the courts of the sumptuous kings of France; Louis XV. went
so far as to demand every day a different odor for his apartments. A
lady’s lover always used the same kind of perfume she did.

It is well known that among the Oriental nations perfumes are used so
largely that even food is flavored with rose water, musk, etc.; and
Indian and Chinese goods always possess a peculiar aroma which is so
characteristic for certain products that it was considered to be a sign
of genuineness; this was the case, for instance, with the patchouly
odor which always adheres to Indian shawls.

A shawl-maker of Lyons, who had succeeded in perfectly imitating Indian
shawls with reference to design and colors, spent a fabulous sum to
obtain possession of the plant used by the Indian weavers for perfuming
their wares. Despite the great outlay caused by the search for this
plant, the manufacturer is said to have done a flourishing business
with his “genuine” Indian shawls.

In more recent times the great extension of trade to the farthest
countries of the globe, and still more the progress of chemistry, have
made us familiar with a number of new perfumes. More than two hundred
different aromatic substances are now known, and still they are far
from being exhausted; every year new odoriferous plants become known,
from which the chemist extracts perfumes. By this means, as well as by
the enormous employment of perfumes in all grades of society, the art
of their preparation has risen to a higher plane; out of empiricism,
which alone prevailed a few decades ago, into the domain of the
chemical sciences.

Since the appearance of the last edition of this book, the art of
perfumery has made noteworthy progress both with reference to the
knowledge of new aromatic substances and to improvement in the
methods of their preparation; by the introduction of glycerin, solid
and liquid vaselin, and salicylic acid into perfumery, one of its
branches—hygienic cosmetics—has made an important advance.

At present it is particularly France and England whose perfumery
industry is most extensive and which to some extent rule the markets of
the world; southern France and Algiers especially furnish the best raw
materials, the finest essential oils for the manufacture of perfumes at
the chief centres, Paris and London.



CHAPTER II.

ABOUT AROMATIC SUBSTANCES IN GENERAL.


We apply the term perfume—which really means a fumigating material—to
those substances which make an agreeable impression upon our sense of
smell; the French call them briefly _odeurs_, _i.e._, odors. The high
degree of development at present attained by this industry in France
and England is the cause of the fact that all perfumes are generally
sold under French or English names, which must be borne in mind by
manufacturers in this country.

Perfumes or scents, however, exert not only an agreeable impression
on the olfactory organ, but their effect extends to the entire
nervous system, which they stimulate; when used in excess, they are
apt to cause headache in sensitive persons; the laborers in the
chemical factories where these substances are produced on a large
scale, occasionally even suffer by reason of their stimulating action
on the nerves. For this reason perfumes should never be employed
otherwise than in a very dilute condition; this necessity arises from
a peculiarity of the odorous substances which when concentrated and
pure have by no means a pleasant smell and become fragrant only when
highly diluted. Oil of roses, of orange flowers, or of jasmine, in
fact nearly all aromatic substances, have an almost disagreeable odor
when concentrated; only in an extremely dilute state they yield those
delightful scents which we admire so much in the blossoms from which
they are derived.

It will be easier to understand the almost incredible productiveness
of perfumes if we cite as an instance that a few centigrams of musk
placed on a sensitive scale can for years fill a large hall with their
characteristic odor without showing an appreciable loss of weight, and
still particles must separate from the musk and become evenly diffused
through the air of the hall because the odor is perceptible throughout
every part of it.

It would be an error, however, were we to assume that all aromatic
substances possess the same degree of productiveness; some of them, as
for instance the odorous principle of orris root, have a comparatively
faint smell—a fact which must be borne in mind in the combination of
perfumes. Even odors having a very similar effect on the olfactory
nerves differ widely in their intensity; for instance, true oil (attar)
of roses possesses an intensity more than twice as great as that of the
rose geranium; many authorities agree in giving the proportion as three
to eight, the first figure being that of rose oil, the second that of
oil of rose geranium. Therefore, in order to produce perfumes of equal
intensity (having the same effect on the olfactory nerves), we must
dissolve in an equal quantity of the menstruum either three parts by
weight of the attar of roses or eight parts of the oil of rose geranium.

In the prescriptions for the preparation of perfumes given in this
book, these proportions have been carefully weighed; but it will be the
office of the trained olfactory sense of the manufacturer to modify
them for the various kinds of perfumery in such a way as to produce a
truly harmonious pleasant odor.

Although we know many aromatic substances, we are still in ignorance as
to the preparation of certain decidedly agreeable odors. Thus no one at
present is able to produce the refreshing odor of the sea borne along
on the wind, any more than we are able to reproduce the scent exhaled
by the forest, especially after a warm rain; chemistry, though it has
done much in the domain of perfumery, has thus far thrown no light
upon it. Even certain vegetable odors—for instance, the delightful
perfume exhaled by some Aroideæ and Primulaceæ—we cannot as yet
preserve unchanged in perfumery. This opens an illimitable field for
future activity to the progressive manufacturer.

In a book devoted to the production of perfumes it would certainly
be in place to say something about the physiological relations of
the olfactory sensations; but unfortunately this interesting part
of physiology is still enveloped in great obscurity. All we know
positively on this subject is that many particles of the odorous bodies
evaporate and must come in contact with the olfactory nerves in order
to produce the sensation of odor. There is no lack of experiments
seeking to draw a parallel between sensations of smell and those of
hearing, and, as is well known, we speak of a harmony and dissonance
of odors as we do of tones. Piesse, the renowned perfumer, has even
made an attempt to arrange the different odors in a “harmonic scale”
having the compass of the piano, and to deduce therefrom a law for the
mixture of the several aromatic substances. This attempt, although very
ingenious, still lacks a scientific foundation. Piesse endeavors to
combine the several scents like tones to produce chords in different
scales; the chords of odors are to agree with those of tones. Thus far,
however, no proof has been furnished that the olfactory nerve and the
acoustic nerve have the same organization, and under this supposition
alone could Piesse’s system be accepted as correct.


THE DIVISION OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES ACCORDING TO THEIR ORIGIN.

The majority of the substances used in perfumery are derived from
the vegetable kingdom, but some come from the animal kingdom, and
for others which do not occur complete in nature we are indebted to
chemistry. As is well known, most blossoms possess a decided odor,
which is extremely fragrant in some; yet it is not the blossoms
alone, but in different genera various parts are distinguished by
agreeable odors. In some plants the fragrant substances are contained
in every part, as in different pines and the mints; in others, only
in the fruits (nutmeg, vanilla), while the other parts are odorless;
in certain plants only the rinds of the fruits contain an aromatic
substance (oranges, lemons). In the Florentine Iris the entire plant is
odorless—only its root stock possesses an agreeable, violet-like scent;
while, for instance, in the camphor-tree an aromatic substance exists
in the wood, in the cinnamon laurel in the bark, in the clove-tree
mainly in the closed buds.

But taking the aromatic plants all together, we find that it is
particularly their flowers which contain the finest odors, and that the
majority of perfumes are prepared from their blossoms.

From the animal kingdom we take for the purposes of perfumery only a
very small number of substances, among which, moreover, some peculiar
relation exists; while, for instance, all men would call the odor of
violets, roses, vanilla, etc., agreeable, the odor of some animal
substances is decidedly obnoxious to many persons, though others like
it—an observation which can be verified often with reference to musk.

With the advancement of science, chemical products find application
in ever increasing numbers; among them are substances which owe their
origin directly to the vegetable kingdom, while others, such as
nitrobenzol and pine-apple ether, are only indirectly derived from it.

From what has been stated, we learn that our attention must be directed
particularly to those scents which are derived from the vegetable
kingdom. To the manufacturer of perfumery, however, it is a matter
of importance whence the plants are obtained which he uses for the
preparation of the odors; a very slight change in the soil often
makes a great difference in the quality of one and the same species;
we see this quite clearly in our ordinary strawberry. While the wild
fruit is but small in size it has a delightful aromatic flavor, and
the same species transplanted into gardens attains much greater size
but possesses only a faint aroma not to be compared with that of the
wild variety. The Lombardian violet is large and beautiful, but the
German has a much more pleasant odor. On the other hand, the blossoms
of the orange-tree obtained from the plants cultivated in pots cannot
be compared with reference to their odor with these growing in the
Riviera, the strip of coast land of the Mediterranean from Marseilles
to Genoa. Altogether the last-named region and the south of France
may be called the true garden of the perfumer; in the neighborhood of
Grasse, Cannes, Nice, Monaco, and some other towns, extensive plots
of ground are set with aromatic plants such as orange-trees, Acacia
farnesiana, jasmine, violets, etc., whose products are elaborated
in large, well-appointed chemical factories solely devoted to the
extraction of their odors. The proximity of the sea-coast, with its
favorable climate almost free from frost, permits the cultivation of
southern plants, while in the more elevated parts of the country the
adjoining Maritime Alps cause a more changeable climate which adapts
them to certain other sweet-scented plants.

The great value of the annual production of the French flower farms at
Cannes, Grasse, and Nice will be evident from the following figures.
The harvesting and elaboration of the flowers at the points named
give employment to fifteen thousand persons, and the average annual
production is:

Orange flowers,  2,000,000 kgm., valued at 2,000,000 francs.
Roses,             500,000  "       "        500,000   "
Jasmine,            80,000  "       "        200,000   "
Violets,            80,000  "       "        400,000   "
Acacia flowers,     40,000  "       "        160,000   "
Tuberoses,          20,000  "       "         80,000   "
                  ———-———-                  ———-———-
                 2,720,000 kgm., valued at 3,340,000 francs.

From these flowers were manufactured: 500,000 kgm. of pomades and
essences, 1,000,000 litres of orange-flower water, 100,000 litres of
rose water, and 1,200 kgm. of oil of roses.

Besides, in more northern countries we find here and there quite
an extensive cultivation of aromatic plants; this is the case, for
instance, in England, where lavender, crisp mint, and peppermint are
planted on a large scale solely for their perfume. In northern Germany,
too, we sometimes find caraway and sweet flag cultivated, for their
peculiar odors only, in special fields.

As stated above, the place of growth of a plant exerts a powerful
influence on the quality of the odors developed in it; this
circumstance may be the reason why certain scents are prized most
highly when they are derived from some definite regions, because
the buyer is sure that the product from such places is of superior
excellence.

Thus we find that English oils of lavender and peppermint are valued
more highly and bring better prices than those from other points of
production; some places even have, as it were, acquired a monopoly of
certain odors. While the factories at Cannes produce the most perfect
odors of roses, orange flowers, jasmine, and cassie, those at Nice
are famous for the finest odors of violet, reseda (mignonette), and
tuberose, and those of Italy for the odors of bergamot and orris root.

Unfortunately there are in the United States no extensive places of
cultivation for odoriferous plants, although certain localities are
very well adapted to the growth of violets, mignonette, roses, syringa,
lavender, etc. Peppermint, however, is grown on a large scale in some
parts of New York State and in Michigan. Of course such an enterprise,
in order to be profitable, requires the intelligent co-operation
of planters and duly qualified chemists, besides well-furnished
laboratories and a considerable amount of capital; but under these
conditions the prospects of gain are good.

At present the manufacturers of perfumery are almost entirely dependent
upon English and French factories for their supply of odors. Owing to
the absence of competition, the prices for the products, excellent
though they are, are high, and become still more so when the crops
are short. These conditions would be materially altered under active
competition.

As indicated above, the odors used in perfumery may be divided into
three distinct groups according to their origin. These groups are:

1. Odors of vegetable origin.

2. Odors of animal origin.

3. Odors of artificial origin—chemical products.

Before describing the preparation of true perfumes, it is necessary
to become acquainted with the several raw materials required in their
manufacture; that is to say, the simple odorous substances, their
origin, their preparation, and their peculiar qualities. Besides these
odorous raw materials, the art of perfumery makes use of a number of
chemical and mineral products, whose quality largely influences that
of the perfume to be made. These, therefore, likewise call for an
appropriate description. Among these auxiliary substances are alcohol,
glycerin, fixed oils, and solid fats, which play an important part
not only in the preparation of the perfumes, but also enter into the
composition of many. The liquid handkerchief perfumes always contain
a large quantity of alcohol, the scented hair oils consist largely
of fixed oils, while solid fats of animal or vegetable origin occur
in the so-called pomades. As we shall see, the actual odors, owing
to their extraordinary productiveness, constitute generally only a
small percentage of the perfumes; the greatest bulk is usually either
alcohol, fixed oil, or solid fat.

Hence, as the last-named substances, aside from the odoriferous
materials, form the foundation of all articles of perfumery, the
manufacturer must devote particular attention to their purity, and
their qualities must be discussed in detail.



CHAPTER III.

ODORS FROM THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.


The odors occurring in plants have their seat mostly in peculiar
receptacles called oil glands in which the aromatic substances are
stored and seem to take no further part in the vital processes of the
plant. As has been intimated, the parts of the plant in which the
aromatic substances are stored differ greatly; but in general it may be
said that in most cases the flowers and fruits contain the odors; more
rarely they may be found in the roots, in the bark, or in the wood,
and in very few instances equally distributed throughout the whole
plant. In some cases, however, we can obtain totally different odors
from various parts of the same plant; this applies, for instance, to
the orange-tree, whose blossoms furnish a different odor from the ripe
fruits, and the latter must be distinguished from that obtainable from
the leaves. The odorous substances occurring in the vegetable kingdom
are either mobile liquids (essential oils), or they have a thicker
consistence ranging from that of cream to that of soft cheese (balsams
or gum-resins), or they are solid (resins). Aside from the fact that
the term “essential oils” is quite incorrect, since the substances
called by that name have nothing in common with oils except perhaps
the liquid state, we are forced from a chemical standpoint to include
among them even solid substances; the well-known camphor, a firm and
waxy-looking body, belongs according to all its chemical properties
into the same group as the so-called essential oils. The name
“essential (or volatile) oils” is due to the fact that the volatile
vegetable aromatic substances cause a stain on paper similar to that
produced by oils and fats; but the stain made by the former disappears
spontaneously after some time, while that due to true oils and fats
persists. The disappearance of the stain depends on the evaporation
of the vegetable aromatic substances—a quality not possessed by fats.
Hence the volatile vegetable aromatic substances, in contradistinction
from non-volatile fixed or fatty oils, have been designated as
essential or volatile or ethereal oils. Inasmuch as the latter terms
are the ordinary trade names for these substances, we are compelled to
retain them despite their incorrectness. The French name for essential
oils is _essences_; “essence de lavande,” for instance, is the French
name for essential oil of lavender, and not for an alcoholic solution
of the oil, as might be inferred from the usually accepted meaning of
the English terms “essence of lavender,” “essence of peppermint,” etc.,
which mean solutions of these essential oils in alcohol.

As the localities where the raw materials—that is, the aromatic
plants—are cultivated on a large scale naturally constitute the places
of manufacture of essential oils, we find in southern France and
in England the most extensive factories devoted exclusively to the
preparation of perfumes. In the countries named, a favorable influence
is exerted, too, by their situation near the sea, as well as by their
trade with tropical lands from which additional aromatic plants are
imported.

We have stated above that the manufacture of essential oils forms
almost a monopoly in France and England; but there is no doubt that
this country (the United States) likewise possesses many localities
favorable to the cultivation of certain aromatic plants and the
preparation of essential oils from them, so that this branch of
industry could be carried on at a profit. For this reason we have in
our descriptions devoted some attention to the conditions of growth
required by such plants as might be raised here. We even find that some
advantages are derived from the hot-house cultivation of some tropical
plants.

An exact knowledge of the chemical properties of a substance is in all
cases the first and fundamental condition for its preparation; it would
appear necessary, therefore, that we should endeavor to gain complete
information about the nature of vegetable aromatic substances before we
enter upon the description of the various methods of their preparation.


THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF VEGETABLE AROMATIC SUBSTANCES.

The sources of the odors derived from the vegetable kingdom can be
divided, as stated above, into so-called essential oils, balsams,
gum-resins or soft resins, and hard resins. Since the latter bear a
certain relation to the essential oils from which they are formed
through chemical combinations, we must consider them first.

The flowers, the fruits and their rinds, or even the wood of some
plants form the receptacles of essential oils; if they are liquid they
are called essential oils _par excellence_; if they are firm they
are called camphors. Besides, there are intermediate states between
them: oil of rose is always viscid and solidifies even at temperatures
considerably above the freezing-point of water (see under Oil of Rose).

The bodies which are generally called essential oils are usually
mixtures of a hydrocarbon with an oxygenated body, or an unchanged oil
with another which has become altered by the influence of the oxygen of
the air—a condition to which we shall recur later on. With reference
to their elementary composition, essential oils may be divided into two
groups:

1. Non-oxygenated essential oils.

2. Oxygenated essential oils.

The non-oxgenated essential oils consist only of two elements—carbon
and hydrogen; the other group, as the name indicates, contains a third
element in chemical combination, and consist of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen. Most of the essential oils of the first group have the same
chemical composition: C_{10}H_{16} (10 atoms of carbon combined with
16 atoms of hydrogen). Despite the like chemical composition, all the
essential oils display different physical qualities; they vary in
density, in refractive power, in boiling-point (often by many degrees),
and, a matter of the greatest importance for our purposes, in their
odor. We may state at once that but few essential oils can be said
to have a pleasant odor; that of most of them is even disagreeable
and narcotic to the olfactory nerves; it is only after the oil has
been extremely diluted that the odor begins to become pleasant and to
resemble that of the plant from which the oil was derived.

According to their physical qualities, essential oils may be described
as fluids of a specific narcotic odor, colorless but very refractive,
and easily inflammable. Only a few essential oils can be produced
in such a state of purity as to appear perfectly colorless; usually
they are more or less dark yellow in color, and some even possess a
characteristic tint; thus oil of acacia is reddish-brown, oils of
rose and absinth are green, oil of chamomile is blue. But a simple
experiment will show that the color is not inseparably connected with
the oil, for certain tinted oils can be obtained perfectly colorless
by being distilled with another, less volatile oil which retains the
coloring matter.

The boiling-point of essential oils is in general very high —between
160° and 288° of the centigrade thermometer (C.), or 320° to 550°
F. The fact that we smell the essential oils in aromatic plants so
distinctly despite their high boiling-point is an evidence of their
exceedingly strong influence on the olfactory nerves.

A peculiar property of essential oils, which is of great importance
in their preparation, is that of distilling over in large quantities
with steam—both ordinary and superheated—that is, at temperatures
at most only slightly exceeding 100° C. or 212° F. For this reason
essential oils are usually obtained in this way, since they are but
slightly soluble in water. Still, most of the oils dissolve in water in
sufficient amount to impart to it their characteristic odor and thus
to render it often very fragrant. Aqua Naphæ triplex (orange-flower
water), rose water, etc., are such as have been distilled over with the
essential oils, contain a small quantity of the latter in solution, and
hence have a very agreeable odor.

All essential oils dissolve readily in strong alcohol, petroleum ether,
benzol, bisulphide of carbon, in liquid and solid fats, in glycerin,
etc.; we shall again recur to this important subject under the head of
the preparation of the essential oils.

If a freshly prepared essential oil is at once excluded from the air
by being placed in hermetically sealed vessels which it completely
fills, and is kept from the light, the oil will remain unchanged for
any length of time. But if an essential oil is exposed to the air, a
peculiar, chemical alteration begins, which proceeds more rapidly and
obviously if direct light acts upon the oil at the same time. The odor
becomes less intense, the oil grows darker in color and more viscous,
and also acquires a peculiar quality: it has a strong bleaching
effect which is easily seen on the cork closing the bottle, which is
beautifully bleached. After a certain time the oil changes to a viscid,
less odorous mass, into balsam, and the latter, after the prolonged
influence of the air, finally changes into a brownish, odorless
substance, into resin.

These remarkable physical and chemical alterations depend on the fact
that the essential oil absorbs oxygen from the air, which it puts into
a peculiar condition in which it exerts increased chemical activity
and is termed ozonized oxygen. One of the most marked of these effects
is the uncommonly strong bleaching power of ozonized or active oxygen.
When an essential oil that has altered so far as to contain ozonized
oxygen—which is shown by its bleaching vegetable coloring matters such
as the juice of cherries, red beets, tincture of litmus, etc., agitated
with it—is cooled, we notice the separation from it of a usually
crystalline, colorless, and odorless body called stearopten, while the
remaining liquid part is called elæopten. Stearopten always contains
oxygen, while elæopten still consists only of carbon and hydrogen.

In the formation of the stearopten we distinctly see the beginning
process of resinification, which, therefore, is nothing but an
oxidation (combination of the essential oil with oxygen). It should,
however, be stated that as to many essential oils this is not proven
by actual observation. Many of them are not known to us as naturally
existing without any stearopten. Balsams are essential oils which
have to a great extent changed into resin, which they contain in
solution, and thereby have become more or less viscid. If the process
of oxidation goes still farther, eventually the greater portion of the
essential oil becomes oxidized, the entire mass grows firm, and then
possesses only a very faint odor which is due to the last remnants of
the unchanged essential oil.

Since aromatic substances during evaporation become mixed with air, it
appears probable that they act upon the olfactory nerves only at the
moment when they become oxidized.

The entire process of resinification of oil of turpentine can be
followed very clearly on the pitch pine (Pinus austriaca, or other
species of Pinus), just as oil of turpentine in general can be taken
as an example of an essential oil on which the peculiarities of the
non-oxygenated essential oils may be easily studied. In many localities
the pitch pine is partly deprived of its bark when it has reached a
certain age. From the trunk exudes oil of turpentine which in the air
becomes more and more viscid by the absorption of oxygen and changes
into balsam, called turpentine. The latter is collected and distilled
with water, when the unchanged oil of turpentine passes over with the
steam, while the odorless resin (rosin or colophony) remains behind in
the stills.

The above-mentioned qualities of the essential oils indicate naturally
how those used in perfumery, which are often very costly, are to be
preserved. For this purpose small strong bottles should be chosen which
are closed with well-fitting glass stoppers, over which is applied a
glass capsule ground to fit tightly over the neck of the bottle. _These
bottles should always be completely filled_ (hence small bottles should
be selected), _and kept tightly closed, in the dark_. As the action of
oxygen is retarded by low temperatures, it is advisable to keep bottles
containing essential oils in a cool cellar. But care must be had never
to pour out an essential oil in the cellar near an open candle light.
The vapors are very apt to take fire, as they are quite inflammable.

As there are a great many aromatic vegetable substances, so there
are numerous odors, or, to retain the customary though incorrect
appellation, numerous essential oils. All of these, however, cannot be
used in the art of perfumery, as some of them do not possess a pleasant
odor, as is the case, for instance, with oil of turpentine. (We may
state here, however, that very pure oil of turpentine, distilled from
certain Coniferæ, has an agreeable, refreshing odor which at present
has found application in perfumery under the title of forest perfume
or pine-needle essence.) Besides, there are numerous essential oils
which, while possessing a very pleasant odor, still cannot be used in
perfumery except for very cheap preparations, though they are employed
in much larger quantities in the manufacture of liqueurs. Such oils
are: oil of cumin, fennel, juniper, absinth, etc.

As we shall return to this subject in connection with the essential
oils which are used in perfumery in general, we will now consider at
greater length the aromatic vegetable substances which are employed for
the manufacture of fragrant odors.



CHAPTER IV.

THE AROMATIC VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED IN PERFUMERY.


Every fragrant portion of a plant can be used for the preparation of
an aromatic substance, and therefore for the manufacture of a perfume.
Hence we are unable, in the following enumeration of the aromatic
vegetable substances, to make any claim to absolute completeness; for
every new scientific expedition may acquaint us with hitherto unknown
plants from which the finest odors may be obtained. We have said above
that we have not yet even fixed in our perfumes all the odors of the
known aromatic plants, and therefore there is still a large field open
to the progressive manufacturer.

In the following pages we must restrict ourselves to the description of
those aromatic vegetable substances which are used in the laboratories
of the most advanced and scientific perfumers for the manufacture of
odors. At the same time we lay particular stress on the fact that the
knowledge of these raw materials is a matter of the greatest importance
to the manufacturer of perfumes because it enables him to appreciate
the differences, often very minute, between fine and inferior
qualities. Every manufacturer who aims at the production of fine goods
must make it the rule to use nothing but the best raw materials.

The price of the latter is apparently disproportionately high; for
all that, only the most expensive materials should be bought, for it
is the only kind that can be used. Let us give but two instances in
illustration. We find in the market, grades of vanilla the prices of
which are as one to four; the latter is fresh and contains the aromatic
substance in large amount; the former is old, dry, and worthless, with
an artificial glossy surface and little odor. The differences in the
price are still greater in an aromatic substance of animal origin,
musk, the cheapest grades of which are altogether artificial and
perfumed with a mere trace of genuine musk.

Of course, the same remark applies to the raw materials of animal
origin and to the chemical products, all of which should be of the
greatest purity obtainable.

The aromatic substances at present employed in perfumery for the
extraction of odors are the following.


ALLSPICE.

_Latin_—Pimenta; _French_—Piment; _German_—Piment; Nelkenpfeffer.

This spice consists of the fruit berries, at first green, later black,
of the Eugenia Pimenta, indigenous to Central America and the Antilles.
It is chiefly used in the manufacture of liqueurs, less in perfumery,
though it may be employed as an addition to certain strong odors,
particularly that of oil of bay; it serves very nicely for scenting
cheap soap.


ANISE.

_Latin_—Pimpinella Anisum; _French_—Anis; _German_—Anis.

This well-known plant, which is cultivated in many localities on a
large scale, belongs to the Order of Umbelliferæ. The seeds contain
about three per cent of a very aromatic essential oil which finds
application in the manufacture of soap and in cheap perfumery; it is
chiefly used as a flavoring for liqueurs. Good anise must have a light
green color, an agreeable sweetish odor, and a sharp taste. In order to
increase the weight, anise is occasionally moistened with water; such
seeds look swollen, are apt to become slimy, and then furnish a less
fragrant oil. Anise is not to be confounded with star-anise, which will
be mentioned hereafter.


BALM.

_Latin_—Melissa officinalis; _French_—Melisse; _German_—Melissenkraut.

Melissa officinalis, an herbaceous plant with large, beautiful flowers,
which grows wild in our woods, contains a very sweet-smelling oil in
small quantities. This can be extracted by distillation from the fresh
herb, and furnishes very fine perfumes.

Oil of Melissa of the market is, however, usually an East Indian oil,
derived from Andropogon citratus. See under Citronella.


BAY (SWEET BAY).

_Latin_—Laurus nobilis; _French_—Laurier; _German_—Lorbeerfrüchte.

The fruits of the bay-tree contain much essential oil which is used
less in the manufacture of perfumery than for scenting soap. Venice is
the most important point of export. See the next article.


BAY (WEST INDIAN).

_Latin_—Myrcia acris; _French_—(Huile de) Bay; _German_—Bay (-Oel).

The essential oil obtained from the leaves of this tree, a native of
the West Indies, possesses a very aromatic, refreshing odor somewhat
resembling that of allspice. It is known in the market as bay oil or
oil of bay. During the last decade or so its use has largely extended,
and, while formerly almost unknown on the continent of Europe, has
become an important article for the perfumer. An alcoholic distillate,
prepared by distilling the fresh leaves with the crude spirit from
which rum is otherwise obtained, is known as bay-rum, and is used as a
pleasant and refreshing wash for the skin. Bay-rum may also be made by
dissolving the oil, together with certain other ingredients, in alcohol.


BENZOIN.

_Latin_—Benzoinum; _French_—Benjoin; _German_—Benzoëharz.

This gum-resin, which possesses a pleasant vanilla-like odor, comes
from a tree belonging to the Order of Styracaceæ, the Styrax Benzoin,
and probably another species of Styrax, indigenous to tropical Asia,
especially Siam and Sumatra. The collection of benzoin is very similar
to that of pine resin; the bark of the tree is cut open, the exuding
juice is allowed to harden on the trunk, and is thus brought into
commerce. Benzoin differs according to its origin, the age of the tree,
etc., and in commerce a number of sorts (Siam, Penang, Palembang, and
Sumatra) are distinguished. As a rule, benzoin comes in lumps ranging
in size to that of a child’s head. They are of a light gray color and
inclose white, almond-shaped pieces. The finest quality, known as Siam
benzoin after its source, usually is in small pieces (Siam benzoin
in tears) which are translucent, light yellow to brown externally,
but milky white on fracture, and have a strong vanilla odor. Less
fine but still very good is Siam benzoin in lumps, consisting of
large reddish-brown pieces inclosing white particles. All other kinds
mentioned above come from the island of Sumatra, in lumps the size of a
fist. What was formerly known as Calcutta benzoin formed large friable
pieces of a dirty reddish-gray color. Siam as well as Penang benzoin
often contains, besides benzoic acid, also cinnamic acid; it is not
known why it is not a regular constituent. The worst quality is sold
as “benzoin sorts,” consisting of brownish pieces without white spots;
they are often mixed with splinters of wood, bast fibres, and fragments
of leaves, and can be used only for cheap perfumes.

Good benzoin, besides the qualities named, must have a sweetish and
burning sharp taste, it should be very friable, and when heated in a
porcelain capsule should emit vapors (benzoic acid) of an acrid taste
and a pronounced aromatic odor; it should dissolve completely in strong
alcohol. In perfumery, benzoin serves for the preparation of many
odors, washes, and the manufacture of benzoic acid. The latter will be
further discussed under the head of aromatic substances obtained by
means of chemistry.


BERGAMOT.

_Latin_—Citrus Bergamia; _French_—Bergamote; _German_—Bergamottefrüchte.

The bergamot is the fruit of a tree belonging to the Order of
Aurantiaceæ, which is cultivated in Calabria. The tree is unknown in
a wild state. The golden-yellow or greenish-yellow fruits, resembling
a lemon in shape, have a bitter and at the same time acid pulp; the
thin rind contains a very fragrant oil which is used largely in the
manufacture of fine perfumery and soaps, and is exported chiefly from
Messina and Palermo.


BITTER ALMONDS.

_Latin_—Amygdala amara; _French_—Amandes amères; _German_—Bittere
Mandeln.

The well-known fruits of the bitter almond-tree (Amygdalus communis,
var. amara). There are no definite botanical differences between the
sweet and the bitter almond-tree. The only distinct difference is the
character of the respective fruits. The aromatic substance obtained
from bitter almonds is not present fully formed in the fruits, but
results from the chemical transformation of the amygdalin they contain;
the latter body is absent in sweet almonds.


CAJUPUT LEAVES.

_Latin_—Folia Cajuputi.

The leaves of Melaleuca Cajuputi, a tree found in the Indian and Malay
Archipelago, which have an aromatic odor resembling that of cardamoms.
In the Orient the leaves are used as incense and for the extraction of
the oil they contain.


CAMPHOR WOOD.

_Latin_—Lignum Camphoræ; _French_—Bois de camphre; _German_—Campherholz.

The wood of the Camphor-tree, native of China and Japan, is exceedingly
rich in essential oil, the firm, white, and strong-scented camphor.
The latter is usually prepared from the wood at the home of the tree,
especially in Formosa and Japan, so that the wood hardly forms an
article of commerce and is here enumerated only for completeness’ sake.
In China and in Japan, however, it is largely used for the manufacture
of cloth-chests, trunks and wardrobes, as these are never invaded by
insects.


CARAWAY SEED.

_Latin_—Semen Carvi; _French_—Carvi; _German_—Kümmelsamen.

This plant, Carum Carvi, which is largely cultivated in Germany,
contains in its seeds from four to seven per cent of essential
oil which is extracted by distillation. Genuine caraway seed is
brownish-yellow, pointed at both ends, quite glabrous on examination
with a lens, and marked with five longitudinal ribs. Caraway is
occasionally confounded with cumin seed, from Cuminum Cyminum, which
is easily recognized with a lens: the seeds of the latter plant have
fourteen longitudinal ribs and are hairy. The use of caraway in
perfumery is limited to ordinary goods, but in the manufacture of
liqueurs it is largely employed.


CASCARILLA BARK.

_Latin_—Cortex Cascarillæ; _French_—Cascarille;
_German_—Cascarillarinde.

This is the bark of a West Indian tree, Croton Eluteria, belonging to
the Order of Euphorbiaceæ, native of the Bahamas. It occurs in commerce
in the shape of pieces the length and thickness of a finger; externally
it is white and fissured, internally of a brown color and resinous.
Good qualities should be free from dust and fractured pieces (sifted
cascarilla), of a warm aromatic taste, and a very agreeable odor which
becomes more marked on being heated. Another variety of cascarilla
derived from South Africa, Cascarilla gratissima, has very fragrant
leaves which can be used immediately as incense, just as cascarilla in
general is employed in perfumery chiefly for fumigating powders and
waters.


CASSIE.

_Latin_—Acacia farnesiana; _French_—Cassie; _German_—Acacie.

The flowers of Acacia farnesiana (Willd.), one of the true acacias,
native of the East Indies, which flourishes farther north than the
other varieties, cultivated largely in southern France for the
delightful odor which resembles that of violets but is more intense.
The flowers are collected and made to yield their odorous principle
by one of the methods to be described hereafter. The plant which is
generally but falsely called Acacia in this country, viz., Robinia
pseudoacacia, likewise bears very fragrant flowers which undoubtedly
can be made to yield a perfume by some one of the usual methods; but
so far we know of no perfume into which the odor of Robinia flowers
enters. Moreover, it is not alone the flowers of Acacia farnesiana
which may be utilized for the preparation of the cassie perfume; the
black currant, Ribes niger, contains in its flowers an odor closely
resembling the former; this is actually used in the preparation of an
oil sold under the name of “oil of cassie.” The latter plant flourishes
in our northern States and would answer as a substitute for Acacia
farnesiana, which cannot stand our northern winters.


CEDAR WOOD.

_Latin_—Lignum Cedri; _French_—Bois de cèdre; _German_—Cedernholz.

The wood met with in commerce is derived from the Virginian juniper
tree, Juniperus virginiana, which is used in large quantities for
inclosing lead pencils. The chips, the offal from this manufacture,
can be employed with advantage for the extraction of the essential oil
contained therein. Long uniform shavings of this wood are also used for
fumigation, and the sawdust for cheap sachet powders. Cedar wood is
reddish-brown, fragrant, very soft, and splits easily. In the perfumery
industry it usually passes under the name of the “cedar of Lebanon,”
although the wood from the last-mentioned tree (Cedrus libanotica) has
quite a different agreeable odor, is very firm, reddish-brown, and of a
very bitter taste—qualities by which it is readily distinguished from
the other.


CINNAMON.

_Latin_—Cinnamomum; _French_—Canelle; _German_—Zimmtrinde.

Cinnamon consists of the bark of the young twigs of the cinnamon-tree,
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, indigenous to Ceylon. Good cinnamon consists
of thin, tubular, rolled pieces of bark which are smooth, light brown
(darker on fracture), of a pronounced characteristic odor, and a
burning and at the same time sweet taste. The most valuable in commerce
is that from Ceylon; the thicker bark is less fine.

Chinese cinnamon or cassia (French, Cassie; German, Zimmtcassia)
consists of the bark of the cassia-tree, an undetermined species of
Cinnamomum indigenous to Southern China; this is grayish-brown and
has the general properties of true cinnamon, but it as well as the
oil extracted from it has a less fine odor than cinnamon or oil of
cinnamon. A very fine kind of Cinnamon has for a number of years past
appeared on the market under the name of Saigon cinnamon. It is very
rich in oil, and is exported from Cochin-China. Besides the true oils
of cinnamon and cassia, other essential oils are met with in commerce
under the names of oil of cinnamon flowers and oil of cinnamon leaves,
but their odor is not so fine as that of the former. The so-called
cinnamon flowers are the unripe fruits of various cinnamon laurels,
collected after the fall of the blossoms. They form brownish cones the
length of the nail of the little finger, and furnish an essential oil
whose odor resembles that of cinnamon.


CITRON.

_Latin_—Fructus Citri; _French_—Citron; _German_—Citronenfrüchte.

The fruit of a tree, Citrus medica, indigenous to northern India, but
largely cultivated in the countries situated around the Mediterranean
and in other countries. It is cultivated both for the pleasant acid
juice of the fruit and for their fragrant rinds. Only the latter are of
value for our purposes. It occurs in European commerce under the name
of Citronat or citron peel. Good commercial citron peel should be in
quarters and as fresh as possible, which is shown by its softness, the
yellow color, and the strong odor. Old peel looks shrunken and brownish
and has but little pleasant odor.


CITRON FLOWERS.

_Latin_—Flores Citri; _French_—Fleurs de citron;
_German_—Citronenblüthen.

The flowers of the citron-tree (Citrus medica) are white, fragrant,
and contain a very aromatic essential oil; but as the oil is always
extracted from the fresh flowers, the latter do not form an article of
commerce.


CHERRYLAUREL LEAVES.

_Latin_—Folia Laurocerasi; _French_—Laurier-cérise;
_German_—Kirschlorbeerblätter.

The leaves of this tree (Prunus Laurocerasus), which is largely
cultivated for officinal purposes, furnish an odorous substance
completely identical with that contained in bitter almonds, or, rather,
formed in them under certain conditions. As the extraction of the
odorous substance from bitter almonds is much cheaper, cherry-laurel is
but rarely used.


CITRONELLA.

_Latin_—Andropogon Nardus; _French_—Citronelle; _German_—Citronella.

This grass, which, like the oil prepared from it, is called citronella,
is a native of northern India, and is largely cultivated in Ceylon,
where large quantities are worked for the oil; for this reason the
grass itself is seldom met with in commerce. Its odor is somewhat
similar to that of the Indian lemon grass, that of verbena, and that
of several other aromatic plants, in place of which citronella is
frequently employed.

Much confusion exists in much of the current literature regarding the
source and synonymy of the Indian grass oils and allied products. The
following list contains the most important ones:

1. _Andropogon citratus_ DC.—Lemon Grass. The oil is known as Lemon
Grass Oil, Indian Verbena Oil or Indian Melissa Oil, or simply Oil of
Verbena or Oil of Melissa.

2. _Andropogon laniger_ Desf.—This is the Juncus odoratus or Herba
Schoenanthi of older pharmacy. No oil is prepared from this.

3. _Andropogon muricatus_ Retz.—Cuscus or Vetiver. Source of Oil of
Vetiver.

4. _Andropogon nardus_ L.—Citronella. Source of Oil of Citronella.

5. _Andropogon Schoenanthus_ L.—Ginger Grass. The oil is known as
Oil of Ginger Grass, Oil of Geranium Grass, Oil of Indian Geranium
or simply Oil of Geranium, also Oil of Rose Geranium [“Rose” is here
a corruption of the Hindostanee name of the plant, viz., Rusa], Oil
of Rusa Grass, Oil of Rusa, Oil of Palmarosa.—The two terms “Oil of
Geranium” and “Oil of Rose Geranium” should be abandoned for this oil,
to avoid confusion with the “Oil of (Rose) Geranium” obtained from
Pelargonium. See under “Geranium.”


CLOVE.

_Latin_—Caryophylli; _French_—Clous de girofle; _German_—Nelkengewürz.

This well-known spice comes from a tree, Caryophyllus aromaticus,
native of the Moluccas, and largely cultivated at Zanzibar, Pemba, and
elsewhere. It consists of the closed buds. The main essential of good
quality is the greatest possible freshness, which may be recognized by
the cloves being full, heavy, reddish-brown, and of a fatty aspect,
and they must contain so much essential oil (about 18 per cent)
that when crushed between the fingers the latter should be stained
yellowish-brown. Before buying, this test should always be made, and
attention paid to the fact whether the whitish dust is present in the
wrinkles about the head. We have found in commerce cloves from which
the essential oil had been fraudulently extracted with alcohol and
hence were worthless; such cloves may be recognized by the faint odor
and taste, but especially by the absence of the whitish dust.


CUCUMBER.

_Latin_—Cucumis sativus; _French_—Concombre; _German_—Gurke.

The well-known fruits of this kitchen-garden plant, though not
strictly sweet-scented, possess a peculiar refreshing odor which has
found application in perfumery. Certain products belonging under this
head require the odor of cucumber, and therefore this plant is to be
included among the aromatic plants in a wider sense.


CULILABAN BARK.

_Latin_—Cortex Culilavan; _French_—Ecorce culilaban;
_German_—Kulilabanrinde.

The bark of Cinnamomum Culilavan Nees, a plant indigenous to the
Molucca islands, used to occur in commerce in the shape of long, flat
pieces of a yellowish-brown color, with an odor like a mixture of
cinnamon, sassafras, and clove oils. It is rarely met with now.


DILL.

_Latin_—Semen Anethi; _French_—Aneth; _German_—Dillsamen.

This plant, Anethum graveolens, which is indigenous to the
Mediterranean region and southern Russia, contains in all its parts,
particularly in the seeds, an oil of a peculiar odor, which is used
as a perfume for soap, also in cheap perfumery, and especially as a
flavoring for liqueurs.


ELDER FLOWERS.

_Latin_—Flores Sambuci; _French_—Sureau; _German_—Hollunderblüthen.

This bush, Sambucus niger, which grows wild in Europe, bears umbellar
flowers which are officinal, but contain besides a pleasant odor which
can be extracted from them. The odor of the flowers deteriorates on
drying, hence in perfumery only the fresh flowers should be used. The
American elder (Sambucus canadensis) could easily be used in place of
it.


FENNEL (SEED AND HERB).

_Latin_—Fœniculum; _French_—Fenouil; _German_—Fenchel.

This plant, Fœniculum vulgare, Order Umbelliferæ, is largely cultivated
in Europe. It contains an essential oil in all its parts, but
especially in the seeds. The plant is rarely used in perfumery, but
more frequently in the manufacture of liqueurs. The herb, dried and
comminuted, enters into the composition of some cheap sachets.


FRANGIPANNI (see Plumeria).


GERANIUM.

_Latin_—Pelargonium roseum; _French_—Géranium; _German_—Geranium.

This plant, originally indigenous in South Africa, contains in its
leaves an essential oil whose odor closely resembles that of roses. At
present it is cultivated on a large scale in many parts of France and
in Turkey, solely for the purposes of perfumery. This plant would grow
freely in our Southern and Middle States, and could be cultivated with
advantage for the extraction of its highly valued perfume.

The terms “Oil of Geranium” and “Oil of Rose Geranium” ought to
be restricted in commerce to the oil obtained from true geranium
(Pelargonium). Unfortunately, they are yet very commonly applied to
an East Indian oil obtained from a species of Andropogon (see under
Citronella).


=Hedyosmum Flowers.=

On the Antilles there are a number of bushes belonging to the Genus
Hedyosmum, Order Chloranthaceæ, whose flowers possess a magnificent,
truly intoxicating odor. Thus far these odors seem to have been
accessible only to English perfumers. The perfumes sold under this name
by Continental manufacturers are merely combinations of different odors.


HELIOTROPE.

_Latin_—Heliotropium peruvianum; _French_—Héliotrope;
_German_—Heliotropenblüthen.

The flowers of this plant, which flourishes well in all temperate or
tropic countries, possess a very pleasant odor, about the preparation
of which we shall have more to say hereafter. In Europe only French
perfumers have manufactured it; according to the author’s experiments,
however, its extraction presents no more difficulty than that of any
other plant.

A synthetic, chemical product, known as piperonal, related to vanillin
and cumarin, possesses the odor of the heliotrope in a most remarkable
degree. It is therefore much used to imitate the latter. In commerce it
is known as heliotropin.


HONEYSUCKLE.

_Latin_—Flores Loniceræ; _French_—Chèvre-feuille; _German_—
Geisblattblüthen.

This well-known climbing plant, Lonicera Caprifolium, found in many of
our garden bowers, contains an exceedingly fragrant oil in its numerous
flowers, from which the author has prepared it. [Some of the American
species of honeysuckle would, no doubt, likewise yield an essential
oil.] The oil sold in commerce under this name is not obtained from
these flowers, but is an imitation of the odor conventionally accepted
for it. The true oil of honeysuckle, first prepared by the author, far
surpasses these imitations in fragrance.


HYSSOP.

_Latin_—Hyssopus officinalis; _French_—Hyssope; _German_—Ysopkraut.

Hyssop possesses a strong odor, a very bitter taste, and is used only
for cheap perfumery, but more frequently in the manufacture of liqueurs.


JASMINE.

_Latin_—Jasminum odoratissimum; _French_—Jasmin; _German_—Jasminblüthen.

True jasmine—not to be confounded with German jasmine (Philadelphus
coronarius, known here as the mock orange, or the Syringa of
cultivation) which is likewise employed in perfumery—flourishes
particularly in the coast lands of the Mediterranean, where it is
cultivated as a dwarf tree. The odor obtained from the flowers is one
of the finest and most expensive in existence, and for this reason it
would be well worth trying the cultivation in our southern States. At
present nearly all the true jasmine perfume (pomade, extract, etc.)
comes from France.


LAVENDER.

_Latin_—Lavandula vera; _French_—Lavande; _German_—Lavendel.

True lavender, which belongs to the Order of Labiatæ that contains
many aromatic plants, is one of the most ancient in our art; it was
early used in Greece for purposes of perfumery. Although true lavender
flourishes throughout central Europe, its cultivation on a large scale
is carried on chiefly in England, and the oil of lavender from English
factories is most highly prized. Much lavender is also grown in France,
but the product, though very fine, has a much lower value.

True lavender is to be distinguished from spike-lavender (French,
aspic; German, Spik-Lavendel), whose odor is similar to that of true
lavender, but furnishes a much less aromatic perfume. The cultivation
of lavender in this country (U. S.) might give good results.


LEMON.

_Latin_—Citrus Limonum; _French_—Limon; _German_—Limonenfrüchte.

The fruits of the South European lemon-tree, not to be confounded with
citrons, resemble the latter in appearance, but they are smaller, have
a more acid taste and a thinner rind. The peel contains an essential
oil which is very similar in odor to that of the citron. Hence the oils
of lemon, limetta (from Citrus Limetta), and citron are used for the
same purposes; but when the three oils are immediately compared, an
experienced olfactory organ perceives a marked difference between them.


LEMON GRASS.

_Latin_—Andropogon citrates; _French_—Schoenanthe;
_German_—Citronengrass.

This grass, which bears a close resemblance to citronella, is largely
cultivated, especially in India and Ceylon, for the essential oil it
contains. The odor of the grass is similar to that of verbena, so that
its oil is often used as an adulterant or rather as a substitute for
the former. (Compare the article on “Citronella.”)


LILAC.

_Latin_—Flores Syringæ; _French_—Lilas; _German_—Fliederblüthen.

This plant, Syringa vulgaris, a native of Persia but fully acclimated
in Europe and in this country, has very fragrant flowers, the odor of
which can be obtained only from the fresh blossoms.

A recently discovered liquid principle, now known as terpineol
(C_{10}H_{17}OH), which exists in many essential oils, and in these, in
the portion boiling between 420° and 424° F., possesses the lilac odor
in a most pronounced degree, and to its presence in the lilac flowers
the peculiar odor of the latter is, no doubt, due. It is obtainable in
the market under the name lilacine.

The Syringa of the florists is not the true lilac, but the same as the
Mock Orange, viz., Philadelphus coronarius.


LILY.

_Latin_—Lilium candidum; _French_—Lis; _German_—Lilienblüthen.

The remarks made under the head of Wallflower apply equally to the
blossoms of the white garden lily: strange to say, they are not used in
perfumery, and all the so-called odors of lily are mixtures of several
aromatic substances. The author has succeeded in separating from the
flowers, by means of petroleum ether, the delightful odor present in
large amount in the blossoms of this plant, and has employed it in the
manufacture of magnificent perfumes.


MACE.

_Latin_—Macis; _French_—Macis; _German_—Muscatblüthe.

This substance is the dried arillus covering the fruits of Myristica
fragrans, the so-called nutmegs. The tree bearing them is indigenous
to a group of islands in the Indian Archipelago and is cultivated
especially on the Molucca islands. Although mace is in such close
relation with nutmeg, yet, strange to say, the aromatic substance
differs decidedly from that of the nut. Mace of good quality forms
pieces of orange-yellow color; they are fleshy, usually slit open
on one side, have a strong odor, tear with difficulty, and are so
oily that when crushed they stain the fingers brownish-yellow. Mace
is largely used in the preparation of sachets and particularly for
scenting soap. In England, soap scented with mace is well liked.


MAGNOLIA.

_Latin_—Magnolia grandiflora; _French_—Magnolia;
_German_—Magnoliablüthen.

The magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), indigenous to the warmer parts of
South, Central, and North America, bears large white flowers having a
delightful odor which can be extracted by means of petroleum ether.
In the same way, truly intoxicating perfumes may be obtained from
other varieties of magnolia. In our climate these plants flourish only
in conservatories, and in their home no steps have yet been taken
to utilize these natural treasures in a proper way; hence European
manufacturers invariably produce the perfume called magnolia by
combination of different odors.


MARJORAM.

_Latin_—Herba majoranæ; _French_—Marjolaine; _German_—Majorankraut.

This plant, Origanum Majorana (vulgare), frequently cultivated in
kitchen gardens, possesses in all its parts a strong odor due to an
essential oil. The latter, which is quite expensive, is but little
used, and probably only for culinary purposes.

“Oil of Origanum” in English-speaking countries is intended to mean Oil
of Thyme (from Thymus vulgaris), and never means Oil of Marjoram.


MEADOW SWEET.

_Latin_—Spiræa ulmaria; _French_—Reine des prés; _German_—Spierstaude.

This plant is frequent in Europe on damp meadows, and contains an
aromatic substance closely allied to oil of wintergreen, which occurs
also in the Canadian variety.


MINT.

_Latin_—Mentha; _French_—Menthe; _German_—Minze.

The varieties of mint claiming our attention are the following:
_Mentha piperita_, Peppermint (French: Menthe poivrée; German:
Pfefferminze).—_Mentha viridis_, Spearmint (French: Menthe verte;
German: Grüne Minze).—_Mentha crispa_, Crisp Mint (French: Menthe
crépue [or frisée]; German: Krause Minze).

All of the mints have a pleasant odor; besides the plants named above,
we may mention Mentha aquatica, whose odor faintly but distinctly
recalls that of musk. Like lavender, Mentha crispa and M. piperita are
cultivated particularly in England, and the English oils are the most
superior. Mentha piperita is also largely cultivated in the United
States. Mentha viridis and its oil are almost exclusively confined to
this country.


MUSK-SEED.

_Latin_—Semen Abelmoschi; _French_—Grains d’ambrette;
_German_—Bisamkörner.

The tree, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, indigenous to Africa and India, bears
fruit capsules containing reddish-gray seeds with grooved surface,
so-called musk-seeds. They have an odor resembling musk, but much
weaker, though it becomes more pronounced when the seeds are bruised.
Besides this species of Hibiscus, other plants belonging to the same
order are aromatic and are also used in perfumery.


MYRRH.

_Latin_—Myrrha; _French_—Myrrhe; _German_—Myrrhe.

The gum-resin which we call myrrh has long been known in the East,
where it was celebrated as one of the finest perfumes, along with
spikenard and frankincense. The tree, Balsamodendron Myrrha (or
Commiphora Myrrha Engler) is indigenous to the countries bordering
the Red Sea to about 22° N. Lat.; the gum exudes partly spontaneously
from the trunk. In European commerce myrrh appears in different sorts;
that called myrrha electa or myrrha in lacrimis is the most precious;
it forms tears of a golden yellow to brown color, traversed by white
veins; they have a pleasant smell. That called myrrha naturalis is
inferior, but on being heated develops the characteristic aroma. In
commerce a product is sometimes offered by the name of myrrh which is
nothing but cherry-tree gum scented with genuine myrrh.


MYRTLE LEAVES.

_Latin_—Myrtus communis; _French_—Myrte; _German_—Myrtenblätter.

The leaves of this Southern European plant diffuse a pleasant odor;
the oil to which it is due can be extracted by distillation; yet the
perfumes usually called myrtle are not obtained from the plant, but are
made by the combination of several aromatic substances. The aromatic
water known, especially in France, as “eau d’anges” is obtained by the
distillation of myrtle leaves with water.


NARCISSUS.

_Latin_—Narcissus poeticus; _French_—Narcisse;
_German_—Narcissenblüthen.

The blossoms of this favorite garden plant, which is cultivated on a
large scale near Nice, have a pleasant, almost narcotic odor which may
be extracted in various ways; though the greatest part of the so-called
narcissus perfumes are made artificially.

Another species of Narcissus (Narcissus Jonquilla) is frequently
cultivated in warm countries for its pleasant scent; but the perfumes
generally found in the market under the name of Extract, etc., of
Jonquil are artificial compounds.


NUTMEG.

_Latin_—Myristica; _French_—Muscade; _German_—Muscatnüsse.

These nuts are almost spherical in shape, the size of a small walnut,
of a grayish-brown color externally, and usually coated with a
faint whitish-gray covering (which is lime). Internally they are
reddish-brown, with white marbled spots. Good fresh nutmegs should be
dense, heavy, and so oily that when pierced with a needle a drop of
oil should follow the withdrawal of the latter. Nuts which are hollow,
wormy, and of a faint odor cannot be used in perfumery. Oil of nutmeg
is used extensively in perfumery, but is rarely employed pure, more
commonly in combination with other strong odors.


OLIBANUM.

_Latin_—Olibanum; _French_—Encens; _German_—Weihrauch.

This gum-resin, employed even by the ancient civilized nations of Asia,
especially as incense for religious purposes, comes from East African
trees, various species of Boswellia. Fine olibanum appears in light
yellow tears, very transparent and hard, whose pleasant though faint
odor becomes particularly marked when it is thrown on hot coals. In
perfumery olibanum is used almost exclusively for pastils, fumigating
powders, etc. Pulverulent olibanum constitutes an inferior quality and
is often adulterated with pine resin.


OPOPANAX.

_Latin_—Resina Opopanax.

The root stock of an umbelliferous plant, indigenous in Syria, now
recognized at Balsamodendron Kafal, furnishes a yellow milky sap
containing an aromatic resin with an odor resembling that of gum
ammoniacum. At least the opopanax now obtainable in the market is
derived from this source. True opopanax resin, such as used to reach
the market formerly, is now unobtainable, and its true source is yet
unknown. Opopanax oil is used in perfumery to some extent.


ORANGE FLOWERS.

_Latin_—Flores Aurantii; _French_—Fleurs d’oranges;
_German_—Orangenblüthen.

The flowers of the bitter orange tree (Citrus vulgaris), as well as
those of the sweet (Citrus Aurantium), contain very fragrant essential
oils, which differ in flavor and value according to their source and
mode of preparation. See below, under Oil of Orange. The leaves, too,
contain a peculiar oil used in perfumery.


ORANGE PEEL.

_Latin_—Cortex Aurantii; _French_—Ecorce d’oranges;
_German_—Orangenschalen.

The very oily rinds of the orange occur in commerce in a dried form;
such peels, however, can be used only in the manufacture of liqueurs;
in perfumery nothing but the oil from the fresh rinds is employed, and
this is generally obtained by pressure.


ORIGANUM.

See Marjoram, and Thyme.


ORRIS ROOT.

_Latin_—Radix Iridis florentinæ; _French_—Iris; _German_—Veilchenwurzel.

