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Title: Folk Lore Notes. Vol. I—Gujarat
Author: Jackson, A. M. T.
Language: English
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                            FOLK LORE NOTES.

                            Vol. I--GUJARAT.

                  COMPILED FROM MATERIALS COLLECTED BY
            the late A. M. T. JACKSON, indian civil service.


                     R. E. ENTHOVEN, c.i.e., i.c.s.


                  BRITISH INDIA PRESS, MAZGAON BOMBAY.
                                  1914



INTRODUCTION.


The circumstances attending the murder of Mr. A. M. T. Jackson in
Nasik in December 1909 led to the raising of a small subscription
among his friends, to be devoted to a memorial in some shape or form,
showing the respect and affection with which he was regarded in
Western India. A large part of the fund then raised was expended on
the purchase of his valuable library, which now forms a part of the
collection owned by the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. It
was subsequently decided that the balance could not be better spent
than in defraying the cost of publishing certain folklore materials
which he had collected and intended, at the time of his untimely death,
to publish in the pages of the Indian Antiquary. These materials were
the result of an enquiry set on foot by him about the year 1900. His
plan of operation was to forward, through the agency of the Education
Department, Crooke's list of folklore questions to schoolmasters in
various parts of the Presidency. The question paper is given below;
the replies form the raw material from which these notes have been
compiled. For convenience they are divided into two series: Gujarat
and the Konkan.

I desire at the outset of these introductory remarks to explain that,
when at the request of the memorial committee I undertook the task
of seeing these notes through the press, I did not contemplate any
critical handling of the materials found in the papers made over
to me. I had neither the leisure nor the knowledge to carry out
Mr. Jackson's intention, i.e., to edit the notes carefully with
such criticisms and comparisons as his ripe scholarship would have
suggested. I make no claim, therefore, to have effected more than
to have rescued from the wastepaper basket a number of replies to
questions regarding the beliefs of the people in Gujarat and the
Konkan. The notes as now presented doubtless contain much that is
trivial, and possibly many inaccuracies; but among them students of
folklore may on the other hand discover material of real value--such
as they are, they will, I trust, repay careful study, and perhaps
serve one day to form the basis of a further and more comprehensive
examination of the folk-lore of the Bombay Presidency--an examination
which should not be too long deferred, for the old practices and
beliefs are yearly tending to decay and vanish in contact with
the spread of education. The field for enquiry is wide and rich,
but workers fail to come forward; and meanwhile the old beliefs and
practices slowly disappear. On the subjects with which these notes
deal, much information of value has already been collected and recorded
by another oriental scholar, the late Sir James Campbell, K.C.I.E.,
and will be found partly in the pages of the Bombay Gazetteer, and
partly in the notes on the Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom which he
published from time to time in the Indian Antiquary. The present notes
carry striking confirmation of Sir James Campbell's theory regarding
the extent to which beliefs and religious practices in this country
can be traced to the desire to propitiate spirit presences. It may be
remarked that Campbell's work in the domain of Indian folk-lore does
not seem to have received the notice that it deserves in the works
of writers on folk-lore generally, possibly because so much of it is
buried in the pages of the Bombay Gazetteer or in scattered numbers
of the Indian Antiquary. The notes would amply repay the labour of
republication, with a summary and suitable index. They deal very
fully with spirit worship and possession, witchcraft and magic,
and the evil eye. They differ from the present notes in being to
a large extent comparative, assembling under the various heads of
ancestor worship, spirit haunts, spirit possession, exorcism, etc.,
kindred beliefs from all parts of the world. Doubtless his work to
no small extent suggested to Mr. Jackson the line of enquiry which
is contained in the question paper. From the materials accumulated by
these two scholars a comprehensive study of the folk-lore of western
India may one day be compiled.

The notes illustrate very fully the common beliefs in unseen presences
causing mischief of various kinds. They illustrate the common methods
of protection by propitiation, of spirit and disease scaring, and of
avoidance of the effects of the evil eye. A full list will be found
(pp. 126-130) of the lucky and unlucky omens besetting the undertaking
of various acts, and much information is recorded regarding lucky and
unlucky numbers, and spirit scaring names which has not, so far as I
am aware, been made public before. Ceremonies for exorcising spirits
that have possessed human beings are given in some detail. There will
also be found an account of the interpretation commonly put on such
natural phenomena as the rainbow, an eclipse, thunder, lightning,
meteors, comets, &c.

Many examples are given of the beliefs regarding the means for securing
successful pregnancy. The trees and animals worshipped in the country
side are described, with the ceremony that is held to be suitable in
each case. An unusually interesting belief is that which attributes to
a certain lake in Gujarat the power to transform males into females
and vice versa (see p. 39). The curing of diseases by the wearing of
magic threads and the application of mantras or holy verses is also
dealt with in some detail. Finally a list is given of the shrines of
the country side with the tradition regarding the holy man in whose
honour and to whose memory they have been erected. They are for the
most part worshipped alike by Hindu and Musalman.

In conclusion, I would refer once more to the fact that no attempt
has been made to edit critically the information embodied in these
notes. In the scanty leisure available after official demands
on my time have been met, it has only been possible to see the
materials through the press as they stood, after translation. The
task has been greatly lightened by the generous assistance received
from R. B. P. B. Joshi who undertook the preparation of the whole
of the MSS. of the Konkan series. I am also greatly indebted to
Mr. G. M. Kalelkar for many arduous hours of work on the compilation of
the Gujarat papers. To both these gentlemen my cordial thanks are due
for their co-operation. If the publication of these materials serve
to stimulate interest in the subject of Indian folk-lore, they will
not have been printed in vain. Such as they are, they will, I trust,
remain as a small tribute to the memory of an oriental scholar, of
no mean merit, of whose services India was deprived in so untimely
a manner.


R. E. Enthoven.



QUESTIONS ON FOLKLORE.

By W. CROOKE, Late of the Indian Civil Service.

Author of the Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India.



I. NATURE POWERS.

1. Give any indications of the connection of the worship of the Deota
or minor local deities with the lower races, as, for instance, where
the village deity is served by a priest drawn from the lower castes.

2. Give any current beliefs about sun worship. How and at what
periodical feasts is the worship conducted and what form of ritual
is adopted?

3. Give any customs of moving round temples or sacred objects in the
course of the sun in the heavens: cases in which women after childbirth
are exposed to the sun: conception believed to be caused by exposure
to the rays of the sun: the use of the Swastika as an emblem.

4. Give any legends or customs connected with moon worship: the spots
on the surface of the moon: the moon as a healer of disease: the
custom of drinking the moon's rays: any ceremonies at new or full moon.

5. Give any legends and rites connected with eclipses.

6. Similarly for star worship; superstitions connected with the
rainbow; the milky way.

7. Rites connected with worship of the earth mother: sacred things
not to fall on earth: occasions when people sleep on the earth.

8. Superstitions connected with thunder and lightning.

9. Popular belief regarding earthquakes.

10. Collect instances of and ritual for worship of sacred rivers;
springs; waterfalls; water spirits and goblins: prejudice against
saving drowning people: ceremonies at digging and dedication of wells:
well water as a cure for disease: instances of sacred lakes: palaces
under the water.

11. Instances of sacred mountains and legends connected with them:
dread of climbing mountains.

12. Name any deities supposed to control the weather, and describe
the modes of causing or averting rain, of checking storms and hail.

13. Give instances of any rites in which women alone take part or
from which they are excluded: any rites in which the worshipper must
be nude.

14. Are there any sacred stones which are believed to influence
the rain?

15. Note any superstitions in connection with aerolites and meteors.



II. THE HEROIC GODLINGS.

16. Describe the ritual and any legends or superstitions connected
with the worship of Hanuman, Bhimsen, Bhishma.

17. Name and describe the local deities most generally worshipped in
your neighbourhood. What legends are connected with them; who are
their priests; what offerings and on what occasions are offerings
made to them?

18. How is the local deity of a new settlement selected and installed?

19. What local deity is considered responsible for crops and
cattle? When and how is he worshipped?

20. Describe the worship of Bhairon or Bhairava, Ganesa, the Matris
or Mothers, the deities of the jungle, those who assist parturition.



III. DISEASE DEITIES.

21. Describe the worship of any deities who are believed to have the
power of averting or causing disease, such as cholera, small pox,
fever, etc.

22. Is epidemic disease attributed to witchcraft, and, if so, what
precautions are taken? Give particulars of observances in connection
with cattle disease.

23. What methods are in vogue for the exorcism of disease? Give
examples of any rural charms used for this purpose.

24. Is dancing used in exorcism? If so, give instances of religious
dances.

25. What are the position and functions of the village sorcerer and
how is he appointed?

26. Give examples of the offering of rags, coins, etc., at sacred
trees, wells, etc.

27. Give any methods of transferring disease to another person.

28. Give instances of the use of scapegoats.



IV. THE WORSHIP OF ANCESTORS AND SAINTS.

29. Give instances of worship of ancestors: the belief that spirits
are mortal and that the spirits of the dead are re-born in children.

30. Give instances of miracle-working tombs, and of saints who have
been deified in modern times.

31. Give instances of Muhammadan saints whose worship has been adopted
by Hindus.

32. Give the rural methods in vogue for the cure of barrenness.



V. THE WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD.

33. What are the current beliefs as to the cause of dreams and the
omens derived from them?

34. Is it considered possible for the soul to leave the body
temporarily? If so, give instances.

35. What is the popular conception of the character and functions of
the Bhut or disembodied soul?

36. What beliefs are current as to the state of the soul after death;
the path to the other world: the condition of souls in the other world:
the possibility of the soul returning thence?

37. What belief is current as to the souls of those dying by a sudden
or violent death?

38. What are believed to be the appearance and habits of the Bhut?

39. In what way do spirits enter or leave the body?

40. What is the current theory regarding sneezing and yawning?

41. What is known of the Rakshasa or malevolent demon?

42. Name and describe any other varieties of malignant spirits.

43. Do any evil spirits go about headless?

44. What special evil spirits infest burial or cremation grounds,
and what are the other haunts of such spirits?

45. Does any special class of evil spirit infest mountains, jungles,
trees?

46. What fiends attack the young mother and her child?

47. What belief prevails as to the spirits of those killed by tigers
or other wild beasts?

48. What form does the ghost of a woman dying at childbirth or during
her menses assume?

49. Is there any belief that the father has to take special precautions
at the birth of his child?

50. Is there any belief in a connection of the bat or owl with spirits
of the dead?

51. Describe the evil spirits which haunt ruins and guard buried
treasure: or occupy caves and mines.



VI. THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS.

52. Describe the belief in the Evil eye and the modes of evading it.

53. Does the belief in giving opprobrious names to children prevail,
and if so, how is it accounted for?

54. Can you give instances of change of sex?

55. Illustrate the value of the following protection against evil
spirits--iron and other metals: coral and shells: precious stones:
blood: incense: spittle: salt: water: grain: colours: grasses:
tattooing: leather: garlic: glass.

56. Describe the amulets generally used.

57. Illustrate the sacred circle as a protective.

58. Illustrate the belief in omens, numbers, lucky and unlucky days.

59. What means are adopted to help the spirit to the other world, to
prevent it from returning and to secure its good-will to the survivors?

60. Illustrate the prevalence of earth burial and cremation: the
customs of shaving the hair: placing food or other articles for the
use of the dead.

61. Does the spirit reappear in the form of insects and animals?

62. Are the earthen vessels of the household broken at death: if so,
why? Describe rites connected with mourning.

63. What spirits are benevolent?

64. Illustrate the belief in tree spirits.

65. What spirits are special protectors of crops and cattle?

66. What spirits are invoked to frighten children?



VII. TREE AND SERPENT WORSHIP.

67. Name any sacred groves in your neighbourhood and describe any
prejudice against cutting trees.

68. Are any trees specially connected with any local deity or saint?

69. Name any trees which receive particular respect or devotion and
note any legends or superstitions in connection with them.

70. Does the custom of marrying a bride or bridegroom to a tree
prevail? Any instances of marriage to a god: religious prostitution.

71. Give instances of snake worship and shrines of serpent deities:
of deified snake heroes.

72. Does the belief prevail that snakes guard treasure? Give details.

73. What snake festivals are observed? Describe the ritual.

74. What is the village treatment of snake-bite?

75. The snake has a jewel in his head: he is connected with the
rainbow: he has a palace under the water: he weds mortal girls:
he protects the household--illustrate these beliefs.



VIII. TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM.

76. Can you quote any beliefs which are suggestive of Totemism? Are
any clans named after or do they claim descent from animals or
plants? What animals are treated with special respect by particular
tribes? Do special castes refuse to eat any special food?

77. Are any local deities specially associated with animal worship?

78. Illustrate the worship of stocks and stones. Is any respect shown
to perforated stones?

79. Are there any modern survivals of human sacrifice?

80. Are fetish stones supposed to cure disease or to be the abode
of spirits?

81. Are any fetishes peculiar to particular families or castes?

82. Is special respect shown to the corn sieve, the winnowing basket,
the broom, the rice pounder, the plough?

83. Give instances of fire worship. Is the sacred fire maintained in
any shrine? Is fire made by friction for special rites?



IX. ANIMAL WORSHIP.

84. Illustrate from local examples the worship or respect paid to the
horse, ass, lion, tiger, dog, goat, cow, buffalo, antelope, elephant,
cat, rat and mouse, squirrel, bear, jackal, hare, crow, fowl, dove
and pigeon, swan, and other birds, alligators, fish and insects,
and give any legend or superstition in connection with them.



X. WITCHCRAFT.

85. How far does the belief in witches and their powers prevail? Do
they appear as animals and have they special haunts and seasons?

86. What ordeals are used to test a witch and what means to guard
against her witchcraft?



XI. GENERAL.

87. Describe the rural ceremonies in connection with ploughing,
sowing the various crops, reaping and harvesting.

88. Rites intended for the protection of cattle; to ensure sunshine
and favourable weather: to scare noxious animals or insects: to
protect special crops: illustrate these from local custom.

89. Are there any rites in which secrecy and silence are essential?

90. Describe the observances at the Holi.

91. Give details of any rites performed when boys or girls attain
puberty.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

Nature Powers.                                                    Page.

    Worship of minor local deities. Sun-worship. Circumambulation
    round images and other sacred objects. Exposure of women to the Sun
    after child-birth. The Swastika. Moon-worship. Eclipses. Worship
    of planets and stars. The rainbow. The milky way. Worship of
    the earth. Thunder and lightning. Earthquakes. Worship of sacred
    rivers, springs and pools. Water spirits and goblins. Ceremonies
    at digging of wells. Well water as a cure for disease. Sacred
    Lakes. Palaces under the water. Sacred mountains. Deities who
    control the weather. Methods of causing or averting rain and
    of checking storms. Vratas or religious vows practised only
    by women. Rites in which women are excluded. Rites in which
    the worshipper must be nude. Superstitions in connection with
    aerolites and meteors.                                            1


CHAPTER II.

The Heroic Godlings.

    The worship of Hanuman, Bhimsen and Bhishma. Local
    deities. Installation of deities in new settlements. Deities
    responsible for crops and cattle. The worship of Bhairow, Ganesh,
    Matrikas or mothers, the deities of the jungle and the deities
    who preside over childbirth.                                     54


CHAPTER III.

Disease Deities.

    Deities who can cause or avert diseases such as cholera, small pox,
    fever, etc. Causes of the outbreak of cholera. Remedies adopted
    to stop cholera. Causes of the outbreak of small pox. Remedies
    adopted for the cure of small pox. Causes of fever. Remedies
    adopted in cases of fever. Cattle diseases. Remedies practised by
    the village people in connection with them. The methods for the
    exorcism of disease. Methods of expelling evil spirits from the
    body. The village sorcerer. Offerings of rags, coins, etc. at
    sacred trees and wells. The transferring of disease from one
    person to another. Scapegoats.                                   74


CHAPTER IV.

The worship of ancestors and saints.
    Shraddhas and other ceremonies performed for the propitiation and
    emancipation of the deceased. Worship of the founders of religious
    sects, of saints, etc. Ghosts. The length of their life. Rebirth
    of ancestors in the same family. Miracle-working tombs. Muhammadan
    saints whose worship has been adopted by Hindus. Rural methods
    for the cure of barrenness.                                      89


CHAPTER V.

The worship of the malevolent dead.

    Popular notions about dreams. Auspicious and inauspicious
    dreams. Temporary abandonment of the body by the soul. Character
    and functions of the bhut or disembodied soul. The state of the
    soul after death. The rebirth of the soul. The souls of persons
    dying a sudden or violent death. The ways by which ghosts enter
    and leave the body. Methods of driving away evil spirits from the
    body. Beliefs regarding sneezing and yawning. Rakshasa or the
    malevolent demon. Maharakshasas. Other malignant spirits. Evil
    spirits which go about headless. The haunts of evil spirits. Ghosts
    of women dying an unnatural death. Spirits of persons killed
    by tigers and other wild beasts. Ghosts of women dying in
    child-bed or menses. Precautions taken by parents at the birth of
    children. Beliefs in connection with bats and owls. Spirits which
    haunt ruins, guard buried treasure and occupy valleys.          102


CHAPTER VI.

The evil eye and the scaring of ghosts.

    Effects of the evil eye. Objects liable to be influenced by
    the evil eye. Precautions taken to evade the influence of the
    evil eye. Opprobrious names. Change of sex. Protection against
    evil spirits. Amulets. Charmed circles. Omens. Numbers. Lucky
    and unlucky days. Rites performed to help the soul to the
    other world. Cremation and burial. The customs of shaving the
    hair. Offerings of food to the dead. Manifestation of evil spirits
    in form. The practice of breaking earthen vessels at death. Rites
    connected with mourning. Benevolent spirits. Spirits which haunt
    trees. The guardian spirits of crops and cattle. Spirits invoked
    to frighten children.                                           120


CHAPTER VII.

Tree and Serpent worship.

    Trees connected with deities and saints. Legends and superstitions
    connected with them. Marriage of brides and bridegrooms
    to trees. Snake worship. Shrines of snake deities. Deified
    snakes. Snakes guarding treasure. The village treatment of
    snake-bite. The jewel in the head of the snake. Its connection
    with the rainbow. Weddings of snakes with human beings. Guardian
    snakes.                                                         136


CHAPTER VIII.

Totemism and Fetishism.

    Names derived from animals. Names derived from plants. Clan names
    derived from trees and animals. Sacred animals. Deities associated
    with animal worship. Worship of stocks and stones. Survivals of
    human sacrifice. Disease-curing stones. Respect shown to corn
    sieves, corn pounders, the broom and the plough. Fire worship.  144


CHAPTER IX.

Animal worship.

    Sacred animals and the legends and superstitions connected
    with them.                                                      150


CHAPTER X.

Witchcraft.

    Human and ghost by Dakans or witches.                           152


CHAPTER XI.

General.

    Rural ceremonies connected with agricultural operations. Rites
    performed for the protection of cattle. Rites performed for scaring
    noxious animals and insects. Rites performed for ensuring sunshine
    and favourable weather. Rites performed for the protection of
    crops. Rites in which secrecy and silence are observed. The
    observances at the Holi festival. Rites performed when girls
    attain puberty.                                                 153



THE FOLKLORE OF GUJARAT


NATURE POWERS

CHAPTER I


Besides the higher-grade deities, whose worship is enjoined and
treated of in the Shastras and Puranas, numerous other minor deities,
none of whom however find a place in the Scriptures, are worshipped
by the lower classes. The principle underlying the whole fabric of
the worship of these minor deities, who for the most part are the
spirits of dead ancestors or heroes, has more in it of fear for their
power of harming than of love for their divine nature. All untoward
occurrences in domestic affairs, all bodily ailments and unusual
natural phenomena, inexplicable to the simple mind of the villager,
are attributed to the malignant action of these nameless and numerous
spirits, hovering over and haunting the habitations of men. [1] The
latent dread of receiving injuries from these evil spirits results in
the worship by the low-class people of a number of devas and matas, as
they are called. The poor villager, surrounded on all sides by hosts
of hovering spirits, ready to take offence, or even to possess him,
on the smallest pretext, requires some tangible protector to save him
from such malign influences. He sets up and enshrines the spirit
that he believes to have been beneficent to him, and so deserving of
worship, and makes vows in its honour, often becoming himself the
officiating priest. Each such deity has its own particular thanak
(sthana) or locality. Thus there is hardly a village which has not
a particular deity of its own. But in addition to this deity, others
in far off villages are generally held in high esteem.

There are a number of ways in which these lower-class deities
can be installed. Their images are made either of wood, stone, or
metal. [2] No temples or shrines are erected in their honour. [3] An
ordinary way of representing them is by drawing a trident, (trishul,
a weapon peculiar to god Shiva) in red-lead and oil on an upright
slab of stone on a public road, on any dead wall, on the confines
of a village, or a mountain side, or a hill top, in an underground
cellar, or on the bank of a stream. [4] Some people paint tridents in
their own houses. The trishul, or trident, may also be made of wood,
in which case its three points are plastered with red-lead and oil
and covered with a thin coating of tin. [5] Sometimes carved wooden
images in human shape, daubed over with red-lead and oil, are placed
in a small wooden chariot or in a recess about a foot square. In
some shrines two brooms or whisks of peacock's feathers are placed
on either side of the image. [6] A slight difficulty overcome or a
disease remedied by a vow in honour of any of these deities offers
the occasion for an installation, and in all future emergencies of
the same kind similar vows are observed. A mata installed to protect
a fortress or a street is called a Gadheri Mata, and the worshippers
of a fortress, or street, mother are known as Pothias. [7] At the time
of installation flags are hoisted near the dedicated places. A troop
of dancers with jingling anklets recite holy verses, while the bhuva,
exorcist-priest, performs the ceremonies. Generally installations are
frequent during the Navaratra [8] holidays when, if no human-shaped
image is set up, a trishul at least is drawn in red-lead and oil. [9]
Some of these evil deities require, at the time of their installation,
the balidan (sacrifice or oblation) of a goat or a he-buffalo. Also,
when a spirit is to be exorcised, the symbol of the familiar spirit of
the exorcist is set up and invoked by him. After the installation,
no systematic form of worship is followed in connection with them. [10]
Regular forms are prescribed for the real gods of the Puranas. But
upon these the low-caste people are not authorised to attend.

Still, in practice there are two forms of worship: ordinary or
samanya-puja and special or vishesha-puja. [11] Ordinary worship is
performed by bathing the deity--which can be done by sprinkling a
few drops of water over it--burning a ghi, or an oil, lamp before it,
and by offering a cocoanut and a pice or a half-anna piece. The last
is taken away by the bhuva, or priest, who returns generally half or
three-quarters of the cocoanut as a prasad of the god.

There are no particular days prescribed for such worship, but Sundays
and Tuesdays would seem to be the most favoured. [12] On such days,
offerings are made for the fulfilment of a vow recorded in order
to avoid a badha, or impending evil. In the observance of this vow
the devotee abstains from certain things, such as ghi, butter, milk,
rice, juvar, betelnut till the period of the vow expires. When a vow
is thus discharged, the devotee offers flowers, garlands, incense,
food or drink according to the terms of his vow. The dhupa, i.e.,
burning incense of gugal (balsamodendron) is one of the commonest
methods of worship.

The days for special worship are the Navaratra holidays, the second day
of the bright half of Ashadh, the ninth month of the Hindu Calendar,
[13] Divasa [14] or the fifteenth day of the dark half of Ashadh, and
Kali-chaudas [15] or the fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin,
the last month; besides other extraordinary occasions when a spirit
has to be exorcised out of a sick person.

The Navaratra days are said to be the most auspicious days for
devi-worship. People believing in the power of the matas observe
fast on these days. Most of them at least fast on the eighth day of
the Navaratra known as Mata-ashtami, taking only a light meal which
consists of roots, as a rule, especially the suran (Amorphophallus
campanulatus), and of dates and milk. [16] On the Navaratra days
red-lead and oil are applied to the images of the devis, and a number
of oblations, such as loaves, cooked rice, lapsi [17], vadan [18]
and bakla [19] are offered. [20] The utmost ceremonial cleanliness
is observed in the preparation of these viands. The corn is sifted,
cleaned, ground or pounded, cooked, treated with frankincense, offered
to the gods and lastly partaken of before sunset, and all these
operations must be performed on the same day; for the offerings must
not see lamp-light. [21] Girls are not allowed to partake of these
offerings. All ceremonies should be conducted with much earnestness
and reverence; otherwise the offerings will fail to prove acceptable
to the matas or devis.

On Mata-ashtami and Kali-chaudas devotees sometimes offer rams, goats
or buffaloes as victims to the devis or devas in addition to the usual
offerings of lapsi, vadan and bakla. The night of Kali-chaudas
is believed to be so favourable for the efficacious recitation
(sadhana) of certain mantras, mysterious incantations possessing sway
over spirits, that bhuvas (exorcists) leave the village and sit up
performing certain rites in cemeteries, on burning-ghats, and in other
equally suitable places where spirits are supposed to congregate. [22]

On Divasa, the last day of Ashadh, the ninth month, low-caste
people bathe their gods with water and milk, besmear them with
red-lead and oil, and make offerings of cocoanuts, lapsi, bakla of
adad (Phaseoleus radiatus) or kansar [23]. Particular offerings are
believed to be favoured by particular deities: for instance, khichdo
(rice and pulse boiled together) and oil, or tavo (flat unleavened
loaves) are favoured by the goddess Meldi, boiled rice by Shikotar
and lapsi by the goddess Gatrad. [24]

On these holidays, as well as on the second day of the bright half of
Ashadh the devotees hoist flags in honour of the spirits, and play on
certain musical instruments producing discordant sounds. Meanwhile
bhuvas, believed to be interpreters of the wills of evil spirits,
undergo self-torture, with the firm conviction that the spirits have
entered their persons. Sometimes they lash themselves with iron chains
or cotton braided scourges. [25] At times a bhuva places a pan-full
of sweet oil over a fire till it boils. He then fries cakes in it,
and takes them out with his unprotected hands, sprinkling the boiling
oil over his hair. He further dips thick cotton wicks into the oil,
lights them and puts them into his mouth and throws red-hot bullets
into his mouth, seemingly without any injury. [26] This process secures
the confidence of the sevakas or followers, and is very often used
by bhuvas when exorcising spirits from persons whose confidence the
bhuvas wish to gain. A bowl-full of water is then passed round the
head of the ailing person (or animal) to be charmed, and the contents
are swallowed by the exorcist to show that he has swallowed in the
water all the ills the flesh of the patient is heir to.

In the cure of certain diseases by exorcising the process known as
utar is sometimes gone through. An utar is a sacrificial offering of
the nature of a scapegoat, and consists of a black earthen vessel,
open and broad at the top, and containing lapsi, vadan, bakla, a
yard of atlas (dark-red silk fabric), one rupee and four annas in
cash, pieces of charcoal, red-lead, sorro (or surmo-lead ore used
as eye-powder), an iron-nail and three cocoanuts. Very often a
trident is drawn in red-lead and oil on the outer sides of the black
earthen vessel. [27] The bhuva carries the utar in his hands with
a drawn sword in a procession, to the noise of the jingling of the
anklets of his companions, the beating of drums and the rattling of
cymbals. After placing the utar in the cemetery the procession returns
with tumultuous shouts of joy and much jingling of anklets. [28]

Sometimes bhuvas are summoned for two or three nights preceding the
day of the utar ceremony, and a ceremony known as Danklan-beswan
or the installation of the dankla [29] is performed. (A dankla
[30] is a special spirit instrument in the shape of a small
kettle-drum producing, when beaten by a stick, a most discordant,
and, by long association, a melancholy, gruesome and ghastly
sound--K. B. Fazlullah).

Many sects have special deities of their own, attended upon by a bhuva
of the same order. [31] The bhuva holds a high position in the society
of his caste-fellows. He believes himself to be possessed by the devi
or mata whose attendant he is, and declares, while possessed by her,
the will of the mata, replying for her to such questions as may be put
to him. [32] The devis are supposed to appear in specially favoured
bhuvas and to endow them with prophetic powers. [33]

The following is a list of some of the inferior local deities of
Gujarat and Kathiawar:--

(1) Suro-puro.--This is generally the spirit of some brave ancestor
who died a heroic death, and is worshipped by his descendants as a
family-god at his birthplace as well as at the scene of his death,
where a pillar (palio) is erected to his memory. [34]

(2) Vachhro, otherwise known by the name of Dada (sire).--This is
said to have been a Rajput, killed in rescuing the cowherds of some
Charans, who invoked his aid, from a party of free-booters. [35] He
is considered to be the family-god of the Ahirs of Solanki descent,
and is the sole village-deity in Okha and Baradi Districts. [36]
Other places dedicated to this god are Padana, Aniala, Taluka Mengani,
[37] Khajurdi, Khirasara and Anida. [38] He is represented by a stone
horse, and Charans perform priestly duties in front of him. [39]
Submission to, and vows in honour of, this god, are believed to cure
rabid-dog-bites. [40]

(3) Sarmalio commands worship in Gondal, Khokhari and many other
places. Newly-married couples of many castes loosen the knots tied
in their marriage-scarves as a mark of respect for him. [41] Persons
bitten by a snake wear round their necks a piece of thread dedicated
to this god.

(4) Shitala is a goddess known for the cure of small-pox.--Persons
attacked by this disease observe vows in her honour. Kalavad and
Syadla are places dedicated to her.

(5) Ganagor.--Virgins who are anxious to secure suitable husbands and
comfortable establishments worship this goddess and observe vows in
her honour.

(6) Todalia.--She has neither an idol nor a temple set up in her
honour, but is represented by a heap of stones lying on the village
boundary--Padal or Jampa. All marriage processions, before entering
the village (Sanka) or passing by the heap, pay homage to this deity
and offer a cocoanut, failure to do which is believed to arouse her
wrath. She does not command daily adoration, but on occasions the
attendant, who is a Chumvalia Koli, and who appropriates all the
presents to this deity, burns frankincense of gugal (balsamodendron)
and lights a lamp before her. [42]

(7) Buttaya also is represented by a heap of stones on a hillock in
the vicinity of Sanka. Her worshipper is a Talabdia Koli. A long
season of drought leads to her propitiation by feasting Brahmans,
for which purpose four pounds of corn are taken in her name from each
threshing floor in the village.

(8) Surdhan.--This seems to have been some brave Kshatriya warrior who
died on a battlefield. A temple is erected to his memory, containing
an image of Shiva. The attending priest is an Atit.

(9) Ghogho.--This is a cobra-god worshipped in the village of Bikhijada
having a Bajana (tumbler) for his attending priest.

(10) Pir.--This is a Musalman saint, in whose honour no tomb is
erected, the special site alone being worshipped by a devotee.

(11) Raneki is represented by a heap of stones, and is attended upon
by chamars (tanners). Her favourite resort is near the Dhedvada (i.e.,
a quarter inhabited by sweepers). A childless Girasia is said to have
observed a vow in her honour for a son, and a son being born to him,
he dedicated certain lands to her; but they are no longer in the
possession of the attendants. [43]

(12) Hanuman.--On a mound of earth there is an old worn-out image of
this god. People sometimes light a lamp there, offer cocoanuts and
plaster the image with red-lead and oil. A sadhu of the Maragi sect,
a Koli by birth, acts as pujari.

(13) Shakta (or shakti).--This is a Girasia goddess attended upon by
a Chumvalia Koli. On the Navaratra days, as well as on the following
day, Girasias worship this goddess, and if necessary observe vows in
her name.

(14) Harsidh.--Gandhavi in Barda and Ujjain are the places dedicated
to this goddess. There is a tradition connected with her that her
image stood in a place of worship facing the sea on Mount Koyalo
in Gandhavi. She was believed to sink or swallow all the vessels
that sailed by. A Bania named Jagadusa, knowing this, propitiated
her by the performance of religious austerities. On being asked
what boon he wanted from her, he requested her to descend from her
mountain-seat. She agreed on the Bania promising to offer a living
victim for every footstep she took in descending. Thus he sacrificed
one victim after another until the number of victims he had brought
was exhausted. He then first offered his four or five children,
then his wife and lastly himself. In reward for his self-devotion
the goddess faced towards Miani and no mishaps are believed to take
place in the village. [44]

(15) Hinglaj.--This goddess has a place of worship a hundred and fifty
miles from Karachi in Sind, to which her devotees and believers make
pilgrimage.

In the village of Jasdan, in Kathiawar, there is an ancient shrine of
Kalu-Pir in whose memory there are two sepulchres covered with costly
fabrics, and a large flag floats over the building. Both Hindus and
Musalmans believe [45] in this saint, and offer cocoanuts, sweetmeats
and money to his soul. A part of the offering being passed through the
smoke of frankincense, burning in a brazier near the saint's grave
in the shrine, the rest is returned to the offerer. Every morning
and evening a big kettle-drum is beaten in the Pir's honour. [46]

Other minor deities are Shikotar, believed by sailors to be able to
protect them from the dangers of the deep; [47] Charmathvati, the
goddess of the Rabaris; [48] Macho, the god of the shepherds; Meldi,
in whom Vaghries (bird-catchers) believe; [49] Pithad, the favourite
god of Dheds; [50] Dhavdi, who is worshipped by a hajam (barber); [51]
Khodiar; [52] Géla, Dadamo, Kshetrapal, Chavad, [53] Mongal, Avad,
Palan, Vir Vaital, [54] Jalio, Gadio, Paino, Parolio, Sevalio,
Andhario, Fulio, Bhoravo, Ragantio, Chod, [55] Gatrad, Mammai and
Verai. [56] There are frequent additions to the number, as any new
disease or unusual and untoward incident may bring a new spirit into
existence. The installation of such deities is not a costly concern,
[57] and thus there is no serious check on their recognition.

The sun, the beneficent night-dispelling, light-bestowing great
luminary, is believed to be the visible manifestation of the Almighty
God, [58] and inspires the human mind with a feeling of grateful
reverence which finds expression in titles like Savita, Life-Producer,
the nourisher and generator of all life and activity [59].

He is the chief rain-sender [60]; there is a couplet used in Gujarat
illustrative of this belief. It runs:--"Oblations are cast into the
Fire: the smoke carries the prayers to the sun; the Divine Luminary,
propitiated, responds in sending down gentle showers." "The sacred
smoke, rising from the sacrificial offerings, ascends through the
ethereal regions to the Sun. He transforms it into the rain-giving
clouds, the rains produce food, and food produces the powers of
generation and multiplication and plenty. Thus, the sun, as the
propagator of animal life, is believed to be the highest deity."

It is pretty generally believed that vows in honour of the sun are
highly efficacious in curing eye-diseases and strengthening the
eyesight. Mr. Damodar Karsonji Pandya quotes from the Bhagvadgita
the saying of Krishna:


                         Prabhasmi sasisuryayoh


"I am the very light of the sun and the moon. [61]" Being the
embodiment or the fountain of light, the sun imparts his lustre either
to the bodies or to the eyes of his devotees. It is said that a Rajput
woman of Gomata in Gondal and a Brahman of Rajkot were cured of white
leprosy by vows in honour of the sun. [62] Similar vows are made
to this day for the cure of the same disease. Persons in Kathiawar
suffering from ophthalmic disorders, venereal affections, leucoderma
and white leprosy are known to observe vows in honour of the sun. [63]

The Parmar Rajputs believe in the efficacy of vows in honour of the
sun deity of Mandavraj, in curing hydrophobia. [64]

Women believe that a vow or a vrat made to the sun is the sure means of
attaining their desires. Chiefly their vows are made with the object
of securing a son. On the fulfilment of this desire, in gratitude to
the Great Luminary, the child is often called after him, and given
such a name as Suraj-Ram, Bhanu-Shankar, Ravi-Shankar, Adit-Ram. [65]

Many cradles are received as presents at the temple of Mandavraj,
indicating that the barren women who had made vows to the deity have
been satisfied in their desire for a son, the vows being fulfilled
by the present of such toy-cradles to the sun. In the case of rich
donors, these cradles are made of precious metal. [66]

At Mandvara, in the Muli District of Kathiawar, the Parmar Rajputs, as
well as the Kathis, bow to the image of the sun, on their marriage-day,
in company with their newly-married brides. After the birth of
a son to a Rajputani, the hair on the boy's head is shaved for the
first time in the presence of the Mandavraj deity, [67] and a suit
of rich clothes is presented to the image by the maternal uncle of
the child. [68]

The sun is sarvasaksi the observer of all things and nothing can
escape his notice. [69] His eye is believed to possess the lustre
of the three Vedic lores, viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda,
and is therefore known by the name of vedatrayi. The attestation of a
document in his name as Surya-Narayana-Sakshi is believed to be ample
security for the sincerity and good faith of the parties. [70] Oaths
in the name of the sun are considered so binding that persons swearing
in his name are held to be pledged to the strictest truth. [71]

Virgin girls observe a vrat, or vow, called the 'tili-vrat' in the
sun's honour, for attaining akhamda saubhagya--eternal exemption from
widowhood. In making this vrat, or vow, the votary, having bathed
and worshipped the sun, sprinkles wet red-lac drops before him. [72]

According to Forbes's Rasmala, the sun revealed to the Kathis the
plan of regaining their lost kingdom, and thus commanded their devout
worship and reverence. The temple named Suraj-deval, near Than, was
set up by the Kathis in recognition of this favour. In it both the
visible resplendent disc of the sun and his image are adored. [73]

People whose horoscopes declare them to have been born under the
Surya-dasha, or solar influence, have from time to time to observe
vows prescribed by Hindu astrology. [74]

Cultivators are said to observe vows in honour of the sun for the
safety of their cattle. [75]

The following are some of the standard books on sun-worship:--

(1) Aditya-hridaya--literally, the Heart of the Sun. It treats of
the glory of the sun and the mode of worshipping him.

(2) Brihadaranyakopanishad and Mandula-Brahmans--portions of Yajurveda
recited by Vedic Brahmans with a view to tender symbolic as well as
mental prayers to the sun.

(3) Bibhrad--the fourth chapter of the Rudri.

(4) A passage in Brahman--a portion of the Vedas, beginning with the
words svayambhurasi Thou art self-existent--is entirely devoted to
Sun-worship. [76]

(5) Surya-Purana--A treatise relating a number of stories in
glorification of the sun.

(6) Surya-kavacha. [77]

(7) Surya-gita.

(8) Surya-Sahasranama--a list of one thousand names of Surya. [78]

It is customary among Hindus to cleanse their teeth every morning with
a wooden stick, known as datan [79] and then to offer salutations
to the sun in the form of a verse which means: "Oh God, the datans
are torn asunder and the sins disappear. Oh the penetrator of the
innermost parts, forgive us our sins. Do good unto the benevolent
and unto our neighbours." This prayer is common in the mouths of the
vulgar laity. [80]

Better educated people recite a shloka, which runs: "Bow unto Savitri,
the sun, the observer of this world and its quarters, the eye of
the universe, the inspirer of all energy, the holder of a three-fold
personality (being an embodiment of the forms of the three gods of
the Hindu Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshvar)--the embodiment of
the three Vedas, the giver of happiness and the abode of God. [81]

After his toilet a high-caste Hindu should take a bath and offer
morning prayers and arghyas to the sun. [82] The Trikala-Sandhya
is enjoined by the Shastras on every Brahman, i.e., every Brahman
should perform the Sandhya thrice during the day: in the morning,
at mid-day and in the evening. The Sandhya is the prayer a Brahman
offers, sitting in divine meditation, when he offers three arghyas
to the sun and recites the Gayatri mantra 108 times. [83]

The arghya is an offering of water in a spoon half filled with barley
seeds, sesamum seeds, sandal ointment, rice, and white flowers. In
offering the arghya the right foot is folded below the left, the spoon
is lifted to the forehead and is emptied towards the sun after reciting
the Gayatri mantra. [84] If water is not available for offering the
arghyas, sand may serve the purpose. But the sun must not be deprived
of his arghyas. [85]

The Gayatri is the most sacred mantra in honour of the sun, containing,
as it does, the highest laudations of him. A Brahman ought to
recite this mantra 324 times every day. Otherwise he incurs a sin as
great as the slaughter of a cow. [86] Accordingly a Rudrakshmala, or
a rosary of 108 Rudraksh beads, is used in connecting the number of
Gayatris recited. [87] It is exclusively the right of the twice-born
to recite the Gayatri. None else is authorised to recite or even to
hear a word of it. Neither females nor Shudras ought to catch an echo
of even a single syllable of the Gayatri mantra [88].

A ceremony, called Suryopasthan, in which a man has to stand facing
the sun with his hands stretched upwards at an angle towards the sun,
is performed as a part of the sandhya. [89]

Of the days of the week, Ravivar, or Sunday is the most suitable
for Sun worship [90]. Persons wishing to secure wealth, good-health
and a happy progeny, especially people suffering from disorders
caused by heat and from diseases of the eyes, barren women, and
men anxious for victory on the battlefield, weekly observe vows in
honour of the sun, and the day on which the vow is to be kept is
Sunday. [91] It is left to the devotee to fix the number of Sundays
on which he will observe the vrat, and he may choose to observe all
the Sundays of the year. [92] On such days the devotees undergo
ceremonial purifications by means of baths and the putting on of
clean garments, occupy a reserved clean seat, light a ghi-lamp and
recite the Aditya-hridaya-patha, which is the prescribed mantra for
Sun worship. [93] Then follows the Nyasa, (nyasa) in the recitation
of which the devotee has to make certain gestures (or to perform
physical ceremonials). First the tips of all the four fingers are
made to touch the thumb as is done in counting. Then the tips of
the fingers are made to touch the palm of the other hand. Then one
hand is laid over the other. Then the fingers are made to touch the
heart, the head, the eyes, and the hair in regular order. The right
hand is then put round the head and made to smite the left. An
ashtadala or eight-cornered figure is drawn in gulal, (red powder) and
frankincense, red ointment and red flowers are offered to the sun. [94]
Durva grass is also commonly used in the process of Sun-worship. [95]

Sometimes a hexangular figure is drawn instead of the ashtadal, a
copper disc is placed over it and the sun is worshipped by Panchopachar
or the five-fold ceremonials. [96] Of all ceremonials a namaskar is
especially dear to the sun. [97] It is said:--


        Namaskarapriyo bhanurjaladharapriyah sivah |
        Paropakarapriyo visnurbrahmano bhojanapriyah ||


A namaskar or bow is dear to the sun; a stream of water (pouring water
in a small stream over Shiva's idol) is dear to Shiva: benevolence
to Vishnu and a good dinner to a Brahman.

In observing vows in the sun's honour on Sundays, the following
special foods are prescribed in particular months: [98]--

(1) In Kartika, the first month, the devotee is to take only three
leaves of the Tulsi or the holy basil plant.

(2) In Margashirsha, the devotee may only lick a few pieces of
candied sugar.

(3) In Pausha, the devotee may chew three stalks of green darbha grass.

(4) In Magha, a few seeds of sesamum and sugar mixed together may
be swallowed.

(5) In Phalguna, a consecrated draught of curds and sugar may be drunk.

(6) In Chaitra, people should break their fasts with a little ghi
and molasses.

(7) In Vaishakha, the only satisfaction allowed to those observing
the vrat is to lick their own palms three times.

(8) In Jyeshtha, the fast is observed simply on three anjalis or
palmfuls of pure water.

(9) In Ashadha, three chillies may be eaten.

(10) In Shravana, only cow-urine and molasses are tasted.

(11) In Bhadrapada, cow-dung and sugar are partaken of.

(12) In Ashvina, the application of chandan (sandal wood) either in
the form of an ointment or of powder.

Only a few very pious and enthusiastic devotees observe all Sundays in
the above manner. In average cases, the devotee allows himself rice,
ghi, sugar, milk, i.e., white food, the restriction being only as
to colour.

People observing vows in honour of the sun take food only once during
the day, and that too in bajas or dishes made of khakhara (or palash)
leaves. This is considered one of the conditions of worship, there
being some mysterious relation between Surya and the khakhara. [99]

If the Pushya Nakshatra happens to fall on a Sunday, the worship of
the sun on that day is believed to be most efficacious in fulfilling
the desires of the devotees. [100]

Of the days of the month, the seventh day of both the bright and the
dark halves of each month [101] and the Amavasya day, i.e., the last
day of a Hindu calendar month, [102] are set apart for Sun-worship. The
ceremonies of the worship are the same as those on Sundays. In fact,
in almost all the observances in connection with the sun the same
ceremonials are to be gone through. Very often a Brahman recites the
patha directing his hosts or hostesses to perform certain ceremonial
gestures. On the last of the number of days which the devotee
has decided to observe, the vrat is celebrated and Brahmans are
feasted. This celebration of the vrat is known as vratujavavun. [103]

The special occasions for Sun-worship are the Sankranti days and the
solar eclipses.

In each year there are twelve Sankranti days on which the sun moves
from one sign of the zodiac to another. Sun-worship is performed
on all these Sankrantis, but Makara-Sankranti, which falls on the
12th or 13th of January, is considered the most important. [104] The
Uttarayana-parvan falls on this day, i.e., the sun now crosses to
his northern course from his southern, and the time of that Parvan
is considered so holy that a person dying then directly attains
salvation. [105] On this day, many Hindus go on a pilgrimage to
holy places, offer prayers and sacrifices to the sun, and give
alms to Brahmans in the shape of sesamum seeds, gold, garments and
cows. [106] Much secret, as well as open, charity is dispensed, [107]
grass and cotton-seeds are given to cows, and lapsi [108] and loaves
to dogs. Sweet balls of sesamum seeds and molasses are eaten
as a prasad and given to Brahmans, and dainties such as lapsi are
partaken of by Hindu households, in company with a Brahman or two,
who are given dakshina after the meals. [109]

On solar eclipse days, most of the Hindu sects bathe and offer prayers
to God. During the eclipse the sun is believed to be combating with
the demon Rahu, prayers being offered for the sun's success. When the
sun has freed himself from the grasp of the demon and sheds his full
lustre on the earth, the people take ceremonial baths, offer prayers
to God with a concentrated mind, and well-to-do people give in alms
as much as they can afford of all kinds of grain. [110]

The Chaturmas-vrat, very common in Kathiawar, is a favourite one with
Hindus. The devotee, in performing this vrat, abstains from food on
those days during the monsoons on which, owing to cloudy weather,
the sun is not visible. Even if the sun is concealed by the clouds
for days together, the devout votary keeps fasting till he sees the
deity again. [111]

Barren women, women whose children die, and especially those who
lose their male children, women whose husbands suffer from diseases
caused by heat, lepers, and persons suffering from ophthalmic ailments
observe the vow of the sun in the following manner. [112] The vows
are kept on Sundays and Amavasya days, and the number of such days is
determined by the devotee in accordance with the behests of a learned
Brahman. The woman observes a fast on such days, bathes herself at
noon when the sun reaches the zenith, and dresses herself in clean
garments. Facing the sun, she dips twelve red karan flowers in red
or white sandal ointment and recites the twelve names of Surya as
she presents one flower after another to the sun with a bow. [113]
On each day of the vrat, she takes food only once, in the shape of
lapsi, in bajas of khakhara or palash leaves; white food in the form
of rice, or rice cooked in milk is sometimes allowed. She keeps a
ghi-lamp burning day and night, offers frankincense, and sleeps at
night on a bed made on the floor. [114]

People who are declared by the Brahmans to be under the evil influence
(dasha) of Surya, observe vows in the sun's honour and go through
the prescribed rites on Sundays. Such persons take special kinds
of food and engage the services of priests to recite holy texts in
honour of the sun. If all goes well on Sunday, Brahmans, Sadhus and
other pious persons are entertained at a feast. This feast is known as
vrat-ujavavun. Some persons have the sun's image (an ashtadal) engraved
on a copper or a golden plate for daily or weekly worship. [115]

On the twelfth day after the delivery of a child, the sun is worshipped
and the homa sacrifice is performed. [116]

If at a wedding the sun happens to be in an unfavourable position
according to the bridegroom's horoscope, an image of the sun is drawn
on gold-leaf and given away in charity. Charity in any other form is
also common on such an occasion.

A Nagar bride performs sun-worship for the seven days preceding her
wedding. [117]

In Hindu funeral ceremonies three arghyas are offered to the sun,
and the following mantra is chanted [118]:--


    Adityo Bhaskaro Bhanu Ravih Suryo Divakarah |
    Sannama smarennityam mahapatakanasanam ||


It means--one should ever recite the six names of the Sun, Aditya,
Bhaskar, Bhanu, Ravi, Surya, Divakar, which destroy sin.

The sun is also worshipped on the thirteenth day after the death of
a person, when arghyas are offered, and two earthen pots, containing
a handful of raw khichedi--rice and pulse--and covered with yellow
pieces of cotton are placed outside the house. This ceremony is called
gadaso bharvo.

Rajahs of the solar race always worship the rising sun. They also
keep a golden image of the sun in their palaces, and engage learned
Brahmans to recite verses in his honour. On Sundays they take only
one meal and that of simple rice (for white food is most acceptable
to the sun). [119]

Circumambulations round images and other holy objects are considered
meritorious and to cause the destruction of sin. [120] The subject
has been dwelt on at length in the Dharma-sindhu-grantha, Vrataraja,
and Shodashopachara among the Dharma-Shastras of the Hindus. [121]

The object round which turns are taken is either the image of a god,
such as of Ganpati, Mahadev or Vishnu [122] or the portrait of a
guru, or his footmarks engraved or impressed upon some substance,
or the agni-kunda (the fire-pit), [123] or the holy cow [124], or
some sacred tree or plant, such as the Vad (banyan tree), the Pipal
(ficus religiosa), [125] the Shami (prosopis spicegera), the Amba
(mango tree), the Asopalava tree (Polyalthea longifolia), [126]
or the Tulsi (sweet basil) plant.

It is said to have been a custom of the Brahmans in ancient times to
complete their daily rites before sunrise every morning, and then
to take turns round temples and holy objects. The practice is much
less common now than formerly. [127] Still, visitors to a temple
or an idol, usually are careful to go round it a few times at least
(generally five or seven). The usual procedure at such a time is to
strike gongs or ring bells after the turns, to cast a glance at the
shikhar or the pinnacle of the temple, and then to return. [128]

Women observing the chaturmas-vrat, or the monsoon vow, lasting
from the eleventh day of the bright half of Ashadh (the ninth month)
to the eleventh day of the bright half of Kartik (the first month)
first worship the object, round which they wish to take turns, with
panchamrit (a mixture of milk, curds, sugar, ghi and honey). The
number of turns may be either 5, 7, 21 or 108. At each turn they keep
entwining a fine cotton thread and place a penda [129] or a bantasa
[130] or a betel-leaf or an almond, a cocoanut, a fig or some other
fruit before the image or the object walked round. These offerings
are claimed by the priest who superintends the ceremony. [131] When
a sacred tree is circumambulated, water is poured out at the foot of
the tree at each turn. [132]

During the month of Shravan (the tenth month) and during the
Purushottama (or the intercalatory) month, men and women observe
a number of vows, in respect of which, every morning and evening,
they take turns round holy images and objects. [133]

People observing the chaturmas-vrat (or monsoon vow), called
Tulsi-vivaha (marriage of Tulsi), worship that plant and take
turns round it on every eleventh day of both the bright and the dark
halves of each of the monsoon months. The gautrat-vrat (gau = cow)
necessitates perambulations round a cow, and the Vat-Savitri-vrat round
the Vad or banyan tree. The banyan tree is also circumambulated on the
Kapilashashthi day (the sixth day of the bright half of Margashirsha,
the second month) and on the Amavasya or the last day of Bhadrapada
(the eleventh month). [134]

Women who are anxious to prolong the lives of their husbands take
turns round the Tulsi plant or the banyan tree. At each turn they
wind a fine cotton thread. At the end of the last turn, they throw
red lac and rice over the tree and place a betelnut and a pice or a
half-anna piece before it. [135]

The Shastras authorise four pradakshinas (or perambulations) for
Vishnu, three for the goddesses, and a half (or one and a half) [136]
for Shiva. [137] But the usual number of pradakshinas is either 5,
7, 21 or 108. In taking turns round the image of Vishnu, one must
take care to keep one's right side towards the image, while in the
case of Shiva, one must not cross the jaladhari [138] or the small
passage for conducting water poured over the Shiva-linga.

Sometimes in pradakshinas the votary repeats the name of the deity
round which the turns are taken while the priest recites the names
of the gods in Shlokas. [139] Sometimes the following verse is
repeated. [140]


        Papoham papakarmaham papatma papasambhavah |
        Trahi mam pundarikaksa sarvapapaharo bhava ||
        Yani kani ca papani janmamtarakrtani ca |
        Tani tani vinasyantu pradaksinapadepade ||


'I am sinful, the doer of sin, a sinful soul and am born of sin. O
lotus-eyed One! protect me and take away all sins from me. Whatever
sins I may have committed now as well as in my former births, may
every one of them perish at each footstep of my pradakshina.'

The recitation and the turns are supposed to free the soul from the
phera of lakh-choryasi [141]. Alms are given many times to the poor
after pradakshinas. [142]

The reason why pradakshinas are taken during the day is that they
have to be taken in the presence of the sun, the great everlasting
witness of all human actions. [143]

As all seeds and vegetation receive their nourishment from solar and
lunar rays, the latter are believed in the same way to help embryonic
development. [144]

The heat of the sun causes the trees and plants to give forth new
sprouts, and therefore he is called 'Savita' or Producer. [145]
Solar and lunar rays are also believed to facilitate and expedite
delivery. [146] The medical science of the Hindus declares the Amavasya
(new-moon day) and Purnima (full-moon day) days--on both of which
days the influence of the sun and the moon is most powerful--to be
so critical for child-bearing women as to cause, at times, premature
delivery. [147] Hence, before delivery, women are made to take turns in
the sunlight and also in moonlight, in order to invigorate the foetus,
thus securing that their delivery may be easy. [The assistance rendered
by solar rays in facilitating the delivery is said to impart a hot
temperament to the child so born, and that by the lunar rays a cool
one.] [148] After delivery, a woman should glance at the sun with her
hands clasped, and should offer rice and red flowers to him. [149]
Sitting in the sun after delivery is considered beneficial to women
enfeebled by the effort. [150] It is a cure for the paleness due to
exhaustion, [151] and infuses new vigour. [152]

The Bhils believe that the exposure of a new-born child to the sun
confers upon the child immunity from injury by cold and heat. [153]

The practice of making recently delivered women sit in the sun does
not seem to be widespread, nor does it prevail in Kathiawar. In
Kathiawar, on the contrary, women are kept secluded from sunlight in
a dark room at the time of child-birth, and are warmed by artificial
means. [154] On the other hand, it is customary in many places to
bring a woman into the sunlight after a certain period has elapsed
since her delivery. The duration of this period varies from four
days to a month and a quarter. Sometimes a woman is not allowed to
see sunlight after child-birth until she presents the child to the
sun with certain ceremonies, either on the fourth or the sixth day
from the date of her delivery. [155]

A ceremony called the Shashthi-Karma is performed on the sixth day
after the birth of a child, and the Namkaran ceremony--the ceremony
of giving a name--on the twelfth day. The mother of the child is
sometimes not allowed to see the sun before the completion of these
ceremonies. [156] Occasionally, on the eleventh day after child-birth,
the mother is made to take a bath in the sun. [157]

Exactly a month and a quarter from the date of delivery a woman
is taken to a neighbouring stream to offer prayers to the sun
and to fetch water thence in an earthen vessel. This ceremony is
known as Zarmazaryan. [158] Seven small betel-nuts are used in the
ceremony. They are carried by the mother, and distributed by her to
barren women, who believe that, by eating the nuts from her hand,
they are likely to conceive. [159]

In difficult labour cases, chakrava water is sometimes given to
women. The chakrava is a figure of seven cross lines drawn on a
bell-metal dish, over which the finest white dust has been spread. This
figure is shown to the woman in labour: water is then poured into
the dish and offered her to drink. [160] The figure is said to be a
representation of Chitrangad. [161] It is also believed to be connected
with a story in the Mahabhaarata. [162] Subhadra, the sister of god
Krishna and the wife of Arjuna, one of the five Pandavas, conceived
a demon, an enemy of Krishna. The demon would not leave the womb of
Subhadra even twelve months after the date of her conception, and
began to harass the mother. Krishna, the incarnation of god, knowing
of the demon's presence and the cause of his delay, took pity on the
afflicted condition of his sister and read chakrava, (Chakravyuha)
a book consisting of seven chapters and explaining the method of
conquering a labyrinthine fort with seven cross-lined forts. Krishna
completed six chapters, and promised to teach the demon the seventh,
provided he came out. The demon ceased troubling Subhadra and emerged
from the womb. He was called Abhimanyu. Krishna never read the seventh
chapter for then Abhimanyu would have been invincible and able to take
his life. This ignorance of the seventh chapter cost Abhimanyu his
life on the field of Kuru-kshetra in conquering the seven cross-lined
labyrinthine forts. As the art of conquering a labyrinthine fort when
taught to a demon in the womb facilitated the delivery of Subhadra,
a belief spread that drinking in the figure of the seven cross-lined
labyrinthine fort would facilitate the delivery of all women who had
difficulties in child-birth.

The figure Swastika (literally auspicious), drawn as shown below,
is an auspicious sign, and is believed to be a mark of good luck and
a source of blessings. It is one of the sixteen line-marks on the
sole of the lotus-like feet of the god Ishwar, the Creator of the
Universe. [163] The fame of the good effects of the Swastika figure
is said to have been first diffused throughout society by Narad-Muni,
as instructed by the god Brahma. [164]

Various conjectures have been made concerning the origin of
this figure. The following explanation is found in a work named
Siddhantsar. The Eternal Sat or Essence, that has neither beginning
nor end nor any maker, exhibits all the religious principles in a
chakra or a wheel-form. This round shape has no circumference; but
any point in it is a centre; which being specified, the explanation
of the whole universe in a circle is easy. Thus the figure [dotted
circle] indicates the creation of the universe from Sat or Essence.
The centre with the circumference is the womb, the place of creation
of the universe. The centre then expanding into a line, the diameter
thus formed represents the male principle, linga-rup, that is the
producer, through the medium of activity in the great womb or
maha-yoni. When the line assumes the form of a cross, it explains the
creation of the universe by an unprecedented combination of the two
distinct natures, animate and inanimate. The circumference being
removed, the remaining cross represents the creation of the world.
The Swastika, or Sathia, as it is sometimes called, in its winged
form suggests the possession of creative powers by the opposite
natures, animate and inanimate. [165]

Another theory is that an image of the eight-leaved lotus, springing
from the navel of Vishnu, one of the Hindu Trinity, was formerly drawn
on auspicious occasions as a sign of good luck. The exact imitation of
the original being difficult, the latter assumed a variety of forms,
one of which is the Swastika. [166]

Some people see an image of the god Ganpati in the figure. That god
being the master and protector of all auspicious ceremonies has to
be invoked on all such occasions. The incapacity of the devotees to
draw a faithful picture of Ganpati gave rise to a number of forms
which came to be known by the name of Swastika. [167]

There are more ways than one of drawing the Swastika, as shown below,
but the original form was of the shape of a cross. The first consonant
of the Gujarati alphabet, ka, now drawn thus [KA], was also originally
drawn in the form of a cross (+). Some persons therefore suppose that
the Swastika may be nothing more than the letter ka, written in the
old style and standing for the word kalyan or welfare. [168]

Though the Swastika is widely regarded as the symbol of the sun,
some people ascribe the figure to different deities, viz., to Agni,
[169] to Ganpati, [170] to Laxmi, [171] to Shiva, [172] besides the
sun. It is also said to represent Swasti, the daughter of Brahma, who
received the boon from her father of being worshipped on all auspicious
occasions. [173] Most persons, however, regard the Swastika as the
symbol of the sun. It is said that particular figures are prescribed
as suitable for the installation of particular deities: a triangle for
one, a square for another, a pentagon for a third, and the Swastika for
the sun. [174] The Swastika is worshipped in the Ratnagiri district,
and regarded as the symbol as well as the seat of the Sun-god. [175]
The people of the Thana district believe the Swastika to be the central
point of the helmet of the sun; and a vow, called the Swastika-vrat,
is observed by women in its honour. The woman draws a figure of the
Swastika and worships it daily during the Chaturmas (the four months
of the rainy season), at the expiration of which she presents a Brahman
with a golden or silver plate with the Swastika drawn upon it. [176]

A number of other ideas are prevalent about the significance of the
Swastika. Some persons believe that it indicates the four directions;
[177] some think that it represents the four margas--courses or objects
of human desires--viz., (1) Dharma, religion; (2) Artha, wealth; (3)
Kam, love; (4) Moksha, salvation. [178] Some again take it to be an
image of the ladder leading to the heavens. [179] Others suppose it
to be a representation of the terrestrial globe, and the four piles
of corn placed in the figure, as shown below (p. 16) represent the
four mountains, Udayachala, Astachal, Meru and Mandarachala. [180]
The Swastika is also believed to be the foundation-stone of the
universe. [181]

The Swastika is much in favour with the gods as a seat or couch, and
as soon as it is drawn it is immediately occupied by some deity. [182]
It is customary therefore to draw the Swastika on most auspicious
and festive occasions, such as marriage and thread ceremonies, the
first pregnancy ceremonies and the Divali holidays. [183] In the
Konkan the Swastika is always drawn on the Antarpat, or the piece
of cloth which is held between the bride and the bridegroom at the
time of a Hindu wedding. [184] And at the time of the Punyaha-wachan,
a ceremony which precedes a Hindu wedding, the figure is drawn in rice
and is worshipped. Throughout the Chaturmas some persons paint the
auspicious Swastikas, either on their thresholds or at their doors,
every morning. [185]

On the sixth day from the date of a child's birth, a piece of cloth
is marked with a Swastika in red lac, the cloth is stretched on a
bedstead and the child is placed upon it. [186] An account of this
ceremony is to be found in the treatises Jayantishastra, Jatakarma,
and Janakalaya.

Before joining the village-school, little boys are made to worship
Saraswati, the goddess of learning, after having installed her
on a Swastika, in order that the acquisition of learning may be
facilitated. [187]

A Brahman host, inviting a party of brother-Brahmans to dinner,
marks the figure one (1) against the names of those who are eligible
for dakshina, and a Swastika against the names of those who are not
eligible. These latter are the yajamans or patrons of the inviting
Brahman, who is himself their pujya, i.e., deserving to be
worshipped by them. A bindu or dot, in place of the Swastika, is
considered inauspicious. [188]

The Swastika is used in calculating the number of days taken in
pilgrimage by one's relations, one figure being painted on the wall
each day from the date of separation.

It is said that the Swastika when drawn on a wall is the representation
of Jogmaya. Jogmaya is a Natural Power, bringing about the union of
two separated beings. [189]

The Jains paint the Swastika in the way noted below and explain
the figure in the following manner:--The four projectors indicate
four kinds of souls: viz., (1) Manushya or human, (2) Tiryach or of
lower animals, (3) Deva or divine, (4) Naraki or hellish. The three
circular marks denote the three Ratnas or jewels, viz., (1) Jnan or
knowledge, (2) Darshana or faith, (3) Charita or good conduct; and
the semi-circular curve, at the top of the three circles, indicates
salvation. [190]

Every Jain devotee, while visiting the images of his gods, draws a
Sathia (Swastika) [191] before them and places a valuable object over
it. The sign is held so sacred that a Jain woman has it embroidered on
the reticule or kothali in which she carries rice to holy places. [192]

'I am the very light of the sun and the moon,' observes Lord Krishna
in his dialogue with Arjuna, [193] and the moon also receives divine
honours like the sun. Moon-worship secures wealth, augments progeny,
and betters the condition of milch-cattle. [194] The suitable days
for such worship are the second and the fourth days of the bright half
of every month (Dwitiya or Bij and Chaturthi or Choth, respectively)
and every full-moon day (Purnima or Punema). On either of these days
the devotees of Chandra (the moon) fast for the whole of the day and
take their food only after the moon has risen and after they have
seen and worshipped her. [195] Some dainty dish such as kansar, [196]
or plantains and puris, [197] is specially cooked for the occasion.

