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Title: British Bees - An Introduction into the Studies of the Natural History - and Economy of the Bees Indigenous to the British Isles
Author: Shuckard, William Edward (W. E.)
Language: English
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Libraries.)



                             BRITISH BEES.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             BRITISH BEES:


                            AN INTRODUCTION

                          TO THE STUDY OF THE

                NATURAL HISTORY AND ECONOMY OF THE BEES

                   _Indigenous to the British Isles_.


                                   BY

                            W. E. SHUCKARD,

      AUTHOR OF ‘ESSAY ON THE FOSSORIAL HYMENOPTERA,’ ‘COLEOPTERA
    DELINEATED,’ ‘ELEMENTS OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY,’ MONOGRAPHS OF THE
   ‘DORYLIDÆ,’ ‘AULACIDÆ,’ ETC. ETC.; AND TRANSLATOR OF BURMEISTER’S
                        ‘MANUAL OF ENTOMOLOGY.’

                       [Illustration: Decoration]

                                LONDON:
        LOVELL REEVE & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
                                 1866.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                    J. E. TAYLOR AND CO., PRINTERS,
               LITTLE QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN’S INN FIELDS.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                   TO

                     WILLIAM WILSON SAUNDERS, ESQ.,

                   F.R.S., TREAS. & V.P.L.S., F.Z.S.,

             TREASURER OF THE ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY,

                            ETC. ETC. ETC.,


           IN TESTIMONY OF THE ABILITY, ZEAL, AND LIBERALITY

                 WITH WHICH HE CULTIVATES AND PROMOTES

                       THE SCIENCE OF ENTOMOLOGY;

                                  AND

                 AS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MUCH KINDNESS,

                       EXTENDING OVER MANY YEARS,

                             _This Volume_

                       IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

                        BY HIS FAITHFUL SERVANT,

                            W. E. SHUCKARD.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.

                                -------


A FEW words are necessary explanatory of the course pursued in the
following work, as regards the citation of authorities.

All the facts recorded without reference to authorities, are the result
either of personal observation or of diligent study, which, from the
length of time that has intervened, have become so blended in my mind
that I can no longer separate their sources. I may, however, state that
observation has, certainly, as often anticipated the perusal of the
discoveries of others, as their record has stimulated direct observation
to confirm them.

The habits of animals, in which instinct is the sole prompter, are so
uniform, that these, once well observed, may be considered as
permanently established. The slight deviations that have been
occasionally noticed, although temporarily infringing, do not abrogate
the inflexibility of the law which regulates this faculty; and the
descendants inevitably resume the economy of the ancestor.

The merit that attaches to the discovery of such facts is due merely to
patience and diligence, very common attributes; and the repeated mention
of the supposed first observer must, necessarily, in a work of this
kind, which is far from being of a strictly scientific character,
diminish the interest of the narrative by interrupting its connection,
and thus making it an incongruous mosaic. The omission to cite
authorities may also take place without any wish to detract from the
merit of the discoverer, which is patent to all by his own record in the
archives of science.

Before concluding, I wish to express my best thanks to Thomas Desvignes,
Esq., for the kindness and willingness with which he lent me, for the
purposes of this work, my own selection from the Bees of his choice
collection of British insects.

I now dismiss the book—truly a labour of love—with the hope that it will
fall into the possession of many, who may be sufficiently interested in
the subject to induce them to become ardent entomologists, by showing
them within how small a compass much agreeable instruction lies.

_June, 1866._



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CONTENTS.

                                -------

                               CHAPTER I.

                                                  PAGE

                  PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS,          1
                    COMPRISING GENERAL REMARKS
                    UPON THE USES OF BEES IN THE
                    ECONOMY OF NATURE, THEIR
                    DIVISION INTO SOCIAL AND
                    SOLITARY, AND A NOTICE OF
                    THEIR FAVOURITE PLANTS


                              CHAPTER II.

                  GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES           17
                  THE EGG                           18
                  THE LARVA                         19
                  THE PUPA                          22
                  THE IMAGO                         23


                              CHAPTER III.

                  SKETCH OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE    61
                    GENERA OF BRITISH BEES


                              CHAPTER IV.

                  NOTICE OF THE MORE CONSPICUOUS   101
                    FOREIGN GENERA


                               CHAPTER V.

                  PARASITES OF BEES AND THEIR      109
                    ENEMIES


                              CHAPTER VI.

                  GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF            118
                    SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT


                              CHAPTER VII.

                  BRIEF NOTICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC   142
                    CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES


                             CHAPTER VIII.

                  A NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH     153
                    BEES, WITH ITS RATIONALE,
                    AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THE
                    FAMILY, SUBFAMILIES,
                    SECTIONS, AND SUBSECTIONS


                              CHAPTER IX.

                  A TABLE, EXHIBITING A METHOD     170
                    OF DETERMINING THE GENERA OF
                    BRITISH BEES WITH FACILITY

                  EASY DISTRIBUTION OF THE BEES    176


                               CHAPTER X.

                  THE SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT AND   184
                    DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERA,
                    WITH LISTS OF OUR NATIVE
                    SPECIES, AND AN ACCOUNT OF
                    THE HABITS AND ECONOMY OF
                    THE INSECTS, WITH INCIDENTAL
                    OBSERVATIONS SUGGESTED BY
                    THE SUBJECT

                  =ANDRENIDÆ (SUBNORMAL BEES)=     185

                  GEN. 1. COLLETES                 185

                  GEN. 2. PROSOPIS                 191

                  GEN. 3. SPHECODES                196

                  GEN. 4. ANDRENA                  200

                  GEN. 5. CILISSA                  211

                  GEN. 6. HALICTUS                 214

                  GEN. 7. MACROPIS                 220

                  GEN. 8. DASYPODA                 224

                  =APIDÆ (NORMAL BEES)=            227

                  SCOPULIPEDES (BRUSH-LEGGED       227
                    BEES)

                  GEN. 9. PANURGUS                 227

                  GEN. 10. EUCERA                  231

                  GEN. 11. ANTHOPHORA              236

                  GEN. 12. SAROPODA                242

                  GEN. 13. CERATINA                245

                  =NUDIPEDES (CUCKOO-BEES)=        249

                  GEN. 14. NOMADA                  249

                  GEN. 15. MELECTA                 255

                  GEN. 16. EPEOLUS                 258

                  GEN  17. STELIS                  262

                  GEN. 18. CŒLIOXYS                265

                  =DASYGASTERS (ARTISAN BEES)=     269

                  GEN. 19. MEGACHILE               269

                  GEN. 20. ANTHIDIUM               279

                  GEN. 21. CHELOSTOMA              283

                  GEN. 22. HERIADES                288

                  GEN. 23. ANTHOCOPA               290

                  GEN. 24. OSMIA                   294

                  =CENOBITES (SOCIAL BEES)=        302

                  GEN. 25. APATHUS                 302

                  GEN. 26. BOMBUS                  307

                  GEN. 27. APIS                    318


                  =INDEX=                          363



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                            LIST OF PLATES.

                                -------

             NOTE.—♂ signifies male; ♀, female; ⚲, neuter.


     PLATE I.

     1. Colletes Daviesiana, ♂ ♀.
     2 ♂. Prosopis dilatata.
     2 ♀. Prosopis signata.
     3. Sphecodes gibbus, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE II.

    1. Andrena fulva, ♂ ♀.
    2. Andrena cineraria, ♂ ♀.
    3. Andrena nitida, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE III.

    1. Andrena Rosæ, ♂ ♀.
    2. Andrena longipes, ♂ ♀.
    3. Andrena cingulata, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE IV.

    1. Halictus xanthopus, ♂ ♀.
    2. Halictus flavipes, ♂ ♀.
    3. Halictus minutissimus, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE V.

    1. Cilissa tricincta, ♂ ♀.
    2. Macropis labiata, ♂ ♀.
    3. Dasypoda hirtipes, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE VI.

    1. Panurgus Banksianus, ♂ ♀.
    2. Eucera longicornis, ♂ ♀.
    3. Anthophora retusa, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE VII.

    1. Anthophora furcata, ♂ ♀.
    2. Saropoda bimaculata, ♂ ♀.
    3. Ceratina cærulea, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE VIII.

    1. Nomada Goodeniana, ♂ ♀.
    2. Nomada Lathburiana, ♂ ♀.
    3. Nomada sexfasciata, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE IX.

    1. Nomada signata, ♂ ♀.
    2. Nomada Fabriciana, ♂ ♀.
    3. Nomada flavoguttata, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE X.

    1. Nomada Jacobææ, ♂ ♀.
    2. Nomada Solidaginis, ♂ ♀ (that marked ♂* should be ♀).
    3. Nomada lateralis, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE XI.

    1. Melecta punctata, ♂ ♀.
    2. Epeolus variegatus, ♂ ♀.
    3. Stelis phæoptera, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE XII.

    1. Cœlioxys Vectis, ♂ ♀.
    2. Megachile maritima, ♂ ♀.
    3. Megachile argentata, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE XIII.

    1. Anthidium manicatum, ♂ ♀.
    2. Chelostoma florisomne, ♂ ♀.
    3. Heriades truncorum, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE XIV.

    1. Osmia bicolor, ♂ ♀.
    2. Anthocopa Papaveris, ♂ ♀.
    3. Osmia leucomelana, ♂ ♀.

     PLATE XV.

    1. Apathus rupestris, ♂ ♀.
    2 ♂. Apathus campestris (the sexual sign to this should be ♀).
    2 ♀. Apathus vestalis.
    3. Bombus fragrans, ♀.
    4. Bombus Soroensis, ♂ (var. Burrellanus).

     PLATE XVI.

    1. Bombus Harrisellus, ♀.
    2. Bombus Lapponicus, ♀.
    3. Bombus sylvarum, ♀.
    4. Apis mellifica, ♂ ♀ ⚲.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              BRITISH BEES.

                            (_HYMENOPTERA._)

                               ----------



                               CHAPTER I

                       PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS,

         COMPRISING GENERAL REMARKS UPON THE USES OF BEES IN THE
       ECONOMY OF NATURE; THEIR DIVISION INTO SOCIAL AND SOLITARY;
                 AND A NOTICE OF THEIR FAVOURITE PLANTS.


 IT is very natural that the “Bee” should interest the majority of us,
 so many agreeable and attractive associations being connected with the
 name. It is immediately suggestive of spring, sunshine, and
 flowers,—meadows gaily enamelled, green lanes, thymy downs, and
 fragrant heaths. It speaks of industry, forethought, and competence,—of
 well-ordered government, and of due but not degrading subordination.
 The economy of the hive has been compared by our great poet to the
 polity of a populous kingdom under monarchical government. He says:—

                        “Therefore doth Heaven divide
            The state of man in divers functions,
            Setting endeavour in continual motion;
            To which is fixed, as an aim or butt,
            Obedience: for so work the honey-bees;
            Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach
            The act of order to a peopled kingdom.
            They have a king, and officers of sorts:
            Where some, like magistrates, correct at home;
            Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad;
            Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings,
            Make boot upon the summer’s velvet buds;
            Which pillage they, with merry march, bring home
            To the tent-royal of their emperor:
            Who, busied in his majesty, surveys
            The singing masons building roofs of gold;
            The civil citizens kneading up the honey;
            The poor mechanick porters crowding in
            Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate;
            The sad-ey’d justice, with his surly hum,
            Delivering o’er to éxecutors pale
            The lazy yawning drone.”—_Henry V._, 1, 2.

 Nothing escaped the wonderful vision of this “myriad-minded” man, and
 its pertinent application.

 This description, although certainly not technically accurate, is a
 superb broad sketch, and shows how well he was acquainted with the
 natural history and habits of the domestic bee.

 The curiosity bees have attracted from time immemorial, and the wonders
 of their economy elicited by the observation and study of modern
 investigators, is but a grateful return for the benefits derived to man
 from their persevering assiduity and skill. It is the just homage of
 reason to perfect instinct running closely parallel to its own
 wonderful attributes. Indeed, so complex are many of the operations of
 this instinct, as to have induced the surmise of a positive affinity to
 reason, instead of its being a mere analogy, working blindly and
 without reflection. The felicity of the adaptation of the hexagonal
 waxen cells, and the skill of the construction of the comb to their
 purposes, has occupied the abstruse calculations of profound
 mathematicians; and since human ingenuity has devised modes of
 investigating, unobserved, the various proceedings of the interior of
 the hive, wonder has grown still greater, and admiration has reached
 its climax.

 The intimate connection of “Bees” with nature’s elegancies, the
 Flowers, is an association which links them agreeably to our regard,
 for each suggests the other; their vivacity and music giving animation
 and variety to what might otherwise pall by beautiful but inanimate
 attractions. When we combine with this the services bees perform in
 their eager pursuits, our admiration extends beyond them to their Great
 Originator, who, by such apparently small means, accomplishes so simply
 yet completely, a most important object of creation.

 That bees were cultivated by man in the earliest conditions of his
 existence, possibly whilst his yet limited family was still occupying
 the primitive cradle of the race at Hindoo Koosh, or on the fertile
 slopes of the Himalayas, or upon the more distant table-land or plateau
 of Thibet, or in the delicious vales of Cashmere, or wherever it might
 have been, somewhere widely away to the east of the Caspian Sea,—is a
 very probable supposition. Accident, furthered by curiosity, would have
 early led to the discovery of the stores of honey which the assiduity
 of bees had hoarded;—its agreeable savour would have induced further
 search, which would have strengthened the possession by keener
 observation, and have led in due course to the fixing them in his
 immediate vicinity.

 To this remote period, possibly not so early as the discovery of the
 treasures of the bee, may be assigned also the first domestication of
 the animals useful to man, many of which are still found in those
 districts in all their primitive wildness. The discovery and
 cultivation of the cereal plants will also date from this early age.
 The domestication of animals has never been satisfactorily explained,
 but all inquiry seems to point to those regions as the native land,
 both of them, and of the _gramineæ_, which produce our grain; for
 Heinzelmann, Linnæus’s enthusiastic disciple, found there those grasses
 still growing wild, which have not been found elsewhere in a natural
 state.

 Thus, long before the three great branches of the human race, the
 Aryan, Shemitic, and Turonian, took their divergent courses from the
 procreative nest which was to populate the earth, and which Max Müller
 proposes to call the Rhematic period, they were already endowed from
 their patrimony with the best gifts nature could present to them; and
 they were thus fitted, in their estrangement from their home, with the
 requirements, which the vicissitudes they might have to contend with in
 their migrations, most needed. They would eventually have settled into
 varying conditions, differently modified by time acting conjunctively
 with climate and position, until, in the lapse of years, and the
 changes the earth has since undergone, the stamp impressed by these
 causes, which would have been originally evanescent, became indelible.
 That but one language was originally theirs, the researches of
 philology distinctly prove, by finding a language still more ancient
 than its Aryan, Shemitic, and Turonian derivatives. From this elder
 language these all spring, their common origin being deduced from the
 analogies extant in each. These investigations are confirmed by the
 Scriptural account that “The whole earth was of one language and of one
 speech,” previous to the Flood, and it describes the first migration as
 coincident with the subsidence of the waters.

 That violent cataclysms have since altered the face of the then
 existing earth, the records of geological science amply show; and that
 some of mankind, in every portion of the then inhabited world, survived
 these catastrophes, and subsequently perpetuated the varieties of race,
 may be inferred from those differences in moral and physical features
 which now exist, and which have sometimes suggested the impossibility
 of a collective derivation from one stock. The philological thread,
 although generally a mere filament of extreme tenuity, holds all firmly
 together.

 That animals had been domesticated in a very early stage of man’s
 existence, we have distinct proof in many recent geological
 discoveries, and all these discoveries show the same animals to have
 been in every instance subjugated; thus pointing to a primitive and
 earlier domestication in the regions where both were originally
 produced. That pasture land was provided for the sustenance of these
 animals, they being chiefly herbivorous, is a necessary conclusion.
 Thence ensues the fair deduction that _phanerogamous_, or
 flower-bearing plants coexisted, and bees, consequently, necessarily
 too,—thus participating reciprocal advantages, they receiving from
 these plants sustenance, and giving them fertility.

 These islands, under certain modifications, were, previous to the
 glacial period, one land with the continent of Europe; and it was when
 thus connected that those many tropical forms of animal life, whose
 fossil remains are found embedded in our soil, passed hither. By the
 comparatively rapid intervention of geological changes, some of the
 lower forms of life went no further than the first land they reached,
 and are, consequently, not even now to be found so far west as Ireland:
 the migration appears clearly to have come from the East. Thus,
 although we have no direct evidence of the presence of “bees,” yet as
 insects must have existed here, from the certainty that the remains of
 insect-feeding reptiles are found, as well as those of herbivorous
 animals, it may be concluded that “bees” also abounded.

 Claiming thus this very high antiquity for man’s nutritive “bee,” which
 was of far earlier utility to him than the silkworm, whose labours
 demanded a very advanced condition of skill and civilization to be made
 available; it is perfectly consistent, and indeed needful, to claim the
 simultaneous existence of all the bee’s allies. The earliest Shemitic
 and Aryan records, the Book of Job, the Vedas, Egyptian sculptures and
 papyri, as well as the poems of Homer, confirm the early cultivation of
 bees by man for domestic uses; and their frequent representation in
 Egyptian hieroglyphics, wherein the bee occurs as the symbol of
 royalty, clearly shows that their economy, with a monarch at its head,
 was known; a hive, too, being figured, as Sir Gardner Wilkinson tells
 us, upon a very ancient tomb at Thebes, is early evidence of its
 domestication there, and how early, even historically, it was brought
 under the special dominion of mankind. To these particulars I shall
 have occasion to refer more fully when the course of my narrative
 brings me to treat of the geographical distribution of the “honey-bee;”
 I adduce it now merely to intimate how very early, even in the present
 condition of the earth, bees were beneficial to mankind, and that,
 therefore, the connection may have subsisted, as I have previously
 urged, in the remotest and very primitive ages of the existence of man;
 and that imperatively with them, the entire family of which they form a
 unit only, was also created.

 In America, where _Apis mellifica_ is of European introduction, swarms
 of this bee, escaping domestication, resume their natural condition,
 and have pressed forward far into the uncleared wild; and widely in
 advance of the conquering colonist, they have taken their abode in the
 primitive, unreclaimed forest. Nor do they remain stationary, but on,
 still on, with every successive year, spreading in every direction; and
 thus surely indicating to the aboriginal red-man the certain, if even
 slow, approach of civilization, and the consequent necessity of his own
 protective retreat:—a strong instance of the distributive processes of
 nature. It clearly shows how the wild bees may have similarly migrated
 in all directions from the centre of their origin. That they are now
 found at the very _ultima Thule_, so far away from their assumed
 incunabula, and with such apparent existing obstructions to their
 distributive progress, is a proof, had we no other, that the condition
 of the earth must have been geographically very different at the period
 of their beginning, and that vast geological changes have, since then,
 altered its physical features. Where islands now exist, these must then
 have formed portions of widely sweeping continents; and seas have been
 dry land, which have since swept over the same area, insulating
 irregular portions by the submergence of irregular intervals, and thus
 have left them in their present condition, with their then existing
 inhabitants restricted to the circuit they now occupy. That long
 periods of time must necessarily have elapsed to have effected this by
 the methods we still see in operation, is no proof that it has not
 been. Nature, in her large operations, has no regard for the duration
 of time. Her courses are so sure that they are ever eventually
 successful; for, as to her, whose permanency is not computable, it
 matters not what period the process takes; and she is as indifferent to
 the seconds of time whereby man’s brevity is spanned, as she is to the
 wastefulness of her own exuberant resources, knowing that neither is
 lost to the result at which she reaches. Consuming the one, and
 scattering broadcast the other, but in unnoticeable infinitesimals, she
 does it irrespective of the origin, the needs, or the duration of man,
 who can only watch her irrepressible advances by transmitting from
 generation to generation the record of his observations; marking thus
 by imaginary stations the course of the incessant stream which carries
 him upon its surface.

 That other bees are found besides the social bees, may be new to some
 of my readers, who will perhaps now learn, for the first time, that
 collective similarities of organization and habits associate other
 insects with “the bee” as bees. Although the names “domestic bee,”
 “honey-bee,” or “social bee,” imply a contradistinction to some other
 “bee,” yet it must have been very long before even the most acute
 observers could have noticed the peculiarities of structure which
 constitute other insects “bees,” and ally the “wild bees” to the
 “domestic bee,” from the deficiency of artificial means to examine
 minutely the organization whereby the affinity is clearly proved. This
 is also further shown in the poverty of our language in vernacular
 terms to express them distinctively; for even the name of “wild bees,”
 in as far as it has been applied to any except the “honey-bee” in a
 wildered state, is a usage of modern introduction, and of date
 subsequent to their examination and appreciation. Our native tongue, in
 the words “bee,” “wasp,” “fly,” and “ant,” compasses all those
 thousands of different winged and unwinged insects, which modern
 science comprises in the two very extensive Orders in entomology of the
 _Hymenoptera_ and the _Diptera_;—thus exhibiting how very poor common
 language is in words to note distinctive differences in creatures, even
 where the differences are so marked, and the habits so dissimilar, as
 in the several groups constituting these Orders. But progressively
 extending knowledge, and a more familiar intimacy with insects and
 their habits, will doubtless, in the course of time, supervene, as old
 aversions, prejudices, and superstitions wear out, when by the light of
 instruction we shall gradually arouse to perceive that “His breath has
 passed that way too;” and that, therefore, they all put forth strong
 claims to the notice and admiration of man.

 It is highly improbable that ordinary language will ever find
 distinctive names to indicate _genera_, and far less _species_: and
 although we have some few words which combine large groups, such as
 “gnats,” “flesh-flies,” “gad-flies,” “gall-flies,” “dragon-flies,”
 “sand wasps,” “humble-bees,” etc. etc.; and, although the small group,
 it is my purpose in the following pages to show in all their attractive
 peculiarities, has had several vernacular denominations applied to them
 to indicate their most distinctive characteristics, such as
 “cuckoo-bees,” “carpenter bees,” “mason bees,” “carding bees,” etc.,
 yet many which are not thus to be distinguished, will have to wait long
 for their special appellation.

 The first breathings of spring bring forth the bees. Before the
 hedge-rows and the trees have burst their buds, and expanded their yet
 delicate green leaves to the strengthening influence of the air, and
 whilst only here and there the white blossoms of the blackthorn sparkle
 around, and patches of chickweed spread their bloom in attractive
 humility on waste bits of ground in corners of fields,—they are abroad.
 Their hum will be heard in some very favoured sunny nook, where the
 precocious primrose spreads forth its delicate pale blossom, in the
 modest confidence of conscious beauty, to catch the eye of the sun, as
 well as—

        “Daffodils, that come before the swallow dares,
         And take the winds of March with beauty.”—_Shakspeare._

 The yellow catkins of the sallow, too, are already swarmed around by
 bees, the latter being our northern representative of the palm which
 heralded “peace to earth and goodwill to man.” The bees thus announce
 that the business of the year has begun, and that the lethargy of
 winter is superseded by energetic activity.

 The instinctive impulse of the cares of maternity prompt the wild bees
 to their early assiduity, urging them to their eager quest of these
 foremost indicators of the renewed year. The firstling bees are
 forthwith at their earnest work of collecting honey and pollen, which,
 kneaded into a paste, are to become both the cradle and the sustenance
 of their future progeny.

 Wherever we investigate wonderful Nature, we observe the most beautiful
 adaptations and arrangements,—everywhere the correlations of structure
 with function; in confirmation of which I may here briefly notice in
 anticipation, that the bees are divided into two large groups,—the
 short-tongued and the long-tongued,—and it is the short-tongued,—some
 of the _Andrenidæ_,—which are the first abroad; the corollæ of the
 first flowers being shallow and the nectar depositories obvious, an
 arrangement which facilitates their obtaining with facility the honey
 already at hand. These bees are also amply furnished,—as will be
 afterwards explained,—in the clothing of their posterior legs, or
 otherwise, with the means to convey home the pollen which they
 vigorously collect, finding it already in superfluous abundance, and
 which, being borne from flower to flower, impregnates and makes
 fruitful those plants which require external agents to accomplish their
 fertility. Thus nature duly provides, by an interchange of offices, for
 the general good, and by simple, although sometimes obscure means,
 gives motion and persistency to the wheel within wheel which so
 exquisitely fulfil her designs, and roll forward, unremittingly, her
 stupendous fabric.

 The way in which the bees execute this object and design of nature, and
 to which they, more evidently than any other insects, are called to the
 performance, is shown in the implanted instinct which prompts them to
 seek flowers, knowing, by means of that instinct, that flowers will
 furnish them with what is needful both for their own sustenance, and
 for that of their descendants. Flowers, to this end, are furnished with
 the requisite attractive qualifications to allure the bees. Whether
 their odour or their colour be the tempting vehicle, or both
 conjunctively, it is scarcely possible to say, but that they should
 hold out special invitation is requisite to the maintenance of their
 own perpetuity. This, it is supposed, the colour of flowers chiefly
 effects by being visible from a distance. Flowers, within themselves,
 indicate to the bees visiting them the presence of nectaria by spots
 coloured differently from their petals. This nectar, converted by bees
 into honey, is secreted by glands or glandulous surfaces, seated upon
 the organs of fructification; and nature has also furnished means to
 protect these depositories of honey for the bees, from the intrusive
 action of the rain, which might wash the sweet secretion away. To this
 end it has clothed the corollæ with a surface of minute hairs, which
 effectually secures them from its obtrusive action, and thus displays
 the importance it attaches to the co-operation of the bees. That bees
 should vary considerably in size, is a further accommodation of nature
 to promote the fertilization of flowers, which, in some cases, small
 insects could not accomplish. Many plants could not be perpetuated, but
 for the agency of insects, and especially of bees; and it is remarkable
 that it is chiefly those which require the aid of this intervention
 that have a nectarium, and secrete honey. By thus seeking the honey,
 and obtaining it in a variety of ways, bees accomplish this great
 object of nature. It often, also, happens that flowers which even
 contain within themselves the means of ready fructification cannot
 derive it from the pollen of their own anthers, but require that the
 pollen should be conveyed to them from the anthers of younger flowers;
 in some cases the reverse takes place, as for instance, in the
 _Euphorbia Cyparissias_, wherein it is the pollen of the older flower
 which, through the same agency, fertilizes the younger. Although many
 flowers are night-flowers, yet the very large majority expand during
 the day; but to meet the requirements of those which bloom merely at
 night, nature has provided means by the many moths which fly only at
 that time, and thus accomplish what the bees perform under the eye of
 the sun. Here insects are again subservient to the accomplishment of
 this great act; for the petals of even the flowers which open in the
 night only are usually highly coloured, or where this not the case,
 they then emit a powerful odour, both being means to attract the
 required co-operation. But of course our clients have nothing to do
 with these night-blooming flowers, as I am not aware of a single
 instance of a night-flying bee; nor are they on the wing very late in
 the evening, being before sunset, already in their nidus. In those
 occasional cases where the nectarium of the flower is not perceptible,
 if the spur of such a flower which usually becomes the depository of
 the nectar that has oozed from the capsules secreting it, be too narrow
 for the entrance of the bee, and even beyond the reach of its long
 tongue, it contrives to attain its object by biting a hole on the
 outside, through which it taps the store. The skill of bees in finding
 the honey, even when it is much withdrawn from notice, is a manifest
 indication of the prompting instinct which tells them where to seek it,
 and is a matter of extreme interest to the observer, for the
 honey-marks—the _maculæ indicantes_—surely guide them; and where these,
 as in some flowers, are placed in a circle upon its bosom, as the mark
 upon that of Imogen, who had—

                                “On her left breast
              A mole cinque-spotted, like the crimson drops
              I’ the bottom of a cowslip.”—_Shakspeare._

 they work their way around, lapping the nectar as they go. To
 facilitate this fecundation of plants, which is Nature’s prime object,
 bees are usually more or less hairy; so that if even they limit
 themselves to imbibing nectar, they involuntarily fulfil the greater
 design by conveying the pollen from flower to flower. To many insects,
 especially flies, some flowers are a fatal attraction, for their
 viscous secretions often make these insects prisoners, and thus destroy
 them. To the bees this rarely or never happens, either by reason of
 their superior strength, or possibly from the instinct which repels
 them from visiting flowers which exude so clammy a substance. It is
 probably only to the end of promoting fertilization by the attraction
 of insects that the structure of those flowers which secrete nectar is
 exclusively conducive, and which fully and satisfactorily explains the
 final cause of this organization.

 To detect these things, it is requisite to observe nature out of
 doors,—an occupation which has its own rich reward in the health and
 cheerfulness it promotes,—and there to watch patiently and attentively.
 It is only by unremitting perseverance, diligence, and assiduity that
 we can hope to explore the interesting habits and peculiar industries
 of these, although small, yet very attractive insects.

 Amongst the early blossoming flowers most in request with the bees, and
 which therefore seem to be great favourites, we find the chickweed
 (_Alsine media_), the primrose, and the catkins of the sallow; and
 these in succession are followed by all the flowers of the spring,
 summer, and autumn. Their greatest favourites would appear to be the
 _Amentaceæ_, or catkin-bearing shrubs and trees, the willow, hazel,
 osier, etc., from the male flowers of which they obtain the pollen, and
 from the female the honey; all the _Rosaceæ_, especially the dog-rose,
 and _Primulaceæ_, the _Orchideæ_, _Caryophyllaceæ_, _Polygoneæ_, and
 the balsamic lilies; clover is very attractive to them, as are also
 tares; and the spots on those leaves of the bean which appear before
 the flower, and exude a sweet secretion; also the flowers of all the
 cabbage tribe. Beneath the shade of the lime, when in flower, may be
 heard above one intense hum of thrifty industry. The blossoms of all
 the fruit-trees and shrubs, standard or wall, and all aromatic plants
 are highly agreeable to them, such as lavender, lemon-thyme,
 mignonette, indeed all the _resedas_; also sage, borage, etc. etc.; but
 the especial favourites of particular genera and species I shall have
 occasion subsequently to notice in their series; but to mention
 separately all the flowers they frequent would be to compile almost a
 complete flora. Bees are also endowed with an instinct that teaches
 them to avoid certain plants that might be dangerous to them. Thus,
 they neither frequent the oleander (_Nerium Oleander_) nor the crown
 imperial (_Fritillaria imperialis_), and they also avoid the
 _Ranunculaceæ_, on account of some poisonous property; and although the
 _Melianthus major_ drops with honey, it is not sought. It is a native
 of the Cape of Good Hope, and may be attractive only to the bees
 indigenous to the country, which is also the case with other greenhouse
 plants equally rich in honey, but which not being natives, possibly
 from that cause the instincts of native insects have no affinity with
 them.

 Bees may be further consorted with flowers by the analogy and
 parallelism of their stages of existence. Thus, the egg is the
 equivalent to the seed; the _larva_ to the germination and growth; the
 _pupa_ to the bud; and the _imago_ to the flower. The flower dies as
 soon as the seed is fully formed, which is then disseminated by many
 wonderful contrivances to a propitious soil; and the wild bees die as
 soon as the store of eggs is as wonderfully deposited, according to
 their several instincts, in fitting receptacles, and provision
 furnished to sustain the development of the progeny. Thus, each secures
 perpetuity to its species, but individually ceases; whereas the
 unfecundated plant and the celibate insect may, severally, prolong for
 a short but indefinite period, a brief existence, to terminate in total
 extinction. Nature thus vindicates her rights, for nothing remains
 sterile with impunity.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER II

                        GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES.


                THE EGG.—THE LARVA.—THE PUPA.—THE IMAGO.


 ALTHOUGH the preceding pages have been written upon the assumption that
 the reader knows what a bee is, now that we are gradually approaching
 the more special and technical portion of the subject it will be
 desirable to conform a little to the ordinary usages of scientific
 treatment.

 The bees constitute a family of the order _Hymenoptera_, viz. insects
 ordinarily, but in the case of bees always, with four transparent
 wings, which are variously but partially traversed longitudinally and
 transversely with threads, called nervures, supposed to be tubular, the
 relative position of which, together with the areas they enclose,
 called cells, help to give characters to the genera.

 Most of the _Hymenoptera_ further possess some kind of an
 ovipositor,—of course restricted to the females,—varying considerably
 in the different families. This is sometimes external, but is often
 seated within the apex of the abdomen, whence it can be protruded for
 the purpose of depositing the egg in its right nidus. In our insect
 this organ is converted into a weapon of defence and offence, and forms
 a sting, supplied by glands with a very virulent poison, which the bee
 can inject into the wound it inflicts. It is not certain that this
 organ is used by the bee as an ovipositor, although it is evident it is
 its analogue. This brief description of the essential peculiarities of
 the family will, for the present, suffice. In the notice of the imago,
 I shall enlarge upon the general structure, and then particularize
 those portions of it which may facilitate further progress.

 _The Egg._—Although the egg of the parent is the source of the origin
 of the bee, we cannot abruptly commence from this point, for the
 preliminary labours of the mother are indispensable to the evolution of
 its offspring. This egg has to be placed in a suitable depository,
 together with the requisite food for the sustenance of the vermicule
 that will be disclosed from it.

 Instinct instructs the parent where and how to form the nidus for its
 egg. These depositories differ considerably in the several genera, but,
 as a general rule, they are tubes burrowed by the mother either in
 earth, sand, decaying or soft wood, branches of plants having a pith,
 the halm of grain, cavities already existing in many substances, and
 even within the shells of dead snails. These perforations are sometimes
 simple, and sometimes they have divergent and ramifying channels.
 Sometimes they are carefully lined with a silky membrane secreted by
 the insect, and sometimes they are hung with a tapestry of pieces of
 leaves, cut methodically from plants, but some leave their walls
 entirely bare. All these particulars I shall have ample opportunity to
 note in the special descriptions of the genera. I merely indicate them
 to show how various are the receptacles for the offspring of our bees.

         [Illustration: Fig. 1. The Egg.]

Before the egg is placed within its nidus, this is supplied with the
requisite quantity of food needful for the support of the young to the
full period of its maturity. The receptacle is then closed, and the same
process is repeated again and again until the parent has laid her whole
store of eggs. In other cases one tube, or its ramification, contains
but one egg. These eggs are usually oblong, slightly curved, and
tapering at one extremity; they vary in size according to the species,
but are never, however, above a line in length, and sometimes they are
very minute. When the stock of the mother bee is exhausted she leaves
them to the careful nursing of nature, and the young is speedily
evolved. She then wanders forth; time has brought senility; her
occupation has gone; and she passes away; but her progeny survive to
perpetuate the continual chain of existence.

_The Larva._—The temperature of the perforated tube wherein the egg is
deposited must necessarily be higher and more equal than that of the
external atmosphere, being secluded from its vicissitudes. The egg is
soon hatched, and the larva emerges from its shell to feed ravenously
upon the sustenance stored up for its supply. This consists of an
admixture of pollen and honey formed into a paste, the quantities
varying according to the size of the species. By some species it is
formed into little balls; by others, it is heaped irregularly at the
bottom of the cell. In the case of _Andrena_ the quantity stored is of
about the size of a pea. That it must be exceeding nutritious may be
inferred from its very nature, consisting, as it does, of the virile,
energetic, and fertilizing powder of plants,—the concentration of their
living principle. It is strictly analogous to the fecundating property
of the semen in animals, and, like them, produces spermatozoa, a fact
corroborated by the researches of Robert Brown, Mirbel, and other
distinguished vegetable physiologists.[1]

Footnote 1:

  Might not, by parity of inference, the milt of fishes, such as the
  herring, mackerel, etc., be a useful food in cases of consumption,
  both from the iodine necessarily existing in it, and also from its
  doubtless nutritive nature?

We are told that the cells of _Hylæus_, or _Prosopis_, and of _Ceratina_
are supplied with a semifluid honey. It is very doubtful if _Hylæus_
collects its own store, but that _Ceratina_ does, I have the authority
of an exact observer (Mr. Thwaites) to verify it, for he has caught this
insect with pollen on its posterior legs, which the long hair covering
the tibia is intended for. What may be the nature of this semifluid
honey? It is questionable if the larva could be nurtured upon honey
alone without the admixture of pollen, thus contradicting analogies
presumable from ample verification in nature’s processes. How, too, does
it become semifluid? It is the property of honey, at a certain
temperature, to be very fluid, and this is doubtless the temperature
that prevails within the receptacle of the larva during the time of the
operations of the bees.

Its semifluid consistency could then apparently be produced only by some
more solid admixture, which, if not of pollen, of what can it be? This,
even in small quantities, might, upon the bursting of its vesicles, have
the power of thickening the fluent honey to the necessary consistency.

But a bee without polliniferous organs cannot collect pollen, and the
instance of the hive bee, which collects honey in superabundance,
feeding its larva with the bee-bread, must inevitably lead to the
conclusion that the larvæ of bees require more than honey for their
sustenance. Nature is not usually wantonly wasteful of its resources,
and if honey sufficed for the nurture of the grub, so much pollen would
not be abstracted from its legitimate purpose, nor would bees have this
double trouble given to them. By the admixture of pollen the honey has
energetic power infused into it by the spermatozoa which that contains.
But it must necessarily be collected, for I never observed, nor have I
seen recorded, any instance of the pollen being eaten on the flower and
regurgitated into the cell in combination with the imbibed honey.

Pollen is eaten by the domestic bee and humble-bee to form wax for the
structure of their cells, but the solitary bees do not themselves
consume it.

    [Illustration: Fig. 2.—_a_, the Larva, when growing;
        _b_, when preparing to change;
        _c_, the head, viewed in front.]

The larva, when excluded from the egg, is a fleshy grub, slightly
curved, and a little pointed at each extremity. Its body is transversely
constricted, the constrictions corresponding with its fifteen segments,
each of which, excepting the head and four terminal ones, is supplied
with a spiracle placed at the sides, whereby it breathes; and it has no
feet. These segments have on each side a series of small tubercles,
which facilitate the restricted motions of the grub, confined to the
boundaries of its cell. Its small head, which is smooth above, has a
little projecting horn on each side representing the future antennæ. The
small lateral jaws articulate beneath a narrow labrum or lip, which
folds down over them. To prove that the food provided requires still
further comminution, these jaws are incessantly masticating it. The form
of these jaws approximates to that of the insect which it will produce,
being toothed and broad at the apex in the artisan and wood-boring bees,
and simple in those which burrow in softer substances. On each side
beneath these jaws there is an appendage, rather plump, having a
setiform process at its extremity, and beneath these, in the centre, we
observe a fleshy protuberance which, at its tip, has a smaller
perforated process that emits the viscid liquid with which the grub
spins its cocoon, and which immediately hardens to the consistency of
silk.

    [Illustration: Fig. 3.—_a_, the pupa, seen beneath;
        _b_, seen above;
        _c_, seen laterally.]

Having constructed its cocoon, where the species does so,—for it is not
incidental to all the genera,—and shrunk to its most compact dimensions,
the larva becomes transformed into

_The Pupa._—This is semi-transparent at first, and there may be seen
through the thin pellicle, which invariably clothes every portion
separately of the body, the ripening bee, which lies, like a mummy, with
its wings and legs folded lengthwise along its breast. The parts
gradually assume consistency, and the natural colours and clothing of
the perfect insect display themselves through its pellucid envelope.
When arrived at perfect maturity, and ready to commence the part it has
to perform in the economy of nature, it bursts its cerements, making its
way through the dorsal covering of its silken skin, and, leaving the
exuviæ behind, it crawls forth from its dormitory, when, becoming
invigorated by the bracing air and the genial sunshine, it stretches its
legs and expands its wings, and flies forth jubilant, rejoicing in its
awakened faculties.

_The Imago._—The bee having attained its majority, loses no time in
quitting the confined abode wherein it has been hitherto secluded. It
comes forth prepared to undertake the cares, and meet the vicissitudes
of existence. The new life that now opens to it is one apparently
teeming exuberantly with every delight. It dwells in sunshine and amidst
flowers; it revels in their sweets, attracted by their beautiful colours
and their delightful odours; and the consummation of its bliss is to
find a congenial partner. With him it enjoys a brief connubial
transport, but which is speedily succeeded by life-long labour, for the
cares of maternity immediately supervene.

I believe the wild bees are not polyandrous, and therefore many males,
if there be any preponderating discrepancy in favour of that sex, must
die celibate. But the fact of finding the males associated together in
great numbers upon the same flowers or hedges, is certainly not
conclusive of this being the case. To provide a fitting receptacle,
furnished with suitable provision, for its future progeny, occupies all
the subsequent solicitude of the female.

As frequent reference will hereafter be made to peculiarities of
structure, it will be desirable to take a rapid survey of the external
anatomy of the bee, for it will enable me to introduce in due order the
requisite technicalities with their local explanations. This course will
be found most subservient to preciseness and accuracy, and when
mastered, which will be found to be a very simple affair, it will
greatly facilitate exact comprehension. No circumlocution can convey
what a few technicalities, thoroughly understood, will immediately
explain, and no special scientific work can be read with any profit
until they are acquired.

Diagrams are introduced to aid the imagination in its conception of what
is meant to be conveyed.

This necessary detail I shall endeavour to make as entertaining as I
possibly can, by introducing, with the description of the organ, the
uses it serves in the economy of the insect. I hope thus to add an
interest to it which a merely dry technical and scientific definition
would not possess.

Structure is always expressive of the habits of the bees, and is as sure
a line of separation, or means of combination, as instinct could be were
it tangible. Hence the conclusion always follows with a certainty that
such-and-such a form is identical with such-and-such habits, and that,
in the broad and most distinguishing features of its economy, the genus
is essentially the same in every climate. Climate does not act upon
these lower forms of animal life, with the modifying influences it
exercises upon the mammalia and man. A _Megachile_ is as essentially a
_Megachile_ in all its characteristics in Arctic America, the Brazils,
tropical Africa, Northern China, and Van Diemen’s Land, as in these
islands, and _Apis_ is, wherever it occurs, as truly an _Apis_.
Therefore the habits, in whatever country the genus may be found, can
thus be as surely affirmed of all its species, from the knowledge we
have of those at home, as if observation had industriously tracked them.
Therefore, the technicalities of structure once learnt, they become
permanently and widely useful.

The body of the bee consists of a head, thorax, and abdomen, which,
although to the casual observer, seemingly not separated from each
other, are, upon closer inspection, more or less distinctly
disconnected. The three parts are merely united by a very short and
slight tubular cylinder. This is sometimes so much reduced as to be only
a perforation of the parts combined by a ligament, and through which
aperture a requisite channel is formed for the passage of the ganglion
or nervous chord, which extends from one portion of the body to the
other, giving off laterally, in its progress from the sensorium in the
head onwards, the filaments required by the organs of sensation and
motion, as well as all which control the other functions of the body of
the insect.

    [Illustration: Fig. 4.—Body of the bee.
        _a_, head and antennæ;
        _b_, vertex and ocelli;
        _c_, genæ, or cheeks;
        _d_, prothorax;
        _e_, mesothorax;
        _f_, squamulæ;
        _g_, insertion of the wings;
        _h_, scutellum;
        _i_, post-scutellum;
        _k_, metathorax;
        _l_, abdomen.]

These apertures form also the necessary medium of connection between the
several viscera, whereby the food and other sustaining juices are
conveyed from the mouth through the œsophagus to the various parts of
the body.

As this work will impinge but very incidentally upon the internal
organization of the bee, it is unnecessary to be more explanatory. All
that I shall have to notice here are those portions of the external
structure which have any special bearing upon the economy and habits, or
upon the generic and specific determination of the insects, and to which
therefore I shall specially limit myself.

    [Illustration: Fig. 5.—Front of the head of the bee.
        _a_, vertex;
        _b_, face;
        _c_, ocelli or stemmata;
        _d_, compound eyes;
        _e_, clypeus;
        _f_, mandibles;
        _g_, labrum;
        _h_, lingual apparatus folding for repose.]