The Florentine sword-lily, Iris florentina, which often grows wild in
Italy but is largely cultivated, has a creeping root-stock covered with
a brown bark which, however, is peeled from the fresh root. Orris root
occurs in commerce in whitish pieces which are sometimes forked; the
surface is knotty, and the size may reach the thickness of a thumb and
the length of a finger. When fresh, the roots have a disagreeable sharp
odor, but on drying they attain an odor which may be said to resemble
that of the violet; but on comparing the two odors immediately,
a considerable difference is perceptible even to the untrained
olfactory sense. Orris root should be as fresh as possible; this may
be recognized by its toughness, the great weight, and the white, not
yellow color on fracture. It is very frequently used for sachets and
for fixing other odors.


PALM OIL.

_Latin_—Oleum Palmæ; _French_—Huile de Palme; _German_—Palmöl.

Palm oil, a fixed oil derived from Elais guineensis, possesses a
peculiar odor faintly recalling that of violets which is easily
extracted. Although not used thus far in perfumery, personal
experiments have convinced the author that the odor can be employed in
the manufacture of cheap perfumes.


PATCHOULY.

_Latin_—Pogostemon Patchouly; _French_—Patchouly;
_German_—Patschulikraut.

This herb, indigenous to the East Indies and China, in appearance
somewhat resembling our garden sage, is used in the countries named as
one of the most common perfumes; many East Indian and Chinese goods
(such as Cashmere shawls, India ink, etc.) owe their peculiar odor to
the patchouly herb which is very productive. In this respect it can be
compared only with the nutmeg, but exceeds even this in intensity. This
herb is not known very long in Europe, but at present it is imported
in large quantities from India; in commerce it occurs in small bundles
consisting of stems and leaves (collected before flowering).


PERU BALSAM.

_Latin_—Balsamum peruvianum; _French_—Beaume du Pérou;
_German_—Perubalsam.

This balsam, imported from Central America (San Salvador), is derived
from Toluifera Pereiræ; incisions are made in the bark and trunk of
the tree, from which the balsam exudes. Peru balsam is of a syrupy
consistence, thick and viscid, brownish-red in thin, blackish-brown in
thick layers. Its taste is pungent, sharp, and bitter, afterward acrid;
its odor is somewhat smoky, but agreeable and balsamic. Peru balsam is
often sophisticated with fixed oil; this can be readily detected by
agitation with alcohol, by which the oil is separated. But if castor
oil is the adulterant, this test is not applicable, as castor oil
dissolves with equal facility in alcohol.


PINE-APPLE.

_Latin_—Bromelia Ananas; _French_—Ananas; _German_—Ananas.

The fruits of this plant, originally derived from the East Indies, have
a well-known narcotic odor which can be extracted from them.

In commerce we often meet with a chemical product called pine-apple
ether which will be described at greater length under the head of
chemical products used in perfumery. Pine-apple ether has an odor
usually considered to be like that of the fruit, but when the two
substances are immediately compared a great difference will be
detected. Pine-apple ether finds quite extensive application in
confectionery for the preparation of lemonades, punch, ices, etc. If
the true pine-apple odor is to be prepared from the fruits, care must
be had to use ripe fruits; the unripe or overripe fruits possess a less
delicate aroma.


PINK.

_Latin_—Dianthus Caryophyllus; _French_—Œillet; _German_—Nelkenblüthen.

The odor of this favorite garden plant can be easily extracted from
the flowers by means of petroleum ether; but the genuine odor of pink
is hardly ever met with in perfumery; the preparations sold under this
name being usually artificial mixtures of other odors.


PLUMERIA.

_Latin_—Plumeria; _French_—Plumeria; _German_—Plumeriablüthen.

All the Plumerias, indigenous to the Antilles, contain very fragrant
odors in their flowers. To the best of our knowledge, these odors
have not yet been extracted from the flowers, and all the perfumes
sold under this name (sometimes also called Frangipanni) are merely
combinations of different odors.


RESEDA (MIGNONETTE).

_Latin_—Reseda odorata; _French_—Mignonette; _German_—Reseda.

This herbaceous plant, probably indigenous to northern Africa, but long
domesticated in Europe and cultivated in gardens, is well known for its
refreshing odor. The latter, however, is very difficult to extract and
is yielded only to the method of absorption (enfleurage). The true odor
of reseda, owing to the mode of its preparation, is very expensive, and
for this reason nearly all perfumes sold under this name are produced
from other aromatic substances.


RHODIUM.

_Latin_—Lignum Rhodii; _French_—Bois de rose; _German_—Rosenholz.

This is derived from two climbing plants, Convolvulus scoparius and
Convolvulus floridus, indigenous to the Canary islands, and is the root
wood of these plants. Its odor resembles that of the rose, and the wood
is frequently used for cheap sachets and for the extraction of the
contained essential oil which was formerly (before oil of rose geranium
was made on the large scale) employed for the adulteration of genuine
oil of rose.


ROSE.

_Latin_—Rosa; _French_—Rose; _German_—Rosenblüthen.

Horticulture has produced innumerable varieties from wild species
of roses, which differ in size, form, color, as well as in odor. We
instance here only the various odors exhaled by tea roses and moss
roses. Accordingly, perfumers likewise distinguish different odors of
roses. Cultivated on a large scale exclusively for the extraction of
the essential oil, we find different varieties of roses in India, in
European Turkey (Rosa Damascena), in Persia, and in Southern France.
In this country (U. S.), too, oil of roses could be manufactured with
advantage.

The wild rose, sweet brier, French églantine, possesses a delicate
but very fugitive odor, and therefore the perfume sold as wild rose
is usually prepared from other substances with the addition of oil of
roses. The same remark applies to the odor called “white rose” and to
those sold as “tea rose,” “moss rose,” etc.


ROSEMARY.

_Latin_—Rosmarinus officinalis; _French_—Romarin; _German_—Rosmarin.

This plant, indigenous to Southern and Central Europe, contains pretty
large quantities of an aromatic oil in its leaves and flowers; the
oil has a refreshing odor and therefore is frequently added in small
amounts to fine perfumes.


RUE.

_Latin_—Ruta graveolens; _French_—Rue; _German_—Raute.

This plant, cultivated in our gardens and also growing wild here, has
long been employed for its strong odor; in perfumery rue, in a dry
state as well as its oil, is occasionally used.


SAGE.

_Latin_—Salvia officinalis; _French_—Sauge; _German_—Salbei.

All varieties of sage, the one named being found most frequently
growing wild in the meadows of Southern Europe, and extensively
cultivated in Europe and in this country, possess a very agreeable,
refreshing odor which adheres for a long time even to the dried leaves;
these are therefore very suitable for sachets, tooth powders, etc.


SANTAL WOOD.

_Latin_—Santalum album; _French_—Santal; _German_—Santalholz.

The tree from which this wood is derived is indigenous to Eastern Asia,
to the Sunda Islands. The wood is soft, very fragrant, and is also
erroneously called sandal wood. The latter is of a dark reddish-brown
color, not fragrant, and is derived from Pterocarpus santalinus, a
tree indigenous to Southern India, and the Philippine Islands; it is
of value to the dyer and the cabinet-maker, but to the perfumer only
for coloring some tinctures. For the purposes of perfumery use can be
made only of santal wood (white or yellow santal wood) which possesses
a very pleasant odor resembling that of oil of rose. Formerly essential
oil of santal was employed for the adulteration of oil of rose. White
and yellow santal wood comes from the same tree—the former from the
smaller trunks of Santalum album.


SASSAFRAS.

_Latin_—Lignum Sassafras; _French_—Sassafras; _German_—Sassafrasholz.

Sassafras wood, derived from the root of the American tree Sassafras
officinalis, appears in commerce in large bundles. It has a strong
peculiar odor; in the bark of the root the odor is even more marked. In
the European drug trade Sassafras saw dust is also met with, but this
is not rarely mixed with pine saw dust which has been moistened with
fennel water and again dried. In perfumery sassafras wood is less used
for the manufacture of volatile odors than for scenting soap. Since the
principal constituent of oil of sassafras, viz., safrol, has been found
to be contained in the crude oil of Japanese camphor, the latter has to
a very large extent taken the place of the natural oil.


SPIKENARD.

_Latin_—Nardostachys Jatamansi; _French_—Spic-nard;
_German_—Nardenkraut.

This plant, belonging to the Order of Valerianaceæ, which generally
possess a strong and more or less unpleasant odor, forms one of the
main objects of Oriental perfumery; in the East Indies, where the
plant grows wild on the mountains, the odor is held about in the same
estimation as that of roses, violets, etc., in Europe. Spikenard was
probably known to the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, for in the
Bible, in the Song of Solomon, we find this plant repeatedly mentioned
and praised for its pleasant odor. As the odor of spikenard is not
appreciated in Europe, the plant is rarely met with in commerce. All
parts of the plant are aromatic, but use is chiefly made of the root,
consisting of fine fibres which are tied in bundles the thickness of a
finger.


STAR-ANISE.

_Latin_—Illicium; Semen Anisi stellati; _French_—Badiane;
_German_—Sternanis.

Star-anise occurs in commerce in the form of eight-chambered capsules,
each compartment containing one glossy seed, and is derived from a
Chinese tree, Illicium anisatum. The fruits are brown, woody; the seed
has a sweetish taste and an odor resembling that of anise. Outside of
perfumery star-anise is used in the manufacture of liqueurs. Recently
a drug has appeared in commerce under the name of star-anise which
possesses poisonous qualities, and is derived from another variety of
Illicium (Illicium religiosum). While this may be of no consequence
to the perfumer, it is important to the manufacturer of liqueurs who
always uses star-anise for fine goods and never oil of anise.


STORAX.

_Latin_—Styrax; _French_—Styrax; _German_—Storax.

This product which belongs among the balsams is derived from a small
tree, Liquidambar orientalis, and is obtained from the bark by
heating with water, and also by pressure. It forms a viscid mass like
turpentine, has a gray color, a burning sharp taste, an agreeable odor,
and is easily soluble in strong alcohol; but the odor becomes pleasant
only after the solution is highly diluted. Storax has the peculiar
property of binding different, very delicate odors, to render them less
fugitive, and for this reason finds frequent application in perfumery.

Oriental storax should not be confounded with American storax
which occurs in commerce under the name of Sweet Gum, Gum Wax, or
Liquidamber, and is derived from Liquidambar styraciflua. It is quite
a thick transparent liquid, light yellow, gradually becoming more
and more solid and darker colored, but is often used in place of the
former, though its odor is less fine.


SUMBUL ROOT.

_Latin_—Radix Sumbul; _French_—Soumboul; _German_—Moschuswurzel.

The Sumbul plant (Ferula Sumbul), indigenous to Turkestan and
adjoining countries, has a light brown root covered with thin fibres,
which has a penetrating odor of musk. Owing to this quality it is
frequently employed in perfumery, especially for sachets. In commerce
a distinction is made between East Indian and Bokharian or Russian
sumbul, due to the different routes by which the article arrives. The
latter, which possesses the strongest odor, probably because it reaches
the market in a fresher state, is the most valuable.


SWEET ALMONDS.

_Latin_—Amygdala dulcis; _French_—Amandes douces; _German_—Süsse
Mandeln.

The almond-tree, Amygdalus communis, occurs in two varieties,
undistinguishable by botanical characteristics. One bears sweet,
the other bitter fruits (comp. Bitter almonds, page 24). Both are
odorless and contain much fixed oil. The special odor of bitter almonds
forms only in consequence of the decomposition of a peculiar body
(amygdalin), present in bitter almonds, when it comes in contact with
water. Good almonds are full, juicy, light brown, without wrinkles, and
have a sweet mild taste. A rancid taste characterizes staleness. The
fixed or expressed oil, both that of the sweet and that of the bitter
almonds (which are identical in taste, odor, and other properties), is
used in perfumery for fine hair oils, ointments, and some fine soft
soaps.


SWEET-FLAG ROOT.

_Latin_—Radix Calami; _French_—Racine de glaïeule;
_German_—Calmuswurzel.

The calamus root met with in commerce is the creeping root-stock of
a plant (Acorus Calamus), occurring in all countries of the northern
hemisphere, and frequent in European and American swamps. The
root-stock is spongy, about as thick as a finger, many-jointed, and of
a yellowish color, with many dark streaks and dots. Inside the color is
reddish-white. The odor is strong and the taste sharp and burning.


SWEET-PEA.

_Latin_—Lathyrus tuberosus; _French_—Pois de senteur;
_German_—Platterbsenblüthen.

Sweet-pea flowers, which have a very delicate odor, yield it to the
usual solvents. The odor bears some resemblance to that of orange
flowers, but is rarely used alone; it is generally combined with others
to make it more lasting.


SYRINGA.

_Latin_—Philadelphus coronarius; _French_—Seringat, Lilac;
_German_—Pfeifenstrauchblüthen.

The white flowers of this garden bush have a very pleasant odor which
resembles that of orange flowers, in place of which it can be used, in
the cheaper grades of perfumery. This plant which flourishes freely in
our climate deserves more attention by perfumers than it has hitherto
received, since it appears to furnish an excellent substitute for the
expensive oil of orange flowers, as above stated, in cheap perfumes.


THYME.

_Latin_—Thymus Serpyllum; _French_—Thym; _German_—Thymian.

This well-known aromatic plant, which grows most luxuriantly on a
calcareous soil, has an odor which is not unpleasant but is in greater
demand for liqueurs than for perfumes. Here and there, however, it is
employed for scenting soap. Common thyme, Thymus vulgaris, is used for
the same purposes.

Under the name of Oil of Thyme, in the English and American market,
is generally understood the oil of Thymus vulgaris, which is largely
distilled in the South of France. This oil is commonly misnamed Oil of
Origanum.


TOLU BALSAM.

_Latin_—Balsamum tolutanum; _French_—Beaume de Tolu;
_German_—Tolubalsam.

This balsam is derived from a tree indigenous to the northern portion
of South America, Toluifera Balsamum, belonging to the Order of
Leguminosæ. The balsam, which is obtained by incisions into the bark of
these trees, is at first fluid, but becomes firm in the air owing to
rapid resinification; in commerce it appears in a viscid form ranging
from that of Venice turpentine to that of colophony. Its color varies
from honey-yellow to reddish-brown; the taste is at first sweet, then
sharp, it softens under the heat of the hand, and when warmed or
sprinkled in powder form on glowing coals it diffuses a very pleasant
odor recalling that of Peru balsam or vanilla. It shares with storax
and Peru balsam the valuable property of fixing volatile odors and is
often employed for this purpose, but is also frequently used alone in
fumigating powders, tooth powders, etc. Adulteration of Tolu balsam
with Venice turpentine or colophony is not rarely met with.


TONKA BEANS.

_Latin_—Fabæ Tonkæ; _French_—Fèves de Tonka; _German_—Tonkabohnen,
Tonkasamen.

The South American tonka tree, Dipteryx odorata, bears almond-shaped
drupes almost as long as the finger, which contain seeds two to four
centimetres in length, the so-called tonka beans. These occur in
European commerce in two sorts, the so-called Dutch and English tonka
beans; the former are large, full, covered externally with a folded
brown to black skin, and white inside. The latter are barely two-thirds
the size of the former, almost black, and less glossy. The odor of the
tonka bean is due to a volatile crystalline substance, coumarin, which
often lies on the surface and in the wrinkles of the bean in the form
of delicate, brilliant crystalline needles. Coumarin exists also in
many other plants, for instance, in sweet woodruff (Asperula odorata),
deer-tongue (Liatris odoratissima), etc.


TUBEROSE.

_Latin_—Polianthus tuberosa; _French_—Tubérose; _German_—Tuberose.

This beautiful and very fragrant plant is frequently cultivated in
Southern France; its pleasant odor, however, owing to its great
volatility, can never be used pure, but must always be fixed with one
of the above-mentioned balsams. As has been stated in connection with
several aromatic plants, tuberose could be grown in our southern States
with advantage for the extraction of its odor.


VANILLA.

_Latin_—Vanilla aromatica, Vanilla planifolia; _French_—Vanille;
_German_—Vanille.

The vanilla, which may justly be called a king among aromatic plants,
is a climbing orchid indigenous to tropical America. It is cultivated
on a most extensive scale on the islands of Reunion and Mauritius;
largely also in Mexico, and in some other countries. The agreeable odor
is present in the fruit. These form three-lobed capsules about the
length of a lead pencil and the thickness of a quill. Externally they
are glossy brown, have a fatty feel, and show in the depression a white
powder which appears crystalline under a lens. Internally good fresh
vanilla is so oily that it stains the fingers on being crushed and is
filled with numerous shining seeds the size of a small pin’s head.
These properties, together with the plump appearance and great weight,
mark good qualities. Old vanilla, whose odor is fainter and less
fragrant, may be recognized by its wrinkled surface, the absence of
the white dust, the slight weight, and the bent ends of the capsules.
Fraudulent dealers endeavor to give such old goods a fresher appearance
by coating them with almond oil or Peru balsam. “Vanilla de Leg” is
recognized as the first quality of Mexican vanilla. Like most odors,
that of vanilla does not become pleasant until it is sufficiently
diluted.


VERBENA.

_Latin_—Verbena triphylla, Aloysia citriodora; _French_—Verveine;
_German_—Verbenakraut.

The leaves of this Peruvian plant, especially on being rubbed between
the fingers, exhale a very pleasant odor which is due to an essential
oil. The odor resembles that of fine citrons, or rather that of lemon
grass; hence these two odors are frequently mistaken for each other.
Owing to the high price of true oil of verbena, all the perfumes
sold under this name are prepared from oil of lemon grass (see under
Citronella) and other essential oils.


VETIVER.

_Latin_—Andropogon muricatus; _French_—Vétyver; _German_—Vetiverwurzel.

Vetiver, also called cuscus, and sometimes iwarankusa (though this
is more properly the name of Andropogon lanifer; see above, under
Citronella), is the fibrous root-stock of a grass indigenous to India,
where fragrant mats are woven from it. The odor of the root somewhat
resembles that of santal wood, and is used partly alone, partly for
fixing volatile perfumes. Shavings of the root are frequently employed
for filling sachet bags.


VIOLET.

_Latin_—Viola odorata; _French_—Violette; _German_—Veilchenblüthen.

The wonderful fragrance of the March violet is due to an essential oil
which it is, however, difficult to extract. For this reason genuine
perfume of violets, really prepared from the flowers, is among the
most expensive odors, and the high-priced so-called violet perfumes are
generally mixtures of other fine odors, while the cheaper grades are
made from orris root.


VOLKAMERIA.

This plant, Volkameria inermis, often cultivated in conservatories, has
a very agreeable odor. The perfume called by this name, however, is
not obtained from the plant, but is produced by the mixture of several
aromatic extracts from other plants.


WALLFLOWER.

_Latin_—Cheiranthus Cheiri; _French_—Giroflé; _German_—Levkojenblüthen,
Goldlack.

The wallflower, a well-known biennial garden plant belonging to the
Order of Cruciferæ, according to recent experiments yields a very fine
odor to certain substances and may be employed in the manufacture of
quite superior perfumes. The preparations usually sold as wallflower,
however, are not made from the flowers of this plant, but are mixtures
of different odors.


WINTERGREEN.

_Latin_—Gaultheria procumbens; _French_—Gaulthérie;
_German_—Wintergrünblätter.

This herbaceous plant, indigenous to North America, especially Canada
and the Northern and Middle United States, where it grows wild in large
quantities, has a very pleasant odor due to an essential oil and a
compound ether which can also be produced artificially. The odor of
wintergreen serves chiefly for scenting fine soaps.


YLANG-YLANG.

This plant, Unona odoratissima, indigenous to the Philippine Islands,
contains an exceedingly fragrant oil. It is brought into commerce from
Manilla.

       *       *       *       *       *

Owing to climatic relations, it is impossible for the perfumer to
procure all the above-enumerated substances in the fresh state; many
of them he is forced to purchase through the drug trade, and he should
bear in mind to give the preference always to the freshest obtainable
goods. At times it is not possible to utilize the materials at once
for the extraction of the odors and they must be kept for some time.
The vegetable substances should always be stored in an airy, not over
dry room; and the material should be often inspected. If a trace of
mouldiness shows itself, the material must be worked at once, since,
if the mould is allowed to go on, the fragrance will suffer and may be
destroyed altogether.

The aromatic substances here enumerated are those which have actually
found general employment in perfumery; but the list is not complete,
since every aromatic plant can be used for the extraction of its
odor. Of course, this is connected with some difficulties, but even
in the present state of our knowledge they can all be overcome. When
a new odor has been prepared, the art of the perfumer consists in
ascertaining by many experiments those substances which harmonize with
it; for with few exceptions the finest grades of perfumes are not
single odors but combinations of several which are in accord.

Even among our domestic plants there are numerous finds to be made by
the perfumer, and in this respect we refer particularly to some very
fragrant kinds of orchids in our woods and to the delightful odor of
the lily of the valley. As to the latter, a perfume is met with in
commerce under this name, but its odor bears no resemblance to that of
the flower.

A few facts appear to us of especial importance. In practical perfumery
many of the plants which are easily obtainable in large quantities,
such as the flowers of clover and trefoil, the primrose, the rock-rose
(Daphne Cneorum), dame’s-violet (Hesperis matronalis), and others
above named, have never been employed. As an actual curiosity we may
state that there is thus far no perfume containing the delightful odor
present in the flowers of the linden-tree, of the Robinia (erroneously
called Acacia), of the lilac, etc., at least not made from the plants
here named.



CHAPTER V.

THE ANIMAL SUBSTANCES USED IN PERFUMERY.


While the vegetable kingdom offers us an abundance of aromatic odors
the end of which it is impossible to foresee, the animal kingdom
contains absolutely no substance which may be called sweet-scented in
the strict sense of the term. If we find nevertheless a few animal
substances generally used in perfumery, they should be considered
rather as excellent means for fixing subtle vegetable odors than as
fragrant bodies in the true sense. By themselves, indeed, they have
an odor, but to most persons it is not agreeable even if properly
diluted. Thus far only five substances of animal origin are employed in
perfumery, namely: ambergris, castor, hyraceum, musk, and civet.


AMBERGRIS.

_Latin_—Ambra grisea; _French_—Ambregris; _German_—Ambra.

This is a substance whose origin is still doubtful; many facts
indicate that it is a secretion—whether normal or morbid may be left
undecided—of the largest living mammal, namely, of the pot-whale
(Physeter macrocephalus). Ambergris is found in the intestines of this
animal or, more frequently, floating about in the sea; the shores of
the continents bordering the Indian Ocean furnish the largest amount of
this peculiar substance.

Ambergris is a grayish-white fatty substance which occurs in commerce
in pieces of various sizes—those as large as a fist are rare—of a
penetrating, decidedly disagreeable odor. It is soluble in alcohol, and
when properly diluted the odor becomes pleasant and it is so permanent
that a piece of linen moistened with it smells of it even after being
washed with soap. By itself, ambergris is not much used; it finds its
chief application in combination with other odors or as an addition to
some perfumes in order to make them lasting.


CASTOR.

_Latin_—Castoreum; _French_—Castoreum; _German_—Castoreum.

This is a secretion of the beaver (Castor fiber); it accumulates in two
pear-shaped bags on the abdomen of the animal, both male and female.
The hunters remove these bags from the body of the dead animal and in
this form they are brought into commerce. These sacs are the length of
a finger, at the thickest point the diameter of a thumb, and contain
a greasy mass of yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, or blackish color,
according to the nourishment of the animal. This mass constitutes
castor; it has a strong, disagreeable odor, a bitter, balsamic taste,
becomes soft when heated, is combustible, and almost entirely soluble
in alcohol. It is probable that this secretion in its composition
has some relation to the nourishment of the beavers which feed by
preference on resinous vegetable substances. In commerce Canadian and
Siberian castor are distinguished; the latter is more valuable and has
almost disappeared from the market. It possesses a peculiar tarry,
Russian-leather odor, probably due to a substance present in birch
bark, upon which the Siberian animals feed almost exclusively. Canadian
castor has an odor more nearly resembling pine resin. In perfumery
castor is rarely used, usually only for fixing other odors.


HYRACEUM.

The substance occurring in commerce under this name, the excrement of
an animal found in Capeland, the rock badger or rock rabbit (Hyrax
capensis), is very similar in its properties to castor, and according
to comparative experiments made by us can be used in place of the
latter.


MUSK.

_Latin_—Moschus; _French_—Musc; _German_—Moschus.

Of animal substances, musk is most frequently used in perfumery, and
possesses the most agreeable odor of them all. Moreover, the odor of
musk is the most intense that we know, actually imponderable quantities
of it being sufficient to impart to a large body of air the strong odor
of musk. This substance is derived from a deer which attains the size
of a small goat and, like the chamois of the Alps, lives on the highest
mountains of the Himalayas. Only the male animal (Moschus moschiferus)
produces musk, which is secreted in a sac or rather gland near the
sexual organ. Musk being subject to the worst adulterations owing to
its high price, we append a description of the substance as well as of
the sac or bag in which it appears in commerce.

The musk bag cut by the hunter from the body of the animal has the size
and shape of half a walnut. On the side by which it was attached to the
body of the animal it is membranous and nearly smooth; on the external
surface it is more or less hemispherical and covered with light brown
or dark brown hair, according to the season at which the animal was
killed. The hair assumes a circular arrangement around an opening
situated in the centre of the bag. This opening, the efferent duct
of the gland, is formed by a ring-shaped muscle which yields to the
pressure of a pointed object and permits the introduction of the point
of the finger. Internally the musk bag consists of several layers of
membrane which surround the musk itself. It is probable that the musk
is secreted by these membranes, for when the animal is dissected, no
direct communication of the musk gland with the body can be detected.

It has been surmised that the secretion of musk bears some relation
to the food; at least it has been asserted that the animals eat,
among other things, sumbul root with great avidity; and this root, it
will be remembered, has a very intense odor of musk. However, though
this appears probable at first sight, it is contradicted by the fact
that the females and the young males likewise eat the root without
manifesting any odor of musk nor do they secrete the substance, while
the older males produce it even when they are fed with hay only.
Another fact is of interest, namely, that other ruminants, too, for
instance, cattle, diffuse a marked though faint odor of musk which
occurs also in their excrements, exactly as in the case of the musk
deer. Alligators likewise produce a musk-like substance which has
actually been made use of in place of musk for coarser purposes.

The musk present in the glands differs in appearance with the season
and the age of the animal. Musk deers killed in spring have in their
musk bag an unctuous soft mass of a reddish-brown color with the
strongest odor; at other seasons the mass is darker in color, almost
black, and granular; the size of the grains ranges from that of a
millet-seed to that of a large pea.

That the secretion of musk belongs to the sexual functions appears
probable from the fact that it can be found only in the bags of males
more than two years old; that of younger animals contains only a
substance of a milky consistence, whose odor has no resemblance to that
of musk. The quantity of musk present in a bag varies with the season
and the age of the animal; the smallest quantity may be assumed at
about six drachms, though some bags contain as much as one and a half
ounces.

The hunters dry the bags either on hot stones or in the air, or they
dip them into hot oil. In commerce musk occurs either in bags under the
name moschus in vesicis, “musk in pods,” or free, moschus in granis,
moschus ex vesicis, “grain musk.” According to its origin four sorts
are distinguished: Chinese or Tonquin musk, Siberian or Russian musk,
Assam or Bengal musk, and finally Bokharian musk. The latter two
varieties, however, rarely reach this market. Chinese musk (Tonquin or
Thibet musk) occurs in small boxes containing twenty to thirty bags,
each wrapped in Chinese tissue paper; on which Chinese characters
are printed. This is considered the best quality. Assam musk occurs
in boxes lined with tin which contain as many as two hundred or more
bags; its value is about two-thirds that of the former. Russian musk
is packed in various ways and is worth about one-fourth that of the
Chinese; a special variety of it, of a weaker and rather urinous odor,
is known as Cabardine musk; of least value is Bokharian musk which is
of a grayish black color, with a faint odor.

Musk is adulterated in an almost incredible manner; at times so-called
musk bags are met with which are artificially constructed of animal
membranes and filled with dried blood, earth, etc., and slightly
scented with genuine musk. But even the genuine musk bags are often
tampered with; musk being removed from the opening and the space filled
with earth, dried blood, animal excrement, or perhaps pieces of copper
and lead.

Pure musk reacts quite characteristically toward caustic alkalies such
as caustic potash and soda or solution of ammonia, and these substances
are used for testing the purity of musk. If a dilute alkaline solution
is poured over musk, a marked increase of the odor is observed after
a short time; if the alkaline solution is concentrated or hot, the
odor of musk disappears completely and the fluid develops the caustic
odor of pure ammonia. Hot water dissolves about eighty per cent of
the total weight of musk; strong alcohol dissolves about one-tenth
of it; when heated in an open porcelain capsule, musk burns with a
disgusting empyreumatic odor and leaves a considerable amount of ash,
about one-tenth of its weight. Besides the above-named substances which
destroy the musk odor by the decomposition of the aromatic constituent,
there are other bodies, whose action we do not know at present, which
have the peculiar property of completely extinguishing this most
penetrating of all odors: to deodorize a vessel completely which has
contained musk, it is sufficient to rub in it some bitter almonds
moistened with water or some camphor with alcohol.

In an extremely dilute condition musk is used for perfuming the finest
soaps and sachets, and even in the manufacture of the most expensive
and best perfumes, owing to its property of imparting permanence
to very volatile odors. In the last-mentioned class, however, the
quantity of musk must always be so small that its presence is not
distinctly observed, since many persons find the pure odor of musk
very disagreeable, while they praise the fragrance of such perfumes as
contain an amount of this substance too small to be perceived by the
olfactory nerves.


CIVET.

_Latin_—Civetta; _French_—Civette; _German_—Zibeth.

This substance bears some resemblance to musk with reference to its
derivation and the rôle it plays in the life of the animal from which
it is obtained. The Viverridæ, a class of carnivora related to the
cats and weasels, found in Asia and Africa, furnish this substance.
It is obtained chiefly from the civet cat (Viverra Civetta) and the
musk rat (Viverra Zibetha) which are kept in captivity for the purpose
of abstracting from them from time to time the civet which is always
formed anew.

Civet is the secretion of a double gland present both in the male and
the female near the sexual organs. Fresh civet is a whitish-yellow mass
of the consistence of butter or fat, and becomes thicker and darker
on exposure to the air. Similar to musk, it has a strong odor which
becomes pleasant on being diluted and is used both alone and for fixing
other odors.



CHAPTER VI.

THE CHEMICAL PRODUCTS USED IN PERFUMERY.


In the manufacture of perfumery a considerable number of chemical
products find application; in this place, however, we shall describe
only those which are used very frequently and generally, and discuss
the characteristics of those employed more rarely in connection with
the articles of perfumery into which they enter. According to their
application we may divide these substances into several groups, namely:

A. Chemicals which, without themselves serving as perfumes, are used
exclusively for the extraction of odors.

B. Chemicals which, while not fragrant, are frequently employed in the
preparation of perfumes. Under this head we have included also those
substances which are not strictly chemical products, but originally
come from the animal or vegetable kingdom, such as fats, spermaceti,
and wax, yet cannot be used in perfumery unless they have undergone a
process of chemical purification.

C. Chemical products used for coloring perfumes, so-called dye-stuffs.

The greater portion of the substances to be here described it will
hardly be the province of the perfumer to prepare himself, as they are
furnished by chemical factories at low prices; but some of them—for
instance, sublimed, natural benzoic acid suitable for perfumery and a
few other substances—the perfumer should make himself, in order to be
sure of its genuineness. Therefore, while in the former class it will
be sufficient to describe their properties to enable the manufacturer
to distinguish good quality from bad, the latter class must be
discussed at greater length.


A. Chemicals used for the Extraction of Aromatic Substances.

For the extraction of aromatic substances from plants a number of
bodies are used which possess great solvent power for essential oils,
and are besides very volatile, or have a low boiling-point. These are
particularly ether, chloroform, petroleum ether, and bisulphide of
carbon.


ETHER.

This liquid, in commerce also called sulphuric ether, is made in large
quantities in chemical laboratories by the distillation of alcohol with
sulphuric acid, followed by a second distillation or rectification.
When pure, ether forms a mobile, thin, strong-smelling, and inflammable
liquid which when inhaled produces insensibility, for which reason it
is used as an anæsthetic in surgery. Its specific gravity is about
0.720 when anhydrous, and its boiling-point 35° C. (95° F.). It forms
an excellent solvent for essential oils, resins, fats, and similar
bodies. Owing to its great volatility, its vapors are quickly diffused
in the air, and, as they are very inflammable, lights must be kept away
from a bottle containing this substance. The same remark applies to
most of the substances to be presently described.


CHLOROFORM

is prepared by the distillation of chlorinated lime, alcohol, and
water, acetone being more recently substituted for the alcohol,
followed by rectification of the product. When inhaled it produces
insensibility like ether. It has a pleasant odor and sweet taste. Its
specific gravity is about 1.49 and its boiling-point 61° C. (142° F.).
Owing to its great solvent power and low boiling-point, chloroform is
largely used for the extraction of aromatic vegetable substances; it
does not take fire directly in the air.


PETROLEUM ETHER.

Petroleum, which is brought into commerce in immense quantities,
especially from Pennsylvania, for illuminating purposes, cannot be used
in its crude state, but requires rectification. Petroleum as it issues
from the earth consists of various hydrocarbons mixed together, some of
which have very low boiling-points, so that their vapors readily take
fire and would make the use of petroleum in lamps dangerous. Petroleum,
therefore, is heated in large apparatuses to about 70 or 80° C. (158 to
176° F.), when the more volatile products pass over, and the petroleum
for illuminating purposes remains in the stills. A certain fraction
of the volatile distillate, the so-called petroleum ether, is largely
used in the manufacture of varnishes. Owing to its great solvent power
for aromatic vegetable substances and its low price, petroleum ether
has become quite an important body for the extraction of perfumes,
which will be further discussed hereafter. Good petroleum ether is
colorless, has a peculiar, not unpleasant odor and a boiling-point
between 50 and 55° C. (112° and 131° F.).


BENZIN

is a common name for another fraction of the volatile distillate from
petroleum, viz., that which boils between 50° and 60°C. (122° to 140°
F.) and has a spec. grav. of 0.670 to 0.675°.

This liquid, which is also used as a volatile solvent for the
extraction of odorous substances, must not be confounded with Benzene
or Benzol, a distillate from coal tar, boiling at about 80° C. (176°
F.) and having a spec. grav. of 0.878. The latter is not used for the
extraction of perfumes.


BISULPHIDE OF CARBON.

This is made by conducting vapors of sulphur over glowing charcoal
or coke. The vapors of bisulphide of carbon thus formed are led into
vessels filled with ice or ice-cold water, where they condense.
Bisulphide of carbon is a colorless liquid, heavier than water and very
refractive. It is inflammable, and possesses a peculiar odor which
is not disagreeable if the liquid has been thoroughly purified. Its
boiling-point is about 45° C. (113° F.) and it has great solvent power.
At the present time, the market affords bisulphide of carbon of a high
degree of purity.

Some manufacturers who prepare their odors by extraction, may find it
advantageous to make also the bisulphide of carbon necessary for it,
and this is best done in Gérard’s apparatus (Fig. 1). It consists of
a cast-iron cylinder _a_, two metres high and one metre in diameter.
This cylinder is heated on the outer surface in an oven, and two tubes,
_c_ and _d_, are attached to it. Tube _d_ is connected by _e_ with
the hemispherical vessel _b_ which is connected by the tube _i_ with
the condenser _mlk_. The condenser is formed of three cylinders made
of sheet zinc which are surrounded with cold water. The condensed
liquid escapes into the vessel _p_, while the gaseous products pass
through _n_ into the chimney. The cylinder _a_ is filled with about
1,500 pounds of charcoal or coke in small pieces, after which it is
closed and all tubes are carefully luted with clay; _a_ is then heated
to a strong red heat and at intervals of three minutes 3 pounds of
sulphur are thrown in through _c_. In twenty-four hours, by the use of
478 pounds of sulphur, 568 pounds of crude bisulphide of carbon are
obtained; a portion of the sulphur distils over uncombined into the
vessel _b_.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The crude bisulphide of carbon contains about twelve per cent of
sulphur and other combinations in solution and is redistilled at
exactly 48° C. (118.4° F.) in a steam-heated apparatus with a long exit
tube cooled with ice below and water above. In order to obtain the
bisulphide of carbon absolutely pure, which is essential to render it
suitable for extraction, it is again distilled at the same temperature,
with the addition of two per cent of palm oil. As the vapors of
bisulphide of carbon are injurious to the organism, the vessels
containing it must always be kept well closed.


B. Chemical Products used for the Preparation of Perfumes.

Among all the substances belonging under this head, there is one
which plays a prominent part in the manufacture of most perfumes. In
handkerchief perfumes it is one of the most important substances, as
it forms not only the greatest bulk, but the perfection of the perfume
depends upon its quality. This substance is—


ALCOHOL,

also called spirit of wine; French, esprit de vin; the well-known
combustible liquid formed by the alcoholic fermentation of sugar,
which is made on a large scale in extensive distilleries. Alcohol is a
thin, mobile liquid with an aromatic odor. The usual “strong” alcohol
of the market contains about ninety-four per cent of absolute alcohol
by volume. This has a specific gravity of 0·820. Its boiling-point is
78·2° C. (172·40 F.), and it congeals at a very low temperature, below
-100° C. Alcohol possesses great solvent power for resins, balsams, and
essential oils.

These properties, however, belong only to the commercial stronger or
so-called “druggists’ alcohol,” and more particularly to a very pure
quality of it, as free as possible from fusel-oil compounds, known as
cologne spirit. As absolute alcohol is also necessary for the purposes
of perfumery, we shall briefly describe its preparation.

In order to make absolute alcohol, sulphate of copper is heated in a
retort until it has changed into a white powder. After the powder has
cooled in the covered retort, it is at once introduced into a large
glass bottle; over it is poured the strongest obtainable alcohol (96%
Tralles) which must be free from fusel oil; then the bottle is closed
air-tight and repeatedly shaken. The sulphate of copper which has lost
its water of crystallization by the heat reabsorbs it from the alcohol
and again becomes blue and crystalline. Generally four pounds of
sulphate of copper are used for ten quarts of alcohol; when white burnt
sulphate of copper after long contact with alcohol still remains white,
the alcohol is proved to be practically anhydrous (it may still contain
about two per cent of water).

Larger quantities of absolute alcohol are made in a copper still
containing fused anhydrous chloride of calcium in small pieces. The
apparatus is closed and alcohol of 94 to 95% is poured in through a
tubulure. The mixture often grows so warm that the alcohol begins to
pass over, so that but little heat need be applied to make the absolute
alcohol distil over.

Absolute alcohol obtained in this way—for by repeated distillation
we get at most an alcohol of 96%—abstracts water from the air with
avidity; hence it must be preserved in air-tight vessels which should
contain a small amount of anhydrous sulphate of copper.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Strong commercial alcohol contains varying amounts of water—from four
to twenty parts by volume (96 to 80% alcohol); at the present time,
however, it is always customary for dealers in this country to supply
the officinal alcohol of 94%, when “strong alcohol” is called for.
Its strength is measured by an areometer which sinks in proportion to
the purity of the alcohol; the alcoholometer of Tralles or volumeter
shows at once on its scale how many parts by volume of absolute
alcohol (volume per cent) are contained in 100 volumes of alcohol. The
adjoining figure (Fig. 2) shows Tralles’ alcoholometer, with the vessel
in which the test is made. The readings of the instrument, however,
are correct only at a temperature of 15·6° C. (60° F.), the so-called
normal temperature; at a higher or lower point they must be corrected
according to the tables appended.

At temperatures below the normal, the amount of alcohol is greater than
the areometer indicates, hence a percentage must be added; at higher
temperatures a percentage must be deducted.

 TABLES FOR FINDING THE TRUE PERCENTAGE BY VOLUME, AT THE NORMAL
 TEMPERATURE OF 60° F., OF ALCOHOL OF ANY STRENGTH, WHEN TESTED AT
 TEMPERATURES BELOW OR ABOVE 60° F.

TABLE I.—FOR TEMPERATURES UNDER 60° F.

  ————————+———————————--+
  Per cent|    Number   |
     of   |of F. Degrees|
   Alcohol|  Requiring  |
     by   | ADDITION of |
  Volume. |   one to    |
          | Percentage. |
  ————————+———————————--+
     21   |    5·4      |
     22   |    5·175    |
     23   |    4·725    |
     24   |    4·5      |
     25   |    4·5      |
     26   |    4·5      |
     27   |    4·5      |
     28   |    4·275    |
     29   |    4·275    |
     30   |    4·275    |
     31   |    4·275    |
     32   |    4·275    |
     33   |    4·275    |
     34   |    4·275    |
     35   |    4·5      |
     36   |    4·5      |
     37   |    4·5      |
     38   |    4·5      |
     39   |    4·5      |
     40   |    4·5      |
     41   |    4·725    |
     42   |    4·725    |
     43   |    4·725    |
     44   |    4·725    |
     45   |    4·95     |
     46   |    4·95     |
     47   |    4·95     |
     48   |    4·95     |
     49   |    4·95     |
     50   |    5·175    |
     51   |    5·175    |
     52   |    5·175    |
     53   |    5·175    |
     54   |    5·175    |
     55   |    5·175    |
     56   |    5·175    |
     57   |    5·4      |
     58   |    5·4      |
     59   |    5·4      |
     60   |    5·4      |
     61   |    5·4      |
     62   |    5·4      |
     63   |    5·625    |
     64   |    5·625    |
     65   |    5·625    |
     66   |    5·625    |
     67   |    5·625    |
     68   |    5·85     |
     69   |    5·85     |
     70   |    5·85     |
     71   |    5·85     |
     72   |    5·85     |
     73   |    5·85     |
     74   |    6·075    |
     75   |    6·075    |
     76   |    6·075    |
     77   |    6·075    |
     78   |    6·3      |
     79   |    6·3      |
     80   |    6·3      |
     81   |    6·525    |
     82   |    6·525    |
     83   |    6·75     |
     84   |    6·75     |
     85   |    6·75     |
     86   |    6·75     |
     87   |    6·975    |
     88   |    7·2      |
     89   |    7·425    |
     90   |    7·65     |
     91   |    7·875    |
     92   |    8·1      |
     93   |    8·325    |
     94   |    8·775    |
     95   |    9·       |
     96   |    9·45     |
     97   |   10·125    |
  ————————+———————————--+

 EXPLANATION.—Supposing an alcohol should be found to contain 40 per
 cent of absolute alcohol by Tralles’ alcoholometer at 45° F. The
 difference between 45 and 60° F. is 15. Opposite to 40 will be found
 the figure 4·5. For every 4·5 degrees F. below 60° there must be added
 1 to the alcoholic percentage. Hence for 15 degrees there must be
 added 3.3 degrees. The alcoholic percentage, by volume, therefore, is
 43·3 per cent.


TABLE II.—FOR TEMPERATURES ABOVE 60° F.

  ————————+————————-———-
  Per cent|   Number
     of   |of F. Degrees
  Alcohol | Requiring
     by   |SUBTRACTION
  Volume. | of one from
          | Percentage.
  ————————+——————-—————-
     21   |    5·85
     22   |    5·625
     23   |    5·4
     24   |    5·175
     25   |    4·95
     26   |    4·95
     27   |    4·725
     28   |    4·725
     29   |    4·5
     30   |    4·5
     31   |    4·5
     32   |    4·5
     33   |    4·5
     34   |    4·5
     35   |    4·5
     36   |    4·5
     37   |    4·5
     38   |    4·5
     39   |    4·5
     40   |    4·5
     41   |    4·5
     42   |    4·5
     43   |    4·5
     44   |    4·5
     45   |    4·5
     46   |    4·5
     47   |    4·725
     48   |    4·725
     49   |    4·725
     50   |    4·725
     51   |    4·725
     52   |    4·725
     53   |    4·95
     54   |    4·95
     55   |    4·95
     56   |    5·175
     57   |    5·175
     58   |    5·175
     59   |    5·175
     60   |    5·175
     61   |    5·175
     62   |    5·175
     63   |    5·175
     64   |    5·175
     65   |    5·175
     66   |    5·4
     67   |    5·4
     68   |    5·4
     69   |    5·625
     70   |    5·625
     71   |    5·625
     72   |    5·625
     73   |    5·625
     74   |    5·625
     75   |    5·85
     76   |    5·85
     77   |    5·85
     78   |    5·85
     79   |    6·075
     80   |    6·075
     81   |    6·075
     82   |    6·075
     83   |    6·3
     84   |    6·3
     85   |    6·3
     86   |    6·525
     87   |    6·525
     88   |    6·525
     89   |    6·75
     90   |    6·975
     91   |    6·975
     92   |    7·425
     93   |    7·425
     94   |    7·65
     95   |    7·65
     96   |    8·1
     97   |    8·1
     98   |    8·325
     99   |    9·45
    100   |    9·9
  ————————+——————————--

 EXPLANATION.—In this case, the same calculation is performed as
 directed under Table I., except that the correction is to be
 _deducted_ instead of added.

Aside from the water present in it, commercial alcohol is never
pure, but always contains small quantities, at times mere traces,
of substances having a peculiar, sometimes pleasant, sometimes
disagreeable, but invariably intense odor, which are known as fusel
oils. The variety of fusel oil differs with the raw material from which
the alcohol was made; there is a potato fusel oil (chemically amyl
alcohol), a corn fusel oil, a beet fusel oil, wine fusel oil (œnanthic
ether), etc. Fusel oils, being themselves odorous substances, exert an
influence on the fragrance of the perfume; hence it is a general rule
in perfumery to use only alcohol free from fusel oil; that is, such
from which the fusel oil has been extracted as far as possible by means
of fresh charcoal. So-called “Cologne Spirit” of the best quality is,
as a rule, practically free from it.

Strange to say, some essential oils or aromatic substances in general,
develop their finest odors only when the perfumes are prepared with an
alcohol from a certain source. While the charcoal treatment removes
almost all the fusel oil, the remaining traces suffice to act as
odorous substances in the true sense of the term and to produce with
other aromatic bodies a harmony of the odor which can never be reached
by the use of another variety of alcohol. To give but a single instance
we may state that all the citron odors known in perfumery develop the
finest aroma only when dissolved in alcohol made from wine and the
solution is then distilled. The world-renowned eau de Cologne is made
in this way; the other aromatic substances contained in it are added to
the distillate from the spirit of wine and the citron oils; any cologne
made in another manner or with another alcohol has a less fine odor.
While the citron odors require true spirit of wine for the development
of their full aroma, other scents require beet or corn alcohol to bring
out their best odor. Jasmine, tuberose, orange flowers, violet, etc.,
and all animal odors (ambergris, musk, and civet) belong to the latter
class. For this remarkable and to the perfumer most important fact we
know no other explanation than that traces of fusel oils present even
in rectified alcohol take part in the general impression made on the
olfactory nerves, acting as true aromatic substances.

Cologne spirit is expensive, but this should not be a reason for
accepting a cheaper grade, with which it would be absolutely impossible
to make really fine perfumes.

Alcohol is also generally used for the direct extraction of odorous
substances from plants, as will be seen in the description of the
processes employed in the preparation of the so-called essences or
extracts. For these purposes, too, the best cologne spirit only
should be used, that is, alcohol which has been freed from fusel oil
and redistilled, for in no other way can the aromatic substances be
obtained in the greatest possible purity. And this is indispensable
for the preparation of really fine perfumes, for we do not hesitate
to say that French and English perfumes have acquired their deserved
reputation mainly through the great care exercised in the selection of
their raw materials, and especially of the alcohol used for extraction.


ALLOXAN.

This preparation, which is used in making a fine skin cosmetic, is
manufactured in chemical laboratories from uric acid heated with nitric
acid. Alloxan is a crystalline colorless body which has the property
of gradually producing a red tint on the skin and finds employment for
this reason.


AMMONIA.

Ammonia is a gas formed by the decomposition of nitrogenous substances,
but chiefly obtained, on a large scale, from the so-called “gas
liquor” of gas works. By itself it develops a very disagreeable odor
and stimulates the lachrymal glands to secretion—a fact which can
be verified in any stable. A solution of the gas (water of ammonia;
liquor ammoniæ) possesses the same properties. In perfumery ammonia is
never used alone, but only in combination with other odors, namely,
in the manufacture of smelling salts (French: sels volatils; German:
Riechsalze), which are much in favor in England and in this country.
For the purposes of the perfumer, the greater part of the commercial
ammonia is unsuitable owing to its tarry odor. Pure ammonia is best
prepared by heating equal parts of quicklime and powdered sal-ammoniac
in a retort, and conducting the generated gas into water which
dissolves it with avidity, one quart of water dissolving more than
seven hundred quarts of ammonia gas.


CARBONATE OF AMMONIA,

a combination of ammonia with carbonic acid, occurs in commerce in
large transparent lumps, often covered with a white dust of bicarbonate
of ammonia, which in the air continually develop ammonia and therefore
always smell of it. This commercial product is, as a rule, sufficiently
pure to be used in perfumery; as to its application the same remarks
apply as were made under the head of ammonia.


OIL OF BITTER ALMONDS (OLEUM AMYGDALÆ AMARÆ).

This is made from bitter almonds, previously deprived of fatty oil by
pressure, which are mixed with an equal weight of water and set in a
warm place. The amygdalin undergoes decomposition into sugar, hydrogen
cyanide, and benzoyl hydride or oil of bitter almonds. After one or two
days the mass is distilled; the distillate being a colorless liquid,
containing, besides oil of bitter almonds, hydrogen cyanide or prussic
acid, one of the most virulent poisons, from which it must be freed.
This is done by shaking the liquid repeatedly with dilute solution of
potassa, followed by agitation with water. Pure oil of bitter almonds
is not poisonous, but has a very strong narcotic odor of bitter
almonds, which, however, becomes most marked when largely diluted with
water.


BENZOIC ACID (ACIDUM BENZOICUM).

This acid, contained in benzoin, is made also synthetically from other
materials, in chemical laboratories. When pure it forms needle-shaped
crystals having a silky gloss; they have a peculiar acrid taste, but no
odor. Synthetic benzoic acid is worthless to the perfumer; in his art
he can use only a benzoic acid made from gum benzoin by sublimation,
because it contains a very aromatic essential oil for which the acid
is merely the vehicle and which can also be employed alone.

As this sublimed benzoic acid is often adulterated with the artificial,
we advise the manufacturer of perfumery to make his own benzoic acid
according to the following directions.


_The Manufacture of Sublimed Benzoic Acid._

About four pounds of benzoin B of best quality is broken into small
pieces and placed in a small copper boiler K (Fig. 3); over its entire
surface is pasted white blotting paper L, and to this is pasted a cone
of strong paper which must surround the edge of the boiler. The cone
ends above in a paper tube R, about five feet long and an inch wide.
The copper boiler is placed in a large clay pot T (a flower pot) and
surrounded on all sides with fine sand. The clay pot is heated from
without by a charcoal fire. After the pot has remained about half an
hour on the fire, the latter is fanned to its utmost and kept at this
point for thirty minutes. The heat volatilizes the benzoic acid, the
above-mentioned essential oil, and some tarry substances of a brown
color. The latter are arrested by the filter paper, while the benzoic
acid is deposited on the cone and in the tube, in the form of delicate
glossy needles which are very fragrant owing to the essential oil.
The largest yield of benzoic acid is obtained when the temperature is
raised very gradually, until finally nothing remains in the copper
boiler but a brown, almost carbonized mass of a blistered appearance.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]


BORAX (SODII BORAS)

is used in some preparations. Borax forms colorless crystals which
slightly effloresce in dry air and hence must be preserved in tightly
closed vessels. Reddish tinted crystals are contaminated with oxide of
iron and should be rejected.


PERMANGANATE OF POTASSIUM (POTASSI PERMANGANAS)

is a salt formed by fusing a mixture of manganese dioxide, potassa, and
potassium chlorate, extracting the product with water, and evaporating
the solution to crystallization; the salt is obtained in small dark
violet, almost black crystals which dissolve in sixteen parts of water
to which they impart a beautiful violet color. By contact with organic
substances, or others easily oxidized, the solution changes its color
into green and finally is decolorized, precipitating a brown powder.
Owing to this change of color the salt has been called chameleon
mineral. As its preparation requires considerable dexterity, it is
preferable to buy it from reputable houses, rather than to make it. It
is used in the manufacture of mouth washes and hair dyes. The solution
of the salt causes brown stains on linen and the skin; they can be
removed only if the spots are immediately washed with hydrochloric,
oxalic, sulphuric, or another acid.


ACETIC ACID (ACIDUM ACETICUM).

Much confusion exists in the literature regarding the strength of
acetic acid when merely called by this name. It is safe to assume
that, in each country, the term applies to the acid officinal in
its national pharmacopœia as “Acidum Aceticum.” Thus the Austrian
and German pharmacopœias understand by it an acid containing 96% of
absolute acetic acid, which is practically identical with what is
known as glacial acetic acid. The latter is, in some pharmacopœias,
distinguished by a special name: acidum aceticum glaciale, U.S. P.;
acide acétique crystallisable, French Pharm.—In the present work, the
author always intended the strong acid of the Austrian pharmacopœia
to be understood when no other strength was designated. Like alcohol,
strong acetic acid dissolves essential oils and is used in the
manufacture of various toilet vinegars and washes. Acetic acid is made
in chemical laboratories by distillation of acetate of sodium with
sulphuric acid, or more commonly from wood vinegar. The buyer should
always satisfy himself that the product is free from an empyreumatic
odor which clings tenaciously to an insufficiently purified sample.


FATS.

Fats find extensive application in perfumery, in the preparation of
the so-called huiles antiques, pomades, and many other cosmetics. They
should be enumerated among the chemical products used in perfumery
because they can never be employed in their commercial form, but
must undergo some process of purification, which is effected less by
mechanical than by chemical means. Commercial fats usually contain
remnants of the animal or vegetable body from which they are derived:
particles of blood and membranes occur frequently in animal fats;
cell bodies and vegetable albumin in vegetable fats. Besides these
mechanical impurities, fats, especially if old, sometimes contain
small amounts of free fatty acids which suffice to impart to them the
objectionable odor and taste peculiar to every rancid fat. While some
fats, such as bear’s grease, butter of cacao, oil of sesame, and some
others, remain free from rancidity for a long time, others undergo this
change very rapidly; in fact, we may say that every fat which shows
the slightest odor should be called rancid, for pure fat is absolutely
odorless.

We shall here briefly describe the process employed in the fat industry
and by perfumers for the purification of fats. Animal fat, such as
lard, suet, bear’s grease, etc., as well as cocoanut and palm oils,
are introduced into a large iron boiler containing dilute soda lye
(not exceeding one per cent of caustic soda), and the lye is heated
to boiling. In the boiler is a small pump terminating above in a
curved tube having a rose of a watering-pot at the end. The pump is so
arranged as to raise lye and melted fat at the same time and to return
the fluid into the boiler in a fine spray. After the fat is melted, the
solid matters floating on top are skimmed off with a perforated spoon,
and then the pump is operated for about fifteen minutes. The contained
shreds of membrane and similar substances are completely dissolved by
the soda lye, the free fatty acids are perfectly combined, and the
fat is at the same time decolorized. After cooling, it floats on the
surface of the lye as a colorless and odorless fluid; it is ladled
off and poured into tall tapering vessels which are well closed and
preserved in cool cellars. Contact with the air, especially at higher
temperatures, causes rancidity of the fat. For every twenty pounds of
fat twenty quarts of lye are used.

According to another process the fat is purified by being heated with
alum and table salt; or every twenty-five pounds of fat, one ounce of
alum and two ounces of salt are dissolved in five gallons of water.
The scum is carefully skimmed from the surface of the melted fat, and,
after it has solidified, the fat is washed with water until the latter
escapes perfectly tasteless and odorless.

