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Title: Lloyd's Treatise on Hats - With Twenty-Four Engravings; Containing Novel Delineations - of His Various Shapes, Shewing the Manner in Which They - Should Be Worn...
Author: Lloyd, Robert
Language: English
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                          _TREATISE ON HATS_,


                        TWENTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS;




               _Dedicated, with Permission, to the Head._


                            SECOND EDITION.


                        PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR,
           _By F. Thorowgood, 9, Addle-Street, Aldermanbury_.






TO what trifles do some men owe a perpetuation of their “_famous
memory_.” There is Nimrod, for instance, not but what he may have had
other and _greater_ merits, yet he is best known as a “_mighty hunter_,”
and one who “wore _boots_;” now, allowing the relation to be true, and
that he _did_ hunt, and he _did_ wear boots, is there anything
extraordinary attaching to either, unless indeed, it could be proved
that he had _wooden legs_, or that he was capable of sitting on the
backs of two or more animals at one time; and if such were not the case,
the simple fact of itself was never worth recording; as well may it be
said, a thousand years hence, that LLOYD _was a great Hatmaker, and
lived in a great City_.

But possibly the hunting system of this _old gentleman_ differed
materially from the pastime of our modern _Tally-ho’s_, and instead of
running after _hares_, _snipes_, and _conies_, Nimrod’s sport was on the
_field of battle_; in whose days the most rational idea is, that all was
_game_ which caused pursuits, and all pursuits _hunting_: If it were not
so, and his majesty’s capability only extended to the _riding_ upon a
_horse’s back_, there is not a butcher’s boy, in any country village
between BERWICK and ST. IVES, that would not have ridden Nimrod’s _rump_
off. But it may be asked by those whose inclinations and patience shall
lead them to hunt through the following pages, whether this is what it
professes to be, a PREFACE, which is supposed to explain, or prepare the
mind for something to come; the answer to which is as follows: A horse
that will not _go_ without another being led before him, is not worth
_riding_, and if what is herein written requires a Preface to render it
_intelligible_, it is not worth the _reading_.

      _May, 1819._


                               JOHN BULL.

THE greatest difficulty a painter has professionally to encounter is to
produce a striking resemblance of a countenance where there are no
striking features: just so with the Hat called “JOHN BULL.” It has no
marked style of peculiarity in the formation; but, independent of the
_fine texture_, there is in it a combination of rare qualities not often
met with: for instance—it has in appearance strong marks of becoming
gravity—a bold but manly dignity—a pleasing diffidence, with a
conscious, yet unassuming importance—and is recommended to persons
somewhat robust in form, features full and round, with a complexion not
too dark. In wearing, it should neither be placed aside, thrown too far
back, nor brought particularly forward over the face, for the following
reasons—the first position would bespeak an air of _non challance_—the
second a sort of slovenly neglect in the person—and the third an
incommunicative sullenness of disposition.

                            THE WELLINGTON.

SO called from the great Hero; not for the popularity of the name alone,
but for the reason that such a Hat was actually worn by him; and, in
fact, it is a shape uncommonly well suited both to his face and person;
the former being a sort of _long oval_, and the latter without the least
appearance of _bulk_: indeed a ponderous body, tall or short, with a
round, or what is vulgarly termed a pudding face, cannot judiciously
shelter itself under a Wellington. This Hat is not only particularly
_becoming_ the _person_ of his Grace, but there is that in its
appearance which is strongly characteristic of his great mind; for, to
an excellently formed crown of about seven inches deep, overspreading an
inch at top, there is united a fine arched brim of small dimensions,
taking a smartish sweep of the fourth part of a circle, and when placed
on the head somewhat _a la Francais_, carries with it an uncommon degree
of brilliancy and fire: and the fore and hind parts terminating in a
close _point_, clearly shows that, whether _advancing_ or _retreating_,
this modern CÆSAR is always sure to _carry_ his point.

                              THE TANDEM.

This is a Hat wherein is displayed a good deal of what may be termed
_character;_ for which reason, its _becoming_ wearers, comparatively
speaking, will be few in number; but notwithstanding this _marked_
peculiarity, there is a sort of _style_ in its general feature which is
uncommonly _striking;_ nor is there any form whatever, where so much of
that airy lightness is to be seen, as in the Tandem. Few persons over
_thirty_ become this Hat, and none under _twenty_, and even _between_
those ages, if the head be more than twenty-two inches, or less than
twenty-one and a half in circumference, the whole effect is destroyed.
Shape of the face immaterial, provided the complexion is not _too_
dingy; but, above all things, neither _overgrown_ or little _fat_
gentlemen should wear the Tandem. To have the best effect when on the
head, it should be placed rather forward, inclining a little to one

                             THE TALLY-HO.

A very comfortable and convenient hunting Hat, partaking in some degree
the natural formation of the head: has many advantages over the old
fashioned cap; is _light_, though strong—_porous_, which allows the heat
of the head, arising from exertion, to fly off—and _elastic_, the effect
of which is to sit close without pressure; but, above all, it has a most
gentlemanly appearance, which it never fails to communicate to the
wearer, particularly if he be a true sportsman.

                              THE SHALLOW.

A Hat more admired for the ease and simplicity of style than for any
peculiar character in its general appearance; being low in the crown, it
is worn to most advantage by tall thin gentlemen with very large heads;
and as the fore and hind part of the brim is _set_ nearly horizontal
from the base of the crown, it has two great advantages; the first of
which is, that it may be conveniently worn over a wig; and, secondly, if
worn _without_, the shirt collar is kept clean much longer than usual.
This Hat, to have its proper effect, should be placed on the head with a
strict _formality of set_, which in many persons will beget an air of
_importance_. N. B. The late Justice Addington generally wore a shallow.

                              THE COBURG.

FOR _style_ and _form_ has strong claims to favour; but, being rather
small in appearance, the wearer, to show to most advantage, should be
somewhat slender in his make, features not too prominent, and in stature
about five feet five to five feet ten, but neither _above_ nor _below_.
One great advantage attending this Hat is, that the shape of the
wearer’s _nose_ is not at all material, provided it be not of that class
known by the term “bottled.” It may be worn a little aside, but by no
means placed too far on the head, a failing very general among _country_

                              THE MARQUIS.

