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Title: Girls and Athletics - Giving a summary of the activity, rules and method of - administration etc. etc.
Author: Spalding, Thomas Alfred
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration:

  A. G. SPALDING & BROS.
  TRADE
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]


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  _Gentlemen:_

  _Enclosed please find $----
  for which send me the articles listed below_:

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SPALDING ATHLETIC LIBRARY


SPALDING OFFICIAL ANNUALS

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  No. 226 How to Play Second Base

  No. 227 How to Play Third Base

  No. 228 How to Play Shortstop

  No. 229 How to Catch

  No. 230 How to Pitch

         { How to Organize a Base Ball League
         {
         { How to Organize a Base Ball Club
         {
  No.    { How to Manage a Base Ball Club
    231  {
         { How to Train a Base Ball Team
         {
         { How to Captain a Base Ball Team
         {
         { How to Umpire
         {
         { Technical Base Ball Terms

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  No. 65R. How to Wrestle

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  No. 16R. Team Wand Drill

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  No. 67R. Exercises on the Side Horse: Exercises on the Flying
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  =Group XVI.=                                         =Home Exercising=

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  No. 185 Hints on Health

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  No. 9R. How to Live 100 Years

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  No. 51R. 285 Health Answers

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  No. 62R. The Care of the Body

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[Illustration: MARY C. MORGAN.]



  SPALDING’S ATHLETIC LIBRARY
  Group X No. 69R


  GIRLS AND ATHLETICS

  Giving a brief summary of the activity, rules and
  method of administration of the following games
  in girls’ schools and colleges, women’s clubs, etc.

  ARCHERY, BASKET BALL, CRICKET, FENCING,
  FIELD DAY, FIELD HOCKEY, GYMNASTICS, GOLF,
  HAND BALL, ICE HOCKEY, INDOOR BASE BALL,
  ROWING, SOCCER, SKATING, SWIMMING, TENNIS,
  TRACK ATHLETICS, VOLLEY BALL, WALKING,
  WATER POLO, WATER BASKET BALL

  EDITED BY
  MARY C. MORGAN
  of Lansdowne Country Club
  Philadelphia
  (A Member of the Class of 1915, Bryn Mawr College)

  PUBLISHED BY
  AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY
  21 WARREN STREET, NEW YORK

  COPYRIGHT, 1917
  BY
  AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY
  NEW YORK



Contents


  PUBLISHERS’ NOTE                                                     5

  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                      6

  GIRLS AND ATHLETICS                                               7-10

  FIELD HOCKEY                                                     11-33

      THE GAME, 12; the team as a whole, 13; how to
      hold stick, 13; passing, 14; dribbling, 15; the bully,
      16; shooting goals, 16; positions of team, 16-20.

      THE REGULATIONS--Field, 23; goals, 23; striking
      circle, 24; dress, 24; stick, time, score, officials, 25.

      RULES--I., governing bully, 26-27; II., for
      goal, 27; III., for sticks, 28; IV., for free hit, 28-29;
      for out of bounds, 29-30; VI., for undercutting, 31;
      VII., for offside, 31; VIII., running in on the left,
      31; IX., turning on the ball, 31-32; X., handling, 32;
      XI., kicking, 32; XII., rough play, 32; XIII., time-out,
      32-33; XIV., umpire, 33.

  BASKET BALL                                                      34-39

      The game, 34-39; matches, 39.

  GYMNASTICS                                                       40-46

      Floor work, 41-42; apparatus work, 42-45; meet or
      exhibition, 45-46.

  TRACK ATHLETICS                                                  47-63

      REQUIREMENTS AND EXPLANATIONS--Track, 49;
      distances to be run, 49; distances and arrangement of
      hurdles, 50; list of junior and senior track events,
      50-51; jumping pits, 51-52; circle for putting the shot,
      52.

      EVENTS--Sprinting, 53-54; the start, 54-55;
      hurdling, 55-56; running broad jump, 57; standing broad
      jump, 57-58; running hop, step and jump, 58; running high
      jump, 58-59; standing high jump, 59; pole vault, 59-60;
      shot put, 60; basket ball throw, 61; base ball throw, 61;
      hurl ball throw, 61; javelin throw, 61-62; discus throw,
      62.

  HOW TO CONDUCT A TRACK MEET                                      64-67

  FIELD DAY                                                        68-69

  WALKING                                                          70-72

      Tramps or hikes, 71-72; competitive walking, 72.

  GOLF                                                             73-78

  SKATING                                                          79-81

  ICE HOCKEY                                                       82-84

  ROWING                                                           85-89

      The stroke, 85-86; racing, 86-88; paddling, 88-89.

  TENNIS                                                           90-96

      The court, 90; the game, 90-95; matches or tournaments,
      95-96.

  CRICKET                                                         97-100

      The game, 97-99; as played at Smith College, 100.

  SOCCER                                                         101-107

      The game, 101-105; rules, 105-107.

  ARCHERY                                                        108-112

      The bow and arrow, 108-109; the aim and draw, 109-110;
      games, 110-111; tournament, 111; score, 111-112; clubs,
      112.

  INDOOR BASE BALL                                               113-117

      The game, 113-114; rules, 114-117.

  AMERICAN HAND BALL                                             118-120

      The game, 118-119; rules, 119-120.

  IRISH HAND BALL RULES                                          121-122

  FENCING                                                        123-128

      How to hold the foil, 124; on guard, 125; parries,
      126-127; attack, 127-128.

  SWIMMING                                                       129-139

      Breast stroke, 130-131; side stroke, 131-132; trudgeon,
      132-133; crawl, 133; plain back stroke, 133-134;
      floating, 134; plunge for distance, 134-135; diving,
      135-136; the racing turn, 136; treading water, 137;
      swimming meets, 137-138; all-around swimming test, 139.

  WATER BASKET BALL AND WATER POLO                               140-148

      WATER BASKET BALL--The game and rules, 141-143.
      WATER POLO--The game, 143-144; rules, 144-148.

  VOLLEY BALL                                                        149

  PHILADELPHIA HOCKEY LEAGUE                                     150-151

  ACTIVITY OF MISSOURI COLLEGES                                  152-153

  GIRLS’ BRANCH OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS ATHLETIC LEAGUE            154-155

  INTERCOLLEGIATE ALUMNAE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION                   156-157



Publishers’ Note


Miss Mary C. Morgan, who has been chosen to edit the volume, “_Girls
and Athletics_” is an all-around athlete of remarkable ability. As
a student at Friends Central School, Philadelphia, and at Bryn Mawr
College Miss Morgan played on basket ball, track, water polo, and field
hockey teams and participated in the gymnastic events. At Bryn Mawr
she held the individual cup in 1913 and 1914 for the highest number of
points in the Interclass Track and Field meet. On the track she shares
the world’s record for women of 12 seconds in the 100-yard dash and
she holds the world’s record of 15-2/5 seconds in the 100-yard hurdle
race of eight hurdles each 2 feet 6 inches high. Both of these records
were made on cinder track with rubber-soled shoes in the cumbersome
bloomer and jumper costume (cumbersome as compared to the scanty attire
of male track and field athletes). Miss Morgan also shares the Bryn
Mawr College record of 6-1/5 seconds for the 50-yard dash and holds the
college record for the standing broad jump--7 feet 9 inches.

  AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING CO.



Acknowledgments


The editor is very much indebted to the following persons for their
kind interest and assistance: Miss Harriet Ballintine, Director of
Physical Training at Vassar College; Mr. Philip Bishop, Instructor in
Gymnastics at the Haverford School and Advisory Swimming Coach at Bryn
Mawr College; Dr. Frances Boynton of the New Haven Normal School of
Physical Training; Miss Elizabeth Burchenal, Executive Secretary of
the Girls’ Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League, New York, and
to the committee of the League: Dr. Florence Gilman of Smith College;
Miss Josephine Katzenstein, a member of the Lansdowne Country Club and
the All-Philadelphia Hockey teams; Miss Lorena L. Parrish, Physical
Director of Howard Payne College; Miss Lillian Schoedler, Honorary
President of the Intercollegiate Alumnæ Athletic League; Miss Dorothy
Wooster of Smith College, and Mr. A. M. Gillam.

The editor also wishes to thank the schools, colleges and country clubs
who so kindly replied to the _questionaire_ sent out.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Spalding’s Official Athletic Handbooks (American Sports
    Publishing Company, New York).

    Official Handbook of the Girls’ Branch of the Public Schools
    Athletic League, New York. Handbook of Athletic Games (Bancroft
    and Pulvermacher; Macmillan, New York). A Survey of Track
    Athletics for Women (Reprinted from the American Physical
    Education Review, January, 1916). Dr. Harry E. Stewart, Physical
    Director New Haven (Conn.) Normal School of Gymnastics.



Girls and Athletics

BY MARY C. MORGAN.


In gathering information for this volume a _questionaire_ was sent to
some three hundred schools and colleges. Replies were received from
two hundred and thirty-seven of these. Of this number only one school
went on record as opposed to athletics for girls and women. All of the
others make provision for athletics or some form of physical education.
Some schools provide little or no supervision, it is true, but the
great majority provide for or realize the necessity for provision of
adequate control of this form of training.

The impression one receives from scanning the replies to the
_questionaire_ is undoubtedly that general athletics for girls are
becoming more and more popular, and that development is slowly but
surely broadening out to include eventually almost every form of
athletics for almost every girl.

From the physical standpoint, any exercise under favorable
circumstances is beneficial in that it develops and brings into play
the muscles of the body and stimulates the whole system. But all forms
of athletics should be carefully supervised, particularly for growing
girls. Every participant should have a thorough physical examination
and if any limitations are placed upon her athletics, the reasons for
such restrictions should be carefully explained. It is natural that
some people are more delicate than others--absolutely unfit for some
of the more strenuous games--but there are always less strenuous
exercises which may be indulged in.

The physical condition being assured, the girl should be watched
so that she does not enter into the sports or games with too much
intensity. It is a common tendency of the average American girl to
throw her whole soul into the particular matter at hand. If it happens
to be athletics, often her enthusiasm helped out by a thoroughly
admirable spirit and by quite a lot of “grit”--as her brothers term
it--keeps her playing when she is really tired out physically. This is
the time where a coach--or if there is no coach, friendly advice--will
show the girl that she is not getting any benefit out of the exercise,
and she is running the risk of injuring herself.

This excess is as wrong in athletics as it is in anything else. Be
temperate.

My advice to every girl is: Know your physical condition; use common
sense and gauge the amount of exercise you take by your physical
condition and stamina.

Athletics as a builder of character _are_ just as important as a
builder of physical strength. _Fair play_ and _good sportsmanship_
are the two maxims kept constantly before the eye. A girl who has won
the reputation of being a clean, square player is happy herself and
is admired by all with whom she comes in contact. There is no higher
compliment than to be called a “good sportswoman.” A girl who can lose
and smile, or win and not exult over her opponent’s defeat, is quite
apt to get something bigger than mere physical development out of her
athletics.


Training

A few girls have asked me, “How can I learn to play this or that game
well?” Athletics are just like almost every phase of life; it requires
practice and experience before one becomes skilled. If, then, a girl
wishes to be successful it is best to make a thorough study of the
branch of sport she is going to take up and practice, assimilating each
detail carefully. The amount of time it takes to become proficient
depends upon the natural ability of the person--some people are much
more talented in athletics than others.

The best advice I can give is to know your game thoroughly, so that
you may play with your head as well as your body. Practice until you
have confidence in your ability. Do not practice so constantly and
continually that you become “stale.” A little practice taken regularly
is often more beneficial than a lot of practice which tires you out so
that you are unfit for more the next day. Do a little bit, so that you
are not tired, increasing the practice slowly.

Some people believe in set training rules; others do not. It is best
to be in good physical condition all the time if it is possible; it
stands to reason, however, that for especial speed and endurance the
physical condition should be nearly perfect. Sleep is a very necessary
factor; therefore, every athlete should have a long and sound sleep
every night. As for diet, there is a difference of opinion. It seems
reasonable that no heavy food, nor rich food that is indigestible,
should be eaten. In particular, just before a contest, a light meal
should be eaten with the proper time for digestion allowed before
playing. Some people make the mistake of eating heavily and then
playing immediately afterward. The most sensible training seems to be,
eat the most nourishing and easily digested food.


What to Wear

Dress sensibly. For track and field games, basket ball and other games
that require speed, agility and the freest play of all muscles, by
all means wear bloomers and a middy blouse. For tennis, golf and the
other less strenuous games, wear shirtwaist or middy blouse and a skirt
wide enough and short enough to give the most play of the leg muscles.
For instance, there is nothing so ridiculous as to see a girl athlete
togged with more regard for the impression she is making on the male
part of the gallery than for getting the most physical benefit out of
her game. I have great sympathy for every girl who takes pride in her
appearance at all times. I maintain that it is both possible to present
a neat and an agreeable appearance and at the same time to dress
sensibly for the business at hand. In each of the following chapters
on the various forms of sports I have endeavored to say a word about
dress specifically for that sport, unless it is evident what costume
is suitable. Back of it all I will repeat this fundamental: Dress
sensibly.



Field Hockey


Field hockey, next to basket ball, is the most popular team game
played by girls; and it is a comparatively new game here, as it has
been played in America only since 1901. Miss Harriet Ballintine,
Director of Physical Training at Vassar College, in her pamphlet, “The
History of Physical Training at Vassar College,” gives an account of
the beginning of hockey in America: “Until 1901, English field hockey
was comparatively unknown in this country. Before this it had been
played by men at the Springfield Training School, and to some extent
at Mount Holyoke College. Dr. J. H. McCurdy of the Springfield School
in writing of the game says: ‘The men at Springfield first played the
game of field hockey in 1897. Regarding where field hockey was first
played in this country (by girls), the girls at Mount Holyoke College
had begun playing the game, I think, before Miss Applebee’s arrival in
this country. They had been down to a number of our championship games.
Arrangements had been made for some of our students to coach the Mount
Holyoke girls in hockey, when I found Miss Applebee was in this country
and recommended their getting her.’”

Many hockey players owe their interest in the game to Miss Applebee,
notable for her inspiring coaching and the knowledge of hockey that she
has imparted to her pupils.

To the devotees of this game, there is no other sport that quite
comes up to it. In a game of hockey there is a spirit of freedom, of
exhilaration, of gladness that comes from a true love of sport. And it
has other advantages--absence of roughness, plenty of vigorous exercise
in the open air, and yet not extraordinarily violent. It is a game that
may be played by all types; a game that is played by a large number on
each team.


THE GAME.

Hockey is played on a level field of turf similar to a football or
lacrosse field. There are eleven players on each team, thus there are
twenty-two players on the field at one time. Each player is equipped
with a stick with a curved head. A cricket ball is used. The eleven
players are divided into groups: forwards, halfbacks, fullbacks and
goal. Each group calls for a different type of player. The teams line
up (according to illustration) in the center of the field. The forwards
are the attackers, whose duty it is to advance the ball into their
opponents’ territory and score a goal (Rule II). The halfbacks assist
the forwards in attacking and with the fullbacks and goal keeper defend
their own goal.

The umpire blows the whistle and the game begins with the two center
forwards bullying. The ball has been placed in the middle of center
line, the center forwards stand with one foot on each side of center
line directly opposite each other, right shoulder toward their own
goal. (See Rule for Bully.) After the bully is completed, the ball hit
out, then play commences. The forwards of the team in possession of
the ball rush it down toward the opponents’ goal and try to shoot a
goal while the opposing defense tries to prevent any score. Each time
the ball is fairly hit over the goal line, one point is made by team
scoring goal. Two halves, length of which is agreed upon by captains,
are played. The team scoring the greatest number of goals by the end of
second half wins the game.


THE TEAM AS A WHOLE.

The main factor in hockey is team play. There may be one or two
players of stellar ability on the team, but if the team does not play
well together it is not well balanced. It is not an individual but
eleven individuals welded together that form a team. Every girl should
consider--when playing hockey--that her stick is her best friend;
therefore it should be chosen carefully and with due consideration.
There are three important qualities a stick should have: balance,
weight and length. The balance should be even, not in the handle, but
more in the curved head of stick; not too heavy there however. The
weight of the stick should be 21 or 22 ounces for a forward, 23 or 24
for a halfback, 24 or 25 for a fullback or goal keeper. Never carry a
stick that is too heavy. The stick should be just long enough for a
comfortable grip. It should be neither too long nor too short.


HOW TO HOLD STICK.

The stick should be firmly held in both hands, with the left hand
gripping the handle at the end (top) of stick with the fingers forward;
the right hand grips the stick directly below the left hand, touching
but not overlapping the left hand. The hands should never be separated
because this tends to make a player stoop over, thus losing in strength
of stroke. At the beginning of the stroke, the stick should be carried
back toward the right (the right arm must be kept straight to avoid
“sticks”--a foul, see Rule III) until the left arm is straight; then
the stick should be carried forward, striking ball squarely. At the
finish of the stroke, the right arm should still be kept straight and
the end of stick turned in (i.e., toward body) and down to avoid making
“sticks” at end of stroke.

While the stick is not in use or while player is running it should be
carried in both hands horizontally at comfortable height, as long as it
is below the shoulder.

Let us consider the forward line. It is made up of five positions:
left wing, left inside, center forward, right inside, right wing.
Players for these positions should be selected for the following
qualifications: ability to run with average speed; ability to shoot
hard, clean goals; endurance and wind necessary for constant sprints.
It is up to the forwards to keep the ball in the opponents’ territory;
for this, there are two ways of advancing the ball--passing and
dribbling.


PASSING.

Passing, since it is less individual and makes for more team play,
should be ranked first. There are short and long passes. The short are
generally quick passes between a forward and her nearest teammate, that
is, between an inside and center or between an inside and wing. The
long pass is across the center from the left side of the field to the
right, or _vice versa_. All passes should be quick, clean and accurate.
Here are a few things to avoid: Don’t pass the ball straight ahead
so that it goes to one of opposing team. _Don’t pass behind your own
forward line._ Don’t pass to a guarded player. Don’t wait to pass until
you have been attacked, thus hurrying your pass. Don’t (especially when
passing to the wings) put all your strength in the stroke, sending the
hardest ball you can.


DRIBBLING.

Next to passing comes dribbling. Every forward should know how to
dribble. In dribbling the ball, both hands should be kept close
together at the top of the stick; the stick is sometimes turned so
that the flat side is forward; the wrist and hands are adjusted to any
position of the stick. Only a few players are skilled enough to dribble
with one hand. The ball should be kept close to the stick, slightly
in advance of the runner. The most common fault is that the dribbler
follows the ball instead of sending the ball just where she desires.
The player who is a good dribbler keeps the ball under control, no
matter how speedily she is running. If the ball is sent ahead too far
then the dribbler is apt to lose control, but if it is kept close to
the stick and just barely touched each time it is easier to manage. The
dribbler should remember: never crouch over the ball, but stand erect;
never let the ball get too far ahead; never permit an opponent to get
so close that you cannot pass the ball to a teammate quickly. _Never
keep the ball selfishly._


THE BULLY.

The forwards are called on frequently to bully--the start and
twenty-five-yard bully (see Rule I)--so the bully should be practised
until each forward is quick and accurate. There should be an
understanding among the forwards and halfbacks as to which way the ball
will be hit out on the bully so that some one is always ready for it.
The right hand should grip almost three-quarters way down the stick,
the player then must bend over the stick. The feet are wide apart,
planted firmly on the ground. (See Rule for Bully.) After the three
separate “grounds and sticks” the ball is hit out. It is here that
quickness and skill count. The halfbacks--one from each team--always
back up a bully to help their forwards.


SHOOTING GOALS.

It is not necessary to say that it is most important for a forward to
shoot goals. She should shoot as often, as hard and as accurately as
she can, and she must follow her shots in. This is her main duty and no
forward is up to the mark unless she _can shoot goals_.


CENTER FORWARD.

Center forward is the keystone position. Her duties are to bully off
at the center (for start and after each goal), to keep the forwards in
a straight line, to shoot goals, _to distribute passes to the left and
right sides evenly_. If a center forward has a clear field it is all
right for her to dribble, but, as a rule, she should play a passing
game. _She also has many opportunities to shoot._

[Illustration: Field Hockey--The bulley-off. The players are in
position and the opposing center forwards are in the act of putting the
ball in play.]

[Illustration: Field Hockey--A corner. The defending team is lined
up on the goal line. The attacking forwards are lined up along the
striking circle, ready to return the hit and convert it into a goal.]


RIGHT INSIDE.

The right inside is governed by the same dribbling and passing rule as
the center. She should be particular to receive the passes of the left
wing. Also a lot of the shooting falls to her. Both insides should play
close to the center if the center has the ball, or close to the wing if
the wing has the ball.


LEFT INSIDE.

The left inside is a more difficult position to receive passes and to
shoot from. It is often wiser for a left inside to allow a ball to go
to another forward if she is not in a good position to receive it. As a
rule, the best balls for her are from the right.


RIGHT WING.

The wings should be fast players. In particular, the right wing has a
splendid opportunity for dribbling and passing. It is mainly the duty
of the wings to advance the ball; if, however, the opportunity arises,
they should shoot. The wing should be careful never to send the ball
too far ahead; never to let a ball go outside the side lines if it is
possible to stop it; never dribble farther than the twenty-five-yard
line; always send the ball toward the center of the field.


LEFT WING.

The left wing should be careful to dribble only when she has a clear
field. In receiving a ball, the wing, if possible, should stand with
her left shoulder toward the goal she is attacking. Three common faults
of a left wing are: Letting the ball go out of bounds on her side too
often, thus giving the other side a roll-in; getting into an off-side
position; turning on the ball. (See Rules VII and IX.)


HALFBACKS.

All of the halfback positions are extremely hard to play because they
require great endurance, a moderate amount of speed, hard hitting, and
a fighting spirit. The halfbacks are both attackers and defenders.
First, in attacking they feed the forwards by passes to them. They
should follow up the forward line closely and when the forwards are
inside the circle should be ready to shoot if a chance comes. On the
defensive they should stick to the opposing forwards closely. The
fullbacks and halfbacks should work together on defense.


CENTER HALFBACK.

The center halfback backs up the bullies in the center of the field and
she feeds primarily the center and insides. In defending she guards
the opposing center forward and the insides if they are playing close
to the center. The half should always watch to see which forwards
are free. She should not send the ball to the spot from which it has
just come, as that spot is apt to be guarded, but should change the
direction.


RIGHT HALFBACK.

The right halfback feeds the right wing and the right inside. If both
of these are carefully guarded, then she should send ball to center or
to the other side of field. In defense she guards the left wing or the
left inside--if the inside is near the wing. She also backs up all the
bullies on her side of the line.


LEFT HALFBACK.

The left halfback feeds the left wing and the left inside unless they
are guarded, then she changes the direction of the ball. The left half
should send very careful, well-placed balls to her wing and inside,
balls that slant a little bit, not straight ahead. As the right wing
is apt to dribble, the left half should be very quick and should be
careful to avoid running in on the left. (Rule VIII.)

The halfbacks should remember: Never to give up; if your opponent gets
away, run after her and stop her; never hit through the forward line,
always hit the ball to somebody; never run out of position to tackle an
opponent. Each half should stick closely to the girl she is guarding.
Never interfere with the work of the fullback or the goal keeper.


FULLBACKS.

The fullbacks are primarily defensive players although they have
opportunities for long shots to the forwards. The fullbacks and the
halfbacks should never mix up, by guarding the same girl. The fullbacks
stay near their own goal. If the right half is guarding the left wing
and the center half the center forward, then the left inside remains
for the right fullback to guard. When one fullback is up the field,
that is, near the fifty-yard line (she must never go beyond the
fifty-yard line), the other fullback should be back toward the goal.
The players on the defense should never be bunched in front of the
goal, and in hitting the ball away from the goal, they should hit out
toward the side lines--never across the center. In a corner or a bully
the fullbacks should guard the goal closely.