The washing is a very complicated and tedious piece of work. Operating
on a small scale, a slightly inclined marble slab is taken, upon which
a thin stream of water is constantly falling from a tube arranged above
it. The fat is placed on the slab in small quantities (not over two
pounds) and ground with a muller, like oil colors, under a constant
flow of water. Owing to the expense of hand labor, it is advisable to
use a so-called vertical mill or chaser. This consists of a level,
circular, horizontal marble slab, bearing a central, easily movable
axis with a crosspiece upon which two, likewise vertical, cylindrical
marble plates turn like wheels in a circle on the horizontal marble
plate. The fat is placed on the latter and continually irrigated with
water; behind every chaser is applied a marble plate with a blade which
nearly touches the chasers and returns the fat displaced laterally,
under the chasers. The axis around which the chasers run is kept moving
by any available power, and the laborer has nothing to do but to
replace the washed fat with crude.

Liquid fats are purified as follows:

The oil is intimately mixed with one per cent of sulphuric acid. The
mixture assumes a black color, the vegetable mucilage present in the
oil becoming carbonized. After several days’ rest the oil becomes clear
and floats on the surface of the sulphuric acid which has assumed a
black color from the presence of finely divided carbon. The oil is
decanted and treated, in the manner above stated for solid fats, with
caustic soda lye. Heating can be dispensed with if the pumping is
continued for a longer time.

Benzoin and benzoic acid have the property of counteracting the
tendency of fats to become rancid; it is advisable, therefore, to mix
intimately with the completely washed fat a small amount of benzoic
acid, at most one-one-thousandth part by weight.

The best way of preserving fats is by salicylic acid. This is added
to solid fats while they are in a melted state; if oils, the acid is
poured in and the bottle vigorously shaken. If the oil is in casks,
a small bag filled with salicylic acid is hung into it from the
bung-hole. The acid dissolves in the oil and is disseminated through it
and thus effects its preservation. One-one-thousandth part by weight of
the fat or oil is said to be more than sufficient to keep it perfectly
fresh for years.

Fats differ largely in their physical properties—for instance, in
their appearance, melting-point, firmness, etc. As we shall return to
this subject in connection with the manufacture of some perfumes, it is
enough here to state briefly that by the addition of spermaceti, wax,
paraffin, etc., fats are made more transparent and firmer—a matter of
importance for some cosmetic preparations.


CHINESE GELATIN.

This substance, derived from several algæ, species of Eucheuma,
indigenous to the Chinese sea, and identical with Japanese agar-agar,
on being boiled with two hundred parts of water has the property of
forming a colorless solution which solidifies on cooling. Owing to this
property the addition of a small quantity of Chinese gelatin (0·1-0·2%)
is an excellent means for imparting to certain pomades and ointments
great transparency and firmness.


FRUIT ETHERS

are liquids which possess an agreeable, refreshing odor resembling
that of some fruits. For this reason they are used in confectionery,
in the manufacture of liqueurs, and also in many ways in perfumery.
Chemically, fruit ethers are combinations of an organic acid—acetic,
butyric, valerianic, etc.—with a so-called alcohol radicle such as
ethyl and amyl. Their manufacture is connected with many difficulties
and is but rarely attempted by perfumers, especially as these products
are made a specialty in some chemical laboratories and are furnished at
very low prices and of excellent quality. In perfumery the following
fruit ethers are particularly employed.


ACETIC ETHER,

prepared by the distillation of acetate of sodium with alcohol and
sulphuric acid, is a colorless liquid having an odor of fermenting
apple juice, with a boiling-point at 74° C. (155° F.).


PINE-APPLE ETHER

(ether or huile d’ananas) is made by the saponification of butter
with solution of potassa, distillation of the soap with alcohol
and sulphuric acid, and rectification of the distillate. It is
an inflammable liquid with an intense odor of pine-apple; its
boiling-point is 119° C. (246° F.). It is not generally used pure, as
its odor needs some correction. This is accomplished by the addition of
a little valerianate of amyl, and chloroform. Also in other ways.


APPLE ETHER,

prepared by distillation from valerianate of sodium with alcohol and
sulphuric acid, and the subsequent addition of certain correctives (see
below).


PEAR ETHER,

also called pear oil, chiefly valerianate of amyl oxide, can be
obtained in large quantities from a by-product in the manufacture of
potato spirit, namely, amyl alcohol, which is carefully heated in a
still with bichromate of potassium and sulphuric acid. The product thus
obtained has a very pleasant odor of fine pears and boils at 196° C.
(385° F.). But the commercial “pear-essence” is a more complex body
(see following table).


NITROUS ETHER

is a very volatile liquid boiling at 16° C. (61° F.), which is obtained
by distillation of strong alcohol with concentrated nitric acid and
rectification of the distillate; it is less used in perfumery than the
other fruit ethers.

Fruit ethers, owing to their low price and great strength, are
frequently employed in the manufacture of cheap perfumery, in place of
essential oils, but more largely for scenting soap.

The so-called raspberry and strawberry ethers consist of mixtures of
acetic, pine-apple, apple, and other ethers (see following table),
which, combined in certain proportions, really manifest an odor nearly
akin to those of the fruits after which they are named.


FRUIT ETHERS (FRUIT ESSENCES).

TABLE SHOWING THE INGREDIENTS USUALLY EMPLOYED FOR PREPARING ARTIFICIAL
FRUIT ETHERS (FRUIT ESSENCES).

  A = Peach.
  B = Apricot.
  C = Plum.
  D = Cherry.
  E = Black Cherry.
  F = Lemon.
  G = Pear.
  H = Orange.
  I = Apple.
  J = Grape.
  K = Gooseberry.
  L = Raspberry.
  M = Strawberry.
  N = Melon.
  O = Pine-apple.
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+
                              | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I |
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+
  Glycerin                    | 5 | 4 | 8 | 3 |.. | 5 |10 |10 | 4 |
  Chloroform                  |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. | 2 | 1 |
  Nitrous ether               |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |.. | 1 |
  Aldehyde                    | 2 |.. | 5 |.. |.. | 2 |.. | 2 | 2 |
  Acetate of ethyl            | 5 |.. | 5 | 5 |10 |10 | 5 | 5 | 1 |
  Formate of ethyl            | 5 |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |
  Butyrate of ethyl           | 5 |10 | 2 |.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |
  Valerianate of ethyl        | 5 | 5 |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |
  Benzoate of ethyl           |.. |.. |.. | 5 | 5 |.. |.. | 1 |.. |
  Œnanthate of ethyl          | 5 | 1 | 4 | 1 | 2 |.. |.. |.. |.. |
  Salicylate of methyl        | 2 | 2 |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |
  Sebacic acid                | 1 |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |10 |.. |.. |
  Acetate of amyl             |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |10 |.. |
  Butyrate of amyl            |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. |10 |.. |.. |10 |
  Valerianate of amyl         |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |
  Essence of orange           |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |10 |.. |10 |.. |
  Alcohol,      {Tartaric acid|.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |.. | 1 | 1 |
    solutions   {Oxalic acid  |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. |
    saturated in{Succinic acid|.. |.. |.. | 1 | 2 |.. |.. |.. |.. |
    the cold of {Benzoic acid |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+
                              | J | K | L | M | N | O |
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+
  Glycerin                    |10 |.. | 4 | 2 | 3 | 3 |
  Chloroform                  | 2 |.. |.. |.. |.. | 1 |
  Nitrous ether               |.. |.. | 1 | 1 |.. |.. |
  Aldehyde                    | 2 | 1 | 1 |.. | 2 | 1 |
  Acetate of ethyl            |.. | 5 | 5 | 5 |.. |.. |
  Formate of ethyl            | 2 |.. | 1 | 1 | 1 |.. |
  Butyrate of ethyl           |.. |.. | 1 | 5 | 4 | 5 |
  Valerianate of ethyl        |.. |.. |.. |.. | 5 |.. |
  Benzoate of ethyl           |.. | 1 | 1 |.. |.. |.. |
  Œnanthate of ethyl          |10 | 1 | 1 |.. |.. |.. |
  Salicylate of methyl        | 1 |.. | 1 | 1 |.. |.. |
  Sebacic acid                |.. |.. | 1 |.. |10 |.. |
  Acetate of amyl             |.. |.. | 1 | 3 |.. |10 |
  Butyrate of amyl            |.. |.. |.. | 2 |.. |.. |
  Valerianate of amyl         |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |
  Essence of orange           |.. | 5 | 5 |.. |.. |.. |
  Alcohol,      {Tartaric acid| 5 |.. |.. |.. |.. |.. |
    solutions   {Oxalic acid  |.. | 1 | 1 |.. |.. |.. |
    saturated in{Succinic acid| 3 | 1 |.. |.. |.. |.. |
    the cold of {Benzoic acid |.. |.. | 1 |.. |.. |.. |
  ————————————————————————————+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+—-—+


GLYCERIN.

This substance, which may be called a true cosmetic in itself, as it
possesses marked solvent power for cutaneous coloring matters and at
the same time imparts to the skin delicacy and flexibility, is at
present to be had commercially in great purity. Pure glycerin is a
brilliant, colorless, and odorless substance of the consistence of a
thick syrup, which mixes with water and alcohol in all proportions and
has a slightly warm but very sweet taste. It readily absorbs aromatic
substances and is used in many valued toilet articles in combination
with fats and perfumes. Recently we have succeeded in using glycerin
most successfully for the extraction of aromatic substances.


OIL OF MIRBANE,

also called artificial oil of bitter almonds, nitrobenzol, and essence
of mirbane. This substance, which is now largely used in perfumery
and soap manufacture, is obtained by the action of fuming nitric acid
on benzol. The mixture becomes hot and emits masses of brown vapors,
and there is formed a yellow oily body which is washed with water and
soda solution until the washings escape colorless. Pure nitrobenzol is
not soluble in water, but in alcohol or ether, boils at 213° C. (415°
F.), and congeals at-5 to 6° C. (21-23° F.). Its spec. grav. is 1·2
or a little over. Any oil of mirbane having a lower specific gravity
than 1·2 at 15° C. (59° F.) is spurious, most likely nitrotoluol.
Its odor greatly resembles that of oil of bitter almonds, but can be
clearly differentiated from it on comparison. Care must be taken in
inhaling the vapor when undiluted, as it is poisonous. By distillation
nitrobenzol can be obtained quite colorless, and in this form is
often used for the adulteration of genuine oil of bitter almonds.
This adulteration, however, can be easily demonstrated by heating for
a short time with an alcoholic solution of a caustic alkali which
separates from nitrobenzol a brown resinous substance, while true oil
of bitter almonds loses its odor and changes into benzoic acid which
unites with the alkali.


PARAFFIN.

This substance is one of the products of the distillation of petroleum,
coal, peat, and other carbonaceous sources. It is a crystalline,
brittle body, closely resembling wax in appearance and melting between
51 and 60° C. (124 and 140° F.). Paraffin, which is now made on a large
scale for the manufacture of candles, is very useful in perfumery as
a partial substitute for the much more expensive wax or spermaceti,
over which it has the advantage, besides its cheapness, that it imparts
to the articles great transparency—a quality which is valued highly
in fine perfumeries. The addition of some paraffin to pomades renders
them more consistent and counteracts their tendency to become rancid.
Distilled paraffin always has a crystalline form, differing from
the paraffin-like residues left after the distillation of petroleum
(so-called vaselins, etc., see below) which are always amorphous.


PYROGALLIC ACID

appears in commerce as a white crystalline powder, made by heating
gallic acid to 200-210° C. (392-410° F.). With iron salts, pyrogallic
acid forms bluish-black combinations and precipitates the metal from
silver solutions as a velvety-black powder. On account of these
properties pyrogallic acid is used in perfumery as a constituent of
some hair dyes.


SULPHIDE OF POTASSIUM,

liver of sulphur, hepar sulphuris, potassii sulphuretum, the
pentasulphide of potassium, is obtained by fusing together potash and
sulphur, in the shape of a leather-brown mass which is soluble in water
and on exposure to the air is gradually decomposed with the development
of the offensive sulphuretted hydrogen gas; hence it should be
preserved in well-closed vessels. An aqueous solution of this substance
forms with lead or silver salts a black precipitate of sulphide of lead
or silver, and is used for some hair dyes.


STARCH FLOUR

(amylum) is prepared from various vegetables such as potatoes, rice,
arrowroot, sago, etc., and when pure appears as an insoluble white
powder which the microscope shows to be grains consisting of many
superimposed layers. In commerce the price of the different varieties
of starch fluctuates greatly; in perfumery well-cleansed potato starch
can very well be used for dusting powders, and the so-called poudre de
riz; in this country, corn starch is preferable.


VANILLIN,

that is, the body to which vanilla owes its fragrance, is now made
artificially and can be used in place of vanilla for soaps and pomades.


VASELIN.

In the distillation of petroleum there remain in the still as a residue
large quantities of a substance which when purified is colorless and,
according to the nature of the petroleum, at ordinary temperatures has
either the consistence of lard, melting under the heat of the hand, or
forms an oily liquid. In perfumery vaselin can be used like fat or oil,
over which it has the advantage in that it always remains odorless and
free from acid; hence it is very appropriate for the manufacture of
pomades. The market affords numerous varieties of this substance, under
different names: vaselin (oil and solid), albolene (oil and solid),
cosmolin, etc., etc.


SPERMACETI

is a substance found in the skull cavities of several whales and
dolphins. In its properties it stands midway between beeswax, paraffin,
and firm fats. In the living animal spermaceti is fluid, but after its
death it congeals to a white crystalline mass of a fatty lustre, which
melts at 40° C. (104° F.), and is frequently used for fine candles as
well as for other articles.


WAX

(Cera alba), the well-known product of the bee; in perfumery only
bleached (white) wax is employed. In recent years Japanese wax
has appeared in commerce; this is of vegetable origin, but in its
properties resembles beeswax.


SUBNITRATE OF BISMUTH,

bismuth white, pearl white, bismuthi subnitras, blanc de bismuth,
blanc de perles, the basic nitrate of bismuth, the chief ingredient
of many skin cosmetics, is prepared by dissolving metallic bismuth in
moderately strong nitric acid, and pouring the solution into a large
quantity of water, whereupon the subnitrate is precipitated.

The precipitated powder is collected on a funnel and washed with pure
water until the wash water no longer changes blue tincture of litmus to
red. The bismuth white is dried and preserved in well-closed vessels,
since in the air it gradually assumes a yellowish color; for any
sulphuretted hydrogen present in the air is greedily absorbed by this
salt, and the resulting combination with sulphur has a black color.


OXIDE OF TIN

is obtained by treating metallic tin with fuming nitric acid, adding
the solution to a large quantity of water, and washing the product,
which forms a white insoluble powder used cosmetically for polishing
the finger nails.

       *       *       *       *       *

Besides the chemical products here enumerated, some others find
application in perfumery; we shall describe their properties in
connection with the articles into which they enter. In this connection
mention may be made of the fact that more and more aromatic substances
are now made artificially which were formerly obtained with difficulty
from plants. Besides vanillin mentioned above, cumarin, oil of
wintergreen, and some other products are prepared artificially.
Heliotropin and nerolin are artificially prepared substances,
possessing an odor resembling that of heliotrope and oil of neroli,
respectively, but not identical chemically with the natural odorous
substance. Artificial musk (Baur’s), is playing a rôle at present, but
is not identical with the natural substance.


C. The Colors used in Perfumery.

Some articles are colored intentionally; this remark applies
particularly to some soaps which not rarely are stained to correspond
to the color of the flower whose odor they bear; for instance, violet
soap. Some articles again are used only on account of their color;
for instance, paints, hair and whisker dyes. As we shall discuss this
subject at greater length in connection with these toilet articles, we
merely state here that nowadays every manufacturer can choose between a
large number of dyes of any color, all of which are innoxious; hence no
perfumer should under any circumstances use poisonous colors. This is
a matter of importance with substances intended for immediate contact
with the human body such as paints, lip salves, soaps, etc. All of
these colors will be described hereafter.



CHAPTER VII.

THE EXTRACTION OF ODORS.


Excepting the articles made in Turkey and India (especially oil of
rose), most aromatic substances are manufactured in southern France
and the adjoining regions of Italy, while a few (oils of peppermint
and lavender) are produced in England; a few also (oils of peppermint,
spearmint, wintergreen, sassafras, etc.) in the United States. However,
as we have stated above, it is possible to cultivate some plants from
which odors are extracted in the warm sections of this country, and
to obtain the most expensive perfumes from them. Among these plants
our experience leads us to suggest violets, roses, reseda, lavender,
mints, syringa, lilac, and several others to which the climate is
adapted.

The methods by which the odors can be extracted from the plants differ
according to the physical properties of the raw material and the
chemical composition of the aromatic substance. We shall here briefly
describe the methods thus far known, and at the same time add our
own experience in this most important part of the art of perfumery.
The aromatic substances are obtained by pressure, by distillation,
by maceration (infusion), by absorption (enfleurage) through air or
through carbonic acid, and by extraction.


PRESSURE.

Certain aromatic substances that occur in large amounts in some
parts of plants, are best obtained by pressure. The rinds of certain
fruits contain an essential oil in considerable quantities inclosed
in receptacles easily distinguished under the microscope. When these
vegetable substances are subjected to strong pressure, the oil
receptacles burst and the essential oil escapes. The force is usually
applied through a screw press with a stout iron spindle; the vegetable
substances being inclosed in strong linen or horse-hair cloths, placed
between iron plates, and subjected to a gradually increasing pressure.
Comparative experiments have shown us that even with the most powerful
presses a considerable, amount of oil is lost owing to the fact that a
large number of oil receptacles remain intact. For this reason, when
oil is to be extracted by pressure, a hydraulic press is preferable,
as it develops greater power than any other press. In the hydraulic
presses used for this purpose the piston fits exactly into a hollow
iron cylinder with sieve-like openings in its circumference. The
vegetable substances are filled into this cylinder; when the pressure
is applied, the fluids escape through the perforations, and the
residue forms a compact woody cake which is then free from oil.

Besides the essential oil, watery fluid is expressed, the whole
appearing as a milky liquid, owing to the admixture of vegetable
fibres, mucilage, etc. It is collected in a tall glass cylinder which
is set in a place free from any vibration. After remaining at rest for
several hours the liquid separates into two layers, the lower being
watery and mixed with mucilage, that floating on top being almost
pure oil. The latter is separated, and finally purified by filtration
through a double paper cone in a funnel covered with a glass plate.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

It is best to separate the water and oil in a regular separatory
funnel, or in a simple apparatus illustrated in Fig. 4. It is made
by cutting the bottom from a tall flask, and fitting into the neck
by means of a cork a glass tube having a diameter of one-fourth to
one-half inch. A rubber tube with stop-cock is fastened to the glass
tube. By careful opening of the stop-cock, the watery fluid can be
drained off to the last drop.

To the perfumer this method is of little importance, since it is
applicable only to a few substances which, moreover, give cheap odors.
Still, the possession of a hydraulic press is advisable to every
manufacturer who works on a large scale, as it is useful also in the
preparation of several fixed oils frequently employed in perfumery, for
instance, oils of almonds, nuts, etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

Fixed oils are best extracted in so-called drop presses, the material
having first been comminuted between rollers. These are arranged
as shown in section in Fig. 5, and in ground plan in Fig. 6. The
apparatus consists of two smooth or slightly grooved iron cylinders
A and B, respectively four feet and one foot in diameter, which can
be approximated or separated by means of set screws. The material is
placed into the trough F containing a feeding roller moved by the belt
P. The scrapers FF, pressed against the cylinders by means of weighted
levers, free the rollers from adhering pieces.

The drop presses Figs. 7 and 8 consist of a hydraulic press with
cylinders A and piston B; the troughs E are movable by means of rings
between two vertical columns and every trough has a circular gutter _d_
for the reception of the expressed oil. The iron pots G have double
walls, the inner of which has a series of openings at its upper part;
these pots are filled with the bruised material to be pressed and after
this has been covered with a plate of horse-hair tissue are set in the
press.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

As the piston rises, the troughs E sink into the pots, the escaping oil
collects in the gutters _d_ and thence passes into a receptacle. After
pressing, the piston is allowed to sink back, the pots G are drawn
aside (Fig. 8) to tabular surfaces, and other pots are substituted for
the exhausted ones. These drop presses are suitable for the extraction
of all fixed oils and also volatile oils present in orange and lemon
peel, etc.


DISTILLATION.

Many odors or essential oils possess the remarkable property that their
vapors pass so largely with that of boiling water that they can be
extracted in this way (by “distillation”) from vegetable substances,
though the essential oils have a boiling-point far above that of water.
Distillation can be employed for a large number of substances; for
instance, the essential oils present in cumin, anise, lavender, fennel,
mace, nutmeg, etc., are extracted exclusively in this manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

For the extraction of odors in this way, according to the quantities of
material to be worked, different apparatuses are used, some of the most
important of which will be here described.

For manufacturers who run without steam and are obliged to use a naked
flame, the adjoining apparatus (Fig. 9) will be advantageous.

It consists of a copper boiler A, the still, set in a brick furnace.
The latter is so constructed that the incandescent gases strike not
only the curved bottom of the still, but also its sides through the
flues Z left in the brickwork. The still, whose upper part projects
from the furnace, has an opening O on the left side, closed air-tight
with a screw, which serves for refilling with water during distillation
when necessary. To the margin of the still is fitted steam-tight the
helm H, made of copper or tinned iron, having a prolongation, the tube
R. The latter is joined to the conical projection _v_ which terminates
in the worm K. In some apparatuses this projection is omitted and the
tube immediately joins the worm. The latter is made of tinned iron and,
as the cut shows, is arranged in coils and supported by props _t_ in
the wooden or metal condenser F. The condenser bears above a short bent
tube _b_, and below, immediately over the bottom, an elbow tube _e_,
long enough to reach above the edge of the condenser, as indicated in
the cut.

The vegetable substances to be distilled can be put immediately into
the still and covered with water; but in this case it is advisable
to use a stirrer which must be kept moving until the water boils,
otherwise the material might burn at the bottom. But this accident can
also be prevented by applying a perforated false bottom to the still
above the flues, or by inclosing the material in a wire-sieve basket C.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

In place of the basket C the apparatus can also be provided with an
additional vessel containing the material to be distilled. In the still
A (Fig. 10) the water is brought to boiling, the steam rises through
the second still B in which the material is spread on a perforated
bottom. The steam laden with the vapors of the essential oil passes
through the tube R into the condenser.

It is very advantageous, and in large establishments altogether
indispensable, to use steam in the distillation of essential oils. Fig.
11 represents the arrangement of such an apparatus. The still B (which
in this case may be made of stout tinned iron) stands free and is
provided with a wooden jacket M for the purpose of retaining the heat.
Immediately above the curved bottom is a perforated plate on which the
material rests. The tube D which enters the bottom of the still is
connected with the boiler which furnishes steam at moderate tension.
H is the faucet for the admission of steam; H. is the faucet by which
the water escapes from the still at the end of the operation. After the
still is filled with the material, the faucet H is opened gradually and
a continuous stream of steam is allowed to pass through the still until
the operation is finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

When working with an open fire, as soon as vapors appear at the lower
end of the worm (Fig. 9), cold water is admitted through the tube _ne_;
as the cold water abstracts heat from the vapors and condenses them, it
becomes warm, rises to the surface, and escapes through _b_, so that
the worm is continually surrounded with cold water. If for any reason
the saving of cold water is an object, its flow may be so regulated
that the vapors are just condensed, the warm distillate being allowed
to cool in the air. When working with steam, the cold water must be
admitted the moment the steam-cock is opened, and the flow of cold
water should be ample during the distillation, which in this case is
much shorter.

The large apparatuses here described are generally used, especially
for the extraction from vegetable substances of odors present in
considerable quantity, for instance, mace, nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon,
etc., or from bulky material as the various flowers. For very expensive
odors, smaller apparatuses are often employed, the construction of
which resembles that of the ones described. For this purpose small
glass apparatuses are very suitable; they are illustrated in Fig. 12.

The still, a retort A, consists of a spherical vessel with a bottle
neck _t_ which is either closed with a cork or carries a thermometer
or glass tube, and with a lateral tube, the neck of the retort,
connected with the adapter _r_. The latter passes into the condenser
C. At the lower end of R is the bent adapter _v_ under which is placed
the receptacle for the distillate. The tube C is closed with corks,
at its lower end is the ascending tube _h_, and at its upper end the
descending tube _g_. During the distillation cold water flows in
through _h_ which cools the tube _r_ and escapes at _g_. The tube C,
as will be readily understood, acts like the condenser in the larger
apparatuses above described. In order to prevent the breaking of the
retort, it is not heated over a flame, but is set in a tin vessel B
filled with water. The comminuted vegetable material is inserted with
water through the up-turned neck of the retort into the latter; the
vessel B is filled with water which is raised to the boiling-point.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

During distillation we obtain at the lower end of the condenser pure
water and essential oil. When larger quantities are to be distilled
it is advisable to use a Florentine flask as a receptacle for the
separation of the oil and water (Fig. 13). It consists of a glass
bottle from the bottom of which ascends a tube curved above; the latter
rises high enough to bring the curvature slightly below the neck of the
flask. During the distillation the flask becomes filled with water W,
on which floats a layer of oil O; the excess of water escapes through
_a_ at _d_ until the flask finally contains more oil and very little
water.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

When producing essential oils on a large scale, instead of the frail
Florentine flasks it is advisable to use separators, the construction
of which is illustrated in Fig. 14. They consist of glass cylinders,
conical above and below, supported on a suitable frame. The water
accumulating under the oil is allowed to escape by opening the
stop-cock; when the first separator is filled with oil, the succeeding
distillate passes through the horizontal tube into the next separator,
etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

When the distillation is carried on in an ordinary still, we obtain,
besides the essential oil, a considerable quantity of aromatic water,
that is, a solution of the oil in water.

An apparatus which obviates the losses caused thereby is that of
Schimmel described below, which is well adapted to the manufacture on a
large scale. The apparatus is patented.

The nearly spherical still D (Fig. 15) is surrounded by a jacket M;
the inlet steam tube R is connected with a branch _r_ which enters the
interior of the still as a spiral tube with numerous perforations,
while R opens into the space M. When _r_ is opened, distillation takes
place by direct steam; when R is opened, by indirect steam; when both
faucets are opened, the still is heated at the same time with direct
and indirect steam.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

The vapors rising from the still D pass through the helm C and the tube
A into the worm K; the fluid condensed in the latter drops into the tin
Florentine flask F, the aromatic water flowing from the latter passes
back into the still D through the Welter funnel T and is distilled over
again, so that the entire distillation can be effected with very little
water, and it is continued until the water escaping from the Florentine
flask is freed from oil and odorless.

When working with superheated steam, it is necessary to set under the
funnel tube T a vessel twice the size of the Florentine flask, which is
provided with a stop-cock above and below. The lower cock is closed,
the vessel is allowed to fill with water from F, then the upper cock is
closed, the contents being allowed to escape into D by opening, when
the cocks are again reversed.

The use of superheated steam is important especially with material
which gives up the contained oil with difficulty, such as woods.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

For freeing the essential oil completely from water we use a so-called
separating funnel (Fig. 16). This consists of a glass funnel T resting
on a suitable support G, which is closed above with a glass plate
ground to fit, drawn out below into a fine point S, and provided with a
glass stop-cock H. The contents of the Florentine flask are poured into
the funnel which is covered with the glass plate and allowed to stand
at rest until the layer of oil O is clearly separated from the water W.
By careful opening of the stop-cock the water is allowed to escape and
the oil is immediately filled into bottles which are closed air tight
and preserved in a cool and dark place.


MACERATION (INFUSION).

Some odors, like those of cassie, rose, reseda, syringa, jasmine,
violets, and many other fragrant blossoms, cannot be obtained by
distillation as completely or as sweet-scented as by the process
of maceration which is in general use among the large perfumers in
southern France. This process is based on the property of fats to
absorb odorous substances with avidity and to yield them almost
entirely to strong alcohol. According to the fat employed for the
maceration of the flowers—a solid fat like lard or a liquid like olive
oil—odorous products are obtained which are known either as pomades
or as perfumed oils (huiles antiques). By repeatedly treating fresh
flowers with the same fat the manufacturer is able to perfume the
pomade or oil at will, and in the factories these varying strengths
are designated by numbers; the higher numbers indicating the stronger
products.

The process of maceration is very simple. The fat is put into porcelain
or enamelled iron pots which are heated, in a shallow vessel filled
with water, to 40 or at most 50° C. (104-122° F.); the flowers are
inclosed in small bags of fine linen and hung into the fat, where they
are allowed to remain for from one-half to two days. At the end of that
time the bags are removed, drained, expressed, refilled with fresh
flowers, and replaced in the fat. This procedure is repeated twelve to
sixteen times or oftener, thus producing pomades or oils of varying
fragrance.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

As the odors are much superior when the flowers are only a short
time in contact with the fat, it is better to use an apparatus for
continuous operation (Fig. 17). It consists of a box K made of tin
plate, which is divided into from five to ten compartments by vertical
septa and can be closed water tight by a lid to be screwed on. The
septa have alternate upper and lower openings. The compartments contain
each a basket of tinned wire filled with the flowers for maceration,
then the lid is closed and the box heated in a water bath to 40 or
50° C. (104-122° F.). The stop-cock H in tube R is now opened. This
admits melted fat or oil from a vessel above to the first compartment
in which it rises through the basket filled with flowers whose odor it
abstracts. The additional fat coming from above drives it over through
the opening O_{2} into compartment 2, where it comes in contact with
fresh flowers, passes through O_{3} into the third compartment, and so
on through 4 and 5, until it finally escapes through R_{1} well charged
with odor. According to requirements a larger number of compartments
may be employed.

When all the fat has passed through the apparatus, it is opened, the
basket is removed from compartment 1, the basket from No. 2 is placed
in 1, that from 3 in 2, etc.; basket 1 is emptied, filled with fresh
flowers, and placed in compartment 5, so that every basket gradually
passes through all compartments to No. 1. In this way the fat rapidly
absorbs all the odor.

The odorous substances are abstracted from the pomades or huiles
antiques by treatment with strong alcohol (90-95%) which dissolves the
essential oils but not the fats. The huiles antiques with the alcohol
are placed in large glass bottles and frequently shaken. In order to
abstract the odors from pomades, the latter are allowed to congeal and
are divided into small pieces which are inserted into the bottles of
alcohol. A better plan is to fill the pomades into a tin cylinder with
a narrow opening in front and to express the pomades, by a well-fitting
piston, in the shape of a thin thread which thus presents a large
surface to the action of the alcohol, thus hastening the absorption
of the odor. The alcoholic solution obtained after some weeks is then
distilled off at a low temperature. We shall recur to this hereafter.

No matter how long the fats are left in contact with alcohol, they do
not yield up to it all the odor, but retain a small portion of it and
hence have a very fragrant smell. They are, therefore, brought into
commerce as perfumed oils or pomades bearing the name of the odorous
substance they contain: orange flower, reseda pomade or oil, etc.; they
are highly prized and are sometimes used again for the extraction of
the same odor.

Some odors cannot bear even the slight rise of temperature necessary
for their extraction by the method of maceration or infusion. For these
delicate odors one of the following methods may be employed.


ABSORPTION OR ENFLEURAGE.

In this method the absorbing power of fat is likewise used for
retaining the odors, but the flowers are treated with the fat at
ordinary temperatures. This procedure which is employed especially in
southern France is carried out as follows. The fat (lard) is spread to
a thickness of about one-quarter inch on glass plates G one yard long
and two feet wide, which are inserted in wooden frames R and sprinkled
with flowers F (Fig. 18). The frames are superimposed (the cut shows
two of the frames) and left for from one to three days, when fresh
flowers are substituted for the wilted ones, and so on until the pomade
has attained the desired strength.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

This procedure is very cumbrous and tedious and therefore had better be
modified thus: In an air-tight box K (Fig. 19) we place a larger number
of glass plates _g_ covered with lard drawn into fine threads by means
of a syringe. This box is connected with a smaller one K_{1} which is
filled with fresh flowers and provided with openings below and above,
O and O_{1}. The latter, O_{1} communicates by a tube with box K, at
whose upper end is a tube _e_ terminating in an exhaust fan so that the
air must pass through the apparatus in the direction indicated by the
arrows. A small fan V driven by clockwork will answer. The air drawn
from K_{1} is laden with odors and in passing over the fat as shown
by the arrows gives them up completely to the fat. The use of this
apparatus has very important advantages: the absorption is effected
rapidly, requires little power, and the flowers do not come at all into
contact with the fat which therefore can take up nothing but the odors
present in the air.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.]

Instead of charging the fat with odors by either one of the methods
here described, carbonic acid can also be employed with advantage, by
means of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 20. The large glass vessel
G contains pieces of white marble M upon which hydrochloric acid is
poured at intervals through the funnel tube R. A current of carbonic
acid is thus developed, which passes through a wash bottle W filled
with water, then through the tin vessel B containing fresh flowers,
and finally into a bottle A filled with strong alcohol and set in cold
water, after which it escapes through the tube _e_. The carbonic acid
absorbs the aromatic vapors from B and leaves them in the alcohol which
absorbs them. (G, R, W are made of glass, B of tin.)

[Illustration: FIG. 20.]


EXTRACTION.

This method is based on the fact that some volatile liquids such as
ether, chloroform, petroleum ether, or bisulphide of carbon possess the
property of rapidly extracting the aromatic substances from flowers;
when they are evaporated at a gentle heat they leave the pure odors
behind. In our opinion this process is the best of all for the perfumer
and it is to be regretted that it is not more generally used.

As a rule we employ either petroleum ether or bisulphide of carbon (see
above, pp. 65, 66) because these products are cheaper than ether or
chloroform.

The apparatus we use for this purpose is illustrated in Fig. 21. It
consists of a cylinder C made of tinned iron, which is provided above
with a circular gutter R terminating in a stop-cock _h_ and which
can be closed by a lid D bearing a stop-cock _o_. A tube _b_ with a
stop-cock _a_ enters the bottom of the cylinder. The latter is filled
with the flowers, the volatile liquid (petroleum ether, bisulphide
of carbon, etc.) is poured over them, the lid is put on, and the
gutter R filled with water, thereby sealing the contents of the vessel
hermetically.

After the extraction, which requires about thirty to forty minutes,
stop-cock _o_ is opened first, then stop-cock _a_, and the liquid
is allowed to escape into the retort of the still (Fig. 12). If the
extraction is to be repeated, the water is allowed to escape from the
gutter through _h_, the lid is opened, and the solvent is again poured
over the flowers.

For operation on a larger scale the glass retorts are too small and
should be replaced by tin vessels (Fig. 22) having the form of a
wide-mouthed bottle F; they are closed by a lid D which is rendered
air tight by being clamped upon the flange of the vessel (R) with iron
screws S, a pasteboard washer being interposed; a curved glass tube
connects the apparatus with the condenser of Fig. 12.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

The solutions of the aromatic substances are evaporated in these
apparatuses at the lowest possible temperature, the solvent being
condensed and used over again. The heat required is for ether about
36° C. (97° F.), for chloroform about 65° C. (149° F.), for petroleum
ether about 56° C. (133° F.), and for bisulphide of carbon about 45° C.
(113° F.). If it is desired to obtain the aromatic substances pure from
an alcoholic extract of the pomades made by one of the above-described
processes—which is rarely done since these solutions are generally
used as such for perfumes—a heat of 75 to 80 C. (167 to 176° F.) is
required.

Another extraction apparatus illustrated in Fig. 23 is well adapted to
operations on a large scale. Its main parts are the extractor E and the
still B. The former is set in a vat W continually supplied with cold
water. The still B is surrounded with hot water in the boiler K.

To start the apparatus the cone C is removed, the vessel E is filled
with the material to be extracted, and C is replaced. The faucets H_{2}
and H_{4} are opened, the solvent is poured into the still through the
latter, when these faucets are closed and those marked H and H_{1} are
opened.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

The water in K is heated until the contents of B are in brisk
ebullition; the vapor rises through RH, is condensed on entering E and
falls in small drops on the material. This fine rain of the solvent
dissolves the aromatic substances and flows back into B, where it is
again evaporated, and so on.

At the end of the extraction the faucets H and H_{1} are closed and
H_{2}, is opened. The vapors of the solvent pass through it into a worm
where they are condensed; the essential oil remaining in B is drained
off by opening H_{3}.

For still larger operations more perfect apparatuses are employed,
such as those of Seiffert and Vohl. Seiffert’s apparatus (Fig. 24)
consists of a battery of jacketed cylinders; steam circulates in the
space between the cylinders and the jackets. Each cylinder contains a
plate covered with a wire net on which the flowers to be extracted are
placed. All the cylinders having been filled and closed, the solvent is
admitted from a container above, through S and _a_ into C^2; when this
is filled the liquid flows through _a_^2_b_^3_c_^n into C. The solution
saturated with essential oil leaves the apparatus through _d_^n and
_p_ and enters a reservoir. The course of the liquid is aided by the
suction of an air-pump acting on _p_.

When the reservoir contains an amount of fluid equal to that in C^n,
_d_^n is closed, _a_^n is opened, and C connected with C^1 through
_b_^n and _c_^1. That the contents of C^2 are completely extracted is
shown by the fact that the liquid appears colorless in the glass tube
inserted in _b_^2; _a_^1 and C^2 are closed; _a_^2 and C^3 are opened,
thereby excluding C^2 from the current of bisulphide of carbon which
then flows through C^3C^nC^1. In order to permit the free flow of
the bisulphide of carbon through S despite the exclusion of C^2, the
faucets _a_^1_a_^2_a_^3_a_^n must be two-way cocks; in one position
they connect S with _b_; in the other they close _b_ and leave the
passage through S open.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

In order to collect the bisulphide of carbon present in the extracted
residue in C^2, faucet _g_^2 is opened and the bisulphide of carbon
allowed to escape through _h_. The faucet _e_^2 in tube L on being
opened admits compressed air to C^2, thus hastening the outflow. If
nothing escapes below, faucets _f_^2 and _f_^x are opened, steam enters
through tube D between jacket and cylinder; the bisulphide of carbon
vapor passes through _g_^2 and _h_ into the worm. After the expulsion
of the bisulphide of carbon, C^3 is emptied, refilled, connected with
C^1, and bisulphide of carbon admitted from C^3 in the manner above
described.

An extraction apparatus which has been much recommended of late is the
so-called “Excelsior Apparatus” made by Wegelin and Huebner, Halle a.
S., which can be worked with any desired solvent. The construction of
the apparatus (Figs. 25 and 26) is as follows.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

The solvent is admitted to the reservoir R in the lower part of the
condenser B through the tube indicated in the figure. The material
to be extracted having been filled into the cylinder A through the
manhole, the apparatus is closed. The cold water is admitted to the
condenser by opening a faucet. The three-way cock shown in Fig. 25 is
so placed as to open a communication of the overflow tube with A. The
faucet at the lower end of the reservoir R is now opened sufficiently
and the solvent passes into A from above, and as it descends takes
up more and more oil, flows through the sieve-plate, and escapes
through the tube at the bottom of A through the three-way cock, the
overflow tube, and the drain tube into the accumulator C. The opening
of a faucet now admits steam to the heating coil, when the solvent
evaporates, leaving the oil or fat behind. It is condensed in B,
again returns to R, whence it passes once more through the faucet
into the extractor A. The vessel C and the tubes leading to A and C
are surrounded with felt to prevent loss of heat. A sample taken from
the small cock at the foot of A (it has a small plate in the interior
of the tube) will show when the extraction in A may be looked upon as
finished. The solvent is distilled off or recovered from the residue
in A in the following manner. First the faucet in R is closed. The
three-way cock A is set to establish direct communication between A and
C, thus cutting off the overflow tube. Hence all the solvent in A flows
into C for distillation, while the oil is left behind. Steam being
admitted to the residue, the solvent rises as vapor through the upper
tube from A to B and collects in a liquid state in R. To drive off the
last traces of the solvent from the fat or oil obtained, steam is blown
into C by opening the valve. Besides the solvent, watery vapor enters B
and forms a layer of water in R under the solvent. By taking a sample
from the test-cock of the reservoir C which has an internal small
plate, the termination of the process is ascertained. The gauge tube at
the reservoir shows the level of the solvent and water. The water is
drawn off by opening the faucet at the lower end of the reservoir. A is
emptied through the manhole and by draining the oil from C through the
discharge cock. The tube R is closed by a light valve so as to prevent
evaporation of the solvent. All the apparatuses work without pressure
so that there is no danger from overstrain.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28.]

The solutions of the essential oils in bisulphide of carbon are
distilled off in the steam still illustrated in Fig. 27; the steam
enters at _h_, the water of condensation escapes at _d_, the liquid
to be distilled enters at _e_ from a container at a higher level. The
boiling is kept uniform by the stirring arrangement _hg_. After the
bisulphide of carbon is distilled off, air is passed through the oil by
the curved tube _a_ which has fine perforations, so as to evaporate the
last traces of the solvent.

In Vohl’s apparatus (Fig. 28), arranged for petroleum ether, the
extraction is effected with the boiling fluid; hence this apparatus
is better adapted for the cheaper oils than for the finest oils from
flowers. The apparatus consists of two extractors A A, the accumulator
B, and the condenser C. Petroleum ether is allowed to flow over the
substances to be extracted, by opening the faucets _mm_, _vh_, closing
_ogw_E, and opening _o_, the course being through _ux_ to B. When B
is two-thirds full, the flow of petroleum ether is cut off, steam
is admitted through _y_ and the contents of B are brought to the
boiling-point. The vapors pass through _g_ and are condensed in _f_
until the contents of A reach the boiling-point of the solvent, when
the vapors pass through _i_ into C, and after closing _m´_ the liquid
passes through _ml_ into the inner cylinder of the extraction apparatus
and returns through _uxx_.

After the contents of A are extracted, _m´_ is opened, _m_ closed, and
steam is admitted through _d_ into the jacket of A; the vapors of the
solvent force the liquid part of the contents through _ux_ into B.
Overfilling of B is prevented by allowing the vapors of the solvent to
escape at the proper time into the condenser through _p_ by opening
_q_. Then _v_ is closed, _q_ opened, and the steam present in A drawn
off by an exhaust applied to _p_; as soon as _p_ begins to cool, all
the petroleum ether is distilled off, the steam is cut off at _d_, and
the extract evacuated through _t_. The contents of B are brought into a
still through D and E.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.]

By employing greater pressure the extraction can also be effected by
what is called displacement; the material to be extracted is placed
in a stout-walled vessel S (Fig. 29) which is connected by a narrow
tube at least ten yards long with the vessel F containing the solvent.
Stopcock H is first opened, then stop-cock H_{1} which is closed as
soon as fluid begins to flow from it. After the liquid has remained in
contact with the material for from thirty to sixty minutes, H_{1} is
opened very slowly, the liquid is allowed to escape and is displaced
with water which is made to pass out of F in the same way as the
solvent, until the latter is completely displaced from S.

After the solvent has been distilled off, the less volatile essential
oil remains in the still almost pure, containing only traces of wax,
vegetable fat or coloring matter which are of no consequence for our
purposes. The last remnants of the solvent cannot be expelled by
distillation, but by forcing through the essential oil a current of
pure air for fifteen or twenty minutes. The essential oils then are of
the purest, unexceptionable quality.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.]

In the case of delicate oils it is better to use carbonic acid in place
of air for expelling the last traces of the solvent, as the oxygen
may impair the delicacy of the fragrance. For this purpose we use the
apparatus illustrated in Fig. 30. In the large bottle A carbonic acid
is generated by pouring hydrochloric acid over fragments of white
marble. The carbonic acid passes into the vessel B filled with water
which frees it from any adhering drops of hydrochloric acid; then into
C filled with sulphuric acid to which it yields its water so that only
pure carbonic acid escapes through the fine rose at the end of tube
D which is made of pure tin, and as it passes through the oil in E
it carries off the last traces of the volatile solvent. In its final
passage through the water in F it leaves behind any oil that may have
been carried with it.

As all the aromatic substances change in air by the gradual absorption
of oxygen, and lose their odor—become resinified—these costly
substances must be put into small bottles which they completely
fill, and be preserved in a cool dark place, as light and heat favor
resinification. The bottles must be closed with well-fitting glass
stoppers.

Aromatic waters or eaux aromatisées, such as jasmine water (eau de
jasmin), orange-flower water (eau de fleurs d’oranges, eau triple de
Néroli, aqua naphæ triplex), etc., are made by distillation of these
flowers with water and show a faint but very fine odor. When they
contain, besides, dilute alcohol they are called spirituous waters
or esprits. Those brought into commerce from southern France are of
excellent quality.


THE YIELD OF ESSENTIAL OILS.

The quantities of essential oil obtainable from the vegetable
substances vary with the amount present in each. The following table
shows the average quantities of oil to be obtained from 100 parts of
material.

    Material.               Name of Plant.              Mean Yield
                                                       per 100 Parts.
  Ajowan seed              Ptychotis Ajowan                3·000
  Alant root               Inula Helenium                  0·600
  Allspice                 Myrtus Pimenta                  3·500
  Almonds, bitter          Amygdala amara            0·400-0·700
  Angelica seed            Archangelica officinalis        1·150
  Angelica root, Thuring.      "             "             0·750
     "      "    Saxon         "             "             1·000
  Anise seed, Russian      Pimpinella Anisum               2·800
    "    "    Thuring.         "        "                  2·400
    "    "    Morav.           "        "                  2·600
  Anise seed, Chili       Pimpinella Anisum                2·400
    "    "    Spanish         "        "                   3·000
    "    "    Levant          "        "                   1·300
  Anise chaff                 "        "                   0·666
  Arnica flowers          Arnica montana                   0·040
  Arnica root               "       "                      1·100
  Asafœtida            Ferula Asafœtida                    3·250
  Avens root              Geum urbanum                     0·040
  Basilicum herb, fresh   Ocymum basilicum                 0·040
  Bay leaves              Pimenta acris              2·300-2·600
  Bear’s berry            Uva ursi                         1·010
  Beech tar               Betula alba                     20·000
  Bergamots                                            ab. 3·400
  Betel leaves            Piper Betle                      0·550
  Bitter almond meal      Amygdala amara                   0·950
  Buchu leaves            Barosma crenulata                2·600
  Butter-bur oil          Tussilago Petasites              0·056
  Calamus root            Acorus Calamus                   2·800
  Camomile, German        Matricaria Chamomilla      4·000-6·000
     "      Roman         Anthemis nobilis                 3·000
  Caraway seed,
    Cult. German          Carum Carvi                      4·000
     "    Dutch             "     "                        5·500
     "    East Prussian     "     "                        5·000
     "    Moravian          "     "                        5·000
  Wild German               "     "                  6·000-7·000
   " Norwegian              "     "                  6·000-6·500
   " Russian                "     "                        3·000
  Cardamoms, Ceylon       Elettaria Cardamomum             4·250
      "      Madras           "         "                  4·300
      "      Malabar          "         "                  1·750
      "      Siam             "         "                  1·350
  Carrot seed             Daucus Carota                    1·650
  Cascarilla bark         Croton Eluteria                  1·500
  Cassia flowers          Cinnamomum Cassia                3·500
  Cassia wood                 "        "                   0·285
  Cedar wood              Juniperus virginianus      0·700-1·000
  Celery herb             Apium graveolens                 0·200
  Celery seed               "       "                      0·300
  Chekan leaves            Myrtus Chekan                   1·000
  Cinnamon, Ceylon         Cinnamomum zeylanicum     0·900-1·250
     "      white          Canella alba                    1·000
  Cloves, Amboina          Caryophyllus aromaticus        19·000
    "     Bourbon              "           "              18·000
    "     Zanzibar             "           "              17·500
    "     stems                "           "               6·000
  Common wormwood herb      Artemisia Abrotanum            0·040
    "       "     root         "         "                 0·100
  Copaiva balsam, Para      Copaifera officinalis         45·000
     "      "    East Ind.  Dipterocarpus turbinatus      65·000
  Coriander seed,
      Thuringian            Coriandrum sativum             0·800
      Russian                  "         "                 0·900
      Dutch                    "         "                 0·600
      East Indian              "         "                 0·150
      Italian                  "         "                 0·700
      Mogadore                 "         "                 0·600
  Crisp mint herb           Mentha crispa                  1·000
  Cubebs                    Piper Cubeba           12·000-16·000
  Culilaban bark            Laurus Culilavan               3·400
  Cumin seed, Mogadore      Cuminum Cyminum                3·000
    "    "    Maltese          "       "                   3·900
    "    "    Syrian           "       "                   4·200
    "    "    East Indian      "       "                   2·250
  Curcuma root              Curcuma longa                  5·200
  Dill seed, German         Anethum graveolens             3·800
   "    "    Russian           "        "                  4·000
   "    "    East Indian    Anethum Sowa                   2·000
  Elder flowers             Sambucus niger                 0·025
  Elemi resin               Icica Abilo                   17·000
  Eucalyptus leaves, dry    Eucalyptus globulus            3·000
  Fennel seed,
      Saxon                 Foeniculum vulgare       5·000-5·600
      Galician                 "        "                  6·000
      East Indian           Foeniculum Panmorium           2·200
  Galanga root              Alpinia Galanga                0·750
  Galbanum resin            Galbanum officinale            6·500
  Geranium                  Pelargonium odoratissimum      0·115
  Ginger root,
      African           Zingiber officinale                2·600
      Bengal               "         "                     2·000
      Japan                "         "                     1·800
  Cochin China             "         "                     1·900
  Hazel root            Asarum europæum                    1·100
  Heracleum seed        Heracleum Sphondylium              1·000
  Hop flowers           Humulus Lupulus                    0·700
  Hop meal, lupulin        "      "                        2·250
  Hyssop herb           Hyssopa officinalis                0·400
  Iva herb              Iva moschata                       0·400
  Juniper berries,
      German            Juniperus communis           0·500-0·700
      Italian              "        "                1·100-1·200
      Hungarian            "        "                1·000-1·100
  Laurel berries        Laurus nobilis                     1·000
  Laurel leaves            "       "                       2·400
  Laurel, Californian   Oreodaphne californica             7·600
  Lavender flowers,
      German            Lavandula vera                     2·900
  Linaloe wood          Elaphrium graveolens               5·000
  Lovage root           Levisticum officinale              0·600
  Mace                  Myristica fragrans         11·000-16·000
  Marjoram herb, fresh  Origanum Majorana                  0·350
     "      "    dry       "        "                      0·900
  Marsh-rosemary oil    Ledum palustre                     0·350
  Massoy bark           Massoia aromatica
  Masterwort root       Imperatoria Ostruthium             0·800
  Matico leaves         Piper angustifolium                2·400
  Matricaria herb       Matricaria Parthenium              0·030
  Melissa herb          Melissa officinalis                0·100
  Michelia bark         Michelia nilagirica                0·300
  Milfoil herb          Achillea Millefolium               0·080
  Musk seed             Hibiscus Abelmoschus               0·200
  Mustard seed,
      Dutch             Sinapis nigra                      0·850
      German               "      "                        0·750
      East Indian          "      "                        0·590
      Pugliese             "      "                        0·750
  Mustard seed, Russian   Sinapis juncea                   0·500
  Myrrh                   Balsamodendron Myrrha      2·500-6·500
  Myrtle                  Myrtus communis                  0·275
  Nigella seed            Nigella sativa                   0·300
  Nutmegs                 Myristica fragrans        8·000-10·000
  Olibanum resin          Boswellia, var. spec             6·300
  Opoponax resin          Pastinaca Opoponax               6·500
  Orange peel, sweet      Citrus Aurantium                 2·500
  Orris root              Iris florentina                  0·200
  Parsley herb            Apium Petroselinum               0·300
  Parsley seed               "        "                    3·000
  Parsnip seed            Pastinaca sativa                 2·400
  Patchouly herb          Pogostemon Patchouly       1·500-4·000
  Peach kernels           Amygdalus persica          0·800-1·000
  Pellitory root          Valeriana celtia                 1·000
  Pepper, black           Piper nigrum                     2·200
  Peppermint, fresh       Mentha piperita                  0·300
  Peppermint, dry            "       "               1·000-1·250
  Peru balsam             Toluifera Pereiræ                0·400
  Pimpernel root          Pimpinella saxifraga             0·025
  Poplar sprouts          Populus niger                    0·500
  Rhodium wood            Convolvulus Scoparius            0·050
  Rose flowers, fresh     Rosa centifolia                  0·050
  Rosemary                Rosmarinus officinalis           1·550
  Rue herb                Ruta graveolens                  0·180
  Sage herb, German       Salvia officinalis               1·400
   "    "    Italian         "        "                    1·700
  Santal wood,
     East Indian          Santalum album                   4·500
     Macassar                "       "                     2·500
     West Indian          Unknown                          2·700
  Sassafras wood          Sassafras officinalis            2·600
  Savin herb              Juniperus Sabina                 3·750
  Snakeroot, Canadian     Asarum canadense           2·800-3·250
      "       Virginian   Aristolochia Serpentaria         2·000
  Star-anise, Chinese     Illicium anisatum                5·000
      "       Japanese    Illicium religiosum              1·000
  Storax                  Liquidambar orientalis           1·000
  Sumbul root             Ferula Sumbul                    0·300
  Tansy herb              Tanacetum vulgare                0·150
  Thyme                   Thymus Serpyllum                 0·200
     "   dry                 "       "                     0·100
  Valerian root, German   Valeriana officinalis            0·950
     "      "    Dutch        "         "                  1·000
     "      "    Japan    Patrinia scabiosæfolia
  Vetiver root            Andropogon muricatus       0·200-0·350
  Violet flowers          Viola odorata                    0·030
  Water-yarrow seed       Phellandrium aquaticum           1·300
  Wintersweet marjoram    Origanum creticum                3·500
  Worm seed               Artemisia maritima               2·000
  Wormwood herb           Artemisia Absinthium       0·300-0·400
  Zedoary root            Curcuma Zedoaria                 1·300

Fresh flowers as a rule contain more aromatic material than wilted
ones; the yield of dried herbs, leaves, etc., is usually greater than
that of the fresh, because the latter contain much water which is
lost in drying. When such vegetable materials cannot be worked fresh,
which is best, they should be completely dried, spread on boards, at
a moderate temperature in the shade and preserved in dry airy rooms,
special care being had to guard against mould.



CHAPTER VIII.

THE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC SUBSTANCES.


In a preceding chapter on the chemical properties of the vegetable
substances many of their characteristics have been described. In this
place we need only describe the physical properties of the essential
oils, and with some of them to lay stress on those peculiarities by
which they are specially differentiated. This knowledge is of the
greatest importance to the manufacturer of perfumery because no
single individual is in a position to prepare all aromatic substances
himself, but must rely on commerce for some of them; and in no group of
chemicals is adulteration as frequent and as difficult of demonstration
as among the aromatics. These adulterations are carried so far that
many essential oils occurring in commerce under certain names often
have nothing in common with the substance for which they are sold but
the name.


OIL OF CASSIE.

The oil of Acacia farnesiana is greenish-yellow and viscid; the density
and boiling-point, which are of the greatest importance with reference
to the genuineness of an essential oil, are not yet accurately known.
Moreover, this oil never occurs in commerce as such, but its odor is
present in perfumes, fixed oils, and pomades.