A well-proportioned Hat in every respect, and may, not inaptly, be
termed the _Universal_, as it becomes most persons who wear it; in point
of form, there is nothing of what may be called _character_ or
_singularity_ in its appearance, and has the rare property of giving to
the _wearer_ a sort of dignified affability, a courteous condescension,
together with an agreeable modesty, at least in _appearance_. It is
named after a certain nobleman, who has all the above qualities united,
although in the _prime of life_. To show to advantage on the head, this
Hat should not go lower than the tip of the ears, both of which it may
barely touch, unless the wearer has a short neck, in that case it must
be worn somewhat aside, touching one ear only, but by no means to be
_thrown back_.

                             THE ECCENTRIC.

_Unique_ in its way, strongly embodying the name in its _form_. This Hat
is particularly recommended to gentlemen (and many are to be found) who
hold their understandings libelled by acting, thinking, speaking, or
dressing like _other men_; but, it must be observed, that slender
persons with _dark_ countenances, and about the middle size, best become
these Hats: for, however eccentric a man would wish to appear, by
adopting any _peculiar_ mode of dress, he never can hope to succeed
unless nature has done a _little_ for him; it follows then of course,
that a tall or short man, if he be stout and well grown, with a fine
open florid countenance, cannot cleverly become an _Eccentric_; but an
_agreeable_ contorsion of the eye, a trifling disagreement in the
symmetry of the shoulders, or a slight _bias_ of the body _right_ or
_left_, are indescribable advantages in giving full effect to this Hat,
which may be worn a little on one side, with a gentle inclination over
the eyes, unless they are playing at cross purposes, in the event of
which it must be thrown quite back, to give effect to their _playful

                              THE REGENT.

A finely-formed and most decidedly elegant Hat: is somewhat upon a large
scale, the crown being upwards of seven inches high, much yeoman, with
an excellently turned and corresponding brim, producing together a happy
union of the nicest proportions: It is worn to most advantage by persons
whose height and bulk are above the common stature; not that it is meant
to be understood, that every athletic or robust form would _become_ a
Regent; on the contrary, there is not a shape in the whole catalogue
that demands in the wearer a greater share of _external requisites_ than
this; even the very _gait_ is concerned, which, to strike, should be
stately and firm, though easy, each step measuring exactly half the
length of the whole body—more would become an absolute _stride_—and less
a mere _strut_; than which nothing can be farther removed from graceful
_carriage_: Be it understood, also, that the Regent is most becoming
when placed a little on the _right_ side, but by no means to come
_within_ half an inch of the ear—unless the latter should exceed its
fair dimensions—in that case it were best hid altogether; but then, to
do this, the Hat is forced beyond the proper position, and what was
intended as ornament, becomes the very reverse: So circumstanced, the
Noble Lord, the Shallow, or the John Bull, might be worn to most
advantage; but when Nature has been a little attentive to the minuter
parts, as well as the greater proportions of manly exterior, the Regent
cannot fail to give additional dignity to the wearer; creating thereby a
combination of elegancies that must render his appearance absolutely

                               THE KENT.

A very gentlemanly Hat, and although there is not the dignity of the
Regent about it, there is, notwithstanding, much to admire: Indeed, the
scale of proportions are very similar in both; the only _real_
difference existing in the _crown_, which is about one-half of an inch
lower than the latter; and, in the _nautical phraseology_, may not
inaptly be termed a Regent cut down. It is very singular, and worth
remarking, that trifling as the Kent differs from the Regent in actual
measurement, the contrariety of effect, when on the head, is great and
striking; which unquestionably proves, that a very slight deviation from
a given rule will produce results more opposed to each other than the
deviation is to the rule itself. The style in which this Hat should be
worn is as follows:—if the head be of an _oval_ form, place it thereon,
as near as possible, in an horizontal position; but if a _round_ head
(which of all descriptions is most dreaded by a _castermonger_) let the
Hat be thrown a _little_ back, with a slight inclination on the side
most agreeable, which will tend to prevent its assuming that
_trencher_-like appearance too common from such causes. The _personal_
requisites suitable to the Kent, may be found on referring to the
Cobourg; with this difference, that, as the brim is of larger
dimensions, the wearer, if he pleases, may be six feet high.

                            THE CUMBERLAND.

THIS Hat, in outline and symmetry, is highly prepossessing, and will
always have a number of admirers. The formation, dimensions, and style
of the brim, are similar to the Regent and the Kent; but the crown is
_taper_ and much _shallower_ than either. It should be worn as nearly
horizontal as possible; and, if the wearer be of the middle stature, or
above, his bulk or countenance is immaterial.

                             THE VIS-A-VIS.

A remarkably STYLISH HAT, possessing great and _peculiar_ advantages
over most others, on which account its claims to patronage are of the
highest order. The brim, before as well as behind, being brought down
quite square, and almost in a perpendicular line with the crown itself,
gives the wearer an opportunity of observing things _en passant_, by a
sort of side-glance, without being _seen_ so to do; thus, it is well
adapted for gentlemen who would fain indulge in the most exquisite
admiration of the beauteous _fair_: but by reason of their extreme
_modesty_, shrink from the trial: There is, also, another and a very
important consideration, which cannot be allowed to pass unnoticed—it is
a well-known truth, that there are certain situations in life where the
falling into is not at all times to be avoided; the result of which is,
to create in the imagination, a perpetual apprehension lest some
villainous intruder should, in defiance of eloquence or inclination,
_compel_ the _acceptance_ of his official or rather _officious_
attendance: to counteract so dirty a custom, as well as to nip the
system in the very _bud_, this Hat is most admirably contrived—for by a
simple elevation of the hinder part, the front may be brought so far
over the face, as to form a complete shade for the countenance. Here
then is the attainment of two _great_ ends—modesty encouraged, and
impertinence restrained. Lastly, and not the least of its useful
purposes is, that should the introduction of the Vis-a-Vis become
general, those novel and graceful evolutions of the body, denominated
the _bend_, the _flutter_, and the _poke_, may be performed in a much
smaller space than usual, and without the least danger to the eyes,
which is greatly to be feared, when the distinguished votaries, in the
eager performance of these newly-imported civilities, are brought too
abruptly _face to face_.

Although there is much of the _dash_ in this Hat, it has,
notwithstanding, a sort of _sombre_ appearance, which calls on the
wearer for a _figure_ and _countenance_ to correspond; it is therefore,
if _ornamentally_ considered, recommended to such only, whose complexion
is of a darkish hue, visage long, not over bulky in person, and _above_
the middle size; but, if _usefully_ considered, all the nicer
distinctions must yield to imperious necessity.