A sight of the moon on the second day of the bright half of every
month is considered auspicious. After seeing the moon on this day
some people also look at silver and gold coins for luck. [198] The
belief in the value of this practice is so strong that, immediately
after seeing the moon, people refrain from beholding any other
object. Their idea is that silver, which looks as bright as the
moon, will be obtained in abundance if they look at a silver piece
immediately after seeing the moon. [199] Moon worship on this day is
also supposed to guarantee the safety of persons at sea. [200] In the
south, milk and sugar is offered to the moon after the usual worship,
and learned Brahmans are invited to partake of it. What remains after
satisfying the Brahmans is divided among the community. On this
day, those who keep cattle do not churn whey nor curd milk nor sell it,
but consume the whole supply in feasts to friends and neighbours. [201]
The Ahirs and Rabaris especially are very particular about the use of
milk in feasts only: for they believe that their cattle are thereby
preserved in good condition. [202]

The fourth day of the dark half of every month is the day for the
observance of the chaturthi-vrat (or choth-vrat). This vrat is observed
in honour of the god Ganpati and by men only. The devotees fast on
this day, bathe at night after seeing the moon, light a ghi lamp,
and offer prayers to the moon. They also recite a path containing
verses in honour of Ganpati, and, after worshipping that god, take
their food consisting of some specially prepared dish. This vrat is
said to fulfil the dreams of the devotees. [203]

The day for the chaturthi-vrat in the month of Bhadrapad (the 11th
month of the Gujarati Hindus) is the fourth day of the bright half
instead of the fourth day of the dark half, [204] and on this day
(Ganesh Chaturthi [205]) the moon is not worshipped. The very sight
of her is regarded as ominous, and is purposely avoided. [206] The
story is that once upon a time the gods went out for a ride in their
respective conveyances. It so happened that the god Ganpati fell off
his usual charger, the rat, and this awkward mishap drew a smile from
Chandra (the moon). Ganpati, not relishing the joke, became angry and
cursed Chandra saying that no mortal would care to see his face on
that day (which happened to be the fourth day of the bright half of
Bhadrapad). If any one happens to see the moon even unwittingly on
this day, he may expect trouble very soon. [207] There is one way,
however, out of the difficulty, and that is to throw stones on the
houses of neighbours. When the neighbours utter abuse in return, the
abuse atones for the sin of having looked at the moon on the forbidden
night. The day is therefore called (in Gujarat) Dagad-choth, i.e.,
the Choth of stones. [208]

On the fourth day of the dark half of Phalgun (the 5th month of
Gujarati Hindus) some villagers fast for the whole of the day and
remain standing from sunset till the moon rises. They break their
fast after seeing the moon. The day is, therefore, called ubhi (i.e.,
standing) choth. [209]

Virgins sometimes observe a vow on Poshi-Punema or the full-moon day
of Pausha (the 3rd month of the Gujarati Hindus). On this day a virgin
prepares her evening meal with her own hands on the upper terrace
of her house. She then bores a hole through the centre of a loaf,
and observes the moon through it, repeating while doing so a verse
[210] which means: O Poshi-Punemadi, khichadi (rice and pulse mixed
together) is cooked on the terrace, and the sister of the brother takes
her meal. [211] The meal usually consists either of rice and milk or
of rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar, or of kansar. She
has to ask the permission of her brother or brothers before she may
take her food; and if the brother refuses his permission, she has to
fast for the whole of the day. [212] The whole ceremony is believed
to prolong the lives of her brothers and her future husband. The moon
is also worshipped at the time of griha-shanti, i.e., the ceremonies
performed before inhabiting a newly-built house. [213]

If the moon is unfavourable to a man born under a particular
constellation, on account of his occupying either the 6th, the 8th or
the 12th square in a kundali [214] (see below) prayers are offered
to the moon; and if the occasion is a marriage, a bell-metal dish,
full of rice, is presented to Brahmans. [215]

The appearance of the moon and the position of the horns of her
crescent at particular times are carefully watched as omens of future
events. Cultivators believe that if the moon is visible on the second
day of the bright half of Ashadh (the 9th month of Gujarati Hindus),
the sesamum crops of that season will be abundant; but if the moon be
hidden from sight on that day, the weather will be cloudy during the
whole of Ashadh, and will prove unfavourable to vegetable growth. [216]
If the moon appears reddish on a Bij day (or the second day of the
bright half of a month), and if the northern horn of the crescent be
high up, prices in the market are believed to rise; if, on the other
hand, it is low, it prognosticates a fall in prices. If the two horns
are on a level, current prices will continue.

Similarly, the northern horn of the crescent, if it is high up on
the Bij day of Ashadh, augurs abundant rainfall; if it is low, it
foreshadows a season of drought. [217]

If the moon presents a greenish aspect on the full-moon day of Ashadh,
excessive rains may be expected in a few days; if on that day she rises
quite clear and reddish, there is very little hope of good rains; if
she is partly covered by clouds when she rises and then gets clear of
the clouds, and then again disappears in the clouds in three ghadis,
[218] three pohors, or three days, rain is sure to fall. [219]

If on the 5th day of the bright half of Chaitra, the moon appears to
the west of the Rohini constellation, the prices of cotton are believed
to rise; if to the east, they are said to fall; and if in the same
line, the current rates are believed to be likely to continue. [220]

The Bij (2nd day) and the ninth day of Ashadh (the 9th month of the
Gujaratis and the 4th month of the Hindus of the Deccan) falling on
a Sunday is a combination that foretells excessive heat. If they fall
on Wednesday, intense cold is said to be the result. Their occurring
on a Tuesday, threatens absence of rains, and on a Monday, a Thursday
or a Friday, foreshadows excessive rainfall. [221]

Thunder on Jeth-Sud-Bij, or the second day of the bright half of
Jyeshtha, is a bad omen and threatens famine. [222]

The spots on the moon have given rise to numerous beliefs, mythological
as well as fanciful. One of them is that they are the result of a
curse, pronounced by the sage Gautama on Chandra. Indra, the god of
rain, was infatuated with the charms of Ahalya, the wife of Gautama,
and with the help of Chandra laid a cunning plot to gain his ignoble
object. Accordingly, one night, Chandra set earlier than usual, when
Indra assumed the form of a cock and crowed at midnight in order to
deceive Gautama into the belief that it was dawn, and therefore his
time for going to the Ganges to perform his religious services. The
trick was successful, and the holy sage being thus got rid of,
Indra assumed the form of Gautama himself and approached Ahalya,
who was surprised to see her husband (as she thought) so quickly
returned. The wily god allayed her suspicions by explaining that it
was not yet time for the morning ceremonies, and thus enjoyed the
favours due to her husband. Gautama, in the meanwhile, finding the
water of the Ganges cool and placid, and discovering that it was not
yet dawn, returned to his hermitage. On reaching home he detected
the treachery of Indra, who tried to escape in the disguise of a
tom-cat. The exasperated sage then cursed Indra, Chandra and his wife:
Indra to have a thousand sores on his person, Ahalya to turn into a
stone, and Chandra to have a stain on his fair face. [223]

Another mythological story is that Daksha Prajapati, the son of
Brahma, gave all his twenty-seven daughters in marriage to Chandra,
who was inspired with love for one of them only, named Rohini, the most
beautiful of them all. The slighted twenty-six sisters complained to
their father, Daksha, of Chandra's preference for Rohini. Daksha in
anger cursed Chandra to be attacked by consumption (which is supposed
to be the reason of the waning of the moon) and his face to be marred
by a stain. [224]

The curse of Gautama and the curse of Daksha are also supposed to be
reasons of the waxing and the waning of the moon.

Another belief regarding the moon-spots is that when the head of
Ganpati was severed by Shiva's trident, it flew off and fell into
the chariot of the moon. The spots are either the head itself [225]
or are due to drops of blood fallen from the flying severed head. [226]

The spots are also said to be explained by the fact of the image of
god Krishna or Vishnu [227] residing in the heart of the moon who,
as a devotee of Vishnu, holds his image dear to his heart. [228]

The moon is often called mriganka (lit. deer-marked) and
mriga-lanchhana (lit. deer-stained); and a further explanation of
the spots in this connection is that the moon-god took into his lap a
strayed deer, out of compassion, and thus his lap became stained. [229]
Jains believe that in the nether parts of the moon's viman or vehicle,
there is an image of a deer whose shadow is seen in the spots. [230]

Some persons declare the spots to be a shami tree (prosopis
spicigera). [231] The belief of the masses in Gujarat is said to
be that the spot on the moon's disc is the seat of an old woman,
who sits spinning her wheel with a goat tethered near her. [232]
If the droppings of the goat were to fall on earth, departed souls
would return to the earth. [233]

It is said that a child and a tree are never seen to grow except
during the night. Such growth is therefore held to be due to lunar
rays. [234] As all trees, plants, etc., thrive owing to the influence
of the moon, the moon-god is called the lord of herbs. The moon is
also a reservoir of nectar and is called Sudhakar, i.e., one having
nectarine rays. [235] As the lord of herbs, the moon-god is supposed
to have the power of removing all diseases that are curable by drugs,
and of restoring men to health. [236]

Persons suffering from white leprosy, black leprosy, consumption
and diseases of the eyes are believed to be cured by the observance
of the Bij and Punema vows. [237] Consumption in its incipient and
latter stages is also said to be cured by exposure to the rays of
the moon. [238] Constant glimpses of the moon add to the lustre of
the eyes. [239] On the Sharad-Punema, or the 15th day of the bright
half of Ashvin (the last month of the Gujaratis and the 7th month of
the Deccani Hindus), tailors pass a thread through their needles in
the belief that they will thereby gain keener eyesight. [240]

A cotton-wick is exposed to the moon on Sharad-Punema, and is
afterwards lighted in oil poured over the image of Hanuman. The soot,
which is thus produced, if used on the Kali-chaudas day--the fourteenth
day of the dark half of Ashvin--is said to possess much efficacy in
strengthening the eyesight and also in preserving the eyes from any
disease during the ensuing year. [241]

Sweetened milk or water is exposed to moonlight during the whole of the
night of Sharad-punema (the full-moon day of Ashvin) in order to absorb
the nectarine rays of the moon, and is drunk next morning. Drinking in
the rays of the moon in this manner is believed to cure diseases caused
by heat as well as eye-diseases, and it similarly strengthens the
eyesight and improves the complexion. [242] Sugar-candy thus exposed
and preserved in an air-tight jar is partaken of in small quantities
every morning to gain strength and to improve the complexion. [243]
The absorption of the lunar rays through the open mouth or eyes is
also believed to be of great effect in achieving these objects. [244]

Once upon a time the gods and demons, by their united efforts,
churned the ocean and obtained therefrom fourteen ratnas or precious
things. [245] These were distributed among them. Lakshmi, the kaustubha
jewel, the Sharnga bow and the conch-shell fell to the share of Vishnu,
and the poison, Halahal visha, was disposed of to Shiva. Only two
things remained, sudha, or nectar, and sura or liquor. To both gods
and demons the nectar was the most important of all the prizes. A hard
contest ensuing between them for the possession of it, the demons,
by force, snatched the bowl of nectar from the gods. In this disaster
to the gods, Vishnu came to their help in the form of Mohini--a most
fascinating woman--and proposed to the demons that the distribution of
the immortalising fluid should be entrusted to her. On their consent,
Vishnu or Mohini, made the gods and the demons sit in opposite rows
and began first to serve the nectar to the gods. The demon Rahu,
the son of Sinhika, fearing lest the whole of the nectar might be
exhausted before the turn of the demons came, took the shape of a god
and placed himself amongst them between Chandra (the moon) and Surya
(the sun). The nectar was served to him in turn, but on Chandra and
Surya detecting the trick, the demon's head was cut off by Vishnu's
discus, the sudarshana-chakra. Rahu however did not die: for he had
tasted the nectar, which had reached his throat. The head and trunk
lived and became immortal, the former being named Rahu, and the latter
Ketu. Both swore revenge on Chandra and Surya. At times, therefore,
they pounce upon Chandra and Surya with the intention of devouring
them. In the fight that ensues, Chandra and Surya are successful
only after a long contest, with the assistance of the gods, and by
the merit of the prayers that men offer. [246]

The reason of the eclipse is either that Chandra and Surya bleed in
the fight with Rahu and their forms get blackened [247]; or that the
demon Rahu comes between the two luminaries and this earth, and thus
causes an eclipse [248]; or because Rahu obstructs the sun and the moon
in their daily course, and this intervention causes an eclipse [249];
or because Rahu swallows the sun and the moon, but his throat being
open, they escape, their short disappearance causing an eclipse. [250]

Besides the mythological story, there is a belief in Gujarat that
a bhangi (scavenger or sweeper), creditor of the sun and the moon,
goes to recover his debts due from them, and that his shadow falling
against either of them causes an eclipse. [251]

A third explanation of the eclipse is that the sun and the moon revolve
round the Meru mountain, and the shadow of the mountain falling upon
either of them causes an eclipse. [252]

It is believed amongst Hindus that eclipses occur when too much
sin accumulates in this world. [253] Most Hindus regard an eclipse
as ominous, and consider the eclipse period to be unholy and
inauspicious. The contact of the demon Rahu with the rays of the sun
and the moon pollutes everything on earth. Great precautions therefore
become necessary to avoid pollution. [254] A period of three pohors
[255] (prahars) in the case of the moon, and of four in the case
of the sun, before the actual commencement of an eclipse, is known
as vedha, i.e., the time when the luminaries are already under the
influence of the demon. During this period and during the time of an
eclipse people observe a strict fast. Anyone taking food within the
prohibited period is considered sutaki or ceremonially impure, as if
a death had happened in his family. [256] An exception is, however,
made in the case of children, pregnant women and suckling mothers
who cannot bear the privation of a strict fast. From the beginning
of an eclipse to its end, everything in the house is believed to be
polluted, if touched.

As the sun and the moon are believed to be in trouble during an
eclipse, people offer prayers to God from the beginning of the vedha
for their release. It is the custom to visit some holy place on an
eclipse-day, to take a bath there, and to read holy passages from the
Shastras. Some people, especially Brahmans, sit devoutly on river-banks
and offer prayers to the sun. Much secret as well as open charity
is given at the time of an eclipse. But the receivers of charity
during the actual period of an eclipse are the lowest classes only,
such as bhangis, mahars and mangs. When an eclipse is at its full,
these people go about the streets giving vent to such cries as apó
dan chhuté chand (give alms for the relief of the moon!). [257]

Among the gifts such people receive are cotton clothes, cash, grain
such as sesamum seeds, udad, pulses, and salt. [258] The gift of a pair
of shoes is much recommended. [259] Sometimes a figure of the eclipsed
sun or moon is drawn in juari seeds and given away to a bhangi. [260]

Although the period of an eclipse is considered inauspicious, it is
valued by those who profess the black art. All mantras, incantations,
and prayogas, applications or experiments, which ordinarily require
a long time to take effect, produce the wished for result without
delay if performed during the process of an eclipse. [261]

If a man's wife is pregnant, he may not smoke during the period of an
eclipse lest his child become deformed. [262] Ploughing a farm on a
lunar-eclipse day is supposed to cause the birth of Chandra-children,
i.e., children afflicted by the moon.

After an eclipse Hindus bathe, perform ablution ceremonies, and dress
themselves in clean garments. The houses are cleansed by cowdunging
the floors, vessels are rubbed and cleansed, and clothes are washed,
in order to get rid of the pollution caused by the eclipse. [263]
Unwashed clothes of cotton, wool, silk or hemp, according to popular
belief, do not become polluted. The placing of darbha grass on
things which are otherwise liable to pollution is also sufficient to
keep them unpolluted. [264]

Brahmans cannot accept anything during the impious time of an eclipse,
but after it is over, alms are freely given to them in the shape of
such costly articles as fine clothes, gold, cattle and the like. [265]

After an eclipse Hindus may not break their fast till they have
again seen the full disc of the released sun or the moon. It sometimes
happens that the sun or the moon sets gherayala (while still eclipsed),
and people have then to fast for the whole of the night or the day
after, until the sun or the moon is again fully visible. [266]

There is a shloka in the Jyotish-Shastra to the effect that Rahu would
surely devour Chandra if the nakshatra, or constellation of the second
day of the dark half of a preceding month, were to recur on the Purnima
(full-moon day) of the succeeding month. Similarly, in solar eclipses,
a similar catastrophe would occur if the constellation of the second
day of the bright half of a month were to recur on the Amavasya (the
last day) of that month. [267] The year in which many eclipses occur
is believed to prove a bad year for epidemic diseases. [268]

The Jains do not believe in the Hindu theory of grahana (or the
eclipse). [269] Musalmans do not perform the special ceremonies
beyond the recital of special prayers; and even these are held to be
supererogatory. [270]

With the exception that some people believe that the stars are the
abodes of the gods, [271] the popular belief about the heavenly
bodies seems to be that they are the souls of virtuous and saintly
persons, translated to the heavens for their good deeds and endowed
with a lustre proportionate to their merits. [272] And this idea
is illustrated in the traditions that are current about some of the
stars. The seven bright stars of the constellation Saptarshi (or the
Great Bear) are said to be the seven sages, Kashyapa, Atri, Bharadwaj,
Vishwamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Vasishtha, who had mastered several
parts of the Vedas, and were considered specialists in the branches
studied by each, and were invested with divine honours in reward for
their proficiency. [273] Another story relates how a certain hunter and
his family, who had unconsciously achieved great religious merit, were
installed as the constellation Saptarshi [274] (or the Great Bear). A
hunter, it is narrated in the Shivaratri-mahatmya, was arrested for
debt on a Shivratri [275] day, and while in jail heard by chance the
words 'Shiva, Shiva' repeated by some devotees. Without understanding
their meaning, he also began to repeat the same words, even after
he was released in the evening. He had received no food during the
day, and had thus observed a compulsory fast. In order to obtain
food for himself and his family, he stationed himself behind a Bel
[276] tree, hoping to shoot a deer or some other animal that might
come to quench its thirst at a neighbouring tank. While adjusting
an arrow to his bowstring, he plucked some leaves out of the thick
foliage of the tree and threw them down. The leaves, however, chanced
to fall on a Shiva-linga which happened to stand below, and secured
for him the merit of having worshipped god Shiva with Bel-leaves on
a Shivratri day. He was also all the while repeating the god's name
and had undergone a fast. The result was that not only were his past
sins forgiven, but he was placed with his family in heaven. [277]

Similarly, Dhruva, the son of king Uttanapad, attained divine favour
by unflagging devotion, and was given a constant place in the heavens
as the immovable pole-star. [278]

According to Hindu astrology, there are nine grahas [279] or planets,
twelve rashis [280] or signs of the zodiac, and twenty-seven nakshatras
[281] or constellations. Books on astrology explain the distinct forms
of the nakshatras. For instance, the Ashvini constellation consists
of two stars and presents the appearance of a horse. It ascends the
zenith at midnight on the purnima (the 15th day of the bright half) of
Ashvin (the first month of the Gujarati Hindus). The constellation of
Mrig consists of seven stars, four like the legs of a sofa and three
others under them in a line. All these twenty-seven groups of stars
reach the zenith at midnight on particular days in particular months;
and the months of the Hindu calendar are named after them. [282]

All planets influence the life of a person, one way or the
other, according to their position in the heavens at the time of
his birth. A kundali, i.e., a figure like the one shown here, is
drawn by astrologers to illustrate the respective positions of the
planets. The twelve squares of the diagram represent the twelve signs
of the zodiac, and the positions of the planets in different squares
influence persons in different ways. Ravi (the Sun), Budha (Mercury)
and Shukra (Venus) occupy one rashi for one month; Chandra (the Moon)
occupies a rashi for 135 ghadis, [283] i.e., two days and a quarter;
Mangal (Mars) for one month and a half; Guru (Jupiter) for thirteen
months; Shani (Saturn) for two years and a half, and Rahu for a
year and a half. This is their normal and ordinary motion. But if
they take an abnormal course and move either too fast or too slow,
they finish their revolution through a rashi within a shorter or a
longer period. [284]

If the planet Guru (Jupiter) occupies either the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 6th,
8th, 10th, or 12th, square of a kundali, it is said to bring about a
rupture with friends, pecuniary wants, and an increase in the number
of enemies. [285]

If Shani (Saturn) occupies the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th,
or the 12th square in a man's kundali, it causes despondency of
mind, family quarrels, imminent injuries from foes, and pecuniary
wants. [286]

The presence of Mangal (Mars) in the 3rd, the 6th, or the 11th square
is auspicious.

Of the nine planets, Budha, Guru, and Chandra are benevolent, Mangal
and Ravi are neither benevolent nor baneful; and Shani, Rahu, and Ketu
are downright malevolent. [287] Each planet has a story connected
with it concerning its benevolence or malevolence, and showing also
the way to secure its propitiation. For instance, the malevolence of
Shani drove King Vikrama to unknown countries, and subjected him to
grave calamities. On the advice of a wise man, however, he observed
the Saturday-vows and thus overcame his difficulties. [288]

When a planet is unfavourable to a person, it has to be propitiated
by vows, and the person who is under its evil influence often lays
upon himself the obligation of abstaining from particular articles
of food or from wearing certain articles of clothing for a certain
number of days. [289] Particular days of the week are set apart as
appropriate for the worship of particular planets, and, on such days,
the person keeping the vow observes a fast and worships the planet
through the medium of a Brahman. [290] For instance, vrats or vows
are observed on Tuesdays in honour of Mangal (Mars), when an image
of the planet, engraved on a golden dish, is worshipped, and the
person observing the vow takes food consisting of wheat only, and
that too, only once during the day. This mode of fasting is followed
for a number of consecutive Tuesdays prescribed by an astrologer;
and on the last Tuesday, when purnahuti [291] is offered, Brahmans
are feasted and dakshina is given to them. A piece of red cloth and
some corn are used in the installation of the planet; these and the
golden engraving are carried away by the priest.

Similarly, in propitiating Rahu and Ketu the same ceremonies are gone
through: only, instead of wheat, mug (Phaseolus mungo) is eaten by the
devotee. In the same way Shani (Saturn) is said to favour the diet
of adad (or lentils): Guru (Jupiter) inclines to chana (or gram),
while Shukra (Venus) favours chola (dolichos sinensis).

Certain forms or figures, called mandals, are favoured by particular
grahas, and are drawn in their honour in worshipping them. Different
things, too, are given in charity in honour of different planets. [292]

All the nine grahas and the twenty-seven nakshatras are worshipped on
the occasion of the Griha-Shanti ceremony, which is performed before
occupying a newly erected building.

It is considered inauspicious to hold a marriage ceremony while Shukra
(Venus) is invisible. In such a case, however, the ceremony may be
performed after setting up and worshipping a small golden image of
the planet.

Of the stars, the constellation of saptarshi is perhaps the one most
often worshipped. Its worship forms a part of the ceremonies performed
on the occasion of investing boys with the sacred thread [293] and
also of the ceremonies of marriage. The worship of the saptarshi on
marriage occasions is believed to be an attestation of the marriage,
and to secure the benign care of the saptarshi for the couple. The form
of worship is sometimes as follows: a red and white piece of cloth is
stretched on the ground, bearing an image of the saptarshi over it;
wheat and rice are scattered over the cloth, a ghi-lamp is lighted,
and red lac and flowers are offered to the image. [294] Another form
of worship is to mark seven red-lac-dots on a patla or a wooden stool,
and to place seven pice and seven betel-nuts thereon. After worshipping
the seven pice, the bridal pair are made to take four turns round
the stool, touching the stool with their great toes at every turn. A
proverb runs to the effect that, whatever may happen to the couple,
still the seven pice of satpati (i.e., the ceremony described) are
secure. [295] A third process is to form seven small piles of kamod,
[296] on each of which, successively, the bride places her right foot
while the bridegroom removes each pile one by one. [297]

The fifth day of the bright half of Bhadrapad (the eleventh month
of the Gujarati Hindus) is observed as a day of worship in honour of
the saptarshi group. People observe a fast on that day. Brahmans set
up seven chats [298] in honour of the seven sages, adding an eighth
in honour of Arundhati, the wife of Vasishtha, and worship them by
shodashopachar (i.e. sixteen-fold ceremonial). The worship is said
to secure felicity for departed souls. [299]

The saptarshi are also annually worshipped by Brahmans on cocoanut-day
(the 15th day of the bright half of Shravan) on the occasion
of changing their sacred threads. Hindu seamen also worship the
constellation on the same day. [300]

In the performance of the Nil-parvan ceremony, which is held to
propitiate the spirits of departed ancestors, and which requires a calf
and a heifer to be married, an entertainment being simultaneously given
to one hundred and eight Brahmans, and on the occasion of Vastu or the
ceremonies performed before or at the time of occupying a newly-built
house, burnt offerings and worship are offered to the saptarshi. [301]

Every Brahman must offer arghyas [302] to, and worship, the agastya
constellation, in a hut of darbha [303] and kasada, within
seven days from the date of its appearance. Failure to make this
offering brings pollution on him for seven months, and disqualifies
him from performing any of the rites or ceremonies prescribed by
the Shastras.

Married couples are made to look at the Pole star immediately after
the Hymenal knot is tied by the priest, in the hope that they may
be as long-lived or as inflexible or unmoved by the ups and downs
of life.

The twelfth day after the death of a person, known as Tara-baras (or
the star-twelfth) is kept as the day of star-worship by the relatives
of the deceased, when one member of the family observes a fast on that
day in honour of the deceased, and takes food only after worshipping
the stars at night. It is customary on this day to give up the use
of bronze vessels and to give them away in charity. [304]

Just as persons carrying or accompanying a corpse to the cemetery are
considered sutaki (under ceremonial impurity), so those who witness
this rite are also considered unclean: but they are purified by a
sight of the stars. [305]

Young girls watching the starry sky at night recite a verse which
means, "I worshipped the star-spangled firmament first and then my
lover Abhla dabhla Kankuna dabhla [306]--"Ye stars! blind the prowling
thief and seize him if he tries to steal away, and your blessings on
my lord confer!" [307]

The Rohini and Krittika constellations, popularly known as Gadli,
are supposed to indicate the rise and fall in the cotton-market. [308]

The dimmest star of the saptarshi group foretells the death of a
person within six months from the date on which it becomes invisible
to him. [309] Again, if a man cannot perceive the saptarshi or the
galaxy in the sky, it is considered such a bad omen that his end is
believed to be near at hand. [310]

The rainbow is believed to be the bow of Indra, [311] the god of
rains, and is therefore called 'Indra-dhanushya.' We see it when
Indra draws his bow to release the rains from the rakshasas (demons);
[312] or, when successful in bringing down rain, Indra manifests his
glory by drawing a bow; [313] or when in the struggle for supremacy
between Summer and the rainy season, Indra draws his bow to defeat
Summer. [314]

It is also believed that when Ramachandra, the hero of the Ramayana,
adjusted an arrow to the bow of Shiva, to compete for the hand of
Sita in the swayamvara (or maiden's-choice marriage) celebrated by
her, the bow was split into three pieces, which ever since present
themselves as rainbows in the sky. [315]

The rainbow is popularly regarded as an indication of good or bad
rainfall according as it appears at particular hours and in particular
directions. If a rainbow appears in the east a speedy rainfall is
expected; if on the other hand it is seen in the west, rainfall is
apprehended to be distant. [316] Some people, however, believe the
contrary, i.e., they regard the appearance of a rainbow in the west
as an indication of good rains, and in the east as a sign of scarce
rainfall. [317] Perhaps both ideas are reconciled by a third belief
according to which the appearance of a rainbow in a direction facing
the sun, indicates the proximity of rain. [318]

If a rainbow is seen at sunset or sunrise just before the commencement
of rain the fall of rain will be excessive; but if it appears after
rainfall, the rain will probably cease. [319] According to some persons
the appearance of a rainbow in the morning portends a drought. [320]
There is, however, a popular saying to the effect that were the kachbi,
i.e., the rainbow, to be seen at sunrise in the west, it foretells
great floods before nightfall.

The sight of a rainbow is sometimes regarded as a bad omen. Some
believe that it shortens a man's life and brings misfortunes to
him. Others believe that it is calamitous to a man's relations
by marriage, especially to the mother-in-law, who is sure to lose
her power of hearing. [321] People sometimes clash earthen vessels
against one another to avert the evils which are to be feared from a
rainbow. [322] It is also said that the sight of the whole of the
rainbow is a good omen: but the sight of a part, however large,
is inauspicious. [323]

According to the Puranas, the milky way or akash-ganga is the celestial
River Ganga which was brought down by Bhagirath to the earth. [324]
King Sagar once performed an ashwa-medha [325] sacrifice, when,
according to custom, he let loose a horse, and sent his sixty thousand
sons with it. Indra, jealous of the growing power of Sagar, stole the
horse and concealed it in the hermitage of Kapila, when the sage was
deeply absorbed in religious meditation. The sixty thousand sons of
Sagar followed it to this asylum, where they taunted and insulted the
sage, believing him to be the thief. Kapila, who was ignorant of the
theft, opened his long-closed eyes in anger, emitting sparks of flame
from them, and destroyed the sons of Sagar together with the whole of
their army. Bhagirath, the grandson of Sagar, propitiated the sage, and
on his advice practised religious austerities in honour of Shiva for
the purpose of bringing down the River Ganga from heaven. Through the
kindness of God Shiva, Bhagirath was at last successful in bringing the
celestial river down to this world; and with the water of the river he
revived the sons of Sagar. The River Ganga (i.e., the Ganges) in this
world is therefore also known by the name of Bhagirathi. It is this
heavenly river which we see as the milky way. [326] Like the sacred
Ganges on the earth, the River Ganga in the celestial regions is held
in great respect by the gods [327] and purifies the heavenly bodies,
just as the earthly Ganges washes away the worst sins of mortals.

Some people, however, believe the milky way to be the track by which
the holy Ganges descended from heaven to earth. [328]

Another belief is that the God Vishnu, at the time of his Vaman
(or Dwarf) incarnation, touched the ina (i.e., the Egg) in his
third footstep and thus caused a flow of waters, which is known as
akash-ganga. [329] Some suppose the milky way to be a ladder leading
to the heavens. [330] Astrologers call it Vatsa, a fictitious creature
with numerous horns, mouths, and tails. [331] According to another
belief, the milky way consists of two rekhas--lines--one of sin and
the other of good and meritorious actions. The length of one line
compared to the other betokens the predominance of good or evil as
the case may be. [332] The milky way is also supposed to be the track
left by the rath or car of Ramachandra. [333]

Akash-ganga or the milky way is said to consist of one crore and
eighty lacs of stars. [334] If a man cannot perceive the milky way
in the sky, his end is believed to be near at hand. [335]

The Musalmans declare the milky way to be the track formed by the
footstep of the horse of the Prophet Muhammad, on the occasion of
his night-journey to Heaven.

The occasion for earth-worship most frequently arises when anything
is to be built upon its surface. At the time of setting the
manek-stambha, or the first pillar of a marriage-bower or a bower
for a thread-ceremony, [336] before commencing the construction of
wells, reservoirs, and tanks and in laying the foundation-stone
of a house, a temple, or a sacrificial pit, [337] or of a street,
a fortress, a city, or a village, [338] or of any constructive work
raised upon or made under the ground, certain ceremonies, called
khat-muhurt or khat-puja, are performed. The earth-mother is then
worshipped in the manner prescribed in the Shastras, to propitiate her
against interruptions in the completion of the work undertaken. The
owner or the person interested in the new construction pours a
little water on the earth where the foundation-pit is to be dug,
sprinkles red lac and gulal (red powder), places a betel-nut and a few
precious coins, and digs out the first clod of earth himself. [339]
Some of the things offered to the earth at the time of khat-puja
are panchamrit, [340] betel-nuts, betel-leaves, pancha-ratna (or the
five kinds of precious things, namely, gold, silver, copper, coral,
and pearls), a bowl and green garments. Under the influence
of particular rashis (signs of the zodiac), particular corners
of the building under construction are required to be dug in the
khat-muhurt ceremonies. For instance, a little digging in the
north-west corner is believed to be favourable to the constructor
who happens to be under the influence of Sinha (Leo), Kanya (Virgo)
and Tula (Libra): in the north-east corner, if under the influence
of Vrishchika (Scorpio), Dhanu (Sagittarius) and Makar (Capricornus):
in the south-east corner if under the sway of Kumbha (Aquarius), Min
(Pisces) and Mesha (Aries): in the south-west corner in the case of
Vrishabh (Taurus), Mithun (Gemini) and Kark (Cancer). After the
worship of the earth-mother, sugar or molasses is distributed among
neighbours, bystanders and relatives, in token of the auspiciousness of
the occasion. [341] An image of Ganpati is worshipped in a copper-dish,
this is buried underground, and a brick is laid on it when starting the
work of construction. In setting up the manek-stambha on marriage
occasions, a small earthen bowl is filled with milk, curds, turmeric,
durva-sprouts [342] and mag seeds (Phaseolus mungo), and buried in
the ground after being sprinkled over with red lac and rice. [343]

The ceremonies appertaining to khat-muhurt are treated of at length
in a book called Dharma-sindhu. [344] They are believed to secure
durability of construction.

On the Dasara [345] day or the 10th day of the bright half of Ashvin
(the last month), Rajas go out in state with their ministers and
subjects to worship the earth-mother and the holy shami tree (prosopis
spicegera). A wetted plot of ground is first dug over with pikes,
javala (tender wheat plants) and shami leaves are then mixed with
the muddy earth, and small balls of the mixture are made. A pice
and betel-nut are placed in each ball, and they are presented to
the worshipper as a mark of good luck. Travellers carry such balls
with them on their journeys for luck. Kings carry the same to obtain
success on the battle-field. The Pandavas had such balls with them
on the field of Kurukshetra when they obtained a victory over the
Kauravas. [346] The balls are also used as pastana. [347] The javala
in the balls are taken out and allowed to grow in an earthen vessel
filled with clay and manure till they reach a span in height, when
they are taken up and used. [348]

Earth-worship is performed before burying treasure underground, and
also when a marriage-procession, at the time of returning, reaches
the limits of the bridegroom's village. [349]

In some places, virgins worship the plot of ground on which the Holi
is lighted, for about ten or twelve days after the Holi holiday. [350]

Another occasion for earth-worship is the third day of the bright half
of Chaitra (the sixth month), on which day Vishnu saved the earth in
his Varaha (or Boar) incarnation, when it was being carried to the
nether regions by the demon Shankhasur. [351]

On the eighth day of the bright half of Magh and also of Ashvin (the
fourth and the last month respectively), naivedya (an oblation of
food) is offered to the earth-mother, and is then used as her prasad
(gift). No cooked food is allowed to fall on the ground on this day:
even the leavings after meals are given away to cows. [352]

When any ceremony is to be performed on the earth's surface, as much
of the spot as is required for the ceremony is cleansed by watering
it and plastering it with cow-dung. A betel-nut and a pice are then
placed on it as the Chada or rent of the spot. [353]

On those occasions when dakshina is given to Brahmans outside the
village limits, worship of the earth-mother is performed by pouring
milk on the ground, and by placing seven betel-nuts and seven single
copper-pieces thereon. [354]

Some ambitious Brahmans dig earth from near the roots of a banyan
tree after offering prayer to the earth, and out of it, make an
image of Parthishwar--Lord of the Earth--hoping thereby to obtain
wealth. The same ceremony, if observed near the roots of a pipal tree
(ficus religiosa), is believed to confer wealth and male issue.

When Vishnu killed the demons Madhur and Kaitabha, the earth was strewn
with their flesh and marrow (meda). Therefore the earth is called
medini, and for the same reason is unclean, and no holy objects are
allowed to touch it. [355] Another explanation is that the earth was
rendered unclean because blood was shed on its surface in the combat
of the demon Vritrasur with the god Indra. [356]

The things polluted by a contact with the earth are either objects
which are to be dedicated to gods, such as sandal-wood ointment,
panchamrit, [357] the leaves of the bel tree (Aegle marmelos), tulsi
leaves (leaves of the holy or sweet basil plant), betel-leaves and
flowers; [358] or objects which are sacred because of their having
been dedicated to the gods, including tirtha [359] or water used in
bathing the images of gods [360]; or things which are by nature so
holy that it is improper to place them on the bare earth; for instance,
images of deities, water of the sacred Ganges or the Jumna, [361] any
holy writ, [362] a conch-shell and even gold. [363] Cooked food also
deserves respect, as it supports the lives of men, and it is sinful in
a Hindu to let it lie on the bare ground. Any irregular conduct in this
respect arouses the wrath of the Annadeva (or the food deity). [364]

It is, however, maintained by some that the reason why certain things,
such as materials of worship, are not allowed to touch the earth, is
that the earth itself being a deity, such things would be dedicated to
this deity by a contact with the earth and would thus become incapable
of any further use, as things that are dedicated to one deity cannot
again be offered to another. [365]

During the course of the recitation of mantras (holy hymns) in
honour of Vishnu and Mahadeva; on the occasion of offering prayers
to the grahas (planets) for their propitiation; and on occasions like
Vishnuyaga, [366] Maharudra, Shatachandi, Gayatri-purashcharan [367]
and Brahmana-varana [368] the devotee or the sacrificer and the
priest sleep on darbha grass or on clean woollen blankets, spread on
the bare ground.

Other occasions for sleeping on the floor are the days of the
observance of certain vrats or vows; such as, the Divasa or the 15th
day of the dark half of Ashadh (the ninth month), the Janmashtami
or the 8th day of the dark half of Shravana (the tenth month), the
days of Goatrad, a vrat lasting from the 11th day to the 15th day
of the bright half of Bhadrapad, Mahashivaratri or the 14th day of
the dark half of Magh, the Ekadashi day or the 11th day of both the
bright and dark halves of a month, the Navratra days or the first
nine days of Ashvin, eclipse days, and the day of Jagran or the 15th
day of the bright half of Ashadh, besides, sometimes, the whole
of the months of Shravana and the Purushottam or intercalary month;
and the chaturmas, i.e., the four months of the rainy season. [369]

A Brahman in his brahmacharya (or the period of his life which,
according to the Shastras, should be devoted to the acquirement of
learning, and which commences from the date of his being invested
with the sacred thread and terminates at the age of twenty-three)
and a widow are not allowed by the Shastras to sleep elsewhere than
on beds made on the ground.

Women, while in menstruation, sleep on the floor for four days.
Some women, when they are separated from their husbands, also sleep
in this fashion.

A dying person, two or three minutes before his death, is placed on
the ground, which is first purified with cow-dung-plaster. [370] For
ten days after a death, the members of the deceased's household and
his relatives sleep on beds spread on the bare ground. [371] If the
demise be very affecting, the nearest relatives sleep on the floor
for periods which may extend to three months, six months, or even
for a year, and sometimes the penance lasts for their whole lives.

It is customary, among some sects, not to allow the sathara--i.e.,
the spot lately occupied by a corpse in the house--to be suna or
unoccupied for a single night. Someone must sleep on the spot for
twelve consecutive days from the date of demise. [372]

Pilgrims, [373] after pilgrimage, abandon sensual pleasures, take
their meals only once every day, and sleep on the floor. It is
customary to sleep always on the ground while in holy places. Devotees,
ascetics, sadhus, and their disciples sleep on the ground.

The God Indra has twelve meghas or clouds under his control, and he
directs each of them to pour out their waters wherever he likes. When
in the least irritated in the execution of his orders, Indra's voice
is heard in this world in thunder-claps which rise to a terrible pitch
if the deity becomes downright angry. Thunder is also said to be
the loud laughter of Indra when in a happy mood. [374]

Another belief is that during the rainy season, Indra plays gedi-danda
[375], and the strokes given to the gedi in the course of the game,
produce what we call thunder; [376] or, that the clouds are god's
footballs, and thunder is produced by his foot striking them, while
at play during the rainy season. Some believe thunder to be due
to the loud sounds produced by various musical instruments which are
played upon the occasion of the marriage-ceremony of Indra. [377]
According to others, thunder is produced by the cannon of Indra;
[378] or, as some again say, by the trumpetings of Airavat, the
elephant of Indra [379]; or, we hear thunder when Indra draws his
bow and adjusts an arrow to the bow-string, in order to bring about
the fall of rain. [380]

A further belief attributes thunder to the very rapid pace of the
chariot of Bhagwan. [381] Some people, however, say that it is produced
when Bhima (one of the five Pandavas) wields his prodigious club or
bludgeon. [382] In the opinion of others, Vidyut or Tanyatun, the
offspring of Lamba, the daughter of Daksha, and the wife of Dharmaraj
thunders in the rainy season. [383] It is also suggested that the
god of rains shakes the heavens and thus produces thunder. The
Shastras, it is said, declare that thunder is caused by the sounds
of the dundubhi--or kettledrums--beaten by the gods in delight at
the sight of rain. [384] There is also a popular belief in the Surat
district that an old hag causes thunder either when she grinds corn
or when she rolls stones in the clouds. [385]

The prevalent belief about lightning seems to be that it is the girl
whom Kansa tried to dash against a stone, but who escaped and went
up to the sky. Kansa, the tyrant king of Mathura, was informed by a
heavenly voice, by way of prophecy, that a son would be born to his
sister who would cause his destruction. Kansa thereupon confined his
sister Devaki and her husband Vasudeva in prison, loaded them with
fetters, and kept the strictest watch over them. He took from Devaki,
and slew, every child of hers as soon as it was born. In this way he
disposed of her first six children. On the seventh occasion, however,
on which Devaki gave birth to a son named Krishna, a girl was born at
the same hour to Nanda in Mathura; and Vasudeva secretly interchanged
the two children in spite of the vigilance of Kansa. When Kansa knew
of his sister having been delivered, he seized the infant girl and
tried to dash her against a stone. The little one immediately flew
away to the skies, where she still dwells in the form of Vijli or
lightning. [386]

The Shastras describe Vijli as the distinctive weapon of Indra, just as
pashupataka is peculiar to Shiva and the Gandiva bow to Arjuna. [387]

Other beliefs about lightning are that Vijli is the sister of
Megharaja, the god of rains, and appears to announce his approach:
[388] that Vijli is a goddess who rests upon winds, fire, and rains:
[389] that Vijli is but the thunderbolt of Indra: [390] that lightnings
are the flashes of the bright weapon of Indra: [391] that lightning
is the lustre of the fireworks and the lamps lighted by the gods in
honour of the nuptials of Indra: [392] that lightning is produced by
the sparks caused by the friction of the gedi and the danda of Indra
when the god plays the game. [393] Vijli is also known as Saudamini,
i.e., one residing on Mount Sudama. [394]

The occurrence of thunder and the appearance of lightning on
particular days and in particular directions are regarded as signs
of the abundance or scarcity of rain during the season.

Thunder during the Rohini nakshatra [395] is a bad omen: it foreshadows
either a famine, [396] or a Boterun, i.e., complete cessation of rains
for seventy-two days after the thunder-claps are heard. According
to another view, if the Rohini nakshatra lasts for a fortnight and if
the sky is clear during the period and yet lightning and thunder occur,
a Boterun will be the consequence; but if lightning and thunder were
to accompany the clouds in the same nakshatra, heavy and plentiful
rains may be confidently expected. [397] Lightning without clouds in
the same nakshatra is believed to be the cause of what is popularly
called Rohini-dazi, i.e., the burning heat of Rohini. [398]

Some persons expect a Boterun after kadakas or crashing thunder. Others
apprehend a famine if they hear thunder on the second day of the
bright half of Jyeshtha (the eighth month).

Thunder or lightning in the Hasta [399] nakshatra foretells good
harvests and a prosperous year. [400] Thunder in the same nakshatra is
believed to muzzle the jaws of serpents and other noxious creatures,
and to achieve this object, also, a samelu (or a log of wood) is struck
against a mobhara (or a hollow stone used for threshing corn). [401]
If thunder is not heard during this nakshatra, mosquitoes and other
insects and vermin are believed to be likely to multiply. [402]

If thunder is heard during the Ardra nakshatra, the rainfall will be
delayed for a month. [403]

Lightning is commonly seen on the second and the fifth day of the
bright half of Ashadh, and is considered a sign of good rainfall,
while its absence indicates a probable scarcity of rain. [404] Its
appearance on the fifth day of Ashadh is believed by some to foretell
an early fall of rain. Since the rainfall, and therefore the state
of the crops during the ensuing year, are suggested by lightning on
this day, corn-dealers settle a rise or fall in the price of corn
according as lightning is or is not seen on that occasion. [405]

Thunder in the east predicts a speedy fall of rain. If flashes of
lightning are seen in the north-east or the north, rain will fall
within three days. Lightning in the south-east or the south
foretells extreme heat. [406]

Long-continued thunder shows that the rainfall is distant. Similarly,
continued flashes of lightning intimate danger to the lives and
property of people. Sudden thunder portends an immediate cessation
of rain. Thunder or lightning out of season threatens calamity
to the country. [407]

Vijli or lightning is said to be fettered on the fifth day of
the bright half of Ashadh--(or, as some say, on the second day of
Shravan)--after which date no apprehensions of its destructive
powers need be entertained. [408] Till then, however, it is free and
is likely to injure those persons [409] who have not cut or shaved
their hair from their birth. [410]

The occurrence of lightning is believed to cause the delivery and
sometimes even the death of pregnant women. [411]

Any period marked by the occurrence of lightning is considered
inauspicious. [412]

The Puranas speak of fourteen worlds--the seven swargas (celestial
regions) and the seven patals (nether regions) [413]. Underneath the
seventh patal [414] lies Shesha (the divine cobra) who supports all
the fourteen worlds on one of his one thousand hoods. On account of
the heavy burden, the serpent-god sometimes gets tired, and tries to
change his position. The result of the movement is an earth-quake.
According to another version, an earthquake occurs when Shesha changes
his posture in sleep, [415] or is the result of a hair falling from
the body of Shesha. [416] Some people say that ordinarily Shesha does
not feel the weight of the fourteen worlds on his head; he bears the
load as if it were only a single sesamum seed. But when too much sin
accumulates in any of the regions, the burden becomes unbearable for
him: he begins to shake under it, and an earthquake occurs. [417]

Some believe that there is a tortoise under the divine cobra who
supports the world; [418] others go further, and add a frog below the
tortoise: [419] and it is said that the slightest motion on the part
of either the tortoise or the cobra is the cause of an earthquake.

Another belief is that earthquakes occur whenever there is tyranny
or injustice on the part of a king, or whenever immorality spreads
in society, because the earth is unable to bear the sin, and trembles
at the sight of it. [420]

According to a different opinion, the earth is supported by the Pothia
or the favourite bull of Shiva on one of his horns. An earthquake
is caused whenever he transfers the earth from one horn to another
in order to relieve the former from the constant pressure of the
burden. [421]

There is also a belief that deities of some strange species reside
in the nether regions, and the earth is shaken whenever these beings
fight among themselves.

According to the Varaha-sanhita, an earthquake is always the precursor
of some unprecedented calamity. [422] The prevalent belief in the
popular mind seems to be that an earthquake is the result of immorality
and sin, and further that it forebodes some dire calamity, such as
famine, pestilence, an outbreak of fire, a revolution, or a great
war. [423] The phenomenon is, therefore, regarded with great fear;
and when it occurs, people endeavour to avoid the contingent evils by
such meritorious acts as the giving of alms, and generally by leading
a virtuous life. [424]

The most popular of the holy rivers are the Ganges, the Jumna (or
Jamuna), the Narbada, the Saraswati (near Sidhpur), the Kaveri, the
Godavari, the Gandaki, the Sarayu, the Damodari, the Sindhu (or Indus),
the Mahanad, the Gomati (near Dwarka), the Brahmaputra, the Sabarmati,
the Ghels (near Gaddheda), the Tungabhadra, the Suvarnabhadra, the
Bhadrashita, the Jambuvati, the Phalaku (or Phalgu), the Kaushiki, the
Tamraparni, the Sita and the Alakananda. Any point where three rivers
meet is also a sacred place. Most of the holy rivers are the subject of
many traditions, and books have been written to celebrate their merits.

The Ganges, the Jumna, and the Godavari are said to be the holiest of
all rivers. There are a number of beliefs about the origin of the
Ganges. One of them is that the Ganges is the stream caused by King
Bali washing the feet of Vaman (the Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu). [425]
Another story relates that the god Brahma was exhausted by overwork at
the time of the marriage of Shiva and Parvati. The gods, therefore,
created water from their own lustres, and gave it to Brahma in a
gourd, to be used in a similar contingency. When Vishnu in his Vaman
avatar (or Dwarf incarnation) bestrode the heavens with a single
step, Brahma washed his toe in the water from this gourd. A stream
was thus created called Swarga-ganga and brought down to the earth
by Bhagirath, the grandson of Sagar. When the Ganges fell from the
heavens, it was supported and held fast by God Shiva in his jata or
matted hair. It was released by his loosening the hair, and in its
course, inundated the sacrificial ground of King Jahnu. The latter,
being angry, drank up its waters. On the entreaties of Bhagirath,
he released the stream by tearing off his thigh. [426] The river then
flowed to the spot where the sixty thousand sons of Sagar were burnt
to ashes; and it is said by some that one of the sixty thousand was
saved at the end of each year up to the year 1955 of the Samvat era
(corresponding to A. D. 1899), by the end of which period all the
sixty thousand had attained salvation. From the earth the Ganges went
to the nether regions. Thus flowing in the heavens, on the earth and
in the Patal, the Ganges is called Tripathaga (i.e., flowing in three
courses). In its divine form, the Ganges is the wife of Shiva. Owing
to the curse of Brahma, she was born in human form in this world and
was married to Shantanu, by whom she became the mother of Bhishma,
the heroic uncle of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. [427]

It is customary among Hindu pilgrims, when they visit Kashi (Benares)
to take with them copper-vessels filled with Gangajal (water of the
Ganges), and to worship the Ganga when they reach their homes after
the pilgrimage. A figure is drawn in seven different kinds of corn;
the bowl is placed on it; abil gulal (red powder), frankincense, and
naivedya (an oblation of food) are offered: a ghi lamp is lighted:
a Brahman woman is dressed as Uma, the wife of Shiva, and Brahmans
are entertained at a feast, dakshina being given to them. [428]

The water of the Ganges, as well as that of the Jumna, is believed to
be so pure that it cannot be affected by microbes, even if kept for
years in the house. This quality is believed to be a manifestation of
its divine nature. It is further called patit-pavan (lit. purifier
of the fallen), and exculpates the sinful from their sins, either
by a single draught or by bathing in it. [429] Gangajal is kept in
most Hindu families, a draught of it taken by a dying person being
believed to secure moksha or eternal salvation for the soul. [430]

A vow is observed by women, in honour of the Ganges, for the first
ten days of the month of Jyeshtha. On these days they rise early in
the morning and bathe in the holy waters of the Ganges. [431]

Sometimes ghi lamps are placed upon the waters of the Ganges or the
Jumna, and vessels of metal, pice, and cocoanuts are cast into the
stream. At such a time, when many people are standing on the banks
offering prayers with folded hands, or engaged in the arati, [432]
the river presents a very picturesque scene, the numerous lights
being reflected in the water. [433]

The Jamuna or Yamuna is the daughter of the Sun, and the sister of
Yama, the god of Death. The banks of the Jumna are well known as
the scene of the amorous sports of God Krishna. [434] The story of
the defeat of the demon Kaliya Nag who was ejected from the Jumna by
Krishna is well-known.

It is said that those who have bathed in the Jumna or have once tasted
its water, need not be afraid of Yama, the god of Death. [435] It
is considered meritorious among the Hindus to bathe the image of god
Shiva in water from the holy Jumna or the Ganges or the Godavari. [436]
There is a popular shloka in honour of the Jumna which runs:--"Victory
to thee! Oh Yamuna, flowing through the Madhu-vana (the Madhu woods),
the bearer of shining waters, the companion of Jahnavi, the daughter
of Sindhu, the ornament of the enemy of Madhu (viz., Krishna),
the appeaser of Madhava, the dispeller of the danger of Gokal,
the destroyer of the sins of the world, the giver of intellect, the
scene of the amorous sports of Keshava. Victory to thee! O remover
of difficulties, purify me." [437]

The banks of the Godavari are known as the site of the hermitage of
Gautama. When the planet Brihaspati (Jupiter) enters the Sinha-rashi
(the constellation Leo) [438] the holy Ganges goes to the Godavari,
and remains there for one year. During that year, all the gods are
believed to bathe in this river. Thousands of pilgrims visit Nasik
to offer prayers to the Godavari, and after bathing in the river,
give alms to Brahmans. Similarly, on the Kapilashashti day, on which
six jogs or conjunctive incidents occur simultaneously, the virtue
of all tirthas or holy places is believed to be concentrated in the
Godavari at Nasik.

The mere sight of the Narbada has the same effect as a bath in the
Ganges or the Jumna. [439] It is said that the Narbada is the image of
Shiva, and that fragments of the stony bow of Shiva are to be found
in its bed. [440] The stones in the bed of this river have the same
sanctity as the images of god Shiva. [441] Shaligram stones, which
are worshipped as the images of Vishnu, are found in this river.
It is an act of high merit among Hindus to take a pradakshina round the
Narbada, i.e., to travel along the banks of the river, inhabited as the
region is by many Sadhus and other holy persons. [442] Ashvatthama, the
immortal son of Drona, is believed to reside on the banks of this river
and to pay occasional visits to the Bhils in the neighbourhood.
The Shukla-tirtha, situated on the Narbada, is visited by numerous
pilgrims, and a fair is held there on every sixtieth year.

The sage Kapila instructed his mother Devahuti with divine knowledge
on the banks of the Saraswati. Since then, the river is held sacred and
funeral ceremonies--Shraddhas--are performed on its banks in honour of
departed female ancestors. Similarly Shraddhas in honour of male
ancestors are performed at the confluence of the Ganges, the Jumna,
and the Saraswati at Allahabad. [443] [444]

Of the Gandaki it is said that it contains as many shankars (images
of Shiva) as there are sankars (stones). The shaligram stone is found
in this river also. The Saryu is sacred as the scene of the childish
sports of Ramachandra, the hero of the Ramayana. On the banks of the
Phalaku or Phalgu, Ramachandra performed Shraddha ceremonies in honour
of his father Dasharath.

A bath in the waters of a holy river washes away the sins of the
bather. [445] It is also meritorious to repeat the names of the
several holy rivers. [446] The performance of Shraddha ceremonies on
the banks of a holy river secures the felicity of deceased ancestors
in heaven. At the time of performing Shraddhas at a holy place,
Hindus shave their moustaches, bathe in the sacred waters, and then
go through the necessary ceremonies, in the course of which pindas are
offered to the Pitars (spirits of dead ancestors). Brahmans are feasted
after the ceremonies, and dakshina is given to them. [447] Tarpan
or an offering of water with flowers, ointment, red lac, cocoanuts,
and betel, is frequently made to the river on the banks of which the
ceremonies are performed. [448] The bones of a deceased person, left
unburnt after cremation of the body, are gathered together and thrown
into holy rivers such as the Ganges, the Jumna, and the Godavari,
for the purification of his soul. [449]

When heavy floods threaten a village or a city with serious injury,
the king or the headman should go in procession to propitiate the
river with flowers, cocoanuts, and other offerings in order that
the floods may subside. [450] A story is related of the occurrence
of heavy floods in a village in the Jatalpur taluka, when a certain
lady placed an earthen vessel (ordinarily used for curdling milk),
containing a ghi lamp, afloat on the floods, whereupon the waters
were at once seen to recede. [451]

Besides the holy rivers, there are numerous kunds or sacred pools
which are regarded with equal reverence, and in which a bath has
the same efficacy for destroying sin. Similarly, they are equally
suitable places for the performance of Shraddha ceremonies. These
kunds are the subject of numerous beliefs, and each of them has a
certain mahatmya or peculiar merit of its own. Six miles to the east
of Dwarka, near the sea-coast, there is a kund called Pind-tarak,
where many persons go to perform the Shraddha and the Narayan-bali
ceremonies. They first bathe in the kund: then, with its water, they
prepare pindas, and place them in a metal dish: red lac is applied
to the pindas, and a piece of cotton thread wound round them; the
metal dish being then dipped in the kund, when the pindas, instead
of sinking, are said to remain floating on the water. The process is
believed to earn a good status for the spirits of departed ancestors
in heaven. It is further said that physical ailments brought on by
the avagati--degradation or fallen condition--of ancestors in the other
world, are remedied by the performance of Shraddha on this kund. [452]

The Damodar kund is situated near Junagadh. It is said that if the
bones of a deceased person which remain unburnt after his cremation
are dipped in this kund, the soul of that person obtains moksha
(or final emancipation).

There is a vav or reservoir on Mount Girnar, known as
Rasakupika-vav. It is believed that the body of a person bathing in
it becomes as hard as marble, and that if a piece of stone or iron
is dipped in the vav, it is instantly transformed into gold. But
the vav is only visible to saints and sages who are gifted with a
supernatural vision. [453]

Kashipuri (Benares) contains a vav called Gyan-vav, in which there is
an image of Vishweshwar (the Lord of the universe, i.e., Shiva). A
bath in the water from this vav is believed to confer upon a person
the gift of divine knowledge.

In the village of Chunval, a few miles to the north of Viramgam, there
is a kund known as Loteshwar, near which stands a pipal tree. Persons
possessed by ghosts or devils, are freed from possession by pouring
water at the foot of the tree and taking turns round it, remaining
silent the while. [454]

A bath in the Man-sarovar near Bahucharaji is said to cause the wishes
of the bather to be fulfilled. There is a local tradition [455] that
a Rajput woman was turned into a male Rajput of the Solanki class by
a bath in its waters.

There is a kund called Zilaka near Zinzuwada with a temple of Naleshwar
Mahadev near it. The kund is said to have been built at the time of
King Nala. It is believed locally that every year, on the 15th day
of the bright half of Bhadrapad, the holy Ganges visits the kund
by an underground route. A great fair is held there on that day,
when people bathe in the kund and give alms to the poor. [456] There
is also another kund close by, known as Bholava, where the river
Saraswati is believed to have halted and manifested herself on her
way to the sea. [457]

There is a kund in Baladana near Wadhwan, dedicated to Hol, the
favourite mata of the Charans. In this kund, black or red gagar
bedinus--pieces of cotton thread--are sometimes seen floating in the
water. They appear only for a moment, and sink if any one endeavours
to seize them. The appearance of black pieces forebodes famine:
but the red ones foretell prosperity. [458]

In Bhadakon near Chuda there is a kund called Garigavo. The place is
celebrated as the spot of the hermitage of the sage Bhrigu and a fair
is held there annually on the last day of Bhadrapad.

Persons anxious to attain heaven, bathe in the Mrigi kund on Mount
Girnar; and a bath in the Revati kund, which is in the same place,
confers male issue on the bather. [459] There is also a kund of the
shape of an elephant's footprint Pagahein on Mount Girnar. It never
empties and is held most sacred by pilgrims. [460] People bathe in the
Gomati kund near Dwarka and take a little of the earth from its bed,
for the purification of their souls. [461] In the village of Babara,
Babhruvahan, the son of Arjun, is said to have constructed several
kunds, all of which are believed to be holy.

The Lasundra kund near Lasundra in the Kaira District [462] and the
Tulsi-shyama kund on Mount Girnar [463] contain hot waters. There is
also a hot kund called Devki-unai, about thirty miles to the south of
Surat. There the waters remain hot throughout the whole of the
year, except on the fifteenth day of the bright half of Chaitra. On
this day, the waters cool, and people can bathe in the kund. Many
pilgrims visit the place on this occasion, to offer money, cocoanuts,
and red lac to the unai mata, whose temple stands near the kund. It is
said that King Rama built this kund while performing a local sacrifice,
and brought water up from the patal (nether regions) by shooting an
arrow into the earth. [464]

Other holy kunds are: the Bhim kund, the Gomukhi-ganga, and the
Kamandalu kund on Mount Girnar near the temple of Bhimnath Mahadeo;
the Radha kund, the Lalita kund, and the Krishna-sarovar in Dwarka;
the Rama-sarovar, the Sita kund and the Devki-unai kund in Ayodhya
(Oudh); [465] and the Suraj kund [466] and the Hanumandhara [467]
kund on Mount Girnar.

Waterfalls are not very familiar to the people of Gujarat. There is
a belief, however, that barren couples obtain issue if they bathe in
a waterfall, and offer a cocoanut. [468]

If a river source issues from an opening, in the shape of a go-mukh
(cow's-mouth), the stream is called dhodh, and is considered as sacred
as the holy Ganges. A bath in such a dhodh has the same efficacy for
absolving persons from their sins. [469]

When a person dies an accidental death and before the fulfilment of
his worldly desires, his soul receives avagati (i.e., passes into
a degraded or fallen condition), and it is not released from this
state till Shraddhas have been duly performed in its name, and the
objects of its desire dedicated to it with proper ritual. The same
fate befalls those souls which do not receive the funeral pindas with
the proper obsequies. Such fallen souls become ghosts and goblins,
[470] and are to be found where water is, i.e., near a well, a tank,
or a river. [471]

Those who meet death by drowning become goblins, residing near the
scene of their death, and are a source of danger to all who approach
the water; for instance, in Monapuri and Sasai, there are two ghunas
(mysterious watery pits) haunted by bhuts (ghosts) which take the
lives of one or two buffaloes every year. [472] Matas [473] and
Shankhinis also haunt wells, springs, and tanks and either drown,
or enter the persons of those who go near their resorts.

Persons who are possessed in this manner, can be freed by bhuvas,
who give them a magic thread to wear. [474]

There is a vav called Nilkanth vav near Movaiya, in which a Pinjari
(a female cotton-carder) is said to have been drowned, and to have
been turned into a ghost, in which form she occasionally presents
herself to the people. [475]

Another ghost haunts an old vav, called Madha, in Vadhwan and drowns
one human being every third year as a victim. But a male spirit named
Kshetrapal resides in the kotha (or entrance) of the vav, and saves
those who fall near the entrance. A person is, however, sure to be
drowned if he falls in any other part of the vav. [476] A ghost also
resides in the vav at Hampar near Dhrangadhra and terrifies the people
at times.

The goddess Rainadevi resides in water, and is worshipped by virgins
on the fifteenth day of the bright half of Ashadh, when they grow
javaras (tender wheat-plants) in an earthen vessel and present them
to her, remaining awake for the whole of the night to sing songs in
her honour.

Darya-Pir, the patron of Luvanas (merchants) and Kharvas (sailors),
resides in the sea; and vows are observed in his honour by these people
on the second day of the bright half of every month, when they pass
a little water through his sieve. [477]

It is well known that a drowning person clings fast to anyone who
tries to save him, and endangers the lives of both himself and his
saviour. [478] It is also believed by some people that the messengers
of Varuna (the lord of all waters) seize those persons who bathe in
a river earlier than the usual hour in the morning; and the act of
saving a drowning person thus deprives Varuna of his victim, and
brings down the wrath of that deity. [479]

Sometimes, for the sake of moksha, a person takes samadhi (i.e.,
drowns himself with a religious motive) in a holy river, such as the
Ganges or the Jumna. In such a case the relatives and other persons
refrain from interference, and do not try to rescue the person.

When a well is to be dug, an expert is first called to select a likely
spot on which to dig. A Brahman is then consulted as to the auspicious
hour on which the work of digging should be commenced. [480] For this
purpose, Tuesdays and those days on which the earth sleeps are to
be avoided. The earth is supposed to be asleep on the following six
days in every month, namely: the 1st, the 7th, the 9th, the 10th,
the 14th and the 24th days following a sankranti (i.e., the day on
which the sun crosses from one constellation to another). Excluding
these days, a date is generally fixed on which the Chandra-graha (or
the planet moon) is favourable to the constructor of the well. [481]

On the appointed day, the expert, the constructor of the well, the
Brahman priest, and the labourers go to the place where the well
is to be dug, and an image of the god Ganpati--the protector of all
auspicious ceremonies--is first installed on the spot and worshipped
with panchamrit. [482] [483] A green coloured piece of atlas (silk
cloth), about two feet long, is then spread on the spot, and a
pound and a quarter of wheat, a cocoanut, betels, dates and copper
coin are placed on it. A copper bowl containing some silver or gold
coins and filled with water, is also placed there; the mouth of the
bowl is covered with the leaves of the Ashoka tree (Jinesia Asoka)
and a cocoanut is placed over the leaves. After this, the priest
recites sacred hymns and asks his host to perform the khat [484]
ceremonies. [485] Among favourite offerings to Ganpati and the earth
in the course of worship and in the performance of the khat ceremonies
are: curds, milk, honey, molasses, cocoanuts, dhana (a kind of spices),
leaves of nagarvel (a kind of creeper) and red lac. The expert
who is called to choose a proper site for the well offers frankincense
and a cocoanut to the spot, and lights a lamp thereon. After the khat
[486] ceremonies are over, the host distributes sugar or molasses
among the bystanders, and offers a sum of money to the expert, who
usually refuses it, asking the host to spend it in charity. Those
who accept money give away a part of it in alms to the poor.