OIL OF ANISE

should be colorless or faintly yellow; a dark yellow color indicates
old and inferior quality. The characteristics of this oil are the odor,
its aromatic sweet taste, and especially the property of solidifying
at a comparatively high temperature, 10-15° C. (50-59° F.), which
is due to the separation of a stearopten, anethol. Oil of anise is
frequently adulterated with or replaced by oil of star-anise. The easy
solidification of the oil of anise is not always proof of its good
quality, for the oil from anise chaff, which congeals at a still higher
temperature, is sometimes mixed with it, and this has a less fine odor
than that distilled from the seed. One part by weight of oil of anise
is soluble in an equal weight of alcohol of 94%.


OIL OF BERGAMOT

has a pale yellow color which becomes greenish when the oil is kept in
copper vessels, and a strong agreeable odor. This oil requires the
greatest care in its preservation, as it abstracts oxygen from the air
with extreme rapidity, when it changes its superior odor so that it can
hardly be distinguished from oil of turpentine.


OIL OF BITTER ALMOND (OLEUM AMYGDALE AMARÆ),

when pure, is a colorless, refractive liquid which is heavier than
water. The vessels in which this product is preserved must be stoppered
air-tight, for in the air the oil very quickly changes into a white,
odorless mass of crystals consisting of benzoic acid.

Oil of bitter almond is formed by the action of the amygdalin upon the
emulsin present in the fruit, bitter-almond meal being deprived of
fat and left in contact with water for some hours at from 40-45° C.
(104-113° F.). Besides oil of bitter almond, sugar and prussic acid are
likewise formed. The crude oil distilled from the meal is freed from
the prussic acid by agitation with ferrous chloride and lime-water, and
redistillation.


OIL OF CAJEPUT (OLEUM CAJUPUTI)

has usually a greenish color, and has a burning, camphoraceous and at
the same time cooling taste. It has a peculiar odor resembling that of
camphor and rosemary.


OIL OF CALAMUS (OLEUM CALAMI).

This oil, which is very viscid and of a yellow or reddish color, must
usually be mixed with other essential oils in order to furnish pleasant
perfumes.


OIL OF CHAMOMILE (OLEUM CHAMOMILLÆ).

Oil of chamomile, from Matricaria Chamomilla (common chamomile), which
is specially characterized by its magnificent dark-blue color, has a
marked narcotic odor and is very high-priced, owing to the small yield
of oil by the flowers. The oil from Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile)
has also a blue color which gradually becomes greenish-yellow.


CAMPHOR (CAMPHORA).

This essential oil differs from the others mainly by being firm and
crystalline at ordinary temperatures. Chinese or Japanese camphor melts
at 175° C. (347° F.) and boils at 205° C. (401° F.). Camphor is seldom
used alone, as its odor is hardly fragrant; but it finds frequent
application in the preparation of mouth washes, toilet vinegars, etc.
In commerce so-called Borneo camphor is also met with (though rarely),
which closely resembles the Chinese in appearance and other qualities,
but is more friable and melts at 189° C. (388·4° F.).


OIL OF CASCARILLA

is not used pure in perfumery, the bark being generally employed
instead.


OIL OF CASSIA (OLEUM CASSIÆ)

has a yellow color, gradually becoming dark reddish-brown, and an odor
resembling that of oil of cinnamon, but the odor is not so fine, nor
so strong, as that of the latter. The taste of the oil is of special
importance: while that of true oil of cinnamon is burning though sweet,
oil of cassia has a sharper taste, and this taste is considered by some
a good mark of recognition of the rather common adulteration of true
oil of cinnamon which is much more costly.


OIL OF CEDAR.

This oil, obtained from the wood of the Juniperus virginiana (not from
the true cedar, Cedrus Libani), is clear like water, has a pleasant
odor, and differs from most essential oils by congealing at a very low
temperature (-22° C. or-8° F.) and by its uncommon resinification in
contact with air.


OIL OF CITRON.

Oil of citron is usually merely a synonym for “oil of lemon.” But in
perfumery it has been customary to designate the oil of lemon which was
extracted by the écuelle process, as “oil of citron-zeste” or “oil of
citron,” while “oil of lemon” meant the distilled oil. Since there is
no difficulty at the present time in obtaining all the hand-pressed oil
that may be required, and of the finest quality, there is no longer any
necessity for making the before-mentioned distinction.


OIL OF LEMON (OLEUM LIMONIS, OLEUM CITRI)

is one of the most important essential oils for the perfumer as well
as the manufacturer of liqueurs, confectioner, etc. The oil is pale
yellow, and of a very strong refreshing odor which it loses rapidly
in contact with the air, when it acquires a disagreeable odor of
turpentine and gradually resinifies. This change is particularly marked
under the influence of light. Its spec. grav. is 0·850 at 20° C. (68°
F.). It is soluble in an equal volume of strong alcohol or glacial
acetic acid. The hand-pressed oil has a much finer aroma than that
obtained by distillation.


OIL OF CITRONELLA.

This oil is hardly ever made in Europe, since it is imported in
excellent quality and at low prices from India and especially the
island of Ceylon. (See above, p. 29.)


OIL OF LEMON-GRASS.

This oil, which is imported in considerable quantities from India
(chiefly Ceylon), is colorless and possesses a very pleasant odor of
lemon which at the same time recalls that of roses and still more that
of geranium, which is not rarely adulterated with it. (See above, p.
33.)


OIL OF CORIANDER (OLEUM CORIANDRI)

has a pale yellow color and a burning, sharp, aromatic taste. Like
oil of cubebs (oleum cubebæ), oil of dill (oleum anethi), and oil of
fennel (oleum fœniculi) which latter also has a rather low congealing
point (-8° C. or +17° F.), this oil is used less in perfumery than
for scenting soap and in the manufacture of liqueurs. But it should
be noted that these oils, as well as those of bergamot, caraway,
star-anise, and some others, could well be employed for cheap perfumes
and for scenting soap. Oil of dill also finds application alone in the
preparation of some face washes, and the dried fennel herb in cheap
sachets.


OIL OF LILAC

can be made at slight cost from the flowers, as the raw material is
obtainable without much trouble; it forms a yellow, strong-scented oil.
In perfumery, however, use is generally made only of the pomade made
from the fresh flowers or the alcoholic extract prepared from it. Or
else the odor is imitated by means of terpineol, which is now on the
market under the name of lilacin.


OIL OF GERANIUM.

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between oil of true geranium
distilled in Southern France and Algiers from species of Pelargonium;
and Turkish oil of geranium, also known as Palmarosa oil, oil of
geranium grass, oil of Rusa grass, etc., which is distilled in India
from ginger grass. (See above, p. 33.)

The first-mentioned oil has a much finer aroma than the second. The two
oils are frequently confounded, even in prominent works of reference.

When oil of geranium or of rose geranium is directed to be used, the
French (or Algerian, or Spanish) oil should be employed. These cost
more than twice as much as the so-called Turkish or palmarosa oil.


OIL OF HELIOTROPE.

This oil which does not yet occur in commerce (we find merely the
pomade and the alcoholic extract of the latter) has been made by
the author experimentally; the most suitable method was found to be
extraction with petroleum ether. As the plant, Heliotropium peruvianum,
the source of this delightful odor, is frequently cultivated in
our gardens, the preparation of the oil by this method is to be
recommended, being less expensive and more rapid than by the use of
fat, while the product obtained with petroleum ether is as fine as that
extracted by alcohol from the pomade.


OIL OF ELDER (OLEUM SAMBUCI).

The remark made under the head of oil of lilac applies equally to this
oil. For the benefit of those who wish to make this oil in its pure
form we may add that it is absolutely necessary to select only the
freshest flowers, otherwise the odor will be very much impaired.


OIL OF JASMINE,

not to be confounded with the oil of Syringa or German jasmine
(Philadelphus coronarius), is colorless or yellowish and has a very
strong, almost narcotic odor. It is one of the most valuable and at the
same time most expensive aromatic substances employed in perfumery.
Genuine oil of jasmine can be obtained only from Southern France at
very high prices. What is usually sold as “oil of jasmine” is a fixed
oil impregnated with the aroma of jasmine.


OIL OF CHERRY-LAUREL

is not used as such in perfumery; at most cherry-laurel water may be
employed. But as this has the odor of oil of bitter almond and as
the presence of some prussic acid, on account of which the officinal
cherry-laurel water is used, is of no value to the perfumer and is,
in fact, undesirable, owing to its poisonous quality, we substitute
in all cases a corresponding quantity of oil of bitter almond for
cherry-laurel water.


OIL OF CULILABAN (OLEUM CULILAVANI)

is light brown, somewhat viscid; the odor recalls that of the oils of
cinnamon, sassafras, and clove. It has been used for scenting soap.


OIL OF CARAWAY (OLEUM CARI)

is light yellow and has an aromatic odor and burning taste. In
perfumery it is used only for very cheap odors and for scenting soap;
it finds its chief application in the manufacture of liqueurs.


OIL OF LAVENDER (OLEUM LAVANDULÆ).

This oil is of great importance to the perfumer and is imported in
unsurpassed quality from England (Mitcham); it is light yellow, has a
burning sharp taste, and is exceedingly sensitive to light and air,
under the action of which it loses its refreshing odor in a very brief
time and acquires a common smell recalling that of turpentine.

The buyer of this oil should take care to secure the true oil of
lavender (from Lavandula vera); for the oil of spike-lavender is sold
under the same name. This, prepared from Lavandula Spica, has a similar
odor to the genuine, but cannot be compared with it in delicacy. For
this reason, too, the difference in the price between the two is
considerable. True English oil of lavender costs ten times as much
as oil of spike-lavender. The English brand of the true oil is of so
excellent a quality that it brings four or five times as much as the
best French oil, which is sold under the name of huile de lavande des
Alpes. Yet during the last decade or so the French oil of lavender
flowers has become so much improved in quality that it has become a
serious rival to the Mitcham oil.


OIL OF WALLFLOWER

made from the flowers of the well-known garden plant, and


OIL OF LILY

likewise from the ornamental plant, are, strange to say, not
manufactured in any place, to our knowledge. Experiments made by us in
this direction prove that the odors of these plants can be obtained
either by absorption or, more readily, by extraction. The perfumes thus
far occurring under these names are always combinations of different
scents which, though pleasant, have but little in common with the
plants whose names they bear.

In this connection we may say that the perfumes sold under the names
of various flowers often have no relation to them, but are mixtures
of various odors. While it cannot be denied that perfumes may be made
in this manner which resemble those of the respective plants, it is
unquestionably an imperfection in the art of perfumery that these
odors are not really made from the flowers mentioned. To give another
characteristic instance, we may add that the delightful odor of the
well-known lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)—a plant which grows
wild abundantly in many of our forests—has not yet been produced, and
that even imitations of this odor, which in delicacy and fragrance
stands next to those of the rose and violet, are seldom met with in
commerce.


OIL OF LEMON (OLEUM LIMONIS),

obtained from the fruits of the lemon-tree, is one of the most
important products, both statistically and economically, of the Citrus
family. In German works there is often a confusion between “oil of
citron” and “oil of lemon,” it being supposed by the authors that the
“Citronen-öl” is derived from the citron (Citrus medica), and the
“Limonen-öl” from the lemon (Citrus Limonum). There is, indeed, some
oil made, occasionally, from the citron, but it does not figure in
price-lists. The oil of the lemon, on the other hand, is very commonly
called “Citronen-öl,” and the fruit itself “Citrone.” Hence, when
“Citronen-öl” is quoted in a formula, it may be assumed at once that
oil of lemon is intended. It is very liable to resinify, when it loses
its fragrance.


OIL OF SWEET BAY (LAUREL) (OLEUM LAURI)

is green, and usually mixed with the fixed oil of the same plant. It
finds more frequent application in the manufacture of liqueurs than
in perfumery; but as it has a pleasant odor it might well be used for
cheap perfumes. But in that event it must be freed from the fixed oil
by distillation.


OIL OF MAGNOLIA,

likewise, has not yet been prepared as such. The remarks made above
under the head of oils of lily and wallflower apply also to this odor.
The so-called magnolia perfumes are mixtures of different odors.


OIL OF MARJORAM (OLEUM MAJORANÆ).

Oil of marjoram, which is obtained by distillation from the dried
herb, has a strong aromatic odor. It is mentioned as having often been
used in perfumery for scenting soap instead of oil of thyme, whose
odor, moreover, is very similar to that of marjoram, but this is a
mistake, due to the fact that ordinary oil of thyme has long been sold
under the name of oil of origanum. True oil of marjoram costs about
twelve dollars a pound, while oil of thyme (so-called oil of origanum)
is worth only about eighty cents. It is rarely employed for volatile
perfumes.


OIL OF MELISSA.

The oil of Melissa officinalis, owing to the very small yield, is quite
expensive. It is used only for the preparation of some perfumes which
owe their peculiar qualities to this strong odor. This oil must not
be confounded with the spurious oil of melissa, also called oil of
citron-melissa, which is identical with oil of lemon grass (see page
30).


OILS OF MINT.

Although all the mints possess an agreeable odor, only three varieties
find extensive application. There are the oils from Mentha piperita,
peppermint; Mentha viridis, spearmint; and Mentha crispa, crispmint.
The oils of English manufacture are highly esteemed, but the United
States also produces them of excellent quality. At one time the
cultivation of mints, particularly peppermint, was greatly extended,
with the expectation of deriving satisfactory profit from the
enterprise. It has, however, been conclusively shown that the market
cannot absorb more than a certain quantity of these products; and that
any over-production brings loss and disappointment to the investor.
Beside the three kinds of mint above mentioned, there is another
species, Mentha arvensis, a native of Japan, which is extensively
cultivated there, and is the chief source of the menthol of commerce,
so well known as an efficient remedy for neuralgia, migraine, etc., in
form of menthol cones. The three varieties of the mint oils previously
mentioned are distinguished, aside from their pleasant odor, by the
property of leaving a very refreshing and cooling taste in the mouth,
and for this reason they form the most important constituent of all
fine mouth washes.

True oil of peppermint, Oleum Menthæ piperitæ, when pure is colorless,
very mobile, of a burning sharp taste which is followed by a peculiar
coolness. The commercial product is usually pale green. Oil of
crispmint, Oleum Menthæ crispæ, which in Europe is often sold to
novices as oil of peppermint, has always a more or less yellow color
and resembles the oil of peppermint in its properties, but it is less
fine and cheaper. The same is true of the oil of spearmint, but this
has a very characteristic odor and taste, distinctly different from
peppermint.

As above stated, the oils of mint are extensively used for mouth
washes, also for scenting soap, in liqueurs and pastils, but rarely in
handkerchief perfumes.


OILS OF MACE AND NUTMEG (OLEUM MACIDIS AND OLEUM MYRISTICÆ).

These oils are prepared either from the seed coat (Oleum Macidis)
or the nutmeg itself (Oleum Myristicæ). Oil of mace generally has
a yellowish-red color in tint varying from dark to light and even
colorless. Its taste is agreeable and mild and the odor exceedingly
strong. Like oil of nutmeg, it is extensively used in the manufacture
of liqueurs and for scenting soap. The oil prepared by distillation
from the nutmeg is, when fresh, almost colorless or at most faintly
yellow, of a burning sharp taste, and an aromatic odor. Like oil of
mace, it is used in the manufacture of liqueurs and soaps and also in
many perfumes.

In India a third valuable product is obtained from the nutmeg by
expression of the ripe fruits and is called nutmeg butter. This
is bright yellow and consists of a true fat and an essential oil.
Its odor is very pleasant and a very superior soap can be made by
saponification of this valuable product with soda lye.


OIL OF MYRTLE.

This oil is of a greenish color and very mobile, but it is not a
commercial product; the manufacturer must prepare the oil himself from
the leaves, though the yield is small. The articles sold as so-called
essence of myrtle are always mixtures of different odors. Southern
France, however, exports at high prices a myrtle water (eau des anges)
which is really made by distillation of the leaves with water.


OIL OF NARCISSUS.

As to the odor to which this flower owes its fragrance we may repeat
what we have said just now with reference to the oil of myrtle: we
have never succeeded in obtaining this oil in commerce. The so-called
essence of narcissus, though a very pleasant mixture, contains no trace
of the true oil. As to


OIL OF PINK,

the same remark applies: the compositions sold under the name of
essence d’œillet, however, have a very striking odor of pink.


OIL OF CLOVE (OLEUM CARYOPHYLLI).

This oil when fresh is colorless, but soon becomes yellowish or brown.
It is heavier than water in which it sinks and is characterized by an
exceedingly strong burning taste and a spicy odor. It remains at least
partly fluid at a very low temperature, namely,-20° C. (-4° F.).


OIL OF ORANGE FLOWERS (OLEUM NAPHÆ, OLEUM NEROLI),

commercially known also under the French names huile de fleurs
d’oranges, huile néroli, huile néroli pétale, is obtained from the
flowers of the orange-tree in Southern France, where the orange is
specially planted for this purpose. The odor of the oil varies with the
mode of its preparation; that obtained by distillation with water has
a different odor from that made by maceration with fat and extraction
with alcohol. The latter variety of oil as such, however, is not
found in commerce, the alcoholic extract entering at once into the
composition of the perfumes.

The French manufacturers of this oil, which is of great importance in
perfumery, distinguish several varieties. The most valuable is the oil
from the flowers of Citrus vulgaris (or Citrus Bigaradia), the true
bitter orange (or Seville orange) tree. This is the so-called néroli
bigarade. That called néroli pétale is obtained from the same flowers
carefully deprived of their floral envelopes, so that only the petals
are subjected to distillation. Much cheaper than these two is the oil
of petit grain which is distilled from the leaves and sometimes also
unripe fruits of various trees of the Citrus order.

All these oils are among the most delicate; when fresh they are
colorless and have a peculiar bitter taste; exposed to light and air
they assume a reddish tint and undergo rapid resinification. They
should, therefore, be preserved in particularly well-closed vessels in
a dark, cool place.

Not to be confounded with these oils is the


OIL OF ORANGE,

of which there are two kinds, one from the bitter orange, known also
as Oil of Orange, Bigarade, and the other from the sweet orange, also
known as Oil of Portugal. Both are extracted from the peel of the fruit
by mechanical means. Both oils of orange peel are golden yellow, and
have a pleasant, refreshing odor recalling that of the fruit. They
find application for scenting soap, in toilet waters, and in some true
perfumes. When oil of orange or oil of orange peel is mentioned in any
formula, without further specification, the oil of _bitter_ orange peel
should be used.


OIL OF PATCHOULY.

This oil, which might be manufactured with advantage in India, the
home of the plant, is, strange to say, not imported from that country,
but is distilled in Europe from the dried herb. Fresh oil of patchouly
is brown in color, very viscid, almost like balsam, and surpasses all
other essential oils in the intensity of its odor. Owing to the strong
odor, pure oil of patchouly must really be called ill-smelling; only
when highly diluted does the odor become pleasant, and then forms a
useful ingredient of many perfumes as the fundamental odor in the
harmony.


OIL OF SYRINGA.

Oil of false jasmine, from the flowers of Philadelphus coronarius,
is not made as such; in Southern France, however, the flowers
are frequently used for the preparation of a cheap pomade known
commercially as orange-flower pomade. A personal experiment made with
the view to obtain the pure odor by extraction of the flowers with
petroleum ether has shown that this plant is suitable for making very
fine preparations, both handkerchief perfumes and pomades.


OIL OF ALLSPICE,

of a burning sharp taste and odor, is colorless, but is hardly ever
used for the purposes of the perfumer—at most for soaps—but all the
more frequently in the manufacture of liqueurs, and particularly also
in that of artificial bay-rum.


OIL OF SWEET PEA

has not been made thus far, though there is no doubt that this perfume,
too, can be prepared pure from the alcoholic extract of the pomade.
The properties of the oil should resemble those of the finest néroli
pétale.


OIL OF RUE (OLEUM RUTÆ).

This oil, obtained by distillation of the herb, is colorless or pale
yellow, of a very strong, penetrating odor; it is used in some washes,
but more particularly as an ingredient in the manufacture of artificial
cognac, for which purpose the plant is specially cultivated in France.


OIL OF RESEDA (MIGNONETTE).

The delightful odor of this plant which formerly could only be fixed by
maceration in fat may be readily prepared by extraction with petroleum
ether. Yet special precautions should be taken that nothing but
portions of the flowers, carefully picked off, and no green leaves are
extracted. The oil thus obtained has a yellow color and a disagreeable
odor which changes into the well-known pleasant smell of the flower
when highly diluted with alcohol.


OIL OF ROSE (OLEUM ROSÆ),

also known as attar or otto of rose. The various species of roses give
different odors. The commercial Turkish, Persian, and Indian oils of
rose (which latter is never exported)—which, by the way, are very
generally adulterated even at their point of production—are derived
mainly from Rosa damascena, and when highly diluted yield the pleasant
odor of our ordinary garden roses. The rose oils having the odor of the
moss rose, tea rose, or dog rose are made almost exclusively in France
and in commerce do not appear pure but generally in the form of pomades
or alcoholic solutions known as essences de roses.

True rose oil is yellowish or yellow, or else greenish, and varying
from liquid almost to the consistence of butter. Between these
extremes there are all possible gradations. A comparatively very high
congealing-point is a characteristic of oil of rose. It becomes almost
solid at 14 to 20° C. (57 to 68° F.). The portion separated during
solidification is colorless, markedly crystalline, and, strange to say,
almost odorless. Pure oil of rose smells disagreeably narcotic, only
the very dilute solution shows the incomparable fragrance.

Much superior to the oils of rose which are prepared from rose leaves
(either fresh or salted) are those obtained by maceration or extraction
with petroleum ether. Those perfumes sold under the name of various
species of rose, such as moss rose, etc., are combinations of rose oil
with other aromatics.


OIL OF RHODIUM.

This bright yellow light oil is obtained by distillation of the wood of
Convolvulus Scoparius. At times this oil is scarce in commerce. It has
a faint but decided odor of rose.


OIL OF ROSEMARY (OLEUM ROSMARINI).

This oil is obtained by distillation from the herb of the rosemary
plant as a thin, pale green fluid with an aromatic odor and spicy
taste. It is used as an ingredient in some old renowned handkerchief
perfumes—for instance, Cologne water—also for flavoring soaps and
liqueurs.


OIL OF SAGE (OLEUM SALVIÆ),

from the flowers of Salvia officinalis, is yellowish, with an odor
somewhat similar to that of oil of peppermint, but far less intense.
Like the latter it imparts a pleasant coolness to the mouth and hence
is used in some mouth washes.


OIL OF SANTAL (OLEUM SANTALI).

The oil of santal wood (also called sandal-wood oil) has a thick,
honey-like consistence and an agreeable, rose-like odor. Formerly
it was sometimes used for the adulteration of oil of rose, but can
also very well be used alone for several perfumes and fumigating
preparations.


OIL OF SASSAFRAS (OLEUM SASSAFRAS)

is yellow, spicy, with a burning odor and taste; in the cold it
crystallizes only in part. The odor of this oil recalls that of fennel.
The purest form of it, or rather substitute for it, is safrol, its main
constituent, which is, however, now extracted more economically from
crude oil of camphor, in which it likewise forms an ingredient.


OIL OF MEADOW-SWEET (OLEUM SPIRÆÆ).

Several species of Spiræa, and especially Spiræa ulmaria, furnish very
pleasant odors. This oil consists mainly of salicylic aldehyde.

Despite its pleasant odor and the facility of its production, this
substance has thus far found little application in perfumery. The
natural oil of meadowsweet, owing to its extremely high price, can
hardly ever be used.


OIL OF STAR-ANISE (OLEUM ANISI STELLATI; OLEUM ILLICII)

resembles in its properties the oil of anise, even in its odor; but
all connoisseurs agree that the odor of the oil of star-anise far
surpasses that of the oil of anise, hence the former is used especially
for fine perfumes. This preference, however, does not extend to all
preparations. For certain liqueurs, such as anisette, the oil obtained
from common anise (Saxon anise) is usually preferred. Many also regard
the odor of star-anise as inferior to that of fine European anise.


OILS OF THYME (OLEUM THYMI).

The essential oils of thyme (chiefly Thymus vulgaris) and some related
plants are very frequently used for scenting cheap soaps. The oils of
these plants are light yellow, and so similar in odor that it is not
possible to distinguish them except by direct comparison.


OIL OF VANILLA,

or, more correctly, vanilla camphor, the true odorous constituent
of vanilla, also called vanillin, is a crystalline substance with a
delightful odor, melting at 76° C. (169° F.). This is now extensively
made artificially from the cambium sap of pines, the coniferin being
converted by chemical processes into vanillin. One ounce of good
vanillin is equivalent to about forty ounces of best Mexican vanilla
beans.


OIL OF VIOLET

has thus far been produced in but very small quantities from the
alcoholic extract of the true violet pomade; it has a greenish color
and when pure a narcotic odor not to be recognized as that of the
flower. The pleasant odor of violets manifests itself only in extreme
dilution.


OIL OF VERBENA

is yellow, with a very pleasant odor of lemons. Its price being quite
high, it is usually adulterated with oil of lemon-grass, or else
the latter is sold under the name of oil of verbena (see p. 30). In
fact the odors of the two oils are so similar that they are easily
confounded.


OIL OF VETIVER (OLEUM IVARANCHUSÆ),

from Andropogon muricatus (see p. 30), is viscid, reddish-brown, with a
very strong and lasting odor.


OIL OF WINTERGREEN (OLEUM GAULTHERIÆ).

This product is obtained by distillation from the leaves and twigs
of Gaultheria procumbens or else by distilling the bark or leaves
of Betula lenta with water, in which case the oil is generated by
the action of the water, as it does not pre-exist in the birch,
and, moreover, in this case the oil consists of nothing but methyl
salicylate. It differs, like oil of meadowsweet, very markedly from
the other aromatic substances and mainly consists of a so-called
compound ether. It is a salicylate of methyl, boils at 220° C. (428°
F.), is much heavier than water (specific gravity 1·173 to 1·184), and
dissolves readily in alcohol and other solvents. It is used chiefly for
scenting soap; the perfumes sold as wintergreen are usually mixtures of
different substances which contain no oil of wintergreen.


OIL OF YLANG-YLANG (OLEUM UNONÆ ODORATISSIMÆ)

is imported from Manilla. It is colorless or yellowish, and has a most
delightful characteristic odor, which is rather fugitive if not made
resistant by other substances. It forms an important constituent of
several of the most favorite and expensive essences.


OIL OF HYSSOP (OLEUM HYSSOPI)

is colorless, but rapidly becomes yellow in the air. It is used in some
very cheap perfumes and in the manufacture of liqueurs.


OILS OF CINNAMON (OLEUM CINNAMOMI).

Commercially we find chiefly three varieties of essential oils which
are designated as: oil of Ceylon cinnamon, oil of Chinese cinnamon or
oil of cassia, and oil of cinnamon leaves. Oil of Ceylon cinnamon,
sometimes called “true oil of cinnamon,” made from the bark of the
twigs of the cinnamon laurel and formerly imported mainly from Ceylon
but now distilled in large amounts in Germany from imported cinnamon
“chips,” is rather viscid, golden yellow to reddish-brown in color, of
a burning though sweet taste. In the air it gradually absorbs oxygen,
when it becomes dark red, thicker, and of weaker flavor. Oil of Ceylon
cinnamon, which should always be used in perfumes or liqueurs when
simply “oil of cinnamon” is directed, has a specific gravity of 1·030
to 1·035 at 15° C. (59° F.) and boils at about 240° C. (464° F.). Its
chief constituent upon which its aroma depends is cinnamyl aldehyde.

Oil of Chinese cinnamon, or oil of cassia, has for a very long time,
up to within a few years, always reached the market in a more or less
adulterated state, a regular practice of the Chinese exporters being
to dissolve ordinary resin in it (claiming afterward that the “resin”
was caused by the oxidation of the oil through age) and often also to
add petroleum to it. These frauds have been well shown up by Schimmel
& Co., of Leipsic; and in consequence thereof, the quality of oil of
cassia exported from China has been greatly improved. Oil of cassia
when pure has a specific gravity of 1·060 to 1·065, and should contain
not less than seventy-five per cent of cinnamyl aldehyde.

Oil of cinnamon leaves is an inferior product, often used for
adulterating oil of Ceylon cinnamon. It does not deserve notice by the
perfumer.

As an appendix we may add in this connection a description of the


OIL OF TURPENTINE (OLEUM TEREBINTHINÆ),

because it must be called an important substance to know for the
perfumer, inasmuch as it is very frequently used for the adulteration
of different essential oils. Oil of turpentine, which is obtained from
incisions into the bark of different fir and pine trees, the exuding
resin being distilled with water, comes into commerce from various
sources. Different sorts are distinguished, but to the perfumer only
the rectified oil of turpentine, oleum terebinthinæ rectificatum, is
important. Oil of turpentine has a yellowish color and a decidedly
disagreeable, resinous, and burnt taste. By repeated distillation,
especially over quicklime or chloride of lime (bleaching powder), it is
finally obtained as a colorless, very refractive liquid with a density
of 0·855 to 0·870 and a boiling-point at 160° C. (320° F.). Its odor
is peculiar, but not easily distinguished from that of old essential
oils, such as oils of caraway, anise, etc. One peculiarity of oil of
turpentine is that its odor is easily masked by that of other essential
oils, so that, for instance, a comparatively large quantity of oil of
turpentine needs the addition of but little oil of anise to impart to
the entire mixture a rather pronounced odor of anise. This peculiarity
has led to the frequent employment of rectified oil of turpentine for
the adulteration of other essential oils.



CHAPTER IX.

THE ADULTERATIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR RECOGNITION.


We find it necessary to devote a special chapter to the adulterations
of the commercial essential oils because an experience of many years
has shown us that hardly any other group of products is subject to
so many sophistications as essential oils. The high price of most
aromatic substances and the difficulty of recognizing the adulteration
furnish an inviting field to the unscrupulous manufacturer. In the
best interest of the perfumer, therefore, we advise the purchase of
essential oils only from renowned reliable houses, even at higher
prices, for the cheap commercial products are almost worthless, since
they are almost without exception adulterated.

The adulterations are very manifold. Some expensive oils are mixed
with cheaper ones having a similar odor—for instance, oil of rose with
oil of geranium or oil of geranium grass; oil of orange flowers with
the oil from Philadelphus coronarius; oil of verbena with oil of lemon
grass; oils of caraway, anise, and fennel with oil of turpentine; oil
of cinnamon with oil of cassia, etc. Besides these, other deceptions
are practised—for instance, oil of anise is mixed with oil of
turpentine and in order to make the mixture congeal readily (which is
the characteristic of true oil of anise, as above stated) paraffin
or spermaceti is added. A similar practice prevails with adulterated
oil of rose and other viscid oils. Oil of bitter almond we have found
adulterated with or entirely replaced by nitrobenzol, etc.

The demonstration of the adulteration of an essential oil by chemical
means offers many difficulties. We devote particular attention to
the physical characteristics, for experience has shown us that the
olfactory organ—provided it is very expert—is often able to determine
the genuineness of any aromatic substance when other tests have given
only uncertain results, or can give certain results only in the hands
of experts. To make this test, however, quite reliable, it is necessary
to be familiar with the substances in their pure unadulterated
condition.

The manufacturer of perfumery, therefore, should spare neither trouble
nor pecuniary sacrifices to obtain possession of absolutely genuine
specimens of those essential oils, even in minute quantities, which
he intends to employ. Such samples should be carefully preserved
(protected from heat, evaporation, daylight, etc.) for the purpose of
immediate comparison with the oils to be purchased.

As above stated, the physical properties of the essential oils
usually furnish the means of recognizing their purity, and these give
more reliable results to the practical perfumer than the chemical
tests. The most valuable points are furnished by the boiling-point,
the congealing-point, and the density of the oils. The following
table gives the boiling and congealing points of the most important
essential oils in degrees of the centigrade thermometer, together with
the density (or specific gravity); where two figures are given, they
indicate the extreme limits found in genuine samples.

Special characteristics of some essential oils with reference to their
action at low temperatures or their melting-point are given in the
column “Remarks.”

Oil of turpentine, paraffin, wax, and spermaceti being frequently used
for the adulteration of essential oils, have been included in the table.

If accurate results are aimed at in the examination of an essential
oil according to this table, the specific gravity should be determined
by means of a scale sensitive to one one-thousandth gram, and the
thermometer should be graduated to the tenth of a degree.


 TABLE SHOWING THE APPROXIMATE DENSITY, BOILING AND CONGEALING POINTS
 OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ESSENTIAL OILS USED IN PERFUMERY.

  —————————————————+—————————————+—————————-+————————————-+—————————————
                   |             | Boiling- | Congealing- |
   Essential Oil   | Density.    |  Point,  |    Point,   |   Remarks.
        of         |             | Deg. C.  |   Deg. C.   |
  —————————————————+—————————————+—————————-+————————————-+—————————————
  Absinth          |    0·895    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Anise            |    0·980    |    ...   |    +10-15   |
  Bergamot         | 0·850-0·890 |    188   |     -24     |
  Bitter almond    |    1·040    |    180   |     ...     |
   Do., art.       |             |          |             |
   (nitrobenzol)   |    1·866    |    213   |      +3     |
  Cajuput          |    0·880    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Calamus          |    0·962    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Camomile         |    0·924    |  160-210 |     ...     |
  Camphor (Borneo) |     ...     |    212   |     ...     | Melts at 198
     "   (Chinese) |    0·985    |    205   |     ...     | Melts at 175
  Caraway          |    0·960    |    195   |     ...     |
  Cassia           |    1·060    |  252-255 |     ...     |
  Cedar wood       |     ...     |    264   |     -22     |
  Cinnamon         | 1·030-1·035 |    240   |  below -25  |
      "    leaf    |    1·053    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Clove            | 1·034-1·055 |    248   |   below 20  | Forms
                   |             |          |             | crystals -16
  Coriander        |    0·871    |  150-200 |     ...     |
  Crispmint        |    0·978    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Cubeb            |    0·880    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Fennel           | 0·960-0·980 |    ...   |      +8     |
  Gaultheria       |    1·173    |    224   |     ...     |
  Geranium         |    0·895    |  216-220 |     ...     | Forms
                   |             |          |             | crystals -16
  Hyssop           |    0·889    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Juniper          |    0·870    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Lavender         | 0·870-0·940 |  186-192 |     ...     |
  Spike-lavender   |     ...     |    140   |     ...     |
  Lemon            | 0·850-0·870 |  177-250 |     ...     |
    "  grass       | 0·870-0·898 |    220   |     -22     |
  Limetta          |    0·931    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Mace             | 0·890-0·950 |    ...   |     ...     |
  Marjoram         | 0·890-0·920 |    163   |     ...     |
  Melissa          |    0·855    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Neroli           | 0·889-0·889 |    175   |     ...     | Forms
                   |             |          |             | crystals -16
  Nutmeg           | 0·880-0·948 |    172   |     ...     |
    "    butter    |     ...     |    ...   |      31     |
  Olibanum         |     ...     |    162   |     ...     |
  Orange, bitter   | 0·830-0·860 |    176   |     ...     |
    "     sweet    | 0·840-0·850 |    176   |     ...     |
  Parsley          |    1·015    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Patchouly        | 0·950-1·012 |  282-294 |     ...     |
  Peppermint       | 0·902-0·930 |  188-212 |     ...     |
  Portugal         |             |          |             |
   (orange peel)   | 0·840-0·850 |    176   |     ...     |
  Rose             |    0·832    |    229   |    +14-20   |
  Rosemary         | 0·895-0·916 |    185   |     ...     |
  Rue              |    0·911    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Sage             |    0·902    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Santal           | 0·950-0·980 |    288   |     -22     |
  Sassafras        |    1·082    |    ...   |     ...     |
  Serpyllum        | 0·890-0·920 |    ...   |     ...     |
  Star-anise       |   0·982     |    ...   |     ...     |
  Thyme            | 0·870-0·940 |  170-180 |     ...     |
  Vanilla          |     ...     |    150   |      76     |
  Vetiver          |   1·007     |    286   |     ...     |
  Wintergreen      |   1·180     |    220   |     ...     |
  Ylang-ylang      |   0·980     |    ...   |     ...     |
  Turpentine       | 0·855-0·870 |    160   |     ...     |
  Paraffin         |   0·870     |    ...   |     ...    |Melts at 50-65
  Wax              | 0·960-0·970 |    ...   |     ...    |Melts at 65-70
  Spermaceti       |   0·943     |    ...   |     ...    |Melts at 45-50
  —————————————————+—————————————+—————————-+————————————-+—————————————

In buying essential oils, except it be from a house whose reputation is
a guaranty of their genuineness, it is to the interest of the perfumer
to make a test. He must look for certain substances which are generally
used for the sophistication of essential oils. These are: A. Other
essential oils; B. Fixed oils; C. Alcohol; D. Paraffin, spermaceti,
wax.


A. ADULTERATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS WITH OTHER ESSENTIAL OILS.

This mode of adulteration, which is frequent, is naturally the one
most difficult of demonstration. In the case of cheap oils such as
those of caraway, lemon, orange peel, etc., rectified oil of turpentine
is almost without exception the adulterant. The methods usually
recommended, such as attempting to dissolve out the oil of turpentine
by strong alcohol, hoping thus to separate it from the essential oil,
are without practical value.

The adulteration can, however, often be demonstrated by rubbing a drop
of the suspected oil on a glass plate and testing the odor, provided
the olfactory organ is trained. As the above table shows, the oils
have different high boiling-points, while oil of turpentine boils at a
rather low temperature, hence it evaporates sooner than the others and
can be demonstrated by its odor.

The demonstration of an adulteration with an essential oil is most
certain by so-called fractional distillation. Some of the oil to be
examined (about four to six fluidrachms) is placed in a small retort
with condenser and heated to a temperature a few degrees below the
boiling-point of the oil in question. If, for instance, oil of bergamot
adulterated with oil of turpentine is to be tested, it is heated
carefully to nearly 188° C. (370° F.), the boiling-point of the oil of
bergamot; the oil of turpentine which boils at 160° C. (320° F.) passes
over completely, while the oil of bergamot remains in the retort.

Fractional distillation is also the most reliable way of demonstrating
an adulteration with a fixed oil or with paraffin, wax, or spermaceti.
An adulteration of oil of lavender with oil of spike-lavender, which
is otherwise barely recognizable, is positively shown by this method;
even oil of geranium in oil of rose, oil of cassia in oil of cinnamon,
etc., may be thus demonstrated.


B. ADULTERATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS WITH FIXED OILS.

An addition of fixed oils can be easily demonstrated by agitation of
the oil with strong alcohol in which the essential oil dissolves,
while the fixed oil remains unchanged. Castor oil, however, is
likewise soluble in alcohol and for this reason is frequently used
for the adulteration of essential oils. Yet the presence of a fixed
oil can also be shown in a very simple manner by placing a drop of
the suspected oil upon white paper and leaving it for some hours in
a warm spot. If the oil was pure, the translucent stain on the paper
will disappear completely (also when the oil was adulterated with
turpentine); but if it was mixed with a fixed oil, the stain will
remain permanently and cannot be removed from the paper even by strong
heat.


C. ADULTERATION WITH ALCOHOL.

This frequent adulteration is demonstrated either by fractional
distillation, when the alcohol passes over first between 70° and 80° C.
(158° and 176° F.), or by the use of the vessel illustrated in Fig. 31,
which is divided into 100 equal parts.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.]

The vessel is filled to the tenth division with the oil to be tested,
and water is added to bring the volume to the 50 mark. If alcohol is
present, it is taken up by the water so that the volume of oil appears
to diminish. If the oil reaches to the mark 7, it contained three
volumes of alcohol, or in other words it was mixed with thirty per cent
of alcohol. It is true, essential oils likewise dissolve somewhat in
water, but in such minute quantities as not to affect the success of
the test.


D. ADULTERATION WITH PARAFFIN, SPERMACETI, OR WAX.

This mode of adulteration is practised mainly with viscid oils which
congeal at rather high temperatures, such as oils of anise, rose, etc.,
the essential oils being usually mixed at the same time with oil of
turpentine or paraffin. The fraud is easily detected by fractional
distillation.

Oil of bitter almonds is often adulterated with oil of mirbane; this
can be demonstrated by shaking 1 volume of the oil with 17 volumes
of alcohol of 45%, and setting the mixture aside to settle. The
nitrobenzol (oil of mirbane) will then collect at the bottom. Oil of
Rose may be tested as follows: Mix the oil with an equal quantity of
concentrated sulphuric acid. Neither the color nor the odor of the oil
should be changed, but if oil of geranium was present a disagreeable
odor and a darker color is produced.

It has been proposed, too, to test the oils by heating with iodine
or nitric acid and determining the purity by the reaction; but the
results with the different oils are so similar that the test is
almost worthless. We have had the same experience with the test by
nitro-prusside of copper which on being heated with essential oils
gives colored precipitates differing with various oils, but still so
similar that they cannot be relied upon. We have found in all cases
that a comparison of an oil with a sample of known purity is the best,
or else the tests given in the preceding pages.



CHAPTER X.

THE ESSENCES OR EXTRACTS EMPLOYED IN PERFUMERY.


The term _essence_ or _extract_ in perfumery means a solution of an
aromatic substance in strong alcohol. These solutions are generally
made as concentrated as possible and in this form find application in
the manufacture of handkerchief perfumes and of certain odors bearing a
special name. The so-called extrait d’œillet, extract of pink, or the
favorite perfumes known as new-mown hay have nothing in common with
either pink or hay except the name; like many other odors, both are
merely mixtures of different essences or extracts.

Besides the manufacture of true perfumes, essences or extracts are
also used for scenting fine soaps, sachets, mouth washes, etc. For the
latter, too, use is often made of the so-called aromatic waters (eaux
aromatisées) which are obtained as a by-product in the distillation of
fragrant plants, and have a very fine odor owing to the small amount
of the aromatic substance they hold in solution. To this class belong
orange-flower water (Aqua Naphæ triplex, eau de fleurs d’oranges),
peppermint water (Aqua Menthæ, eau de menthe), and many others.

Essences or extracts can be made in two ways: in the case of aromatic
substances which are obtainable in the pure state—that is, essential
oils—by dissolving them in strong alcohol in definite proportions;
in the case of aromatics combined with a fatty substance by one of
the processes described above, by treating the pomade (lard, or other
perfectly bland, sweet, and in itself odorless fat combined with the
aromatic) or huile antique (fixed oil holding the aromatic substance
in solution) with the strongest alcohol.

According to the action of the alcohol upon the pomade or huile antique
at ordinary or higher temperature, the process is called cold or warm
infusion. Cold infusion furnishes the odor in a much more delicate and
superior form than the warm. The cold infusion requires for complete
solution of the aromatic four to six weeks; the warm, ten to fourteen
days. Although the former consumes a much longer time, it is to be
preferred, as the heat injures the odor. Pomades or huiles antiques are
never completely exhausted by a single treatment with alcohol. Even
when heat is employed they always retain a portion of the aromatic with
great tenacity; a second and third infusion still abstracts odor from
them, and finally nothing remains but pure fat with a pleasant odor
which is stained and sold commercially as pomade under the name of the
respective odor—violet, orange flower, reseda, etc.—or else is used
over again in the factory for the extraction of flowers.

Experience has shown us that it is best to infuse the pomades or huiles
antiques twice in the cold and to use the two fluids united for the
finest perfumes; the residue by warm infusion furnishes an essence of
second quality, and superior pomades or fragrant oils. The infusion is
generally effected in strong glass bottles of a capacity of three to
five gallons; about five to six quarts of cologne spirit being poured
over six to eight pounds or pints of fat or huile antique.

In treating huiles antiques all parts of the oil should be brought into
contact with the alcohol as much as possible, hence the bottles must
be frequently shaken; a better plan is to bring the tightly closed
bottles into an apparatus in which they are constantly agitated by
rotation. Such an apparatus is easily made by placing the bottles in
an inclined position between two rods fastened to a common axis which
is kept revolving. The adjoining illustration (Fig. 32) shows such a
contrivance which is required also in the manufacture of perfumes. The
rotation may be effected by clockwork, water power, or any other motor.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.]

Pomades being solid must be divided into small pieces which may be done
with a knife, but the following procedure is more suitable and less
laborious. The pomade is placed in a tin cylinder four inches wide and
about a foot high, which is open at one end, the other being closed
with a tin plate having several fine openings. The cylinder filled with
pomade is set upon the bottle containing the alcohol for extraction,
and the pomade is pressed through the openings in the shape of thin
threads by means of a piston.

In this way, of course, the pomade acquires a very large surface and
rapidly yields the aromatic substance to the alcohol. The odor of
the pomade differs according to the length of time which it has been
subjected to the flowers, and on being treated with alcohol furnishes
extracts of corresponding strength. This should be borne in mind in the
manufacture of perfumes which are intended to be uniform in quality.

After two cold and one warm infusion of the pomade, it may be made to
yield some more aromatic material by heating it carefully to its exact
melting-point, when extract again appears on the surface and can be
poured off by gentle inclination of the vessel.

In the following pages we give the proportions by weight and
measure employed by the most important French, English, and German
manufacturers for their pomade extracts or solutions of the essential
oils in alcohol. As to the latter we again repeat that it must be over
88 to 90% strength according to Tralles or even stronger, and that it
must be absolutely free from any trace of amyl alcohol (potato fusel
oil), the least amount of which impairs the delicacy of the odor. In
this country (the United States) there is no difficulty whatever in
obtaining alcohol of proper strength. The market offers scarcely any
other but that of 94%. Of course deodorized alcohol, or so-called
Cologne spirit should be used. Grain and wine spirits are the kinds
which when rectified are to be preferred to all others. All the citron
oils (_i.e._, oils of lemon, bergamot, and those with similar odor),
rose oils (oils of rose, geranium, and rhodium), and many other sweet
scents are most fragrant when dissolved in pure spirit of wine, while
the odors from the animal kingdom and those of violet (violet and orris
root) smell sweetest when dissolved in grain spirit.

The essences prepared from pomades or huiles antiques usually contain
in solution some fat which is best removed by cooling. To this end the
vessels containing the essences are placed in a vat and surrounded with
pellets of ice and crystals of chloride of calcium. By this mixture the
temperature can be reduced below-20° C. (-4° F.), and after some time
the fats are deposited in a solid form at the bottom of the vessel.
This is then taken from the vat and the essence carefully poured from
the sediment.

The alcoholic extracts of the pomades or solutions of the aromatics are
called essences or extracts (French, extraits); the solutions obtained
from resins and balsams are usually termed tinctures.

While some extracts, owing to their strong odor, can be used only when
diluted with alcohol, others are employed in perfumes as such. Pure
extracts (extraits purs) are those containing only a single odor and
are but rarely used as perfumes; the latter are usually mixtures of
several, often a great many odors.



CHAPTER XI.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING THE MOST IMPORTANT ESSENCES AND EXTRACTS.


NOTE.—There is considerable confusion, in works on perfumery, regarding
the terms _essence_ and _extract_. In French works, _essence_ always
means “essential oil.” Thus “essence de rose” is “essential oil of
roses,” or “attar (otto) of roses.” _Extrait_ (French) is used of
alcoholic solutions of oils, as well as alcoholic extracts of pomades,
or of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol, and also of compound
liquids. In English, _essence_ is used, and should be confined to
alcoholic solutions of essential oils (“essence of lemon,” “essence
of peppermint”). It is, then, equivalent to the term “spirit,”
which is also used only of alcoholic solutions of essential oils or
other volatile substance (such as: spirit of peppermint, essence
of peppermint; spirit of camphor, etc.). Liquid alcoholic extracts
of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol are properly called
_tinctures_ (for instance, tincture of benzoin, tincture of musk); and
liquid alcoholic extracts of pomades, or compound odorous liquids, are
best comprised under the general term _extracts_.

We shall employ the terms _essence_, _extract_, and _tincture_ in the
sense here explained.


EXTRACT OF CASSIE (EXTRAIT DE CASSIE).

  Cassie pomade      6 lbs.
  Alcohol            5 qts.

Extract of cassie has a fine green color—a fact which is not desirable
in perfumes intended for the handkerchief because colored preparations
leave stains. However, extract of cassie is rarely used pure, but is
generally mixed with other odors for handkerchief perfumes, whereby the
color is so much diluted that it may be disregarded. This extract—and
the same remark applies to all the others—immediately after its
preparation must be put into tightly closed vessels and preserved in
the coolest attainable dark place; for light, air, and heat must be
called the destroyers of perfumes, since the most delightful odors
eventually disappear under their influence.

For the benefit of manufacturers who import this extract from Southern
France, the main source of supply, we may add that the word cassie or
extrait de cassie, derived from the flowers of Acacia farnesiana, might
readily give rise to confusion with extrait de cassia, made from the
bark of the cinnamon cassia.


TINCTURE OF AMBERGRIS (EXTRAIT D’AMBREGRIS).

  Ambergris      5 oz.
  Alcohol        5 qts.

The ambergris should be broken into small pieces with a chopping knife
repeatedly moistened with alcohol, and allowed to digest in the alcohol
for some weeks at a temperature of about 30° C. (86° F.).


TINCTURE OF BENZOIN (EXTRAIT DE BENJOIN).

  Benzoin       10 oz.
  Alcohol        5 qts.

This tincture is not so much used for handkerchief perfumes as for
preserving many pomades, as it possesses the valuable property of
preventing fats from becoming rancid.


ESSENCE OF BERGAMOT (EXTRAIT DE BERGAMOTTE).

  Oil of bergamot     8 oz.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


TINCTURE OF CASTOR (EXTRAIT DE CASTOREUM).

  Castor        2½ oz.
  Alcohol       5  qts.


TINCTURE OF MUSK SEED (EXTRAIT D’AMBRETTE).

  Musk seed, powdered       1 lb.
  Alcohol                   5 qts.


ESSENCE OF BITTER ALMOND (EXTRAIT D’AMANDE).

  Oil of bitter almond       1¾ oz.
  Alcohol                    5 qts.


ESSENCE OF CALAMUS (EXTRAIT DE GLAÏEUL).

  Oil of calamus       1¾ oz.
  Alcohol              5 qts.

This essence has a pleasant odor, but it is not valued as a true
perfume; though if it is mixed with other essences or extracts until
its characteristic odor is no longer recognizable it furnishes a very
useful basis for many cheap articles.


ESSENCE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE CÈDRE).

  Oil of cedar wood        ½ lb.
  Alcohol                 5 qts.

This essence made from the oil is colorless and can be used immediately
for handkerchief perfumes.


TINCTURE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE BOIS DE CÈDRE).

This is made by digesting finely rasped cedar wood with strong alcohol,
namely:

  Cedar wood chips       6 lb.
  Alcohol                5 qts.

The result is a fragrant tincture with a beautiful deep red color which
cannot be employed for handkerchief perfumes, but for many cosmetic
preparations such as mouth washes and for scenting soap.


ESSENCE OF CITRONELLA.

  Extrait de citronella       3 to 3½ oz.
  Alcohol                     5 qts.


ESSENCE OF LEMON GRASS (EXTRAIT DE SCHOENANTHE).

  Oil of lemon grass       2 to 3 oz.
  Alcohol                  5 qts.


EXTRACT OF LILAC (EXTRAIT DE LILAS).

The genuine is seldom made; the preparation sold under this name
consists of:

  Oil of bitter almond                        15 grains.
  Extract of orange flowers, from pomade       2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade             3 qts.
  Tincture of civet                             ¼ pint.

Of late, extract of lilac is often prepared by means of lilacin or
terpineol, as follows:

  Lilacin       1 oz.
  Alcohol       1 pint.


EXTRACT OF HONEYSUCKLE (EXTRAIT DE CHÈVRE-FEUILLE).

The author has made this extract by treating the pomade prepared from
the flowers of Lonicera Caprifolium, in the following proportion:

  Honeysuckle pomade       6 lb.
  Alcohol                  5 qts.

The commercial extract of this name is always a compound which may be
prepared according to the following formula:

  Extract of rose, made from the pomade    1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade         1 qt.
  Extract of violet, from pomade           1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla                       ½ pint.
  Tincture of Tolu                          ½ pint.
  Oil of bitter almond                    15 grains.
  Oil of neroli                            8 grains.


ESSENCE OF GERANIUM.

  Oil of geranium (rose-geranium)       5½ oz.
  Alcohol                               5 qts.

In the commercial article the essence of lemon grass is often
substituted for the essence of geranium, the odor being similar, though
less delicate.


EXTRACT OF CUCUMBER (EXTRAIT DE CONCOMBRES).

  Cucumbers       8 lbs.
  Alcohol         5 qts.

The cucumbers are peeled, cut into thin slices, and macerated in the
warm alcohol. If the odor is not strong enough in the alcohol after
some days, it is poured over some more fresh slices, the macerated
residue is expressed, and at the end of the operation all the liquids
are united and filtered.


EXTRACT OF HELIOTROPE (EXTRAIT DE HÉLIOTROPE).

  Heliotrope pomade      6 lb.
  Alcohol                5 qts.

This has thus far been manufactured only by French perfumers at very
high prices; the great majority of the so-called extracts of heliotrope
are compounded from:

  Extract of rose, from pomade                 2 qts.
  Extract of orange flowers, from pomade      14 oz.
  Tincture of ambergris                        7 oz.
  Tincture of vanilla                          4 qts.
  Oil of bitter almond                        75 grains.

This is used as a perfume as such.

More recently, piperonal, under the name heliotropin, is used for
making this extract—

  Heliotropin      ¼ oz.
  Alcohol          1 Pint.

It is necessary to blend this with various other aromatics in order to
cover the pronounced odor. A little cumarin is usually of great help.
But is it impossible, as yet, to give reliable proportions which would
suit all cases.


EXTRACT OF JASMINE (EXTRAIT DE JASMIN).

  Jasmine pomade      6 lb.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


ESSENCE OF LAVENDER (EXTRAIT DE LAVANDE).

  Oil of lavender      7 oz.
  Alcohol              5 qts.

A far superior essence may be prepared by the distillation of:

  Oil of lavender      7 oz.
  Rose water           2 qts.
  Alcohol             10 qts.

The distillation is continued until one-half of the entire liquid has
passed over; the residue in the still furnishes an essence of lavender
of the second quality.


EXTRACT OF WALLFLOWER (EXTRAIT DE GIROFLÉ).

The genuine odor can be made only from the pomade; the commercial
extract consists of:

  Extract of cassie, from pomade              1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade       1 qt.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla.                        1 pint.
  Tincture of orris root                      1 pint.
  Oil of bitter almond                        1 pint.


EXTRACT OF LILY (EXTRAIT DE LYS).

As to this delightful odor the remark made under the preceding head
applies likewise; artificial extract of lily consists of:

  Extract of cassie, from pomade              3 pints.
  Extract of jasmine, from pomade            13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      27 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                3 pints.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade            3 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla                        40½ fl. oz.
  Oil of bitter almond                       30 grains.


ESSENCE OF LEMON (EXTRAIT DE LIMON).

  Oil of lemon      7 oz.
  Alcohol           5 qts.


EXTRACT OF MAGNOLIA (EXTRAIT DE MAGNOLIA).

This favorite perfume is a mixture of:

  Extract of orange flower, from pomade       2 qts.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                4 qts.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade            1 qt.
  Extract of violet, from pomade              1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond                       40 grains.
  Oil of lemon                               16 grains.


ESSENCE OF PEPPERMINT (EXTRAIT DE MENTHE).

  Oil of peppermint      6½ oz.
  Alcohol                5 qts.


TINCTURE OF MUSK (EXTRAIT DE MUSC).