GOAL KEEPER.

The goal keeper should be very cool--not get rattled if a goal is made
by the opposing side. It is well for the goal keeper to watch the
eyes of the opposing forward; often in that way she can tell where
the forward is going to shoot. The goal keeper should never be drawn
away from her goal line. She should stand about a foot in front, but
no farther away. _Above all, the goal keeper should have courage; she
should not step back from any ball, afraid to stop it._

Not only should she rely on her stick, but she should remember that she
may kick and stop the ball with her body. The main object is to keep
the ball out of the goal and get it in less dangerous territory. This
often requires quick, clear thinking on the part of the goal keeper.
The fullbacks should never leave the goal keeper alone and unprotected;
nor should they stand so close to her, nor so directly in front of her,
that they impede her playing or obstruct her view of the play. _The
goal keeper must never lose sight of the ball._

There are a few general directions that might be given for playing.
Keep your own position--don’t run out of your place to interfere in
someone else’s. Use your head--flighty playing merely ends in wildness
and nothing accomplished. Save your strength--do not use it up in the
first mad rushes and terrific hits. It is the consistent, steady,
dependable player who wins the game.

A great deal of time is wasted in the roll-in, that is, when the
ball is put in play after going over the side line. The team taking
the roll-in should have signals, that is, an understanding as to the
line-up. The halfback generally takes the roll-in unless the point
where roll-in occurs is near the goal line being defended, then the
roll-in is taken by the fullback. The ball should be sent to the person
best prepared to receive it the wing if she is free or the inside or
halfback; sometimes it even may be rolled back toward the fullback.

The opponents never leave any player unguarded. As soon as the roll-in
is called, it should be taken quickly.

Just as quickness is an advantage in taking the roll-in so it is in the
free hit. The halfback in whose territory the foul occurred should take
the free hit quickly, before her teammates may be guarded. Every delay
means that the opponents have an opportunity to guard more closely. In
taking the free hit, be careful to hit to an unguarded player. Make the
free hit count.

In the corner play the hit should be carefully taken by the halfback,
or sometimes it is taken by the wing. The attackers line up around the
edge of the striking circle ready to stop the ball and shoot for the
goal; the defenders are behind the line ready to rush out and get the
ball away from dangerous territory. The player taking the free hit
should be careful that the ball goes within the circle; that it is hit
hard and cleanly--never send a ball that hops; that the ball is sent
to a particular player, preferably the center forward or either of
the insides. It is not often advisable for a wing to stop a ball hit in
from the corner hit.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM OF FIELD WITH NECESSARY MARKINGS AND SHOWING THE
PROPER LINE-UP OF TEAMS AT START OF GAME.]

To decide a championship or the winner of a hockey tournament, it is
advisable to play three games, the winner of two being the winner of
the series. If one team wins the first two games it is unnecessary to
play the third; if there are more than two teams contesting, it is
advisable to have preliminary rounds, the winners meeting the winners,
etc.


The Field of Play


THE FIELD.

The dimensions of the field are: maximum length, 100 yards; minimum, 85
yards; maximum breadth, 60 yards; minimum, 55 yards. The field of play
is marked by boundary lines; the end are “goal lines,” and the side,
“side lines.” Flag posts, four feet in height, one yard outside the
field of play, are placed at each of the four corners and at each end
of the twenty-five-yard lines.

There are three lines across the field, i. e., parallel to the end
lines, running from side line to side line--one in the center of field,
the fifty-yard line; one at each end of the field, each twenty-five
yards from the goal line.


THE GOALS.

The _goals_ are marked by upright posts, equidistant from the corners
of the goal lines, four yards apart, connected by a cross-bar seven
feet from the ground. The space between the posts is known as the goal
area. The maximum width of the posts and the cross-bars is two inches;
the maximum depth, three inches. There is a goal at each end of the
field.


THE STRIKING CIRCLE.

In front of each goal is a striking circle marked by the following
lines: A line parallel to goal line, fifteen yards distant from,
directly in front of the goal area, four yards in length. The ends of
this line are joined to the goal line by a quarter circle fifteen yards
in diameter measured from the nearest goal post.

A line parallel to the side line, five yards distant, is drawn the
length of the field. This is called the alley.

It is important that the lines be distinctly marked in white. If
there are nets behind the goal to catch balls, it aids the umpire in
determining if a goal is scored. Goal posts and bar may be painted
white. The ball is a leather cricket ball painted white.


DRESS.

Bloomers and jumper are the most comfortable form of dress. If a skirt
is worn it must be at least eight inches from the ground. Stopping the
ball with the clothing is not good hockey. _Light shoes_ with rubber
soles, fitted for running, should be worn by the forwards and halves.
Heavier shoes are worn by the fullbacks. The feet of the player ought
to be well protected, in order that she may stop the ball with her
feet. All players should wear _shin-guards_; the forwards and halves
light ones, the fullbacks heavier. The goal keeper will find that the
shin-guards used in cricket are not too heavy.

_If a hat_ is worn, it should be without pins and must have a soft brim.

Many players prefer wearing _gloves_ in order to protect their hands.


THE STICK.

The _stick_ should be a regulation stick, curved on one side, flat on
the other. No stick must weigh more than 28 ounces.

_Time._--The time of halves (usually 35 minutes) with the intermission
should be determined by the captains.

_Score._--Each goal made counts one point. Highest number of goals at
end of game wins. There is no other score except by goals.

_Officials._--There is an umpire, who makes all decisions of goals,
fouls and disputes. She is responsible for the good conduct of the
game. There may be an umpire for each half of the field. Also a scorer,
a timekeeper and two linesmen, who call the ball out of bounds and give
decisions when appealed to.

Each team has eleven players; for each side there is a _captain_, who
tosses for choice of goal, protests to the umpire, governs the team on
the field. They must notify the referee of any change of line-up.


Field Hockey Rules

I. RULES GOVERNING BULLY.

(_a_) The Bully is the method of putting the ball in play. A bully is
played by two players, one from each team, who stand squarely opposite
each other (each facing a side line), each with her right side toward
her own goal. The ball is placed between them, each player having
a foot on either side of the ball. Both first touch the ground on
their right side of the ball, then they touch sticks. This is done
alternately for three times, then either may touch the ball. After the
ball is touched by either or both of the two players bullying it may be
played by anyone.

(_b_) The game is started at the beginning of the first and second
halves by a bully-off on the center line.

(_c_) After each goal is scored the ball is brought back to center line
for bully-off, as in (_b_).

(_d_) The teams line up in a bully on the side nearest their goal line
and never step over the line of the ball, i. e., an imaginary line, if
ball is not on center or twenty-five-yard line drawn across field. This
is known as standing behind the ball.

(_e_) After time-out is called, the ball is put in play again by bully
on the spot where time-out is taken.

(_f_) If a foul is called on both teams, a bully is taken on the spot
where the foul occurred.

(_g_) If any rules of bully are not observed, bully is taken over again.

(_h_) _Penalty-Bully._--A penalty-bully can only occur when a defender
inside the circle deliberately breaks a rule, thereby directly
preventing a goal from being scored. The bully is played on the spot
where foul occurred by goal keeper and a chosen player from the other
team. All other players stand beyond the nearest twenty-five-yard
line until the bully is completed. The bully is only completed when:
First, a goal is scored; second, the ball is sent out of bounds by an
attacker--if sent out by defender, penalty-bully is repeated; third,
the ball is sent out of striking circle. In either of the first two
cases the ball is put in play by a twenty-five-yard bully in the center
of the nearest twenty-five-yard line. Any foul (except Rule I, _a_) by
offender counts penalty goal or one point for opponents; any foul by
attacker (except Rule I, _a_) the defender is given a free hit. The
goal keeper in a penalty-bully may play only with the stick; she may
not kick or stop ball with hands. If time is called, bully must first
be completed.


II. RULES FOR GOAL.

(_a_) To score a goal the ball must have been hit by or have touched
the stick of an attacker within the striking circle.

(_b_) The ball must pass entirely over the goal line between the goal
posts and under the cross-bar.

(_c_) If a ball, after touching the stick of an attacker within the
circle, glances off the stick or person of a defender, it is a goal.

(_d_) If a ball hit fairly glances off a goal post across the goal
line, it is a goal.

(_e_) The umpire must judge fairness of goal.


III. RULES FOR STICKS.

(_a_) The stick must never be raised above the shoulder in any part of
the stroke while hitting the ball, nor may it be carried over shoulder.
When this rule is broken within the striking circle by a defender,
the penalty is a penalty-corner; if deliberately broken, it is a
penalty-bully.

(_b_) The flat side, never the rounded, should be used in striking the
ball.

(_c_) A player should never catch the curved part of her stick in that
of her opponent’s, thereby hindering her opponent’s play. This is
hooking.

(_d_) A player should never strike or hit her opponent’s stick.

(_e_) A player should never lift her opponent’s stick from the ground
or in any such manner mar her stroke.

(_f_) A player should never trip an opponent with stick.

(_g_) No player without a stick may take part in play.

(_h_) For any infringement of rules, a free hit to opposing side where
foul occurred is granted, unless referee deems the foul rough, thus
liable to disqualification.


IV. RULES FOR FREE HIT.

(_a_) When a team is accorded a free hit by an umpire, through a foul
by opponents, the captain of the team shall designate the player
(generally a halfback or fullback) who is to take the hit, and no other
player may be nearer the player taking the hit than five yards. The
ball must be hit squarely, not scooped. The free hit is taken again if
this rule is not complied with.

(_b_) The player who has taken the free hit may not touch the ball
again until it has been touched by another player.

(_c_) A foul by a defender in the striking circle upon taking a free
hit is punished by a penalty-corner.

(_d_) If the player misses the ball entirely upon taking the free hit,
she may hit it again.

(_e_) If there is any infringement of the rule, the free hit is given
to the other side except when the ball is scooped by the defender
inside the circle, when the penalty is a penalty-corner.


V. RULES FOR OUT OF BOUNDS.

(_a_) When the ball is sent over the side lines it shall be rolled
in (by hand) by one of the team opposing the player who last touched
it. In rolling in, the player taking the roll-in must stand--feet and
stick--outside the side line at the point where ball went out. No
player may stand inside the alley (or five-yard line) next to the side
line over which it went out. The ball must be _rolled_, not thrown or
bounced. It may be rolled in any direction, provided it touches within
the five-yard space. The player who has taken the roll-in may not touch
the ball until it has been touched by another player. The other players
may step in the alley as soon as ball touches.

(_b_) First, if the ball is sent behind the goal line by an attacker;
second, if a ball is unintentionally sent behind goal line by a
defender more than twenty-five yards away from her goal line, it is
a twenty-five-yard bully. The ball is placed on the twenty-five-yard
line, exactly opposite the spot where it crossed the goal line.

(_c_) If a ball is unintentionally hit across the goal line by a
defender or glances off her stick over the goal line, it is a corner.
In a corner, the attackers line up around the outer edge of the
striking circle--feet and sticks--behind the line, with one of their
team hitting the ball to them from the corner of the field (on the
side or back line not more than three yards away from the corner) on
the side of the goal line where ball went out. The defenders must
stand--feet and sticks--behind their goal line at least five yards away
from the player taking the corner hit. The defenders may rush out as
soon as the ball is hit. Before the attackers may hit the ball toward
the goal, the ball must be stopped--not necessarily dead. The player
taking the corner hit may not hit the ball again until touched by
another. (Penalty, free hit for opposing side.) If an attacker shoots
for goal before ball has been stopped, it is a free hit for opposite
side. If the player taking the corner hit misses it entirely on the
first stroke, she may hit it again.

(_d_) If a ball is deliberately hit over goal line by a defender, it
is a penalty-corner. Both teams line up as in an ordinary corner. The
hit is taken, however, from a point on the goal line at least ten yards
from the nearest goal post and no opposing player may be nearer than
five yards. Ball must be stopped before replayed by attacker teammate
unless it has been touched by defender.


VI. RULES FOR UNDERCUTTING.

(_a_) The ball may not be so hit that it is lofted or raised
intentionally above the shoulder.

(_b_) The ball may be “scooped” so that it may be raised moderately in
air.

(_c_) Penalty for intentionally lofting is a free hit for opposing side.


VII. RULES FOR OFFSIDE.

(_a_) In the opponents’ territory, no player may receive a ball from
one of her own team standing farther from the goal than she, the
receiver, unless there are at least three of her opponents between her
and the goal. Violation of this rule is called offside.

(_b_) A player is not penalized for offside if she does not touch the
ball; if it was touched last by an opponent; if one of her own team
nearer the opponents’ goal than she hits the ball; if she is in her own
half of the territory.

(_c_) Penalty for offside is free hit for opposing side.


VIII. RUNNING IN ON THE LEFT.

No player shall run in on the left side of her opponent in order to
gain possession of the ball so that any part of her person or stick
touches any part of the person or the stick of the opponent. Penalty is
free hit for opposing side.


IX. TURNING ON THE BALL.

No player having possession of the ball shall interpose her person
between the ball and an opponent, nor shall she turn around the ball
in order to obtain a more favorable position for her stroke. Penalty is
free hit.


X. HANDLING.

The ball may be caught or stopped by the hands, but must be immediately
dropped perpendicularly to the ground so that no advance is made nor
direction changed. It may not be picked up, carried or thrown. There
shall be no shoving, pushing, or holding. If the ball stopped by goal
keeper rebounds from her hand it is not a foul. Penalty is free hit.


XI. KICKING.

_No player may kick the ball_ except the goal keeper within her own
striking circle. The foot may be used to stop the ball, but must be
withdrawn and not used to block opponent’s stroke at the ball. Penalty
is a free hit.


XII. ROUGH PLAY.

There should be no charging (rushing or running into), shinning,
tripping, personal handling, impeding progress, or hitting with stick.
No player may obstruct, i. e., prevent opponent from reaching the ball
or prevent opponent from attacking teammate. Penalty is free hit or
disqualification if umpire decides the play is rough.


XIII. TIME-OUT.

Time-out may be called by the umpire at the request of either captain
only in case of injury or accident to clothing or stick. Time-out
should be called by umpire in case of loss of ball or dispute in regard
to decision.

[Illustration: Field Hockey--1, A scrimmage for possession of the ball.
2, Getting the ball out of scrimmage. 3, Passing the ball to a teammate
and away from an opponent. 4, A goal! 5, A shot. The attack has “run”
the ball down the field to the striking circle--once inside the shot
will be gotten off.]

[Illustration: Basket Ball--1, The referee tosses the ball up between
the opposing centers to put it in play. 2, A free trial for goal. A
foul has been made and the penalized team must stand and see their
opponents try for a single point.]


XIV. UMPIRE.

The umpire, or umpires, have control of the game, and are responsible
for it. They must see that there is no rough play, and that the game is
played according to rules. The umpires judge goals, roll-ins, bullies,
corners. They also have the power to punish players for intentionally
delaying the game. The ball is in play until umpire’s whistle blows.



Basket Ball


Basket ball needs no introduction. It is probably the most popular game
played by girls. Through the work of the Executive Committee on Basket
Ball Rules, headed by Mrs. Senda Berenson Abbott, chairman, the playing
rules and the conditions under which the game may best be played have
been thoroughly studied and set forth in the Spalding Official Basket
Ball Guide for Women, No. 7A.

The game may be played either outdoors or indoors, depending upon
conditions. When the circumstances permit it is always desirable to
play out of doors. The writer is a firm believer in outdoor exercise
wherever and whenever possible, but there is a decided need for a
wholesome, interesting game for indoors during the long winter months.
Basket ball undoubtedly fills this need.

The game is played by two teams consisting of either five, six, seven,
or nine players each. If the teams play with five on a side, there are
two forwards, a center and two guards each; if with six on a side,
there are two centers each; if with seven, three centers; if with nine,
three forwards, three centers and three guards.

The court (floor or field) is divided into three equal parts. The
lines dividing the court are parallel to the end lines. They are known
as field lines. The reason the court is thus divided is to define
the space in which the various players may operate. Thus each set of
players can operate only on their third of the court, so that the line
game makes a minimum physical demand upon the player. That is, the
forwards of Team A and the guards of Team B may run only in the third
of the floor before the former’s basket; the centers of both teams in
the space in middle, and the guards of Team A and the forwards of Team
B in the third of the floor before the latter’s basket.

The three general positions call for three different kinds of skill.
The forwards should possess a good eye, should have the knack of
handling the ball well and should have agility and speed. The center
should have height, ability to get possession of the ball and the knack
of feeding well, that is, passing the ball to her forwards. The center
rarely shoots for the basket in the line game. The guards, as their
name implies, must prevent the opposing forwards from shooting a goal,
so must be quick, active and able to jump well.

The game begins with each team in position. The referee puts the ball
in play by tossing it up between the centers, who jump and bat it (they
must not catch it). When once in play the ball must be passed from
one player to another--not handled, nor rolled, nor kicked. Nor may
any player carry it, but she may bounce it once, taking not more than
two steps during the bounce. Thus the game is essentially one of team
play, which calls for fast, clever, clean co-operation in playing. The
play continues until a score is made, or a player fouls, or the ball
goes out of bounds. A score is made when a player shoots the ball into
the basket from the field, which counts two points for the score of
her team. A foul is made when a player of one side transgresses a rule
of the game--running with the ball, holding the ball more than three
seconds, touching over the line with some part of person, guarding too
closely, etc. When a player fouls, a free throw from a mark fifteen
feet from and directly in front of the basket is allowed to a forward
of the opposing side. When the ball passes through the basket, rim and
net, one point is added to the score of the team.

When the ball goes over the boundary lines, the game is stopped and the
ball is given to the nearest opponent of the girl who touched it last.
She then passes the ball to one of her teammates, thus starting play
again.

The winning of the game is determined by the scoring of the most
points (both field goals and free throws) in a given time--usually
fifteen-minute halves with a ten-minute intermission. Baskets are
exchanged at the end of the first half.

From my own experience and observation I find the average player is
weak in passing. One of the faults is inaccuracy. Every pass should
count; but if the pass is wild, thrown _at_ a teammate rather than _to_
one, much strength and time is wasted. Throw directly to an unguarded
player, or if she signals to send the pass to a certain spot, send
the pass there. Think carefully what results come from a careless,
inaccurate pass. It may end in fumbling, or the ball out of bounds, or
the ball obtained by opponent, waste of time, delaying the game.

The passing is apt to be slow. Get the ball out of your hands as
quickly as possible. To do this, every player must know the relative
positions of all her teammates. She must decide the moment the ball
touches her hands to whom she is going to pass, then pass quickly and
carefully. By quickly I do not mean hurriedly; I mean the player should
not hold the ball an undue length of time deciding what to do with it.

Many players have but one way of throwing the ball, always using the
same pass. Vary your passing according to the need. If a high ball
with a drop to it can be used, use it when your teammate is in a good
position to receive. But do not use this style of pass exclusively.
Try a short, swift pass. If when you are guarded for one pass, quickly
change to another, such as, from an overhead pass--both arms holding
ball high over head--to a low side pass--the arm held out toward the
side, the palm of hand around the ball, which rests on the flexed hand
and wrist. It takes a great deal of practice and team work to make the
passing perfect, but remember always be wide awake and alert, ready to
receive the ball.

Needless to say, the team work is the main factor. It is the way the
team plays, not the way one player stars, that counts.

Each of the different players has a different duty to perform. The
forwards have to shoot both field and foul goals. In shooting baskets,
it is of prime importance to have some chosen point on basket or back
board to aim at. Of course, there are many forwards who shoot at
random; goals are made, but many more are missed. Once this spot for
the aim is made definite--through much practice--the aim becomes surer.

Many a game has been lost through the inability to shoot foul goals.
The feet should toe the 15-foot line, slightly apart, fixed firmly
on the ground. The ball is held in both hands, palms flat on opposite
sides of the ball; the lace is turned toward the basket. The knees
are bent; the ball is carried forward and down, arms straight.
Simultaneously the knees are straightened, the arms are carried forward
and up, the ball leaves the hands. Just as the ball leaves the hands an
“English” is put on it. That is, the ball is twirled as it leaves the
hands. The advantage of the “English” lies in the fact that it serves
to make the ball shoot through the basket instead of bounding out,
as is often the case when it is tossed up a little off the true and
without the spin.

Good passing is necessary for the forwards. The forward should remember
never to shoot unless she is in a favorable position; one forward
should always stick close to the basket. Always try to keep free; pass
to your opponent whenever possible; never keep the ball selfishly in
order to gain a shot for yourself.

The center should realize the importance of this position. Naturally
the forwards cannot score goals unless the ball is sent to them. Thus,
the center should be alert and quick, free to receive the pass from the
guards and quick to send a good pass to her forwards, who should be
dodging their guards, trying to get in a favorable position. Often the
center can well make use of the bounce and step to get away from the
opposing center.

The guard has to remember that every time the forward gets the ball, if
she is good, she has a chance to get it in the basket. Thus, it should
be the main object of the guard to get the ball away from her end of
the field. Every guard should try to get the ball and send it out of
dangerous territory. Then she should stick closely to her forward,
guarding her as closely as the rules allow.

One fault of the guards is over-guarding. This is generally done
through over-anxiety. The guards should watch carefully so as not to
foul.

Jumper or middy blouse, bloomers and rubber-soled shoes make up the
accepted costume.

Above all, the element of good sportsmanship and fair play should enter
into every game, no matter how strenuous the playing, and the slogan of
the whole team should be, “Put the ball in the basket.”


BASKET BALL GAMES OR TOURNAMENT.

An umpire who is competent and fair should have entire jurisdiction
over the game. The game should be conducted in an orderly fashion,
according to the rules.

For a series or tournament, a set number of games should be played,
such as two out of three; the winner is then the champion. If more
than two teams play, the winners should play the winners, etc. Let me
impress the importance of set rules agreed to and known thoroughly by
every player; this saves much dispute and sometimes bitter feeling.

Leagues of basket ball teams, such as are to be found in some cities,
etc., organized for the purpose of clean sport and good fellowship,
have been extremely successful. Each team may play a set number of
games with every other team, the winner of the most games being the
champion of the league.



Gymnastics


Gymnastics, or work in a gymnasium, indoors or out, is recognized the
world over for its utility. The term gymnastics usually applies to a
group or class drilled by an instructor or coach. Gymnastic exercises
may be, however, adapted to fit an individual, prescribed for her by a
competent authority (which may be herself).

The very great and growing popularity of gymnastic exercise is due
to several facts. First of all, there is a general awakening to the
need for organized exercise at most schools and colleges and within
the ranks of many social organizations. Aside from walking, gymnastic
exercises, as they have been developed by the Swedes and the Germans,
are possibly the most obvious form of beneficial physical exercise.
Then this form of physical training has the very decided advantage
of being susceptible to the widest kind of application. It may be
graded so as to be beneficial to various groups of individuals of
varying physical development. It may be given in the most scientific
quantities--more so than any other form of exercise save walking.
It may be used as a drilling force to instill discipline--against
fire, for instance--in great groups of persons, for ability and
sufficient knowledge in handling one’s body quickly and efficiently in
a crowd under abnormal conditions is quite an important and necessary
accomplishment. In fact, everyone, no matter at what age, could do well
by her or his body to indulge in some form of calisthenics or gymnastic
exercise.

There are two main divisions of gymnastics--floor work and apparatus
work.

The floor work consists mainly of tactics, calisthenics, drills with
hand apparatus, such as wands, dumb bells, Indian clubs, etc., dancing
and posturing exercises.

The tactics consist mainly of marching by ones, twos, threes, fours,
etc., of flank marching, and of circle marching. Form in this counts
for a great deal together with quick execution of commands and memory
of the proper method by which the figure is to be executed. Perfect
form in marching consists of the head erect, the eyes straight ahead,
the shoulders back, the arms down straight at the sides, the palms of
the hands turned toward the body, the fingers close together; the toes
should be pointed and reach for the floor, so that the muscles of the
leg and the thigh can feel the effort made. Also the marchers should
observe carefully the space between each one and the straightness or
regularity of the line. Watch the person ahead of you and beside you.
This keeps the marching from being ragged.