Sometimes, to secure the unobstructed completion of the work, the god
Ganpati and the goddess Jaladevi are installed and worshipped daily,
till water appears in the well. Some people, however, install
the goddess Jaladevi after the appearance of water, when a stone is
taken out from the bottom of the well and is plastered with red-lead
to represent the goddess and is ceremoniously worshipped. When the
construction of the well is complete, vastu, i.e., the ceremony
in vogue after the completion of a new building, or jalotsava (the
water-festival) is celebrated, Brahmans being entertained at a feast,
with dakshina given. [487]

The water of the Krukalas well in the island of Shankhodwar is believed
to cure fever and diseases caused by morbid heat. A draught of the
water of the Gomukhi-ganga near Girnar, makes one proof against an
attack of cholera. [488]

The water of a gozara well (i.e., a well which is polluted on account
of a person bring drowned in it) cures children of bronchitis and
cough. [489] [490]

There is a well near Ramdorana, of which the water is effective against
cough, [491] and the water of the Bhamaria well near Vasawad possesses
the same virtue. [492]

The water of the Mrigi kund near Junagadh remedies leprosy.

The Pipli well near Zalawad and the Detroja-vav near Kolki are
well-known for the stimulative effect of their waters on the
digestion. [493]

If a dark stone is found in the course of digging a well, the water
of that well is believed to have medicinal properties. [494]

The birth of a child under the mul nakshatra endangers the life
of its father: but the misfortune is averted if the child and its
parents bathe in water drawn from one hundred and eight wells.
Such water, if swallowed, is said to cure sanipat or delirium. [495]

In the island of Shial there is a vav called Than-vav, where mothers,
who cannot suckle their children for want of milk, wash their
bodices. When they afterwards wear these bodices, these are believed
to be able to cause the due secretion of milk. [496]

The most famous of the sacred lakes are Pampa [497], Bindu [498],
Pushkar and Sambhar near Ajmere, Man-sarovar near Bahucharaji,
Narayan-sarovar in Cutch, Ravanrhad in the Himalayas, and Ramarhad. The
following popular myth is related about Man-sarovar.

Two kings once agreed that the two children that should first be
born to them should marry each other. But it happened that both
the kings had daughters. One of them, however, concealed the fact,
and gave out that the child born to him was a son. So that when the
children attained a marriageable age, they were married to each other
according to the agreement.

But the wife found out the secret when she went to stay with her
supposed husband, and disclosed it to her parents, who invited the
counterfeit son-in-law to their house with the object of ascertaining
the truth. The alleged son, however, suspected the design and fled,
with a mare and a bitch. On arriving near Man-sarovar, the animals
went into the lake in order to refresh themselves, when there was an
immediate transformation; and the bitch and the mare came out a horse
and a dog. On observing this miracle, their mistress followed their
example and was also turned into a male. The story is still sung by
girls in a garabi (song) during the Navaratra holidays. [499]

There is a belief that the ancient golden city of Dwarka, the capital
of god Krishna, still exists in the sea, although it is invisible to
the eyes of mortals. A story is told of a man named Pipo Bhagat,
who, once perceiving a golden bowl floating in the sea, plunged into
the water and saw the golden palaces of Dwarka and god Krishna resting
therein. It is said that he returned with the tide and related his
experience to several people. [500]

Similarly, the golden Lanka of Ravan is still believed to exist
under the sea, ruled over by Bibhishan, the brother of Ravan, and
visible only to the eyes of saints and holy persons. [501] It is a
common belief that the nether regions are inhabited by a species
of semi-divine beings, half men and half serpents, called Nags,
who possess magnificent palaces under the water. [502] The story of
Kaliya Nag, who resided at the bottom of the Jumna and was driven
from that place by Krishna, is well known. [503] There are a number
of mythological traditions in the Puranas of kings and princes having
visited these palaces in watery regions, and of their having brought
back beautiful Nagakanyas (daughters of Nags) therefrom. [504] For
instance, Arjuna married a Nagakanya named Ulupi when he was living
in exile with his brothers. He also stayed for some time with the Nags.

Ghosts and demons sometimes inhabit palaces under the water. Deep
waters, unfrequented by men, are the favourite resorts of such
beings. [505]

The god Varuna resides in the waters, and is said to have once carried
off Nand (the adoptive father of Krishna) to his watery abode, for
having bathed in the Jumna before dawn.

Kalindi, the daughter of the king of the Kalingas, practised religious
austerities in a palace under the waters of the Jumna with the object
of securing a suitable husband. Krishna, on being informed of this
by Arjuna, went to the place and married her. [506]

There is a story in the Puranas that a king, named Nandraj, used to
bury his treasures in the sea with the assistance of a mani (jewel)
which furnished a safe passage through the water. The mani was in the
end burnt by the queen of Nandraj and the treasure still lies hidden
in the waters of the sea. [507]

It is narrated in the fourth chapter of Bhagvat-puran that the ten
thousand sons of Prachetas used to reside in palaces built under
water. [508]

Mountains are held to be sacred in a variety of circumstances; thus,
some are valued for possessing medicinal drugs: some are revered as
the birthplaces of the gods, or as the residences of saints: some for
possessing many tirthas (holy spots): some because they were visited
by Rama or the Pandavas: some serve as guardians of the four quarters:
and some contain the sources of holy rivers.

Both the important ranges of the Presidency, the Sahyadri and the
Satpuda, are subjects of veneration in the popular mind. The Himalayas,
the Vindhya Mountains, and the Nilgiris command special respect. Other
sacred mountains are Girnar and Shetrunja in Kathiawar, Mount Abu,
Pavagad near Baroda, Brahmagiri Arasur, Tryambak near Nasik, Koyalo,
Govardhan near Mathura, Revatachal near Dwarka, and Hinglaj in Sind.

It is said that in ancient times there were deep miry ditches where
Girnar and Abu stand at present. One day a cow belonging to the sage
Vasishtha fell into one of them and was found by Kacha, the son of
Brihaspati, after a long search. When the incident was brought to the
notice of Vasishtha, he requested Meru (a mythical mountain) to send
his two sons Girnar and Abu to occupy and fill the ditches. Girnar
required sixty-eight tirthas to accompany him; and the boon was
granted by the gods. [509]

Girnar is one of the seven great mountains which once possessed
wings. [510] [511] It is also known as the place where the sage
Dattatraya performed religious austerities. [512] The place is so
holy that any person dying within a radius of twelve gaus [513]
from it is believed to attain moksha. [514] A visit to the temples
on Girnar absolves one from all sins; and taking a turn round Girnar
and Shetrunja is said to bring good fortune. [515] Bhagwan manifests
himself to those who ascend the Bhairavajaya summit on Girnar. There
is a rock on this mountain of which it is said that those who cast
themselves from it directly attain heaven. [516]

Pavagad is known for the temple of Mahakali Mata. It is said that King
Patai once propitiated her by austerities, and on being desired to
demand a boon, asked the goddess to accompany him to his palace. The
goddess was highly incensed at this request, and promptly destroyed
him.

Hanuman, the monkey-god, once promised to take the Mountain
Govardhan to meet Rama. It is well known how the monkey allies of Rama
constructed a bridge of rocks across the sea to Lanka, and how Hanuman
supplied the requisite material by fetching huge mountains. Whilst
engaged on this work, he was one day carrying the Govardhan mountain
to the site of the bridge, when Rama issued an order that all monkeys
who were fetching mountains should deposit their burdens at the spot
where they stood at the moment of the order. Hanuman could not disobey
the order of his lord, and he had accordingly to drop the Govardhan
mountain near Mathura. In order to fulfil Hanuman's promise, however,
Vishnu held the mountain over his head for seven days, at the time
of his Krishna incarnation.

It is said that the inhabitants of the districts round Govardhan
formerly revered and adored Indra. But Krishna condemned this custom,
and introduced the worship of Govardhan. Indra was exasperated
at this conduct, and poured tremendous rains on Gokal in order to
drown Krishna and his followers. But Krishna held up the Govardhan
mountain on his little finger and sheltered all his people under
its cover. The mountain was supported in this manner for seven days,
by the end of which the rains subsided and Indra confessed himself
vanquished. Even now Vaishnavas form an image of Govardhan out of
mud and worship it on the Janmashtami day (i.e., the eighth day of
the dark half of Shravan). [517]

The Oshama Hill near Patanvav (in the jurisdiction of Gondal) is
noted for the beautiful temples of Tapakeshwar Mahadev, and Matari
Mata. It is said that Bhima [518] the second of the five Pandavas,
first met the giantess Hidimba, on this hill. [519] The charcoal-like
stones which are dug out in numbers from this hill are believed by
the people to have been blackened by the blood of the giant Hidimb,
the brother of Hidimba who was killed by Bhima. [520]

Mount Shetrunja (or Shatruñjaya) possesses numerous Jain shrines and
attracts thousands of pilgrims every year. The hearts of all pilgrims
are believed to be purified from the moment they come within six
miles of the mountain. [521]

Mount Abu possesses the temple of Amba Mata where Krishna's hair
was clipped for the first time. [522] Tryambak is known for the
temple of Tryambakeshwar and the source of the holy Godavari. [523]
About Revatachal, it is said that the mountain was golden in ancient
times. [524] In the Vindhya Mountains is situated the famous temple of
Omkar Mandhata. [525] The hermitage of Kakbhushundi in the Nilgiris
was visited by Rama when he listened to the religious stories read
out by that sage. The sage Agatsya also is said to have resided in
these mountains. [526]

The temple of Hinglaj stands on a hill, which is situated at a distance
of eighteen days' journey by road from Karachi. The Mata is ministered
to by a Musalman and the place is mostly visited by Atits, Bavas,
Khatris, Chhipas, Mochis, and other low-caste Hindus. On occasions the
doors of the temple spontaneously open, and after the devotees have
visited the Mata, they again shut in the same mysterious manner.

As the abode of Shiva and as containing the sources of the holiest of
rivers, the Himalayas are the most sacred of all mountains, and possess
many holy places of pilgrimage, such as Badrinarayan, Kedarnath,
Hardwar, etc. Badrinarayan is the favourite resort of those who have
relinquished the world and who only wish to meditate on the Divine
Being. The sages Nara and Narayan are said to have performed religious
austerities in this place, and eighty-eight thousand rishis (sages)
are believed to be similarly occupied there to-day. Owing to the
excessive cold, the place is extremely difficult to reach. Pilgrims
carry burning hearths with them to protect themselves against
cold. Besides, it is necessary to cross the Pathar-nadi (or stony
river), of which the water, if touched, turns one into stone. The
method of crossing this river is to suspend sikans or slings above
its water and to swing from one sling to another. [527]

A hill called Swargarohan is believed to be twenty miles to the north
of Badrikedarnath and is said to lead to heaven. In ancient times the
Pandavas had repaired to this place in order to do penance for the
sin of having killed their kinsmen in the Great War. But when they
tried to ascend to heaven by the Swargarohan Hill, only Yudhishthir
and his faithful dog were able to reach their goal: the rest were
frozen in the snow.

Mount Kailasa, the abode of Shiva, is supposed to be situated in the
northern part of the Himalayas. The mountain is described as always
covered with verdure and full of beautiful gardens and of palaces
made of jewels, with roads paved with golden dust and sphatika-mani
(crystal stone). It is said that Ravan, the king of Lanka, once
uprooted this mountain and held it on the palm of his hand, in order
to display his prowess. The demon Bhasmasur, who was enamoured of the
goddess Parvati, is said to have performed the same feat in order to
frighten Shiva.

Another mythical mountain is Meru, which is supposed to occupy the
centre of the earth. [528] The sun, the moon, and all the planets
revolve round this mountain, and it therefore plays an important part
in the causation of day and night. For night falls on one side of
the earth when the sun goes to the other side of Meru; and the day
begins when the sun emerges from that side of the mountain. Meru is
sixty-eight thousand yojans [529] in height, and penetrates the earth
to the depth of sixteen thousand yojans. Its eastern side appears
white, the southern is yellow, the western is black, and the northern
red. The mountain is also believed to consist of gold and gems. The
Ganges, in her fall from the heavens, is said to have descended first
on the top of this mountain and then to have flowed in four streams
in four directions. The southern stream is known as the Ganges; the
northern, in Tartary, is called Bhadrasoma; the eastern is the same as
the Sita; and the western is named Chax or the Oxus. The top of this
mountain is believed to be inhabited by gods, gandharvas (celestial
musicians) and rishis (sages). [530] According to the Yoga-vasishtha,
there is a kalpa-vriksha [531] on the Lalmani summit of Meru, where
a rishi named Bhushundkak is engaged in devotional prayers since time
immemorial. [532] The Puranas declare that Vaivaswat Manu, the first
man, resided near Meru, and that his descendants migrated to Ayodhya
to found there a kingdom which was afterwards ruled over by Rama.

It is believed by some people that mountain-tops are inhabited by a
class of recluses, called Aghori-bavas, who devour human beings. [533]
The Kalika hill near Girnar is believed to be frequented by Joganis
(female harpies) who take the lives of visitors to the hill, and it
is said that none who visits the place is ever known to return. [534]
Persons who visit the temple of Kalikamata on Mount Girnar always
lose one of their party, who falls a victim to the goddess. [535]

The changes in the seasons are attributed by some to Brahma, Vishnu,
and Mahesha (Shiva), the gods of the Hindu Trinity. Brahma sends down
the rains and produces corn, grass, etc., Vishnu protects and nourishes
the harvests in winter, and Shiva causes the heat of the summer. [536]
There is also a belief that these three gods go down in turns to the
patal (nether regions) and stay there for four months. Vishnu descends
on the eleventh day of the bright half of Ashadh, and on that day the
rainy season begins. When Vishnu comes up and Shiva takes his place,
people experience the cold of winter: but as this god always keeps
a dhuni [537] burning near him, the waters under the surface of the
earth, such as those in the wells, remain hot during this period. Such
waters are cooled when Shiva returns and Brahma goes down to the patal:
but the return of Shiva causes summer on the earth. [538]

According to another belief, the sequence of the seasons is
controlled by the sun-god. [539] There are six ritus or seasons:
and the changes in the ritus depend upon the position of the sun in
the twelve rashis or signs of the Zodiac. [540] Each ritu lasts for
a period of two months, during which time the sun travels through two
rashis. Vasant-ritu is the period which the sun takes to pass through
the Min (Pisces) and Mesha (Aries) rashis. Grishma-ritu corresponds
to the time during which the sun passes through Vrishabha (Taurus)
and Mithun (Gemini). During Varsha-ritu the sun moves through
the signs Karka (Cancer) and Sinha (Leo), and during Sharad-ritu
through Kanya (Virgo) and Tula (Libra). Hemant-ritu is the time
which the sun takes to travel through Vrishchika (Scorpio) and Dhanu
(Sagittarius). Shishir-ritu occurs when the sun stands in the Makar
(Capricornus) and Kumbha (Aquarius) rashis. [541]

Indra (the god of rain), Varuna (the lord of all waters), Vayu (the god
of wind), Agni (the god of fire), and the moon-god are also believed
by some to have power over the seasons. [542]

The belief is as old as the Vedas that demons sometimes obstruct
the fall of rain, and confine the waters of the clouds. It is Indra
who fights with them and breaks through their castles by means of
his thunderbolt, sending down showers of rain for the benefit of
his worshippers. So, whenever there is an unusual drought, people
still invoke the aid of this god, and celebrate a festival in his
honour, called Ujjani or Indramahotsava. Homas [543] are performed to
propitiate the god, and Brahmans are entertained at a feast. Sometimes
the festival is celebrated outside the village, where people go in
large parties to dine together. The usual dish on such an occasion
is Meghladu or sweet balls of wheat-flour fried in ghi.

Another favourite ceremony supposed to cause rain to fall is the
submersion of the image of Shiva in water, by blocking up the khal or
passage in the Shiva-linga by which water poured over the image usually
runs off. This ceremony is known as Jala-jatra. Rudrabhisheka, or
the ceremony of pouring water in a constant stream over the image of
Shiva for eleven consecutive days and nights, is sometimes performed
with the same object. [544]

Sometimes the assistance of Shringhi rishi is invoked to bring about
a fall of rain. The rishi is installed in water, mantras are recited,
and prayers are offered before a sacrificial fire. This ceremony,
called Parjanya-shanti, is said to have been performed within recent
years in Bombay, and to have been successful in bringing rain. [545]

It is also said that rainfall can be caused by singing a song or
a sacred hymn to the malar tune. There is a tradition that the
well-known saint Narsinha Mehta once sang this tune on the occasion
of the celebration of the first pregnancy of his daughter, and the
performance was immediately followed by a shower of rain. Rain, which
is brought down in this manner, can be put a stop to by singing to
a different tune. [546]

Low-caste women have recourse to the following expedient to bring
rain. Five or six of them place a quantity of muddy earth on a wooden
stool, which is carried by one of them. The lump of mud is covered
with leaves of the Gidotan or Tindotan creeper, and is called mehulo
or meghalo. The whole party then sing songs, and visit every house
in the village. A bowl of water is poured over the mehulo and the
women receive some corn for their trouble. [547]

Some believe that when the worship of the village-gods is neglected
and when the people grow corrupt, ill-treat the saints and are
given to the killing of cows and Brahmans, Yama, the God of Death,
directs his colleagues, Indra and Varuna, to threaten the world with a
drought. The rainfall returns only when the people revert to righteous
ways, and after Indra and Varuna have been conciliated by offerings.

The lower classes of the people believe a prolonged cessation of rain
to be due to the wrath of local minor deities, aroused by the neglect
of their worship. In such a contingency, therefore, they prepare baklan
[548] of udad (lentils), lapsi, [549] vadan [550] and other dishes,
and offer them to the local gods for their propitiation. [551]

To stop an incessant fall of rain, people often observe the Aladra
vow. The patel or headman issues a proclamation that on a particular
day none should cook, or churn whey, or fetch water, or wash clothes,
or attend to any of the multifarious household duties; but that all
should pass the day in prayer. A complete cessation from toil in favour
of earnest devotion to divine powers are the peculiar features of this
vow. People do not abstain from food: but food must be prepared on
the previous day. If the rains do not cease in spite of this vow, but
threaten the village with inundation, the headman leads a procession to
the confines of the village and makes an offering to the waters. [552]

In some places a spinning wheel, sometimes specially constructed
of human bones, [553] is turned by a naked person in the reverse
direction to the usual one, with the object of causing the cessation
of immoderate rainfall. [554]

A cessation of rains is also believed to be brought about by offering
an oblation to the god Kasatia, and by the observance of the vow called
Kasatia ganth (or tying the knot of Kasatia). The vow lasts for three
weeks, and those who observe it do not partake of anything except rice
[555] (or, according to others, jiran, a kind of spice [556]).

Some persons attribute a heavy fall of rain to the wrath of Indra,
and offer ceremonious prayers to appease that god. [557] In some
places people engage the services of magicians to restrain the fall of
rain. [558] Farmers sometimes brand the rain by casting burning sparks
upon it in order to stop an incessant fall. [559] Vows in honour of
samudra (the ocean) are also observed with the same object.

In the changing circumstances of life, women more readily have recourse
to religious vows for the fulfilment of their wishes than men. This
fondness of women for vows has brought into vogue a number of vrats or
religious observances which are practised by women only. Gangigor or
Ganagor, Vat-Savitri, Molakat, Goutrat, Alavana or Alunda, Eva-vrat,
Tulsi-vrat, Uma masheshwar-vrat, and Surya-vrat are instances of
such vows. The Molakat-vrat is observed by virgins from the
eleventh to the fifteenth day of the bright half of Ashadh. [560]
The Goutrat-vrat is believed to secure male progeny, as well as long
life to the husband. It is observed on the fourth day of the dark
half of Shravana, on which day women fast till the evening, and then
take food after worshipping a cow. [561] The object of the Eva-vrat
(or Jiva-vrat) is to secure eternal exemption from widowhood, the
day for this vow being the last day of Ashadh. It is then necessary
to observe a fast till the evening; and the only food allowed is a
preparation of wheat, taken at nightfall. [562]

On the fourth day of the dark half of Shravan, women observe a vrat
called Bolchoth. In the morning the woman worships a cow and her calf
(which must both be of the same colour), applies a little cotton to
the horns of the cow, and makes an auspicious mark on the foreheads
of both with red lac. She then places an offering of betel and rice
before the cow, takes four turns round the pair, and whispers in the
ears of the cow the words tarun satya marun vritya (your truth and
my devotion). A Brahman then recites the legend of the vrat. [563]

After narrating this story, the Brahman takes the betel and other
things placed before the cow. The woman then returns home and takes
food for the first time during that day, the meal consisting of loaves
of bajra-flour and some preparation of mag (phaseolus mungo). Some
women take ghi and khir: but any preparation of cow's milk is strictly
forbidden. Similarly, there is a prohibition against using things
which have been cut by a knife or scissors. [564]

The worship of the goddess Randal is a favourite vrat with Gujarati
women. A bower is erected for the installation of the goddess, and
a bajat or a wooden stool is placed therein. A piece of fine cloth
is spread on the bajat, and a figure is drawn in seeds of corn. A
kalasio or bowl, with a cocoanut on it, is placed over the figure. The
cocoanut has two eyes painted on it in black collyrium and a nose in
red lac, and is decorated with rich clothes and ornaments to represent
the goddess Randal. Ghi lamps are kept constantly burning before the
goddess for three consecutive days and nights. An invitation is sent
to the neighbouring women, who bring offerings of ghi to the goddess,
and dance in a group at night to the accompaniment of melodious garabis
(songs). [565] Sometimes, if a child is ill, or some misfortune is
apprehended, goranis, i.e., a certain number of unmarried girls and
unwidowed women, are invited to a feast in honour of Randal.

On the Nagapanchami day, i.e., the 5th day of the bright half of
Shravan, [566] women draw an image of a nag (cobra), and worship it
with sprouts of bajra. In some places it is the custom to avoid all
food but khichedi [567] on this day.

The wad (the banyan tree) is worshipped on the first day of the dark
half of Shravan. On that day the woman wears a necklace of fifteen
leaves of this tree and prepares a dish called navamuthium. [568]
A dora or piece of string is also worn on the person to ward off
evil. [569]

Rishi-panchami, [570] Gauri-pujan, Shitalai-pujan, Shili-satem are
holidays observed only by women. On the Rishi-panchami day only niar
[571] rice is allowed to those who observe the vrat. [572]

Besides the observance of vrats, there are other ceremonies,
auspicious as well as inauspicious, in which women alone can take
part. Only women are concerned with all those ceremonies which are
gone through on the birth of a child. On the twelfth day after birth,
a name is given to the child by its aunt. The ceremony of making an
auspicious mark on the throne of a king is performed by an unwidowed
woman or an unmarried girl. [573]

At the time of a marriage, women make the auspicious mark on the
forehead of the bridegroom and carry a laman-divo [574] to fetch
ukardi. For nine days preceding the date of marriage the bride and
the bridegroom are besmeared with pithi or yellow turmeric powder,
when auspicious songs are recited by a party of women invited to
witness the ceremony. When the bridegroom reaches the entrance of
the marriage bower, he is welcomed there by his mother-in-law, who
carries him on her hip to his seat in the marriage booth. [575]

It is necessary to make certain marks on the corpse of a woman, and
these marks are made by women only. [576] Similarly, women alone take
part in the ceremony of getting a widow's hair shaved on the ninth
day after her husband's death. [577]

The Shastras have enjoined the worship of certain higher-grade deities,
and have prescribed certain ceremonials for the purpose. But women are
not authorised to make use of these ceremonies. The reason is that
the Shastras regard women as inferior to men and do not grant them
the privileges given to the latter. They are not allowed to learn
the Vedas nor can the Gayatri-mantra be taught to them. The result
is that women are not qualified to perform the ceremonial worship
of such higher-grade deities as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Ganpati,
and Hanuman; [578] similarly the sacrificial rites of Vishnuyag,
Shaktiyag, Ashvamedha, Raja-yajna, and Gayatri-purashcharan can only
be performed by men. [579]

It is the duty of men only to worship the shami tree (prosopis
spicegera) on the Dasara day, and the Hutashani fire on the day
of Holi.

Women are not allowed to worship the god Kartikey, who is said to
shun women, and to have pronounced a curse against all who visit
his image.

The fifteenth day of the bright half of Chaitra is the anniversary of
the birth of Hanuman, and a vrat called Hanuman-jayanti is observed
on this day. This vrat, [580] as well as the Ganesh-chaturthi-vrat
[581] are meant only for men.

The ceremonies of Shraddha [582] and the Baleva [583] ceremonies
can be performed by men only. The duty of giving agni-sanskar
to corpses, i.e., of performing the necessary rites at a funeral,
is also laid on men.

People who practise the art of attaining mastery over spirits and
fiends, usually remain naked while they are engaged in the performance
of their mysterious rites. There are many branches of this black
art: for instance, Maran, [584] Uchchatan, [585] Lamban, Vashikaran,
[586] Mohan, [587] Stambhan, [588] etc., and although the meli vidya
(sacrilegious art) is not held in respect by high-class Hindus, it is
popular among the lower classes. There is a belief that knowledge of
this art dooms a person to hell; but it secures to those who master it
a position of much importance, and therefore finds many followers. The
art consists in the knowledge of certain mysterious incantations,
which enable a person to influence the spirits and to bring about
certain results through their agency. Not only has every person when
learning this art, to remain naked, but all those who make prayogas
or experiments in it afterwards must observe the same precaution. The
night of Kali-chaudas or the 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin,
is considered to be the most favourable time for the sadhan or
accomplishment of this secret art of remaining naked. [589] On this
day, it is the custom of those who exercise the art, to go stripped
to a cemetery in the dead of night, and to cook food in a human skull
as an offering to the spirits residing in the neighbourhood. On the
same night, some sorcerers, after stripping themselves, are said to
ride round the village on some mysterious conveyance. [590]

A practice is noted among low-class people of performing a sadhana
before the goddess Jhampadi for the sake of progeny. The man who
performs the sadhana, has first to go naked to a cemetery on a Sunday
night, and to fetch therefrom the ashes of a corpse. At the time of
the sadhana, the man takes his seat on a corpse, fills a madaliun or
hollow bracelet with the ashes brought from the cemetery, and puts
it on his arm above the elbow. [591]

Dhobis, Malis, Valands and other low-caste people remain naked
while worshipping Bhairav. [592] In the performance of the anushthan
(propitiation) of such deities as Kal-Bhairav, [593] Batuk, Mani,
[594] Griva, etc., the devotees keep their persons uncovered. The
worshippers of the goddess Jakshani also remain naked when they attend
upon her. [595]

Persons who practise the art of curing men from the effects of
serpent-bites by means of incantations, have to sit naked under water
in order to gain efficacy for their mantras.

Followers of the Devi-panth, Shakti-panth and Aghori-panth sects
remain naked while worshipping or offering victims to their gods. [596]
Vama-margis worship a nude image of the goddess Digambara.

The hook-shaped instrument, known as ganeshio, which is used by
thieves in boring a hole through the walls of a house, is sometimes
prepared by a blacksmith and his wife on the night of Kali-chaudas,
both being naked at the time. Instruments prepared in this fashion
are believed to secure success for the thief, who scrupulously sets
aside the first booty acquired by the help of the ganeshio for the
blacksmith as a reward for his services. He does not grudge the reward
however large the booty may be.

In making dice according to the directions of Ramalashastra, the
workers should remain naked.

There is a belief that granulations in the eyes of a child are cured
if the maternal uncle fetches naked the beads of the Arani tree,
and puts a circlet of them round the neck of the child. [597]

If a person uncovers himself on hearing the screech of an owl, and then
ties and unties seven knots in a piece of string, repeating the process
twenty-one times, the piece of string is believed to possess the virtue
of curing Taria Tav or periodical fever. [598] Another remedy for the
same ailment is to go to a distance of three miles from the village
and there to eat food which has been cooked in a state of nudity.

In the preparation of Nargudikalpa [599] or Gujakalpa, some drugs
have to be procured by a naked person. [600]

It is considered meritorious by some persons to rise early in the
morning and to bathe naked on the Makar Sankranti day. [601]

A Brahman boy must be naked at the time of the performance of his
thread investiture ceremony. After the ceremony, the maternal uncle
of the boy presents garments to him, which he thereupon puts on. [602]

In Gujarat, for the most part, the people seem to be unacquainted
with the belief that certain stones possess the virtue of influencing
the rain. Some persons however attribute this quality to the stones
on such sacred mounts as Girnar, Abu, and Pavagadh. [603] There is a
point called Tonk, on mount Girnar, of which it is said that rain is
certain to fall whenever anyone succeeds in climbing it. [604] There
is also a common belief that arasi marble if heated has influence
over rain. [605]

It is a common practice to submerge the image [606] of Shiva in
water with the object of bringing rain. Similarly the image of
the goddess Harshadh is sometimes bathed when rain is desired. [607]
The bhuva or the bhui, i.e., the male and the female attendants of
the goddess are at the same time given a bath, and an offering of Khir
[608] is made to the goddess.

There are two goals which a pious Hindu tries to attain by leading
a life of purity and virtue, viz., (i) moksha or final emancipation,
merging into the Eternal Spirit, and (ii) swarga (heaven or paradise)
where meritorious persons enjoy pure pleasures unalloyed by earthly
cares. The stars are the spirits of so many righteous persons who are
translated to swarga for their good actions, and are endowed with a
lustre proportionate to their individual merits. But every moment of
enjoyment in swarga diminishes the store of merit: and those whose
whole merit is thus exhausted, on receiving their proportionate share
of pleasures, must resume their worldly existence. The Bhagavad-gita
says: "ksine punye martyalokam visanti" i.e., "they enter the mortal
world when their merit is expended." Meteors are believed to be
spirits of this description who fall from their position as stars,
to live again on this earth. [609]

Another explanation of meteors is that they are the sparks produced
when the vimans (or vehicles) of celestial people clash against each
other. [610]

Meteors are also held to be the agar or charak (i.e., excreta) dropped
either by a curious water-bird, or by Garud, the favourite eagle,
and vehicle of Vishnu, [611] or by a fabulous bird Anal. [612] The
latter is said to fly at an immeasurable height from the surface
of the earth, and to take food only once a day. It is almost
impossible to catch the charak when it falls to earth: but if ever
it can be secured, the application of it to the eyes of a blind man
will restore his eyesight. It also furnishes an effective remedy for
leprosy, and gives a golden lustre to the body of a person suffering
from that disease.

Some declare that meteors are stars which fall owing to the curse of
Indra, and subsequently assume the highest human form on earth. [613]

It is also said that the stars descend to earth in human form when
sins accumulate in the celestial world. [614]

The influence of meteors on human affairs is treated at length in the
Varahasanhita. [615] The phenomenon is popularly regarded as an evil
omen: it is supposed to portend devastation by fire, an earthquake,
a famine, an epidemic, danger from thieves, and storms at sea. [616]
The appearance of a bright shooting star is supposed to foretell the
death of some great man; [617] and on beholding one, it is customary
to repeat the words 'Ram Ram' [618] several times. [619] A shower of
meteors is believed to presage some civil commotion or a change in
the ruling dynasties.

Some persons, however, regard the appearance of meteors as auspicious
or baneful, according to the mandal or group of stars, from which they
are seen to fall. Meteors from the Vayu-mandal, (or the group of stars
known by the name of Vayu) portend the breaking out of an epidemic:
those from Varuna-mandal, are believed to be favourable to human
happiness; if they fall from Indra-mandal, they forebode danger to
all kings; those from Agni-mandal, threaten war between nations. [620]

During the monsoons, rain is believed to fall in that direction
in which a meteor is seen to shoot. [621] A meteor in the west is
ominous to kings, and if it falls into the sea, it forebodes evil to
the dwellers on earth. [622]

The appearance of a comet is believed to portend some dire calamity
to the king and the nation. It is said that if a heavenly body
is seen, chhogalo, [623] chhogala kings (i.e., great and celebrated
kings) are in danger of their lives. [624] A comet is also believed
to threaten all tailed animals with destruction.



CHAPTER II.

HEROIC GODLINGS


Several stories, in addition to the legend of the Ramayana, are
related of the birth of the god Hanuman. Dasharatha, king of Ayodhya,
being childless, once performed a sacrifice with the hope of thereby
obtaining male issue. On the completion of the ceremony a heavenly
being rose out of the sacrificial fire and presented the king
with a celestial preparation, called payas, which he directed the
king to give to his wives if he desired a son. The king divided the
divine gift among his three queens; but the share of one of them was
snatched away by an eagle. It was dropped into the hands of Anjani,
who was herself childless, and was practising austerities for the
sake of obtaining a son. On partaking of the payas, Anjani conceived,
and the son born to her was afterwards known as the god Hanuman.

Another story relates how Anjani was one of those persons who helped
Indra in his evil designs on Ahalya, the wife of Gautama. She had on
that account been cursed by Gautama, and threatened with the birth of
a fatherless child. To prevent the curse from taking effect, Anjani
buried herself in the ground as far as her waist, and began to observe
religious austerities in the hope of propitiating Shiva. The latter was
pleased with her devotion, and sent her a mantra through Narada, who
was ordered to deliver it in her ear. Vayu, the god of wind, forced the
mantra into her womb, and she conceived a son named Hanuman. This son
had the form of a monkey, because, at the time of conception, Anjani
happened to behold a monkey, named Keshi, on a neighbouring tree.

Hanuman is a chiranjiva, i.e., one of those seven [625] persons who
are to live for ever and are therefore considered to be immortal. He
is represented as possessed of miraculous strength, and his body is
vajramaya, i.e., adamantine. When Sita was carried off by Ravana, it
was he who crossed the sea and brought news about her to Rama. When
Ahi and Mahi, two cousins of Ravana, carried off Rama and Lakshmana
by magic and decided to offer them as victims to their favourite
goddess Panoti, Hanuman entered the temple of Panoti, crushed her
under his feet, and released Rama and Lakshmana. Hence he is known
as the conqueror of Panoti. After the death of Ravana, Hanuman was
left to guard the kingdom of Lanka, which was conferred by Rama on
Bibhishana, the brother of Ravana. [626]

Hanuman is an incarnation of one of the eleven Rudras, [627] [628]
is a brahmachari (i.e., one who has taken the vow of celibacy),
a powerful and benevolent deity, and a giver of many blessings. At
the same time, he is considered to be the master-deity of all bhuts,
prets, pishachas, (ghosts, goblins, fiends), of dakans (witches),
shakans, chudel, vantri, of the forty-nine virs (male fiends), of the
fifty-two vetals, of yakshas and yakshinis and of all evil spirits
in general, who are believed to obey his commands. [629] Vows are
observed in honour of Hanuman if a person is possessed by a bhut or a
pret, or if he is scared by a jhapat (sudden encounter) with a devil,
or if he happens to step inadvertently within the kundalan [630] of
an utar. Persons who are possessed by evil spirits are exorcised by
the bhuvas by reciting the zanzira mantra in honour of Hanuman. [631]

Kali-Chaudas, i.e., the 14th day of dark half of Ashvin [632] is
considered to be the most favourable day for practising the black art;
and the god Hanuman is accordingly worshipped with much ceremony by
bhuvas on that day.

All bhuts, prets and spirits are thus believed to obey the commands
of the god Hanuman. In the course of a sadhana (i.e. the process of
procuring the fulfilment of certain desires through the favour and by
the agency of spirits) the latter are conjured in the name of Hanuman,
so that the sadhana may not prove inefficacious. For this purpose
the Hanuman raksha mantra is repeated one hundred and eight times
before the image of the god, the devotee remaining standing all the
time. A lamp of clarified butter is also lighted, and frankincense is
burnt. The mantra runs as follows:--'Om namo Hanuman bala ghatapidam,
panika rakhavala, lohaki kothadi, bajarka tala, deva-danava-kumar,
nikal Hanuman asan, Mahadev basan, Hanuman hathela, bajarka khila.' It
is neither pure Sanskrit, nor Gujarati, nor Hindustani, but roughly it
means:--'Bow to the young Hanuman, the tormentor of ghata, the guardian
of water, the iron-safe, the lock of vajra, the son of the gods and
the demons. Take your seat, the receptacle of Mahadev, O stubborn god,
O Nail of adamant.' After the repetition of the mantra, four nails
are driven into the four corners of the seat of the votary, and it
is believed that the sadhana is thus rendered sure of success. [633]

The god Hanuman is sometimes worshipped when a serious epidemic is
to be warded off. The usual mode of propitiating him in such cases,
and also in exorcising spirits, is to pour red lead and oil over
his image, to make an offering of udad seeds (Phaseolus radiatus)
and molasses, and to invest the image with a wreath of one hundred
and eight flowers of ankada [634] or of as many leaves or berries of
the same plant. [635]

The influence of the god is believed to be so powerful in some places
that it is said that a bhut or a pishacha is at once exorcised from
the body of a person who observes certain ceremonies there. In some
places the mere sight of the image of the god has the same effect,
and it is believed that ghosts shriek and fly from the bodies of
possessed persons, if these visit the images of Hanuman. In Kodolia,
about half a mile to the west of Lilapur in Gujarat, there is a temple
of Hanuman where persons suffering from fever go on a Saturday,
and take a meal before 2 p. m. at which time the god goes out to
graze his cows. This proceeding is believed to work a cure in cases
of fever and is called anagah. [636] A mere glance at the temple of
Hanuman at Khandia and Saranghur, or of that image which is known as
'Bhid-bhanjan,' is sufficient to drive out evil spirits from the
bodies of possessed persons. [637] The same virtue is attributed
to the images of Hanuman at Bhurakhia, near Lathi and at Nariana,
near Dhrangadhra, in Jhalavar, [638] Kathiawar.

There are certain peculiar conjunctions of planets, which if they
appear in a person's horoscope, always bring him misfortunes. In
such circumstances, the person is said to be under the influence
of panoti. [639] Such influence lasts for a period varying from one
year to seven years and a half. [640] When the planet Shani (Saturn)
enters the 1st, 11th, or the 12th rashi in relation to a person,
the latter is said to be affected by sadasati-panoti, i.e., panoti
extending over seven years and a half. [641] The panoti enters the life
of such a person with feet either of gold, silver, copper or iron:
and in most cases the result is disastrous. If the panoti affects
the head of a person, he loses his wits; if it affects the heart,
it takes away his wealth; when it affects the feet, it brings bodily
ailments. In order to counteract the evil effects of panoti, people
worship Hanuman as the god who crushed the malignant goddess Panoti
under his feet. On Saturdays red lead and oil, adad, molasses are
offered to the image of the god. Frankincense is burnt, a lamp is
lighted, and a wreath of ankada flowers is sometimes dedicated. [642]
A fast is observed on such days; and sometimes the services of a
Brahman are engaged to recite verses in honour of the god.

There is a belief that Hanuman cries out once in twelve years,
and those men who happen to hear him are transformed into hijadas
(eunuchs).

Oil which has been poured over the image of Hanuman and caught in
a vessel is called naman. It is sometimes carried in a vatki (a
small metal cup) and is burnt to produce anjan (i.e., soot used as
collyrium). This anjan is believed to improve the eyesight, and to
protect a person from the influence of evil spirits. There is
a saying in Gujarati that 'Kali-chaudasno anjyo, ane koine na jay
ganjio'. i.e., a person using anjan on Kalichaudas day cannot be
foiled by anyone. [643]

Of the days of the week, Saturday is the most suitable for the worship
of Hanuman. Of all offerings, that of red lead and oil is the most
acceptable to him. When Hanuman was carrying the Drona mountain
to the battlefield before Lanka, he was wounded in the leg by an
arrow from Bharata, the brother of Rama. The wound was healed by the
application of red lead and oil, and hence his predilection for these
things. It is also said that after the death of Ravana and at the
time of the coronation of Bibhishana, Rama distributed prizes to all
his monkey followers, when nothing was left for Hanuman except red
lead and oil.

Mostly Ankada flowers are used in worshipping Hanuman, but sometimes
Karan flowers also are made to serve the purpose. The favourite
dishes of Hanuman are malidda [644], churama [645] and vadan. [646]
The usual naivedya is malidda of Savapati, i.e., of wheat weighing
about six pounds and a quarter and vadan. [647]

Bhima the second of the Pandavas was begotten from Kunti by Vayu, the
god of wind, and hence was called Vayusuta. From his childhood he was
possessed of miraculous strength, and had a voracious appetite. Every
day he consumed 12 kalashis [648] (or 192 maunds) of corn, and as much
oil as is yielded by 13 ghanis. He also required a maund and a
quarter of betelnuts after each dinner. These habits had procured him
the name of Vrikodara, i.e., wolf-bellied. He played a very important
part in the Great War, and on the last day of the battle smashed the
thigh of Duryodhana with his ponderous mace. In his early days he
killed several demons including Baka and Hidimba. [649]

Bhima never took food without first worshipping Mahadev. On one
occasion no temple of Shiva could be found within easy distance,
and in a rage, Bhima turned his bowl upside down and set it up as
Mahadev. Such was the first installation of Bhimanath Mahadev revered
to this day by all Hindus.

Once upon a time Bhima obstructed the stream of a river by laying
himself across it, when the river rose to the banks and submerged
a temple of Shiva near by. Shiva thereupon assumed the form of a
lion and pretended to chase Parvati in the guise of a cow. Bhima,
in his true Kshatriya spirit, instantly rose from the water in order
to save the cow from the lion. But the latter gave Bhima a blow on
the shoulder with one of his paws, and instantly transformed himself
into a sage. After Bhima had fruitlessly searched for the lion for a
long time, he was informed by the sage that it was he, Shiva, who had
assumed the form of a lion in order to rouse him from his position
across the river. Shiva then favoured him with a boon that the half
of his body which had received the blow would be turned into vajra
(adamant). On Bhima's request a further boon was granted to him
that he should in future be able to digest as much as he could eat
without suffering discomfort. Hence the proverb: Bhima khave shakuni
aghe. [650]

It is said that Bhima once played at navateri (lit. nine and thirteen),
i.e., he flung into the sky nine elephants with his right hand and
thirteen with his left. The corpses of these animals were afterwards
brought down to earth by Shukamuni to expiate king Janmejaya's sin
of Brahmahatya (Brahman-slaughter).

In his whole life-time Bhima is said to have fasted only on one day,
which happened to be the eleventh day of the bright half of Jyeshtha
and is now called Bhima-agiaras. On this day people who desire to
be cured of dyspepsia observe a strict fast, taking neither food
nor water, and pass their hands over their bellies repeating the
name of Bhima and also offer cocoanuts to his image. [651] On the
night of Bhima-agiaras, persons who are anxious to obtain health,
wealth and victory over their enemies, bathe the image of Bhima in
water and panchamrit [652] and worship it according to the prescribed
ceremonies. [653]

In some places there are vavs (or tanks) called Bhima-vavs which
are said to have been formed by the strokes of Bhima, when playing
gilli-danda. [654]

There are huge images of Bhima on Mount Palitana. [655] There are
many places in different parts of India which possess such images
and which are believed to have been visited by the Pandavas during
their exile from Hastinapur. The Pandavas never attained the status
of gods and there is no systematic form of worship for them.

Bhishma, the uncle of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, was an incarnation
of one of the Ashtavasus [656] and was the son of king Shantanu
by Ganga. The stories about Bhishma are chiefly derived from the
Mahabharat, and need not be repeated here. He is not regarded as a
god and does not receive systematic worship. [657]

A fast is observed on the eighth day of Magh, the anniversary of
the death of Bhishma. A dora (a knotted piece of string) tied in
the name of Bhishma is believed to cure fever. [658] The Yantra (a
mystical formula or diagram) of Bhishma is sometimes drawn on a piece
of paper, water is poured over it, and the water is offered to women
in labour to drink, as likely to expedite delivery. Bhishma-worship
is supposed to facilitate the observance of the Brahmacharya-vrat
(the vow of celibacy) and to bestow heroism and learning. [659]
Bhishma is credited with having composed the well-known poem,
Bhishma-stavaraj, which recites the glory of Krishna and shows the
way to attain salvation. [660]

There is a large temple of Ganpati near the eastern gates of Dhhank. It
is said that this Ganpati informed a goldsmith, by appearing in a
dream, that he was buried in a particular spot, and promised that a son
would be born to him if he raised a temple in honour of the god. The
goldsmith satisfied the wishes of the god and was soon relieved from
the repeated taunt of the vanziapana (i.e., the barrenness of his
wife). [661]

The following tradition is connected with a place, about a mile from
Dhhank, called Dhhank-ni Fui. Dhhank was in ancient times a great
city and was known as Preh Patan [662]. Once a bava (recluse), named
Dhundhalimal, came to reside with his chela (disciple) in a cave on
a neighbouring hill. Every day the chela went about the city begging
alms for himself and his guru; but nobody except a poor kumbharan
(a potter-woman) ever gave him anything. So the chela was obliged to
cut and sell fuel in order to obtain means of subsistence, although
he did not mention this fact to his guru. One day the guru noticed
the growing baldness of his disciple and on being questioned about it,
the latter had to admit his difficulties in earning a livelihood. The
next day the bava decided to test the charity of the neighbourhood,
and went on a begging round in person. He moved about the city from
door to door, crying aloud alek alek, but nobody except the kumbhar
woman offered him so much as a handful of flour. He then addressed the
latter thus:--"Girl, this city is sinful and will shortly meet with
destruction. Fly, therefore, instantly with your family and never turn
your face towards the city in your flight". Having thus warned the only
righteous person in the city, the bava returned to his cave where,
after reciting an incantation in high exasperation, he pronounced a
terrible curse for the destruction of the city 'Let Patan be buried
and let maya [663] be reduced to mati (dust).' A whirlwind at once
arose and destroyed the whole city. The kumbharan had already fled
with her children; but she unfortunately happened to look back in
her flight, in spite of the warning, and she and her children were
all turned into stones. In this form she can be seen even to-day,
with two of her children on her shoulders and leading the other two.

To the south of the same village on the banks of a small lake are
situated the temples of Hinglaj Mata and Kamdev Mahadev. If there is a
prospect of a drought in any year, the people of the village make an
offering of lapsi to the former deity in order to bring about a fall
of rain. About two miles from Dhhank there is a temple of Vikani, in
whose honour vows are observed for the cure of fractured bones of men
and animals. Brahmans are feasted at the temple of Hanuman at Timbo,
four miles away from Dhhank. At a distance of about two khetarvas
(fields) there is the shrine of Ashabi-pir where Mussalmans feast
fakirs and other co-religionists of theirs. [664]

Besides the above there are the temples of Shankar Tapakeshwar Mahadev
and Mungeshwar Mahadev near the hill mentioned in the paragraph above
and the temples of Pipaleshwar Mahadev and Ramchandraji, to the south
of Dhhank. There are also temples erected in honour of suttees known
as Nomalmata, Hulmata, etc.

The river Vinu meets the Bhadar, at a place two miles to the east
of Ganod, and the Moja also joins the Bhadar a little further to the
east. Hence the spot is called Traveni (a confluence of three rivers)
and is regarded as holy. The beautiful temple of Baraneshwar Mahadev
is situated here. Vows for feasting a certain number of Brahmans,
are observed in honour of this deity. [665]

The celebrated shrine of Husen-pir is situated in the vicinity of
Ganod, and is much revered by the Khoja community, who hold a fair
there on every Aso-sud-bij, i.e. the second day of the bright half
of Ashvin. The fair lasts for seven or eight days, when Khojas from
Bombay and even Zanzibar visit the place. A large building, the
Khoja-khana, is set apart to the west of the shrine for the sabha
(or meeting). The largest fair was held in samvat 1940 (1884 A.D.),
when H. H. the Agashah paid a visit to the shrine. There is a large
gathering of people at the place every bij day.

Husen-pir was a native of Kadi and a Saiyed by birth. In his youth,
with his father's permission, he decided to remain unmarried, and
took to travelling. In the course of his wanderings he halted for
a week on the spot where his shrine stands at present, and was so
charmed with the place, that he asked the owner of it, a Rabari,
Almora by name, for permission to reside there always. The Pir was
accompanied by two followers of the Mujavar fakir sect. The present
Mujavar attendants at the shrine are descended from them, and stand
in the 12th or the 15th degree of descent.

One evening (it was the 5th day of the dark half of Bhadrapad) the
Pir accompanied by his two followers went to the Bhadar to offer the
evening prayers. After the prayers were over, he told his followers
that a flood was soon coming in the river, and asked both of them to
leave him and return with their horses. One of them left the place
as directed: but the other placed his head on the Pir's lap and was
drowned along with his master in the flood, which came down as if in
obedience to the Pir's words. Before dying the Pir granted a boon to
the Mujavars that their line of descent would never fail for want of
their heirs, and that their heirs would always be his attendants.

The same night the Pir informed the Khojas of Keshod and Kutiana
that his corpse and that of his Mujavar follower lay unburied at
a particular spot. The Khojas, accompanied by the Rabari Almora,
visited the place in the morning and made ready to carry the corpses
to Junagadh. They found to their astonishment that the corpses could
not be removed. Almora then recollected the request of the Pir, and
told the Khojas of his favourite place. The corpses were then carried
to their present place of rest, and all efforts of the Khojas to
proceed further proved unavailing. At that time there was a village
called Keralun about a mile from the present site of Ganod. It is,
however, uninhabited and in ruins and its site is now known as the
timbo of Keralun. The Khojas erected a shrine over the place where
the Pir was buried, and the tombs of his relatives were afterwards
erected in the vicinity. Vows observed in honour of the Pir having
proved fruitful in many cases, the Pir's fame spreads wider every
day. The Gondal Durbar has granted a wadi (a piece of land) for the
maintenance of the Mujavar family, who also receive the things that
are offered to the Pir. The Khojas consider it a merit to dedicate a
portion of their earnings to this Pir. People of all castes from Ganod
offer one kori [666] at the time of the marriage of a girl at their
house. The knots of the marriage-scarves of newly-wedded couples are
untied here, and the ceremony of shaving children for the first time
is also performed in the presence of the Pir. The usual offering to
the Pir consists of churamu and kansar: some people, however, offer
a goat or a ram and call it panechednariel. [667]

There is a hollow log of wood on the boundary of Lath, a sub-village
of Gondal and a mile to the South of Ganod. Long ago a fakir, while
accompanying a band of outlaws barvatias, was killed in a scuffle
and was buried here. A babul tree grew over his tomb, and came to be
known afterwards as Lakkad Pir (the wooden Pir). The tree after a time
withered till its stem was reduced to a small log with a hole in the
centre. People observe vows in honour of this Pir for the cure of
cough and bronchitis in children. After recovery, the children are
made to pass through this bakan or hole and an offering of kansar
is made to the Pir. It is not only the Musalmans who observe vows in
the Pir's honour: Hindus also have the same strong faith in him.

Nearly twelve miles from Vanod lies the temple of Bechra Mata,
who is the patron goddess of the Pavaiya sect. A male buffalo is
offered to her as a victim on the 15th day of the bright half of
every month. Near the temple there is the holy kund of Mansarovar,
the legend about which has already been related in these notes. [668]

The village of Dadvi possesses the shrine of Mangalsha Pir. Friday is
the day for special worship of the Pir, when dainties and cocoanuts
are offered, and a flag is hoisted. Frankincense is burnt every
evening. [669] There is also a temple of Machho, the goddess of the
Bharvads, who offer her lapsi and cocoanuts on every bij day. They
also light a ghi lamp and lop off the ears of a goat or a ram, and
offer the blood to the goddess.

In Kolki a bava of the Bharvad caste named Hado Bhagat is said to
have set up the images of all the gods in a certain temple. It is
believed that he possessed miraculous powers. His descendants do not
sell goats to Kasais (butchers [670]).

There is a temple of Khodiar Mata in Chok. The goddess is worshipped
by Atits, who offer her lapsi on every Dasara day. There is also a
temple of Hanuman, where the Khakhis bring an offering to the god
every Saturday. [671]

In the village of Mota Devalia are the temples of Bholanath, Mahadev
and Pipaleshwar Mahadev. Both the deities are worshipped by Atits,
who perform the ceremony with the usual materials of frankincense,
a ghi-lamp, cooked food, and who also blow a conch. It is said about
Pipaleshwar Mahadev that none can stay at night in the temple. Once
a Brahman, who insisted on passing the night there, was hurled to a
distance of two fields. There is also a temple of Swami-Narayan and
three temples of Thakorji where the ceremony of worship is performed
every morning and evening in the usual way with frankincense, a ghi
lamp, and arati. The shrine of Nila-Pir on the village boundary is
revered alike by Hindus and Musalmans. [672]

In the vicinity of Chhatrasa, there is a temple of Kishordas
Hanuman. On Kali-Chaudas day the people of the village offer churamu
and vadan to the god. The shrine of Gebalasha Pir is situated two miles
away from Chhatrasa, on the boundary line between that village and
Kalana. Sweet-balls, or sometimes only molasses, are offered to this
Pir on the fulfilment of vows observed in his name. Near the village
gates lies the shrine of Daudshah, of whom it is said that he deprives
thieves of their eye-sight, if they try to enter Chhatrasa. In the
Vishnu-mandir, annakut [673] is offered to Vishnu by the attendant
priest, on the first day of the bright half of Kartik. [674]

A temple of Khodiar Mata surrounded by Pandari creepers is to be seen
on the way from Mojidad to Sanka. The Thakor of Limbdi used to kill a
goat before the goddess during the Navaratra holidays; but an offering
of lapsi is now substituted for the goat. There is another temple
of the same goddess on the way to Zabala where she is worshipped by
the Bhadkava Durbar. The attendants at both places are Atits, and the
usual offering consists of lapsi and khir. [675] At a place near the
boundary-line between Mojidad and Ayarda, Swami-Narayan Bhagwan and
Sahajanand Swami are said to have bathed in the company of Hanuman in
the river Vansal. The Brahmacharis [676] of the Swami-Narayan sect
hold a fair there and offer prayers to Hanuman on the 15th day of
the dark half of Bhadrapad. [677]

Every marriage-procession on its way to and from the place of marriage
has to offer a new earthen jar to such field-deities as Dadmokhodiar,
Lalo, Hardas, etc. Failure to do so arouses the wrath of these
deities and brings disasters to the married couple. The only form
of worship in use for these deities is to apply red lead and oil to
their images. Seven kinds of corn, viz. adad (phaseolus radiatus),
mag (phaseolus mungo), kalathi, math, chana (gram), wheat and juvari
are mixed and cooked together and the preparation which is called
khichdi is offered to the deities at sunset. If the deities are not
propitiated in this manner, they are believed to do harm to the people
of the village. [678]

On a hill near the village of Patanvav there is a temple of Mataji,
where a ghi lamp is kept constantly burning at the cost of the Gondal
Durbar. In Patanvav itself there is a shrine of Ahaba Pir attended
upon by a fakir. At the approach of the monsoons, all the villages
offer lapsi to Mataji and churamu to the Pir. [679]

In Paj, near Sultanpur there is a shrine of Gebansha Pir surrounded
by a number of babhul trees; and it is said that if a person were
to cut any of the trees, he would meet with death or at least fall
ill. There is a cobra deity, called Khetalo, near Sultanpur whose gors
(attendant priests) are Nagmaga Brahmans. It is believed that this
deity confers once on each generation of the gors, as much wealth as
would suffice for the lifetime of all men of that generation. [680]

There is a temple of Hadmatio Hanuman about half a mile to the west of
Luvaria. A Kanbi of the Dhani tribe once, while pursued by robbers,
took shelter behind the image of Hanuman, and vowed that he and his
descendants would discharge priestly duties towards the god if he
escaped safely out of the difficulty. The god protected him in his
danger, and his descendants are now the recognised attendants at the
temple. [681]

The village of Aman possesses the holy tomb of Davalshah Pir. This
Pir lived in the 15th century and was a native of Ahmedabad. He had
come to serve in the Amaran thana, when he was killed in a battle. A
tomb was built over his body, and he soon came to be regarded as
a Pir. His name became famous when a blind Bharvad regained his
eye-sight through his favour. The Pir also gave a son to a Bania
from Ahmedabad who visits the tomb every year in a black suit. Once
a Miana killed a cow and took refuge at the shrine of this Pir: but
the shrine spontaneously caught fire and he was burnt with it. The
present building was erected by the Bania, and the ladies of the
Jamsaheb's court have supplied silver gates and copper railings to
it. The Jamsaheb also presents kinkhab coverings for the tomb every
year. On the night of the Uras (or the fair held in the Pir's honour)
sandalwood is burnt before the Pir. [682]

Charadwa is well-known for the temple of Rajeshwari Mata. King Prithwi
Raj Chohan suffered from white leprosy and was once going to Dwarka,
with the hope that residence in the holy city would cure him of his
disease. On the way, one of his best bullocks suddenly fell. The
animal was almost given up for dead when a young woman named Rajbai,
daughter of Uda Charan, happened to pass by while carrying water in
earthen pots. Rajbai touched the bullock with one of her toes, and to
the astonishment of all beholders, the animal at once got up. Prithwi
Raj got rid of his leprosy by the favour of Rajbai, who granted him an
additional boon that she would come to help him on another occasion
if he remembered her and sought her assistance. Rajbai then directed
him to visit Dwarka. Long after, king Prithwi Raj, when he was at his
own place, remembered her in a moment of distress, and she went there
(in spirit) after giving instructions to her relatives not to dispose
of her body, as she would return soon. But the relatives did not
understand her, and before she had returned from Prithwi Raj's place,
her body was disposed of according to the usual manner. For this,
Rajbai cursed her relatives that one of their descendants in each
degree would turn out a lunatic. In her memory a pillar was raised
and an image set up, both of which are worshipped every morning and
evening. Milk, sugar and cakes are offered to her every morning in a
thal or dish, and milk and sugar every evening. There is a festival
in honour of Rajbai during the Navaratra holidays. [683]

The temple of Swami-Narayan at Charadwa contains the images of
Shrikrishna, Baldev, Radha, Rama, Lakshman and Sita. The ceremony of
arati is performed before the images five times every day. The first
is called mangalarati or the auspicious arati and is performed early
in the morning. The second is Shangar (Shringar) arati, when night
garments are taken off the images and new ones are put on for the
day. The third Rajbhog arati, takes place at the time when dainties
and cooked food are offered to the gods. The Sandhya arati follows
the offering of milk, sugar and cakes to the gods in the evening. The
last, Pidhan arati, is performed at night, when night garments are
substituted for the rich dresses of the day. There are five occasions
during the year when a fair is held at this place: (1) the Annakut
fair on the first day of Kartik; (2) Vasantapanchami fair, on the
fifth day of the bright half of Magh; (3) Hutashani or Holi fair,
on the 15th day of the bright half of Phalgun; (4) Ramanavami fair,
on the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra, (5) Janmashtami fair
on the 8th day of the dark half of Shravan. [684]

To the north of Charadwa there is a field-goddess, named Motisari Meldi
Mata, in whose honour persons who are afflicted by diseases take a vow
of presenting a tava (a cake fried in oil in a pan). There is also a
serpent-god named Charmaria who receives an offering of lapsi on every
Aso-sud-bij, i.e., the second day of the bright half of Ashvin.

Besides these there are four temples of Shiva, one of Shaktimata,
one of Hanumanji and two Mahomedan Pirs in the village.

In Limbdi Taluka, there is a temple of Kalika Mata, in whose
honour vows are observed by persons suffering from physical or
mental afflictions. The attendant at the place is a Brahman, and the
worshippers of the Mata visit her temple on a Sunday or a Tuesday and
offer sweetmeats or lapsi. On the eighth day of Ashvin a havan is made
(i.e., offerings are burnt) before the goddess. [685]

Vows in honour of Khodiar Mata are efficacious in the prevention of
such epidemics as cholera. The Khiyado Mamo quells evil spirits,
bhuts and prets. The Khodo Mamo cures such diseases as cough and
bronchitis. In the temple of Ramnath, a brahmabhoj--a feast to
Brahmans--is given on the last day of Shravan.

Near the western gates of Zinzuwada is seen the celebrated shrine of
Rajbai Mata. In old times Zinzuwada was only the nehado [686] of a
Bharvad called Zunza. At that time the queen of the reigning prince
of Patan could not be delivered of a child even though two years had
passed since the time of conception. Once while on tour the queen's
party encamped near the nehado of Zunza Bharvad. The latter, when he
learnt of the queen's misfortune, said that the co-wives of the queen
had bewitched her by the kaman art, i.e., by passing an earthen pot
round her and by burying the pot underground with a live frog hanging
with its head downwards in it. He added that the queen would not be
delivered unless the frog was brought out by some stratagem. He asked
the queen and her followers to stay there for some time, and sent word
to Patan with a messenger that the queen was delivered of a son. The
co-wives of the queen, dismayed at the unexpected news and at the
futility of the kaman art, went to look at the buried frog, which
instantly jumped out and at the same moment the pregnant queen gave
birth to a son. As the child was brought to birth by the instructions
of a Siddha-purusha (a magician), it was named Siddharaj. The town of
Zinzuwada was built in memory of Zunza Bharvad, and a temple of Rajbai
Mata was erected in honour of the queen. A large lake named Sensasar
was also constructed in memory of Sensa, the brother of Zunza. [687]

Soon afterwards people began to observe vows in honour of Rajbai
Mata. The devotees of the goddess visit her temple every evening. All
newly-married couples in the village offer salutations to the Mata
accompanied by hired musicians and a party of women who sing on
the way to the shrine. A virgin walks in front of the party with
an earthen pot and a cocoanut on her head. After the salutations,
sweetmeats to the amount vowed for are distributed among all those who
are present. Sometimes a woman who has observed vows for the sake of
a son, presents a silver umbrella to the goddess, of the value of one
rupee and a quarter or five rupees and a quarter, on the birth of a
son to her. Burnt offerings and lapsi are presented to the goddess to
protect the town from such misfortunes as cholera, plague, etc. [688]

There is a well-known place called Vachhda-solanki about eight miles
front Zinzuwada. Once a Rajput boy, aged sixteen, was going round the
marriage-altar at the time of his wedding, in the village of Kuar,
when he heard a piteous cry from a distressed cowherd, whose cows were
being carried away by freebooters. The boy immediately ran to rescue
the cows; but he was killed in the encounter. A temple was built
on that spot in his honour. There is a small kund near the temple,
the water in which is believed never to dry up and to possess the
quality of curing hydrophobia.

Goradia Hanuman lies three miles from Zinzuwada, and there is a
tradition that there is a treasure hidden near by. Many vows are
observed in honour of Dhama Hanuman, whose place is at a distance of
two miles from Zinzuwada.

The holy kund of Zilanand is one mile from Zinzuwada. It is a custom
of the neighbourhood to throw the bones of deceased persons into this
kund, and a fair is held annually at the place on the last day of
Bhadrapad. The Bhotavo kund is one mile distant from Zilanand kund:
the bottom of this kund presents a bluish appearance, and the water
always remains hot. It is said that there are sulphur mines below.

A princess of Marwar used to worship five gods: Sumaria Ganesh,
Kanaknath, Ratneshwar Mahadev, Nagnath and Hanuman; and she had taken
a vow never to take food before she had worshipped all of them. The
gods followed her everywhere in all her tours, but they had made one
condition, that they would stop if she looked behind at them on the
way. The princess happened to look back at Ganpati on the ridge of
Sumaria near Keshia, three miles to the east of Jodia. So Ganpati would
not leave Sumaria, and was installed there as Sumaria Ganesh. The same
happened to Ratneshwar near Badanpur; to Kanaknath, at a place midway
between Kanakpuri (the modern Kunad) and Badanpur; and to Hanuman,
near Kunad. In the same manner, Nagnath was installed near the Balambha
gate of Jodia. The old town of Kanakpuri was buried by an earth-quake,
and the image Kunadia Hanuman was found among its ruins.

The attendants of Sumaria Ganesh are Atits. A fair is held there on the
4th day of Vaishakh, when thousands of Dheds flock to the place. The
usual offering to the god consists of sweet balls. Kanaknath is
attended upon by Atit Bavas who share among themselves whatever is
offered to the god. Shaivas hold a fair here on the 8th day of the
dark half of Shravan.