  Musk         2½ oz.
  Alcohol      5 qts.

This tincture is of special importance, not so much because of its odor
as on account of its useful property of fixing other very volatile
odors.


EXTRACT OF MYRTLE (EXTRAIT DE MYRTE).

Owing to the small yield of essential oil furnished on distillation
by the myrtle and the comparatively high price of the oil of myrtle,
nearly all the extract of myrtle is prepared artificially, as follows:

  Extract of jasmine, from pomade          ½ pint.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      1 qt.
  Extract of rose, from pomade               2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade           1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla                        1 qt.


EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS.

In perfumery, two extracts of narcissus are distinguished—true extract
of narcissus, from the flowers of the garden plant, Narcissus poeticus,
and the so-called extract of jonquille, from Narcissus Jonquilla,
which is cultivated in Southern France and whose odor is obtained by
maceration. Genuine extract of narcissus is even more rarely obtainable
than extract of jonquille; the odors of both are imitated, mainly
according to the following prescriptions:


1. EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS (EXTRAIT DE NARCISSE).

  Extract of jonquille, from pomade      2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade       3 qts.
  Tincture of storax                      ½ pint.
  Tincture of tolu                        ½ pint.


2. EXTRACT OF JONQUILLE (EXTRAIT DE JONQUILLE).

  Extract of jasmine, from pomade            2 qts.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade           2 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla                         ½ pint.


ESSENCE OF CLOVE (EXTRAIT DE CLOUS DE GIROFLES).

  Oil of clove      4½ oz.
  Alcohol           5 qts.


EXTRACT OF PINK (EXTRAIT D’ŒILLET).

This pleasant odor occurs in commerce only as an imitation.

  Extract of cassie, from pomade                  2½ pints.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade           2½ pints.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                    5 pints.
  Tincture of vanilla                            20 fl. oz.
  Oil of clove, a sufficient quantity, about     75 grains.

The oil of clove which determines the characteristic odor of this
extract is dissolved in a little alcohol; of this solution enough is
gradually added to the mixture until the odor has become sufficiently
strong.


EXTRACT OF ORANGE FLOWER OR NEROLI (EXTRAIT DE FLEURS D’ORANGES,
EXTRAIT DE NÉROLI).

  Orange-flower pomade      6 lb.
  Alcohol                   5 qts.

  Or,

  Oil neroli pétale         2½ oz.
  Alcohol                   5 qts.

The latter preparation is also called “essence of neroli.”

The extract prepared from the pomade furnishes this highly esteemed
odor of a delicacy never to be approached by that made with oil. The
alcoholic extract of the pomade perfumed with the flowers of Syringa
(Philadelphus coronarius) also occurs in commerce as extract of orange
flowers or neroli.


ESSENCE OF PATCHOULY (EXTRAIT DE PATCHOULI).

  Oil of patchouly      1¼ oz.
  Alcohol               5 qts.

This pure essence of patchouly has not a very pleasant odor; that made
according to the following formula is far superior.

  Oil of patchouly      1½ oz.
  Oil of rose            ⅜ oz.
  Alcohol               5 qts.


TINCTURE OF BALSAM OF PERU (EXTRAIT DE PÉROU).

  Peru balsam      10½ oz.
  Alcohol           5 qts.

This tincture, though of a very pleasant odor, can be used only for
scenting soap or sachets, as it has a very dark brown color; by
distilling alcohol over Peru balsam a colorless extract is obtained,
though of a fainter odor.


ESSENCE OF ALLSPICE (EXTRAIT DE PIMENT).

  Oil of allspice     3½ oz.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


EXTRACT OF SWEET PEA (EXTRAIT DE POIS DE SENTEUR).

This extract, made almost exclusively in Southern France by maceration
of the pomade, is but rarely met with in commerce; what passes under
this name is made as follows:

  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      2½ pints.
  Extract of rose, from pomade               2½ pints.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade           2½ pints.
  Tincture of vanilla                        5¾ oz.


EXTRACT OF RESEDA (EXTRAIT DE MIGNONETTE).

  Reseda pomade         5 to 6 lb.
  Alcohol               5 qts.
  Tincture of tolu      5½ oz.

The addition of the tincture of tolu is necessary here, owing to the
extraordinary volatility of the delightful odor of mignonette, which is
lessened by the addition of tincture of tolu.


ESSENCE OR EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAITS DE ROSE).

In commerce several sorts of essence or extract of rose are
distinguished; only the cheaper grades are made by direct solution of
the oil of rose in alcohol, the better grades are prepared only from
pomades. As the rose is the noblest of flowers, so are these odors the
most magnificent thus far produced by the art of perfumery, since they
are approached in delicacy and fragrance only by the genuine extracts
of orange flower and violet. The so-called rose waters (eaux de rose)
are best obtained by distillation of fresh or salted rose leaves with
water. The preceding formulæ will show that both extract of rose and
rose water form important constituents of many compound essences, hence
these materials require special attention. In the following pages
we enumerate only those formulæ which are acknowledged as the best
and furnish the finest product. As rose water likewise belongs among
the rose odors we give directions for its preparation, and observe
in passing that the precautions required in the manufacture of this
one apply also to all aromatic waters (eaux aromatisées). The first
essential to the production of a fine aromatic water is the employment
of the freshest possible flowers; when kept in stock, chemical changes
occur in the leaves which affect also the aromatic constituents and
lead to a deterioration of the fragrance. Hence we urgently recommend
to distil the freshly gathered flowers as soon as possible, even if the
quantity on hand be small. Should this not be feasible, it is advisable
to press the flowers immediately after gathering in stone-ware pots and
to pour over them a saturated solution of table salt. A concentrated
saline solution prevents decomposition by the abstraction of water; and
thus larger quantities of flowers may be gathered and distilled with
the salt solution. The majority of aromatic waters are prepared in this
way, for instance, rose, jasmine, lilac, and others. They enter less
into handkerchief perfumes than into various mouth and other washes,
and cosmetics in general.


ROSE WATER (EAU DE ROSE TRIPLE).

  Rose leaves       4 lb.
  Water            20 pints.

Mix them, and by means of steam, distil 10 pints.

The rose leaves are, of course, preferably to be used while fresh.
If they are to be preserved for future use, they should be packed in
stone-ware jars, and covered with a solution of common salt. This
is poured off before distillation, but used over again for the same
purpose.


EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

  Rose pomade      8 lb.
  Alcohol          5 qts.


ESSENCE OF [OIL OF] ROSE (ESPRIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

  Oil of rose      3½ oz.
  Alcohol          5 qts.

This essence is not so good as the extract.


EXTRACT OF CHINA ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JAUNES).

  Essence of rose (triple)     2 qts.
  Tincture of tonka             ½ pint.
  Extract of tuberose          2 qts.
  Extract of verbena            ½ pint.


EXTRACT OF SWEET-BRIER (WILD ROSE) (EXTRAIT D’EGLANTINE).

  Extract of cassie, from pomade             44 fl. oz.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      44 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                2½ qts.
  Essence of rose (triple)                   44 fl. oz.
  Oil of lemon grass                           ¼ oz.
  Oil of neroli                                ¼ oz.


EXTRACT OF MOSS-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES MOUSSEUSES).

  Extract of rose, from pomade               2 qts.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)                   1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris                      1 pint.
  Tincture of musk                            ½ lb.


EXTRACT OF TEA-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSA THÉA).

  Extract of rose, from pomade                1 qt.
  Extract of geranium, from pomade            1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade        ½ pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)                    1 qt.
  Tincture of santal                           ½ pint.
  Tincture of orris root                       ½ pint.


EXTRACT OF WHITE ROSE (ESSENCE DE ROSES BLANCHES).

  Extract of rose, from pomade        1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine, from pomade     1 pint.
  Extract of violet, from pomade      1 qt.
  Essence of patchouly                 ½ pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)            1 qt.


EXTRACT OF TWIN-ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JUMELLES).

  Extract of rose, from pomade        5 qts.
  Oil of rose                         1¾ oz.


EXTRACT OF SANTAL (EXTRAIT DE SANTAL).

  Tincture of santal            3½ oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)      1 pint.
  Alcohol                       9 pints.


TINCTURE OF STORAX (ESSENCE DE STYRAX).

  Storax       10½ oz.
  Alcohol       5 qts.

Though this tincture has a pleasant odor, it is not ordinarily used by
itself, but for fixing other odors.


TINCTURE OF TOLU (EXTRAIT DE BAUME DE TOLOU).

  Tolu balsam      10½ oz.
  Alcohol           5 qts.

The remark made under tincture of storax applies also to this.


TINCTURE OF TONKA (EXTRAIT DE TONKA).

  Tonka beans, crushed      21 oz.
  Alcohol                    5 qts.


EXTRACT OF TUBEROSE (EXTRAIT DE TUBEROSE).

  Tuberose pomade          8-10 lb.
  Alcohol                  5 qts.
  Tincture of storax      10 fl. oz.


TINCTURE OF VANILLA (EXTRAIT DE VANILLE).

  Vanilla, sliced        ½ lb.
  Alcohol               5 qts.


EXTRACT OF VIOLET (EXTRAIT DE VIOLETTE).

  Violet pomade          6-7 lb.
  Extract of cassie      6½ fl. oz.
  Alcohol                5 qts.

This extract is very expensive; a good imitation is made as follows:

  Extract of cassie, from pomade         2 qts.
  Extract of rose, from pomade           1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade       1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root                 1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond                  15 grains.


TINCTURE OF ORRIS ROOT (EXTRAIT D’IRIS).

  Orris root, powdered      6-7 lb.
  Alcohol                   5 qts.

This tincture is sold as a very cheap violet perfume, but it has also
considerable value to perfumery in general, owing to its fixing power.


EXTRACT OF VERBENA (EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE).

True oil of verbena is rather expensive. Hence artificial compositions
are employed under the name of verbena which resemble the true odor,
though not exactly like it.


EXTRACT OF VERBENA A.

  Oil of lemon grass      75 grains.
  Oil of lemon            14 oz.
  Oil of orange peel       3½ oz.
  Alcohol                  5 qts.

This extract is cheap and is used immediately as a perfume. The
extract usually sold under the French name Extrait de verveine is more
expensive and far superior:


EXTRACT OF VERBENA B.

  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      30 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose, from pomade                1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade             ⅓ oz.
  Oil of citron zeste                          ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass                           ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon peel                           9 oz.
  Oil of orange peel                          4½ oz.
  Alcohol                                     4⅔ pints.

As already explained, if hand-pressed oil of lemon (made by the écuelle
process) is available, then the “oil of citron zeste” (which is _this_
particular kind of oil) and the “oil of lemon” may be simply added
together; that is, 9½ oz. of oil of lemon are used.


EXTRACT OF VOLCAMERIA (EXTRAIT DE VOLCAMERIA).

This extract is no more derived from the fragrant blossom whose name
it bears than are those of the lily, pink, and others met with in
commerce. It is prepared according to the following formula:

  Extract of jasmine, from pomade       1 pint.
  Extract of rose, from pomade          1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose, from pomade      2 qts.
  Extract of violet, from pomade        2 qts.
  Tincture of musk.                      ½ pint.


ESSENCE OF VETIVER (EXTRAIT DE VÉTIVER).

  Oil of vetiver      2½ oz.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


TINCTURE OF OLIBANUM (EXTRAIT D’OLIBAN, EXTRAIT D’ENCENS).

  Olibanum      1 lb.
  Alcohol       5 qts.


EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN (EXTRAIT DE GAULTHÉRIE).

This essence is more commonly sold under the English than the French
name. Its composition is the following:

  Tincture of ambergris                      1 pint.
  Extract of cassie                          1 qt.
  Essence of lavender                        1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower, from pomade      1 qt.
  Extract of rose, from pomade               2 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla.                       1 pint.
  Essence of vetiver                         1 pint.


TINCTURE OF CIVET (EXTRAIT DE CIVETTE).

  Civet.          1—1½ oz.
  Orris root      1—1½ oz.
  Alcohol         5 qts.

Tincture of civet is exceedingly lasting and is generally employed for
fixing other odors. As to the quantity required to fix perfumes in
general, we may state that it varies with the nature of the odor. As a
rule, about one-sixteenth part of tincture of civet suffices for even
the most volatile perfumes.


TINCTURE OF CINNAMON (EXTRAIT DE CANELLE).

  Cinnamon      1 lb.
  Alcohol       5 qts.

Owing to the yellow color left upon handkerchiefs by perfumes prepared
with this extract, it can be used only for common goods, but it is more
frequently employed for scenting soaps.



CHAPTER XII.

THE DIVISION OF PERFUMERY.


According to the purposes for which they are intended, the various
articles of perfumery may be divided into several groups. They are:


TRUE PERFUMES.

A. _Liquid._—Alcoholic handkerchief perfumes. Among these are the
so-called extracts, bouquets, and waters. Ammoniacal and acid perfumes:
aromatic vinegars and volatile ammoniacal salts.

B. _Dry._—Sachet powders, fumigating pastils and powders.


PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE SKIN.

Emulsions, crêmes, perfumed soaps, toilet waters, nail powders.


PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE HAIR.

Hair oils, pomades, hair washes.


PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE MOUTH.

Tooth powders, mouth washes.


COSMETICS.

Paints, powders, hair dyes, depilatories, etc.

In connection with the description of these different articles some
remarks will be made about the colors employed in perfumery and about
the utensils used with the cosmetics, such as combs, brushes, sponges,
etc.



CHAPTER XIII.

THE MANUFACTURE OF HANDKERCHIEF PERFUMES, BOUQUETS, OR AROMATIC WATERS.


The manufacture of handkerchief perfumes is very simple: the extracts
prepared as directed in Chapter XI. are mixed in definite proportions
and the perfume is finished. If the extracts are well seasoned, the
perfumes blend in perfect harmony within a few days, and this time may
be even shortened by the use of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 32.
If the extracts have been but recently prepared, a longer time will be
required before the odor of the alcohol and the several constituents is
imperceptible and all odors have blended into a harmonious whole.

If the manufacturer can afford to allow the finished extracts and
perfumes to season for some length of time—of course, in well-closed
and completely filled vessels—in a cool place, they will improve
markedly in quality. Perfumes which contain but a single odor or in
which a certain odor distinctly predominates are usually called by
the name of the respective plant, etc., under a French title, _e.g._,
extrait de violette, extrait de reséda, etc. Combinations of many odors
which produce an agreeable impression as a whole, while no one odor
predominates, are called bouquets or waters; for instance, Bouquet de
Jockey Club, Eau de Mille Fleurs, Cologne Water, Hungarian Water, etc.

The mixture of the extracts is effected in strong glass bottles of a
capacity exactly adapted to the perfume, so as to be completely filled.
For perfumes which require seasoning to make the odors blend we use
small glass balls of which enough are introduced into the bottle to
make the mixture rise into the neck of the container which is then
closed air-tight and preserved in a dark, cool place.

Of course, all perfumes should be perfectly clear and free from
turbidity. The extracts made from pomades or essential oils are clear
and furnish perfumes that remain so; extracts prepared from balsams or
resins should be allowed to stand at rest for several weeks and then be
carefully decanted from the sediment. Filtration should be dispensed
with unless absolutely unavoidable, on account of the large amount of
oxygen with which the extract would thereby come in contact, to the
detriment of the odor.

The bottles in which the perfumes are mixed, as well as those in which
they are put up for sale, must be perfectly dry, as a very small amount
of water often suffices to separate a portion of the aromatics and to
render the liquid turbid or opalescent.

Fine perfumes are always sold in glass vessels with ground-glass
stoppers; cork has a peculiar odor which it would communicate to the
liquid. For the more perfect exclusion of the air the stoppers and
bottle necks are moreover covered with animal membrane, sheet rubber,
or vegetable parchment, with an outer cap of white glove leather.

In the case of very expensive perfumes, much care is bestowed on the
container; certain perfumes are filled into bottles of peculiar form
and color, or into small porcelain jars provided with corresponding
labels printed in gold and colors. Sometimes the container costs many
times the price of the perfume. But as the finest perfumes are articles
of luxury in the truest sense of the word, they require extreme care
in their putting up; and good taste in the selection of the containers
for fluids, pomades, cosmetics, powders, etc., is of as much importance
to the perfumer as the possession of a sensitive and trained olfactory
organ.

In the following formulas for the preparation of bouquets, the words
extract, essence, and tincture have the same meaning as was explained
under Chapter XI. For cheap perfumes the corresponding essential oils
dissolved in alcohol, that is, the corresponding “essence,” is employed
in place of the true “extract.”



CHAPTER XIV.

FORMULAS FOR HANDKERCHIEF PERFUMES.


BOUQUET DE L’ALHAMBRA.

  Extract of cassie            1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower     1 pint.
  Essence of geranium          1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose          2 qts.
  Tincture of civet            1 pint.


EXTRAIT D’AMBRE, I.

  Tincture of ambergris        3 qts.
  Tincture of musk             1½ pints.
  Oil of rose                  1 oz.
  Tincture of vanilla         13½ fl. oz.
  Alcohol                      3 pints.


EXTRAIT D’AMBRE, II.

  Essence of rose (triple)     2 qts.
  Tincture of ambergris        4 qts
  Tincture of musk             1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla          1 pint.


BOUQUET DE L’AMOUR.

  Extract of cassie           1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris       1 pint.
  Extract of jasmine          1 qt.
  Tincture of musk            1 pint.
  Extract of rose             1 qt.
  Extract of violet           1 qt.


BAISERS DU PRINTEMPS (SPRING KISSES).

  Extract of cassie           1 pint.
  Tincture of ambergris       3 fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine          6 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose             5 pints.
  Extract of violet           5 pints.
  Essence of rose (triple)    10 fl. oz.
  Oil of bergamot            120 grains.
  Oil of lemon                30 grains.

_Note._ Here and in all succeeding formulas, “oil of lemon” is meant to
be the finest “hand-pressed” oil.


EAU DE BERLIN.

  Oil of anise      150 grains.
  Oil of bergamot     1 oz.
  Oil of cardamom    15 grains.
  Oil of lemon       30 grains.
  Oil of coriander   15 grains.
  Oil of geranium    30 grains.
  Oil of melissa     15 grains.
  Oil of neroli      75 grains.
  Oil of rose        30 grains.
  Oil of santal      30 grains.
  Oil of thyme       15 grains.
  Alcohol            10 qts.


BUCKINGHAM FLOWERS.

  Extract of cassie          1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris      1 pint.
  Extract of jasmine         1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower   1 qt.
  Extract of rose            1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root     1 pint.
  Oil of lavender           40 grains.
  Oil of neroli             40 grains.
  Oil of rose               75 grains.


BOUQUET D’ANDORRE.

  Extract of jasmine         1 pint.
  Extract of rose            1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose        1 pint.
  Extract of violet          1 pint.
  Tincture of orris root     1 pint.
  Oil of geranium           75 grains.


BOUQUET DU BOSPHORE.

  Extract of cassie          1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine          ½ pint.
  Extract of tuberose         ½ pint.
  Tincture of civet         18 grains.
  Essence of rose (triple)    ½ pint.
  Oil of bitter almond      30 grains.


BOUQUET DES CHASSEURS.

  Extract of cassie         20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk          20 fl. oz.
  Extract of neroli         20 fl. oz.
  Extract of orange flower  20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of tonka bean    40 fl. oz.
  Tincture of orris root    20 fl. oz.
  Oil of lemon                ½ oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)   5 pints.


BOUQUET DE LA COUR.

  Tincture of ambergris      2 oz.
  Extract of jasmine         1 qt.
  Tincture of musk           2 oz.
  Extract of rose            1 qt.
  Extract of violet          1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 qt.
  Oil of bergamot           45 grains.
  Oil of lemon.             45 grains.
  Oil of neroli             45 grains.


BOUQUET DE CHYPRE.

  Tincture of ambergris     1 qt.
  Tincture of musk          1 qt.
  Tincture of tonka         1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root    1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)  2 qts.


BOUQUET DES DÉLICES.

  Tincture of ambergris     1 pint.
  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose       1 qt.
  Extract of violet         1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root    1 pint.
  Oil of bergamot            ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon              1 oz.


BOUQUET DE FLEURS (NOSEGAY).

  Tincture of benzoin       5½ oz.
  Extract of rose           3 pints.
  Extract of tuberose       3 pints.
  Extract of violet         3 pints.
  Oil of bergamot           2½ oz.
  Oil of lemon              1¾ oz.
  Oil of orange peel        1¾ oz.


CONVALLARIA (LILY OF THE VALLEY, FLEURS DE MAI).

  Extract of cassie         1½ pints.
  Extract of jasmine        1½ pints.
  Extract of orange flower  1½ pints.
  Extract of rose           1½ pints.
  Tincture of vanilla       3 pints.
  Oil of bitter almond       ⅜ oz.

While this perfume is very pleasant, its odor has no resemblance to the
delicate fragrance of Convallaria majalis, our ordinary lily of the
valley.


COURONNE DE FLEURS (GARLAND OF FLOWERS).

  Extract of cassie       20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of ambergris   13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine      20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk        13½ fl. oz.
  Tincture of orris root   5 pints.
  Oil of bergamot          1½ oz.
  Oil of lavender          1½ oz.
  Oil of clove            75 grains.
  Oil of neroli            1½ oz.
  Oil of rose              1½ oz.
  Alcohol                  5 pints.


COURT BOUQUET.

  Oil of bergamot        ⅜ oz.
  Oil of neroli        24 grains.
  Alcohol               5½ oz.
  Orris root            1 oz.
  Storax, liquid        8 grains.
  Musk                  3 grains.

Macerate for two weeks, and filter.


ESTERHAZY BOUQUETS.

An old renowned perfume, a former rival of Cologne water; the name is
derived from a noble Hungarian family.


A. BOUQUET D’ESTERHAZY (FRENCH FORMULA).

  Tincture of ambergris       ½ pint.
  Extract of neroli          1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower   1 qt.
  Tincture of tonka          1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla        1 qt.
  Tincture of vetiver        1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root     1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 qt.
  Oil of clove              75 grains.
  Oil of santal             75 grains.


B. BOUQUET ESTERHAZY (GERMAN FORMULA).

  Calamus root  3 oz.
  Cloves        3 oz.
  Nutmeg        3 oz.
  Alcohol       4 qts.

Macerate for two weeks and filter; in the filtrate dissolve:

  Tincture of ambergris   6 oz.
  Ammonia                30 grains.
  Oil of bitter almond   30 grains.
  Oil of lemon            3 oz.
  Tincture of musk        6 oz.
  Oil of neroli          60 grains.
  Oil of orange peel     30 grains.
  Oil of rose            75 grains.


CÈDRE DU LIBANON (CEDAR).

  Oil of cedar wood  10½ oz.
  Extract of rose     1 pint.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


FIORI D’ITALIA.

  Extract of cassie         1 pint.
  Tincture of ambergris     5 oz.
  Extract of jasmine        1 qt.
  Tincture of musk          5 oz.
  Extract of rose           2 qts.
  Extract of violet         1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.


LILAC (EXTRAIT DE LILAS).

  Oil of bitter almond      15 grains.
  Extract of orange flower   2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose        3 qts.
  Tincture of civet          2 to 3½ oz.

The above-named ingredients are exceedingly volatile; according to the
desired permanence of the perfume, more or less of the extract of civet
is added.


ESSENCE DES BOUQUETS, A (ESS. BOUQUET).

  Tincture of ambergris     1 pint.
  Tincture of orris root    2 qts.
  Essence of rose (triple)  2 qts.
  Oil of bergamot           4½ oz.
  Oil of lemon              1 oz.


ESS. BOUQUET, B.

  Extract of cassie    1 oz.
  Extract of jasmine   1 oz.
  Tincture of musk     1½ oz.
  Oil of cassia        1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon          ½ oz.
  Oil of lavender      1 oz.
  Oil of neroli         ½ oz.
  Oil of clove         1½ oz.
  Oil of palmarosa     1 oz.
  Oil of petit grain   1 oz.
  Oil of Portugal      1 oz.
  Oil of rose         75 grains.
  Oil of thyme        75 grains.
  Alcohol             10 qts.

This perfume is much admired in England. The title Ess. Bouquet is an
abbreviation of the full name given above.


ESS. BOUQUET, C.

  Tincture of ambergris     2 oz.
  Tincture of orris         8 oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 pint.
  Oil of lemon               ¼ oz.
  Oil of bergamot           1 oz.


FLORIDA.

  Oil of bergamot  60 grains.
  Oil of lemon     90 grains.
  Oil of lavender  15 grains.
  Oil of clove      8 grains.
  Alcohol           5 qts.


BOUQUET DE FLORE.

  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose       1 pint.
  Extract of violet          ½ pint.
  Tincture of benzoin       3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of storax        3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk          1½ fl. oz.
  Oil of citronella          ¾ oz.
  Alcohol                   2 qts.


HONEYSUCKLE (EXTRAIT DE CHÈVRE-FEUILLE).

  Extract of rose        1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose    1 qt.
  Extract of violet      1 qt.
  Tincture of tolu        ½ pint.
  Tincture of vanilla     ½ pint.
  Oil of bitter almond  15 grains.
  Oil of neroli          8 grains.


HELIOTROPE, A (EXTRAIT DE HÉLIOTROPE).

  Extract of rose            2 qts.
  Extract of orange flower  14 oz.
  Tincture of ambergris      7 oz.
  Tincture of vanilla        4 qts.
  Oil of bitter almond      75 grains.

A very lasting perfume which is especially suitable for scenting the
linen in a press.


HELIOTROPE, B.

  Vanilla               15 grains.
  Oil of neroli          2 drops.
  Oil of bitter almond   1 drop.
  Musk                   1½ grains.
  Benzoin               45 grains.
  Cologne spirit         3½ oz.

Macerate for one week, and filter.


NEW-MOWN HAY.

Hay owes its fragrance partly to cumarin, which is present in many
plants, but in especially large amount in tonka beans. Hence all
similar perfumes must contain tincture of tonka. Other aromatic
substances, however, contribute to the odor of hay, but the cumarin
gives, as it were, the keynote to its real odor.

A very pleasant perfume is made after the following formula:

  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.
  Essence of geranium       1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine        1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Tincture of tonka         2 qts.

Some add to this perfume 1 pint of extract of cassie which imparts a
greenish color to it.


ROYAL HORSE-GUARD’S BOUQUET.

  Extract of orange flower   20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk           10 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose             5 pints.
  Tincture of vanilla        20 fl. oz.
  Tincture of orris root     20 fl. oz.
  Oil of clove              120 grains.


BOUQUET D’IRLANDE.

  Extract of white rose  5 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla    1 lb.

An exceedingly fine perfume.


HOVENIA.

This plant, Hovenia dulcis, indigenous to Japan, has a peculiar odor,
which, however, is not pleasant to European taste. The perfume sold
under this name has a special odor, though it differs from that of the
plant. It is made according to the following formula:

  Oil of lemon    3 oz.
  Oil of clove     ¼ oz.
  Oil of neroli  75 grains.
  Oil of rose    75 grains.
  Alcohol         5 qts.


HUNTSMAN’S NOSEGAY.

  Essence of rose (triple)    1 pint.
  Extract of cassie           6 fl. oz.
  Extract of orange flower    6 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk          150 grains.
  Tincture of tonka           1 pint.
  Oil of citronella         150 grains.
  Alcohol                     3 qts.


BOUQUET DU JAPON.

  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Essence of patchouly       ½ pint.
  Extract of verbena        1 pint.
  Essence of vetiver        1 pint.
  Tincture of civet         3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk.          ⅓ fl. oz.


EAU JAPONAISE.

  Tincture of cedar wood    1 qt.
  Essence of patchouly      1 qt.
  Extract of santal         1 qt.
  Extract of verbena        1 qt.
  Essence of vetiver        1 pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.


JOCKEY CLUB.

England first introduced a perfume under this name, which soon became
popular and was largely imitated. Jockey Club perfume is among the
finest known to the trade; the delicacy of its odor rests largely
on the extracts of cassie and tuberose which are employed in their
strongest form—an alcoholic extract of a pomade well charged with the
odors of the plants. As in the case of Cologne water, there are a
number of widely diverging formulas for its preparation, from which we
select a few which furnish excellent perfumes.


JOCKEY CLUB, A (ENGLISH FORMULA).

  Extract of cassie         1 pint.
  Tincture of ambergris      ¾ pint.
  Extract of rose           1½ pints.
  Extract of tuberose        ¾ pint.
  Tincture of orris root    3 pints.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1½ pints.
  Oil of bergamot            ¾ oz.


JOCKEY CLUB, B (FRENCH FORMULA).

  Extract of cassie    1½ pints.
  Extract of jasmine   2¼ pints.
  Extract of rose      3 pints.
  Extract of tuberose  3 pints.
  Tincture of civet      ½ pint.


JOCKEY CLUB, C (GERMAN FORMULA).

  Extract of cassie       1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris  13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine      1 qt.
  Extract of rose         1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose     1 qt.
  Extract of violet       1 pint.
  Tincture of civet      20 fl. oz.
  Oil of bergamot          ¾ oz.
  Oil of citronella        ½ oz.
  Oil of neroli            ½ oz.


JONQUILLE (EXTRAIT DE JONQUILLE).

  Extract of jasmine        2 qts.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose       2 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla        ½ pint.


KISS ME QUICK.

  Extract of cassie                  1 qt.
  Extract of ambergris                ½ pint.
  Extract of narcissus (Jonquille)   2 qts.
  Tincture of tonka                  1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root             2 qts.
  Tincture of civet                   ½ pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)           1 qt.
  Oil of citronella                 75 grains.
  Oil of lemon grass                45 grains.

This perfume, which was once very popular, owes its peculiar refreshing
odor to the tincture of tonka beans; by increasing this ingredient the
specific odor can be made more pronounced.


BOUQUET COSMOPOLITE.

  Extract of jasmine         1 pint.
  Essence of lavender         ½ pint.
  Tincture of musk            ½ pint.
  Essence of patachouly       ½ pint.
  Extract of santal           ½ pint.
  Extract of tuberose        1 pint.
  Tincture of vanilla         ½ pint.
  Extract of violet          1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 pint.
  Oil of citronella         75 grains.
  Oil of lemon                ½ oz.


COLOGNE WATER (EAU DE COLOGNE).

This famous perfume, which was first made in Cologne on the Rhine,
its formula being kept secret, can be produced anywhere of the same
quality as the original. In order to obtain a first-class product, it
is necessary, besides using the finest oils—a matter of course for all
fine perfumes—to observe another special point. Every Cologne water
contains oils of the citron group which develop their best odors only
in true spirit of _wine_. Unless an alcohol distilled from _wine_
is used, it will be impossible to make a Cologne water of really
first quality. While it is possible to make a good cologne with grain
or potato spirit, especially if highly rectified, comparison with
one prepared from pure spirit of _wine_ will at once show a marked
difference. The small amount of œnanthic ether, hardly demonstrable by
chemical tests but present in every spirit of wine, exerts a decided
influence on the flavor.

Cologne water of the most superior and incomparable quality is made
by dissolving the essential oils, excepting the oils of rosemary and
neroli, in the alcohol and distilling it, the other oils being added to
the distillate.

A very large number of formulas for the preparation of Cologne water
have been published of which we subjoin a few. We have purposely
omitted those containing many essential oils, as experience has taught
us that they are of little value; for it is not the number of oils that
determines the fineness of a perfume, but the manner in which certain
odors are combined.


A. FINEST COLOGNE WATER (EAU DE COLOGNE SUPÉRIEURE).

  Oil of bergamot               2½ oz.
  Oil of lemon (hand-pressed)   6 oz.
  Oil of neroli pétale          3½ oz.
  Oil of neroli bigarade        1¼ oz.
  Oil of rosemary               2½ oz.
  Alcohol                      30 qts.


B. COLOGNE WATER (SECOND QUALITY).

  Oil of bergamot        4½ oz.
  Oil of lemon           4½ oz.
  Oil of neroli pétale    ¾ oz.
  Oil of orange peel     4½ oz.
  Oil of petit grain     2½ oz.
  Oil of rosemary        2½ oz.
  Alcohol               30 qts.


C. COLOGNE WATER (ORDINARY).

  Oil of bergamot   7 oz.
  Oil of lemon      3½ oz.
  Oil of lavender   3½ oz.
  Alcohol          30 qts.


D. COLOGNE WATER.

  Oil of bergamot    1¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon       3½ oz.
  Oil of lavender  150 grains.
  Oil of neroli       ½ oz.
  Oil of rosemary   75 grains.
  Alcohol           30 qts.


E. COLOGNE WATER.

  Oil of bergamot   2 oz.
  Oil of lemon      1 oz.
  Oil of lavender    ½ oz.
  Oil of melissa     ¼ oz.
  Oil of neroli      ¼ oz.
  Alcohol          30 qts.


F. COLOGNE WATER.

  Oil of bergamot   3½ oz.
  Oil of lemon       ½ oz.
  Oil of lavender    ¼ oz.
  Oil of melissa     ½ oz.
  Oil of neroli      ¼ oz.
  Alcohol          30 qts.


G. COLOGNE WATER.

  Oil of bergamot       1 lb.
  Oil of lemon          1 lb.
  Oil of lavender       6½ oz.
  Oil of neroli          ¾ oz.
  Oil of petit grain    1½ oz.
  Oil of orange peel    1 lb.
  Oil of rosemary     150 grains.
  Alcohol              30 qts.


H. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 2¼ oz. Oil of cajuput ½ oz. Oil of lemon 4½ oz. Oil of
lavender 6½ oz. Oil of neroli 2¼oz. Oil of orange peel 4½ oz. Oil of
petit grain ½ oz. Orange-flower water 1 qt. Alcohol 30 qts.

The numerous formulas show that oils of lemon, bergamot, and orange
form normal constituents of every Cologne water; the finer grades
always contain, in addition, oils of rosemary and neroli. It is
advisable to dissolve the aromatics in very strong alcohol and then to
effect the dilution required with orange-flower or rose water. This
dilution is also to be employed when a cheaper product is desired.


LAVENDER PERFUMES.

English (Mitcham) oil of lavender should always be used when it is
desired to produce perfumes of first quality.


EAU DE LAVANDE AMBRÉE.

  Oil of bergamot   1 oz.
  Oil of lemon       ½ oz.
  Oil of geranium  75 grains.
  Oil of lavender   5½ oz.
  Musk              8 grains.
  Peru balsam       2 oz.
  Storax            4¼ oz.
  Civet            15 grains.
  Alcohol          10 qts.

The essential oils are dissolved in the alcohol, the other substances
are macerated in the solution for one month, and the liquid decanted.


EAU DE LAVANDE DOUBLE.

  Tincture of musk      3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of vanilla   3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of civet     3 fl. oz.
  Oil of bergamot       1¼ oz.
  Oil of lemon           ¾ oz.
  Oil of lavender       3½ oz.
  Rose water (triple)   1 qt.
  Alcohol              10 qts.


EAU DE LAVANDE A MILLE FLEURS.

  Tincture of ambergris                       ½ pint.
  Essence of lavender                        2 qts.
  Eau de mille fleurs (see below, page 186)  2 qts.


LEAP-YEAR BOUQUET.

  Extract of jasmine        3 pints.
  Essence of patchouly      1½ pints.
  Essence of santal         1½ pints.
  Extract of tuberose       1 qt.
  Extract of verbena        6½ fl. oz.
  Essence of vetiver        1½ pints.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1½ pints.


EAU DE LEIPSIC.

  Oil of lemon            ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli           ¾ oz.
  Oil of orange peel   150 grains.
  Oil of bergamot        2¼ oz.
  Oil of rosemary       75 grains.
  Orange-flower water    1 qt.
  Alcohol                9 pints.


WALLFLOWER (EXTRAIT DE GIROFLÉ).

  Extract of cassie         1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 pint.
  Tincture of orris root    1 pint.
  Oil of bitter almond      8 grains.


LILY (EXTRAIT DE LYS).

  Extract of cassie          3 pints.
  Extract of jasmine        13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of orange flower  27 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose            1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose        3 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla       40 fl. oz.
  Oil of bitter almond      30 grains.


EAU DE LISBONNE.

  Oil of lemon        2¼ oz.
  Oil of orange peel  4½ oz.
  Oil of rose          ¼ oz.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


MAGNOLIA (EXTRAIT DE MAGNOLIA).

  Extract of orange flower   2 qts.
  Extract of rose            4 qts.
  Extract of tuberose        1 qt.
  Extract of violet          1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond      40 grains.
  Oil of lemon              15 grains.


LILY OF THE VALLEY.

  Oil of bitter almond  150 grains.
  Extract of jasmine      7 oz.
  Extract of neroli       7 oz.
  Extract of cassie      14 oz.
  Extract of tuberose    28 oz.
  Alcohol                28 oz.


LILY OF THE VALLEY EXTRACT.

  Extract of jasmine                           3½ oz.
  Extract of ylang-ylang (see below, p. 198)    ½ oz.
  Cardamom seed, crushed                      75 grains.
  Oil of orris                                10 drops.

Macerate for a week, and filter.

The amount of cardamom seed is to be weighed exactly; should its odor
still be too pronounced, extract of jasmine should be gradually added
until the right aroma is obtained.


BOUQUET A LA MARÉCHALE.

  Tincture of ambergris       ½ pint.
  Tincture of musk            ½ pint.
  Extract of neroli          1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower   1 qt.
  Tincture of tonka          1 pint.
  Tincture of vanilla        1 pint.
  Tincture of orris root     1 pint.
  Essence of vetiver         1 pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 qt.
  Oil of clove              75 grains.
  Oil of santal             75 grains.


A LA MODE.

  Extract of cassie          1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine         1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower   1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose        1 qt.
  Tincture of civet          1 pint.
  Oil of bitter almond      75 grains.
  Oil of nutmeg             60 grains.


A. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS.

  Extract of cassie     1 pint.
  Essence of cedar      1 pint.
  Extract of jasmine    1 pint.
  Tincture of musk      6 fl. oz.
  Extract of neroli     1 pint.
  Extract of patchouly  1 pint.
  Tincture of vanilla   1 pint.
  Extract of violet     1 pint.
  Essence of vetiver    1 pint.
  Tincture of civet     6 fl. oz.
  Oil of lemon           ½ oz.
  Oil of geranium        ¾ oz.
  Oil of lavender        ¾ oz.
  Oil of orange peel     ½ oz.


B. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS.

  Extract of cassie          1 pint.
  Tincture of ambergris       ½ pint.
  Essence of cedar            ½ pint.
  Extract of jasmine         1 pint.
  Tincture of musk            ½ pint.
  Extract of orange flower   1 pint.
  Extract of rose            1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose        1 pint.
  Tincture of vanilla         ½ pint.
  Extract of violet          1 pint.
  Essence of rose (simple)   1 qt.
  Oil of bergamot            1¼ oz.
  Oil of bitter almond      24 grains.
  Oil of clove              24 grains.
  Oil of neroli             24 grains.


C. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS A PALMAROSE.

  Extract of cassie  6 fl. oz.
  Essence of cedar   3 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk   3 fl. oz.
  Extract of violet  6 fl. oz.
  Oil of bergamot    1½ oz.
  Oil of cedar       1¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon        ¼ oz.
  Oil of lavender     ¼ oz.
  Oil of clove        ¼ oz.
  Oil of palmarosa    ½ oz.
  Alcohol            9 pints.


FLEURS DE MONTPELLIER.

  Tincture of ambergris     10 fl. oz.
  Tincture of musk          10 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose            3 pints.
  Extract of tuberose        3 pints.
  Essence of rose (triple)   3 pints.
  Oil of bergamot            1¾ oz.
  Oil of clove                ¼ oz.


FLEURS DES CHAMPS.

  Extract of cassie       3½ oz.
  Extract of jasmine      3½ oz.
  Tincture of musk        3½ oz.
  Tincture of tonka       3 pints.
  Tincture of orris root  7 oz.
  Oil of geranium         1½ oz.
  Oil of neroli           1½ oz.
  Oil of rose              ⅞ oz.
  Alcohol                 3 qts.


HUILE DE MILLE FLEURS.

(For perfuming hair oils and pomades.)

  Oil of cinnamon      10 drops.
  Oil of neroli        20 drops.
  Oil of rose          20 drops.
  Oil of clove         —
  Oil of orange peel   15 grains.
  Oil of calamus       20 drops.
  Oil of geranium     150 grains.
  Oil of lemon           ½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot       2½ oz.
  Oil of verbena        75 grains.


MUSK (EXTRAIT DE MUSC).

  Tincture of ambergris  3 pints.
  Tincture of musk       3 qts.
  Extract of rose        1½ pints.


MOUSSELINE.

  Extract of cassie       1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine      1 qt.
  Extract of rose         1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose     1 qt.
  Bouquet à la maréchale  2 qts.
  Oil of santal            ¾ oz.


MYRTLE (EXTRAIT DE MYRTHE).

  Extract of jasmine         ½ pint.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of rose           2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose       1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 qt.


NARCISSUS (EXTRAIT DE NARCISSE).

  Extract of jonquille      2 qts.
  Extract of tuberose       3 qts.
  Tincture of storax         ½ pint.
  Tincture of tolu           ½ pint.


NAVY’S NOSEGAY.

  Extract of rose             1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower    1 qt.
  Essence of patchouly        3 fl. oz.
  Extract of verbena          6 fl. oz.
  Essence of vetiver          6 fl. oz.
  Oil of bitter almond      150 grains.
  Oil of citronella            ¾ oz.
  Oil of nutmeg              75 grains.


NEW-MOWN HAY.

  Tonka beans, in pieces   75 grains.
  Orris root              150 grains.
  Vanillin                  8 grains.
  Oil of bergamot          30 drops.
  Oil of neroli             2 drops.
  Oil of rose               2 drops.
  Oil of lavender           2 drops.
  Oil of clove              1 drop.
  Patchouly herb            3 grains
  Benzoic acid              8 grains.
  Nettle herb              30 grains.
  Alcohol                   7½ oz.

Digest for two weeks, and filter.


PINK (EXTRAIT D’ŒILLET).

  Extract of cassie          2½ pints.
  Extract of orange flower   2½ pints.
  Extract of rose            5 pints.
  Tincture of vanilla       20 fl. oz.
  Oil of clove              75 grains.


ESSENCE OF SWEET PEA.

  Extract of tuberose       1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla       5½ oz.


POLYANTHUS.

  Extract of rose       1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine    1 pint.
  Extract of violet      ½ pint.
  Tincture of musk      2½ fl. drachms.
  Oil of neroli          ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon           ¾ oz.
  Alcohol               2 qts.


EAU DU PORTUGAL.

  Oil of bergamot     1 oz.
  Oil of lemon        2¼ oz.
  Oil of orange peel   ½ lb.
  Oil of rose          ¼ oz.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


QUEEN VICTORIA’S PERFUME.

  Extract of cassie          10 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose             5 pints.
  Extract of orange flower   20 fl. oz.
  Extract of tuberose         2½ pints.
  Extract of violet           5 pints.
  Tincture of civet           3 fl. oz.
  Oil of bergamot               ¾ oz.
  Oil of citron             150 grains.


PATCHOULY (EXTRAIT DE PATCHOULI).

  Oil of patchouly    1½ oz.
  Oil of rose       150 grains.
  Alcohol             5 qts.


ESSENCE OF RESEDA.

(Artificial, almost indistinguishable from the genuine.)

  Tonka beans, in pieces  30 grains.
  Storax, liquid          15 grains.
  Orris root               1¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli           10 drops.
  Oil of rose             10 drops.
  Oil of bitter almond     2 drops.
  Oil of bergamot         20 drops.
  Ambergris               15 grains.
  Musk                     8 grains.
  Nettle herb             30 grains.
  Alcohol                  ½ lb.

Macerate for from one to two weeks, and filter.


RONDELETIA ODORATISSIMA.

  Tincture of ambergris   4¼ oz.
  Tincture of musk        4¼ oz.
  Tincture of vanilla     4¼ oz.
  Oil of bergamot         1 oz.
  Oil of lavender         2¼ oz.
  Oil of clove            1¼ oz.
  Oil of rose            75 grains.
  Alcohol                 4 qts.

The odor of Rondeletia has not thus far been isolated, at least
in Europe (the plant is indigenous to the Antilles). The oils of
lavender and clove together constitute the odor known in perfumery as
Rondeletia. By increasing the quantity of the two oils, the strength of
the perfume may be heightened.


ROYAL NOSEGAY.

  Tincture of ambergris   2½ oz.
  Extract of jasmine      1 qt.
  Tincture of musk        3 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose         1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla      ½ pint.
  Extract of violet       1 qt.
  Essence of vetiver       ½ pint.
  Oil of bergamot        75 grains.
  Oil of clove            1¾ oz.


ROSE ODORS.

The art of perfumery has endeavored to fix this most magnificent of
all odors, and we must confess that in this case it has succeeded in
solving the problem in a manner unequalled in any other perfume. We
are able to imitate not only the pure rose odor, but also those of its
several varieties such as the tea rose, moss rose, etc., both as to
character and intensity. Fine rose odors can be produced in their full
fragrance only from pomade extracts; the various rose oils furnish
inferior products.


ROSA CENTIFOLIA, A (FINEST QUALITY).

  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.
  Rose pomade               8 lbs.
  Alcohol                   5 qts.


ROSE, B (LESS FINE).

  Oil of rose  3½ oz.
  Alcohol      5 qts.


CHINA ROSE (ROSES JAUNES).

  Essence of rose (triple)  2 qts.
  Tincture of tonka          ½ pint.
  Extract of tuberose       2 qts.
  Extract of verbena         ½ pint.


DOG ROSE (EGLANTINE).

  Extract of cassie         2½ pints.
  Extract of orange flower  2½ pints.
  Extract of rose           5 pints.
  Essence of rose (triple)  2½ pints.
  Oil of lemon-grass         ¼ oz.
  Oil of neroli              ¼ oz.


MOSS ROSE (ROSE MOUSSEUSE).

  Extract of rose           2 qts.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris     1 pint.
  Tincture of musk           ½ lb.


TEA ROSE (ROSE THÉA).

  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Extract of geranium       1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower   ½ pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.
  Extract of santal          ½ pint.
  Tincture of orris root     ½ pint.


WHITE ROSE (ROSES BLANCHES).

  Extract of rose           1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine        1 pint.
  Extract of violet         1 qt.
  Essence of patchouly       ½ pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.


WHITE ROSE.

  Oil of rose     15 drops.
  Patchouly herb   3 grains.
  Musk             3 grains.
  Cologne spirit   7 oz.


TWIN ROSE (ROSES JUMELLES).

  Extract of rose  5 qts.
  Oil of rose      1¾ oz.


SPRING NOSEGAY.

  Extract of cassie          1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris     13½ fl. oz.
  Essence of geranium        1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine         1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower   2 qts.
  Tincture of musk          10 fl. oz.


SUAVE.

  Extract of cassie       1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris    ¼ pint.
  Extract of jasmine      1 qt.
  Tincture of musk         ¼ pint.
  Extract of rose         1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose     1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla      ¾ pint.
  Oil of bergamot          ½ oz.
  Oil of clove           30 grains.
  Oil of mace            30 grains.


HELIOTROPE BOUQUET (FLEURS SOLSTICIALES).

  Extract of cassie         13½ fl. oz.
  Tincture of ambergris      5 fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine         2½ pints.
  Tincture of musk           5 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose            5 pints.
  Extract of violet          2½ pints.
  Extract of verbena        13½ fl. oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)   2½ pints.
  Oil of bergamot            1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon               1½ oz.


BOUQUET DE STAMBOUL.

  Extract of rose         2½ pints.
  Extract of cassie       1 qt.
  Extract of jasmine      1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose     1 pint.
  Tincture of civet        ½ pint.
  Oil of bitter almond  150 grains.


SYRINGA.

  Extract of reseda   1¾ oz.
  Extract of violet   3½ oz.
  Patchouly herb      5 grains.
  Benzoic acid        8 grains.
  Oil of orris       10 drops.
  Alcohol             1¾ oz.


TULIPE ODORIFÉRANTE.

  Extract of cassie        6 fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine       1 qt.
  Extract of rose          1 pint.
  Extract of tuberose      1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root   1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond    15 grains.
  Oil of neroli           30 grains.


HUNGARIAN WATER (EAU HONGROISE).

  Extract of orange flower   1 pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 pint.
  Oil of lemon               1 oz.
  Oil of melissa             1 oz.
  Oil of peppermint         30 grains.
  Oil of rosemary            2 oz.
  Alcohol (from wine)        5 qts.


BOUQUET DE VIRGINIE.

  Essence of geranium       1 pint.
  Tincture of musk          1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of santal         1 pint.
  Tincture of tonka         1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 pint.


VIOLET (VIOLETTES).

  Violet pomade      6 to 7 lb.
  Extract of cassie  6 fl. oz.
  Alcohol            5 qts.


This is the finest among the true violet perfumes. Less fine, though
still of prime quality, is the following:

  Extract of cassie        2 qts.
  Extract of rose          1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose      1 qt.
  Tincture of orris root   1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond    15 grains.


VERBENA A (EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE).

  Oil of lemon grass    ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon        14 oz.
  Oil of orange peel   3½ oz.
  Alcohol              5 qts.

A cheap and pleasant perfume: the following is far superior.


VERBENA B.

  Oil of lemon              10½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass         6 oz.
  Oil of orange peel         5 oz.
  Extract of orange flower   2 lb.
  Extract of rose            3 lb.
  Extract of tuberose        2 lb.
  Alcohol                    5 qts.

This “Extract of Verbena B” is a modification of that given previously,
on page 164.


EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE C.

  Extract of orange flower  30 fl. oz.
  Extract of rose            1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose       30 fl. oz.
  Oil of lemon               1 oz.
  Oil of lemon grass          ¾ oz.
  Oil of orange peel          ¼ lb.
  Alcohol                    4½ pints.


VIOLETTES DES MONTAGNES.

  Extract of cassie       13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine      13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of rose         13½ fl. oz.
  Extract of violet        2 qts.
  Tincture of orris root  13½ fl. oz.
  Oil of bitter almond    30 grains.


VOLCAMERIA.

  Extract of jasmine   1 pint.
  Extract of rose      1 qt.
  Extract of tuberose  2 qts.
  Extract of violet    2 qts.
  Tincture of musk      ½ pint.


FOREST BREEZE (PINE-NEEDLE ODOR.)

  Oil of turpentine   14 oz.
  Oil of lavender      1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass    ¾ oz.
  Alcohol              5 qts.

The oil of turpentine must be clear like water, and most carefully
rectified. If it can be obtained of good quality, the oil distilled
from the leaves or needles of Pinus sylvestris, commonly known as
pine-needle oil or fir-wool oil, is to be preferred for this purpose.
Still better is the oil obtained from Pinus Pumilio.


WEST END.

  Extract of cassie          1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris       ½ pint.
  Extract of jasmine         1 qt.
  Tincture of musk            ½ pint.
  Extract of tuberose        1 qt.
  Extract of violet          1 qt.
  Essence of rose (triple)   3 pints.
  Oil of bergamot            1 oz.
  Oil of lemon              75 grains.


WINTERGREEN.

  Extract of cassie         1 qt.
  Tincture of ambergris     1 pint.
  Extract of lavender       1 pint.
  Extract of orange flower  1 qt.
  Extract of rose           2 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 pint.
  Essence of vetiver        1 pint.


FLOWERS OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT.

  Extract of rose         1 qt.
  Extract of santal       2 qts.
  Tincture of orris root  1 qt.
  Essence of vetiver      1 pint.


YACHT CLUB.

  Extract of cassie         6 fl. oz.
  Extract of jasmine        1 qt.
  Extract of orange flower  2 qts.
  Extract of santal         2 qts.
  Tincture of vanilla       1 pint.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.
  Benzoic acid, sublimed    1½ oz.

The characteristic odor of this perfume depends upon the volatile oil
adhering to the sublimed benzoic acid; for this reason no other benzoic
acid should be used than that obtained by sublimation.


YLANG-YLANG.

  Cologne water              4 qts.
  Essence of rose (triple)   1 qt.
  Tincture of vanilla        3½ oz.
  Tincture of tolu          14 oz.
  Oil of neroli             75 grains.
  Oil of ylang-ylang          ¾ oz.


APPENDIX.

The great majority of the above-described perfumes are made with
extracts prepared from pomades; hence their cost of production is
considerable and the selling-price high. For the requirements of the
middle classes, quite fragrant perfumes are manufactured by dissolving
the cheaper essential oils in ordinary alcohol, and various new odors
can be obtained by mixing several of them. The extracts made with cheap
oils are well suited to this purpose. The oils most frequently used
for such articles are those of bergamot, lemon, orange peel, lavender
flowers (French), lemon grass, nutmeg, clove, and santal. The alcohol
must be free from fusel oil and have a strength of at least 70% Tralles.

Oils with not very intense odor are generally used in the proportion of
about 2 to 2½ ounces to the quart of alcohol; half that quantity will
suffice for strong-scented oils such as those of lemon-grass, clove,
and nutmeg.

From these simple solutions an experienced manufacturer can produce
very nice perfumes by mixing them in due proportions; they are
comparatively cheap, and sometimes they yield relatively more profit
than the finest articles, whose contents and containers generally
represent a considerable outlay on the part of the manufacturer.



CHAPTER XV.

AMMONIACAL AND ACID PERFUMES.


A. AMMONIACAL PERFUMES.

Ammonia (ammonia water) has a disagreeable odor and exerts a very
caustic effect on the lachrymal glands. Despite these properties,
ammonia, in a highly dilute condition and mixed with other aromatics,
finds manifold application in perfumery and serves particularly for the
manufacture of the so-called smelling salts, or inexhaustible salts,
used for filling smelling bottles.

The liquid or caustic ammonia, however, is not so suitable for the
purposes of the perfumer as the carbonate of ammonia, which when pure
forms colorless crystals usually covered with a white dust (consisting
of bicarbonate of ammonia); these, undergoing gradual decomposition,
give off the odor of ammonia and hence are more lasting in smelling
bottles than the pure liquid ammonia.

The main essential for both of these substances is purity. Caustic
ammonia as well as carbonate of ammonia are now obtained on a large
scale from “gas liquor,” but the crude products always retain some of
the penetrating odor of coal tar which renders them valueless for the
purposes of the perfumer. We must, therefore, make it a rule to use
nothing but perfectly pure materials which, moreover, are easily to be
had in the market.


INEXHAUSTIBLE SALT (SEL INÉPUISABLE).

  Oil of bergamot   24 grains.
  Oil of lavender   45 grains.
  Oil of mace       24 grains.
  Oil of clove      24 grains.
  Oil of rosemary   45 grains.
  Water of ammonia   1 qt.

The aromatics are placed in a bottle, the ammonia is added, and the
bottle vigorously shaken; the solution is soon effected, and the turbid
liquid can be at once filled into bottles.

According to the material from which the containers are made, different
methods must be adopted. It is necessary to give the liquid such form
as to prevent its flowing out when the vessel is inverted; this is
important, as the bottles are often carried in dress pockets and the
ammonia destroys most colors. As a rule the vessels are filled with
indifferent porous substances which are moistened with the perfume.
If the container is made of box wood, ivory, porcelain, or some
other opaque material, it is filled with fibres of asbestos or with
very small pieces of sponge, and as much perfume is poured in as the
substance can take up; the vessels are then inverted into a porcelain
plate and allowed to drain, and are finally closed with a loose plug of
cotton. If the container is transparent, it is better to use, instead
of the asbestos or sponge which do not look neat, either small pieces
of white pumice stone, powdered glass, small white glass beads, or
crystals of sulphate of potassium which is insoluble in the perfume.