The _head_ is the most important segment of the insect’s body, if we may
elevate to such distinction any portion, when all conduce to the same
end, and either would be imperfect without the other, yet we may perhaps
thus distinguish it from the rest as it exclusively contains that higher
class of organs, those of sense, which are most essential to the
functions of the creature. The head consists of the _vertex_, or crown;
the _genæ_, or cheeks; the face; the _clypeus_, or nose; the compound
eyes; the _stemmata_, or simple eyes; the _antennæ_, or feelers, and the
_trophi_, or organs of the mouth collectively.

The _thorax_, the second segment, carries all the organs of locomotion.
It consists of the _prothorax_ or collar, which carries beneath the
anterior pair of legs; the _mesothorax_, or central division, with which
articulate laterally above the four wings, the anterior of which have
their base protected by the _squamulæ_, or epaulettes, or wing-scales,
and beneath it carries the intermediate pair of legs; the _metathorax_,
or hinder portion, which has in the centre above, behind the
_scutellum_, the _post-scutellum_, and at the extremity of this division
just above the articulation of the posterior legs is attached the last
segment of the insect,—the _Abdomen_.

The _vertex_, or crown of the head, is that portion which lies between
the upper extremities of the compound eyes. Upon the vertex are placed
the _stemmata_, or _ocelli_ (the simple eyes), in a curve or triangle;
they are three in number, and are small, hyaline, circular
protuberances, each containing within it a lens; sometimes they occur
very far forward upon the face, especially when the compound lateral
eyes meet above, as in the male domestic bee or drone. The uses of these
simple eyes, from the experiments which have been made, seem to be for
long and distant vision. To test their function, Réaumur covered them
with a very adhesive varnish, which the bee could not remove, and he
then let it escape. He found upon several repeated trials, that the
insect always flew perpendicularly upwards, and was lost. Although this
was anything but conclusive as to the uses of these eyes, it would seem
that by losing the vision of this organ, the insect lost with it all
sense of distance.

The _compound eyes_, seated on each side of the head, extend from the
vertex generally to the articulation of the mandibles or jaws, their
longitudinal axis being perpendicular to the station of the insect. They
vary in external shape and convexity in the several species and genera,
although not greatly, and consist of a congeries of minute, hexagonal,
crystalline facets, each slightly convex externally, and their
interstices are sometimes clothed with a short and delicate pubescence.
Each separate hexagon has its own apparatus of lens and filament of
optic nerve, each having its own distinct vision, but all converge to
convey one object to the sensorium. The function of the compound eyes is
concluded to be the microscopic sight of near objects.

The _face_, which sometimes has a longitudinal _carina_, or prominent
ridge, down its centre, lies between these eyes, descending from the
vertex to the base of the clypeus, or nose, but which is without the
function of that organ. This clypeus is sometimes protuberant, and from
shape or armature, characteristic. This part, however, is not always
distinctly apparent, although a line or suture usually separates it
above, from the face. At its lower extremity the _labrum_, or upper lip,
articulates, over which it is sometimes produced; and it extends at each
lateral apex to the base of the insertion of the mandibles. The _genæ_,
or cheeks, descend from the vertex laterally, behind the compound eyes,
to the cavity of the head which contains the lingual apparatus, when
folded in repose. These cheeks, at their lower extremity, sometimes
embrace the articulation of the mandibles.

    [Illustration: Fig. 6.—1, Clavate antennæ;
        2, filiform ditto;
        _a_, scape;
        _b_, flagellum.]

The _antennæ_, or feelers, are two filamentary organs articulating on
each side of the face and above the clypeus. They comprise the _scape_
(_a_), or basal joint, and (_b_) the _flagellum_ or terminal apparatus;
the latter consists of closely attached conterminal joints, and usually
forms an elbow with the scape; collectively these joints number twelve
in the female and thirteen in the male. They are all of various relative
lengths, which sometimes aid specific determination. The scape, however,
is usually much longer than any of the rest, and in some males has a
very robust and even angulated shape. A description of the antennæ
always enters into the generic character; they usually differ very
materially both in length and form in the sexes. They are often filiform
(2), but more generally subclavate (1), and sometimes distinctly so, and
where they have the latter structure it is found in both sexes. They
constantly differ in the species of a long genus (_Andrena_, _Normada_,
_Halictus_). In the male of the genus _Eucera_, they have a remarkable
extension, being as long as the body, whereas folded back they are
rarely so long, or not longer than the thorax in other males, speaking
in reference only to our native kinds. In the females they are not often
longer than the head. It is in the males of the genus _Halictus_ that
they take the greatest extension. In the male of the genus _Eucera_, we
also find the remarkable peculiarity of the integument of some of the
joints being distinctly of an hexagonal structure,—a peculiarity often
observable in natural structures. In this case it may refer to the
sensiferous function of the organ, and to which I shall have occasion to
revert when I speak of the senses of our insects. We sometimes find the
joints of the antennæ moniliform, something like a string of beads, or
with each separate joint forming a curve, or with their terminal one, as
in _Megachile_, greatly compressed.

The relative lengths of the joints often yield conclusive separative
specific characters, and which may be very advantageously made
available, especially where other distinctive differences are obscure,
and in cases where the practised eye observes a distinction of habit,
evidently specific, although it is difficult to seize tangible
characteristics.

The _trophi_ are the organs of the mouth of the bee collectively. When
complete in all the parts, as exemplified in the genus _Anthoptera_,
they consist of the _labrum_, or upper lip; the _epipharynx_, or valve,
falling over and closing the aperture of the gullet; the _pharynx_, or
gullet, which forms the true mouth and entrance to the œsophagus; the
_hypopharynx_ which lies immediately below the gullet and assists
deglutition; the _labium_, or lower lip, and the true tongue. These
parts are all single; the parts in pairs are the _mandibles_, the
_maxillæ_, the _maxillary palpi_, the _labial palpi_, and the
_paraglossæ_.

    [Illustration: Fig. 7.—Trophi and their unfolding.
        _a_, labrum;
        _b_, epipharynx;
        _c_, pharynx;
        _d_, hypopharynx;
        _e_, mandible;
        _f_, maxillæ;
        _g_, maxillary palpi;
        _h_, mandible;
        _i_, cardium;
        _k_, labium;
        _l_, labial palpi;
        _m_, paraglossæ;
        _n_, tongue.]

The _labrum_, or upper lip, is attached by joint to the apex of the
_clypeus_; it has a vertical motion, and falls over the organs beneath
it, in repose, when it is itself covered by the mandibles. It is usually
transverse in form, but is sometimes perpendicular, especially in the
artisan bees. It takes many forms, sometimes semilunar or linear,
emarginate or entire, convex, concave, or flat, and is occasionally
armed with one or two processes, like minute teeth projecting from its
surface, but of what use these may be we do not know. In the female of
_Halictus_, it has a slightly longitudinal appendage in the centre. It
is usually horny, but is sometimes coriaceous or leathery. This labrum
often yields good specific characters.

The _pharynx_, or gullet, is a cavity immediately beneath the
_epipharynx_, which articulates directly under the base of the labrum,
and which closes the pharynx from above, and immediately beneath this
cavity is another small appendage, almost triangular, which receives the
food or honey from the canal conveying it from the tongue, or directly
from the mandibles, when it is masticated, and helps it forward to the
pharynx to be swallowed. The _epipharynx_ closes this orifice from
above, the _labrum_ then laps over it and the articulation of the
lingual apparatus, both which are further protected in repose by the
mandibles closing over the labrum. This triple protection shows the
importance nature attaches to these organs. The more direct portions of
the lingual apparatus are the _labium_, or lower lip, which forms the
main stem of the rest, and articulates beneath the hypopharynx, and is
beneath of a horny texture; it forms a knee or articulating bend at
about half its length, and has a second flexure at its apex, where the
true tongue is inserted. This _labium_ is extensible and retractile at
the will of the insect, and lies inserted within the under cavity of the
head when in complete repose, and the insect can withdraw or extend a
portion or the whole at its pleasure. Attached on each side, at its
first bend or elbow, lie the _maxillæ_, which, for want of a better
term, are called the lower jaws, and perhaps properly so from the
function they perform; for at the point of their downward flexure, which
occurs at the apex of the labium, and where the true tongue commences,
they each extend forward in a broad, longitudinal membrane, partly
coriaceous throughout its whole length, and these, folded together and
beneath, form the under sheath of the whole of the rest of the lingual
apparatus in repose, and often lap over its immediate base when even it
is extended. Externally continuous, the line of these _maxillæ_ is
broken at the point of flexure at the apex of the _labium_, by a deep
sinus or curve, and within this is inserted the first joint of the
maxillary palpi. The portion of the maxillæ extending forwards, hence
takes several forms, usually tapering to an acute point, but sometimes
rounded or hastate, according to the structure of the tongue, to which
they form a protection.

The _maxillary palpi_ are small, longitudinal joints, never exceeding
six in number, and generally in the normal or true bees not so numerous.
They vary in relative length to the organ to which they are attached,
and usually progressively decrease in length and size from the basal
ones to the apical, but each joint, excepting the terminal one, is
generally more robust at its apex than at its own special base. The
function of these maxillary palpi is unknown. They are always present in
full number in the _Andrenidæ_, and in some few genera of the true bees,
but they vary from their normal number of six to five, four, three, two,
and one in the latter; and it is curious that they are most deficient in
those bees having the most complicated economy, as in the artisan bees
and the cenobite bees; they thus evidently show that it is not a very
paramount function that they perform. On each side, at the apical summit
of the _labium_, are inserted the _labial palpi_. These are invariably
four in number, but vary considerably in length and substance. In the
_Andrenidæ_ they have always the form of subclavate, robust joints, and
are usually as long as the tongue, but not always; they are only half
the length of that organ in the subsection of the acute-tongued
_Andrenidæ_. In the normal bees, even in the genus _Panurgus_, which is
the most closely allied to the _Andrenidæ_, the labial palpi immediately
take excessive development, especially in their two basal joints, and
the structure of these two joints, excepting in this genus and in
_Nomada_, partakes of a flattened form and membranous substance. All
these four joints are either conterminal, or the two apical ones, or one
of them is articulated laterally, towards the apex of the preceding
joint. These two are always very short joints, and are comparatively
robust.

The _labial palpi_ are, in the majority of cases, about half or
two-thirds the length of the tongue, but in _Apathus_ and _Apis_ they
are of its full length. At the immediate base of the tongue, and
attached to it laterally, rather than to the apex of the _labium_, are
the _paraglossæ_, or lingual appendages, which are membranous and acute,
except in the _Andrenidæ_, where, in some, their apex is lacerated and
fringed with short hairs. These organs are always present in the
_Andrenidæ_ and generally in the _Apidæ_, where they usually obtain
extensive relative development; but in the artisan bees they are all but
obsolete, and in _Ceratina_, _Cælioxys_, _Apathus_, and _Apis_, they are
not even apparent. Their use also has hitherto eluded discovery, but
that they are not essential to the honey-gathering instinct of the bee
is especially proved by the latter instance.

The true tongue is attached to the centre of the apex of the labium,
having the paraglossæ, when extant, and the labial palpi at its sides.
In the _Andrenidæ_ it is a flat short organ of varying form, either
lobated, emarginate, acute, or lanceolate; but in the _Apidæ_, with
_Panurgus_ it immediately becomes very much elongated, and with this
genus the apparatus whereby the tongue folds beneath obtains its
immediate development; but this development exhibits itself most fully
in the genus _Anthophora_. The tongue is usually linear, tapering
slightly to its extremity, and terminating in some genera with a small
knob. It is clothed throughout with a very delicate pubescence, which
enables the bee to gather up the nectar it laps. That it should be
called the lip seems an absurdity, for it exercises all the functions of
a tongue, and it would seem almost that the fine hairs, with which it is
covered, are the papillæ of taste. Its structure in some genera seems to
be a spiral thread twining closely round and round, but in others it
appears throughout identical.

    [Illustration: Fig. 8.—Extremes of structure of tongues:
        1, in subnormal bees (_Colletes_);
        2, in normal bees (_Anthophora_).
        _a_, tongue;
        _b_, paraglossæ;
        _c_, labial palpi;
        _d_, maxillæ;
        _e_, maxillary palpi;
        _f_, labium.]

This tongue was formerly thought to be tubular, and that the bee sucked
the honey through an aperture at its apex. The knowledge of the flat
form of the tongues of other bees should have dissipated the illusion,
for we could have been perfectly sure of the analogical structure and
function of an organ in creatures so nearly alike. Réaumur’s patient
observations have totally dissipated the mistake, and through him we
exactly know how the bee conveys the honey into its stomach As it
exhibits an agreeable instance of the persevering industry and
unblenching patience with which he made his researches, I will give a
summary of what he says, for his bulky volumes, although teeming with
delightful instruction, pleasantly narrated, will necessarily not be in
every entomologist’s hand, and where not, not even always readily
accessible. His observations were made upon the honey-bee, but we may
attribute the same mode of collecting to all the rest. He says:—When
this tongue is not lapping the nectar of flowers but in a state of
perfect repose it is flattened. It is then at least three times broader
than thick, but its edges are rounded. It gradually narrows from its
base to its extremity. It terminates in a slight inflation, almost
cylindrical, at the end of which there is a little knob, which appears
perforated in the centre. From the circumference of this knob tolerably
long hairs radiate, and the upper side of the tongue is also entirely
covered with hairs. The basal and widest portion above seems striated
transversely with minute lines closely approaching each other.

The upper side of the anterior portion of the tongue seems of a
cartilaginous substance, but the under side of the same part appears
cartilaginous only over a portion of its width. The centre is throughout
its whole course more transparent than the rest, and seems membranous
and folded. It is only necessary to press the posterior portion of this
trunk, whilst holding its anterior part closely to a light, towards
which its upper surface must be turned, and then upon examining its
inner surface with a lens of high power, a drop of liquid may be soon
observed at its foremost portion. By continuing to press it this drop is
urged forward, and as it passes every portion swells considerably, and
the two edges separate more widely from each other. The under side of
the tongue, which was before flat, rises and swells considerably, and
all that thus rises up is evidently membranous. It looks like a long
vessel of the most transparent material. But whilst this great increase
of bulk is made upon the lower surface, the upper surface swells only a
little, which seems to prove that its immediate envelope is not capable
of much distension.

If a bee be observed whilst sipping any sweet liquor, the anterior
portion of its trunk will be sometimes seen more swollen than when in
action, and alternations will be observed in it of varying expansion.

The posterior portion of the trunk is a great deal larger than the
anterior, and it is only in repose that the former nearly equals the
latter in length. This posterior portion (this is the portion treated
above as the _labium_, or under lip) is joined to the anterior by a very
short ligature, wholly fleshy, and very flexible, which permits the
folding of the trunk, and then its under side is quite scaly, very
shiny, and rounded (the maxillæ). This portion is apparently more
substantial than the rest. Its diameter gradually increases as it
recedes from about the middle to about two-thirds of its length; there
it is a little constricted, and the first of the two pieces of which it
is composed there terminates. The first piece is rounded, for the
purpose, it would appear, of fitting itself upon another, which serves
as its base and pivot. This base is conical and of a scaly texture, and
terminates in rather an acute point. It is this point which is
articulated at the junction of the two small elongate portions of which
we spoke at the commencement, and which carry the trunk forward.

In repose, the posterior part of the trunk lies along the lower part of
the mouth, and the anterior part is folded back upon it, when it is
covered by the maxillæ, which then seem to form a portion of it. It has
further another interior envelope; these are the two first joints of the
labial palpi (in the _Apidæ_), which are entirely membranous, and these
in repose cling closely to the tongue laterally.

The bee would certainly not collect its honey differently from a flower
than it would from a glass wherein it might be placed to observe the
process; and here it never appeared to obtain the honey by suction. The
bee was never observed to place the end of its tongue in the drop of
syrup, as it would necessarily do if it were requisite to imbibe it
through what seems the small aperture at the extremity of the knob, at
the end of the tongue, previously described. As soon as the bee finds
itself near the spot spread with honey or syrup, it extends its tongue a
line or so beyond the end of the palpi, which continue to envelope it
throughout the rest of its length. If the honey be spread over the
glass, the anterior portion of the tongue, which is exposed, is turned
round that its superior surface may be applied to the glass. There this
portion does precisely what the tongue of any animal would do in lapping
a liquid. This tongue repeatedly rubs the glass, and, moving about with
astonishing rapidity, it makes hundreds of different inflexions.

If the drop of syrup presented to the bee be thicker, or if it meet with
a drop of honey, it then thrusts the anterior portion of its tongue into
the liquid, but apparently only to use it as a dog might do its tongue
in lapping milk or water. Even in the drop of honey the bee bends the
end of its tongue about, and lengthens and shortens it successively,
and, indeed, withdraws it from moment to moment. We then observe it not
merely lengthen and shorten this end, but it is also seen to curve it
about, causing from time to time the superior surface to become
concave,—to give, as it were, to the liquid with which it is loaded a
downward inclination towards the head. In fact, this portion of the
trunk appears to act as a tongue, and not as a pump. Indeed its
extremity, where the aperture for receiving the liquid is assumed to be,
is repeatedly above the surface of the liquid which the insect is
lapping.

By these continuous motions this anterior extremity of the tongue
charges itself with the nectareous fluid, and conveys it to the mouth.
It is along the upper surface of this pilose tongue that the liquid
passes. The bee strives especially to load and cover it with honey. In
shortening the tongue to the extent, sometimes, of withdrawing it
entirely beneath its sheaths, it conveys and deposits the liquid with
which it is charged within a sort of channel, formed by the upper
surface of the tongue and the sheaths which fold over it. Thus, these
sheaths are, perhaps, less for the purpose of covering the tongue than
to form and cover the channel by which the liquid is conveyed to the
mouth. I have previously remarked that the trunk can swell and contract;
these swellings and constrictions are observed to succeed each other,
and may be for the purpose of urging the liquid, already in transit
beneath the sheaths, forward towards the true mouth. Further, I moved
the sheaths aside from their position above the tongue of a bee which I
held in my fingers, and I succeeded, by means of the point of a pin, in
placing an extremely small drop of honey upon the tongue of this bee at
a spot where it could be covered by the extremities of the external
sheath. I then let these sheaths loose. Sometimes they spontaneously
resumed their previous position, and sometimes I assisted them to resume
it. The drop of honey which they then covered has in no instance
returned to the extremity of the tongue; it has always passed towards
the mouth, and doubtless entered that orifice itself. It is therefore
very certain that the bee imbibes its honey by lapping, and that it
never passes through the aperture which has been supposed to have been
seen at the extreme apex of the tongue. Did this aperture really exist,
it would be of extreme minuteness, and it did not appear to me possible
that a large drop of honey, which I have seen imbibed in a very few
instants, could in so short a time have passed by so minute an opening.
A further confirmation of the non-existence of this orifice has been
given me when, by pressing a tongue towards its origin to compel it to
swell, I have detected the liquid which gave it its extension, but all
my pressing would never make the liquid pass through the extremity,
although the pressure has sometimes made it almost rend the membranes,
to give it an opening to escape by. Having thus passed through the
œsophagus into the stomach, it is then regurgitated into its requisite
repository upon arriving at home.

                               Andrenidæ

    [Illustration: Apidæ.
        Fig. 9.—Mode of folding the tongue in repose. 1. In abnormal
        bee.
        2. In normal bee.
        _a_, point of articulation beneath the hypopharynx:
        _b_, apex of the tongue.]

The entire proboscis, with all its appendages attached, has in the
_Apidæ_ three distinct hinges or articulations, including that which
attaches it by its extreme base to the under surface of the mouth and
lower portion of the head, the cavity of which, when folded, it fills,
and even then the apex of the tongue protrudes in some genera beyond the
sheathing maxillæ. In the _Andrenidæ_ it has but two articulations, and
the maxillæ always cover them entirely in repose. The first
articulation, forming the fulcrum of the whole, is always elbowed in the
_Apidæ_, and consequently not capable, like the rest of the joints, of
full linear extension. The attached diagram will give a clearer
conception of the mode of folding: _a_ is the labium, and _b_ the
tongue.

As we have no complete description of the mode by which the tongue of
the bee is worked, and how it gathers up its honey, I thought it
desirable to be fuller upon the subject than was originally my
intention.

    [Illustration: Fig. 10.—Mandibles:
        1, of leaf-cutter bee (_Megachile_);
        2, of burrower (_Andrena_);
        3, of parasite (_Nomada_).]

The last portion of the _trophi_, also double, are the mandibles; they
articulate on each side with the cheeks; they act laterally, and are
variously formed, according to the economy of the insect. In the females
they are usually more or less toothed, and are especially broad, curved,
and toothed in the artisan bees. In _Apis_ and _Bombus_ they are
subdentate. In males they are frequently simply acute, but in some
species, especially in _Andrena_, they have a long spine at the base,
which points downwards when they are closed. To this sex they appear to
be of no use beyond aiding them to stay the wayward caprice or flight of
their mistresses; and, although they have an analogical structure in the
males of those genera wherein they are much dilated and toothed, yet
they do not seem to be at all used by that sex for any purpose but
sexual. In the females they are used for the construction of their
burrows and nests, and for the purpose of nipping the narrow spurs and
tubes of flowers to get at the nectar; and they often nip, whilst
seeking pollen, the anthers of the flowers which have not yet burst
their receptacles of pollen.

These insects must necessarily nicely appreciate the quantity of pollen
requisite to the full development of the young insect, and, although we
often observe a remarkable difference of size in the individuals of a
species, this may rather arise from some defect in the quality of the
nutritive purveyance than in its quantity, for instinct would as
efficiently provide for this purpose as it unquestionably guides to the
collection and storing of the nutritive supplies.

Having thus completed the description of the head and of all its
attachments, I proceed to—

The THORAX, which is divided by sutures into three parts already
mentioned above, viz. the _prothorax_, the _mesothorax_, and the
_metathorax_.

The collar, or upper part of the prothorax, is often very distinct, and
even angulated laterally in front, and frequently presents, both in
colouring and form, a specific character. At its under portion on each
side the anterior legs are articulated.

    [Illustration: Fig. 11.—Anterior leg.
        _a_, coxa;
        _b_, trochanter;
        _c_, femur, or thigh;
        _d_, tibia, or shank;
        _e_, spur and velum;
        _f_, planta and strigilis;
        _g_, digitus;
        _h_, claw;
        _i_, pulvillus, or cushion.]

All the legs comprise the _coxa_, or hip-joint; the _trochanter_, which
is a small joint forming the connection between this and the next joint
the _femur_, or thigh; the _tibia_, or shank; and the _tarsus_, or foot.
The latter consists of five joints, declining in length from the first,
which is generally as long as all the rest united together; the first,
in the anterior pair, being called the _palmæ_, or palms; and in the
four posterior _plantæ_, or soles; the other joints are called the
_digiti_, or fingers, or tarsus collectively; at the extremity of the
terminal one are the two claws, which are sometimes simple hooks, but
usually have a smaller hooklet within; they have both lateral and
perpendicular motion, and between their insertion is affixed the
_pulvillus_, or cushion. The _coxæ_ in their occasional processes
exhibit very useful specific characters, as do the markings and form of
the remaining joints of the leg and foot, which in several genera
furnish generic peculiarities. The four anterior tarsi have each a
moveable spine, or spur, at their apex within, which can be expanded to
the angle at which the insect wishes to place the limb, and to which it
forms a collateral support; the posterior tibiæ have two each of these
spurs, excepting in the genus _Apis_, which has none to this leg.
Attached to this spur on the anterior tibiæ of all the bees, there is,
within, a small _velum_, or sail, as it has been called; this is a small
angular appendage affixed within the spur by its base. At the base of
the palmæ of the same legs, and opposite the play of this velum, there
is a deep _sinus_, or curved incision, the _strigilis_, called thus or
the curry-comb, from the pecten, or comb of short stiff hair which
fringes its edge. Upon this aperture the _velum_ can act at the will of
the insect, and combined they form a circular orifice. The object of
this apparatus is to keep the antennæ clean, for the insect, when it
wishes to cleanse one or the other of them, lays it within this sinus of
the palma, and then, pressing the velum of the spur upon it, removes, by
the combined action of the comb and the velum, all excrescences or
soilure from it, and this process it repeats until satisfied with the
cleanliness of the organ: and this it may be frequently seen doing. This
arrangement proves how essential to the well-being of the insect is the
condition of its antennæ, the sinus, or strigilis, or curry-comb, as it
may be called, being always adapted in size to the thickness of the
antennæ, for insects being always both right- and left-handed, they
therefore use the limb on each side to brush the antenna of that side.
The palmæ and other joints of the tarsus of the fore legs are greatly
dilated in many males, or fringed externally with stiff setæ, which give
it as efficient a dilatation as if it were the expansion of its corneous
substance. The anterior tarsi of the females are likewise fringed with
hair, to enable them to sweep off and collect the pollen, and to assist
also in the construction and furnishing of their burrows. The
intermediate tarsi are as well often very much extended in the males,
being considerably longer than those of the other legs. The use of the
claws at the apex of the tarsi is evidently to enable the insect to
cling to surfaces.

The manner in which the bee conveys either the pollen, or other material
it purposes carrying home, to the posterior legs, or venter, which is to
bear it, is very curious. The rapidity of the motions of its legs is
then very great; so great, indeed, as to make it very difficult to
follow them; but it seems first to collect its material gradually with
its mandibles, from which the anterior tarsi gather it, and that on each
side passes successively the grains of which it consists to the
intermediate legs by multiplicated scrapings and twistings of the limbs;
this then passes it on by similar manœuvres, and deposits it, according
to the nature of the bee, upon the posterior _tibiæ_ and _plantæ_, or
upon the _venter_. The evidence of this process is speedily manifested
by the posterior legs gradually exhibiting an increasing pellet of
pollen. Thus, for this purpose, all the legs of the bees are more or
less covered with hair. It is the mandibles which are chiefly used in
their boring or excavating operations, applying their hands, or anterior
tarsi, only to clear their way; but by the constructive or artisan bees
they are used both in their building and mining operations, and are
worked like trowels to collect moist clay, and to apply it to the
masonry of their habitations.

The _mesothorax_, or central division of the thorax, has inserted on
each side near the centre the four wings, the anterior pair articulating
beneath the _squamulæ_, or wing-scales, which cover their base like an
epaulette, and this wing scale often yields a specific character. In
repose the four wings lie, horizontally, along the body, over the
abdomen, the superior above, the inferior beneath. The wings themselves
are transparent membranes, intersected by threads darker than their own
substance, called their nervures, which are supposed to be tubular.
These nervures and the spaces they enclose, called cells, are used in
the superior wing only, and only occasionally, as subsidiary generic
characters, and their terminology it will be desirable to describe, as
use will be made subsequently of it. At the same time, to facilitate the
comprehension of the terms, an illustrative diagram is appended; but
those parts only will be described which have positive generic
application. I may, however, first observe that upon the expansion of
the wings in flight, the insect has the voluntary power of making the
inferior cling to the superior wing by a series of hooklets with which
its anterior edge is furnished at about half the length of that wing,
which gives to the thus consolidated combination of the two a greater
force in beating the air to accelerate its progress. That the insect has
a control over the operation of these hooklets is very evident, for,
upon settling, it usually unlocks them, and the anterior are often seen
separated and raised perpendicularly over the insect; but that this can
be mechanically effected also is shown sometimes in pinning a bee for
setting, when by a lucky accident the pin catches the muscles which act
upon the wings, and they become distended, as in flight, closely linked
together. Both the diagram and the description of this superior wing I
borrow from an elaborate paper of my own in the first volume of the
‘Transactions of the Entomological Society of London,’ wherein I gave a
tabulated view, in chronological order, of the nomenclature introduced
by successive entomologists in the use they made of the anterior wing of
the _Hymenoptera_ for generic subdivision, and which I subsequently
applied to my own work upon the ‘Fossorial Hymenoptera of Great
Britain.’

    [Illustration: Fig. 12.—Superior wing.
        _a_, marginal cell;
        _b_, first cubital or submarginal cell;
        _c_, second ditto;
        _d_, third ditto;
        _e_ and _f_, first and second recurrent nervures.]

Attached to the mesothorax in the centre, above and behind, are the
scutellum and post-scutellum, which in colouring or form often yield
subsidiary generic or specific characters. On each side of the
mesothorax in front, above the pectus, or breast, and just below and
before the articulation of the anterior wings, there is a small
tubercle, or boss, separated from the surrounding integument by a
suture, the colouring of which frequently yields a specific character,
but its uses are not known.

    [Illustration: Fig. 13.—Posterior legs:
        1, of abnormal bee (_Andrena_);
        2, scopuliped normal bee (_Eucera_);
        3, parasitic bee (_Nomada_).
        _a_, coxa;
        _b_, trochanter, with flocculus;
        _c_, femur;
        _d_, tibia;
        _e_, planta;
        _f_, spinulæ;
        _g_, tarsus, with its claws.]

The _metathorax_ carries the posterior legs laterally beneath, and in
the centre, behind, the abdomen. The posterior legs are the chief organs
used by the majority of bees for the conveyance of pollen to store in
their cells, or, as in the case of humble-bees or the hive bee, the bee
bread for the food for the young, or the requisite materials, in the
majority of other bees, for nidification. To this end they are either
densely clothed with hair throughout their whole extent,—usually
externally only,—or this is limited to the external surface of the
posterior shank. In the social bees this shank is edged externally with
stiff bristles. In these, as in most of the bees, this limb greatly and
gradually expands towards its articulation with the _planta_, or first
joint of the tarsus; and this surface, which is perfectly smooth, serves
to the social bee as a sort of basket to hold and convey the collected
materials. The first joint of the tarsus, or planta, of this leg is also
used in the domestic economy of the insect to assist in the same object.
In the domestic bee the under side of the posterior plantæ have a very
peculiar structure, consisting of a series of ten transverse broad
parallel lines of minute dense but short brushes, which are used in the
manipulations within the hive. Neither the Queen-bee nor the drone have
this structure, and in the humble-bee and scopuliped bees the same joint
is uniformly covered with this brush without its being separated into
lines.

The ABDOMEN of bees has many shapes, its form being elliptical,
cylindrical, subcylindrical, clavate, conical or subconical, and
sometimes semicircular, or concavo-convex. It consists of six imbricated
plates, called segments, in the female, and of seven in the male; in the
latter sex, in several genera, it takes beneath at its base and at its
apex, as well as at the extremity of the latter, remarkable forms and
armature. It is very variously clothed and coloured, and sometimes
extremely gaily and elegantly so; these various markings often giving
the insects their specific characteristics; the clothing of the under
side of this segment of the body, likewise, furnishes subsidiary generic
characters, especially in the artisan bees, in whom it takes the place
of the posterior legs as a polliniferous organ. This is possibly because
were the supply conveyed _upon_ their posterior legs it would be rubbed
away as they entered the narrow apertures of their nests. Nature does
nothing in vain, and there is evidently a purpose in this arrangement.

If we can trace peculiarities of structure to efficient reasons,
differences of form may be rationally concluded as having their cause
too, even if it elude our explanatory research. Although the reason of
peculiar structure is not always obvious, it must exist, though
undetected; as, for instance, why in some bees, as in _Megachile_,
_Osmia_, _Chelostoma_, _Anthidium_, etc., the under side of the abdomen
should be furnished densely with hairs to carry their provision of
pollen home to their nest, when in other bees, as in _Dasypoda_,
_Panurgus_, _Eucera_, _Anthophora_, etc. etc., it is conveyed upon the
posterior legs, we do not know; we can only surmise that it is either to
save the insect, in the former case, the labour of constructing a larger
cylinder for nidification, so to prevent the possibility of its being
rubbed off from the external surface of the legs, did these carry it, in
entering the burrow, it being protected from this abrasion by being
placed beneath the venter. In such insects the abdomen is usually
truncated at its origin, or even hollowed within its base, thus to meet
the projection of the metathorax, enabling it to draw itself closely up
together, making the abdomen and metathorax, as it were, cohere. A
different form of abdomen occurs in those bees which carry the pollen on
their posterior legs. It is then more or less elliptical or lanceolate,
which form permits the legs to be drawn up towards the metathorax within
the space that kind of form furnishes, which, by this different but
equivalent arrangement, meets the same object. The similarity of the
adjustment of the abdomen to the metathorax to that of _Megachile_, etc.
in _Apis_ and _Bombus_, by which insects the provision is also carried
on the posterior legs, results from the totally different economy and
habitation of the social bees, to which this structure is necessary for
many purposes.

If we observe this same peculiarity of structure in the cuckoo, or
parasitical bees, it is because we find resemblances where there are
alliances. Thus, the male artisan bees, although not assisting in the
labour of constructing the apartments, have similarly dilated mandibles
to those of their females. So also, in the form of the abdomen, the
_Nomadæ_ are like the _Andrenæ_ and _Halicti_, upon which they are
chiefly parasitical. _Melecta_ resembles _Anthophora_; _Cælioxys_ has
the form of _Megachile_, both in the hollowed base of the abdomen and
the peculiar manner the latter has of raising its extremity,—something
like a _Staphylinus_. Many other peculiarities of resemblance might be
enumerated.

Having thus completed the description of the external anatomy of the bee
desirable to be known for facilitating the comprehension of what I may
have subsequently to say. I shall now refer to a few peculiarities of
their manners, which could not be conveniently introduced elsewhere.

In their modes of flight bees vary considerably; some dart along in a
direct line, with almost the velocity of lightning, visit a flower for
an instant, and then dart off again with the same fleetness and
vivacity, like _Saropoda_ and _Anthophora_; others leisurely visit every
blossom, even upon a crowded plant, with patient assiduity, like
_Bombus_; and some, either from fatigue, or heat, or intoxication,
repose, like luxurious Sybarites, within the corolla of the flower. The
males seem to flutter about in idle vagrancy, and may be often observed
enjoying themselves upon some fragrant hedge-row. But the domestic bee
and the humble-bee are the most sedulous in their avocation, and both
cheering their labour with their seemingly self-satisfied and monotonous
hum.

Bees, too, have a voice; but this voice does not proceed from their
mouth, nor is it the result of air passed from the lungs through the
larynx, and modulated by the tongue, teeth, and lips; for bees breathe
through spiracles placed laterally along the several segments of the
body, and their interior is aerified by tracheæ, which ramify variously
through it; but their voice is produced by the vibration of the wings
beating the air during flight. Even as Linnæus constructed a floral
clock to indicate the succession of hours by the expansion of the
blossoms of flowers, so might a Beethoven or a Mendelssohn—the latter in
the spirit of his philosophical ancestor—note down the several sounds of
the hum of the many kinds of bees to the construction of a scale of
harmonic proportions, whose Æolian tones, heard in the fitfulness of
accidental reverberation amidst the solitudes of nature, repeatedly
awaken in the mind of the entomologist the soothing sensation of a soft,
voluptuous, but melancholy languor, or exhilarate him with the pleasing
feeling of brisk liveliness and impatient energy.

It is rarely that a bee is seen to walk, although a humble-bee or hive
bee may be seen crawling sometimes from flower to flower on the same
footstalk, but they are never good pedestrians. They convey themselves
upon the wing from blossom to blossom, and even on proceeding home they
alight close to the aperture of their excavated nidus, to which an
unerring instinct seems to guide them. There occasionally they will meet
with the intrusive parasite, to whom some genera (_Anthophora_,
_Colletes_) give immediate battle, and usually succeed in repulsing the
interloper, who patiently awaits a more favourable opportunity to effect
her object.

Bees are exceedingly susceptible of atmospheric changes; even the
passage of a heavy cloud over the sun will drive them home; and if an
easterly wind prevail, however fine the weather may otherwise be, they
have a sort of rheumatic abhorrence of its influences, and abide at
home, of which I have had sometimes woful experience in long unfruitful
journeys.

The cause would seem to be the deficiency of electricity in the air, for
if the air be charged, and a westerly wind blow, or there be a still
sultriness with even an occasionally overcast sky, they are actively on
the alert, and extremely vivacious. They are made so possibly by the
operation of the influence upon their own system conjunctively with the
intensity of its action upon the vegetable kingdom, and the secretions
of the flowers both odorous and nectarian.

Bees do not seem to be very early risers, the influence of the sun being
their great prompter, and until that grows with the progress of the
morning they are not numerously abroad. Early sometimes in the afternoon
some species wend homewards, but during the greatest heat of the day
they are most actively on the alert. The numbers of individuals that are
on the wing at the same time must be astounding, for the inhabitants of
a single colony, where they may, perhaps, be called semi-gregarious,
from nidificating collectively within a circumscribed space, can be
computed by myriads. And then the multitude of such colonies within even
a limited area! When we add to this the many species with the same
productiveness! Yet who, in walking abroad, sees them but the
experienced entomologist? When we consider the important function they
exercise in the economy of nature, and that but for them, in the
majority of instances, flowers would expand their beautiful blossoms in
abortive sterility, we can but wonder at the wise and exuberant
provision which forecasts the necessity and provides accordingly. But
that even these should not superabound, there is a counterbalance in the
numerous _Enemies_ to which they are exposed. The insectivorous animals,
birds, among which there is one especially their arch-enemy—the
bee-eater; those reptiles which can reach them; many insects in a
variety of ways, as the cuckoo-bees, whose foster-young starve the
legitimate offspring by consuming its sustenance; and personal
parasites, whose abnormal and eccentric structure required an Order to
be established for their admission. Strange creatures! more like
microscopic repetitions of antediluvian enormities than anything within
the visible creation, and to whose remarkable peculiarities I shall have
occasion to return. Amongst the _Diptera_ and _Lepidoptera_ also they
have their enemies.

Bees are sometimes exceedingly pleasant to capture, for many of them
emit the most agreeable scents; some a pungent and refreshing fragrance
of lemons; others the rich odour of the sweetest-scented rose; and some
a powerful perfume of balsamic fragrance and vigorous intensity. These
have their set-off in others which yield a most offensive smell, to
which that of garlic is pleasant, and assafœtida a nosegay. These odours
must have some purpose in their economy, but what it may be has not been
ascertained.

They present very frequently remarkable disparities of structure and
appearance in the sexes, so much so that its infrequency is rather the
exception than the rule, and nothing in many cases but practical
experience can associate together the legitimate sexes. Differences of
size are the simplest conditions of these distinctions, for they occur
also in individuals of the same sex. Differences of colour, consisting
in increased intensity in the males, are also usually easily recognized;
but the relative length and structure of the antennæ is a more marked
disparity, and the development is always in favour of the male. The
differences in the compound eyes are conspicuous in our native genera
only in the drone, where they converge on the vertex, and throw the
stemmata down upon the face. I have before alluded to special
peculiarities in the legs when treating of those limbs. In the wings
there are occasional differences, but so slight as not to require, in a
general survey, special notice; but wherever they occur it is always in
the male that the greatest extension of those limbs is found. The
differences in the termination of the abdomen I have noticed above, and
these sexual peculiarities in some genera are very marked. The spines
which arm it in _Anthidium_ and _Osmia_, and its peculiar structure in
_Chelostoma_ we can account for; but we have not the same clue to their
uses in _Cælioxys_, in which the action of the abdomen is upward, and
not downward, as in the others.

The association of the legitimate partners of our native species has
been to a great extent already accomplished and recorded; therefore, in
this case, with the requisite guides to further instruction at hand, the
commencing entomologist will find no obstruction, but may register the
observations of his own experience to verify the discoveries of his
predecessors.

It would seem from the facts that have been recorded, and the close
investigations made, that in some instances the next year’s bee is
already disclosed and in the imago state, in the autumn of the existing
year, so that it is ready, upon the first genial weather in the spring,
to work its way out of its nidus, and take its part in the duties it has
to perform. Whether this be for the economy of the food to the larva, or
the saving of labour to the parent in gathering it, or that it would be
prejudicial for it to lie dormant in the pupa state during the winter is
not known, but thus in many instances it is. Sometimes a late autumnal
impregnation takes place, for the males of some _Andrenæ_, _Halicti_,
and _Bombi_ are found abroad only late in the autumn, and then in fine
and recently disclosed condition.

It is a singular circumstance in the history of some species, that where
they abound one season, nidificating on a certain spot in profusion, the
following year, perhaps, and the year succeeding that, they will not be
seen at all, but yet again a further year, and there they are as
innumerable as ever.

What may control this intermittent appearance it is impossible to
conceive, all the conditions of the spot and its surroundings being the
same. This I have found to be a peculiarity incidental to many of the
aculeate _Hymenoptera_. It occurs also in the flowering of many plants
which blossom irregularly from season to season. It is a fact scarcely
concordant with the observed rapidity of the disclosure of the larva
from the egg, and the speedy growth, development, and transformation of
the latter into the pupa and imago.

The wild bees appear to be of annual, or of even more restricted
duration merely. Of this, however, we have no certainty. The conclusion
is derived chiefly from the circumstance that, as they progressively
come forth with the growth of the year, they, when first appearing, are
in fine and unsoiled condition. There are evidently in some species two
broods in the year; the one in the spring and the other autumnal. In
bees without pubescence we have not the same guide. But humble-bees are
reputed to have a longer life than of one year, and hive bees are said
to survive several years, a duration of existence inconsistent with
analogy, and which has been repeatedly and strongly denied.

In speaking of the _antennæ_ and _palpi_, I have called them sensiferous
organs. The organ necessarily implies the perception, or whatever it may
be, conveyed to the sensorium through its means, this being the
receptacle of the sensation or idea, the external organ communicates. It
is thus that activity is given to a power of discrimination, and
consequently of election or rejection by the creature. This sensorium,
in the higher animals, is the brain; and in the lower, where the nervous
system is very differently constituted, a ganglion, or knot of nervous
substance. That this brain, or ganglion, is the power exercising the
control, may not be admitted, although it is there that our research
compulsively terminates. The power itself is essentially spiritual,
acting through a material agent, and may be an efflux of this nervous
mass. Whether it cease with the death of the organ, we have no means of
knowing. That it may be in some way analogous in nature to the human
mind, but to a limited extent, there is reason to surmise. This power,
in its collective capacity, is called INSTINCT. This instinct is a
faculty whose clear comprehension and lucid definition seem impossible
to our understanding. Its attributes are very various, and its
operations are always all but perfect. It is an almost unerring guide to
the creature exercising it, and is as fully developed on its awakening
as is, and with it, the imago upon its transformation.

Although observation has thought to have detected that experience
sometimes uses a selection of means, and thus occasionally modifies the
rigid exercise of the faculty, by adapting itself to the force of
circumstances, it, when so, evidently assumes a higher character than
has been willingly accorded to it. This instinct teaches the just
disclosed bee, without other teaching than that of the intuitive
faculty, where to find its food, and how to build its abode. It directs
it to the satisfying its material needs, and instructs it to provide for
its offspring, and to protect them whilst in their nidus; the impulse to
which follows immediately upon the satisfaction of the sexual desire, to
which it is the seal.

If it be _memory_ that guides the bee from its wide wanderings back to
its home, this then becomes an attribute to the faculty. Instinct
indicates to them their enemies, and the wrongs these may intend, and
shows them how they may be repulsed or evaded. In some of its operations
it seems to be of a more perfect capacity than the operative faculty of
human intelligence.

The senses evidently possessed by our insects are sight, feeling, taste,
and smell, but whether they hear we cannot know, although the antennæ
have been supposed to be its organ, for the apparent responsiveness of
these to loud and sudden sounds, may equally result from the agitations
of the air these produce. Their possession of touch, taste, and smell,
are implied from what has been observed.

They certainly exercise a will, evinced by their power of
discrimination, which decides what is salutary and what is noxious; and
the passions are exemplified in their revenge, their sexual love, and
their affection for their offspring, the latter being exhibited in their
unremitting labour and careful provision for them, although they are
never to see them. If there be any precedence in the order of the
relative quality and distinction of the bees, it will be shown in the
degree of superiority with which this function is accomplished. The
perfection of this function we see progressively maturing as it passes
onwards from the merely burrowing-bee to the more complicated processes
of the masons, carpenters, and upholsterers,—all solitary insects, and
working each individually and separately to the accomplishment of its
object. But we may certainly inquire where we shall intercalate the
sagacity of the cuckoo-bees. A vast bound is immediately made from the
artisan bees to the social bees with three sexes, which, as first shown
in the humble-bee, works in small and rude communities, with dwellings
of irregular construction. The next and most perfect grade is the
metropolitan polity, accomplished architecture, laborious parsimony,
indomitable perseverance, and well-organized subordination of the
involuntary friend of man, the domestic bee. This insect has furnished
Scriptural figures of exquisite sweetness, poetry with pleasing
metaphors, morality with aphorisms, and the most elegant of the Latin
poets with the subject of the supremest of his perfect Georgics.