The devotees of Kunadia Hanuman observe anagh (vulgarly called
anagodha) at his place on Saturdays. They cook their food there and
make offerings to the god before partaking of it, fasting afterwards
for the day. The anagh is observed in the month of Margashirsha. The
attendants of this god are Khakhi Bavas. [689]

One mile to the north-west of Jodia, towards the sea, there is a stone
image of a horse set up on a pedestal, known as Raval Pir. A heroic
Girasia of the Dal sect, named Raval, was once shipwrecked while on
an expedition from Cutch, and is said to have landed at the spot
where Raval Pir stands at present. He received a hearty reception
at the hands of the then ruling prince of Jodia (who was a Khavas)
and was installed in the Durbar as Nana Raval Pir.

On the second day of the bright half of Ashadh (which is the new
year's day according to the Halari year) Hindus offer lapsi to Raval
Pir as also on each Monday in the month of Bhadrapad. On occasions
of popular distress, such as the breaking out of cholera or when the
rains stop for days together, the bhuvas at the place, who are Dal
Rajputs, receive the pedi (a small heap of lapsi) on behalf of the Pir,
and being possessed, declare the will of the Pir as to when rain may
be expected or when an epidemic will be warded off. Persons who are
anxious for the success of their undertakings observe vows in honour of
the Pir which may cost them anything from a single pice to twenty-five
rupees. At the shrine of Nana Raval Pir, huge kettledrums are beaten
and the ceremony of arati is performed every morning and evening. [690]

The present site of Lilapur was formerly uninhabited, and the village
stood nearly one mile off. Once the goddess Bhavani directed the patel
of the village in a dream to reside on the present site, and promised
him that he would be always happy and that none of his descendants for
seven generations would die of cholera. In testimony of the reality of
the dream a box of red lac, a cocoanut, a reel of red thread--called
nadasadi and chunadi--were found under the patel's pillow. The village
was then removed to its present site. The descendants of the patel are
called Yadoda. The Mata chose to take a Bharvad to be her attendant. On
the 15th day of the bright half of Shravan offerings are burnt before
the Mata, when the attendant bhuva has to offer sweetmeats worth five
rupees. Every Bharvad family spends a rupee and a quarter every third
year in honour of the Mata.

During the famine of the year 1895 Samvat era (= 1839 A. D.) the bhuva
was thinking of leaving the Mata in order to escape from starvation,
when the goddess appeared in a dream to him, and told him that he
would find half a rupee every morning in the temple until he saw and
partook of the new harvest. In the month of Shravan, he happened to
partake of some new seeds and the coin could not be found as usual
after this, although the new harvest was not quite ready till three
months afterwards. At the entreaties of the bhuva, however, the
Mata again told him in a dream that he would find a silver anklet,
weighing 60 tolas, on the bhogava (village boundary) of the village
of Shiyani. A number of vows are observed in honour of this goddess
with various motives. [691]

The Shakta Mata in the western part of the same village prevents the
Joganis or female fiends from spreading contagious diseases.

The Surdhans near the gates of Lilapur represent two heroes who were
killed in an encounter with freebooters in the Samvat year 1836 (1780
A. D.). The knots of the marriage-scarves of the descendants of the
Surdhans are untied before them, and any of their female descendants
visiting the images without a veil on their faces, are subjected to
serious calamities.

About ten years ago Unad Bhagat and Jiva Bhagat of Paliad were one
day walking together, when Unad Bhagat collected seven stones and
placing them one over the other, said to Jiva Bhagat that he was
constructing a palio, i.e., a tomb for Jiva. Immediately Jiva died,
and Unad had to carry out what was merely meant in jest. Some rooms
are built at the expense of the Jasdan Durbar, and a pujari daily
offers worship to Jiva Bhagat. A fair is also held in his honour on
the second day of Bhadrapad. [692]

About two miles from Jasdan in the village of Bakhalvad there is a
temple of Avad Mata. The latter represents the queen of one of the
rulers of Jasdan. On every Vijaya-dashami, i.e., the 10th day of
the bright half of Ashvin, the prince of Jasdan goes to visit the
image in a procession, offers lapsi to Avad Mata, and then a feast
is celebrated. Formerly it was the custom to kill a buffalo before
the goddess on this day: but only lapsi is now offered instead. It
is usual to take some wine also on this occasion. [693]

On the Chitalia hill, two miles from Jasdan, there is a temple of
Shitala, the goddess of small-pox, where children who have lately
recovered from that disease are taken to offer salutations to the
goddess. Silver images of human eye, milk, sugar, curds, grapes,
cocoanuts, a sheet of blank paper, and a number of other things are
presented to the goddess on such an occasion. Some persons vow to
visit the goddess with a burning hearth on their heads. Such vows
are discharged on a satem, i.e., the 7th day of the bright or the
dark half of a month. On Shili Satem, the 7th day of the dark half
of Shravan, there is a large gathering of people at the place.

The village-gods of Upleta are Kaleshwar, Pragateshwar, Somnath,
Nilkanth, Dadmo and Khetalio. Pragateshwar is said to have emerged
from the earth of his own accord and is therefore called Swayambhu
(self-existent). The same is said about Nilkanth and Somnath also. The
temple of Dadmo lies a little away from Upleta. Persons suffering from
cough observe vows in his honour and partake of parched gram. There
is a devi near Pragateshwar before whom a sacrifice is performed on
the 9th day of the bright half of Ashvin, and cakes, bread, khichdi
and khir are offered. [694]

In Gondal there is a temple of Gondalio Nag and one of Nagnath
Mahadev. Pure milk is the usual offering made to both the
deities. Gondalio Nag is installed in Durbargadh and is white in
appearance. Newly married couples of high class Hindus untie the knots
of their marriage-scarves before this deity. In the Durbargadh there
are tombs of seven ghoris with whose assistance the first king of
Gondal is said to have won his crown. There is also a family goddess
of the Bhadeja Rajputs in Gondal known as Ashapuri, a vow in whose
honour is believed to fulfil all desires. [695]

There is a female spirit named Meldi in Movaiya who is worshipped
by bhuvas on the 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin. On that day
they heat oil in an iron pan and take out cakes from the burning oil
with unprotected hands. A goat and a cock are also sacrificed on this
occasion, and the meat is partaken of in order to win the favour of
the goddess. [696]

There is a beda tree near Movaiya about which the following story is
told. Long ago there was a kanbi (farmer) in Movaiya who used to see
a boy moving in front of him with an uncovered head whenever he was
ploughing his field. One day the kanbi lopped off the hair from the
boy's head who followed him to his home, entreating him to return the
lock of hair. The kanbi however did not heed him, and concealed the
lock of hair in a jar containing gram. The boy then served the kanbi
as a field-boy, when one day he was asked by his master to take gram
out of the jar for sowing. The boy, who was a bhut, found his lock of
hair there, and when once he had obtained it, he took a very heavy
load of gram to the kanbi and bade him good-bye. But before the boy
had fled with his lock of hair, the kanbi begged of him a boon that
a beda tree should grow in his field, where vows could be observed
in honour of the bhut.

The villagers in Sayala accompanied by several bhuvas and by musicians
who beat the dhols and the danklan go outside the village to visit
the temple of Khodiar Mata on the 15th day of the bright half of
Shravan. The bhuvas wind a piece of cotton-thread round the village,
and sometimes pour out milk or water in the same place in order
to secure its safety from any epidemic. On the same occasion four
divers, who are generally healthy young athletes, are presented with
an earthen pot each and are made to stand in the village-tank till the
water reaches to their necks. They are asked to dive simultaneously in
the water at a signal from the headman of the village, and to get out
immediately. Each of them is named after one of the four months of the
rainy season and the amount of water in the pot of each is supposed
to indicate the amount of rain which would fall in the respective
months of the next year. After leaving the water the divers break
the pots on the spot, and the fragments are taken away by the people,
to be kept in their jars of corn, in the belief that they will bring
prosperity in the ensuing season. The four divers are then made
to run a race on the maidan, and he who wins the race gets a small
plough and a cocoanut as a prize. The winner is called halino-jityo,
and it is believed that he will be successful in all his undertakings.

On the same day the bhuvas place a small four-wheeled chariot of
the Mata outside the village, and it is believed that the chariot
carries off the plague, cholera and similar diseases with it. Such
ceremonies are performed in most of the villages on the Balev holiday
(i.e., the Narel-Purnima day, or the 15th day of the bright half of
Shravan). [697]

The foundation of a new settlement is carried out in various ways. A
series of unusual accidents befalling the residents of a village makes
them doubtful of the security of their residence, and produces a desire
to move to a safer home. Very often on such occasions the bhuvas or
exorcists are possessed by the Devis, or Matas, and declare the will
of the gods regarding a new settlement. Sometimes a change of home is
recommended to the villagers in a dream: sometimes a heavenly voice
is said to direct the change, in addressing one of the villagers. [698]

An astrologer has first to be consulted as to the auspicious date on
which the boundaries of the new settlement should be marked out. Three
or four days before the delimitation, learned Brahmans are sent to
purify the chosen site by the recitation of sacred mantras. [699]
On the appointed day the headman of the village leads a procession
to the site, and performs the ceremony of installing the village
gods. It is said that, at the time of founding a new settlement,
it is necessary to install and worship the panch-deva or the five
deities, namely, Hanuman, Ganpati, Mahadev, Vishnu and Devi. Hanuman
is installed at the village-gates, and is propitiated with an offering
of churmu and vadan. The images of Ganpati and Vishnu are set up in
a central place in the village, temples being built for them in due
curse. Mahadev is generally installed on the village-boundary, and
has a temple built for him afterwards. Devi may be set up anywhere:
her installation is not permanent nor does she receive systematic
worship. [700] But more generally only Ganpati, Hanuman and Mata
are installed on this occasion. [701] Occasionally other deities,
such as the Earth, Shesh Nag, [702] the Navagrah (the nine planets),
the pole-star and Kshetrapal are also worshipped. [703]

The village-gates are fixed after the ceremony of installation, and
a toran--a string of asopalav leaves (Jonesia asoka) with a cocoanut
in the centre--is fastened across them near the top. [704] Here the
ceremony of khat-muhurt [705] is performed [706] and afterwards the
headman, accompanied by a Brahman, who recites mantras, either winds
a cotton-thread besmeared with red lac round the village or pours
a stream of milk dharavadi along the village boundaries. [707] The
headman has further to perform the homa at the gates of the village,
when a company of Brahmans recite holy passages in honour of Hanuman
and Mata. At the time of the completion of the homa, when the ahuti
(an oblation of ghi) is thrown on the fire, all persons present offer
cocoanuts to the sacrificial fire. [708]

In some places it is usual to worship the newly chosen site itself,
and then to drive into the ground a wooden peg besmeared with red lac,
called the khili (peg) of Shesh Nag, which is first ceremoniously
worshipped with red lac, sandal-ointment and rice. [709]

After these ceremonies, the villagers are at liberty to build their
own houses within the new settlement. When the houses are complete
and ready for habitation, it is necessary to perform the ceremony
known as vastun (or graha-shanti) for the propitiation of the nine
planets. Both the day of installing the gods and the day of vastun
ceremony, are observed as festivals, at which Brahmans are feasted,
and lapsi, churmu and kansar are offered to the gods. [710]

The new settlement may be named after the deity whose advice brought
about the move or after the headman. It is sometimes named after the
particular incident which drove the people to seek their new home.

A failure of the harvest is in most cases due to the irregularity of
the rains. It is therefore ascribed to the displeasure of Indra, the
god of rain, and Varuna, the god of water. The mode of propitiating
these gods has already been described.

Sometimes a cessation of rains is attributed to the wrath of the
village-gods, whereupon the festival of Ujani is celebrated in order
to appease them. One day, preferably a Sunday, all the inhabitants
go outside the village, and rich viands are cooked to be offered
to the village-gods. At the same time, the headman performs a homa
sacrifice and the dainties are partaken of after the villagers have
thrown cocoanuts into the sacrificial fire.

In similar circumstances people sometimes seek the protection of
the gods Annadeva, Annapurna, and Kriya Bhaudai. Six dokdas [711]
or six pice are collected from every house in the village to make
what is called a chhakadi, and the whole amount is then bestowed in
charity in the name of the above-named deities. [712]

Rain during the Ashlesha and Magha nakshatras [713] is destructive
to the crops, and is a sign of the wrath of Indra, who should be
appeased with sacrificial offerings. [714]

Diseases among cattle are believed to be brought on by the wrath
of minor deities such as Shitala Mahakali [715] or the sixty-four
Joganis. [716] [717] The bhuvas, when they are possessed, declare to
the people which particular deity is exasperated, whereupon that deity
is conciliated either by offering dainties or a goat or a ram, or by
the observance of Ujani. A dharavadi--a stream of milk--is poured on to
the ground adjoining the village side, and torans of asopalav leaves
(Jonesia asoka) are fastened on the doors of the offended deity's
temple. [718] It is also customary to place baklan and vadan at a
spot where three roads meet in order to propitiate the evil spirits,
who frequent such places. [719]

Small-pox is supposed to be the result of the displeasure of the
goddess Shitala. In all cases of small-pox the victim is left to
suffer, the only remedy being the observation of vows in honour of the
angry goddess. Different things are dedicated to the goddess according
as the disease affects one part of the body or another; and they are
usually offered on a Sunday or a Tuesday. The usual offering consists
of kulera, [720] a tav (a sheet of paper), fried juvari, fried gram,
and other articles varying according to the symptoms. [721]

To ward off this disease the women of the village sometimes prepare
cakes, ganthias, [722] etc., on the sixth day of a month, the
preparations being partaken of on the next day, when no fresh food
is to be cooked. [723]

Kharava affects the hoofs of cattle, in which it produces irritation;
it is generally due to worms in the hoofs. A jantra (a mystical
arrangement of words) of the twelve names of Mahavir (the great
warrior, i.e. Arjun) is written on a piece of paper, and tied round
the neck of the diseased animal, fastened over the gates through which
the cattle pass, or suspended over the street by which the cattle go
out to graze. [724] The jantra is as follows:--


  Shrisakha [725]   Dhanurdhari       Gajidhana       Krishna-sakha.
  Dhananjaya        Lalanlarkha       Kapidhwaj.      Jayahari.
  Gudakesh          Pitabhava         Narsinh         Parth.


Sometimes the paper on which the jantra is written is placed in a
hollow bamboo stick which is then fastened over the gates. [726]
The jantra is believed to have the power to cure the disease.

Muva-keshibi causes saliva to flow continuously from the mouths of
animals. A gagarbediun (a piece of leather thong or a piece of black
wood, on which magic spells have been cast) is suspended over the
village gates or is tied to the neck of the animal, in the case of
this disease occurring. [727]

In such diseases as kharava, sunaku, motudukh (lit. the great malady),
valo, pet-tod, [728] Bandhai-javan, [729] a jantra is tied by a
piece of indigo-coloured cloth or by a piece of thread of the same
colour, round the neck of the animal, and is also fastened over the
village-gates. A toran is prepared of the ears of juvari corn with
a cocoanut in the centre, and after magical incantations have been
pronounced over it, is suspended over the village-gates. All animals
passing under the toran are believed to be proof against the disease.

But if this is not successful in checking the course of the disease,
it is usual to swallow the chelans [730] of Mungi Mata (the Dumb
Mother). For this purpose the bhuvas of the Mata, who are Bharvads,
are invited to the stalls of the affected cattle, where they recite
magic incantations amidst tumultuous shouts and yells. After this they
are fed with rice, ghi and sugar, this latter process being called
'swallowing the chelans of the Mata.' [731]

In event of this process being of no avail in restraining the disease,
the headman of the village in the company of his wife performs a homa
sacrifice in the places dedicated to the Matas, and offers an ahuti--a
sacrificial oblation--when all the villagers dedicate cocoanuts to
the sacrificial fire. [732]

Sometimes the wrath of the god Gorakhdev is supposed to be responsible
for cattle-diseases. A bunch of the leaves of a poisonous medicinal
plant ankdo is passed seven times over the body of the ailing animal
with the prayer 'May Gorakhdev be pleased,' and a cocoanut is dedicated
to the god. [733]

Another method of checking cattle-disease is to bury the corpse of an
animal which has died thereof near the village-gates. It is believed
that this puts a stop to any further deaths among cattle from the
same disease. [734]

When such a disease as shili (small-pox), sakharado, or kharava
prevails largely among cattle, a belief gains ground that the Dheds
(who flay the dead cattle and sell their hides) have poisoned the
drinking water of the cattle in order to increase their earnings. [735]

The god Kal-bhairav was brought into existence by the fury of god
Shiva, when he, being extremely angry with Brahma, cut off the fifth
head of the latter. Kal-bhairav is the leader of all bhuts (ghosts)
and dakans (witches), and resides at Kashi (Benares) by the order
of Shiva. His favourite haunt is a cemetery. His image is always
represented as fierce and ugly. [736]

It is said that this god once entered the mouth of Gorakhnath and
performed religious austerities in that strange abode. Although
Gorakhnath was nearly suffocated, he could only persuade Kal-bhairav
to come out by extolling his glory and by conferring on him the
leadership of all bhuts and the guardianship of the Kotvalu fortress
at Kashi. [737]

Kal-bhairav does not command worship on any auspicious occasion. On
the other hand, he is much revered by persons who practise the black
art. On Kali-chaudas day his devotees worship him in a cemetery,
offer an oblation of baklan, and recite magic incantations till late
at night. [738]

The offerings favoured by Kal-bhairav are khir, [739] cakes of wheat
flour, sugar and vadan. [740] [741] The sacrifice of a live animal is
also acceptable. [742] The offerings after presentation to the god,
are given to black dogs.

Pregnant women in order to secure a safe delivery sometimes
vow to abstain from ghi till they have offered an oblation to
Kal-bhairav. [743]

The following lines are often repeated in honour of this god [744]:--


        Bhuktimuktidayakam prasastañcaruvigraham |
        Bhaktavatsalam sthitam samastalokavigraham ||
        Niskvananmanojñahemakimkinilasatkatim |
        Kasikapuradhinatham kalabhairavam bhaje || 1 ||


(I worship Kal-bhairav, the giver of food and of salvation, of
auspicious and comely appearance, who is kind to his devotees.)

Ganpati or Ganesh, about whose origin the traditional legends prevail,
is represented with four hands, in one of which he holds a kamandalu (a
gourd), in the second a ladu (or a sweet-ball), in the third a parashu
(or an axe), and in the fourth a jap-mal (or a rosary). He is sometimes
called Dundalo (lit., big-bellied) because of his having a protuberant
belly. He puts on a yellow garment and rides a mouse. His brother
is Kartik-swami who rides a peacock. His favourite dish consists of
ladus or sweet-balls of wheat-flour fried in ghi and sweetened with
molasses. Siddhi and Buddhi are the two wives of Ganpati. Before
their marriage their father Vishwarupa had made a promise that he
would bestow the hands of both on whomsoever circumambulated the
whole Earth within one day. Ganpati reasoned that a cow and a mother
are equal in merit to the Earth and by passing round the former,
he got the hands of both. Ganpati is said to be the fastest writer
of all, so that the sage Vyasa secured his services as a scribe,
at the instance of Brahma, in writing the Mahabharat. When Ravan
had conquered all the gods and made them serve in his household,
Ganpati had to become a cowherd and to look after cows and goats. [745]

On Vaishakh sud choth, known as Ganpati choth, i.e., the fourth day
of the bright half of Vaishakh, Ganpati is ceremoniously worshipped
with red lead, red flowers, milk, curds, honey, etc. The image of
the god is besmeared with red lead and ghi, and the remnant of this
ointment is applied to the doors and windows of the house. [746]
Sweet-balls of wheat-flour fried in ghi and sweetened with molasses
are first dedicated to Ganpati and are afterwards partaken of as the
god's gift. [747]

The people of Maharashtra observe Ganpati choth on the 4th day of
the bright half of Bhadrapad, when an earthen image of Ganpati is
made and worshipped with twenty kinds of leaves. [748]

It is a custom among the Vaishnavas to draw an image of Ganpati in
those vessels which are to be used for cooking food at the time of
performing the obsequies of a deceased Vaishnava. [749]

The Matrikas are sixteen in number, and are worshipped on such
auspicious occasions as a yajna (i.e., a sacrifice), a wedding, or
the ceremony known as vastu. [750] Their installation consists in
painting the following marks with red lac on the back walls of a house.


                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .
                         .   .   .   .   .   .
                           .   .   .   .   .
                             .   .   .   .
                               .   .   .
                                 .   .
                                   .


The marks are besmeared with molasses, and a little ghi and a piece
of some precious metal is affixed to them. [751] At the time of
a marriage, fourteen are worshipped in the house, one outside the
village limits, and one near the front door of the house where the
wedding is celebrated. [752]

The Matrikas or Matas are worshipped during the Navaratra holidays
also. On this occasion small morias or earthen bowls with a hole in the
centre of each, are plastered with khadi (red or green earth) and kaya;
and young girls carry them on their heads with burning lamps from door
to door. At each house they receive oil for the lamp and a handful
of corn. On the last day, i.e., on the ninth day, all the bowls are
placed on the special site dedicated to the Matas. The songs, which
are also accompanied by dancing, are called garabi or garaba. [753]

The Matrikas are also supposed to be the grahas or planets which
influence the life of a child in the womb, and their worship is
believed to bring about an easy delivery. [754]

There is also a family goddess of the name of Matrika. In worshipping
her, seven round spots are painted on a wall with red lac, and ghi
is poured over them in such a manner as to form five small relas
(streams). A mixture of molasses and ghi is then applied to these
spots with a piece of adachh (red cotton yarn). By this process the
devotee secures the motherly regard of the goddess. [755]

One of the deities which preside over child-birth is Randal Mata or
Ranna Devi, who is said to be the wife of the Sun. [756] In order
to secure an easy delivery, pregnant women take a vow that they
will invite one or more lotas (bowls) of this Mata. The process of
"inviting the lotas" is as follows:--

The tufts round the shell of a cocoanut are pulled out, the nut is
besmeared with chalk, and marks representing two eyes and a nose are
painted on it. (Or the nut is so placed that the two spots on its
surface represent eyes, and the pointed tuft of fibres between them
serves the purpose of a nose). A bowl is placed on a piece of cloth
stretched on a wooden stool, and the cocoanut is placed over the
bowl. It is then dressed in elegant female attire, and a ghi lamp
is kept constantly burning near it. This completes the sthapan or
installation of Randal Mata. Women bow down before this representation
of the Mata, and sing melodious tunes in its presence. On the morning
of the following day, the image is carried to the temple of the village
Mata, the cocoanut is deposited there, and the garments are brought
home. The cocoanut is subsequently taken by the Brahman attendant of
the Mata.

On the day of the installation it is customary to invite five goranis
[757] (married women whose husbands are living) to a feast of khir
and cakes. On the next day, when the Mata is sent away, three virgins
are entertained with rice, sugar and milk. [758]

In some communities a custom prevails of "inviting the lotas of the
Matas" on the occasion of the first pregnancy of a woman. On the
day on which the lotas are to be invited, the pregnant woman takes a
bath early in the morning, and calls upon thirteen goranis, whom she
invites to dinner by marking their foreheads with red lac. A Brahman
is called to set up the Matas, whose installation takes place in
the same manner as that of Randal. The piece of cloth spread on the
wooden stool is required to be green. When the goranis sit down to
the dinner, the pregnant woman washes their right toes with milk and
swallows that milk as charanamrit (lit. the nectar of the feet). The
goranis are required to taste a morsel of some preparation of milk
before they begin their meal. At night, a company of women dance in a
circle round the Matas, singing songs. Next morning a bhuva is called,
who declares the will of the Matas. On receiving a satisfactory reply
from the bhuva, the party disperses. [759]

The goddesses Bahucharaji (or Bechraji) and Ambaji are sometimes
worshipped for the sake of safety during childbirth. The ceremony of
Nandi-Shraddha which was performed when Rama was born is sometimes
gone through at the birth of a child. [760]

The deities of the forest reside in groves of trees or near the
Piludi tree, to which their devotees must go in order to fulfil their
vows. [761] These deities do not receive any formal worship. But
they are noted for the cure of certain diseases, and the groves
which they haunt are frequently visited by afflicted persons. These
deities are installed in those places where they have manifested
their powers. [762]

There is a belief that if unmarried persons touch sindur or red lead,
a cobra deity of the forest, Kshetrapal, takes them in marriage. But
the danger can be averted by vowing to dedicate khichadi, red lead, a
dokado [763] and some fruit to this god at the time of marriage. [764]



CHAPTER III.

DISEASE DEITIES.


Such diseases as cholera and small-pox are believed to be brought on by
the wrath of the Matas or Devis caused by neglecting to offer the usual
oblations. In order to propitiate them, Brahmans are engaged to recite
the Chandipath and to offer havans (sacrificial offerings). Very often
the festival known as ujani is observed, in which all the villagers
go outside the village to take their meals, and return home in the
evening after witnessing the ahuti (the offering of cocoanuts to the
sacrificial fire). [765]

Another belief personifies the diseases as malin or evil spirits who
are fond of human prey. To ward them off, a dhara-vadi, or stream
of milk, is poured out in the village or a magic thread is passed
round. The chariot [766] of the Mata is driven through the village
with the same object. [767]

There is a popular tradition that in ancient times cholera was
subjugated by king Vikrama, and was buried underground. Once upon a
time the British excavated the place in the belief that treasure was
concealed there, and thus cholera was released. After many soldiers
had fallen victims, the disease deity was at last propitiated by an
oblation, and was handed over to the Bhangis (or scavengers). [768]

This association of the Bhangis with cholera is present in most of
the beliefs current about the disease. There is a story that once
upon a time a number of students had put up in a house by which a
Bhangi was in the habit of passing frequently. He daily used to hear
the students reciting the sacred texts and this produced in his mind
the desire to become a Sanskrit scholar. For this purpose, having
concealed his low birth, he went to Benares and by diligent study,
soon became a pandit. He even married a girl of high caste. But his
imposture being at last discovered, he burnt himself to death, and
his ashes gave rise to the disease known as cholera. [769]

At the present day, if the epidemic breaks out, the Bhangis are often
suspected in some way or other of having brought it about. It is said
that they make statues of the flour of adad (phaseolus radiatus) and
after piercing them with needles and pins, either throw them into the
wells which are daily used by the villagers [770] or bury them in a
spot over which the people frequently pass. The whole affair is managed
very secretly and at the dead of night. The slightest rumour of such
proceedings causes a tumult in the village, and the Bhangis are then
in danger of being severely handled by the enraged villagers. [771]

Another method by which the Bhangis are supposed to bring about cholera
is to sprinkle the blood of a black cow on the image of Hanuman. The
god is deeply offended at the insult, and in consequence spreads
cholera in the neighbourhood. For this reason, offerings are burnt
before Hanuman in order to stop an epidemic of cholera. [772]

Bhangis are also supposed by some to accomplish the same result by the
help of malin or evil deities who are first gratified by the offering
of victims. [773] One of such deities is Ramdepir, to whom bali-dan
(offering of a victim) is made by the people, through the medium of
Bhangis, for the prevention of cholera.

An outbreak of cholera offers a good opportunity to the Bhangis,
who extort dainties and small sums of money from the people. Persons
attacked by cholera often seek the services of a Bhangi and promise
him liberal gifts if they are cured. The latter generally treats his
patients by tying a magical thread round their elbows. [774]

It is said that the Bhangis have to present an offering to their
malin or evil goddess every third year, and that, in so doing, they
kill a black animal before the goddess. They then place an iron pan
full of sesamum oil on the fire, and suspend the body of the animal
above it. It is believed that as many human beings will fall victims
to cholera as the number of the drops of blood that fall from the
body of the animal into the iron pan. [775]

Another deity whose wrath is supposed to be responsible for the
breaking out of cholera is Mahamari Devi. [776] The worshippers of this
goddess are Bhangis. She is believed to send forth cholera when her
oblations are stopped, [777] and her favour is regained by renewing
the offer of these oblations. Sometimes the Navachandi sacrifice
is performed at the principal village-gates, and the chandipath is
recited at the other gates. A number of Brahmans and virgins are
also feasted, and presented with garments. A magic cotton thread
is passed round the village and a dhara-vadi, or stream of milk, is
poured out. The bhuvas go round the village playing upon the harsh
unpleasant danklan. A goat is then taken to the temple of the Mata,
and the bhuvas, after cutting out its tongue, dip their hands in
its blood and strike them against the doors of the temple. The goat
is then killed and similar blood-marks are made upon every door
in the village as well as on the village-gates, where an iron nail
is driven into the ground with an incantation. A lime is then cut,
and an oblation is offered to the Mata. Such a process is believed
to stop the progress of the epidemic.

Other deities connected in popular belief with cholera are the
goddesses Visuchika [778] and Chandika. [779] Visuchika is conciliated
by burnt offerings: the recitation of the chandipath wins the favour
of Chandika. There is also a giantess named Karkata who is supposed
to be responsible for cholera. She is said to have sprung from the
sweat on the forehead of Brahma and to reside in the chandra mandal
(or lunar sphere). [780]

One of the remedies adopted to stop an epidemic of cholera is to
propitiate Shiva by the performance of Rudrayag, [781] Maharudra,
Shatachandi, Homahavan and by bestowing gifts on Brahmans and other
holy men. [782] Sometimes vows are observed with the same object in
honour of a minor local deity named Lala Hardev. [783] Another method
of driving off the disease is to convey it to the body of a goat or a
ram, or a he-buffalo, and to drive the animal out of the village. [784]

Small-pox is believed to be the act of the goddess Shitala Mata, who
spreads the disease whenever she is desirous of having victims. [785]
Thus, in cases of small-pox, the patient very often receives no
medical treatment, the only remedies adopted being directed towards
the propitiation of the Mata. [786] A number of vows are taken in the
Mata's name, to be fulfilled after the patient has recovered. Many
people accomplish their vows before the Shitala Mata at Kalavad in
Jamnagar. A vow to visit this place after the patient's recovery,
and to abstain from certain things till the day of the visit, is taken
by the mother of the affected person in case of a severe attack. But
almost every village contains a temple of Shitala Mata, and those,
who cannot go to Kalavad, vow in the name of the local Mata.
One of such vows is to go to the temple of the Mata with a burning
hearth on the head. Such a vow is generally undertaken by the
patient's mother.

Ordinarily in a case of small-pox, the patient is not allowed to bathe
till he is completely free from all traces of the disease. A bath is
then given on a Sunday, a Tuesday, or a Thursday, with water which
has been heated by being placed in the sun. An image of Shitala Mata
is set up in the house near the water room, and the patient worships
the image after the bath. The image is drawn in cowdung with two
cotton seeds to represent the eyes. An offering of kulera [787] and
curds is made to the goddess. Five virgins are invited to dinner,
and are served with cold food. All the members of the household
also partake of cold food. On the 7th or the 13th day of the bright
half of a month the patient is taken to the temple of Shitala Mata,
when a cocoanut is broken in the presence of the goddess. Half of
the cocoanut is brought home, the other half being carried away by
the Mata's attendant. Some people place a new earthen vessel filled
with water near the goddess. Silver eyes, which may be worth anything
between half an anna and half a rupee, are dedicated to the Mata.

The first visit to the Mata should take place on a Sunday or a
Tuesday. The things vowed to the goddess are dedicated on this
occasion. It is also necessary to go to the goddess again on the next
Tuesday or Thursday after the first visit. This time only water and
red lac are offered. [788]

During the course of the disease no low-caste person and no woman
in her monthly course is allowed to cast his or her shadow on the
patient. The women in the house are prohibited from combing
their hair, or churning curdled milk, or indulging in sexual
intercourse. Such acts are believed to cause extreme displeasure
to the Mata, who then causes some limb of the patient to be
affected. Branches of nimb leaves are suspended over the doors of the
house, and also round the patient's bed. The same leaves are used to
fan the patient.

When a child suffers from the disease, it is often weighed against
dates, which are first dedicated to the goddess, and then distributed
amongst the poor. [789] The child is taken to bow down before the
goddess after nine or ten days from the date of attack, and the
mother of the child offers several things to the Mata, among which are
grapes, sugar, a pinch of flour, a small earthen bowl full of water,
and a blank sheet of paper. [790]

Different things are dedicated to the goddess according as the
disease affects one part of the body or another. For instance,
flour of bajra or juvari is offered in case of bronchitis; silver
models of the human eye when the disease affects the eyes; a goras
(a black earthen vessel full of curds) in case of morbid heat; a
piece of black paper, in high fever, and salt if there is an itching
sensation. [791] The Mata is said to live on cold food and to be very
fond of things which have a cooling effect such as fruits, sugar,
etc. The same things are given to the patient as food. [792]

To secure the protection of Shitala Mata for their children, women
annually observe the vow of shili satem on the 7th day of the dark
half of Shravan. On this day the Mata is said to visit every house
and to roll herself on the hearth. No fire is, therefore, lighted
in the hearth on this day: for if the Mata comes and is scorched by
the fire she is sure to bring misfortune on that household. For this
reason, a number of dainties and all the food necessary for the day
is prepared on the previous day. On the day of shili satem, juvari
seeds are spread on the hearth, and after being sprinkled with red
lac, a cowdung bowl containing a plant called vana is placed upon
them. The women of the house bathe with cold water and take only one
meal during the day. They further abstain from sewing and embroidering
during that day. Sometimes a Brahman is engaged to recite the Shitala
shloka from a book called Rudrayamal. [793]

The following legend is related of shili satem. A certain woman
once forgot to extinguish the fire in her hearth on Randhan Chhetha
(lit. cooking sixth), i.e., the day previous to shili satem. On the
next day, the Mata was scorched in the stomach when she came to roll
herself on the hearth. In extreme anger the goddess cursed the woman
saying that her only son would be burnt to death; and immediately the
boy died. In her anguish the unfortunate mother confessed her fault to
a friend, who advised her to go to the jungle and entreat the Mata to
give back her son. She found the goddess rolling in distress under a
babul tree. The woman slowly approached her, and began to comb out the
Mata's hair. She then placed her son in the Mata's lap and entreated
the goddess to revive the boy. The Mata felt much relieved by the
woman's attentions and blessed her saying that her bosom should be as
quiet as her own head. Immediately, at these words, the boy revived,
to the intense joy of his mother. [794]

Women whose relatives have recovered from a dangerous attack of
small-pox observe a vow on every satem, i.e., the 7th day of the
dark half of every month. They first bathe with cold water and,
after offering an oblation of kulera, take their meals only once
during the day. This food has to be prepared on the previous day.

Shitala Mata is described as riding an ass in a nude state with the
half of a supadun (a winnowing fan) for an umbrella and with a swing
in one hand, and a broom in the other. [795] But more usually the Mata
is represented by a mere trunkless head in stone, besmeared with red
lead. This is said to be the head of Babhrivahan, the son of Bhima
[796] the second of the Pandavas by a Nag mother. At the time of the
Great War, he was sent by his mother from his residence in the patal
(the regions below this world) to assist his father, and as he did not
know the Pandavas, he was asked to join the weaker side. On coming
to the earth he first met with Krishna who took a promise from him
to lop his own head off. In return, Krishna promised him that he
would be immortal, invisible and worshipped by all, and the head
was set up on the flag of the Pandavas. This head began to trouble
the Pandavas after their victory, and could only be quieted by the
promise of Krishna to have him recognised as a deity with unlimited
powers. This head afterwards came to be known as the controller of
small-pox. How the head of the male Babhrivahan came to be identified
with Shitala Mata, it is difficult to explain. [797]

There is a tradition that a Kunbi once recovered his eyesight, lost
in an attack of small-pox, by worshipping Shitala Mata, and by vowing
not to tie his lock of hair till his blindness was cured. [798]

It is said that the powderlike substance which falls from the scabs
of small-pox cures cataract if applied to the eyes.

Daksha Prajapati once celebrated a great sacrifice, but did not invite
his son-in-law Shiva. The latter was extremely enraged at the insult,
and eight sorts of fever were in consequence produced by his breath at
that time. [799] According to another story zar or fever was created
by Shiva in order to assist the demon Banasur in his contest with
god Krishna, and it can be cured by the recitation of a piece called
Ushaharan, from the Harivansha. [800] Some persons attribute fever
to the wrath of Vishnu, and declare that it can be avoided by the
recitation of Vishnusahasranama. [801] Others believe it to be due to
the anger of Shiva, and say that it can be cured by pouring a stream of
water over the image of Shiva by offering bel leaves (Aegle marmelos)
to him, and by reciting the Mrityunjaya mantra in his honour. [802]
Others again ascribe it to the displeasure of the gods Hari [803] and
Har, saying that the heat is caused by the wrath of Shiva. [804]

The following are some of the remedies adopted in cases of fever:


(i) The recitation of sacred hymns in honour of the gods.

(ii) The worship of Narsinh. [805]

(iii) Rudrabhishek--pouring a stream of water on the image of Shiva
with the recitation of verses in his honour.

(iv) Drawing the jantra of Mrityunjaya (lit. Death-conquering, an
epithet of Shiva) as shown below.

(v) Tying a magic thread round the arm. [806] On a Sunday or a Tuesday
a woollen thread or a piece of five-coloured silken thread is taken
to a bava or a jogi, who mutters a few mystic words, and makes seven
knots in the thread. The thread is treated with frankincense, and
then tied round the arm. [807]


Periodical fevers are believed to be under the control of certain
spirits. There is a story connected with almost every sort of
fever, and it is believed that a person who listens to such a story
is cured of fever. [808] The following legend is connected with
ekanterio--intermittent fever occurring on alternate days. Once
a Bania, on his way to a village, came across a banyan tree
where he unyoked his bullocks and went to a distance to seek for
water. Ekanterio (the spirit controlling intermittent fever) resided on
this tree, and when the Bania had gone sufficiently far he stole from
behind the tree and carried away the Bania's carriage together with his
family. The Bania was much surprised to miss them on his return, but
he soon found out the author of the trick, and pursued Ekanterio. That
spirit however would not listen to the Bania's entreaties to return
his carriage, and the matter was at last referred for arbitration to
Bochki Bai. The latter decided in favour of the Bania, and confined
Ekanterio in a bamboo tube. He was released on the condition that he
would never attack those persons who listen to this story. [809]

There is a flower garden to the west of Jodia where there is a tree
called ghelun (mad) tree. Vows in honour of this tree are believed
to be efficacious in curing fever.

It has been already said above that such epidemic diseases as cholera
or the plague are often supposed to be the result of the sinister
practices of the Bhangis. There is a belief that the Bhangis sometimes
prepare an image out of the flour of adad (phaseolus radiatus) and
pierce it with needles, and it is said that for every hole made in the
image one human being falls a victim to some epidemic disease. Such an
image is sometimes placed in an earthen vessel and buried underground
in a public way so that every passer-by treading on the spot where it
is buried may be attacked by some disease. Or it is thrown into the
well which is most used by village people, with the object that all
persons drinking water from the well may perish by the disease. [810]

The Bhangis are also accused of causing an epidemic by means of
boiling the ear of a buffalo and the flesh of an ox together in one
vessel, it being believed that the virulence of the disease varies in
proportion to the extent to which the boiling proceeds. This process
is supposed to cause a disease among cattle also. [811]

Another belief is that the Bhangis charm seeds of adad and cloves by
repeating magic incantations over them, and afterwards strew them
on a highway in order that those who step on them may be attacked
by cholera or some similar disease. [812] One motive suggested for
such action is that they are thereby likely to receive their garments,
which would be used for covering the bodies. [813] Also at the outbreak
of such an epidemic, clothes, cocoanuts, ghi, molasses, wheat flour,
etc., are offered by the people to the Bhangis, who in return give
a dora, a piece of thread, of black wool to be worn by the afflicted
persons. [814]

But apart from such beliefs, the appearance of an epidemic is also
attributed to other causes. There is the usual belief that it is caused
by the diminution of virtue and the increase of sin among people and
the consequent wrath of the gods, who are only propitiated by the
people again reverting to righteous ways and by the performance of
sacrifices in their honour. [815]

There is also a belief that the sixty-four Joganis, when they are
desirous of victims, cause baneful epidemics among mankind, the
remedies in such a case being such as offering a goat or a he-buffalo
to them, or the observation of an ujani in their honour.

The following tale is related regarding an occurrence said to have
taken place not long ago in the village of Verad. The headman of the
village who was a Rajput by birth but who had lost his caste owing
to irregular conduct with a woman, died of fever, and as he was an
outcaste his body was buried instead of being cremated. Soon after,
a number of persons in the same village happened to die of the same
fever and the people conjectured that the late patel's corpse must
be lying in its grave with its face downwards chewing the khahan
(? perhaps kaphan, i.e. the cloth in which a corpse is wrapped). Many
thought that the health of the village would not be restored until
the corpse was replaced in the correct position with its face upwards
and unless the kaphan was taken out of its mouth. But none ventured
to do so, being dissuaded by the fear of meeting with a worse fate.

But although they did not open the grave yet they arranged for certain
vows to be taken in honour of the dead man, and that put a stop to
the disease. [816]

Another story from the same place is that when small-pox once raged
furiously in that village, the people of the place celebrated a
magnificent feast of dainties prepared of wheat-flour, ghi, molasses,
rice and pulse, and afterwards the Dheds of the village lopped off
the head of a dead he-buffalo, burying it at the spot where the feast
was held. [817]

The remedies adopted for the abatement of epidemic diseases have
already been mentioned above, the most common being the winding of
a cotton-thread, the pouring out of dharavadi, i.e., milk, in the
village, and the taking of the rath of the Mata in a procession beyond
the village boundary, the epidemic being supposed to be expelled
in the rath. In the last case, after the rath has been taken to the
neighbouring village, a charmed peg is sometimes driven into the ground
near the village boundary to prevent the epidemic from crossing back
again. [818]

Mention has already been made of the deities which protect the cattle
and to whose displeasure diseases among cattle are attributed. It
is said that such diseases are very common during the vishi of
Shiva. A cycle of twenty years is called a vishi, three such cycles
making a complete samvatsar of sixty years. Each of such vishis is
presided over and named after each of the three gods of the Trinity,
Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The vishi of Brahma is characterized by
protection and creation, that of Vishnu by growth and that of Shiva
by destruction, the last often bringing on such calamities as plague,
famine and diseases among cattle. [819]

The following are some of the remedies practised by the village people
in the case of certain cattle-diseases.

In the case of such diseases as mova kharava or the like, there is
a practice of burying a plough near one's gates, which is afterwards
covered with dust gathered from three streets and is worshiped with
a branch of a tree, a plate of iron and red lead. This ceremony has
to be performed either on a Sunday or a Tuesday, and the man who
performs it has to remain naked at the time. [820]

For the cure of valo (a disease in which the throat is inflamed),
pieces of the stalk of kukad-vel (a kind of creeper) are tied round
the neck or the horns of the diseased animal and no other food except
ghi and molasses is allowed to it for two or three days. A handful
of salt is sometimes thrown on the back of the animal. [821] Sesamum
oil is also said to work as a good medicine in the case of the same
disease. [822]

Another remedy for the same disease is to pass a knotted bamboo stick
with seven knots seven times over the back of the ailing animal. [823]

Ghi is sometimes used as a medicine in the case of small-pox. In the
case of shakario or kalo va, the animal is branded in the affected
limbs. To one suffering from a stye in the eye an ointment prepared
from the horn of a deer is applied, while a mixture of whey and salt
is said to be useful in most eye maladies. The treatment for the
swelling of the belly is a mixture of molasses, ajamo (ligusticum
ajwaen) and sanchal (a kind of salt). To cure an animal of khapari
(a disease which affects milch-cattle), the milk of the affected
animal is poured on rafda (a kind of jujube tree). If after delivery,
some part of the embryo remains inside an animal, milk and molasses
are given to expedite its removal. [824]

In the case of kharava the ailing animal is made to move about in
hot sand and is treated with salt, which is first fried on the fire
of Holi. The remedy for the disease known as kumbhava is to give a
dose of castor oil, sanchal, ajamo and hot water to the sick animal
and also to tie a magic thread round its neck. [825]

A disease called okarinu (i.e., vomitting) sometimes breaks out
among sheep. In this case the shepherds separate all the affected
animals from the herd and remove them to a distance. All the sheep
which die of the disease are buried deep in a pit, which is guarded
for several days, lest some other animals dig it up and let lose the
buried epidemic by exposing the carcasses. It is believed that the
contagion of this disease lies in the ears; and the ears of all the
sheep in the herd are carefully watched if they bleed. [826]

The twin gods Ashvini Kumar are sometimes propitiated by means of an
anushthan (the performance of religious austerities in their honour)
in order that they may put a stop to a disease among cattle. [827]

It appears that dancing often forms a part of the process of
exorcism. Frequently dancing is accompanied by the beating of cymbals
and drums and other loud noises. A mandalu is convened at the house
of the person who is to be exorcised i.e., a number of bhuvas are
invited to attend along with a number of low-caste drummers, and
afterwards the ceremony of utar is gone through; the utar is then
taken to a cemetery. [828]

Sometimes the beating of drums and cymbals is alone resorted to
for expelling an evil spirit from the person of a patient. It is
believed that this process is effectual in proportion to the degree
of the intensity of the noise created. [829] The patient is asked to
sit facing the east. The Baval or Vaghri i.e., the drummer, sits in
front of him, and not only beats the drum as loudly as he can, but
also sings hymns at the top of his voice in honour of his favourite
goddess. In the meanwhile, the bhuva, who is also in attendance, begins
to be possessed, and discloses the fact by convulsive fits. After a
while, the bhuva suddenly stamps his foot furiously on the floor, and,
seizing the patient by a lock of his hair, and perhaps even giving him
a blow on the back, asks in a stern voice, "Who art thou? speak out
at once why thou hast come or else I will burn thee to death." [830]

The patient will then perhaps reply: 'Don't you know me? I am charan',
or I am zamhadi, (a female spirit guarding the village gates) or
Vagharan [831] or Purvaj (the spirit of a deceased ancestor). Regarding
the reason for possession, the evil spirit will give some such
explanation as follows:--"Once upon a time the patient was taking
a loaf and vegetables which he hid from me, and therefore I shall
leave his person only with his life." The bhuva will then say "life
is precious and not so cheap as you think. If you want anything else,
say so and leave this person." After a dialogue such as the above,
the bhuva and the spirit come to some compromise, and the bhuva then
leads a procession with the utar either to the village boundary or to
a cemetery. The bhuva then draws a circle on the ground with the point
of a sword which he carries, and places the utar within the circle. He
then slightly cuts the tip of his tongue with the edge of the sword,
and spits blood into a fire lighted for the purpose. The smoke of
this fire is supposed to carry the offering to the evil spirit. The
utar is then taken away by the drummers, who share it secretly with
the bhuva. In the event of the patient deriving no benefit from this
ceremony, the bhuva advises the patient's relatives to repeat the
process. [832]

The following ceremony is sometimes performed in order to ascertain
whether a person is under the influence of an evil spirit or
not. A bhuva is invited to the patient's house in the company of
drummers, and there he dances for some time amidst the din produced
by the beating of the drums and by the loud recitation of hymns in
honour of his favourite goddess. Afterwards a handful of grain is
passed round the head of the patient and presented to the bhuva for
inspection. The bhuva selects a few seeds from the grain and making
certain gestures, offers them to the patient with either the words
'vacho' or 'vadhavo'. In case the bhuva says 'vacho' and the number
of seeds happens to be even, what he declared to be the cause of
the patient's trouble is believed to be true. So also if the bhuva
says vadhavo and the number of seeds proves to be odd. But in case
the number of seeds proves to be odd when the bhuva says 'vacho',
or even, when he says vadhavo, then his explanation of the cause of
the patient's trouble is not credited.

Sometimes Brahmans instead of bhuvas are engaged to exorcise an evil
spirit from the body of a sick person. A bell-metal dish, containing
adad (phaseolus radiatus), wheat and jowari, is placed on a copper
jar and struck violently with a stick, called velan, so as to produce
a loud noise. The patient, who is made to sit in front, begins to
tremble and sometimes even to rave. The Brahmans also create a loud
noise and in a loud voice ask the patient who the evil spirit is
and what it wants. The patient will then give out the name of some
notorious dakan (witch) or of one of his deceased ancestors and will
add that he desires a certain thing which he was used to get while in
human form. The evil spirit is then propitiated by offering the things
asked for and is requested to leave the body of the patient. [833]

The following are other methods of expelling an evil spirit from
the body:--

Either lobhan, i.e., incense powder, or chillies or even the excreta
of dogs are burnt under the nose of the patient, who, overpowered by
the unpleasant odour, is supposed to give out the name of the evil
spirit and also what the latter wants.

Water is charmed with incantations, and is either dashed against the
patient's eyes or is given to him to drink. [834]

If the evil spirit possessing a patient is a purvaj, i.e., the spirit
of a deceased ancestor, either Narayan-bali Shraddha or Nil-Parvani
Shraddha or Tripindi Shraddha is performed in order to propitiate it,
and a party of Brahmans is invited to dinner. In case the purvaj is a
female, a cocoanut is installed in a gokhalo (a niche) in the wall to
represent it, ghi lamps are lighted, and frankincense is burnt every
morning before it. On the anniversary of the death of the purvaj a
party of goranis (unwidowed women) is invited to dinner. [835]

If a woman is believed to be possessed by a dakan, she is made to
hold a shoe in her teeth and is taken to the village boundary, where
the shoe is dropped, and a circle is drawn round it with water from
a bowl carried by the party. The holding of the shoe by the teeth
signifies a vow on the part of the dakan never to re-enter the person
of the exorcised woman. [836]

The following are other occasions for religious dancing, namely during
the Nav-ratra holidays (i.e., the festival which commences from the
1st day of the bright half of Ashvin and lasts for nine days); at
the time of offering oblations to the village-gods; on the occasion
of setting up a pillar in memory of a deceased person; at the time
of the Nilotsava [837] ceremony.

At the time when Randal the wife of Surya is installed and worshipped,
a party of young women dance in a circle before the goddess to the
accompaniment of garabis. [838]

The eighth day of the bright half of Ashvin is dedicated to the
worship of the Matas and devis (minor goddesses), and on this day,
bhuvas have to dance each before his favourite mata. This they have
also to do on the 1st day of the bright half of Ashadh. Bhuvas are also
invited to dance on the Diwasa day i.e., the last day of Ashadh.

The bhuva occupies a high place in the esteem of the village people,
and commands much respect. In the first place, his position is
that of a medium between the gods and goddesses on the one hand
and human beings on the other. [839] He is the interpreter of
the will of the gods, which he expresses to the public when in
a state of trance. Besides he is believed to have power over the
evil spirits which are visible to a bhuva though cannot be seen by
ordinary eyes. [840] He is the guardian of the village, his duty,
being to protect the people from the malignant influence of the
evil spirits.

In the next place, it is also the office of the bhuva to treat the
sick. In cases when medicine is unavailing and where the malady is
supposed to be the work of some evil spirit, the opinion of the bhuva
is sought by the relations of the patient and is given by the test
of the scrutiny of grain. [841] When the sick person is found to be
under the influence of a spirit, the common mode of exorcising is to
take an utar to the cemetery. An image of a human being is prepared
out of the flour of adad (phaseolus radiatus) and is passed round the
body of the sick person. The bhuva then holds the image near his heart
and stretches himself on a bier with the image on his bosom. In this
condition the bhuva is taken to the cemetery, and the evil spirit is
believed to be driven by these means out of the patient's body. [842]

The bhuva distributes doras (magic threads) and anklets among the
people. Such things are coveted for their efficacy in warding off
the influence of evil spirits and are often sought after by people
for their cattle as well as for themselves. [843] The prosperity of
the danklan-vagadnars (those who beat the drum) depends to a large
extent on the success of the bhuva's business, and for this reason,
the drummers are often very good advocates of the bhuva and take
every opportunity of glorifying his powers and merits.

The respect which a bhuva commands in this way is sometimes increased
by the performance of such tricks as his putting lighted torches into
his mouth, placing his hand in boiling oil, and similar performances.

But although there may be some bhuvas who profit by imposing upon the
credulity of the villagers, there are many bhuvas who do not work with
the expectation of any reward, and are only actuated by benevolent
motives. Many of them honestly believe that at the time when they are
thrown into a state of trance, the matas or deities actually enter
their bodies and speak their wishes through them as a medium.

In some villages, the office of the bhuva is hereditary, and lands
have been assigned to them in remuneration for their duty [844]. In
addition to this religious calling, a bhuva often follows some other
profession as that of agriculture, weaving or spinning. [845]

The bhuva generally belongs to some low caste and may be a Koli,
Bharvad, Rabari, Vaghri or even a Chamar. The bhuvas are also known as
pothias. One good qualification for becoming a bhuva is to possess the
habit of throwing one's self into convulsive fits followed by a state
of trance, especially on hearing the beating of a danklan (drum). At
such a time the mata or devi is supposed to possess the person of
the bhuva and to speak out her wishes on being questioned. Some
bhuvas are regularly possessed by some devi or mata on every Sunday
or Tuesday. [846]

A typical bhuva has a braid of hair on his head, puts one or more
iron or copper anklets round his leg or elbow, and makes a mark with
red lead on his forehead. A bhuva attending upon the goddess Meldi is
generally [847] a Vaghri by caste and always wears dirty clothes. A
Bharvad bhuva has generally a silver anklet round his waist. A bhuva
has to observe a fast on all the nine days of the Nav-ratras. If a
bhuva happens to come across another bhuva in convulsive fits or in
a trance, he must need go into fits as well.

Generally speaking every bhuva keeps an image of his favourite mata in
or near his own dwelling. Generally he erects a hut for the purpose
and hoists a flag upon it. Near the image are placed a number of
conch-shells and stones and brooms of peacock feathers. The deity is
not systematically worshipped every day but receives adoration every
Sunday and Tuesday. Sometimes the bhuva has a disciple--a sevaka--who
does the duty of dashing bell-metal cymbals at the time when the
bhuva throws himself in a trance. [848]

When a new bhuva is to be initiated into the profession, he is made
to sit before an image of the mata, where he goes into convulsive fits
while the danklan vagadnars beat the drums and loudly recite hymns in
honour of the deity. Afterwards he is taken to a cemetery accompanied
by the drummers and an expert bhuva, where the latter marks out a
square on the ground with the edge of a sword. The novice is asked to
lie prostrate within the area thus marked out and to get up and lie
again, doing the same four times, each time with his head towards each
of the four quarters. The bhuva who initiates the novice and who is
thenceforth considered to be the guru or preceptor of the latter, ties
a rakhadi (a piece of silk thread) round the elbow of the pupil. [849]

Every bhuva is required to propitiate his favourite goddess every
third year, the ceremony which is then performed being called
Khad-Khadya-besadvi. This is performed either during the Nav-ratra
holidays or during the bright half of either the month of Magh or
Chaitra. All the bhuvas in the village are invited on the occasion,
when there is ganja-smoking or bhang-drinking, partly at night. After
the supper which follows this party, all the bhuvas gather together
and go into convulsive fits till they are almost suffocated. Cocoanuts
are then dedicated and cracked before the mata, and the kernel is
distributed among those present. The party then break up. [850]

It is believed by some people that the spirit of a Muhammadan saint,
living or dead, dwells in such trees as the Khijado, i.e., Shami
(Prosopis spicigera) and Baval, i.e., Babhul (Acacia arabica). It is
known by the name of chitharia that is, the ragged Pir. It is a common
belief that if a mother fails to offer a rag or a piece of cloth to
such a holy tree while passing by it, her children run the risk of
falling ill. Women and ignorant people, therefore, make a point of
offering rags to such trees whenever they happen to pass by them. [851]

According to another belief, travellers, in order to accomplish their
journey safely, offer rags to such of the Khijado, Baval or Limdo
(Nim) trees as are reputed to be the residences of spirits, if they
happen to be on their road. [852]

Some believe that both male and female spirits reside in the Khijado,
Baval and Kerado trees, and throw rags over them with the object of
preventing passers by from cutting or removing the trees. Some pile
stones round their stems and draw tridents over them with red lead
and oil. If superstitious people come across such trees, they throw
pieces of stones on the piles, believing them to be holy places, and
think that by doing so they attain the merit of building a temple or
shrine. A belief runs that this pile should grow larger and larger
day by day, and not be diminished. If the base of such a tree is
not marked by a pile of stones, rags only are offered; and if rags
are not available, the devotee tears off a piece of his garment,
however costly it may be, and dedicates it to the tree. [853]

Once, a child saw its mother offering a rag to such a tree, and asked
her the reason of the offering. The mother replied that her brother,
that is the child's maternal uncle, dwelt in the tree. Hence a belief
arose that a chithario (ragged) uncle dwells in such trees. Others
assert that the chithario pir dwells in such trees, and they propitiate
him by offering cocoanuts and burning frankincense before it.

There is a Khijado tree near Sultanpur which is believed to be the
residence of a demon mamo. This demon is propitiated by the offerings
of rags.

Some declare that travellers fix rags of worn out clothes to the
trees mentioned above in order that they may not be attacked by the
evil spirits residing in them. Another belief is that the spirits of
deceased ancestors residing in such trees get absolution through this
form of devotion. It is also believed that a goddess called chitharia
devi resides in such trees, and being pleased with these offerings,
blesses childless females with children, and cures persons suffering
from itch of their disease. There is a further belief that ragged
travellers, by offering pieces of their clothes to the Khijado,
Baval or Kerado trees, are blessed in return with good clothes.

Some believe that Hanuman, the lord of spirits, resides in certain
trees. They call him chithario or ragged Hanuman. All passers by
offer rags to the trees inhabited by him. There is such a tree
near the station of Shiroi. There is a tamarind tree on the road
from Tamnagar to Khantalia which is believed to be the residence of
chithario Hanuman and receives similar offerings. Another tamarind
tree of this description is near Marad and there is a Khijado tree on
the road between Kalavad and Vavadi which is similarly treated. [854]

It is related by some people that in deserts trees are rare and the
summer heat is oppressive. To the travellers passing through such
deserts, the only place of rest is in the shadow of a solitary tree
that is to be met occasionally. In order that no harm be done to such
trees, some people have given currency to the belief that a spirit
called mamo dwells in such trees and expects the offering of a rag
and a pice at the hands of every passer by.

Some are of opinion that the bhuvas, in order to raise money from the
credulous by terrifying them, daub a tree within the limits of each
village with the form of a trident, and fix rags to it, stating that
it is the abode of a mamo or a pir. At times they ask their clients
to offer certain things to such trees, which they appropriate to
themselves. [855]

There is also a belief, that the holy trees that receive offerings
of rags from travellers, are the abodes of gods or evil spirits,
and are distinguished from other trees of the same species by the
epithet of chithario. Some people hoist flags on such trees instead
of offering rags.

In some places, the Boradi (jujube), Pipal, Vad (banyan) and the sweet
basil receive offerings of a pice and a betelnut from travellers,
while the Khijado and Baval are given rags. [856]

It is stated by some people that the belief in chithario pir has
grown during the last four hundred years.

Rags are never offered to wells, but it is common to offer them copper
coins and betelnuts. Sometimes flags are hoisted near holy wells
in honour of the water-goddess Jaldevki. Travellers hoist flags on
certain wells and throw copper coins into them in the course of their
journey. The origin of this offering is said to be in the desire of
travellers to prevent people from committing a nuisance near wells.

Some wells are noted as being the abode of spirits who have the
power of effecting certain cures. It is customary to throw a pice
in such wells. When a person is bitten by a rabid dog, he goes to
a well inhabited by a vachharo, the spirit who cures hydrophobia,
with two earthen cups filled with milk, with a pice in each, and
empties the contents into the water.

It is a belief among Hindus that to give alms in secret confers a
great merit on the donor. Some of the orthodox people, therefore,
throw pice into wells, considering it to be a kind of secret charity.

The belief in the practices adopted for transferring disease from
one person to another obtains mostly among women, who have recourse
to such practices for curing their children.

One of such practices is to lay a suffering child in the cradle of
a healthy child. This act is believed to result in transferring the
disease of the ailing child to the healthy child. Another practice
is that the mother of the sickly child should touch the mother of
a healthy child with the object of transferring the disease of her
child to the child of the latter. Some believe that the mere contact
of an ailing child with a healthy child is sufficient to transfer the
malady of the former to the person of the latter. Others maintain that
this can be brought about by a mother either by touching the cradle
of another child or by touching the person of another woman. There
are others, who hold that the disease of a sickly child can be
transferred to another child by feeding the latter with the leavings
of the former. There is a further belief that a mother can transfer
the disease of her suffering child to the child of another woman by
applying the end of her robe to the end of the robe of the latter. In
some places, when a child begins to weaken, its mother makes an idol
of cow or buffalo dung, and keeps it fixed to a wall of the house, in
the belief that the child will be cured slowly as the idol dries. It is
stated that instances are actually known of the recovery of children
by this process. These methods of transferring disease are called
tuchakas i.e. mystic methods. As a rule superstitious women practise
them on Sundays or Tuesdays, as it is believed, that to be efficacious,
they must be practised on these days.

In addition to the tuchakas above stated the utars, doras, etc.,
already described, are used for curing diseases.

Some diseases are attributed to vir possession. Virs are male spirits
fifty two in number. The bhuvas or exorcists are believed to have
control over them, and are supposed to be able to detect an illness
caused by possession by a vir. In such cases, the bhuvas drive away
the evil spirits from the patients by magic incantations, or transfer
them to others by waving a certain number of grain seeds round the
head of the patient. By another process the bhuvas can confine the
evil spirit in a glass bottle, which is buried underground.

In order to eradicate a dangerous disease, an utar is frequently
offered to a dog, in the belief that by eating the utar the disease
is transferred to the dog.

In some places, diseases of long standing due to spirit possession are
cured by employing a bhuva, (exorcist), who, accompanied by others of
his order, goes to the patient's house, makes a bamboo bier, waves an
utar round the patient's head, and lays himself on the bier with the
utar by his side. The bier is carried to the burning ground by four
persons to the accompaniment of the beatings of drums, followed by the
exorcists, who throw baklans (round flat cakes of juvari flour) into
the air as the procession moves on. When the party reach the burning
ground, the bier is put down, and the bhuva, shaking violently, offers
the utar to a spirit of the place. He then prostrates himself four
times with his face turned towards the four directions and drives a
nail into the ground at each turn. Next, the bhuva lets loose a goat
or a ram, to which the vir in the body of the patient is supposed to
be transferred. It is said that the performance of this rite relieves
the patient's mind of anxiety regarding the cause of his disease,
and he thereafter shows signs of improvement. [857]

When a man is suffering from anjani (a sore or mole on the eye-lid)
he goes to another person's house and strikes earthen vessels against
his door saying "I have shaken the vessels. May the anjani be with me
to-day and with you tomorrow". It is also stated that such a patient
goes to the house of a man who has two wives while the latter are
asleep, and taps his door uttering the words "Anjani ghar bhangani
aj mane ane kal tane" i.e., "May anjani, the breaker of the house,
be to-day with me and tomorrow with thee." This process is believed
to transfer the disease from the person of the patient to that of
the husband of the two wives.

A common method for transferring disease is to wave water round a sick
person and give it to another to drink. Similarly, a goblet filled
with water is passed round a patient's head and offered to a bhuva,
who drinks off the contents.

A belief prevails all over Gujarat that a disease can be passed
from one species of animals to another, and various practices are
adopted to effect this. Generally a bhuva or exorcist arranges the
transfer. The bhuva, accompanied by a troupe of dancers and drummers,
visits the house of the sick person and, after examining corn seeds
danas which have been waved round the patient's head on a night
preceding a Sunday or Tuesday, declares that the evil spirit possessing
the patient requires a living victim. A cock, goat or a male buffalo
is then brought as a substitute for the patient, is waved round him,
the tip of its right ear is cut off, and it is offered to the mata or
goddess, that is, it is released to stray as it pleases. These goats,
etc., are called mata's goats, mata's cocks, or mata's male buffaloes,
and are seen wandering about in many villages. Sometimes the goat,
etc., is killed before the image of the mata and the bhuva dipping the
palms of his hands into its blood, presses them against the doors of
every house in the village. In the case of an outbreak of epidemic,
the victim is set at liberty beyond the limits of the village
affected. It is believed by some people that the animal to which a
disease is conveyed in the above manner, dies of its effects. [858]

In some places the patient is supposed to be possessed by a goddess
instead of by an evil spirit. A goat, cock or a male buffalo is
offered to the goddess in the same way as to an evil spirit.