                             THE PETERSHAM.

A connoisseur examining a fine painting, was asked by a bye-stander,
which part he most admired; his answer was, “_no part_.” “What!”
observed the other, “is it possible that so highly talented a production
as this is acknowledged to be, can have no merits in your estimation?”
To which the connoisseur replied—“Sir, a work so masterly in
execution—so striking in effect—so perfect in _all_ its parts, cannot be
truly estimated but as a _whole_.” Here, then, the _picture_ is the
_Petersham_—the _selection_ of beauties therein, the _difficulty_: To
get rid of which, be it sufficient to state, that the prominent feature
in this Hat is elegance of _style_, strongly visible in all its parts,
and each part in unison with the whole; which for _tonish_ and exquisite
_dash_ has no competitor. It will be seen, from what is here stated,
that, much as this Hat is capable of transfusing its _graces_ to the
wearer (and who can doubt it), some _little_ attention to _personal_
requisites is necessary—which, in stature, should be over five feet
seven, and not too lusty; countenance or complexion is of little
consequence; but the visage should be oval, such corresponding
uncommonly well with the fine _arched_ brim, which forms nearly
two-fifths of a circle; and, when tastefully placed on the head, with a
slight inclination over the face, so as to bring the _fore_ point on a
line with the _tip_ of the nose, such will be the result, that, whatever
difficulty may attend a just description of its astonishing effects, the
advantages to a wearer will most assuredly be FELT.

                              THE TILBURY.

THIS Hat is bold in appearance, but full of _character_: Indeed, there
is so much of the _whip_ in its general outline, that it can never, with
propriety, be worn but as a _driving_ Hat.

                              THE BANG-UP.

WHAT a pleasing reflection it is, all things considered, that near as
the human _form_ may approach to perfection, still that form is capable
of being _improved_ by ingenuity; but then, the difficulty is to decide
on what really _are improvements_: for instance, some will admire a fine
slope in the coat _skirts_, tapering off like the tail of a goose; some
(whether or no to catch the manners of a _hoyden_) will put on the
_frock_; others, again, admire the _pantaloon_; and many give a decided
preference to _inexpressibles_. But the _Bang-up_, as a Hat, is the very
master-piece of inventive taste, wherein all admiration must of
necessity _centre_, having not only in its general appearance a bold and
manly _front_, but a pleasing harmony of parts, all tending to produce
an agreeable union of _taste_ and _utility_; who then would mount the
“_box_” without being decorated with its chiefest ornament?

                             THE CLERICUS.

Police-Officers, Quack-Doctors, and Clergymen; this, it may be said, is
a strange assemblage of _characters_ to bring under _one head_, and some
may hold the _association_ to be a reflection on the _latter_, when in
truth the very _opposite_ is intended; in proof of which it is only
necessary to observe that, where the attainment of an object depends on
_outward show_, such contrivances will be resorted to as are best
calculated to secure the object in view; and the very _assumption_ of
the habit here spoken of by the “traps” and “quacks” of the day, is
evidence of the habit itself being in the _highest possible estimation_.
If taken in an _ornamental_ point of view, it would be no easy task to
decide on its merits; but if _usefully_ considered, the conclusion is
plain and easy. It is an admitted fact, that an idea of dignity cannot
embody itself with _little things_, hence the custom of wearing _large
wigs_, for such doubtless these Hats were originally intended, and for
this reason, the hinder part being drawn up with loops in two places, no
peruke, however large its dimensions, can receive the least injury; in
short, it may be worn under this Hat with as little discomfiture to the
_intricate friz_ as though it were absolutely on the very block itself:
here then is produced what may be termed a happy union of wisdom and
piety, inasmuch as it is allowed, when speaking of high legal
characters, that the _wisdom_ is in the _wig_, and by the same rule
(when Clericus is worn by a Divine) the _piety_ must be in the _Hat_.
The style of putting on will greatly depend on the size of the _peruke_,
without which it should never be worn, particularly if the hair be _lank
and black_.

                              THE BON-TON.

IN point of form and fine proportions, this Hat cannot fail to rank high
in general estimation. Its appearance very much resembles the
Wellington, or rather it is between the Wellington and the Marquis; and,
like the latter, there is that becoming _style_, which not only
_harmonizes_, but gives a _peculiar grace_ to the majority of its

                              THE BARONET.

THIS is a Hat highly respectable in appearance, and well suited to
gentlemen in the _decline_ of life; but as that is a state to which few
will acknowledge while there is a capability of _hobbling without a
crutch_, something definite had better be stated by giving the precise
age;—take it then at _fifty_, which will put all doubts at rest. The
reason for fixing on the Baronet, as suitable to those in declining
years, is its grave, reflecting, methodical cast, such as would seem to
say of the _wearer_—“Here is one that possesses a serenity of mind, an
easy indifference of disposition, a tranquillity of thought, which would
quietly disentangle itself from the vain, shadowy, fleeting desires of
this life, and leave no regret behind.” There are many other
recommendatory properties in this Hat, but those already particularized
are the most valuable; yes, _valuable_,—for it is a well-known fact,
that mankind are often made up of contrivance, that is, they frequently
give to _appearance_ the shape of _reality_;—and however strange the
doctrine may at first appear, it is nevertheless true, that the custom
is often attended with very _beneficial results_, inasmuch as by
_endeavouring_ to maintain an _apparent_ consistency between _habit_ and
_action_, the _propriety_ of doing right becomes so strongly impressed
on the mind, that the villainy of a bad practice is seen in its _worst
deformity_, and conscience, the unerring monitor of the mind, rides
triumphant over all. These are recommendations of no ordinary nature,
and such that will no doubt cause much inquiry after the _Baronet_. As
to growth or countenance, there is an old saying, that “beggars should
not be choosers;” and the wearer, if he becomes so from _necessity_,
will feel the propriety of leaving choice out of the question.


[Illustration: _Engraved for_ =Lloyd’s= _treatise on Hats._

_John Bull. The Cobourg. The Baron. Clericus. The New Dash. The Shallow.

The Cumberland. The Viz-a-viz. The Eccentric. The Wellington. A Noble
Lord. The Tandem.

The Marquis. The Tally-ho. The Bang-up. Baronet. The Paris Beau. The Bon

A bit of Blood. The Jolliffe. The Dandy. The Regent. The Irresistible.
The Petersham.