That bees feel pain may be assumed from the evidence we have of their
feeling pleasure, although instances are on record of insects surviving
for months impaled; and they lose a limb, or even an antenna, without
evincing much suffering, and I have seen a humble-bee crawling along on
the ground with its abdomen entirely torn away.

In speaking of the antennæ above, as possibly the organs of hearing, I
would wish to add, that they evidently possess some complex function, of
which, not possessing any analogy, we cannot certainly conceive any
notion. They are observed to be used as instruments of touch, and that
too of the nicest discrimination. They seem to be extremely sensitive to
the vibrations of sound and the undulations of air, and keenly
appreciative of atmospheric influences, of heat, of cold, and of
electrical agitations. That they are important media in sexual
communication must be assumed from their great differences of structure
and size in the sexes, probably both as organs of scent and stimulation.
I have often observed bees thrust their antennæ into flowers, one at the
time, before they have entered the flower themselves, and in some
insects, as in the Ichneumons, they are constantly in a state of
vibration,—a tribe which, although of the same order, are remote in
position from the bees, yet they may be instructively referred to by way
of analogy in the discussion of the uses of an organ, whose functions so
clearly follow its structure and position in the organization of the
entire class of insects, that the analogy might be safely assumed in
application to every family of the class, if observation could only
correctly ascertain its uses in any one of them.

That it is of primary signification to the bees, is sufficiently shown
by nature having furnished these insects with an apparatus designed
solely to keep the antennæ clean, and which I have described above, when
speaking of the structure of the anterior leg.

In the social tribes the antennæ are used as means of communication. The
social ants, bees, and wasps may be often seen striking each other’s
antennæ, and then they will each be observed to go off in directions
different from that which they were pursuing. An extraordinary instance
of this mode of communication once came under my own notice, having been
called to observe it. There was a dead cricket in my kitchen, another
issued from its hole, and in its ramblings came across this dead one;
after walking round, and examining it with its antennæ and fore legs a
short time, it started off. Shortly, either attracted by sound, or
meeting it by accident, it came across a fellow; they plied their
antennæ together, and the result was that both returned to their dead
companion, and dragged him away to their burrowing-place,—an
extraordinary instance of intercommunication which I can vouch for.

It would be curious to know if the means of communication thus evidently
possessed by animals, extends beyond the social and gregarious tribes,
and whether the faculty undergoes any change through differences of
climate and locality, as man has done in the lapse of time. For man,
notwithstanding the vastly divergent differences of race, may be
obscurely tracked through the dim trail of the affiliation of languages
to one common origin. But the complete identity of habit throughout the
world of those genera which are native with us, would seem to affirm
that they are as closely allied in every other particular, were we in a
condition to make the investigation, and whence we may conclusively
assume that they all had one central commencement.

That this mode of communication, and this exercise of the organ in the
solitary tribes is limited to the season of their amours is very
probable, and I apprehend that it is not exercised between individuals
of distinct species. But that, at that period, their action is
intensified may be presumed from the then greater activity of the males,
who seem to have been called into existence only to fulfil that great
object of nature, and which she associates invariably with gratification
and pleasure. Even in plants it may be observed to be attended with
something very analogous to animal enjoyment in the peculiar development
at that period of an excessively energetic propulsion, which is the
nearest approach the vegetable kingdom makes to the higher phase of
sensiferous life.

The clothing and colouring of bees are very various, but the gayest are
the parasites, red and yellow, with their various tints, and white and
cream-colour decorate them. The ordinary colour is deep brown, or
chestnut, or black. Where the pubescence is not dense, they are often
deeply punctured, and exhibit many metallic tinges. Many are thickly
clothed with long hair, and this, especially in the _Bombi_ and
_Apathi_, is sometimes of bright gay colour, yellow, red, white, of a
rich brown, or an intense black, sometimes in bands of different tints
upon the same insect, and sometimes of one uniform hue.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER III

         SKETCH OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA OF BRITISH BEES.


IN giving a broad sketch of the geography of the genera of bees which
are native to our islands, but whose local distribution I shall reserve
for notice in the account of the genera themselves, I must regret at the
outset the lack of materials for its satisfactory treatment.

There are but very few exceptions to the dearth of assiduity in this
direction; a very favourable one is that of the son of the late
venerable hymenopterologist, the Count le Pelletier de St. Fargeau, who,
at his military post as an officer of the French army in Algeria,
stationed at Oran, collected energetically for his father in that
district, and where, in one of his collecting excursions, he was
severely wounded by a musket-ball. Another equally favourable exception
is that of Sydney Smith Saunders, Esq., residing at Prevesa, in Albania,
who has strenuously and perseveringly collected in that country. Here
and there we can point to something having been done in Upper India, in
the vicinity of Poonah, at Pondicherry, in Java, in some limited
localities of China, and to some extent in Australia, Tasmania, and New
Zealand, but nothing of any magnitude. There is much hope that a great
deal has been done in Ceylon by Mr. Thwaites, who, when resident at
Bristol, was a most ardent and successful hymenopterologist.

The Egyptian _Hymenoptera_ have been extensively and admirably figured
by Savigny, in the Imperial superb work published under the auspices of
Napoleon I., but to these, unfortunately, no descriptive text was
published, and they are therefore as useless to science as if they had
not been figured. But those collected by Ehrenberg, and figured by Klug,
in the ‘Symbolæ Physicæ,’ exhibit how rich in variety is that remarkable
region. These figures may be called the _ne plus ultra_ of entomological
artistic skill.

Unfortunately, this Order has been sadly neglected for the sake of the
less troublesome _Coleoptera_, and the more conspicuous _Lepidoptera_.
This is plainly perceptible from the paucity of species recorded as
having been once in the Count Dejean’s collection, where we might have
expected to have obtained a rich view of the _Hymenoptera_ of Spain; as
also in those of other French collectors, who have had rare but
neglected opportunities for the purpose. It is true M. Brullé has done a
good deal in Greece. We are, as yet, in comparative ignorance, from the
same cause of neglect, of the _Hymenoptera_ of Italy, excepting
something that has been done by the Marquis Spinola, in Liguria, and by
Rossi, in Tuscany. A little has been contributed towards that of
Carniola, but we are almost ignorant of the _Hymenoptera_ of Sicily,
which, from various causes, are likely to be very peculiar. Mr.
Swainson’s collection of them, although not numerous, were neglected
until they became unintelligible. The only European countries that have
been tolerably gleaned are Germany, Sweden, a part of Russia, and even
Finland. It is impossible for any entomologist to examine every locality
for himself, he must, in great measure, depend on the labours of others;
and, of course, I can only speak of the collections which are accessible
to me, or which are described in monographs, or have been named in lists
that have been published. Doubtless the Museum of Berlin, so long under
the administration of a lover of the Order, Dr. Klug, would present a
large contribution to our knowledge of the distribution of the forms,
did a list of its riches exist. Such a list of the _menoptera_ of
Portugal, contained in Count Hoffmansegg’s collection, was published
many years ago in Illiger’s ‘Magazin der Insectenkunde.’

It has been a fatality incidental to this entomological branch of the
study of natural history that some of its most energetic cultivators
have been taken early away. There was formerly Illiger, then our own
Leach, and then Erichsen. Leach, but for his afflicting malady, would
have done much for the science; still, let us hope that the
_Hymenoptera_, and especially the bees, are gaining ground in the
estimation of entomologists generally, and that not many years will pass
before collectors will possess them in abundance. For the present, I can
but give a slight summary of the knowledge we possess on this subject.

Thus science has sustained great loss by reason of the unfortunate
neglect which the family of bees, and, indeed, the Order of
_Hymenoptera_ generally, has met with from collectors in distant
localities whose tastes have led so directly to the collection of other
more favoured Orders, and the opportunities for repairing the
consequences of such neglect being in some cases extremely rare. The
present slight attempt to trace the geography and cosmopolitan range of
our native genera of bees will necessarily be affected to some
considerable extent by this neglect.

Although the materials in our possession will yield some fruit, yet
their collection will be but the gleaner’s handful, instead of a loaded
wain from a rich and abundant harvest. As what I have gathered may still
have an interest for some of my readers, I will lay it before them, and
in doing so I shall take the genera in their methodical series.

The genus COLLETES comes first, a position the more remarkable from the
peculiarities of its economy and form, which bring it closely to the
true bees, as do also its aptitude, by reason of its structure, for
collecting pollen, and its energy in gathering it. The divergence in the
form of the tongue brings it, however, to the extreme commencement of
the series, it being the closest structural link we find for connecting
the bees with the preceding family of wasps. This genus, in our own
species, ranges through northern Europe to the high latitude of Finland,
passing through Sweden; and it occurs also in Russia and in the Polish
Ukraine. In other species than ours, and differing among themselves, it
occurs at both extremities of Africa, in Egypt, and Algeria, and at the
Cape of Good Hope; but whether throughout the wide interval collections
do not inform us. It has been sent from Turkey, but whence?—for this is
as vague a designation as Russia, both being empires which spread over
vast areas,—and, if found in their Asiatic divisions, are the only
instances we know of its Asiatic occurrence. It is so easy for
collectors to add to their specimens a defined and precise locality,
that its omission in any instance is to be regretted, as in many ways,
and in all kinds of collections, it might be very serviceable to
science. To our present purpose it has but a collateral interest as an
object of curiosity, yet curiosity has led to many discoveries which
have proved valuable to mankind. All the divisions of natural science
have a mutual and convertible bearing, and closely interlink in their
relations. Thus, insects denote the botany, which further indicates the
climate or elevation and soil; and the superficial soil will point
geological conclusions to subsoil and substructure. One natural science
well mastered gives a key to the great storehouse of nature’s riches,
and yields a harvest of many different crops. This episode may be
excused for the hint it is intended to give of the paramount importance
of the correct registration of special localities.

The genus _Colletes_ also occurs in the Canary Islands, which shows a
trending tendency to its southern habitat at the Cape of Good Hope. It
occurs on the western edge of South America, in Chili; it is found on
its northern boundary in Columbia, and has been discovered in the
southern States of North America, in Florida and Georgia; but there is
no record of its further northern occurrence upon that continent. About
thirty species are known.

The genus PROSOPIS, or as it is more familiarly known by the name of
HYLÆUS, is found in some of our native species throughout France and
Germany, and, like the preceding, as high up as Finland, through Denmark
and Sweden, to the adjacent parts of Russia. It is remarkable that it is
caught in Algeria, although not recorded as occurring in several of the
southern European States. But the apparent restriction of some of our
species to our own islands possibly arises from the fact of special
attention having been paid to them in this country only.

The genus itself, in other and more variegated forms than ours, presents
itself in some portions of southern and south-western Europe, where the
highly ornamented species would point almost to the certainty of its
being a parasitical genus, great decoration being in our native genera
of bees the badge of parasitism, and may be indicative of those habits,
combined as they are conjunctively with their destitution of
polliniferous organs. Some of our native entomologists have, however,
assumed, upon what appears to me very inconclusive grounds, that the
genus is not parasitical. The observations, however, of the most
distinguished French hymenopterologists confirm the notion of their
being parasites, which appears strengthened by the argument above
suggested with regard to colour.

This genus is apparently fond of hot climates. In eastern Europe, it
occurs in Albania and the Morea, its extreme western domicile is
Portugal, and its southern European habitat is Sicily. It is found in
Algeria and Egypt, and at the Cape of Good Hope. We discover it in
India, in the southern tropics at the Brazils, and in the northern
tropics at the Sandwich Islands; and it ranges along the southern edge
of Australia, from Swan River through Adelaide and Port Phillip to
Tasmania. The United States of North America furnish it, and on that
continent it seems to contradict its ordinary tropical inclination by
being exceptionally found upon the confines of the arctic circle at
Hudson’s Bay. Nearly sixty well-distinguished species are recorded.

The genus SPHECODES has also a wide distribution. Our native species are
found throughout France and Germany, Greece and Spain, still one or two
seem limited to our islands. The genus is recorded as in Albania,
Algeria, and Egypt; it is found on the western edge of Africa at the
Canaries; it occurs also in northern India, in the United States, on the
western side of South America at Chili, and then we have a wide gap, for
its next appearance is at Sydney, New South Wales. About twenty species
are known.

The genus ANDRENA, although infinitely more numerous in species than the
genus _Halictus_, which is also abundant, does not appear to have so
wide a distribution as the latter. Peculiarities of habits possibly
limit its diffusion, although nothing has occurred to naturalists to
explain the circumstance, unless it be the adventitious fact of no
specimens having fallen into the hands of the collector. Our own
species, represented by one or several members, are found (although some
seem restricted to England) throughout Europe, north and south, east and
west, as also in its islands. In Africa it is seen in Algeria and Egypt,
and it occurs in the Canaries; and in Asia it is found in Siberia, and
in northern India; but we have no connecting chain to link those Asiatic
and African localities,—although we may well suppose that it might be
discovered amongst the steppes of Thibet and Tartary, revelling amidst
the flowers of their luxuriant pastures, and even amongst the Persian
sands. It passes through the United States from Florida up and to our
own colony of Nova Scotia, and extends its range to Hudson’s Bay. We do
not trace it further. Nearly two hundred species occur.

The genus CILISSA, too, has a limited distribution, and occurs in the
same countries, but ranges as high as Lapland; it also crosses the
Atlantic, being found in the United States. About six are known.

Our solitary species of the genus MACROPIS, which is isolated possibly
only from having been overlooked, appears to have but a European
existence, and is found in France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and
Finland.

The genus HALICTUS is very cosmopolitan. Some of our own species occur
throughout Europe, excepting only Italy and Sicily, although they are to
be found in Portugal and Dalmatia, thus traversing its entire breadth;
but from the latter country they do not seem to range down to Albania
and Greece, yet are they discovered in Malta, and even in southern
Africa, but they have not been recorded as extant in northern portions
of that continent. Other species have been sent from the western coast
of Africa and the adjacent Canaries, with their adjunct, Madeira, and
the genus ranges from Barbary through Senegal and Sierra Leone; some
species also are found at the Cape of Good Hope.

On the other side of Africa the genus has been discovered at the Isle of
Bourbon; it then takes a wide sweep, occurring first in northern India;
it then springs up at Foo-chow-foo, and it is found in northern China.
In western Asia it occurs in Syria. Across the Pacific it is found in
Chili. Its next appearance on the rich and diversified continent of
America is across its southern bulk, presenting itself in the Brazils,
and on its northern boundary at Cayenne, and in Columbia; and it then
appears again in Jamaica. In North America it occurs throughout the
United States from Florida upwards, where the genus in its species has a
very English aspect, and if they be dissimilar, as may be fairly
surmised, they are so very like our own that one is said to be
absolutely identical throughout Europe and in Ohio. It passes still
forward and occurs in Nova Scotia, Hudson’s Bay, and elsewhere in arctic
America, where the botanist might almost herbalize through the agency of
our insects, for the pollen they carry and still retain in cabinets
would often indicate the plants which they there frequent. Thus those
stern regions are not barren in fragrant and attractive beauties. We
find it, too, in common with _Sphecodes_ at Sydney, New South Wales,
whence, doubtless, it passed to New Zealand, where it has been
collected. About one hundred and fifty are registered.

With the next genus, DASYPODA, I terminate the geography of the
_Andrenidæ_. Our own single species of these very elegant bees occurs
throughout France and Germany, and abounds in Sweden. Other species, all
elegant, occur in the Isles of Greece, in Albania, and the Morea;
profusely at Malaga in Spain, and at the further extremity of northern
Africa in Tunis, and in Egypt. Twenty are known.

The genus PANURGUS is the advanced guard of the true bees, for, although
it still retains much of the appearance and structure of the terminal
genus of the preceding subfamily of _Andrenidæ_, it is strictly
distinct, and well links the two subfamilies together. This very
peculiar form is limited in number of species and in distribution, for
five only have been recorded.

Our own species occur throughout France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland,
Denmark, Sweden, and Finland, and one of them has also been sent from
Oran. The genus is small, and may have been overlooked in other
countries, although its appearance is sufficiently distinct and marked
to have caught the eye. It is as lithe and active as a Malay, as black
as a negro, and as hairy as a gorilla, looking like a little ursine
sweep.

The genus EUCERA, of which we have but one representative, although
considerably more than fifty species are known, has not so wide a range
as might be expected from their numbers. Our own is found throughout
Europe and in Algeria. Other species occur in Russia, the Morea,
Albania, Dalmatia, and Egypt. In Asia some are found in Syria, and at
Bagdad; and from the New World they have been sent from Cayenne and the
United States.

The genus ANTHOPHORA, to which the genus _Saropoda_ is very closely
allied,—so closely, indeed, that by the celebrated hymenopterologist Le
Pelletier de St. Fargeau the species of both are incorporated
together,—has, even as now restricted, a world-wide dissemination, and
numbers nearly a hundred and fifty species. Several of our own occur
throughout France and Italy and the whole of northern Europe, and even
among the Esquimaux in the arctic regions, showing that a bridal bouquet
may be gathered even there; for where bees are flowers must abound.

The genus in other species shows itself in the south of Europe, viz. in
Spain, Sicily, the Morea, and Dalmatia; by way of Syria and Arabia Felix
it passes down to Egypt and occurs in Nubia and also in Algeria. It dots
the western coast of Africa at Senegal and Guinea, and has been
discovered in the Canaries, and again makes its appearance at the Cape
of Good Hope, rounding it to Natal. It travels round the peninsula of
India, being found at Bombay, in Bengal, and in the island of Ceylon,
and passes onward by way of Hongkong to northern China, where, dipping
to the Philippines, it next occurs in Australia. In the New World it is
found on its western side at Chili, and traverses that continent to
Paraguay and Pará, and has been sent from the West India Islands of
Cuba, St. Domingo, and Guadaloupe. From Mexico, where we next find it,
it passes to Indiana, and occurs throughout the United States, and thus
completes its progress round the world. About one hundred and thirty are
known.

The genus SAROPODA is closely allied to _Anthophora_, as closely as
_Heriades_ is to _Chelostoma_, and is very limited in numbers, ten only
being known, and but one of which is native with us. The genus occurs
throughout France and Germany, and has been sent from Russia, Egypt,
South Africa, and Australia, thus having a very wide range
notwithstanding the paucity of its species.

The very pretty genus CERATINA, although numbering but few
species,—fewer than thirty,—and although not found in Australasia, is
widely scattered throughout the Old and the New Worlds. Our own species
inhabits as far north as Russia. Other species occur throughout France,
and in the south of Europe, and show themselves in the Morea, and in
Albania. North, South, and Western Africa possess the genus, it being
found in Algeria and at the Cape of Good Hope, and in the intervening
district of Senegal. It has been brought from Ceylon and Bengal, and
also from the north of India. It reaches China by way of Java and
Hongkong: and in the New World has been found in the Brazils and
Cayenne, in the Southern, and throughout the United States in the
Northern continent.

The genus NOMADA is the first of the genuine parasitical bees, and about
the habits of which no doubt can be entertained; certainly not the same
as attaches both to _Hylæus_ and _Sphecodes_, among the _Andrenidæ_. The
parasitical habits of Nomada are evident and unmistakable. This is the
handsomest genus, in variety of colour and elegance of form, of all our
native bees, but the species are never conspicuous for size. They have
much of the appearance of wasps, and are often mistaken for them even by
entomologists, who have not paid attention to bees. Many of our native
species seem limited to our own islands: others of our species occur in
France and Germany, and through Denmark in direct line to Lapland,
turning down into Russia, and have been caught as far south as Albania.
One of our species, or so like as to want distinguishing
characteristics, is found in Canada. Did ours migrate there? and how?
The genus is of wide distribution, but occurs only north of the Equator,
where it spreads from Portugal to the Philippine Islands. It is found in
Siberia and Northern China, whence through the Philippines it passes to
Tranquebar, then up to Northern India, and thence by Bagdad to the Morea
and Albania, and dips down to Northern Africa at Tunis, and on to Oran
and Tangiers, and completes its circuit in Portugal. It is doubtless
parasitical upon many more genera and species than we find it infest in
this country, although all that the several species pair off with here
are not fully designated, especially among the _Andrenæ_, and smaller
_Halicti_. The number of species, British and foreign, known to
collectors approximate to a hundred.

The genus MELECTA is another handsome parasitical insect. This is always
a dark beauty, and is very limited in species, for, as far as they may
be estimated from the contents of collections, its numbers do not reach
twenty. Our own species occur throughout the whole of Europe, north and
south. Others are found in Sicily, Albania, the Morea, and show
themselves at Bagdad. The genus has been sent from the Canaries, and
crosses the tropics into Chili, but does not seem to have occurred
elsewhere in either North or South America, although one of the genera
(_Eucera_) on which, with us, it is parasitical, is found in the latter
country, and the other genus (_Anthophora_), which it also infests, is
found throughout the world, excepting in Australasia. In all those
countries, the closely-allied exotic genus _Crocisa_, which is very
numerous in species, may supply its place.

The elegant genus EPEOLUS occurs in our own species throughout northern
Europe, as high as Lapland, and is found also at the southern extremity
of the continent of the Old World, at the Cape of Good Hope. It has been
brought from Sicily, and other species come from Siberia. The genus in
America passes down from the United States, by way of Mexico, to the
Brazils, where it crosses the southern continent, having been
transmitted from Chili. It is very limited in the number of its species,
considering its wide diffusion, for not more than twenty are registered.
It is almost identical in distribution with the genus _Colletes_, upon
which it is with us parasitical. The species are never so large as those
of the preceding genus, _Melecta_.

The genus STELIS is limited both in number of species and distribution,
although the spots whence it has come are wide apart. Our own species
are found throughout France and northern Europe, as far as Finland.
Other species occur in North America, and the Brazils, but the whole
number yet described is under ten.

The remarkable form in both sexes of the genus CÆLIOXYS occurs in
identity with our own species throughout France and Austria, and spreads
north to Finland and Russia, and through all the intervening countries.
It is singular that it should not be recorded from southern or
south-western Europe, as it is found in Oran. Other species of the genus
have been found in northern Africa, Egypt, and Algeria. On the western
coast of Africa it has been caught on the Gambia, at Sierra Leone, and
on the coast of Guinea. It doubles the Cape of Good Hope, where it is
found extending its range to Port Natal. From Asia we have it from
Turkey, and again from India. It has been sent from the hither side of
South America, from the Brazils, and separately from Pará, and occurs at
Cayenne, and in the West India Islands, Cuba, and St. Thomas’s, and
extends as high in North America, through the United States, as Canada.
It is quite probable that it has as wide a range as the bees upon which
it is parasitical (_Megachile_), although it has not yet come from such
extensively-spread localities. More than fifty species are known, but
some of our own have not yet been enumerated amongst those found
elsewhere.

The genus MEGACHILE, which embraces the most renowned of the mechanical
bees, is extremely cosmopolitan, spreading north and south, east and
west; and is also very abundant in the numbers of its species, the
census extending to not far short of two hundred. Some one, or several
of our species, although other species are limited to our own
country,—spread through Italy and France, and all the countries of
northern Europe to the high latitude of Lapland, which is higher than
where even one of ours (viz. the _M. centuncularis_) is again found,
which occurs in Canada and at Hudson’s Bay. The genus also frequents
southern Europe, in Spain, Sicily, and Albania, and in the East, in the
Caucasus and Dalmatia. It traverses Turkey by Bagdad to India, having
been captured in Nepaul, and it descends southward in the Indian
peninsula, where it has been found at Bombay. From India it stretches to
the Mauritius, thence across the Indian Ocean to Java, and thence to
Hongkong and northern China. It then dips to the Philippines, and
doubtless through the islands of the Indian Archipelago to Australasia,
from which continent none are registered from its northern and eastern
settlements, but species abound along its southern edge from Western
Australia, through Adelaide to Tasmania. The genus has been brought from
the West India islands, St. Thomas’s, St. Croix, and Cuba: it is found
upon the main from Mexico, descending to the Brazils. It skirts all the
coasts of Africa, being discovered in Egypt and Algeria, along the
western coast by the Gambia, Senegal and Sierra Leone to Guinea, and the
island of Fernando Po, and then again occurs at the Cape of Good Hope.
Ascending the eastern coast by Natal, it stretches to Abyssinia. The
species are very abundant in India, Africa, and Australasia.

The genus ANTHIDIUM, although very numerous in species, and differing
more remarkably in form amongst themselves than most other genera, has a
far less extensive range, no species having been found in Australasia or
India, although it occurs in Arabia, Syria, and Mesopotamia. Our own
solitary species occurs in France, Italy, and the whole of northern
Europe, extending to Finland. In southern Europe the genus inhabits
Sicily, Spain, the Morea, Albania, and Dalmatia, and is also very
abundant in Southern Russia. In Africa it is found in Nubia and Algeria,
and on its north-western edge in Barbary, whence it descends by the
Gambia and Sierra Leone to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence reaches to
Natal. It is then found in Chili, and crossing the South American
continent occurs in the Brazils, whence it ascends to Cayenne, and, by
way of Mexico, to the United States. The number of species recorded
exceed a hundred.

The remarkable genus CHELOSTOMA is very limited in the numbers of its
species, of which less than a dozen are known; as also in the extent of
their distribution. Our own are found throughout northern Europe, as far
as Lapland, and in Russia. In southern Europe they occur in the Morea,
and the genus has been discovered in Georgia in North America.

The closely-allied genus HERIADES seems limited to a European
habitation, and occurs only in our own solitary species, but it ranges,
like the preceding, to the high latitudes of Lapland.

ANTHOCOPA seems limited to our own country and France, possibly only
from its having been associated from similarity of general habit with
the genus _Osmia_. Only one species appears to be known, but this has a
world-wide celebrity, from the interesting account given by Réaumur, of
its hanging its abode with symmetrical cuttings from the petals of the
poppy.

The genus OSMIA, although not including such able artisans as
_Megachile_, still has in its species very constructive propensities.
Indeed, all the bees which convey the pollen on the under side of the
abdomen, are more or less builders or upholsterers. The genus has a wide
range, and is tolerably numerous, numbering more than fifty species.
Some of our own occur throughout Europe, and, like the two preceding
genera, are found in the highest continental latitudes. Some of ours
also occur in Algeria and the Canaries, other species in Albania and
Moravia. In Africa they are found in Egypt, Barbary, and Port Natal, and
in the New World from Florida, in the United States, through Nova Scotia
to Hudson’s Bay.

The genus APATHUS, which is parasitical upon _Bombus_, and to the
uninitiated has all the appearance of this genus, seems to be the only
instance of a parasitical genus of bees so closely resembling the
_οἶτος_, (as we may, perhaps, for the sake of avoiding a periphrasis, be
allowed to call the bee upon which the parasite is found,) as to be so
easily liable to be mistaken for it, and which was indeed the case by
even such a sagacious entomologist as the distinguished Latreille; but
Kirby had already noticed the difference, suggesting its separation from
_Bombus_, until about the time that St. Fargeau was induced to propose a
distribution of the Hymenoptera, based generally upon economy and
habits, to which he had been led by a refining investigation of
structure, that the distinguishing difference was appreciated, and used
generically, by Mr. Newman. This difference, like many other simple
facts, now that it has been found, is very obvious. It consists in the
genus having no neuters, and the female of the species no polliniferous
organs, but the determination of the legitimate males, by means other
than empirical, is still difficult. In our own species this genus ranges
throughout northern Europe, as high as Lapland; a cause for which we
shall discover when we trace the geography of the next genus, _Bombus_.
One species different from any of ours occurs in the Brazils, and others
are found in the Polish Ukraine, and in the United States of North
America. The genus appears extremely limited in numbers, for although
nearly a hundred of the genus _Bombus_ are known, _Apathus_, in
collections, seems limited to ten. This may perhaps arise from want of
due observation or from the neglect of their careful separation from
that genus, but our own species are far from co-extensive with our
native species of _Bombus_.

The genus BOMBUS, although with some southern irrepressible
propensities, it being found within the tropics in a few instances, is
essentially a northern form, which is strongly indicated in its downy
habiliments, for it is clothed in fur like the Czar in his costly
blue-fox mantle. In the Old World its range extends to Lapland, whither
it is followed, as previously noticed, by its parasite _Apathus_, and in
the New World to Greenland, where one species seems an autochthon,
perhaps originating there when the land was still verdant, and grew
grapes, long before the age of Madoc. Other species occur far away to
the north of east, booming through the desolate wilds of Kamtchatka,
having been found at Sitka; and their cheerful hum is heard within the
Arctic circle, as high as Boothia Felix, thus more northerly than the
seventieth parallel. They may, perhaps, with their music often convey to
the broken-hearted and lonely exile in Siberia, the momentarily cheering
reminiscence of joyful youth, and by this bright and brief interruption
break the monotonous and painful dullness of his existence, recalling
the happier days of yore: but the flowers of humanity, here typified by
the natural flowers which attract these stray comforters, will one day
spring where the salt of tears now desolates, and thus the merry bees
have sweetness for even these poor outcasts, and froth their bitter cup
with bubbling hope.

In the south of Europe the genus occurs in Austria, the island of Zante,
and the Pyrenees. It is found in Syria, the island of Java, in China at
Chusan and Silhet, and also in northern India; and, although crossing
the tropics to fix itself at Monte Video, at the mouth of Rio de la
Plata, in Africa it appears to be found at Oran only; nor does it occur
in Australasia. In South America it is also found at Pará and Cayenne,
and on the opposite side at Columbia, Quito, and Chili, and passes up
the isthmus to California, and thence to Mexico, whence it extends to
the island of Antigua.

                                -------

The genus APIS, or the HIVE BEE,—which perhaps in its past and present
utility to man, may successfully compete in the aggregate with the
silkworm,—with true regal dignity comes the last of the series of
genera. The whole array of her precursors, who marshal her way, and
derive their significance and importance from the more or less direct
resemblance in structure and function to her, deduce their common name
of “Bees” from this relationship, and consequently from her. Long before
their existence had been traced by the observer of nature or by the
naturalist, the comb of the BEE had dropped in exuberant luxuriance its
golden stores for the gratification of mankind. This little creature had
garnered, from sources inaccessible to man, the luscious nectar
concealed within the bosom of the flower, whose exquisitely beautiful
varieties, in form, colour, and fragrance, had delighted his sight and
his smell long before he had been led by accident to discover that these
industrious little workers collected into their treasury, from those
same flowers, as exquisite a luxury for his taste, as they themselves
had yielded to his other senses. Thus the earliest records speak of
honey, and of bees, and of wax; and the land of promise to the restored
Israelites, was to be a land flowing with milk and honey.

Réaumur, whose observations upon bees had been pursued with such patient
and indefatigable perseverance, combined with such minute accuracy, and
then recorded so agreeably, and who conceived the possibility of
establishing a standard of length, for the common use of all nations, to
be derived from the length of a certain number of the honey-cells of the
comb, to which notion he was doubtless led by their mathematical
precision and uniform exactitude, appears to have been unaware of the
existence of other species of the genus, and hence he assumed, in his
ignorance of this fact, that in all countries they were alike.

Travellers had, even for more than a century before, mentioned different
kinds of honey, derived from different kinds of bees, which, however,
Réaumur does not, from this circumstance, seem to have known. Had he
been acquainted with it, his philosophical accuracy of observation and
habit of reflection would certainly have assumed the possibility of
differences of size in the cells of the different bees, and he would
have waited until opportunity had given him the power of determining
whether this mode of admeasurement could be safely adopted as certainly
being of universal prevalence. It is to be wondered at also, that he did
not weigh the possibility that climatic differences in the distribution
of even the _Apis_ _mellifica_ might have involved discrepancies, by the
effects constantly seen to be produced by climate, and which would have
shown that the standard which he sought to establish could not be relied
on.

Collections exhibit about sixteen species of the genus _Apis_, whose
natural occurrence is restricted to the Old World, for although the
genus, especially in the species _A. mellifica_, has been naturalized in
America, and also in Australasia, and in some of the Islands of the
Pacific, these were originally conveyed thither by Europeans. Those
countries possess representatives of the genus with analogous attributes
and functions, in two other genera, which fulfil the same uses. It is
remarkable that the Red Indians used to note the gradual absorption of
their territory by the White Man, through the forward advance of his
herald _Apis mellifica_. This species has also been carried to India, to
the Isle of Timor, and to northern, western, and southern Africa, in all
which countries it is thoroughly naturalized, although they all possess
indigenous species, which are quite as, or perhaps more largely,
tributary to their inhabitants. Observation has not hitherto confirmed
the identity of the manners of these exotic species with our own, owing
to the deficiency of observers with the enthusiasm requisite to follow
their peculiarities with the patience of a Réaumur, a Bonnet, or a
Huber. That they are quite or all but similar, exclusively of
differences of size, both in their habits and their nests, may be
inferred from their identity of structure. We know that they consist of
three kinds of individuals—neuters, females, and males,—and that their
combs are made in cakes built vertically, formed of hexagonal contiguous
cells, which are placed bottom to bottom, and overlap each other in the
same strengthening position as do ours; and also that the cells wherein
the males are developed are oval, larger than the honey-cells, and less
uniform. With all these similitudes it is fair to suppose that their
economy may be the same; but their honey-cells, from their smaller size,
(the bee which produces them being smaller,) have a more elegant
appearance; and it is concluded from the largeness of the nest, taken
conjunctively with the smallness of the cells, and of the bees
constructing it, that the communities thus associated must in their
collective number be considerably larger than those of our hives.

Instinct, as expressed in the habits, is as sure a line of separation,
or means of combination, as structure, and is corroborative in tending
to preserve generic conjunction in its inviolability. And, conversely,
with certainty, is indicated that such-and-such a form, in the broad and
most distinguishing features of its economy, is essentially the same in
every climate. The habits, therefore, in whatever country the genus may
occur, may be as surely affirmed of the species, from the knowledge we
have of those at home, as if observation had industriously tracked them.
This is especially the case in a genus, the species of which present
such a peculiar identity of _structure_ as does _Apis_, whose specific
differences are derived only from colour and size, and this identity is
a peculiarity, so far as I have observed, rarely found in other genera,
numbering even no more species, but wherein slight differences of
structure often yield a subsidiary specific character, complete
structural identity being almost solely incidental to the genus _Apis_.

The importance of honey and wax throughout the world, as well for the
ceremonies of religion, as for the service of the arts, and for medical
or domestic purposes, is attested by the vigilance, care, and assiduity
with which bees are tended in every country. Although sugar, since its
introduction to those northern countries which have not been favoured by
nature with the cane that yields it, has superseded for ordinary uses
the produce of the hive, this still continues serviceable for many
purposes to which sugar cannot be applied. It is used in many ways in
pharmacy, and still retains in the interior of some continents, owing to
the deficiency of sugar, arising from the difficulties and expenses of
transit, all its primitive uses. In the East, even in countries
producing sugar in abundance, honey is extensively employed for the
preservation of fruits, which in their ripe state in those hot climates
would rapidly lose their fulness of flavour were they not thus
protected,—honey here being esteemed superior to sugar in the
circumstance of its not crystallizing by reason of the heat, and also
from its applicability to this use in its natural state.

This is especially the case in China, where a conserve of green ginger,
and of a fragrant orange (the _Cum Quat_), are in high repute, and which
are peculiarly grateful to Europeans on the spot. These, however, are so
delicately susceptible of change of climate, that they lose some of the
aroma that constitutes much of their attraction, upon transportation,
and, indeed, like many kinds of Southern wines, can be appreciated only
within their own country, from their extreme delicacy and tendency to
spoil.

Honey is a very favourite food and medicine with the Bedouins in
Northern Arabia. Bees make their hives in all the crevices of rocks in
Hedscha, finding everywhere aromatic plants and flowers. At Taif, bees
yield most excellent honey, and the honey at Mecca is exquisite. At
Veit-el-Fakeh, wax from the mountainous country of Yemen is exchanged
for European goods and for spices from the further Indies. In Syria and
Palestine we find bees abound. At Ladakiah there are large exports both
of honey and wax; and the honey of Ainnete, on the declivities of the
Lebanon, is considered the finest of the whole of that mountain-range.
Antonine the Martyr, in the seventh century, speaks of the honey of
Nazareth being most excellent, and in the present day bees are
extensively cultivated at Bethlehem, for the sake of the profit derived
from the wax tapers supplied to the pilgrims. Some of the members of the
German colony at Wadi Urtas speak of the purchase of eleven beehives at
this place, and express themselves as very sanguine of an abundant
harvest from the luxuriance and profusion of flowers, although they say
the bees are smaller than those of Westphalia, and are of a
yellowish-brown colour. The eastern side of this peninsula, especially
the district of Oman, is wholly destitute of bees, contrasting thus
unfavourably with its western fertility.

The enormous quantities of honey produced may be comparatively estimated
by the collateral production of beeswax, which it exceeds by at least
ten to one. When we reflect upon what masses of the latter are consumed
in the rites of the Roman Catholic and Greek churches throughout the
many and large countries where those religions prevail, we shall be able
to form a general estimate of the extensiveness and universality of the
cultivation of bees. Nor are those the only uses to which wax is
applied, and the collective computation of its consumption will show
that bees abound in numbers almost transcending belief.

The name of _bougie_ for wax-candle or taper, is used by all the
languages of the south of Europe, and is derived from the name of Bugia,
a town of Northern Africa, whence, even as long back as the time of the
Roman Empire, wax was obtained to make candles for lighting. The
inhabitants of Trebizonde paid their tribute to the Roman Empire in wax.
Both honey and wax are largely employed in pharmacy, and were also, in
ancient times, both extensively used in embalming. The honey of Mount
Hymetta in Attica, and of Hybla in Sicily, were each in as high repute
in classical countries as is that of Narbonne in Languedoc, by reason of
its choice delicacy, with us, and throughout France. Distributed over
the wide pastures of the Ukraine, every peasant has his store of hives,
which frequently, in their harvests, realize more largely than their
crops of grain,—multitudes of that peasantry computing as important
items in the estimate of their wealth the number of their beehives,
which often exceed five hundred to the individual possessor. In Spain
and Italy bees are largely cultivated; and in the former country many a
poor parish priest, the religious monitor of an obscure hamlet, can
count his five thousand.

In countries so rich in the productions of Flora, whose seasons there
are perennial, and which fluctuate only in special locality, bees are
removed to and fro to meet these peculiarities. Thus in the south of
France, where large tracts are cultivated with aromatic shrubs and
flowers, for the distillation of essential oils and fragrant waters, the
hives of bees are moved up and down the adjacent rivers upon rafts, as
the flowering of the crops succeed each other. In Italy, Spain, and
Southern Russia, the same practices are pursued, although we have no
detailed accounts of the precise spots; but we know from Niebuhr,
Savigny, and Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, that upon the Nile it is customary
thus to transport the bees from flower-region to flower-region upon
rafts containing about four thousand hives, each numbered by the
proprietors of the hives for identification, who thus double the seasons
by continually shifting their bees from Lower Egypt to the Upper Nile
and back again.

In ancient Greece also, they were conveyed for this purpose from Achaia
to Attica; in the former of these provinces, owing to its higher
temperature, flowers had passed their bloom before spring had opened in
the latter. All these circumstances tend to show that the experience of
bee-masters, both ancient and modern, has ascertained that their insects
have not a very extensive range of flight.

Of the fact that the honey of bees is not always salutary to man, there
is a remarkable instance recorded in Xenophon, in his narrative of the
retreat of “The Ten Thousand,” who reports that upon falling in with
quantities of it, in Asia Minor, those who indulged in its enjoyment
were seized with vertigo, or headache, and violent diarrhœa, attended
with sickness, but which had no fatal consequences, although they did
not recover from its injurious effects for a couple of days, and were
left then in a very prostrated condition. The celebrated physician and
botanist Tournefort, when travelling in the East, towards the end of the
seventeenth century, found, in the neighbourhood of Trebizonde, an
excessive luxuriance of the flowers of the _Rhododendron ponticum_ and
of the _Azalea pontica_, which, although sumptuous in their blossoms,
were held in bad repute by the inhabitants, who ascribed to their odour
the deleterious effect of causing headache and vertigo. He was thence
induced to surmise that these had possibly been the flowers the bees had
extracted the honey from which had been so baneful to the troops of
Xenophon.

But it seems that bees themselves cannot collect with impunity the honey
of noxious flowers, for they are occasionally subject to a disease
resembling vertigo, from which they do not recover, and which is
attributed to the poisonous nature of the flowers they have been
recently visiting.

Several different kinds of honey and wax have been described, but some
degree of uncertainty exists as to whether they are all the produce of
genuine species of the genus _Apis_; for it will be found, in a rapid
notice I purpose giving of the more conspicuous genera of foreign bees,
that there are two exotic genera of this section of the family, both
social in their habits, and which both produce the same materials; there
is a wasp also that makes honey. But of all the many kinds of honey
noticed, the green kind furnished to Western India by the island of
Réunion, the produce of an _Apis_ indigenous to Madagascar, but which
has been naturalized in the French island, and also in the Mauritius, is
perhaps the most remarkable. It is of a thick syrupy consistency, and
has a peculiar aroma. It is much esteemed upon the most proximate coasts
of the peninsula of India, where it bears a high price. Whether its
greenness of colour is derived from the flowers which this species
frequents, or whether it be incidental to the nature of the bee, has not
been ascertained, but the honey of the South American wasp, the sole
species producing the material, has also a green tinge.

Nature has assigned the task of thus catering for man, by collecting and
garnering from the recondite crypts within the blossoms of flowers, to
about sixteen species congenerical with our honey-bee, but sufficiently
differing. As I have before noticed, the species of this genus greatly
more resemble each other in structure than perhaps do the species
collocated within any other genus of insects, and whence may be inferred
an exact similitude of habits, although as yet unconfirmed by direct
observation.

The second European species, the _Apis Ligustica_, or Ligurian bee, is
rather larger, but very like ours, and inhabits the whole of the north
of Italy, its occupation of that country extending from Genoa to the
vicinity of Trieste; its progress further north being impeded by the
Alps of Switzerland and the Tyrol. It is also found in Naples, and may
likewise spread to the Morea, Turkey, and the Archipelago of Greece, and
is perhaps the bee noticed by Virgil. Either this species, or possibly
one distinct from ours, is that which is so extensively cultivated in
Spain, although ours is found in Barbary.

Another smaller kind, the _Apis fasciata_, has been cultivated in Egypt
from time immemorial, and which yielded its abundant harvests for the
gratification of the ancient Romans. Only five other distinct species,
so far as is yet known to us, appear to occupy the vast continent of
Africa,—two on its western coast at Senegal and Congo, the _A.
Adansonii_ and the _A. Nigritarium_; two in Caffraria, the _A.
scutellata_ and the _Apis Caffra_. That at Madagascar, and doubtless on
the adjacent mainland, which has also been naturalized in the Mauritius
and at Réunion, is the _Apis unicolor_, which produces the green honey
mentioned above.

India, however, at present appears to be the true metropolis of the
genus. Further discoveries in Africa may hereafter give that vastly
larger continent the predominancy; but there is no doubt that, so far as
present information extends, India has the superiority. Thus _Apis
dorsata_, _Apis nigripennis_, and _Apis socialis_, are cultivated in
Bengal, the latter being also found along the Malabar coast and at Java.
It is singular that the only instance of the occurrence of the very
distinct genera of _Apis_ and _Mellipona_, both honey-storing genera,
yet known to exist indigenously in the same locality, is found in this
island. At Pondicherry and its vicinity are found _Apis Delessertii_ and
_Apis Indica_. This latter bee is extensively cultivated, and its hives
are perhaps the most largely inhabited of any of the species; the
numbers occupying a single nest being estimated at above eighty
thousand.