In some villages, when there is an outbreak of a serious epidemic,
it is customary to drive a buffalo beyond the village boundary, with
the disease on his back. The back of the buffalo which is chosen for
this purpose is marked with a trident in red lead and covered with a
piece of black cloth, on which are laid a few grains of adad and an
iron nail. Thus decorated, the buffalo is driven beyond the limits of
the village. It is believed that an animal driven in this way carries
the disease wherever it goes.

Very often, the beast to which a disease is transferred is kept tied
to a post all its life, with the belief that by so doing the disease
remains enchained. Jain teachers confine a disease in a bottle and
bury it underground. Sometimes, a disease is passed on to a crow,
whose legs are tied to a pillar, thus making it a life-long prisoner.

Once upon a time, when there was an outbreak of cholera in a certain
village, a bava (recluse) happened to arrive on the scene. He
caught two rams, made them move in a circle, and left them in the
burning ground, where they died, the epidemic disappearing with their
death. Hence a belief gained ground that an epidemic of cholera can
be expelled by passing it on to two rams or goats. [859]

It is related that, at Gondal, a case of cholera was cured by a Bhangi
(sweeper) by waving a cock round the patient's head. [860]

A few years ago there lived in Khakhi Jalia, a village in the vicinity
of Kolki, a Khakhi (recluse) named Narandas, who, when laid up with
fever, passed on the disease to his blanket, and after a time drew
it back to his own person.



CHAPTER IV.

WORSHIP OF ANCESTORS AND SAINTS.


The spirits of a deceased father, grand father, great grand father,
and of a mother, grand mother, and great grand mother, i.e., all the
male and female ascendants up to the third degree, receive systematic
worship when the Shraddha or funeral ceremonies are performed either
on the anniversary of the death of any of them or on the day when the
Narayan bali is performed in such holy places as Gaya, Siddhapur or
Prabhas Patan. The spirits of those who meet heroic deaths on fields
of battle are called Suropuros, and pillars are erected in their
memory on the spot where they breathed their last. They receive only
occasional worship. [861]

The purvajas or spirits of deceased ancestors receive worship on
the thirteenth or fourteenth day of the dark half of Shravan (the
tenth month of the Gujarat Hindu year), on the fourteenth of the dark
half of Ashvin, on the death anniversaries and on days on which the
Shraddhas, tripindis or nil parnavavi ceremonies are performed. On
these occasions, the pitriyas (deceased ancestors) are represented
by twisted braids of the durva grass (cynodon dactylon). [862]

Purvajas or ancestral spirits descend to the level of ghosts when
they are strongly attached to worldly objects. Such spirits often
possess the bodies of their descendants, though the necessary
Shraddhas are performed for their release. The 13th, 14th and 15th
days of the bright half of the months of Kartik and Chaitra are the
special days for propitiation of departed spirits by their relatives
either at home or in holy places, while the whole of the dark half of
the month of Bhadarva is devoted to this purpose. [863] During this
fortnight, shraddha is performed in honour of the deceased on the day
corresponding to the day of his death, when Brahmans are feasted. Thus,
a person dying on the 5th day of Kartik has his shraddha performed
on the 5th day of the sharadian. On this occasion, water is poured
at the root of the Pipal, tarpan or offerings of water are made,
and pinds or balls of rice are offered to the deceased.

Of all the days of the sharadian the 13th, 14th and 15th are considered
to be of special importance.

The death anniversary of a pitriya is called samvatsari, valgo
samachari or chhamachhari, when a shraddha is performed and Brahmans
are feasted.

The pitriyas are also worshipped on auspicious occasions such as
marriages, by the performance of a shraddha called nandi, when pinds
(balls) of molasses are offered instead of rice. It is considered an
act of merit to perform shraddha in honour of the pitriyas on the
banks of a river or tank at midday on the 8th day of the dark half
of a month.

From the 13th to the 15th day of the dark half of Shravan, after
their morning ablutions, orthodox people pour water over the Pipal,
the Babul, the Ber (Zizyphus jujube) and durva grass, and on those
places where cows are known to congregate, in the belief that by
so doing the thirst of the spirits of the deceased is quenched. It
is also believed that if feasts are given to the relatives of the
deceased and to Brahmans the pitriyas are satisfied.

According to some, the Sharadian lasts from the full-moon day
of the month of Bhadarva to the new-moon day of the same month,
that is for a period of sixteen days. The Shraddhas of those who
die on the Punema or full-moon day of a month are performed on the
full-moon day of Bhadarva, and the Shraddhas of those who die on the
new-moon day amavasia of a month are performed on the amavasia of
Bhadarva. The 13th day of the dark half of Bhadarva is called bala
terash that is children's thirteenth. This day is specially devoted
to the propitiation of the spirits of children. [864]

On the Shraddha days Brahmans and relatives of the deceased are
feasted, and oblations called Vash, consisting of rice and sweets,
are offered to crows.

On Asho Vad fourteenth, that is, the fourteenth of the dark half of
Asho, it is customary to apply red lead to the pillars erected in
honour of men that die heroic or noble deaths on fields of battle,
to break cocoanuts before them, to light lamps fed with ghi and to
offer cooked food to their spirits. [865]

The spirits of those who die with strong attachment to the objects of
this world are said to enter the state known as asur gati or the path
of demons. In this condition the spirit of the deceased possesses the
person of one of his relatives and torments the family in which he
lived. The members of the family, when worried by his persecutions,
engage the services of a bhuva or exorcist, who sets up a wooden image
of the tormenting spirit in a niche in a wall of the house. A lamp fed
with ghi is lighted daily before this image, and in times of trouble,
a cocoanut is offered to it in the belief that the spirit can protect
the offerers from injuries.

The pitriyas or ancestral spirits are propitiated by pouring water
over the Bordi (jujube), the Tulsi (sweet basil), the Vad (banyan),
the Pipal or durva grass (cynodon dactylon) on the 13th, 14th and 15th
days of the bright half of Chaitra and on the same days of the dark
half of Kartik and Shravan. On Vaishakh Shud Trij, that is, on the
third of the bright half of Vaishakh, which is called Akha Trij, women
offer to Brahmans two earthen jars filled with water and covered with
an earthen cup containing a betelnut, a pice and a pan or betel leaf,
for the propitiation of the spirits of their deceased ancestors. [866]

For the propitiation of a male spirit a party of Brahmans is feasted,
and for the propitiation of a female spirit three unwidowed married
women. [867]

Rajputs, Bharvads, Ahirs and Kolis set up either a pile of stones or
a single stone on the boundary of their village in honour of those
among them who die on battle fields. These piles or stones are called
Palios. On the Palios are placed engraved images to represent the
deceased in whose memory the Palios are erected. Small pillars are
also raised in the localities where such persons met their death. On
the Kali Chaudas or black fourteenth, that is the fourteenth day
of the dark half of Asho, the Palios are daubed with red lead and
worshipped with offerings of cocoanuts. Women who have become sati
receive worship and offerings on the Hindu new year's day. [868]

Spiritual guides such as Shankaracharya, Vallabacharya, the maharajas
or spiritual heads of the sect called Swaminarayan, Lalo Bhagat and
Talo Bhagat are worshipped by their devotees with offerings of food,
garments and cash. In this Kali Yuga or iron age, men who are really
great are rare, and even if there be some, they are invisible to the
faulty vision of the present day degraded mortals. A few come into
contact with such holy men by virtue of the good deeds performed by
them in their past lives. These are said to attain paradise by this
satsang [869] (contact with the righteous).

Holy men receive personal worship during their life-time. After
they are dead, their relics, such as impressions of their footsteps,
their photos or busts are worshipped with offerings of sandal paste,
flowers, red powder, frankincense, lamps fed with ghi and arati
(swingings of lamps). [870]

Every sect of Hindus has a Maharaja or spiritual head, and it is
considered meritorious to entertain and worship him on certain
special occasions. The Maharaja or Guru is received with great
éclat. His followers form a procession and carry him in a palanquin
or a carriage and pair accompanied with music. At the house of the
person who invites him, the floor is covered with rich cloth, over
which the Maharaja is led to a raised seat specially arranged for the
purpose. He is then worshipped by the host with the same details as
the image of a god. His feet are washed by panchamrita (five nectars),
that is a mixture of ghi, milk, honey, sugar and water, which is
sipped by the worshipper and distributed among the followers of the
Maharaja. Very often the feet of the Maharaja are washed in water,
which is considered as purifying as the panchamrita. Great festivity
and rejoicings are observed on this day at the house of the Maharaja's
host, where crowds of the Maharaja's followers assemble eager for
a sight of him. After spending about half an hour in the house,
the Maharaja departs, first receiving valuable presents from the host.

Spiritual guides who claim the power of working miracles are held
in high esteem by the people. Some of these guides are said to have
control over spiritual beings or to possess their favour. These spirits
are supposed to endow them with the power of preparing mystic threads,
which, when worn round the waist, neck or arm, cure various diseases.

In the Kadavasan woods, near the village of Daldi, there lives a bava
called Bhimputi, who is believed to possess miraculous powers. He
surprises visitors by his wonderful feats and commands vows from
the afflicted by mitigating their sufferings. Every day, before
breakfast, the bava visits seven villages to collect sugar and flour,
which he throws in handfuls over every anthill which he meets on his
way. This act of charity has established him as a saint, and most of
his prophecies are believed to be fulfilled.

A Musalman named Muhammad Chhail is held in great respect by the
people on account of his great magical powers. He is believed to
be in the good graces of a Pir, who has endowed him with the power
of commanding material objects to come to him from long distances,
and of breaking them and making them whole again. [871]

Great men of antiquity often command worship as gods. A fast is
observed by Hindus on the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra, the
birth day of Rama, whose birth anniversary is celebrated at noon on
that day in his temple. On this occasion, all visitors to the temple
offer a pice or two to his image and receive his Prasad, that is,
consecrated food, which consists of a mixture of curdled milk and
sugar. The birth of Krishna is celebrated at mid-night on the eighth
day of the dark half of Shravan, when people keep awake for the whole
of the night.

The Jains observe a fast for seven days from Shravan Vad Baras, that
is the 12th day of the dark half of Shravan, to the 5th day of the
bright half of Bhadarva, in honour of Mahavir Swami, one of their
spiritual teachers, who is believed to have been born on the 2nd day
of the bright half of Bhadarva. This period is known as the Pajusan,
during which the Jains cause the slaughter-houses and fish markets
to be closed and give alms to the poor. [872]

A century ago there lived at Nalkantha a sage named Bhansab. He met
a holy death by deep meditations, and a few days after rose up from
his grave in his original form. This led him to be classed in the
category of great men and to command divine worship. [873]

Vithal, a sage of the Kathi tribe, is revered in Paliad. Savo, a
devotee at Zanzarka, is worshipped by Dheds. Fehala, a Rajput and Tolat
his wife, are enshrined at Anjar, a village in Cutch. Lalo, a Bania
devotee of Sindhavar, received divine honours in his life-time and his
image in Sayala is held in great reverence to this day. The samadh of
Madhvagar, an atit of Vastadi, situated in Unchadi a village in the
Dhandhuka taluka in Ahmedabad, is an object of worship. Harikrishna
Maharaja, a Brahman saint of Chuda, received divine honours at Chuda
and the Charotar. [874]

If the souls of the departed ones are condemned to become ghosts,
shraddha ceremonies performed by their descendants are said to be
efficacious in freeing them from their ghostly existence and relegating
them to some other form of life.

The lives of bhuts and pishachas, male and female ghosts, are said to
extend over a thousand years. [875] Shraddhas, such as the samachari
i.e., the death anniversary and Narayanbali i.e., a shraddha performed
in a holy place, emancipate the ghostly spirits from their wretched
existence and make them eligible for birth in a better form. [876]
Some believe that at the end of their ghostly existence (a thousand
years) they take birth in the animal kingdom in the mortal world. [877]

The soul is not said to have finally perished unless it merges into
the divine self and attains moksha or salvation. The passions and
desires of a dying man do not permit his soul ascending beyond a
certain stage, where he or she remains as a ghost until the soul
is purged of all his or her desires and sins by the performance of
funeral ceremonies. For relieving ancestral spirits from the low order
of bhuts and pishachas, shraddhas are performed by their surviving
relatives in such holy places as Prabhas, Gaya and Pindtarak. These
ceremonies are known as Narayanbali, Nilotsarga and saptaha-parayan
(recitation of a sacred book for seven consecutive days). [878]

Those persons who die with wicked thoughts still present and their
desires not fulfilled, enter the order of evil spirits, from which
they are liberated after their desires have been satisfied and their
wicked thoughts eliminated. [879]

Bhuts and pishachas--ghosts, male and female--can be prevented from
doing harm by recourse to certain processes. For instance, the wife
of a Nagar of Gadhada became a witch after her death and began to
torment the second wife of her husband by throwing her out of bed
whenever she was asleep. To prevent this, the husband took a vow
to perform a shraddha at Sidhpur in the name of the deceased wife,
after the performance of which the ghostly presence stopped harassing
the new wife of her husband. [880]

Bhuts and pishachas are believed by some people to be immortal,
because they are supposed to belong to the order of demi-gods. In the
Amarkosha--the well-known Sanskrit lexicon--they are classed with
divinities, such as guhyaks, and sidhas. The bhut is defined as a
deity that troubles infants and the pishacha as a deity that lives
on flesh. Bhuts and pishachas are the ganas or attendants of Shiva,
one of the gods of the Hindu Trinity. They are supposed to be upadevas
or demi-gods.

Preta is the spirit of a person that dies a sudden or unnatural death
with many of his desires unfulfilled. His soul attains emancipation
by the performance of a saptah, that is a recitation of the Bhagvat
on seven consecutive days. It is described in the Bhagvat that
Dhundhumari, the brother of Gokarn, who had become a preta, was
released from his preta existence by the performance of a saptah
which his brother caused to be made. The Garudpuran mentions that King
Babruvahan emancipated a preta by the performance of a shraddha. The
mukti or salvation of a preta is in itself its death. This would
prove pretas to be mortal. [881]

The span of life of the bhuts and pretas is very long, but those whose
descendants offer them the usual oblations gain their emancipation
sooner. There is a kund or spring called Zilanand in the vicinity
of Jhinjhuvada, on the banks of which is a temple of Zilakeshwar
Mahadev. The performance of the pitri shraddha by the side of this
spring is believed to expedite the emancipation of the spirits of
the deceased from ghostly life. Every year, on the Bhadarva amavasya,
that is, the new moon day of the month Bhadarva, a great fair is held
on this spot, when people from long distances visit the place to get
their relatives exorcised by the bhuvas or exorcists.

It is believed, that though bhuts, pretas and pishachas are immortal,
they are scared away by the sound of a European band and of other
musical instruments. [882] It is said that all drums and other weird
instruments whether European or Indian, have the power of scaring
away evil spirits.

An evil spirit called Babaro had entered the person of the uncle
of Maldev the king of Jhalavad much to the king's annoyance. Maldev
offered a stubborn fight to Babaro, who, unable to cope with Maldev,
promised to extend his kingdom over those villages in which he would
hang up bunting in one night. It is said that the present extent
of the Jahlwad territories was due to king Maldev's enterprise in
hanging up bunting over these territories as asked by Babaro. [883]

Though at the time of a man's death the faculties may hardly be sound,
yet the varsana--the impressions--left on his mind by his past actions
are in themselves good or bad enough to impress him so as to make his
departing spirit assume a new form of life in keeping with them. For
instance, a man following a particular profession becomes subject to
dreams bearing on that profession. When the impression created by his
actions in daily life is so deep as to induce dreams, his mind, even
after death, leaves to his departing soul an inclination to be engaged
in the subject of his mind's last activities. This is vasana. [884]

It is a popular saying among Hindus that children inherit the nature
of their parents. It is for this reason that high caste Hindus do not
utter the names of their eldest sons. There is a further belief that
the Pitriyas departed from the world with certain desires unfulfilled
reappear as descendants of their children to have these desires
satisfied. [885]

As the saying goes Pita putrena jayate, that is a father is born
in the form of the son, so the Pitriyas are born as descendants of
their children, or according to the Bija vrikshanyaya, as a tree
springs from its seed, that is, its offerings, so parents take birth
as children of their offspring. [886]

The Pitriyas, whose attachment to their children or family or wealth
does not die with them, reappear in the same family as descendants. It
is also believed that persons dying with debts unpaid with the
consciousness that they must be paid, are reborn in this world for
the discharge of their obligations. [887]

It is not always that the Purvajas reappear in the same family. It is
said about the departed spirits, that after undergoing punishment for
their sins and enjoying the fruits of their good actions, they come
down on earth again as drops of rain, and forming part of the grain
which grows on rain water make their way into the wombs of animals
and are thus reborn. [888]

On account of the community of their feelings, habits and ideas
in previous births, members of different families form different
groups. The actions performed in this life keep them bound to one
another either as recipients of the return of the obligations given
in the past or as givers of fresh obligations. The members of a family
stand thus to one another in the relation of debtors and creditors. It
is for the discharge of these debts and recovery of dues that several
individuals are united in a family. This naturally leads to the
members of a family taking birth again in the same family for the
proper discharge of debts.

A virtuous child is declared to have been born to return the debts
contracted in its past lives, and a vicious one to recover the
dues. [889]

When an atit or holy man or a recluse dies, his body is interred, and
a platform rising waist high from the ground, or a small dome-shaped
temple, is built over the spot. This is called a samadh. An image
of the god Shiva is generally installed in the samadh; but sometimes
padukas i.e. the impressions on stone of the footsteps of the deceased,
are installed instead. Instances of the latter are the padukas of
Dattatraya, Gorakha and Machchendra Nath.

Both the Samadh and the image of the god Shiva as well as the padukas
installed therein, are worshipped by the people, who, in course of
time, give currency to the belief that the Samadh possesses certain
miraculous powers, such as curing long-standing diseases, blessing
barren women with children, etc. Offerings are made to the Samadh by
pious persons and festivals or fairs are held in its honour by the
inhabitants of the village in which the Samadh is located. [890]

Kabars or tombs raised over the graves of Mahomedan saints or Pirs
are held in equal reverence both by Mahomedans and Hindus. To these
offerings are made, and fairs are held in their honour.

Some Samadhs and Kabars noted for miraculous powers are given below.

1. Gorakhnath:--The Samadh of Gorakhnath lies on Mount Girnar. It
is said that when the word Salam is shouted by any one standing on
the brink of the hollow wherein the Samadh is said to be, the word
"Aleka, Aleka, Aleka" is heard in response. [891]

2. Kevaldas:--The Samadh of Kevaldas stands in Susavav. It is told
that, on one occasion, when a festival was being celebrated in honour
of the Bava Kevaldas, a nimb tree (Azadirachta Indica) overhanging
the Samadh was transformed into a mitho Limbdo (Ailantas excelsa).

3. The Samadh at Kanga:--In the religious house at Kanga, a village
in the Junagadh State, there lived a bava given to religious
austerities. It is said that he took Samadh [892] during life. This
Samadh is said to work miracles at times.

4. Similarly, a bava in the religious house at Navanagar called
Sharada Matha has taken a Samadh during life, and his remains and
the structure over them have become an object of worship.

5. The Samadh of Lala bhakta:--Lala bhakta was a native of
Sayola. He was famous for his piety, and after his death his Samadh
was deified. It is said in reference to this Samadh that a meal of
dainty dishes prepared for five or six persons by its side, would
satisfy the hunger of a company of fifty, if one happened to arrive
there at the time of serving the meal [893].

6. Datar [894] Pir:--The tomb of this Pir is situated on Mount
Girnar. Almost all people in Kathiawar and many from Gujarat offer
vows to this Pir. [895]

This Pir is also known by the name of Kala Yavan. [896] It is believed
that he has the power of releasing the chain bonds of a person falsely
accused with an offence provided he approaches the Pir in chains. The
sanctity of this Pir is so great that vows in his honour secure to
persons desiring male heirs the birth of sons. [897]

7. Asami Pir:--The tomb of this Pir is in Lunar. He is believed to
ensure the fulfilment of certain vows made by those who have faith
in him. [898]

8. Devalsha Pir:--The tomb of this Pir is situated at Amaran about
seven miles from Todia. Many Hindus perform the first hair-cutting
ceremony of their children at the shrine of this Pir with an offering
of a sweet preparation of ghi, sugar or molasses, and wheat flour. The
Muhammadans distribute cooked rice among the Fakirs about this shrine.

A tradition runs that, once seven eunuchs defied the power of this
Pir saying that they would put no faith in him unless they conceived
sons. This they did, and when in terror regarding their approaching
confinement, they were told that the children would have to be taken
out by cutting their bodies open. The tombs of these seven eunuchs
and their sons still stand near the tomb of Devalsha to bear testimony
to his glory and miraculous power. [899]

9. The Kabar of Haji Karmani:--Is situated at Dwarkan and is much
respected by both Hindus and Muhammadans. [900]

10. The tombs of Jesal and Toral:--These are said to be the tombs of
a husband and wife of the names of Jesal and Toral. They are situated
in Anjar, a village in Cutch. It is said that originally these tombs
were at the distance of twenty-seven feet from one another, but now
the distance between them is only 7 1/2 feet. A belief is current
that the day of judgment will come when these two tombs meet. [901]

11. Haj Pir and Gebansha Pir:--The tombs of these Pirs are at
Mendarda. Vows are offered to the Haj Pir (Pilgrims saint) with the
object of securing a good rainfall after an unusual drought, also
for the restoration of stolen property. Vows to the Gebansha Pir are
believed to be efficacious in curing foot diseases of cattle and skin
diseases of children. [902]

12. Panch or Five Pirs:--The tombs of these Pirs are situated in
Dahura, each of them measuring about twenty-seven feet. A miracle is
attributed to these tombs in the phenomenon that they can never be
accurately measured, each attempt at measurement giving a different
result. Women whose sons die in infancy make vows in honour of the
Panch Pirs, and take them to their tombs on their attaining a certain
age, where they observe fakiri [903] for ten days. [904]

13. Aulia Pir [905]:--The tomb of this Pir lies on Mount Girnar. It
is believed to possess the miraculous power of stopping the career of
galloping horses and bringing them to the ground, and of stupefying
the senses of a person who enters the shrine. [906]

14. Miran Datar:--The celebrated tomb of this Pir is in the
village of Unjha near Baroda, where a fair is held every Friday in
Shravan. Persons possessed by evil spirits are said to be cured by
visiting this tomb and offering an image of a horse stuffed with
cotton, and a cocoanut. People from all parts of Gujarat and from
distant places suffering from physical infirmities, observe vows in
honour of this Pir. Some wear iron wristlets round their wrists in
his honour. [907]

15. Pir Mahabali:--The tomb of this Pir is situated at Gotarka near
Radhanpur. Every year a fair is held in honour of this tomb, when
the chief Pujari of the shrine of Varalu goes there, holding in one
hand a bayonet with its point touching his breast, and in the other,
a cocoanut. It is said that when the Pujari reaches the third step
leading to the entrance of the shrine, the locked doors of the shrine
fly open, and the Pujari throws the cocoanut into the shrine. If the
shrine gates do not open of themselves on his approach, the Pujari
has to stab himself to death then and there. [908]

16. Kalu Pir:--It is said that this Pir leads a procession every night,
when monstrous kettle-drums are beaten by his phantom followers. On
every Friday this procession goes on its rounds, which cover a large
area. [909]

Other tombs noted for miraculous powers are those of Gebalsha Pir
in Charadwa, of Daria Pir in Morvi, of Hajarat Pir in Baghdad and of
Khoja Pir in Ajmere. [910]

The followers of the tenets of Swami-narayan, Vallabhacharya, Kabir,
Shankaracharya, Ramanuja, Madhwacharya, Nimbark and Talo Bhagat look
upon these personages as gods, and worship their images. [911]

Some of the spiritual teachers mentioned above maintained
large establishments and made their supremacy hereditary. Their
representatives (that is either their heirs or disciples) are looked
upon as the embodiments of the same virtues as were concentrated in the
founders of the sects. The great teachers are worshipped either in the
form of their footprints, their images or their representatives. [912]

The worship of the following Muhammadan Pirs has been adopted by
Hindus:--


(1) Datar Pir in Junagadh.

(2) Datar in Rataiya near Khirasara.

(3) Gobalsha Pir:--This Pir is noted for curing boils.

(4) Tag Pir or the live saint near Bhayavadar:--This Pir is believed to
have the power of curing enlargement of the spleen. Persons suffering
from this disease go to his shrine and distribute dry dates among
children. This is supposed to propitiate him and to effect the
cure. [913]

(5) Miran Datar:--The miraculous and curative powers of this Pir
are so potent that blind persons are known to have their eye-sight
restored and childless persons to have their longings for children
satisfied through his favour. Persons possessed by evil spirits are
exorcised by merely wearing a ring in his name. [914]


The shrine of this Pir is situated in the village of Unava in the
Gaikwar's territory in North Gujarat. His Highness the late Gaikwar
Khanderao has fixed solid silver railings round the shrine of this
Pir in gratitude for a cure effected by him.


(6) Ramde Pir:--This Pir has obtained the epithet of Hindva Pir as he
is worshipped mostly by the Hindus. He has worshippers in many places,
where shrines are erected in his honour and verses and hymns composed
and sung in his praise. [915] He is evidently, as his name suggests,
one of the first Khoja missionaries who practised teachings more
Hindu than Musalman in order to secure a following among the Hindus.

(7) Haji Karmani near Dvarikhan.

(8) The Davalsha Pir near Amaran.

(9) The Lakad Pir and the Hussein Pir in the vicinity of Ganod.

(10) Mahabali Dada Pir:--This Pir is to be found close to the village
of Varai. Milk offered to him in his shrine in indas (egg-shaped pots)
is said to remain fresh for a year. Similarly, the doors of his shrine
open of themselves after the lapse of a year.

(11) Mangalio Pir:--This Pir is worshipped at Dadvi.

(12) Moto Pir:--Is worshipped at Khandorana.

(13) Hindva Pir:--This is the Pir of the Khojas in Pirana near
Ahmedabad. He is so called because he is worshipped by the Hindus also.

(14) Bhadiadaro Pir:--Is in the village of Bhadia near Dhorali.

(15) Ingarasha Pir and Balamsha Pir.

(16) Tamialsha and Kasamsha Pir:--The shrines of these Pirs are on
the Girnar hill. [916]

(17) Ganj Pir:--The shrine of this Pir is near Todia. Vows to
offer a quarter of a pound of molasses to this Pir are believed
to be efficacious in curing persons of fever and children of their
ailments. [917]


There is a Pir in the village of Vadhardun near Viramgam. Persons
suspected of having committed thefts are conducted in chains before
this Pir. It is said that, if the charge be false, the chains break
asunder of themselves. [918]

Apart from the respect paid to the Pirs mentioned above, the Hindus
hold in great reverence the tabuts of the Muhammadans. [919]

There are various rural methods in vogue for the cure of barrenness.

One of these is for the barren woman to swallow the navel-string of a
new-born child. [920] Another is to partake of the preparation called
katlan. [921]

There are two kinds of preparations which go by the name of katlan. One
is prepared from seven pieces of dry ginger. [922] The other is
a mixture of suva, [923] sunth (dry ginger), gundar (gum arabic),
gol (molasses) etc. [924] In order to secure the desired effect,
the katlan must be eaten seven times every Sunday or Tuesday seated
on the cot of a woman in child-bed. [925]

The longing for a child is also believed to be satisfied by partaking
of the food served to a woman, in confinement, sitting on her bed,
either on a Sunday or Tuesday. [926]

There is also another preparation which is believed to cause
conception. It consists of a mixture of pitpapdo (Glossocardi
Boswellia), sugar-cane and butter. In order to be efficacious, it
must be taken on seven consecutive days commencing from the fourth
day of the monthly menstrual period. [927]

Conception is also believed to be favoured by administering the gum
of the babul tree dissolved in milk for three days commencing from
the third day of the monthly period.

Some believe that, in order to be effective, this mixture must be
taken standing. [928] In some places, seeds of a vegetable plant
called shivalangi are also administered.

To secure conception, a bit of coral is also eaten, with the face
turned towards the sun.

Other preparations taken with the belief that they cause conception
are:--

(1) Harde (Myrobalan) put in kansar (a preparation of wheat flour
cooked in water and sweetened with molasses), (2) extract of the fruit
called sarangdha, (3) paras pipalo (Thespesia populnea) mixed with
clarified butter, (4) gum mixed with plantains, (5) juice of the
cooked leaves of the Arani (Elaeodendren glaucum), [929] (6) powder
of Nag kesar (Messua ferrea) put into milk, and (7) the roots of Bhong
ringdi (a kind of poisonous plant) mixed with the milk of a cow. [930]

It is also believed that if a barren woman succeeds in carrying away
grains of rice from the folds of the upper garment of a pregnant
woman, and eats them cooked in milk, her desire for a child is
satisfied. [931]

In celebrating the Simant or first pregnancy ceremony of a woman, the
pregnant woman is taken for a bath to a dung-hill or to a distance
of about thirty yards behind the house. After the bath is over, she
returns home walking over sheets of cloth spread on her way. On this
occasion her company is coveted by barren women for the purpose of
tearing off unseen a piece of her upper garment, as this is believed
to bring about conception. It is said that if a woman succeeds in
doing this, she conceives, while the victim has a miscarriage. [932]

Some believe that a slight pressure by a childless woman on the upper
garment of a pregnant woman is sufficient to bring about the result
mentioned above. [933]

Others hold that a slight blow on the shoulder of a pregnant woman by
a childless woman satisfies the desire of the latter for a child. [934]

Conception is also said to be effected by branding children while at
play in the streets. [935]

It is believed that this brand, to have efficacy, must be inflicted
on a Sunday or Tuesday. The operation is generally performed in
the evening with a red-hot needle. It is said that the branded child
dies while the branding barren woman conceives a child. [936]

Offering bread to black dogs is also supposed to be a cure for
barrenness.

Conception is also favoured by passing under the bier or palanquin
holding the corpse of an ascetic or holy man while it is being carried
to the cemetery. [937] Some believe that such an ascetic or saint
must be a follower of the Jain faith. [938] Others maintain that
the desired end can be secured only by wearing round the elbows the
grains of rice or coins offered to the bier of a saint on its way to
the cemetery. [939]

Other methods practised for the cure of barrenness are as follows:

The barren woman cuts off a lock of the hair of a child-bearing woman
and keeps it in her custody. [940]

Some women collect the dust trodden on by a child-bearing woman in
an earthen pot and eat it every day till it is exhausted.

Some throw grains of adad (Phaseolus mungo) over the bed of a woman
in confinement. [941]

Others daub their foreheads with the blood emitted by a woman in
menses.

There are some who pour water in a circle at the village gate on a
Sunday or Tuesday, and when in period, partake of the powder of mindhal
mixed with lapsi (coarse wheat flour fried in ghi and sweetened with
molasses or sugar) seated on the threshold of the house. [942]

Many wear round their necks leaves called bhojapatras on which the
mystical figure given below is drawn by an exorcist.


                               +---+
                             4 | 2 | 2
                     +---+-----+---+
                    3| 3 |  4  | 3 | 3
                     |   |   +-+-+ |
                     +---+---+ 3 +-+----+
                         |   +-+-+ |    |
                         |  5  | 4 | 12 | 12
                         +-----+---+----+
                      24 |  24 | 4
                         +-----+


Pieces of paper on which the following jantra is written by an ascetic,
woven in a string made of five kinds of silk, are also worn round
the elbows:--


                Swaha aum rhin kling swaha.


About a month and a quarter after the delivery of a woman, a
ceremony called zarman zarvan is performed, when the woman goes to a
neighbouring stream or well to fetch water for the first time after her
delivery. Near the stream or well five small heaps of sand are made and
daubed with red lead. Next, a lamp fed with ghi is lighted, and seven
small betelnuts are offered to the stream or well. A cocoanut is then
broken, and a part of it is thrown into the water as an offering. Next,
the woman fills a jar with the water of the stream or well and returns
home, taking with her six out of the seven betelnuts offered to the
stream or well. On her way home she is approached by barren women who
request to be favoured with one of the betelnuts, as it is believed
that swallowing such a betelnut causes conception. [943]

Some believe that only the smallest of the seven betelnuts has the
power of producing this result [944]. Others hold that this betelnut
must be swallowed on the threshold of a house. [945]

Eating cocoa-kernel and molasses sitting on the threshold of the
house on the fourth day of the monthly period is also believed to be
a remedy for the cure of barrenness.

Placing a box containing a kori, (a small silver coin) on a spot where
three roads cross one another is also said to favour conception. [946]

In some places, a black earthen pot containing charcoal and grains of
adad (Phaseolus mungo) is placed on a spot where two roads cross one
another, on a Sunday or Tuesday. On this day the barren woman has to
take her meals without salt. [947]

Cutting off a lock of a child's hair and keeping it in custody is also
believed to satisfy the longing of a barren woman for a child. This
result can also be obtained by securing a piece of a garment of a
suckling child.

Some worship daily a cocoanut and a betelnut consecrated with
incantations. [948]

Some take a bath on the third day of their period, and stand on the
threshold of the house with their hair sprinkled over with kankotri
(red powder). Next, a ghi-fed lamp is offered to the deities, and
the devotee prostrates herself before the lamp. [949]

It is also believed that barrenness can be cured by religious vows,
by offering alms in propitiation of malignant planets such as Mars,
and by reciting the jap or incantation called gopal santan to please
the deity of that name. [950]

One of the religious vows of this nature is to observe fasts on twelve
consecutive Sundays or Tuesdays. On these days the devotee fixes her
gaze on the sun and offers him worship, after which she takes a meal
prepared in milk without salt or sugar. [951]

Some hold a recitation of the chandi kavach a hundred times through
Brahmans with sacrificial oblations of clarified butter, sesamum
seed, kamod (a kind of rice), gugal (rhododendron), sandal wood and
sugarcandy. [952] Others have the story of the Harivansha recited on
seventeen consecutive days, during which period the devotee (i.e.,
the barren woman) observes brahmacharya, that is abstains from
sexual enjoyment. This ceremony is believed to exorcise the fiend
of barrenness.

Some keep a vow of standing on their legs for the whole day on the
fourteenth of the month of Phalgun (the fifth month of the Gujarat
Hindu year) and of breaking their fast after worshipping the sacred
pyre. [953]

There is another vow called the Punema or full-moon day vow, the
observance of which is believed to favour the birth of a son. [954]

Pouring water at the root of, or circumambulating, a pipal or babul
tree after a bath without removing the wet clothes, is also believed
to cause conception. [955]

Some observe the vow of entertaining thirteen Brahmans and thirteen
virgins to a feast, and of setting up Randal Bantva. [956]

Women whose children die in infancy give them opprobrious names such
as Khacharo (filth), Ghelo (stupid), Natho, Uko, Ukardo, Bodho, Pujo,
Adavo, Mongho, Tulhi, Tutho, Kadavi, etc. in the belief that by so
doing the life of the children is lengthened. [957] The idea is almost
Asiatic in extent. Among Musalmans also such names are given; and even
among the Persians and Arabs boys are given such names as Masriequ and
Osaid--the Stolen and the Black. Sometimes parents arrange that their
children be actually stolen; and some next of kin, generally the aunt,
is made to commit the kindly felony. She afterwards returns the child
for a certain amount in cash or clothes. The custom is as old as the
scriptures, there being an allusion in the Koran to how the little
Joseph was made to steal some garment of his aunt and was claimed as
a forfeit by her. Speaking about Levi, the older brothers of Joseph
say to the Egyptian soldiers, "If he hath stolen (the king's goblet)
verily the brother of his too did (formerly) steal."

Some make a vow of not cutting the hair of their children till they
are taken to Ambaji, where their hair is cut for the first time. [958]

Some treat their children as beggars until they attain the age of five
years, that is, they are dressed till that age in clothes obtained
by begging. Some bore the nose of the child.



CHAPTER V.

WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD.


The beliefs current as to the cause of dreams are many. One of
these is that memory of known facts or incidents heard or seen
causes dreams. Dreams are also supposed to be caused by disorders
in the brain, by brooding constantly over a particular occurrence,
by anxiety or by the perpetration of sinful acts. [959] Those who
are indebted to the pitris (ancestral spirits) are also said to be
troubled by dreams. [960] A hearty meal at night just before going
to bed is also supposed to cause dreams. [961]

There are three conditions of human existence, (1) Jagriti that
is wakefulness (2) Swapna that is dream and (3) Sushupti that is
sleep. The incidents which impress the mind strongly during wakefulness
are reproduced in dreams. Very often thoughts that never occur to our
minds strike us in dreams. These are ascribed to the impressions made
on the soul during past lives. [962]

It is said that the interpretation of dreams goes by contraries. But
at times they are fully borne out. A good dream is an indication of
future good, and a bad one of future evil. [963]

There are some persons whose dreams are always fulfilled. Dreams
dreamt by persons pure of mind and heart seldom turn out false.

Dreams occurring in the first quarter of the night are believed to
be fulfilled in a year, those in the second quarter of the night in
six months, those in the third quarter in three months, and those
in the last quarter in one month. A dream seen during an hour and a
half before daybreak bears fruit in ten days, while that seen just
at day-break is realised immediately. [964]

Dreams that occur before midnight are never fulfilled. [965]

If a person has a bad dream, he should go to sleep at once, and not
communicate it to any one. If he has a good dream, he should not sleep
on that night after its occurrence. Early on the following morning
he should communicate it to a preceptor or saint; but if neither be
available, he should repeat it into the ears of a cow. A good dream
should never be told to a bad or low-minded person.

If a man sleeps after a good dream and has a bad one, the former
loses its force while the latter gains ascendancy and comes true. [966]

It is related that Allauddin the bloody once entered the house of a
blacksmith when the latter was asleep dreaming that he saw a treasure
trove after having bathed in a stream and drunk a little water. At the
same time Allauddin saw a small insect come out of the blacksmith's
nostril, drink water from a neighbouring cistern, and return to the
place from whence he came. When the dream was over, the blacksmith
woke and communicated it to Allauddin, which enabled the latter to
spot the treasure, found by excavating the place where the insect
was hidden. [967]

The king Nala was questioned in his sleep several times by an
individual unknown to him, "May I come now or later?" Nala replied
"Come now" thinking that if it was misfortune that put him the
question, it would be better to get rid of it soon, so that the
latter part of life might be passed happily. The questioner proved
to be misfortune, and it is related that Nala met many mishaps during
his youth.

Similarly, a bad dream dreamt by Harischandra was followed by a series
of calamities.

Ravan, the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon, had a dream in the third
quarter of the night that Lanka was destroyed, and the destruction
of Lanka followed. [968]

To see or think or experience in dreams the following, as the case
may be is considered to be auspicious:--

(1) A cow, (2) a bullock, (3) an elephant, (4) a palace, (5) a
mountain, (6) a high peak, (7) the droppings of a bird, (8) ointment,
(9) weeping, (10) a king, (11) gold, (12) the crossing of the ocean,
(13) a lamp, (14) flesh, (15) fruit, (16) a lotus, (17) a flag,
(18) the image of one's favourite god, (19) a saint, (20) a Brahman,
(21) an ancestral spirit, (22) a white snake biting the right side,
(23) a flowering tree, (24) climbing a tree, (25) climbing the Rayan
(Mimusops hexandra), (26) a woman dressed in white, (27) walking
over a layer of lead, (28) lifting a goblet filled with wine, (29)
a lion, (30) the goddess of wealth, (31) a garland, (32) driving
in a carriage to which an elephant, a lion, a horse or a bullock
is yoked, (33) swallowing the disc of the sun or the moon, (34)
the hands or feet of a man, (35) worship of a deity, (36) barley,
(37) rice, (38) sandal paste, (39) the Dro grass (Cynodon Dactylon),
(40) the moon, (41) the sun, (42) a goblet, (43) an ocean of milk,
(44) jewels, (45) smokeless fire, (46) an image of the god Shiva,
Brahma or Ganesh or of the goddess Gauri, (47) a celestial vehicle,
(48) the heaven, (49) the Kalpavriksha or the magic tree that satisfies
all desires, (50) a river in floods, (51) fish, (52) curdled milk,
(53) going on a pilgrimage, (54) ornaments, (55) crossing a river,
(56) eating the flesh of a man's legs or flowers. [969]

To see in a dream (1) a person leading a life of celibacy, (2)
a virgin, (3) a green tree, (4) or students returning from school,
is also considered to foretell good fortune. [970]

Similarly, the sight of an unwidowed woman and the thought of the
death of any person, in a dream, is believed to bring good luck.

A dream in which one of the following objects is seen is also supposed
to be good:--

(1) An assemblage of Brahmans, (2) a gardener, (3) milk, (4) a
prostitute, (5) a shield and sword, (6) a musket, (7) a scimitar, (8)
an antelope, (9) an unwidowed woman carrying on her head a jar filled
with water, (10) a mongoose, (11) a peacock, (12) a woman carrying a
child on her waist, (13) newly-washed dry clothes, (14) a costly fan,
(15) a man dressed in white clothes. [971]

In a book called Harit-sanhita the subject of the influence of dreams
on human happiness or misery is fully treated.

The book says:--If the sun, the moon, the congregation of the stars,
a lake filled with clusters of expanded lotuses, or crossing the sea
or a river full of water be seen or experienced in a dream by a man,
he attains wealth, happiness and prosperity and relief from diseases.

"If a cow, a horse, an elephant, a king or a flower called prashasta
is seen in a dream by a sickly person, his illness disappears; if
by one laid in sick bed, he is cured; if by one confined in a jail,
he is released." [972]

If a child grinds its teeth and weeps in a dream, it indicates
liquidation of pecuniary liabilities. One who sees a man die in a
dream is blessed with longevity. [973]

A bite by a white snake in a dream is an omen of increase of
wealth. [974]

"All black objects except a cow, a horse, a king, an elephant, and
fish, seen in a dream, are the precursors of disease and calamity."

"One who sees in a dream his body devoured by crows, herons, camels,
serpents, boars, eagles, foxes, dogs, wolves, asses, buffaloes, birds
moving in the sky, tigers, fishes, alligators or monkeys, experiences
in the immediate future a heavy loss or a terrible disease." [975]

The following objects seen, heard or experienced in a dream are
believed to forebode evil:--

(1) Cotton, (2) ashes, (3) bones, (4) whey, (5) singing, (6)
merriment, (7) laughing, (8) studying, (9) a woman dressed in red,
(10) a red mark on the forehead, (11) a gandharva or heavenly bard,
(12) a demon, (13) a wizard, (14) a witch, (15) a prickly shrub,
(16) a cemetery, (17) a cat, (18) vomiting, (19) darkness, (20) a
hide, (21) a woman with a bad reputation, (22) thirst, (23) a contest
between two planets, (24) fall of a luminous body, (25) a whirlwind,
(26) vishotak (a disease in which the skin is covered with ulcers),
(27) one carrying away one's vehicle, wife, jewels, gold, silver
or bell-metal utensils, (28) the breaking of one's own house, (29)
the drinking of a poisonous liquid. [976]

If in a dream one relishes a dish of sweetmeats, plays upon a musical
instrument, or sees a widow dressed in the garment of an unwidowed
woman, it is believed to prognosticate evil and bring misfortune.

Similarly, if in a dream, the sleeper marries or hears the crowing of
a crow or the bark of a dog, or an owl speak like a man, it portends
misfortune. [977]

Seeing an auspicious mark, or bathing in or being besmeared with oil,
in a dream, is an indication of one's death in the near future. Going
to the south riding a he-buffalo, or seeing a widow, brings on
misfortune. [978]

If a man in health comes across a corpse in a dream, he apprehends
illness. If a patient does the same, he fears death. [979]

It is a common belief that the soul can leave the body temporarily.

When a man feels thirsty in sleep, his soul is supposed to leave
the body to drink water, and if it finds the water pots covered, not
to return to the body, which is found dead the next morning. [980]
It is for this reason that most people drink water at the time of
going to bed. [981]

Shankaracharya was a life long celibate. Once, in a discussion with
the wife of Mandan Mishra, she put to him a question on the subject of
the pleasures of married life. To answer the question it was necessary
to have the experiences of a married life. To gain these experiences
Shankaracharya's soul left his body and entered the corpse of a king
just dead, and enjoyed the pleasures of married life for six months
in the company of the queen of the deceased king. It then returned
to his body, which was preserved by his disciples according to his
instructions, and answered the question put to him by the wife of
Mandan Mishra. [982]

It is related that the spirit of the daughter of a black-smith in
Luvaria returned to her body two hours after her death, after which
she lived for a fortnight.

A similar story is told of a Nagar Brahman, who lived for some years
after the return of his spirit to his body. [983]

About forty years ago, the corpse of a Kanbi in Lilapur was carried
to the burning ground for cremation, and there his spirit returned
to his body. On being asked where he had been, the Kanbi replied that
he had been to Dharmaraja, the lord of hell, who told him to go back
to his body, saying that his life's thread had not yet ended. It is
related that the Kanbi lived for some years after this incident.

Another instance of the soul departing and then returning to the body
is that of a Kanbi woman in Lilapur, whose soul returned to the body
after she had been carried to the burning ground. The woman lived
for five years after this occurrence. [984]

A Brahman in Limbdi named Vaijnath had, by the performance of yoga,
obtained the power of sending his spirit out of his body and recalling
it at pleasure. [985]

The soul of a living being leaves its physical tabernacle during sleep
and hovers about. It can go to and return from even the heavenly and
infernal regions.

There are eighteen kinds of siddhis or accomplishments, one of which
is parakayapravesh or the power of entering the body of another and
returning to one's own body at will. The soul cannot exist separated
from the body. When a person who revives after death is asked how
he returned to life, he declares that he has been carried to the
presence of the god of death by his messengers, being mistaken for
another bearing the same name and living in the same locality. When
such a mistake is detected, the god of death tells the soul of the
man concerned that his life's span has not yet ended, and sends it
back to the body, which appears to be dead. [986]

Often the soul of a man ascends to his temples, when the man is
supposed to be dead although he is alive. In such cases, when the
soul descends, the man is supposed to come to life again.

It is believed by some people that if all the desires of a man are
not satisfied at the time of his death, his soul leaves the body to
satisfy them and subsequently returns to the corpse, whereupon the
body revives. [987]

A devotee in his meditative trance can send forth his soul
whithersoever he pleases. [988]

It is also believed that the soul of man leaves the body in sleep to
enjoy those pleasures which it cannot enjoy in wakefulness. [989]

The popular conceptions of the character and functions of the bhut
or disembodied soul are as follows:

A ghost has no recognised form. It may assume the form of a human
being, a goat, a blaze of fire, a whirl-wind or any other object it
pleases. [990]

Some assume a terribly gigantic and fearfully uncouth frame, with big
fang-like teeth, long matted hair and a height that reaches the sky. At
times they assume the form of a child and cry heart-breakingly at a
concealed corner of a road. Should a passer-by, out of compassion,
try to save it, the supposed infant begins to lengthen its legs to
show its benefactor its real and supernatural dimensions. Sometimes
it transforms itself into a gigantic and terrible being, taking
possession of the man if he becomes afraid. [991]

Some evil spirits manifest themselves as showers of burning charcoal,
while some are so forward as to offer their services as guides
to strangers from one village to another. Some assume the form
of Bhensasur--a demon in the form of a buffalo--said to be a most
malignant ghost. [992]

The throat of a ghost is as narrow as the fine end of a needle, and
yet it is believed to require a dozen potfuls of water to quench its
thirst. It cannot get pure water, as such water is guarded by the
god Varuna. It has, therefore, to quench its thirst with such dirty
water as it can get. Similarly, it cannot get clean food, and has to
satisfy its hunger on human excretions, the droppings of birds and
other animals, urine, and the filth of houses. [993]

It is generally believed that evil spirits do not cast shadows. All
attempts to catch them prove futile, as they vanish in the form of
a flame. [994]

If it is sought to catch hold of a goat-shaped ghost, the goat swells
into such a monstrous size that the spectator gets terrified, whereupon
the ghost finds an opportunity of disappearing in a flame.

It is believed that ghosts prefer darkness to light and silence to
noise. They live on the Pipal (Ficus religiosa) or Shami (Prosopis
spicigera) trees. [995]

A ghost presents itself to the vision of a man by blocking its way
in the form of a goat or some other animal. [996]

Ghosts are believed to infest woods, unused wells, cellars and
old tanks. They are also found in ruins and cemeteries. As far as
possible they keep themselves aloof from mortals; but at times they
are visible to human beings, mostly to those destitute of religion and
morals. They roam about and terrify people. Sometimes they enter the
persons of human beings. Such men either gain in strength, fall sick,
or become senseless. The ghosts who possess them make them laugh or
work, without being fatigued, with ten times the vigour they originally
possessed. [997]

Ghosts keep their persons uncovered, feed upon flesh and blood,
sleep during the day, and roam about at night. [998]

Often a large concourse of ghosts meet together and dance, sing and
make merry uttering loud and fierce shrieks. A ghost has no back,
and has its feet reversed. It keeps away from man, but terrifies him
by pelting him with stones from a distance. [999]

On the fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin (the twelfth month of
the Gujarati Hindu year) all ghosts are believed to go about playing
pranks with poor mortals and possessing them. [1000]

The Navaratra holidays is the season when ghosts appear in many
places. [1001]

Ghosts enter corpses or possess human beings and speak through them as
a medium. Sometimes they assume their original human form, and often
torment people with disease. They present themselves as animals and
pass away in a blaze. They hum in the air without being seen, wrestle
with men or carry unseen human beings from one place to another. Some
women are believed to conceive by intercourse with male ghosts. [1002]

If a man happens to step in the circle described by water round the
offering given to a ghost, viz., utar, he is possessed by the ghost. A
house haunted by a ghost is the scene of great mischief. [1003]

Ghosts are said to be most mischievous during the first part of the
night. Their fury diminishes with the advance of night. [1004]

Ghosts are inimical to human beings, terrify them, and sometimes,
assuming the form of a cobra, kill those whom they hated most during
life. [1005]

They are pleased with offerings of blood. [1006]

To throw stones at houses and trees and to set them on fire are their
usual pranks. [1007]

The ghost called Jan manifests itself as a giant, its height reaching
the sky. If a man comes under its shadow, he is seized by it and
dashed to pieces on the ground. On the contrary, if a man wins its
favour, he becomes prosperous. Hence a proverb has been current that
"seizing another as by a jan" meaning "being attacked by a dire
misfortune." [1008]

There is a female ghost called Chudel. Its back is covered with flesh,
its feet are reversed, its form is hollow and its face handsome like
that of a charming woman. [1009]

It is said that a woman dying in childbed becomes a chudel. Her form
is a skeleton behind with the figure of a pretty woman in front.

It is believed that mastery over ghosts can be obtained by dint of
incantations or mantras. Those who subjugate ghosts in this way have
power to command them to do their behests. But the process by which
such powers are procured is believed to be beset with dangers, and
many lose their lives in so doing. [1010]

There is also a belief that a bhut or ghost can be brought under
control by lopping off a lock of its hair or top knot and keeping it
in one's custody. [1011]

It is said that this lock ought to be kept inside the right thigh
by tearing a hole in the flesh. It is believed that the thigh can be
cut open by a hair of the ghost without injury. [1012]

The ghost so subjugated should never be kept unemployed; otherwise
it oppresses its master. [1013]

It is believed that the spirits of deceased persons become ghosts
under the following conditions:--

1 If scriptural ceremonies are not performed with the ceremonial
offerings of rice balls to the deceased.

2 If the deceased dies with a strong attachment to worldly objects.

3 If the death is unnatural that is, caused by an accident.

All ghosts get absolution by the performance of propitiative ceremonies
by their descendants as prescribed in the scriptures. [1014]

There are various beliefs current as to the state of the soul after
death. The Garud puran contains many passages illustrating its
movements after it leaves the body. Says the book:--

"When the soul leaves the body it assumes a form as small as a
thumb. At this very moment it is caught by the servants of Yama while
he is crying out ha! ha! looking at its corporal receptacle."

And again:--

"Covering the body of the soul (which suffers intensely) and strangling
it forcibly, the servants of the god Yama carry it away just as a
culprit is carried by a king's soldiers."

The verses that follow describe the miseries inflicted upon the
poor thumb-shaped soul for the sins committed by him during his
life-time. The sinful soul has to undergo similar miseries in
hell. From hell it returns to this world guarded by the servants of
Yama, to partake of the rice-balls and other articles of food offered
by the sons or other relatives. It is then again taken to hell to
suffer more miseries and penalties in expiation of past sins. Then
it returns once more to receive the offerings of rice-balls made
at shraddha ceremonies. If, even after this, any desires remain
unfulfilled, it has to continue a wretched existence in the other
world. [1015]

In a chapter of the Pretamanjari of the Garud Puran it is stated that
the souls of righteous men go to the next world unmolested. [1016]

Some people believe that the departing soul assumes a form like a
thumb, and remains in that state until relieved by the performance
of shraddha by his heirs. It then enters the other world to enjoy
the fruits of its good actions. The Yamapuri or the city of the
god of death is 8,6´0 Yojans--a Yojan being equal to four miles--to
the south of the earth. The lord of this place is Dharmaraja. Yama
is his servant, whose duty is to carry the soul from one place to
another. [1017]

Others maintain that two states await the soul after death according
to whether it has performed righteous or sinful acts during life.

The righteous attain to heaven and enter the Parshad Vaikunta of
Vishnu. The sinful go to hell or Yamaloka. [1018]

The sinful souls go to Yamaloka and are made to suffer the miseries
of twenty-eight naraks or hells in proportion to the sins perpetrated
by them, after which they return to the earth.

The following are some of the punishments meted out to wicked souls
for their sins, in their next lives:--

1 Those who murder Brahmans suffer from consumption.

2 Those who slaughter cows are born as tortoises.

3 Those guilty of female infanticide suffer from white leprosy.

4 One who kills his wife, as well as a woman guilty of causing
abortion, becomes a beggar.

5 Those who commit adultery become impotent.

6 He who seats himself on the bed or seat of his preceptor is affected
by skin diseases.

7 Flesh-eaters get a red body.

8 Those who indulge in drink get black teeth.

9 A Brahman partaking of prohibited food suffers from dropsy.

10 One who eats sweets without sharing them with the by-standers
suffers from cancer in the throat.

11 One who offers polluted food to departed spirits suffers from
black leprosy.

12 One who disobeys and despises his teacher suffers from wind apasmar.

13 One who does not believe in the shastras suffers from enlargement
of the spleen or Bright's disease.

14 A perjurer is born dumb.

15 One who does not serve food equally to all the members at a dining
table loses one of his eyes.

16 Those who break off a marriage alliance are punished with thick
(negro-like) lips.

17 Those who steal books lose their eye-sight.

18 He who kicks a Brahman becomes lame.

19 A liar becomes a stammerer.

20 Those who listen to contradictory versions of what is generally
believed to be true become deaf.

21 One who poisons another becomes a lunatic.

22 One who steals precious metals becomes indigent.

23 An incendiary is punished with a bald head.

24 Meat-sellers meet with misfortunes.

25 One who steals gold has his nails deformed.

26 He who steals food is born a mouse.

27 One stealing corn has to be reborn as a locust.

28 One stealing opium or other poisonous drugs is born a scorpion.

29 One who steals leaves or vegetables is born a peacock.

30 One who enjoys perfumes by stealing them is born a mole.

31 One who steals honey becomes an eagle.

32 One who steals flour, rice, etc. is born a monkey. [1019]

The state of the soul after death depends upon a man's good or bad
actions in life.

The souls of the righteous leave the body without any trouble. The
messengers of the god of death present themselves to these souls in
the form of saints and carry them to that part of the heaven which
is presided over by their favourite deity, by the eastern, northern,
or western gates. They are received there with great respect. Here
they enjoy the fruits of their merit, after which they return to this
world and are born either in the family of a wealthy virtuous man or
in that of a poor Brahman who has attained the knowledge of God. In
this new life they accumulate further merit, in virtue of which they
are endowed with a higher spiritual life in the following birth,
and so on until they attain final emancipation.

After attaining moksha or salvation the soul becomes free from the
wheel of birth and rebirth.

To the souls of the sinful, who leave their bodies with a great
struggle, the messengers of the god of death present themselves
in a terrible form. They are carried to hell by the southern gate,
being constantly lashed on the way. There they are relegated to one
of the twenty-eight pits (of hell) appropriate to their misdeeds,
to suffer retribution for their sins. [1020]

The soul is carried to Dharmaraja after it leaves the body. Thence,
with the permission of the god, it returns to this world and halts for
thirteen days at the threshold of its house. On the thirteenth day
an earthen jar filled with water is emptied on a pipal tree (Ficus
religiosa) after which its connection with this world ceases. Then
it returns to the heavenly judge of actions (Dharmaraja), and is
again born in the species prescribed by him. The soul of a strictly
spiritual being merges into the divine entity and becomes free from
birth and rebirth.

Moksha or Mukti, that is final emancipation is of two kinds, sayujya
or merging into the divine form and samishya or entering the divine
order and living in this state so long as one's merits allow.

Dharmaraja keeps an account of the good and bad actions of all men in
his book called siddhi karan, and dispenses justice according to it. A
man guilty of adultery is sentenced to embrace a redhot image of a
woman; one who has slaughtered animals is devoured by those animals;
while those who have committed the sin of murdering Brahmans are
relegated to hell for ever. [1021]

There are seven rungs to the ladder which leads to the next world. The
first is covered with a thick forest. The second bristles with pointed
spears. The third is strewn with gokharu (a species of thorns). The
fourth has piercing blasts. On the fifth runs the river Vaitarna. The
sixth is full of red-hot iron. The seventh is covered with deep
streams. [1022]

After death, the soul has to cross the river Vaitarna (vide the fifth
rung above) on its way to the next world. Those who have given cows
in charity can cross this river without difficulty by holding the
tails of the cows, who present themselves to help them.

Those who have given shoes in charity can tread the third step
with ease.

The sinful have to walk barefooted on ground studded with pointed
spears, and to embrace red-hot iron pillars. It is with the object
of avoiding these miseries that people distribute shoes and clothes
in charity. [1023]

The sinful expiate their sins by passing through a cycle of 8,400,000
births. [1024] They have to be born 2,100,000 times in the class
of creatures born of eggs, 2,100,000 times in the species of worms
produced from sweat, 2,100,000 times from embryonic birth and a
similar number of times in the vegetable kingdom.

Those who lack virtue but commit no sins are born in the divine order
of a low grade such as the servants of Kuber, the attendants of the
god Shiva, Gandharvas, Vaitals, Brahmarakshasas, Kushmands and other
demigods. Virtuous women are born as goddesses or devis or as apsaras
or celestial songstresses. Those who have performed only a few acts
of righteousness enter the ranks of Jakhanis, Kinnaris, Matrikas,
and the maid servants of the goddess Durga. [1025]

The souls of the righteous are carried by Yamadutas or the messengers
of the god of death through five cities, by a route passing through
beautiful gardens; while those of the sinful are led barefooted over
brambles and pointed spears by roads running through dense forests
hidden in pitchy darkness. The latter have also to cross large
rivers and pass through streams filled with blood and puss. As they
pass, eagles prey upon their bodies and they are bitten by venomous
snakes. [1026]

The souls of those who have in life performed good actions pass through
the sun and assume divine forms; while those of ordinary beings pass
through the moon and return to this world. [1027]

A sinful soul has to go to Yamaloka or hell through sixteen cities. On
its way it has to cross the river Vaitarna, which consists of blood
mixed with puss. He who has presented a cow to a Brahman can cross
this river with ease. Beyond this river lies a land which is covered
with spikes. Those who have given in charity ashtamahadan, that is,
sesamum seeds, flour, gold, cotton, salt, clarified butter, milk
and sugarcandy, can walk over this ground without being hurt. When
the soul has reached Yama or the god of death, the sun and the moon,
the ever-living witnesses of human actions, testify to its virtues and
sins, and it is meted out a punishment appropriate to its sins. [1028]

In order that the departed soul may not find its way difficult,
his heirs make a gift to a Brahman of a bedstead, bedding, a lamp,
corn, a pair of shoes and other articles, on the thirteenth day after
death. This gift is called seraja. [1029]

One enters the human order after passing through 8,400,000 species of
living beings. It is in the human life that one can accumulate merit,
and wipe out the influence of past sins.

Those who meet a sudden or violent death, e. g., by being crushed
under a falling house, by drowning in a well, by an accidental fall,
by a snake bite, etc. enter the order of bhuts, pretas, pishachas,
etc., and are said to have gone to durgati or to a bad path. [1030]

But those who die on a field of battle are believed to attain
heaven. [1031]

According to another belief, persons dying a violent death have to
pass through the same fate, that is, die violently, for the next
seven lives. [1032]

Their souls are said to be liable to enter the asurgati or the order
of devils. They are emancipated from this condition by the performance
by their descendants of the ceremony called Nil parnavavi or of those
ceremonies prescribed in the Pal Shastra. [1033]

It is also believed that such souls after entering the order of ghosts
oppress and torment their descendants and relatives. [1034]

In the case of suicides, when the crime is proved before the god of
death the culprit is hurled into a hell called Maharaurava, where he
has to pass a thousand years. After the expiry of this period he is
born again into this world, again commits suicide, and again meets
the same fate after death. This is repeated seven times, after which
he has to pass through 8,400,000 species of animals before again
obtaining the human life. [1035]

If the suicide be caused by poisoning, the person, in his next
life, becomes a serpent; if by drowning or strangling, he becomes a
ghost. [1036]

Some believe that the souls of persons meeting a violent death enter
the order of such ghosts as Jinni, Mamo, etc. For their emancipation
shraddhas are performed by their descendants. At times these ghosts
possess the persons of their nearest relatives, and through this
medium declare their desires. If they express a desire to have a
palio or pillar erected in their name, one is erected on the spot
where they breathed their last. On this pillar is engraved a figure
riding a horse, representing the deceased, which is besmeared with
red lead or ochre. This representation is worshipped as a deity with
offerings of frankincense, cocoanuts and lamps fed with ghi. [1037]

The palio is called surdhan, and is worshipped, especially on the
death anniversary of the deceased. [1038]

In some castes the surdhans are installed in the house of the
deceased. [1039]

There are various beliefs current as to the way in which spirits
enter and leave the body.

According to one belief, when a person gets frightened by the
apparition of a ghost, the ghost enters his body through one of the
organs, and makes him senseless and violent. [1040]

According to another belief, a ghost, as stated above, takes an airy
form and enters the body through any channel through which air can
enter the body. It leaves the body by the same route. [1041]

There is also a belief that evil spirits enter the body of a man
through any part of the body and under their influence the person
possessed dances, jumps, foams or sits idle [1042].

There is a further belief that a ghost enters the body through the
thumb and gets out by the ears. [1043]

According to some, a ghost makes its way into the body through the
anus and its exit by the same route. [1044]

Others maintain that it enters the body through the nostrils and gets
out by the same passage. [1045]

Some say that it finds an entrance and outlet through the skull. [1046]

There are others who are of opinion that the immaterial form of a
ghost can find admission into the body by the right side and egress
the same way. [1047]

It is said that when the body is unclean, a ghost can enter it through
any of the organs. [1048]

To drive away an evil spirit from the body of a person, a conjuror,
Vanjha, Koli, Vaghri, Atit, Fakir or other exorcist is engaged to set
a danklan [1049] and to offer a victim and frankincense to the evil
spirit, which is supposed to drive the spirit out by the same route
by which it entered the body. [1050] [1051]

Another method of driving away an evil spirit from the body is as
follows:--

As soon as it is ascertained that a man is possessed by an evil spirit,
somebody catches hold of the top-knot of the man or ties it into a
knot. Next he is lashed with a whip or chain until the ghost in him
cries out "Please don't beat me. I shall leave the body and shall
never return." Then the ghost is told that it is a liar, that it said
a thousand times that it would leave the body and not return, but it
did not do it. No faith, therefore, would be put in its word. After
a haggling dialogue of this kind and on the ghost's confirmation of
its offer never to return by some satisfactory oath or assurance,
the top-knot is unloosed and the ghost disappears. [1052]

A third method is to subject the person possessed to the fumes of red
chillies or of black wood, or to tie a sacred thread round his elbow.