WHITE SMELLING SALT (SEL BLANC PARFUMÉ).

While the first-named ammoniacal preparation is called a salt, it is
really nothing but perfumed caustic ammonia; but white smelling salt is
what its name indicates and can be perfumed as desired by the consumer;
but as only certain scents harmonize with ammonia, not every odor can
be employed; the most appropriate are oils whose odor resembles that of
rose, and the oils of nutmeg and cinnamon.

Mix in a large porcelain jar—

  Carbonate of ammonia  2 lb.
  Caustic ammonia       1 lb.

Cover the jar and leave it at rest. After some days the mixture will
have changed into a firm mass of monocarbonate of ammonia which is
rubbed to a coarse powder, perfumed, and filled into bottles. The above
quantities require:

  Oil of bergamot  15 grains.
  Oil of lavender  15 grains.
  Oil of nutmeg     8 grains.
  Oil of clove      8 grains.
  Oil of rose       8 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon  75 grains.

The oils are poured into a mortar and rubbed up with about one-tenth of
the salt; of this perfumed salt enough is added to the several portions
of the mass, and triturated until the odor is equally distributed. For
cheaper smelling salts oils of geranium and cassia may be substituted
for the oils of rose and cinnamon.


PRESTON SALT (SEL VOLATIL).

In this perfume ammonia is continually generated; the salt is prepared
by mixing chloride of ammonium or sal-ammoniac in fine powder with
freshly slaked lime. Fine or cheap perfume is added, according to the
grade desired. The mixture of sal-ammoniac and slaked lime continually
develops small amounts of ammonia—it takes a long time until the
decomposition is complete, and for this reason a bottle filled with
Preston salt retains the odor of ammonia for several years.


EAU DE LUCE.

This is the only ammoniacal perfume used in a liquid form. It is made
according to the following formula:

  Tincture of ambergris   10½ oz.
  Tincture of benzoin       ½ lb.
  Oil of lavender        150 grains.
  Water of ammonia         1½ lb.

The tinctures are mixed with the ammonia by agitation and immediately
filled into bottles; the liquid should have a milky appearance. At
times 150 grains of white soap is added which aids in imparting to the
liquid the desired milky appearance. In fine eau de Luce the odor of
ambergris should predominate; this can be easily effected by increasing
the amount of tincture of ambergris.


B. ACID PERFUMES.

As there is a group of perfumes which is distinguished by their
characteristic odor of ammonia and which we have therefore called
ammoniacal, so there is an important series of articles containing
acetic acid which are used cosmetically as so-called toilet vinegars,
and in some washes.

Ordinary vinegar, _i.e._, water containing four to six per cent of
acetic acid, has, as is well known, a not unpleasant refreshing odor
and a pure acid taste. Pure acetic acid, now made in large quantities
and of excellent quality, is known commercially as glacial acetic acid.
In commerce, it is customary to designate any acetic acid containing
85 or more per cent of the absolute acid, as glacial acetic acid. In
chemical or pharmacopœial nomenclature, however, the glacial acid is
meant to be as near 100% as possible. In perfumery, an 85% acid is
sufficiently strong. It forms a colorless liquid with a narcotic odor
and an intensely acid taste; it congeals into glassy crystals at a
temperature of 8.5° C. (47° F.). The latter property is of importance
as showing the purity of the acid. Concentrated acetic acid, like
alcohol, dissolves aromatic substances, with which it forms perfumes
which differ from those made with alcohol mainly by their peculiar
refreshing after-odor which is due to the acetic acid.

Acetic acid can be saturated with various odors and thus furnish fine
perfumes; but for so-called toilet vinegars which are used as washes
the acetic acid must be properly diluted, since the concentrated acid
has pronounced caustic properties, reddens the skin, and may even
produce destructive effects on sensitive parts such as the lips.


AROMATIC VINEGAR (VINAIGRE AROMATIQUE).

  Glacial acetic acid    2 lb.
  Camphor                4¼ oz.
  Oil of lavender         ¾ oz.
  Oil of mace          150 grains.
  Oil of rosemary      150 grains.

Instead of the perfumes here given, finer odors may be employed for the
production of superior toilet vinegars; thus we find vinaigre ambré,
au musc, à la violette, au jasmin, etc., according to the perfume used.
As concentrated acetic acid dissolves most aromatic substances the
same as alcohol, all alcoholic perfumes may have their counterparts in
acetic acid; but the aromatics should never be added in so large amount
as to mask the characteristic odor of the acetic acid. A very pleasant
vinegar may be produced by combining an alcoholic with an acid perfume,
as in the following:


SPICED VINEGAR (VINAIGRE AUX ÉPICES).

  1. Macerate:
      Leaves of geranium, lavender, peppermint,
        rosemary, and sage, of each                1 oz.
      In alcohol of 80%                            1 lb.

  2. Macerate:
      Angelica root, calamus root, camphor,
        mace, nutmeg, cloves, of each            ½ oz.
      In glacial acetic acid                       2 lb.

for two weeks, mix the liquids, and filter them into a bottle which
should not be completely filled. The longer this mixture is allowed to
season in the bottle, the finer will be the aroma; for in the course of
time the alcohol and acetic acid react on each other and form acetic
ether, which likewise possesses a pleasant aromatic odor.

Certain aromatic vinegars, like ammoniacal perfumes, are filled into
smelling bottles containing the same porous substances for their
absorption, namely, sponge, pumice stone, crystals of potassium
sulphate, etc.


FORMULAS FOR TOILET VINEGARS.

VINAIGRE A LA ROSE.

  Essence of rose (triple)  10½ oz.
  White-wine vinegar         1 qt.

This should be colored a pale rose tint with one of the dye-stuffs
to be enumerated hereafter. The use of true wine vinegar is to be
recommended for this and all the following toilet vinegars, as the
œnanthic ether it contains has a favorable effect on the fineness of
the odor.


VINAIGRE AUX FLEURS D’ORANGES.

  Extract of orange flower  7 oz.
  White-wine vinegar        1 qt.

This is usually left colorless.


VINAIGRE AUX VIOLETTES.

  Extract of cassie         8 oz.
  Extract of orange flower  3½ oz.
  Tincture of orris root    5½ oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)  5½ oz.
  White-wine vinegar        1 qt.


VINAIGRE DE QUATRE VOLEURS.

  Leaves of lavender, peppermint, rue, rosemary,
    and cinnamon, of each                         3¼ oz.
  Calamus, mace, nutmeg, of each                150 grains.
  Camphor                                          ¾ oz.
  Macerated in alcohol                            7 oz.
  And acetic acid                                 4¾ lb.


PREVENTIVE VINEGAR (VINAIGRE HYGIÉNIQUE).

  Benzoin               2¼ oz.
  Lavender               ¾ oz.
  Cloves              150 grains.
  Marjoram               ¾ oz.
  Cinnamon            150 grains.
  Alcohol               1 qt.
  White-wine vinegar    2 qts.

Macerate the solids with the alcohol and vinegar.


VINAIGRE DE COLOGNE.

  Cologne water        1 qt.
  Glacial acetic acid  1¾ oz.

As this vinegar is made by mixing an alcoholic perfume with acetic
acid, so all other alcoholic perfumes may be employed for a like
purpose; but the quantities must be determined by experiment, for the
various aromatics differ in the intensity of their odor.


VINAIGRE ÉTHERÉ.

  Glacial acetic acid  14 oz.
  Acetic ether          1½ oz.
  Nitrous ether          ¾ oz.
  Water                 5 qts.

The water should be added after the ethers have been dissolved in the
glacial acetic acid.


VINAIGRE DE LAVANDE.

  Lavender water       4 qts.
  Rose water           1 pint.
  Glacial acetic acid   ½ lb.

To be stained a bluish color with indigo-carmine.


ORANGE-FLOWER VINEGAR.

  Orange-flower water  4 qts.
  Glacial acetic acid  7 oz.


MALLARD’S TOILET VINEGAR.

  Tincture of benzoin          1½ oz.
  Tincture of tolu             1½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot            150 grains.
  Oil of lemon               150 grains.
  Oil of neroli               30 grains.
  Oil of orange peel            ½ oz.
  Oil of lavender             15 grains.
  Oil of rosemary             15 grains.
  Tincture of musk            15 grains.
  Concentrated acetic acid    21 oz.
  Alcohol                      4¾ lb.


TOILET VINEGAR (FRENCH FORMULA).

  Oil of bergamot           30 grains.
  Oil of lemon              30 grains.
  Oil of rose                8 drops.
  Oil of neroli              5 drops.
  Benzoin                   75 grains.
  Vanillin                  15 grains.
  Concentrated acetic acid    ½ oz.
  Alcohol                     ½ lb.

Macerate for two weeks, and filter.


VINAIGRE POLYANTHE.

  Glacial acetic acid    7 oz.
  Tincture of benzoin    1¾ oz.
  Tincture of tolu       1¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli        150 grains.
  Oil of geranium      150 grains.
  Water                  2 qts.

To be stained with tincture of krameria (rhatany).



CHAPTER XVI.

DRY-PERFUMES.


As a matter of course, dry perfumes are of greater antiquity than
fluid; aromatic substances require merely to be dried in order to
retain their fragrance permanently. The oldest civilized people known
in history—Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Babylonians, and the Jews,
as numerous passages in the Bible prove—used dried portions of plants,
leaves, flowers, and resins as perfumes and incense.

To this day there is kept up quite a trade in Valeriana celtica, a
strong-scented Alpine plant, and in powdered amber, with the Orient,
where they are used for scent bags and incense respectively. The
Catholic Church retains to the present time the Jewish rite of
burning incense, and in our museums will be found urns, taken from
Egyptian graves, from which pleasant odors escape even now after
nearly four thousand years, owing to the aromatic resins with which
they are filled. It is said, too, that the delightful volatile odors
of our handkerchief perfumes were first prepared by an Italian named
Frangipanni conceiving the idea of treating a dry mixture of different
aromatic plants with alcohol and thus imparting the odor they contained
to the latter.

Not all aromatics can be made into sachet powders; it is well known
that the delightful odor of violets changes into a positively
disagreeable smell when the flowers are dried, and the same remark
applies to the blossoms of the lily of the valley, mignonette, lily,
and most of our fragrant plants. On the other hand, some portions of
plants, especially those in which the odorous principle is contained
not only in the flower but in all parts of the plant, as in the mints,
sage, and most Labiatæ, remain fragrant for a long time after drying
and hence can be employed for sachets. Besides the plants named,
lavender, rose leaves, the leaves of the lemon and orange tree, Acacia
farnesiana, patchouly herb, and some other plants continue fragrant
after drying.

Any vegetable substance to be used for sachets must be completely dried
so as to prevent mould. The drying should be effected in a warm, shady
place, sometimes in heated chambers; direct sunlight and excessive
heat injure the strength of the odor, a portion of the aromatics
becoming resinified and volatilized. If artificial heat is employed, a
temperature between 40 and 45° C. (104-113° F.) is most suitable.

The external form of this class of preparations varies of course with
the public for which it is intended. Expensive sachets are sold in silk
bags with different ornamentation; those intended for the Orient are
generally put up as small silk cushions richly ornamented with gold
and colors to suit Oriental taste. Cheap sachets are sold in envelopes
or in round boxes. It is customary to have the ingredients ground or
finely powdered, for which purpose small hand-mills will generally
suffice.



CHAPTER XVII.

FORMULAS FOR DRY PERFUMES (SACHETS).


CEYLON SACHET POWDER.

  Mace                23 oz.
  Patchouly           28 oz.
  Vetiver root        35 oz.
  Oil of orange peel   1¾ oz.
  Oil of peppermint    3½ oz.


CYPRIAN SACHET POWDER.

  Cedar wood           2 lb.
  Rhodium              2 lb.
  Santal wood          2 lb.
  Oil of rhodium        ½ oz.

The oil is mixed with the finely powdered or rasped woods and
distributed in the mass by trituration.


FIELD FLOWER SACHET POWDER.

  Calamus root   1 lb.
  Caraway         ½ lb.
  Lavender       1 lb.
  Marjoram        ½ lb.
  Musk          30 grains.
  Cloves         2¾ oz.
  Peppermint      ½ lb.
  Rose leaves    1 lb.
  Rosemary       3½ oz.
  Thyme           ½ lb.


FRANGIPANNI SACHET POWDER.

  Musk             1 oz.
  Sage              ½ lb.
  Santal wood       ½ lb.
  Orris root       6 lb.
  Vetiver           ½ lb.
  Civet             ¼ oz.
  Oil of neroli   75 grains.
  Oil of santal   75 grains.
  Oil of rhodium  75 grains.


HELIOTROPE SACHET POWDER.

  Musk                    ½ oz.
  Rose leaves            2 lb.
  Tonka beans            1 lb.
  Vanilla                 ½ lb.
  Orris root             4 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond  30 grains.


INDIAN SACHET POWDER.

  Santal wood        3½ oz.
  Orris root        21 oz.
  Cinnamon          10½ oz.
  Oil of lavender   75 grains.
  Cloves            30 grains.
  Oil of rose      150 grains.


LAVENDER SACHET POWDER.

  Benzoin             1 lb.
  Lavender flowers    4 lb.
  Oil of lavender     1 oz.
  Oil of rose        75 grains.


MARSHAL SACHET POWDER.

  Cassia         ½ lb.
  Musk         75 grains.
  Cloves         ½ lb.
  Rose leaves    ½ lb.
  Santal wood   1 lb.
  Orris root    1 lb.


MILLE FLEURS SACHET POWDER.

  Benzoin       1 lb.
  Lavender      1 lb.
  Musk         30 grains.
  Cloves        4½ oz.
  Allspice      2½ oz.
  Rose leaves   1 lb.
  Santal wood   4¼ oz.
  Tonka beans   4¼ oz.
  Vanilla       4½ oz.
  Orris root    1 lb.
  Civet        30 grains.
  Cinnamon       ½ oz.


MUSLIN SACHET POWDER.

  Benzoin            ½ lb.
  Santal wood       1 lb.
  Thyme             1 lb.
  Orris root        1 lb.
  Vetiver root      2 lb.
  Oil of geranium  75 grains.


OLLA PODRIDA.

This name is applied in Spain to a dish prepared from various remnants
of food. The olla podrida of the perfumer is made from the remnants of
the aromatic vegetable substances after their extraction with alcohol,
petroleum ether, etc. Although vanilla, cinnamon, nutmeg, etc., be
repeatedly extracted, they still retain their characteristic odor,
though somewhat fainter, and thus they can be used with advantage for
sachet powders intended for filling bags, cushions, etc. If mixed in
corresponding proportions, they can be made use of for all the sachets
here enumerated. No definite formula can be given for a peculiar dry
perfume to be called Olla podrida; the olfactory organ is the best
guide.


PATCHOULY POWDER.

  Patchouly herb           2 lb.
  Oil of patchouly        30 grains.
  Musk                    15 grains.

The musk is rubbed up with gradually increased quantities of the
patchouly herb and with the addition of the oil of patchouly; the
intimate mixture of the powder saturated with musk and oil of patchouly
and the rest of the powder is effected by prolonged stirring of the two
powders in a large vessel. The same process is followed with all other
dry powders in which a small amount of a solid with intense odor or of
an essential oil is to be mixed with a large quantity of powder.


PERSIAN SACHET POWDER.

  Musk                     30 grains.
  Rose leaves               1 lb.
  Tonka beans               3½ oz.
  Orris root                2 lb.
  Oil of nutmeg            75 grains.
  Oil of clove             75 grains.
  Oil of rose             150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon          75 grains.


PORTUGAL POWDER.

  Lemon peels               1 lb.
  Orange peels              2 lb.
  Orris root                1 lb.
  Cinnamon                  3½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass      150 grains.
  Oil of neroli           150 grains.
  Oil of orange peel        2½ oz.


POTPOURRI.

Many widely differing perfumes are sold in the market under this name;
a good formula for its preparation is the following:

  Lavender                     1 lb.
  Cloves                       2½ oz.
  Allspice                     2½ oz.
  Rose leaves                  1 lb.
  Reseda                       1¾ oz.
  Orris root                   ½ lb.
  Vanilla                    150 grains.
  Cinnamon                     1¾ oz.
  Sand, or table salt, etc.    1 lb.

The admixture of fine white sand, table salt, or powdered glass or
marble, etc., is made merely for the purpose of increasing the weight.


ROSE SACHET POWDER, A.

  Geranium herb                 3½ oz.
  Rose leaves                   2 lb.
  Santal wood                   1 lb.
  Oil of rose                    ½ oz.


ROSE SACHET POWDER, B.

  Rose leaves                   2 lb.
  Santal wood                   1 lb.
  Oil of rose                   1 oz.


SANTAL POWDER,

which is simply finely rasped santal wood, is also sometimes sold as
rose sachet powder when it has received an addition of some oil of
geranium.


VIOLET SACHET POWDER.

  Benzoin                        ½ lb.
  Musk                         30 grains.
  Orange flowers                1¾ oz.
  Rose leaves                   1 lb.
  Orris root                    2 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond         75 grains.
  Oil of lemon grass           30 grains.


VIOLET SACHET POWDER.

  Orris root, powdered           1 lb.
  Musk                           8 grains.
  Vanillin                      30 grains.
  Oil of rose                   25 drops.
  Oil of petit grain           150 grains.
  Cologne water                  3½ oz.

Mix intimately in a porcelain mortar.


VERBENA SACHET POWDER.

  Lemon peels                    1 lb.
  Caraway                         ½ lb.
  Orange peels                   1 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                1¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                   1¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass            75 grains.


VETIVER SACHET POWDER.

  Vetiver root                   2 lb.
  Musk                          15 grains.
  Civet                         20 grains.



CHAPTER XVIII.

THE PERFUMES USED FOR FUMIGATION.


According to the use made of them, perfumes for fumigation may be
divided into two groups: those which develop their fragrance on being
burned, and those which do so on being merely heated. The former group
includes pastils and ribbons, the latter fumigating powders and waters.


FUMIGATING PASTILS.

_French_—Pastilles fumigatoires; _German_—Räucherkerzen.

Pastils consist in the main of charcoal to which enough saltpetre is
added to make the lighted mass glow continuously and leave a pure
white ash. To this mass are added various aromatic substances which are
gradually volatilized by the heat and fill the surrounding air with
their perfume. It is important to observe that only ordinary saltpetre
(nitrate of potassium) is to be used for this purpose, and not the
so-called Chili saltpetre (nitrate of sodium) which becomes moist in
the air. For ordinary pastils finely rasped fragrant woods such as
cedar or santal are frequently employed. During the slow combustion,
however, the wood gives off products of a pungent or disagreeable
odor such as acetic acid and empyreumatic products, which lessen the
fragrance. Fine pastils are composed of resins and essential oils and
are usually formed into cones two-fifths to four-fifths of an inch
high, by being pressed in metal moulds.

Fumigating pastils are manufactured as follows. Each solid ingredient
is finely powdered by itself, and the necessary quantities are then put
into a wide porcelain dish and intimately mixed with a flat spatula.
In order to confine the dust, the dish is covered with a cloth during
this operation. The mixture being completed, the essential oils are
added, together with enough mucilage of acacia to form a plastic mass
to be kneaded with the pestle, and which after drying will have a
sufficiently firm consistence.


PASTILLES ORIENTALES.

  Charcoal                           1½ lb.
  Saltpetre                          3½ oz.
  Benzoin                             ½ lb.
  Powdered amber                     3½ oz.
  Tolu balsam                        2¾ oz.

The charcoal for this and all other pastils should be made from soft
woods (willow, poplar, etc.). The characteristic of these pastils is
the amber they contain (the offal from manufactories is used) and which
on ignition gives off a peculiar odor much prized in the Orient,
rather than in Europe or America.


PASTILLES DU SÉRAIL.

  Charcoal                           1½ lb.
  Saltpetre                          3½ oz.
  Benzoin                             ½ lb.
  Santal wood                        5½ oz.
  Opium                              1¾ oz.
  Tolu balsam                        2¾ oz.

This formula is here given as usually quoted. It may be stated,
however, that the opium may be omitted entirely, as it neither
contributes to the fragrance, nor produces, by being burned in this
manner, any of the supposed exhilarating or intoxicating effects which
it may produce when used in other forms or employed in other ways.


BAGUETTES ENCENSOIRES (FUMIGATING PENCILS).

  Benzoin                           14 oz.
  Charcoal                           1¾ oz.
  Peru balsam                        1 oz.
  Storax                             2 oz.
  Shellac                            3½ oz.
  Olibanum                           5½ oz.
  Civet                             75 grains.
  Oil of bergamot                    1 oz.
  Oil of orange peel                 1 oz.
  Oil of santal                       ¾ oz.

Melt the benzoin, charcoal, shellac, and olibanum in a bright iron pan
at the lowest possible heat; take the pan from the fire and add the
other ingredients, heat being again applied from time to time to keep
the mass in a liquid state. The plastic mass is rolled out on a marble
slab into rods the thickness of a lead pencil. Such a pencil need be
but lightly passed over a hot surface to volatilize the aromatics it
contains.


PASTILLES ODORIFÉRANTES.

  Charcoal         2 lb.
  Saltpetre        3½ oz.
  Benzoin          1½ lb.
  Cloves           7 oz.
  Tolu balsam      7 oz.
  Vanilla          7 oz.
  Vetiver root     7 oz.
  Cinnamon         3½ oz.
  Oil of neroli  150 grains.
  Oil of santal     ¾ oz.

This and the following formula give the finest mixtures for pastils.


PASTILLES ENBAUMÉES.

  Charcoal                 2 lb.
  Saltpetre                2¾ oz.
  Benzoic acid, sublimed   1 lb.
  Musk                    15 grains.
  Civet                   15 grains.
  Oil of lemon grass      30 grains.
  Oil of lavender         15 grains.
  Oil of clove            15 grains.
  Oil of thyme            30 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon         30 grains.


POUDRE D’ENCENS (INCENSE POWDER).

  Benzoin         ½ lb.
  Cascarilla      ½ lb.
  Musk          15 grains.
  Santal wood    1 lb.
  Saltpetre      3½ oz.
  Vetiver root   5½ oz.
  Olibanum       1 lb.
  Cinnamon       5½ oz.

Dissolve the saltpetre in water, saturate the powders with the
solution, dry the mass, and again reduce it to powder. This powder,
strewn on a warm surface such as the top of a stove, takes fire
spontaneously and gradually disappears.


FUMIGATING PAPERS AND WICKS (BRUGES RIBBONS).

_French_—Papier à fumigations. Ruban de Bruges;
_German_—Räucherpapiere. Räucherbänder.

Fumigating papers are strips impregnated with substances which become
fragrant on being heated; such a strip need merely be placed on a stove
or held over a flame in order to perfume a whole room. Fumigating
papers are divided into two groups: those meant to be burned, and those
meant to be used repeatedly. The former, before being treated with
aromatics, are dipped into saltpetre solution; the latter, in order to
render them incombustible, are first dipped into a hot alum solution so
that they are only charred by a strong heat, but not entirely consumed.


A. INFLAMMABLE FUMIGATING PAPER.

Papier Fumigatoire Inflammable.

The paper is dipped into a solution of 3½ to 5½ ounces of saltpetre in
water; after drying it is immersed in a strong tincture of benzoin or
olibanum and again dried. An excellent paper is made according to the
following formula:

  Benzoin               5½ oz.
  Santal wood           3½ oz.
  Olibanum              3½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass  150 grains.
  Essence of vetiver    1¾ oz.
  Alcohol.              1 qt.

For use, the paper is touched with a red-hot substance, not a flame. It
begins to glow at once without bursting into flame, giving off numerous
sparks and a pleasant odor.


B. NON-INFLAMMABLE FUMIGATING PAPER.

Papier Fumigatoire Permanent.

This paper is prepared by dipping it in a hot solution of 3½ oz. of
alum in one quart of water; after drying, it is saturated with the
following mixture:

  Benzoin              7 oz.
  Tolu balsam          7 oz.
  Tincture of tonka    7 oz.
  Essence of vetiver   7 oz.
  Alcohol             20 fl. oz.

This paper, when heated, diffuses a very pleasant odor and can be used
repeatedly. It does not burn, and strong heat only chars it. Some
manufacturers make inferior fumigating papers by dipping the alum paper
simply in melted benzoin or olibanum.


C. FUMIGATING RIBBONS

are nothing but fine flat lamp wicks treated first with saltpetre
solution and then with the preceding mixture. The wick is rolled up and
placed in a vessel provided with a lamp burner. It is inserted in the
burner like any other wick and when lighted burns down to the metal and
goes out unless screwed up higher. Fumigating vessels provided with
these wicks are very practical because, if artistic in form, they form
quite an ornament to the room and can be instantly set in operation. A
French formula gives the following mixture for saturating the wicks:

  Benzoin                  1 lb.
  Musk                      ¾ oz.
  Myrrh                    3½ oz.
  Tolu balsam              3½ oz.
  Tincture of orris root   1 pint.
  Oil of rose             15 grains.


FUMIGATING WATERS AND VINEGARS (EAUX ENCENSOIRES, VINAIGRES
ENCENSOIRES).

These fluids are nothing but strong solutions of various aromatics in
alcohol, a few drops of which suffice, if evaporated on a warm plate,
to perfume a large room. The following is a good formula for fumigating
water.

  Benzoin                         7 oz.
  Cascarilla                      3½ oz.
  Cardamoms                       3½ oz.
  Mace                            1¾ oz.
  Musk                          150 grains.
  Peru balsam                     1¾ oz.
  Storax                          1¾ oz.
  Tolu balsam                     1¾ oz.
  Olibanum                        3½ oz.
  Orris root                     14 oz.
  Civet                         150 grains.
  Cinnamon                        7 oz.
  Oil of bergamot                 1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon                    1½ oz.
  Oil of geranium                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of lavender                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                 150 grains.
  Alcohol                         2 qts.

Of course, this liquid must be filtered after prolonged maceration.
By adding to it 1½ oz. of glacial acetic acid we obtain the so-called
fumigating vinegar which is very useful for expelling bad odors.


FUMIGATING POWDERS (POUDRES ENCENSOIRES).

These powders which need only to be heated in order to diffuse one
of the most pleasant odors, are easily prepared by intimately mixing
the ground solids with the oils by means of a spatula. We add three
renowned formulas for the manufacture of such powders.


A. POUDRE IMPÉRIALE.

  Benzoin                                3½ oz.
  Cascarilla                             1¾ oz.
  Lavender                               1¾ oz.
  Rose leaves                            1¾ oz.
  Santal wood                            1¾ oz.
  Olibanum                               3½ oz.
  Orris root                             3½ oz.
  Cinnamon                               1¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                          75 grains.
  Oil of clove                          30 grains.
  Oil of patchouly                      15 grains.


B. POUDRE DE LA REINE.

  Benzoin                                7 oz.
  Cedar wood                             1 lb.
  Cinnamon                              14 oz.
  Lavender                              10½ oz.
  Rose leaves                           10½ oz.
  Patchouly herb                         3½ oz.
  Vetiver root                           3½ oz.
  Civet                                150 grains.
  Oil of bergamot                         ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                            ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                        150 grains.
  Oil of clove                         150 grains.


C. POUDRE ROYALE.

  Cinnamon                                ½ lb.
  Cloves                                  ½ lb.
  Orris root                            12½ oz.
  Storax                                12½ oz.
  Lavender                               1 lb.
  Oil of clove                            ⅜ oz.
  Oil of lavender                         ⅜ oz.
  Oil of bergamot                         ⅛ oz.
  Oil of lemon                            ⅛ oz.



APPENDIX.

SOME SPECIALTIES.


Besides the preparations enumerated in the preceding pages, we find
in perfumery some products which are in favor on account of their
fragrance and are suitable for scenting ladies’ writing-desks,
sewing-baskets, boxes, and similar objects. They find their most
appropriate use in places where an aromatic odor is desired, while
there is no room for keeping the substances themselves. These must
therefore be put into a small compass, and the aromatics chosen should
be distinguished by great intensity and permanence of odor.

We subjoin a few formulas for the manufacture of such specialties, and
add the remark that besides the aromatics there given other substances
may be used in their preparation; but that the presence of benzoin,
musk, or civet, even in small amount, is always necessary, since these
substances, as above stated, not only possess an intense and permanent
odor, but have the valuable property of imparting lasting qualities to
more volatile odors.

It is a good plan, too, to keep on hand two kinds of these
specialties—one containing musk, the other none—for the reason that
the musk odor is as disagreeable to some persons as it is pleasant to
others.


SPANISH SKIN (PEAU D’ESPAGNE, SPANISCH LEDER).

The article sold under this name resembles in some respects sachets or
scent bags and is made as follows.

Take a piece of wash-leather (chamois), trim it to a square shape, and
leave it for three or four days in the following mixture:

  Benzoin                                          ½ lb.
  Oil of bergamot                                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                                     ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass                               ¾ oz.
  Oil of lavender                                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of nutmeg                                 150 grains.
  Oil of clove                                  150 grains.
  Oil of neroli                                   1½ oz.
  Oil of rose                                     1½ oz.
  Oil of santal                                   1½ oz.
  Tincture of tonka                                ¾ oz.
  Oil of cinnamon                               150 grains.
  Alcohol                                         1 qt.

At the end of the time named remove the leather from the liquid, let it
drain, spread it on a glass plate, and when dry coat it on the rough
side, by means of a brush, with a paste prepared in a mortar from the
following ingredients:

  Benzoic acid, sublimed                        150 grains.
  Musk                                           15 grains.
  Civet                                          15 grains.
  Gum acacia                                      1 oz.
  Glycerin                                         ¾ oz.
  Water                                           1¾ oz.

The leather is then folded in the centre, smoothed with a paper-knife,
put under a weight, and allowed to dry. The dried leather forms the
so-called perfume skin which retains its fine odor for years. Instead
of the above alcoholic liquids any desired alcoholic perfume may be
used; especially suitable are those containing oils of lemon grass,
lavender, and rose, since they are not very volatile, and when combined
with musk and civet remain fragrant for a long time. A sufficiently
large piece of perfume skin inserted in a desk pad or placed among the
paper will make the latter very fragrant. Spanish skin is chiefly used
for this purpose, as well as for work, glove, and handkerchief boxes,
etc. It is generally inclosed in a heavy silk cover.

If leather be thought too expensive, four to six layers of
blotting-paper may be perfumed in the same way and properly inclosed.
Thin layers of cotton wadding between paper can also be thus perfumed
and used for filling pin cushions, etc.


SPANISH PASTE.

Mix the following substances intimately in a porcelain mortar, and add
water drop by drop until a doughy mass results.

  Ambergris             ¾ oz.
  Benzoin              1½ oz.
  Musk                  ¾ oz.
  Vanilla               ¾ oz.
  Orris root            ¾ oz.
  Cinnamon              ¾ oz.
  Oil of bergamot      1½ oz.
  Oil of rose           ¾ oz.
  Gum acacia           1½ oz.
  Glycerin             1½ oz.

This paste, divided into pieces about the size of a hazelnut, is
used for filling the so-called cassolettes or scent boxes which are
carried in the pocket, etc., like smelling bottles. Owing to its pasty
consistence this preparation can be used for perfuming jewelry (small
quantities are inserted within the diamond settings), fine leather
goods, belts, and other articles. It is unnecessary to lengthen the
list; every practical perfumer will know what objects need perfuming.



CHAPTER XIX.

HYGIENIC AND COSMETIC PERFUMERY.


Perfumery is not merely called upon to act in an æsthetic direction and
gladden the senses; it has another and more important aim, that is,
to aid in some respects the practice of medicine. It is not necessary
to point out that in this sense, too, it acts in an æsthetic way; for
health and beauty are one and inseparable.

The field relegated to perfumery with reference to hygiene is
extensive, comprising the care of the skin, the hair, and the mouth.
But we also find in commercial perfumery articles which possess no
medicinal effect and serve merely for beautifying some parts of the
body, for instance, paints and hair dyes. As it is not possible to
separate perfumes with hygienic effects from cosmetics, we shall
describe the latter in connection with the former.

To repeat, hygienic perfumery has to deal with such substances as have
really a favorable effect on health. No one will deny that soap takes
the first place among them. Soap promotes cleanliness, and cleanliness
in itself is essential to health. But it would exceed the scope of this
work were we to treat in detail of the manufacture of soap and its
employment in the toilet; we must confine ourselves to some specialties
exclusively made by perfumers and into the composition of which soap
enters. We do so the more readily since perfumers are but rarely in
a position to make soap, and in most cases find it more advantageous
to buy the raw material, that is, ordinary good soap, from the
manufacturer and to perfume it.

Next to soap in hygienic perfumery stand the so-called emulsions and
creams (crêmes) which are excellent preparations for the skin and
pertain to the domain of the perfumer.

The human skin consists of three distinct parts: the deepest layer, the
subcutaneous cellular tissue which gradually changes into true skin;
the corium or true skin (the thickest layer); and the superficial scarf
skin or epidermis which is very thin and consists largely of dead and
dying cells; these are continually shed and steadily reproduced from
the corium.

The skin contains various depressions, namely, the sudoriparous glands
which excrete sweat; the sebaceous glands which serve the purpose
of covering the skin with fat and thereby keep it soft, glossy, and
supple; and lastly the hair follicles which contain the hairs, an
appendage to the skin.

The main object of hygienic perfumery with reference to the skin is to
keep these glandular organs in health and activity; it effects this by
various remedies which, besides promoting the general health, improve
the appearance of the skin.

As a special group of preparations is intended exclusively for the
care of the skin, so another class is devoted to the preservation of
the hair, and still another to the care of the mouth and its greatest
ornament, the teeth. Accordingly the preparations belonging under this
head will be divided into three groups—those for the skin, the hair,
and the mouth.



CHAPTER XX.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE SKIN.


GLYCERIN.

Pure glycerin is a substance that has a powerful beautifying effect on
the skin, by rendering it white, supple, soft, and glossy; no other
remedy will clear a sun-burnt skin in so short a time as glycerin.
An excellent wash may be made by the perfumer by mixing equal parts
of thick, colorless glycerin and orange-flower water (or some other
aromatic water with fine odor), possibly giving it a rose color by the
addition of a very small amount of fuchsine. Concentrated glycerin must
not be used as a wash, because it abstracts water from the skin and
thereby produces a sensation of heat or burning.

Besides common soap, the so-called emulsions, meals, pastes, vegetable
milks and creams are the best preparations for the care of the skin;
in perfumery they are even preferable to soap in some respects because
they contain not only substances which have a cleansing effect like any
soap, scented or not, but at the same time render the skin clearer,
more transparent, and more supple.


EMULSIONS.

Many perfumers make a definite distinction between two groups
of emulsions which they call respectively “emulsions” and “true
emulsions.” By “emulsions” they mean masses which have the property
of changing on contact with water into a milky fluid or becoming
emulsified; the term “true emulsions” is applied to such preparations
as already contain a sufficient amount of water and therefore have a
milky appearance. Hence the difference between the two preparations
lies in the lesser or greater quantity of water, and is so variable
that we prefer to describe them under one head.

The cause of the milky appearance of the emulsions on coming in contact
with water is that they contain, besides fat, substances which possess
the property of keeping the fat suspended in form of exceedingly minute
droplets which make the entire fluid look like milk. As a glance
through the microscope shows, the milk of animals consists of a clear
fluid in which the divided fat droplets (butter) float; these by their
refractive power make the milk appear white.

While soaps always contain a certain quantity of free alkali, a
substance having active caustic properties, emulsions include very
little if any alkali, and, since they possess the same cleansing power
as soap without its disadvantages with reference to the skin, their
steady use produces a warm youthful complexion, as well as smoothness
and delicacy of the skin.

Glycerin is of special importance in the composition of emulsions.
Besides the above-mentioned property of this substance of keeping
the skin soft and supple, it acts as a true cosmetic by its solvent
power of coloring matters: a skin deeply browned by exposure to the
sun is most rapidly whitened by the use of glycerin alone. Moreover,
glycerin prevents the decomposition of the preparations and keeps them
unchanged for a long time. This quality has a value which should not be
underestimated; for all emulsions are very apt to decompose and become
rancid owing to the finely divided fat they contain. Under ordinary
conditions, only complete protection against light and air can retard
rancidity, which is accompanied by a disagreeable odor not to be masked
by any perfume; an addition of glycerin, which we incorporate in all
emulsions, makes them more permanent owing to the antiseptic property
of this substance.

Recent years, however, have made us acquainted with a substance which
in very minute quantities—one-half of one per cent of the mass to be
preserved by it—prevents decomposition and rancidity of fats. This is
salicylic acid, a chemical product which, being harmless, tasteless,
and odorless, should be employed wherever we wish to guard against
destructive influences exerted by air, fermentation, etc. While
formerly all emulsions were made only in small amounts, just sufficient
for several weeks’ use, salicylic acid enables us to manufacture
larger quantities at once and to keep them without much fear of their
spoiling. However, even the presence of salicylic acid is no guaranty
against deterioration, if other precautions are neglected. The products
should be kept in well-stoppered bottles or vessels, in a cool and
dark place. All substances cannot be preserved by salicylic acid,
and there are certain ferments or fungi which resist the action of
salicylic acid. If chloroform is not objectionable in any of these
preparations—and only so much is necessary as can be held in actual
_solution_ by the liquid, on an average three drops to the ounce—this
preservative is preferable to salicylic acid.

The only fats used in the preparation of emulsions are expressed oil
of almonds, olive oil, and lard. Almond oil is best made by immediate
pressure of the bruised fruits, since fresh almond meal likewise finds
application in perfumery; olive oil and lard must be very carefully
purified. This is done by heating them for one hour with about ten
times the quantity of water containing soap (one per cent of the
quantity of fat to be purified). They are then treated five or six
times with pure warm water until the latter escapes quite neutral. If
the water turns red litmus paper blue, it would indicate the presence
of free alkali (soap); if it turns blue litmus paper red, it would
prove the presence of free fatty acids (rancid fat). Either one of
these substances, especially the latter, would injure the quality
of the product. The fat should be absolutely neutral and have no
influence on either kind of litmus paper; then its quality may be
pronounced perfect.



CHAPTER XXI.

FORMULAS FOR THE PREPARATION OF EMULSIONS, MEALS, PASTES, VEGETABLE
MILK, AND COLD-CREAMS.


A. Emulsions.

AMANDINE.

_Almond Cream._—Melt ten pounds of purified lard in an enamelled iron
pot or a porcelain vessel, and while increasing the temperature add
little by little five pounds of potash lye of 25% strength, stirring
all the time with a broad spatula. When fat and lye have become a
uniform mass, 2¾ to 3½ ounces of alcohol is gradually added, whereby
the mixture acquires a translucent, crystalline appearance. Before the
alcohol is added three-fourths to one ounce of oil of bitter almond
is dissolved in it. The soapy mass thus obtained is called “almond
cream” (crême d’amandes) and may be used alone for washing. For making
Amandine take of—

  Expressed oil of almonds                          10 lb.
  Almond cream                                       3½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot                                    1 oz.
  Oil of bitter almond                               1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon                                     150 grains.
  Oil of clove                                     150 grains.
  Oil of mace                                      150 grains.
  Water                                              1¾ oz.
  Sugar                                              3½ oz.

In the manufacture the following rules should be observed.

Effect the mixture in a cool room, the cellar in summer, a fireless
room in winter. Mix the ingredients in a shallow, smooth vessel, best
a large porcelain dish, using a very broad, flat stirrer with several
holes. The sugar is first dissolved in the water and intimately mixed
with the almond cream. The essential oils are dissolved in the almond
oil contained in a vessel provided with a stop-cock. The oil is first
allowed to run into the dish in a moderate stream under continual
stirring. The mass soon grows more viscid, and toward the end of the
operation the flow of oil must be carefully restricted so that the
quantity admitted can be at once completely mixed with the contents of
the dish. Well-made amandine must be rather consistent and white, and
should not be translucent. If translucency or an oily appearance is
observed during the mixture, the flow of oil must be at once checked
or enough almond cream must be added to restore the white appearance,
under active stirring.

As amandine is very liable to decompose, it must be immediately filled
into the vessels in which it is to be kept, and the latter, closed
air-tight, should be preserved in a cool place. By adding ¾ ounce of
salicylic acid, amandine may be made quite permanent so that it can be
kept unchanged even in a warm place.

We have described the preparation of amandine at greater length
because its manufacture requires some technical skill and because the
preparation of all other cold-creams corresponds in general with that
of amandine.


GLYCERIN EMULSIONS. A. GLYCERIN CREAM.

  Glycerin                   ½ lb.
  Almond oil               14 oz.
  Rose water               12½ oz.
  Spermaceti                3½ oz.
  Wax                     480 grains.
  Oil of rose              60 grains.

Melt the wax and spermaceti by gentle heat, then add the almond oil,
next the glycerin mixed with the rose water, and lastly the oil of
rose which may also be replaced by some other fragrant oil or mixture.
If the preparation is to be used in summer, it is advisable to increase
the wax by one-half, thus giving the mass greater consistence.


B. GLYCERIN JELLY.

  Glycerin                     2 lb.
  Almond oil                   6 lb.
  Soap                         5½ oz.
  Oil of orange peel         150 grains.
  Oil of thyme                  ¾ oz.

Mix the soap with the glycerin, gradually add the oil (as for
amandine), and finally the aromatics.


JASMINE EMULSION.

  Huile antique de jasmin          2 lb.
  Almond cream                     5½ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond          4 lb.
  Water                            5½ oz.
  Sugar                            2¾ oz.

Mix in the same order as given under Amandine.


TUBEROSE EMULSION.

  Huile antique des tubéroses       1¾ to 2 lb.
  Almond cream                      5½ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond           4 lb.
  Water                             5½ oz.
  Sugar                             2¾ oz.


VIOLET EMULSION.

  Huile antique des violettes       2 to 3 lb.
  Almond cream                      5½ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond           4 lb.
  Water                             5½ oz.
  Sugar                             2¾ oz.

In place of the huiles antiques named (_i.e._, fine oils saturated with
the odors of the corresponding flowers) any other huile antique may
be used and the cream then called by the name of the flower whose odor
it possesses. Such creams with genuine huiles antiques are among the
finest preparations known in perfumery and of course are high-priced,
owing to the cost of the huiles antiques.


OLIVINE.

  Gum acacia                ½ lb.
  Yolk of egg             10 yolks.
  Olive oil                4 lb.
  Soap                     7 oz.
  Water                    8 oz.
  Sugar                    5½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot          2 oz.
  Oil of lemon             2 oz.
  Oil of clove             1 oz.
  Oil of orange peel        ¾ oz.
  Oil of thyme            75 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon         75 grains.

The gum, sugar, water, and yolk of eggs are first intimately mixed and
gradually added to the olive oil containing the essential oils.


B. Meals and Pastes.

The so-called meals (farines) and pastes (pâtes) really consist of
the flour of fatty vegetable substances which possess the property of
forming an emulsion with water and are frequently used in washes. As
they are free from alkali, they are the most delicate preparations of
the kind and are especially suitable for washing the face or sensitive
hands.


SIMPLE ALMOND PASTE (PÂTE D’AMANDES SIMPLE).

  Bitter almonds          6 lb.
  Alcohol                 2 qts.
  Rose water              4 qts.
  Oil of bergamot        10½ oz.
  Oil of lemon            3½ oz.

Put the bitter almonds in a sieve, dip them for a few seconds in
boiling water, when they can be easily deprived of their brown skin;
carefully bruise them in a mortar, and place them in a glazed pot set
in another kept full with boiling water; pour over them two quarts of
the rose water heated to near the boiling-point. Keep up the heat under
continual stirring until the almond meal and rose water form a uniform
mass free from granules; in other words, until the meal is changed into
paste. The pot is now allowed to cool somewhat, when the rest of the
rose water and the oils dissolved in alcohol are added. Almond paste
should have a uniform, butter-like consistence if the first part of the
operation has been carefully performed.


ALMOND AND HONEY PASTE (PÂTE D’AMANDES AU MIEL).

  Bitter almonds               2 lb.
  Yolk of egg                 30 yolks.
  Honey                        4 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond      4 lb.
  Oil of bergamot              1 oz.
  Oil of lemon                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of clove                  ¾ oz.

Decorticate and bruise the bitter almonds and add them with the
essential oils to the mixed yolks, honey, and almond oil.


ALMOND MEAL (FARINE D’AMANDES).

  Almond meal                      4 lb.
  Orris root, powdered             5½ oz.
  Oil of lemon                     1 oz.
  Oil of bitter almond           150 grains.
  Oil of lemon grass              75 grains.

Almond meal here means the bran left after expressing the oil from
sweet almonds. First mix the powdered orris root intimately with the
essential oils and triturate the mass with the almond bran. Other
essential oils may also be used for perfuming the mass.


PISTACHIO MEAL (FARINE DE PISTACHES).

  Pistachio nuts                    4 lb.
  Orris root, powdered              4 lb.
  Oil of lemon                      1¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                   150 grains.
  Oil of orange peel                1 oz.

The pistachio nuts are blanched in the same manner as almonds (see
under Simple Almond Paste), and then reduced to a meal.


C. Vegetable Milk.

The several varieties of vegetable milk are merely emulsions containing
sufficient water to give them a milky appearance. They are used as such
for washes and are in great favor. Owing to the larger amount of water
they contain, they are more liable to decompose than the preparations
described above, since the fats present in them easily become rancid on
account of their fine division in the milk.

In order to render these preparations more stable, they receive an
addition of about five to ten per cent of their weight of pure glycerin
which enhances their cosmetic effect. The addition of about one-half
of one per cent of salicylic acid is likewise to be recommended, as it
makes them more stable.

In the following pages we shall describe only the most important of
these preparations usually made by the perfumer. In this connection we
may state that by slightly modifying the substances used to perfume
them, new varieties of vegetable milk can be easily prepared.

Every vegetable milk consists in the main of a base of soap, wax,
and spermaceti, and an aromatic water which gives the name to the
preparation. This composition is intended to keep suspended the fatty
vegetable substances (almond or pistachio meal, etc.), thus producing a
milky appearance.

Vegetable milks are made as follows.

Melt the soap with the wax and spermaceti at a gentle heat. Prepare
a milk from the vegetable substance and the aromatic water (_e.g._,
_unexpressed_ almonds and rose water) by careful trituration, strain it
through fine silk gauze into the vessel containing the melted mixture
of soap, wax, and spermaceti, stir thoroughly, let it cool, and add the
alcohol holding in solution the essential oils, the glycerin (and the
salicylic acid), under continual stirring. The alcohol must be added in
a very thin stream, otherwise a portion of the mass will curdle. The
coarser particles contained in the milk must be allowed to settle by
leaving the preparation at rest for twenty-four hours, when the milk
can be carefully decanted from the sediment and filled into bottles for
sale.


LILAC MILK (LAIT DE LILAS).

  Soap                          2¼ oz.
  Wax                           2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti                    2¼ oz.
  Sweet almonds                 1 lb.
  Lilac-flower water            4½ pints.
  Huile antique de lilas        2½ oz.
  Alcohol (80-85% Tralles)      2 lb.

In place of lilac-flower water and huile antique de lilas, lilacin
(terpineol) may be used, a sufficient quantity (about 1 oz.) being
dissolved in the alcohol. But the lilacin must be pure and of clean
odor.


VIRGINAL MILK (LAIT VIRGINAL).

This preparation differs from all other milks sold in perfumery in that
it consists of some aromatic water with tincture of benzoin and tolu.
In making it, pour the aromatic water in a very thin stream into the
tincture under vigorous stirring. If the water flows in too rapidly,
the resins present in the tincture separate in lumps; but if slowly
poured in, the resins form minute spheres which remain suspended.
The preparation is named after the aromatic water it contains: Lait
virginal de la rose, à fleurs d’oranges, etc. Its formula is:

  Tincture of benzoin                    2 oz.
  Tincture of tolu                       2¾ oz.
  Aromatic water                         4 qts.


CUCUMBER MILK (LAIT DE CONCOMBRES).

  Soap                                   1 oz.
  Olive oil                              1 oz.
  Wax                                    1 oz.
  Spermaceti                             1 oz.
  Sweet almonds                          1 lb.
  Cucumber juice (freshly expressed)     4½ pints.
  Extract of cucumber                    1 pint.
  Alcohol                                2 lb.


DANDELION MILK.

  Soap                                  2¼ oz.
  Olive oil                             2¼ oz.
  Wax                                   2¼ oz.
  Sweet almonds                         1 lb.
  Extract of tuberose                   1 lb.
  Rose water                            5 pints.
  Dandelion juice                       5 oz.

Dandelion juice is the bitter milk sap of the root of the common
dandelion (Leontodon taraxacum); it should be expressed immediately
before use. The rose water may be replaced by some other aromatic water
or even ordinary water; but the latter should be distilled, otherwise
the lime it contains would form an insoluble combination with the soap.


BITTER-ALMOND MILK (LAIT D’AMANDES AMÈRES).

  Bitter almonds                 2¼ oz.
  Soap                           2¼ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond        2¼ oz.
  Wax                            2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti                     2¼ oz.
  Rose water                     4 qts.
  Alcohol                        3 pints.
  Oil of bitter almond            ½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot                1 oz.
  Oil of lemon                    ½ oz.


ROSE MILK (LAIT DE ROSES).

  Olive oil              2¼ oz.
  Soap                   2¼ oz.
  Wax                    2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti             2¼ oz.
  Sweet almonds          4 lb.
  Oil of rose          150 grains.
  Rose water             4 qts.
  Alcohol                1 pint.


PISTACHIO MILK (LAIT DE PISTACHES).

  Soap.                     2¼ oz.
  Olive oil                 2¼ oz.
  Wax                       2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti                2¼ oz.
  Pistachio nuts           14 oz.
  Oil of neroli              ¾ oz.
  Orange-flower water       6 qts.
  Alcohol                   1 qt.


D. Cold-Creams and Lip Salves.

In the main they resemble in their composition the emulsions and
vegetable milks, but differ by their thick consistence which renders
them suitable for being rubbed into the skin. Cold-creams are really
salves perfumed with one of the well-known odors which give them their
names. Fat forms the basis of these mixtures and gives them their
hygienic effect, as it imparts fulness and softness to the skin. Every
well-made cold-cream should have the consistence of recently congealed
wax and should yield to the pressure of the finger like pomatum.
It should be noted that the addition of very thick glycerin will
increase the effect of the cold-cream and improve its fine transparent
appearance; but this substance must be added with great care, otherwise
the mass will not possess the required firmness.

In making cold-cream, a mixture of wax, spermaceti, and expressed
almond oil must be combined with an aromatic water and an essential
oil. The first part of the operation is easy; the wax and spermaceti
are melted at the lowest possible temperature, and the almond oil is
added under continual stirring. It is more difficult to unite the other
substances with this base; the aromatic water is admitted in a thin
stream under vigorous stirring (or whipping, or churning), and when
it forms a uniform mass with the contents of the mortar the remaining
substances are stirred in and the still fluid mass is poured into the
vessels intended for it, and allowed to congeal.

Cold-creams are usually sold in tasteful porcelain jars or vases. To
guard against rancidity of the mass, the vessels are closed either with
ground stoppers or with corks covered with tin foil. The essential oils
should be added last, when the mass has cooled to the congealing-point;
if added before, too much of them is lost by evaporation.

We give below several approved formulas for the preparation of some
favorite cold-creams, and repeat that new varieties can be produced by
introducing any desired odor into the composition.


GLYCERIN COLD-CREAM A.

  Expressed oil of almond                   2 lb.
  Wax                                       2½ oz.
  Spermaceti                                2½ oz.
  Glycerin                                  7 oz.
  Oil of bergamot                            ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                               ¾ oz.
  Oil of geranium                            ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                           150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon                         150 grains.
  Rose water                                1 lb.


GLYCERIN COLD-CREAM B.

  Expressed oil of almond                   2 lb.
  Wax                                       4½ oz.
  Spermaceti                                4½ oz.
  Glycerin                                   ½ lb.
  Oil of rose                             150 grains.
  Civet                                    30 grains.


CAMPHOR ICE (CAMPHOR COLD-CREAM).

  Wax                                       2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti                                2¼ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond                   2 lb.
  Camphor                                   4½ oz.
  Oil of rosemary                          90 grains.
  Oil of peppermint                        45 grains.
  Rose water                                2 lb.


CAMPHOR ICE (PÂTE CAMPHORIQUE).

  Lard                                      2 lb.
  Wax                                        ½ lb.
  Camphor                                    ½ lb.
  Oil of lavender                            ½ oz.
  Oil of rosemary                            ½ oz.

This mixture, which is rather firm, is frequently poured into shallow
porcelain boxes; sometimes it is colored red with alkanet root.


CAMPHOR BALLS (SAVONETTES CAMPHORIQUES).

  Expressed oil of almond         7 oz.
  Purified tallow                 2 lb.
  Wax                             7 oz.
  Spermaceti                      7 oz.
  Camphor                         7 oz.
  Oil of lavender                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of rosemary                  ¾ oz.
  Oil of cinnamon                75 grains.

Savonette is generally understood to mean a soap cast in spherical
moulds; this preparation is, as a rule, likewise sold in this form.


DIVINE POMADE A.

  Expressed oil of almond    3 lb.
  Spermaceti                 1 lb.
  Lard                       2 lb.
  Benzoin                    1 lb.
  Vanilla                    7 oz.
  Civet                       ¾ oz.

The aromatic substances, having been comminuted, are thoroughly
triturated with the other ingredients, and the mass is kept for
twenty-four hours at a temperature of 50 to 60° C. (112-140° F.), when
it is carefully decanted from the sediment, which is treated again with
another mass of the same substances for thirty-six to forty-eight hours.


DIVINE POMADE B.

  Beef marrow             2 lb.
  Benzoin                 1½ oz.
  Nutmegs                 1 oz.
  Cloves                  1 oz.
  Storax                  1½ oz.
  Orris root              1½ oz.
  Civet                  75 grains.
  Cinnamon                1 oz.
  Orange-flower water     2 lb.

The solid substances are macerated for forty-eight hours with the warm
marrow, the liquid perfumed marrow is then strained off and mixed with
the orange-flower water.


COLOGNE COLD-CREAM (CRÊME DE COLOGNE).

  Expressed oil of almond     2 lb.
  Wax                         2½ oz.
  Spermaceti                  2½ oz.
  Mecca balsam                7 oz.
  Tolu balsam                 3½ oz.
  Rose water                 14 oz.

Mecca balsam has been a rare article in commerce for many years.
That which is usually sold as such is more or less adulterated or an
imitation. The genuine was derived from Balsamodendron Opobalsamum
Kunth.


CUCUMBER COLD-CREAM A.

  Expressed oil of almond  2 lb.
  Wax                      2¼ oz.
  Spermaceti               2¼ oz.
  Extract of cucumber      5½ oz.
  Cucumber juice, fresh    2 lb.

The cucumber juice is carefully heated to 60 or 65° C. (140-149°F.),
rapidly filtered from the curds, and at once added to the rest of the
mass.


CUCUMBER COLD-CREAM B.

  Lard                 6 lb.
  Spermaceti           2 lb.
  Benzoin              7 oz.
  Extract of cucumber  2 lb.