From India also, but to which no special locality is assigned, come
_Apis Perrottetii_, _Apis lobata_, as likewise _Apis Peronii_, which is
equally native to the Isle of Timor. The honey produced by this last bee
is yellow, more liquid than ours, and of a very agreeable flavour.

Thus science dissipates the popular supposition, that a multiplicity of
the individuals of one species of this insect produces the tons of wax
and the myriads of gallons of honey that are annually consumed.

Which of these bees first benefited the human race, in its primitive
seat, and before the multiplication of mankind forced them to take
divergent courses from the cradle of their birthrace, “to people the
whole earth,” it is impossible to say. And it is equally impossible to
conjecture whether, like man, they by this course of migration have
assumed the features they now exhibit of distinctly different species;
yet they do not vary so considerably among themselves as do many other
creatures that have come under the direct influence of man,—the chief
differences consisting in the comparatively slight distinctions of
colour and of size, but which are sufficiently marked to constitute them
good species.

The earliest manuscript extant, which is the Medical papyrus, now in the
Royal Collection at Berlin, and of which Brugsch[2] has given a
facsimile and a translation, dates from the nineteenth or twentieth
Egyptian dynasty, accordingly from the reign of Ramses II., and thus
goes back to the fourteenth century before our era. But a portion of
this papyrus indicates a much higher antiquity, extending as far back as
the period of the sovereigns who built the Pyramids, consequently to the
very earliest period of the history of the world.

Footnote 2:

  ‘Recueil de Monuments Égyptiens dessinés sur les lieux.’ In Three
  Parts. 4to. Leipzig, 1862.

It was one of the medical treatises contained within the Temple of Ptah,
at Memphis, and which the Egyptian physicians were required to use in
the practice of their profession, and if they neglected such use, they
became responsible for the death of such patients who succumbed under
their treatment, it being attributed to their contravening the sacred
prescriptions. This pharmacopœia enumerates amongst its many
ingredients, honey, wine, and milk; we have thus extremely early
positive evidence of the cultivation of bees. That they had been
domesticated for use in those remote times, is further shown by the fact
mentioned by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson of a hive being represented upon an
ancient tomb at Thebes.

It may have been in consequence of some traditional knowledge of the
ancient medical practice of the Egyptians, that Mahomet, in his Koran,
prescribes honey as a medicine. One of the Suras, or chapters, of that
work, is entitled ‘The Bee,’ and in which Mahomet says:—“The Lord spake
by inspiration unto the Bee, saying, ‘Provide thee houses in the
mountains and in the trees [clearly signifying the cavities in rocks and
hollows of trees, wherein the bees construct their combs], and of those
materials wherewith men build hives for thee; then eat of every kind of
fruit, and walk in the beaten paths of thy Lord.’ There proceedeth from
their bellies a liquor of various colours, wherein is a medicine for
men. Verily herein is a sign unto people who consider.”

It is remarkable that the bee is the only creature that Mahomet assumes
the Almighty to have directly addressed. Al-Beidawi, the Arabic
commentator upon the Koran, whose authority ranks very high, in notes
upon passages of the preceding extract, says, “The houses alluded to are
the combs, whose beautiful workmanship and admirable contrivance no
geometrician can excel.” The “beaten paths of thy Lord,” he says, “are
the ways through which, by God’s power, the bitter flowers, passing the
bee’s stomach, become honey; or, the methods of making honey he has
taught her by instinct; or else the ready way home from the distant
places to which that insect flies.” The liquor proceeding from their
bellies, Al-Beidawi says, “is the honey, the colour of which is very
different, occasioned by the different plants on which the bees feed;
some being white, some yellow, some red, and some black.” He appends a
note to where Mahomet says, “therein is a medicine for man,” which
contains a curious anecdote. The note says, “The same being not only
good food, but a useful remedy in several distempers. There is a story
that a man once came to Mahomet, and told him his brother was afflicted
with a violent pain in his belly; upon which the Prophet bade him give
him some honey. The fellow took his advice; but soon after, coming
again, told him that the medicine had done his brother no manner of
service. Mahomet answered: ‘_Go and give him more honey_, for God speaks
truth, and thy brother’s belly lies.’ And the dose being repeated, the
man, by God’s mercy, was immediately cured.”

That the primitive Egyptians were familiar with the peculiar economy of
the bee in its monarchical institution is proved by the figure of the
bee being adopted as the symbolical character expressive of the idea of
a people governed by a sovereign. This figure is frequently met with
upon Egyptian sculptures and tablets, dating as far back as the twelfth
dynasty; but upon these the bee is very rudely represented, being
figured with only four legs and two wings; but upon a tablet of the
twentieth dynasty the bee is correctly represented with four wings and
six legs.

All these facts take us far back in the history of the bee. But the
indication of a higher antiquity of its domestication may be traced in
the Sanskrit, wherein _ma_ signifies honey, _madhupa_, honey-drinker,
and _madhukara_, honey-maker, the root of the latter signifying “to
build.” _Madhu_ has clearly the signification of our _mead_, thence we
may thus trace an affinity, pointing to those early times, for the
origin of a drink still in use amongst us. In Chinese _mih_, or _mat_
(in different dialects) signifies honey, thus clearly showing a second
derivation, in this Turonian term, from a more primitive language whence
both flowed. In the Shemitic branch nothing analogous is to be traced.
But this double convergence to a more distant point veiled in the
obscurity of time, necessarily takes the domestication of the bee back
also to that anterior period now only dimly traceable.

There can be but little doubt that the majority of the creatures now
domesticated by man were in those ancient days subjected to his sway,
and to which later times have not added any, or but few fresh ones. A
natural instinct possibly prompted him originally in the selection; and
if the reindeer of the Laplander seem an aberration, this has happened
through the contingency of climate, for in the high latitudes it
inhabits, it, in its uses to man, supplies the double function performed
in more southern regions by the equine and bovine tribes.

In the Greek and in the Teutonic languages, two branches of the Aryan
stem, the names of the bee, _melissa_ and _biene_, are clearly derived
from the constructive faculty of the insect, and to which the root of
the Sanskrit word _madhukara_, above noticed, also points. It would
seem, therefore, that an earlier notice of its skill than of its honey,
had suggested its name. Thus everything points to a very early
acquaintance with the bee, its economy, and its properties, and this
familiarity might be easily traced down in regular succession to the
present times, were it desirable to recapitulate what has been so often
repeated in the history of the “Honey-bee.” The facts I have gathered
together above, do not seem to have been hitherto strung together, and
may be suggestive of reflection, as well as affording some amusement.

                                -------

The study of the geographical distribution of natural objects has a more
universal bearing, and yields collectively more definite instruction and
information than its partial treatment, when restricted to small groups,
may at first seem to promise. This, however, is very useful, for it is
but by the combination of such special details that the enlarged views
are to be obtained, from which theories of the general laws of
distribution can be deduced. Of course, small creatures with locomotive
capacities will not supply the positive conclusions that may be framed
from such objects as are fixed to their abode, and have not the same
power of diffusion, although they certainly appear to be generally
restrained within particular limits by physical conditions of the
earth’s surface subservient to the maintenance of special forms of
organic life; and these, once determined, would yield and derive
reciprocal illustration. They may be merely climatic, but climate thus
indicated cannot be estimated by zones, or belts, or regions; for they
seem to traverse all these, and follow undulations not specially
appreciable except in the results they exhibit.

Unfortunately the bees have been too imperfectly collected, and too
irregularly registered, to admit of arriving at any precise conclusions
with respect to them. All that can as yet be done will be to combine the
scanty notices afforded by the contents of our collections, in the hope
that their promulgation may induce collectors, who happen to have the
often extremely rare opportunity of examining distant countries, to
avail themselves of the happy chance, which may never recur, or only at
long intervals.

Nor can I too impressively reiterate the importance of noting both
special localities, altitude, temperature, season, flora, etc., as being
all conducive to the widest instruction upon the subject. Indulging in
the hope that travellers will act upon these suggestions, and thus
considerably add to the value of what they may industriously collect, we
must patiently await until time brings it about.

Encouraging this expectation, I have summarily collected, under their
topical arrangement, the notices which precede, but which are there
arranged in the generic order of the bees.

From the information we thus possess, we learn that some of our genera
have an extremely wide diffusion, and occur in countries where we might
have expected that other forms would have superseded them in the offices
they are ordained to fulfil. None of the schemes for the geographical
distribution of insects yet propounded, seem to curb the eccentricities
of their range. The regions proposed by Fabricius in his ‘Philosophia
Entomologica,’ they break through as readily as through the concentric
circles of the cobweb when this opposes them: and all I can do is to
present them as they offer themselves, with the remark that the
occurrence of solitary forms in certain localities are almost sure
indications that allied genera would be found at hand were they
heedfully sought. It will also be observed, that in some places a
parasitical genus, and its known sitos, only, have been captured there.

The following list will strongly show how totally our genera of bees are
unaffected by isothermal, isotheral, or isocheimal lines drawn over the
earth’s surface. Nor do botanical conditions seem to influence them
beyond, the probability of their dissemination being restricted to the
special diffusion of the families of such plants whose genera and
species they frequent with us.


Thus, inhabiting Northern Europe we find in—

  _Lapland._ Cilissa; Anthophora; Epeolus; Megachile; Chelostoma;
      Heriades; Osmia; Apathus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Finland._ Colletes; Prosopis; Cilissa; Anthophora; Nomada; Epeolus;
      Stelis; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Chelostoma; Heriades;
      Osmia; Apathus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Sweden._ All our genera except Sphecodes; Halictus; Macropis;
      Anthocopa.

  _Denmark._ All our genera except Macropis and Anthocopa.

  _Russia._ All our genera except Macropis and Anthocopa.

  _The other Northern European Countries._ All our genera, with the same
      exceptions.


      Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe present us with, in—


  _France._ All our genera.

  _Portugal._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; Eucera; Nomada;
      Anthidium; Apathus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Spain._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; Dasypoda; Eucera;
      Anthophora; Nomada; Megachile; Anthidium; Apathus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Italy._ Andrena; Halictus; Panurgus; Eucera; Anthophora; Nomada;
      Melecta; Epeolus; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; Apathus;
      Bombus; Apis.

  _Sicily._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Eucera; Anthophora; Melecta; Epeolus;
      Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; Apathus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Malta._ Halictus; Apis.

  _Isles of Greece._ Dasypoda; Apis.

  _The Morea._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Halictus; Dasypoda; Eucera;
      Anthophora; Ceratina; Nomada; Melecta; Anthidium; Chelostoma;
      Osmia; Bombus; Apis.

  _Albania._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Dasypoda; Eucera; Ceratina; Nomada;
      Melecta; Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; Bombus; Apis.

  _Dalmatia._ Halictus; Eucera; Anthophora; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis.


      Asia exhibits to us, in—

  _Siberia._ Andrena; Nomada; Epeolus; Bombus; Apis.

  _Kamchatka._ Bombus.

  _China._ Halictus; Nomada; Anthophora; Megachile; Bombus; Apis.

  _Northern India._ Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; Ceratina;
      Nomada; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Bombus; Apis.

  _Bengal._ Anthophora; Ceratina; Apis.

  _Tranquebar._ Nomada; Apis.

  _Ceylon._ Anthophora; Ceratina; Apis.

  _Bombay._ Anthophora; Megachile; Apis.

  _Arabia Felix._ Anthophora; Anthidium; Apis. NOTE.—The genus _Apis_
      does not occur in _Oman_.

  _Mesopotamia._ Eucera; Nomada; Melecta; Megachile; Anthidium.

  _Syria._ Halictus; Eucera; Anthophora; Cœlioxys; Anthidium; Bombus;
      Apis.


      In Africa we find, in—

  _Egypt._ Colletes; Sphecodes; Andrena; Dasypoda; Eucera; Anthophora;
      Saropoda; Cœlioxys; Anthidium; Osmia; Apis.

  _Nubia._ Anthidium; Anthophora; Apis.

  _Abyssinia._ Megachile; Apis.

  _Tunis._ Dasypoda; Nomada; Apis.

  _Algeria._ Colletes; Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Panurgus; Eucera;
      Anthophora; Ceratina; Nomada; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium;
      Osmia; Bombus; Apis.

  _Barbary._ Halictus; Nomada; Anthidium; Osmia; Apis.

  _Madeira._ Halictus; Apis.

  _Canaries._ Colletes; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; Anthophora;
      Melecta; Osmia; Apis.

  _Senegal._ Halictus; Anthophora; Ceratina; Megachile; Apis.

  _Gambia._ Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis.

  _Sierra Leone._ Halictus; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis.

  _Coast of Guinea._ Anthophora; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis.

  _Fernando Po._ Megachile.

  _Western Africa._ Halictus; Apis.

  _Cape of Good Hope._ Halictus; Anthophora; Ceratina; Epeolus;
      Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis.

  _South Africa_ [no distinct locality]. Halictus; Saropoda; Apis.

  _Natal._ Anthophora; Cœlioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; Apis.

  _Madagascar._ Apis.

  _Réunion._ Halictus; Apis.

  _Mauritius._ Megachile; Apis.


      In America we find, in—

  _Arctic America and Hudson’s Bay._ Prosopis; Andrena; Halictus;
      Megachile; Osmia; Bombus.

  _Canada and Nova Scotia._ Andrena; Halictus; Nomada; Cœlioxys;
      Megachile; Osmia; Bombus.

  _United States._ Colletes; Sphecodes; Andrena; Cilissa; Halictus;
      Eucera; Anthophora; Ceratina; Epeolus; Stelis; Cœlioxys;
      Anthidium; Chelostoma; Heriades; Osmia; Apathus; Bombus.

  _Mexico._ Anthophora; Epeolus; Megachile; Anthidium; Bombus.

  _California._ Bombus.

  _Columbia._ Colletes; Bombus.

  _Quito._ Bombus.

  _Chili._ Sphecodes; Halictus; Anthophora; Melecta; Epeolus; Anthidium;
      Bombus.

  _Jamaica._ Halictus.

  _Cuba._ Anthophora; Cœlioxys; Megachile.

  _St. Domingo._ Anthophora.

  _Antigua._ Bombus.

  _Guadeloupe._ Anthophora.

  _St. Thomas’s._ Cœlioxys; Megachile.

  _St. Croix._ Megachile.

  _Cayenne._ Halictus; Eucera; Ceratina; Cœlioxys; Anthidium; Bombus.

  _Pará._ Anthophora; Cœlioxys; Bombus.

  _Brazils._ Prosopis; Halictus; Ceratina; Epeolus; Stelis; Cœlioxys;
      Megachile; Anthidium; Apathus; Bombus.

  _Paraguay._ Anthophora.

  _Monte Video._ Bombus.


      In Polynesia there occur—

  _Sandwich Islands._ Prosopis.

  _Philippines._ Anthophora; Nomada; Megachile.


      In Australia are found—

  _Swan River._ Prosopis; Megachile.

  _Adelaide._ Prosopis; Megachile.

  _Port Phillip._ Prosopis.

  _Tasmania._ Prosopis; Megachile.

  _Sydney._ Sphecodes; Halictus.

  _New Zealand._ Halictus.

  _Australia_ [but no distinct locality]. Anthophora; Saropoda.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER IV

         NOTICE OF THE MORE CONSPICUOUS FOREIGN GENERA OF BEES.


SEEING thus the wide and almost universal distribution of many of our
own genera, we might be induced to ask whether this could not suffice,
by the impetus which more genial climates give to the multiplication of
individuals, to meet all the exigencies of the most favoured regions of
the vegetable kingdom. This is not so. There seems scarcely a limit to
the exuberance wherein nature revels in the production of variations of
form. The splendour, elegance, and infinite variety which she displays
in her floral beauties in the most luxuriant climates, find rivalry as
well in the multitude as in the magnificence of the insects which she
has allied with them as the indispensable promoters of their
perpetuation. How otherwise than through some of the insects we shall
mention could tropical _Labiatæ_ and the tubulated flowers of the
_Rubiaceæ_, etc. be fertilized? The reader will therefore, I trust,
welcome an acquaintance with some of the most conspicuous of the group
of bees produced by tropical countries, although the main object of this
treatise is to exhibit the attractions of “our native bees.”

I will but superficially and rapidly glance at the more distinguished
exotic genera and species, as supplementary to the preceding notice of
the geographical range of those which are indigenous with us.

How our own species reached us is a subject which has at present eluded
all satisfactory determination. For its solution we must await the
further discoveries of geology; at present we can only attribute their
advent here to the same causes which are common to the production of all
our groups of both the animal and the vegetable kingdoms.

Knowing how affluent tropical and sub-tropical countries are in the
variety, size, and number of the forms, as well as in the splendour of
their plants and vertebrated animals, we may fairly expect as gorgeous a
richness in the insects they produce. Nor shall we be disappointed, for
the imperial magnificence of their _Lepidoptera_ and _Coleoptera_
guarantees an equivalent brilliancy in the other orders of insects, and
which is fully confirmed by the harmonious splendour of their bees.

They thus put forward claims to attention and must excite curiosity by
their beauty and size, which the comparative smallness of our own, and
the usual dulness of their colours do not possess. The latter only repay
notice upon close investigation, but they then as amply reward all
labour bestowed upon them by the mental recreation they yield, as their
more gaudy exotic rivals. The former present themselves obtrusively and
exact notice, whereas ours meekly solicit it by their humble but solid
allurements. Here, as well as there, we behold the works of a mighty
hand and of an immeasurable intelligence.

The bees throughout the world, as known collectively to the richest
cabinets, number about two thousand species. This host, in itself
numerically so large, solicits attention, for it is opposed to the
economy of nature that there should exist any without functions of
essential usefulness, making them important elements in her harmonious
order and necessary to her due course, irrespective of the instruction
to be derived from the study of the manifold varieties of structure,
which unquestionably point to distinguishing peculiarities of habits.

In the true bees the division of the _Dasygasters_ presents the fewest
differing generic forms: the _Nudipedes_ and _Scopulipedes_ exhibit more
numerous varieties, the preponderance being in favour of the
pollen-collecting bees (the latter), although the cuckoo-bees (the
_Nudipedes_) are very abundant, and taken _en masse_, are certainly the
handsomest. If it be absolutely the case that there are no parasites
amongst the _Andrenidæ_, this subfamily will add very largely to the
exotic pollinigerous majority, which thereby becomes extensively
subservient to the fruition of the vegetable kingdom.

Those bees which are exclusively inter- or sub-tropical, seem furnished
with larger capacities for fulfilling the special mission to which the
family is appointed. Their pollinigerous and honey-collecting organs are
peculiarly adapted both to the structure and luxuriance of the superb
vegetation of those regions, and to which they seem distinctly limited.
But that they are not considered equivalent to the entire demand of the
profuse bloom everywhere abounding, may be concluded from the tropical
range and distribution of many of our northern forms. Thus, whilst the
flora of those climates is strictly circumscribed in its diffusion, its
fauna, distinctly in the class of insects, and especially in the family
of bees, is very considerably less limited, in extension.

The exotic genera of bees which are peculiarly noticeable, either from
splendour, size, or remarkable eccentricities of structure, are
numerous. Tropical and sub-tropical regions of course abound with them,
in individuals, in species, and in genera; and when we reflect upon the
riches of the flora of those countries, which is perpetuated mainly by
the agency of insects, amongst which, in fulfilling this indispensable
demand, bees, as I have reiterated, are pre-eminently conspicuous, we
shall not even wonder that their number, although excessive in the
extreme, is considerably aided, in many cases, in the performance of
this task, by peculiarities of structure. Thus, the splendid Brazilian
genus _Euglossa_, although not conspicuous for size, is remarkably so
for the enormous development of its posterior tibiæ, which form very
large triangles, compared with the size of the insect, deeply hollowed
for the conveyance of pollen. Its tongue also, from the length of which
the genus derives its name, is, when extended, more than twice the
length of the body, and with which it is enabled to reach the nectarium,
seated within the depths of the longest tubes of flowers. Other exotic
bees, further to aid them in collecting pollen, in addition to the dense
brushes with which their posterior legs are variously covered, have each
individual hair of these thick brushes considerably thickened by hairs
given off laterally, and in some cases these again ramify. Sometimes, in
variation, the simple, single hairs have a spiral curve, which almost
equally enlarges the activity of their operation. This is also the case
with two very hairy-legged genera of our native bees, proximately allied
to each other in the methodical arrangement, _Dasypoda_ and _Panurgus_,
the hair of whose posterior legs have this spiral twist. The most
hairy-legged exotic bees are essentially the genera _Centris_ and
_Xylocopa_. Of the habits of the former we know nothing, but those of
the latter we are intimately acquainted with, through the elaborate
descriptions given by Réaumur and the Rev. L. Guilding, the latter of
whom made his observations upon a species found in the island of St.
Vincent’s, in the West Indies. This last genus exhibits in some of its
species the giants among the bees, and one is especially so, a native of
India, the _Xylocopa latipes_, which is an inch and a quarter long, and
more than three inches in the expansion of its black, acute wings; and
it is also noticeable from the anterior tarsus in the male being greatly
dilated and white, the bee itself being intensely black, and which in
this same sex has enormous eyes united at the vertex, as in the male
_Apis_, or drone. In this genus, as in many other genera of bees, there
is often a great discrepancy in the appearance of the sexes, they being
so totally dissimilar that no scientific skill has hitherto been able to
discover a clue for uniting together correctly, by scientific process
merely, the sexes of a species; thence the numbers of the species in
such genera are unduly augmented beyond their natural limits, from the
fact of observation having neglected to associate the legitimate
partners.

In some of our native genera this same difficulty existed, which,
however, is gradually diminishing as the authentic sexes are slowly
discovered.

Exotic bees exhibit also a peculiarity I had occasion to observe before,
in reference to our own bees, amounting perhaps to a law, viz the more
highly-coloured condition of the parasite, for we find all the
parasitical bees of those latitudes, usually gorgeously arrayed in
metallic splendour, as instanced in _Aglaë_, _Mesonychia_, _Mesocheira_,
etc., and _Melissoda_ (my _Ischnocera_, in Lardner), is remarkably
conspicuous for its long and delicately slender antennæ in the male,
each joint of which is nodose at its extremity.

The widely-distributed _Nomia_ seems to abound chiefly in India. It,
although neither gay nor large, has, in its males, a distinguishing form
of the posterior tibiæ, which is greatly incrassated or thickened; a
peculiarity of structure found also in some other genera of
_Hymenoptera_, and in several genera of the _Diptera_, giving the
insects which have it a remarkable gait.

The singularly anomalous distortion of these posterior legs is
conspicuous also in the genus _Ancylosceles_, which is named in allusion
to it.

Another remarkable peculiarity is to be observed in the above genus,
_Mesocheira_, as likewise in the superb _Acanthopus_, both of which
genera have the spur of the intermediate leg palmated at the extremity,
and the latter genus is further distinguished by its large size and
splendid development, and by having the fifth joint of the tarsus of the
posterior legs longer than the three preceding united, and covered with
a pollinigerous brush as dense as that of the elongate first joint of
the same limb.

But the foreign genera which will be most interesting to the reader
will, I expect, be those of _Trigona_ and _Mellipona_, which, in many
peculiarities, seem abortive _Apes_. They seem nature’s first endeavour
to construct _Apis_, for they have an apparently imperfect neuration of
the wing, in which the external submarginal cell is unfinished. Their
only separating distinction from each other is the difference in their
mandibles, which in _Mellipona_ are broad and edentate, whereas in
_Trigona_ they are also broad but denticulated. In _Apis_ these organs
are merely irregularly enlarged at the extremity, and hollowed within,
rather like a spoon, which structure would of course imply a difference
of economy.

A further characteristic of these genera, and in which they participate
with _Apis_, is the deficiency of spurs to the posterior tibiæ, which
separates them from all other genera of bees, as also from _Bombus_,
which has two, yet with which, in point of their economy, they more
closely assimilate than with _Apis_. They are the South American and
Australian indigenous representatives of the genus _Apis_, and are found
likewise in Java and Sumatra, and in some of the larger and extreme
islands of the Indian Archipelago, thus also similarly in countries
where marsupial animals occur. Like _Apis_, they are social in their
habits; but their neuters only are as yet known, neither males nor
females having been described. They are reputed to be stingless, and to
make honey and wax in enormous quantities. The combs in _Mellipona_ are
attached either to the branches of trees or are suspended from them, but
how they are enveloped for security is not reported, but sometimes, like
_Apis_, they construct them within hollow trees and in the cavities of
rocks, as in _Trigona_, in like manner as _Apis_ does in its natural
state. Their communities are not so large as those of the hive bee, and
the cells of their combs are less perfectly hexagonal, the wax being
expended upon them in denser quantities, whereas the hive bee is
exceedingly parsimonious in the use of this material, a circumstance
arising possibly from the different and more difficult mode the latter
have of obtaining it. In the latter it is a secretion; but these exotic
genera possibly collect their wax ready-made by the exudation of plants,
and, thus, having more readily obtained it, they are more lavish in its
use.

Early travellers and historians describe many kinds of honey made by
these bees, native to the South American continent, but they report
nothing of the peculiarities of the social economy of these insects, nor
whether they are as closely allied in this respect to _Apis_, as they
are in the collection of honey and wax.

To enter into further detail relative to them would be beyond the
province of this work, and I have only given this extremely superficial
and brief notice of foreign genera, to show what multitudes of others of
this interesting family await admiration and study, when some
proficiency has been acquired in the knowledge of our own.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER V

                  PARASITES OF BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES.


NATURE seems to have imposed a restraint upon the undue increase of all
its creatures, by creating, to check it, others that prey upon them. It
thus enlarges the sphere of its activity by making life accessory to
life, and promoting thereby a more extended enjoyment of all its
pleasures. Other forms are brought into existence, and other terms given
to duration than those which the laws of life attach to specific
organization. No abatement is thereby made upon the quantity of
contemporaneous vitality, for what subsides in one rises in another, and
the undulation of the waves is perpetual.

Does the quantity of life, extant upon the earth, vary? Perhaps
mortality ever comes in some shape to prevent it, when excess threatens
to render its energy effete. Yet under every circumstance the wise
arrangements of Providence suffice, for everything has its enemies or
its parasites, which are also enemies, but frequently in disguise. For
defence there is an implanted instinctive fear, or abhorrence; and the
creature is then left to its skill, prudence, or strength, either to
evade or to mitigate, to the extent of its capability, the danger of the
attack.

We find the bees are not at all exempted from this prevailing condition.
They have many enemies and parasites of remarkably differing
organization. They are attacked by many kinds of birds, among which the
_Merops Apiaster_ (or bee-eater) is conspicuous. All the swallow tribe
prey upon them, as do the shrikes and some of the soft-billed small
birds, and also many small quadrupeds when they can find the
opportunity. Wasps also attack them, but they do not often get entangled
in spiders’ nets, being generally too strong for the retention of its
meshes, but I have seen a _Bombus_ enveloped in a tangle of its
wonderful filament.

The wild bees’ parasites are of two kinds, personal, and such which,
like the young of cuckoos, live at the expense of the offspring. The
personal parasites are again of two kinds, for bees are infested with
several kinds of _Acari_, and once I found a _Bombus_ upon the ground in
Coombe Wood so swarming with the _Acarus_ that it lay hopelessly
helpless until I threw it into a pool of water, when its _attachés_ were
washed away. But the poor bee seemed so prostrated by their attack, that
even when freed from them it had not energy to fly, and having landed it
I left it to the kindly nursing of nature.

A little yellow hexapod larva sometimes also infests the wild bees in
great numbers, running over and about them with great activity. I have
never followed these to their development, but they are said to be the
larvæ of _Meloe proscarabæus_, a conspicuously large coleopterous
insect. The assertion has produced much discussion; and I believe the
larva has been bred to the imago, and consequently it has been proved
that it is the larva of that insect. But that it should be parasitical
upon so small a creature, and that numbers should infest it for their
nutriment, is extremely improbable. It is far more likely that instinct
has taught them to be conveyed elsewhere through the medium of the bee,
as they might also be by attaching themselves to any other volatile
insect, and that upon arriving at a suitable locality they descend from
their temporary hippogriff. We see seeds thus conveyed by the agency of
animals and birds to suitable places, where they fall and germinate.

Another little hexapod is occasionally found upon them: this is
intensely black, and like the former, very active: these I never could
rear, nor did they ever seem to enlarge, and they speedily died. I have
found them in profusion also within the flowers of _syngenesious_ or
composite plants, especially of the dandelion in the spring.

But their most remarkable personal parasites consist of some very
extraordinary insects, so anomalous in their structure as to have
required the construction of an order for their reception,—the Order
_Strepsiptera_, or “twisted-winged,” thus named from the twist taken by
their anterior wings or wing-cases. Their natural history is but
imperfectly known, and I believe the males have not yet been discovered.
Their larva lives within the bee, and feeds on its viscera by
absorption, being attached within by a sort of umbilical cord. It
presently consumes the viscera, and renders the bee abortive, by
destroying its ovaries, for it is usually upon female bees that it is
found. When full fed it forms a case within which it changes into the
pupa and imago, the head of which case protrudes between the scales of
one of the dorsal segments of the abdomen. How it becomes deposited
within the bee or the bee’s larva remains a mystery, although many
hypotheses have been hazarded to account for it, but all are
unsatisfactory. The Order consists of three genera (_Stylops_,
_Elenchus_, and _Halictophagus_) found in England, and other parts of
Europe; indeed, the genus _Elenchus_ has been also discovered in the
Mauritius. The Continent possesses the genus _Xenos_, of the same order,
and parasitical upon a wasp, neither of which occur with us.

Mr. Kirby, in studying the bees for his invaluable ‘Monographia Apum
Angliæ,’ first came across this extraordinary creature. His description
of his discovery is highly interesting. He says, at page 111 of volume
ii. of the above work, that having observed a protuberance upon the body
of the bee, he was anxious to ascertain whether it might be an _Acarus_,
and goes on: “What was my astonishment when, upon attempting to
disengage it with a pin, I drew forth from the body of the bee, a white
fleshy larva, a quarter of an inch long, the head of which I had
mistaken for an _Acarus_. How this animal receives its nutriment seems a
mystery. Upon examining the head under a strong magnifier, I could not
discover any mouth or proboscis with which it might perforate the
corneous covering of the abdomen, and so support itself by suction; on
the under side of the head, at its junction with the body there was a
concavity, but I could observe nothing in this but a uniform unbroken
surface. As the body of the animal is inserted in the body of the bee,
does that part receive its nutriment from it by absorption? After I had
examined one specimen, I attempted to extract a second, and the reader
may imagine how greatly my astonishment was increased, when, after I had
drawn it out but a little way, I saw its skin burst, and a head as black
as ink, with large staring eyes, and antennæ consisting of two branches,
break forth, and move itself briskly from side to side. It looked like a
little imp of darkness just emerging from the infernal regions. I was
impatient to become better acquainted with so singular a creature. When
it was completely disengaged, and I had secured it from making its
escape, I set myself to examine it as carefully as possible; and I
found, after a careful inquiry, that I had not only got a nondescript,
but also an insect of a new genus whose very class seemed dubious.”

As everything connected with so strange a creature is very attractive, I
will cite what other observers also have seen. Mr. Dale, from whom
Curtis received _Elenchus_ to figure in his ‘British Entomology,’ vol.
v. pl. 226, says: “These parasites look milk-white on the wing, with a
jet-black body, and are totally unlike anything else. It flew with an
undulating or vacillating motion amongst the young shoots of a quickset
hedge, and I could not catch it until it settled upon one, when it ran
up and down, its wings in motion, and making a considerable buzz or hum,
as loud as a _Sesia_; it twisted about its rather long tail, and turned
it up like a _Staphylinus_. I put it under a glass and placed it in the
sun; it became quite furious in its confinement, and never ceased
running about for two hours. The elytra or processes were kept in quick
vibration, as well as the wings; it buzzed against the sides of the
glass with its head touching it, and tumbling about on its back. By
putting two bees (_Andrena labialis_) under a glass in the sun, two
_Stylops_ were produced: the bees seemed uneasy, and went up towards
them, but evidently with caution, as if to fight; and moving their
antennæ towards them, retreated. I once thought the bee attempted to
seize it; but the oddest thing was to see the _Stylops_ get on the body
of the bee and ride about, the latter using every effort to throw his
rider.

“As the _Stylops_ emerges from the body of the bee, the latter seems to
suffer from much irritating excitement.”

Mr. Thwaites writes to me, on the 12th May, thus: “I had the good
fortune to capture a _Stylops_ flying, and on the Tuesday following saw
at least twenty flying about in the garden, but so high from the ground
that I could capture only about half-a-dozen; since that time they have
become gradually more scarce.

“The little animals are exceedingly graceful in their flight, taking
long sweeps as if carried along by a gentle breeze, and occasionally
hovering at a few inches distance from the ground. Their expanse of wing
and mode of flight give them a very different appearance to any other
insect on the wing. When captured they are exceedingly active, running
up and down the sides of the bottle in which they are confined, moving
their wings and antennæ very rapidly. Their term of life seems to be
very short, none of those I have captured living beyond five hours, and
one I extracted from a bee in the afternoon was dead the next morning.

“All the bees stylopized, both male and female, I have taken, have
manifested it by having underneath the fourth (invariably) upper segment
of the abdomen a protuberance which is scale-like when the _Stylops_ is
in the larva state; but which is much larger and more rounded when the
_Stylops_ is ready to emerge. A bee gives nourishment generally to but
one _Stylops_; but I have occasionally found two, and once three larvæ
in one bee.”

The structure of these insects is very remarkable: the typical genus
_Stylops_ is named from its compound eyes, which consist of a very few
(about fifteen) hexagonal facets, seated upon a sort of footstalk. The
mandibles are lancet-shaped and very acute, and the head, by reason of
the protuberant eyes, has very much the shape of a dumb-bell. The
antennæ are branched, but in _Halictophagus_, they are flabellate. The
thorax is greatly developed; the superior wing is like a rudimentary
wing-case, and is twisted, the inferior wings are very large, and fold
along the abdomen in repose like a fan; the legs are slender, and the
tarsi with four joints in _Stylops_, with three in _Halictophagus_, and
with two in _Elenchus_; the abdomen is long, very flexible, and consists
of eight segments. The insects themselves do not exceed a quarter of an
inch in length in the largest, but they are generally very much smaller.
The perfect insect is very short-lived, not surviving many hours, as
just stated. They are usually found in the months of May and June, and
they have been discovered to infest several species of _Andrena_ and
_Halictus_, for instance the _A. nigro-ænea_, upon which Mr. Kirby first
found it; _A. labialis_, which I have frequently caught stylopized; _A.
rufitarsis_, _fulvicrus_, _Mouffetella_, _tibialis_, _Collinsonana_,
_varians_, _picicornis_, _nana_, _parvula_, _xanthura_, _convexiuscula_,
_Afzeliella_, _Gwynana_, etc., and upon _Halictus æratus_, etc.

The other mode of parasitism destructive to the bees is where the
parasite deposits its own egg upon the provender stored by the bee for
the sustenance of its own young. The young of the parasite, either by
being more speedily hatched or more rapacious than the larva of the
sitos, starves the latter by consuming its food. This kind of parasites
consists of several _Diptera_, but they are mostly bees which form a
distinctive subsection of the family of true bees (_Apidæ_), the
subsection being called the _Nudipedes_ or naked-legged, from their not
having the necessary apparatus of hair upon the posterior thighs or
shanks, for the conveyance of pollen wherewith to store their nests.
Thus nature, having rendered them unable to perform this duty to their
offspring, has imposed upon them the necessity of resorting to strangers
to support them, and they are not led to it by idleness or indifference.
These insects consist, with us, of six genera, the species of which are
individually attached to some particular bee, who thus nurtures their
young. They are, as a rule, gayer insects than those which they infest,
and the genus most abundant in species is _Nomada_, which attaches
itself chiefly to _Andrena_, although some of its species, especially
the smaller ones, infest the species of _Halictus_, and one frequents
_Eucera_. _Melecta_ appears confined to _Anthophora_; _Epeolus_ to
_Colletes_; _Stelis_ perhaps to _Osmia_, judging from the great
similarity of habit; and _Cœlioxys_ to the constructive _Megachile_.
None of these parasites resemble their sitos, but _Nomada_ is
exceedingly different, being in its gay array more like a wasp than a
bee. The only close approach in the appearance of a parasite to the
insect upon which it is parasitical is in the resemblance between
_Apathus_ and _Bombus_, which are so alike that they were long continued
to be united in the same genus, until the peculiar characteristic of the
parasitical bees was detected, when they were readily separated.
Although, cuckoo-bees as they are familiarly called, they could not be
associated with the _Nudipedes_, because their posterior legs, though
not pollen-conveying organs, are hairy; but the _Cenobites_, to which
section they belong, have a peculiar and distinguishing structure of
that limb. They are further separated from the _Nudipedes_ by several
frequenting the same nest, thus habitually associating with their sitos.
Some of the _Chrysididæ_ are likewise, as I shall have occasion to
notice in the description of the habits of the genera, similarly
parasitical upon some of the species of the family of bees. The genus
_Mutilla_ is also probably entirely parasitical upon bees, for _Mutilla
Europæa_ is a parasite upon _Bombus lapidarius_, from whose nests it has
been dug in winter, by my friend the late Mr. Pickering, whose activity
and accurate observation once promised to be very beneficial to the
science, but he, like many others of my entomological friends, is now no
more!

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER VI

             GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT.


THE following rapid observations are addressed to those whom it is the
desire that this series of volumes may induce to take up the study of
Nature in a methodical manner. With this view, the merest summary of the
principles upon which scientific arrangement is based, is here
exhibited. The study requires method as a lodestar to guide through its
intricacies, but it is one which, pursued simply as a recreation, yields
both much amusement and gratifying instruction. It shows us that when we
unclasp the book of nature, and wherever we may turn its leaves, every
word, the syllables of which we strive to spell, is pregnant with the
fruitfulness of wonderful wisdom, whose profound expression the human
intellect is too limited thoroughly to comprehend.

Is there an arrangement that human skill could mend? Is there an
organization that man can fully solve, or a combination that his mind
can wholly compass? Do we not behold limitless perfection everywhere,
but all so deeply mysterious. So exquisite are the feelings which the
contemplation commands, that they imbue us deeply with the sense of the
high privilege conferred upon the intellect by its being permitted to
embrace a study, which, even pursued merely as a relaxation, inculcates
in so serene and pleasing a manner such profound veneration and
reverence.

To acquire the prospect of a possibility to unravel the exuberant
profusion of the natural objects surrounding us, successive students of
nature have endeavoured to systematize the seeming confusion in which
her riches are spread about. Like has been brought to like, and
gradation made to succeed gradation. Resemblances have been combined and
disparities disjoined, until the labour of centuries has constructed of
all the natural objects within the ken of man a vast and towering
edifice, whose basis is seated at the lowest substructure of the earth
which research has yet reached, but whose head ascends high into the
empyrean.

All things have been collected, and arranged, and classed. Method has
endeavoured to give them succession according to an assumed
subordination. The labour of the great minds which framed the large
theories of this vast branch of human knowledge, has permitted men of
lesser powers of combination to abstract parts for special examination
and investigation.

The study of natural science has progressively reached an extraordinary
development, spreading in every direction its innumerable tentacula; to
which the perfection of the telescope and of the microscope have still
further added by the discovery of new worlds of wonder.

Just as language is systematized and made easier by grammar methodizing
its co-ordinates and their relations, so natural science arranges its
subjects into subdivisions of which genera and species are the lowest
terms. The higher and more complicated are of many denominations, which,
notwithstanding, have for their chief purpose the simplification of the
survey by assisting accurately to determine accurately natural objects
individually. Once the clue of the labyrinth caught, the seeming
intricacy of its involution vanishes; for when a clear conception of the
general scheme is obtained, the solution of the parts is comparatively
easy. The same principle rules throughout, however variously treated.

The large divisions of nature appear simple and distinct enough in their
great frame, but when we approach their confines, close investigation
discovers analogies and affinities, which, where the separation seems
most apparent, create insuperable difficulties, and render linear
succession, or distinct division, nearly an impossibility. _Here_ we
find parallelism, and _there_ radiation, and elsewhere a complicated
reticulation without subordination; and this is one of the great
problems, which it is the office of the mature naturalist to endeavour
to solve. The present work has to do, however, with but one small
portion of the whole.

Thus we see that, in order to arrive at a knowledge of natural objects,
a method must be pursued to avoid being overwhelmed by their
multiplicity, whereby confusion would be produced in the mind which
their methodical investigation tends to dissipate. Their abundance
precludes the possibility of their being all equally well known,
although it is very desirable to have a general, if even superficial
acquaintance with them, that is to say, in the broad and distinguishing
features of their large groups, for as to an accurate knowledge of all
their species, it would be futile to attempt it. Possessing this general
knowledge, the attention may be turned with greater advantage in any
special direction, and that pursued to its entire acquisition.

Natural objects have been arranged in KINGDOMS, ORDERS, CLASSES,
FAMILIES, and GENERA, all deduced in their successive and collateral
groups from characters exclusively derived from SPECIES; therefore to
the accurate knowledge of _species_ all endeavours must be directed,
they comprising within themselves all the rest, although the characters
upon which they themselves depend for separation from their congeners
are the most trivial of any. Each combination, in its analytical
descent, contains characters of wider compass than those which succeed
it, and consequently embraces in that descent more species than the
successive divisions; just as in the ascent, or synthetical method, the
characters of every successive group gradually expand. Species being
thus the only real objects in nature from which all knowledge springs,
and in which exclusively all uses lie, other combinations being perhaps
as merely imaginary as are the many lines which are drawn over the
surface of the globes, it would imply that subdivisions merely lend aid
to acquire more rapidly the details upon which they depend. We will,
therefore, first turn our attention to species.

Both combination and subdivision are intended to facilitate
identification, by aiding us to arrive at this knowledge of species; for
each species represents a distinct idea, whose correct definition is
important to the progress of accurate science. This alone permits
observation to be attributed to its right object, and when properly
recorded, the information is secured for ever from error or obscurity.
It is not, however, the gift of every mind to discern accurately even
specific differences, or to form skilfully generic combinations. The
very best favoured by nature,—for it is a natural gift, although under
high cultivation,—have sometimes a bias towards seeing more than
actually exists. Hence varieties are often elevated into species, and
species thus overwhelmingly multiplied; and genera are frequently framed
upon vague distinctions.

Species are the basis of all natural science.

A species in zoology is a combination of creatures which unites the
sexes, and these being two, the assumed existence of neuters in some
instances does not invalidate this, it comprises two individuals having
independent existence, but whose co-existence is indispensable to
perpetuation, but which often, from their great differences, no single
set of scientific characters will bind together, yet which must exist in
some undiscovered peculiarity, that individuals may be able to
distinguish their legitimate partners. The species, therefore, is a
complete unit in its entirety, although consisting of two distinct
beings, for in the large majority of cases in zoology these sexes are
distinct, although their conjunction is, in the higher forms of life,
indispensable for their continuance. In some of the lower forms of
animal life they exist in union, and in the vegetable kingdom we
perceive every possible combination and modification of this
conjunction, and in both of these life may be perpetuated also by
simpler processes.

The species may consist of any indefinite number of individuals, and no
law has hitherto been discovered which regulates the relative
proportions of the sexes, although it is very apparent that some
recondite influence operates to control it. It is also extremely
remarkable to observe how eccentric nature is in some species, and the
extent to which she sometimes carries the variation of some particular
specific type, and to which some species are singularly prone, and yet
how rigidly in other cases she adheres to the particular specific form
in the succession of generations, that even the shadow of a deviation
from the typical distinction is scarcely to be discovered: a reason for
this it is hard to surmise. We may, nevertheless, conclude it to be
certain that true species are ever distinct, and can no more coalesce,
however closely they may approach together, than can asymptotes.