Designed by R. Lloyd, Hat Maker, No. 92, Newgate-Street._]


                             THE JOLLIFFE.

A mind which is struck, through the medium of sight, with impressions of
sublimity, will have those impressions strengthened in proportion as the
_magnitude_ of the object viewed is the greater, and as all things are
but great or small _comparatively_, it follows, of course, that bodies
of the same class, description, or affinity, which are _less_ than the
_largest_, must suffer, when brought into the scale of comparison with
their superiors: agreeably to these rules, the JOLLIFFE, whose
dimensions exceed all others, comes forward with strong claims to
patronage, for besides the importance with which it never fails to
strike every beholder, it is sure to convey a corresponding importance
to the WEARER. Here then are considerations which should not be trifled
with, particularly as the _assumption_ of a thing is often taken for the
thing itself—nay, are there not situations in life where _appearances_
become so vitally important that it would be little short of criminality
not to _put them on_? and where the attainment of great ends may be
insured by nothing more than a simple attention to the _formation_ of a
_Hat_, it would be worse than folly to neglect the means. Rightly taken,
what a multiplicity of persons might be benefitted by the above _hints_;
Princes, Peers, and Plenipotentiaries; Senators, State-ministers, or
Trading Politicians;—all—all may find their interest in the adoption of
the Jolliffe; and that these great personages may not plead ignorance as
to the manner in which it should be worn with the best effect, here
follow the proper instructions.

If a PRINCE, let it be _lightly_ placed on the head, and a little
_aside_, which _bespeaks a sort of cheerful approving_ confidence in
one’s own actions.—If a PEER, it should be worn in a firm horizontal
position, just covering half the forehead; which gives the appearance of
a wise and steady determination where great questions are agitated,
particularly when they become _self_ interesting.—If an AMBASSADOR, it
may be thrown a _little back_, inclining somewhat aside; such position
indicating a bold and careless indifference to all around, which will be
taken for granted that such could not arise from any other cause than a
total disregard for the _result_ of his mission; a practice, although
not often hit on, may have many advantages. As to the three _latter_
characters, their pursuits having all the same end—POPULARITY—let them
consult the style of the Prince, and remember that, in whomsoever
confidence has credit, popularity is sure to follow.


⸪ As the Jolliffe is not likely to be worn unless for _special
purposes_, to give an idea who would best become it is unnecessary.


                           THE FOUR-IN-HAND.

                   A modern-styled _whip_,
                   Howe’er he may dip
               Into fashion’s wide vortex his _pinions_,
                   To make a bold stand,
                   LLOYD’S prime _Four-in-Hand_
               Must cover his _upper dominions_.

                   For ease, form, and _set_,
                   The like never yet
               Was seen, at least so run opinions;
                   Then ye four-in-hand whips,
                   In your _jarvey_-like trips
               Take care of your _upper dominions_.


                     It measures, by rule,
                     Near three inches full
                 In the brim, with a crown wide at top;
                     Nor is there a _face_
                     But what it will _grace_,
                 If purchased at LLOYD’S _fancy shop_.


                            A BIT OF BLOOD.

The term itself naturally implies a something upon a _small_ scale,
which is the fact, and although there is nothing of that imposing
dignity of style in the above Hat, which characterizes the _Regent_, the
_Petersham_, &c. there is a _lively_, _animated_, and _vigorous_ fire in
all its features, that will not allow of any falling off in the general
comparison. To give a complete catalogue of the many VIRTUES belonging
to _a bit of blood_, would exceed the allotted limits; but it cannot be
amiss to detail a few of the more _prominent_, that all, whose
necessities may bear to the point, should be _benefitted_ by the
_wearing_: First then, it is admirably calculated for those who are
about to ask _favors_, such being more readily _granted_ when they seem
the _less wanted_, and no one could suppose that the _saucy_ animation
which would be so strongly visible under this Hat could make the
application from NECESSITY. Secondly, it will be of singular advantage
to _elderly gentlemen_ in pursuit of _young wives_, who nine times in
ten decide on the choice of a man from the _cock_—of his Hat. Thirdly,
(not that there is much need of it for such a purpose now-a-days) its
advantages for those that are tormented with _dunns_ are incalculable,
for, by being placed pretty firm on the head, inclining rather to one
side, at the same time assuming a sharp _erect_ position of the body, a
stern direction of the eye, and arms _a-kimbo_, the devil himself, in
the shape of a _creditor_, would hardly hazard the REPETITION OF A

_N. B._ No service to gentlemen of the _learned_ profession.







                    WITH PREFATORY REMARKS, &c. &c.


TURKS are said to assign as a reason for not wearing Hats, that they are
put together by _witchcraft_. There is certainly a great deal of
ingenuity in the practice, and some _effects_ produced whose _causes_
are as yet unexplained: but, with all due deference to these _turban
gentlemen_, it is presumed that they have objections beyond what is
above stated, some of which are as follows:—_First_, their country is
destitute of the most essential material—FUR. _Second_, the climate
being extremely sultry, stoves, irons, and scalding water are not likely
to become favourites. _Thirdly_, being compelled by their religion to
keep their heads _close shaved_, a Hat, above all human inventions,
would be the most ridiculous covering _they_ could adopt.

There are many opinions as to the time Hats were first invented, and,
very probably, all equally erroneous. Some carry the date as far back as
the foundation of Christianity, attributing the merit to St. Luke, of
whom it is said, that he, having tender feet, put a layer of hair or fur
between them and his sandals, in which situation friction and moisture
caused such an interweaving of particles, that the whole became strongly
united, or (technically called) FELTED. Whether the story, as applied to
Luke, be true or false, is immaterial; but that such did happen with
some one, is very likely; nor is it at all unlikely, but that an
occurrence of this kind did really give the first idea of Hat-making.
Having remarked thus much, I shall next proceed to state, what is not
the less true than surprising, which is, that of the various branches of
manufacture which this country is so highly distinguished for, none are
less understood than Hat-making; nay, there is not one person in fifty
who, if he were asked the question, could tell whether a Hat was or was
not a _woven_ substance; nor is there one in 500 but what suppose that
the _skin_ of a hare or rabbit is worked with the fur _attached_ to it,
as in the natural state; and, to form a correct judgment of the external
material, when manufactured, whether it be hair, wool, or beaver,
although many pretend, none are really competent but those _experienced_
in the _trade_.