The benzoin is first macerated with the warmed fat for twenty-four
hours, and this aromatic fat is treated in the usual manner.


LIP SALVE A (POMADE BLANCHE POUR LES LÈVRES).

  Expressed oil of almond   2 lb.
  Wax                       4½ oz.
  Spermaceti                4½ oz.
  Oil of bitter almond       ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon grass       75 grains.
  Oil of rose              75 grains.


RED LIP SALVE B (POMADE À LA ROSE POUR LES LÈVRES).

  Expressed oil of almond    2 lb.
  Wax                        4½ oz.
  Spermaceti                 4½ oz.
  Oil of geranium          150 grains.
  Oil of santal             90 grains.
  Alkanet root               4½ oz.

The beautiful red color which distinguishes this preparation is
produced with alkanet root; the mass, before the essential oils are
added, being macerated for from six to eight hours, under frequent
stirring, with the comminuted root, and then decanted from the sediment.


CHERRY SALVE C (POMADE CERISE).

  Expressed oil of almond    2 lb.
  Wax                        4½ oz.
  Spermaceti                 4½ oz.
  Oil of bitter almond        ½ oz.
  Oil of sweet bay         150 grains.
  Alkanet root               4½ oz.

The procedure is the same as for pomade à la rose.


ALMOND COLD-CREAM.

  Expressed oil of almond   2 lb.
  Wax                       4½ oz.
  Spermaceti                4½ oz.
  Rose water                2 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond       ¾ oz.
  Civet                    30 grains.


ALMOND BALLS (SAVONETTES D’AMANDES).

  Tallow                          2 lb.
  Wax                            10½ oz.
  Spermaceti                      7 oz.
  Oil of bitter almond          150 grains.
  Oil of clove                   75 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon                75 grains.

This is usually formed into balls.


ROSEBUD COLD-CREAM.

  Almond oil                             2 lb.
  Wax                                    2½ oz.
  Spermaceti                             2½ oz.
  Rose water                             2 lb.
  Oil of rose                           75 grains.
  Oil of geranium                       75 grains.


VIOLET COLD-CREAM (CRÊME DE VIOLETTES).

  Huile antique de violettes             2 lb.
  Wax                                    2½ oz.
  Spermaceti                             2½ oz.
  Violet water                           2 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond                 150 grains.
  Oil of neroli                         75 grains.



APPENDIX.


NAIL POWDER (POUDRE POUR LES ONGLES; FINGERNAGEL-PULVER).

The finger nails, being an appendage to the skin, belong under the head
of the Care of the Skin; we therefore give a formula for preparing the
powder used for imparting smoothness and gloss to the nails. For use,
some of the powder is poured on a piece of soft glove leather and the
nails are rubbed until they shine.

  Oxide of tin        4 lb.
  Carmine              ¾ oz.
  Oil of bergamot   150 grains.
  Oil of lavender   150 grains.

The oxide of tin must be an impalpable powder and is mixed with the
other substances in a mortar.



CHAPTER XXII.

THE PREPARATIONS USED FOR THE CARE OF THE HAIR (POMADES AND HAIR OILS).


The hair, the beautiful ornament of the human body, requires fat for
its care and preservation, for there are but few persons whose scalp is
so vigorous that the hair can derive sufficient nourishment from it to
maintain its gloss and smoothness.

Among the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Germans various ointments were in
use for the care of the hair. In Rome there was even, as we have stated
in an earlier part of the book, a special guild of ointment-makers
or unguentarii. They employed a process for making their ointments
fragrant which resembles that of maceration in present use.

The so-called pomades (from pomum, apple) were prepared by sticking a
fine apple full of spices and placing it for a long time in liquid fat
which absorbed the odor of the spices.

In the present state of chemical science, the basis of every pomade or
hair oil is formed by some fat perfumed with aromatic substances and at
times colored. The fats generally used are lard, beef marrow, tallow,
bears’ grease, olive or almond oil; some of the firmer fats receive
an addition of a certain amount of paraffin, spermaceti, or wax, in
order to give the pomade greater consistence. As in the manufacture of
all the finer articles, it is essential that whatever fat is employed
should be perfectly pure; only fat which is absolutely neutral, _i.e._,
free from acid, can be used, and any sample with but a trace of
rancidity (containing free fatty acids) should be rejected on account
of the penetrating odor peculiar to several of these acids.

Manufacturers who aim at the production of fine goods spare neither
trouble nor expense in order to obtain perfectly pure fats.

Fats are purified for the purposes of the perfumer in the following
manner:

The fat is melted in a bright iron pot or enamelled vessel with three
times the quantity of water containing in solution about one per cent
(of the weight of the fat) of alum and one per cent of table salt. Fat
and water are well stirred with a broad flat ladle or some mechanical
arrangement within the boiler. After the mass has remained at rest for
some time, the curdled solid matters are skimmed from the surface. The
time required for this operation can be much shortened by the use of a
pump which raises the fat and water from the boiler and returns them in
a fine spray.

When fats with some degree of rancidity are to be made suitable for
the purposes of the perfumer, 0.5% of caustic soda lye is added to the
water instead of the alum.

After this treatment is completed, the fat must be washed in order to
free it from the substances with which it was purified. Formerly this
washing was done in a manner resembling the grinding of oil colors.
The fat was placed on a level stone plate and kneaded with a muller
with flat base under a continual stream of water flowing from above,
until the fat was clean. This expensive hand labor is now performed by
machines, the fat being treated with water in vertical mills.

No matter how carefully a fat was purified, it may happen that the
pomades made from it, if kept long in stock, may subsequently become
rancid—a circumstance which may destroy the reputation of a factory.
Fortunately we know two substances which materially counteract the
tendency of fats to become rancid: salicylic acid and benzoin. Either
of these substances is added to many perfumery articles, especially
pomades, in order to prevent rancidity; an admixture of from
one-one-thousandth to five-one-thousandths parts of solid salicylic
acid suffices, according to our experiments, for the purpose; of
benzoin we need about three-fourths of an ounce for every quart of
fat; the resin is only partly soluble in fat, but imparts to it its
vanilla-like odor. For the finest pomades sublimed benzoic acid is
used, in the proportion of about 150 to 240 grains to the quart of fat.



CHAPTER XXIII.

FORMULAS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF POMADES AND HAIR OILS.


A. Pomades.

In manufacturing perfumery two groups of pomades are
distinguished—those with a hard base, and those with a soft base. By
base is meant the fat which is the vehicle of the odor in every pomade.
The consistence of the substance depends upon its melting-point; lard
and beef marrow, having a low melting-point, furnish soft pomades;
while beef and mutton tallow, which often receive an addition of
paraffin, wax, or spermaceti in order to make them firmer, have a
higher melting-point and serve for hard pomades.

French perfumers put on the market some very fine pomades consisting
of the fat which has served for the absorption of odors by maceration,
enfleurage, etc., and which has been treated with alcohol for the
extraction of the odors (so-called washed pomades). No matter how long
such a fat is treated with alcohol, it tenaciously retains a portion of
the odor to which the great fragrance of these pomades is due and which
has given them their reputation.

If the pomades resulting from the following formulas should turn
out too soft—a fact depending on the climate of the place of
manufacture—they may receive an addition of a mixture of equal parts
of paraffin, wax, and spermaceti, in portions of respectively five per
cent at each addition, until the desired ointment-like consistence is
attained.


CANTHARIDAL POMADE.

  Beef marrow                4 lb.
  Wax                        7 oz.
  Oil of mace              150 grains.
  Oil of clove             150 grains.
  Oil of rose              150 grains.
  Tincture of cantharides     ¾ oz.

Tincture of cantharides is prepared by prolonged maceration of ¾ ounce
of powdered cantharides in one quart of alcohol.


CIRCASSIAN POMADE.

  Benzoin pomade (see below)  2 lb.
  Rose pomade                 1 lb.
  Lard                        2 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond     4 lb.
  Alkanet root                3½ oz.
  Oil of rose                  ½ oz.

The almond oil alone is first macerated with the alkanet root until,
when added to the other ingredients, it imparts a beautiful red color
to the pomade.


BENZOIN POMADE A.

  Benzoic acid, sublimed      4¼ oz.
  Purified fat                4 lb.


BENZOIN POMADE B.

  Benzoin                  12¼ oz.
  Fat                       4 lb.

Macerate the benzoin or benzoic acid in the fat at the temperature of
boiling water for several hours, and strain the pomade through a cloth.


DOUBLE POMADES.

These pomades are put on the market in excellent quality especially by
French manufacturers. They consist of a mixture of washed pomades and
huiles antiques. The respective quantities must be chosen according to
the climate of the country for which the articles are intended. Colder
countries require equal parts by weight of pomades and oils; warmer
climates, two parts of fat to one of oil.


CRYSTALLIZED OIL (HUILE CRYSTALLISÉE).

  Huile antique of orange flowers           1 lb.
  Huile antique of roses                    2 lb.
  Huile antique of tuberoses                2 lb.
  Huile antique of violets                  2 lb.
  Spermaceti                                1 lb.
  Paraffin                                  7 oz.

The addition of spermaceti and paraffin causes the mixture to assume
a crystalline form on cooling, the appearance improving in proportion
as the cooling is slow and gradual. First melt the paraffin and
spermaceti on a water bath, add the huiles antiques, mix thoroughly by
prolonged stirring, and pour the finished product into the vessels in
which it is to be sold. These vessels are previously warmed to 60 or
70° C. (140-158°F.), and very slowly after filling, so as to secure a
beautiful crystalline mass. A second quality of crystalline hair oil is
made according to the following formula:

  Expressed oil of almond    10 lb.
  Spermaceti                 21 oz.
  Paraffin                   14 oz.
  Oil of bergamot             2 oz.
  Oil of lemon                4¼ oz.
  Oil of bitter almond      150 grains.


BLOSSOM POMADE (POMADE À FLEURS).

  Expressed oil of almond    4 lb.
  Jasmine pomade            28 oz.
  Rose pomade               28 oz.
  Violet pomade             28 oz.
  Oil of bergamot             ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon             150 grains.


BEAR’S GREASE POMADE (POMADE À GRAISSE D’OURS).

  Expressed oil of almond          20 lb.
  Lard                             24 lb.
  Cassie pomade                     4 lb.
  Jasmine pomade                    4 lb.
  Huile antique of cassie           1 lb.
  Huile antique of jasmine          1 lb.
  Huile antique of orange flowers   1 lb.
  Huile antique of roses            1 lb.
  Huile antique of tuberoses        1 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                    ½ lb.
  Oil of lemon                      3½ oz.
  Oil of nutmeg                     1½ oz.
  Oil of clove                      4¼ oz.

This pomade is rather consistent; if it is to be made still firmer for
summer use or warm climates, the almond oil should be diminished and
the lard increased in proportion, or some tallow and wax added. The
pomade is made by mixing the oil and lard, adding next the pomades and
huiles antiques, and finally the essential oils. The temperature should
not be higher than suffices to keep the mass liquid; the mixture is
effected by vigorous stirring, and is then at once, though gradually,
cooled.


BEEF-MARROW POMADE (POMADE À MOËLLE DE BŒUF).

  Lard                                 8 lb.
  Beef marrow                          4 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                      1 oz.
  Oil of lemon                         2 oz.
  Oil of mace                          150 grains.
  Oil of clove                         150 grains.


MARROW CREAM (CRÊME DE MOËLLE).

  Expressed oil of almond              4 lb.
  Lard                                 4 lb.
  Palm oil                             3½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot                      2 oz.
  Oil of lemon                         7 oz.
  Oil of nutmeg                      150 grains.
  Oil of clove                       150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon                    150 grains.

The public is accustomed to receive the last two pomades in the form
of froth. This can be easily effected by whipping the pomade during
cooling with an egg-beater until it is solidified.


CINCHONA POMADE (POMADE À QUINQUINE).

  Lard                                4 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond             1 lb.
  Beef marrow                         6 lb.
  Peru balsam                         1 oz.
  Cinchona bark                        ¾ oz.
  Oil of clove                        1 oz.
  Oil of rose                       150 grains.

Macerate the finely powdered bark in the fat for some hours, add the
Peru balsam, strain through a cloth, and incorporate the essential
oils. The pomade is vaunted as a hair tonic, as well as


TANNO-QUININE POMADE,

which is prepared in the same way; the only difference being the
addition of 150 grains of tannin.


CASTOR-OIL CREAM (CRÊME DE RICINE).

  Expressed oil of almond                            3 lb.
  Castor oil                                         3 lb.
  Rose pomade                                        2 lb.
  Orange-flower pomade                               2 lb.
  Tuberose pomade                                    2 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                                    7 oz.
  Oil of lemon                                       3½ oz.


ORANGE-FLOWER POMADE (POMADE À FLEURS D’ORANGES).

  Expressed oil of almond                           38½ oz.
  Cassie pomade                                     38½ oz.
  Rose pomade                                       35 oz.
  Jasmine pomade                                    35 oz.
  Oil of bitter almond                             150 grains.
  Oil of neroli                                       ½ oz.


HELIOTROPE POMADE (POMADE DE HÉLIOTROPE).

  Rose pomade                                        4 lb.
  Orange-flower pomade                               1 lb.
  Huile antique of jasmine                           2 lb.
  Huile antique of orange flower                     1 lb.
  Huile antique of tuberose                          1 lb.
  Vanilla pomade                                     2 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond                             150 grains.
  Oil of clove                                      75 grains.


TRANSPARENT POMADE.

  Expressed oil of almond                            6 lb.
  Wax                                                5½ oz.
  Spermaceti                                         1 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond                              75 grains.
  Oil of rose                                      150 grains.
  Tincture of musk                                   1½ oz.

The pomade is completely liquefied after being mixed and allowed to
congeal in the vessels in which it is marketed. If successful, the
product must be quite transparent or at least decidedly translucent.


TONKA CREAM.

  Tonka beans                                        1 lb.
  Lard                                               8 lb.

The powdered beans are stirred into the melted fat, in which they
remain for several days, the fat being agitated from time to time; when
it smells strong enough, it is strained through fine linen, and the
tonka beans are treated with another quantity of fat.


VIOLET POMADE (POMADE DES VIOLETTES).

  Lard                                               4 lb.
  Cassie pomade                                      3 lb.
  Rose pomade                                        2 lb.
  Violet pomade                                      2 lb.


VANILLA CREAM (CRÊME DE VANILLE).

  Vanilla                                            7 oz.
  Lard                                               6 lb.

In making this pomade the material is treated the same as in preparing
tonka pomade. Ordinary vanilla pomade is made by triturating:

  Peru balsam                                        7 oz.
  Lard                                               2 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond                            2 lb.

First triturate the balsam with the almond oil and gradually add the
lard. Another, much better process is the following:


VANILLA POMADE.

  Vanillin                                          80 grains.
  Peru balsam                                         ½ oz.
  Lard                                               6 lb.

Dissolve the vanillin and balsam of Peru in about 4 oz. of alcohol.
Melt the lard at as low a temperature as possible, then add the
solution, stir until it is well incorporated, and afterward repeatedly
until the mass is cold.


POMADE PHILOCOME.

  Huile antique of cassie                            1 lb.
  Huile antique of jasmine                           1 lb.
  Huile antique of orange flower                     3½ oz.
  Huile antique of rose                              3½ oz.
  Huile antique of tuberose                          3½ oz.
  Huile antique of violet                            1 lb.
  Paraffin                                          10½ oz.
  Wax                                               14 oz.

This pomade has a delightful odor but is expensive; an inferior and
much cheaper philocome is made as follows:

  Expressed oil of almond                            8 lb.
  Paraffin                                            ½ lb.
  Wax                                               14 oz.
  Oil of bergamot                                    4¼ oz.
  Oil of lemon                                       1¾ oz.
  Oil of lavender                                     ¾ oz.
  Nutmeg                                            75 grains.
  Cloves                                            75 grains.
  Cinnamon                                          75 grains.

Pomades are usually colored—rose pomade, red; reseda pomade, green;
violet pomade, violet, etc. For this purpose aniline colors are
frequently used; they must be dissolved in glycerin and added to the
fat, as they are insoluble in the latter. The coloring matter is added
when the pomades are finished, before they are allowed to congeal.


B. Hair Oils.

These differ from pomades mainly by containing huiles antiques instead
of washed pomades; they are therefore more or less liquid and are used
for the hair as much as pomades.


BENZOATED OIL (HUILE À BENJAMIN).

  Sublimed benzoic acid    5 oz.
  Expressed oil of almond  4 lb.

The acid must be dissolved in the hot oil.


HUILE À L’ESS-BOUQUET.

  Oil of rose           150 grains.
  Oil of reseda           3½ oz.
  Oil of violet         150 grains.
  Tincture of musk       75 grains.
  Almond oil              6 lb.

The essential oils are mixed, and the almond oil is added in small
portions under continual stirring.


HELIOTROPE HAIR OIL (HUILE HÉLIOTROPE).

  Huile antique of jasmine         10½ oz.
  Huile antique of rose             2 lb.
  Huile antique of orange flower    5½ oz.
  Huile antique of tuberose         5½ oz.
  Huile antique of vanilla          1 lb.
  Oil of bitter almond            150 grains.
  Oil of clove                     75 grains.


JASMINE HAIR OIL (HUILE DE JASMIN).

  Expressed oil of almond      4 lb.
  Huile antique of jasmine.    7 oz.
  Oil of bergamot              1 oz.
  Oil of lemon               150 grains.


OIL OF SWISS HERBS.

  Expressed oil of almond    4 lb.
  Oil of bergamot          150 grains.
  Oil of lemon              75 grains.
  Oil of lavender           75 grains.
  Oil of peppermint        150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon           75 grains.


OIL OF BURDOCK ROOT.

  Expressed oil of almond         4 lb.
  Burdock root                    1 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                 1 oz.
  Oil of lemon                    1 oz.
  Oil of rose                      ¾ oz.

The burdock root is macerated for two days in the warm oil, which is
then filtered and the other ingredients are added.


MACASSAR OIL.

  Expressed oil of almond         4 lb.
  Alkanet root                    7 oz.
  Oil of clove                   75 grains.
  Oil of mace                    75 grains.
  Oil of rose                    75 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon                  ½ oz.
  Tincture of musk               75 grains.

The alkanet root in coarse powder must be macerated in the warm almond
oil until it acquires a deep red color.


PERU HAIR OIL.

  Peru balsam                    3½ oz.
  Storax                         1¾ oz.
  Expressed oil of almond        8 lb.

Mix by stirring, and allow to settle for two weeks in a completely
filled bottle.


HUILE PHILOCOME.

  Expressed oil of almond            4 lb.
  Huile antique of cassie            1 lb.
  Huile antique of jasmine          28 oz.
  Wax                                3½ oz.
  Spermaceti                         1¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                      1 oz.
  Oil of rose                      150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon                   75 grains.


PORTUGAL OIL.

  Expressed oil of almond       4 lb.
  Oil of bergamot               1 oz.
  Oil of lemon                150 grains.
  Oil of neroli                75 grains.
  Oil of orange flower         75 grains.
  Oil of orange peel             ¾ oz.
  Oil of cinnamon              75 grains.


TONKA OIL.

  Tonka beans                1 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond    4 lb.

Inclose the powdered tonka beans in a linen bag, which is hung into the
cold oil and allowed to macerate for several weeks. The same process is
employed for the following:


VANILLA OIL.

  Vanilla       7 oz.
  Almond oil    4 lb.

Or,

  Vanillin                 80 grains.
  Expressed oil of almond   4 lb.



CHAPTER XXIV.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE MOUTH.


Besides the red lips and the gums, the teeth in particular ornament
the mouth. Unfortunately there are but few persons who can boast of a
perfectly healthy set of teeth, which is found as a normal condition
only among savages and animals. The chief causes of the admitted fact
that most persons have some defect in the mouth—bad teeth, pale gums,
offensive odor—lie in part in our civilization with the ingestion of
hot and sometimes sour food, in part in the lack of attention bestowed
on the care of the mouth by many people. The care of the mouth is most
important after meals and in the morning; particles of food lodge even
between the most perfect teeth and undergo rapid decomposition in the
high temperature prevailing in the mouth. This gives rise to a most
disagreeable odor, and the decomposition quickly extends to the teeth.

Perfectly normal healthy teeth consist of a hard, brilliant external
coat, the enamel, which opposes great resistance to acid and
decomposing substances. But unfortunately the enamel is very sensitive
to changes of temperature and easily cracks, thus admitting to the bony
part of the teeth such deleterious substances and leading to their
destruction. The bulk of the tooth consists of a porous mass of bone
which is easily destroyed, and thus the entire set may be lost.

Hygienic perfumery is able to offer to the public means by which a
healthy set of teeth can be kept in good condition and the disease
arrested in affected teeth, and by which an agreeable freshness is
imparted to the gums and lips. While true perfumes may be looked upon
as more or less of a luxury, the hygiene of the mouth is a necessity;
for we have to deal with the health and preservation of the important
masticatory apparatus which is necessary to the welfare of the whole
body, so that the æsthetic factor occupies a secondary position, or
rather results as a necessary consequence from a proper care of the
mouth.

With no other hygienic article have so many sins been committed as with
those intended for the teeth; we have had occasion to examine a number
of tooth powders, some of them very high-priced, which were decidedly
injurious. Thus we have known of cases in which powdered pumice stone,
colored and perfumed, has been sold as a tooth powder. Pumice stone,
however, resembles glass in its composition and acts on the teeth
like a fine file which rapidly wears away the enamel and exposes the
frail bony substance. It needs no further explanation to prove the
destructive effects of such a powder on the teeth.

Many person prize finely powdered wood charcoal as a tooth powder, and
to some extent they are right. Wood charcoal always contains alkalies
which neutralize the injurious acids, besides traces of products of dry
distillation which prevent decomposition. But these valuable properties
are counteracted by the fact that charcoal is always more or less
gritty, or, being insoluble, will lodge between the teeth and form the
nucleus for the lodgement of other substances.

In compounding articles for the mouth and teeth—tooth powders and mouth
washes—the objects aimed at are to neutralize the chemical processes
that injure the teeth and gums, and to restore freshness and resisting
power to the relaxed gums and mucous membranes.

Remnants of food left in the mouth after meals soon develop acids which
attack the teeth; they are neutralized by basic substances or alkalies
which counteract them.

The formation of organic acids from food remnants is caused by
microscopic fungi (schizomycetes) which adhere to the teeth (so-called
tartar) in the absence of cleanliness; against these parasites there
are at our disposal a number of substances which kill them rapidly and
thus for a time arrest the process of decomposition; they are therefore
called antiseptics.

Another group of ingredients acts especially on such abnormal
conditions of the membranous and fleshy parts of the mouth as manifest
themselves by colorless, easily bleeding gums. It is mainly compounds
of the tannin group which strengthen the gums and are known as
astringents.

In compounding articles for the teeth it has thus far unfortunately
not been customary to combine several of the substances having the
above properties, the general rule being to incorporate only one in the
composition, and some so-called tooth lotions consist even of aromatics
alone. Such articles perfume the mouth, but have no hygienic effect
upon it.

Among the essential oils, however, there is one which should form a
part of every article intended for the care of the mouth, provided it
can remain unchanged in the presence of the other ingredients, which
would not be the case where permanganate of potassium is used. Oil of
peppermint and other mint oils exert a very refreshing influence on
the mucous membranes of the mouth, in which they leave a sensation of
freshness lasting for some time.

We give below a number of formulas for the manufacture of articles for
the care of the mouth, as to the value of which the reader can form
his own opinion from what has been stated. Finally it may be observed
that several of the so-called secret preparations for the care of the
mouth are arrant humbugs, worthless substances being sold at exorbitant
prices and, worse yet, lacking the vaunted hygienic effect owing to
their chemical composition.

The articles for the care of the mouth and teeth may be divided into
tooth pastes, tooth powders, tooth tinctures or lotions, and mouth
washes.


A. Tooth Pastes.

TOOTH SOAP (SAVON DENTIFRICE).

  Soap                               2 lb.
  Talcum                             2 lb.
  Orris root                         2 lb.
  Sugar                              1 lb.
  Water                              1 lb.
  Oil of clove                       150 grains.
  Oil of peppermint                   ¾ oz.

The soap should be good, well-boiled tallow soap; it is mixed with
the other ingredients (the sugar is to be previously dissolved in
the water) by thorough and prolonged stirring, and is usually sold in
shallow porcelain boxes. The talcum or French chalk is a soft mineral
with a fatty feel and is a common commercial article.

This tooth soap and other similar preparations for the care of the
mouth are frequently colored rose red. Of course only harmless colors
can be used. The most appropriate are rose madder lake and carmine.


TOOTH PASTE (PÂTE DENTIFRICE).

  Prepared chalk                     2 lb.
  Orris root                         2 lb.
  Sugar                              2 lb.
  Water                              1 lb.
  Madder lake                         ¾ to 1½ oz.
  Oil of lavender                  150 grains.
  Oil of mace                      150 grains.
  Oil of clove                     150 grains.
  Oil of peppermint                  1 oz.
  Oil of rose                      150 grains.

The prepared chalk used in this and many other articles is pure
_precipitated_ carbonate of lime. It is made from pieces of white
marble, the offal from sculptors’ workshops, which are placed in wide
porcelain or glass vessels and covered with hydrochloric acid, when
abundant vapors of carbonic acid are given off. When the development
of carbonic acid has ceased, the liquid is allowed to stand at rest
for several days with an excess of marble, whereby all the iron oxide
is separated. This is necessary, otherwise the preparation would not
be white, but yellowish. The liquid is filtered and treated with a
solution of carbonate of soda (sal soda), in water as long as any white
precipitate results. This precipitate is washed with pure water on a
filter, and when slowly dried it forms a fine, brilliant white powder.
Crystalline calcium chloride may also be purchased, dissolved in water,
and treated with the soda solution to obtain the white precipitate.
The quantity of madder lake in the above formula is given within the
limits to form light or dark red tooth paste.


B. Tooth Powders.

QUININE TOOTH POWDER.

  Prepared chalk          2 lb.
  Starch flour            1 lb.
  Orris root, powdered    1 lb.
  Sulphate of quinine       ¾ oz.
  Oil of peppermint     150 grains.


CINCHONA BARK TOOTH POWDER.

  Cinchona bark, powdered  1 lb.
  Prepared chalk           2 lb.
  Myrrh, powdered          1 lb.
  Orris root, powdered     2 lb.
  Cinnamon, powdered       1 lb.
  Carbonate of ammonia     2 lb.
  Oil of clove               ¾ oz.


BORATED TOOTH POWDER.

  Borax, powered        1 lb.
  Prepared chalk        2 lb.
  Myrrh, powdered        ½ lb.
  Orris root, powdered   ½ lb.
  Cinnamon, powdered     ½ lb.


HOMŒOPATHIC CHALK TOOTH POWDER.

  Prepared chalk        4 lb.
  Starch flour          5½ oz.
  Orris root, powdered   ½ lb.
  Oil of cinnamon       1 oz.


CAMPHORATED CHALK TOOTH POWDER.

  Prepared chalk        4 lb.
  Camphor               1 lb.
  Orris root, powdered  2 lb.
  Cinnamon, powdered     ½ lb.


CHARCOAL TOOTH POWDER.

  Charcoal, powdered      4 lb.
  Cinchona bark, powered  1 lb.
  Oil of bergamot          ½ oz.
  Oil of lemon            1 oz.

The charcoal must be derived from some soft wood; willow, poplar, or
buckthorn are among the most appropriate.


CUTTLEFISH-BONE TOOTH POWDER.

  Prepared chalk                4 lb.
  Cuttlefish-bone, powdered     2 lb.
  Orris root, powdered          2 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                  1½ oz.
  Oil of neroli               150 grains.
  Oil of orange                  ¾ oz.


CACHOUS AROMATISÉES.

Cachous are of a pillular composition, and used not so much for the
teeth as to impart fragrance to the breath.

They are made as follows:

  Gum acacia              1½ oz.
  Catechu, powdered       2¾ oz.
  Licorice juice          1¼ lb.
  Cascarilla, powdered     ¾ oz.
  Mastic, powdered         ¾ oz.
  Orris root, powdered     ¾ oz.
  Oil of clove           75 grains.
  Oil of peppermint        ½ oz.
  Tincture of ambergris  75 grains.
  Tincture of musk.      75 grains.

Boil the solids with water until a pasty mass results which becomes
firm on cooling. The aromatics are then added, and the mass is rolled
into pills which are covered with genuine silver foil. One of these
pills suffices to remove the odor of tobacco, etc., completely from the
mouth.


PASTILLES ORIENTALES.

  Sugar             8 lb.
  Carmine          75 grains.
  Gum acacia        2 lb.
  Musk             15 grains.
  Oil of rose      75 grains.
  Oil of vetiver   15 grains.
  Civet            15 grains.
  Tartaric acid   150 grains.

Add the essential oils to the powdered solids, mix intimately, and add
enough water to form a stiff dough, to be made into pills which when
chewed remove the odor of tobacco or other unpleasant odors.


Rose Tooth Powder.

  Prepared chalk          4 lb.
  Orris root, powdered    2 lb.
  Madder lake             1¾ to 2½ oz.
  Oil of rose              ½ oz.
  Oil of santal         150 grains.


SUGAR TOOTH POWDER.

  Bone-ash               4 lb.
  Orris root, powdered   4 lb.
  Sugar, powdered        2 lb.
  Oil of bergamot         ¾ oz.
  Oil of citron           ½ oz.
  Oil of mace           75 grains.
  Oil of neroli         75 grains.
  Oil of orange        150 grains.
  Oil of rosemary         ¾ oz.


CHINESE TOOTH POWDER.

  Pumice stone       4 lb.
  Starch flour.      1 lb.
  Madder lake        1¾ oz.
  Oil of peppermint   ¾ oz.

The pumice stone must be ground into the _finest_ powder and levigated,
before being mixed with the other ingredients. Note our remarks on
pumice stone on page 258.


C. Tooth Tinctures (Lotions) and Mouth Washes (Essences Dentifrices).


EAU ANATHÉRINE.

  Guaiac wood       3½ oz.
  Myrrh             8 oz.
  Cloves            5½ oz.
  Santal wood       5½ oz.
  Cinnamon          1¾ oz.
  Alcohol           4 qts.
  Rose water        2 qts.
  Oil of mace.     75 grains.
  Oil of rose      75 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon  75 grains.

The solids are macerated in the alcohol, the essential oils are
dissolved in the filtered liquid, and lastly the rose water is added.


EAU DE BOTOT.

This tooth tincture, which is quite a favorite, is made in different
ways; the compositions made according to the French and English
formulas are considered the best. For this and many other tooth
tinctures rhatany root is also frequently used. Rhatany root is derived
from Krameria triandra, a South American plant. Its alcoholic tincture
has a red color.


A. FRENCH FORMULA.

  Anise               10 oz.
  Cochineal             ¾ oz.
  Mace               150 grains.
  Cloves.            150 grains.
  Cinnamon             2¾ oz.
  Alcohol              3 qts.
  Oil of peppermint     ¾ oz.


B. ENGLISH FORMULA.

  Tincture of cedar      4 qts.
  Tincture of myrrh      1 qt.
  Tincture of rhatany    1 qt.
  Oil of lavender         ¾ oz.
  Oil of peppermint      1 oz.
  Oil of rose          150 grains.


BORATED TOOTH TINCTURE.

  Borax            5½ oz.
  Myrrh            5½ oz.
  Red santal wood  5½ oz.
  Sugar            5½ oz.
  Cologne water    1 qt.
  Alcohol          3 qts.
  Water            3 pints.

Macerate the myrrh and santal wood in the alcohol, then add the Cologne
water, and lastly the sugar and borax dissolved in the water.


CAMPHORATED COLOGNE WATER.

  Camphor        1 lb.
  Cologne water  4 qts.

Cologne water with myrrh is made in the same way, by substituting a
like weight of myrrh for the camphor.


EAU DE MILAN.

  Kino                 3½ oz.
  Civet               75 grains.
  Cinnamon              ¾ oz.
  Alcohol              5 qts.
  Oil of bergamot    150 grains.
  Oil of lemon       150 grains.
  Oil of peppermint     ¾ oz.

Kino contains an astringent, a variety of tannin, and forms a dark red
solution with alcohol.


EAU DE MIALHE.

  Tincture of benzoin     ¾ oz.
  Tincture of tolu        ¾ oz.
  Tincture of vanilla  150 grains.
  Kino                   5½ oz.
  Alcohol                5 qts.
  Oil of anise.         75 grains.
  Oil of peppermint       ¾ oz.
  Oil of star-anise     75 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon      150 grains.


MYRRH TOOTH TINCTURE.

  Mace           1¾ oz.
  Myrrh.         8 oz.
  Cloves         8 oz.
  Rhatany root.  8 oz.
  Alcohol        5 qts.


CHLORAL MOUTH WASH.

  Chloral hydrate   1 oz.
  Water            10 oz.

A small quantity of this, rinsed about the mouth, removes every trace
of bad odor.


POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE WATER.

  Potassium permanganate  3½ oz.
  Distilled water         5 qts.

Potassium permanganate easily dissolves in distilled water and forms a
beautiful violet solution, a few drops of which are placed in a glass
of water for use. This salt is one of the most valuable articles for
the teeth; it has the property of readily giving off oxygen to organic
substances and hence immediately destroys all odor in the mouth by
oxidizing the organic bodies; it also removes at once the odor of
tobacco smoke. After rinsing the mouth with this solution, it is well
to use some peppermint water for polishing the teeth. This mouth wash
leaves brown stains on linen and other materials as well as on the
skin; such spots can only be removed with acids (hydrochloric, oxalic,
etc.).


SALICYLATED TOOTH TINCTURE.

  Salicylic acid        1¾ oz.
  Orange-flower water  30 grains.
  Water                 2 qts.
  Alcohol               1 qt.
  Oil of peppermint    30 grains.

Salicylic acid is a substance possessing strong antiseptic properties;
therefore, when this mouth wash is used after meals, the occurrence of
any bad odor, even in persons with defective teeth, is prevented and
the progress of caries is arrested, so that the acid may be considered
one of the most valuable substances in hygienic perfumery.

Dissolve the salicylic acid in the warm alcohol mixed with water; add
to the still warm solution the orange-flower water and the oil of
peppermint dissolved in some of the alcohol.


EAU DE SALVIA.

  Oil of lemon.   ¾ oz.
  Oil of sage    1¾ oz.
  Alcohol        1 qt.
  Water          4 qts.

The essential oils are dissolved in the alcohol, and this solution
mixed with the water.


EAU DE VIOLETTES.

  Tincture of orris root  1 qt.
  Rose water, triple      1 qt.
  Alcohol                 1 qt.
  Oil of bitter almond   75 grains.
  Oil of neroli          30 grains.



CHAPTER XXV.

COSMETIC PERFUMERY.


In cosmetic perfumery, use is made chiefly of articles which serve to
beautify some parts of the body by artificial means; for instance, to
impart to pale cheeks a youthful freshness or to restore to prematurely
gray hair its original appearance. In so far as the former object is
attained also by the preparations discussed in Chapters XXI., XXII.,
XXIII., and XXIV., they likewise belong to the domain of cosmetic
perfumery; for health and beauty are inseparably connected.

Though we have separated hygienic from cosmetic perfumery, we have done
so only in order to draw the line between preparations whose regular
use really improves the bodily health, and those which temporarily
cover a defect of certain parts of the body.

Cosmetics may also be divided into several groups—those for beautifying
the skin, as paints and toilet powders; and those for the care of the
hair. The latter are subdivided into hair washes, hair dyes, so-called
hair tonics, depilatories, and preparations for dressing the hair,
_i.e._, for making it glossy and fixing it.



CHAPTER XXVI.

SKIN COSMETICS AND FACE LOTIONS.


The use of skin cosmetics and paints is of remote antiquity, but varies
in different nations according to their civilization and their sense
of beauty. While among certain Oriental nations dark blue rings around
the eyes, with yellow lips and nails, pass for beautiful, the European
prizes only a white skin with a delicate tinge of red; Italian ladies
in the middle ages used the dark red juice of the fruit of the deadly
night-shade as a paint, hence the name bella donna, _i.e._, beautiful
lady. (According to Matthiolus, the name _herba bella donna_ arose
from the fact that Italian ladies used a distilled water of the plant
as a cosmetic.) Owing to its marked effect on the eyes, by dilating
the pupil and increasing the lustre, this juice also heightens the
brilliancy of the eye, though at the expense of its health.

While in the last century face-painting was a universal fashion, it
is nowadays resorted to only by persons whose skin requires some
artificial help. But nobody desires that the cosmetic should be
perceptible on the skin. Hence it must be laid down as a rule that
paints and all cosmetics should be so compounded that it is not easily
possible to the observer to recognize that some artificial means has
been employed for beautifying the skin.

We give below a number of such articles, which come as near as possible
to this ideal without injuring the skin. As every skin cosmetic cannot
but occlude the pores of the skin, it should be removed as soon as
possible—an advice to be heeded particularly by actors and actresses,
who must appear painted on the boards.


A. White Skin Cosmetics.

FRENCH WHITE (BLANC FRANÇAIS).

  Talcum            4 lb.
  Oil of lemon     75 grains.
  Oil of bergamot  75 grains.

The talcum must be reduced to the finest powder, levigated, dried, and
then perfumed. Owing to its unctuous nature, it readily adheres to the
skin, and as it has no effect on it and does not change color, it is
the best of all powders.


LIQUID BISMUTH WHITE; PEARL WHITE (BLANC PERLÉ LIQUIDE).

  Subnitrate of bismuth  1 lb.
  Rose water             1 qt.
  Orange-flower water    1 qt.

When standing at rest, the subnitrate of bismuth sinks to the bottom,
while the supernatant fluid becomes quite clear. The bottle must
therefore be vigorously shaken immediately before use. When this
preparation remains on the skin for some length of time, it loses its
pure white color and becomes yellow, or darker, through the gradual
formation of a black sulphur compound.


VENETIAN CHALK (CRAIE VENÉTIENNE).

is made exactly like the French white, above; the only difference
between the two preparations is that the talcum for the latter is
brought to a red heat, which, however, causes it in part to lose the
power of adhering to the skin.


B. Red Skin Cosmetics (Rouges).

ROUGE VÉGETAL ROSE LIQUIDE.

  Ammonia water             2 oz.
  Carmine                   1¼ oz.
  Essence of rose (triple)  2½ oz.
  Rose water                2 qts.

This superior preparation, which serves mainly for coloring the lips,
is made as follows: Reduce the carmine to powder; macerate it in the
ammonia in a three or four pint bottle for several days, add the other
ingredients, and let it stand for a week under oft-repeated agitation.
At the end of that time the bottle is left undisturbed until the
contents have become quite clear, when they are carefully decanted and
filled into bottles for sale.

In order to obtain this preparation in proper form, only the finest
carmine should be used. That known in the market as “No. 40” is the
best. This alone will produce a cosmetic that, when brought in contact
with the skin, will give a vivid red color.

In place of carmine, which requires the presence of ammonia if it is
to remain in solution, the anilin color known as _eosine_ may be used.
Of this, very minute amounts will be sufficient to impart the proper
tint. It is impracticable to give exact proportions, as these must be
determined in each case by experiment. It is necessary to avoid an
excess. The tint of a liquid colored by eosine may not appear deep, and
yet when it is applied to the skin a decidedly deeper stain than was
desired may be produced. Hence each addition of fresh coloring matter
must be carefully controlled by a practical test.


ROUGE EN FEUILLES.

Cut from thick, highly calendered paper circular disks about 2½ inches
in diameter, and cover them with a layer of carmine containing just
enough gum acacia to make it adhere to the paper. For use, the leaf
is breathed on, a pledget of fine cotton is rubbed over it, and the
adhering color is transferred to the skin.


ROUGE EN PÂTE.

  Carmine      1 oz.
  Talcum      21 oz.
  Gum acacia   1¾ oz.

The ingredients in finest powder are mixed in a mortar by prolonged
trituration, then water is added in small portions to form a doughy
mass to be filled into shallow porcelain dishes about the diameter
of a dollar. If the rouge is desired darker for the use of actors
and dark-complexioned persons, the proportion of carmine should be
increased.


ROUGE EN TASSES.

  Carthamin       1 oz.
  Talcum powder   1 lb.
  Gum acacia      1½ oz.
  Oil of rose    15 grains.

This rouge, when dry, has a greenish metallic lustre; it is prepared
and sold like rouge en pâte.


BLEU VÉGETAL POUR LES VEINES.

  Venetian chalk  1 lb.
  Berlin blue     1¾ oz.
  Gum acacia      1 oz.

To the powdered solids add sufficient water to form a mass to be rolled
into sticks. For use, a pencil is breathed on, rubbed against the rough
side of a piece of white glove leather, and the veins are marked with
the adhering color on the skin coated with pearl white. Of course, some
dexterity is required to make the veins appear natural by the use of
this blue color.


ROUGE ALLOXANE (ALLOXAN RED; MUREXIDE PAINT).

  Cold cream   1 lb.
  Alloxan     75 grains.

Dissolve the alloxan in a little water and mix it intimately with any
desired cold-cream. The mixture is white, but when transferred to the
skin gradually becomes red. The preparation sold in Austria, etc.,
under the name of “Schnuda” is identical with this alloxan paint.


C. Face Lotions.

The skin often contains spots with marked color which are more or
less unsightly; for instance, freckles, liver spots, mother’s marks
(nævi), etc. Unfortunately we know of no remedy which radically removes
them; even chemical preparations with the most energetic effects,
which of course must never be employed owing to their destructive
action on the skin, cannot entirely do away with these dark spots
which have their seat in the lower layers of the skin. But the public
demands preparations for the removal of freckles, liver spots, etc.,
and—obtains them. We subjoin the formulas for several of such secret
remedies, but declare emphatically that none of them will completely
effect the desired result.


FRECKLE MILK (LAIT ANTÉPHELIQUE).

  Camphor                1¾ oz.
  Ammonium chloride        ¾ oz.
  Corrosive sublimate  150 grains.
  Albumen                3½ oz.
  Rose water             2 lb.

We call attention to the fact that the sublimate (bichloride of
mercury) is very poisonous and must be used with the greatest care.


FRECKLE LOTION.

  Angelica root           1¾ oz.
  Black hellebore root    1¾ oz.
  Storax                   ¾ oz.
  Oil of bergamot       150 grains.
  Oil of citron         150 grains.
  Alcohol                 2 qts.

Macerate for a week and filter.


EAU LENTICULEUSE.

  Potassium carbonate  7 oz.
  Sugar                  ¾ oz.
  Orange-flower water  2 qts.
  Alcohol              7 oz.


LILIONESE I.

  Potassium carbonate   14 oz.
  Water                  4 lb.
  Rose water            14 oz.
  Alcohol                7 oz.
  Oil of rose          150 grains.
  Oil of cinnamon       75 grains.


LILIONESE II.

  Rose water           2 qts.
  Orange-flower water  1 qt.
  Glycerin             1 lb.
  Potassium carbonate  3½ oz.
  Tincture of benzoin   ¾ to 1¾ oz.

Add only enough of the alcoholic tincture of benzoin to render the
liquid slightly opalescent or milky.


LOTION FOR CHAPPED SKIN.

  Glycerin    4 lb.
  Water       1 qt.
  Rose water  1 qt.

Color pale red with cochineal.


EAU DE PERLES.

  White soap                1 lb.
  Dissolved in: Water       4 qts.
                Glycerin    2 lb.
  Add: Rose water           1 qt.
       Tincture of musk   150 grains.

To be colored bluish with some indigo-carmin.


TEINT DE VENUS.

  Alcoholic soap solution   2 qts.
  Carbonate of potassium    3½ oz.
  Extract of orange flower  3½ oz.

The soap solution is made as concentrated as possible, and the entire
fluid colored with cochineal; in place of the extract of orange flower,
other essences or extracts may also be employed. For use, some of the
liquid is poured into the wash water.


PULCHÉRINE.

  Carbonate of potassium   14 oz.
  Water                     4 lb.
  Orange-flower water       2 lb.
  Alcohol                   3½ oz.
  Oil of neroli           150 grains.
  Tincture of vanilla        ¾ oz.

The preceding preparations owe their activity merely to the presence of
carbonate of potassium which forms an emulsion with the fat of the skin
and thus resembles in its effects a mild soap. The other ingredients
only serve to render the composition fragrant.


D. Toilet Powders.

Toilet powders are used to impart whiteness and smoothness to the skin;
hence they are merely a kind of dry cosmetic which are applied by means
of a powder puff or a hare’s foot. Their main ingredients are starch
and talcum powders, perfumed and sometimes tinted a rose-red color.
It is immaterial what kind of starch is used; rice, wheat, and potato
starch are equally effective, provided they are clear white and in the
finest powder. In some cases the bitter-almond bran remaining after the
expression of the fixed oil and the preparation of the oil of bitter
almond is likewise used for toilet powders. The more thoroughly these
powders are rubbed into the skin, the whiter the latter becomes and the
less easily can they be detected.


WHITE TOILET POWDER.

  Fine levigated zinc white   1¾ oz.
  Venetian talcum             1¾ oz.
  Carbonate of magnesia       1¾ oz.
  Oil of rose                20 drops.
  Oil of orris               20 drops.

Mix intimately.


PINK TOILET POWDER.

  White toilet powder (see above)  5½ oz.
  Carmine                          8 grains.


POUDRE DE PISTACHES.

  Pistachio meal   10 lb.
  Talcum           10 lb.
  Oil of lavender    ¾ oz.
  Oil of rose        ½ oz.
  Oil of cinnamon  75 grains.

The oil must have been completely extracted from the pistachio meal,
which is to be reduced to the finest powder.


POUDRE À LA ROSE.

  Starch powder      20 lb.
  Carmine              ¾ oz.
  Oil of rose          ½ oz.
  Oil of santal        ½ oz.
  Oil of vetiver    150 grains.


POUDRE À LA VIOLETTE.

  Starch powder                20 lb.
  Orris root, in fine powder   10 lb.
  Oil of bergamot                ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon                   ¾ oz.
  Oil of clove                150 grains.
  Oil of neroli               150 grains.


POUDRE BLANCHE SURFINE (POUDRE DE RIZ).

  Starch powder           20 lb.
  Subnitrate of bismuth    2 lb.
  Oil of lemon              ¾ oz.
  Oil of rose            150 grains.


BLANC DE PERLES SEC (DRY PEARL WHITE).

  Venetian chalk         20 lb.
  Subnitrate of bismuth  42 oz.
  Zinc white             42 oz.
  Oil of lemon            1½ oz.


ANTI-ODORIN.

  Starch powder     1 lb.
  Salicylic acid  150 grains.

This mixture, which is best left unperfumed, does excellent service
when used to prevent an offensive odor in stockings or shoes. The
inside of the stockings is dusted with the powder, and every week a
teaspoonful is sprinkled into the shoes.


SKIN GLOSS.

  Carbonate of potassium    1¾ oz.
  Powdered spermaceti       1¾ oz.
  Starch powder             1 lb.
  Benzoin                    ¾ oz.
  Oil of bitter almond    150 grains.

Mix intimately and preserve in well-closed boxes. For use, stir some
into water.


KALODERM.

  Wheat flour                 4 lb.
  Almond bran                 1 lb.
  Orris root, in fine powder  1 lb.
  Extract of rose             1 pint.
  Glycerin                    6 fl. oz.

Form into a dough which is thinned with water and painted on the skin.


MUSK PASTE (FOR WASHING THE HANDS).

  Powdered white soap            2 lb.
  Orris root, in fine powder      ½ lb.
  Starch powder                  1½ oz.
  Oil of lemon                    ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli                150 grains.
  Tincture of musk               1½ fl. oz.
  Glycerin                      12 fl. oz.

Rub the starch with the glycerin in a mortar until they are thoroughly
mixed. Then transfer the mixture to a porcelain capsule and apply a
heat gradually raised to 284° F. (and not exceeding 290° F.), stirring
constantly, until the starch granules are completely dissolved, and a
translucent jelly is formed. Then gradually incorporate with it the
powdered soap and orris root, and lastly the oils and tincture.



CHAPTER XXVII.

HAIR COSMETICS.


The number of preparations used for the care of the hair and beard is
considerable. Unfortunately we are forced to admit that the majority of
them, especially those said to strengthen the scalp and to stimulate
the growth of the hair, are utterly inert. Thus far we know too little
of the natural conditions of growth of the hair to enable us to
compound remedies which would actively aid the efforts of nature in
this direction.

In like manner we cannot speak with approval of the preparations used
to color the hair, either from a chemico-sanitary or from an æsthetic
standpoint; many of them contain substances which positively injure
the hair or impart to it an unnatural color which is detected at first
sight. But a well-made cosmetic should never produce this effect, and
nature must be faithfully imitated if the preparation is to deserve the
name of a cosmetic.

With the so-called hair and beard elixirs almost incredible swindles
are perpetrated; the practical perfumer, however, cannot advise against
the use of such worthless preparations among his goods, as they are
in daily demand. This is the reason why we furnish the formulas for
some of these secret preparations; anybody at all familiar with
the principles of chemistry and physiology will recognize their
worthlessness from their composition. The only articles of practical
value are those intended for cleansing the hair, for making it soft and
glossy, some of the hair dyes, and the preparations for fixing the hair
in certain positions.


A. Hair Washes.


EAU D’ATHÈNES.

  Carbonate of potassium  2½ oz.
  Sassafras wood          8 oz.
  Rose water              4 qts.
  Orange-flower water     4 qts.
  Alcohol                 1 qt.

Macerate the ingredients for one month. The carbonate of potassium
and the alcohol cleanse the hair and remove the fat. After using this
wash and drying the hair, its fat and gloss should be restored by the
application of a good pomade or hair oil.


EAU GLYCERINÉE AUX CANTHARIDES.

  Ammonia water                         3½ oz.
  Tincture of cantharides (see below)   3½ oz.
  Rosemary water                        8 qts.
  Glycerin                             10½ oz.
  Oil of rose                            ¾ oz.

The tincture of cantharides is made by macerating 1¾ oz. of powdered
Spanish flies (Lytta vesicatoria) in one quart of strong alcohol. The
caustic ammonia has a similar cleansing effect as the carbonate of
potassium; the glycerin makes the hair soft; the entire preparation is
a happy combination, as it cleanses and softens the hair at the same
time.


EAU DE FLEURS; EXTRAIT VÉGÉTAL.

  Extract of cassie         7 oz.
  Extract of jasmine        7 oz.
  Extract of orange flower  7 oz.
  Tincture of tonka         3½ oz.
  Extract of tuberose       7 oz.
  Tincture of vanilla       3½ oz.
  Rose water                2 qts.
  Alcohol                   2 qts.


EAU DE LAURIER.

  Carbonate of ammonium.   5½ oz.
  Borax                    5½ oz.
  Oil of sweet bay          ½ oz.
  Oil of rose             75 grains.
  Rose water               5 qts.


EAU DE ROMARIN.

  Carbonate of potassium    1¾ oz.
  Rosemary water            4 qts.
  Essence of rose (triple)  1 qt.


EAU SAPONIQUE.

  Rose water           5 qts.
  Rondeletia perfume  10½ oz.
  Saffron             75 grains.
  Soap                 1 oz.
  Alcohol             10½ oz.

Boil the finely divided soap and the saffron with some distilled water
until the soap is completely dissolved, add the other ingredients, mix
intimately, and let stand for some days to allow the coarser particles
of saffron to settle. This preparation has a particularly handsome
appearance; in cut-glass bottles it shows a peculiar opalescence or
iridescence; in transmitted light it represents an almost perfectly
transparent, saffron-yellow liquid.


EAU VICTORIA.

  Ammonia water             1 oz.
  Expressed oil of almond   1 oz.
  Oil of mace              75 grains.
  Oil of nutmeg            75 grains.
  Essence of rosemary      21 oz.
  Rose water                4 lb.

Mix the ingredients, except the rose water, by vigorous agitation until
a kind of emulsion results. Then add the rose water in small portions,
shaking after each addition.


EAU DE ROSES.

    Rose water               5 qts.
    Oil of rose             75 grains.
  Dissolve in
    Alcohol                  3½ oz.
  And add
    Tincture of vanilla      1¾ oz.
    Tincture of civet      150 grains.


B. Hair Tonics.


HAIR RESTORER.

  Tincture of cantharides (see above, page 281)    1¾ oz.
  Tincture of nut-galls                            1¾ oz.
  Extract of musk                                150 grains.
  Carmine                                         75 grains.
  Alcohol                                          3½ oz.
  Rose water                                       1 qt.

Tincture of nut-galls is made by macerating 3½ oz. of powdered
nut-galls in one quart of alcohol. The tincture of cinchona in the
following formula is prepared in the same manner.


TANNO-QUININE HAIR RESTORER.

  Tincture of cinchona     1¾ oz.
  Tincture of nut-galls    1¾ oz.
  Carmine                150 grains.
  Oil of neroli           75 grains.
  Oil of nutmeg           75 grains.
  Alcohol                  3½ oz.
  Rose water               1 qt.
  Orange-flower water      1 qt.


BAUME DE MILAN POUR LES CHEVEUX.

  Lard                       1 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond    1 lb.
  Spermaceti                 1¾ oz.
  Carmine                  150 grains.
  Tincture of cantharides     ¾ oz.
  Tincture of storax         1 oz.
  Tincture of tolu           1 oz.


BEARD PRODUCER.

  Lard                       1 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond    1 lb.
  Spermaceti                  ¾ oz.
  Cantharides                 ¾ oz.
  Carmine                  150 grains.
  Oil of bergamot           75 grains.
  Oil of lavender           75 grains.
  Oil of santal             75 grains.

Rub the cantharides with the carmine to the finest possible powder; add
this with the essential oils to the other ingredients.

Formulas for similar hair tonics might be given to the number of
several hundreds; but we repeat what we have said above—they do not
produce the desired result.

While the well-known bay rum is used more as a face lotion or
refreshing skin tonic, particularly after shaving, or when perspiring
in hot weather, yet it is also often used as a wash for the scalp,
and is popularly believed to stimulate the growth of hair, which is
in reality not the case. We shall therefore give a formula for its
preparation here:


BAY RUM.

  Oil of bay (from Myrcia acris)  240 grains.
  Oil of orange (bigarade)         16 grains.
  Oil of Pimenta                   16 grains.
  Alcohol                           1 qt.
  Water                            25 fl. oz.

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and add the water. Mix the liquid with
about 2 oz. of precipitated phosphate of lime, and filter. It will
improve by age.

Genuine bay rum is imported from the West Indies (St. Thomas, etc.),
where a crude kind of alcohol, obtained in connection with the
manufacture of rum from molasses, is distilled with the fresh leaves
of the bay-tree (Myrcia acris). The oil of bay obtained from this must
not be confounded with the oil of sweet bay. The latter, as it appears
in commerce, is a crude mixture of a fixed with a volatile oil.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

HAIR DYES AND DEPILATORIES.


The custom of dyeing the hair is universal in the Orient; in the
Occident, however, hair dyes are also frequently used, namely, to hide
the grayness of the hair, sometimes to give the hair a preferred color.
Hair dyes, which are very numerous, may be divided into groups—those
containing the dye-stuff ready formed, and those in which it is
produced in the hair by some chemical process. Some hair dyes contain
substances which in their nature are decidedly injurious to the hair;
such articles, of course, must be dispensed with because, if frequently
employed, they would certainly lead to baldness. We shall return to
this subject in connection with the several preparations.