Specific differences result from many characteristics,—from colour,
clothing, size, and sometimes from peculiarities of structure; but these
last are usually of a higher order, tending to indicate an aberration,
slight though it be, from the normal generic character which holds the
group together, thus implying a distinctive economy. This is sometimes
called a subgeneric attribute, and there might be a reason, certainly,
for not elevating such species to the full rank of genera, were genera
equivalents, which they are not, and it merely remains an evasive
admission of the doubt that attaches, except for the sake of
convenience, to any subdivision, but the specific.

The species is thus the very last term of subdivision, the very
elemental principle itself, which unites together as one, solely for the
purposes of perpetuation, the two sexes of similar individuals, and
without whose intercourse the kind or species would die out.

That some species greatly abound in individuals, as before observed,
whilst others appear to be extremely limited, is an absolute fact, and
not merely suggested by a defective observation of their occurrence,
resulting from their rapid dispersion. It is verified by being noticed
to occur where we know they would resort, as is exemplified in the case
of some of the parasitical species of the insects herein treated of, and
which are sometimes rare, even in the vicinity of the metropolis of
their sitos, and where this also greatly abounds. In other cases, other
species absolutely swarm where the similar attraction lies.

Even supposing species to be the sole natural division, we may accept
the superior combinations as means to aid us to a gradually extending
survey of the whole. Perhaps did we possess all the links of the vast
chain of beings we should find genera, and every other superior
combination, melt away through the intimate alliance of the succession
of species that would obliterate the lines of separation, by making the
sutures imperceptible; but what mind could compass the detail of such a
limitless unbroken series? Their subdivision may therefore be accepted
as a positive necessity, to enable us to compass their investigation. As
it at present stands, with our imperfect knowledge of the entire series
of species, these higher groups are indispensably requisite.

The specific diagnosis being the only sure basis upon which all our
knowledge can rest, its accuracy is all-important, and requires a few
observations. It comprises two parts—the specific _character_, and the
specific _description_. The difference between these is, that the first
is constructed with the extremest brevity consistent with its utility,
is fluctuating and not permanent. The latter permits all the diffuseness
needful to embrace a full description of the creature.

The object of the first is to establish the _present_ identity of the
species amongst all its known congeners—those associated in the same
genus;—and that of the second to secure it in its perpetual identity,
and segregate it from all future and contingent discoveries. The
specific character admits, consequently, modifications to suit any
extension of the genus, and in fact exacts it at the hands of all who
describe new species. This many naturalists undertake without any
apparent consciousness of the scientific responsibilities that attach to
it, and whence results the confusion so much to be deplored, of the
synonymy that prevails, constituting, as it does, such a Dædalian
labyrinth. The describer of a new species is bound to cast around, and
endeavour to know all that has been previously done upon the subject of
the genus. He has to revise all the specific characters within the
genus, and mould them to those he introduces, and he must insert these
closest to their evident affinities. Thus, therefore, the describer’s
labour is not light, if to be of any value. The specific character,
although thus varying, becomes a permanent utility, and only so fulfils
its object,—that of rapidly showing, at a glance, the known species of a
genus, and thereby permitting the speedy determination of the identity
or distinctness of a compared object. If doubt should exist from this
brevity, the specific description is at hand to solve it, by the
amplitude and completeness of its details. Of course this mode of
treatment is only suitable to monographs, or portions of the science
discussed separately, and not to a general or universal survey.

The amount of toil thus saved to the describing naturalist, and to those
who wish to name their specimen, the experienced only can estimate. This
brevity of specific character is one of Linnæus’s terse and valuable
axioms, who limits its length to twelve words. The best examples, I
think, that I can adduce in entomology, of valuable and exemplary
specific descriptions, is Gyllenhal’s ‘Insecta Suecica’ which contains
exclusively a description of Swedish Coleoptera; Gravenhorst’s large
monograph of European Ichneumons; Erichson’s elaborate work upon the
Staphylinidæ; and our own Kirby’s ‘Monographia Apum Angliæ.’ Their
perfection consists in fulfilling thoroughly all the above conditions,
for if any doubt exist upon comparing your insect with their
descriptions, you may be fully assured yours is not identical. The only
drawback to the utility of Mr. Kirby’s book is that he had to deal with
insects variable in condition from many causes, and the variable state
of the insect that may have to be compared; his description has
evidently been made sometimes from a worn specimen, one that had been
exposed to wind and weather, and sometimes from an insect in fine
condition. Thus it is important that compared insects should be in an
identical state to substantiate the comparison,—a difficulty which this
family has specially to contend with, as these insects are more liable
than almost any others to vary, owing to their specific character
depending much upon pubescence, which is extremely subjected to many
modifying influences, for the tinges and positive colour of the hair
will much vary by exposure, as it is not possible always to capture a
bright individual.

Taking specific description thus practically in its full and wide sense,
it is requisite, for the purpose of avoiding repetition, that all the
characters of the superior combinations should be eliminated, leaving it
with those only which have not been thus absorbed, which now constitute
its sole remaining distinctive specific peculiarities. Every species
necessarily contains within itself, every character of every combination
in direct line above it, although these have been gradually abstracted
to form those several combinations which are arrived at successively in
the synthetical ascent. Analytically, species are the last but combining
element of all, although their most remote members. The whole system is
an ingenious contrivance for breaking down a complex multiplicity of
characters, to simplify the means of reaching all the collateral or
adjacent species, that we may be able to determine identity or
difference.

Entomology, and indeed natural history generally, uses three words, very
much alike, but very different in signification and application. These
are, _habit_, _habits_, and _habitat_. The habit is that peculiar
character of identity, that _je ne sais quoi_, which marks all the
species of a genus collectively, and which, in some cases, only the
trained eye can detect. It is then seen instantaneously, and forcibly
illustrates the extreme precision the study of the natural sciences
tends to cultivate. Their utility, also, as a discipline to the mind,
conjunctively with the keen accuracy which practice gives the sight, are
qualifications not lightly to be esteemed.

It is from such absolute control of detail that the most efficient power
of generalizing emanates, which, when it has once become habitual,
gives, from its rapidity, an almost instinctive facility, as its
inevitable concomitant, for both synthetical and analytical survey. The
mind thus becomes strengthened by vigorous exercise, and has always, for
every purpose, a powerful instrument at command, often used
unconsciously, but always effectively. Thus is _habit_, once correctly
perceived, ever retained.

The _habits_ are the peculiar manners and economy of a species; and the
_habitat_ is the kind of locality the creatures affect, such as hill or
plain, wood or meadow, forest or fell, hedgebank or decaying timber,
sand or chalk or clay, and ground vertical or horizontal; and the
_metropolis_ of a species—another term in use—is the centralization of
the general habitat where the insect either nidificates collectively
with its fellows, or, where, from any other cause, it may be found in
its season, usually in profusion. But good fortune does not always
attend the discovery of this locality.

It is by the acquired skill of perceiving habit, that a large and
confused collection may be sorted rapidly, or fresh captures immediately
placed with their congeners, without the necessity of going tediously
through all the descriptive characteristics. Incidental errors are
afterwards speedily corrected. It is then that the specific character
exhibits its utility by enabling us at once to distinguish the new from
the old.

The concentration and summary of the specific character is the name of
the species, or trivial name as it is sometimes called, which is, as it
were, the baptismal designation that attaches to it always afterwards,
and is contemporaneous with the introduction of the creature into the
series of recognized beings.

Upon the revival of the study of natural history, when learning dawned
after the night of the Middle Ages, much difficulty attached to the
imposition of discriminative names. The works of the ancients were
ransacked, and endeavours made to verify and apply the names they had
used. Ray published a vocabulary of such names. But the ancients never
studied natural history in the systematic way pursued by the moderns;
they did not want the skill, but they wanted the facilities. Anatomy and
physiology had not made the progress necessary to aid them in the
pursuit, and the assistance all these sciences obtain from optical
instruments was barred from them. The names they gave to natural objects
were vernacular names, which, like our own vernacular names, applied
rather to groups than to species, and have in consequence ultimately
become the names of genera. But this was the work of time, with which
discovery progressed. As these discoveries were made by the new
cultivators of natural history, they added them to those which they
resembled, by some brief distinctive character adapted to the momentary
exigency, such as _major_, or _minor_, etc.; and these additions were
constantly treated as varieties of the species, whose name headed the
list by the designation first adopted. Discoveries still continued,
which were compulsively arranged with the predecessors they most nearly
resembled, until resemblances vanished, and the boundaries fixed by the
assumed correct application of the names thus derived from the ancients
were passed, and there was an overflow on all sides.

To meet this difficulty, the new discriminative name had to be moulded
into a phrase to correct its exceptive peculiarities, and specific names
became descriptive phrases, the bulk of which no memory could retain,
and which usually were neither clear nor expressive. Thus genera were
continually treated as species, and species as numbered varieties, with
long distinguishing descriptive phrases.

So it remained till day dawned, and the great luminary of systematic
natural history rose with a bound to irradiate the obscurity of science
with his subtile and vivifying beams.

This was LINNÆUS, to whom we owe the binomial system, wherein, by means
of two words only (the generic or surname, and the specific or baptismal
name), the recognition of a species is perpetuated; for Linnæus truly
says, “_Nomina si nescis, perit et cognitio rerum_.”

By a law tacitly admitted, but universally recognized, for the sake of
securing to a name its intangibility, no two genera in the same kingdom
of nature may be named alike. There is, therefore, if this rule be
observed, no fear of similar names coming into collision in the same
province, and thus producing confusion. A ready means to prevent the
possibility of such mischance is the admirable work which has been
published by Agassiz, with the assistance of very able coadjutors, in
the ‘Nomenclator Zoologicus,’ which is a list of all the generic names
extant in zoology, exhibiting what names are already in use either
appropriately or synonymously in this great branch of the natural world,
and if this work receive periodically its necessary supplements and
additions, no excuse will remain for the repetition of a name already
applied. The most defective character in this laborious work, is the
frequent incorrectness of its etymology of the names of genera. It would
be, perhaps, without such aid, too great a labour to require of the
describing naturalist, or it might not be otherwise even practicable for
him, to ascertain whether the generic name he purposes to impose be, or
not, anticipated. The penalty of its being superseded is understood to
attach to the imposition of such a name, for the alteration may be made
with impunity, and thereby it becomes degraded to the rank of a mere
synonym.

Nomenclature has thus, by the happy invention of Linnæus, been made a
matter of the greatest simplicity, conciseness, and lucidity, and to
him, therefore, our gratitude is due.

An indispensable branch of nomenclature is _Synonymy_, which, briefly,
is the chronological list of the several names under which species or
genera may have been known. This diversity of names has originated in
several ways,—from indolence, or ignorance, or excessive refinement. The
views of systematists will differ in the collocation of creatures;
hence, sometimes what had been previously divided will be recombined, or
divisions into further groups be made of what had been before united.
Both processes will necessarily produce synonyms; the recombination of
what had been separated reduces the names of such groups to the rank of
synonyms of the old one from which they have been disjoined. In the
latter case the old name will be retained to the typical species merely,
and be also made a partial synonym of the names of the new generic
groups: or, indeed, it may happen that the same creature has been
described generically, unknowingly, by two different persons, about the
same time. By another recognized rule in nomenclature, the ‘law of
priority,’ the name given by the first describer is accepted, and the
other consequently falls to the condition of a synonym.

With respect to specific synonymy, many causes conduce to it; namely, an
imperfect description which cannot be clearly recognized, reducing it to
that category, with a mark of interrogation appended; subsequent
description when want of tact has not discerned the identity of the old
one; indolence in looking about for works upon the same subject;
inability to obtain access to books wherein they may be described, owing
either to their costliness or to their obscurity, or by lying buried in
some collapsed journal, or the poverty of our public libraries, etc.
etc. But however thus lost sight of, or wilfully ignored, the name still
retains vital elasticity, for the describer has not thereby lost his
rights, but revives to them with all due justice upon the cessation of
this coma. The really culpable among such describers are those who
neglect to look around them to ascertain what has been done, and this
course is sometimes illicitly adopted to obtain a fleeting and
meretricious fame, by the description of ostensibly new species, which
critical investigators soon detect to have been long since known and
very ably described.

Thus, a complete synonymy, which can almost only come within the
province of a monograph, would give, chronologically, the entire history
of a species under all the names it has been known by in the several
works in which it has been published. Nature is so uniform and stable
that Aristotle’s descriptions can be clearly recognized, therefore there
is no fear that whatever may have been synonymously, but yet correctly
recorded of the economy of a species, can possibly be lost when once
registered in the archives of science.

The working out of a correct synonymy is an ungrateful task of much
labour, for few appreciate it, and not many use it, although when
thoroughly elaborated it is so extremely valuable.

A further rule in nomenclature is, that the generic name must always be
a substantive; and it is always desirable that the specific name should
be an adjective. In the event of the imposition of a proper name, which
is sometimes done to record a private friendship, but improperly so, for
it is a distinction due only to promoters of the science, the genitive
form must be adopted.

The next grade in ascent from the species is invariably the GENUS, for
subgenera, like varieties in species, are not uniformly present, but are
mere contingencies, even if they do properly exist.

Why some genera abound in species and others are so limited is as
difficult to determine as the differing numerical abundance of
individuals in species. That long genera (genera numerous in species)
may be the result of natural selection, as Mr. Darwin surmises, and the
offspring of a common parentage, is contradicted, not merely by peculiar
although sometimes slight dissimilarities of habit, combined with size
and colour, but also if any lines of demarcation are to be admitted, it
is possible, were their generic similitude to be subjected to severe
test, they might present characteristics normally discrepant and
suggestive of further division, although the habit may be very like.

The generic grouping is effected by structural peculiarities, which are
essentially of a higher class than the characters of specific
separation, these being determined by colour, pubescence, sculpture,
etc. etc.; specific characters combining only individuals with such
peculiar inferior resemblances. The generic characters thus establish
groups of species allied only by such more general character and
similarity, but conjunctively of one permanent habit, although the
members of the genus may differ somewhat in habits, and so on of the
higher groups into which insects are collected, each group in its ascent
upwards presenting characteristics of a wider range than those of the
descending series. And so, by degrees, we rise until we reach the
characters which combine the whole order. The process is necessarily and
imperatively synthetical, for the whole foundation is based upon
species, and thence emanates the supposition that only species exist.

The _type_ of a genus is that species upon the characters of which the
genus was originally framed and named, and theoretically, however
generic groups may be subsequently divided to suit views or to meet
systems, the primitive generic type is assumed to retain the primitive
generic name. It is much to be doubted whether, in every case, the type
is the true pattern, or leader, or centre of the group called the genus;
nor is it likely if genera be natural groups. It has usually been
accident which has dropped upon the favoured species, and not a
well-calculated and thoroughly digested selection, and which, although
accepted, will require emendation or change if the whole collective
series should ever be obtained.

It is the necessary result of the imperfection of our intellect, and one
of the dominant conditions of overruling time, that one thing must
follow the other. It is, therefore, neither an expressed nor even an
implied inferiority that puts one species before the other in a generic
group; or one genus before the other in their successive order.
Affinities may lead both species and genera in varying directions,
although treated descriptively as of linear succession, in which order
they are usually arranged, but this is unavoidable and therefore not
derogatory. It is for the mind to conceive their radiation from a type,
or their parallelism with other forms, even in the connection of
affinity, and not merely of analogy, for the latter can be expressed
even in arrangement.

Thus encouragement attends the beginner at the very outset of his study,
and the prospect of a wide field for discoveries, in all directions,
lies open to him.

The FAMILY, after the GENUS, is the next natural group at which we
arrive, proceeding synthetically. Its characters, succeeding to those of
the ORDER, group together collectively the largest numbers of forms that
in their several combinations are the most nearly equivalents, and may
be almost paralleled in that quality to the alliance of species.
Ascending from species, the naturalist scarcely hopes to find in the
groups formed above them strict parallelism, although, to be logical, it
should be so, and, where the combinations are most natural, it is most
nearly so. Thus we do not again distinctly reach equivalents until we
arrive at these families, which from linking together associations
usually combined by an identity of instinct and functions, attach to
themselves greater interest, and form alliances pointed out by the
finger of nature itself, which are therefore exempted from the arbitrary
caprice of the constructive systematist.

It does not follow that families should be even nearly numerically
equivalent, for a family may contain a few or a multitude of genera and
species, or a multitude of genera and few species, or also a multitude
of species and few genera. Families comprise groups of forms to which
nature delegates the execution of certain duties and offices, and
whether specifically numerous or few, we may assume they are sufficient
for the object intended. If we can reach the motive that controls the
peculiarities of the group, it is a golden key to the explanation of the
structure of its constituents, and, perhaps might furnish us, if not
with a positive clue, yet with a surmise as to the functions of the
collateral groups of which it forms a member, and which diligent
observation may accurately determine.

Families, to be natural divisions, should stand in the same relationship
to genera as species do, but from the opposite side, whatever the
subdivisions are into which they may be separated, for the sake of
convenience, and as descending grades whereby to arrive with greater
facility at their genera, just as the species of the latter are also
sometimes grouped, that they may be reached with greater ease. These
subdivisions of families have no analogy with the varieties which
species occasionally throw off, although they may be as irregular in
their occurrence; that is to say, in the association of a group of
families arranged in their series of most proximate affinities, the
first may present subdivisions, others, in irregular occurrence, may not
require them,—just as in the species of a genus, arranged also in the
series of their closest resemblances, one will present a stringent
adherence to the specific type, or all may do so, or all or some may
have a tendency to vary. Groupings of species are, however, of a less
natural character usually than are those of families, and generally are
artificial, being capriciously made to break down long genera, that the
required species may be more readily arrived at.

The characters which group families differ _inter se_. Thus in the Order
_Hymenoptera_, the family of the bees is essentially framed upon their
most distinguishing peculiarity—the tongue,—which in other families
becomes of secondary importance. In some the neuration of the wings,
their mode of folding, the form of the eyes, conjunctively with other
peculiarities of general structure, etc. etc., which point to the
differences in the economy that accompany all these, have successively
the same prominent position which the trophi take in the family of the
bees.

I have already recently alluded to the relations of affinity and
analogy, and it is desirable that some notion of the meaning and bearing
of these terms should be given, as, in the majority of modern works on
natural history, use is frequently made of them.

On carefully surveying any class or order of creatures, the mind
speedily becomes impressed by observing certain similitudes out of the
direct line of continuous connection, and therefore remote from the
strongest connecting links of positive relationship in the methodical
series. Induced thence to inspect them more closely, we presently
ascertain that what we at first conceived might be an error in their
collocation, arises from very strong resemblances in certain particular
features, but which are less important than those which directly unite
them, and may not be permitted to interrupt the order established. It
is, however, equally evident that they indicate relations which may not
be neglected.

Thus, although the succession be direct in the evolution of its primary
characteristics, the prominent features which so present themselves
establish the conviction of the existence of connections oblique to the
straight line, but all embraced within the normal conditions which bind
the group together. These are called relations of affinity. Pursuing
them, it is sometimes observed that nature, as it were, returns upon
itself, reproducing similar notes in another key.

These indications have led philosophical naturalists to surmise that the
true arrangement of natural objects is in groups, and not in a straight
and continuous line.

Several schemes have been suggested for the purpose of giving uniformity
to these groups, making them equivalents by associating together the
same numbers of allied forms, which again return in a circular series
upon themselves, and impinge upon other circles at the parallel points
of their circumference by affinities less direct than those which unite
them within their own circle.

Many novel views and interesting combinations have been thus elicited,
showing that very strong affinities lie in very divergent directions,
but no system has been hitherto devised which overrules the conflicting
difficulties that attend these arrangements. Whatever number may have
been adopted to bring nature within this circular system, it has always
been found that some, or several members, both in the circles
themselves, or in their series, is as yet deficient, and awaits either
discovery or creation.

The pursuit of such views stimulates profound investigation, and may
lead to valuable discoveries that will eventually give a loftier and
more philosophical character to the study of natural history than it has
hitherto possessed, and make it an attraction to the highest class of
mental powers. The key to the universe hangs at the girdle of the veiled
goddess; and happy the student who shall achieve possession of it, and
unlock the mysteries to the reverential gaze of mankind.

The _relation of analogy_ is different in _kind_, although the general
affinities which bind a class together are necessarily affinities in the
widest construction of the term; but the class being resolved into its
elements, those affinities, thus dissevered, no longer retain the
uniting links whereby the mass coheres. They, more correctly, stream
from their origin in parallelisms rather than in a continuous and
uninterrupted current; and these parallelisms present resemblances often
of a merely superficial character. As strong an instance as I can adduce
is possibly the analogical parallelism of the _Pentamera_ and the
_Heteromera_ in the _Coleoptera_, which are, however, bound by the
common affinity of being all beetles.

It is, nevertheless, often difficult to determine between the
relationships of affinity and analogy, for groups even in close
contiguity may also possess both. Thus, the normal _Ichneumones_ have
their analogues in the _Ichneumones adsciti_, if the comparison be
restricted to themselves, but these revert into the relationship of
affinity when a comparison is instituted between them and the adjacent
groups on the one side of the _Tenthredines_, or on the other of the
_Aculeata_, with which, when a relationship presents itself, it is
merely one of analogy. So, also, within the pentamerous _Coleoptera_ we
have a relationship of analogy between the _Staphylinidæ_ and the
_Histeridæ_, but it becomes one of affinity when it unites them within
this section of the class.

Innumerable other instances might be given readily, but these will
suffice to convey a notion of the relative meanings of the terms,
‘relation of affinity’ and ‘relation of analogy,’ which is all here
aimed at.

The problem naturalists have to solve is, “What is the natural system?”
We can clearly see that the systems adopted are not Nature’s, that they
are essentially imperfect, and that the science, even with all the force
of the intelligence that has been applied to it, is far from having
attained perfection. It still awaits the master mind that shall cope
with its difficulties, determine its intricacies, and, threading the
labyrinth, guide his enthusiastic disciples into the adytum of the
temple.

The subjects here brought under view admit of very considerable
development, and of strictly didactic and methodical treatment. It has
been my object only to gossip upon them, that I might stimulate
curiosity to undertake systematic study, by showing how interesting it
may become if earnestly pursued, being so fraught with instruction of
large compass.

Works on natural history have divers objects in view, and may be
intended either for popular and general distribution, or for special
scientific purposes, and in each case the mode of treatment will
materially differ. Many purposes may also be intended to be severally
met in the strictly and rigidly scientific treatment. They may be either
general methodical arrangements treated superficially, having no other
design than to give a sort of bird’s-eye view of the subject in its
wider distributions and broader landmarks, or they may treat of portions
of the large subject more specially; again, they may constitute
monographs of varying extent from a family to a genus; or they may
comprise loose descriptions of new species of old and well-established
genera; and some such, conjunctively with new species, establish
likewise new genera, indicating, at the same time, their proximate
position in the general series. The two latter classes are usually the
appendages to voyages and travels in distant unexplored countries, or
are the result of a careful collection of neglected tribes at home.
Each, thus, with its special application has its special construction;
but in the case of new species, I would strenuously counsel a full and
complete description, and urge as imperative the construction of a
specific character, formally framed to meet the condition of the
science, based upon the precise antecedents and existing state of the
genus to which such species belong.

Even assuming that the knowledge of species is the essential foundation
of the science, the preceding observations show that there is a higher
knowledge connected with the pursuit than this mere knowledge of
species, and yet from which it emanates. There is a higher object to be
achieved than the accumulation of a store of them, arranged in seemly
order, set with manifest taste, and named in accordance with the
accepted nomenclature. These are extremely pleasing to the eye, but the
intellect languishes over them in unsatisfied desire, craving more solid
aliment. There is besides room for observation on every side, either
confirmatory or original, and both are much needed, and must be
considerably augmented before it is accumulated in satisfactory
abundance; and until this be procured, existing systems can be viewed
merely as temporarily useful, for until all that nature can teach shall
be exhausted, perfection cannot be attained.

The many kinds of knowledge which the study subserves, and the
recreation and pleasure each affords, are a sufficient reply to the
sneering _Cui bono?_ of its detractors, who, when they urge that it
occupies time which might be more profitably employed, present
themselves but as the priests of the Fetish of the age, and may be told
that we use it only as a relaxation to necessary worldly toils. When
pursued, in cases where it can be so, in unmolested security, is there a
more salutary pursuit than that which inculcates the high veneration and
love which the study of nature should inspire towards the Great Parent
of all? What can compete with it in other studies? The investigation of
the works of the Almighty lead directly to the steps of the altar of
religion, and there we find the study of the Works confirmed by the
precepts of the Word, both inculcating humble reverence and fervent
love. Thus pursued, is it not a reply to every cavil?

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER VII

      BRIEF NOTICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES.


WITH the great JOHN RAY dawns the scientific cultivation of British
bees. Before his time, the only entomological work which had been
published in England was Dr. Mouffett’s ‘Theatrum Insectorum.’ In this
work there is an ample account of the domestic bee, with gleanings from
many sources of some of its habits and economy, but there is no notice
of any insects, excepting some species of the genus _Bombus_, which may
be at all consorted with the social bee by affinities of structure or
identity of function.

In Ray’s correspondence with his disciples and friends, we have
straggling observations upon the habits of a few wild bees, especially
some jotted down by his diligent pupil, the distinguished Francis
Willughby. It is in Ray’s posthumous ‘Historia Insectorum,’ published in
1710, at the instance of the Royal Society, that we first find collected
together all that had been previously known of ‘British Bees.’ In that
work he describes them systematically. He there arranges the bees into
_Apis_ and _Bombylius_, which may be regarded almost as genera.

He divides _Apis_ into what may be considered as two sections, _Apis
domestica_ forming the first, and the second containing his _Apes
silvestres_, or wild bees. Nine of these are described and numbered
consecutively, which are followed by eleven descriptions unnumbered,
some of the latter having been supplied to him by Francis Willughby,
whose initials are attached to these, and amongst which we find the
description of the willow bee, subsequently, from this cause, named by
Kirby, from its original describer, and now universally known as
_Megachile Willughbiella_.

Ray’s second genus is _Bombylius_, identical, as far as it goes, with
the modern genus _Bombus_, excepting that it includes an _Anthophora_.
He here describes nineteen, all numbered. Ray’s names are phrases, the
mode of describing then prevalent in all the natural sciences, until the
happy introduction of the binomial system by the great genius of natural
history—LINNÆUS. These phrases are almost tantamount to the modern
specific character; but Ray unfortunately attaches no size, yet size
might have lent some aid to their modern determination.

Mr. Kirby was able to identify and introduce into his synonymy only a
few of Ray’s insects, from the defectiveness of the descriptions; the
following embrace all that could be verified:—

No. 1 of the _Apes silvestres_ is our _Anthidium mancatum_; No. 3, the
male of _Anthophora retusa_, the female of which being No. 4 of his
_Bombylii_; No. 4 of the _Apes_ is _Andrena nitida_: these comprise all
of those numbered which could be recognized. The first of the unnumbered
is the male of _Eucera longicornis_; the fourth is _Melecta punctata_;
the sixth is _Colletes fodiens_; the seventh is the male of _Osmia
bicornis_; and the ninth the celebrated _Megachile Willughbiella_.

In _Bombylius_ No. 1 is _Bombus lapidarius_; No. 2, _B. Raiellus_, named
by Mr. Kirby in honour of its great describer; No. 3 is _B. muscorum_;
No. 4 is the female of _Anthophora retusa_, as noticed above; No. 5 is
_Bombus terrestris_, as is also No. 6; No. 7 is the male of _B.
lapidarius_; No. 8 is _B. pratorum_; No. 9 is _B. sylvarum_; No. 10 is
_B. subinterruptus_; No. 11 is _B. hortorum_; No. 13 is _B.
Francillonellus_, and No. 17 is _Apathus Barbutellus_. Thus ten of the
_Apes silvestres_, and six of the _Bombylii_ are unidentified, and those
recognized may be placed correctly, by the aid I give in attaching Mr.
Kirby’s synonymy to the list of species added to each genus below.

Nothing of any moment thence intervened, until the Rev. W. Kirby, of
Barham, in Suffolk, made a careful and earnest collection of the
‘British Bees,’ with a view to their scientific description and
distribution. Stragglers were to be found in many entomological
cabinets, and some of their habits had been observed and recorded by
patient and attentive naturalists; but these collections were small,
very imperfect, and widely dispersed, until Mr. Kirby’s energy and
activity nurtured the idea, and carried it into execution, of bringing
into one focus the scattered notices and vagrant specimens he had seen
about.

The diligence he himself exercised in procuring all the individuals he
possibly could, by continued collecting during a succession of years,
enabled him, in the course of time, to add considerably to those he was
already acquainted with, either in collections, or through dispersed
notices. The growing bulk of his store suggested his looking around for
guides to their methodical arrangement, as a clue to what might have
been observed of their habits. Finding no such assistance, and nothing
to meet his wants, for Linnæus’s notices were too few, and Fabricius’s
labours too inconsequential, he determined to aid himself by elaborating
their distribution upon the basis of the principles established by
Fabricius himself, but which this celebrated entomologist had worked out
so inconclusively as to make his system an indigested mass heaped
together in the greatest disorder.

Mr. Kirby’s patience and diligence, although working only upon the same
principle, speedily brought into lucidity and order the obscurity and
confusion that had prevailed. By one of those strange coincidences which
have been remarkably recurrent in scientific invention and discovery,
Latreille, in France, was at the same time arranging all the bees known
to him, by a process precisely similar to that adopted by Mr. Kirby. He
consequently arrived at exactly the same results, with this difference
only, that what Mr. Kirby calls genera are to Latreille subfamilies, and
the sections which Mr. Kirby was induced to form in his genera, from
their structural differences, and which sections he called families,
inconveniently indicating them merely by letters, asterisks, and
numbers, were formed by Latreille into genera, and to which the latter
either applied or adopted names, or framed new ones, when deficient;
these however are essentially genera, with all their discriminative
characteristics, for they bring together the very same species in both
cases. This clearly exhibits the beauty and certainty of the principle
upon which each had worked out his distribution, both being based
chiefly upon the structure of the trophi, or the organs of the mouth,
but which Fabricius, its projector, had, singularly enough, failed to
accomplish successfully.

Both works were published in the same year, 1802 (An X. of Latreille’s
book), unknown to each other, but Mr. Kirby’s sprang into life in
matured perfection, like the imago of the bee itself, whereas
Latreille’s labours were progressively nursed to maturity in successive
publications, until they received their final elaboration in 1809, in
the fourth volume of his ‘Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum,’ whose
successive stages were, first, the notice appended at the end of his
‘Histoire des Fourmis’ in Paris in 1801, and then in the thirteenth
volume of his ‘Histoire Naturelle des Insectes,’ in 1805, a supplement
to Sonnini’s edition of Buffon, and then in the ‘Nouveau Dictionnaire
d’Histoire Naturelle.’ Even thus the subject was not so amply discussed,
although applied more extensively, and made to embrace all the bees,
exotic as well as European, at that time known, as it had been done in
Mr. Kirby’s model work, which leaves nothing to be desired but the
naming of his anonymous subdivisions, and a little more artistical skill
in the execution of his plates. The terminology used by him also differs
from that subsequently adopted through foreign influences, but which is
readily reduced to his standard.

The merits of the work greatly transcend these trivial deficiencies, for
it is a “canon” as invaluable to the entomologist as the celebrated
canon of Polycletus was, and the Phidian marbles still are to sculptors.
Of course observation has greatly reduced the number of his species by
their due association with legitimate partners, which, from their
dissimilarity, he was compelled to separate, as only successive
observation could prove their identity. More extensive collecting has
also shown that some of his species are merely varieties of others,
which have thus been brought to their authentic type. This also could
only be proved by experience, for it is remarkable how very Protean some
species are, whilst others are almost rigidly unchangeable. Evidently
there does exist a line of demarcation between distinct species, which
only requires to be diligently sought to be found, obscure as it may
appear to be, but which the insects themselves obey, for however closely
species may sometimes approximate, yet I do not believe, as I have
before expressed, that they ever permanently coalesce, and that they are
always as distinctly separate as are asymptotes.

As Mr. Kirby’s work is in few hands, or perhaps not readily accessible,
I will give here a summary outline of it, with the names of the genera
with which his families coincide.

In this work he established only two named genera—_Melitta_ and _Apis_.

His genus _Melitta_, which is equivalent to the subsequent subfamily
_Andrenidæ_, he divides into two sections, * and * *, the first
containing two families, _a_ and _b_, (these we call genera, and they
are now named _Colletes_ and _Prosopis_); the second section * *
contains three families, _a_, _b_, _c_, (_a_, is _Sphecodes_, _b_,
_Halictus_, and _c_ comprises our three genera, _Andrena_, _Cilissa_,
and _Dasypoda_.)

His genus _Apis_ he also divides into two sections, * and * *; the first
is subdivided into two families, _a_ and _b_ (our genera _Panurgus_ and
_Nomada_); and the second is divided into five subsections, _a_, _b_,
_c_, _d_, _e_; _a_ and _b_ constitute families (our genera _Melecta_ and
_Epeolus_). The subsection _c_ is divided into two parts, 1 and 2, the
first containing the two divisions _α_ and _β_, each comprising a family
(our genera _Cœlioxys_ and _Stelis_); and the second is divided into the
four families, _α_, _β_, _γ_, _δ_, (_α_ being the modern _Megachile_;
_β_, _Anthidium_; _γ_, _Chelostoma_ and _Heriades_ conjunctively, and
_δ_ is our _Osmia_). The subsection _d_ has two subdivisions, 1 and 2,
the first being a family (our _Eucera_); and the second is divided into
the two families _α_ and _β_ (_α_ comprising our _Saropoda_,
_Anthophora_, and _Ceratina_), and the family _β_, consisting of the
genus _Xylocopa_, then supposed to be indigenous, but whose native
occurrence has not been substantiated.

The fifth subsection, _e_, is split into two divisions, 1 and 2, each
containing a family (1 is our _Apis_, and 2, our _Bombus_).

In this last of his families Mr. Kirby had already noticed, with the
same sagacity with which he had previously conjectured the cuckoo-like
habits of some of the solitary bees, the distinctive structure of some
of the species, which incapacitated them from providing the sustenance
of their own young, and which thus reduced them to the same category;
but he left the idea in its supposititious condition, being too modest
to use it as a mark of separation, but which Newman, on our side of the
Channel, and St. Fargeau on the other side, subsequently, and both
nearly about the same time, but with the advantage in favour of Newman,
distinguished, and separated generically, respectively by the names of
_Apathus_ and _Psithyrus_; the former, having the priority, is adopted,
according to the rights of precedence in nomenclature.

The above description of Mr. Kirby’s system will perhaps be difficult to
understand, unless I append the naked scheme itself, which is as
follows:—


                                MELITTA.

    [Table: Melitta Hierarchy]

Mr. Kirby could scarcely have considered that there were more than two
series of equivalents in this scheme, the first being the great division
into the two genera; and the second, the final division, where his
analysis terminated in his families, which, with some further slight
subdivision, as shown above, constitute our present genera. The
synthetical combinations which the arrangement presents, as we ascend
from his families, result from an almost arbitrary selection of
characters and certainly are not equivalents. The whole method is very
perplexing; for, to cite an insect for the purpose of making a
communication, it would have to be preceded by its whole array of
subdivisions. Thus _Megachile Willughbiella_, which is now so
compendiously noticed by the binomial system, would have to be quoted as
_Apis_ * * _c_, 2, _a_, _Willughbiella_, and so with the rest.

Although I have strongly applauded the ‘Monographia Apum Angliæ,’ as an
excellent treatise wherever I have had an opportunity, the praise is to
be applied to the correct care with which both the family descriptions
and the specific descriptions are elaborated; whilst Mr. Kirby’s
timidity in fearing to depart from the course of his masters, Linnæus
and Fabricius, by establishing a multitude of genera unrecognized by
their authority, although every one of his families is pertinently a
well-constituted genus, is much to be deplored. He has thus lost the
fame of naming the offspring, of which, although legitimately the
parent, he was not the sponsor. But he has won the higher renown, as I
have elsewhere remarked, of his work being a canon of entomological
perfection.

Notwithstanding that this very elaborate, and, to some extent,
artificial method is based upon a plurality of characters, and
apparently upon such as most readily presented themselves to
substantiate the feasibility of subdivision indicated by habit, it is
very remarkable in having brought the series into more satisfactory
sequence than that presented by Latreille and his modifiers. _Panurgus_
here holds its permanent post as the connecting link between the _Apidæ_
and _Andrenidæ_, pointed out by nature in its close resemblance to
_Dasypoda_. But this genus, however, establishes for itself a stronger
affinity to the _Apidæ_, exclusively of that presented by the folding of
the tongue in repose, in its presenting immediately the large
development of the labial palpi which is peculiarly characteristic of
this subfamily.

All the cuckoo-bees then follow in order; these are succeeded by the
true _Dasygasters_; after which come Latreille’s _Scopulipedes_; and the
series is wound up by _Apis_ and _Bombus_.

Mr. Kirby, I suppose, was induced to associate in the same section
_Panurgus_ and _Nomada_, from their resemblance in general habit, which
in both conforms to the type predominant in the _Andrenidæ_, although
they are thence dislocated by the differences in the important organs of
the mouth, which verify in this case the seeming paradox of a part being
greater than the whole; for these are certainly of greater relative
importance to the economy of the creature than mere general habit, and
to which all the peculiarities of structure finally converge, for the
purpose of giving it what it thence acquires, its own proper and
distinctive place in the series of created beings.

The most extensive work since published upon bees generally, is that
treating of the _Hymenoptera_ universally, written by Le Pelletier de
St. Fargeau, and comprised in four thick octavo volumes, contained in
the ‘Suites à Buffon.’ In this work both the genera and species of our
bees occur, of course conjunctively with the rest, but its utility,
especially to the beginner, is materially diminished by the peculiar
systematic views of the author. The distribution of the Order is framed
chiefly upon the economy of the insects, which is not so tangible as
structure, and blends very heterogeneous forms,—widely separating, in
some cases, structural affinities, and sometimes uniting discordant
habits. Wasps and bees we here find intermingled, and to commence study
with this work would much perplex the student. It can be used
beneficially only when some progress has been made in the pursuit.

The only British entomologists who have treated of the bees since the
time of Mr. Kirby, are Stephens, Curtis, Westwood, and Smith,—the first
in his elaborate ‘Catalogue of British Insects,’ published in 1829; and
the second in his ‘Guide to the Arrangement of British Insects,’
published in 1837. The arrangement of the family of bees in both these
works is exceedingly arbitrary and without any obvious reason, either as
regards the consecutive order of the genera or species. This originated
possibly in their personal rivalry, which led them to make their systems
as dissimilar as they could, and as unlike the true order as they could
well dispose them. Both arrangements are certainly far beneath
criticism.

In the Synopsis of Westwood, at the end of his ‘Guide to the
Classification of Insects,’ published in 1840, and in Smith’s ‘Catalogue
of the British Bees, contained in the Collections of the British
Museum,’ published in 1855, we have Latreille’s distribution, with
slight modifications, to which I shall not advert at present, but which
I shall discuss in my next chapter, where I shall introduce the
arrangement I myself propose for the combination of the genera of
British bees.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER VIII.

     A NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES, WITH ITS RATIONALE, AND AN
  INTRODUCTION TO THE FAMILY, SUBFAMILIES, SECTIONS, AND SUBSECTIONS.


IF perfection of instinct, and an organization exquisitely moulded to a
complete adaptation to the many delicate and varied functions of that
instinct, as well as to the exercise of every faculty incidental to the
class, be certainly a proof of pre-eminence, we may justly claim this
position for the Order Hymenoptera. There is no characteristic in which
they are deficient, nor any in which some of the members of the Order do
not transcend in aptitude the insects of all the others.

If they have not been placed at the head of the class Insecta, it has
been because systematic convenience did not permit the transposition, on
account of the interruption it would have caused to the convenient
linking of the rest in a consecutive arrangement. Yet are they the most
volatile fliers, the most agile runners, the most skilful burrowers, and
consummate architects.

The beauty resulting from the combinations of symmetry of form, elegance
of motion, brilliancy of colour, and vivacity of expression, is to be
found exclusively amongst them. Either in the velocity of their flight,
or in its playful evolutions and graceful undulations, they are
unsurpassed, and they hover in the execution of their designs with
pertinacious perseverance. No insect structure can more thoroughly
exemplify the most appropriate adaptation to its uses, and the most
admirable elegance in the formation of the means of execution.

I thus claim for them, and which I think I may without infraction of
dispute, the distinctive rank amongst insects.

Having fixed the station of the Hymenoptera generally, we have next to
seek the relative rank of the natural divisions into which they readily
separate.

Taking structure and instinct conjunctively, there can be no doubt that
the first position will be conceded to that division of the Order which
comprises the aculeated tribes—those armed with stings,—some of whose
members, in each of the three large divisions into which they fall,
being social, that is, living in communities, organized by a peculiar
polity or administration.

These aculeates divide into, first, the _fossorial Hymenoptera_, or
burrowers; and the equivalent branch the _Diploptera_, or wasps,
distinguished and named from their folding the superior wings
longitudinally in repose; secondly, the _heterogeneous Hymenoptera_, or
ants, named from the dissimilarity either in size or structure of their
females, a peculiarity incidental to all the social Hymenoptera, but
living in community is more peculiarly characteristic of this division,
it being in the other divisions restricted to a few genera only, whereas
here the solitary habit is the exceptional. In all cases of socialism
there are three classes of individuals,—males, females, and abortive
females. In the other social kinds of Hymenoptera, these abortive
females, called neuters, perform the labours of the community, and they
are always winged; whereas amongst the ants they are never winged, and
they constitute civil and military departments, the former attending to
domestic matters, and the latter making predatory excursions to enslave
the inhabitants of other communities, to aid their civilians in their
many duties.

The third and last division of the aculeate Hymenoptera contains the
_Mellicolligeræ_, the bees, or honey-gatherers.

Thus each division of the aculeated Hymenoptera is closely linked to the
others by the strong affinity of the social habits of some of the genera
of their several families.

The food of these three divisions of the aculeated Hymenoptera differs
considerably, the Fossores being raptorial flesh-feeders, which hunt
down and destroy their prey, and supply it as food to their young; the
_Heterogynæ_ are omnivorous,—grain, fruits, or carrion being equally
welcome to them; but in these climates I am not aware that they destroy
life, although their wide migrations within the tropics are undertaken
in the very spirit of the Huns and Vandals, for they devastate
everything they come across; but the whole family of bees are
exclusively honey-feeders without any carnivorous propensities, and use
their stings merely as weapons of defence.

Although all the social aculeates are edifiers, and although the wasp in
its _papier mâché_ domicile may vie with the honey-bee in capacity and
skill in the structure of the hexagons of the habitation it erects or
suspends, which are as perfect, and almost as delicate, although
fabricated of a coarser material than those within the hive, and wherein
also the several compartments form a more homogeneous unity, and the
uniformity of the several layers or floors is more in accordance with
architectural symmetry,—yet must the palm of precedence be accorded to
the bee, from the more elaborate and perfect development of the social
instinctive faculty.

We may be the more excused for this preference when we weigh the
interest of the genus _Apis_ to man. The wasp boots us nothing, but is
the pilferer of our fruits, and a marauder upon the hive, whose
inhabitants it destroys and consumes their produce, it being indifferent
to them which they obtain—the bee or the honey,—either furnishing them
with sustenance. The ant is obtrusive and incommodious, making
incursions upon the pantry, the store-room, the green-house, and the
hothouse; disfiguring our flower-beds, and often disgusting us with our
aliment by the impertinent intrusion of its appearance. But the bee
stores up for us honey, whose cruses are as inexhaustible as the oil
cruse of the good widow of Zarephath, and whose waxen shards furnish us
with a beautifully soft light, which in Catholic worship adds solemnity
to the rites of religion. In doing this the bee fulfils a sovereign
function in the economy of nature, by the fertilization of the flowering
plants, with which she reciprocates benefits; the preponderance,
however, is importantly in favour of the flower.