In the calisthenics and drills--Indian clubs excepted--the most
used exercises are: the arm stretching or raising upward, downward,
sideward, forward; the bending of the head, trunk, arms, or legs; the
bending of the knees; the stretching of the legs; the lunges sideward
and forward; the raising and sinking on the toes. These are the
fundamental exercises and may be combined to form the different drills.
To attain perfect form in these, it is best to watch a competent
gymnast; after so doing it is possible, by careful imitation, to attain
good form yourself. These exercises may easily be practised in any
sufficient space, in front of a mirror when possible. It is well to
remember that form and grace are very important factors. Always keep in
mind that the lines of the body should be kept symmetrical; that a lot
of snap in executing the exercises is a help.

The Indian club drills consist of full arm swings, circles, dips, etc.
These can best be taught by a teacher. Form is the all-important factor
here also.

Dancing is divided into three separate groups: æsthetic, social,
and folk dancing. The æsthetic develops the natural grace of the
body; social dancing does this, too, but not to such a great extent.
There are many girls who feel ungainly and unnatural in the æsthetic
and social dances. For these are the folk dances. These dances are
a natural expression of joy and good humor. The girl who is most
unsuited to other types of dancing may enjoy and ultimately become very
efficient in folk dancing.

Posturing may be added here. This is practising and attaining the
correct poise and positions of the body.

Apparatus work consists of exercises on the following: stall bar,
horizontal bar, parallel bar, trapeze, swinging rings, traveling rings,
ropes, rope ladder, horizontal ladder, side horse, buck, etc.

The secret of success in apparatus work lies in the knowledge of
muscular control and of the balance of the body. By muscular control,
I mean the power to exert the proper amount of strength at the exact
moment; by balance, I mean adapting the weight of the body to the
strength. Apparatus work should be undertaken carefully--if possible,
under the supervision of an instructor; mats should always be placed
to break any fall. Too continued exercises tire even the best gymnast;
sometimes the girl does not realize she is tired. Between exercises
give yourself plenty of rest and relax your muscles.

As the subject is so extensive and so varied I can only mention a few
exercises. The most popular pieces of apparatus seem to be the side
horse, the parallel bars, and the swinging rings.

_The Side Horse._--The most elementary exercises on the horse are
the rests. The girl grasps the pommels of the horse and jumps to a
straight-arm position; the body is straight, weight on the arms. Or she
may jump to a kneeling position between the pommels; or she may jump to
her toes. There are different ways of ending these exercises, either
jumping back to the first position or jumping to the other side of
horse. Another exercise is to run, grasp the pommels with both hands,
arms straight, draw the legs up and shoot them between the pommels,
landing on opposite side of the horse. The landing may be straight or
by retaining a grip with one hand on the pommel, you can turn either to
the left or the right, according to the hand on pommel.

Next comes the vaults. In vaulting you must remember always to jump
from both feet from the center of the springboard. The best form in
vaulting is gotten by keeping the arms as straight as possible; the
body should be straight with toes pointing and together, the legs
thrown high in the air. The different kinds of vaults which may be
taken on either side are: The front vault; the face and front of the
body are turned above the top of the horse, the landing is made facing
the side. The flank or side vault; the side of the body is above the
horse, the landing is made between the pommels with the back toward the
horse. The back vault; the back of body is over the horse, the landing
is the same as the side vault. The wolf vault; for the right side, the
left leg passes through pommels, the right leg passes over the right
pommel; as the right leg passes over the pommel, the right hand is
taken away so that leg may pass; the hold is kept by the left hand.
Same for left side, except leg and hand used are the left instead of
the right.

Besides the vaults there are cuts, circles, dives, and inversions,
which may be acquired by practice.

_Parallel Bars._--As on the horse, the most elementary are the rest
positions. Jumps to straight arm position at sides or ends accompanied
by lifting of arms and legs, etc. It is important that every gymnast
know how to swing and vault well on the bars. For the swing, the
hands grasp the bars directly opposite each other. You then jump to a
straight-arm position. To start to swing, the heels are drawn back, the
legs brought forward and upward with free movement from the hips. The
head should be held up, trunk kept erect, legs straight, toes pointed
and together. For the front vault, the front of body faces the bar; for
the back vault, the back of the body is over the bar.

On both the horse and the parallel bars are a multitude of cuts and
circles combined with each other and with vaults.

_Flying Rings._--The proper way to swing on the rings is to have the
rings at such a height so that the arms are straight and the feet touch
the ground comfortably. Then step backward, grasping the rings, one
in each hand, until the tips of the toes just touch the ground; run
forward, swing the legs forward and upward from the hips. As the body
swings backward, touch the floor with both feet as if stepping; do the
same on the forward swing. The legs in swinging should be kept straight
both forward and backward, toes together. Another popular exercise on
the rings is the inversion, that is, hanging head down, feet in air,
the body straight.

There are many exercises on these three pieces of apparatus together
with those on the other apparatus, for which there is not room in this
book.


GYMNASTIC MEET OR EXHIBITION.

An interesting event at many gymnasiums is a meet or exhibition--in
case of school, college, or club, generally the results of the year’s
work. If these events are competitive or non-competitive, it is, for
the most part, the most carefully practised work by the most proficient
girls.

If these events are judged, the judges, as a rule, have a certain mark,
such as 10, for each event. If the performance of the event is perfect,
then the number won for that event is 10; if nearly perfect, then 9 is
given, etc. The judges consider entrance; general appearance, such as
neatness, regularity of order, etc.; manner of executing the exercise,
such as form, position, memory, rhythm, etc.; the finish or exit. All
of these factors are taken into account by the judges in scoring.

Whether for individual or group prizes, it is advisable to have
competent judges who have a decided system of marking. Usually there
are three judges, each marking the score independently of the others.
Comparisons are made at the end of each event. The scores of all judges
for each performer are added together and divided by three (or as
many times as there are judges) and the result is the score for the
performer.



Track Athletics


Everybody knows that a certain amount of exercise is beneficial to all
persons physically able to indulge. But there are still many protests
against more active competitive exercise. In particular, track and
field athletics for girls and women have been criticised. Of course,
it is only reasonable to admit that for a girl physically unfit,
over-indulgence in track work is a mistake. But in these days when the
majority of schools and colleges have competent teachers for their
athletic work, and when the girls are allowed to participate in events
only after a thorough medical examination, the danger from track work
seems to be rapidly diminishing.

Tennis, basket ball and battle ball were the first competitive sports
to be widely participated in by the colleges. Miss Harriet Ballintine,
Director of Physical Culture at Vassar College, thus tells of the
beginning of track and field sports for women in her book, “The History
of Physical Training at Vassar College”: “Following basket and battle
ball a demand was made for other out-of-door activities. The students
became interested in hurdling, running and jumping, etc. They organized
an athletic association and in November, 1895, the first field day
was held. This was the beginning of track and field sports for women.
Before this time there was no record of girls taking part in such
competitive events. In 1896 at the Harvard Summer School a course in
athletic training was opened to women. This first class was composed
principally of teachers from schools and colleges whose students had
asked for instruction in athletics. After Vassar’s first field day many
schools and colleges became interested in such contests. Previous to
1896 a course in athletics had been offered to women at the Chautauqua
Summer School, but as there was no demand for it, the Harvard Summer
School was, therefore, the first school to give systematic instruction
to girls in track and field sports. This first class in athletics for
women was in charge of Mr. James Lathrop, for many years athletic
trainer at Harvard and instructor in the Theory and Practice of
Athletics at the Summer School. He ordered for Miss Eva G. May, then an
instructor in the gymnasium at Vassar, the first pair of spiked running
shoes ever made for a woman. The Vassar College Athletic Association
provided these running shoes for every student who entered field day.”

One of the main difficulties in track work at the present time is that
there is no set standard for coaches and participants to use. A very
creditable attempt has been made by Dr. Harry E. Stewart, Physical
Director of the New Haven Normal School of Gymnastics, to collect the
records made by girls and women. (See Spalding’s Athletic Almanac,
published annually.) However, it is not the exceptional girl who is of
the record-breaking ability that should be considered entirely. Track
work should be first regarded from the point of view of exercise. The
equipment for track work should be supervised carefully. The clothing
worn should be the lightest and the least harmful to the limbs. Light
shirt waist or middy blouse, bloomers, spiked or rubber-soled shoes
should be adopted. The track itself should be level and smooth, the
jumping pits soft so that there is no jar, and the throwing events
should have plenty of room.

[Illustration: One of the hardest faults to overcome in shot putting is
to stay within the circle. The girl in the picture does not get all of
the ground in the circle that she might, nor is her left hand helping
her get the shot “up” with her right.]

[Illustration: The last relay! The runner on the outside gives a slight
advantage to her teammate. Perhaps it is enough to counteract the
advantage gained by the other team when they won the “pole.”]

[Illustration: Over the bar in the high jump. In order to successfully
complete her try this jumper will have to “scissors” her left foot
over.]

[Illustration: Field Day--An exciting hurdle race.]


TRACK.

The track, if possible, should be a straight 100 yards. If the work is
done inside it is necessary to work on the circular track or on the
floor of the gymnasium. A cinder track is the most desirable if it can
be procured. First the earth is dug up, then mixed with coarse ashes;
the earth and coarse ashes are then packed down; fine ashes are mixed
on the top layer. The whole track is then wet thoroughly and rolled
until level and smooth. The track is generally divided into lanes,
three feet six inches in width, and is made wide enough to have four
lanes.


DISTANCES.

There are a variety of distances from 25 yards to the 100 on the
straight track, and the 220 and the 440 on the circular track. A few
coaches still believe that the long sprints--220 and 440--are not
injurious, while others contend that the half-mile is not so harmful.
However, the 50, 75, and 100-yard dashes seem to be most common at
different schools and colleges. According to the records collected
by Mr. Stewart, 12 seconds is the best time for the 100-yard; 8-3/5
seconds for the 75-yard; 6 seconds for the 50-yard. The other dashes
noted by him are the 25-yard, 3-4/5 seconds; 30-yard, 4-3/5 seconds;
40-yard, 5-1/5 seconds; 60-yard, 8 seconds; 80-yard, 11 seconds. Also
the 220-yard, 30-3/5 seconds, and 440 yard, 1 minute and 16 seconds.
There is also a short relay, 300 yards, four girls, each running 75
yards. This race is very popular at the colleges.


HURDLES.

As in the running races so in the hurdles there is a wide difference of
opinion as to length and as to height of hurdles and number of hurdles.
The 100-yard hurdle race seems very popular, 8 hurdles, varying from
1-1/2, 2 or 2-1/2 feet in height. There is also the 120-yard, 10
hurdles, 14 inches high; 90-yard, 7 hurdles, 1-1/2 and 2-1/2 feet in
height; 80-yard, 6 hurdles, 2-1/2 feet; 65-yard, 6 hurdles, 2-1/2
feet; 60-yard, 4 hurdles, 2-1/2 feet; 60-yard, 3 hurdles, 2-1/2 feet;
50-yard, 4 hurdles, 2 feet; 40-yard, 5 hurdles, 2 feet; 40-yard, 4
hurdles, 1-1/2 feet. There is a great variety of choice.

The hurdles should be arranged: First hurdle, 15 yards from start and
each hurdle 10 yards apart, allowing 15 yards between last hurdle and
finish line.

In a pamphlet reprinted from the American Physical Education Review,
January, 1916, “A Survey of Track Athletics for Women,” Mr. Stewart has
made the following selection in order to standardize track events.

  _Junior Events:_ 50-yard dash
                   75-yard dash
                   60-yard, four 2-foot hurdles
                   Standing broad jump
                   Running broad jump
                   Running hop, step and jump
                   Base ball throw
                   Basket ball throw
  _Senior Events:_ 50-yard dash
                   100-yard dash
                   100-yard, eight 2-1/2-foot hurdles
                   Standing broad jump
                   Running broad jump
                   Running high jump
                   Running hop, step and jump
                   8-pound shot-put
                   Base ball throw
                   Basket ball throw

Mr. Stewart also says: “Only the exceptional girl should pole vault,
run the 220-yard race, or put the 12-pound shot. Hurl ball (Sargent),
discus (free style), javelin throw, standing high jump, and many other
events are good, but the above groups seem sufficient and best adapted
to competitive work.”


JUMPING.

While all jumping may be done in one pit, where the space is available
it is better to have one pit for the high jumps, one for the running
broad, one for hop, step and jump, another for the pole vault.

The pits should be soft. All pits are made the same way but differ in
size. The earth should be dug up to a depth of at least a foot and a
half. If ground is hard, pits should be deeper. This soft dug-up earth
should be equally mixed with sand or sawdust or both. Pits should be
kept well raked up and not allowed to become packed.

For the high jump the pit should be wide, at least eight feet in width
and six or seven feet long. For high jumping, two adjustable standards
and a bamboo or thin cross-bar are required. These standards are placed
six feet apart, directly opposite each other in a straight line. The
standards are perforated by little round holes into which the pegs (not
more than 3 inches long) are inserted to hold the cross-bar. There
should be a runway or approach of at least twenty yards. There is _no
take-off_.

For the running broad jump there is a runway--cinder track, if
possible--20 to 30 yards in length, 3 feet in width. A take-off is
sunk, marking division between runway and pit. This is a planed joist,
5 inches wide, sunk into ground so that top is on a level with runway,
and painted white. The pit should be at least 25 feet long and about 6
feet wide. This may also be used for standing broad. The pit for the
hop, step and jump is constructed in the same way.

For the pole vault the uprights should be 10 feet apart, placed
opposite each other. There is a runway--cinder track, if
possible--about 20 or 25 yards long, 10 feet wide. Between the two
uprights a plank 16 inches deep should be sunk, 2 inches of which
should be above ground level. In front of plank, in center, a hole 5 or
6 inches deep should be dug.


PUTTING THE SHOT.

The contestant stands in a 7-foot circle and the put or throw must be
made from within the circle. It is a foul for either foot to touch
the ground outside until the shot has landed. A toe board raised 4 or
5 inches above the ground and sunk firmly into the earth should form
about one-quarter of the circle. Spalding’s official 8 and 12-pound
shots are used.


SPRINTING.

From my own observation, I have seen few girls that really know how to
run. One great trouble is that the instinct is to run as speedily as
possible from the minute you get on the track. First of all you should
learn to run well in good form. I shall try to give a few hints to the
runner which may be helpful.

_Head._--The head should be up, the eyes looking straight ahead and
firmly fixed on the finish line.

_Shoulders._--The shoulders should be kept straight up and back, not
allowed to wiggle from side to side.

_Body._--The whole trunk from waistline up, however, should be bent
slightly forward.

_Arms_.--The arms should be held loosely in a bent position, the
forearm at right angles with the upper arm. The movement of the arms
should be controlled; they should be allowed to swing forward and
backward in accordance with the motion of the rest of the body. Many
runners do not control the swinging of the arms, letting them flap
sideward, downward, thus wasting energy. Some runners use cork grips
for the hands; personally, I prefer to run with my hands clenched into
a fist.

_Legs._--Many runners make the mistake in thinking the longer your
stride, the better your form and the faster you run. If you have a long
stride it is often apt to be very helpful, but the runner should not
try to take an abnormally long stride. By that I mean take only as long
a stride as you can manage without strain, or without appearing to be
running in leaps and bounds. Neither should the knees be dashed high in
front.

_Feet._--A great deal in running depends upon the way the feet are
placed. The toe of the foot should reach out for the ground; the toe
should be pointed straight ahead and each foot should be put down on
the ground directly in front of its former position. The runner should
take care not to run heavily, and she should, whether in practice or
competition, always stride well up on her toes.

In running you should always think of yourself as a unit, running
with the smoothest possible action. Some runners are not units, but
arms, legs, body and knees, all wobbling in different ways, giving the
general appearance of falling apart. Yet you must not go too far the
other way, that is, don’t run tensely. Be limber but not loose. Try to
get all the spring and lightness possible. To do this get the balance
over the feet; don’t run with balance too far forward or too far back.

_The Start._--The crouch start is conceded to be the best. This should
be practised until the runner learns to get away at the word “go,”
to get the proper push with the rear leg, and to rise to an upright
position gradually. There are three counts for the crouching start:
“Get ready.” The fingers are placed just behind starting line; the
arms should be carried straight down from the shoulders, thus making
the hands shoulder width apart; the runners then kneel on one knee,
either right or left, according to preference; the toe of the forward
foot should be as close to starting line as is comfortable for runner;
the knee of rear leg should be on a line with front leg, close up to
it, with lower part of leg (that is, below the knee) reaching back
as far as possible in a straight line from the knee. A hole should be
dug for the toe of each foot. “Get set.” The rear knee is raised, the
whole body tense ready for the spring; the weight is thrown over the
front knee so that the toe of front foot feels the weight and can get
a good push over; the head is up; the whole strength of the body seems
concentrated in the muscles used in springing forward. “Go” (or the
pistol shot). The sprinter springs forward with all the force possible
from the front foot. But she should not assume an upright position at
once, but gradually, after three or four strides have been taken. In
other starts you stand upright with one leg back, other leg front.
Front leg is slightly bent, weight of body is over front leg.


HURDLING.

In hurdling, the crouching start is very important. All the form of
sprinting should be considered and also there should be perfect form
over the hurdles. A girl may be a fast runner, but if she cannot take
the hurdles well and quickly she will be defeated by a slower girl
who can. Many hurdlers twist toward the side, or, in landing, land
too far to one side of hurdle. First the approach from the start to
the first hurdle should be carefully measured by strides. The runner
should always take just this number of strides. The strides between
each hurdle should be counted also. Then a mark should be made in front
of each hurdle, from which point the hurdler should always rise to
the hurdles. The long low stride is the best over the hurdles. There
are two forms of hurdling, that of the leg bent sideways, usually
recommended for girls, and the “straight-leg.” For the first, the
front leg--leg first over the hurdle in the stride--is bent across the
other leg; the arms are stretched out toward the side; the rear leg
is trailed over the hurdle; the front foot reaches the ground first,
the hurdler landing squarely on the ball of the foot, the toe pointed
straight ahead. Personally, I prefer the “straight-leg” hurdle to the
“side-leg” style. In the latter the rise over the hurdle is greater,
the upright position of the trunk meets more resistance from the air,
the landing is made with more of a jar. In the “straight-leg” the
stride over hurdle is long and as low as possible; the body is bent
as far over the front leg as possible; the front leg shoots over the
hurdle straight, for as great a distance as possible, the arm (on
same side of body) is forward when leg is; the rear leg is trailed,
extending slightly to the side from the thigh to the toe; the weight
of body is as far forward as possible, thus enabling a longer stride;
the front foot should land on ground, on the ball, toe pointed forward;
the rear foot should be ready to shoot out for next stride. My advice
is for hurdlers to practice until they are sure of themselves before
running in a race. They must not hesitate before hurdles, thus forced
to jump off both feet. The rise should be with the least possible
effort; the landing should be light, the runner immediately resuming
the stride. Never be afraid of a hurdle. Practice until you are perfect
and sure of yourself, and sure of the hurdle. Confidence makes you
successful.


RUNNING BROAD JUMP.

There are two important parts to the running broad jump--the run and
the jump. The run should not be so long as to tire the jumper. The
first few strides are slow, then at a mark placed by the jumper the
speed increases until the take-off is reached. The momentum gathered
in this run aids in the jump greatly, thus it is important that a mark
be made the proper number of strides away from the take-off. The foot
which takes the jump from the take-off should always be the same one,
therefore the strides before the take-off should be carefully observed.

A spring is made when the foot lands on the take-off. It is a foul
to step over the take-off. After the jumper has given the best leap
possible from the ball of the foot on the take-off, she tries to
augment this leap by drawing her legs up under her, throwing her arms
up and forward. When nearing ground the feet should shoot forward, the
whole body thrown so that the balance is forward. This insures a better
landing. The jump should be high. Many coaches teach the girls to jump
over a bar, thus forming a habit of getting height. It is always well
to fix your eye on a point about four feet high and beyond the distance
you can jump. Fix your eye on this at the beginning of the run and keep
it there until a landing is made.


STANDING BROAD JUMP.

The jumper stands with both feet on the take-off, toes overlapping the
outer edge to get a grip. Many jumpers like to rock back and forth on
the toes, knees slightly bent; the arms also are swung gently backward
and forward. When the jumper is ready to spring, the arms should be
held above the head and brought back with a snap as the spring is made,
with the knees bent forward and all the strength concentrated for the
jump. As in the running broad, the jump should be high, thus the eyes
should be fixed on a spot high and beyond the distance you expect to
jump. While in the air, shoot the arms, legs and body as far forward as
possible in order to gain distance.


RUNNING HOP, STEP AND JUMP.

The run is the same as in the running broad jump, except at the end
instead of jumping you first take a hop, immediately followed by a
step and then a jump. The hop ends on the same foot which landed on
the take-off; then the step, the opposite foot landing on the ground;
then the jump is taken from the foot then on the ground. The greatest
effort should be in the jump; the other two should not take such a lot
of effort that the speed is slowed up.


RUNNING HIGH JUMP.

As in the running broad jump, the girl should have a mark by which she
can tell the point where her speed should be increased. The same foot
should always be brought to the same position for jumping; thus, the
number of strides should be carefully taken from the mark to the bar
every time. Some jumpers approach from the left, some from the right.
The spring is taken from the ball of the foot nearest to the bar at
a distance determined by practice, usually three to four feet. The
nearer leg is thrown over the bar. As the nearer leg is thrown high,
the far leg with a strong push leaves the ground; thus, as the near leg
is coming down the far leg is going up and over the bar. It is often
advisable to throw the body away from the bar.

It is bad form to touch or knock the cross-bar.


STANDING HIGH JUMP.

The form of the standing high is the same, except that the jumper
stands about a foot away from the bar, side turned toward it. As in the
broad jump, she may gather speed by swinging the arms and rocking on
the toes until strength is summoned for the spring. The feet must not
leave the ground until the spring is made.


POLE VAULT.

As in the jumps, the pole vaulter must determine her run to the point
where the foot makes the spring. She should run slowly until the point
for the faster run is marked, then she should gather speed and come to
the spot from which spring is taken. The spring should always be taken
from the same foot, and the run should always start with this foot.

The pole should be grasped with both hands, the palm of the lower hand
facing inward and the top hand outward. The vaulter should grasp the
pole at the height of the cross-bar, which she measures on pole at each
increase of height and at each trial.

During the run the pole is held across the body, with the hands
gripping the pole at proper spot; then the pole is placed in the hole
in front of cross-bar and a spring is taken from the foot; the arm
underneath should be straight, the one above bent; as the pole swings
to a vertical position the body swings up, and if the vaulter is strong
enough in the arms she should slide the lower hand up to the top one;
an extra push is given to propel the body over the bar as the pole is
released. While crossing the bar the body should be arched; in falling,
the face should be downward. The landing should be easy and light.


SHOT PUT.

The competitor must stay within the circle and must not step over the
toe board. If the shot is held in the right hand, the left side of the
body is turned in the direction shot is going; the weight is on the
right foot, the left foot and left arm are raised to help the balance
of the body; the shot is carried in right hand, which is held up
slightly above the shoulder, elbow of right arm bent and well back, and
held as close as possible to the ribs. A quick hop forward is taken,
the same position is retained; then the body is turned, the weight
transferred to the left leg, and as this is done the shot is thrust
forward, with the weight and entire strength of body behind the throw;
the right foot comes forward to preserve the balance; the toe should be
against the springboard.

It is important to learn the correct form in shot putting, thus it is
advisable to practice with a light weight.


BASKET BALL THROW.