Regarding the use of hair dyes, especially those consisting of two
separate portions, we may state that it is necessary to remove the fat
from the hair before applying the dye, as the chemicals in question do
not adhere well to fat. The hair should be thoroughly washed once or
twice with soap, and dyed when nearly dry.

When dyeing the hair the preparations should first be diluted; if the
color is not deep enough, the process is repeated. If the preparation
is used at once in a concentrated form, a color may result which has no
resemblance to any natural tint; hair meant to be black may assume a
metallic bluish-black gloss.


A. Simple Hair Dyes.


LEAD HAIR DYE.

  Oxide of lead      4 lb.
  Quicklime          1 lb.
  Calcined magnesia  1 lb.

The ingredients are rubbed to a very fine powder and for use are mixed
with water, applied to the hair, and left there until the desired
tint—light brown to black—is obtained, from four to twelve hours, when
the powder is removed by washing. The lime by its caustic effect acts
destructively on the horny substance of the hair. Moreover, _all lead
preparations_ without exception are _very injurious_ to the organism;
hence this hair dye is to be rejected, especially as there are harmless
preparations which produce the same effect.


KARSI (TEINTURE ORIENTALE).

  Ambergris       75 grains.
  Nut-galls        4 lb.
  Iron filings     1¾ oz.
  Copper filings  30 grains.
  Musk            30 grains.

This preparation, which really comes from the Orient, is made as
follows: Reduce the nut-galls to a very fine powder and roast them
in an iron pan under continual stirring until they have become dark
brown or almost black. This powder is triturated with the metals in
fine powder and the aromatics, and preserved in a moist place. For
use, some of the powder is moistened in the palm of the hand and
vigorously rubbed into the hair; after a few days it assumes a deep
black, natural color. The roasting changes the tannin bodies contained
in the galls into gallic and pyrogallic acids which form deep black
combinations with the metals, and themselves are easily transformed
into brownish-black substances.


KOHOL (TEINTURE CHINOISE).

  Gum arabic  1 oz.
  India ink   1¾ oz.
  Rose water  1 qt.

Powder the ink and the gum, and triturate small quantities of the
powder with rose water until a uniform black liquid results, which must
be free from granules. This liquid is placed in a bottle and the rest
of the rose water added. Kohol can be used only by persons with black
hair, and is employed particularly for dyeing the eyebrows. As the
coloring matter of this preparation consists of carbon in a state of
fine division, the dye is perfectly harmless.


VEGETABLE DYE.

  Silver nitrate   2 oz.
  Distilled water  1 qt.

This hair dye produces a deep black color, but cannot be recommended,
as it is injurious to the hair. Its full effects appear only after the
lapse of some hours.


POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE.

  Potassium permanganate  5½ oz.
  Distilled water         2 qts.

Crystalline potassium permanganate is soluble in water, forming
a dark violet solution. When brought in contact with an organic
substance—paper, linen, skin, horn, hair—it is rapidly decolored and
imparts to the substances named a brown tint due to hydrated oxide of
manganese. The hair is washed, as stated above, to remove the fat, and
the dilute solution applied with a soft brush; the color is produced at
once and according to the degree of dilution this innocuous preparation
can be made to give any desired color from blond to very dark brown.
Of course, this preparation can be used for the beard as well as the
hair.

All the hair dyes here and elsewhere given stain the skin as well
wherever they come in contact with it; hence care should be taken to
protect the skin during their application.


B. Double Hair Dyes.


SILVER HAIR DYES.

This and similar hair dyes consist of two preparations, preserved in
bottles I. and II.; the latter, containing the silver solution, should
be of dark amber-colored or black glass, as the silver salts are
decomposed by light. It is utterly useless to employ blue glass for
this purpose, as this admits the chemical rays of light as easily as
flint glass. For use, some of the liquid from bottle I. is poured into
a cup and the hair is moistened with it by means of a soft brush. The
liquid from bottle II. is poured into a second cup and applied with
another brush.


BROWN DYE.

I. (_In White Bottle._)

  Sulphide of potassium  7 oz.
  Alcohol                1 qt.


II. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   4¼ oz.
  Distilled water  1 qt.


BLACK DYE.

I. (_In White Bottle._)

  Sulphide of potassium   ½ lb.
  Alcohol                1 qt.


II. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   5½ oz.
  Distilled water  1 qt.

The sulphide of potassium (liver of sulphur) appears in fragments of a
liver-brown mass which readily dissolves in water. The solution must be
filtered before being filled into bottles for sale, and, as it becomes
turbid in the air, kept in well-closed vessels. When the two solutions
are brought together, black sulphide of silver results and darkens
the hair. After the use of this preparation a disagreeable odor of
rotten eggs adheres to the hair, but can be easily removed by washing,
especially with one of the previously mentioned hair washes.

The silver hair dye will be still better if the liquid contained in
bottle II. is made by dropping into the solution, under continual
stirring, ammonia water, until the precipitate first formed is again
dissolved.


MELANOGÈNE.

I. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   150 grains.
  Distilled water    2¾ oz.
  Ammonia water      1 oz.


II. (_In White Bottle._)

  Pyrogallic acid  15 grains.
  Alcohol of 40%    1 pint.


TANNIN HAIR DYE.

I. (_In White Bottle._)

  Powdered nut-galls  14 oz.
  Water               1 pint.
  Rose water          1 pint.

Boil the nut-galls in the water, strain the boiling liquid through a
thick cloth into the rose water, and fill the still hot mixture into
bottles which must be immediately closed. (It is essential that the
liquid be hot during the filling, to guard against the development of
mould.)


II. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   5½ oz.
  Distilled water  1 qt.

Add ammonia water to the silver solution until the precipitate first
formed is again dissolved.


EAU D’AFRIQUE.

I. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   45 grains.
  Distilled water  3½ oz.


II. (_In White Bottle._)

  Sulphide of sodium  120 grains.
  Distilled water       3½ oz.


CRINOCHROM.

I. (_In White Bottle._)

  Pyrogallic acid  150 grains.
  Distilled water    6¼ oz.
  Alcohol            5¾ oz.


II. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Silver nitrate   180 grains.
  Ammonia water      2 oz.
  Distilled water   10½ oz.


COPPER HAIR DYE.

I. (_In White Bottle._)

  Ferrocyanide of potassium  7 oz.
  Distilled water            1 qt.


II. (_In Dark Bottle._)

  Sulphate of copper  7 oz.
  Distilled water     1 qt.

Add ammonia water to the copper solution until the light blue
precipitate first formed again dissolves to a rich, dark blue liquid.
This hair dye gives a dark brown color.


EAU DE FONTAINE DE JOUVENCE,

also called Auricome and Golden Hair Water, is no dye, but a bleaching
agent which changes dark hair to a light blond or golden-yellow
color. The preparation consists of peroxide of hydrogen, a substance
possessing marked bleaching properties.

Peroxide of hydrogen, or hydrogen dioxide, is at the present time made
on a large scale by many manufacturers, and readily obtainable in the
market. It would therefore scarcely pay any one to prepare it himself
unless he were out of reach of the usual channels of trade, so that he
could not obtain the preparation in a _fresh_ state. Nevertheless it
may be useful to state how it is made. Barium dioxide (or peroxide),
which is a regular article of commerce, and is a stable compound which
will keep for any length of time if kept in tightly closed bottles, is
treated with water until the dioxide forms with it a thin, smooth milk.
This is gradually added to dilute sulphuric acid, cooled with ice or
kept otherwise as cold as possible, until the sulphuric acid is almost
entirely neutralized. The solution is then allowed to settle and the
clear liquid drawn off. For bleaching purposes, this is pure enough.
Only it must be ascertained that the amount of free acid present,
without which the hydrogen dioxide does not keep well, is only small.
Other acids can be used besides sulphuric, but the latter is the most
convenient. If an alkali is added to hydrogen dioxide so that the
reaction becomes alkaline, it will decompose very rapidly. Even under
the most favorable circumstances (when acid, and kept in a cool place)
it will gradually deteriorate, and finally be entirely converted into
oxygen gas, which escapes, and plain water.

Peroxide or dioxide of hydrogen, when applied to the hair as a
bleaching agent, must be used in a dilute condition at first. Those
who use it for the first time should always make preliminary trials
with the liquid upon odd bunches of hair (such as may at any time
be procured at hair-dressers’ shops) resembling that which is to be
bleached, before actually applying it to the latter.

The hair to be bleached is deprived of fat by washing with soap
solution, the soap is washed out with water, and the peroxide of
hydrogen applied.


WHISKER DYE.

  I.  Acetate of lead  1¾ oz.
      Distilled water  1 pint.

  II. Caustic potassa   ¾ oz.
      Distilled water  1 qt.

Dissolve the acetate of lead (“sugar of lead”) in the warm water,
filter the solution, and add ammonia water until a precipitate ceases
to form. Collect the precipitate on a filter, wash it by pouring
distilled water over it eight or ten times, and while still moist
introduce it into solution II. Stir repeatedly, and after twelve hours
leave the vessel at rest until the solution has become clear. Then
decant it from the sediment, which may be treated a second time with
solution II. For use, the beard is washed with soap, and combed with a
fine rubber comb dipped in the solution.


C. Depilatories.

Combinations of sulphur with the alkaline metals calcium, barium,
and strontium rapidly destroy the hair; for this reason tanners use
the “gas lime” from gas works, which contains calcium sulphide, for
removing the hair from hides. All the depilatories used cosmetically,
even rhusma employed in the Orient for removing the beard, owe their
activity to the presence of calcium sulphide.


CALCIUM SULPHIDE

has usually been lauded as a perfectly harmless depilatory. This is
a great mistake, however, since it has often done serious harm,
through careless application by persons unfamiliar with its caustic
and corrosive effects. It is absolutely necessary to protect the
_skin_ against its action; otherwise superficial irritation, or even
destruction of the skin may result.

Calcium sulphide cannot be made by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen
upon lime. It is usually made by heating at a low red heat, in a
securely closed crucible, an intimate mixture of 100 parts of finely
powdered quicklime with 90 parts of precipitated sulphur. Mix together:

  Calcium sulphide    4 oz.
  Sugar               2 oz.
  Water               2 oz.
  Starch powder       2 oz.
  Oil of lemon       30 grains.
  Oil of peppermint  10 grains.

The resulting mass must be filled at once into an air-tight jar, as
the calcium sulphide is decomposed in the atmosphere. For use, some
of the mass is moistened with water, painted on the skin, and washed
off with water after thirty to forty-five minutes. This and all other
depilatories act only temporarily, that is, they destroy only the hair
projecting above the surface without killing the hair bulbs; after some
time the hair grows again and the preparation must be reapplied.


BARIUM SULPHIDE,

which is likewise used as a depilatory, is made by heating barium
sulphate with charcoal, extracting the residue with water, and mixing
the resulting product with starch paste. In its effects barium sulphide
equals the preceding preparation, but it decomposes more readily.


DEPILATORY PASTE.

  Powdered caustic lime   2 lb.
  Starch powder           2 lb.
  Sodium sulphide        21 oz.

Sodium sulphide is made by saturating strong caustic soda solution with
sulphuretted hydrogen. The other ingredients are added to the solution
of sodium sulphide.


RHUSMA

is a depilatory made by mixing powdered quicklime (unslaked) with
orpiment (yellow sulphide of arsenic). Take of:

  Quicklime   4 lb.
  Orpiment   10½ oz.

Mix intimately and preserve the powder in tightly closed vessels. For
use, take some of the powder, reduce it to a thin paste with water,
and apply it to the place upon which the hairs are to be destroyed.
Owing to its poisonousness and the destructive effects of the caustic
lime on the skin, this preparation should never be employed in cosmetic
perfumery.



CHAPTER XXIX.

WAX POMADES, BANDOLINES, AND BRILLIANTINES.


The so-called wax pomades, stick pomatum, and bandolines serve to
stiffen the hair and are frequently employed by hair dressers. The
former two articles possess some adhesive power by which they fasten
the hair together; bandolines are mucilaginous fluids which generally
contain bassorin (or vegetable mucilage present in tragacanth), quince
seeds, etc.


A. Wax Pomades.

STICK POMATUM.

This is usually formed into oval or round sticks which are wrapped
in tin foil. They are colored and perfumed as desired. The ordinary
varieties are: white, for light blond hair, which is left uncolored;
pink, colored with carmine; brown, colored with umber; and black,
colored with bone black. The coloring matters are always rubbed up with
oil. Red pomatum may be colored with alkanet root, which is macerated
for some time with the melted fat. The base of these preparations
consists of:

  Lard     4 lb.
  Tallow  12 lb.
  Wax      6 lb.

The mass may be made harder or softer by increasing or diminishing the
wax. The perfumes generally used are oils of bergamot, lemon, clove,
and thyme, with an addition of some Peru balsam.


B. Beard Wax.


BEARD WAX (CIRE À MOUSTACHES).

  Turpentine               2 lb.
  Expressed oil of almond  2 lb.
  Wax                      6 lb.
  Violet pomade            2 lb.
  Peru balsam              1 lb.
  Oil of clove             1 oz.
  Oil of santal             ¾ oz.
  Oil of cinnamon           ¾ oz.


HUNGARIAN BEARD WAX (CIRE À MOUSTACHE HONGROISE.)

  Castile soap, powdered   3½ oz.
  Mucilage of acacia      10 oz.
  White wax                9 oz.
  Glycerin                 3½ oz.
  Oil of bergamot         20 drops.
  Oil of lemon            10 drops.
  Oil of rose             10 drops.

Rub the powdered soap with the mucilage, previously diluted with nine
ounces of water, then add the wax and glycerin, and heat the mass on a
water-bath, stirring constantly, until it becomes homogeneous. Lastly
add the oils, and pour the mass into suitable moulds.

For brown or black wax the corresponding color is added. The mass is
formed into sticks the thickness of a lead pencil.


C. Bandolines.


BANDOLINE AUX AMANDES.

  Tragacanth            14 oz.
  Rose water             8 qts.
  Oil of bitter almond    ¾ oz.

Crush the tragacanth, place it in the rose water, and leave it at rest
in a warm spot, stirring occasionally, until the tragacanth has swollen
to a slimy mass. Press it first through a coarse and then through a
finer cloth, add a little carmine and the oil of bitter almond.


BANDOLINE À LA ROSE.

This is made like the preceding, only substituting 1½ oz. of oil of
rose for the oil of bitter almond. Other varieties may be produced by
the use of different odors.


D. Brillantines.

Under various names preparations are placed on the market which render
the hair both soft and glossy. The chief constituent of all these
articles is glycerin which is perfumed according to taste and stained
reddish or violet. As many aniline colors easily dissolve in glycerin,
they are generally used for this purpose. Formerly, before glycerin
was obtainable in sufficient purity, brillantines were chiefly made of
castor oil dissolved in alcohol, but aside from the fact that glycerin
is cheaper than castor oil with alcohol, the former is preferable, as
alcohol injures the hair.


BRILLANTINE.

  Glycerin                              8 lb.
  Extract of jasmine (or other flower)  2 qts.


OLÉOLISSE.

  Glycerin           4 lb.
  Castor oil         4 lb.
  Oil of bergamot     ¾ oz.
  Oil of lemon        ¾ oz.
  Oil of neroli    150 grains.



CHAPTER XXX.

THE COLORS USED IN PERFUMERY.


In perfumes in which next to the odor, the appearance is of importance,
the colors play a prominent part.

In handkerchief perfumes, any accidental color present is an obstacle,
as it would cause stains on the material. Hence the aim is to obtain
the perfumes colorless or—a highly prized quality in fine articles—they
receive a pale green color which disappears on drying. Extract of
cassie possesses this color, and in many cases this extract is added to
perfumes for the purpose of giving them this favorite color.

Regarding the colors employed for other articles—emulsions, pomades,
soaps, etc.—it may be stated as a general rule that a preparation named
after a certain flower must possess the color of the latter. Hence all
perfumes named after the rose should be rose red; violet perfumes,
violet; those bearing the name of the lily or white rose must be
colorless, etc.

The best for articles containing alcohol or glycerin are the aniline
colors, both on account of their beautiful appearance and their
extraordinary staining power. But an insurmountable obstacle is met
with in their use for articles containing animal or vegetable fats
which rapidly destroy many aniline colors. When a rose pomade is
colored with aniline red, the fine delicate tint hardly lasts three or
four weeks and changes into dirty gray. The same is true of aniline
violet in violet pomade, etc.

Therefore, articles containing fat must receive other dye-stuffs, and
in the following pages we briefly enumerate those we have found most
appropriate; but it must be observed that all poisonous dyes must be
absolutely excluded. Commercial aniline colors formerly often contained
arsenic; at the present time other processes are usually employed for
their preparation, not involving the employment of arsenious acid.


YELLOW COLORS.


_Saffron._

The stigmata of Crocus sativus contain a bright yellow or orange yellow
coloring matter which is easily extracted by alcohol, petroleum ether,
or fat. We prefer petroleum ether in which the finely powdered saffron
is macerated, the greater portion of the solvent being distilled off,
and the rest of the solution is allowed to evaporate, when the pure
coloring matter is left and can be easily mixed with fat. The coloring
matter may also be obtained by macerating the saffron in melted lard or
in olive oil.


_Jonquille Pomade._

Genuine jonquille pomade, from Narcissus Jonquilla, has a handsome
yellow color which is derived from the dark yellow flowers; for this
reason small quantities of jonquille pomade are sometimes used for
coloring pomades for the hair.


_Curcuma or Turmeric._

Curcuma or turmeric root contains a very beautiful yellow coloring
matter which is easily extracted by alcohol or petroleum ether. We
prepare it in the same manner as stated under the head of saffron.
Curcuma color cannot be used for articles containing free alkali, which
changes it to brown.


_Palm Oil._

has naturally a fine yellow color, which it imparts also to soaps
prepared from it; but the color fades completely when the wet soap is
exposed to the air.


RED COLORS.


_Carmine._

This magnificent, though very expensive color is obtained from the
cochineal insect, Coccus cacti. If good carmine is not available, a
substitute may be made, for the purpose of coloring perfumery articles,
by powdering cochineal, treating it with dilute caustic ammonia, and,
after adding some alum solution, exposing it to the air and direct
sunlight, when the coloring matter separates in handsome red flakes,
which are collected and dried.


_Carthamin Red._

Safflower, the blossoms of Carthamus tinctorius, contains two coloring
matters, yellow and red. The former is extracted with water from the
dried flowers, and the residue is treated with a weak soda solution
which dissolves the red coloring matter. When this solution is
gradually diluted with acetic acid, the dye is precipitated, and after
drying forms a mass with a greenish metallic lustre. This, when reduced
to powder, is used for rouge en feuilles or rouge en tasses.

This coloring matter can also be prepared by introducing into the soda
solution some clean white cotton on which the color is precipitated and
can then be extracted with alcohol.


_Alkanet._

This root, which is readily obtained in the market, contains a
beautiful red coloring matter which can be extracted with petroleum
ether, but is also easily soluble in fats (melted lard or warm oil).
Even small amounts of it produce a handsome rose red and larger
quantities a dark purple. For pomades, hair oils, and emulsions alkanet
root is the best coloring matter, as it stains them rapidly, is
lasting, and cheap.


_Rhatany._

Rhatany root furnishes a reddish-brown coloring matter which is
soluble in alcohol and is extracted with it from the comminuted root,
especially for tooth tinctures and mouth washes. For the same purpose
use may also be made of red santal wood and Pernambuco wood which
likewise yield to alcohol, besides astringents, beautiful colors which
are very suitable for such preparations.


GREEN COLORS.


_Chlorophyll._

The green coloring matter of leaves is easily extracted from them,
when bruised, with alcohol, and is left behind after the evaporation
of the solvent. Some powders which are to have a green color are mixed
directly with dried and finely divided bright green leaves such as
spinach, celery, parsley leaves, etc.

For soap it is customary to use a mixture of yellow and blue which
together produce a green color. Take a yellow soap, melt it, and add
to it the finest powder of smalt or ultramarine until the desired tint
is obtained. Indigo-carmine cannot be used, as it would impart a blue
color to the skin.


BLUE COLORS.

For many preparations smalt or ultramarine is employed, but these
colors are insoluble. The only soluble blue colors are aniline blue and
indigo-carmine; the latter has a beautiful and intense color, but is
suitable only for pomades and not for soaps because, as stated above,
it would stain the skin.


VIOLET

is produced by a mixture of red and blue in due proportions.


BROWN

is produced by caramel, which is made by heating sugar in an iron pot
until it changes into a deep black mass which is brown only in thin
threads. This color dissolves easily in water (not in alcohol) and is
very suitable for soaps.


BLACK

is produced by finely divided vegetable or bone black. Liquids are
colored with India ink which remains suspended for a long time owing to
the fine division of the carbon.



CHAPTER XXXI.

THE UTENSILS USED IN THE TOILET.


In the toilet, besides combs and hair brushes, use is made of powder
puffs, tooth brushes, and bath sponges. Powder puffs are made from swan
skins, but should be used rather for the even division of the powder or
paint than for its application. For the latter purpose a piece of soft
glove or chamois leather is best.

The commercial tooth brushes are almost without exception objectionable
owing to the stiffness of the bristles. A suitable tooth brush should
be made of very soft, flexible bristles, lest it wear away the enamel.

Particular attention should be devoted to bath sponges. Their value
is proportionate to the fineness of the pores, their softness and
elasticity, and their spherical shape. Crude sponges are best cleansed
by being placed in dilute hydrochloric acid which dissolves the
calcareous particles adhering to them.

They are bleached as follows.

Free them as far as possible from sand and other foreign matters. Then
wash them thoroughly with water, and press them. Next introduce them
into a solution of permanganate of potassium containing one ounce of
the salt in a gallon; leave them in this liquid two or three minutes;
then take them out, express the liquid (which can be several times
used over again), wash them with water until no more violet-tinted
liquid runs from them, and then immerse them in a solution of one
part of hyposulphite of sodium in twenty parts of water, to which
immediately before dipping the sponges one part of hydrochloric acid
has been added. When the sponge’s are white, remove them and wash them
thoroughly with water.

After prolonged use, bath sponges lose their elasticity and softness.
These properties can be restored by dipping the sponges into a mixture
of one part by measure of glycerin and eight parts of water, pressing
out the excess of the liquid and allowing them to dry. The small
quantity of glycerin which they contain prevents their hardening.



INDEX.


  À la mode perfume, 186

  Absorption, 101

  Acacia farnesiana, 26

  Acetic ether, 80

  Acid, acetic, 76
    benzoic, 74
    carbonic, apparatus, 112
    carbonic, for absorption of odors, 102
    perfumes, 202
    pyrogallic, 84
    salicylic, preservation of fats by, 79

  Acorus Calamus, 50

  Adulteration of essential oils with alcohol, 144
    of essential oils with fixed oils, 144
    of essential oils with other essential oils, 143
    of essential oils with paraffin, spermaceti, or wax, 145

  Adulterations of essential oils and their recognition, 139

  Alcohol, 63
    absolute, manufacture of, 68
    amyl, 71
    percentage tables of, 70
    source of, influence on perfumes, 72

  Alcoholometer, Tralles’, 69

  Alkanet, 299

  Alloxan, 73, 274

  Allspice, 21

  Allspice, essence of, 159

  Almond and honey paste, 234
    balls, 244
    cold-cream, 243
    cream, 230
    meal, 234
    paste, simple, 233

  Almonds, bitter, 24
    sweet, 50

  Aloysia citriodora, 54

  Amandes amères, 24

  Amandes douces, 50

  Amandine, 230

  Ambergris, 57
    tincture of, 151

  Ambra grisea, 57

  Ammonia, 73
    carbonate of, 74

  Ammoniacal perfumes, 199

  Amygdala amara, 24
    dulcis, 50

  Amyl alcohol, 71

  Ananas, 44

  Ancients, perfumery among the, 2

  Andropogon citratus, 30, 35
    laniger, 30
    muricatus, 30, 54
    Nardus, 29
    Schoenanthus, 30

  Aneth, 31

  Anethum graveolens, 31

  Animal substances used in perfumery, 57

  Anise, 21

  Anti-Odorin, 278

  Apple ether, 81

  Aromatic substances, division of, according to their origin, 8
    substances in general, 6
    substances, relative strength of, 7
    substances, special characteristics of, 118
    substances, vegetable, chemical constitution of, 15
    substances, vegetable, employed in perfumery, 20
    vinegar, 203
    waters, 113, 167

  Aspic, 35

  Attar of rose, 133

  Auricome, 291


  Badiane, 48

  Baguettes encensoires, 216

  Baisers du printemps, 170

  Balm, 22

  Balsamodendron Kafal, 41
    Myrrha, 39

  Balsamum peruvianum, 43
    tolutanum, 51

  Bandolines, 296

  Barium sulphide, 293

  Baume de Milan pour les cheveux, 283
    du Pérou, 43
    de Tolou, 51

  Bay rum, 284
    sweet, 22
    West Indian, 22

  Beard producer, 284
    wax, 295

  Bear’s-grease pomade, 250

  Beef-marrow pomade, 251

  Benjoin, 23

  Benzene, 66

  Benzin, 66

  Benzoated oil, 255

  Benzoic acid, 74
    acid, sublimed, manufacture of, 75


  Benzoin, 23
    and benzoic acid, use of, for preventing rancidity of fats, 79
    pomade, 248
    tincture of, 151

  Benzol, 66

  Bergamot, 24
    essence of, 152

  Bisamkörner, 38

  Bismuth, subnitrate of, 86

  Bismuth white, 86, 271

  Bisulphide of carbon, 66

  Bitter almond, essence of, 152
    almond milk, 238
    almonds, 24

  Black color, 301

  Blanc de bismuth, 86
    de perles, 86, 278
    français, 271
    perle liquide, 271

  Bleu végetal pour les veines, 273

  Blossom pomade, 250

  Blue colors, 300

  Bois de camphre, 25
    de cèdre, 27
    de rose, 45

  Borated tooth powder, 262
    tooth tincture, 266

  Borax, 75

  Bouquet à la maréchale, 186
    cosmopolite, 180
    court, 173
    d’Andorre, 171
    de Chypre, 172
    de fleurs, 172
    de flore, 176
    de la cour, 171
    de l’Alhambra, 169
    de l’amour, 169
    de Stamboul, 194
    d’Esterhazy, 173
    de Virginie, 195
    des chasseurs, 171
    des délices, 172
    d’Irlande, 177
    du Bosphore, 171
    du Japon, 178
    heliotrope, 194
    leap-year, 184
    Royal Horse-Guard’s, 177

  Bouquets, manufacture of, 167

  Brillantines, 296

  Bromelia Ananas, 44

  Brown color, 301

  Bruges ribbons, 219

  Buckingham flowers, 170


  Cachous aromatisées, 263

  Cajuput leaves, 25

  Calamus, essence of, 152

  Calcium sulphide, 292

  Camphor, 121
    balls, 241


  Camphor cold-cream, 240
    ice, 240
    wood, 25

  Camphorated chalk tooth powder, 262
    Cologne water, 266

  Canelle, 27

  Cantharidal pomade, 248

  Cantharides, tincture of, 281

  Caramel, 301

  Carbon, bisulphide of, 66

  Carbonate of ammonia, 74

  Carbonic acid apparatus, 112
    acid for absorption of odors, 102

  Carmine, 299

  Carthamin red, 299

  Carum Carvi, 25

  Carvi, 25

  Caryophylli, 30

  Caryophyllus aromaticus, 30

  Cascarilla bark, 26
    gratissima, 26

  Cassia, 28

  Cassie, 26, 28
    extract of, 151

  Castor, Castoreum, 58
    tincture of, 152

  Castor-oil pomade, 252

  Cedar, essence of, 152
    perfume, 174
    tincture of, 152
    wood, 27

  Cèdre du Libanon perfume, 174

  Cedrus libanotica, 27

  Ceylon sachet powder, 209

  Chalk, prepared, manufacture of, 261
    Venetian, 271

  Chapped skin, lotion for, 275

  Characteristics, special, of aromatic substances, 118

  Charcoal objectionable as a tooth powder, 259
    tooth powder, 263

  Cheiranthus Cheiri, 55

  Chemical constitution of vegetable aromatic substances, 15
    products used for the preparation of perfumes, 68
    products used in perfumery, 63

  Chemicals used for the extraction of aromatic substances, 64

  Cherry salve, 243

  Cherrylaurel leaves, 29

  Chèvre-feuille, 33

  China rose perfume, 192
    roses, extract of, 161

  Chinese gelatin, 80
    tooth powder, 264

  Chloral mouth wash, 267

  Chloroform, 65

  Chlorophyll, 300

  Cinchona bark tooth powder, 262
    pomade, 251

  Cinnamomum, 27

  Cinnamomum Culilavan Nees, 31
    zeylanicum, 28

  Cinnamon, 27
    Chinese, 28
    tincture of, 165

  Circassian pomade, 248

  Cire à moustaches, 295

  Citron, 28
    flowers, 29

  Citronella, 29
    essence of, 153

  Citrus Aurantium, 41
    Bergamia, 24
    limetta, 35
    Limonum, 35
    medica, 28
    vulgaris, 41

  Civet, 62
    tincture of, 165

  Civetta, 62

  Clous de girofle, 30

  Clove, 30
    essence of, 157

  Cold-creams and lip salves, 238

  Cologne cold-cream, 242
    water, 180

  Colors used in perfumery, 87, 297

  Concombre, 31

  Convallaria perfume, 172

  Convolvulus floridus, 45
    scoparius, 45

  Cortex Aurantii, 41
    Cascarillæ, 26
    Culilavan, 31

  Cosmetic perfumery, 225, 269

  Cosmetics, hair, 280
    skin, and face lotions, 270
    skin, red, 272
    skin, white, 271

  Couronne de fleurs, 173

  Court bouquet, 173

  Craie venétienne, 271

  Crême de Cologne, 242
    de moëlle, 251
    de ricine, 252
    de vanille, 253
    de violettes, 244

  Crinochrom, 290

  Crisp mint, 38

  Croton Eluteria, 26

  Crystallized oil, 249

  Cucumber, 31
    cold-cream, 242
    extract of, 154
    milk, 237

  Cucumis sativus, 31

  Culilaban bark, 31

  Cuminum Cyminum, 26

  Curcuma, 298

  Currant, black, 27

  Cuscus, 30, 54

  Cuttlefish-bone tooth powder 263

  Cyprian sachet powder, 209


  Dandelion milk, 237

  Depilatories, 292

  Dianthus caryophyllus, 44

  Dill, 31

  Dipteryx odorata, 52

  Displacement, 111

  Distillation, 92
    fractional, 143

  Divine pomade, 241

  Dog-rose perfume, 193

  Double pomades, 249

  Drop presses, 90

  Dry perfumes, 207

  Dye, black, 288
    brown, 288
    vegetable, 287


  Eau anathérine, 265
    d’Afrique, 290
    d’anges, 39
    d’Athènes, 281
    de Berlin, 170
    de Botot, 265
    de Cologne, 180
    de fleurs, 281
    de fontaine de jouvence, 291
    de laurier, 282
    de lavande à mille fleurs, 184
    de lavande ambrée, 183
    de lavande double, 184
    de Leipsic, 184
    de Lisbonne, 185
    de Luce, 202
    de Mialhe, 267
    de Milan, 266
    de mille fleurs, 186
    de mille fleurs à palmarose, 187
    de perles, 276
    de romarin, 282
    de rose triple, 160
    de roses, 283
    de salvia, 268
    de violettes, 268
    du Portugal, 190
    glycerinée aux cantharides, 281
    hongroise, 195
    japonaise, 178
    lenticuleuse, 275
    saponique, 282
    Victoria, 282

  Eaux aromatisées, 113
    encensoires, 220

  Ecorce culilaban, 31
    d’oranges, 41

  Eglantine perfume, 193

  Elais guineensis, 42

  Elder flowers, 32

  Emulsions, 227, 230

  Encens, 40

  Enfleurage, 101

  Esprit de roses triple, 161

  Ess. bouquet, 175

  Essence de roses blanches, 162

  Essence de roses jaunes, 161
    de roses jumelles, 162
    de styrax, 162
    definition of, 150
    des bouquets, 175
    meaning of the French term, 14
    of mirbane, 83

  Essences dentifrices, 265
    directions for making, 150
    employed in perfumery, 146
    fruit, 82
    removal of fat from, 149

  Essential oil a misnomer, 14
    oils, adulteration of, with alcohol, 144
    oils, adulteration of, with fixed oils, 144
    oils, adulteration of, with other essential
    oils, 143
    oils, adulteration of, with paraffin, spermaceti, or wax, 145
    oils, adulterations of, and their recognition, 139
    oils, chemical and physical properties of, 16
    oils, final purification of, 112
    oils, oxygenation of, 18
    oils, preservation of, 19
    oils, table showing the approximate density, boiling and congealing
          points of, 141
    oils, yield of, 113

  Esterhazy bouquet, 173

  Ether, 64
    acetic, 80
    apple, 81
    nitrous, 81
    œnanthic, 71
    pear, 81
    petroleum, 65
    pine-apple, 81

  Ethers, fruit, 81, 82

  Eugenia Pimenta, 21

  Excelsior extraction apparatus, 107

  Extract, definition of, 150

  Extraction, 103
    apparatus, 103 et seq.
    of aromatic substances, chemicals used for, 64
    of odors, 87

  Extracts, directions for making, 150
    employed in perfumery, 146

  Extrait d’amande, 152
    d’ambre, 169
    d’ambregris, 151
    d’ambrette, 152
    de baume de tolou, 162
    de benjoin, 151
    de bergamotte, 252
    de bois de cèdre, 152
    de canelle, 165
    de cassie, 151
    de castoreum, 152
    de cèdre, 152
    de chèvre-feuille, 153, 176
    de civette, 165
    de clous de girofles, 157
    de concombre, 154
    de fleurs d’oranges, 158
    de gaulthérie, 165
    de giroflé, 155, 184
    de glaïeul, 152
    d’églantine, 161
    de héliotrope, 154, 176
    de jasmin, 155
    de jonquille, 157, 179
    de lavande, 155
    de lilas, 153, 174
    de limon, 156
    de lys, 156, 185
    de magnolia, 156, 185
    de menthe, 156
    de mignonette, 159
    de musc, 156, 188
    de myrte, 157, 189
    de narcisse, 157, 189
    d’encens, 165
    de néroli, 158
    de patchouli, 158, 191
    de Pérou, 159
    de piment, 159
    de pois de senteur, 159, 190
    de rosa théa, 162
    de rose, 159
    de roses mousseuses, 161
    de roses triple, 161
    de santal, 162
    de Schoenanthe, 153
    de tonka, 163
    de tuberose, 163
    de vanille, 163
    de verveine, 163, 196
    de vétiver, 165
    de violette, 163
    de volcameria, 164
    d’iris, 163
    d’oeillet, 158, 190
    d’oliban, 165
    végétal, 281


  Fabæ Tonkæ, 52

  Face lotions, 274

  Farine d’amandes, 234
    de pistaches, 235

  Fats, 77
    purification of, 77, 246
    rancidity of, prevention of, 79

  Fennel, 32

  Fenouil, 32

  Ferula Sumbul, 49

  Fèves de Tonka, 52

  Field-flower sachet powder, 209

  Fiori d’Italia, 174

  Fleurs de citron, 29
    de mai perfume, 172
    de Montpellier, 187
    des champs, 188
    d’oranges, 41
    solsticiales, 194

  Florentine flasks, 96

  Flores Aurantii, 41
    Citri, 29
    Loniceræ, 33
    Sambuci, 32
    Syringæ, 36

  Florida perfume, 175

  Flowers of the Isle of Wight perfume, 198

  Fœniculum vulgare, 32

  Folia Cajuputi, 25
    Laurocerasi, 29

  Forest-breeze perfume, 197

  Formulas for handkerchief perfumes, 169
    for pomades and hair oils, 247
    for sachets, 209
    for toilet vinegars, 204

  Fractional distillation, 143

  Frangipanni sachet powder, 210

  Freckle lotion, 275
    milk, 274

  French flower farms, annual production of, 10
    white, 271

  Fructus Citri, 28

  Fruit essences, 82
    ethers, 80, 82

  Fumigating paper, 218
    pastils, 214
    pencils, 216
    powders, 220
    ribbons, 219
    waters and vinegars, 220

  Fumigation, perfumes used for, 214

  Funnel, separating, 89, 98

  Fusel oils, 71


  Garland of flowers perfume, 173

  Gaultheria procumbens, 55

  Gaulthérie, 55

  Gelatin, Chinese, 80

  Geranium, 32
    essence of, 154

  Ginger grass, 30

  Giroflé, 55

  Glycerin, 82
    cold-cream, 240
    cosmetic use of, 227
    cream, 231
    emulsions, 231
    jelly, 232

  Golden hair water, 291

  Grains d’ambrette, 38

  Green colors, 300

  Gum wax, 49


  Hair cosmetics, 280
    dye, copper, 290
    dye, lead, 286
    dyes and depilatories, 285
    dyes, double, 288
    dyes, silver, 288
    simple, 286
    oils and pomades, 245
    oils, formulas for, 254
    restorer, 283
    tonics, 283
    washes, 281

  Handkerchief perfumes, formulas for, 169
    perfumes, manufacture of, 167

  Hedyosmum flowers, 33

  Heliotrope, 33
    bouquet, 194
    extract of, 154
    hair oil, 255
    perfume, 176
    pomade, 252
    sachet powder, 210

  Heliotropin, 33

  Heliotropium peruvianum, 33

  Hepar sulphuris, 84

  Herba Majoranæ, 37

  Hibiscus Abelmoschus, 38

  History of perfumery, 1

  Homœopathic chalk tooth powder, 262

  Honeysuckle, 33
    extract of, 153
    perfume, 176

  Hovenia perfume, 177

  Huile à benjamin, 255
    à l’ess-bouquet, 255
    crystallisée, 249
    de jasmin, 255
    de mille fleurs, 188
    de palme, 42
    héliotrope, 255
    philocome, 256

  Hungarian beard wax, 295
    water, 195

  Huntsman’s nosegay, 178

  Hydrogen dioxide, 291

  Hygienic and cosmetic perfumery, 225

  Hyraceum, 59

  Hyssop, 34

  Hyssopus officinalis, 34


  Illicium anisatum, I. religiosum, 48

  Incense powder, 217

  Indian sachet powder, 210

  Inexhaustible salt, 200

  Infusion, 98
    cold and warm, 147

  Iris, 42
    florentina, 42

  Iwarankusa, 54


  Jasmine, 34
    emulsion, 232
    extract of, 155
    hair oil, 255

  Jasminum odoratissimum, 34

  Jockey club, 178

  Juniperus virginiana, 27

  Jonquille, extract of, 157
    perfume, 179
    pomade, 298


  Kaloderm, 279

  Karsi, 286

  Kiss me quick perfume, 180

  Kohol, 287


  Lait antéphelique, 274
    d’amandes amères, 238
    de concombre, 237
    de lilas, 236
    de pistaches, 238
    de roses, 238
    virginal, 236

  Lathyrus tuberosus, 50

  Laurier, 22

  Laurier-cérise, 29

  Laurus nobilis, 22

  Lavande, 34

  Lavandula vera, 34

  Lavender, 34
    essence of, 155
    perfumes, 183
    sachet powder, 210

  Leap-year bouquet, 184

  Lemon, 35
    essence of, 156
    grass, 30, 35
    grass, essence of, 153

  Lignum Camphoræ, 25
    Cedri, 27
    Rhodii, 45
    Sassafras, 47

  Lilac, 36
    extract of, 153
    milk, 236
    perfume, 174

  Lilas, 36

  Lilionese, 275

  Lilium candidum, 36

  Lily, 36
    extract of, 156
    perfume, 185
    of the valley extract, 185
    of the valley perfume, 172, 185

  Limon, 35

  Liquidambar orientalis, L. styraciflua, 49

  Liquidamber, 49

  Lip salve, white and red, 243
    salves and cold-creams, 238

  Lis, 36

  Liver of sulphur, 84

  Lonicera Caprifolium, 33

  Lotion for chapped skin, 276

  Lotions, face, 274


  Macassar oil, 256

  Mace, 36

  Maceration, 98

  Maces, 36

  Magnolia, 37
    extract of, 156
    grandiflora, 37
    perfume, 185

  Mallard’s toilet vinegar, 206

  Marjolaine, 37

  Marjoram, 37

  Marrow cream, 251

  Marshal sachet powder, 210

  Meadow-sweet, 38

  Meals and pastes, 233

  Melaleuca Cajuputi, 25

  Melanogène, 289

  Melissa officinalis, 22

  Mentha aquatica, M. crispa, M. piperita, M. viridis, 38

  Menthe crépue, poivrée, verde, 38

  Mignonette, 45

  Milk, vegetable, 235

  Mille fleurs sachet powder, 211

  Mint, 38

  Moschus, 59

  Moss-rose, extract of, 161
    perfume, 193

  Mousseline perfume, 188

  Mouth, preparations for the care of, 257
    washes, 265

  Murexide paint, 274

  Muscade, 40

  Musk, 59
    paste, 279
    perfume, 188
    tincture of, 156

  Musk-seed, 38
    tincture of, 152

  Muslin sachet powder, 211

  Myrcia acris, 22

  Myristica, 40

  Myristica fragrans, 36

  Myrrh, 39
    tooth tincture, 267

  Myrrha, 39

  Myrtle, extract of, 157
    leaves, 39
    perfume, 189

  Myrtus communis, 39


  Nail powder, 244

  Narcissus, 40
    extract of, 157
    Jonquilla, 40
    perfume, 189
    poeticus, 40

  Nardostachys Jatamansi, 48

  Navy’s nosegay, 189

  Neroli, extract of, 158

  New-mown hay, 177, 189

  Nitrobenzol, 83

  Nitrous ether, 81

  Nosegay perfume, 172

  Nutmeg, 40
    butter, 129


  Odors, extraction of, 87
    from pomades, abstraction of, 102
    from the vegetable kingdom, 13

  Œillet, 44

  Œnanthic ether, 71

  Oil, benzoated, 255
    crystallized, 249
    macassar, 256
    of allspice, 132
    of anise, 119
    of bergamot, 119
    of bitter almonds, 74, 120
    of bitter almonds, artificial, 83
    of burdock root, 256
    of cajuput, 120
    of calamus, 120
    of caraway, 125
    of cascarilla, 121
    of cassia, 121, 137
    of cassie, 119
    of cedar, 121
    of chamomile, 120
    of cherry-laurel, 125
    of cinnamon, 137
    of citron, 122
    of citronella, 122
    of clove, 130
    of coriander, 123
    of crispmint, 129
    of culilaban, 125
    of elder, 124
    of geranium, 123
    of heliotrope, 124
    of hyssop, 137
    of jasmine, 224
    of laurel, 127
    of lavender, 125
    of lemon, 122, 127
    of lemon-grass, 122
    of lilac, 123
    of lily, 126
    of mace, 129
    of magnolia, 127
    of marjoram, 127
    of meadowsweet, 135
    of melissa, 128
    of mignonette, 133
    of mirbane, 83
    of myrtle, 130
    of narcissus, 130
    of néroli bigarade, 131
    of néroli pétale, 131
    of nutmeg, 129
    of orange, 131
    of orange bigarade, 131
    of orange flowers, 130
    of patchouly, 132
    of peppermint, 129
    of petit grain, 131
    of pink, 130
    of Portugal, 131
    of reseda, 133
    of rhodium, 134
    of rose, 133
    of rosemary, 134
    of rue, 133
    of sage, 134
    of sandal wood, 134
    of santal, 134
    of sassafras, 135
    of spearmint, 129
    of star-anise, 135
    of sweet bay, 127
    of sweet pea, 132
    of Swiss herbs, 255
    of syringa, 132
    of thyme, 135
    of turpentine, 138
    of vanilla, 136
    of verbena, 136
    of vetiver, 136
    of violet, 136
    of wallflower, 126
    of wintergreen, 136
    of ylang-ylang, 137
    palm, 299

  Oils, essential, adulterations of, and their recognition, 139
    essential, see also Essential oils
    fusel, 71
    of mint, 128
    purification of, 79

  Oléolisse, 297

  Oleum Amygdalæ amaræ, 74, 120
    Anisi Stellati, 135
    Cajuputi, 120
    Calami, 120
    Cari, 125
    Caryophylli, 130
    Cassiæ, 121, 137
    Chamomillæ, 120
    Cinnamomi, 137
    Citri, 122
    Coriandri, 123
    Culilavani, 125
    Gaultheriæ, 136
    Hyssopi, 137
    Illicii, 135
    Ivaranchusæ, 136
    Lauri, 127
    Lavandulæ, 125
    Limonis, 122, 127
    Macidis, 129
    Majoranæ, 127
    Menthæ crispæ, 129
    Menthæ piperitæ, 129
    Myristicæ, 129
    Naphæ, 130
    Neroli, 130
    Palmæ, 42
    Rosmarini, 134
    Rutæ, 133
    Salviæ, 134
    Sambuci, 124
    Santali, 134
    Sassafras, 135
    Spirææ, 135
    Terebinthinæ, 138
    Thymi, 135
    Unonæ odoratissimæ, 137

  Olibanum, 40
    tincture of, 135

  Olivine, 233

  Olla podrida sachet powder, 211

  Opopanax, 41

  Orange flower, extract of, 158
    flower pomade, 252
    flowers, 41
    peel, 41

  Origanum, 42
    Majorana (vulgare), 37

  Orris root, 42
    root, tincture of, 163

  Otto of rose, 133

  Oxidation of essential oils, 18

  Oxide of tin, 86


  Palm oil, 42, 299

  Paper, fumigating, 218

  Paraffin, 83

  Paste, Spanish, 224

  Pastes and meals, 233

  Pastilles du sérail, 216
    enbaumées, 217
    odoriférantes, 217
    orientales, 215, 264

  Pastils, fumigating, 214

  Patchouly, 43
    essence of, 158
    perfume, 191
    powder, 212

  Pâte camphorique, 240
    d’amandes au miel, 234
    d’amandes simple, 233
    dentifrice, 261

  Pear ether, 81

  Pearl white, 86, 271, 278

  Peau d’Espagne, 222

  Pelargonium roseum, 32

  Pencils, fumigating, 216

  Peppermint, 38
    essence of, 156

  Perfumery, cosmetic, 269
    division of, 166
    history of, 1
    hygienic and cosmetic, 225

  Perfumes, acid, 202
    ammoniacal, 199
    dry, 207
    used for fumigation, 214

  Permanganate of potassium, 76, 267, 287

  Peroxide of hydrogen, 291

  Persian sachet powder, 212

  Peru balsam, 43
    balsam, tincture of, 159
    hair oil, 256

  Petroleum ether, 65

  Philadelphus coronarius, 34, 51

  Philocome hair oil, 256
    pomade, 254

  Pimenta, 21

  Pimpinella Anisum, 21

  Pine-apple, 44
    ether, 81

  Pine-needle odor, 197

  Pink, 44


  Pink, extract of, 158
    perfume, 190

  Piperonal, 33

  Pistachio meal, 235
    milk, 238

  Place of growth of plants, influence on their odor, 11

  Plumeria, 44

  Pogostemon Patchouly, 43

  Pois de senteur, 50

  Polianthus tuberosa, 53

  Polyanthus perfume, 190

  Pomade à fleurs, 250
    à fleurs d’oranges, 252
    à graisse d’ours, 250
    à la rose pour les lèvres, 243
    à moëlle de bœuf, 251
    à quinquine, 251
    blanche pour les lèvres, 243
    cerise, 243
    de héliotrope, 252
    des violettes, 253
    divine, 241
    philocome, 254

  Pomades and hair oils, 245
    formulas for, 247

  Pomatum, stick, 294

  Portugal oil, 257
  sachet powder, 212

  Potassii sulphuretum, 84
    permanganas, 76

  Potassium permanganate hair dye, 287
    permanganate water, 267
    sulphide of, 84

  Potpourri sachet powder, 212

  Poudre à la rose, 277
    à la violette, 278
    blanche surfine, 278
    de la reine, 221
    d’encens, 217
    de pistaches, 277
    de riz, 278
    impériale, 221
    pour les ongles, 244
    royale, 221

  Poudres encensoires, 220

  Powder, incense, 217

  Powders, toilet, 276

  Preparations for the care of the mouth, 257

  Pressure, 88

  Preston salt, 202

  Prunus laurocerasus, 29

  Pterocarpus santalinus, 47

  Pulchérine, 276

  Pumice stone objectionable as a tooth powder, 258

  Pyrogallic acid, 84


  Queen Victoria’s perfume, 190

  Quinine tooth powder, 262


  Racine de glaïeule, 50

  Radix Calami, 50
    Iridis florentinæ, 42
    Sumbul, 49

  Rancidity of fats, prevention of, 79

  Red colors, 299

  Reine des prés, 38

  Reseda, 45
    essence of, 191
    extract of, 159
    odorata, 45

  Resina Opopanax, 41

  Resinification, 18

  Rhatany, 300

  Rhodium, 45

  Rhusma, 294

  Ribbons, fumigating, 219

  Ribes niger, 27

  Robinia pseudoacacia, 27

  Romarin, 46

  Rondeletia odoratissima perfume, 191

  Rosa, 45
    centifolia perfume, 192

  Rose, 45
    essence or extract of, 159, 161
    milk, 238
    mousseuse perfume, 193
    odors, 192
    sachet powder, 213
    théa perfume, 193
    tooth powder, 264
    water, 160

  Rosebud cold-cream, 244

  Rosemary, 46

  Roses blanches perfume, 193
    jaunes perfume, 192
    jumelles perfume, 193

  Rosmarinus officinalis, 46

  Rouge alloxane, 274
    en feuilles, 272
    en pâte, 273
    en tasses, 273
    végétal rose liquide, 272

  Rouges, 272

  Royal Horse-Guard’s bouquet, 177
    nosegay, 192

  Rue, 46

  Ruta graveolens, 46


  Sachets, formulas for, 209

  Saffron, 298

  Safrol, 47

  Sage, 46

  Salicylated tooth tincture, 268

  Salicylic acid, preservation of fats by, 79

  Salt, inexhaustible, 200
    smelling, white, 201
    Preston, 202

  Salvia officinalis, 46

  Sambucus canadensis, 32
    niger, 32

  Santal, extract of, 162
    sachet powder, 213
    wood, 47

  Santalum album, 47

  Sassafras, S. officinalis, 47

  Sauge, 46

  Savon dentifrice, 260

  Savonettes camphoriques, 241
    d’amandes, 244

  Scent bags, 207

  Schnuda, 274

  Schoenanthe, 35

  Seiffert’s extraction apparatus, 105

  Sel blanc parfumé, 201
    inépuisable, 200
    volatil, 202

  Semen Abelmoschi, 38
    Anethi, 31
    Anisi stellati, 48
    Carvi, 25

  Separating funnel, 89, 98

  Separators, 96

  Seringat, 51

  Skin, chapped, lotion for, 275
    cosmetics and face lotions, 270
    cosmetics, red, 272
    cosmetics, white, 271
    gloss, 278

  Smelling salt, white, 201

  Sodii boras, 75

  Soumboul, 49

  Spanish paste, 224
    skin, 222

  Spearmint, 38

  Spermaceti, 85

  Spiced vinegar, 204

  Spic-nard, 48

  Spike-lavender, 35

  Spikenard, 48

  Spiræa ulmaria, 38

  Sponges, bleaching of, 302

  Spring kisses, 170
    nosegay perfume, 194

  Starch, 84

  Star-anise, 48

  Steam still, 110

  Stick pomatum, 294

  Stills, 92 et seq.

  Storax, 49
    tincture of, 162

  Styrax Benzoin, 23

  Suave perfume, 194

  Subnitrate of bismuth, 86

  Sugar tooth powder, 264

  Sulphide of potassium, 84

  Sumbul root, 49

  Sureau, 32

  Sweet almonds, 50

  Sweet-brier, extract of, 161

  Sweet-flag root, 50

  Sweet gum, 49

  Sweet-pea, 50
    essence of, 196
    extract of, 159

  Syringa, 51
    perfume, 195
    vulgaris, 36


  Table showing the approximate density, boiling and congealing points
    of essential oils, 141

  Tables, percentage, of alcohol, 70

  Tannin hair dye, 289

  Tanno-quinine hair restorer, 283
    pomade, 252

  Tea-rose, extract of, 162
    perfume, 193

  Teint de Venus, 276

  Teinture chinoise, 287
    orientale, 286

  Terpineol, 36

  Thyme, 51

  Thymus Serpyllum, T. vulgaris, 51

  Tin, oxide of, 86

  Tincture, definition of, 150

  Toilet powder, pink, 277
    powder, white, 277
    powders, 276
    utensils, 301
    vinegar, Mallard’s, 206
    vinegars, 204

  Tolu balsam, 51
    tincture of, 162

  Toluifera Balsamum, 51
    Pereiræ, 43

  Tonka beans, 52
    cream, 253
    oil, 257
    tincture of, 163

  Tooth pastes, 260
    powders, 262
    soap, 260
    tinctures, 265

  Transparent pomade, 252

  Tuberose, 53
    emulsion, 232
    extract of, 163

  Tulipe odoriférante perfume, 195

  Tumeric, 298

  Twin-rose perfume, 193

  Twin-roses, extract of, 162


  Unona odoratissima, 56

  Utensils used in the toilet, 301


  Vanilla, 53
    aromatica, V. planifolia, 53
    camphor, 136
    cream, 253
    oil, 257
    pomade, 253
    tincture of, 163

  Vanillin, 85, 136

  Vaselin, 85

  Vegetable aromatic substances, chemical constitution of, 15
    kingdom, odors from, 13
    milk, 235

  Venetian chalk, 271

  Verbena, 54
    extract of, 163

  Verbena perfume, 196
    sachet powder, 214
    triphylla, 54

  Verveine, 54

  Vetiver, 30, 54
    essence of, 165
    sachet powder, 214

  Vinaigre à la rose, 204
    aux épices, 204
    aux fleurs d’oranges, 205
    aux violettes, 205
    de cologne, 205
    de lavande, 206
    de quatre voleurs, 205
    étheré, 206
    hygiénique, 205
    polyanthe, 207

  Vinaigres encensoires, 220

  Vinegar, aromatic, 203
    Mallard’s toilet, 206
    orange-flower, 206
    preventive, 205
    spiced, 204
    toilet, French, 207

  Vinegars, toilet, 204

  Viola odorata, 54

  Violet, 54
    cold-cream, 244
    color, 301
    emulsion, 232
    extract of, 163
    perfume, 195
    pomade, 253
    sachet powder, 213, 214

  Violettes des montagnes, 197

  Violettes (perfume), 195

  Virginal milk, 236

  Vohl’s extraction apparatus, 110

  Volcameria, 55
    extract of, 164
    inermis, 55
    perfume, 197


  Wallflower, 55
    extract of, 155
    perfume, 184

  Waters, aromatic, 113, 167

  Wax, 85
    pomades, 294

  West End perfume, 197

  Whisker dye, 292

  White, French, 271
    pearl, dry, 278
    rose, extract of, 162
    rose perfume, 193

  Wintergreen, 55
    extract of, 165
    perfume, 198


  Yacht club perfume, 198

  Yellow colors, 298

  Yield of essential oils, 113

  Ylang-ylang, 56
    perfume, 198

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Variations
in hyphenation have been standardised but all other spelling and
punctuation remains unchanged.

The larger tables have been re-organised to fit more readily within
page constraints.

Italics are represented thus _italic_, bold thus =bold=.





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