If captious objectors should dispute the position we thus claim for the
bees, we will willingly leave them the wasp with its sting, whilst we
sedulously cultivate the active and industrious bee, whose associations
range through all the fields of poetry, but nowhere more lusciously than
in the beautiful compositions of the Sanskrit poets Kalidasa and
Yayadeva.

The position of the family, whose English constituents I shall
subsequently treat of, being thus fixed, I have next to explain the
several subdivisions into which it is divided in the following
arrangement.

I am prompted to propose this new distribution of the British bees, by
the manifest imperfection of the several arrangements of them already
extant. The defects of these systems I shall have occasion to exhibit in
reference to the course I have been induced to take.

Mr. Kirby’s keenness of observation led him to surmise, from the absence
of polliniferous brushes upon the posterior legs, or other parts of the
body of some, that there might be a class of bees analogous to the
cuckoo, amongst the birds, who did not rear their own young, or
undertake any of the cares of maternity; but that led by a peculiar
instinct they deposited their eggs in the nests of more laborious kinds,
for their young to be nurtured upon the provision laid up in store by
the latter for the supply of their own progeny. This being merely a
supposition, Mr. Kirby made no use of it in the distribution of his
families.

Observation has since confirmed the conjecture, and the fact lends
material aid to the combination of the bees into detached groups, and
which has been partially applied since by all systematizers.

Conjunctively with the assistance derived from this circumstance, the
various modes whereby pollen is collected and conveyed, either on the
legs or on the belly, further facilitates the grouping of the family.
Other structural or economical peculiarities lend their aid, and
although the arrangement primarily emanates from the differences in the
formation of the tongue, these are corroborated by differences in other
organs, and the general distribution, as well as the special
combinations, all result from natural characteristics.

The simplicity of the arrangement thus effected is very striking; and we
thus find all the bees having similar habits, and with a similar
structure united together by it in distinct groups.

I will here insert my scheme, and exhibit why and in what it differs
from those of my predecessors; and, where necessary, I shall append such
observations upon the several methods extant, as will sufficiently show
the necessity, and vindicate the introduction of a new one.

  FAMILY MELLICOLLIGERÆ (Honey collectors).

    Subfamily 1. ANDRENIDÆ (Subnormal Bees).

      Section 1. _With lacerate paraglossæ._

        Subsection _a_. WITH EMARGINATE TONGUES.

           Genus 1. COLLETES.

                 2. PROSOPIS.

        Subsection _b_. WITH LANCEOLATE TONGUES.

           Genus 3. SPHECODES.

                 4. ANDRENA.

                 5. CILISSA.

      Section 2. _With entire paraglossæ._

        Subsection _c_. WITH ACUTE TONGUES.

           Genus 6. HALICTUS.

                 7. MACROPIS.

                 8. DASYPODA.

    Subfamily 2. APIDÆ (Normal Bees).

      Section 1. _Solitary._

        Subsection 1. SCOPULIPEDES (brush-legged).

        a. _Femoriferæ_ (collectors on the entire leg).

           † _With two submarginal cells._

           Genus 9. PANURGUS.

           b. _Cruriferæ_ (collectors on the shank only).

           † _With two submarginal cells._

          Genus 10. EUCERA.

          †† _With three submarginal cells._

          Genus 11. ANTHOPHORA.

                12. SAROPODA.

                13. CERATINA.

        Subsection 2. NUDIPEDES (naked-legged).

          a. _With three submarginal cells._

          Genus 14. NOMADA.

                15. MELECTA.

                16. EPEOLUS.

          b. _With two submarginal cells._

          Genus 17. STELIS

                18. CŒLIOXYS.

        Subsection 3. DASYGASTERS (hairy-bellied).

          _All with two submarginal cells._

          Genus 19. MEGACHILE.

                20. ANTHIDIUM.

                21. CHELOSTOMA.

                22. HERIADES.

                23. ANTHOCOPA.

                24. OSMIA.

      Section 2. _Cenobites_ (Dwellers in Community).

        Subsection 1. SPURRED.

                † _Parasitical._

          Genus 25. APATHUS.

                †† _Collectors._

              _Temporarily social._

          Genus 26. BOMBUS.

        Subsection 2. UNSPURRED.

            _Permanently social._

          Genus 27. APIS.

The primary division of the bees into two large branches, viz. into the
_Andrenidæ_, or abnormal bees, and the _Apidæ_, or normal bees, is
effected by the mode in which they fold the cibarial apparatus in
repose. In the description of the structure of the imago, I have
enlarged upon these organs, and for their explanation I must refer to
that chapter where diagrams exhibit the structure of the different kinds
of trophi of the bees, as well as their mode of folding. Here it is only
necessary to notice that in the _Andrenidæ_, the joint at the base draws
back the basal portion when protruded, and this basal portion is further
jointed at the point of the insertion of the paraglossæ and labial
palpi, and parallel with which joint the maxillæ are likewise jointed
close to the sinus where the maxillary palpi are inserted laterally upon
it. The basal portion thus throws the anterior part forward or retracts
it, at the will of the insect, and in the latter case, being then in
repose, it lies in contiguous parallelism to the basal half, but beneath
it. When thus withdrawn, the short tongue itself, with its paraglossæ
and labial palpi are sheltered beneath the coping of the labrum and the
lateral protection of the mandibles, whilst the horny sheathing of the
maxillæ protect the softer parts folding underneath.

In the _Apidæ_, or normal bees, the basal joint has the same action in
withdrawing the entire organ into its place of rest; but the joint which
gives it this power is not in an analogous situation to that in the
_Andrenidæ_, for it is seated short of the joint which lies at the base
of the several organs of the cibarial apparatus. By bending these
downwards, it carries their apex backwards towards the basal fulcrum
through the action of these two joints, and, when there, the more
delicate ones are protected from abrasion or injury, by the lateral
overlapping of the horny skin of the maxillæ. All being thus withdrawn
within this covering, upon the joint which folds them back, seated at
the base of the tongue, the labrum falls, and further to strengthen this
protection, the mandibles close over it like forceps.

That this difference in the arrangement of the cibarial apparatus points
to any distinctive peculiarities of economy has not been ascertained,
for the habits of the _Scopulipedes_ greatly resemble those of the
_Andrenidæ_; although the habits of one of them, _Anthophora furcata_,
are remarkably like those of the foreign genus _Xylocopa_, in its mode
of drilling wood. But the _Apidæ_ have cross affinities amongst
themselves, thus _Ceratina_ resembles _Heriades_, and some of the
_Osmiæ_, in the way in which it nidificates.

The tongues of the _Andrenidæ_ are always shorter, broader, and flatter
than those of the _Apidæ_, in which they are always long, cylindrical,
and tapering. In the first section of the _Andrenidæ_, the paraglossæ
are obtusely terminated at the apex, thence called lacerated, and where
they are fringed with brief bristles. The peculiar form of the tongue in
this section suggests its being separated into two subsections, that
organ being in the first subsection very broad and bilobated, which
gives those insects their position in the series by approximating them
to the preceding family of the _Diploptera_, or wasps, whose tongues
have the same bilobate form, but each lobe in them is furnished with a
gland. These tongues, in both cases of the wasps and these bees, may
conduce to the building or plastering habits of the insects. The form
may aid the wasp and the _Colletes_, the first in the moulding of its
hexagonal _papier-mâché_ cells, as it may the second in shaping and
embroidering the silk-lined abode of its embryonic progeny. Why
_Prosopis_ should have this organization is difficult to conceive,
unless it be from an analogy of structure incidentally previously
referred to, beyond which any special object has hitherto escaped
detection.

In the second section of the _Andrenidæ_, which have the paraglossæ
entire and terminating in a point, the tongues all also terminate
acutely with a lateral inclination inwards. In the lanceolate-tongued
tribe they bulge outwards laterally, although pointed at the apex.

All this subfamily of _Andrenidæ_, excepting only the two genera reputed
parasites, viz. _Prosopis_ and _Sphecodes_, are essentially
_Scopulipedes_, densely brush-legged, for the conveyance of pollen which
they vigorously collect; but from the brevity of their tongues they are
restricted to flowers with shallow petals and apparent nectaria, their
favourite plants being the abounding _Compositæ_ and _Umbelliferæ_, as
well as the _Rosaceæ_, whence they derive the agreeable odours which
many of them emit upon being captured.

Their peculiar mode of collecting is a further reason for bringing the
brush-legged _Apidæ_ collectively to the top of the normal bees, in
juxtaposition to the _Andrenidæ_, where the transition is made very
naturally from _Dasypoda_ to _Panurgus_.

The whole of the cibarial apparatus, or trophi, is always complete in
all its constituent parts throughout the _Andrenidæ_; and it is only
with _Ceratina_, in the group of _scopuliped Apidæ_, that it begins to
show the tendency it has to abnormal deficiencies, by the paraglossæ, in
that genus, being obsolete. This characteristic, then, exhibits itself
in the _Nudipedes_ with two submarginal cells who are parasitical upon
the _Dasygasters_, in whom also the maxillary palpi participate in a
deficiency in the authentic number of their joints, whilst in _Apis_
both maxillary palpi and paraglossæ are unapparent. This shows that the
numerical completion of the organs of the mouth have nothing to do with
the qualifications of the creature, the best endowed in other respects
being thus curtailed, the final cause of which is not yet understood.

The shape of the tongue itself thus separates the _Andrenidæ_ into three
well-defined divisions readily perceptible. These, as I have just
observed with respect to the differences in the mode of closing the oral
apparatus in both cases, yield no clue to economy and habits, for which
observation must supervene to illustrate it. This, patiently carried
out, is very desirable, as it is still in discussion whether,
notwithstanding the elucidation structure affords, _Prosopis_ and
_Sphecodes_ are or are not parasitical. Structure says they are, for,
like the cuckoo-bees forming the group _Nudipedes_ in the _Apidæ_, they
are destitute of the requisite apparatus for collecting pollen. Mr.
Kirby, however, gives direct testimony in favour of _Sphecodes_ being a
burrower, in the case of which bee it ought not to be a matter of much
difficulty to determine, for on sandy plateaus I have occasionally found
it very abundant, especially where there was ragwort (_Senecio_) in
flower in the vicinity, to which the males resorted; but being at the
time more intent on other matters, I neglected the opportunity. Other
observers concur with Mr. Kirby as regards _Sphecodes_, and also say as
much for _Prosopis_ (better known as _Hylæus_). I strongly incline to
the opinion enunciated by Latreille and Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau,
that they are parasites. My opinion is based upon peculiarities in them
other than, although strengthened by, the negative characteristic of
absence of polliniferous organs. A negative cannot be proved, it is
true, yet what has been positively asserted may as certainly result
either from defective observation, or from too strong a desire to find
no parasites among the _Andrenidæ_. My reasons occur elsewhere in this
work, and I need not repeat them. It is still an open question, and the
young entomologist, if entering the arena unprepossessed, might win his
spurs in determining it. It would be well worth the trouble of attending
to for those who have leisure, and if decided in favour of the
independency of these genera, which must be corroborated by a plurality
of observations, and not confined to one locality, they would form
strong and remarkable instances of a defective analogy in nature’s
workmanship, and suggest looking further for the causes of so
extraordinary an anomaly, and urge us to endeavour to trace the
equivalent which supersedes it.

The main subdivision of the _Apidæ_ results from the habits of the
insects, which divides them into SOCIAL and SOLITARY. The only tangible
characters the social tribes present to distinguish them from the
solitary is the glabrous surface of the posterior tibiæ, with their
lateral edges fringed with bristles slightly curved inwards, and which
form, with the slightly indented surface of the limb, a sort of natural
basket for the conveyance of pollen or other stores to the nest. This,
however, has not been made use of as a main feature for scientific
distribution, although they might follow the _Dasygasters_, as
_corbiculated bees_, or little basket bearers, in which case they would
form as pertinent a group as any of the rest, and the whole distribution
of the bees, _Apidæ_, would then rest upon the absence of, or the mode
in which the polliniferous organs were present. But the wonderful
attribute of their extraordinary instinct prohibits their being treated
with the rest in a consecutive line, and renders it rationally
imperative that all the _Cenobites_ should group together in a section
by themselves, and separate from the rest. Therefore in my arrangement I
have not availed myself of this very natural character, and here
indicate it, to show that I have not passed it from not noticing it.

Although the division into social and solitary yields in itself no
tangible character whereby the insects may be separated, it being wholly
empirical, yet is it so natural and necessary that it is impossible to
gainsay it. We find the solitary section readily resolve itself into
groups or subsections, determined by positive structural characters,
indicative of certain habits, and having a conforming economy, besides
which they are equivalents.

Thus the first subsection presents us with the brush-legged _Apidæ_
(_Scopulipedes_), which collect pollen upon their posterior legs. These
are further subdivided into those which collect it upon the whole limb,
viz. the coxa, the femur, the tibia, and first joint of the tarsus, (the
_femoriferæ_), and those which gather it merely upon the shank and basal
joint of the foot (the _cruriferæ_). These collectively form a
well-defined group, and why _Panurgus_ should be separated from the
brush-legged bees, when it is a most conspicuous instance of the
faculty, even more so than any other of the _Scopulipedes_, I have yet
to learn. It is true its mode of collecting closely resembles that
practised by the _Andrenidæ_, as does also the furniture for the purpose
of its posterior legs, but being essentially collocated with the _Apidæ_
or normal bees by its tongue, it fittingly links itself to the other
brush-legged _Apidæ_ (which have hitherto been placed between the
_Dasygasters_ and the Social Bees), by means of the genus _Eucera_, by
reason of its two submarginal cells, the structure of its maxillary
palpi, its mode of burrowing, and by each being infested by a similar
parasite—a _Nomada_, which in accommodation to the size of the sitos is
the largest of the genus. _Nomada_ does not occur as a parasite upon any
other of the brush-legged bees, or indeed upon any other of the true
bees at all, which peculiarity brings these two genera into close
contiguity to all non-parasitical _Andrenidæ_, all of which have their
legs furnished with polliniferous brushes, and upon which subfamily,
exclusively of these two instances of _Panurgus_ and _Eucera_, _Nomada_
is solely parasitical.

With respect to the two submarginal cells to the wings, nature must have
some reason for the limitation, for we find it prevalent also throughout
the _Dasygasters_, or hairy-bellied bees.

The next very natural group is consistently central. It comprises the
cuckoo-bees, which are naked-legged (_Nudipedes_), by reason of their
parasitism, they not requiring organs to collect what they have no
occasion to use. Their parasitism extends both upwards and downwards,
those with three submarginal cells being parasitical upon all the
brush-legged bees, whether subnormal _Andrenidæ_ or the _Scopulipedes_,
those with two submarginal cells being restricted in their parasitism to
the _Dasygasters_.

These _Dasygasters_, or hairy-bellied bees, form the next very natural
group. Their general peculiarity of structure I have had occasion to
advert to, in treating, in a former section of the work, upon the
structure of the imago, and to which I now refer to avoid repetition.
This group contains the majority of the artisan bees, whose habits I
shall particularize when I speak of the genera specially; but we find
carpenters amongst the _Scopulipedes_, and essentially builders amongst
the _Cenobites_, which form a further and the last of our natural
groups. A true cuckoo-bee (_Apathus_) consorts amongst these
_Cenobites_, and properly so, from many causes. The anomaly would have
been too great to have removed it to a place amongst the _Nudipedes_,
for although in obsolete paraglossæ, and in a deficiency in the normal
number of the joints of the maxillary palpi, it resembles some of these,
its general habit and general structure, bating that controlled by its
parasitical habits, are so like _Bombus_, that it cannot well be
separated far from the latter,—especially as we know too little of its
habits to say that it does not regularly dwell in the nest of its sitos,
which may well mistake it for one of its own community, it resembling
the species it infests so closely; it therefore consistently associates
systematically with the temporarily social societies.

Having thus cursorily skimmed the surface of the method I suggest, I
have next to give my reasons for proposing it in lieu of adopting any
yet extant.

My exhibition of Kirby’s grouping, in the preceding section, where I
treat of the scientific cultivation of British bees, will fully explain
why I could not adopt that arrangement.

Why I cannot follow Latreille’s, is, that in his last elaboration, in
his ‘Families Naturelles,’ published in 1825, which must be considered
as his final view, he does not satisfactorily divide the _Andrenidæ_, of
the genera of which he has made a complete jumble. With the _Apidæ_ in
his group of _Dasygasters_, he intermixes _Ceratina_, separating it from
the group of _Scopulipedes_, where it truly belongs by every
characteristic, and he mingles also with them the two cuckoo genera
_Stelis_ and _Cœlioxys_, which are merely parasites upon these
_Dasygasters_, and can only be associated by the structural conformity
of the two submarginal cells to the superior wings, and the length of
the labrum, the latter being a character of very secondary importance;
and further, he dissevers the _Scopulipedes_ in placing _Panurgus_ at
the commencement of the _Apidæ_, and the rest proximate to the social
bees.

Westwood, in his modification of Latreille’s system, certainly divides
the _Andrenidæ_ better than his master had done, but he does not go far
enough. Besides, he interposes _Halictus_ and _Lasioglossum_, (the
latter admitted as a genus merely out of courtesy to Curtis, who had
elevated it to that rank in his ‘British Entomology,’ although it is
nothing more than a male _Halictus_), between _Sphecodes_ and _Andrena_
with _Cilissa_, these having lanceolate tongues with lacerate
paraglossæ, whereas _Halictus_ has a very acute tongue, and its
paraglossæ are entire, as is also the case with _Dasypoda_, from which
_Halictus_ is thus divided. In the _Apidæ_, he does not separate the
cuckoo-bees, but with Latreille intermixes _Cœlioxys_ and _Stelis_ with
the artisan bees, although without retaining Latreille’s convenient and
suitable name of _Dasygasters_, for this group of mechanics. The same
objection I take to his _Scopulipedes_ as that expressed above, relative
to Latreille’s.

Precisely the same fault I find with the _Andrenidæ_ of Smith, as that
urged above with respect to Westwood’s. He is more careful with his
_Apidæ_, his _Cuculinæ_ being all genuine parasites, but he includes
_Ceratina_ with the _Dasygasters_, with which it has no affinity of
structure, and only a slight analogy in the _form_ merely of its abdomen
without its hairiness beneath, to that of _Osmia_, from whose proximity
he takes it to place it near _Heriades_, when it is certainly intimately
allied in every respect with the _Scopulipedes_, and by reason of its
subclavate antennæ might suitably be brought into juxtaposition with
_Panurgus_, did not its obsolete paraglossæ and three submarginal cells
interfere with its occupying this position. To his _Scopulipedes_ the
same objection is valid as that taken to Latreille’s and Westwood’s
disposition of them. Amongst the social bees he separates _Bombus_ from
_Apis_, by the intervention of _Apathus_, which is scarcely consistent.

It is in no spirit of captiousness that these objections are made; they
are deduced from collocations whose conspicuous incoherence is patent to
the most superficial observation. The distribution I have here
introduced has been made merely to ameliorate, and make more cogent,
what was so palpably defective and feeble.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER IX.

 A TABLE, EXHIBITING A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE GENERA OF BRITISH BEES
                             WITH FACILITY.


THE following table is constructed exclusively to facilitate, by the
most obvious characters, the recognition of the several genera into
which the family is divided; it will, however, be incumbent upon the
learner to use some diligence in order to acquire an accurate perception
of their distinguishing characteristics.

By the present extremely artificial plan the systematic sequence is
disturbed; but the numbers, which will be found appended to the names in
the table, will show their orderly succession.

The natural generic character which precedes the account of each genus
in the next division of the work will give the reason, by comparison, of
the order in which “system” arranges them, and which being based mainly
upon the differences of the trophi,—although, conjunctively with other
characters, the trophi must necessarily be studied for its
explanation,—their description in the description of the part of the
imago is consequently referred to.

Did we know exactly the uses of the component parts of the trophi
severally, we should be better able to determine the legitimacy of
applying them to the purpose of indicating the natural generic
character, but being compelled, by reason of our ignorance of their
several special functions, to avail ourselves of their form, relative
proportions, and number only, uncertainty of having caught the clue of
nature’s scheme must of necessity attend this distribution.

But as what we do know of their uses in this family clearly indicates
them to be an essential instrument indispensable to the economy of the
insect, and which gives these organs an almost paramount importance,
their comparative construction in the several genera would yield clear
notions of the true order of succession, were we acquainted with the
relative significancy of the various portions of the entire organ. Thus
we see it numerically most complete in what we are pleased to suppose
the least genuine bees—the _Andrenidæ_.

In my series of the genera proposed in the preceding section, with the
_Nudiped_ true bee _Melecta_ commences a deficiency of either some of
the joints of the maxillary palpi, or of the paraglossæ;—throughout the
artisan bees this abridgment is conspicuous both in number and
proportion; and it culminates in what we consider the _facile princeps_,
that most wonderfully organized of all insects—the genus _Apis_, which
in its neuters has neither paraglossæ nor maxillary palpi, the latter
being equally deficient in the male or drone, and in the queen; and in
both the male and the queen the paraglossæ are but rudimentary.

Nature appears too mysterious in her operations to permit us to solve
these remarkable anomalies, for no combination of the genera founded
exclusively upon them supplies us with Ariadne’s thread. Every such
combination breaks up more harmonious groups, and we then retrace our
steps, satisfied that we are on the wrong road.

In some other orders of insects the cibarial apparatus has but little
bearing upon the insect’s mode of life, for in many it is not used
either for nutrition or in their economy, or so slightly so as to admit
of its being considered of very inferior importance, although
systematists—to enhance the value of their own labours, by the frequent
difficulty, from excessive minuteness, of its examination—have usually
made it a prominent feature in their arrangements.

That science has not widely strayed away from the true succession and
natural affinities by the main selection of the trophi for the
arrangement of the bees, seems partially confirmed by the gradations of
form or habit that this method of treatment in general exhibits. A
higher method doubtless exists, which would give form, number, and
proportion very inferior rank in ordering the arrangement, but at
present the clue to it has not been discovered.

These questions are indeed beyond the scope of a work of this character,
which is merely a ladder to the fruits of learning, and the bearing of
them is only hinted at to indicate that there is much exercise for the
intelligence in the study of even this small family. The mind that would
stop in the study of nature at the knowledge of genera and species, can
be very speedily satisfied, and one bright spring day’s successful
collecting will furnish the materials for much patient and industrious
occupation.

In nature we find all things apparently blended in the grandest
confusion; but they all have mutual and reciprocal bearings which give a
definite purpose to the seeming disorder, and which make each separate
unit the centre of all. But we, from our inability to grasp in its
fulness the order of this disorder, are obliged to seize fragments and,
separating them into what we conceive to be their coherent elements, use
them as exponents of the entirety. They could not so exist in nature,
but would speedily die out, and it is only by the way in which we find
them intermingled, that they can be maintained. Thus, as all conduce to
the conservation of each, each conduces to the conservation of all.

A large collection of natural history, composed of every available item
that can be gathered from every kingdom of nature’s vast domain, may
perhaps be compared (_magnis componere parva_) with the constituent
parts of a most elaborately-constructed and complicated clock, which its
skilful artificer has designed and made to record and chime the
divisions of time, and to register the days, weeks, months, and seasons,
and which a virtuoso having taken to pieces, has sorted into its details
of wheels and springs, levers and balances, chains, bells, and hands,
which told the time when its music would peal; and arranging like to
like, thinks he will thus understand more clearly the complexity of the
varied movements. But, sadly disappointed, he finds he cannot comprehend
the combination of the intricate machinery, although he singly admires
the minute perfection of each delicate and ingenious piece lying before
him which composed the structure, but which has now lost all expression,
his curiosity having deprived the organism of its vitality, which is its
most wonderful element.

And this is our process, for if we stop here we have but an assortment
of vapid machinery, no click of whose wheels gives note of the vital
hilarity of their relative and combined effects. The final cause of
creation escapes us thus frittering it into details, which if we merely
abide by, we but loiter at the foot of Pisgah, instead of ascending its
summits to survey thence the sunny and varied landscape, the glorious
sea, and, arching over all, the blue cope of heaven. The manifold
relations of animate and inanimate nature, which, although they must be
studied in detail, are to be appreciated in their entirety, should
stimulate the efforts of the naturalist to conquer all impending
difficulties, and he should not permit himself to be satisfied with this
preliminary knowledge.

Although the above be the inevitable effect of distributing nature into
its component parts, it is the indispensable precursor to the study, for
the scientific treatment is the only mode whereby, through special
study, we can arrive at the comprehension of the great generality. We
thus strive to trace the mode in which each emanates from each; and even
when this is not absolutely tangible we may discover affinities or
analogies by structural resemblances which implicitly lead to
physiological inferences, and thence on, higher and higher, all lending
us aid to make the larger survey, wherein we behold the concatenation of
the many links which harmonize the spiritual with the material. But the
study must be thorough, and its details are not to be spread out before
us merely as a beautiful picture-book. They all have their place in the
great ordinance of nature, which it is for us to find. At first we can
only spell the syllables, which the study of species puts together for
us, but by degrees we shall trace the words, and read the sentences: a
study more abstruse but far more pregnant than that of the Egyptian
hieroglyphics, and whose attainment is rewarded with a supremer
knowledge than is accorded by these, which exhibit merely the legends of
dead despots; but here we have a display of the vitality of the wisdom
inscribed in gleaming characters upon the leaves of the wonderful book
of life, God’s glorious works, made manifest to man.

Thus we should aim at the knowledge of final causes, the apparent wisdom
of whose adaptations points clearly to the source of all—the first great
Cause. A naturalist with such large views has a wide field before him,
which with every step expands, and which alone is worthy of engrossing
the earnest attention of his intelligence, and is in itself sufficient
to absorb the profoundest contemplation. His mind becomes thus filled
with great objects, which charm it with their beauty and feed it with
the complexity of their intricate combinations, whose earnest
development is an affluent stream of perpetual instructive occupation.
With Newton we may say: “We everywhere behold simplicity in the means,
but an inexhaustible variety in the effects,” resulting all from the
luminous wisdom of prearranged design.

The humiliation which attends the sentiment of the utter inability and
incompetency of the mind to grasp the intricacy and vastness of nature,
is consoled by the redundant proofs the contemplation yields of a
supreme and benevolent Providence presiding over all things, and thence
we derive the comfortable and supporting assurance, in the fickle
waywardness and vicissitudes of a harassed and anxious life, that a
benevolent eye is ever watchfully awake; for the naturalist everywhere
beholds that omnipotently wise and loving Providence in active operation
throughout nature.

No study like natural history, pursued in a humble and docile spirit, so
harmoniously elicits the religion of the soul, or than which so fitly
prepares it to enter, by the pathway of the works of God, the august
temple of His revealed Word.

But to return: what we call science is the mere accidence of nature,
which in fact aggravates our infirmity by permitting our intelligence to
attempt to grasp, through the various details, their intricate
combinations. But as truth sooner arises out of error if methodically
pursued, and its results recorded, than out of confusion and guesswork,
theories based upon observation, however inaccurate at first, ultimately
lead up to the certain acquisition of the truth itself.

                             --------------

                   AN EASY DISTRIBUTION OF THE BEES,
            THE NUMBERS REFERRING TO THE SCIENTIFIC SERIES.

                      ANDRENIDÆ (Subnormal Bees).

               TONGUE SHORTER THAN THE MAXILLÆ, PORRECT.

         _Posterior tibiæ clothed with hair to convey pollen._

    Two submarginal cells.
      Posterior legs very robust, polliniferous
        hair on tibiæ and plantæ
        dense but short                    - =MACROPIS (7).=
      Posterior legs slender; polliniferous
        hair on femora, tibiæ, and plantæ
        dense and very long                - =DASYPODA (8).=

    Three submarginal cells to the wings.
      Abdomen truncated at base            - =COLLETES (1).=
      Abdomen ovate.
        Abdomen entire at apex; maxillary
          palpi as long or longer than
          the maxillæ                      - =ANDRENA (4).=

         Abdomen entire at apex; maxillary
           palpi half the length of the
           maxillæ       - =CILISSA (5).=
        Abdomen with a vertical incision
          at the apex       - =HALICTUS (7).=

              _Posterior tibiæ without hair to convey pollen._

    Two submarginal cells to the wings.    - =PROSOPIS (2).=
    Three submarginal cells to the wings. - =SPHECODES (3).=

                            APIDÆ (Normal Bees).

  TONGUE AS LONG OR LONGER THAN THE MAXILLÆ, INFLECTED BENEATH, AND
      COVERED BY THE MAXILLÆ IN REPOSE.

                    _Without polliniferous organs._

    Two submarginal cells to the wings.
      Abdomen at apex rounded              - =STELIS (17).=
      Abdomen at apex conical              - =CŒLIOXYS (18).=
    Three submarginal cells to the wings.
      Abdomen lanceolate                   - =NOMADA (14),=
      Abdomen subtruncate at base.
        Abdomen obovate, thorax glabrous   - =EPEOLUS (16).=
        Abdomen subconical, thorax hirsute - =MELECTA (15).=
        Entire body densely hairy          - =APATHUS (25).=

                      _With polliniferous organs._

    Pollen conveyed on the venter.
      Two submarginal cells to the wings of all.
      Abdomen subclavate.
        First three joints of labial palpi
          continuous, terminal joint inserted
          before apex of third             - =CHELOSTOMA (21).=
        First two joints of labial palpi
          continuous, two last inserted
          before the apex of the second    - =HERIADES (22).=
      Abdomen obovate, rounded at apex     - =OSMIA (24).=
      Abdomen truncated at base.
        Segments slightly constricted,
          and not spotted with colour      - =MEGACHILE (19).=
        Segments not constricted,
          spotted with yellow              - =ANTHIDIUM (20).=
    Pollen conveyed on the posterior legs.
      Two submarginal cells to the wings.
        Abdomen lanceolate; antennæ
          clavate; posterior legs covered
          with long hair                   - =PANURGUS (9).=
        Abdomen obovate; antennæ filiform;
          posterior legs covered
          densely with short hair          - =EUCERA (10).=
      Three submarginal cells to the wings.
        Short dense hair on the whole posterior
          tibiæ externally.
            Abdomen obovate; first joint of
              labial palpi twice as long as
              second                       - =ANTHOPHORA (11).=
            Abdomen subrotund; first joint
              of labial palpi six times as
              long as the rest             - =SAROPODA (12).=
        Long hair, but loose, on the entire
          posterior tibiæ, externally
          and internally.
            Abdomen subclavate             - =CERATINA (13)=
        Curved hair fringing the edge only
        of the posterior tibiæ, the
        centre glabrous.
      Body densely hirsute, spurs to
        all the tibiæ       - =BOMBUS (26).=
      Body subpubescent, no spurs
        to the posterior tibiæ              - =APIS (27).=

                             --------------

It will be desirable to add a few observations to the preceding table to
facilitate its use, and because, as many of the characters upon which it
is framed are exclusively those of the female, it is necessary to point
out the differences of their males, that the sexes of the genera may be
duly recognized and associated.

It may be first noticed generally that the antennæ, in the males, are
not usually geniculated at the scape, which is nearly always the case in
the opposite sex, and they are also, with rare exceptions, always longer
than those of their females. In _Colletes_, _Prosopis_, _Dasypoda_,
_Panurgus_, _Ceratina_, _Nomada_, _Melecta_, _Epeolus_, _Stelis_, and
_Anthidium_, the habit or colouring of the males is so similar to that
of the females, that their genus may be thus at once determined, and, in
fact, the brief characters in the table will embrace them.

The male Eucera can be distinguished from those of _Anthophora_ and
_Saropoda_, both by the differences in the number of the submarginal
cells of the wing, and by the extreme length of its antennæ, whence the
genus derives its name. In _Andrena_ and _Cilissa_, the males have
usually lanceolate bodies. In the latter genus there will be no
difficulty in associating the legitimate partners; but in _Andrena_,
although general habit will usually bring the male within the boundary
of the genus, nothing but experience, or specific description will
associate the sexes correctly, there being in many cases an
extraordinary discrepancy between them. These two genera themselves also
can scarcely be distinguished apart, excepting by means of their trophi;
_Cilissa_, however, in general habit greatly resembles the genus
_Colletes_, especially the _Cilissa tricincta_, which might, upon a
superficial glance, be almost mistaken for one of them.

The male _Halicti_ have long cylindrical bodies and long antennæ, but
from the male _Chelostoma_, which has a very similarly shaped body also
and long antennæ, they may be distinguished by the differences in the
number of the submarginal cells; and from those of _Sphecodes_, by the
antennæ, which, in the latter are not relatively so long, and are
usually moniliform. The thorax of these is also less pubescent, and the
tinge of the red colour of their abdomen is different from that of the
red male _Halicti_.

The males of _Cœlioxys_ can be readily distinguished from those of
_Megachile_, by the spinose apex of their abdomen. In _Megachile_,
general habit will bring the males within the precincts of their genus,
as well as their largely dilated anterior tarsi in some of the species.

A difficulty similar to what is found in the distinction between
_Andrena_ and _Cilissa_, arises in the separation of _Chelostoma_ from
_Heriades_, and which we shall again meet with in drawing the line
between _Anthophora_ and _Saropoda_. The difference can only be detected
by examining the trophi, but a pin and a little patience will elucidate
the separation. The males in all but two species of _Anthophora_ may be
readily associated with their partners; but in these two the females are
entirely black, and so hirsute as to have led Ray (wanting the knowledge
of the use of the trophi and posterior shanks) to unite the one he knew
with his _Bombylii_; their males are fulvous, and the latter have a
remarkable elongation of the intermediate tarsi, from one of the joints
of which also a tuft of hair or a loose lateral fringe projects, giving
them thus a wider expansion, and the use of which is prehensile, the
same as that for which the anterior tarsi in some of the _Megachiles_
and in our single _Anthidium_ receive their dilatation. This structure
has also the effect of adding very considerably to the elegance of their
appearance when they are in fine condition.

The male _Apathi_ can only be distinguished from the male _Bombi_ by
familiarity with specific characteristics, or by the examination of the
trophi. But the former is the more certain mode of separation, as the
trophi in _Bombus_ vary in some species, but not sufficiently to
authorize generic subdivison. General appearance will mark where they
approximately belong. The length of their antennæ sufficiently
distinguishes them as males, and they may be taken with impunity in the
fingers from flowers for examination, being, like all the male aculeate
_Hymenoptera_, unarmed with stings. The female _Apathi_ may be
superficially distinguished from the female _Bombi_, which they most
resemble, exclusively of the generic characters of the convex and
subpubescent external surface of the posterior tibiæ and the trophi,
also by their abdomen being considerably less hirsute than that of the
genuine _Bombi_, in which it is entirely covered with dense shaggy hair,
whereas in _Apathus_ there is a broad disk upon its surface nearly
glabrous. If I remember rightly, it is the male _Apathi_ only, and not
the male _Bombi_, which emit on capture a pleasantly fragrant odour of
attar of roses.

The table will suffice for distinguishing the male _Apis_ from all other
male _Apidæ_, and which has a further peculiarity exhibited by no other
of our native bees, in the conjunction upon the vertex of the compound
eyes, in front of which, upon the frons, the simple eyes or ocelli are
placed in a very slightly-curved line.

These indications are enough to enable the beginner to work his way
smoothly, and a little practice will soon render these observations
superfluous.

The economy of nature is so perfect that wherever we can trace a
difference, we may assume that a reason and a purpose exist for the
variation. Thus we do not know why some bees have three submarginal
cells to their wings, and others only two. Nor do we know what governs
their variety of shape. The deficiency we might think implied
inferiority; but this cannot be, for those with most frequently the
smaller number, viz. the artisan bees, are, in the majority of cases,
the most highly endowed, and have the most special habits.

In the relative numbers of the maxillary and labial palpi, there are
remarkable differences, the reason for which we cannot trace, for, as
before observed, we do not know even their function, which would perhaps
guide us to other views. Their normal numbers are six maxillary, and
four labial palpi. The latter take remarkable relative development and
peculiarity of insertion and form, especially in the _Apidæ_; but
throughout the whole series of our bees, they are never reduced to fewer
than their normal number, whereas the maxillary palpi never have
similarly large development of structure, and are variously modified in
number and consistency from the typical or normal condition.

Thus in _Eucera_ and _Melecta_ there are but five joints; in _Osmia_ and
_Saropoda_, four; in _Chelostoma_ and _Cœlioxys_, three; in _Anthidium_
and _Megachile_, etc., two; and in _Epeolus_ and _Apis_ but one.

In this collocation no incidental peculiarity beyond diversity is
apparent, for in the first instance a parasite and a bee not parasitical
are associated; and in the last, a parasite is associated with the bee
which has the most elaborate economy, and the most largely developed
instinct of all known insects. Nor are, in any case, those parasites
associated by these means with their own sitos, or insect upon which
they are parasitical.

Thus encouragement attends the beginner at the very outset of his study;
and the prospect of a wide field for discoveries, in many directions,
lies open to him, to excite his curiosity and to stimulate his industry
to the pursuit of higher aims than the mere accumulation of species.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER X.

THE SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERA, WITH LISTS OF
   OUR NATIVE SPECIES AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE HABITS AND ECONOMY OF THE
    INSECTS, WITH INCIDENTAL OBSERVATIONS SUGGESTED BY THE SUBJECT.


I NOW proceed to the treatment and description of the genera severally,
and the enumeration of the species in due scientific consecutive order.

The generic names adopted are those of the first describers of the
genera; but the generic characters given by them could not be employed,
they having been usually framed to suit special purposes.

All the generic characters introduced into this work are therefore quite
original, and have been made from a very careful autoptical examination
of the insects themselves.

The synonymy added to the lists of species is limited to the species
described in Mr. Kirby’s work, where he is not the first describer, or
to those of such other English works wherein the species may have been
described in ignorance of its previous registration.

The observations appended, wherein the habits of the insects are
described, will be found to embrace discursive subjects suggested by the
matter in hand, and here a dry didactic style has been purposely
avoided, as in the majority of cases they record the personal
experiences or notions of and hints from an old practical entomologist.


                    CLASS INSECTA METABOLIA, _Leach_.

                     Order =HYMENOPTERA=, _Linnæus_.

                       DIVISION _ACULEATA_, Leach.

 Antennæ in male with 13 joints, in female with 12. Abdomen in male with
                      7 segments, in female with 6.

            FAMILY MELLICOLLIGERÆ (Honey collectors), _Shuck_.

            Subfamily 1. ANDRENIDES (Subnormal Bees), _Leach_.

                      _Syn._ Genus MELITTA, _Kirby_.

                _The maxillary palpi always six-jointed._

                  Section 1. _With lacerate paraglossæ._

       Subsection _a_. LINGUÆ EMARGINATÆ (with emarginate tongues).

                      _Syn._ OBTUSILINGUES, _Westw._

                 _Three submarginal cells to the wings._

                     Genus 1. COLLETES, _Latreille_.

                         (Plate I. fig. 1. ♂ ♀.)

                          MELITTA * _a_, Kirby.


_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, flattish; _ocelli_ in an open triangle on
the vertex; _antennæ_ not geniculated, but slightly curved, filiform,
short; joints, excepting the basal or scape, which is as long as five of
the rest and slightly curved, nearly equal; _face_ beneath and within
the insertion of the antennæ, slightly protuberant, laterally flat or
concave; _clypeus_ convex, margined anteriorly, entire; _labrum_
transverse, slightly produced in the centre in front, and the process
rounded; _mandibles_ obtuse, subbidentate; _cibarial apparatus_ short;
_tongue_ deeply emarginate and bilobate, the lobes fringed with short
setæ; _paraglossæ_ half the length of the tongue, abruptly terminating
and lacerate, and setose at the apex; _labial palpi_ much shorter than
the paraglossæ, four-jointed, the joints equal and each subclavate;
_labium_ about the same length as the tongue, its inosculation acutely
angulated; _maxillæ_ broad, lanceolate, the length of the tongue;
_maxillary palpi_ six-jointed, not so long as the maxillæ, the two basal
joints the longest, the rest equal, short, and subclavate, the apical
one rounded. THORAX subquadrate, very pubescent, the prothorax
inconspicuous; _scutellum_ transversely triangular or semilunate,
_postscutellum_ lunulate; _metathorax_ abruptly truncated, and densely
pubescent, especially laterally, for the conveyance of pollen; _wings_
with three submarginal cells and a fourth slightly commenced, the second
and third each receiving about their centre a recurrent nervure; _legs_
all pubescent, the anterior and intermediate on their external surface
chiefly, their _plantæ_ also setose; the posterior _coxæ_,
_trochanters_, _femora_, and _tibiæ_ very hirsute, especially beneath,
their _tarsi_ entirely setose; _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN truncated at the
base, subconical with a downward bias, the _segments_ with bands of
closely decumbent nap, and the surface of all more or less deeply or
delicately punctured; the basal segment in the centre, beneath, with a
longitudinal tuft of long hair.

The MALE differs in having the _mandibles_ more distinctly bidentate,
and in being less densely pubescent, especially upon the legs. In
general aspect it is very like its female.

_Note._ The genus _Cilissa_ has, superficially observed, much of the
habit of _Colletes_, particularly in the male of _Cilissa tricincta_.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _succincta_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 3½-5½ lines.
       _succincta_, Kirby.
       _fodiens_, Curtis.
    2. _fodiens_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-4½ lines.
       _pallicincta_, Kirby, ♀.
    3. _marginata_, Linn., ♂ ♀. 3-4 lines.
    4. _Daviesiana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-4½ lines.
       (Plate I. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from _κολλήτης_, _one that plasters_, in allusion to
the habits of the insects, which will be described below. The female
insects themselves have, at the first glance, very much the appearance
of the working honey-bee, but they are considerably smaller, and, upon a
very slight inspection, they are found to be exceedingly distinct. The
respective males of the species are conspicuously smaller than their
females, but their specific characteristics are very much alike, and
there is some difficulty in separating and determining the species. One
strong peculiarity, marking all of them, is that the segments of the
abdomen are banded with decumbent, hoary or whitish down, in both sexes,
and the determination of the species lies chiefly in the variations of
these bands, and in the almost entire absence or conspicuous presence of
minute punctures covering the segments. The females are very active
collectors of pollen, and return from their excursions to obtain it,
very heavily laden to their nests. I am not sure that all the species
are not gregarious, to use this term in an acceptation somewhat
different from its usual application, for here, and whenever used in
entomology, it is meant to signify that they burrow collectively in
large communities, forming what is called their metropolis, although
each bores its independent and separate tube, wherein to deposit its
store of eggs. The males, neither in these insects nor throughout the
whole family of the bees, participate at all in the labours required for
the preservation and nurture of the progeny, a duty that wholly devolves
upon the maternal solicitude of the female,—these males having fulfilled
their mission, which is not perhaps restricted to their sexual instinct,
but may also be conducive to the grand operation of the family in the
economy of nature, viz. the fertilization of the flowering plants, flit
from blossom to blossom, and thus convey about the impregnating dust.
They may also be often seen basking in the sunshine upon the leaves of
shrubs, and thence they become lost or dispersed or the prey of their
many enemies,—birds or insects, which are always on the alert in search
of ravin.

The aspect selected by the females for their burrows, varies according
to the species. Some choose a northern, and others a southern aspect;
thus, the _C. succincta_ seems to prefer the former, and the _C.
fodiens_ the latter, as does also the _C. Daviesana_; and where they
burrow they congregate in enormous multitudes. The mortar interstices of
an old wall, or a vertical sand-rock, which, from exposure, is
sufficiently softened for their purpose, are equally agreeable to them;
nor have they any objection to clay banks.