This throw is similar to the shot put in form, the ball being held
high over the body. It is a foul to step outside the circle, 6 feet in
diameter. The ball also may be thrown from the flexed wrist position,
that is, the ball rests in palm of hand and on the bent wrist. In both
the throws the ball is thrown after a spring on the right foot is
taken. It is better to throw the ball high.


BASE BALL THROW.

As in the basket ball throw, the base ball throw should have height.
The throw must be an overhand throw and the competitor must not step
out of the circle. The ball is grasped by some people by the first two
fingers and the thumb, the other two fingers are bent into the palm.


HURL BALL THROW.

The regulation hurl ball has a short strap on it. This strap is grasped
in one hand; the side of body is turned in direction the ball is going;
the ball is carried high overhead and then down, describing a circle; a
hop forward is taken, the ball released as it is starting up--this then
insures height.


JAVELIN THROW.

The javelin is grasped by one hand or by both hands. The center of
balance is found on the javelin; here it is gripped by the hand, the
first and second fingers and thumb holding it; the hand should be over
the shoulder; a short run should be taken; then, with right foot back
and all the weight on it, the javelin is carried back; then the arm,
shoulder, and body come quickly forward, the hand releases the javelin
and the weight is on the left (forward) foot. The competitor may not
cross the board or the mark.


DISCUS THROW.

The discus is thrown in two ways:

1. Free Style.--The discus is held in the palm of the right hand, the
edge resting between the first and second joints of the fingers. The
flight is guided by means of the index finger. The right hand is swung
down and across the body; the right foot is at the rear of circle, the
left a little forward; when the right hand has been swung back to the
maximum reach of the arm, the thrower should pivot on the left heel,
then she should crouch, straighten body and throw the discus, making
a spring so that the feet are changed; thus, right foot is back, left
forward.

2. Greek Style.--This is generally from a block or pedestal; the
competitor, right leg forward, holds the discus in both hands overhead,
then the discus is shifted to the right hand, which is brought down
and back as far as possible. The knees are bent. Now the knees are
straightened, a jump forward is taken and discus is hurled in the air.

       *       *       *       *       *

The main difficulty with track athletics is that they are overdone,
that is, a girl does not consider her strength. In training a horse,
the trainer does not urge it to tear over the course two or three
times at full speed. This is just the way some girls think they are
improving their running or jumping, getting to the top form sometimes
two or three times a day.

It is advisable to practice for form slowly at first, then increase
your effort. In this way then your maximum effort can be made when you
are perfect in form and condition; not too jaded by overwork to do your
best or so used to hurried efforts that your form is neglected.

One of the great troubles with girls in athletics is that they pitch
in too strenuously, with too much enthusiasm. This exuberance should
be carefully diverted into the proper channels by the coach. Confine
yourself to a few events, all of which you can do well. It is a useless
waste of energy to spend your strength in events for which you are
too tired to perfect your form. Not only do you owe to your coach and
your school or college the responsibility for your good health, but to
yourself. Therefore never over-exert in track work.

A coach plays a very great part in track athletics and should watch
closely over the girls. If any of them seem tired or stale, let them
rest for three or four days. Don’t, in your desire and enthusiasm,
forget that more harm may be done through overwork and too strict
training than in more obvious ways.



How to Conduct a Track Meet


THE COMPETITORS.

Every athlete should be entered in the meet a sufficient time before in
order that the places, events and handicaps may be arranged. Handicaps
may be granted if a mediocre runner is running with one of stellar
ability. Every athlete should have a number.


THE OFFICIALS.

_Referee._--The referee has entire charge of the meet and is
responsible for the good conduct of the meet. All fouls are dealt with
by her. She may disqualify an offender and give the runner fouled
another trial, or allow a new race to be run.

_The Clerk of the Course._--This position deals mainly with the
executive part of the meet. The clerk of the course sees that the
events are run in order and on scheduled time. She sees that the
contestants are called on time for their events. She also assigns the
contestants to their places--1st, 2nd, 3rd lane, etc.--for the races.

_Starter._--The starter gives the signal. As a rule, the pistol is the
signal for the start. The starter should have a blank cartridge pistol,
which she fires up into the air. The signals are: (1) “On your mark!”
(2) “Get set!” (3) “Pistol.” The starter may penalize for a false start
or for beating the pistol, that is, anticipating the pistol shot. She
may disqualify if a runner deliberately starts ahead of the mark.

_Inspectors._--These officials watch for fouls in a race, such as,
impeding a runner; coaching during the race; crossing into another
lane; grasping tape in hands; knocking over a hurdle.

_Judges at Finish._--These judge the order of the runners at finish
line--1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.

_Timekeeper._--The timekeeper must use a stopwatch and must stand at
the finish line. As soon as a runner touches tape or crosses line the
timekeeper stops her watch, which was started at pistol shot. There
should be at least one timekeeper for each of the first three runners.

_Field Judges._--These judges have entire charge of field events.

_Scorer._--Scorer keeps the official places and times of the
participants.


RACES.

_The Start._--First false start is penalized a yard; second, a yard
more; third, disqualifies. Any foul during race or start disqualifies.
A tape or strand of worsted is stretched (about four feet high) across
the track; the winner must breast this tape, arms raised. Every other
runner must cross the finish line.

In a hurdle race the hurdles are placed 15 yards from start and 15
yards from finish line, allowing 10 yards in between each hurdle. The
hurdler may knock down or over two hurdles and still win, but she is
disqualified for the third. No record stands if a hurdle has been
knocked over. All other rules for racing hold.

In the relay race the first girl to run starts at pistol; she or each
succeeding runner must touch the hand of or hand the baton to the
following runner. The last girl running must cross the finish line. No
runner may run twice in a relay. All other rules for races are the same.

_Jumping._--Each competitor may have three trials, but she may take but
one or two of those if she prefers.

_Running Broad Jump._--It is a foul to touch the ground with the foot
on the farther side of the take-off. This counts as one trial. It is a
foul to balk, that is, to run over the take-off without jumping. The
longest jump is scored. The distance is measured by a field judge from
the take-off to the nearest mark left by jumper.

_Standing Broad Jump._--It is a foul to take a preliminary spring
or jump or to touch the earth in front of take-off with the foot.
Measurement same as running broad jump.

_Running Hop, Step, and Jump._--Fouls and measurements same as running
broad.

_Running High Jump._--Each competitor has three trials for each height.
Unless she clears the bar without knocking it off it is a failure. It
is counted a trial if the runner balks and does not jump. It is counted
a trial to grasp the cross-bar. The bar is fixed at different heights;
it is also well to measure bar in middle to determine exact height.

_Standing High Jump._--No preliminary jump or spring may be made.
Measurement is the same as in running high jump.

_Pole Vault._--Each has three trials for each height. A vaulter is
allowed to balk--that is, run without vaulting--but two balks count as
a try. If the cross-bar is knocked off it is a failure.

_Weight Throwing._--Each has three trials. The distance is measured
from the toe board to the nearest mark left by shot. It is a foul to
touch with any part of person over the toe board or out of circle. It
is a foul to throw the shot instead of putting it straight out from the
shoulder. It counts as a try to drop the shot.

_Base Ball Throw._--Same as shot put.

_Basket Ball Throw._--Same as shot put.

_Javelin Throw._--Same as shot put.

_Discus Throw._--Same as shot put.

_Score._--The score for first place is generally 5 points; second
place, 3 points; third, 1 point. If there is a tie the competitors
divide the points. If tied for first place, the sum of first and second
points is divided; same for tie for second place.



Field Day


Field Day is essentially one on which field sports are participated
in. It is usually held annually. By field sports are meant the throws,
the weight and jumping events described in the chapter on Track
Athletics. Field Day, however, has various interpretations; it may be
for celebration, or for exhibitions, or for competition. As the title
indicates, Field Day is an out-of-door function.

If it is a gala day for celebration, there may be different kinds of
dances--interpretative dances, æsthetic dances, May pole dancing,
and folk dances; there may be drills of various kinds, such as are
mentioned in the chapter on Gymnastics; there may be tournament meets
or games.

Field Day as an exhibition may consist of different dances, drills and
sports, or games that have been practised during the year and that are
displayed now in order to show the results obtained.

The Field Day in which dancing and drills play an important part is
often enlivened by the use of colors. Scarfs, streamers or bands of
striking colors lend an effective note to a dance. For the drills a
uniform costume with a distinguishing streak of color is the most
suitable. As modern people like to be entertained, mock games,
“stunts,” and such races as three-legged, sack, and potato, may be
used. The object of the “mock games” and “stunts” is to amuse as much
as possible. There is very little element of sport that enters in.
In the games, players used to certain positions may play entirely
different ones; or they may be dressed up in popular “take-offs”
(imitations).

The third interpretation of Field Day is one for the purpose of holding
competitive sports or games. In fact, Field Day is often held annually
to decide the winners or the champions in the sports indulged in during
the year; or Field Day is the day of the annual track and field meet.
A method for competition in each sport is suggested at the end of each
respective chapter.



Walking


There is a vast amount of difference between a real walk and a
so-called walk. A saunter along the city streets in high-heeled pumps
and clothing too restricted to allow a free stride and room for deep
breathing is not a real walk, especially as it usually consists of
stops, such as gazing at shop windows or sampling the confections
of the various stores. A real walk is entirely different, with the
walker reaping all the benefits derivable from fresh air and muscular
activity. There are two kinds of real walking--non-competitive and
competitive.

To deal first with non-competitive walking, which is for the sheer joy
of exercise and fresh air, there are three maxims to be remembered by
the walker, namely, distance, form and clothing.

_Distance._--The walker should have an objective point, but the
distance should never be longer than can be accomplished without
extreme effort. It never pays to over-exert. When tired, the walker
should rest or stop, but never give up when the tired feeling is merely
imaginary. Cover up well when resting or upon stopping. The main
trouble often is that an unaccustomed walker will try to keep pace with
a walker of long experience. The unaccustomed walker is then apt to
walk too fast, too far or too long. Be conservative in the distance at
first, then increase it as your experience increases.

_Form._--Many walkers fail to derive entire benefit from their exercise
because they walk badly. The head should be up, shoulders erect, chest
forward, so that there is plenty of room for deep breathing. How many
walkers fail to breathe deeply and gloriously! How many walkers gasp
for breath and puff and plod along the way! Then the arms often are
allowed to swing too violently, thus wasting a lot of energy. Watch
your arms; don’t let them imitate pump handles. Let them move freely
but gently. The legs, of course, are kept straight; the foot should be
put down so that the toe and ball of foot are on the ground a fraction
of a second before the heel. Be careful that you don’t come thundering
down on your heels or come down with the whole foot flat.

_Clothing._--The importance of clothing is often disregarded, for
the most part through thoughtlessness. The shoes worn should be
comfortable--low-heeled, broad toes, a medium rubber or leather sole.
The skirt should be short enough and wide enough to allow perfect
freedom of stride. The clothing around the body should be loose enough
to allow free play of the muscles and ample chest expansion. Dress
warmly, but do not start with so much clothing that you will soon
become overheated.


TRAMPS OR HIKES.

One of the most enjoyable forms of walking is a weekly series of tramps
or hikes. This is an extremely beneficial form of outdoor exercise
for a school or a club to indulge in. Everybody can join in. A leader
should be appointed or elected and a committee chosen to arrange a
schedule of tramps. Start out with an objective point of local or
historical interest that will make a walk of not more than four
or five miles for the first attempt. The distance can be gradually
increased as the walkers become accustomed until finally they can take
all day trips. Such a day spent by a jolly group of girls gives not
only valuable physical development but also combines exercise with
social enjoyment.

Good advice to the walker is: Breathe deeply; walk briskly; take a walk
as often and as regularly as possible although it may be but a short
one.


COMPETITIVE WALKING.

Competitive walking may be for distance--greatest distance in a
set time; or for time--fastest time for a set distance. As in all
competitive sports, competitive walking should be watched for
over-exertion, nerve strain and exhaustion. In the walk the arms are
bent; one foot must be on the ground when other is off or the official
will call a foul for running. The form is called the “heel and toe”
walk, the heel of one foot leaving the ground as the toe of other foot
comes down.

The rules for walking are very similar to those of running or
sprinting. The competitor must start from behind a starting line, at a
given signal, usually a gun. The distance of the race is measured and
there is either a tape to be breasted or a finish line on the track to
be crossed. False starts are penalized as in track (Page 65). Two fouls
making the offender liable to disqualification are: running, i. e.,
having both feet off the ground at the same time; interfering with or
impeding another competitor.

[Illustration: A hike in the open is one of the best ways for a group
of girls to spend a day. These girls are not hampered by cumbersome
clothes--doubtless they are all enjoying themselves and learning the
wonders of nature.]

[Illustration: Ice Hockey--Dribbling the puck down the ice, defending
players have covered the teammates of the dribbler to prevent a
successful pass. At the same time the defense is alert to stop the
dribble.]



Golf


Golf, like tennis, is a favorite outdoor game. It is essentially an
open weather game, but it may be played all the year around. It is
deservedly popular because it combines cross-country walking, with all
of its many benefits, and a peculiar skill with a variety of implements
or clubs.

Anybody--woman, girl or child in her teens--who has perseverance can
make a golfer. No great strength is necessary. The only requisites are
a good eye, persistence, a good teacher and the facilities of a course.
Fortunate is the person who at an early age learned his or her golf
from a competent instructor, and fortunate is the person who has the
facilities of a golf course either public or private.

The standard golf course is of eighteen holes. The average hole is
300 yards or more, although the distances usually vary from 125 yards
to 600 yards and of a total length of upward of 6,000 yards. Should
a player play straight over the course it will be seen that a single
round would usually require a walk of four miles. Play is started from
a driving green--a leveled mound of earth. The ball is teed-up on the
driving green by placing a pinch of fine sand on the green and the
ball upon it so that it is a half inch or more above the surface. The
driver, a wooden club with a heavy head or sole, is used and the ball
sent with a full stroke as far on its way to the hole as possible.
Usually the space immediately in front of the tee for 50 or 75 yards
is rough ground, terminating with a bunker and sand pit or some other
form of hazard such as a brook, etc. Then comes the fair green, a more
or less level grassy stretch extending to within a few yards of the
putting green, which contains the hole or cup. On either side of the
fair green is the rough, which is long grass, sand, water and other
hazards. Usually the putting green is surrounded by traps such as sand
pits, bunkers or mounds of earth and water hazards, while often a brook
trickles through the fair green. The object of the game is to negotiate
the course in the fewest number of strokes.

The drive from the tee should carry one over the first rough and over
the first bunker or trap and well on to the fair green. On the fair
green, if the hole is a long one and the lie of the ball favorable,
the club used to send the ball again on its way is the brassie, which
is a wooden club quite similar to the driver. It has a wooden head or
sole, but the bottom of the head is plaited with a strip of brass to
protect the wood, as the ball must be picked up off the ground without
the aid of teeing. The drive for a girl should net a hundred yards,
more or less, and the brassie stroke about the same. Often the lie of
the ball on the fair green is not favorable to a brassie stroke, in
which case an iron club with a pitch to the head of the club with which
to loft the ball is used. This may be the mid-iron, the cleek, the
mashie-niblic, or the mashie. The last named club is sometimes called
the lofter and is used mainly for approaching the hole from off the
green from distances of a hundred yards or less. The putting green is
a very well levelled surface of extremely fine grass in which the cap
is sunk. Putting greens vary from very fine levels likened to billiard
tables to undulating slopes. The club to use on this green is the
putter.

When a player is unfortunate enough to send the ball into the rough or
long grass, a heavy iron club such as the mashie-niblic or mid-iron is
used. And when the ball is sent into the sand or in a bunker the niblic
is played. This club has a very heavy sole with a decided pitch for
lofting and sends the ball high into the air out of trouble and on to
the fair green when the stroke is played properly.

In learning to putt, the game of Clock Golf, found on most good
courses, is a great help for it means that a girl may get diversion
while _grasping_ the fundamentals. The first question in putting, as
with every club, is _to establish the most efficient grip_. There
are two classes of grips--the overlapping grip and the regular or
two-handed grip. The _former is the more modern grip and is, I believe,
the more efficient_. The left hand is placed nearly at the end of the
club. The right hand is so placed that the little finger of the right
overlaps the first finger of the left, and the left thumb is almost
entirely covered by the right hand. This grip brings the wrists closer
together than the two-handed method and so produces greater harmony of
action in the swing.

With the grip established, the next fundamental is the stance and
address. Draw an imaginary line from the ball to the hole; stand behind
the line with heels together--feet at right angles to each other, the
left foot pointing toward the hole; the player stands bending slightly
from the hips with arms stretched down full length; the right elbow
points to the right thigh; the left points toward the hole; the club
swings as a pendulum; the sole of the club addresses the ball at right
angles to the imaginary line. The player’s eye should be right above
the ball. The secret of the putt is two-fold--the swing, which should
be in direct proportion to the distance (and state of the green) from
the hole, and the impact of club and ball at a perfect right angle. The
follow through should be along the imaginary line still preserving the
right angle. With the fundamentals established, practice will develop
astonishingly accurate putting.

When the beginner has become adept at putting, the next step is to
place the ball back on to the fairway twenty yards or so and take up
the mashie. Here again the fundamentals are important. The grip is
already mastered. The stance however differs in that the heels are not
together--the feet being farther apart, the right foot farther behind
the ball. The stance and address are important and the player should
obtain the advice of a professional or seasoned player. The best advice
the writer can give is to study the club and let it do its work. The
mashie can be used for a chip stroke for short distance and for a full
stroke when the ball lies farther from the hole. It is an extremely
important club and when mastered can save the player many strokes.

The next club to study is the brassie. The stroke with the brassie is
the same as with the driver on the tee. The stance and address for the
drive and the brassie shot finds the player with feet well apart, the
right foot well behind the ball, the arms extended, the body upright
and flexible, the weight evenly on both feet and the head down with
the eye somewhat behind the ball. The club addresses the ball at right
angles. In the upward swing of the club the forearms are turned and
the left knee shifts so as to bring the weight on to the right foot;
the club descends down through the arc it has described; the right
foot pivots, the forearms turn, the weight comes almost wholly on the
left foot and the club returns to the ball exactly at right angles.
The club head is ahead of the hands and the ball is hit cleanly, the
power coming from the right arm. The follow through finds the weight on
the left foot, the right having only enough to preserve the player’s
balance.

It is on the drive and brassie stroke that “pressing” is a severe
fault. It is more important to hit true and to preserve the right angle
by following through than to hit hard. Most girls do not hit a long
ball. A far surer game is the short game. Accurate strokes down the
middle of the fair green is sounder golf, so do not “press” and do not
try to kill the ball.

After the brassie and driver are mastered, one can take up the
mid-iron, cleek, niblic, spoon, and jigger in the order named. These
clubs are for special service, and cannot be described in detail here.

An excellent practice to follow when taking up the game for the first
time is to devote a day or even a week to each club, although it takes
will-power to resist playing with the whole set instead of one club.
As you master a club practice with it continuously. You will find
such practice invaluable. Do not take up your second club until you
have thoroughly mastered the first. And as I have said before, I would
recommend that the game be learned backward--so to speak--with putter
first, then with mashie, brassie, driver and down through the other
clubs.

An adjacent golf course is a welcome requisite to a girls’ school
or club. It is desirable for athletic associations or faculties to
organize tournaments, as competition usually heightens interest. Where
skill is unequal handicaps may be arranged by averaging a player’s
scores and allowing the differences between the average score and par
as a handicap. In this way evenness in competition is assured. Usually
matches are decided by the winning of holes, although many competitions
are decided on medal score or the total strokes for 18 holes. There are
several kinds of tournaments possible in golf--two-ball or four-ball
matches, or best ball matches. The last is where four players go around
the course, two playing against the other two and counting only the
best ball on each hole. Possibly the most satisfactory form for a
tournament to take is the round robin tournament, where the number of
entries is not too great, as each player meets everyone entered. Where
the entry list is big the elimination tournament is most efficacious,
and when there is still a larger entry list it is well to divide the
players into first and second flights by first playing a qualifying
round, counting medal scores, the lowest scores being grouped together
in the first flight. A match may be made even by handicaps when players
of varying skill are entered.



Skating


There are few forms of exercise that are more exhilarating than
skating. There seems to be a peculiar fascination that holds you. There
is a pleasing restfulness and a soothing feeling while you are gliding
over the smooth ice. Surely there is nothing so interesting to watch as
good skating. An intangible quality seems to draw you to it, to make
you want to put on a pair of skates and try it yourself. Out-of-doors
skating is, of course, preferable to rink skating, but the latter is a
very acceptable substitute.

“I have weak ankles. I can’t skate.” How many times have girls offered
this trite excuse! If anyone really wants to learn to skate, with a
little patience and perseverance it can soon be accomplished.

The skates should be the right size for the shoe in order to avoid any
accident. The shoe should be high, and not too stiff at the ankles. It
is advisable to have the shoe and skate fastened together. The skates
should be always well wiped, sharp and in good condition.

The skater must learn straight skating, that is, moving forward by long
slides on each foot alternately while the foot not on the ice is held
up backward and outward from the ice, before attempting intricacies.

To learn the elementals of straight skating, start with the left foot.
This foot slides forward on the flat of the skate, the toe turned
out; the left knee is bent, the weight of the body is forward, thus
giving momentum to the slide. The right foot is back, raised a few
inches. When the momentum is almost gone, then gripping the ice with
the toe of the left foot, the right foot starts its slide. As the right
starts, the left foot is lifted ready for the glide, and so on, skating
straight ahead.

Skating backward is learned in the same manner, except that the back of
the foot is turned out instead of the toe.

It requires practice in order to perfect these two forms of straight
skating. They should be acquired and thoroughly mastered, so that the
skater glides over the ice with ease and skill before any dancing or
continental skating is attempted.

There are several points of form that should be brought to mind. The
slides or strokes should always be of equal length and as long as
possible. If one foot is stronger than the other, then particular
attention should be paid to the weaker foot. The skating knee is always
bent. The foot not in use is stretched outward and downward, toe
pointed downward. The body is carried well forward, head erect; the
arms move rhythmically, but not in an exaggerated position. The body
must not be stiff. There should be no rigid muscles at all.

It is not the hurried, quick strides with a body bent over in a
grotesque fashion that constitutes good skating, but the long, even
glides, with the body poised naturally and responding to the rhythm of
the motion.

Continental skating has in the last few years proved to be very
popular. It is impossible to give a detailed account of all the
intricate figures in a comparatively limited space. The more
elementary school figures, however, can easily be explained. The skate
has an inside and an outside edge, and progress may be made either
forward or backward on either edge. Thus, there are four edges: forward
outside edge, backward outside edge, forward inside edge, backward
inside edge.

For the forward outside edge a circle is described on the outer edge of
the skate. The first stroke is on the right foot. The start is obtained
by a push from inside edge of the skate of the left foot. The body
leans toward the circle.

For the backward outside edge, the circle is described on the outer
edge of the skate. This is like the forward outside edge, only much
more difficult; the body leans in toward the circle and backward.

The forward inside edge is a circle described on the inside edge of
the skate; the outer shoulder is turned as far out and forward, the
inner shoulder is turned back, the body leans toward the middle of the
circle. When the circle is almost complete, the free foot is brought
forward, the shoulders straightened.

The backward inside edge is more difficult, but the theory is the same
as the forward inside edge. The foot at completion is carried back, not
forward, however.

These are fundamentals for figure skating and should be practised
carefully. After the edges, the five threes, the loops, the brackets,
the four rockers, and the four counters are learned. These are easily
learned if the four edges have been perfected.



Ice Hockey


One of the most enjoyable and thrilling of the skating pastimes is ice
hockey. For this a special hockey skate is made.


HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED.

The game is played by two teams with six or seven players. The players
hit a small piece of rubber, called the puck, with sticks especially
made. These sticks are long and slender, flat at the blade, which is
at an angle from the handle. The ball is advanced up and down the
rink or playing area. A point is scored when one team shoots the puck
through the opponents’ goal. The team wins which has the highest number
of points at the end of the game, which is divided into two halves of
twenty minutes each with a ten-minute intermission between the halves.