To show the absurd notions some entertain on this matter, I state as a
fact, that I do not know a manufacturer or seller in the trade but what
has been applied to, by some one or other, to have a _Beaver_ Hat made
from a _hare_’s skin. Nay, I remember once offending a very good
customer, and a man not wanting for sense either, by an involuntary
burst of laughter, on his presenting the skin of a _French lap-dog_ for
the very same purpose.

It is no uncommon thing for persons who are on pretty good terms with
their capabilities to give opinions as to the _merits_ or _demerits_ of
a Hat; which opinions are as opposite to the true state of the case as
the sun’s rays to a state of darkness. I shall give an instance,
although a trifling one, of a very common error among persons who
_suppose_ themselves to have a knowledge of the subject, which is this,
if the picker has not a very good eye, some of the larger hairs will be
left in the Hat, and consequently the most _visible_; these are directly
termed “_grey hairs_,” when the truth is, that they are the _blackest_
in the whole composition; but being thicker than the general mass, they
receive a greater portion of _light_, which is mistaken for a grey
colour: an easy method of proving the fact is to pull one of these _grey
hairs_ from the Hat, and place it on a piece of white paper, the
_contrast_ will decide the question.

Again, whatever produces a glutinization of the NAP, is said to be the
effect of the stiffening; this is not true in every case, for it is
frequently owing to improper management in placing the Hat, when wet,
before a large fire, which should never be done; the better way is, if
very wet, to hang it up without brushing or wiping, and when dry it is
easily put to rights, by gently passing over a clothes brush: if only
slightly wet, wipe it with a handkerchief, and, when dry, it will brush
clean. But the great fault with most persons is to put on their Hats,
day after day, in the same _dirty state_ as when taken off at night;
from which it is natural to infer, that there must be a vast
accumulation of dirt; it is this dirt, when exposed to the rain, that
forms a sort of cement, or paste, having all the appearance of what is
commonly called “_gum_.”

Another proof of erroneous judgment—Profuse perspiration of the head is
what many are subject to; by reason of which, from the frequency of
wearing, and the _porosity_ of the Hat, there is a continual absorption
of moisture going on until it becomes completely _saturated_,
particularly in front, the consequence is, that the nap lies buried in a
greasy matter, which matter is also, but very inappropriately termed
_gum_ or _stiffening_, when in point of fact it is _neither_, for the
very same effect would, under the like circumstances, be produced, and
in much less time, if the Hat were not stiffened at all. The best remedy
for this is a piece of thin flannel under the leather, and that
frequently changed.

There is nothing so detrimental to a Hat as a severe exposure to rain on
the first, second, or even third time of wearing; for this reason, the
materials wherewith it is composed are in a manner quite _green_, and
require _seasoning_; to effect which it should be frequently put on in
dry weather. I have always found that a Hat, constantly worn for five or
six weeks _without being wet_, underwent every sort of hardship
afterwards with little or no injury, retaining at the same time its
beauty—form—and wearing _three times longer_ than it otherwise would
have done. It may be asked, why not, to prevent accidents, render the
Hat _water-proof_? that is, impervious to the action of either
atmosphere or rain. The thing is easy enough, I admit; but where there
is a choice of only _two evils_, it is always best to select the
_least_. We all know (or should know) that if a man were to enclose
himself, arms, legs, and body, in what is called an _oil-skin dress_,
and that drawn close round the neck, the whole tightly fitted to every
part of his person as a Hat is to the head, the most unpleasant
consequences would ensue; the cause why is obviously this, the
exhalations of the body, particularly in a state of exertion, would when
so _enclosed_, be either prevented from flying off, as nature requires,
or otherwise checked altogether; precisely so with the head if the
porosity of the Hat was destroyed, which it must be to resist
effectually the action of water. This deduction must be so clear and
self-evident that further reasoning is unnecessary. Another great
objection against water-proof _Hats_ is, that the ingredients made use
of for such purposes, when exposed to the sun’s heat, are so acted upon
as to cause a _decomposition_ of the colour, and nine times in ten, the
Hat, before it is half worn out, becomes any thing but what it was meant
to be.

It is astonishing to hear the number of qualifications a Hat is _said_
to have, and each as opposite to the other as it is possible for any two
things to be; some, for instance, maintain that it cannot be good unless
it is _light_, others again will decidedly condemn it for _being so_,
insisting that the chief recommendation is its being firm and _stout_.
All that is requisite to be observed on this, is that _weight_ has no
more to do with the _quality_ of a Hat, than the situation of prime
minister has to do with the cramming of turkies. A very inferior Hat may
be made _equally light_ with the most superior, and in both cases the
cost of manufacture will be less than if they were made _stout_.

The length of the beaver too is another point on which the difference of
opinion is often experienced; many are for very _short naps_, declaring
all others to be outrageously vulgar; but the majority of wearers seem
best pleased with _long_ naps, which always _take_ and _retain_ the best
_black_, while, on the contrary those that are very short never do. A
medium between the two is the most preferable.

Having stated thus much, I shall next proceed to explain in what way a
fine Hat is _made_, describing as accurately as possible the various
processes it undergoes, as also the materials with which it is composed,
the proportions of each as well as the quantity of work a man is capable
of doing, whether _maker_ or _finisher_, in a week, the amount of wages,
together with some of the curious regulations, by-laws, &c. &c. &c.

In the first place, as I shall have occasion to mention a few of the
_implements_ by name, a short description of them may not be amiss.

There is the BOW, which in form is not unlike what is used for playing
on a _double bass_, but in length and thickness is equal to a
constable’s staff; there is a bridge at each end, from one to the other
of which is tightly strung a stout line of _catgut_.

The HURDLE is situate in what is called the bow garret, and is a sort of
_table_, on which the _fur_ is bowed, or mixed, having the farther end
and sides enclosed to prevent the material from being blown away.

The BATTERY is somewhat like the hopper of a mill, in this is contained
the hot _liquor_, and is mostly constructed for eight men, _round_ which
they stand when _making_; the lower part is lead, the upper or working
part mahogany. All batteries are formed into divisions called PLANKS,
one of which is allotted to each man. There are many other little things
used by makers, but these three are all that deserve particular notice.