In these localities each individual perforates a cylindrical cavity,
slightly larger than itself, and which it excavates to a depth of from
eight to ten inches, or even sometimes less. Now comes into operation
the use of the peculiarly-formed tongue with which nature has furnished
them, and described above in the generic character. These cells are
occupied by a succession of six, or eight, or even sometimes no more
than two, three, or four cartridge- or thimble-like cases, in each of
which is deposited a single egg with a sufficiency, taught the creature
by its instinct, of a mingled paste of honey and pollen, for the full
nurture and development of the vermicle that will proceed from the egg
upon its being hatched, and wherein this larva, having consumed its
provender, becomes transformed into the pupa, and by the continuance of
nature’s mysterious operations, it speedily changes into the perfect
insect. But the beauty with which these little cells are formed
transcends conception. Each consists of a succession of layers of a
membrane more delicate than the thinnest goldbeater’s skin, and more
lustrous than the most beautiful satin. In glitter it most resembles the
trail left by the snail, and is evidently, from all experiments made, a
secretion of the insect elaborated from some special food it consumes,
and by means of its bilobated tongue, which it uses as a trowel, it
plasters with it the sides and the bottom of the tube it has excavated
to the extent necessary for one division. As this secretion dries
rapidly to a membrane it is succeeded by others, to the number of three
or four, which may be separated from each other by careful manipulation.
It then stores this cell, deposits the egg, and proceeds to close it
with a covercle of double the number of membranes with which the sides
are furnished, and continues with another in a similar manner, until it
has completed sufficient to fill the tubular cavity, which, after
closing the last case similarly to the rest, it stops up the orifice
with grains of sand or earth. The food stored up is subject to
fermentation, but this does not appear to be prejudicial to the larva,
which first consumes the liquid portion of the store and then drills
into the centre of the more solid part, and continues enlarging this
little cylinder until increasing in growth by its consumption, it itself
fills the cavity, and thus supplies the lateral stay or prop which, by
means of the stored provender, was previously prevented from falling in.
It has not been ascertained what number of eggs each insect lays, or
whether it bores more than one tube, but it is presumable that it may do
so, and possibly thus, from the numbers annually produced, for there are
two broods in the year, colonies are thrown off which gradually form
another metropolis somewhere in the vicinity, although the majority
continue to occupy the old habitat from year to year. But the number of
these insects is kept within due limits by the individual abundance of
the parasites that infest them, and by the unsparing and unflinching
attacks of earwigs, which consume all before them,—perfect insect,
larva, and provender. The two most conspicuous parasites they have, are
the beautiful little bee, _Epeolus variegatus_, the young of which is
sustained, as in all bee-parasitism, by consuming the food stored for
the sustenance of the young of the _Colletes_; and the other is the
little dipterous _Miltogramma punctata_, whose larva, evolved from the
egg deposited in the cell, feeds upon the larva of the _Colletes_, or
possibly upon that of the _Epeolus_, which otherwise would seem to have
no check to its fertility, excepting that it may be subdued by the
_Forficulæ_.

These insects are to be found during the spring and summer months, and
throughout the southern counties, although some species are extremely
local. Some occur also in the north of England and in Ireland. I am not
prepared to say what flowers they prefer, for I have never captured them
on flowers, but they have been found frequenting the Ragwort, and Curtis
took a species at Parley Heath, in Hampshire, on the Bluebell
(_Campanula glomerata_). They form a remarkable instance of an artisan
bee, but so only in its habits, amongst the _Andrenides_.

                                -------

                 _Two submarginal cells to the wings._
                    Genus 2. PROSOPIS, _Fabricius_.
                         (Plate I. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
                MELITTA * _b_, Kirby.—HYLÆUS, Latreille.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, flattish; _ocelli_ in an open triangle on
the vertex; _antennæ_ geniculated, the basal joint of the flagellum as
long as the second, and both subclavate, the rest of the joints short
and equal; _face_ flat, slightly protuberant between the insertion of
the antennæ, and distinguished from the clypeus by a suture; _clypeus_
transversely quadrate, slightly widening gradually to the apex,
marginate; _labrum_ transverse, obovate, fringed with setæ; _mandibles_
broad at apex, tridentate; _cibarial apparatus_ short; _tongue_ broad,
subemarginate and fringed with short hair; _paraglossæ_ very slightly
longer than the tongue, their apex broadly rounded and fringed with
hair; _labial palpi_ as long as the tongue, joints subequal, gradating
in substance, subclavate; _labium_ about as long as the tongue,
pyramidal at its apical inosculation; _maxillæ_ about as long as the
tongue, slightly lanceolate, fringed with short hair; _maxillary palpi_
rather longer than the maxillæ, with six joints, the basal joint robust
and slightly constricted in the middle, the third joint linear and the
longest, the remainder gradually decreasing in length and substance.

THORAX subquadrate; _prothorax_ transverse, linear, angulated at the
sides; _mesothorax_ with its _bosses_ protuberant; _scutellum_ and
_post-scutellum_ semilunulate; _metathorax_ abruptly truncate, and
longitudinally carinated in the centre; _wings_ with two submarginal
cells, a third slightly indicated, the first recurrent nervure springing
from the extreme apex of the first submarginal cell, closely to the
first transverso-cubital nervure, and the second closely before the
termination of the second submarginal cell; _stigma_ of the wing large
and distinct; _legs_ wholly destitute of polliniferous hair, the
terminal joint of the tarsus as long as the two preceding; _claws_
bifid; ABDOMEN subtruncate at the base, subconical with a downward bias.

The MALE differs in having the _mandibles_ distinctly bidentate, the
external tooth acute; the _antennæ_ are very slightly longer and more
curved, and their colouring is more intense and more widely distributed.
These insects are glabrous, generally intensely black, dull on the head
and thorax, but shining on the abdomen, and are more or less thickly
punctured, and they are usually gaily marked with yellow, citron, or
red, especially on the face, thorax, and legs.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _annulatus_, Fab., ♂ ♀. 2½-3 lines.
       _annulatus_, Kirby.
    2. _dilatata_, Kirby, ♂. 3 lines. (Plate I. fig. 2 ♂.)
       _Hylæus dilatatus_, Curtis.
    3. _annularis_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2½-3 lines.
    4. _hyalinata_, Smith, ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines.
    5. _signata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 3-3½ lines. (Plate I. fig. 2 ♀.)
       _signata_, Kirby.
    6. _cornuta_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3-3¼ lines.
    7. _varipes_, Sm., ♂ ♀. 1½ lines.
    8. _variegata_, Fab., ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from _προσωπὶς_, apparently in allusion to its
seemingly masked face, most of the species having yellow markings more
or less conspicuous upon the face.

It is the least pubescent of any of the bees, even less so than those
confirmed parasites, the genera _Nomada_ and _Stelis_, thus further
tending to corroborate its apparently parasitical habits, for none of
the truly pollinigerous bees are so destitute of hair. The ground-colour
of the species is intensely black, variously decorated on the face,
thorax, and legs, with markings of different intensities of yellow; but
one of our species, the _P. variegata_, is also gaily marked with red.
Indeed exotic species, and especially those of warm climates, are often
very gay insects.

They have usually been considered as parasitical insects, from their
being unfurnished with the customary apparatus of hair upon the
posterior legs, with which pollinigerous insects are generally so amply
provided. In contradiction to their parasitism, it is asserted that they
have been repeatedly bred from bramble sticks; this circumstance is no
proof of the fact of their not being parasitical, for many bees, for
instance _Ceratina_, _Heriades_, etc., nidificate in bramble sticks, and
they may have superseded the nidificating bee by depositing their ova in
the nests of the latter; although it certainly is a remarkable
circumstance that some one of these bees has never escaped destruction
in the several instances in which these have been thus bred. It is also
said that their nests contain a semi-liquid honey. The fact of the larva
of a wild bee being nurtured upon any other provender than a mixture of
pollen and honey, does not elsewhere occur, and it would seem to
contradict the function this family is ordained to exercise, by
conveying pollen from flower to flower, and which besides, in every
other case, constitutes the nutritive aliment of the larva. But then,
again, the structure of its tongue, which resembles somewhat that of
_Colletes_ in lateral expansion, and with which it would be provided for
some analogous purpose, seems to contradict parasitical habits, although
St. Fargeau asserts that it is parasitical upon this genus, and if so,
although it has not been observed in this country, the analogous
structure of the tongue might be perhaps explained.

But notwithstanding this deficiency of positive characters, from the
absence of pollinigerous organs, nature is not to be controlled by laws
framed by us upon the imperfect induction of incomplete facts, for if it
be incontestable that this genus is constructive and not parasitical,
the riddle presented by this structure of its tongue is at once solved,
for without any affinity beyond that single peculiarity with _Colletes_,
it presents an anomaly of organization which cannot be accounted for but
by its application to a use similar to what we find it applied in that
extraordinary genus,—a use that could not be extant in a parasite. In
_Colletes_ it is the concomitant of as ample a power of collecting
pollen as any that we find exhibited throughout the whole range of our
native bees, but in _Prosopis_ it is concurrent with a total deficiency
of the ordinary apparatus employed for that purpose.

One of the species of this genus has been found near Bristol, with the
indication of a _Stylops_ having escaped from it, which is a further
extension of the parasitism of that most extraordinary genus, but the
_Stylops_ frequenting it has not yet been discovered, which would
doubtless present a new species, therefore an interesting addition to
the series already known.

These insects are not at all uncommon in some of the species during the
latter spring and summer months, and they frequent the several
_Resedas_, being very fond of Mignonette. They are also found upon the
_Dracocephalum Moldavica_, and occur not unfrequently upon the Onion,
which in blossom is the resort of many interesting insects. The majority
of them emit when captured, and if held within the fingers, a very
pungent citron odour, exceedingly refreshing on a hot day, in intense
sunshine. Some of the species are rare, especially those very highly
coloured, as is also the _P. dilatata_, so named from the peculiar
triangular expansion of the basal joint of the antennæ, the female of
which is not known or possibly has only been overlooked or not
identified. The _P. varipes_ and _P. variegata_, which are the most
richly coloured, occur in the west of England, and in one, the _P.
cornuta_, the clypeus is furnished with a tubercle.

                                -------

    Subsection _b_. LINGUÆ LANCEOLATÆ (with lancet-shaped tongues).
                    Genus 3. SPHECODES, _Latreille_.
                         (Plate I. fig. 3 ♂♀.)
                         MELITTA ** _a_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, linear, fully as wide as the thorax,
flat, with a slightly convex tendency; _ocelli_ in a triangle; _antennæ_
short, scarcely geniculated; _face_ beneath the insertion of the
antennæ, protuberant; _clypeus_ transverse, margined, convex; _labrum_
transversely ovate, deeply emarginate, in the centre in front;
_mandibles_ bidentate, obtuse, the external tooth projecting much
further than the second; _tongue_ short, lanceolate, fringed with setæ;
_paraglossæ_ not so long as the tongue, abruptly terminated, and setose
at the extremity; _labial palpi_ not so long as the paraglossæ; the
joints comparatively elongate and slender, and decreasing towards the
apex in length and substance; _labium_ rather longer than the tongue,
its inosculation straightly transverse; _maxillæ_ about the length of
the tongue, broad and lanceolate; _maxillary palpi_ six-jointed, the
first joint shorter and less robust than the second, which is also
shorter and less robust than the third, which is the longest and most
robust of all, the terminal joints more slender, and declining gradually
in length. THORAX ovate; _prothorax_ linear, produced into a sharp tooth
on each side; _mesothorax_ with longitudinal lateral impressed lines;
_bosses_ acutely protuberant; _scutellum_ quadrate; _postscutellum_
inconspicuous; _metathorax_ slightly gibbous; _wings_ with three
submarginal cells, and a fourth slightly commenced, the second narrow,
forming a truncated triangle, and receiving the first recurrent nervure
in its centre, the second recurrent nervure springing from just beyond
the centre of the third submarginal cell; _legs_ slightly but rigidly
spinose and setose; _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN ovate.

The MALES differ, in having the antennæ longer and sometimes moniliform,
the lower part of the _face_ and _clypeus_ usually covered with a dense
short silvery decumbent pubescence, and they have the _metathorax_
truncated at its base; in other respects they greatly resemble their
females.

The insects of this genus may be called glabrous, their pubescence being
so slight and scattered, they usually shine brightly, and are more or
less deeply punctured; and the abdomen is always partially or entirely
of a bright ferruginous red, sometimes verging into fuscous or pitchy.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _gibbus_, Linnæus, ♂♀. 3-4½ lines. (Plate I. fig. 3 ♂♀).
       _sphecoides_, Kirby, ♀.
       _monilicornis_, Kirby, ♂.
       _picea_, Kirby, ♂.
    2. _Geoffroyella_, Kirby, ♂♀. 1-3 lines.
       _divisa_, Kirby, ♂.
    3. _fuscipennis_, Germar, ♂♀. 4½-6 lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from _σφὴξ_, a wasp, from its apparent resemblance
to some of the sand wasps.

They are not uncommon insects, and I have found them abundant in sandy
spots sporting in the sunshine upon the bare ground, where they run
about with great activity, the females chiefly, the males the while
disporting themselves upon any flowers that may be adjacent, and they
are especially fond of Ragwort. Their prevalent colours are black and
red, the latter occurring only on the abdomen in different degrees of
intensity and extension, sometimes occupying the whole of that division
of the body, and sometimes limited to a band across it. Much difficulty
attaches to the determination of the species from the characters which
separate them being extremely obscure, for it is not safe to depend upon
the differences of the arrangement of colour upon them, as it varies
infinitely; nor can their relative sizes be depended upon as a clue, for
in individuals which must be admitted to be of the same species, size
takes a wider extent of difference than in almost any of the genera of
bees. St. Fargeau, who maintains the parasitism of the genus, accounts
for it by saying that in depositing their eggs in the nests of the
_Andrenæ_, _Halicti_, and _Dasypoda_, the _Sphecodes_ resorts to the
burrows of the species of these genera indifferent to their adaptation
to its own size, and thus from the abundance or paucity of food so
furnished to its larvæ, does it become a large or a small individual.
Westwood says the species are parasitical upon Halictus. Latreille says
they are parasites. They are certainly just as destitute of the
pollinigerous apparatus as the preceding genus. Mr. Thwaites once
thought he had detected a good specific character in the differing
lengths of the joints of the antennæ, but I believe he never thoroughly
satisfied himself of its being practically available. At all events
great difficulty still attaches to their rigid and satisfactory
determination. There is an array of entomologists who deny their being
parasites. Mr. Kirby says they form their burrows in bare sections of
sandbanks exposed to the sun, and nine or ten inches deep, and which
they smooth with their tongues. But then, in impeachment of the accuracy
of his observation, he further supposes there are three sexes, founding
his statement upon what Réaumur remarks of having observed pupæ of three
different sizes in the burrows. In the first place, it is not conclusive
that these pupæ were those of _Sphecodes_, and secondly we know that
this condition of three sexes is found only in the social tribes,
wherein the peculiarities of the economy exact a division of offices.
Therefore his adoption of this inaccuracy militates against the
reception of his other statement. But Smith also states that they are
not parasites, and apparently founds his assertion upon direct
observation. It still, however, remains a debatable point, from the fact
of the destitution of pollinigerous brushes, and thence the character of
the food necessary to be stored for the larva. It would be very
satisfactory if these apparent inconsistencies could be lucidly
explained.

If, however, it be ultimately proved that _Sphecodes_ is a constructive
bee, as well as _Prosopis_, we have then this fact exhibited by our
native genera, that none of the subfamily of our short-tongued bees, or
_Andrenidæ_, are parasitical. This is a remarkable peculiarity, as it is
amongst them that we should almost exclusively expect to find that
distinguishing economy, from the seemingly imperfect apparatus furnished
in the short structure of their tongues. It is possible, however, that
nature has so moulded them as to fit them chiefly for fulfilling its
objects within merely a certain range of the floral reign, and which
restricts them to visiting flowers which do not require the protrusion
of a long organ to rifle their sweet stores.


                     Genus 4. ANDRENA, _Fabricius_.
                         (Plates II. and III.)
                         MELITTA ** _c_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, as wide as the thorax; _ocelli_ in a
triangle on the vertex; _antennæ_ filiform, geniculated, the basal joint
of the flagellum the longest; _face_ flat; _clypeus_ convex, transverse,
quadrate, slightly rounded in front; _labrum_ transverse, oblong;
_mandibles_ bidentate; _tongue_ moderately long, lanceolate, fringed
with fine hair; _paraglossæ_ half the length of the tongue, abruptly
terminated and setose at the extremity; _labium_ about half the length
of the entire apparatus, its inosculation acute; _labial palpi_ inserted
above it, below the origin of the paraglossæ in a sinus upon the sides
of the tongue; _maxillæ_ irregularly lanceolate; _maxillary palpi_
six-jointed, longer than the maxillæ, the basal joint about as long as
the fourth, but more robust, the second joint the longest, the rest
declining in length and substance. THORAX ovate; _prothorax_ not
distinct; _mesothorax_ quadrate; _bosses_ protuberant; _scutellum_
lunate; _post-scutellum_ lunulate; _metathorax_ gibbous, and pubescent
laterally; _wings_ with three submarginal cells, and a fourth slightly
commenced, the second quadrate, and with the third receiving a recurrent
nervure about their middle; _legs_ densely pubescent, especially
externally, and particularly the posterior pair, which have a long
curled lock upon the trochanter beneath, the anterior upper surface of
the femora clothed with long loose hair, which equally surrounds the
whole of the tibiæ, but which is less long upon their plantæ, the
_claws_ strongly bifid. ABDOMEN ovate, a dense fringe edging the fifth
segment, and the terminal segment having a triangular central plate, its
sides rigidly setose.

The MALE differs in having the _head_ rather wider than the thorax, the
_vertex_ where the ocelli are placed more protuberant, the _mandibles_
very large and more acutely bidentate, sometimes largely forcipate and
with but one acute tooth; the males in most species greatly differ from
their females.

None of these insects exhibit any positive colouring of the integument,
excepting in some upon the abdomen, which exhibits red bands, and is
disposed to vary considerably in intensity and breadth, and in some the
_clypeus_ and _face_ are of a cream-colour, but which occurs chiefly
among the males. They are very dissimilar in general appearance, some
being densely pubescent all over, others merely so on the head and
thorax; others are banded with white decumbent down, and some are wholly
unmarked upon the abdomen. These peculiarities help to group them, and
thus facilitate their recognition.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

  § _Banded with red on the abdomen, the segments of which are more or
                             less fringed._

     1. _Hattorfiana_, Fab., ♂ ♀. 6—7 lines.
        _Lathamana_, Kirby, ♀.
        _hæmorrhoidalis_, Kirby, ♀.
     2. _zonalis_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4½-5 lines.
     3. _florea_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 5-6½ lines.
        _Rosæ_, Kirby, var.
     4. _Rosæ_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-6 lines. (Plate III. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
       _Rosæ_, Kirby, ♀.
     5. _decorata_, Smith, ♂ ♀. 5-6½ lines.
     6. _Schrankella_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
        _ affinis_, Kirby.
     7. _cingulata_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 3½-4 lines. (Plate III. fig. 3 ♂
        ♀.)
        _cingulata_, Kirby.

 §§ _Abdominal segments edged with decumbent short down, or fringed with
                               long hair._

     8. _longipes_, Shuckard, ♂ ♀. 4-6 lines. (Plate III. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
     9. _chrysosceles_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-4½ lines.
    10. _dorsata_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
        _combinata_, Kirby.
        _nudiuscula_, Kirby.
    11. _connectens_, Kirby. 5 lines.
    12. _Wilkella_, Kirby, ♀. 5¾ lines.
    13. _Coitana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4 lines.
        _Shawella_, Kirby.
    14. _labialis_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5½-6 lines.
    15. _Lewinella_, ♂. 3¾ lines.
    16. _xanthura_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-6 lines.
        _ovatula_, Kirby.
    17. _Collinsonana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-4½ lines.
        _digitalis_, Kirby.
        _proxima_, Kirby.
    18. _albicrus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5½ lines.
        _barbilabris_, Kirby.
    19. _minutula_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2½-3½ lines.
        _parvula_, Kirby.
    20. _nana_, Kirby, ♀. 3½ lines.
    21. _convexiuscula_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5 lines.
    22. _Kirbyi_, Curtis, ♀. 6 lines.
    23. _fuscata_, Kirby, ♀. 4½ lines.
    24. _Afzeliella_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4½-5 lines.
    25. _fulvicrus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3½-5¼ lines.
        _contigua_, Kirby.
    26. _fulvago_, Christ. ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
        _fulvago_, Kirby.
    27. _tibialis_, Kirby. 5-7¼ lines.
        _atriceps_, Kirby.
    28. _Mouffetella_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5-7 lines.
    29. _nigro-ænea_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5-6½ lines.
    30. _bimaculata_, Kirby, ♂. 5½ lines.
    31. _Trimmerana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines.
    32. _conjuncta_, Smith, ♀. 5½ lines.
    33. _varians_, Rossi, ♂ ♀. 4-5½ lines.
    34. _helvola_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 5-5½ lines.
        _picipes_, Kirby, ♂.
        _angulosa_, Kirby.
    35. _Gwynana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5½ lines.
        _pilosula_, Kirby.
    36. _angustior_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
    37. _picicornis_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines.
    38. _spinigera_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines.
    39. _Smithella_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3-6 lines.
    40. _Lapponica_, Zetterstedt, ♂ ♀. 3½-5½ lines.
    41. _tridentata_, Kirby, ♂. 4½ lines.
    42. _denticulata_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5½ lines.
        _Listerella_, Kirby.
    43. _nigriceps_, Kirby, ♀. 5 lines.
    44. _pubescens_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
        _rufitarsis_, Kirby.
        _fuscipes_, Kirby.

       §§§§ _Thorax very pubescent, abdomen smooth and shining._

    45. _albicans_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
    46. _pilipes_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 5-7 lines.
        _pratensis_, Kirby.
    47. _cineraria_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 5-7 lines. (Plate II. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
        _cineraria_, Kirby.
    48. _thoracica_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 5-7½ lines.
        _thoracica_, Kirby.
        _melanocephala_, Kirby.
    49. _nitida_, Fourcroy, ♂ ♀. 5-6½ lines. (Plate II. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
        _nitida_, Kirby.
    50. _vitrea_, Smith, ♀. 6½ lines.

               §§§§ _The entire body densely pubescent._

    51. _fulva_, Schrank, ♂ ♀. 4-6½ lines. (Plate II. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
        _fulva_, Kirby.
    52. _Clarkella_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4½-6½ lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Fabricius seems to have named this genus from _ανθρήνη_, _a wasp_, but
why, it is impossible to say. Although one name is as good as another,
it being indifferent what the name may be, yet where so evident an
attempt to give a name pertinence is conspicuous, it is remarkable that
it should be so little relevant, for none of the characteristics of a
wasp or hornet are exhibited in these insects.

Possibly it was from the genus being the most numerous in species that
Dr. Leach was induced to give this subfamily its collective designation,
making the other genera thus converge to it as to a centre. He took its
elliptical form as typical. Indeed, it is remarkable how very
judiciously this was done, for it is a form not apparent among the
normal bees excepting in two exceptional cases, the one upon the
frontiers of this subfamily, in almost debatable land, where the last of
the _Andrenidæ_ and the first of the _Apidæ_ seem almost to melt into
one another; and in the other case, in the parasitical _Nomada_, whose
parasitism is in every instance, but one only, restricted to the first
subfamily. A different type of form prevails amongst the _Apidæ_, upon
which I shall have subsequently occasion to speak.

These insects are not distinguished for any elaborate economy. Varying
in the species, some prefer vertical banks, others sloping undulations,
and again others horizontal flat ground or hard down-trodden pathways.
Some burrow singly, and others are gregarious, collected in great
numbers upon one spot. They are, perhaps, the most inartificial
burrowers of all the bees. Their tunnels vary from five to nine or ten
inches in depth, and in some species they are formed with other small
tunnels slanting off from the main cylinder. The sides and bottom are
merely smoothed, without either drapery or polish. The little cells thus
formed are then supplied with the usual mixture of pollen and honey
kneaded together, which in the larger species forms a mass of about the
size of a moderate red currant, its instinct teaching it the quantity
necessary for the nurture of the young which shall proceed from the egg
that it then deposits upon this collected mass of food. The aperture of
each little tunnel is closed with particles of the earth or sand wherein
the insect burrows, and it proceeds to the elaboration of another
receptacle for a fresh brood until its stock of eggs becomes exhausted.
Some species have two broods hatched in the year, especially the earlier
ones,—for several present themselves with the earliest flowers,—but
others are restricted to but one. The quantity of pollen they collect is
considerable, and in fact they are supplied with an apparatus additional
to what is furnished to any of the other genera in a curled rather long
lock of hair that emanates from the posterior trochanters. This, with
the fringes that edge the lower portion and sides of the metathorax, as
well as the usual apparatus upon the posterior legs, enables the insect
to carry in each flight home a comparatively large quantity of pollen,
but perhaps scarcely enough at once for the nurture of one young one,
and it therefore repeats the same operation until sufficient is
accumulated.

The exact period occupied by their transformations is not strictly
known; it will, of course, vary in the species, as also in those in
which two broods succeed each other in the year, but the larva rapidly
consumes its store and then undergoes its transformation. It does not
spin a cocoon, but in its pupa state it is covered all over with a thin
pellicle, which adheres closely to all the distinct parts of the body.
It is not known how this is formed; perhaps it is a membrane which
transudes in a secretion through the skin of the larva, or it may be
this itself converted to its new use, which seems to be for the
protection of all the parts of the now transmuting imago, until these in
due course shall have acquired their proper consistency.

These insects in their perfect state vary very considerably in size,
both individually and specifically, the former depending upon both the
quantity and quality of the food stored up, for the pollen of different
plants varies possibly in its amount of nutriment, else why should we
observe so marked a difference in the sizes of individuals whose parent
instinct would prompt to furnish them with an uniform and equal supply.
The differences of specific appearance is often very considerable in
long genera, and perhaps in no genus is it more conspicuously so than in
_Andrena_, for here we have some wholly covered with dense hair, and
others almost glabrous; others again with the thorax only pubescent;
some are black, some white, some fulvous, or golden tinted, and some
red; some we find banded with decumbent down, and others with merely
lateral spots of this close hair, but the most prevalent colour is
brown, which will sometimes by immaturity take a fulvous or reddish hue.
In many males we see excentrically large transversely square heads
broader than the thorax, which also have widely spreading forcipate
mandibles, with often a downward projecting spine at their base beneath;
and it is chiefly these extravagantly formed males which are most
dissimilar to their own partners that the result of observation alone
confirms their specific identity. In other cases the males are so like
their females that a mere neophyte would unite them. In many males the
clypeus and labrum are white, which also occurs in some females; for
instance, in _A. labialis_, but this peculiarity is found more rarely in
this sex. The species are much exposed to the restricting influences of
several parasites, whose parasitism is of a varying character, but the
term should properly be applied only to the bees which deposit their
eggs in their nests, and whose young, like that of the cuckoo among the
birds, thrives at the expense of the young of the sitos by consuming its
food, and thus starving it. These parasites consist of many of the
species of _Nomada_, very pretty and gay insects, but in every case
totally unlike the bee whose nest they usurp. Several of the species of
these _Nomadæ_ are not limited to any particular species of _Andrena_,
but infest several indifferently, whereas others have no wider range in
their spoliation than one single species, to which they always confine
themselves. In my observations under the genus _Nomada_ I shall notify
those which they assail amongst the _Andrenæ_, as well as the other
genera which they also infest.

The others which attack them are more properly positive enemies than
parasites, for they prey upon the bees themselves, or, as in the case of
the remarkable genus _Stylops_, render the bee abortive by consuming its
viscera and ovaries. I have spoken of these insects in the chapter upon
parasites, to which I must refer, but I may here add that the female is
apterous, and never quits the body of the bee. Much mystery attaches to
their history in which their impregnation is involved, for the male,
immediately upon undergoing its change into the imago, escapes through
the dorsal plates of the abdomen of the bee wherein it was bred and
takes flight. In localities where they occur they may be usually taken
on the wing in the month of May. The female would seem to be viviparous,
and produces extraordinary multitudes at one birth, extending to
hundreds. Being born as larvæ within the body of the bee they seek to
escape from their confinement, and find the opportunity in the suture
which separates the mesothorax from the metathorax. Their extreme
minuteness admits of their passing through the very constricted tube
which connects the abdomen with the thorax. Having now escaped into the
air they alight upon the flowers which the bee frequents, and thence
they affix themselves to other bees which may visit these plants, and
thus perpetuate the activity of the function it is their instinct to
fulfil. That many may be lost there can be no question; but Nature is
very prodigal of life, for by life it endows life, and thus its activity
is enlarged to a wider circle. Although the matured _Stylops_ has preyed
upon all the internal organs of the bee its attack is not immediately
fatal, although the life of the creature may be thus considerably
abridged, but it seems to live sufficiently long afterwards to
disseminate the distribution of the _Stylops_. A small blackish
_Pediculus_, which Mr. Kirby called _Pediculus Melittæ_, is found also
both upon the flowers the bees frequent and also upon the bees
themselves, especially the pubescent ones; but this insect is not
limited to the genus _Andrena_, as I shall have occasion to notice. The
flower I have chiefly found them upon is the Dandelion (_Leontodon_).
Their peculiar economy and connection with the bees is unknown; it may
be merely an accidental and temporary attachment, but they even
accompany them to their burrows.

Another and more curious case of attack upon the young of the _Andrena_,
is instanced in the reputed parasitism of the Coleopterous genus
_Meloë_. The perfect insect is a large apterous, fleshy, heteromerous
beetle, ten times as big as the bee. Its vermicle, having issued from
the egg, has the appearance of a very small pediculus, of an orange
colour. They are often seen upon flowers, and, like the former
pediculus, attach themselves to such suitable _Andrena_ as may happen to
visit the flowers they are upon; and, it is said, that they are thus
conveyed by the bee to its domicile, and there feed to maturity upon the
larva of the bee. I have no faith in the correctness of this statement,
for it is not credible that so small a creature as the larva of an
_Andrena_ could fully feed the larva of so large a beetle. Observation
has not satisfactorily confirmed it, and the connection may be, as in
the former case, merely accidental.

Although, perhaps, not a strictly scientific course, it is certainly a
matter of convenience in very long genera to break them up into
divisions, framed upon external characters, readily perceptible, and, by
which means, the species sought for may be more readily found. This I
have done in the preceding list of the species, and which are based upon
very prominent features. A slight divarication from the typical
neuration of the wing is observed in some species, but it is not of a
sufficiently marked character to afford a divisional separation, and
even much less a subgeneric one. I have therefore passed it unnoticed.
The commencing entomologist will often find considerable difficulty at
first in determining the species of this genus, for so much depends upon
condition; and where the colour of the pubescence is the chief
characteristic, a very little exposure to the atmosphere much alters
their physiognomy, but time, patience, and perseverance will ripen the
novice into an adept. The connection of the males with the females, from
their ordinarily great dissimilarity, was only to be accomplished by
positive observation, but now that this, in the majority of cases, is
effected, good descriptions facilitate their discrimination.

The most conspicuous species are the _Hattorfiana_ and the _Rosæ_ for
size and colour; the _Schrankella_ is also a very pretty species; and
perhaps the commonest of all the _cingulata_ is the prettiest of all,
with its yellow nose and red abdomen; in the next section we may point
out the _longipes_ as being a very elegant insect,[3] as are also the
_chrysosceles_ and the _helvola_. In this section we find those most
subject to the attacks of the _Stylops_, for instance the _labialis_,
_convexiuscula_, _picicornis_, _Afzeliella_, _nigro-ænea_, _Trimmerana_,
_Gwynana_, etc. The whole of the third and fourth sections are splendid
insects, especially the _fulva_ in the last. The comparative rarity of
some results chiefly from an exceedingly local habitat. Many of the
species may be found everywhere where insects can be collected,
consequently, all over the United Kingdom. In all the three seasons of
the year, which prompt animal life, some of the species may be
collected, and the flowers they chiefly prefer are the catkins,
especially of the sallow, the early flowering-fruits, the hedge-row
blossoms, the heath, the broom, the dandelion, chickweed, and very many
others.

Footnote 3:

  This insect was first captured by me, and with this, my manuscript
  name, attached to it, it was distributed to entomologists with an
  unsparing hand. The ordinary courtesy of the science has been, for the
  describer, when not the capturer, to adopt and circulate the original
  authority, and not to appropriate it. Similar buccaneering has been
  practised with poor Bainbridge’s _Osmia pilicornis_, to which he had
  attached this manuscript name, he being the first to introduce it,
  having caught it at Birchwood.

                                -------

                       Genus 5. CILISSA, _Leach_.
                         (Plate V. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
        MELITTA ** _c_, partly, Kirby.—ANDRENA, Fab. Latreille.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, scarcely so wide as the thorax, flat;
_ocelli_ in an open triangle on the vertex; _face_ flat; _clypeus_
transverse, margined; _labrum_ transverse, slightly rounded in front;
_mandibles_ bidentate; _cibarial apparatus_ moderately long; _tongue_
lanceolate, fringed with delicate hair; _paraglossæ_ about one-third the
length of the tongue, abruptly terminated, lacerate and setose at the
extremity; _labial palpi_ rather longer than the paraglossæ, the basal
joint considerably the longest, all the joints subclavate and
diminishing both in robustness and length to the apex; _labrum_ half the
length of the entire apparatus, its inosculation acutely triangular;
_maxillæ_ subhastate, as long as the tongue; _maxillary palpi_
six-jointed, less than half the length of the maxillæ, the joints short,
subclavate and decreasing gradually from the base to the apex. THORAX
densely pubescent, obscuring its divisions; _metathorax_ truncated;
_wings_ with three submarginal cells, and a fourth slightly commenced,
the second subquadrate and receiving the first recurrent nervure in its
centre, the second recurrent nervure issuing from beyond the centre of
the third submarginal cell; _legs_ all pilose, especially the posterior
pair, which have hair beneath the _coxæ_ and _trochanters_, above only
on their femoræ, but surrounding the _tibiæ_, and as dense externally
upon their _plantæ_; _claws_ distinctly bifid. ABDOMEN ovate, truncated
at the base, the segments banded at their apex, with decumbent down,
which becomes densely and widely setose on the fifth segment, the
terminal segment having a central triangular glabrous plate, carinated
down the centre, and very rigidly setose laterally.

The MALE scarcely differs, except in having the _antennæ_ less
distinctly geniculated, the flagellum taking a sweeping curve, the
_face_ and _clypeus_ much more pubescent, but the _legs_ sexually less
so; the sexes are much alike.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _tricincta_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 5 lines. (Plate V. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
       _? Apis leporina_, Panzer.
    2. _hæmorrhoidalis_, Fab. ♂ ♀.
       _hæmorrhoidalis chrysura_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus has been named without any reference to any peculiarity, Dr.
Leach having applied a Proper name to it to designate it.

The _Cilissa tricincta_ is perhaps most like the larger species of the
genus _Colletes_, both in markings and in the form of the body, but in
resemblance of form the second species participates. Although robust
insects, and as large as the larger _Andrenæ_, they are yet unprovided
with the same ample means for conveying pollen, being destitute of the
lock of hair upon the posterior trochanters and the sides of the
metathorax are less densely pubescent. The ground colour is brown. Their
economy is assumed to resemble that of _Andrena_, although it has not
been so closely investigated; for my own part I have never had the
opportunity of tracing it to its nidus, having always captured the
species upon flowers. They are fond of the trefoil (_Trifolium repens_),
and the _C. chrysura_ frequents the _Campanula rotundifolia_, as well as
the flowers of the throatwort (_Trachelium_). In their excursions they
are usually accompanied by their males. Both species are found in the
south and west of England.

                  Section 2. _With entire paraglossæ._
             Subsection _c_. LINGUÆ ACUTÆ (acute tongues).
            a. _With three submarginal cells to the wings._
                    Genus 6. HALICTUS, _Latreille_.
                              (Plate IV.)
                         MELITTA ** _b_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, flattish, scarcely so wide as the thorax;
_ocelli_ in an open triangle on the vertex, which is flat; _antennæ_
short, filiform, geniculated, scape quite or more than half as long as
the flagellum; _face_ flat, excepting in the centre just below the
insertion of the antennæ, where it is protuberant; _clypeus_
transversely lunulate, very convex; _labrum_ subquadrate, very convex,
with a central, linear, carinated appendage in front, nearly as long as
the basal portion; _cibarial apparatus_ moderate; _tongue_ very acute
and delicately fringed with short hair; _paraglossæ_ acute, about half
the length of the tongue; _labial palpi_ not quite so long as the
paraglossæ, the basal joint very long, the rest decreasing gradually in
length; _labium_ about as long as the tongue, its inosculation
emarginate; _maxillæ_ subhastate, rather longer than the tongue;
_maxillary palpi_ filiform, the basal joint the shortest, second the
longest, the rest decreasing in length. THORAX oval, usually pubescent,
sometimes glabrous; _prothorax_ inconspicuous, as are the bosses of the
mesothorax; _scutellum_ and _post-scutellum_ lunulate, the former
convex; _metathorax_ gibbous or truncated, but laterally pubescent even
in the glabrous species; _wings_ with three submarginal cells, and a
fourth sometimes commenced, the second subquadrate and receiving the
first recurrent nervure close to its extremity, the second being
received beyond the centre of the third submarginal cell [a slightly
different arrangement takes place in some of the species, which will be
noticed subsequently]; the _legs_ all setose, but the setæ not very
long, and the posterior _coxæ_ and _trochanters_ have long hair beneath;
the _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN ovate, the terminal segment with a
longitudinal linear incision in its centre.

The MALES differ in having the antennæ as long or longer than the
thorax; the _labrum_ transverse, linear, and the _abdomen_ usually
elongate and cylindrical, and much longer than the head and thorax.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

     1. _xanthopus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 ½ lines. (Plate IV. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
        _Lasioglossum tricingulum_, Curtis.
     2. _quadricinctus_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
        _quadricinctus_, Kirby.
     3. _rubicundus_, Christ. ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
        _rubicundus_, Kirby.
     4. _cylindricus_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 3-5 lines.
        _malachura_, Kirby.
        _fulvo-cincta_, Kirby.
        _abdominalis_, Kirby.
     5. _albipes_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 3-4 lines.
        _albipes_, Kirby.
        _obovata_, Kirby.
     6. _lævigatus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3-4½ lines.
        _lugubris_, Kirby.
     7. _leucozonius_, Schrank, ♂. 3-4½ lines.
        _leucozonius_, Kirby.
     8. _quadrinotatus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines.
     9. _sexnotatus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀.
    10. _lævis_, Kirby, ♀. 4 lines.
    11. _fulvicornis_, Kirby, ♂. 4 lines.
    12. _minutus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2½-3½ lines.
    13. _nitidiusculus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines.
    14. _minutissimus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 1½-2½ lines. (Plate IV. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
    15. _flavipes_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3-4 lines. (Plate IV. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
        _seladonia_, Kirby.
    16. _Smeathmanellus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2½-3½ lines.
    17. _æratus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2½-3 lines.
    18. _leucopus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 3-3½ lines.
    19. _morio_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2-2½ lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus was named by Latreille from _ἁλίξω_, to _crowd_, or _collect
together_, from the fact of their nidificating in numbers on the same
spot.

The females closely resemble in form those of the genus _Andrena_, but
the males are very unlike both those of that genus and their own
females, for they all have long cylindrical bodies and very long
antennæ, much longer relatively than those of the former genus. Although
none of the species approach in size the larger ones of the preceding
genus, their extremes of specific size are as distant apart as they are
in that genus, the smallest being extremely minute. Some of even the
commoner species are very pretty when in fine condition, and several of
them have a rich metallic green or blue tint, and in the majority the
wings are iridescent with the brightest and gayest colours of the
rainbow. The numbers in which they associate together upon the same spot
varies considerably, and a very few indeed burrow solitarily and apart
from their congeners. In burrowing they form a tunnel which branches off
to several cells, the excavations being as inartificial as are those of
_Andrena_. Walkenaer tells us in his memoir upon the genus _Halictus_,
that they line their cells with a kind of glaze, that they burrow in
horizontal surfaces to a depth of about five inches, and which they
polish very smoothly previous to covering it with their viscous
secretion, and that the cells are all oval, the largest end being at the
bottom. He says also that they burrow solely during the night,
especially when the moon is shining, when it is difficult to walk
without treading upon them; so numerous are they, indeed, that they look
like a cloud floating close to the surface of the ground. Although
burrowing thus at night, it is only during the day that they supply
their nests with their provision of pollen and lay their eggs. Each of
their cells is furnished with a small ball of pollen, varying in size
with the species, but which never entirely fills the cell, and is
affixed intermediately between both extremities, and upon the mass
contained in each cell they deposit their small egg, which is placed at
the extremity of the lump of pollen most distant from the entrance. The
larva is hatched in about ten days, when it changes into the pupa. Some
doubt attaches as to the length of time that the pupa remains before its
transformation into the imago, and also as to the period at which this
takes place. A peculiarity attends the appearance of the larger species.
Some are very early spring insects, among which is the _Halictus
rubicundus_; this I have seen in abundance on the first fine spring days
collecting its stores on the flowers of the chickweed. It is then in the
very finest condition, and it is really a very beautiful although a very
common insect, having a richly golden fulvous pubescence on the thorax,
an intensely black and glabrous abdomen, the apex of which is fringed
with golden hair. No males are now to be found at all. Yet it is only
some species, and these the larger ones, which are subject to this
peculiarity, for the smaller ones I have found burrowing during the
summer months in vertical or sloping banks with a sunny aspect, whilst
the males were hovering about both in the vicinity and close by,
sometimes either playing or fighting on the wing with the very small
_Nomadæ_, which infest these species parasitically, whilst their females
were sedulously pursuing their vocation. Gradually these joyous spring
insects lose their gayness and their brilliancy, as do those which have
followed in succession of development with the growing year, and they
become senile and faded and are lost as they have progressively
fulfilled their function. By this time the ragwort is in bloom, and the
thistle displays its pinky blossoms; now the males are to be found
numerously exhibiting themselves upon these flowers, and also another
equally fresh brood to those of the spring and early summer, of females.
My friend the late Mr. Pickering, who was in the early days of the
present Entomological Society, when it held its meetings in Old Bond
Street, its honorary curator, and who was then and always, even when
less leisure was afforded him from professional duties, a most assiduous
and diligent observer of the habits of insects, propounded his theory,
both in conversation and before the meetings of the Society, although he
never drew up a paper upon the subject, that these females were then
impregnated, upon which they retired to a hibernaculum, and there
remained until the breath of a new spring brought them forth in all the
beauty of their gay attire, and that it was from their broods deposited
thus in the spring and early summer, that the autumnal insects were
developed. This theory is both plausible and possible, and I have no
doubt that it is the correct one; and thus is explained the total
absence of males at the time of the appearance of the females in the
foremost portions of the year; this habit we shall find also in the
_Bombi_.

The flowers they delight in, besides those previously named, are among
others the ribwort plantain, and the bramble, as well as the
_Umbelliferæ_ and the flowers of the broom. The females possess two
remarkable distinctions of structure not found in any of the other bees,
which consist in an articulated appendage in the centre of the front
margin of the labrum, and a vertical cleft in the terminal segment of
the abdomen, both of which will necessarily have their uses in the
economy of the insect, although what these may be has not been
discovered.

They, like _Andrena_, are exposed to parasites and enemies. The smaller
species of _Nomada_ infest their smaller kinds, and St. Fargeau tells us
that the _Sphecodes_ are also parasitical upon them. The smallest of the
genus, which is indeed an exceedingly minute insect, is subject to a
very minute strepsipterous destroyer; whether this be a genuine
_Stylops_ I am not aware, but the supporting insect being so minute, in
fact the smallest of our bees, how small must be the enemy bred within
it! Another genus of this order has been found by Mr. Dale upon them,
and which is figured as the genus _Elenchus_ in Curtis’s ‘British
Entomology.’ The smaller species are also attacked, upon their return
home laden, by spiders and ants. _Chryses_ and _Hedychra_ are bred at
their expense, and some of the _Ichneumons_ attack them, as well as the
fossorial _Hymenoptera_ of the genera _Cerceris_, _Crabro_, and
_Philanthus_, and these latter carry them off bodily to furnish their
own nests with pabulum. Several of the species exhale a rich balmy
odour, and, like all the _Andrenidæ_, they are silent on the wing, and
their sting is innocuous and not painful. The males are very eager in
their amours, and are not easily repulsed.