The playing area is usually 112 feet long by 58 feet wide. There are
two goal posts at each end of the playing area, 10 feet from the edge
of the ice; the posts are 4 feet high and are 6 feet apart. A sloping
net should be placed in back to catch the balls.

The game is started with the puck in the middle of the ice, i. e., the
referee places the puck between the sticks of two opposing players,
each of whom tries to get possession of the ball or pass it to one of
her teammates. The game is a very fast one. The four forward players,
the rover (right center) and the left center, and the right and left
wings, are essentially attackers, although the rover may be called
upon to defend. Cover point, point, and goal keeper are the defense
players. The goal keeper should stick close to her goal; the point
plays in front of the goal, some distance from her; the cover point
plays some distance in front of the point and can often aid the
forwards by feeding them and assuming an aggressive play.

If the puck goes out of bounds over the end lines it is faced, by the
referee, five yards within the goal line and at right angles to it. If
it goes over the side lines it is faced five yards within the line and
at right angles to it.

The puck is played by means of the stick. It is not permissible to
touch it with any part of the body, except to stop it dead or block
it. The puck may be pushed, shoved, or lifted, i. e., by inserting the
blade of the stick under the puck. You may hit your opponent’s stick.

You may body check, that is, shove from the side or front with the
shoulder or hip.

You may block an opponent or you may block the puck with the skates,
stick, or body.

An important rule is that of off-side. No player, if she is between the
puck and her opponent’s goal, may receive a pass from one of her team
unless it is touched by an opponent, or unless one of own team with the
puck is between her and the opponents’ goal. The penalty for off-side
play is facing the ball where the foul occurred. This rule does not
hold in defense directly in front of the goal. One point is scored when
the puck passes between the goal posts lower than their highest point.

The teams change goals to begin the second half.

The fouls are:

To lift the stick above the shoulder except when lifting the puck.

To throw a stick.

To hit, trip, or block a player by holding the stick in a horizontal
position.

To body check or charge from behind, to trip, kick, push, hold with
hand or stick.

For the goal keeper to sit, kneel, or lie.

To grasp, carry, or push the puck with any part of the body.

To interfere with a player not in possession of the puck.

The penalty for a foul is: The offender may be ruled off the ice for a
certain time.


OFFICIALS.

There is a referee who controls the game and inflicts the penalties.

There are two umpires, one at each end, to decide whether a goal has
been made. There are two timekeepers to keep the time of the game and a
penalty timekeeper who keeps the time of players ruled out and notifies
the player when she may return to the game.

There is for each team a captain, who makes the decisions for her team,
and she is responsible for the good sportsmanship of her team.

There are many little tricks in ice hockey that may be acquired with
practice, but the object of the game should be to have as clean and
fast a game as possible, where skillful playing holds greater sway than
roughness.



Rowing


Very lucky is the school or college that has the necessary facilities
for rowing. Wherever this form of sport is indulged in, it is generally
popular. It deserves its popularity, for not only is it one of the most
pleasant outdoor recreations but it is also very beneficial, since it
brings into play practically all the muscles in the body.

In rowing, as in other sports, there is a great difference between
competitive and non-competitive work. Whether racing or merely taking a
pleasure row, the stroke is, however, fundamentally the same.

First, the position in the boat is to be considered. The oarsman sits
in the center of the boat with her back toward the bow, facing the
stern, with her feet planted firmly on the bottom of the boat, knees
bent, slightly apart. An oar is grasped firmly in each hand, the oars
having previously been adjusted in the oar-locks. There is a difference
in the racing stroke, as shown under Racing.

_Position of the Hands on the Oar._--Next to be considered is the
stroke itself. The blade of the oar is just above the water and
perpendicular to it. The arms and hands are straight, so that the hands
holding the oars are just above the toes.

_Catch._--Then the blades enter the water, turned forward so that they
are held in the water vertically. The body is then swung backward from
the hips; all the strength and weight of the body are put to the oars.

_Pull._--As the body is swinging backward, the arms are bent into the
chest. The blade of the oar is kept under water during the entire
length of the pull.

_Recovery._--As the hands touch the chest, the forearm is dropped
quickly, thus causing the blade to leave the water.

_Feathering._--The blade is carried a few inches above and horizontal
to the water. It is gradually turned, as the catch is reached, to
a perpendicular position, ready to enter the water as the arms are
straightened ready for the catch.

_Legs._--Where a sliding seat is used the object is to combine the use
of the arms and legs in making the sweep of the oar longer, at full
reach the body being doubled up with the knees under the chin, the
stroke consisting of catching the water with the back and forcing it
through to the finish by combined action of back and legs. When the
finish is reached the legs are straight, the hands and oar are against
the chest, and the body slightly back of the perpendicular.


Racing

The racing stroke is the same, except that for the four and eight-oared
crews each oarsman pulls one oar, known as a “sweep,” holding it in
both hands--the inside hand at the end of the oar, the outside hand a
hand’s breadth away. The boats used for racing are known as “shells,”
especially made for the purpose. These have sliding seats and are
equipped with either oar-locks or thole pins (according to the belief
of the coach) and stretchers, or boards against which the feet rest.
When the body is forward, the sliding seat is forward toward the bow;
as the pull is starting, the seat comes back until the body is back,
then it moves forward as body swings forward.

In racing, the shell is steered by a coxswain, who sits in the stern
facing the oarsmen and holds the lines which guide the rudder. This is
very important, since she tries to choose the best and most favorable
course. She must observe all conditions closely. She alters the course
as little as possible, taking care not to jerk or in any way interfere
with running of the boat. She also judges the stroke, that is, when the
stroke should be faster or slower.

The stroke oar is the most important position in the boat, since all
the others time their strokes according to _hers_, either faster or
slower, according to the necessity.

Above everything necessary in racing is a good coach, who watches
carefully for any signs of fatigue or over-exertion. It never pays in
the long run to overdo. The crew should work smoothly, harmoniously and
with perfect mastery of the stroke. This can be obtained through the
supervision of the coach, who criticises the individual and the whole.
In arranging a crew the heavier girls are in the center, the lighter at
either end; the coxswain should be as small and light as possible, thus
not adding much unused weight.

In the single and double sculls--that is, boats rowed by one or two
oarsmen--an oar is grasped in each hand. The sculler steers by pulling
evenly on both oars for a straight course, or more strongly on one or
the other oar for a variation of the course.


RULES FOR RACING.

Boat races, or regattas, are held on fixed courses for measured
distances. In choosing a course, the natural and local conditions have
to be considered. The most desirable are straightaway over inland
waters with no, or little, current. If the course is in tidal water,
the race should be so timed that it is not necessary for the crew to
row against the tide.

The start and the finish are marked by flags. The stern must be on a
line with the start. The bow first crossing the finish line wins. A tie
is usually rowed over again.

The start is generally made at the pistol shot, fired by the official
starter. Each boat has been assigned to a course, decided by lot. The
winner has first choice and should make the most of the opportunity,
considering position, tide, wind and other local conditions. No crew
may go into another’s course.

If the course is not straightaway, each boat must turn around the
turning stake in its own course.

Besides an official starter, there is an umpire who judges the races; a
judge or judges of the finish.

The different kinds of crews are: Single--one oarsman; doubles--two
oarsmen, each pulling two oars; pairs--two oarsmen each pulling one
oar; fours--four oarsmen each with one oar; eights--each with one oar.


Paddling

Closely allied to rowing is paddling. This is done in a canoe by one,
two, or more people. If by one, she seats herself in the stern,
facing the bow; if two, one is in the stern and one is in the bow, back
toward the stern. There are rarely more than three or four in a canoe,
the average being two people to a canoe.

[Illustration: Rowing is eagerly participated in by the girls at
Wellesley College. The formation of the star shows how proficient they
have become in handling the oars.]

[Illustration: The tennis enthusiast will not admit there is a more
fascinating, healthful or elevating sport in the whole world. Wellesley
College provides plenty of tennis courts and the setting is ideal.]

The Indians of the Canadian backwoods usually delegate the
responsibility of steering to the bow man because of rough water or the
danger from submerged rocks in swift running streams. Usually, in more
civilized waters, the steering is done by the paddler in the stern,
who, by a twist of the wrists, turns the blade of the paddle toward the
canoe or away, according to the direction desired. The paddle is held
in both hands; the near hand is held pretty far down the blade, more
than shoulder’s width from far hand, which is held over the top of the
paddle. There are many forms of paddling; some prefer straight, others
bent arms. The reach with the paddle should not be so far ahead of
the paddler that she is forced to lean forward. The paddle is brought
out of the water when both arms are straight back, body in a normal
position. It is carried forward but a few inches above the water with
blade flat.

An Indian custom that has come down to us is the double paddle. The
paddle is fashioned with a handle in the middle and paddles at either
end. The paddler sits in the center of the canoe. First the paddle is
dipped in the water at the left and then to the right. Steering is done
by turning the paddle, in or out, as you would go, left or right. The
double paddle is fascinating, but hardly so safe for the novice as the
single.

Practice and experience are the two best teachers.



Tennis


Tennis scarcely needs an introduction. It is one of the finest
games--for girls or men--we have, and it has proved its worth through
years and years of play.

Tennis is played on a rectangular court, either of turf, clay or
cement, provided that it is level. The dimensions of the court for
doubles are 36 by 78 feet. The 78-foot lines are known as the side
lines; the others as the end or base lines. Parallel to each base line
and 18 feet distant from are two service lines, drawn from side service
line to side service line. Parallel to each side line and 4-1/2 feet
distant from them is a side service line, drawn from end line to end
line. A line exactly in center joins the two service lines, thus making
four service courts. The net is stretched exactly across the center of
the court, and should be 3 feet high in the middle. It is desirable
that there be no obstructions within 3 feet of the court on the side
and 12 feet at ends, and that there should be backstops of considerable
height. The posts to which net is attached should be 3 feet away from
the court.

The game may be played by two, three or four players, who bat a ball
across the net with a racket until one or the other fails to return the
ball. If only two play (or, as it is termed, “singles”), the side lines
are dispensed with and the side service lines are the boundary lines
(27 × 78 feet).

The ball is put in play by the server. The courts and service are
determined by a toss; the winner may choose either the end of court
or the serve, but not both. The server, standing on the right-hand
side of her base line, with feet behind the line, sends the ball into
her opponent’s right-hand court. The player receiving ball after it
has bounced must return it over the net so that it touches inside the
court; then the server returns, etc., until there is a failure to
return the ball. This counts a point for opposing player of the one
who makes the fault. Then the ball is again served, this time from the
left-hand side, next from the right, continuing to alternate until the
game is finished. A game is always begun by serving from the right-hand
court.

The game is won when a player has scored four points, except in the
case of deuce, when more are necessary. The first point is “15;” the
second, “30;” the third, “40;” the fourth, “game.” If both players
have “15,” it is “15-all;” if one, “15-love (or naught).” The server’s
score is always called first. If both have 30, 30-all; if one has 30,
the other none or 15, it is 30-love, or 30-15. If both have 40, it is
“deuce.” In deuce it is necessary to play extra points. The first point
won is “advantage in” (server) or “out” (striker), as may be the case;
the next point if won by the same player is game, but if won by the
other player it is deuce again, and so on until one player wins two
points in succession.

The server, after the first game, becomes the receiver, and the serve
is alternated with each game until the end of the set. A set consists
of six games won by one player, unless the opposing player is less than
two games behind, that is, a set cannot end at 6/5, but must be played
until one or the other obtains a two-game lead. Ends of the court are
exchanged after each set. The server should always keep the score.

It is the aim of the players to return as many good balls as possible.
A ball is “good” when it is sent within the court. It is a “fault” when
it hits outside the boundary lines, or does not clear the net--a ball,
however, which touches net but still falls on the right side (a “let
ball”) is “good.” Faults count one point for opponent or opponents.
Other faults that count for opponent are: Server serves two faults in
succession; volleying the ball before it has touched the net; volleying
a served ball before it bounds (any other ball may be volleyed);
failure to return a ball. It is a fault to touch net while ball is in
play, or to touch the ball with any part of person except the racket,
or to touch ball with racket twice.

The receiver may hit the ball in the air (except serve) or after the
first bounce, but may never hit after the second bounce.

A player in tennis must never be caught napping. Tennis calls for wide
awake, quick playing. It is best to stand either near the net or back
farther toward the service line. For most girls I would recommend
the base line game. Never stand where your opponent can drop a ball
directly at your feet; always be ready for her. You must always watch
where she is and try to place the ball in the spot most difficult for
her to reach.

In order to be ready the racket should be held firmly and easily so
that it may be prepared for any stroke. Above all, keep your eye on the
ball; if you look at the place you want to hit the ball and not at
the ball, you do not hit it squarely and you give your play away. When
you receive, do not stand too far away or too near. If you are too far
away, you are apt to tip it; if too near, you bend your arm and do not
get a good stroke.

The game of tennis is divided into two main divisions, serving and
receiving. First, let us take up serving. This is the method of putting
the ball in play. The server must stand behind the base line of the
court. She must serve her ball into the diagonally opposite service
court. She is allowed two balls; if the first is a fault she is allowed
to serve the second. To be a good ball it must touch the ground in the
service court, fairly clearing the net. A double fault on the part
of the server counts a point for the opposing side, that is, it is a
fault to serve two balls which do not clear the net, or do not touch
inside the service court. When the ball touches the net but goes into
the proper service court, it is called a “let ball” and does not count,
but is served over again. Failure to return the ball after it is served
counts one point for the server. The server must not step across the
base line while serving, nor must she step, hop, walk or run.

In serving it is important to study the grip of the racket, the method
of hitting the ball, and the way to toss the ball into the air. The
racket is held tightly in the hand by what is known as the long grip,
hand at the end of the racket--usually the right hand. There are
many different swings and twists used. It is best to adopt one that
brings into play the full strength of the arm and shoulder, thus an
overhead swing of the racket is most often used. The ball is tossed
into the air and the racket, in its exact center, should hit the ball
directly over the net into the opposite service court. Before a cut or
a speedier serve is developed, the player should make sure of a steady
ball that as a rule is good. After that is acquired, practice the cuts
and put as much speed as possible into the serve. It is very important
that the ball and the racket should meet at the psychological moment.
If the ball is hit too low, it does not clear the net; if it is hit
while too high in the air, it goes out of the service court. The follow
through of the stroke should be natural and never chopped.

In receiving and returning the ball there are many different strokes
to use. It is advisable for the beginner to perfect both forehand and
backhand strokes. For these strokes, the racket should be held in
the short grip, that is, the end of the racket is at the wrist, hand
reaching up the handle; the forearm should be in a line with the racket.

One stroke, the drop stroke, the arm is back of the body, extended to
full length; then move--rather sweep--forward to meet the ball as it is
about waist high, giving a little upward turn to your racket. Always
follow through. The arm should be straight in this stroke.

Besides a forehand stroke, a backhand stroke is also necessary to
learn. In the forehand, the weight is on the right foot, but in the
backhand it is on the left foot. There are many different kinds, but
the most natural is the best for the beginner to use. The arm and
racket, of course, are across the body. Swing back and meet the ball
squarely, with body turned greatly to that side. Be careful to follow
through.

A great many people spoil their game of tennis by wild playing and
smashes. It is much better to be deliberate and calculating, carefully
placing your shots out of reach of your opponent. Try to make every
play count. In other words, use your head rather than brute strength.

A good racket--carefully chosen for weight and balance and to which you
have become accustomed--practice, a deliberate study of the game and
your playing--these will help the average player.

The most suitable dress for tennis is a light weight waist or a middy
blouse; a short, wide skirt, and rubber or felt-soled flat-heeled shoes.


TENNIS MATCHES OR TOURNAMENTS.

For a tennis match there should be an official referee, who determines
questions concerning the rules; an umpire, who judges all balls except
those on the lines, which are judged by the linesmen; a linesman for
each of the seven lines, whose duty it is to judge the ball near her
line. There may be a scorer, but this duty is generally assumed by the
umpire, who announces each point, the score of each game, and how the
sets stand.

Each player should enter her name in advance; then each draws for
opponent, the winner of one match meeting the winner of another, etc.,
until the final match is played. This is an elimination tournament. In
doubles, the pair may be entered or the partner may be drawn for.

A favorite form of tournament where the number of entrants is small is
the round robin tournament, where each contestant meets every other,
irrespective of victories. The championship with its trophy is given to
the girl winning the greatest number of matches.

Tournament play is greatly to be recommended, especially for schools or
clubs. Match play adds considerably to the pleasure of the sport and
usually has beneficial results, both physical and physiological. I have
seen diffident girls taught to gain self control and composure at all
times by competitive athletics. A tennis tournament can be made a gala
social event as well as one of keen and interesting sport.



Cricket


Cricket is not widely played by girls, but there is no game which might
be adopted to better advantage. It may be played without any danger
of over-exertion. A cricket crease may be placed on any level grassy
field, usually a ground 100 yards square, although a smaller field
may be utilized. The equipment required includes two sets of wickets,
a cricket ball, at least two bats, the wicket-keeper gloves and leg
guards, and a leg guard for each of two batsmen who are in. There are
eleven players on each team and the game is divided into innings; that
is, a side has its inning when it is at the bat. Two batsmen are “in”
at a time.

The wickets are set in the middle of the field, opposite, parallel and
22 yards apart. On a line with the wicket is the bowling crease, 8
feet 8 inches in length. Four feet in front and parallel to it is the
popping crease, of unlimited length.

The batsman who is first striker takes her position with bat on the
popping crease, the bowler at the opposite wicket, well behind bowling
crease; also the second batsman, bat in hand, ready to run when hit
is made. The bowler delivers the ball. It must be bowled, not thrown,
tossed, or jerked. The bowler is allowed a run in her delivery, but she
must keep one foot on the ground behind the bowling crease and within
the return crease, otherwise it is no ball.

The bowler must deliver the ball so that it shall come to the batsman
on the ground. If it is delivered high or wide, the umpire shall call
“wide ball.” Six good balls make an “over;” the bowler shall be allowed
to change ends when she pleases, provided she has not bowled two
“overs” consecutively in one inning. The captain of the outs places the
field as she deems wise, depending upon the skill of the batsman.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM OF FIELD OF PLAY.]

[Illustration: SAMPLE SCORING SHEET.]

The striker hits the ball; if it is caught before it touches the ground
she is out; if the wicket is knocked down by a bowled ball she is out.
If she hits it safe she runs to the return crease and the other batsman
runs to the opposite popping crease and a run is scored. If the hit is
long enough the batsmen continue to run, and each time they exchange
creases a run is counted. The fielders endeavor to get the ball and
throw in to the wicket-keeper in order to knock off the bails before
the batsman touches her bat to the ground within the crease. When the
bail is knocked off in this manner the batsman is out. When a batsman
is out for any cause she is retired for the inning, and the side is
retired when ten of the eleven strikers are declared out.

Usually in the matches for girls only one inning for each team is
played, although the rules call for two and three-day matches. The game
affords ample opportunity for outdoor exercise and muscular activity.
For a full description, see Spalding’s “How to Play Cricket.”

Cricket has been successfully played by girls. Miss Dorothy Wooster
writes the following short article and gives a diagram and score card
showing how the game is played at Smith College.



Cricket as Played at Smith College

BY DOROTHY WOOSTER.


In order to adapt cricket for practical use, the following additions
and changes have been made in the official rules, as published in the
Spalding Athletic Library.


_A. Additions_:

1. Diagram of Field: Use center line, “_x_,” drawn between wickets.
Cross this line by another line, “_y_,” drawn parallel to the popping
crease.

2. There shall be 3 innings to a game, each inning consisting of 3
“outs” on a side.

3. There shall be a definite batting order.

4. If a batter touches the ball with the bat she must run, or take her
“out.”


_B. Changes in Rules_:

10. ... and to be a good ball, the ball must hit the ground on or
across the center line “_y_.”

13. A “Bowling Over” shall consist of six “good balls,” or four “wide
balls,” or four “no balls.”

33A. ... except in case of a “Caught Ball.” The ball is then in play
until it is settled in bowler’s or wicket-keeper’s hand. This change
gives an opportunity to put two runners out on one play; i. e., “Caught
Out” and “Run Out.”

The scoring has been simplified. For practice games, when full teams
are not present, an individual score is kept. Using these changes the
game progresses rapidly and holds the interest of both players and
spectators.



Soccer


Soccer or association football is a particularly suitable game for
girls and women, since it furnishes splendid outdoor exercise without
unnecessary roughness. It resembles field hockey in that it is mainly
a running game, although there are many essential differences. The
popularity of the game is rapidly increasing and it is played by many
schools and colleges.

The game is primarily a running and kicking game. No player but the
goal keeper in her own goal area is permitted to touch the ball with
the hands. Two teams of eleven players each line up in their half of
the field. The captains toss for the choice of end or for the choice of
the kick-off. In making the choice, the wind and the position of the
sun should be considered. The ball is put in play by a kick-off. To
advance the ball to the opponents’ goal and to kick the ball between
the goal posts and under the bar is the object of the game. Each goal
counts one. The team having the highest score at the end of the two
halves--time of which is determined by the captains--is the winner.
Thus the two opposing teams are either attacking or defending. If one
side has possession of the ball it should advance toward the opponents’
goal, thus attacking; if the ball is not in their possession they are
checking their opponents’ advance, thus defending. The players who do
most of the attacking are the five forwards, assisted by the halfbacks.
It is their duty to advance the ball by short and long passes, by
dribbling, by a volley, i. e., hitting the ball with head or chest,
or kicking it before it has touched the ground. The fullbacks and goal
keeper, assisted by the halfbacks, do the defensive work.

The positions are: center forward, inside right and inside left, outer
right and outer left; left, center, and right halfbacks; right and left
fullbacks; goal keeper.

The beginner in soccer should pay particular attention to the
following: kicking, tackling, heading, and dribbling. The ball is not
kicked with the end of toe, but rather the toe is inserted under the
ball, the instep bearing the brunt of the work. The leg should be drawn
back to get a good drive. Kicking is not merely sending the ball as far
and hard as possible, but kicking as accurately as possible so that
each shot tells. Therefore, particular attention and practice should be
given to kicking until the proper amount of control can be exercised
over the ball. Every kick should be gotten off quickly and cleanly, toe
well under the ball so that it is raised.

In shooting for the goal the kick should be hard, with all the force of
the toe behind it. In all defensive work the kicks should be carefully
sent to the forwards; not too hard, since the ball then may go too far.

The player should learn to kick with either foot so that the ball does
not have to be maneuvered into a suitable position for kicking.

Every player--the forwards in particular--should know how to dribble,
since it is frequently a handy art. Often, if a player wishes to get
in a better position for a kick, a few dribbles will put her there. To
dribble successfully, the ball is moved forward, just touching the
toe, thus insuring complete control. For the inexperienced player,
control in dribbling and speed seem a hard combination to achieve; but
by practice, dribbling slowly at first, control is acquired and speed
soon follows.

A common fault sometimes due to dribbling is the monopoly of the ball
by one player. Any individual should be self-sacrificing for the good
of the team.

Stopping the progress of an opponent, or “tackling” as it is termed,
should be carefully practised, particularly by the defense. The best
policy seems--to run directly toward the player with the ball, thus
making her pass hurriedly or fumble. Never give up if your opponent
gets away, dodges or slips past you.

Many times it is an advantage to “head” the ball, that is, hit it with
the head before it touches the ground. When the players are massed
together, a jump in the air and good “heading” may save the day.
Remember that the ball ought to be hit with the forehead, not the top
of the head. This makes for accuracy.