The first thing a maker looks for in the morning is the FUR, or raw
material, which is furnished to him by _weight_; the quantity being more
or less, according to the substance of the Hat required, and is in _two_
parcels, one of which contains the BEAVER, or napping; the other the
BODY (a proportionate scale of both will be seen hereafter). Thus
provided he takes it to the BOW GARRET; the materials for the body are
first placed on the hurdle, and the bow being hung at the centre for
support, is held in the left hand horizontally, so that the catgut may
come in contact with the fur; in the _right_ hand is placed a small
piece of stick, with a _nut_ at the end, and in this position the work
begins after the following manner. The _catgut_ of the bow (being first
placed in the midst of the _fur_) is pulled or struck with the knotted
stick, which produces, from a quick repetition of the stroke, a
continued _vibration_, this _vibration_ it is that causes a separation
or _flitting_ of the fur, at the same time mixing and cleansing it. This
operation is continued until such ends are fully attained. It is next
divided into _halves_, one of which is laid aside, and the other again
bowed over. In this second operation the workman contrives, partly by
bowing, and partly by a slight _wicker frame_, to bring the material
into an oblong form, and equal in size to a large sheet of cartridge
paper; this is called a BAT, and when done it is gently _pressed down_
by the _wicker_, after which a damp linen cloth is laid all over, and on
this again is placed a thick piece of dry HORSE HIDE; the workman now
begins to press hard on the hide for about five minutes; in the doing
this the fur adheres close to the damp cloth, into which it is _doubled
up_, and once more undergoes the pressure of the hand. Under this
operation (which is called BASONING) the _bat_ becomes _consolidated_,
and may be thrown, when taken out of the cloth, from one end of the
garret to the other without injury. The second half is next bowed,
formed into a _bat_, and _basoned_ as the first. This half _remains_ on
_the hurdle_, and a piece of _paper_, somewhat conical, is placed on it,
_over which_, and agreeable to the shape, the sides of the bat are
_doubled_. Here then is formed one half of the _body_, this is laid
aside, and the first bat is then put flat on the hurdle _on which_ the
one previously doubled is placed with its open part downwards; the lower
bat being transversely doubled over the top hat, forms a sort of
conical, or harlequin’s cap; in this state it is once more put into the
damp cloth, where it receives another hardening for the purpose of
uniting or _knitting_ both _bats_ together; after this it is folded into
the compass of _two hands_, ready for the _plank_. The next thing is the
_beaver_, or covering, which is bowed in _form_ to correspond with the
_body_, but has nothing to do with it in this stage.

Matters being completed thus far, this is called the _first process of
Hat-making_. The second commences as follows:—The workman having gone
from the bow garret to the making shop, takes his stand at the battery,
under which is a FIRE, for the purpose of heating the liquor;[1] into
this hot liquor the _body_ is quickly _immersed_, where it remains till
soaked through; it is afterwards laid on the _plank_ to _drain_ and
_cool_; this done, it is unfolded, gently rolled, turned at short
intervals in every direction, to prevent the sides uniting together; and
as the _liquor_ becomes _cold_ and rolled out, it is continually
supplied with _hot_ and fresh, by the sprinkling of a _brush_, which is
dipped in the _kettle_ for that purpose; under this operation, assisted
by the astringency of the _vitriol_, the body _shrinks_, and begins to
assume a tough _substance_. When it has shrunk to a _certain size_ (say
three-fifths, if to be _double_ covered), it is laid flat on the
_plank_, and the _first_ coat of _beaver_, as it comes from the _bow_,
is laid quite over it; the _brush_ is now dipped into the hot liquor,
the contents of which is sprinkled all over the _beaver_, directly
afterwards it is gently _patted down_ with the hot brush; here the body
is put into a _hair-cloth_, rolled in hot liquor, turned inside out,
rolled again until the _beaver_, is completely worked into the body;
when this is effected, it is in a fit state to receive the _second_
covering, which is put on as the first, the _working_, _turning_,
_patting_, and _rolling_ still continuing until it is reduced to a fit
dimension, the _beaver_ quite _clean_, and all together assuming a
closely _felted_, fine, solid piece of workmanship; after which it is
immediately _blocked_ in this same liquor, to the size wanted, and put
into a _stove_ to dry, from whence it is taken, and with a small fine
card the beaver is gently raised; without this, one half would lie
buried, and the beauty lost.—Here then is the complete PROCESS OF

Footnote 1:

  The liquor, which is always kept up to _scalding_ heat, is nothing
  more than clean soft water, with a wine glass of _vitriol_, and a
  small quantity of beer dregs thrown in. The first is to _shrink_ the
  body of the Hat in working; the other to destroy the _pernicious_
  effect of the vitriol.

It is next sent to the DYER from whom it passes to the FINISHER, who,
after stiffening, blocking, and _half_ finishing, sends it to be picked,
which is performed by a woman, whose place it is to pull out the _kemps_
or thick hairs, without injuring the beaver,[2] although that is not
always accomplished. From the _picker_ it returns to the finisher who,
by the IRON and velvet cushion, gives it those highly brilliant and
admired beauties that an English Hat is so pre-eminently distinguished
for. The shaper next takes it in hand, who is guided in his operations
by the _fancy_ of the wearer, if bespoke, which is sometimes a little
_whimsical_. After shaping, it goes to the _trimmer_, from whom it is
returned to the TIPPER OFF; he gets it ready for wearing; it is then
sent to its destination, when the master, if he is _fortunate_, puts the
amount into his pocket.[3]

Footnote 2:

  It has frequently been asked, why not make a Hat with _beaver only_,
  the answer is, there is not sufficient _stamina_ or strength in it to
  become a sound _felted_ substance. It would be worse than building a
  _brick_ house without _mortar_ or some sort of cement, to bind the
  whole together.

Footnote 3:

  Some have payment _before_-hand, which brings out the following old,
  but very foolish saying, “there are but _two_ bad paymasters, _he_ who
  pays beforehand, and _he_ who _never_ pays.” How the latter can be a
  _paymaster_ requires some little ingenuity to determine.



                            LAWS AND CUSTOMS


                          JOURNEYMEN HATTERS.

                       [Illustration: Decoration]

TO enter _fully_ into the various regulations and forms that the
“_trade_” have, from time to time, instituted and acted upon, would of
itself fill a volume; all that can be done then in this small work will
be to give the best possible outline of such matters as are most likely
to interest those who may wish for information on the subject. The most
important laws of this trade are these:—

_First_—No man shall work as a _maker_ or _finisher_, unless he has
served an apprenticeship of seven years to what is called a “_fair

_Second_—To be a fair master, and entitled, according to the rules of
the trade, to take an apprentice, he must have manufactured his _own
Hats_, seven years prior to the _taking_, or otherwise have served a
fair seven years’ apprenticeship himself to the trade.