After one of these processes has been performed to expel the ghost,
the victim gives a deep yawn, and it is said that the ghost goes out
in the yawn. Next the relieved person is given water to drink, and
an exorcist is engaged to take measures to prevent the possibility
of the ghost's return. [1053]

In a book entitled Brahman Nighanta Ratnakar is described the method
of driving away an evil spirit from the body of a man by an offering
of dhup or frankincense. The dhup to be used for this purpose must be
made of gugal, and it must be offered with honey and clarified butter,
repeating the following mantra:--

"Amen. Bow to the divine Lord of the evil spirits, the Lord whose
teeth, jaws, and mouth are fierce, by whose three eyes the forehead
is ablaze, whose lustre is marked by irresistible anger, who holds a
crescent moon on the forehead and matted hair on the head, whose body
is besmeared with ashes; whose neck is adorned by the poison of the
fierce lord of the cobras. Oh! may success attend to thee! Oh! Great
one! The Lord of spirits! manifest thy form, dance, dance; move, move;
tie with a chain, tie; terrify by a neigh, terrify; kill, kill by
the adamantine wand; cut, cut off by a sharp weapon; tear off, tear
off by the point of a spear; reduce, reduce to atoms by the bludgeon;
remove remove, all the evil spirits Swaha." [1054]

There are various superstitious beliefs entertained by people
regarding sneezing.

According to one belief, if a person sneezes face to face with another
who is about to begin an auspicious act, such as starting on a journey,
decking his person with ornaments, performing a marriage ceremony,
and the like, it portends misfortune to the latter; but a sneeze
on his right or at his back foretells good. A sneeze in front of
a person starting to perform an auspicious act is supposed to mean
that a blow has been struck on his forehead, suggesting that the act
should be stopped. If, in spite of this warning, the act is commenced,
evil consequences are sure to follow.

A sneeze at a man's back confirms the unobstructed fulfilment of the
act taken in hand, as it is believed to have patted the man on his
back or shoulders in token of approval.

Sneezes on either side, right or left, portend neither good nor evil.

As a rule, sneezes are believed to forebode evil, and it is considered
highly unmannerly to sneeze while one is about to begin an auspicious
act or start with a good purpose. If, in spite of this etiquette,
one sneezes, he excuses himself by saying that he is suffering from
cold. [1055]

Some people believe that a sneeze in front is an indication of a
broil on the road, a sneeze on the left side portends loss of money,
one from above is a harbinger of success, one from below foretells
danger, while the sneeze of the man who is engaged or is starting on
the act contemplated is believed to be very injurious. A sneeze on
the right is considered neither good nor bad. [1056]

A sneeze in the east causes anxiety, in the south-east foretells
happiness, in the south speaks of coming loss, and in the south-west
is an indication of good. A sneeze from the west or north-west is
considered good, from the north injurious, and from the north-east
auspicious. [1057]

Some lines from the sayings of Gorakhraj run to the effect that a
sneeze in the east causes anxiety, one in the south-east inflicts
a sound beating, one in the south brings a visitor or guest, one in
the south-west subjects the person concerned to a taunt, one in the
west bestows a throne or crown, one in the north-west promises sweets
or dainties, one in the north foretells good, one in the north-east
brings disappointment, while one's own sneeze is so ominous that one
should never start out on any business after sneezing. [1058]

The beliefs enumerated above relate to sneezes which occur on certain
week days. The sneezes which occur on Sundays have the following
consequences.

A sneeze from the east is good, one from the south-east points to
delay in the fulfilment of one's intended object, one from the south
brings in profit, one from the south-west results in death, one from
the west in happiness, one from the north-west throws one into the
society of good men, one from the north is productive of pecuniary
gain, and one from the north-east of general wellbeing. [1059]

It is a common belief that if while one is about to commence some
act, somebody sneezes once, the act is doomed to fail, and to avoid
failure it must be postponed. But if the sneeze is repeated, no
harm ensues.

A sneeze by an ailing person is believed to be a sign of his recovery,
and more sneezes by the same person are supposed to indicate his
complete recovery, even though the symptoms be not favourable.

A sneeze by a cow at the commencement of an auspicious act is supposed
to be the worst possible omen, and a sneeze by a cat is proverbially
a portent of failure in any act taken in hand at the time. [1060]

A yawn is generally believed to be harmless, as it does not foretell
either good or evil. Still as sometimes it results in accidental
instantaneous death, the elders of a person when he yawns, exclaim,
"Be long-lived! Patience! Live long!", and the spiritually disposed
repeat the name of the god of their devotion. [1061]

Lest spirits may make their way into the body of a person through
his mouth when he is yawning, or lest his soul may pass out of it,
some people pinch him to stop the yawn while others utter the words
"Ram" "Ram" to divert his attention. [1062]

In mythological times, Brahma, one of the gods of the Hindu Trinity,
once left his body for a time. Some people began to molest the body,
when he cried out, "Rakho! Rakho!" that is "Keep aloof! Keep aloof!" or
"Wait! Wait!". These people came to be called Rakho [1063] which in
course of time corrupted into Rakshasa. The beings who hold sway over
rakshasas are called Maharakshasas. In the Ramayan and other purans,
rakshasas are represented as feeding on human flesh. [1064]

A rakshasa is supposed to be sixteen miles in height and to roam about
for his prey within a circle with a radius of sixteen miles. [1065]

The Maharakshasas are supposed to have their abode in the seas. It
is said that they burn or swallow ships sailing thereon. [1066]

The rakshasas are supposed to number 60,000,000 and the maharakshasas
20,000. Kubera, a maharakshasa, is the lord of the rakshasas. [1067]

It is said that the rakshasas, maharakshasas, wizards and witches were
visible to the human eye during the tretayuga. With the commencement
of the present or kaliyuga they have become invisible. It is stated in
the Purans that during the recitation of the Surya kavach, Saptasani
or the Narayan kavach, if the rakshasas or maharakshasas fall into
or approach the limits circumscribed for them, the recitation proves
ineffective. [1068]

It is a common belief that there is bitter enmity between the gods
and rakshasas. The former follow the path of virtue while the latter
lead immoral lives devouring Brahmans and cows, feeding on flesh,
and indulging in intoxicating drinks. The habitat of the rakshasas
is the patal or nether world, Rawan being their king. [1069]

The exploits of some of the rakshasas are described in the Mahabharat,
Bhagvat and the Ramayan. For instance, the misdeeds of Jarasandh,
Ghatotkacha and Hedamba are described in the Mahabharat; those of
Kansa, Banasur, Pralambasur, Adhasur, Dhenukasur, Kalanemi, Shankasur
and Vritrasur in the Bhagvat; and those of Ravan, Kumbhakarna and
Indrajit in the Ramayan. [1070]

A rakshasa named Tripurasur conquered the heavens, the earth and the
nether regions, and began to annoy the gods. The god Shiva burnt the
rakshasa to ashes. [1071]

The two rakshasas Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashyapu were originally the
gate-keepers of Vishnu, one of the gods of the Hindu trinity. Once
they affronted Sanatkumar, the son of Brahma, when they were cursed
by Vishnu who decreed that they would be born rakshasas in three
successive lives. In these lives they had to play the part of the
enemies of gods and men, and were destroyed by Vishnu as such.

A rakshasa named Jalandhar is stated to have met his death when the
chastity of his wife was violated by the god Vishnu in the disguise
of her husband. [1072]

Maharakshasas are also known by the name of Brahma rakshasas. A
Brahman dying without imparting all his learning to his disciples or
with the guilt of the murder of a Brahman or a cow on him is believed
to enter the order of Brahma rakshasas after his death. In this state
he possesses a body without a head. A Brahma rakshasa is also called
Khavis. [1073] [1074]

In addition to the wizards and witches mentioned above, there are
others the names of which are as follows:--

(1) Dakini, (2) Sakini, (3) Kushmand, (4) Zod, (5) Dholio, (6)
Pale Marad, (7) Bhuchar, (8) Khechar, (9) Jalaj, (10) Jakharo, (11)
Shikotrum, (12) Ashtabharo, (13) Chand Chani, (14) Chorosi Kantini,
(15) Jogani, (16) Hathadi, (17) Miyali, (18) Ghanchini, (19) Mochini,
(20) Baladi, (21) Molani, (22) Khuntini, (23) Suti, (24) Gavati, (25)
Bethi, (26) Ubhi, (27) Avi, (28) Chaurar, (29) Madhu Pavanti, (30)
Mansa Khavanti, (31) Bhasika, (32) Pratab, (33) Vira, (34) Vavanchara,
(35) Chorasi Viru, (36) Nao Narasing, (37) Jaikha, (38) Jutaka, (39)
Masida, (40) Gandharavi, (41) Jami, (42) Asmani, (43) Mamikula, [1075]
(44) Zampadi, (45) Meladi, (46) Balla. [1076]

Of the above, the first forty-three together with Chudela or Vantri
and Preta are believed by some to be the names of so many Joganis
or female evil spirits or witches. The remaining are living Dakans
or witches who are believed to cause illness or even death by their
evil eye to those on whom they throw a glance. [1077]

Wizards live upon ordinary food, witches on air, while pretas require
nothing to eat for their maintenance. It is said that their backs and
shoulders are covered with filth and emit an offensive odour. [1078]

It is generally believed that the spirits of such male members of
low unclean castes as die a violent death become Khavis. [1079]
Some believe that Khavis or Khabith is a Musalman ghost. [1080]
Others hold that he is the lord of all ghosts. [1081]

Khavis has no head. His eyes are located in the chest. He is as tall
as a cocoa-palm or bamboo. He roams about holding in one hand a weapon
and in the other a lump of flesh. Those over whom his shadow falls
are said to fall ill. [1082] His appearance is so terrible that a
person who sees him for the first time is frightened to death. [1083]
It is stated that he starts on his excursions after sun-set. [1084]

The attendants of the god Shiva known as Vaitalikas are said to
have no heads. [1085] They live in cremation grounds, as they have
a burning desire to possess the bodies of deceased persons. [1086]

A belief runs that the trunk of the evil spirit called Suropuro,
that is the spirit of one who meets a heroic death, moves about like
a Khavis. [1087]

It is a common belief that evil spirits haunt trees, groves, deserted
tanks and woods. [1088]

Vetal roams over burial and cremation grounds, as also Bhuchar,
Khechar, Kal-Bhairav and a number of other ghosts. [1089]

The Jimp, Babaro and some other ghosts reside in fortresses and
unoccupied houses and roam about in the burning grounds. Chudela, Kotda
and Brahma Rakshasa make their abodes on the tamarind, Shami (Prosopis
spicigera), Babul and Kerado trees and in deep tanks and wells in
deserted places. Their favourite haunts are river banks. [1090]

It is stated by some people that the Chudel, Vantri, Dakan, Jimp,
Khavis and other ghosts generally haunt cremation grounds, fields
where battles have been fought, thresholds of houses and latrines
and cross-roads. [1091]

Some declare that ghosts are also to be found in temples in which
there are no images and in dry wells. [1092]

The ghost preta is said to be as tall as a camel, the passage of
its throat being as small as the bore of a needle. It is therefore
believed to be always wandering about in quest of water. [1093]

The evil spirit Jan haunts mountains and forests and Mamo the centres
of filth, while Vetal is found in cremation grounds. [1094]

Jan, Brahma Rakshasa and Khavis reside in woods, trees, or on
mountains, Khijadio Mamo lives in the Khijada or Shami tree and Amatho
Mamo in a grove of trees. Spirits of high caste people not emancipated
from the trammels of birth and rebirth have their abode in the Pipal
tree. [1095]

It is related that once a number of boys, on their return from a tank
to which they had gone on a swimming excursion, passed by a Khijada
tree, when one of them suggested to the others to throw stones at
the tree, saying that any one not doing so would fall under the
displeasure of God. One of the boys threw a stone at a neighbouring
Babul tree with the result that on reaching home he fell ill in a fit
of terror. He began to shake and said, "Why did you strike me with a
stone? I had resorted to the Babul tree from the Khijado and you struck
me there. I shall not depart until I take your life." Evidently it was
the Khijadio Mamo who had possessed the boy who spoke the above words;
and an exorcist was called who drove him out by the incantation of
mantras; after which the boy recovered. [1096]

It is believed that a woman who dies an unnatural death becomes a
Chudel and troubles her husband, her successor or co-wife, or her
children. [1097]

There are three classes of Chudels, (1) Poshi, (2) Soshi and (3)
Toshi. Those women that have not enjoyed before death the pleasures of
this world to their satisfaction enter the order of Poshi Chudels. They
fondle children and render good service to their widower husbands.

Those women that are persecuted beyond endurance by the members of
their families become Soshi Chudels after death. They dry up the
blood of men and prove very troublesome to the members of the family.

Those women who bear a strong attachment to their husbands enter
the order of Toshi Chudels and bring great pleasure and happiness to
their husbands in this life. [1098]

Most high caste people, on the death of their first wives, take
an impression of their feet on gold leaves or leaf-like tablets
of gold and cause their second wives to wear them round their
necks. [1099] These impresses of feet are called shok-pagalans or
mourning footprints. Among the lower castes, the hands or the feet
of the second wives are tattooed in the belief that this prevents
the deceased wife from causing injury to the second wife. [1100]

All female spirits called Pishachas or Dakans and male spirits called
Virs or Bhuts oppress their descendants. [1101]

It is also believed that any male member of a family dying with
certain of his desires unfulfilled becomes a Surdhan and oppresses
the surviving relatives, while a female member troubles others as
Sikoturu or Mavadi. [1102]

The spirits of men that fall victims to tigers or other wild animals
are believed to enter the ghostly order and wander about until they are
relieved from this state by the performance of the prescribed shraddha
by some pious surviving relative. [1103] These evil spirits live in
forests and eat nothing but flesh. [1104] If they do not get flesh
to eat they eat the flesh of their own bodies. [1105] At times they
put their relatives to great annoyance by entering their persons. To
pacify them, palios are erected in their name, and their images are
set up in the square cavities of walls. These images are besmeared
with red lead and oil by their descendants on the fourteenth day of
the dark half of Ashvin. The relief of such spirits is sought by the
performance of a shraddha either at Siddhapur or at Gaya. [1106]

It is believed that a woman dying in child-bed or menses enters the
order of ghosts variously known as Chudels, Vantris or Taxamis. In
order that she may not return from the cremation ground, mustard seeds
are strewn along the road behind her bier, for a belief prevails that
she can only succeed in returning if she can collect all the mustard
seeds thus strewn on the way. [1107]

In some places, loose cotton wool is thrown over the bier so as to be
scattered all along the road to the cemetery. It is believed that the
Chudel can only return to the house if she can collect all the cotton
scattered behind her in one night. This is considered an impossible
task, and no fear is therefore entertained of her return after the
cotton has been scattered. [1108]

To prevent the return of the Chudel, some people pass underneath the
bier the legs of the cot on which the woman lay in her confinement,
while others drive in an iron nail at the end of the street immediately
after the corpse has been carried beyond the village boundary. [1109]

In some places, the nail is driven into the threshold of the
house. [1110]

Even after the precautions mentioned above have been taken, to
prevent the return of a Chudel or Vantri, Shraddhas are performed,
and a number of Brahman women feasted on the twelfth and thirteenth
day after death to propitiate her as the fear of the mischief done
by her is very strong.

A Chudel has no shoulders. [1111] Any passer by coming across her is
asked by her to take her to his home, and if he agrees, she accompanies
him, passes the night in his company, and brings his life to a speedy
end. In the village of Charadi under the jurisdiction of Dhrangadhra,
a Girasia named Halaji fell into the clutches of a Chudel who was
driven from his person by the enchantment of a Jati on condition that
he should not go into the eastern part of the village. [1112]

It is believed that a woman can be relieved from the ghostly order
of a Chudel by the performance of a shraddha at Siddhapur. [1113]

There is no belief that the father has to take special precautions at
the birth of his child except that care is taken to note the exact
time of the child's birth for the purpose of casting its horoscope
correctly. An inkstand and pen are also placed in the lying-in-room,
as it is believed that the creator writes the destiny of a child as
soon as it makes its appearance into the world. [1114]

All children born in Jyeshta Nakshatra, Mula-nakshatra, or Yamaghanta
are said to cause the death of their male parent. Such children were
left to starve uncared for in forests in olden times; but now-a-days
they are kept alive, as certain performances are believed to avert the
evil. One such performance is only to see the child after clarified
butter has been given in donation. Another is to see its face after
it has been bathed with the water collected from eighteen wells in
a pot with a thousand holes. [1115] In a third, the parents of the
child hold in their hands goblets filled with clarified butter, and
see their faces reflected in them before the child is presented to
the sight of the father.

Such children are named Mulubhai, Mulchand, Muli or Mulo.

A child born in the month of Jyeshta prognosticates poverty. [1116]

If the birth time of a child happens to fall within the ecliptic
period, that is the period of nine hours before an eclipse takes place,
as well as in the duration of the eclipse, the father does not see
the child before performing certain rites, as to do so is supposed
to bring misfortune. [1117]

If a man has a child in his twentieth year he does not see the child
before he completes it. [1118]

If a child is born at a wrong juncture or conjunction of the stars,
the father does not see it for twenty-seven days. [1119]

A child born on the fourth, fourteenth or fifteenth day of a month
is supposed to become a burden to its father. [1120]

It is a common belief that a woman in child-bed should not see the
face of her husband nor he of her. [1121]

Women who do not obey the commands of their husbands, who partake of
their meals secretly before their husbands, [1122] or violate any of
their duties towards their husbands, are believed to enter the order
of bats or owls after their death. [1123]

According to another belief, men who have been incontinent become
owls after death, while such women become bats. [1124]

The owls and bats are blind during the day, but they can see corpses
and the spirits of the deceased and converse with them in their own
tongue. [1125]

The spirits of the deceased are supposed to remain in their worldly
tenement for twelve days, and owls and bats are supposed to be able
to see them at night and talk to them. [1126]

One of the beliefs entertained by Hindus about the owl is that none
should throw a lump of earth at it, as the owl is believed to pick up
the missile and throw it into a well or tank or any sheet of water,
with the result that it gradually dissolves and disappears, and
simultaneously the body of the person is said to be consumed. [1127]

If perchance an owl utters some note perching on the top cross beam
of a house on a Sunday or Tuesday night, the owner of the house
should pass a dark woollen thread below the cross beam, to which a
nude person should give a knot at every screech of the owl. If such
a thread be kept in one's anklet, one need have no fear of ghosts
nor can he be seen by a dakan or witch.

If a person in sleep responds to the call of an owl, he is believed
to expire within six months from that date. [1128]

If an owl screeches every night for six months on one's house or an
adjacent tree, a terror seizes the members of the house that some
sure and certain calamity not short of death is imminent. [1129]

An owl sitting on the house of a person and screeching is said to
be uttering threats or forebodings of calamities and misfortunes,
and is believed to foretell the death of some near relative or of a
member of the household. [1130]

If a miser dies after accumulating vast treasures, his spirit becomes
a ghost or a snake and guards his wealth. [1131]

According to another belief, a miser dying without an heir becomes
a snake to guard his treasure. [1132]

It is believed that such treasures are accessible to batrisas [1133]
(those possessed of thirty two accomplishments).

Those persons that die while ousted from the houses built by them
become ghosts, and, residing in the houses, do not allow any body to
live therein, and leave them only when they are demolished. [1134]

Some evil spirits guard treasures in the form of drones. [1135]

It is related that there is a pond called Lakhota near Jamvadi in
Gondal. It contains a treasure guarded by a cobra which tries to bite
whosoever attempts to remove it. [1136]

The Janchar, Bhuchar, Jin and some other spirits are believed to
haunt valleys. [1137]

Some believe that those persons that meet their death in valleys
become evil spirits and haunt the valleys. [1138]

Rakhevalio, Andhario, Sevalio, Sulio and Ragatio are evil spirits
that haunt the ruins of magnificent buildings and also valleys. [1139]



CHAPTER VI.

THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS.


The superstitious dread of an evil eye is to be seen mostly among
ignorant people, especially among women. If a boy were to fall ill,
they say, "Chhotio (the name of the boy) was playing in the house
wearing a fine dress and was prattling sweetly, when that wretch
came to the house and her evil eye fell on him" [1140] or "The boy
was eating a dainty dish when that devilish woman came up and her
evil eye influenced the boy." [1141]

Persons born on a Sunday or Tuesday are generally believed to have
an evil eye. [1142]

The evil eye causes its victim to vomit what he has eaten in its
presence. [1143]

If a child weeps all day long, or a person finds his appetite very
weak, the evil is attributed to an evil eye. [1144]

If milch cattle do not give milk, or if seva (vermicelli), papad
(wafer biscuits), pickles, dudhpak (rice cooked in milk and sweetened
with sugar) or such other eatables are spoilt, it is believed that
the evil eye is at the root of the trouble. [1145]

It is believed that the following objects are liable to be influenced
by an evil eye:--

(1) Persons having fine glossy hair, fiery eyes, exquisite form,
refined gait, fine speech or good handwriting, (2) good sportsmen,
(3), pickles, (4) papad (wafer biscuits), (5) seva (vermicelli),
(6) all attractive objects.

If a person falls ill after he is praised, he is said to have been
a victim of an evil eye. [1146]

The precautions taken to evade the influence of the evil eye are
as follows:--

(1) When children are dressed and decked with ornaments, a spot is
made on their cheeks or near their necks with a black pigment or
collyrium, as it is believed that the dark colour is an antidote
against the influence of the evil eye.

(2) Some efficacious inscription is engraved on a copper plate,
which is suspended round the child's neck.

(3) A bead of kachakada is also worn round the neck.

(4) A tiger's nail or tooth is worn round the neck.

(5) An iron ring is worn on the finger.

(6) A lime is worn in the turban or headdress.

(7) An incantation in the praise of Hanuman is written on a piece of
paper and put in an anklet which is worn.

(8) A piece of thread of five kinds of silk or cotton spun by a virgin
is given seven knots on the fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin
and worn on the person.

(9) In order that sweet meats and other eatables such as papad (wafer
biscuits), pickles, etc., may not be spoilt by an evil eye, a lime,
an iron nail or a knife is put into them.

(10) In order that a cot or cradle may not be broken by the influence
of an evil eye, a black woollen thread is tied round it.

(11) To prevent dudhpak (rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar)
from being spoilt, a piece of charcoal is put into the pot in which
it is prepared. [1147]

While taking one's meal one should avoid the company of an evil-eyed
person, but if perchance one happens to be present, a morsel of the
food should be thrown behind him or set aside on the ground as an
offering to the evil eye. [1148]

If, in spite of the precautions mentioned above, the influence of
the evil eye prevails, the following remedies are adopted to remove
its effects:--

(1) The evil eye is fastened or curbed, as they say, by one of the
processes described in Chapter III above.

(2) A red-hot charcoal is placed on a dinner plate and covered with an
earthen jar. A bowl filled with water is then passed round the head
of the patient, emptied over the jar and placed on it with its mouth
touching the jar. Next, a scythe is placed over the bowl. The jar,
which is heated with the heat of the burning charcoal placed under
it produces a hissing sound as soon as it is touched by the water in
the bowl, and is said to speak. This process is called Ghadulo and
is performed after sunset. [1149]

In some places, it is a belief that the plate to be used in this
process must be of bell-metal, and that over the fire placed in it
mustard seeds, chillies and salt must be thrown before it is covered
with the earthen jar. [1150]

(3) An utar [1151] or sacrificial offering is taken to the village
gate on a Sunday or Tuesday.

(4) Milk is passed three or seven times round the head of the ailing
child, poured into a black earthen pot, and offered to a black bitch
on a Sunday or Tuesday. [1152]

(5) The mother or some other near relative of the child suffering from
the effects of the evil eye, puts in a bell-metal cup mustard seed,
salt, chillies and seven stones from the village gate, passes the
cup thrice round the child's head, puts burning charcoal in the cup,
and after it is heated, places it overturned in a bell-metal pot and
pours over it water mixed with cowdung, so that the cup adheres to
the pot. This sticking of the cup is called najar chonti gai (the
evil eye has stuck fast) and is believed to cure the child. [1153]

(6) An exorcist is engaged to wave a bowl filled with water round the
head of the patient. He then drinks off the water, and the patient
believes that the disease has been drunk with it. [1154]

(7) A handful of salt and chillies is passed thrice round the head
of the patient and thrown into the fire. If the chillies burn without
giving out fumes of an unpleasant odour, the evil eye is believed to
be at the root of the illness. [1155] [1156]

(8) A little dust collected from a spot where two roads cross one
another, or red lead and oil offered to Hanuman, a red chilly, an
iron nail and grains of adad (Phaseolus mungo) are packed into a
piece of white cotton cloth with a black woollen thread, and tied to
the cradle of the suffering child. [1157]

(9) A side of a loaf of millet flour is baked by being exposed to fire,
clarified butter is applied to this side, and a fine cotton thread is
passed round the loaf. Next, the loaf is waved round the head of the
ailing child and thrown into fire. If the cotton thread is not burnt by
the fire, an evil eye is believed to be the cause of the illness.

Sometimes the loaf is offered to a black dog after it has been waved
round the child's head.

(10) If the illness be due to the influence of the evil eye of a
woman, she is called in and asked to pass her hand over the child's
head. [1158]

(11) In order to avoid the effects of the evil eye, when a child
returns home from an outside visit, a bowl filled with water is passed
thrice round its head and emptied outside the house before it crosses
the threshold of the house. [1159]

(12) The grains of Adad, twigs of the Thor (Euphoria nerifolia),
salt and dust are passed seven times round the head of a person
suffering from the effects of an evil eye, on the threshold of the
house, and thrown away. [1160]

(13) Grains of Adad, twigs of the Thor, salt, an iron nail and charcoal
are put into an unused earthen pot and taken to the village boundary
with a bowl filled with water. The person carrying the pot and bowl
should not look behind either on his way to, or on his return from,
the village boundary. The pot is placed on the village boundary,
and water is poured over it seven times from the bowl. [1161]

(14) A loaf baked on one side, with seven grains of Adad, seven grains
of salt and seven cotton seeds placed over it, is passed seven times
round the patient's head and placed on a spot where two roads cross
one another. The person carrying the bread should not look behind
while carrying it. [1162]

Those whose children do not live, or die in infancy, or who get
children with difficulty, give them opprobrious names, as it is
believed that objects so named, being considered of no value, are
left unharmed both by men and by gods. [1163]

Some people believe that children so named are considered impure by
Fate or Destiny, and consequently not molested by her. [1164]

It is believed by some that, as good names attract attention, giving
opprobrious names averts the danger of the evil eye. [1165]

Some people throw a newly-born child on a dung-hill and take it
back, saying that they found it on the dung-hill, with the belief
that a child of such low origin cannot be snatched away from them
by Fate. Such children are named Punjio, Unkardo or Kacharo meaning
'dung-hill.'

Some children are named Khoto, Amatho or Jutho, all meaning 'false',
with the belief that children so named are considered to belong to
gods or Fate, and hence cannot be taken away from their parents by
the god of death.

Some people exchange their children for sweets, or offer them to
others and purchase them back at a nominal price. Others roll them
in the dust and name them Dhulio or dust. This is believed to ensure
a long life to the children. [1166]

In some places, a relative of the child's on the mother's side presents
it with a necklace of gold beads shaped like large black ants. When
the child attains the age of eight or ten years this necklace is
offered to some god or goddess. The child is named Sankalio as it
wears round its neck this sankal or chain, that is, necklace. [1167]

It is held by some that children bearing contemptuous names are not
affected by magic. [1168]

Some weigh the child against corn and give the name of that corn to the
child, e. g., 'Kodario', 'Juvario'. The corn is then distributed among
beggars, which is supposed to ensure a long life to the child. [1169]

Some make earthen figures of children, call them Ila Ili or Pithad,
and carry them through the village on the Holi day (the full-moon day
of Falgun), with the belief that by so doing they ensure a long life
to the children.

It is related that a carpenter's children used to die in infancy, so
he named one of his sons 'Pithad' and he lived. Since then, parents
whose children do not live name them 'Pithad'. Some name their children
'Jivo' that is 'Live' with the hope that they may live long. [1170]

The opprobrious and other special spirit-scaring names generally
given to boys are as follows:--


              NAME.                MEANING.

              Amatho               Useless
              Jutho                False
              Kacharo              Refuse
              Nathu                Tied
              Punjo                Refuse
              Jivo                 Live
              Kalo                 Black
              Ghelo                Mad
              Gafal                Stupid
              Valu or Vayali       Eccentric
              Sawo or Siwo         Sewed
              Dungar               Hill
              Ado                  Useless
              Bhabho               Worthless
              Malo                 Bower
              Velo                 Creeper
              Nano                 Small
              Khodo                Lame
              Oghad                Fool
              Hakalo
              Bhukhan
              Uko                  Dung-hill
              Lavo                 Parasite
              Jino                 Small
              Doso                 Old
              Rano                 Lord (ironical)
              Bavo                 Recluse
              Rupo                 Handsome (ironical)
              Mor                  Peacock
              Popat                Parrot
              Jado                 Fastened [1171]
              Bodho
              Gobaro [1172]
              Fakiro               Beggar
              Mafatio              Worthless
              Nago                 Shameless
              Bocho                Coward
              Bakor                Noise
              Bow                  Name of a demon
              How                  Ditto.
              Limbo                Poisonous
              Ganglo               Stony [1173]
              Bhikhari or Bhikho   Beggar
              Vaigrai              Recluse
              Amar                 Immortal
              Sidio                Negro-like
              Vasto [1174]
              Polio or Polo        Hollow
              Kadavo               Bitter
              Bero                 Deaf
              Dipo                 Panther
              Vagh                 Tiger
              Cohampalo            Meddlesome
              Chindharo            Ragged
              Chiko
              Chuntho              Ragged
              Jinthro              Ragged
              Jalo
              Davalo               Not loved
              Dendo                The croaking of a frog.
              Dhingo               Fat
              Bodo                 Bald-headed
              Rotal                Womanish
              Radio                Crying [1175]


The contemptuous names given to girls are:--


              NAME.               MEANING.

              Liri
              Dhori               White
              Zini                Small
              Punji               Refuse
              Kali                Black
              Ful                 Light as a flower [1176]
              Nathi
              Juthi               False
              Jadi                Fat
              Monghi
              Jaba [1177]
              Kadvi               Bitter
              Jivi                Live
              Divi [1178]


Veju, Bhilak, Chichi, Laghu [1179], Mafat (useless), Gheli (mad),
Panchi [1180], Dedki, Kukadi and Zabu. [1181]

It is said that in ancient times change of sex could be effected.

Tradition relates that all the children of a certain Solanki king
died in infancy, except the last child, a girl. She was dressed in
male attire and passed for a boy. When the pretended boy attained
marriageable age, he was betrothed to a princess. When the day fixed
for the marriage drew near, the king became anxious and went on an
hunting expedition to pass the time. On his way back from the hunt
he became very thirsty, and quenched his thirst with the water of
a pond near which a temple of Bahucharaji stands to this day. His
bitch, which was with him, leapt into the pond, and on coming out
of the water was found to be transformed into a dog. On seeing this
the king brought his daughter and bathed her into the pond with the
result that she was transformed into a boy. The king then built a
big tank on the spot, which is known by the name of Man. [1182]

In a chapter called Brahmottar Khand of the Padma Puran, which
describes the glory of a vow called Uma Mahesh, the greatness
of observing fasts on Mondays is described at length. Two Brahman
brothers, one dressed as a man and the other as a woman, set out on a
journey. Once they halted in a temple of the god Shiva, where lived
a woman who had observed the fasts on Mondays. She invited them to
dinner, taking them, as they appeared to be, for a man and a woman. The
devotion of the hostess was so great that the brother dressed as a
woman was actually transformed into a woman while partaking of the
meal served to him. [1183]

It is related that in ancient times the son of a certain sage once
disguised himself as a girl with the result that he was actually
changed into a girl. He was thereafter called Mudralopi and married
to the sage Agastya. [1184]

The warrior Shikhandi who assisted the Pandavas in killing Bhishma
(who had vowed not to raise his arms against a woman) was at first
a girl, and was subsequently transformed into a boy by the boon of
the gods. [1185]

There is supposed to be a forest of Parvati in a continent called
Ilavrit. Any man visiting it is at once turned into a woman. [1186]

A king named Sudyaman visited this forest and was transformed into
a woman. It was only after appeasing Parvati by a sacrifice that he
was restored to his original form. [1187]

It is believed that in Kamaru Desha or the land of fairies,
children are transformed into the opposite sex by the spell of the
inhabitants. [1188]

A belief is current that change of sex can be effected by the
performance of the Shatchandi or the prayoga of Rudra, Bahucharaji,
Ashapuri and Mahakali. [1189]

It is also believed that change of sex can also be effected by the
spell of magic. [1190]

There is a further belief that Yogis by their incantations, and
Mahatmas by their blessings or curses, can effect a change of
sex. [1191]

The following things are considered efficacious in protecting oneself
against evil spirits:--

(1) A sword, (2) iron, [1192] (3) a woollen blanket, (4) fire, (5)
a coin in the funeral pyre, (6) a nail of a tiger, (7) a blue thread,
(8) the red lead offered to the god Hanuman, (9) a lime consecrated
with incantations, (10) five kinds of cotton thread worn round the
elbow, [1193] (11) blood, (12) corn, (13) frankincense, (14) salt,
(15) water, (16) leather, (17) an amulet of iron procured from a
well polluted by the death of some one in its water, [1194] (18)
a garland, the beads of which are made of the wood of the Ekal ber
(Zizyphus jujuba), (19) the sacred thread worn by Brahmans, [1195]
(20) iron nails extracted from a wheel of a cart used for carrying fuel
for cremation, [1196] (21) human blood, [1197] (22) a costly jewel.

Amulets are generally used as a precaution against the attack of
evil spirits or the influence of an evil eye. They are also used
to cure diseases. They are made of iron, copper, tin, gold, silver,
alloys of precious metals, or leather.

Chithis or pieces of paper on which mystic signs are drawn are put
into the amulets and are tied to the forearm with black woollen or
silk thread. [1198]

In some places, frankincense of gugal (Canarium strictum) or loban
(olibanum) is offered to the amulets before they are worn. [1199]

Amulets are also made of tad-patras (palm-leaves). They are tied
round the arm with an indigo-coloured cloth. [1200]

Doras or threads are also worn with the same object as amulets. They
are generally made of five kinds of silk thread, black wool, or red
or black cotton thread. The length of the dora must be eight feet,
one and a quarter of a cubit or a man's height. They must have three
folds and must be twisted seven or twenty-one times. After they are
twisted, they are knotted seven, fourteen or twenty-one times, when
they become ready for use. An offering of frankincense made of gugal
or of loban is made to a dora before it is worn. [1201]

It is believed by some people, that a chiti (amulet) or dora in order
to be effective, must not be touched with water.

The dora of the god Kal-bhairav at Benares, which is made of silk
thread with seven twists, is tied round the wrist of a patient in
the belief that it cures illness.

A janjiro (black cotton thread with seven knots) of the god Hanuman
is worn round the arm with the same belief.

Surakano, that is, twisted iron wire, consecrated by the worshipper
of the goddess Machhu, is worn by the Bharvads round the elbow or
the wrist with the belief that it cures wind.

Those people whose children do not live long put silver anklets
round their left legs in the belief that by so doing their life is
lengthened. [1202]

An amulet made of a piece of cloth is called dhaga. [1203] It is either
a piece of cloth used by a holy man, a piece of cloth containing
a mixture of red lead and oil offered to the god Hanuman, [1204]
or a piece of cloth in which are wrapped up the things put into an
amulet. The dhaga is either worn round the wrist or suspended from
the neck. [1205]

Amulets tied to the horns of pet animals such as cows, bullocks,
horses, etc., are called damanas. Sometimes they are also suspended
from the necks of these animals. They are made of the hides of sacred
animals and are believed to protect the animals against the evil eye,
evil spirits and magic. [1206]

It is believed by some people that one can escape injury from an
evil spirit by seating oneself in a circle or square drawn in and
plastered with cowdung. [1207]

Others hold that the circle must be drawn with the point of a
sword.

Some maintain that the circle cannot be a protective unless it is
drawn with enchanted water, milk or sesamum oil.

There are others who are of opinion that the entry of evil spirits
into the circle can be prevented only by calling upon God not to
allow the evil spirits to enter it. [1208]

When an evil spirit is expelled from the body of a person, it is
buried underground, a circle of water is made round the spot and an
iron nail is driven into the ground, in order that it may be imprisoned
there. [1209]

If anybody step into such a circle, the evil spirit confined therein
takes possession of him, and is thus freed. [1210]

To prevent this, evil spirits are generally confined in secluded
spots. [1211]

As the circle drawn by the point of a sword is a protection against
an evil spirit, those who go to the burning ground to propitiate or
subjugate evil spirits, seat themselves in such circles while reciting
mantras. [1212]

After entering the circle, some people recite the name of Hanuman,
Chandi or Bhairav. [1213]

Some people, after seating themselves in the circle, make offerings
to the evil spirits, while reciting mantras, to propitiate them more
easily. The Kali chaudas or the fourteenth day of the dark half of
Ashvin is considered a suitable day for propitiating or subjugating
evil spirits. [1214]

There are various superstitious beliefs entertained by people
regarding omens.

1. If when leaving the house on a visit or with some definite object in
view, a deer crosses one's path from right to left, it is considered
a bad omen, while crossing from left to right is considered good. On
returning home, this omen is read in the reverse way to that just
stated. [1215]

2. When starting on a journey, the braying of an ass on the right is
a good omen and on the left, evil. [1216]

3. If on leaving the house, a man meets an unwidowed woman or a virgin
with a jar filled with water on her head, it is an indication that
the object of the expedition will be accomplished. [1217]

4. While starting on a good errand, if one breathes through the left
nostril or comes across a person carrying a basket of eggs, it is a
good omen.

5. If at the time of leaving for a visit to another town or village,
the position of the moon in the circle explaining the position of
stars with reference to one's birth-day stars, be in the rear or
on the left of that position, it is a bad omen, but if it be in the
front or on the right it is a good omen.

The moon in front means fulfilment of the intended purpose, on the
right, it confers happiness and prosperity, on the back it causes
death, and on the left, loss of wealth.

6. The warbling of the bird bhairav on the right while going out
and on the left while returning is a good omen, but the opposite is
bad. [1218]

7. A cat or a serpent crossing one's path is ominous of evil; but if
either passes on the right, it foretells good.

8. A jackal howling in the evening prognosticates damage by fire
to the town or village; its howling at midnight predicts robbery;
while in the last part of the night it foretells good.

9. Kag-rashias (expounders of the utterances of crows) know the good
and bad indications of the croakings of crows.

10. The wailing notes of the bird Favadi forebode evil.

11. The throbbing of the right eye or side in the case of men and of
the left eye or side in the case of women is considered to be a good
omen, while the contrary is bad.

12. If the bird holo sweeps the roof of one's house continuously
for a number of days, a calamity is supposed to be imminent for the
inmates of the house.

13. If a dog barks in front of a man it is considered to be a bad
omen. [1219]

A Brahman, a cow, fruits, flowers, milk, pearls, jewels, a prostitute,
an elephant, an umbrella, meat, fish, a gun, a bayonet, a mirror,
a mongoose, a peacock with its plumage expanded, girls singing
songs, band-players and a washerman carrying washed clothes are all
considered to be good omens, if one comes across them while going
out on business. [1220]

The sight of a king, an armed man, a Dhed, a Bhangi or a Darji is
also considered to be an auspicious omen. [1221]

The sight of boys going to or returning from school is a good
omen. [1222]

A labourer carrying a load of fuel on his head, a corpse in front,
a potter carrying earth on his head or on his donkey, a woman carrying
her son, a man carrying molasses, are all auspicious omens. [1223]

A male monkey or a donkey crying on the right while going out, and on
the left while returning home is considered to be a good omen. [1224]

Wine and good speech are also considered good omens. [1225]

The sight of a herdswoman, a dog scratching its right side, a cuckoo
singing on a tree or a black sparrow is a good omen. [1226]

Fuel, hides, grass, vegetables, a smoking fire, sesamum oil, molasses,
a barren woman, an enemy, a disorderly mob, a woman without the
auspicious mark on her forehead, a man besmeared with oil, a eunuch,
mud, wet clothes, an ascetic, a beggar, are all considered to be bad
omens, if one sees them while going on business. [1227]

The sight of dry cow-dung cakes is supposed to be a bad omen. [1228]

The sight of a widow or of a corpse [1229] is bad. [1230]

Weasels crossing the road, dogs shaking their ears, a man carrying
a black earthen vessel, a woman with loose hair, a person carrying
clarified butter, a man with gray moustaches, a man having no hair on
his chest, a cat-eyed man, a person carrying flour, a Brahman without
the sacred mark on his forehead are all bad omens. [1231]

The sight of the husk of corn, a man with a medicinal application,
or a lunatic, is a bad omen. [1232]

The question "kian jao chho" that is "Where are you going" is a bad
omen. [1233]

The mixture of whey, mud and cow-dung, a recluse with matted hair,
a man spitting, a cough, and a man with the whole of his head shaved
are bad omens [1234].

Similarly, the sight of a drunkard, Adad or cotton seeds is a bad
omen. [1235]

A bride stumbling on her entry into the bridegroom's house is said
to be a bad omen. [1236]

A dog scratching its left side with his paws, a man riding a he-buffalo
or a donkey, two Banias, one Musalman, one male goat, one ox, five
she-buffaloes, six dogs, three cows, or seven horses, confronting a
man on starting from the house are ominous of evil. [1237]

Some numbers are believed to be auspicious and some inauspicious. There
is a book on this subject, in which some good or evil is attributed
to each number. One who wants to know the result of the undertaking
in hand puts his finger on any number in the book, and the expounder
of the science, reading the passage bearing on the number, explains
how the undertaking will end. [1238]

The numbers, 12, 18, 56 and 58 are considered inauspicious. [1239]

An odd number is generally believed to be inauspicious. It is for
this reason that newly-married girls are not sent to their husbands'
house for the first time in any of the odd years of their age. They
are also not sent back to their parents' house in an odd year of
their age for the same reason. [1240]

The numbers 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, and 21 are believed to be lucky
while 3, 4, 8 and 12 are considered unlucky. [1241]

A belief exists that if a company of three start on a mission, the
mission is sure to fail. This has given rise to the proverb "Tran
trikat ane maha vikat" that is, "Three persons going on an errand
meet with great difficulties or danger." [1242]

A zero is believed to be inauspicious. In monetary transactions or
bargains, therefore, all numbers ending in a zero are avoided. If such
numbers are unavoidable, the sign of 1/4 is placed before them. The
number 12 is considered unlucky, to avoid which 11 1/2 is used in
its place. [1243]

Some people believe that the numbers 1 1/4, 5, 7, 21, 108 and 1,008
are lucky while 12 is unlucky. [1244]

It is a belief that in the sales of cattle and certain other things
if the price is raised by 1 1/4, it results in good both to the seller
and buyer. [1245]

It is for this reason that in subscribing to charitable funds people
write 401 instead of 400 and so on. But 1 1/4 is preferred to 1 in
valuing things. So in all purchases and sales 1 1/4 is added to the
actual price of a thing. [1246]

The numbers 5 and 7 are believed to be auspicious, because on starting
on a journey from the house one is given five betelnuts as a sign
of good omen, while in all auspicious ceremonies seven betelnuts are
used. [1247]

Certain days of the week are considered lucky while others are
considered unlucky. It is also believed that certain days are
auspicious for performing certain acts, while others are inauspicious
for the performance of the same acts.

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are considered lucky, while
Tuesday, Saturday and Sunday are believed to be unlucky. [1248]

It is a common belief that one should not go in certain directions
on certain days; for doing so results in what is called disha-shul
or pain caused by directions. [1249]

Going to the north on Sunday, to the west on Tuesday, to the north-west
on Monday, to the south-west on Wednesday, to the south on Thursday,
to the south-east on Friday and to the east on Saturday is considered
ominous of evil. [1250]

According to another belief, Sunday and Thursday are inauspicious for
going to the south-east; Monday and Friday, to the south-west; Saturday
and Tuesday, to the north-west and Wednesday to the north-east. [1251]

Some people believe that by going to the west on Monday or Saturday
one secures the fulfilment of the desired object. [1252]

Many hold that the favourableness or otherwise of the days for going
in particular directions varies according to the occasion. [1253]

The auspicious days for sending a girl to her husband's house are
believed to be Monday, Thursday and Friday. Sunday and Tuesday are
also considered auspicious for a girl to go to her house, but they
are considered very unlucky for her to return to her parents. [1254]

It is forbidden to eat dalia (baked split gram) on Sunday, but it is
favoured on Friday.

Wednesday is considered to be a lucky day for sowing corn, and making
purchases of new articles. Thursday is believed to be auspicious for
sending a boy to school for the first time. [1255]

Wednesday is considered unfavourable for the separation of brothers and
sisters, but it is considered a suitable day for their meeting. [1256]

It is believed that if a man wears new clothes on Sunday they will be
burnt; if on Tuesday, they will be lost; if on Wednesday or Saturday,
a quarrel with some one is the result. [1257]

It is considered auspicious to go to a Chamar or tanner on Sunday,
to a prostitute on Monday, to a Kachhia (vegetable seller) on Tuesday,
to a washerman on Wednesday, to a Brahman on Thursday, to a Bania on
Friday and to a barber on Saturday. [1258]

The beliefs regarding the lucky and unlucky days of a month are
similar to those of the lucky and unlucky days of the week.

According to some, all the days of the bright half of a month are
auspicious for performing any good act, while the days in the dark
half are considered favourable for perpetrating black deeds. [1259]

Some believe that the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 13th and
the full-moon day of a month are auspicious, while the 2nd, 4th,
7th, 9th and 14th, whether of the bright or dark half, as well as
the new-moon day, are inauspicious. [1260]

According to another belief, the 1st, 6th and 11th days of a month are
good, the 3rd and 8th are dates of success (that is acts commenced
on these days are crowned with success); the 5th, 10th and 15th are
purna tithis, that is, complete days, (meaning that the moon on these
days appears full one-third, full two-thirds and completely full);
while the 2nd, 7th and 12th are auspicious days.

The 4th, 9th and 14th days of a month are inauspicious. [1261]

Some hold that if the 1st, 4th, 12th, 14th and 30th day of a month
fall on a Saturday they are good; otherwise bad. [1262]

The 1st, 13th or 14th day of either the bright or dark half of a month,
as well as the full-moon and new-moon day, are considered unfavourable
to patients. [1263]

The 2nd, 14th and the last day of a month are considered unlucky. Those
days on which there is a panchak--a grouping of constellations lasting
for five consecutive days--are very inauspicious for commencing
auspicious acts. [1264]

A belief prevails that any one dying in a panchak draws five companions
to heaven, that is, his death is followed by the death of four others
of the same village. [1265]

A son born on the full-moon day is believed to turn out brave, but
is supposed to forebode evil to the parents. [1266]

If a girl is born on the 2nd, 7th or 12th day of a month falling on a
Tuesday or Saturday in the Ashlesha, Kritika or Shutbhilla nakshatra,
she loses her husband. [1267]

The Mul nakshatra falling on the 1st day of a month, Bharani on the
5th, Kritika on the 8th, Rohini on the 9th and Ashlesha on the 10th,
has an effect like a volcano. A girl born on the 1st, 6th or 11th day
of a month falling on a Saturday, Tuesday or Sunday in the Kritika
or Mrigshar nakshatra is like poison. She is supposed to cause the
death of herself, her husband, or all the members of her father's
family. [1268]

Some of the Hindu holidays are considered auspicious for performing
certain deeds, while inauspicious for performing certain others. [1269]

The ceremonies described below are performed to help the spirit to
the other world.

When a man is on the point of death the floor is cow-dunged and an
offering of sesamum seeds, Durva grass (cynodon dactylon) and Java
(barley) is made to the deities. Next, water of the Ganges or the
Jumna is dropped into the mouth of the dying man and the name of Ram
is whispered in his ear, as this is believed to turn his consciousness
to God and thus facilitate his way to the other world.

When a patient is convinced that his case is hopeless, he distributes
money or other valuable articles among Brahmans, as this is believed
to make his way to heaven easy.

When life is extinct, the corpse is placed on the cow-dunged floor and
then carried on a bier to the burning ground with the cries of "Shri
Ram", "Ram", "Ram nam satya hai", [1270] or "Jaya Shri Krishna". In
the fuel with which it is burnt is put Tulsi (sweet basil), Pipal
and sandal wood and cocoanuts. The bones and ashes are collected
and preserved, to be thrown into the Damodar kund, (pool of water)
at Gaya or other holy waters. For three days after death, holy water
and milk is offered to the spirit of the deceased. On the 10th, 11th
and 12th day after death, on all the days of every month in the first
year corresponding to the day of death, and on every anniversary of
the death, Shraddha is performed. Shraddha is also performed annually
on the day corresponding to the day of death in the dark half of the
month of Bhadrapad.

The ceremonies mentioned above are believed to make the passage of
the soul to the other world easy. For his final emancipation a man
must renounce all pleasures of the senses and all egotism. [1271]

Giving alms to the poor, holding recitations of the Bhagvat, performing
the Vishnu Yag, Gayatri-purashcharan and the Chandrayan vrat are also
believed to make the passage of the soul to heaven easy. [1272]

In order that the departing spirit may meet with no obstruction on
the way, cows, articles of dress, shoes and food are presented to a
Brahman for one year after death. [1273]

Places for offering water to passers by, and houses in which to feed
the needy, are also established by well-to-do people with the same
object. [1274]

The gift of sacks for holding corn, of umbrellas, blankets and bedding
to travellers, is also believed to smooth the passage of the soul to
heaven. [1275]

The performance of the shraddhas and other ceremonies mentioned above
is believed to prevent the return of the spirit to this world. [1276]

Observing fasts by the survivors of the deceased on the Rishi Panchami
(the 5th day of the bright half of Bhadrapad), the Janmashtami (the
eighth day of the dark half of Shravan) and the Ramnavami (the ninth
day of the bright half of Chaitra) is also believed to prevent the
return of a spirit from heaven. Some worship the Pipal with the same
object. [1277]

Reading the Garud Puran for nine days after death is also believed to
be a means of preventing the return of the soul to this world. [1278]

Some people believe that performing shraddha in sixty-eight holy
places secures this end. [1279]

Daily offerings of rice and water to the departed spirits also prevent
them from revisiting this world. [1280]

The same means which are adopted to help the spirit to the other
world and to prevent its return also secure its good-will to the
survivors. [1281]

Persons living on the banks of the Ganges do not burn the dead,
but throw the corpses into the holy water of the river. [1282]

If a pregnant woman dies in the eighth month of her pregnancy, the
foetus is taken out by cutting open the womb and buried, while the
woman is burnt. [1283]

Corpses of persons dying an unnatural death are burnt in a Gondaro
(place where the village cows rest) or on the village common, in
the belief that by so doing the deceased escapes divine wrath and is
freed from rebirth. [1284]

When a grave is commenced in a certain spot, the corpse must be
buried on that spot, even though the ground be rocky or otherwise
unsuitable. As far as possible, the corpses of relatives are buried
near one another.

The occasions on which the hair is shaved are as follows:--

1. When a boy attains the age of three years, his head is shaved
completely for the first time.

2. At the time of performing shraddha in holy places, the head,
except the top-knot, and the moustaches and face must be shaved.

3. On the ninth day after the death of a man, all his male relatives
younger than himself have to shave their heads, except the top-knot,
and the moustaches and chin.

4. On the day of investing a boy with the sacred thread his head is
shaved before the investiture.

5. Amongst high caste Hindus the heads of widows are shaved on the
tenth day after the death of their husbands. [1285]

6. Gorjis or preceptors of the Atits, Shravaks and Sanyasis have to
get their heads shaved at the time of entering the order. [1286]

7. All the male relatives of the deceased have to get their heads
shaved on the ninth day after death.

8. Atits and Bavas get the heads of their disciples shaved at the
time of admitting them into their order. [1287]

9. The preceptors of the Swami Narayan sect shave off their moustaches
every time they shave their heads. [1288]

10. At the time of admitting a Jain to the ascetic order of the
religion, the hairs of his head are pulled out one by one until the
head is completely bald. [1289]

11. On the occasion of a man being readmitted to his own caste, out
of which he has been expelled for some breach of caste rules, he has
to shave his head and face by way of prayaschitta or atonement.

It is believed that if the head of a widow is not shaved on the
tenth day after the death of her husband, his soul is not admitted
to heaven, and the funeral ceremonies performed in his honour bear
no fruit. [1290]

The heads of such widows are shaved on the banks of the Godavari or
at Benares or at some other holy place in the neighbourhood. [1291]

The spirits of the dead are represented by balls of rice flour or
cooked rice, and offerings of water, cotton thread, red powder,
abir (white scented powder), red lead, sandal paste, frankincense,
lamps, sesamum seeds and of the leaves of the Tulsi, the tamarind,
the Agathio or Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora) and the Bhangra, and
the flowers and seeds of the Java, are made to them.

The ancestral spirits are also represented by chats (twisted braids
of the Durva grass (Cynodon Dactylon)), and to them are offered the
Suran (Elephant-foot) cooked rice, fried cakes of the flour of mag
(Phaseolus mungo), rice cooked in milk, etc. [1292]

It is believed that the departed spirits are pleased with offerings
of pindas or rice-balls. [1293]

Pindas are also made of wheat flour or molasses. Costly dishes,
sesamum seeds, honey, curdled milk, clarified butter, and sugarcandy
are also offered to the manes. [1294]

The pindas are generally offered on the 10th, 11th and 12th day after
death and on the occasion of performing shraddha. [1295]

Rice balls are also offered to crows or thrown into water in the belief
that by so offering they reach the spirits of deceased ancestors.

A belief prevails that the messengers of the god of death eat the
flesh of the deceased if pindas are not offered to them. So, in ancient
times, offerings of flesh balls were made instead of rice ones. [1296]

It is believed that male and female evil spirits such as bhuts and
pishachas manifest themselves as dogs, notably black dogs, goats,
fire, the whirl-wind, snakes or children. [1297]

They may assume the form of a he-buffalo, a heifer, a ram, a man,
a woman, [1298] a lion, a tiger or a cat. [1299]

The evil spirit called jan is believed to manifest itself as a
snake. [1300]

The voice of an evil spirit in any of the above forms is heard from
a distance, and the nearer the hearer approaches the more it is found
to recede. [1301]

Among Bharvads and Sonis, seven or nine earthen pots are broken in the
house of the deceased on the tenth day after death. The number of the
pots varies according to the individual merits of the deceased. [1302]

Among some low castes, an earthen pot is broken on the village boundary
and another in the burning ground. [1303]

Some break an earthen pot at the village gate on their way back from
the cemetery after the performance of shraddha. [1304]

In some places, the earthen pots placed on the spot where the corpse
is laid in the house are broken at the village gate. [1305]

In some low castes two earthen pots are placed on the village boundary
on the twelfth day after death, and broken by children. [1306]

Some carry the funeral fire in a black earthen jar as far as the
village gate, where the jar is broken and the fire carried in the hand,
by one of the mourners, to the burning ground. [1307]

According to some, this breaking of an earthen pot is a symbol
indicating that the connection of the deceased with this world has
broken or ceased. [1308]

Others hold that it indicates the disintegration of the constituents
of the body into the elements of which it was formed. [1309]

There are others who are of opinion that the messengers of the god
of death are satisfied with the breaking of an earthen pot after an
offering to them of six rice balls and water. [1310]

When a death takes place in a family, a prana-poka or death-wail is
raised by the chief mourner, who is joined afterwards by the other
relatives. [1311]

The prana-poka is believed to open the gates of heaven for the
admission of the soul. [1312]

Some are of opinion that the object of the death-wail, which begins
with "O mara bhai!" that is, "Oh my brother!" or "O mara bap!" that is,
"Oh my father!", is that at the moment of death, the soul, by hearing
the sound 'Om' may ascend to the brahmarandhra or the divine seat of
the brain and thus attain salvation. [1313]

When the funeral party start with the bier for the burning ground,
the women of the house, accompanied by other women of the neighbourhood
or village, follow them as far as the village gate, crying and singing
funeral dirges. There they stop a while and sing more funeral dirges,
keeping time by beating their breasts. They then start to return home,
and, on their way, bathe in a tank or well and again mourn for some
time before entering the house. The funeral party enter the house
after the women and cry aloud for a few seconds. They also cry when
the pyre is set on fire. [1314]

The mourning of the women continues for thirteen [1315] days after
death. They also weep on such holidays as the Holi, the Divali, etc.,
and on the quarterly, six-monthly and the first anniversary Shraddha
day. [1316]

Male relatives of the deceased wear a white turban as a sign of
mourning. [1317]

It is generally believed that bhuts or evil spirits prove beneficial
to those who succeed in securing locks of their hair or subjugate
them by incantations or magical rites. [1318]

Such spirits generally belong to the class of the Bavan, the Vir,
the Babro, Mamo, Vaital, Dadamo and Yaksha. Of these, Mamo, Vir,
Vaital and Dadamo prove beneficial through favour, while the rest
become the slaves of those who subdue them. [1319]

It is believed that Suro Puro and Dado favour only their blood
relations. [1320]

It is related that in building the numerous tanks and temples
attributed to Siddhraj Jaysing, a former king of Gujarat, he
was assisted by the spirit Babario whom he had brought under his
control. [1321]

A tradition is current that Tulsidas, the celebrated author of the
Ramayan in Hindi and a great devotee of Ram, had secured personal
visits from the god Hanuman through the favour of a ghost.

The king Vikram is said to have received great services from the evil
spirits Vaital and Jal. [1322]

In a book entitled Vaitala Pachisi it is described how a bhut lived
on a banyan tree in Ujjain. [1323]

It is related that in Rajkot a bhut called hunthia lived on a banyan
tree. [1324]

To the east of Kolki there is a tree called Jala which is inhabited
by a mamo. It is related that the mamo frightens persons passing by
the tree. Near the school at Kolki there is a Pipal on which lives
a sikotarun who frightens people passing along the road. [1325]

Is is related that a mamo lived on a Khijado tree at the gate of
the village Surel. He manifested himself, dressed in white garments,
for a period of nearly ten years. Once he frightened several persons
out of their senses. It is said that on his being propitiated with
an offering of wheaten bread at his abode (the Khijado tree), these
persons recovered their senses. [1326]

The Habib-Vad or Habib's banyan tree on the road leading from Mavaiya
to Gondal is a favourite haunt of bhuts, who frighten and stupefy
persons passing by that road. [1327]

There is a step-well near Hampar under the jurisdiction of Dhrangadhra
which is the resort of a bhut. A Girasia and his wife arrived here
one day at midnight. The Girasia tied his mare to a tree hard by,
and went to the well to fetch water for the mare. On his return he
found there a number of mares like his own tied to the trees. He
therefore smelt their mouths to recognise which of them was his
own, but in the flurry caused by the appearance of so many mares,
his waist-cloth got entangled, and while mounting his mare he fell
down, which frightened him so much that he exclaimed "I am overtaken
(by a ghost)" and died. [1328]

It is related that in the Chhaliachok at Limbdi, no woman has yet
succeeded in reciting a garabi (song) in honour of the goddess Mahakali
to the end, as a ghost which lives on the tamarind tree opposite the
chok (square) is averse to its completion.

There is a house at Porbandar haunted by a ghost, in which none is
able to reside. [1329]

It is believed that only those trees, the wood of which cannot be
used for sacrificial purposes, can be haunted by evil spirits. Such
trees are the Khijado, the Baval, the Kerado and the tamarind. [1330]

Kshetrapal is believed to be the guardian spirit of fields and Suropuro
and Mamado are believed to protect harvest and cattle. [1331]

It is also believed that the spirit jakhara protects crops and
cattle. [1332]

Mamo and Dadamo are also believed by some to be the guardian spirits
of crops and cattle. [1333]

A belief runs that if a cousin (father's brother's son) becomes
a spirit after death, he proves beneficial to the cattle of his
relatives. [1334]

There are various ways of frightening crying children to silence,
one of which is to invoke evil spirits.

When a child continues to cry for a long time, the mother says,
"keep quiet, Baghada has come." "Oh Bau, come and take away this
child." "Babara, come here. Don't come, my child is now silent." "May
Baghada carry you away." These exclamations are uttered in such a
tone and with such gestures, that generally the child is at once
frightened into silence. [1335]

In addition to the spirits mentioned above, Babaro, Chudda, Dakana,
Satarsingo and other spirits are also invoked to frighten a weeping
child to silence. [1336]

A Bava or Bairagi, a Fakir, a tiger, a dog, a cat or a rat are all
presented to the child as objects of terror, and are called one after
another to silence it. [1337]



CHAPTER VII.

TREE AND SERPENT WORSHIP.


Certain trees are considered holy, and they are neither cut nor their
wood used as fuel.

The Pipal is one of such trees. It is considered to be the incarnation
of a Brahman, and to cut it is considered to be as great a sin as
murdering a Brahman. It is believed that the family of one who cuts
it becomes extinct. [1338]

Some people believe that the spirits of the deceased do not get water
to drink in the next world. The water poured at the root of the Pipal
on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of the dark half of Kartik and Shravan
and on the 14th day of the bright half of Chaitra is believed to
reach these spirits and quench their thirst. [1339]

Although to cut the Pipal is supposed to be a great sin, it is
believed that if a corpse is burnt with its wood, the soul of the
deceased attains salvation. [1340]

The Vad or banyan tree is believed to be a representation of the god
Shiva. [1341] There is a proverb to the effect that one who cuts this
tree is punished with the extirpation of his family. [1342]

According to another belief, the god Vishnu once slept on this
tree. [1343]

The Tulsi or sweet basil is considered to represent Lakshmi, the wife
of Vishnu. It is also related that Krishna wanted to kill the demon
Jalandhar, but he could not be killed on account of the merit of the
chastity of his wife Vrinda. Krishna, therefore, assumed the form
of Jalandhar, violated the chastity of Vrinda, and was thus enabled
to kill the demon. Krishna next expressed a desire to marry Vrinda,
when she transformed herself into the Tulsi plant. It is considered
an act of great religious merit to wed Krishna with the Tulsi, and
this marriage is celebrated every year by all Hindus on the 11th day
of the bright half of Kartik otherwise called Dev Divali.

It is considered a great sin to uproot this plant, though no sin
attaches to the plucking of its leaves during the day time. The leaves
of the Tulsi are considered holy and are offered to the image of the
god Vishnu and are required in all religious ceremonies. [1344]

The Khijado or Shami tree is also held sacred. When the Pandavas lost
their kingdom in gambling with the Kauravas, the latter promised the
former that they would give them back their kingdom if they lived in
the forest for twelve years and unknown for one year. After having
completed their stay in the forest, the Pandavas remained unknown
for one year in the city of Virat. During this year they concealed
their weapons on a Khijado tree. Before taking these weapons, they
worshipped the tree. Next took place the great battle of Kurukshetra
in which the Pandavas won a splendid victory. This has given rise
to the custom of worshipping the tree on the tenth day of the bright
half of Ashvin or the Dasara day. [1345]

It is a common belief that a tree haunted by ghosts should not be
cut. So the Khijado is not cut, because it is the favourite residence
of ghosts. [1346]

The Kadamb (Anthocephalus cadumba) is considered sacred because it is
believed that God Krishna rested under this tree when he took cattle
to graze. [1347]

The Limbdo (Nim tree) is also considered sacred as it represents the
god Brahma. [1348] Some believe that it represents Jagannathji. [1349]

The Rudraksha is believed to be a representation of the god Shiva. It
is therefore considered a sin to cut it. Garlands of Rudraksha beads
are worn round the neck by the devotees of Shiva.