There should be, as in all other team games, team work. The forwards
should bear the responsibility of the attack. They should carry the
ball down the field by passing, dribbling and volleying, i. e., hitting
the ball in the air before it has touched the ground. Forwards should
know how to shoot hard and accurately. It is well for a forward to know
how to shoot and pass with the inside of the foot. In dribbling and in
passing, the forward must remember to pass quickly to some one of her
team who is unguarded. You should always be waiting to receive a pass.

The outsides are generally fast players with great skill in the
dribble; the insides, like the center, are fine offensive players, fast
and capable of shooting goals.

The halfbacks feed and help the forwards attack, shooting for the goal
if the opportunity arises. The attack should be constantly varied
by these players. The halfbacks are also the first line of defense,
necessarily they have a great deal of running to do. These three
positions are generally filled then by players physically fit, with
speed and with stamina for endurance. Center half is a particularly
strenuous position. The halves should always try to keep the ball in
the opponents’ territory; when on the defense, they should be quick to
tackle, to intercept passes and to guard their opponents.

The fullbacks are the mainstay of the defense. They are cool-headed
players who use great judgment. It is up to them to block any opponent
who has gotten by a halfback. Often the fullbacks have so carefully
studied their opponents’ play that they know exactly what the forward
will do under certain circumstances. Above all, the fullbacks should
never give up.

The goal is a very vital point. To be a goal keeper, you must think
quickly, keep your nerve, be cool and act instantly according to your
judgment. In fact, a goal keeper should be able to cover every inch of
the goal in an instant; she must be able to move rapidly, jump, and
reach into the air. Two points a goal keeper should remember: Never
kick when you can use your hands--you can get rid of the ball quicker
and for better distance. Get the ball out of dangerous territory as
soon as possible.

[Illustration: Cricket--Well hit! A good free swing with the ball well
met often means a “boundary.”]

[Illustration: Soccer is a splendid action game. The forward is well up
on the ball while the fullback is coming up fast.]

Dress is an important consideration. The essentials are a middy blouse,
a short, wide skirt or bloomers, with heavy enough shoes to allow for
kicking and yet light enough to permit of speed in covering ground.


SOCCER RULES.

[From Spalding’s Athletic Library No. 358--Official College Soccer
Guide.]

I. There are eleven players on a team.

II. The field of play is a quadrangle. Its dimensions vary from 130
to 100 yards in length and from 100 to 50 yards in breadth. A smaller
field, as near these dimensions as possible, may be used. The lines,
areas, etc., do not vary with any change in size of the field, however.
Flags on five-foot staffs are placed at each of the four corners. The
lines are distinctly marked with whitewash if possible. The quadrangle
is bounded by two end or “goal” lines and two side or “touch” lines
which are at right angles with the goal lines. The field is exactly
halved by a cross line. In the center of the field of play is a circle
with a ten-yard radius. The goals are marked by goal posts, eight feet
apart, in the middle of the goal line, equidistant from the side lines.
The posts are joined by a cross-bar eight feet from the ground, and
neither the posts nor cross-bar are more than five inches in width. At
each end of the field in front of the goal is a goal area. Lines are
marked six yards from each goal post at right angles to the goal line,
extending in field for six yards. These two lines are connected by a
line parallel to the goal line. The enclosed space is a goal area.

There is also a penalty area in front of each goal. Lines are marked 18
yards from each goal post at right angles to the goal lines, extending
in field for a distance of 18 yards. These two lines are joined by a
line parallel to the goal lines.

A mark 12 yards distant from and opposite the exact center of each goal
designates the penalty kick mark.

The ball should be a regulation association football.

III. The game is divided into two halves, each 45 minutes long, with an
interval of five minutes between the halves unless a different length
of time is agreed upon by the captains. Ends are changed at half time.

IV. The choice of end or kick-off is decided by the toss of a coin.
The game is started by a place-kick, i. e., the ball is placed on the
ground and kicked from this position in the center of the field. All
opponents are more than ten yards away; no player may cross center of
the ground until the ball is kicked. After a goal is scored the ball is
kicked off by the team which did not score the goal. At the beginning
of the second half the ball is kicked by the opposing side from the
side that kicked first.

V. A goal is scored when the ball passes between the goal posts under
the bar, provided that it has not been thrown, knocked, or carried.

VI. When the ball goes out of bounds over the touch line, a player of
the opposite side from that playing it out, throws it in. She must
stand on the touch line facing the field of play; the ball may be
thrown in any direction, provided it is thrown over the head with both
hands. A goal may not be scored from a throw-in. The thrower-in may not
touch the ball until it has been touched by another player.

When the ball goes out of bounds over the goal line, played over by an
attacker, it is kicked off by a defender, within the half of the goal
area nearest the point where the ball went out. If it was sent out by a
defender, it is kicked by an attacker from a point within one yard of
nearest corner flag. No player in either case may be within 10 yards of
the ball until the kick-off is taken.

VII. If, after the ball has been played or thrown in, it is touched by
a player on the same side as the person last touching it, who at the
moment of playing is nearer her opponents’ goal than the person last
playing the ball, she is off-side and may not interfere with the ball
or opponent. _She is not offside_, however, if at the time of play
there are at least three of her opponents between her and the goal, or
if she is within her own half of the field, or in a corner kick, or if
the ball was last touched by an opponent.

VIII. The goal keeper may use her hands to catch or to throw the ball
if she is within her own penalty area.

IX. There should be no tripping, kicking, striking, jumping at,
handling (except in Rule VI), holding, pushing, obstructing, or
charging from behind. The goal keeper may be charged if she is holding
the ball, or obstructing or outside her own goal area. The penalty for
a foul is a free kick.

X. A free kick is taken for any infringement of a rule. The ball must
roll over--travel the distance of its circumference--to be considered
played. No opponent may stand within 10 yards unless standing on own
goal line. The kicker may not touch the ball a second time until it has
been touched by another player. A goal may be scored from a free kick
if it is granted for any breaking of Rule VII.

XI. Any intentional infringement by either the attackers or defenders
outside the penalty area, a free kick is awarded to opposing side.

If, however, there is an intentional foul by the defenders within the
penalty area, a penalty kick is granted to the opposing side. All
players except the goal keeper and a player from the opposing side who
is to take the kick remain outside the penalty area. The goal keeper
must not advance beyond the goal line. The ball is kicked forward and a
goal may be scored from a penalty kick. The ball must be kicked and may
not be touched again by the kicker until it has been touched by another
player.

XII. There is a referee who controls the game and enforces the rules.
Her power in the game is supreme. The ball is in play until the
decision is given.

There are two linesmen who decide when the ball is out of play, what
player has the corner kick, goal kick, or throw-in.

The referee acts as timekeeper.

To restart the game stopped temporarily, the referee drops the ball to
the ground on the spot where it was when play was suspended. The ball
is in play when it touches the ground.



Archery


Archery might be classed as a pioneer sport for women. The art of the
bow and arrow has been exploited ever since the written records of man.
At the present time, when such sports as basket ball, field hockey,
track athletics, etc., are the popular games, archery has been less
in favor. There is no reason why any athletic girl who can run the
hundred in good time, and acquit herself creditably in any of the more
strenuous sports, should smile a supercilious smile at _Archery_--mere
child’s play in her mind. In fact, it is far from child’s play, and it
has all the advantages of wholesome outdoor competition.

In order to be successful at archery two things are
necessary--perseverance and a trained eye. Any girl without particular
athletic ability can learn how to hold the bow and take aim. Both
requisites may be acquired through practice. There is no need for great
strength or for any violent exertion. It is particularly good for
growing girls where more violent exercise might be harmful.

The archer should look first to her bow, which should be neither too
heavy nor too strong. A beginner should not use a bow that is heavy.
The bow together with the arrow should be tested and if it can be
raised and drawn without strain it has the proper weight. Another point
to be considered is steadiness; no bow should kick or jar after the
string is released.

The arrows should also be chosen carefully according to weight and
length. An arrow that is too heavy will weaken the bow; an arrow that
is too light will not fly truly. Arrows vary in length and should be
chosen according to length of arm, so that when the arrow is drawn the
proper form can be maintained. A right-handed archer extends the left
arm full length holding the bow, while the right hand (grasping the
string with the notch of the arrow adjusted) should be at the right
cheek; therefore the length of the arrow should be governed by the
length of the left arm.

Bows vary from three feet to five feet six inches and arrows from
fifteen inches to twenty-five inches. The arrows should be carefully
kept when not in use. A quiver and belt is a desirable added equipment.
Some archers find a bracer or arm guard necessary.

In shooting the arrow the first consideration is the position of
standing. The side of body should be directly toward the target (or the
point aimed at), the head turned toward the target, looking over the
shoulder. The feet--heels slightly apart--should be at right angles to
an imaginary line drawn directly from target.

Next to be considered is nocking the arrow. The bow should be held in a
horizontal position, the arrow is laid across the bow and the nock or
notch of the arrow is fitted on the string by the right hand.

The position of the hand is important. The string is held by three
fingers, the string resting near the tips of the fingers above the
first joint; the arrow rests between the first and second fingers; the
thumb and little finger should not touch the arrow or the string.

Next comes the draw. Raise the bow hand, drawing on the string
slightly; take a preliminary sight; then the draw is taken almost the
full distance, the full aim is caught, and the arrow is released when
drawn to the fullest extent. Another way is to raise the bow, draw to
the fullest extent, take aim by moving the hand on the bow handle up
or down as the need dictates; loose the string by straightening the
fingers while the hand is drawn entirely back.

The archer should never shoot more than three arrows in succession
without resting. The fourth and succeeding flights are apt to be
inaccurate if the arms are the least bit tired. Always be sure to shoot
every arrow carefully--never hurry.

The bows and arrows should be well taken care of. They should be
cleaned and wiped thoroughly after each use. Never use a blunt arrow;
it will not hold in the target. The bow should always be unstrung after
it is used and strung before using again.

The arrow should be uniformly nocked at the same point upon the string
in order to insure accuracy. Thus, it is desirable to wrap the string
at the proper point with a different colored thread.


GAMES.

The most ancient form of archery is the so-called roving game, which
consists of roving about and shooting at marks from various distances.
Another form is flight shooting--seeking to cast an arrow the greatest
possible distance.

Modern archery, however, is practically confined to target shooting.
A target is a flat disc, varying from eighteen inches to forty-eight
inches in diameter. It is marked by concentric rings or bands of
different colors. From center to the outer ring the colors are gold,
red, blue, black, and white; the latter is usually banded by a narrow
strip of green. The dimensions are: gold nine and six-tenths inches,
and the width of each of the other rings is exactly half that amount.


TOURNAMENT.

The archer standing at a prescribed distance shoots at the target,
trying to make as many hits as possible and to place the arrows in the
gold. Three arrows are usually shot at a time, then three more. The six
arrows form an end. A given number of ends form a range, while two or
three ranges form a round.


THE SCORE.

A hit is counted if the arrow pierces the target. The values of the
different bands are: gold, 9; red, 7; blue, 5; black, 3; white, 1. An
arrow cutting or touching the line between rings counts for the higher
value. Also one hit is counted if the arrow rebounds from face of or if
it passes through the body of the target; this adds one point to the
score.

The Rounds for Ladies are:

  I.--National Round.
          48 arrows at 60 yards.
          24 arrows at 50 yards.

At the double of this the National Championship is decided.

  II.--Columbia Round.
          24 arrows at 50 yards.
          24 arrows at 40 yards.
          24 arrows at 30 yards.

The Ladies’ Interclub team and mid-range matches are contested with 96
arrows at 50 yards.


ARCHERY CLUBS.

The sport of archery gives a splendid opportunity for the formation of
clubs with weekly or bi-weekly tournaments. Groups of girls can adopt
a color designating teams where there are no other means of rivalry;
thus, team and individual trophies may be contested for.

The grounds for archery should be carefully chosen. The most suitable
ground is a level, grassy space with a uniform background. It is well
to see that no danger can come to anyone through a flying arrow.

[Illustration: Soccer at Wellesley College before a large gallery.
Soccer is a growing sport in America and an exceedingly healthful one.]

[Illustration:

Archery: 1, A target match at 50 yards. 2, The firing line, showing
“nocked” arrows and drawn bows. 3, Retrieving arrows and counting
scores. 4, A close up showing good form in “nocking” the arrow and
drawing the bow.]



Indoor Base Ball


Indoor base ball, like basket ball, is a game that may be played in the
winter months in the gymnasium and it may also be played outdoors in a
comparatively small space. When well played, it may become as exciting
as the outdoor game. Its similarity to the outdoor game makes it easier
for a majority of the players to understand it quickly. The ball is
pitched by a pitcher to a batter who tries to hit it, in order to run
to first base. Each batter in turn tries to advance her teammates and
herself so that they each may touch each of the four bases in turn,
thus making a run. There are nine innings. In each inning each team
has a turn at bat, or an opportunity to bring in runs. The three main
points are batting, pitching and fielding.

The pitcher throws the ball with a straight arm and with an underarm
throw. Of course, she endeavors to find the batter’s weak spots and
pitch accordingly. The fewer hits made by the batter, the greater the
glory of the pitcher.

The batter must use common sense, and not let the pitcher fool her.
To make every hit count is the rule for the batter; thus she must
judge the ball, hit to a favorable spot in the field, working with the
object of advancing such of her teammates already on the bases. The
base runner should always be wideawake, ready to take advantage of any
opportunities offered to her.

The fielders must be quick to judge a ball, quick to catch it, and
throw immediately to the necessary spot to head off any incipient
scoring by a base runner.

A quick, well-played game of indoor base ball is lots of fun.


INDOOR BASE BALL RULES.


THE DIAMOND OR INFIELD.

The game is played on an indoor floor. The diamond or infield is marked
out at one end, the remaining floor is the outfield. At each of the
four corners of the diamond is a base, usually made of canvas and half
filled with sand. The distance along the sides is 27 feet if possible.
There should be a box for the pitcher, 7 by 3 feet, and 23 feet distant
from center of home base. A batsman’s box, one on each side of the home
base, six inches distant from the base. The boxes are each 4 by 3 and
extend a foot in front of a line drawn through center of the base and
3 feet behind. Foul lines should be drawn from the home base to first
and from third to home, outside the side lines, so that the bases are
inside the foul lines.


THE BALL AND BAT.

The regulation indoor base ball and bat are used.


THE PLAYERS.

There may be seven to nine players on a side, placed in position by the
captain. There must be one player who stands within the pitcher’s box
and pitches the ball according to rule. A substitute may be put in to
run for a player by consent of both captains.


THE GAME.

The game has nine innings for each side. If there is a tie the game is
continued by innings until one side has won, or game is discontinued.
Choice of innings is decided by the toss of a coin.


THE SCORE.

One run, i. e., one point to the side making the run, is scored when
a base runner runs to and touches each of the three bases and touches
home base before three players of her side are out.


THE PITCHER.

The pitcher delivers the ball with the arm parallel to the body. The
pitcher may not take more than one step.


THE BALL.

The ball is good if it passes over any portion of the home plate no
lower than the batsman’s knee and no higher than her shoulder.

It is counted a balk by the pitcher if she makes any motion to deliver
the ball without doing so or holds the ball so long as to delay the
game.

An illegal ball is delivered by the pitcher if she steps out of box or
takes more than one step while pitching that ball.

A dead ball is a pitched ball which strikes the batter.

A batted ball is fair unless it strikes outside the foul line first.

A blocked ball is a ball batted or thrown that is stopped or handled by
a person not playing. The ball is returned to the pitcher and runners
remain on the same bases.

A strike is:

1. A ball struck at by the batter without her touching it.

2. A foul tip caught.

3. A good ball, legally delivered by the pitcher, not struck at by the
batter.

4. A good ball which the batter deliberately interferes with.

A foul strike is a ball batted when the batter is out of her position.

The batsman is out:

1. If she bats out of turn.

2. If she fails to take her position one minute after umpire calls for
batter.

3. If a foul hit made by her is caught by the catcher before the ball
touches the floor or the wall.

4. If she makes a foul strike.

5. If any attempt be made to hinder the catcher or if the ball is
intentionally fouled.

6. If, first base being occupied by a base runner, the batter has three
strikes, except when two players are already out.

7. If, on the third strike, she is hit by the ball. The base runner
must touch in regular order first, second, third and home bases.

The batter is a base runner immediately after:

1. A fair hit.

2. Four balls.

3. Three strikes.

4. Illegal delivery by pitcher.

The player is granted one base for the above, also the player may
advance one base if:

1. Succeeding player is granted a base.

2. If umpire is struck by a batted or thrown ball.

3. If she is prevented from making a base by an adversary.

If the ball is fumbled on the third strike or fourth ball the base
runner may take as many bases as she can get.

The base runner may only leave her base when the ball has been struck,
or, if it is not struck, it has reached the catcher.

The base runner is brought back if:

1. She starts too soon.

2. For a foul strike.

3. A dead ball.

4. A foul hit not legally fielded. The pitcher must wait for her to
return.

The base runner is out:

1. If having made a fair hit, this is fielded before it touches the
wall or floor.

2. If there is any intentional interference with the ball just batted.

3. If the third strike is caught before touching the ground.

4. If, after three strikes or a fair hit, the base runner before
touching first base is touched by a fielder with the ball in her
hands, or if the ball is securely held by fielder touching first base
before the base runner touches first base.

5. If she does not run directly.

6. If she obstructs the fielder.

7. If she fails to touch the bases in regular order.

The base runners may be coached from the coacher’s box.

There are two umpires who control the game. One judges all balls,
strikes, blocks, dead balls, balks, illegal deliveries, fair and foul
hits, ground hits, foul strikes. All decisions at the home plate are
made by her. Time and play are called. She stands in a position behind
the catcher.

The other judges the base plays. She stands near base line where she
can best see field of play.

The two change positions at the end of each inning.

A regulation score card should be used.



American Hand Ball[1]


Hand ball is a game suitable for either indoor or outdoor playing, in
which two or four persons may participate. The game is divided into
two parts--offensive and defensive. The server, or, if there are four
playing, the server and her partner, constitute the offensive; the
receiver or the receiving side, the defensive. The score is made by the
serving side upon an error by the receiving side; if the server makes
an error she loses the serve, thus also the chance to score. The ball
is batted with the cupped hand against a wall or back board so that it
bounds within a given territory.

The server drops or bounces the ball and then hits it on the rebound
with the palm of hand against the wall, so that it rebounds as far
from the receiver as possible. Control and speed are two important
factors. In order to obtain good control, the player should practice
and endeavor to place the ball where her opponent isn’t. This requires
careful observation of your opponent’s tactics. After control comes
speed; a speedy ball is always hard to return.

For the defensive, the player should always try to be in a good
position to return any ball; thus, it is imperative to be able to play
the ball with either hand. It is safer for the defensive player to play
a conservative game rather than a speedy one, for any error counts for
the other side.

[1] For further details see Spalding’s “American Hand Ball.”

Every player should learn to serve well, to use control and speed;
every player should learn to become equally efficient with either
hand, batting the ball with straight aim; every player should always
remember to outmaneuver her opponent and place the ball where it is
most difficult for her to return it.


RULES FOR AMERICAN HAND BALL.

A hand ball court consists of a floor, a wall or back board, and field.
The floor is usually 20 feet wide and 26 feet long, with a service
line, distinctly marked, drawn across the floor at the middle point,
13 feet away, between the front line (end line 26 feet away from the
board) and the board. The floor is smooth but not polished. The wall
or back board is 10 feet high and 20 feet wide. The field is the
whole space including the floor and is 55 feet wide and 40 feet long
including the court.

A regulation hand ball (small hard-rubber ball hollow inside) and
gloves are used.

Points may only be scored by the side serving. Twenty-one points are
a game. Should each score twenty points, either side must score two
consecutive points on one serve to win.

There are two officials--a referee and an umpire--who have control of
the game, who decide all questions of balls, time, unfair play, etc.

The choice of serving or receiving is decided by tossing a coin.

The ball is struck with the palm of either hand--one hand only--by no
other part of body, nor by both hands simultaneously.

The ball is dropped or bounced to the floor by the server on that side
of the service line farthest from the court. The served ball after
touching the board must cross to the far side of the service line and
land within the court. If it touches the floor on the near side of the
service line, it is short; if it touches out of the court on the far
side of the service line, it is long.

The server may serve these balls over again, but if one “short” and one
“long;” or two “short” or two “long” balls are served consecutively by
the same player, the server (or the side, if doubles) is out. Then the
receiver becomes the server.

If a served ball touches the floor outside the side lines, the server
or the side is out.

A served ball is played on the first bounce only. A returned ball
may be played on the first bounce or on the fly. _All balls served
or returned must touch the board before touching the floor._ A ball
leaving the hand of a player striking opponent before touching wall
or floor is a “hinder.” Two hinders by one player in a service is a
put-out or a point scored. A ball leaving the board which strikes the
player who returned it, or partner, is a put-out or a point for the
side struck. A ball leaving the board striking an opponent is a point
or put-out in favor of the opposing side of person so struck.

All balls are played until decided by the referee.

A returned ball must be within the dimensions of the court.

Players may block each other fairly, that is, a player may so place the
ball that he blocks his opponent, but this must be done before the ball
has left his hand. In doubles, no blocking may be done after the ball
has left the board.

For unfair blocking, a penalty--subtracting from one to five points
from score of the offender--may be imposed by the referee.

In doubles, the sides alternate in service as well as receiving. No
player shall serve or play the same defensive position all the time.



Irish Hand Ball Rules


I. A ball may be batted with either hand.

    Foul--Never with both hands.

    Penalty--For server, loss of hand; for receiver, ace for server.

II. The server may stand anywhere in space between ace line and front
line.

    Foul--She must not step over inner line twice in succession while
    serving.

    Penalty--Server loses hand.

III. A served ball must hit the front wall _before_ it hits either side
wall, roof or floor.

    Foul--If served ball hits side wall, roof or floor before hitting
    front wall.

    Penalty--Server loses hand.

IV. A served ball may be so played that after hitting front wall it
rebounds from a side wall or the back wall, before touching the floor
behind ace line.

V. Short ball.--If a served ball touches the floor inside the ace line
(between that line and the front wall) it is called a short ball. Any
number of short balls may be served with good balls in between.

    Foul--To serve three short balls in succession.

    Penalty--Server loses hand.

VI. If a short ball is served the receiver may or may not play
according to her desire.

VII. A ball may never be batted or touched in any way twice by either
server or receiver before it touches front wall.

    Foul--To touch a ball twice in succession.

    Penalty--Server loses hand; receiver, point to server.

VIII. If receiver fails to send back the ball to the front wall it
counts ace for server. If server fails she is hand out.

IX. A server after retiring must be given time to get into position for
receiving.

    Foul--To use foot to strike ball.

    Penalty--Server loses hand; receiver, point to server.

X. Hinder.--To stop a ball going to front wall, if unintentional, ball
is dead and must be served again.

    Foul--If intentional, hinder.

    Penalty--Server loses hand; receiver, point to server.

XI. Ball to be fair must strike at least six inches above floor, that
is, above the tell board.

    Foul--Intentional.

    Applying to doubles.

XII. Served ball strikes server’s partner; called a hinder.

    Foul--Hit, hinder for serving side.

    Penalty--Loss of hand.

XIII. Server’s partner interferes with the ball before it is played by
either of the two opposing players.

    Foul--Hit, hinder by server’s partner.

    Penalty--Loss of hand.

XIV. If a receiver strikes ball so that it strikes partner it is a
hinder.

    Foul--Hit, point for receiver.

XV. If a receiver strikes either of opponents with ball, a hinder.

    Foul--Hit, point for receiver, decided by referee.



Fencing


To some, the practice required to develop good form in fencing may at
first seem tedious. This practice, however, not only rounds out the
form of the fencer, but also is very beneficial in that it exercises
the muscles of the entire body and in that it cultivates quick thinking
and stimulates mental alertness. From the physical point of view
fencing tends to develop symmetrically all the muscles of the body, to
give a lightness and quickness of movement, gracefulness, and generally
to strengthen the body. To fence well it is necessary to think quickly
and act calmly. The fencer must judge what is best suited for her to
do. She must divine her opponent’s attack. Thus she must be mentally
alert all the time.