_Third_—Whether there be one, two, or more in a manufacturing firm, that
firm are not to have more than two apprentices at one time.

_Fourth_—There are a number of masters who do not manufacture their own
“_stuff_,” but are employed by “_Great Houses_,” who, although they have
a right, by law, to take apprentices, yet those apprentices, by reason
of their masters not working their _own materials_, are never admitted
to stand by the side of _fair men_, on which account they must ever
continue _foul_, and debarred of the usual privileges, or submit to a
_second_ apprenticeship. This is a case that frequently occurs; indeed
it is no uncommon thing to see a man with a wife and half a dozen
children, himself near thirty years old, serving a second apprenticeship
for a fair time; the hardship of this must be admitted, inasmuch as it
is punishing a man for a fault he never committed.

_Fifth_—A _foul man_ is one that has not served his apprenticeship
agreeably to the rule of the trade, or has been guilty of some act
detrimental to the _supposed_ interests of the journeymen in general.
These are called “KNOBSTICKS.”

_Sixth_—A fair man has the privilege of what is called “_turns upon
tramp_,” that is, if he cannot obtain work in the town where he resides,
or has an inclination to _travel_, he may journey or _tramp_ to the
next; should any of the _fraternity_ be there, and he wishes to get
“_shopped_” he is “_asked for_” by one in that factory, (no man being
allowed to ask for himself), if unsuccessful, there are two night’s
lodging for him, two pots of strong beer, bread and cheese, and a
shilling or two to forward him to the next town. The _money turn_ in
London is five shillings, but no man is entitled to a _second_ turn in
one place, until after the expiration of six months from his receiving
the first.

_Seventh_—If a journeyman has, by his own act, become _foul_, nothing
can absolve him but submitting to a _fine_, and this is measured
according to the offence, which, in some _heinous_ cases, such as
“_creeping_” into favour with the master, or going to work when all the
rest have struck for wages, is as high as ten guineas.

There are three distinct courts for the examination and punishment of
offenders. The _first_, or High Court of CONGRESS, is a sort of general
assembly, composed of either Makers or Finishers, just as their separate
interests may be concerned; but on all joint questions these parties
form a _junction_. In this court matters of importance only are
discussed; as, for instance, the _advance of prices_, the abrogation of
old laws, and the making of new ones, under the _operation_ of which, it
sometimes happens that both men and masters, as well as the law of the
land, are alike the victims. The _fines_ levied in this court are
appropriated to special and “STRIKING” purposes, often tending to
produce a “COMBINATION” of interesting effects. The masters too are not
wholly exempt from these pretty little combinations, which, however, do
not always realize or carry their intended _point_; this is owing (it is
thought) to the vast affection journeymen bear towards their employers;
indeed so much so, that they cannot bear the _latter_ should “LOWER”

There is a court below this, which is formed by taking one or two men
from the seven _nearest_ shops. Their sitting, if not _public_, is sure
to be in a _public-house_, president, _Sir John Barleycorn_. The matters
chiefly brought here are those that relate to the misconduct of
journeymen towards each other in the same factory, and which cannot be
settled where they originated. This is called “DOZENING,” and their
power of FINE extends to two guineas, which is drank in good old stout
by the whole seven shops; but as all _dry_ subjects are prohibited in
this tribune, the extent of fine greatly depends on the state of the
weather; so that if it be a sultry summer’s day, the punishment of an
offender is in proportion to the _sun’s heat_.

The third and lowest _court_ is an assembly of shop-mates only, this
meeting is called a “GARRET MATCH,” and may be demanded for the
punishment of an aggressor, by any aggrieved man in a factory. Power of
fine from two to ten shillings.

I have before stated that there are in this trade _foul_ men; in point
of number they constitute about one-sixth part of the whole; but their
earnings, or price of labour is the same as the fair trade.

A journeyman finisher in full work will earn, on an average, from three
to four pounds a-week; while, on the contrary, a maker cannot get more
than _fifty shillings_. This is a subject of much jealousy and
discontent; nor is it likely to be otherwise, unless the latter can
raise himself to an equality with the former; against this there are
many obstacles, one of which is, the _increasing_ foul trade, who would
continue working, even though the fair men had “_struck_.” Another is,
that they could never obtain the co-operation of the finishers, who,
being amply paid themselves, think it best to leave well alone.

These are the _principal regulations_ which govern journeymen hatters,
whether they have a good or a bad tendency is questionable; there are
many in the _trade_ who decidedly condemn them, giving as their reasons,
that they encourage idleness, tippling, and endless squabbles.
_Idleness_—inasmuch as when men are summoned to discuss the most
trifling matters, even though the meeting be at five o’clock in the
morning, they seldom feel _disposed_ to return to their work that day.
_Tippling_—for the reason that, as _fines_ are mostly spent in _drink_,
the conviction of a supposed offender is generally _thirsted_ after; but
as the quantum levied seldom suffices, all further supplies for the
remainder of the day are met by individual subscription. In these cases
there is no show of niggardliness, as every succeeding gallon of the
“_sparkling entire_,” is but an _internal_ messenger, bearing the glad
tidings of another to come. _Squabbles_, because it is natural, when the
_desire_ for a thing is once created, and the gratification of that
desire (where nothing of criminality attaches) can be indulged, by
having recourse to a little contrivance, that the opportunity of so
doing should be more frequently _made_, than suffered to approach
accidentally; which will account for the _trifling magnitudes_ that are
allowed to agitate shops and factories in general. The arguments in
_favour_ of these laws are, that without them, apprentices would be
careless in serving out their _time_, the trade over-run with bad
workmen, hats greatly deteriorated in the manufacture, the excellence of
which is their chief recommendation in a foreign market, and the surest
guarantee of the master’s profits at home.

Having given the _contending_ opinions, in reference to the laws of this
trade, I shall say a word or two concerning the shape, and manner of
placing a hat on the head.


                                 ON THE

                            SHAPE AND STYLE


                             WEARING A HAT.