The leaves of the Bel (Aegle marmelos) are offered to the god Shiva
as they are supposed to be liked by him. It is also considered a sin
to cut this tree. [1350]

The Karan (Mimusops hexandra) is believed to be a representation
of Shiva. A grove of the Karan trees is supposed to be inhabited by
natural powers called Matas and to cut a Karan is supposed to bring
disaster to the cutter. [1351]

The Maravo (Marjoram) is considered sacred by Musalmans. They dip
its leaves into oil and rub them against the face of a corpse. [1352]

There is a temple of Bhimnath Mahadev near Baravala in the shade of
an ancient Jal tree. The worshipper at the temple, a wealthy man,
once thought of erecting a grand temple over the image, but he was
prevented from doing so by the god appearing in his dream and telling
him that he preferred to live under the tree. [1353]

Under a Jal tree near Dhandhuka there is a shrine of Bhimnath Shankar
who is known as Bhimnath Jalvalo after the tree. [1354]

There is a Sakhotia tree near Kutiana, which is supposed to be the
abode of a snake deity. [1355]

Near Rajkot in Kathiawar there is a tree called Gandu or mad, vows
in honour of which are said to cure children of bronchitis. [1356]

In the village of Vadal near Bhiyal in the Junagadh State there is
a banyan tree called Lal Vad said to have sprung from the sticks of
a Vad (banyan) used as tooth brushes by Lal Bava, a preceptor of the
Vaishnav school. A silver staff and silver umbrella belonging to Lal
Bava are kept near this tree, which is visited and worshipped by the
followers of the preceptor. [1357]

It is related that in this Lal Vad there is an opening through which
the virtuous can pass to the other side, but not the sinful. [1358]

There are two banyan trees near Anandpur, one of which is called
Bhut-vad or the banyan tree of the evil spirits, as it is supposed
to be inhabited by ghosts. The other is called Visalvad, because a
devotee named Visaman Bhagat lived under this tree. [1359]

There is a branch of the followers of Kabir called Khijada Panth. They
worship the Khijada or Shami in their temples. [1360]

There is a belief that the sanctity attached to the Pipal tree has
been the act of the god Krishna. This tree is invested with a sacred
thread. [1361]

According to tradition, Krishna breathed his last under a Pipal
tree. [1362]

It is related that once blood gushed forth from a Pipal tree when it
was cut. Thenceforward it came to be regarded as a Brahman and it is
no longer cut. [1363]

There is a Pipal tree in the village of Prachi near Prabhas Patan,
vows in whose honour are believed to favour childless persons with
children. [1364]

It is described in the Puranas that Savitri, the daughter of King
Ashupati, lost her husband within a year after her marriage. The
death took place under a banyan tree, by worshipping which, Savitri
succeeded in reviving her husband. Since then women perform a vow
called Vat Savitri Vrat on the 13th, 14th and 15th days of the bright
half of Jetha by observing a fast and worshipping and circumambulating
the banyan tree. [1365]

There is a legend that in mythological times a woman named Vrinda was
cursed to be a plant for infidelity to her husband. She became the
Tulsi (sweet basil), which is held sacred by Hindus, and worshipped
by women. [1366]

On the top of the hill in the village of Jasdan there are two tall
trees called 'mad trees'. As the fruits of these trees resemble
the face of a saint, they are considered divine and worshipped with
offerings of red lead, oil and cocoanuts. [1367]

Amongst Rajputs, during the marriage ceremony, the bride has to
walk four times round the sacrificial fire in the company of the
bridegroom. Two of these turns are generally taken with a wooden
blade called Khandu. [1368]

When a girl loses her betrothed twice in succession, she is married
to a Pipal tree before being betrothed for the third time. [1369]

If the betrothed husband of a girl dies before the celebration of
the marriage, she is married to a Pipal or Ankda (a poisonous plant)
in the belief that the danger of death will fall on the tree, and
that the next husband of the girl will survive. [1370]

If a man loses two wives one after the other, he is married to a
Shami tree before he is married again, and his third marriage is
called the fourth. [1371]

In some places, such a man is married to a Bordi (Zizyphus Jujuba)
instead of a Shami. [1372]

In some places, if a man's wives do not live, his next wife is married
to an Ankdi plant before her marriage with him. [1373]

A belief prevails that an insane maiden is cured of her insanity if
married to the field god Kshetrapal. [1374]

If a girl attains puberty before marriage, she is married to a Pipal
tree. A girl with congenital deformities is also married to a Pipal
tree. [1375]

It is generally believed that if a betrothed girl touches red lead,
she is carried away by Kshetrapal. [1376]

The belief that Kshetrapal carries away the bride from the marriage
altar is so common, that a stone representing the god is placed on
the marriage altar and touched by the bridal pair at every turn round
the sacrificial fire. [1377]

If this is not done, disastrous consequences follow, to avert
which, that portion of the marriage ceremony in which Kshetrapal is
propitiated has to be performed a second time. [1378]

Disagreement between husband and wife soon after marriage is attributed
to the wrath of Kshetrapal. To bring about a reconciliation between
them, they are taken to a triangular field and married there to please
the god. [1379]

All Hindus worship the snake. The day especially devoted to its worship
is the fifth day of the bright half of Shravan, which is called Nag
panchami. In some places Nag panchami is observed on the 5th day of
the dark half of Shravan. On this day an image of a snake is made of
cowdung or earth, or its picture is drawn on the wall.

The image is worshipped as a deity, and kulera, a mixture of wheat,
oat or rice flour, clarified butter, and sugar or molasses is offered
to it. After worship, the members of the household take their meal
and eat kulera, cocoanuts and cucumbers. Only one meal is taken on
this day by men and women. [1380]

The Nag panchmi is observed as a vrat or vow, generally by women. They
do not take any meal on this day, but live only on kulera. On this
day, her Highness the Maharani of Baroda, mounted on an elephant,
goes in procession to the woods to worship an ant-hill. The pipers who
accompany the procession blow their pipes, and allured by the sound,
the snakes come out of their holes, when they are worshipped and fed
with milk. [1381]

Women do not pound, grind or sift corn on the Nag panchami day,
and all people try to see a snake.

It is obligatory in some families to offer a cocoanut to the Nagdev
(snake god) on the Nag panchami day. [1382]

In some places, the likeness of the snake is engraved on a stone or
copper plate and worshipped. In others, it is drawn on a piece of
paper which is affixed to the wall. [1383]

In many places there are temples dedicated to snake gods. These gods
are known by various names. Some of the temples with the names of
the gods installed in them are given below:--

1. The temple of Sarmalio Nag at Arani Timba near Bikaner.

2. The temple of Ragatio Nag midway between Kanaza and Vanthali in
the Junagadh State.

3. The temple of Charmalio Nag at Chokdi near Chuda. Vows of offering
sweets are made to this Nag by persons bitten by snakes, who visit
the temple, hold the sweets before the image of the god, distribute
them among the visitors, and are in return presented with cotton
thread which they wear round the neck.

This god is also reputed to have the power of blessing childless
persons with offspring. The offerings concerned consist of cradles,
which are presented to the god after the wished for object has been
fulfilled.

4. The temple of Vasuki Nag near Thangadh. This Nag is supposed to be
a servant of the god Shiva. An old snake with gray moustaches is said
to live in this temple. He drinks milk at the hands of visitors. Many
vows are made in honour of this snake god.

5. The temple of Khambhadio Nag at Khambhada.

6. The temple of Nag Mandal at Dadvi.

7. The temple of Bhujia Nag at Bhuj.

8. The temple of Shimalia Nag near Jadeshvar in the neighbourhood
of Jetpur.

9. The temple of Fulia Nag near Jopanath.

10. The temple of Malodaro Nag at Malod.

11. The temple of Charmalio Nag at Chudia.

12. The temple of Chhatrasia Nag in Chhatrasa.

13. The temple of Monapario Nag at Monpar near Chital.

14. The temple of Ashapal at Nanadiya in the Bantva State.

15. The temple of Khodial Nagini at Khokharda in the Junagadh State.

16. The temple of Gondalia Nag at Gondal.

It is related that there were once divine snakes in the royal fort
of Jodia. When a pair (male and female) of these snakes were found
killed, the heinous act was atoned for by the bodies of the snakes
being buried and a temple erected over the grave. The male snake of
this pair is known as Nag Nath or the Lord of Snakes.

According to others, Nag Nath was a big white snake with gray
moustaches. He once waylaid a milkman of the royal household, forced
him to put down the milkpot he was carrying, drank the milk and went
away. This snake is believed to be divine. [1384]

The god Shiva is supposed to wear a snake round his neck like a
garland of flowers. So, in all temples of Shiva, an image of a snake
is installed behind the idol of the god with his hood spread over
the idol. [1385]

In ancient times dead snakes were buried and temples and altars were
erected over their graves. An image of the dead snake was engraved
on the altar. [1386]

There is a shrine dedicated to Chandalia Nag on the bank of the river
Palavo on the road from Mota Devalia to Tramboda. It is visited by
a sect of beggars called Nag-magas. The Nag-magas beg wealth of the
snake god, and it is said, that he bestows it on them. They are never
seen begging from any body else. [1387]

In the Puranas, the Shesh Nag, the Takshak Nag, Pundarik, Kali Nag
and Karkotak Nag are described as gods. In modern times, Sarmalio,
Bhujo and Gadhio are believed to be as powerful as gods, and vows
are observed in their honour. [1388]

Dhananjaya, Pushkar and Vasuki are also considered to be very
powerful. [1389]

Takshak is believed to have drunk the nectar of immortality. [1390]

A tradition is current that god Vishnu sleeps on the Shesha Nag in
the Milky Ocean. This snake is believed to have a thousand mouths
and to support the earth on its hood. [1391]

It is described in the Puranas how King Parikshit was bitten by Takshak
Nag and King Nala by Karkotak Nag. King Nala became deformed owing to
the bite, but he could assume his original form by wearing a special
dress, through the favour of Karkotak.

Vasuki Nag was wrapped round the Mandar mountain, which was used as
a churning handle by the gods and demons to churn the ocean for the
recovery of the fourteen jewels from the ocean [1392].

It is a common belief that treasures buried underground are guarded
by snakes.

Generally a miser dying without an heir is supposed to be born as a
snake after his death, to guard his hoarded money.

It is believed by some people that on the establishment of a new
dynasty of kings after a revolution, a snake makes its appearance to
guard the accumulated wealth of the fallen dynasty. [1393]

It is also believed that a rich man dying with his mind fixed on his
wealth is born as a snake, to guard the wealth. [1394]

There is a further belief that one who collects money by foul means
and does not spend it, is born as a snake in his next life to guard
his buried treasure. [1395]

There is still another belief that a man who buries his treasure in a
secret place becomes a snake after death, to guard the treasure. [1396]

The beliefs mentioned above have given rise to the impression that
places where big snakes are found are sure to have a treasure trove
concealed in them. [1397]

It is believed that the snake guarding the treasure of his previous
life does not allow anybody to remove it, and bites any one who
attempts to do so. [1398]

If in spite of this, a man succeeds in seizing the treasure by force
or by the power of mantras or incantations, it is believed that he
leaves no heirs to use it. [1399]

A belief is also current that such guardian snakes allow those persons
to take away the treasures guarded by them if they are destined to
possess them. [1400]

To the south of Kolki there is a site of a deserted village. It is
believed to contain a buried treasure which is guarded by a snake with
white moustaches. This snake is seen roaming about the place. [1401]

It is related that a Brahman once read in an old paper that there
was a treasure buried under a Shami tree in Deola. He communicated
the information to the Thakor of Dhrol who secured the treasure by
excavating the place. The Brahman went to worship the spot, but was
buried alive. The Thakor buried the treasure in his castle, but the
Brahman, becoming a snake, guarded the treasure and allowed none to
touch it. All attempts to dig it up were frustrated by attacks of
bees and the appearance of a snake.

A Kshatriya named Dev Karan, while the foundation of his house was
being dug, found a treasure guarded by a snake. He killed the snake
by pouring boiling oil over it and secured the treasure.

A Kunbi of Malia, while digging a pit for storing corn, found a large
vessel filled with costly coins guarded by a snake. He killed the
snake and secured the vessel. [1402]

There are many practices in vogue to render the poisonous bite of a
snake ineffective.

If the man bitten by a snake be bold, he cuts off the bitten part.

Some have the bitten part branded.

Those who have no ulcer in the mouth suck the poison, and spit it out.

The powder of the fruit of the Nol Vel is also administered with water.

Sometimes emetics and purgative medicines are given.

A mixture of pepper and clarified butter is also believed to be
efficacious. [1403]

Other remedies for the cure of snake bite, are as follows:--

The patient is made to wear a cotton thread in the name of Charmalia
Nag, Sharmalia Nag, or Vasangi Nag, and certain observances, as stated
above, are promised to the snake deity. [1404]

The ends of peacock feathers are pounded and smoked in a chilum
(clay pipe) by the patient. [1405]

A moharo (stone found in the head of a snake supposed to be a cure for
snake poison) is applied to the wound caused by the bite. It absorbs
the poison, and on being dipped into milk, transfers the poison to
the milk.

Thus it can be used any number of times. [1406]

There is a Girasia in Lakhtar who is believed to cure patients
suffering from snake poison. As soon as a person is bitten by a snake,
one of the garments worn by him is taken to the Girasia, who ties it
into a knot and this cures the patient. [1407]

There is a Bava in Rajpara, a village near Anandpur. He and all the
members of his family are reputed to be able to cure snake-bites. When
a person is bitten by a snake, he or a friend goes to the Bava's house
and informs him or any member of his family of the occurrence. The Bava
or the person who receives the intimation folds into a knot a garment
of the informant, which he afterwards unfolds. As soon as this is
done, the patient is in great pain, loses his senses, is seized with
convulsions and tells why the snake bit him. Thereupon the relatives
of the patient implore the pardon of the snake, which is granted on
condition that the patient should give alms to the poor. [1408]

In some places, Bhagats or devotees of Mataji are invited to dinner
along with a number of exorcists, who are generally Rabaris. After
they have assembled at the house of the patient, they start out in
a procession headed by one who holds in his hand a bunch of peacock
feathers, to bathe in a river. On their way to and back from the
river they sing songs in praise of the goddess to the accompaniment
of drums and other musical instruments. After their return from the
river, the whole party are treated to a feast, which is supposed to
cure the patient of the effects of the snake-bite. [1409]

Some people believe that snakes, like evil spirits, can enter the
bodies of human beings. Such persons, when possessed, are supposed
to have the power of curing snake-bites. [1410]

Every village has an exorcist who is a specialist in curing the effects
of snake-bites. When a person is bitten by a snake the exorcist is at
once sent for. He gives the patient Nim leaves and pepper to chew,
to determine the extent of the effect of the bite. Next he asks
one of those present to bathe and bring water in an unused earthen
jar. He then recites incantations, and sprinkles water from the jar
over the body of the patient. If this does not counteract the effects
of the poison, he throws red-hot pieces of charcoal at the patient,
when the snake speaks through the patient and states that he bit the
patient because he committed a certain offence, and that he will leave
him if certain offerings are made. After he has ceased speaking,
the patient begins to shake and to crawl about like a snake, and
is then cured. If the man be doomed to death, the snake would say,
"I have bitten him by the order of the god of death, and I will not
leave him without taking his life." [1411]

Sometimes the exorcist fans the patient with branches of the Nim tree,
reciting mantras, and thereupon the patient becomes possessed by the
snake and declares the cause of his offence.

Some exorcists present a magic epistle or charm asking the snake
that bit the patient to be present. The snake obeys the call, and
appears before the exorcist. The latter then asks the snake to suck
the poison from the wound of the patient, which is done by the snake,
and the patient is then cured. [1412]

In some places, the exorcist ties up the patient when the snake tells
the cause of the bite. Next the exorcist calls on the snake to leave
the body of the patient, who then begins to crawl about like a snake
and is cured.

On some occasions, the exorcist slaps the cheek of the person who calls
him to attend the patient. It is said that the poison disappears as
soon as the slap is given. [1413]

Some exorcists take a stick having seven joints and break them one
by one. As the stick is broken, the patient recovers, his recovery
being complete when the seventh joint is broken. [1414]

It is believed that the Dhedas are the oldest worshippers of Nags
or snakes. When a person is bitten by a snake, he is seated near a
Dheda, who prays the snake to leave the body of the patient. It is
said that in some cases this method proves efficacious in curing the
patient. [1415]

It is stated that exorcists who know the mantra (incantation) for
the cure of snake-bites must lead a strictly moral life. If they
touch a woman in child-bed or during her period the mantra loses
its power. This can be regained through purification, bathing,
and by reciting the mantra while inhaling the smoke of burning
frankincense. Some exorcists abstain from certain kinds of vegetables
and sweets, e. g., the Mogri (Rat-tailed radish), Julebi (a kind of
sweet), etc. They have also to abstain from articles of a colour like
that of a snake. [1416]

A belief prevails that there is a precious stone in the head of the
snake. Such stones are called mohors. They are occasionally shown to
the people by snake-charmers, who declare that it is very difficult
to procure them.

It is stated that on dark nights snakes take these mohors out of
their head and place them on prominent spots in order to be able to
move about in the dark by their light. [1417]

It is believed that snakes give these mohors to those who please
them. If one tries to take a mohor by force, the snake swallows it
and dissolves it into water. [1418]

As stated above, the mohor has the property of absorbing the poison
from snake-bites.

It is because a snake is believed to hold a precious stone in its
head that it is called manidhar, that is, holder of a jewel. [1419]

It is believed by some people that the mohor shines the most when a
rainbow appears in the sky. [1420]

According to the Puranas the patal or nether world is as beautiful
as heaven. It is inhabited by Nags or snakes in human form. The Nag
girls are reputed to be so handsome that an extraordinarily beautiful
girl is commonly likened to a Nag girl.

It is believed that in ancient times inter-marriages between Nags
and human beings were common. [1421]

It is a common belief that Kshetrapal, the guardian snake of fields,
married human brides. So to propitiate him, his image is installed
on the marriage altar, and the bride takes three turns round it when
walking round the sacrificial fire with the bridegroom. [1422]

According to the Puranas, king Dasharath married a Nag girl
Sumitra. [1423] Similarly Indrajit, the son of Ravan, the Lord of
Lanka or Ceylon, married a Nag girl. [1424]

At times snakes are seen in houses. They are believed to be the
guardians of the houses, and worshipped with offerings of lamps fed
with ghi. After worship, the members of the family pray to the snake,
"Oh snake! Thou art our guardian. Protect our health and wealth. We
are thy children and live in thy garden." [1425]

Some people believe that the spirits of deceased ancestors, on account
of the anxiety for the welfare of progeny, become snakes and guard
the house. [1426]



CHAPTER VIII.

TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM.


The worship of totems is not known to prevail in Gujarat, but the
names of persons and clans or families are occasionally derived from
animals and plants.

Instances of names derived from animals are given below:--


               NAME.           ANIMAL FROM WHICH DERIVED.

         1.    Hathibhai       Hathi--an elephant.
         2.    Vaghajibhai     Vagh--a tiger.
         3.    Nagjibhai       Nag--a snake.
         4.    Popatbhai       Popat--a parrot.
         5.    Morbhai         Mor--a peacock.
         6.    Chaklibhat      Chakli--a sparrow. [1427]
         7.    Kido            Kidi--an ant.
         8.    Mankodia        Mankoda--a black ant.
         9.    Tido            Tid--a locust. [1428]
         10.   Hansraj         Hansa--a goose.
         11.   Vinchi [1429]   Vinchi--a female scorpion.
         12.   Olo             Olo--a species of bird.
         13.   Ajo             Aja--a goat.
         14.   Mena            Mena--a species of bird. [1430]


The Kali Paraj or aboriginal tribes in Gujarat give such names as Kagdo
(crow), Kolo (Jackal), Bilado (cat), Kutro (dog) to their children
according as one or other of these animals is heard to cry at the
time of birth. [1431]

The following are instances of names derived from plants:--


              NAME.           PLANT OR TREE FROM WHICH DERIVED.

        1.    Gulab [1432]    Gulab--the rose.
        2.    Ambo            Ambo--the mango.
        3.    Tulsibai        Tulsi--the sweet basil.
        4.    Tulsidas        Ditto.
        5.    Kesharbai       Keshar--Saffron.
        6.    Galalbai        Galal--Red powder. [1433]
        7.    Bili            Bili--Aegle marmelos.
        8.    Dudhi           Dudhi--Pumpkin.
        9.    Lavengi         Laveng--Clove.
        10.   Mulo            Mulo--Radish.
        11.   Limbdo          Limbdo--The Nim tree.
        12.   Mako            Maki--Maize. [1434]
        13.   Champo          Champa--Michelia Champaca. [1435]


Instances of family or clan names derived from trees and animals are
as follows:--


               NAME.        DERIVATION.

          1.   Untia        Unt--camel.
          2.   Gadheda      Gadheda--An ass.
          3.   Dedakia      Dedako--A frog.
          4.   Balada       Balad--An ox.
          5.   Godhani      Godho--A bull.
          6.   Bhensdadia   Bhensa--A buffalo.
          7.   Ghetiya      Gheta--A sheep.
          8.   Savaj        A species of wild animals. [1436]
          9.   Kakadia      Kakadi--cucumber. [1437]


The cow, the she-goat, the horse, the deer, peacock, the Tilad or
singing sparrow, the goose, the Nag or snake, the eagle, the elephant
and the male monkey are believed to be sacred by all Hindus. Of these,
the greatest sanctity attaches to the cow. Her urine is sipped for
the atonement of sins. The cow is also revered by the Parsis. [1438]

The mouth of the she-goat and the smell of the horse are considered
sacred.

An elephant is considered sacred, because when the head of Ganpati
was chopped off by Shiva, the head of an elephant was joined to his
trunk. [1439]

The peacock is considered sacred on account of its being the conveyance
of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning.

A male monkey is held holy, because it is supposed to represent the
monkey god Maruti.

Some sanctity attaches to the rat also, as it is the conveyance of the
god Ganpati. He is called Mama or maternal uncle by the Hindus. [1440]

The pig is held taboo by the Musalmans. [1441]

Brahmans, Banias, Bhatias, Kunbis, Sutars and Darjis abstain from
flesh and liquor. [1442]

Some Brahmans and Banias do not eat tadias (fruit of the palm tree)
as they look like human eyes. [1443]

Some Brahmans abstain from garlic and onions. Some do not eat Kodra
(punctured millet). [1444]

The masur (Lentil) pulse is not eaten by Brahmans and Banias, because,
when cooked, it looks red like blood. [1445]

The Humbad Banias do not eat whey, milk, curdled milk and clarified
butter. [1446]

The Shravaks abstain from the suran (Elephant foot), potatoes and
roots that grow underground. [1447]

Mahomedans abstain from the suran, because "su" the first letter of
the word suran is also the first letter of their taboo'd animal the
pig. [1448]

There are some deities associated with the worship of animals. These
animals, with the deities with whom they are connected, are given
below.

1. Pothio or the bull is believed to be the vehicle of god Shiva. In
all temples of Shiva its image is installed, facing the image of
Shiva in the centre of the temple.

2. Sinha or the lion is believed to be the vehicle of Parvati,
the consort of Shiva. The lion is also connected with the demon
planet Rahu.

3. Hansa the goose is associated with Brahma the creator.

4. Gadhedo the ass is believed to be connected with Shitala, the
goddess of small pox.

5. Undar the mouse is the conveyance of Ganpati.

6. Mor the peacock is the conveyance of Sarasvati, the goddess of
learning. The peacock is also associated with Kartik Swami.

7. Garud the eagle is the conveyance of the god Vishnu.

8. Pado the male buffalo is the conveyance of Devis or goddesses.

9. Ghodo the horse is the conveyance of the Sun. The horse is also
associated with the planet Guru or Jupiter and Shukra or Venus.

10. Mrig the deer is supposed to be the conveyance of the Moon as
well as of Mangal or Mars.

11. Balad the ox is connected with Mars and Shani or Saturn.

12. Hathi the elephant is supposed to be the conveyance of Indra. It
is also connected with Budha or Mercury.

13 The tiger is the conveyance of the goddess Ambaji.

The animals mentioned above are worshipped along with deities and
planets with whom they are associated [1449].

It is generally believed that the earth is supported by a tortoise. So,
whenever the goddess earth or Prithvi is worshipped, the tortoise is
also worshipped. [1450]

In the temples of the Matas cocks and hens, and in the temple of Kal
Bhairav, dogs, are worshipped. [1451]

For the propitiation of goddesses and evil spirits, male goats,
he-buffaloes and cocks are sacrificed. [1452]

In his first incarnation, the god Vishnu was born as a fish, in the
second as an alligator, and in the third as a boar. For this reason
the images of these animals are worshipped. [1453]

All the gods, goddesses and spirits mentioned in the preceding pages
are represented by idols made of stone, metal or wood. In addition
to stone idols of gods there are certain stones which are considered
to represent gods and worshipped as such. Some of these stones are
described below.

All the stones found in the river Narbada are believed to represent
the god Shiva and worshipped.

There is a kind of stone found in the river Gandaki which is smooth
on one side and porous on the other. It is either round or square
and about five inches in length. This stone is called Shaligram and
is believed to represent the god Vishnu. It is kept in the household
gods and worshipped daily.

There is another kind of hard, white, porous stone found near
Dwarka. It is also worshipped along with the idol of Vishnu.

Sometimes tridents are drawn with red lead on stones to represent
goddesses. [1454]

There is a tank near the Pir in Kutiana in which bored stones are
found floating on the surface of the water. These stones are considered
sacred. [1455]

Certain stones are considered sacred on account of their supposed
curative properties. One of such stones is called Paro. It is believed
to be efficacious in curing rheumatism. [1456]

There is also a kind of red stone which is supposed to cure skin
diseases. [1457]

Each of the nine planets is supposed to be in touch with a stone of
a particular colour. For instance, the stone in touch with Shani or
Saturn is black, and that with Mangal or Mars is red. These stones
are bored, and set in rings which are worn by persons suffering from
the influence of these planets.

A kind of stone called Akik, found in abundance in Cambay, is
considered sacred by the Mahomedan saints, who wear garlands made of
beads carved out of these stones. [1458]

In ancient times human sacrifices were offered on certain
occasions. Now-a-days, in place of a human being, a cocoanut or a Kolu
(Cucurbita maxima) is offered. At the time of making the offering,
the cocoanut is plastered with red lead and other holy applications
and covered with a silk cloth. The Kolu is offered by cutting it into
two pieces with a stroke of a knife or sword. [1459]

Sometimes an image of the flour of Adad is sacrificed in place of a
human being. [1460]

This sacrifice is generally made on the eighth or tenth day of the
bright half of Ashvin.

In place of human blood, milk mixed with gulal (red powder) and
molasses is offered. [1461]

In ancient times, when a well was dug, a human sacrifice was made to
it if it did not yield water, with the belief that this would bring
water into the well. Now-a-days, instead of this sacrifice, blood
from the fourth finger of a man is sprinkled over the spot. [1462]

It is also related that in ancient times, when a king was crowned,
a human sacrifice was offered. Now-a-days, instead of this sacrifice,
the king's forehead is marked with the blood from the fourth finger
of a low caste Hindu at the time of the coronation ceremony. [1463]

There are a few stones which are supposed to have the power of curing
certain diseases. One of such stones is known as Ratvano Paro. It is
found at a distance of about two miles from Kolki. It is marked with
red lines. It is bored and worn round the neck by persons suffering
from ratawa [1464] (a disease in which red spots or pimples are seen
on the skin).

There is another stone called Suleimani Paro which is supposed to
have the power of curing many diseases. [1465]

There is a kind of white semi-circular stone which is supposed to
cure eye diseases when rubbed on the eyes and fever when rubbed on
the body. [1466]

Sieves for flour and corn, brooms, sambelus or corn pounders, and
ploughs are regarded as sacred.

Sieves are considered sacred for the following reasons.

1. Because articles of food such as flour, grain, etc., are sifted
through them. [1467]

2. Because, on auspicious occasions, when women go to worship the
potter's wheel, the materials of worship are carried in a sieve.

3. Because the fire used for igniting the sacrificial fuel is taken
in a sieve, or is covered with a sieve while it is being carried to
the sacrificial altar. [1468]

4. Because at the time of performing the ceremony when commencing to
prepare sweets for a marriage, a sieve is worshipped. [1469]

5. Because, in some communities like the Bhatias, the bride's mother,
when receiving the bridegroom in the marriage booth, carries in a
dish a lamp covered with a sieve. [1470]

The flour collected by Brahmans by begging from door to door is
supposed to be polluted. But it is considered purified when it is
passed through a sieve. [1471]

The sambelu is considered so sacred that it is not touched with the
foot. If a woman lie down during day time, she will not touch it
either with her head or with her foot.

One of the reasons why it is considered sacred is that it was used
as a weapon by Baldev, the brother of the god Krishna.

A sambelu is one of the articles, required for performing the reception
ceremony on a bridegroom's entering the marriage pandal. [1472]

It is believed that a fall of rain is expedited by placing a sambelu
erect in a dish when there is a drought. [1473]

Among Shrigaud Brahmans, on the marriage day, one of the men of
the bridegroom's party wears a wreath made of a sambelu, a broom and
other articles. Some special marks are also made on his forehead. Thus
adorned, he goes with the bridegroom's procession and plays jokes with
the parents of both the bride and bridegroom. His doing so is supposed
to bless the bridal pair with a long life and a large family. [1474]

On the marriage day, after the ceremony of propitiating the nine
planets has been performed in the bride's house, in some castes three,
and in others one sambelu, is kept near the spot where the planets are
worshipped. Next, five unwidowed women of the family hold the sambelus
and thrash them five or seven times on the floor repeating the words
"On the chest of the ill-wisher of the host." The sambelus are bound
together by a thread. [1475]

If a woman has to take part in an auspicious ceremony on the fourth
day of her monthly period, she is made to thresh one maund of rice
with a sambelu. Her fourth day is then considered as the fifth [1476]
and she becomes eligible for taking part in the ceremony. [1477]

The plough is considered sacred, because it is the chief implement
for cultivating the soil. It is worshipped on the full-moon day of
Shravan which is known as a Balev holiday, the worship being called
Grahan-pujan. [1478]

Some people consider the plough sacred because Sita, the consort of
Ram, was born of the earth by the touch of a plough. [1479] Others
hold it sacred as it was used as a weapon by Baldev, the brother of
the god Krishna.

On account of the sanctity which attaches to the plough, it forms part
of the articles, with which a bridegroom is received in the marriage
pandal by the bride's mother. [1480]

It is related that king Janak ploughed the soil on which he had to
perform a sacrifice. Hence it has become a practice to purify with
a plough the spot on which a sacrifice is to be performed. [1481]

In some places, on the Balev day, a number of persons gather together
near a pond, and each of them fills an earthen jar with the water of
the pond. Next, one of the party is made to stand at a long distance
from the others with a small plough in his hands. The others then
run a race towards the latter. He who wins the race is presented with
molasses and a cocoanut. [1482]

It is customary among Brahmans to perform the worship known as Balevian
after the performance of a thread ceremony. In Native States, the
prime minister and other State officials and clerks join the ceremony,
the principal function of the ceremony being performed by the prime
minister. In villages, this function is performed by the headman of
the village. The party go in procession to a neighbouring village
or a pond where an earthen image of Ganpati besmeared with red lead
is installed on a red cloth two feet square. Near this image are
installed the nine planets, represented by nine heaps of corn, on
each of which is placed a betelnut. This is called the installation
of Balevian. A plough about two feet in length is kept standing near
the Balevian with its end buried in the ground. The prime minister or
the village headman worships the plough, after which, four Kumbhars
or potters wash themselves, and holding four jars on their heads,
run a race. Each of the Kumbhars is named after one of the four
months of the rainy season. He who wins the race is presented with
the plough. The expenses of the ceremony are paid from the State
treasury or the village fund. [1483]

According to a popular saying, a broom should not be kept erect or
trampled under foot. This indicates that brooms are held sacred.

When a newly-born infant does not cry, the leaves of a broom are
thrown into the fire and their smoke is passed over the child. It is
said that this makes the child cry. [1484]

Some people consider brooms sacred, because they are used in sweeping
the ground (that is the earth, which is a goddess).

In some places, children suffering from cough are fanned with a
broom. [1485]

In some castes, a broom is worshipped on the marriage day. [1486]

Many people deny any sanctity to a broom. A belief is common that if
a man sees a broom the first thing after getting up in the morning,
he does not pass the day happily. [1487]

Some believe that if a broom be kept erect in the house, a quarrel
between the husband and wife is sure to follow. There is also a belief
that if a person thrashes another with a broom, the former is liable
to suffer from a gland under the arm. [1488]

Fire is considered to be a deity by all Hindus. In all sacrifices,
fire is first ignited with certain ceremonies of worship. [1489]
In all Brahman families, every morning before breakfast, a ceremony
called Vaishvadeva is performed, in which fire is worshipped and
cooked rice is offered to it. [1490]

The Agnihotris keep a constant fire burning in their houses and
worship it thrice a day, morning, noon and evening [1491].

The Parsis consider fire so sacred that they do not smoke. Neither
do they cross fire. In their temples called Agiaris a fire of sandal
wood is kept constantly burning. It is considered a great mishap if
this fire is extinguished.

Fire is specially worshipped on the Holi day, that is the full-moon
day of the month of Falgun. [1492]

Other special occasions on which it is worshipped are the thread
ceremony, the ceremony of installing a new idol in a temple, the
first pregnancy ceremony, and the ceremony performed at the time of
entering a new house. [1493]

Fire is also worshipped in Maharudra, Vishnuyag, Gayatri-purashcharan,
Nilotsarga, Vastupujan, Shatachandi, Lakshachandi, and the sacrifices
performed during the Navaratra and on the Dasara day. [1494]

Fire is considered to be the mouth of God, through which he is supposed
to receive all offerings. [1495]

The offerings made to fire generally consist of clarified butter,
cocoanuts, sesamum seed, the Java, chips of the wood of the Pipal
and the Shami, curdled milk and frankincense. [1496]

The fire to be used for sacrifices and agnihotras is produced by the
friction of two pieces of the wood of the Arani, [1497] the Pipal,
the Shami [1498] or the bamboo while mantras or incantations are
being recited by Brahmans. [1499]



CHAPTER IX.

ANIMAL WORSHIP.


The following animals are considered sacred and worshipped by the
Hindus.

1. The cow:--is regarded as the holiest of animals. She is worshipped
on the fourth day of the dark half of Shravan which is known as Bol
Choth; [1500] and a vow is observed by women in her honour on the
fifteenth day of Bhadarva. It is known as Gautrad Vrat. On this day
women do not eat wheat, milk, clarified butter and the whey of a
cow. [1501]

The sanctity which attaches to the cow is due to the belief that in
her body reside thirty three crores of gods. [1502]

2. The horse:--The horse is believed by some people to be the last
incarnation of God. It is also believed to represent Vachhado, the
deity who cures hydrophobia. [1503]

Some people believe the horse to be a celestial animal. It is said
that in ancient times it had wings, traces of which are believed to
be still visible in its knees.

Of the fourteen jewels obtained by the gods and demons by churning
the ocean, one was a horse with seven mouths. Hence the horse is
considered divine. [1504]

The horse is worshipped on the Dasara day. [1505]

3. The elephant:--The elephant is considered divine because it is
the vehicle of Indra, the lord of gods, and because its head was
fixed on the trunk of Ganpati, the son of Parvati and Shiva. It is
believed by some people that vows to offer cocoanuts to an elephant
are efficacious in curing fever. [1506]

At the time of celebrating a coronation ceremony an elephant is
worshipped. There is a tradition that in ancient times the coronation
waters were poured over the king by a she-elephant. [1507]

4. The lion:--The lion is considered sacred because it is believed
to be the lord of the beasts of the forest and the vehicle of
goddesses.

5. The tiger:--The tiger is worshipped with Vagheshvari Mata as it
is believed to be her vehicle.

6. The she-buffalo:--Some sanctity attaches to the she-buffalo, as
it is believed that a she-buffalo was given in dowry to a Nag kanya
(snake girl) by her father. [1508]

To atone for a great sin a she-buffalo decked with a black wreath,
iron, red lead and marks made with the flour of adad is presented to
a Brahman. [1509]

7. The donkey:--Is believed to be the vehicle of the goddess of
small-pox. [1510]

It is also believed that the god Brahma had formerly five mouths,
one of which was like that of a donkey. [1511]

8. The dog:--The dog is believed to have divine vision and to be able
to see the messengers of the god of death. Some believe that in its
next life a dog becomes a man. [1512]

The dog is also believed to be the vehicle of Kal Bhairav and is
worshipped along with his image. [1513]

Some people offer bread to dogs in the belief that they will bear
witness to their merits before God [1514].

9. The goat:--is worshipped by the Bharvads when they worship the
goddess Machhu. [1515]

10. The cat:--is worshipped in the belief that by so doing a man can
win over his opponents. [1516]

11. The bear:--is considered by some people to be a holy animal because
the god Krishna married Jambuvanti, the daughter of Jambuvant, the
heroic bear who assisted Rama. [1517]

12. Fish:--are considered sacred because they are supposed to carry
the food (pindas) to the manes offered (in water) at the shraddha
ceremony. [1518]

13. Alligators:--are worshipped in a pond at Magar Pir, near
Karachi. [1519]

14. The crows:--are worshipped because they are supposed to represent
rishis. [1520]

Some people believe that crows were formerly rishis. They are supposed
to have divine vision, and food offered to them is believed to reach
deceased ancestors.

A loaf is cut into three parts. One of them is designated kal
(ordinary), the second dukal (famine), and the third sukal
(plenty). Next they are offered to a crow. If the crow takes away
the kal, it is believed that the crops in the following year will
be normal; if it takes away the dukal a famine is apprehended in the
following year, and if the sukal, it is believed that the crops will
be plentiful. [1521]

15. The goose:--is supposed to be the vehicle of the goddess
Sarasvati. It is believed that its worship ensures success in any
enterprise. If a goose is seen in a dream, it is considered to be a
very good omen. [1522]

A goose is believed to be endowed with the power of separating milk
from water. It is supposed to feed on rubies. It is found in lake
Man in the Himalayas. [1523]

16. The cock:--is considered holy as it is believed to be the vehicle
of the goddess Bahucharaji. [1524]

17. The hen:--is worshipped on the last Sunday of the month of
Jeth. [1525]

18. The parrot:--is worshipped by singers desiring to improve their
voice. It is also worshipped by dull persons desirous of improving
their intellect. [1526]



CHAPTER X.

WITCHCRAFT.


Dakans are of two kinds, human and of the order of ghosts. [1527]

Girls born in the Ashlesha nakshatra on the bij or second day of
a month, in the Kritika nakshatra on the seventh day of a month
and in the Shatabhigha nakshatra on the twelfth day of a month, are
believed to be human dakans. They cause the death of their husbands,
and their evil eye injures all things and individuals that come under
its influence. [1528]

Women who die in child-bed, meet an untimely death or commit suicide,
become Dakans or Chudels after death.

Some people believe that women of such low castes as Kolis, Vaghris
and Charans become Dakans. High caste Dakans are rare. [1529]

A ghostly Dakan dresses in fine clothes and decks her person with
ornaments. But she does not cover her back, which is horrible to
look at. It is so frightful that any one happening to see it dies of
horror. [1530]

Ghostly Dakans trouble only women. When possessed by them, the
latter have convulsive fits, loose their hair, and cry out without
any reason. [1531]

A ghostly Dakan lives with a man as his wife, brings him dainties
and turns the refuse of food into flesh and bones. The man gradually
becomes emaciated and ultimately dies. [1532]

It is believed that generally a Dakan kills a man within six
months. [1533]

The Dakans do not allow calves to suck, cattle to give milk, and
healthy persons to enjoy sound health. Sometimes they cause cattle
to yield blood instead of milk. [1534]

A Dakan by virtue of her powers, can ascend to the sky. She lives
upon the flesh of corpses. [1535]

A Dakan can assume any form she likes. She appears as a cat, a
buffalo, a goat or any other animal. She can swell and shrink her
body at will. Her feet are reversed. [1536]

Dakans haunt trees, cemeteries, deserted tanks, mines or other desolate
places. [1537]

They also haunt ruins and places where four roads meet. [1538]



CHAPTER XI.

GENERAL.


Various ceremonies are performed by cultivators at the time of
ploughing the soil, sowing, reaping and harvesting. These ceremonies
differ in details in different localities.

In all places, an auspicious day for ploughing and sowing is fixed
in consultation with an astrologer. On the day when ploughing is to
be commenced, the front court yard of the house is cowdunged and an
auspicious figure called Sathia [1539] is drawn on it with the grains
of juvari. [1540]

A dish called kansar is prepared, and served to all members of the
family at the morning meal. Their foreheads are marked with red powder,
and a pice and betelnut are offered to the household gods. Hand-spun
cotton threads marked at intervals with red powder are then tied round
the plough and to the horns of the bullocks which are to be yoked to
the plough. [1541]

Next, the farmer stands waiting at the front door of his house for
good omens, [1542] and when a few are seen, sets out for his field.

In some places, the foreheads of the bullocks are daubed with red
lead, clarified butter is applied to their horns, and they are fed
with molasses. [1543]

In others, a betelnut is placed over the Sathia and given to the
person who first meets the farmer on leaving his house. [1544]

In some localities again, the farmer holds the plough over the Sathia,
touching it with the end, eats a morsel of molasses, and bows to the
Sathia before starting. [1545]

As a rule, seed is not sown on Saturdays or Tuesdays. Wednesday is
believed to be the most favourable day for this purpose. [1546]

Sowing is commenced from that corner of the field which has been
pronounced by the astrologer to be the best for the operation. [1547]

Sunday is believed to be the most auspicious day for reaping. [1548]
While reaping, a part of the crop is offered to the image of Kshetrapal
and to other village deities. In order to secure a good harvest,
sweets are offered to the village gods on the eighth or tenth day of
the bright half of Ashvin or on the second day of the bright half of
Kartik which is called Annakuta. [1549]

No crop is brought into the house before a part of it has been offered
to the local deities. [1550]

When juice is to be extracted from sugar-canes, the mill is first
worshipped. In the shed erected for storing the jars of molasses,
an image of Ganpati is installed, and worshipped before placing the
jars in the shed. [1551]

The first jar of molasses and two bits of sugar cane are offered to
the local deities. [1552]

Before reaping cotton, offerings are made to the village gods. [1553]

When a cow or she-buffalo is about to calve a packet containing a few
pebbles or cowries, the mali (red lead) from the image of Hanuman,
dust collected from a place where four roads meet, and grains of Adad,
are tied to its horns by an indigo-coloured thread, in the belief
that this protects the animal from the effects of the evil eye. [1554]

To guard cattle against an attack of small-pox, women observe a
vow called Shili Satem on the seventh day of the bright half of
Shravan. [1555]

To prevent a tiger from attacking cattle, a circle of the flour of
charonthi is drawn round them by an exorcist reciting mantras or
incantations. If a tiger tries to enter this protected area its mouth
at once becomes swollen. [1556]

In some places, salt heated over the fire of the Holi is put into
the food given to the cattle in the belief that this protects them
from disease. [1557]

Instead of salt, some people give cattle leaves of castor-oil plants
roasted over the fire of the Holi. [1558]

In some places, on the Divali holiday, a torch and a rice pounder are
placed in the cattle shed, and the cattle are made to cross them one
by one. This process is believed to protect them from disease. [1559]

A ceremony called the Doro of Mahadev is also performed in the month
of Shravan to protect cattle against disease. [1560]

Vows in the honour of Ashpal or Nagdev are also observed for the
protection of cattle. [1561]

In the Hasta nakshatra during the monsoon, when there is a thunder
storm, a sambelu (rice pounder) is struck seven times against the main
cross beam of the house in the belief that the sound thus produced
destroys insects. [1562]

To scare the insects called itidio, vows are observed in honour of
the Itidio Pir. [1563]

In order that insects and worms may not spoil the corn stored in
a granary or in earthen jars, the ashes of the fire of the Holi or
leaves of the nim tree are mixed with it.

To prevent insects from spoiling wheat, bajari and juvari, mercury
and ashes are put into them, while it is believed that gram cannot
be eaten by insects if it is mixed with dust from a place where three
roads meet. [1564]

To drive away insects, a ceremony called Adagho Badagho or Mariyun
is performed on the Divali holiday. It is as follows:--

One man holds a lighted torch in his hand, and another an earthen jar,
which he beats with a small stick. The two men pass through every
nook and corner of the house and the cattle-shed crying "Adagho may
go, Badagho may go", that is, "May troubles and diseases disappear;
may bugs, serpents, mice, scorpions, mosquitoes and other insects
die out." Next they proceed, repeating the same words, through the
streets to the village boundary, where the torch, the earthen jar
and the stick are thrown away, thus ending the ceremony. [1565]

In order to secure sunshine and favourable weather, oblations are
offered to the local deities, sacrificial offerings are made and
bunting is suspended from the doors of temples. [1566]

In order to secure a favourable rainfall, a grand festival is observed
on an auspicious day. On this day all agricultural work is stopped
and megh laddus (sweet balls called megh or cloud) are eaten by the
people. [1567]

In some places, for the protection of the crops, a thread charmed
by the incantations of an exorcist is passed round the hedge of the
field. [1568]

For the protection of crops of gram, wheat and sugar-cane against
injury by rats, a ceremony called Dadh Bandhavi is performed, in which
a thread over which incantations have been repeated by an exorcist
is passed round the crop, and an image of Ganpati is installed and
worshipped with offerings of sweet balls of wheat flour. [1569]

In some places, the ceremony of Dadh Bandhavi is performed somewhat
differently. Instead of passing a thread round the field, the exorcist
walks round the field repeating incantations, holding in his hand a
pot containing fire, over which is placed a pan containing Gugal. This
ceremony is generally performed for the protection of sugar-cane crops
against the attacks of jackals. It is believed that an animal entering
the field after the performance of this ceremony has its dadh (gums)
stiffened. [1570]

Silence and secrecy are considered essential in working mystic
lore, for it is a belief that if learnt openly such lore loses its
power. [1571]

The ceremony for obtaining command over Kal Bhairav is performed in
perfect silence at midnight on the Kalichaudas, that is the fourteenth
day of the dark half of Ashvin. [1572]

Silence and secrecy are also essential in the ceremonies which are
performed for subjugating such evil spirits as Meldi and Shikotar
and Matas. [1573]

When Vaishnavas make offerings to their gods, the doors of the shrine
are closed.

The initiating ceremonies of the Shakti Panthis and Margi Panthis
are also performed in close secrecy. [1574]

The Shravaks have to observe perfect silence at the time of performing
the Shamag Padakamanu [1575] (a form of devotion to god).

Some people observe a vow of keeping silent while taking their meals
either for life or during the monsoon. [1576]

There are various legends current among the people regarding the
origin of the Holi holiday. The chief versions are as follows:--

1. In ancient times there lived a demoness named Dhunda who preyed
upon children. Her misdeeds caused great misery to the people, who went
to Vasishtha, the preceptor of Rama, and implored him to tell them of
some remedy for the mischief wrought by the demoness. Vasishtha told
them to light a pyre in honour of the goddess Holika, which he said,
would consume the demoness. The people accordingly lighted a huge
fire, into which the demoness was driven by boys who led her to the
spot by abusing her and troubling her in many ways. She was reduced
to ashes by the fire, and the people were saved. [1577]

2. A demon named Hiraniaksha had a sister named Holika and a son
named Prahlad. Hiraniaksha bore great enmity to Rama, while Prahlad
was his devotee. Hiraniaksha did not like his son's devotion to Rama,
and told him several times to give it up, and even threatened to take
his life. But Prahlad did not swerve an inch from the path of his
devotion. At last, being desperate, Hiraniaksha decided to kill him,
and entrusted his sister with the mission. Holika raised a big pile
of cow-dung cakes, set it on fire, and seated herself on the pile,
taking Prahlad in her lap. But through the grace of Rama, Prahlad
escaped uninjured while Holika was reduced to ashes.

3. A demoness called Dhunda had obtained a boon from Shiva to the
effect that she would not meet her death during any of the three
seasons of the year, either by day or by night. At the same time
she was warned to beware of injury from children between sunset
and nightfall at the commencement of a new season. To prevent any
possibility of injury from children, she began to destroy them by
preying upon their bodies. This caused a great panic among the people,
who went to Vasishtha and asked his advice as to how to kill the
demoness. He advised them to kill her in the way described in legend
No. I above, and she was killed accordingly. [1578]

4. The Govardhan mountain had two sisters named Holi and Divali. Holi
was a woman of bad conduct while Divali's character was good. Although
unchaste, Holi boasted that she was chaste, and once, to prove her
chastity, she threw herself on to a big fire. She could not bear the
pain caused by the flames, and began to scream aloud, when people
beat drums, abused her, and raised such a din that her screams
became inaudible. Hence the custom of using abusive language and
reciting abusive verses during the Holi holidays. Govardhan could not
bear the disgrace attached to his sister's reputation. So he threw
himself into the fire and met his death without uttering a word of
pain. This has given rise to the custom of throwing into the Holi
fire the cow-dung image of Govardhan, which is installed during the
Divali holidays. [1579]

On the Holi day sweet dishes are prepared and taken with the morning
meal. Some women observe a vow on this day, and dine once only in
the evening, after worshipping the Holi fire with an offering of a
cocoanut and walking seven times round it. [1580]

In some places, on the day preceding the Holi, which is known as
Kamala Holi, sweet stuffed cakes are prepared, and on the Holi Punema
day vermicelli is eaten. [1581]

The fuel for the Holi fire is generally collected by boys. At
about two in the afternoon on the Holi day a party of boys goes
from house to house and receive five to fifteen cow-dung cakes
from each household. These cow-dung cakes are bored, and strung on
strings. [1582]

The fuel thus collected is heaped at the village boundary or the
end of the street. All the male residents of the village or street
meet at the spot, a pit is dug, and earthen pots filled with wheat,
gram and water mixed together are placed in the pit and covered with
cow-dung cakes. Next, the headman of the village or the leading
resident of the street worships the pile with the assistance of a
Brahman priest. After worship, the pile is lighted, at the time fixed
by an astrologer, [1583] by a low caste Hindu, generally a Bhangi or
Kotwal, as Hindus of good caste consider it a sin to kindle the Holi
fuel. The Bhangi or Kotwal receives a few dates and cocoanut kernel
for this service. [1584]

The offerings thrown into the Holi fire generally consist of fried
juvari grain, fried gram and cocoanuts. Flowers of mango trees and
tender mango fruits are also thrown into the Holi fire. It is believed
that newly married pairs, by worshipping the Holi fire, are blessed
with long life, prosperity, and the birth of children. After the
principal ceremony is over, they worship it one by one with the ends
of their upper garments tied in a knot, and walk seven times round
the fire with their hands folded, the husband leading the wife. [1585]

Infants dressed in gay clothes and decked with garlands of dry dates
and bits of cocoanut kernel are also taken to the Holi fire by their
parents. The latter worship the Holi Mata and walk four times round
the fire, taking the children in their arms. Next they offer cocoanuts
to the goddess, which are either thrown into the fire or distributed
among those present. [1586]

Women whose children die in infancy observe a vow of remaining standing
on the Holi day. When the Holi is lighted they worship the fire,
after which they may sit down and take their meal. It is believed
that the observance of this vow ensures long life to children. [1587]

Although the Holi itself falls on the full-moon day of Falgun the
rejoicings connected with it commence from the first day of that
month. The principal feature of the rejoicings consists in indulging
in indecent and vulgar songs and language. Vulgar songs or fags in
honour of the goddess Holi are also sung. Songs are composed abusing
each caste, and sung addressing passers by, by groups of boys who
have full license during the Holi holidays to indulge in all sorts
of pranks and abuses.

Some make wooden blocks with engravings of vulgar and indecent words,
dip them in coloured water, and press them on the clothes of passers
by.

Others make naked idols of mud, and place them on the tops of
houses. [1588]

The day following the Holi is known as Dhul Padavo or Dhuleti. On
this day people indulge in the throwing of cow-dung, black pigments,
urine, mud, coloured water and red powder.

In some places, on the Dhuleti day, a game is played with a
cocoanut. The players form themselves into two parties and stand
opposite to one another. Midway between them is placed a cocoanut. Each
party tries to take away the cocoanut, and prevents the other from so
doing by throwing stones and cow-dung cakes. The party which succeeds
in taking away the cocoanut wins the game. [1589]

Amongst Dheds, Kolis, Ravals and other low castes a post of the wood
of the tamarind tree is planted in the ground and surrounded by women
holding whips and cords in their hands. A party of men run to the
women to drive them away and take possession of the post. The women
prevent them from doing so by striking them with all their might
with the whips and cords in their hands. This struggle commences at
10 A. M. on the Dhuleti day and continues till one o'clock in the
morning on the following day. At last the men succeed in carrying
away the post, thus ending the game. [1590]

In some places, a man is tied to a bier as if he were a corpse,
and carried on the shoulders of four men to the post of tamarind
wood, followed by a party of men and women wailing aloud, to the
great merriment of the crowd assembled near the post to witness the
struggle described above. [1591]

Sometimes contests are held between two parties of boys in singing
vulgar songs. The contest commences by one of the parties singing a
song. The other party responds to it by singing another song, which
is generally more indecent than the song sung first. The contest goes
on like this, and the party which fails to respond to its rival is
said to be defeated.

The immoral practices described above are only to be seen among low
caste people, and even their women take part in these practices.

The women of higher castes wear rich clothes and ornaments on the
Dhuleti day, and sing songs in their houses. At times they throw
coloured water and red powder at each other. [1592]

In big temples a festivity called Ful Dol is observed, in which water
coloured with the flowers of the Khakhra (Butea frondosa) is thrown
by the party assembled, and kundalias or indecent songs are sung in
a loud voice. [1593]

In some temples, holy songs are sung at night and prayers are held. At
the end, fried juvari, gram and sweets are distributed as the grace
of God. [1594]

The boys who take an active part in the Holi celebrations are known
as geraiyas or holias. For two or three nights before the Holi they
steal fuel for the Holi fire and beat and abuse those who try to
prevent them from so doing. They also recite coarse songs and play
with dirt and mud freely. Parties of them go from shop to shop and
obtain by force dates and fried gram. [1595]

At midnight of the Holi day a bower is erected in the centre of the
village with bits of broken earthen vessels and cocoanut shells. A
fool, generally a son-in-law of some low caste Hindu in the village,
is induced, by the promise of dates and cocoanut kernel, to dress
in a coat on which are drawn naked pictures. A garland of worn out
shoes is tied round his neck and he is mounted on a donkey. He is then
called Valam and taken from the bower through the village accompanied
with music and crowds of people, who utter in a loud voice coarse and
vulgar expressions as the procession moves on. At times they play jokes
with the Valam, and give him blows on the head with their fists. [1596]

In some places, this procession is called Valama Valami and is
celebrated on the night preceding the Holi. Two poor stupid persons
are dressed as bride and bridegroom, the latter in a ridiculously
grotesque dress. They are married on the following morning, when
vulgar songs are sung. The Valam and Valami are represented by two
naked idols, made of rags, of a man and a woman. They are carried
through the village in a noisy procession and married on an altar
of black earthen vessels. They are then placed erect on two wooden
posts side be side. [1597]

In some villages, a large stone is placed in a spacious compound in
the centre of the village, and broken earthen vessels are suspended
over it with cords from the wooden bower erected over the stone. An
ass is brought to the spot, and a fool decked with a garland of worn
out shoes is mounted on it with his face turned towards the tail of
the ass. He holds the tail of the ass in his hands as reins and is
carried in procession through the village to be brought back to the
bower and married to another fool, dust, ashes and water being freely
used in the service. [1598]

In some localities naked images of a husband and wife are set in a
cart and taken through the village accompanied with music, the crowd
singing indecent songs all the way long. [1599]

On the Holi holiday children are presented with harda (garlands of
balls made of sugar) by their relatives and the friends of their
families. [1600]

The Holi fire is extinguished by women on the morning of the following
day. The earthen vessels containing wheat and gram which are put into
the pit of the Holi before the fire is lighted are then taken out. The
grain is cooked by the fire of Holi, and is called Ghugari. It is
distributed among the villagers, the belief being that those who eat
it are protected against disease by the goddess of the Holi. [1601]

There are many other superstitious beliefs held by people in connection
with the Holi.

According to one belief, those who expose themselves to the heat of
the Holi fire keep good health during the ensuing year. According
to some, this can be secured by eating sugar-cane heated over the
fire. Juvari stems heated over the fire are given to cattle with the
same object. [1602]

Some believe that if salt heated over the Holi fire is given to cattle
it protects them against epidemics.

Virgins take home a little of the Holi fire and light five cow-dung
cakes with it in the courtyard of their house. When the cakes are
burnt, the ashes are removed and the spot is purified with a plaster
of cow-dung. Next, they draw some auspicious figures on the spot and
worship them for a number of days in the belief that this ensures
good health to their brothers. [1603]

Among Gujarat Hindus no special ceremonies are performed when a girl
attains puberty, except that on the third or fifth day she is bathed by
an unwidowed woman and dressed in green or saffron-coloured robes. She
is given rice in milk, sweetened with sugar, and is presented with
a piece of green satin. [1604]

In some places, the girl is bathed on the fourth day and given kansar
to eat. She then bows to her mother-in-law and makes her a present
of half a rupee. The mother-in-law blesses her and presents her with
a bodice cloth. [1605]

After the bath, a mark with red powder is made on her forehead and
she is taken to the temple of the family deity. [1606]

In some places, the red powder mark is made under the girl's
right arm in the belief that this ensures to her the birth of many
children. [1607]

In some localities the girl is bathed on the third day, dainty dishes
are served her, and she is presented with a cocoanut by each of her
kinsfolk. [1608]

In some castes, when a girl attains puberty, a feast of cooked rice
and molasses is given to the caste people. In other castes, pieces
of cocoanut kernel are distributed among children, and the girl is
presented with a robe and bodice by her parents-in-law. [1609]

In some castes, a girl is not allowed to cook before she attains
puberty. [1610]

No ceremonies are performed when a boy attains puberty, probably
because in the case of boys the change is not so marked as in the
case of girls.



NOTES


[1] Khan Bahadur Fazlullah and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[2] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[3] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[4] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[5] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[6] Mr. M. D. Vyas, Shastri, Bhayavadur.

[7] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Schoolmaster, Limbdi.

[8] The first nine days of Ashvin, the last month of the Gujarat
Hindu Calendar, known otherwise as Matana dahada-mata's days. The
influence of the matas is very strong in these days.

[9] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[10] Mr. M. D. Vayas, Shastri, Bhayavadur.

[11] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[12] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[13] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[14] Mr. B. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[15] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[16] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[17] Lapsi is coarse wheat-flour fried in ghi and sweetened with
molasses or sugar.

[18] Vadan-bean flour--generally of gram or peas--is allowed to
remain in water with spices until the paste acquires a sufficient
degree of consistence, when it is rolled into small biscuit-sized
balls and fried in oil.

[19] Bakla are small round flat cakes of dry boiled beans.

[20] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[21] Mr. N. M. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sanka.

[22] Mr. N. M. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sanka.

[23] Kansar is coarse wheat-flour cooked in three times as much water,
sweetened with molasses or sugar, and taken with ghi.--B. L. Dave,
Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[24] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[25] Mr. G. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sultanpore.

[26] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[27] Mr. B. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[28] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[29] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[30] A dankla is otherwise known by the name of dug-dudioon.

[31] Mr. Jagannath Hirji, Schoolmaster, Chok.

[32] Mr. Jethabhai Mangaldas, Schoolmaster, Gondal.

[33] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Schoolmaster, Chhatrasa.

[34] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[35] Mr. H. R. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Khirasara.

[36] Mr. L. G. Travadi, Schoolmaster, Upleta.

[37] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[38] Mr. H. R. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Khirasara.

[39] Mr. L. G. Travadi, Schoolmaster, Upleta.

[40] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[41] Two pieces of cloth, a shouldercloth and a scarf are cast over the
bridegroom and the bride, and they are tied together by a knot. It is
the unloosing of this tie which is here referred to.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[42] Mr. N. M. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sanka.

[43] Mr. N. M. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sanka.

[44] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[45] The tendency to fraternise as much in belief as in nationality
is a notable feature of Indian life. The saying goes:--Hindu Musalman
ék Ram bijó Rehman. The Hindu and Musalman are not far apart; one is
the follower of Ram, the other of Rehman (the most compassionate--a
Kuranic name of Allah). Again says another proverb: The Hindu and
Musalman are as closely connected as the breast and the skirt of a
garment (Hindu né Musalman moli daman jo vehevar). The Hindu pays
homage to the Pir, the Muslim repays the compliment by holding some
of his Hindu brother's lower class deities, such as Vaital and Kali
and Amba, in awe. The Hindu worships and breaks cocoanuts before the
Moharram taazias--the Musalman responds by showing a sneaking sort
of a regard for the Holi, whom he believes to have been a daughter
of the patriarch Abraham. This reciprocal good fellowship in times of
political agitation, like those of the Indian Mutiny, results in the
"chapati", or unleavened bread loaf, being considered a symbol to
be honoured both by Muslim and Hindu; and in more recent times, as
during the plague troubles in Allahabad and Cawnpore, shows itself in
the Muslim garlanding the Hindu on a holiday, and the Hindus setting
up sherbat-stalls for Musalmans on an Id day.--Khan Bahadur Fazlullah.

[46] Mr. J. N. Patel, Schoolmaster, Jasdan.

[47] Mr. Jaggannath Hirji, Schoolmaster, Chok.

[48] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Schoolmaster, Chhatrasa.

[49] Mr. O. A. Mehta, Schoolmaster, Lakhapadar.

[50] Mr. N. J. Bhatt, Moti Marad.

[51] Mr. J. D. Khandhar, Sayala.

[52] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[53] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[54] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[55] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[56] Mr. G. K. Dave, Sultanpore.

[57] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[58] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[59] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[60] Mr. M. D. Vyas, Schoolmaster, Bhayavadur.

[61] Cf. Alláho núr-us-samáwátiwal ard, mathalo nurihi-ka miskatin
bihá nusbáh--Koran.

Allah! He is the light of the Heavens and the Earth. The likeness of
His Light being similar to a lamp in a glass.--Fazlullah Latfullah.

[62] Mr. Jethabai Mangaldas, Schoolmaster, Gondal; and Damodar
Karsonji, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[63] Mr. B. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[64] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[65] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[66] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[67] A similar custom is observed in Gujarat. Unfortunate parents,
who have lost many children, vow to grow the hair of their little
children, if such are preserved to them, observing all the time a
votive abstinence from a particular dish or betelnut or the like. When
the children are 3 or 5 or 7 years old, the vow is fulfilled by taking
them to a sacred place, like the temple of Ranchhodji at Dakor, to
have their hair cut for the first time. This vow is known as babari
in Southern Gujarat--K. D. Desai.

[68] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[69] Mr. Jethabhai Mangaldas, Gondal.

[70] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[71] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[72] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[73] Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[74] Mr. G. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Sultanpore.

[75] Mrs. Raju Ramjee Kanjee, 2nd Assistant, Girls' School, Gondal.

[76] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[77] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[78] Mr. Girijashankar Karmeashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[79] The Hindus use the tender sprigs of the Nim or Babul trees for
tooth-brushes. After they have done duty as brushes they are cloven
into two and the tenderest part is used as a tongue-scraper.--Khan
Bahadur Fazlullah.

[80] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[81] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[82] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[83] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[84] Mr. Jethalal Anupram, Schoolmaster, Aman.

[85] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[86] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[87] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[88] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[89] Mr. M. D. Vyas, Shastri, Bhayavadur.

[90] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi, and L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[91] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara, and Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[92] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[93] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Schoolmaster, Chhatrasa.

[94] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Schoolmaster, Limbdi.

[95] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[96] Mr. B. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[97] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[98] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Schoolmaster, Chhatrasa.

[99] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[100] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadavah.

[101] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[102] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[103] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[104] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[105] Mr. N. J. Bhatt, Moti-Murad.

[106] Mr. Ranchhodji Becher Pandya, Shastri, Jelpur, Sanskrit
Pathashala.

[107] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[108] Wheat flour fried in ghi with molasses.

[109] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[110] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[111] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[112] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[113] The names are: 1 Aditya, 2 Divakar, 3 Bhaskar, 4 Prabhakar,
5 Sahasranshu, 6 Trilochan, 7 Haritashva, 8 Vibhavasu, 9 Divakrit,
10 Divadarshatmaka, 11 Trimurti, 12 Surya.

[114] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[115] Mr. G. K. Dave, Sultanpur.