For the beginner and inexperienced fencer, it is necessary to have
a good foil, one that is the proper weight for the strength of the
fencer. Never use a foil that is too heavy; it is better to have a
light than heavy one. A foil must also have the proper balance. To
test the foil lay the blade across the finger about an inch below the
hilt. If the weight is properly distributed it will balance. To avoid
any accidents a fine-meshed mask and plastron or jacket should always
be worn. If a glove is worn it should be loose enough to allow perfect
freedom of action, but not so loose as to be cumbersome.

Rubber-soled shoes or a shoe that will not slip should be worn.


HOW TO HOLD THE FOIL.

The handle of the foil has two sides, the concave and the convex. The
foil is held, generally in the right hand, so that the concave of
the handle rests in the palm; the convex is then the upper side; the
fingers are closed around the handle, the thumb rests on the upper or
convex side, without touching the hilt; the fingers must not overlap
the thumb. The foil is held correctly when, i. e., for the right-handed
fencer, the thumb nail faces upward and the finger nails toward the
left. This position of the foil is called supination.

Another position is pronation. For this the back of hand is turned up,
the fingers are drawn closer together and the thumb is closer to the
fingers.

Form and skill count for the most in fencing, hence strict attention is
paid to the different positions until the form is perfect. Quickness
and good judgment are acquired with practice and experience. It is of
course desirable to procure the services of a competent instructor when
a beginner.

The fencer should remember to use mainly the fingers and wrist; the
part played by the arms is subordinate.

Think quickly. Thrust and parry coolly and make every movement count.
If your movements become hurried and flustered, the result is slashing,
which is not good fencing--good headwork counts. Try to fathom your
opponent’s methods and take advantage of every opening she gives.
Consistent practice and confidence will enable you to be ready for any
situation which may come about.


ON GUARD.

This is the elementary position in fencing. Stand at attention, body
turned facing opponent outwardly, feet at right angles, the left foot
pointing forward, the right foot outward toward opponent.

1. Raise the arm holding foil lightly, extend toward opponent, hand at
height of and opposite the eye.

2. Drop the arm and foil, point outward, until it is a few inches from
the floor.

3. Sweep the foil across the body so that the foil is horizontal. Grasp
the blade close to the guard with fingers of the left hand, palm up.
The right hand is reversed.

4. Bend arms over head in a circle, carrying foil upward so it is kept
horizontal.

5. Lower right hand to height of the right breast, with foil directed
outward toward opponent at the height of her eyes. Drop the left elbow,
curving the hand over the left shoulder.

6. Bend the legs, separating them at the knees.

7. Advance the right foot in a direct line from the left heel to
opponent. The right knee should be bent over the right foot, both feet
should be flat on the floor.

After these seven movements have been practised and the position
on guard reached quickly and accurately, the fencer may take up
more advanced work. The natural instinct is to defend oneself, so a
scientific means of defense is taught. Any movement that turns away an
opponent’s foil is called a parry. As the fencing jacket is divided
into different lines of engagement, there is a set parry for each. In
all parries, it is important to turn the point of the opponent’s foil
away from your body. Parries are divided into two main classes, simple
and counter. The following are the simple parries:


THE PARRY OF QUARTE.

Using the fingers and wrist, the foil is carried across body from right
to left, turning the point of opponent’s foil away from the attack; the
right forearm protects the left side, the elbow is close at side and in
a line with the hip bone; the tip of foil points up; the foil is held
in supination.


THE PARRY OF SIXTE.

The foil moves from left to right, protecting the right side. The hand
is held in supination.


THE PARRY OF SEPTIME.

The hand is moved as in quarte; the hand is held in supination; the
point is dropped to the waistline by a semi-circular movement outward.


THE PARRY OF OCTAVE.

With the hand similar to that of septime the foil is moved outward in a
semi-circle and the point is dropped.


PARRY OF QUINTE.

For this, the hand from quarte is lowered toward the hip, point upward.


PARRY OF TIERCE.

The foil is held in pronation. The parry of Sixte covers the same line
of engagement except in the difference in holding the foil.


PARRY OF PRIME.

From quarte, the hand is moved toward the left shoulder, the point
dropped, the back of hand is turned upward and outward.


PARRY OF SECONDE.

The hand is in pronation; it covers the same ground as octave.

Besides these simple parries are counter parries, which are circles
described with the tip of the foil around the opponent’s foil, holding
the foil as close as possible to hers.

In all the parries it is practice, so that the movements are smooth and
the recovery from the parry to the on-guard position is instantaneous.
The fingers and wrist should be used mainly in the parries, the arm
movement should be as slight as possible.


THE ATTACK.

A fundamental of the attack first to be learned is the thrust. The tip
of the foil is aimed at the point to be hit, the arm is straightened.
Added to the thrust in the attack is the lunge. The right foot is
carried forward (about twice its length), the left leg is straightened,
the weight of the body is on the right leg, which is bent at the
knee. The left arm is carried straight down at the side, palm of the
hand turned outward. The thrust and the advance with the foot are
simultaneous. The lunge requires much practice to develop a quick
attack and recovery. One important factor to be remembered in the lunge
is never to get the balance too far over the right knee. Also never
let any part of the left foot leave the floor. Immediately after the
lunge and the thrust, the fencer should quickly resume the original
position, i. e., the on guard position.

There are many different methods of attack, divided into two main
classes, primary and secondary. Primary attack is one that is begun by
yourself; secondary attack is one when you attack in an opening your
opponent gives in her attack. Besides these are false attacks to decoy
the opponent’s attack.

_The Direct Lunge._--This is one form of attack, though the straight
attack is generally preceded by disengages. A riposte is a thrust
unaccompanied by a lunge; this is important in secondary attack.

_The Disengage._--In order to attack in a center line, it may be
necessary to raise the point of your foil over or drop it under the
point of your adversary’s.

_The Counter Disengage._--This is a disengage (or more than one)
followed by a circling of the tip of your foil around your opponent’s
foil, followed by an attack on your part.

_The Coupe_ (cut over).--The point of the foil is raised by the
fingers and carried down on the opposite side of your opponent’s foil,
accompanied by the lunge.

In the attack the fencer should remember to keep the right arm
straight, to aim at the line carefully, to always be in a position to
guard closely.

In a match or competitive bout, the umpire decides the hits, but it is
courtesy to acknowledge a hit yourself.



Swimming


A graceful swimmer is as fascinating to watch as a graceful dancer.
Anyone with a thorough knowledge of the strokes and with sufficient
confidence in her own ability may develop into a graceful and competent
swimmer. Everyone should learn to swim well, because it is not only one
of the best physical exercises, but also is a useful accomplishment
in case of emergency. Swimming is an all-around exercise, since it
brings into play all the muscles of the body. Not only is swimming good
from the above points of view, but also as a rule it stimulates and
refreshes, and combined withal there is generally an element of fun
which lends zest to the sport.

Those girls who fail to enjoy their swimming do so because they have
no confidence in their ability. It is foolhardy to venture into deep
water when one cannot swim well, but if there are good swimmers in
the proximity and a float or some other object close by which can be
reached by merely stretching out the arm, then is the time to gain
confidence and corresponding ability and endurance.

Never swim in dangerous water alone. Never swim when tired.
Over-exertion in swimming, much more so than in other sports, should be
watched for, especially in racing and long distance swims, and if any
of the contestants tire, they should leave the water.

There are two faults the mediocre swimmer--even the average swimmer--is
apt to have, namely, poor breathing and hurried strokes. It is
important to learn to breathe well. The breathing should be regular and
is varied according to the different strokes. The common tendency is
to hold the breath until it is a physical impossibility to hold it any
longer, then let it out through the mouth with a gasp, hold the breath
again, etc.

In haste to reach the objective point, the swimmer is sometimes apt
to hurry her stroke. Thereby she fails to execute her strokes in good
form, usually floundering and splashing without deriving any force
or impetus from her efforts. This is not only ineffectual, but it
is exceedingly exhausting and tiring. The strokes should always be
completed in perfect form and rhythm.

There are varied types of strokes; often one stroke is more suited to
an individual than another. Swimming is just as individual as walking,
for it is rarely that two people swim in identically the same manner.
Often bad habits become fixed, unconsciously, even in the strokes of
the best swimmers, so it is well to watch one’s form carefully.

_The Breast Stroke._--In the breast stroke, the swimmer is lying in
the water flat upon the breast. The feet should be but a few inches
below the water; the head is carried so that the mouth is just under
the water; the legs are together and straight, toes pointing back; the
arms are stretched straight in front, hands just touching each other,
palms down, fingers together; with elbow stiff, the arms are circled
back close under and parallel to the surface until they are at right
angles to the body; the hands are turned in the beginning of the stroke
so that the palms are outward; then the elbows are bent so that they
are drawn back and close to the body, and the hands, palms down, are
brought together at the chest, ready to shoot forward to the starting
position; when the arms are drawn back the mouth is carried above the
water, then the swimmer should inhale through the mouth; when the
arms shoot forward then exhale, preferably through the nostrils; the
beginning of the kick is made as the arms are drawn up to the chest;
the legs are drawn up, heels together, knees bent out; simultaneously
as the hands are shot forward, legs are kicked outward, then the heels
are brought quickly together.

In this stroke the body gets its impetus from the reach of the arms
and the kick. Thus the body should glide through the water until the
momentum is used up, then the arms are circled back, etc. Always try to
utilize the momentum. All the parts of the stroke quickly follow one
another, so that the entire stroke is smooth.

_The Side Stroke._--In this stroke the kick is very important. The
scissors kick is used. The body lies with shoulder and side flat in the
water, usually the right side; the upper leg is kept straight, almost
stiff, and is kicked forward; the under leg is bent backward from the
knee; then the legs are brought together and closed with a snap; the
arms are stretched overhead, palms out; the upper arm, kept rigid, with
the hand slightly cupped, circles just under the surface to the thigh,
then the elbow is bent and the arm carried above the water to the first
position; the under arm starts as the upper finishes and is carried
to lower thigh; then, the elbow bent, it is shot forward _under_ the
surface of the water, palm of hand down.

The whole stroke is: Upper arm starts the pull, the legs are opened,
and breath is inhaled; then as the upper arm finishes the under arm
starts, the legs are snapped together; breath is exhaled as the under
arm goes forward.

_The Trudgeon._--The scissors kick as described in the side stroke is
used also in the trudgeon. This kick is very important and should be
practised carefully until the swimmer is perfect.

It is always better to swim on the right side if it is possible,
as it relieves the pressure the heart is apt to be subjected to if
the swimmer prefers the left side. The body rests in the water, arm
stretched at full length, the palms are turned down; the upper arm
catches the water and is brought down, the elbow is fairly stiff,
palms turned slightly outward, fingers together; when arm is straight
alongside the body, then the elbow is bent and the arm carried forward
above the water to the first position; as the upper arm finishes, the
under arm executes the same stroke as the upper arm; the body is rolled.

The whole stroke should be practised together, so that it is smoothly
and accurately done. First, the upper arm catches the water, the body
is slightly rolled, head twisted so that breath may be inhaled during
the pull, the legs are opened at start of pull and closed at the end of
pull. Then under arm catches the water, the body is rolled so that the
face is in the water, and during the pull the breath is exhaled slowly
under the water. Then, as under arm finishes the pull, the upper arm
enters the water, etc.

_The Crawl._--The crawl is the racing stroke. The best-way to begin
is first to perfect the movement of the arms. The body is flat in the
water, face down, arms slightly bent at the elbow, stretched over head
so that wrists are a little beyond the head; the hands cut and are
driven through the water, elbows still bent, until the hands reach the
hip, then they are carried out the water and forward, elbows in air.
The arms alternate, so that while one arm is traveling back under the
water, the other is traveling forward in the air to resume the stroke.

The breathing in this stroke is hard to master. As the face is in the
water, the breath is taken only every two or three strokes by turning
the head quickly as the upper arm is being brought down; the exhaling
is done under water, while the under arm goes forward. This is for
racing; a breath may be taken at each stroke when the stroke is slower.

In the kick, the legs are stiff from the hip, knees close together,
then they are moved up and down alternately with the feet close
together. It is difficult at first to maintain the leg drive, to make
the whole stroke smooth, and to breathe easily, but these difficulties
may be conquered by practice.

_Plain Back Stroke._--The body is flat on the back in the water, the
arms are straight over the head, the palms of hands upward; the palms
are turned outward, then the arms, stiff at the elbow, are circled
down close to the surface and parallel to it; after the arms are
straight by the body, they are carried to the first position, perfectly
straight, and clear of the water; the legs are straight, then as the
arms clear the water for the recovery, they are bent as in the breast
stroke kick, kicked out straight, then the heels are brought together.

This stroke is almost the same as the breast stroke.

Another stroke is the same positions for the arms as the plain back
stroke combined with the leg drive of the crawl.

Still another is the same, except that the arms move alternately as in
trudgeon stroke.

_Floating._--In order to float on the back, the balance of the body
must be determined; hence it is often necessary if the feet sink to
throw the head back and raise the arms over the head. In some cases, if
the legs are bent, it helps the balance. After practice, the swimmer
soon learns to float. Short breaths, keeping the lungs as full of air
as possible, are better than long ones.

_Plunge for Distance._--In reality this is floating with the face flat
down in the water. The first part of the plunge is the dive, which
gives the impetus. The dive taken is the shallow dive. As the breath
is held from the minute the head enters the water until the plunge is
finished, it is necessary that the lungs be well filled. After the
body is in the water, the muscles should be relaxed, and the swimmer
should keep the air in the lower part of the lungs. The plunge should
be as straight as possible; the direction may be changed by moving the
arms (which are stretched straight out in front) or the head in the
direction desired. This motion should be slight, as the least friction
impedes progress, and distance is the desired result.


Diving

As diving is a very large subject, it is impossible to give in detail
all the varied dives. There are three important dives everyone should
know--the front, back, and shallow or racing dive. The beauty of diving
is in the form.

_The Front Dive._--The diver stands erect at the end of the spring
board, falls forward, then as the body passes the balance point, the
arms are raised straight over the head, knees bent; then spring out so
that the body is parallel to water, arms above head; the body is curved
downward and enters the water, arms, head, body, and legs forming a
straight line.

In springing, jump out parallel to the water. The running dive is very
similar.

_Back Dive._--The diver turns with back to the water, heels over the
edge of board into space; the arms are over head, body is curved
backward; as the balance point is reached, spring out, turning body as
it enters the water.

The position of the head is important. Ducking the head or throwing it
too far back, added to stiffness of the body, makes the dive awkward.
The legs should never be apart, but together; toes pointed, so that
feet are not flat; the fingers should be together.

The shallow dive, known as the racing dive, is important for those
interested in speed swimming, as is the racing turn.

_The Racing Dive._--The swimmer stands with the body bent forward, arms
back; then, as body falls forward, the knees are bent and the spring
out is taken; the body strikes the water arms over head, the whole body
in a straight line with the arms and legs. Do not dive so that you sink
into the water, but try to strike it at the right angle, so that you
will sink only a few inches. The arms start the stroke as soon as they
reach the surface, then the legs commence as the arms are recovering.

_The Racing Turn._--The wall is touched by the arm that the turn is
to be made on. The previous strokes must be timed so that the arm may
touch the wall stretched straight out in front. The hand touches the
wall (above the water line) palm against the wall, fingers pointing the
way the body is to turn.

The body is swung along the wall so that bottoms of the feet touch the
wall (a little below the water); then with a backward stroke of the
arms, which have been brought to the hip, palms pointing in front,
fingers down, the body is brought right against the wall, nearly
touching; then the arms are forward, the legs straightened, thus
gaining impetus; the arms start the stroke, then the legs commence as
the arms start the recovery.

For racing, constant practice of the start, stroke and turn is
necessary. First the swimmer should perfect her form of stroke, then
the speed may be increased by practice swims of a short distance at
first, which may be increased slowly. A swimmer should always be in
good condition. Never swim so much as to get stale; never over-exert.
It doesn’t pay in the end.

Choose the event you are the most proficient in and stick to that one
until you are perfect in it.


TREADING WATER.

It is necessary for the water polo player to know how to tread water,
that is, to remain stationary in the water with the least effort. The
body is upright in the water, as in a standing position. The legs are
moved up and down, the arms are spread out, bent at the elbow, and
moved up and down gently. The whole movement should be as slight as
possible, so that the greatest possible amount of rest may be obtained.


SWIMMING MEETS.

For swimming meets there should be a set program of events. The
contestants should be entered ahead of time. Handicaps may be granted
if the swimmers are unevenly matched.

There should be a referee to conduct the meet; a clerk of the course,
who sees that the participants are notified of the events; a scorer,
who keeps an official score; three judges, who watch for fouls; three
timers, a starter, and an announcer.

_Score._--The score is, as a rule, 5 for first place, 3 for second, 1
for third. Relay races are often counted in different ways: 5 points,
6 points, or 8 points are the most common for the first place.

The signal for the start should be: 1. “Get- on your marks.” 2. “Get
set.” 3. “Go.” (Pistol shot.) There should be no stepping over or back
from starting line.

Three false starts disqualify a competitor.

Each swimmer should keep in her own course. If she crosses into
the course of another swimmer and touches her she is liable to
disqualification.

In turning the swimmer should touch the end of the pool with one or
both hands.

The swimmer must touch the finish line with a hand out of the water.

If the stroke is judged for form the competitor must dive into the
water, swim a given distance, turn, all in perfect form.

In the plunge for distance the dive should be made from a firm
take-off. The body must be kept motionless, face down, no longer than
sixty seconds, however. The distance is measured from a line parallel
to the diving base, at right angles to base, to the farthest point
reached by any part of the body.

A certain number of plunges, usually two or three, is allowed to each
competitor.

In diving there are usually a list of required and voluntary dives. The
judges consider the form with which the dive was executed. (Form is
treated under diving.) The scale of points usually is:

Unsuccessful attempt, 0; Poor dive, 3; Fair dive, 6; Good dive, 8;
Excellent dive, 10.


SWIMMING TEST.

The all-around swimming test as practised at Bryn Mawr College in a
68-foot pool, the details of which have been contributed by Mr. Philip
Bishop, Athletic Director of the Haverford School and Advisory Swimming
Coach at Bryn Mawr College, is given herewith.


All-Around Swimming Test for Women

BY PHILIP BISHOP.

This test is taken in three sections: diving, plunge and object dive in
one section; form and speed in another; endurance and underwater swim
in the third.

Section 1.--Speed test, two lengths to be done in 44 seconds; form
swimming, breast stroke, back stroke and trudgeon, or crawl stroke.

Section 2.--Endurance test, 150 yards in 3 minutes; underwater swim, 50
feet.

Section 3.--Diving, standing straight dive, running straight dive,
standing high dive; fancy diving, four dives, which include jackknife,
back dive and somersaults; plunge, 30 feet; object dive, must pick up 6
rings in 3 attempts.

The successful competitor must score 85 per cent to qualify as a
first-class swimmer.

This test is by no means a hard one, but it requires practice. The
object is to make all-around swimmers and to teach the correct method
of diving and making the strokes employed.



Water Basket Ball and Water Polo


Water basket ball and water polo are two thrilling and interesting
games. They are so similar in general characteristics that they are
treated here in the same chapter.

From my own experience I believe them to be the most strenuous games
played by women. By that I do not mean that they are necessarily
harmful. I do believe, however, that they should be played only
under the most careful supervision of a medical or physical training
authority. Two points should be considered before a girl is permitted
to participate in either of these games:

1. All players should be in perfect physical condition.

2. All players should be strong and capable swimmers.

3. Careful examination should be made of each player when she comes
from the tank at the end of the first period and after the game, for
that, after all, is the best test as to whether she is fit.

1. To be in good condition the player should have perfect heart action
and good lung capacity, and she should be generally in good condition.

2. She should be a swimmer of endurance, experience and confidence. The
beginner tires in the effort to swim strongly and constantly.

3. If the player is qualified in every respect she may try the game.
If after playing she seems exhausted or chilled, and is tired the
following day, then she has not the stamina to participate in water
sports.


Water Basket Ball

    [Reprinted from Spalding’s Athletic Library No.
    361--Intercollegiate Swimming Guide.]

Water basket ball may be played in any pool, or if played in the open
should not cover more than 2,500 square feet of space. The water should
be of swimming depth, that is, the players must not be able to stand on
the bottom. There should be lines drawn “across the bottom of the pool
and up the sides 15 feet from the ends, called 15-foot lines.”

_Equipment._--The necessary equipment is a regulation water polo ball
and two regulation Spalding baskets with a firm background, 6 feet by
4, extending at least 3 feet above the top of each basket. The baskets
shall be hammock nets of cord, suspended from metal rings 18 inches in
diameter. The rings shall be 5-1/2 feet above the water in the center
of the ends of the pool. The inside rims shall extend 6 inches from a
rigid supporting surface.

_Teams._--Each team consists of six players-three forwards and three
backs. Captains toss for goals.

_Start._--Each team lines up at its own end; the ball is thrown into
center of the pool; the forwards swim after the ball; the backs must
play back and not swim up after ball. The forwards are the offensive
players and should be the fastest swimmers. They should also be able
to throw goals. The forwards advance the ball toward the opponents’
basket. The center forward should feed the two side forwards and guard
the opposing center back.

_Score._--A goal thrown into the basket from the field counts two
points, and a free throw granted for a foul by opposing side counts
one point. Teams line up as in beginning after a score has been made.
The backs each guard an opposing forward and try to prevent their
scoring.

_Officials._--There is a referee who is in entire charge of game,
calling fouls, free throws, time out and goals. There is a scorer, also
a timer.

_Time._--There are two halves, not less than five minutes nor more than
eight minutes each, with five minutes intermission. Ends are changed
at the beginning of the second half. Time is taken out for disputes,
accidents, free tries.

_Out of Bounds._--When the ball is sent out of bounds by one team it is
given to a player of opposing team at place where it went out. Player
must throw ball within five seconds or it is given to opposing side.

_Free Throw._--A free throw is granted to a forward upon a foul made by
opposite side. The free throw is taken from the fifteen-foot mark by
one of the forwards, who is unguarded at time of throw. If the goal is
not made, the ball is in play. If goal is made, play begins according
to start.

_Fouls._--The penalty for a foul is a free throw for opposing side.
There are rough fouls such as kicking, striking, tackling, holding,
deliberate splashings.

When an opponent has the ball she may be tackled and “ducked” under the
water by one of the opposing players.

A player may not be held under water after she has let go of ball. A
player may not tackle by or hold to opponent’s clothing, although
blocking is allowed. There should be no holding with hands or legs. A
player may not hang on to sides when she has the ball. The ball may not
intentionally be held under water.

_Tie._--A tie may be played off in another three-minute period. If game
ends after foul is made, the free throw is taken. No goal is counted
after whistle has blown.

In both water basket ball and water polo the swimmer should use the
easiest and least tiring stroke. Whenever there is an opportunity, a
rest either by hanging on to sides or treading water (see Swimming)
ought to be taken. Both games afford opportunity for team work in
passing and dribbling. In dribbling, the ball is kept in front of body
within easy reach for a good pass if the dribbler is attacked.


Water Polo

The main factor in water polo is learning how to handle the ball. The
hand should be placed under the ball, then the ball is lifted in the
air and thrown with all the strength of the shoulder and arm. It is
ineffectual to try to grab the ball or push it. It must be picked up.

The ball is tossed to the middle of the pool, then the forwards swim
up as fast as they can to get the ball. The forwards are chosen for
their speed and endurance. Every forward should learn to shoot hard and
accurately. The center forward is usually the fastest girl on the team.
The center forward who gets the ball in the swim-up usually tosses it
back to her center-half or to one of the side forwards. The forwards
try to advance the ball, so that a good shot for their opponents’
goal may be obtained. If the field is clear the forward may dribble
the ball, i. e., keep the ball moving close in front of her. Usually,
however, it is better to advance the ball by passes. One forward at
least should stay close to the goal, ready to send in any short shots.