THERE is no part of a man’s dress that _makes_ or _mars_ his appearance
so much as his hat; not that it is its striking beauty when new, or a
want of it when old, that is most materially concerned in producing
either of the above effects; the grand point is the FORM, and the
position which it is made to assume on the head; yet how few there are
who give the least attention to either, except indeed military men, and
they in general are uncommonly tasty, affording the best example of the
precise style in which a hat should be worn. It is no less singular than
true, that the same hat, by being placed on the head in different
positions, will give, in _appearance_, as many distinct _characters_ to
the _same person_ as the number of those positions amount to. The most
striking are as follows:—_sullenness_—_indolence_—_gravity_, and _good
humoured impudence_. To give the first, draw the brim of the hat so far
over the eyes that they shall be quite concealed. The second is produced
by the hat being thrown quite back. The third by a prim _horizontal_
set, covering equally all parts of the head; and the fourth will not be
easily mistaken wherever an _extravagant cock_ on either side is brought
full into view. These are undoubtedly all _extreme_ habits, and seldom
pushed to the extent here described; yet a slight inclination to either
position may, under circumstances, have a very good effect.

There is another bad custom that ought to be noticed, which I shall do
by first observing, that a hat was intended solely to keep the head
_dry_—ON which it should be worn; but many seem to differ from this
opinion, using it as a sort of NIGHT-CAP wherein is thrust head, ears,
and all. This is a most slovenly practice, as well as a dangerous one,
inasmuch as it tends to keep the head in a continual and _forced_ state
of perspiration, rendering a liability to “_take cold_,” every time the
hat is removed. Yet even this habit is not so bad as sticking the hat on
the _back_ of the head, which, of all others, is the most general, and
carries with it the greatest impropriety, because such a position not
only destroys the shape, but by lodging on the coat collar, the hind
part, from _friction_, becomes greasy, and the binding is always in a
state of raggedness; added to these disadvantages, a most ridiculous
effect is produced by the practice, that is, the head in _appearance_ is
converted into a sort of _peg_, AGAINST which the hat seems to _hang_,
instead of being placed _upon_. A man who indulges in so bad a custom,
should at least preserve a _consistency_ in his dress by walking “slip
shoed,” breeches knees open, and without braces, stockings down,
waistcoat unbuttoned, cravat half tied, one arm only in his coat sleeve,
and at least a six months’ uncombed crop of hair about his pericranium;
here he would be of a piece; and grotesque as such a figure must appear,
by a general adoption of these “captivating negligencies,” there is no
greater inconsistency in the whole catalogue than that of wearing a hat
on the _back part_ of the head.

As to the _form_ of a hat, and what is best for _this face_ or _that
person_, there is more in it than what is generally supposed, and a
great deal might be said on the subject; but to talk of a _standard
fashion_ is absurd in the extreme, in proof of which it need only be
observed, that if very large hats were adopted, a thin man of five feet
high, would, by the wearing, become as complete a caricature, as a
twenty stone man of six feet would by wearing a very small one. The best
fashion a man can follow in a hat is that which best becomes him, and
various as heads, faces, and persons may be, all things are now
accomplished (so far as a hat is concerned) that can either _fit_ the
one or ornament the other,

          By the Head’s sincere friend,

                     and well-wisher,

                                R. L.


  _Furs used in a Hat of fine quality, according to the present improved
    system of making, their proportions, value, cost of manufacture, &c.

                             FOR THE BODY.

                                            s. d.  per oz.      s. d.
  4 oz. of seasoned coney wool,             1  0     ..         4  0
  ½ oz. red wool                            2  4     ..         1  2
  ¼ oz. of silk                             0  9     ..         0  4½

                           FOR THE COVERING.

                                            s. d.  per oz.      s. d.
  1 oz. of prime seasoned beaver            8  6[4]  ..         8  6
  Journeyman’s wages for making[5]                              3  6
  Dyeing                                                        0  8
  Stiffening, finishing, and picking                            1  8
  Cost of lining, finding, band, and box                        2  6
  Sewing in of ditto                                            0  6
                                                            £1  2 10½

Footnote 4:

  No hat can be good, or well covered, with less than one ounce of prime
  beaver; and, small as the quantity is, there was a time when
  journeymen makers (catching the custom of their betters, and by way of
  tythe) thought it no sin to appropriate a part of this material to
  their _own use_; but, for the credit of the _trade_ be it said, the
  practice is long since abolished, and a man attempting it at the
  present day would be scouted from the factory where he worked, by
  every honest journeyman therein.

Footnote 5:

  The average week’s work of a _maker_ is about ten hats; that of a
  _finisher_, from five to six dozen.

Such is the cost of materials and labour at the present period; it is
true that the above scale is drawn from “credit prices;” but let every
part of a manufacturing concern be carried on for money only, which is
rarely the case, still the deduction from the _whole_ cannot be more
than 7½ per cent. All substitutes for the above _materials_ are
decidedly condemned; nor can their _quantities_, as here stated, be
lessened, without injury to the remainder. Here then is sufficient
evidence that a fine hat must, under the most favourable circumstances,
stand the manufacturer in upwards of twenty-one shillings, yet many
_assume_ a capability of _retailing_ such an article at less even than
the charge of manufacture.


_A General List of_ Lloyd’s _Fashionable Hats, invented, manufactured,
    and sold by him, at his Warehouse, 92, Newgate-Street, London._

            The John Bull    │   The Bang-up
            The Wellington   │   The Jolliffe
            The Tandem       │   Clericus
            The Tally-Ho     │   The Bon-Ton
            The Shallow      │   The Baronet
            The Coburg       │   The Four-in-Hand
            The Marquis      │   A Bit of Blood
            The Eccentric    │   The Baron
            The Regent       │   A Noble Lord
            The Kent         │   The New Dash
            The Cumberland   │   A Paris Beau
            The Esquire      │   The Brutus
            The Vis-a-Vis    │   The Exquisite
            The Petersham    │   The Irresistible
            The Tilbury      │   The Pic Nic
            The Count        │   The Viscount
            The Medium       │   And the Dandy.


If the foregoing treatise to be judged by the _letter_ and not the
_spirit_—have mercy reader.

RULES FOR MEASURING A HAT.—Take the circumference on the _outside_,
where the band is fixed, in inches. The breadth of brim and depth of
crown as wanted.


                     _Entered at Stationer’s Hall._



 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ The original caption for the illustration of hat styles was almost
      illegible. It was replaced in the illustration by typed-in text in
      a similar typeface.
    ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was corrected.
    ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
    ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
      when a predominant form was found in this book.
    ○ Text in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_); text in
      bold by “equal” signs (=bold=).

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