[116] Mr. H. M. Bhatt, Schoolmaster, Ganod.

[117] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[118] Mr. H. M. Bhatt, Schoolmaster, Ganod.

[119] Mr. Chhaganlal Motiram, Wala Taluka.

[120] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit School.

[121] Mrs. Raju Ramjee Kanjee, Girls' School, Ganod.

[122] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[123] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit School.

[124] Mr. J. D. Khandhar, Sayala.

[125] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[126] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[127] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[128] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[129] Milk and sugar ball.

[130] A sugar cake.

[131] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[132] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[133] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[134] Mr. P. L. Mehta, Schoolmaster, Luvaria.

[135] Mr. Jeram Vasaram, Schoolmaster, Jodia.

[136] Mr. M. H. Raval, Ganod.

[137] Mr. H. M. Bhatt, Ganod.

[138] See figure above. A shows Shiva's image: the arrow-head,
the jaladhari which a person is not to cross. He is to return from
the point B in his first round and from the point C in his half
turn. Thus B C remains uncrossed. The circle round A shows the Khal,
place wherein god Shiva is installed--K. D. Desai.

[139] Mr. G. K. Dave, Sultanpore.

[140] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[141] Hindus believe that a soul has to go through a lakh and
eighty-four thousand transmigrations before it attains final
emancipation. The cycle of 1,84,000 births is called the phera of
lakh-choryasi,--K. D. Desai.

[142] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[143] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster. Dhhank.

[144] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[145] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[146] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[147] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[148] Mr. Jethalal Anupram, Schoolmaster, Ainan.

[149] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit School.

[150] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[151] Mr. N. J. Bhatt, Moti-Murad.

[152] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[153] Mr. D. K. Shah, Schoolmaster, Charadwa.

[154] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Schoolmaster, Limbdi.

[155] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Schoolmaster, Chhatrasa.

[156] Mr. Chhaganlal Motiram, Schoolmaster, Wala Talu.

[157] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Goholwad.

[158] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani, and the Schoolmaster, Movaiyam.

[159] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[160] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit School.

[161] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwa.

[162] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[163] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[164] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[165] Mr. N. J. Bhatt, Schoolmaster, Moti-Murad.

[166] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Schoolmaster, Limbdi.

[167] Mr. H. R. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Khirasara.

[168] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[169] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[170] Mr. H. R. Pandya, Khirasara.

[171] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwa.

[172] The Schoolmaster, Chank, Kolaba.

[173] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwa.

[174] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[175] The Schoolmaster, Pendhur, Ratnagiri.

[176] The Schoolmaster, Anjar.

[177] Mr. Jethabhai Mangaldas, Schoolmaster, Gondal.

[178] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Schoolmaster, Songadh.

[179] Mr. L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[180] The Schoolmaster, Ganod.

[181] The Schoolmaster, Agashi and Arnala.

[182] Mr. T. D. Khandhar, Schoolmaster, Sayala.

[183] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Songadh.

[184] The Schoolmaster, Mith-bao, Ratnagiri.

[185] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[186] Mr. Jethalal Anupram, Schoolmaster, Aman.

[187] Mr. M. H. Raval, Vanod.

[188] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[189] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Songadh.

[190] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[191] Mr. Girijashankar Karunashankar, Songadh.

[192] The Swastika is found at Pompeii and in the Greek 'key'
pattern. It is also found on Persian and Assyrian coins and in
the Catacombs at Rome. It is to be seen on the tomb of the Duke of
Clarence, who was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine, at Tewkesbury,
and occurs in Winchester Cathedral, where it is described as the
fyle-foot.--R. E. E.

[193] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank. Compare a similar idea
in the Kuran in the chapter An Nur (the Lights): "Allah is the Light
of the Heavens and the Earth. The semblance of his light is the nyche
wherein there is a light."--K. B. Fazlullah.

[194] Mr. J. A. Jani, Schoolmaster, Aman.

[195] Mr. N. D. Vora, Schoolmaster, Rajpara; and Mr. B. K. Dave,
Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[196] Kansar is coarse wheat flour sweetened with molasses and cooked
in water until the whole quantity of water is absorbed and taken
with ghi.

[197] Puris are cakes of fine wheat flour, fried in ghi.

[198] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[199] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[200] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[201] The Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[202] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[203] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[204] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi, and B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[205] All observers of the Chaturthi-vrat worship the god Ganpati
on this day, and offer him one thousand trifoliate sprouts of durva
(cynodon dactylon). The dish specially prepared for the occasion is
Golanaladu--sweet-balls of wheat flour fried in ghi and mixed with
molasses.--Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[206] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[207] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[208] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[209] The Schoolmaster, Vanod.

[210] The original is--

                Poshi Poshi Punemadi,
                Agashe randhi khichadi,
                jame bhaini benadi.

[211] The Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani and The Schoolmaster, Jodia.

[212] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit School.

[213] Mr. L. D. Mehta, Schoolmaster, Mota-Devalia.

[214] A Kundali is an astrological diagram of the position of
planets at any particular time. The numbers in the diagram change
their positions according to the position of planets at any given
time.--Mr. D. Desai.

[215] Mr. Chhaganlal Motira, Wala Taluka.

[216] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[217] The Schoolmaster, Khandhar.

[218] One ghadi is equal to 24 minutes and one pohor (prahara) lasts
for three hours.

[219] Mr. M. P. Shah, Schoolmaster, Zinzuwada.

[220] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[221] Mr. M. P. Shah, Schoolmaster, Zinzuwada.

[222] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[223] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank, Rajpara and Limbdi.

[224] The Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[225] The Schoolmaster, Dadvi.

[226] The Schoolmaster, Lilapur.

[227] Throughout the Hindu Scriptures, Vishnu and his
incarnations are described as being of Shyama-varna or dark
complexion.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[228] The Schoolmaster, Dadvi.

[229] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Halar.

[230] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[231] The Schoolmaster, Lilapur.

[232] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa.

[233] Mr. M. P. Shah, Zinzuwada.

[234] The Mistress of Rajkot Civil Station Girls' School.

[235] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa.

[236] Rao Saheb Shelke and the Shastri of Bhayavadur.

[237] The Schoolmaster, Rajpara.

[238] The Schoolmaster, Dhhank. He refers to the books Vrataraj and
Pathyapathya on this point.

[239] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Halar; and the Schoolmaster
of Chauk, Kolaba.

[240] The Schoolmaster, Jodia.

[241] The Schoolmaster, Kolki.

[242] The Schoolmasters of Rajpara, Limbdi, and Ibhrampur.

[243] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[244] The Shastri of Jetpur, Pathashala.

[245] The following Sanskrit verse mentions all of them:--

    Laksmih kaustubhaparijatakasura dhanvamtariscandrama |
    Gavah kamaduhah suresvaragajo rambhadidevanganah ||
    Asvah saptamukho visam haridhanuh samkhomrtam cambudheh |
    Ratnaniha caturdasa pratidinam kurvantu vo mamgalam || 1 ||

                                                  Rao Saheb P. B. Joshi.

[246] The Schoolmasters of Jodia, Dhhank, Songadh, Rajpara, and Limbdi.

[247] The Schoolmaster of Khirasara.

[248] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[249] Mr. Laxmichand Hemji, Vasawad.

[250] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[251] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[252] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[253] Mr K. D. Desai.

[254] Mr. Laxmichand Hemji, Vasawad.

[255] A pohor or prahar is equal to three hours.

[256] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[257] Mr. Khan Bahadur Fazlullah.

[258] The Schoolmasters of Jodia and Songadh.

[259] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[260] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[261] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[262] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[263] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[264] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[265] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[266] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[267] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwah.

[268] Mr. T. D. Khandhar, Sayala.

[269] The Schoolmaster, Jodia.

[270] Khan Bahadur Fazlullah.

[271] Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[272] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa, and Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton
Female Training College, Rajkot.

[273] Mr. Motichand Vasanji Doshi, Kaluwad.

[274] I believe the name of the constellation is wrongly given:
it ought to be Mriga. One of the stars in this group, known as
'Sirius', in Western astronomy, is often called Vyadha (i.e., the
hunter).--Mr. K. T. Gupte.

The Mrig constellation is also said to represent the goddess
Saraswati, who had assumed the form of a gazelle in order to escape
the amorous grasp of Brahma, her father. While the deer in the Mrig
constellation is Saraswati, the Ardra constellation is Mahadev who
had followed to chastise Brahma, who also is seen as the Brahma
constellation.--Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[275] The thirteenth day of both the bright and dark halves of a month,
sacred to the worship of god Shiva.

[276] The three-leaf-clusters of this tree are loved by the god Shiva
if put upon his image.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[277] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[278] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[279] The nine grahas are, Ravi (the Sun), Chandra (the Moon),
Mangal (Mars), Budha (Mercury), Guru (Jupiter), Shukra (Venus), Shani
(Saturn), and Rahu and Ketu.

[280] The names of the twelve rashis are:--1 Mesha (Aries), 2 Vrishabha
(Taurus), 3 Mithun (Gemini), 4 Karka (Cancer), 5 Sinha (Leo), 6 Kanya
(Virgo), 7 Tula (Libra), 3 Vrishchika (Scorpio), 9 Dhanu (Sagittarius),
10 Makara (Capricornus), 11 Kumbha (Aquarius), 12 Mina (Pisces).

[281] The following are the twenty-seven nakshatras:--1 Ashvini,
2 Bharani, 3 Kritika, 4 Rohini, 5 Mrig, 6 Ardra, 7 Punarvasu, 8
Pushya, 9 Ashlesha, 10 Magha, 11 Purva-phalguni, 12 Uttara-phalguni,
13 Hasta, 14 Chitra, 15 Swati, 16 Vishakha, 17 Anuradha, 18 Jyeshtha,
19 Mul, 20 Purvashadha, 21 Uttarashadha, 22 Shravana, 23 Dhanishtha,
24 Shatataraka, 25 Purvabhadrapada, 26 Uttarabhadrapada, and 27 Revati.

[282] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[283] One ghadi = 24 minutes.

[284] Mr. Motechand Vasanji Doshi, Kalawad.

[285] The Schoolmaster, Dadvi.

[286] The Schoolmaster or Dadvi.

[287] N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[288] M. H. Raval, Vanod.

[289] Hirji Monji, Ganod.

[290] N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[291] I.e., a handful of rice, ghi, cocoanuts, and some other objects
are cast into the fire as an offering.

[292] Gangaram Tribhowandas, Lilapur.

[293] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[294] K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[295] R. B. Pandya, Jetpur Sanskrit Pathashala.

[296] A superior kind of rice.

[297] The Schoolmaster of Khirasara.

[298] Twisted braids of darbha grass.

[299] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank, and N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[300] B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[301] Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[302] Arghya is an offering of water in a spoon filled with barley
seeds, sesamum seeds, sandal ointment, rice, and flowers.

[303] Two varieties of sacred grass, used in thatching roofs.

[304] Kalyanji Bhaishankar, Kolki, and R. B. Pandya, Jetpur.

[305] G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[306] Meaningless terms.

[307] Odhowji Avichal, Lakhapadar.

[308] Talakshi Dharamsi, Khandhar.

[309] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[310] Hirji Monji, Ganod.

[311] Indra has full sway over the twelve meghas (or clouds), of which
Shamaghana is the greatest. Indra directs them to pour down waters in
whatever regions he likes. At the time of the deluge he lets loose
all the twelve meghas under the lead of Shamaghana and thus brings
about the destruction of this world.--N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[312] L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[313] Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa.

[314] N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[315] The Schoolmaster of Palanvar.

[316] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[317] K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[318] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[319] Mr. Kalyanji Bhaishankar, Kolki.

[320] The Schoolmaster of Khandhar.

[321] Mr. R. B. Pandya, Jetpur.

[322] Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[323] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwah.

[324] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia, and B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[325] When a king desired to be Chakravarti--Sovereign of all
India--he used to perform a horse-sacrifice, and a horse was let
loose with a copper-plate fastened to its head with the name of
the king engraved upon the plate. The horse moved in front followed
by the king's army. Those who were not willing to acknowledge the
suzerainty of the king challenged his army by seizing the horse. Such
a horse-sacrifice, if successfully completed, threatens the power
of Indra, who is therefore said to be very jealous and to create
obstacles to the performance of such sacrifices--K. D. Desai.

[326] Mr. Vallabh Ramji, Mendarda.

[327] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[328] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa.

[329] Mr. Jethalal Anupram, Aman.

[330] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[331] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[332] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[333] Mr. K. B. Fazlullah.

[334] Mr. G. K. Bhall, Songadh.

[335] Mr. Hirji Monji, Ganod.

[336] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[337] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[338] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[339] Mr. Talakshi Dharashi, Sayala.

[340] A mixture of milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar.

[341] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[342] Durva is a kind of sacred grass.

[343] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[344] The Schoolmaster of Gondal Taluka.

[345] On the Dasara holiday, which is also known as Vijayadashmi,
Hindus take special dishes, dress themselves in their best garments and
go out of towns and villages to worship the earth-mother and the holy
shami, with javala stalks, a few of which are inserted in the folds
of their head-dress as auspicious tokens. In towns, and big cities
a procession is formed, conducted by some city magnate or a native
chief riding an elephant. They go in state to the place of worship,
and after the completion of the worship a goat or a he buffalo,
preferably the latter, is killed, and a salvo of three to seven or
more cannon is fired. People then return home and prostrate themselves
before their elders, and receive from them a handful of candied sugar,
a betel-nut and leaf, with blessings for long-life and prosperity. Such
blessings are considered likely to prove effective.--K. D. Desai.

[346] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[347] Some Hindus, when intending to go on a journey, consult an
astrologer as to the muhurt or auspicious hour for setting out. If
they do not happen to leave their place at the prescribed moment, they
put a pastana--some of the articles to be carried by them in their
journey--such as a suit of clothes or a box, in a neighbour's house
as a token of their having set out at the stated time.--K. D. Desai.

[348] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[349] Mr. H. M. Bhatt, Ganod.

[350] Mr. Talakshi Dharashi, Sayala.

[351] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[352] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa, and the Schoolmaster of Jasdan.

[353] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[354] The Schoolmaster of Sultanpur.

[355] Mr. Laxmichand Hemji, Vasavad.

[356] Mr. Madhowji Tulsiram, Movaiya.

[357] A mixture of milk, curds, ghi, honey, and sugar.

[358] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[359] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[360] Such objects are taken in a plate and thrown over a tulsi
(or sweet basil) plant.--K. D. Desai.

[361] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[362] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[363] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[364] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[365] The Schoolmaster of Gondal Taluka.

[366] Sacrifices in honour of Vishnu, Mahadev and the goddess Chandi,
respectively.--K. D. Desai.

[367] A form of devotion requiring the recitation of the
Gayatri-mantra a hundred thousand times with certain symbolic
ceremonies.--K. D. Desai.

[368] The appointment of duly authorised Brahmans to perform religious
ceremonies.--K. D. Desai.

[369] Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[370] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[371] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[372] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[373] Intending pilgrims sometimes impose such self-denials upon
themselves, vowing abnegation from particular articles of food or
wear till they have performed their pilgrimage. Some renounce the
use of ghi, some of milk, others of betel-leaf or nut, others swear
not to wear a turban or a dupatta--till they are given the merit of
a pilgrimage.--Khan Bahadur Fazlullah.

[374] Mr. L. I. Joshi, Surela.

[375] This game, much resembling the English boys' game of Tip cat,
is also known as gilli-danda. The gedi or gilli is a small piece of
wood, two or three inches in length, an inch or less in diameter and
sometimes tapering at both ends. The danda is a small round stick,
of the same thickness and a foot or more in length, by which the gedi
is played. There are two sides to the game as in cricket, though not
composed of a definite number of players. There are a number of ways
in which the game can be played.--K. D. Desai.

[376] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi.

[377] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara, or of Bhagwan, according to Jairam
Vasaram, Jodia.

[378] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[379] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[380] The Shastri of Jetpur, Pathashala.

[381] The Schoolmaster of Paolanvav.

[382] Mr. G. K. Dave, Sultanpur.

[383] The Schoolmaster of Rajkot Girls' School.

[384] Mr. H. M. Bhatt, Ganod.

[385] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[386] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank, Sanka, Limbdi, and Sultanpur.

[387] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[388] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[389] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[390] The Schoolmaster of Surela.

[391] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[392] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[393] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[394] The Schoolmaster of Gondal.

[395] i.e., the period for which the Rohini nakshatra lasts.

[396] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[397] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[398] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[399] The Hasta nakshatra generally commences at the end of Bhadrapad
or the beginning of Ashvin and lasts for a fortnight. The rains
during this period, which are required for the rabi crops, are so
much esteemed that each drop of them is said to be worth a drop of
ghi. People store the hathio-varshad or the rain water of Hasta in
reservoirs for drinking purposes, believing it to be very pure and
digestive.--K. D. Desai.

[400] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[401] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[402] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda-Sangani.

[403] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[404] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[405] The Schoolmaster of Songadh.

[406] Talakshi, Dharashi, Sayala.

[407] Mr. L. H. Jadow, Vasawad.

[408] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[409] Among the Hindus it is customary for those whose children do not
live to keep their children unshaved for a certain number of years,
after which the children are taken to a holy place and shaved there
for the first time. The temple of Ranchhodji at Dakor is a favourite
place for such ceremonies.--K. D. Desai.

[410] Mr. G. K. Dave, Sultanpur.

[411] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[412] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[413] The seven nether worlds are Atal, Vital, Sutal, Talatal, Mahatal,
Rasatal, and Patal.

[414] In an ocean, as some say--D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[415] Mr. Jethalal Devji, Bantwa.

[416] Mr. G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[417] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank, and Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[418] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[419] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[420] Mr. K. P. Joshi, Limbdi, and Mr. Raju Ramjee Kanjee Pathak,
Girls' School, Gondal.

[421] Mr. J. K. Upaddhyaya, Patanvao.

[422] Mr. Raju Ramjee Kanjee Pathak, Gondal.

[423] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[424] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[425] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[426] The river is, therefore, regarded as his daughter, and is
called Jahnavi.

[427] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[428] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[429] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[430] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[431] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[432] The waving of lights to and fro before an object of worship.

[433] The Schoolmaster of Kolki and the Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[434] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[435] Mr. B. K. Dave, Schoolmaster, Kotda-Sangani.

[436] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[437] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Schoolmaster, Dhhank.

[438] This happens every twelfth year. The year of Sinhastha i.e. the
year when Brihaspati stands in the Sinha-rashi, is the only one in
which marriages among the Kadvâ Kunbis take place; and for this reason
the smallest children in the community, sometimes even those who are
in the womb, are married in this year.--Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[439] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[440] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[441] Mr. L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[442] Mr K. D. Desai.

[443] The Saraswati is believed to be present, but invisible at
this spot.

[444] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[445] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[446] Mr. D. K. Shah, Charadwah.

[447] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank, Vanod, and Kolki.

[448] Mr. M. R. Raval.

[449] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[450] The Schoolmaster of Limbdi Taluka.

[451] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[452] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[453] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank, and the Headmistress of Gondal Girls'
School.

[454] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[455] See P. 42.

[456] Mr. M. H. Raval, Vanod.

[457] Mr. M. S. Shah, Zinzuwada.

[458] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[459] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[460] Mr. L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[461] The Schoolmaster of Khirasara.

[462] The Schoolmaster of Lewaria.

[463] Mr. Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[464] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[465] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[466] The Schoolmaster of Moti Murad.

[467] The Schoolmaster of Gondal Taluka.

[468] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[469] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[470] There are several species of bhuts and prets--ghosts and
goblins--thus, for instance, Jalachar, i.e., those who live in
water; Agnichar, i.e., those found in fire; Ehuchar, i.e., those
hovering on the earth; Gaganachar, i.e., those moving in ethereal
regions; Manushyachar, i.e., those moving among men; Khagachar or
those moving among birds; and Pashuchar, i.e., those living among
beasts.--N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[471] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank; the Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala and the
Schoolmaster of Limbdi Taluka.

[472] Mr. L. D. Mehta, Mota Devalia.

[473] Vide page 1.

[474] The Schoolmaster of Limbdi Taluka and the Shastri of Jetpur
Pathashala.

[475] The Schoolmaster of Movaiya.

[476] N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[477] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[478] N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[479] The Schoolmasters of Vanod and Kolki.

[480] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[481] H. M. Bhatt, Ganod.

[482] A mixture of milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar.

[483] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank and Patanvav.

[484] Vide page 29.

[485] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[486] Rich persons use silver or golden spades and hoes when turning
up the first clod of earth.

[487] The Schoolmasters of Ganod and Dadvi.

[488] B. K. Dave, Kotda Sangani.

[489] The schoolmasters of Limbdi and Chhatrasa.

[490] It is a common practice to bring a small circular piece of an
earthen vessel from the neighbourhood of such a well and to hang
it by a piece of string round the neck of a child to cure it of
hadakhi-udharas or strong cough.--K. D. Desai.

[491] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[492] The schoolmaster of Mota Devalia.

[493] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[494] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[495] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[496] G. K. Bhatt, Songadh.

[497] Pampa is described in the Ramayana as being situated in the
Dandaka forest, i.e., in the Deccan, and seems to be the modern Hampi
in Bellary district.

[498] Perhaps the one in Sidhapur--K. T. G.

[499] Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[500] The Shastri of Jetpur, Pathashala.

[501] The Schoolmasters of Dadvi and Kolki.

[502] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[503] H. M. Bhatt, Ganod.

[504] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[505] Jairam Vasaram, Jodia.

[506] The Schoolmaster of Khirasara.

[507] N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[508] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Halar.

[509] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank, Moti Parabadi, and Luvaria.

[510] The Schoolmaster of Chhatrasa.

[511] All mountains once possessed wings and caused much havoc when
they flew about. So Indra clipped their wings with his thunderbolt
and they are lying motionless since.--K. D. Desai.

[512] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[513] Three-fourths of a gau = one mile.

[514] The Shastri of Jetpur, Pathashala.

[515] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[516] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[517] The Schoolmasters of Kotda-Sangani, Vanod, and Luvaria.

[518] After the conflagration of Lakshabhuvan, the Pandavas escaped
to the Hidimba forest. There one day, in his excursions, Bhima came
across the giantess Hidimba sitting on a see-saw. On her offering
to marry him if he succeeded in swinging her see-saw, he is said to
have swung it so high in the skies that she could even see the stars
during daytime.--K. D. Desai.

[519] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[520] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[521] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[522] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[523] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[524] R. B. Dave.

[525] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[526] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[527] M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[528] The earth is believed to be flat like a dish and to consist of
seven large islands, which are compared to the seven petals of a lotus.

[529] One yojan = eight miles.

[530] M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[531] A magic tree, supposed to grant all desires.

[532] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[533] The Schoolmaster of Limbdi.

[534] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[535] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank and Sanka.

[536] The Schoolmaster of Zinzuwada.

[537] Fire used for the purposes of smoking.

[538] The Schoolmaster of Mendarda.

[539] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank and Gondal Taluka.

[540] The Shastri of Jetpur.

[541] K. D. Desai.

[542] N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[543] Offering oblations to gods by throwing ghi into the consecrated
fire.

[544] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[545] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[546] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[547] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad and K. D. Desai.

[548] A flat round loaf, about two to four inches in diameter,
prepared from the flour of udad.

[549] Coarse wheat-flour fried in ghi and sweetened with sugar or
molasses.

[550] Bean-flour, generally of gram or peas, is allowed to remain
in water with spices, until the paste acquires a sufficient degree
of consistency, when it is rolled into small biscuit-sized balls and
fried in sweet oil.

[551] K. D. Desai.

[552] M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[553] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[554] D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[555] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala, and the Schoolmaster of Vanod.

[556] The Schoolmaster of Mota Dewalia. According to him, the same
vow is also observed to bring about a rainfall.

[557] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[558] The Schoolmaster of Vanod.

[559] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[560] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[561] The Schoolmaster of Zinzuwâdâ.

[562] The Schoolmaster of Mendarda.

[563] The story tells how a woman and her daughter-in-law, intending
to observe this vow, killed and cooked a calf by mistake; covered
with shame, they locked themselves up in their house, and refused
admission to the neighbours, to whom they confessed their crime. On
searching for the remains of the calf, the neighbours discovered that
it had been miraculously restored to life.--R. E. E.

[564] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[565] The Schoolmasters of Vanod and Kolki.

[566] Some observe the Nagapanchami on the fifth day of the bright
half of Bhadrapad.

[567] A mixture of rice and pulse treated with spices and cooked
in water.

[568] A preparation of nine handfuls of wheat.

[569] The Schoolmaster of Surel.

[570] Vide Page 24.

[571] A kind of rice grown without ploughing.

[572] The Schoolmaster of Jasdan.

[573] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[574] The mother of the bride, accompanied by other women who sing
songs on the way, carries an iron lamp to the village-boundary, and
from that place the party bring earth to erect the altars on which
sacrificial fires are burnt. The lamp is called laman-divo and the
earth which is brought is called ukardi.--K. D. Desai.

[575] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[576] Mr. M. M. Rana, Rajkot.

[577] The Schoolmaster of Zarama-Zarava.

[578] The Schoolmaster of Kolki and the Head-Mistress of Rajkot Civil
Station Girls' School.

[579] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[580] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[581] The Schoolmaster of Surel.

[582] Vide question 10.

[583] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[584] The art of taking the life of a person by means of a magical
process called muth-maravi. The victim of this process suddenly vomits
blood and loses his life, unless the evil influence is counteracted
by another sorcerer.--B. K. Dave, Kotda Sangani.

[585] Causing a person to leave his business by making him disgusted
with it, by means of magical spells.

[586] The art of so influencing the conduct of a person as to bring
him perfectly under control.

[587] Bewildering an enemy by means of magical charms.

[588] The suppression of any force or feeling by magical means.

[589] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[590] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[591] Mr. N. M. Dave, Sanka.

[592] The Schoolmaster of Moti Murad.

[593] Mr. B. K. Dave, Kotda Sangani.

[594] Mr. N. D. Vora, Rajpara.

[595] Mr. D. K. Pandya, Dhhank.

[596] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank and Songadh.

[597] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[598] The Schoolmasters of Upleta and Aman.

[599] Name of a medicinal preparation.

[600] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[601] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Halar.

[602] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[603] The Shastris of Jetpur and Bhayavadar.

[604] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[605] The Schoolmaster of Chok.

[606] But the virtue of influencing rain belongs to the Shiva linga and
to the idol of Harshadh, not because they are made of any particular
kind of stone, but because they represent certain deities.

[607] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[608] Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar.

[609] Mr. K. D. Desai and the Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[610] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[611] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[612] The Schoolmasters of Dhhank and Ganod and the Mistress of Rajkot
Civil Station Girls' School.

[613] Mr. Nandlal Kalidas, Chhatrasa.

[614] The Schoolmaster of Sayala. Perhaps it is the accumulation
of sin in this world that brings down the saints of heaven in human
form. The earth is unable to bear too much sin and would soon come to
an end if the balance between virtue and sin were not maintained. It
is for this purpose that saints are born in this world and add to the
store of merit on earth, by preaching righteousness to people and by
leading a virtuous life.--K. D. Desai.

[615] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[616] The Schoolmasters of Rajpara, Vasawad, Upleta, and Khirasara.

[617] The Schoolmasters of Patanvav and Sultanpur.

[618] It is an act of merit to repeat the name of Ram, the seventh
incarnation of Vishnu. As the death of a righteous person is due to
the growth of sin in this world, people utter the name of Ram in order
to atone for that sin. The name is repeated as long as the shooting
star is visible. Vaishnavas recite the name of Krishna.--K. D. Desai.

It is also said that the name of Ram or Krishna is repeated, because
the falling star enters the Court of God Bhagwan.--The Schoolmaster
of Lakhapadar.

[619] The Schoolmaster of Sultanpur.

[620] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[621] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[622] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[623] (I.e.) with a tail. Chhoga is the end of a turban, which is
allowed to hang down the back.

[624] The Schoolmaster of Songadh.

[625] The following couplet mentions all of them:

        Asvatthama Balirvyaso Hanumamsca bibhisanah |
        Krpah parasuramasca saptaite cirajivinah ||

[626] K. D. Desai, from the answers of various Schoolmasters.

[627] A group of gods supposed to be inferior manifestations of Shiva,
who is said to be the head of the group.

[628] The Schoolmaster of Vasavad.

[629] The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[630] Kundalan is the circle formed round the utar by a bhuva,
after he has placed the utar in a cemetery or over a crossway.--The
Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[631] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[632] This is the day to learn such arts as that of muth, chot, maran,
etc., i.e., the art of doing bodily injuries by means of magic even
to persons who are at a distant place. The process is gone through
in a cemetery at the dead of night.--The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[633] The Schoolmaster of Limbdi Taluka.

[634] A poisonous plant, the leaves of which are used in fomenting in
cases of palpitation and of stomach troubles.--The Deputy Educational
Inspector, Prant Halar.

[635] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Prant Halar.

[636] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[637] The Schoolmaster of Songadh.

[638] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[639] The panoti cannot affect anybody who has an elder male
relative living, i.e., it influences only the eldest male member of
a family.--K. D. Desai.

[640] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[641] The Schoolmaster of Sanka.

[642] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[643] K. D. Desai.

[644] A sweet preparation of wheat flour fried in ghi.

[645] Sweet balls of wheat flour fried and afterwards soaked in ghi.

[646] Small biscuit-sized cakes of pulse flour treated with spices
and fried in oil--K. D. Desai.

[647] The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[648] A ghani is that quantity of oil seeds which is put in at one
time to be crushed in an oil mill.

[649] K. D. Desai.

[650] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[651] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[652] A mixture of milk, honey, curds, sugar and ghi.

[653] The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[654] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[655] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[656] The Vasus are a class of deities, eight in number, and are
often collectively called Ashtavasus.

[657] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[658] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[659] The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[660] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[661] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[662] Vide Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. VIII, page 414.

[663] Maya, in philosophy, means the illusion, by virtue of which
one considers the unreal universe as existent and distinct from the
supreme spirit. Here it means the effect of maya, the unreal splendour
of the world, in fact phenomena opposed to the noumenon.

[664] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[665] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[666] Kori may mean either a new garment or an unused earthen jar.

[667] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[668] See p. 42 Supra.

[669] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[670] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[671] The Schoolmaster of Chok.

[672] The Schoolmaster of Mota Devalia.

[673] An offering of all sorts of dainties and vegetables.

[674] The Schoolmaster of Chhatrasa.

[675] Milk and rice boiled together and sweetened with sugar.

[676] I. e. persons who have taken the vow of celibacy.

[677] The Schoolmaster of Mojidad.

[678] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[679] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[680] The Schoolmaster of Sultanpur.

[681] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[682] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[683] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[684] The Schoolmaster of Charadwa.

[685] The Schoolmaster of Limbdi Taluka.

[686] Nehado is the residence of Bharvads or shepherds.

[687] The Schoolmaster of Zinzuwada.

[688] The Schoolmaster of Zinzuwada.

[689] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[690] The Schoolmaster of Goda.

[691] The Schoolmaster of Lilapur.

[692] The Schoolmaster of Jasdan.

[693] The Schoolmaster of Jasdan.

[694] The Schoolmaster of Upleta.

[695] The Schoolmaster of Gondal Taluka and the Head Mistress of girls'
school, Gondal.

[696] The Schoolmaster of Movaiya.

[697] The Schoolmaster of Sayala.

[698] K. D. Desai.

[699] The Schoolmaster of Khirasara.

[700] The Schoolmaster of Chhatrasa.

[701] The Schoolmasters of Jodia and Khirasara.

[702] The celebrated serpent of one thousand heads who supports all
the worlds.

[703] The Schoolmaster of Rajpara.

[704] The Schoolmasters of Chhatrasa and Rajpara.

[705] Vide Chapter I, p. 29.

[706] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[707] The Schoolmasters of Khirasara, Jetpur and Rajpara.

[708] The Schoolmasters of Chhatrasa and Jetpur.

[709] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[710] K. D. Desai.

[711] 100 dokdas = 1 rupee.

[712] The Schoolmaster of Chhatrasa.

[713] The time taken by the sun to move through the constellations
Ashlesha and Magha, which is approximately the month of August.

[714] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[715] The Schoolmaster of Kotda-Sangani.

[716] The Schoolmaster or Dadvi.

[717] Generally the same ideas prevail regarding diseases of cattle
as in the case of human ailments. Doras or magical threads and
slips of paper are often used in cases of fever. In epidemics like
cholera pollution is believed to be at the root of the evil. Bhangis
are engaged to prepare images of corn to keep off the disease, and
they forfeit their homesteads and property if the epidemic is not
checked thereby.--The Schoolmaster of Barton Female Training College,
Rajkot. (These images represent evil spirits presiding over particular
diseases. Certain oblations are offered to these evil spirits,
and after the recital of certain incantations they are either burnt
or buried.)

[718] The Schoolmaster of Dadvi.

[719] The Schoolmaster of Mota-Devalia.

[720] Small round cakes of wheat flour sweetened with molasses and
fried in ghi.

[721] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[722] A preparation of fine gram flour treated with spices, which
after being made into a thick paste, is passed through a sieve into
boiling oil.

[723] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[724] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[725] Shrisakha, Gajidhana and Pitabhava are most probably corruptions
of Shrishasakha, Gandivadhanva and Prithabhava respectively;
Lalanlarkha perhaps of Lalama narakhya.

[726] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[727] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[728] A disease which causes severe pain in the stomach of the
affected animal.

[729] A disease which stiffens the limbs of animals and renders them
incapable of any movement.

[730] The word chela in ordinary language means a pancake (pudalo)
of wheat or gram, sweet or salt, and it is a favourite oblation to
Mata. So the word chelan may have come to be used for any oblation
to Mata and the expression swallowing the chelans may mean partaking
of the oblation or offering of the Mata.

[731] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[732] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[733] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[734] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[735] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[736] The Schoolmaster of Moti Murad.

[737] The Schoolmaster of Chhatrasa.

[738] The Schoolmaster of Jodia and Dodiala.

[739] Milk and rice boiled together and sweetened with sugar.

[740] Vide page 48.

[741] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[742] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[743] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathashala.

[744] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[745] The Schoolmaster of Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[746] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[747] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[748] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[749] The Schoolmaster of Jasdan.

[750] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[751] The Schoolmaster of Dhhank.

[752] The Schoolmaster of Aman.

[753] The Schoolmaster of Zinzuwada.

[754] The Schoolmaster of Ganod.

[755] The Schoolmaster of Sanka.

[756] The Schoolmaster of Sanka.

[757] Also known as surasanis.

[758] The Schoolmaster of Anandpur.

[759] K. D. Desai.

[760] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[761] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[762] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[763] A ball of molasses and sesamum seeds mixed together.

[764] The Schoolmaster of Kolki.

[765] Vide Question 19.

[766] A small wooden car five or six inches long is covered over with
a piece of cotton cloth and the wooden image of a Mata--Khodiar or
Kalka--besmeared with red lead is placed upon it. This rath or chariot
of the Mata is then passed through the village on the shoulders of
a low-caste person, who begs corn from door to door and afterwards
places the image at the gates of the neighbouring village. From thence
it is removed by the people of that village to the next village and
so on till it reaches the sea.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[767] The Schoolmaster of Luvaria.

[768] The Schoolmaster of Jodia.

[769] The Schoolmaster of Kotda-Sangani.

[770] Sometimes the statues of adad flour are besmeared with red
lead and afterwards are boiled in dirty water. The whole of this
preparation is then thrown into wells, the waters of which are used
for drinking in the village.--The Schoolmaster of Songadh.

[771] The Schoolmasters of Jodia, Dadvi, and Songadh.

[772] The School Master of Dadvi.

[773] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[774] The School Master of Jodia.

[775] The School Master of Mendarda.

[776] The School Master of Movaiya.

[777] The School Master of Vanod.

[778] The School Masters of Devalia and Vasavad.

[779] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathshala.

[780] The School Master of Charadwa.

[781] These are different sacrifices, the first two in honour of Shiva,
the third in honour of the goddess Chandi.

[782] The School Master of Ganod.

[783] The School Master of Dhank.

[784] The School Master of Dadvi.

[785] The School Master of Jodia.

[786] The patient is often entirely made over to the Mata and
is again purchased from her at a nominal price of a rupee and a
quarter.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[787] A mixture of the flour of bajri, ghi, and molasses.

[788] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[789] The School Master of Jodia.

[790] The School Master of Sayala.

[791] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Halar.

[792] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[793] The School Masters of Dhank and Ganod.

[794] The School Master of Vanod.

[795] The School Master of Ganod.

[796] Babhrivahan was not the son of Bhima, he was the son of Arjun
by Chitrangada, a princess of Manipur.

[797] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[798] The School Master of Jodia.

[799] The School Master of Sanka.

[800] The Mistress of Rajkot Civil Station Girls' School.

[801] The School Master of Ganod.

[802] The Shastri of Jetpur Pathshala.

[803] Names of Vishnu and Shiva respectively.

[804] The School Master of Charadwa.

[805] The half-man and half-lion incarnation of Vishnu.

[806] The School Master of Dhank.

[807] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[808] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[809] The School Master of Jodia.

[810] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[811] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[812] The School Master of Rajpara.

[813] The School Master of Jasdan.

[814] The School Master of Rajpara.

[815] The School Master of Kotda-Sangani.

[816] The School Master of Devalia.

[817] The School Master of Devalia.

[818] The School Master of Sanka.

[819] The School Master of Ganod.

[820] The School Master of Dhank.

[821] The School Master of Dhank and the Shastri of Jetpur Pathshala.

[822] The Shastri of Bhayavadur Pathashala.

[823] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[824] The Shastris of Jetpur and Bhayavadur.

[825] The School Master of Wala Taluka.

[826] The School Master of Anandpur.

[827] The School Master of Kotda-Sangani.

[828] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[829] The School Master of Kotda-Sangani.

[830] All this of course is addressed to the evil spirit which is
supposed to have possessed the patient.

[831] Feminine of Vaghri belonging to the Vaghri caste.

[832] The School Master of Sanka.

[833] The School Masters of Ganod, Vanod and Kolki.

[834] The School Master of Dadvi.

[835] The School Master of Limbdi Taluka.

[836] Mr. B. K. Desai.

[837] Nilotsava or Nil-parnavum is a ceremony performed in honour
of a young man, who has come to an untimely end. The chief part of
the ceremony is the performance of the wedding of a bull-calf with a
heifer. Sometimes a member of the deceased youth's family is possessed
on such an occasion by the spirit of the deceased man and is believed
to have then the power of correctly answering questions about future
events, etc.--The School Master of Dhank.

[838] The School Master of Devalia.

[839] The School Masters of Dhank and Kotda Sangani.

[840] The School Master of Sanka.

[841] The School Master of Dadvi.

[842] The School Masters of Dadvi and Kolki.

[843] The School Masters of Kotda Sangani and Sanka.

[844] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[845] The School Master of Jodia.

[846] The School Master of Sanka.

[847] The School Master of Dadvi.

[848] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[849] The Schoolmaster of Patanvav.

[850] The School Master of Sanka.

[851] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[852] The School Master of Davalia.

[853] The School Master of Ganod.

[854] The School Master of Limbdi Taluka.

[855] The School Master of Kolki.

[856] The School Master of Dadvi.

[857] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[858] The School Master of Dhank.

[859] The Pathashala Shastri, Talpur.

[860] The School Mistress of Gondal.

[861] The School Master of Dhank.

[862] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[863] This period of 15 days is called Sharadian.

[864] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[865] The School Master of Luvaria.

[866] The School Master of Jodia.

[867] The School Master of Lilapur.

[868] The School Master of Sanka.

[869] The School Master of Dhank.

[870] The School Master of Ganod.

[871] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[872] The School Master of Jodia.

[873] The School Master of Lalapur.

[874] The School Master of Sanka.

[875] The School Masters of Kotda Sangani and Dadvi.

[876] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[877] The School Master of Dadvi.

[878] The School Master of Ganod.

[879] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[880] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohilvad.

[881] Shastri Bhayavadar Pathshala.

[882] The School Master of Todia.

[883] The School Master of Jodia.

[884] A vasana is the outcome of a person's good or bad actions. It is
not the last desire of a man as supposed by some, but the result of
his good or bad actions or rather of the workings of his mind during
life. It is believed that, if at the moment of death, a man's mind
is fixed on the strong attachment he feels for his children, he is
born as a descendant of his offspring.--The School Master of Dhank.

[885] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[886] The School Master of Ganod.

[887] The School Master of Dadvi.

[888] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[889] The School Master of Charadwa.

[890] The School Master of Ganod.

[891] The School Master of Dhank and the School Mistress of Gondal.

[892] A samadh is taken during life in the following way.

A deep pit is dug in the ground. The person who wishes to take a
samadh goes into a deep trance by meditation, and then runs yelling
and screaming to the pit, while drums are beaten furiously and a
loud din is raised, so that none should hear a possible exclamation
or cry from the runner. In the midst of this din the runner leaps
into the pit and is covered over with salt and earth. An altar is
raised over this spot with Shiva's image, which afterwards becomes
an object of worship. It is believed that if a word or a cry from
the runner is heard while he is taking the leap, the whole village
will be destroyed.--Mr. K. D. Desai.

[893] The Pathshala Shastri, Bhayavadar.

[894] Datar means the great giver or munificent. The Pir is so called
on account of his power of fulfilling the vows of many.

[895] The School Master of Dhank.

[896] The School Master of Movaiya.

[897] The School Masters of Dhank and Moti Parabdi.

[898] The School Master of Dadvi.

[899] The School Master of Dadvi.

[900] The School Master of Dadvi.

[901] The School Master of Davalia.

[902] The School Master of Mendarda.

[903] A symbol of servitude of the saint.

[904] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[905] Aulia and Pir, synonymous terms, the first Arabic, the second
Persian. Aulia is the Arabic plural of wali which means a saint. In
Hindustani the plural form is used to signify the singular e. g.,
a single wali or saint is often spoken of as an aulia. The word Pir
originally meaning an old man is used in Hindustan in the sense of
a saint. Aulia Pir is the Gujarati for a single or many saints.

[906] The School Master of Moti Porabdi.

[907] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[908] The School Master of Surel.

[909] The School Master of Jaseluan.

[910] The School Master of Charadwa.

[911] The School Master of Dhank.

[912] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[913] The School Master of Devalia.

[914] The School Masters of Dhank and Vanod.

[915] The School Mistress, Female Training College, Rajkot.

[916] The School Master of Moti Parabadi.

[917] The School Master of Todia.

[918] The School Master of Lilapur.

[919] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[920] The School Master of Ganod.

[921] The School Master of Dhank.

[922] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[923] An ingredient used in preparing spices.

[924] The School Master of Uptala.

[925] The School Mistress, Girls' School, Gondal.

[926] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[927] The School Master of Dhank.

[928] The School Master of Dadvi.

[929] The School Mistress of Rajkot, Civil Station Girls' School.

[930] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[931] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[932] The School Master of Dhank and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[933] The School Master of Dadvi.

[934] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[935] The School Master of Ganod.

[936] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[937] The School Masters of Kotda Sangani and Chhatrasa.

[938] The School Master of Jetpur.

[939] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohilwad.

[940] The School Master of Vanod.

[941] It is for this reason that barren women are not allowed to
approach the bed of a woman in child-bed.

[942] The School Masters of Dadvi and Chhatrasa.

[943] The School Master of Todia.

[944] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[945] The School Master of Luvaria.

[946] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[947] The School Master of Rajpara.

[948] The School Master of Khirasara.

[949] The School Master of Jhinjhuwada.

[950] The School Master of Dhank.

[951] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[952] The School Master of Ganod.

[953] The School Master of Todia.

[954] The School Master of Ganod.

[955] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[956] The School Master of Khirasara.

[957] The School Master of Ganod.

[958] The School Master of Todia.

[959] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[960] The School Master of Dhank.

[961] The School Master of Dadvi.

[962] The School Master of Ganod.

[963] The School Master of Dhank.

[964] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[965] The School Master of Ganod.

[966] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[967] The School Master of Dhank.

[968] The School Master of Todia.

[969] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[970] The School Master of Ganod.

[971] The School Master of Kolki.

[972] The Shastri, Bhayavadar Pathashala.

[973] The School Master of Todia.

[974] The School Master of Gondal.

[975] The Shastri, Bhayavadar Pathshala.

[976] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[977] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[978] The School Master of Dadvi.

[979] The School Master of Gondal.

[980] The Musalman Haditte has it that spirits cannot open closed
doors, uncover covered pots, or even remove a piece of cloth if it
is spread over a tray or vessel to save its contents from view.

[981] The School Master of Dhank.

[982] The School Master of Dhank.

[983] The School Master of Luvaria.

[984] The School Master of Lilapur.

[985] The School Master of Ganod.

[986] The School Master of Vanod.

[987] The School Master of Dadvi.

[988] The School Master of Kolki.

[989] The School Master of Mojidad.

[990] The School Master of Dhank.

[991] The School Master of Kolki.

[992] The School Master of Dadvi.

[993] The School Master of Ganod.

[994] The School Master of Bantva.

[995] The School Masters of Sanka and Songadh.

[996] The School Master of Charadva.

[997] The School Master of Dhank.

[998] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[999] The School Master of Vanod.

[1000] The School Master of Kolki.

[1001] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1002] The School Master of Ganod.

[1003] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1004] The School Master of Kolki.

[1005] The School Master of Oman.

[1006] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1007] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1008] The word Jan is the plural of the Arabic jinni. It has remained
as a relic of Arab supremacy and occupation of the Kathiawar coast
just in the beginning of Islam during its first conquests--about half
a century after the Prophet's death.

[1009] The School Master of Dhank.

[1010] The School Master of Vanod.

[1011] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1012] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1013] The School Master of Gondal.

[1014] The School Master of Ganod.

[1015] The Shastri, Bhayavadar Pathshala.

[1016] The School Master of Dhank.

[1017] The School Master of Ganod.

[1018] The D. E. Inspector, Halar.

[1019] The Shastri, Pathshala, Bhayavadar.

[1020] The School Master of Dhank.

[1021] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1022] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1023] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1024] "Like the green grass on the turf I have often grown and
regrown. I have visited 770,000 bodies." Maulana Ilaluddin Rumi.

[1025] The School Master of Ganod.

[1026] The School Master of Vanod.

[1027] The School Master of Jetalpur.

[1028] The D. E. Inspector, Halar.

[1029] The School Master of Dhank.

[1030] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1031] The School Master of Charadva.

[1032] The School Master of Dhank.

[1033] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1034] The School Master of Kolki.

[1035] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1036] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1037] The School Master of Todia.

[1038] The School Master of Songadh.

[1039] The School Master of Devalia.

[1040] The School Master of Dhank.

[1041] The School Master of Ganod.

[1042] The School Master of Patan Vao.

[1043] The D. E. Inspector, Gohilwad.

[1044] The School Master of Luvaria.

[1045] The School Master of Bantva.

[1046] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1047] The School Master of Vala.

[1048] The School Master of Ganod.

[1049] See p. 3.

[1050] If a lock of the hair of the person possessed by an evil spirit
be knotted round and round while the exorcist is trying to cast the
spirit, it cannot get out.--The School Master of Vanod.

[1051] The School Master of Dhank.

[1052] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1053] The School Master of Patan Vao.

[1054] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1055] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1056] The School Master of Sanka.

[1057] The School Master of Kolki.

[1058] The School Master of Chharadva.

[1059] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1060] The School Master of Jhinjhuwada.

[1061] The School Master of Vanod.

[1062] The School Master of Dhank.

[1063] This derivation of the word rakshasa is obviously
fanciful. Rakshasa is a Sanskrit word and has no connection with the
Gujarati word rakho which itself is derived from the Sanskrit root
raksha to protect.

[1064] The School Master of Dhank.

[1065] The School Master of Bantva.

[1066] The School Master of Moti Parabdi.

[1067] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1068] The School Master of Charadva.

[1069] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1070] The School Master of Ganod.

[1071] The School Master of Lewaria.

[1072] The School Master of Upleta.

[1073] The School Master of Vanod.

[1074] The word Khavis comes from the Arabic Khabith from the root
verb Khabotha and means one who has become impure or unholy.

[1075] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[1076] The School Masters of Khirasara and Pipalana.

[1077] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1078] The School Master of Anandpur.

[1079] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1080] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1081] The School Master of Vasavad.

[1082] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1083] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1084] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1085] The School Master of Ganod.

[1086] The School Master of Gondal.

[1087] The School Master of Bantva.

[1088] The School Master of Dhank.

[1089] The School Master of Talpur and Luvaria.

[1090] The School Master of Vanod.

[1091] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1092] The School Master of Kolki.

[1093] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1094] The School Master of Dhank.

[1095] The School Master of Kolki.

[1096] The D. E. Inspector, Gohilwad.

[1097] The School Master of Dhank.

[1098] The School Master of Vanod.

[1099] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1100] The School Master of Songadh.

[1101] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1102] The School Master of Jhinjhuwada.

[1103] The School Master of Dhank.

[1104] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1105] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1106] The School Master of Vanod.

[1107] The School Master of Dhank.

[1108] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1109] The School Master of Vanod.

[1110] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1111] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1112] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1113] The School Masters of Dhank and Vanod.

[1114] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1115] The School Master of Vanod.

[1116] The School Mistress, Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1117] The School Master of Todia.

[1118] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1119] The School Master of Gondal.

[1120] The School Master of Kolki.

[1121] The School Master of Devalia.

[1122] This is a point of conjugal etiquette in India. Hindu, and in
Gujarat and the Deccan, Musalman women, would much rather starve than
dine before their husbands.

[1123] The School Master of Dhank.

[1124] The School Master of Vanod.

[1125] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1126] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1127] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1128] The School Master of Kolki.

[1129] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1130]  Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1131] The School Master of Dhank.

[1132] The School Master of Mavaiya.

[1133] The School Master of Dhank.

[1134] The School Master of Vanod.

[1135] The School Master of Sayala.

[1136] The School Master of Gondal.

[1137] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1138] The School Master of Vanod.

[1139] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1140] The School Master of Dhank.

[1141] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1142] The School Master of Kolki.

[1143] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1144] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1145]  The School Master of Devalia.

[1146] The School Master of Sayala.

[1147] The School Master of Ganod.

[1148] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1149] The School Master of Ganod.

[1150] The School Master of Dhank.

[1151] See page 3.

[1152] The School Master of Ganod.

[1153] The School Master of Vanod.

[1154] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1155] This process is generally adopted in cases of milch cattle not
giving milk and all other ailments to ascertain the influence of the
evil eye.

[1156] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1157] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1158] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1159] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1160] The School Master of Bantva.

[1161] The School Master of Aman.

[1162] The School Master of Sayala.

[1163] The School Master of Dhank.

[1164] The School Master of Devalia.

[1165] The School Master of Vanod.

[1166] Mr. M. M. Rana, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1167] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[1168] The School Master of Moti Khilori.

[1169] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1170] The School Master of Todia.

[1171] The School Master of Dhank.

[1172] The School Master of Ganod.

[1173] The School Master of Vanod.

[1174] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1175] The School Master of Kolki.

[1176] The School Master of Dhank.

[1177] The School Master of Ganod.

[1178] The School Master of Kolki.

[1179] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1180] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1181] The School Master of Sanka.

[1182] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1183] The School Master of Dhank.

[1184] The School Master of Uptela.

[1185] The School Master of Ganod.

[1186] The School Master of Vanod.

[1187] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1188] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1189] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1190] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[1191] The D. E. Inspector, Halar.

[1192] The School Master of Dhank.

[1193] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1194] The School Master of Kolki.

[1195] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohilwad.

[1196] Anklets are made of these nails and worn round the wrist.--The
School Master of Zinzuwada.

[1197] The School Master of Vasavad.

[1198] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1199] The School Master of Dhank.

[1200] The School Master of Gohilwad.

[1201] The School Master of Dhank.

[1202] The School Master of Todia.

[1203] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1204] The Pathashala Shastri, Jetpur.

[1205] The Girls' School Mistress, Gondal.

[1206] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1207] The School Master of Dhank.

[1208] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1209] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1210] The School Master of Todia.

[1211] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1212] The School Master of Ganod.

[1213] The School Master of Chok.

[1214] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1215] The School Master of Dhank.

[1216] The School Masters of Dadvi and Dhank.

[1217] The School Master of Dhank.

[1218] The School Master of Ganod.

[1219] The School Master of Vanod.

[1220] The School Master of Dhank.

[1221] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1222] The School Master of Ganod.

[1223] The School Master of Vanod.

[1224]  The School Master of Dadvi.

[1225] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1226] The School Master of Songadh.

[1227] The School Master of Dhank.

[1228] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1229] The sight of a corpse is a good omen when one sees it on
entering a village where he goes on business.

[1230] The School Master of Ganod.

[1231] The School Master of Vanod.

[1232] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1233] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1234] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1235] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1236] The School Master of Todia.

[1237] The School Master of Songadh.

[1238] The School Master of Dhank.

[1239] The School Master of Ganod.

[1240] The School Master of Vanod.

[1241] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1242] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1243] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[1244] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1245] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1246] The School Master of Todia.

[1247] The School Master of Todia.

[1248] The School Master of Dhank.

[1249] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1250] The School Master of Sayala.

[1251] The School Master of Ganod.

[1252] The School Master of Vanod.

[1253] The School Master of Ganod.

[1254] The School Master of Kolki.

[1255] The School Master of Bantva.

[1256] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1257] The School Master of Todia.

[1258] The School Master of Songadh.

[1259] The School Master of Dhank.

[1260] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1261] The School Master of Moti Parabadi.

[1262] The School Master of Charadva.

[1263] The School Masters of Ganod and Vanod.

[1264] The School Master of Kolki.

[1265] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1266] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[1267] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1268] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1269] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1270] "The name of Ram is alone true" meaning all else except God
is illusion.

[1271] The School Master of Dhank and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1272] The School Master of Ganod.

[1273] The School Master of Patanvav.

[1274] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1275] The School Master of Halar.

[1276] The School Master of Dhank.

[1277] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1278] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1279] The School Master of Kolki.

[1280] The School Master of Vanod.

[1281] The School Master of Dhank and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1282] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1283] The School Master of Ganod.

[1284] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1285] The School Master of Dhank.

[1286] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1287] The School Master of Ganod.

[1288] The School Master of Bantva.

[1289] The School Master of Uptela.

[1290] The School Master of Ganod.

[1291] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1292] The School Master of Dhank.

[1293] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1294] The School Master of Ganod.

[1295] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1296] The School Mistress, Girls' school, Civil Station, Rajkot.

[1297] The School Master of Dhank.

[1298] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1299] The School Masters of Chhatrasa and Uptela.

[1300] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1301] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1302] The School Master of Vanod.

[1303] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1304] The School Master of Gunjar.

[1305] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1306] The School Master of Ganod.

[1307] The School Master of Halar.

[1308] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1309] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1310] The School Mistress, Civil Station Girls' School, Rajkot.

[1311] The School Master of Dhank.

[1312] The School Master of Gunjar.

[1313] The School Mistress of Civil Station Girls' School, Rajkot
and the School Master of Todia.

[1314] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1315] It is believed that the spirit of the deceased returns to its
house for thirteen days after death. Hence the period of mourning is
thirteen days.--The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1316] The School Master of Ganod.

[1317] The School Master of Todia.

[1318] The School Master of Dhank.

[1319] The School Masters of Vanod and Kotda Sangani.

[1320] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1321] The School Master of Kolki.

[1322] The School Master of Uptela.

[1323] The School Master of Dhank.

[1324] The School Mistress of Girls' school, Gondal, and the School
Master of Dhank.

[1325] The School Master of Kolki.

[1326] The School Master of Surel.

[1327] The School Master of Mavaiya.

[1328] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1329] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1330] The School Master of Moti Murad.

[1331] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1332] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1333] The School Master of Rajpara.

[1334] The School Master of Zinzuwada.

[1335] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1336] The School Master of Dhank.

[1337] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1338] The School Master of Ganod.

[1339] The School Master of Todia.

[1340] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1341] The School Master of Dhank.

[1342] The School Master of Moti Parabdi.

[1343] The School Master of Todia.

[1344] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1345] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1346] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1347] The School Master of Todia.

[1348] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1349] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1350] The School Master of Vanod.

[1351] The School Master of Kolki.

[1352] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1353] The School Master of Dhank.

[1354] The School Master of Kolki.

[1355] The School Master of Dhank.

[1356] The School Master of Dhank.

[1357] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1358] The School Master of Uptela.

[1359] The School Master of Anandpur.

[1360] The School Masters of Ganod and Khirasara.

[1361] The School Master of Dhank.

[1362] The School Master of Kolki.

[1363] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1364] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1365] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1366] The School Master of Ganod.

[1367] The School Master of Jasdan.

[1368] The School Masters of Dhank and Dadvi.

[1369] The School Masters of Dhank and Mavaiya.

[1370] The School Master of Ganod.

[1371] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1372] The School Master of Dhank.

[1373] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1374] The School Master of Dhank.

[1375] The School Master of Vanod.

[1376] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1377] The School Masters of Uptela and Limbdi.

[1378] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1379] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1380] The Schoolmistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1381] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1382] The School Master of Sanka.

[1383] The School Master of Dhank.

[1384] The School Master of Jodia.

[1385] The School Master of Ganod.

[1386] The School Master of Jodia.

[1387] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[1388] The School Master of Dhank.

[1389] The School Master of Ganod.

[1390] The School Master of Vanod.

[1391] The School Master of Ganod.

[1392] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1393] The School Master of Dhank.

[1394] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1395] The School Master of Charadva.

[1396] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1397] The School Master of Ganod.

[1398] The School Master of Vanod.

[1399] The School Master of Songadh.

[1400] The School Master of Sanka.

[1401] The School Master of Kolki.

[1402] The School Master of Todia.

[1403] The School Master of Dhank.

[1404] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1405] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1406] The D. E. Inspector, Halar.

[1407] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1408] The School Master of Anandpur.

[1409] The School Master of Dhank.

[1410] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1411] The School Master of Dhank.

[1412] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1413] The D. E. Inspector, Halar.

[1414] The School Master of Songadh.

[1415] The School Master of Sanka.

[1416] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1417] The School Master of Dhank.

[1418] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1419] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1420] The School Master of Kolki.

[1421] The School Master of Vanod.

[1422] The School Master of Kolki.

[1423] The School Mistress, Civil Station Girls' School, Rajkot.

[1424] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1425] The School Master of Vanod, and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1426] The School Master of Sayala.

[1427] The School Master of Dhank.

[1428] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1429] These are female names.

[1430] The School Master of Kolki.

[1431] The School Master of Halar.

[1432] Both male and female.

[1433] The School Master of Dhank.

[1434] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1435] The School Master of Kolki.

[1436] The School Master of Dhank.

[1437] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1438] The School Master of Dhank.

[1439] The School Master of Todia.

[1440] The School Master of Mota Devalia.

[1441] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1442] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1443] The School Master of Vanod.

[1444] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1445] The School Master of Songadh.

[1446] The School Master of Patanvav.

[1447] The School Master of Vala.

[1448] The School Master of Songadh.

[1449] The School Master of Dhank.

[1450] The School Master of Vanod.

[1451] The School Master of Vanod.

[1452] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1453] The School Master of Bantva.

[1454] The School Master of Ganod.

[1455] The School Master of Devalia.

[1456] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1457] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1458] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1459] The School Masters of Kotda Sangani, Zinzuvada and Gohelwad.

[1460] The School Master of Halar.

[1461] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1462] The School Master of Devalia.

[1463] The School Master of Todia.

[1464] The School Master of Kolki.

[1465] The School Master of Dhank.

[1466] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1467] The School Master of Dhank.

[1468] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1469] The School Master of Aman.

[1470] The School Master of Todia.

[1471] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1472] The School Master of Dhank.

[1473] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1474] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1475] The School Master of Todia.

[1476] Among Hindus women in menses are considered impure for four
days.

[1477] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1478] The School Master of Dhank and Kota Sangani.

[1479] The School Master of Ganod.

[1480] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1481] The School Master of Lilapur.

[1482] The School Master of Zinzuvada.

[1483] The School Master of Todia.

[1484] The School Master of Dhank.

[1485] The School Master of Kolki.

[1486] The School Master of Songadh.

[1487] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1488] The School Master of Todia.

[1489] The School Master of Dhank.

[1490] The School Masters of Dhank and Vanod.

[1491] The School Master of Kalavad and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1492] The School Masters of Ganod and Dhank.

[1493] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1494] The School Masters of Ganod and Kalavad and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1495] The School Master of Todia.

[1496] The School Master of Wala.

[1497] The School Masters of Dadvi and Dhank.

[1498] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1499] The School Master of Aman.

[1500] See pp. 48-49.

[1501] The School Master of Dhank.

[1502] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1503] The School Master of Devalia.

[1504] The Deputy Educational Inspector, Gohelwad.

[1505] The School Master of Ganod.

[1506] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1507] The School Master of Todia.

[1508] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1509] The School Master of Moti Marad.

[1510] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1511] The School Master of Moti Parabdi.

[1512] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1513] The School Master of Aman.

[1514] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1515] The School Master of Aman.

[1516] The School Master of Todia.

[1517] The Deputy Educational Inspector of Gohelwad.

[1518] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1519] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1520] The School Master of Kolki.

[1521] The School Master of Todia.

[1522] The School Master of Todia.

[1523] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1524] The School Master of Luvaria.

[1525] The School Master of Aman.

[1526] The School Master of Todia.

[1527] The School Master of Dhank.

[1528] The School Master of Ganod.

[1529] The School Master of Gondal.

[1530] The School Master of Sultanpur.

[1531] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1532] The School Master of Vanod.

[1533] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1534] The School Master of Moti Khilori.

[1535] The School Master of Ganod.

[1536] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1537] The School Master of Dhank.

[1538] The School Master of Ganod.

[1539] See p. 14 Supra.

[1540] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1541] The School Master of Vanod.

[1542] The School Master of Devalia.

[1543] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1544] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1545] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1546] The School Master of Ganod.

[1547] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1548] The School Master of Jodia.

[1549] The School Master of Movaiya.

[1550] The School Masters of Zinzuvada and Devalia.

[1551] The School Master of Luvaria.

[1552] The School Master of Bhayavadar.

[1553] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1554] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1555] The School Master of Vanod.

[1556] The School Master of Chok.

[1557] The School Master of Devalia.

[1558] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1559] The School Master of Jetpur.

[1560] The School Master of Patan Vav.

[1561] The School Master of Moti Murad.

[1562] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1563] The School Master of Patan Vav.

[1564] The School Master of Sanka.

[1565] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1566] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1567] The School Master of Vanod.

[1568] The School Master of Dhank.

[1569] The School Master of Ganod.

[1570] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1571] The School Master of Kotda Sangani.

[1572] The School Master of Vanod.

[1573] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1574] The School Master of Devalia.

[1575] The School Master of Limbdi.

[1576] The School Master of Ganod.

[1577] The School Masters of Dhank and Ganod.

[1578] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1579] Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1580] The School Master of Vanod.

[1581] The School Master of Moti Khiroli.

[1582] The School Masters of Dhank and Songadh.

[1583] This is generally in the evening or an hour or two after
nightfall.

[1584] The School Masters of Zinzuvada and Moti Marad.

[1585] The School Masters of Dhank and Vanod.

[1586] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1587] The School Master of Todia.

[1588] The School Master of Songadh.

[1589] The School Master of Kolki.

[1590] The School Masters of Zinzuvada and Todia.

[1591] The School Master of Todia.

[1592] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1593] The School Master of Luvaria.

[1594] The School Master of Todia.

[1595] The School Master of Patan Vav.

[1596] The School Masters of Ganod, Vanod and Dhank.

[1597] The School Master of Kolki.

[1598] The School Mistress, Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1599] The School Master of Todia.

[1600] The School Master of Songadh and Mr. K. D. Desai.

[1601] The School Master of Patan Vav.

[1602] The School Master of Songadh.

[1603] The School Master of Khirasara.

[1604] The School Master of Dhank.

[1605] The School Master of Vanod.

[1606] The School Master of Dadvi.

[1607] The School Master of Chok.

[1608] The School Mistress of Barton Female Training College, Rajkot.

[1609] The School Master of Chhatrasa.

[1610] The School Master of Uptela.





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