The center half guards the opposing forward and feeds the ball to her
forwards. There is a guard for each of the side forwards. It is the
best policy for the guards to stay between the forwards and the goal.
Stick to your opponent; never let her get a free shot.

The goal keeper must be able to reach out of the water and catch the
high balls sent into the goal. She must also be quick. Remember, you
can use both hands to handle the ball. The guards always must help the
goal keeper cover the goal area, never leaving her unguarded, yet they
must not interfere with her or prevent her seeing clearly.


WATER POLO RULES.

    [Printed through courtesy of Mr. Philip Bishop, Physical Director
    Haverford School and Advisory Coach of Swimming at Bryn Mawr
    College.]

_Ball._--The ball used shall be a leather association football.

_Goals._--The width of the goals to be 10 feet, the cross-bar to be 3
feet above the surface when the water is 5 feet or over in depth, and
to be 8 feet from the bottom when the water is less than 5 feet in
depth.

_Field of Play._--The distance between the goals shall not exceed 30
yards, nor be less than 19 yards; the width shall be not more than 20
yards and shall be of even width throughout the field of play. The goal
posts shall be fixed at least 1 foot from the end of the bath or any
obstruction. In baths, the halfway line and also the 4 yards penalty
lines shall be marked on both sides.

[Illustration: What greater pleasure can anyone enjoy during the summer
than a good swim in the open. The picture shows the girls of the New
York Public Schools Athletic League practising diving in one of their
pools.]

[Illustration: Volley Ball--a comparatively new game. It is splendid
for growing school girls and may be played in recess periods--exciting,
exhilarating, healthful.]

_Time._--The duration of the match shall be 14 minutes, 7 minutes each
way. Three minutes to be allowed at half time for change of ends. When
the ball crosses the goal line, whether it be a goal, corner throw or
goal throw, it shall be dead until the restart of the game or until it
leaves the hand of the player taking the throw, and such time shall
be deducted. Time occupied by disputes and fouls, or when the ball is
thrown from the field of play or lodges on an obstruction, as per Rule
for Out of Play, shall not be reckoned as in time of play.

_Officials._--The officials shall consist of a referee, a timekeeper,
two goal scorers and two umpires.

_Teams._--Each side shall consist of seven players, two forwards, two
halves, two fullbacks and one goal keeper.

_Starting._--The players shall enter the water and place themselves in
a line with their respective goals. The referee shall stand in a line
with the center of the course and, having ascertained that the captains
are ready, shall give the word “Go,” and immediately throw the ball
into the water at the center. A goal shall not be scored after starting
or restarting until the ball has been handled (viz., played with the
hand below the wrist) either by the members of one team, in which case
the scorer shall be within half-distance of the goal attacked, or by a
player of each team. The ball must be handled by more than one player
before a goal can be scored.

_Scoring._--A goal shall be scored by the entire ball passing beyond
the goal posts and under the cross-bar.

_Ordinary Fouls._--It shall be a foul:

(_a_) To touch the ball with both hands at the same time.

(_b_) To hold the rail or side during any part of the game, except for
rest. Goal keeper cannot interfere while holding, but can hold all the
time so long as she does not play.

(_c_) To stand or touch bottom during any part of the game, except for
the purpose of resting.

(_d_) To interfere with an opponent or impede her in any way unless she
is holding the ball.

(_e_) To hold the ball under water when tackled.

(_f_) To jump from the bottom or push off from the side (except at
starting or restarting) in order to play the ball or “duck” an opponent.

(_g_) To hold, pull back, or push off from an opponent.

(_h_) To turn on the back and kick at an opponent.

(_i_) To assist a player at the start or restart.

(_j_) For the goal keeper to go more than 4 yards from her own goal
lines.

(_k_) To throw the ball at the goal keeper from a free throw.

(_l_) To refuse to play the ball at the command of the referee after a
foul or after the ball has been out of the field of play.

_Note._--Dribbling or striking the ball is not holding; but lifting,
carrying, pressing under water or placing the hand under or over the
ball when actually touching, is holding. Dribbling the ball lip through
the posts is permissible.

_Wilful Fouls._--If, in the opinion of the referee, a player commits
an ordinary foul wilfully, the referee shall at once order her out
of the water until a goal has been scored. It shall be considered a
wilful foul to start before word “go;” to deliberately waste time; to
deliberately change position after whistle has blown with a view to
taking an advantage of an opponent; to deliberately splash in the face
of an opponent.

_Free Throws._--The penalty for each foul shall be a free throw to the
opposing side from the place where the foul occurred. A goal cannot
be scored from a free throw, unless the ball has been handled (viz.,
played with the hand below the wrist), by at least one other player,
the goal keeper excepted.

_Penalty Throws._--A player wilfully fouled when within four yards of
her opponents’ goal line shall be awarded a penalty throw, and the
player who commits the offense must be ordered out of the water until
a goal has been scored. The penalty throw shall be taken from any
point on the four-yard line. In the case of a penalty throw it shall
not be necessary for the ball to be handled by any other player before
the goal can be scored, but any player within the four-yard line may
intercept a penalty throw.

_Note._--A player ordered out of the water for committing a wilful foul
must remain out until a goal has been scored, notwithstanding that
half-time may intervene or extra time be played, except by permission
of the referee.

_Declaring Fouls._--The referee or umpires shall declare a foul by
blowing a whistle. The player nearest to where the foul occurred shall
take the throw. The other players shall remain in their respective
positions from the blowing of the whistle until the ball has left
the hand of the player taking the throw. In the event of one or more
players from each team committing a foul so nearly at the same moment
as to make it impossible for the referee to distinguish who offended
first, she shall have the ball out of the water and throw it in as
nearly as possible at the place where the foul occurred in such a
manner that one member of each team may have equal chance of playing
the ball. In such cases the ball must be allowed to touch the water
before it is handled and must be handled (i. e., played with the hand
below the wrist) by more than one player before a goal can be scored.

_Goal Keeper._--The goal keeper may stand to defend her goal, and must
not throw the ball beyond half distance; the penalty for doing so shall
be a free throw to the opposing side from half distance at either side
of the field of play. She must keep within four yards of her own goal
line or concede a free throw from the four-yard line to her nearest
opponent. The goal keeper is exempt from clauses _a_, _c_, and _f_ in
Rule for Ordinary Fouls, but she may be treated as any other player
when in possession of the ball. Except when injury or illness compel
her to leave the water, the goal keeper can only be changed at half
time.

_Goal Line Corner Throws._--A player throwing the ball over her own
goal line shall concede a free corner throw to her opponents, and such
free corner throw shall be taken by the player of the opposing side
nearest the point where the ball leaves the field of play; if the
attacking side throw the ball over, it shall be a free goal throw to
their opponents’ goal keeper.

_Out of Play._--Should a player send the ball out of the field of play
at either side, it shall be thrown in any direction from where it went
out by one of the opposing side, and shall be considered a free throw.
The player nearest the point where the ball leaves the field of play
must take the throw. Should a ball strike an overhead obstruction and
rebound into the field of play, it shall be considered in play; but if
it lodges on or in an overhead obstruction, it shall be considered out
of play, and the referee shall then stop the game and throw the ball
into the water under the obstruction on or in which it had lodged.

_Declaring Goals, Time, etc._--The referee shall declare fouls,
half-time and time by whistle; the timekeeper may notify half-time and
time by whistle.



Volley Ball


Volley ball is another team game which is rapidly becoming popular
among girls. It may be played indoors or outdoors and can be enjoyed
by large groups of girls. The game is a combination of tennis and hand
ball and consists of keeping a ball in motion over a high net.

Many girls, particularly the young and those who are weakly, are
compelled to refrain from indulging in many of our most popular games.
These can play volley ball without running the risk of any serious
injury. There is no bodily contact with opponents. The ball is soft and
does not injure the one hitting it or anyone who may accidentally be
hit with it.

The space, ball and net usually can be acquired with little difficulty,
and the ball and net are very inexpensive when we consider how long
they last and the number of games which can be enjoyed by a great many
persons before they have to be repaired or replaced.

While the rules call for a definite size of court, it should be
remembered that a good game can be played and lots of fun enjoyed in
school rooms and other places that may be available, where the space
and other requirements are less than those specified.

The rules for the game are revised annually by a joint committee of the
Young Men’s Christian Association and the National Collegiate Athletic
Association and are published in Spalding’s Athletic Library.



Philadelphia Hockey League

BY JOSEPHINE KATZENSTEIN.


    [The Philadelphia Hockey League has been successfully organized
    as is told by Miss Josephine Katzenstein, a member of the
    Lansdowne hockey team. Miss Katzenstein has been chosen for the
    All-Philadelphia team every year since its start. Previous to
    this, she played on the Bryn Mawr ’varsity. It is needless to
    say that she is one of the best forwards that ever played in the
    Philadelphia League.--EDITOR.]

When we consider that before 1901 field hockey for women was hardly
more than a name in and around Philadelphia, and that since that year
enthusiasm for the game has so steadily grown that we have now perhaps
the finest hockey league in the country, we may justly feel optimistic
on the subject of athletics for women.

In 1907, there were eight hockey clubs in this vicinity--enough to
organize an inter-club hockey league. Merion Cricket Club, Belmont
Cricket Club, Lansdowne Country Club, Germantown Hockey Club,
Philadelphia Cricket Club, Moorestown Field Club, Haddonfield Hockey
Club, and Frankford Cricket Club composed the league. Later Belmont
went out of existence, Frankford and Moorestown withdrew, and Temple
College joined the league. Now Lansdowne, Germantown, Haddonfield,
Philadelphia and Merion have second teams, while Riverton plays only in
the second league.

The different teams must have distinguishing colors, and no club
joining the league may use the colors already adopted by another club.
So far Temple is the only club far-sighted enough to play in bloomers
instead of in hampering skirts. It is hoped by many that all may soon
follow her wise example. Professionals are barred from competition on
any league team. A team may be admitted to the league upon application
to and approval by the Executive Committee. Each team has to play two
matches with every other club in the league--one on the home field and
one on the opponent’s.

Since 1908 a committee formed of a representative from each club has
chosen an All-Philadelphia team to play outside teams, after the
inter-club games are over. This has proved an incentive to consistently
good playing all season, as one knows that the critics’ eyes are on one
in every game. It has also helped to spread the interest in hockey.

Bryn Mawr, New York, Baltimore and Rosemary Hall (Greenwich, Conn.)
teams have been met repeatedly by the All-Philadelphia team.



Activity of Missouri Colleges

BY MISS LORENA L. PARRISH,

Physical Director Howard Payne College.


It is with pleasure that I take this opportunity to give you a glimpse
of the work of the Junior Colleges of Missouri in Athletics.

In 1914, the organization known as the Junior College Athletic
Association of Missouri was formed. Up until this time there were
only a few of the colleges devoting much time to athletics. Howard
Payne has for years been one of the strongest supporters of athletics
for women, not only within her own college, but a strong advocate of
intercollegiate sports. Since the organization there have been four out
of the seven junior colleges which have taken up active intercollegiate
basket ball-Christian College and Stephens College, both of Columbia,
Mo., Lindenwood of St. Charles and Howard Payne of Fayette. I feel
confident that in another year the remaining three will join our ranks.
We also have our tennis tournaments every spring.

In the year 1915, we started for the first time work in track and field
athletics. A dual meet was held here on May 17 between Howard Payne and
Stephens. It met with such overwhelming success that we have planned
to make it an annual event. There were several physicians present
at the meet, and they were very enthusiastic in their praise of the
work, saying that it was one of the finest moves that had been made
within recent years for the development of our girls. Notwithstanding
these facts, there is still a great deal of prejudice against this
particular form of athletics, and the two questions that are uppermost
in the minds of a great many are: “Are we taking chances with the
girls’ future health by allowing these sports?” “Do the advantages
gained overshadow the possible danger?” These questions should be given
careful consideration by the physical directors and they should see
to it that the girls under their charge receive careful training and
supervision. It is only in this way that we shall be able to break down
the prevailing prejudices. I should say that under proper conditions
and supervision the gain in health and strength far outweighs the risks
of danger. Here in our own school the girls who are most active in
athletics are the healthiest and are rarely ever absent from classes
because of illness.

Since the meet held here in Fayette in 1915 was the first
intercollegiate meet of its kind for girls in this section of the
country, it might be of interest to include in this article the various
events used:

  Target shooting
  50-yard dash
  Base ball throw
  60-yard hurdles (3 hurdles)
  Discus--2-l/2 pounds
  75-yard dash
  Shot-put--8 pounds
  Running high jump
  Basket ball throw
  Running broad jump
  220-yard dash



Girls’ Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League


Among the sanctioned activities of the Girls’ Branch of the Public
Schools Athletic League are the following team games for the Elementary
Schools: End Ball, Captain Ball, Basket Ball, Punch Ball, Indoor Base
Ball.

_End Ball_ can be played by a varied number of players. The playing
rules are to be found in the Official Handbook of the Girls’ Branch of
the Public Schools Athletic League, published by the American Sports
Publishing Company. This book says: “The object of the game is for
the guards on one side to throw the ball over the heads of the guards
on the opposite side to their own basemen, at the end of the opposite
field. Each such ball caught by a baseman shall score one point for the
side catching it.

“The object of the intervening guards is to intercept the ball before
it can reach the basemen at their rear, and to throw it in turn to
their own basemen at the rear of the opposite court, over the heads of
the intervening opponents.”

_Captain Ball._--“The main object of the game is for the basemen of a
team to pass the ball from one to another, each pass successfully made
scoring for the team, as described under ‘Score.’

“The object of the guards is to intercept the passage of the ball and
send it back to their own basemen for similar play.” For the rules and
details see Official Handbook of the League.

_Basket Ball._--The Spalding Athletic Library rules for the line game
are used.

_Punch Ball._--For this the league rules as set forth in Official
Handbook. “The object of the batter is to hit the ball into the field
in such a way that it may not be caught by the fielders, and to run to
first base. The object of the fielders is to return the ball to their
catcher, who shall stand on the home plate and hold the ball before
the batter reaches first base. If the fielders muff the ball and are
slow in returning it to home plate, the batter who has reached first
may continue on to second or third base, or as far as in her judgement
she can get before the ball reaches home plate. The player running the
bases may always advance a base whenever the opportunity occurs and the
ball is in play. The final object of the player running to the bases is
to touch each base and to reach the home plate without being put out,
thus scoring one run for her side.”

Besides these team games, the league sanctions the following
activities, which are conducted according to rules and regulations
set forth in the Official Handbook: Folk Dancing, Walking, Swimming,
Horseback Riding, Ice and Roller Skating, Rope Skipping, Bicycling,
Coasting, Golf, Lawn Tennis, Hand Tennis, Heavy Gymnastics, Track and
Field Events, Field Hockey, Volley Ball, Newcomb and Pin Ball.



Intercollegiate Alumnae Athletic Association

BY MISS LILLIAN SCHOEDLER,

Originator and Honorary President of the Intercollegiate A. A. A.;

Chairman of the Alumnae Committee on Athletics of Barnard College.


New York witnessed the establishment of the first Intercollegiate
Alumnæ Athletic Association the world has known. And its organization
proves beyond a doubt the strong grip that athletics are getting on the
modern woman.

In 1913 a group of twenty-five alumnæ from Barnard College, which
met for swimming and basket ball, sowed the seed for the present
association. That seed grew so quickly that by 1916 there had been
974 enrollments for the athletic work which the Alumnae Committee on
Athletics of Barnard College had originated, and the activities had
grown until they included, besides basket ball and swimming, social,
folk and æsthetic dancing, bowling, hand ball, gymnasium work, indoor
and outdoor horseback riding, with drill work, polo and basket ball on
horseback, field hockey, base ball, tennis, tramping, summer boat and
trolley trips, swimming parties, and college picnics of all kinds.

Three factors have contributed to the success of the alumnæ athletic
movement in New York. In the first place, its activities have
been carried on outside of business hours--in evenings, or during
week-ends--so that college women who work, as well as their more
leisurely sisters, could enjoy the fun. In the second place, the social
end as well as the athletic has been provided for in the making of all
plans, and as a result alumnæ athletics, through their informality and
atmosphere of “camaraderie,” are serving to bring together college
individuals and groups as nothing else can. And, in the third place,
everything has been planned as simply and inexpensively as possible, as
witness the fact that horses are secured at one of the best New York
academies for sixty-three cents an hour, including instruction, and
that members who have no habits ride in middy blouses and bloomers.
There is no pretense at “style,” but every emphasis on fun.

The new association is a pioneer in its field, and is being watched
with much interest by college men and women alike. It is hoped that
before long similar associations will spring up in various sections
of the country, and that college women will soon have the organized
facilities for exercise and recreation for the possession of which they
have always envied their college brothers.

Which city will be the first to follow New York’s successful example?

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss Schoedler has very kindly consented to give advice to any group
of college women in any city who wish to form an organization for the
purpose of continuing athletics. Communications to Miss Schoedler
at 249 West 107th Street, New York City, will result in a prompt
answer.--THE EDITOR.



[Illustration: ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTE

THE SPALDING TRADE-MARK

GUARANTEES QUALITY]


[Illustration: The sterling mark in the appraisal of athletic goods]

When selecting apparel or implements for any pastime, it is well to
bear in mind the synonymous meaning of “Spalding” and “Quality”


[Illustration: PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO ANY COMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSED
TO US

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. STORES IN ALL LARGE CITIES

FOR COMPLETE LIST OF STORES SEE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK]



[Illustration: ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTE

THE SPALDING TRADE-MARK

GUARANTEES QUALITY]


GYMNASIUM APPARATUS

Colleges and schools contemplating installing a gymnasium or adding to
present equipment are invited to correspond with our Gymnasium Contract
Department in relation to same. Our many years experience manufacturing
gymnasium and playground apparatus render us peculiarly fitted to solve
the problems that inevitably arise.

  A. G. SPALDING & BROS., Inc.

  Gymnasium Contract Department
  CHICOPEE, MASS.


[Illustration: PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO ANY COMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSED
TO US

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. STORES IN ALL LARGE CITIES

FOR COMPLETE LIST OF STORES SEE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK]



[Illustration: ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTE

THE SPALDING TRADE-MARK

GUARANTEES QUALITY]


GIRLS’ SCHOOL AND COLLEGE OUTFITS

We are now furnishing a number of women’s colleges and schools--also
girls’ camps--with complete uniform outfits and would be pleased to
submit prices and samples on request.

    The entire second floor of the new Spalding Building, 523
    Fifth Avenue, is devoted exclusively to Women’s “Coverley
    Clothes”--sport suits, tennis and golf wear, separate skirts,
    sport hats, shirts, ties and shoes. Near Grand Central station
    and convenient to leading hotels. Catalogue mailed.

  A. G. SPALDING & BROS.

  School and College and
  Camp Departments

  523 Fifth Avenue, New York


[Illustration: PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO ANY COMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSED
TO US

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. STORES IN ALL LARGE CITIES

FOR COMPLETE LIST OF STORES SEE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK]



[Illustration: ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTE

THE SPALDING TRADE-MARK

GUARANTEE QUALITY]


SPALDING FIELD HOCKEY STICKS

    No. =2-A=. Head of fine grained selected oak. Handle spliced to
    reduce risk of breakage, and built up of strips of rattan cane,
    with strip of pure Para rubber intersecting to prevent stinging
    of the hands.


    “Applebee OO” Regulation Stick

    No. =2S=. Ash head, with bulge back of striking surface, rattan
    cane handle, with whipping. Finest material and workmanship
    throughout.


    “Applebee O” Regulation Stick

    No. =2B=. Plain ash, turned knob, wound with twine.


    Spalding “Club” Stick

    No. =1=. Plain ash, turned knob, scored handle.

[Illustration: Spalding Hockey Sticks are made in England at our Putney
Factory.]

[Illustration: No. 2-A

No. 2S

No. 2B]

[Illustration: PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO ANY COMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSED
TO US

A. G. SPALDING & BROS.

STORES IN ALL LARGE CITIES

FOR COMPLETE LIST OF STORES SEE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK]



[Illustration: ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTE

THE SPALDING TRADE-MARK

GUARANTEES QUALITY]


Spalding Field Hockey Balls

[Illustration]

    No. =7=. “Grand Prix” Ball as used by best players in England.

With two coats special elastic white enamel.

  Per ball, extra.

No. =B=. Seamless, white enameled leather cover; excellent quality.

No. =C=. Rubber Cover Composition Ball; superior quality.


Spalding Regulation Field Hockey Goals

[Illustration]

    No. =2=. Heavy japanned tubing frame, with tarred nets complete,
    so that goal may be set up quickly and taken down just as readily.


Field Hockey Shin Guards

[Illustration]

No. =F=. Canvas. With ankle protectors.

No. =40=. Leather. With ankle protectors.


Spalding Field Hockey Gloves

    No. =P=. Made skeleton style. Fingers and thumb well protected
    with rubber.


Rubber Ring Finger Protection

[Illustration]

    No. =R=. Pure gum ring. Will fit any stick, and prevent
    opponent’s stick from slipping up and injuring the fingers.


[Illustration: PROMPT ATTENTION GIVEN TO ANY COMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSED
TO US

A. G. SPALDING & BROS.

STORES IN ALL LARGE CITIES

FOR COMPLETE LIST OF STORES SEE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THIS BOOK]



Standard Quality


An article that is universally given the appellation “=Standard=” is
thereby conceded to be the criterion, to which are compared all other
things of a similar nature. For instance, the Gold Dollar of the United
States is the Standard unit of currency, because it must legally
contain a specific proportion of pure gold and the fact of its being
Genuine is guaranteed by the Government Stamp thereon. As a protection
to the users of this currency against counterfeiting and other tricks,
considerable money is expended in maintaining a Secret Service
Bureau of Experts. Under the law, citizen manufacturers must depend
to a great extent upon Trade-Marks and similar devices to protect
themselves against counterfeit products--without the aid of “Government
Detectives” or “Public Opinion” to assist them.

Consequently the “Consumer’s Protection” against misrepresentation and
“inferior quality” rests entirely upon the integrity and responsibility
of the “Manufacturer.”

A. G. Spalding & Bros. have, by their rigorous attention to “Quality,”
for forty years, caused their Trade-Mark to become known throughout the
world as a Guarantee of Quality as dependable in their field as the U.
S. Currency is in its field.

The necessity of upholding the Guarantee of the Spalding Trade-Mark and
maintaining the Standard Quality of their Athletic Goods, is therefore,
as obvious as is the necessity of the Government in maintaining a
Standard Currency.

Thus each consumer is not only insuring himself but also protecting
other consumers when he assists a Reliable Manufacturer in upholding
his Trade-Mark and all that it stands for. Therefore, we urge all users
of our Athletic Goods to assist us in maintaining the Spalding Standard
of Excellence, by insisting that our Trade-Mark be plainly stamped on
all athletic goods which they buy, because without this precaution
our best efforts towards maintaining Standard Quality and preventing
fraudulent substitution will be ineffectual.

Manufacturers of Standard Articles invariably suffer the reputation
of being high-priced, and this sentiment is fostered and emphasized
by makers of “inferior goods,” with whom low prices are the main
consideration.

A manufacturer of recognized Standard Goods, with a reputation to
uphold and a guarantee to protect must necessarily have higher prices
than a manufacturer of cheap goods, whose idea of and basis of a claim
for Standard Quality depends principally upon the eloquence of the
salesman.

We know from experience that there is no quicksand more unstable than
poverty in quality--and we avoid this quicksand by Standard Quality.

[Illustration:

  A. G. Spalding & Bros.]


[Transcriber’s Note:

Obvious printer errors corrected silently.

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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