Some of the species vary slightly in the neuration of the wings, and
this being a rather numerous genus, although not nearly approaching the
extent of _Andrena_, it has been proposed to make use of it for its
division, but I think this is scarcely required, it not being
sufficiently abundant to cause any inconvenience, the species being so
distinctly marked in their specific differences by the aid of the
metallic brilliancy of several of them. I have therefore arranged the
species in the above list in connective order without intermission, and
have placed in juxtaposition those species which appear the closest in
affinity.

                                -------

             b. _With two submarginal cells to the wings._
                      Genus 7. MACROPIS, _Panzer_.
                         (Plate V. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, as wide as the thorax, flattish; _ocelli_
placed in a very open curve upon the vertex; _face_ flat, but convex in
the centre beneath the insertion of the antennæ; _clypeus_ very slightly
convex; _labrum_ transverse, narrowly lunulate; _mandibles_ bidentate;
_cibarial apparatus_ moderately long; _tongue_ very acute and fringed
with delicate down; _paraglossæ_ barely half the length of the tongue,
and acute, their apex fringed laterally with down; _labial palpi_
inserted in a deep sinus, filiform, the basal joint the longest, the
rest diminishing both in length and substance; _labium_ about half the
length of the entire organ, its inosculation emarginate; _maxillæ_
hastate, rather longer than the tongue; _maxillary palpi_ six-jointed,
the basal joint the shortest, the third the longest, the remainder
diminishing gradually in length, and all declining in substance from the
basal joint. THORAX oval, rather pubescent; _prothorax_ transverse,
curving to the mesothorax, whose _bosses_ are inconspicuous; _scutellum_
transverso-quadrate; _post-scutellum_ transverse linear; _metathorax_
truncated. WINGS with two submarginal cells, and a third commenced, the
second about as long as the first, and receiving both the recurrent
nervures, the first near its commencement, and the second nearer its
extremity; _legs_ robust, with the posterior _tibiæ_ and _plantæ_
densely clothed externally with short hair; the _plantæ_ broad; the
second joint of the _tarsus_ inserted at the lower angle of the plantæ;
_claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN subtriangular, truncated at its base, not longer
than the thorax.

The MALE differs in having the _antennæ_ as long as the thorax and
curved; the _posterior coxæ_ very large and robust, the _trochanters_
small and triangular; the _femora_ large and much swollen in the centre,
the posterior _tibiæ_ very large and triangular and convex externally,
and the _plantæ_ longer than the rest of the tarsus, and slightly curved
beneath longitudinally.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _labiata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
               (Plate V. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The name of this genus comes from _μακρὸς_, _long_, and _ὦψ_, _face_, in
allusion to the length of that portion of the head, although this
assumed discriminative characteristic is scarcely suitable; this again
constitutes another of the many instances wherein it would have been
much preferable to have imposed a name without any significancy than one
which is not thoroughly applicable. It is, indeed, always dangerous to
attach a name to a new genus which has reference to some individual
peculiarity, for it may eventually exhibit itself as limited to the one
single species or sex to which it was originally applied, as to every
other subsequently discovered species in the genus it may be
inappropriate.

Nothing, so far as I am aware, is known of the habits of these singular
insects, which, I believe, have been caught only three times in this
country and then only the male sex.

The first, which is in the collection of the British Museum, was brought
by Dr. Leach from Devonshire; the second was caught in the New Forest by
the late John Walton, Esq., distinguished for his knowledge of the
British _Curculionidæ_, and who kindly presented it to me for my
collection when I was at the zenith of my enthusiasm for the
Hymenoptera, and with that collection it passed to Mr. Thomas Desvignes,
in whose possession it remains; and the third was caught by Mr. Stevens,
at Weybridge, in Surrey. Why I enter so particularly into these
circumstances is, that the genus is extremely peculiar both for
scientific position and for structure. In the latter the male is
extremely like the male of _Saropoda_ and its female is more like the
female _Scopulipedes_ among the _Apidæ_ than one of the _Andrenidæ_,
especially in the form of the abdomen and of the intermediate and
posterior legs, as well as in the length of the claws and the low
insertion of the posterior joints of the tarsi upon their plantæ, a
peculiarity not occurring in another genus of the _Andrenidæ_.

I have no doubt, also, that they are very musical in their flight and
are, perhaps, as shrill-winged as is _Saropoda_; whereas one of the
great characteristic specialities of the _Andrenidæ_ is their silence.
This genus, although restrained within the circuit of the subnormal bees
by the structure and folding of its tongue, has so much of the habit of
one of the true _Apidæ_ that it almost prompts the wish to resuscitate
the circular systems and place it within its own circle in analogical
juxtaposition to _Saropoda_ in the circle of the _Apidæ_, where they
might impinge one upon the other. It is not often that so rare an insect
is at the same time so curious and so suggestive. Having been found,
there is no reason why it may not be again found with due and patient
diligence; my own experience has taught me how easy it is even in
well-hunted ground to make rarities common, within almost a stone’s
throw of the metropolis, at Hampstead, Highgate, and Battersea, from
which localities in the course of my entomological career I have
introduced to our fauna many novelties, one of which was certainly a
remarkable discovery, from the last spot named, which it is worth
recording. A quantity of soil had been removed from the City where an
artesian well was being bored, and consequently from varying depths, and
carted thence and cast upon the edge of the river-bank at Battersea. The
following season, from this soil, a thick and prodigious quantity of the
common mustard plant shot up, and when in flower I happened to be
collecting near the spot on the day of our gracious Queen’s coronation,
when I captured multitudes of a splendid large _Allantus_, entirely new
to the British fauna, and a choice addition to collections. This ground
had been hunted at all seasons through all botanical and entomological
time, and neither had the mustard plant been found there before nor had
the insect. Whence did they both come? These observations have certainly
nothing to do with the subject in hand, beyond suggesting that with
untiring energy in the vicinities indicated where _Macropis_ has been
already found it may possibly turn up in abundance.

                                -------

                    Genus 8. DASYPODA, _Latreille_.
                     MELITTA ** _c_, partly, Kirby.
                         (Plate V. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse; _vertex_ glabrous; _ocelli_ placed in a
curved line; _antennæ_ short, filiform, geniculated, the scape thickly
bearded with long hair and scarcely half the length of the flagellum;
_face_ and _clypeus_ densely pubescent, the latter slightly convex;
_labrum_ transverse, linear, slightly rounded in front; _mandibles_
arcuate, bidentate, the teeth acute and robust; _cibarial apparatus_
moderately long; _tongue_ long, very acute, and fringed with delicate
hair; _paraglossæ_ about one-third the length of the tongue, very
slender, and acute; the _labial palpi_ inserted upon the junction of the
labium, very slender, filiform, of uniform thickness, the joints
subclavate, the basal joint considerably the longest, the second joint
also long, the two terminal joints much shorter and decreasing in
length; _labium_ about the length of the tongue, its inosculation
acutely triangular; _maxillæ_ hastate, as long as the tongue; _maxillary
palpi_ six-jointed, rather more than half the length of the maxillæ,
slender, the basal joint the most robust, the second the longest, the
rest declining both in thickness and length. THORAX oval, densely
pubescent, the divisions indistinct from its density; _scutellum_
lunulate; _metathorax_ subtruncate; _wings_ with two submarginal cells
and a third commenced, the second receiving both the recurrent nervures,
the first close to its commencement and the second just beyond its
centre; _legs_ slender, pubescent, especially the _tibiæ_ and _plantæ_,
the hair upon the posterior pair being extremely dense and long, and
each hair twisted minutely spirally; their _coxæ_, _trochanters_, and
_femora_ also covered with long hair; _claws_ bifid, the inner tooth
very short. ABDOMEN oval, the basal and fifth segments densely hairy,
the superior surface glabrous and shining, excepting where the white
decumbent bands broadly edge the three intermediate segments.

The MALE differs in being more densely pubescent, especially upon the
abdomen, which is not glabrous, and in not having the _antennæ_
geniculated; the bands of the _abdomen_ are fulvous, and its legs are
longer and more slender, and it is sexually less hairy, although still
considerably so.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _hirtipes_, Fab., ♂ ♀. 6-7 lines. (Plate V. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
      _Swammerdamella_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from the extreme hairiness of its posterior legs,
_ποῦς_, _hairy_, _ποûς, ποδὸς_, _foot or leg_. It is one of the most
elegant of our native bees, both in form and the extreme congruity of
its habiliment. This is unfortunately but a bridal raiment, for almost
as soon as the arduous duties of maternity supervene these bright
garments fade, and the workday suit immediately shows the wear and tear
produced by the labours of life. The male flaunts about longer in the
freshness of his attire, but he is usually the assiduous companion of
his spouse, although he does not participate in her toils. They are late
summer insects, and form their burrows upon banks having a southern
aspect; these they excavate deeper than does _Andrena_, and smooth and
polish them internally. They generally prefer spots intertangled with
shrubs, and at the mouth of the cylinder they tunnel they heap up the
extracted soil, to use a portion for closing it when their task is
accomplished. In the course of this process, especially if a cloud pass
over the sun, they will come forward to the aperture. They collect large
quantities of pollen, for which the hair upon their posterior tibiæ and
plantæ is excellently well adapted both by its length and the additional
storing power it possesses in each individual hair being spirally
twisted, although they are unprovided with the furniture of hair upon
the femora and coxæ found in the genus _Andrenæ_. Thus nature likes to
vary its mode of accomplishing the same object. The details of their
nursery processes are not known. For their protection their sting is
very virulent, and also actively employed, as they have many enemies,
especially amongst the fossorial _Hymenoptera_, whom they stoutly resist
to the extent of their strength. We are not aware of any special
parasites that infest them. They are semi-gregarious in their habits,
for where they occur any quantity of them may be taken. They are found
in their season in the southern counties, the Isle of Wight, and in
several parts of Kent and its eastern coast, and even as near London as
Charlton. They seem to prefer the composite flowers, having a great
liking for the bastard Hawkweed and the Dandelion. A fine series of them
forms a great ornament to a collection.

                                -------

             Subfamily 2. APIDÆ (Normal Bees), _Latreille_.
                         _Syn._ APIS, _Kirby_.
                 _Tongue always folded back in repose._
         _Maxillary palpi varying in the number of the joints._
                         Section 1. _Solitary._
               Subsection 1. SCOPULIPEDES (brush-legged).
              a. _Femoriferæ_ (collectors on entire leg).
              † _With two submarginal cells to the wings._
                      Genus 9. PANURGUS, _Panzer_.
                         (Plate VI. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
                          APIS * _a_, _Kirby_.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transversely subquadrate; _ocelli_ in a triangle on
the _vertex_, which, as well as the _face_, is convex, the latter
between the antennæ carinated as far as the clypeus; _antennæ_ short,
subclavate, the second joint of the flagellum considerably the longest,
the remainder equal; _clypeus_ slightly convex; _labrum_ transversely
quadrate, convex; _mandibles_ acutely unidentate; _cibarial apparatus_
long; _tongue_ half its entire length, gradually acute, and fringed
laterally with delicate hair; _paraglossæ_ slender, acute, membranous,
not quite half the length of the tongue; _labial palpi_ more than half
the length of the tongue, the basal joint longer than the two following,
the remainder gradually decreasing in length, all conterminous; _labium_
half the length of the cibarial apparatus, broad; _maxillæ_ slender,
subhastate, as long as the tongue; _maxillary palpi_ six-jointed, the
basal joint robust, subclavate, as is the second joint, but more
slender, the remainder filiform, gradually declining in length. THORAX
oval; _prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesothorax_ with a deep central
groove; _bosses_ protuberant; _scutellum_ and _post-scutellum_ lunulate;
_metathorax_ gibbous; wings with the marginal cell slightly
appendiculated, two submarginal cells and a third commenced, the second
receiving both the recurrent nervures, the first close to its
commencement and the second beyond its centre; the _legs_ densely
pilose, the posterior pair having their _coxæ_ and _trochanters_
beneath, their _femora_ in front, above, the _tibiæ_ and _plantæ_ all
round, covered with long hair; _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN ovate, the base
subtruncate, the basal segment having a deep central impression at its
base, the fifth segment fringed with short dense hair, the terminal
segment with a triangular plate carinated in the centre, and fimbriated
laterally, and all very slightly constricted.

The MALE scarcely differs, except in having the _head_ rather more
globose and more pubescent; and the _legs_, although still hairy, much
less so than in the female.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _Banksiana_, Kirby, ♂♀. 4-5¼ lines.
       _ursinus_, Curtis, iii. 101. (Plate VI. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
    2. _calcaratus_, Scopoli, ♂♀. 3-4 lines.
       _ursinus_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

_Πανοῦργος_ signifies _one excessively industrious_, at least as it is
applied here, although it has other less meritorious meanings, but these
insects can scarcely be considered more energetic than any of their
associates; perhaps the contrast made between the bright yellow pollen
and their lugubrious vestment might give the idea of very active
collecting, they being usually, upon returning from their foray, almost
entirely disguised in the produce of their excursion. They are rather
remarkable insects from their intensely black colour and their compact
active forms; their square head and short clavate antennæ give them a
sturdy business-like appearance. They also are silent on the wing, but
being at the very van of the present subfamily, forming as it were the
advanced picket of the _Apidæ_, it may be considered suitable that they
should retain, by way of partial disguise, some of the characteristics
of the preceding subfamily. In many respects, therefore, they closely
approach _Dasypoda_: thus their legs are similarly furnished with hair,
relatively as long and having the same spiral twist, and their whole
habit is that of one of the _Andrenidæ_, excepting that their clavate
antennæ, and the folding of their tongue in repose, separate them from
that subfamily. They are local insects, but extremely abundant when
fallen upon. I used to find the first species upon an elevated plateau,
on the south side over-hanging the Vale of Health and its large pond at
Hampstead. Every Dandelion, for a wide circuit in the vicinity, was
crowded with individuals—assiduously collecting, in the case of females,
but basking in sunny indolence, and revelling in the attractions of the
flower, in the case of males, and, at the same time, their burrowing
spot, which was not larger than half-a-dozen square yards, was swarming
with them, coming and going, burrowing and provisioning. Very numerous,
but not so numerous as themselves, were their pretty parasite, the
_Nomada Fabriciana_, fine specimens of both sexes of which I have
constantly captured; and a remarkable singularity pertaining to the
latter is, that some seasons it would totally fail, and another season
present itself sparsely, when, after these lapses, it would recur in all
its primitive profusion, although the _Panurgus_ was every season
equally present. Both these insects are found during the months of June
and July, especially about the middle of the former. In their burrows,
which they perforate vertically, they usually enclose about six cells,
each being duly provisioned and the egg deposited, when each is
separately closed and the orifice of the cylinder filled up. This
species is also found in Kent and Surrey, and I have no doubt they might
be discovered in most of the southern counties. The smaller species,
which is a good deal like a little _Tiphia_, is remarkable for the
peculiarity of the male having a projecting process upon its posterior
femora, whence it derives its specific name, _calcaratus_, which is
hardly consistent, as it is not quite the right place for a spur. This
smaller species is also found in Kent, Hampshire, and at Weybridge, in
Surrey, and in the Isle of Wight. As well as in the _Leontodon_, it
likes to repose in the flowers of the Mouse-ear Hawkweed (_Hieracium_).

                                -------

          b. _Cruriferæ_ (collectors on the shanks and tarsi).
              † _With two submarginal cells to the wings._
                      Genus 10. EUCERA, _Scopoli_.
                        (Plate VI. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
                         APIS ** _d_ 1, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse; _vertex_ concave; _ocelli_ in a curve,
and very high up; _face_ flattish; _clypeus_ very convex, hirsute, and
fimbriated; _labrum_ transverse-ovate, and emarginate in front;
_mandibles_ very obtusely and inconspicuously bidentate; _tongue_ very
long and slender, and gradually acuminating, transversely striated;
_paraglossæ_ slender, membranous, very acute, and about two-thirds the
length of the tongue; _labial palpi_ membranous, and about the length of
the paraglossæ, the basal joint linear, broad, longer than the rest
united, the second about half its length and acuminate, the two terminal
ones are very short and equal, and articulate within the apex of the
second joint; _labium_ less than half the length of the tongue, its
inosculation concave; _maxillæ_ two-thirds the length of the tongue,
subhastate; _maxillary palpi_ six-jointed, short, less than one-third
the length of the maxillæ, the basal joint robust, the rest filiform,
and gradually decreasing in length and substance. THORAX very pubescent,
which conceals its divisions; _metathorax_ truncated; _wings_ with two
submarginal cells, the second receiving both the recurrent nervures, one
near each of its extremities; _legs_ setose, especially the tibiæ and
plantæ, which, in the posterior pair is very dense on the exterior of
the tibiæ, and both externally and internally upon the plantæ, the
following joints of the posterior tarsi inserted beneath, and within the
extremity of their plantæ; the claw-joint being longer than the two
preceding, and the _claws_ acutely bifid. ABDOMEN oval, convex above,
subtruncate at the base, where it is thickly pubescent, the other
segments glabrous on the disk; the fifth segment fimbriated with
decumbent short hair, and the terminal segment having a central
triangular plate at the sides of which it is rigidly setose.

The MALE differs in having the _antennæ_ longer than the thorax,
filiform, but with their several joints curved, the curvature increasing
towards the terminal joints, the integument of the whole of the
flagellum consisting of a congeries of minute hexagons, the edges of
which are all raised, and the whole resembling shagreen; the legs have
the usual sexual slighter and extended development, and are necessarily
less setose; it is also deficient in the transverse whitish bands of
decumbent hair upon the abdomen, which is more densely pubescent on the
first and second segments; and the four terminal joints of the posterior
tarsi are conterminous with their plantæ.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _longicornis_, Linnæus. 6-7 lines. (Plate VI. fig. 2 ♂♀.)
      _longicornis_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus derives its name from the great length of the antennæ in the
male,—_εὖ_, _good_ or _great_, _κέρας_, _horn_. The name of the genus is
usually given from some female characteristic, or from a peculiarity
common to both sexes, or irrespective of any direct application, but
here we find it deduced from a feature exclusively masculine. Instances
of the first class we see in _Colletes_, _Halictus_, _Andrena_,
_Dasypoda_, _Panurgus_, _Saropoda_, _Ceratina_, _Cœlioxys_,
_Chelostoma_, _Heriades_, _Anthocopa_, and _Apathus_; of the second
class we have _Prosopis_, _Sphecodes_, _Macropis_, _Anthophora_,
_Nomada_, _Melecta_, perhaps _Epeolus_, according to Latreille’s idea,
_Stelis_, _Anthidium_, _Osmia_, and _Bombus_; the third class comprises
in our series merely _Cilissa_, and in this series the male
characteristics that have suggested the name are just as few, being
limited to the present genus. But the males among the bees exhibit in
many cases strong and striking peculiarities which distinguish them from
their partners. Exclusively of the general distinction expressed in
their organic difference by the possession of one additional joint to
the antennæ and one more segment to the abdomen than is exhibited in the
females, we find in many cases in these two parts of their structure
very marked singularities. Great sexual differences in the length of the
antennæ are not restricted to the present genus; in fact, in most of the
genera, this is the first striking feature, but which becomes
conspicuously so in some species of _Sphecodes_, in most of the
_Halicti_, in some _Nomadæ_, in _Chelostoma_, _Osmia_, _Apathus_, and
_Bombus_. In _Eucera_ and _Sphecodes_, each joint of the flagellum is
slightly curved, and in the former the surface of those joints appears
compounded of hexagons. In _Chelostoma_ the antennæ, besides being
longer than in the female, are also very much slighter and slightly
compressed, and have a structure capable of curling upon itself; in the
female of this genus the organ is clavate; and in _Osmia_, besides their
length, in one species the male has a fringe of hair attached to one
side along the whole of the organ. In other cases, where the antennæ are
not remarkably longer in the male they have extra development by
becoming thicker, as in _Melecta_; and in _Megachile_ the terminal joint
of their antennæ is laterally dilated and compressed. In scarcely any
case are they geniculated at the scape in the male, as they are in the
female. The other genera with clavate antennæ have the same structure in
both sexes, as in _Panurgus_ and _Ceratina_. Remarkable peculiarities in
the terminal ventral segment or segments of the male may be found most
conspicuously developed in _Halictus_, _Cœlioxys_, _Anthidium_,
_Chelostoma_, _Heriades_, _Osmia_, _Apathus_, Bombus, and Apis. In
_Cœlioxys_ and _Anthidium_, and some of the _Osmiæ_, this sex is further
furnished with a series of projecting spines, processes, or serrations
at the apex of the terminal dorsal segment. In _Chelostoma_, the ventral
structure of the male is very singular, the apex being adapted to a
mucro at the base which permits the insect to curl up this portion of
the body similarly to its antennæ, the furcated extremity of the abdomen
fitting, when thus folded, upon the mucro. It is as well to draw
observation to these peculiarities, which give additional interest to
the study of the group.

The genus _Eucera_ appears in May and June. In some parts they are found
in large colonies; although I have seen them abundant I never found them
in this gregarious condition, and I have usually discovered them
frequenting loamy and sandy soils; they burrow a cell six or eight
inches deep, form an oval chamber at its extremity, which as well as the
sides of the cylinder leading to it they make extremely smooth, and by
some process prevent its absorbing the mixture of honey and pollen which
they store for the supply of the larva, and each contains but one young
one. These, having full fed, lie in a dormant state throughout the
winter and do not change into pupæ until mid-spring, and speedily
transform into the imago, which, until fully matured, is closely in
every part and limb covered with a thin silky pellicle, wherein it lies
as in a shroud, but at its appointed time, regulated by some influence
of which we have no cognizance, active life becomes developed, it then
casts off its envelope and comes forth to revel in the sunshine, in
close companionship with a partner which its instinct promptly teaches
it to find. The largest of our native _Nomadæ_ is its parasite the _N.
sexcincta_, and which seems wholly restricted to it, but which is often
even rare in places where the _Eucera_ abounds. The female, like those
of the rest of the bees, is no time-waster, but flies steadily to and
fro in her occupation of provisioning her nest, and the male often
accompanies her in these expeditions, gallantly winging about with
extreme velocity as if to divert his sedulous companion in the fatigue
of her toil, by his evolutions and his music, which is very sonorous.
And on a fine May day it is extremely pleasant in a picturesque
situation to sit and watch the operations of these very active insects.
In their recent state, when just evolved from the nidus, they are very
elegant, being covered with a close silky down, which labour and
exposure soon abrades. It is said that this bee deserts her nest when
she finds the stranger’s egg deposited on the provender laid up in
store, or when she meets with the _Nomada_ within, which sometimes lays
two eggs in one cell. To this she does not deliver battle, as does the
_Anthophora_ to _Melecta_, but patiently vacates the nest, leaving it to
the service of the parasite, which is also supposed to close it herself,
having been caught with clay encrusted upon her posterior legs. For the
accuracy of this supposition I cannot vouch, never having observed the
circumstance, nor have I seen reason to abandon the idea that the
parasite has no instinct for labour of any kind,—the presence of the
clay being, I expect, merely accidental, for it is notorious that these
insects have an overruling predilection for keeping themselves extremely
clean.

                                -------

            †† _With three submarginal cells to the wings._
                   Genus 11. ANTHOPHORA, _Latreille_.
               (Plate VI. fig. 3, and Plate VII. fig. 1.)
                       APIS ** _d_, 2 _a_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, nearly as wide as the thorax; _vertex_
depressed; _ocelli_ placed in a curved line upon its posterior margin;
_antennæ_ short, subclavate, basal joint of flagellum globose, its
second joint longer than the scape, very slender, the rest of the joints
subequal; _face_ flattish; _clypeus_ protuberant; _labrum_ quadrate,
convex; _mandibles_ distinctly bidentate and obtuse; _cibarial
apparatus_ very long; _tongue_ very long, transversely striated, and
with a small knob at the extremity; _paraglossæ_ about one-third the
length of the tongue, acuminate; _labial palpi_ slender, more than half
the length of the tongue, membranous, the basal joint as long again as
the remainder, the second joint very slender and very acute; the two
terminal joints very short and subclavate, inserted before the extremity
of the second joint; _labium_ short, one-fourth the length of the
tongue, its inosculation concave; _maxillæ_ hastate, not so long as the
tongue; _maxillary palpi_ one-third the length of the maxillæ,
six-jointed, the basal joint very robust, the rest filiform, the second
the longest, and all the rest decreasing in length and substance. THORAX
oval, densely pubescent, which conceals its divisions; _metathorax_
truncated; _wings_ with three submarginal cells, closed, the second
receives the first recurrent nervure in its centre, and the third, which
bulges externally, receives the second at its extremity; _legs_ setose,
the exterior of the posterior _tibiæ_ and _plantæ_ moderately so, and
the interior of the latter also densely setose; the second joint of the
posterior _tarsi_ inserted beneath and within the termination of their
plantæ; the claw-joint longer than the two preceding; _claws_ bifid, the
inner tooth distant from the external. ABDOMEN ovate, subpubescent, the
fifth segment densely fimbriated and the terminal segment with an
emarginate appendage.

In the MALES the antennæ are very similar, but the mandibles are more
acutely bidentate, and with the exception of the form of the legs, the
general aspect is like the female; the legs, although setose, are less
conspicuously so, the intermediate tarsi in the first section of the
genus being longer than the rest of the entire leg, and are fringed
externally with very long hair, or it is restricted to the plantæ of
that leg and then it is short and very rigid; the entire limb stretched
out extends beyond the widest expansion of the superior wings. The
ABDOMEN is also less retuse than in the female, at its basal segment.

In the second division of this genus, of which _Anthophora furcata_ may
be considered to be the type, the general habit is precisely the same,
but the insects are not so pubescent, and there is a greater similarity
between the sexes. The intermediate legs also, although long in the
male, are not so extremely long as they are in the first section.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

  § _Males with elongate tufted intermediate tarsi, and differing from
                           female in colour._

    1. _retusa_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 6 lines. (Plate VI. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
       _Haworthana_, Kirby.
       _Haworthana_, Curtis, viii. 357.
    2. _acervorum_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 6-8 lines.
      _retusa_, Kirby.

 §§ _Males without elongate tufted intermediate tarsi, concolorous with
                            their females._

    3. _furcata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines. (Plate VII. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
       _furcata_, Kirby.
    4. _quadrimaculata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
       _vulpina_, Kirby.
       _subglobosa_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The name _ἄνθος_, _φὼρ φωρὸς_, _flower-rifler_, would be as suitable for
any other genus of bees, and therefore may be classed with those names
which have no explicit signification.

The two divisions which our native species of this genus form, might
very consistently constitute two genera, differing so much as they do
both in habit and habits. In the first section the males totally differ
from their females, the latter being black and the pubescence of their
partners fulvous, and whose intermediate legs are so much longer, and
are decorated besides with tufts of hair upon their plantæ, neither
peculiarity being found in those of the second section, which conform
more regularly to the ordinary type of structure. The first section also
nidificate gregariously, forming enormous colonies which consist of many
hundreds; whereas the second are solitary nidificators, and at most
half-a-dozen may be found within as many square yards of territory, and
one species, the _A. furcata_, diverges considerably from the ordinary
habits of the genus, and closely approaches those of the foreign genus
_Xylocopa_, but its structure necessarily retains it within the
boundaries of the genus. All these insects exhibit the peculiar
characteristic of the _Scopulipedes_, in the insertion of the second
joint of the posterior tarsi at the very bottom of their plantæ,
conjunctively with the polliniferous scopa, placed externally upon their
tibiæ and plantæ, in which characteristics the Andrenoid _Macropis_
remarkably resembles them, and which I have noticed in my remarks upon
that genus.

The first section burrows in banks, where their colonies are extremely
numerous. In the tunnels which they form they construct several
elliptical cells which they line with a delicate membrane of a white
colour, formed by a secretion or saliva derived from the digestion of
either the pollen or the honey which they consume. Each cell when formed
is stored as usual, and the egg deposited, and then it is closed. There
is but little variation in these processes among all the solitary bees,
excepting in the case of the artisan bees and the more elaborate
processes of _Colletes_, in which, however, the casing is merely
thicker, arising from several layers of the coating membrane. The
perfect insects make their appearance during the spring and summer
months, their successive maturity being the result of the previous
summer and autumn deposit of eggs. They pass the winter and spring in
the larva state, and undergo their transformations into pupa and imago
with but slight interval, and only shortly before the appearance of the
perfect insect. When first presenting themselves they are certainly very
handsome insects, and if carefully killed preserve their beauty for many
years in the cabinet. I have found the retusa, Linn., (Kirby’s
_Haworthana_,) in enormous profusion at Hampstead Heath, indeed, so
numerous were they, that late in the afternoon, upon approaching the
colony, they, in returning home, would strike as forcibly against me as
is often done by _Melolontha vulgaris_ or _Geotrupes stercorarius_. In
equal abundance I have found the _A. acervorum_ at Charlton, where I
have experienced a similar battery. This is the insect which Gilbert
White, in his letters from Selborne, describes as having found in
numbers at Mount Caburn, near Lewes, a spot I have often visited in my
schoolboy days. This section is subject to the parasitism of the genus
_Melecta_, whose incursions are very repugnant to them, and which they
exhibit in very fierce pugnacity, for if they catch the intruder in her
invasion they will draw her forth and deliver battle with great fury. I
have seen both the combatants rolling in the dust, the combat and escape
made perhaps easier to the _Melecta_ by the load the _Anthophora_ was
bearing home. Upon the larva also of this bee it is said that the larva
of the Heteromerous genus _Meloë_ is nurtured; this I have never been
able to verify, but I believe the fact is fully confirmed. This beetle
is closely allied to the _Cantharides_, or blister-beetles, and it
itself exudes a very acrimonious yellow liquid when touched or
irritated. Two of the _Chalcididæ_ also infest their larvæ, which they
destroy; one is the _Melittobia_, named thus from its preying upon bees;
it, like the majority of its tribe, is exceedingly minute, and of a
shining dark green metallic colour. It is peculiar from having its
lateral eyes simple, and in possessing besides three ocelli. The other
genus is _Monodontomeris_, an equally small insect, which, although
living upon the larva of _Anthophora_, is equally preyed upon by that of
the _Melittobia_. The universal scourge, _Forficula_, is a great
devastator of these colonies, where, of course, it revels in its
destructive propensities.

The insects of the second division I have never been able to track to
their burrows, but have always caught them either on the wing or on
flowers, especially upon those of the common Mallow, and I have found
both species all round London. They are said also to frequent the Dead
Nettle (_Lamium purpureum_). The _A. quadrimaculata_ burrows in banks,
and its processes are scarcely different from those of the preceding
species, only its habits are solitary. In flight it is exceedingly
rapid, and thus much resembles _Saropoda_. But the _A. furcata_ bores
into putrescent wood, in which it forms a longitudinal pipe subdivided
into nine or ten oval divisions, separated from each other by
agglutinated scrapings of the same material, very much masticated, the
closing of each forming a sharp sort of cornice; each of these cells is
about half an inch in length, and three-tenths of an inch in diameter,
the separations between them being about a line thick. These pipes or
cylinders run parallel to the sides of the wood thus bored, an angle
being made both at its commencement and its termination, and thus the
latter permits the ready escape of the developed imago nearest that
extremity, which being the first deposited, that cell being the first
constructed, it necessarily becomes the first transmuted, and thus has
not to wait for the egress of all above it.

All these insects are usually accompanied by their partners in their
flight, and their amorous intercourse takes place upon the wing.

                                -------

                    Genus 12. SAROPODA, _Latreille_.
                        (Plate VII. fig. 2 ♂♀.)
                       APIS ** _d_, 2, a, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, as wide as the thorax, very pubescent;
_ocelli_ placed in a triangle, the anterior one low towards the face;
_vertex_ slightly concave; _antennæ_ short, filiform, basal joint of
flagellum globose, the second joint subclavate and the longest, the rest
short and equal; _face_ flattish, short; _clypeus_ forming an obtuse
triangle, slightly convex; _labrum_ quadrate, with the angles rounded;
_mandibles_ obtusely bidentate; _cibarial apparatus_ long; _tongue_ very
long and slender, but gradually expanding towards half its length and
then as gradually tapering to the extremity and terminating in a small
knob, its sides throughout being fimbriated with short delicate down;
_paraglossæ_ one-third its length, membranous, very delicate, and
tapering to a point; _labial palpi_ slender, membranous, the joints
conterminous, the basal joint more than half the length of the tongue,
the remainder short, the second the longest of these three, and all
tapering to the pointed apical one; _labium_ scarcely one-third as long
as the tongue, rather broad, bifid at its inosculation; _maxillæ_ nearly
as long as the tongue, gradually diminishing from its basal sinus to a
point at its extremity; _maxillary palpi_ four-jointed, about one-third
the length of the maxillæ, the basal joint short, robust, the second
tapering from its base to the third joint, which is rather shorter and
subclavate, the terminal joint slender. THORAX very pubescent, rendering
its divisions inconspicuous; _scutellum_ and _post-scutellum_ lunulate
and convex; _metathorax_ truncated; _wings_ as in _Anthophora_, with
three marginal cells closed, the second forming a truncated triangle,
and receiving the first recurrent nervure near its centre, the third
bulging outwardly and receiving the second recurrent nervure at its
extremity; _legs_ very setose, especially the posterior tibiæ
externally, and their plantæ both externally and internally, but the
setæ are longer on the exterior of the joint, the second joint of these
tarsi inserted beneath, and before the termination of their plantæ, the
terminal joint longer than the two preceding; _claws_ bifid, the inner
tooth distant from the apex. ABDOMEN subovate, very convex, truncated at
its base, where it is densely pubescent, the fifth segment fimbriated
with stiff setæ, and the terminal segment having a central triangular
plate with rigid setæ at its sides.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the characteristic sexual
disparities of slightly longer antennæ, and considerably longer
intermediate tarsi, whose apical joint is very clavate.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _bimaculata_, Panzer. ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines. (Plate VII. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
       _bimaculata_, Kirby.
       _rotundata_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The name of this genus is as applicable to the subsection as to the
genus itself, _σάρος_, _brush_, _ποῦς ποδὸς_, _a foot_, in allusion to
their polliniferous posterior legs.

We have but one species, but it is very characteristic; for, although
retaining several of the features of the second division of _Anthophora_
(in the colouring of the face it participates with the males of both
divisions), yet has it still a marked physiognomy of its own; it retains
the normal colouring of bees generally, but its strongest distinction
from that division of _Anthophora_ is the shortness of the antennæ in
the female, as in the length of the intermediate legs of the male it
would seem to form a link between the two divisions, could a distinct
genus stand in such a position, and would almost import the necessity of
elevating that division to generic rank, as hinted at in the
observations under _Anthophora_. In the large development of its claws
it seems to point to an economy somewhat differing from that second
division, but nobody appears to have traced it to its nidus. I have
often captured it at Battersea upon the Mallow, together with _A.
quadrimaculata_, but the singular velocity of its flight might indicate
a very distant domicile,—in a few minutes it could traverse miles. The
electrical vivacity and rich opaline tint of its eyes has been often
observed, but this, unfortunately, fades with death; yet so marked is it
that it has called forth the distinct observation of a Panzer and a
Kirby. Besides the Mallow it has been observed to frequent the Heaths,
and were its habits better known would be found, I have no doubt, to
visit many other flowers, for Curtis took it in the Isle of Wight
sleeping in the great Knapweed, _Centaurea scabiosa_. I have never
caught it laden.

I have hazarded the conjecture in a different part of this work that the
music of the bees might be attuned to a musical scale by associating the
different species in the due gradation of their varying tones. Here we
have one of the most musical of the tribe,—not a monotonous dull sleepy
hum, but a fine _contralto_, the very Patti amongst the bees. But it is
rapidity of motion which in them intensifies the note they chant, and
the velocity of the flight of this insect is something remarkable. They
dart about with almost the rapidity of a flash of lightning, and this
swiftness of approach and retreat modulates their accents.

Under the head “Macropis” I have pointed to some strong resemblances
between this genus and that.

                                -------

                    Genus 13. CERATINA, _Latreille_.
                        (Plate VII. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
                        APIS ** _d_ 2, a, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, convex, glabrous; _ocelli_ placed in a
triangle on the vertex, which is, as well as the face, convex; _antennæ_
short, subclavate, each inserted in a separate deep cavity in the centre
of the face, the first joint of the flagellum globose, the second the
longest of all and slender at its base, but all gradually enlarging to
the extremity; _clypeus_ very gibbous; _labrum_ quadrate, convex;
_cibarial apparatus_ long; _tongue_ long and tapering, and with a minute
knob at its extremity; _paraglossæ_ obsolete; _labial palpi_
three-fourths as long as the tongue, the two first joints membranous and
diminishing in width, the second joint rather shorter than the basal one
and acute at its extremity, and externally before its termination the
two very short terminal ones are inserted; _labium_ half the length of
the tongue, with a lozenge-shaped inosculation; _maxillæ_ as long as the
tongue, broad at the base, whence it abruptly acuminates to the slender
apex; _maxillary palpi_ six-jointed, filiform, the three first joints
subequal, the three terminal gradually decreasing in length. THORAX
oval, glabrous; _prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesothorax_ with a central
basal groove, the _bosses_ conspicuous and shining; _scutellum_ and
_post-scutellum_ lunulate; _metathorax_ subtruncate; _wings_ with three
submarginal cells and a fourth slightly commenced, the second in the
form of a truncated triangle, the third considerably larger than the
second, and each receiving a recurrent nervure just beyond the centre;
_legs_ plumose but not densely so, the hair very long within the
posterior tibiæ, but denser and shorter on its exterior; the _posterior
plantæ_ also plumose, and all the joints of the posterior tarsi
conterminous; _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN glabrous, subclavate, very convex
above and flat beneath, subtruncate at the base, and the basal segments
slightly constricted.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the _clypeus_ being less
gibbous, the _legs_ not plumose, and the sixth segment of the _abdomen_
carinated in the centre towards its extremity, and impending over the
seventh, which is transversely gibbous, then depressed, and with an
obtuse process at its extremity.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _cærulea_, Villers, ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines. (Plate VII. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
       _cyanea_, Kirby.
    2. _albilabris_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 2½ lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from the presence of a little horn between its
antennæ, _κερατίνη_, _a horn_. Some foreign entomologists, especially
Latreille and Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau, have considered it to be
parasitical, but that it is not so we have the authority of the Marquis
Spinola, of Genoa, confirmed by the testimony of Mr. Thwaites, a very
accurate observer, in the vicinity of Bristol, where the insect is not
at all uncommon, although extremely rare in most other parts, and
consequently usually a desideratum to cabinets, from its great beauty
both of form and colour, notwithstanding that it is so very small in
size. It has also been found in other localities, as at Birchwood, where
the late Mr. Bambridge used to take it, and as near London as Charlton,
at both which places I have no doubt it might frequently be found were
it carefully looked for, but the practised entomological eye is often
wanting to detect an insect unless it be conspicuously present. Its
usual nidus is a bramble or briar stick, from which it excavates the
pith, and this it has been frequently observed doing, and both sexes
have been repeatedly bred from such sticks. We have no notice of any
peculiarity in its mode of forming its cells, which may resemble that of
such wood-boring genera as _Chelostoma_ and _Heriades_, although its
structure would intimate a closer affinity to the habits of the exotic
genus _Xylocopa_; nor is there extant any account of the process or time
occupied in the development of its young. Spinola’s notion, from not
seeing the sufficiency of the hair upon the posterior tibiæ for the
purpose, assumed that the pollen was conveyed home on the forehead and
between the antennæ, he having caught an insect with some pollen
accidentally incrusted there in the insect’s honey-seeking excursion.
The hair upon these legs is very sparse, it is true, but then it is very
long, and the quantity of pollen required for the nurture of the larva
is evidently small, from its having been observed that the store upon
which the egg is deposited is semi-liquid, thus preponderating in the
admixture of honey.

That it has not been caught laden with pollen upon its legs has no
weight against the fact of its non-parasitism, for it is not always that
the excursions of bees are made for the purpose of collecting pollen.
Honey is as necessary to their economy—and in this case perhaps more
so—as pollen, and the only way to determine the fact of its carrying
pollen, corroboratively, would be when knowing that one of these bees
has visited a bramble stick—its presumptive nidus,—to watch the stick
very patiently for the insect’s return from every journey until it came
back laden; the presence of pollen upon its legs would surely be
indicated by the difference of its colour from the ordinary dark hue of
the little labourer.

We have already noticed bees with metallic hues among the _Halicti_, and
there are slight indications of it in some of the _Andrenæ_, for
instance, in the _A. cinerea_ and the _A. nigro-ænea_, etc., but in none
hitherto so absolutely is it exhibited as in this genus. The prevalent
colour of the bees, that is to say, the ground colour of the integument,
and not the fleeting one of the pubescence, is black or brown, but here
we have a positive metallic tinge, which we shall again come across in
many shades and hues in the genus _Osmia_.

A second species of the genus was brought from Devonshire by Dr. Leach,
and is in the collection of the British Museum, but no other specimens
of the same species have since been found.

The only flower which it has been noticed that they frequent is the
Viper’s Bugloss (_Echium vulgare_).

                                -------

          Subsection 2. NUDIPEDES (naked-legged cuckoo-bees).
            a. _With three submarginal cells to the wings._
                     Genus 14. NOMADA, _Fabricius_.
                        (Plates VIII., IX., X.)

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse; _ocelli_ in a triangle on the vertex;
_antennæ_ filiform, scarcely geniculated, the scape short, the basal
joint of the flagellum subglobose, the second joint clavate, the
remainder subequal; _face_ flat, or slightly concave, carinated
longitudinally in the centre between the insertion of the antennæ;
_clypeus_ subtriangular, convex, deflected at the lateral angles;
_labrum_ subcircular, very gibbous and protuberant; _mandibles_ acute or
subbidentate; _tongue_ long, acute; _paraglossæ_ about one-fourth its
length, acute; _labial palpi_ two-thirds the length of the tongue, the
two basal joints membranous, the basal one as long as the rest united,
and tapering to its extremity, the second joint less than half the
length of the first, and not wider at its base than the apex of the
first joint, and tapering like that to its end, where it is acute, the
third joint short, subclavate, and the terminal one-half the length of
the preceding, very slender and linear; _labium_ about one-half the
length of the tongue, and at its inosculation produced obtusely in the
centre; _maxillæ_ subhastate, about the length of the tongue; _maxillary
palpi_ six-jointed, the basal joint short, robust, subclavate, the
second the longest, and with the rest tapering in substance and
diminishing in length to the extremity, the terminal joint being very
little shorter than the preceding. THORAX ovate; _prothorax_
inconspicuous, or distinct and angulated laterally; _mesothorax_
glabrous, deeply punctulated; its _bosses_ conspicuous and prominent;
_scutellum_ divided into two very prominent tubercles; _post-scutellum_
linear, convex; _metathorax_ with a triangular space at its base, and
declining to the insertion of the abdomen; _wings_ with three
submarginal cells, and a fourth very slightly commenced, the first as
long as the two following, and each of which receives a recurrent
nervure about its centre; _legs_ subspinose externally on the tibiæ, and
not polliniferous; _claws_ of tarsi small and not bifid. ABDOMEN oval,
glabrous, shining; terminal segment triangular, with its sides ridged.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in sometimes being more profusely
adorned with colour, but this is not always the case, the female being
often the most ornate. There are very slight differences in the antennæ
in the sexes, which may be readily associated together.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

                       § _With filiform antennæ._

     1. _sexfasciata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines. (Plate VIII. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
        _Schæfferella_, Kirby.
        _connexa_, Kirby.
     2. _Goodemana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines. (Plate VIII. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
        _? succincta_, Panzer.
     3. _alternata_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
        _Marshamella_, Kirby.
     4. _Lathburiana_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-5½ lines. (Plate VIII.fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
     5. _varia_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
        _varia_, Kirby.
        _fucata_, Kirby.
     6. _ruficornis_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀.
        _ruficornis_, Kirby.
        _leucophthalma_, Kirby.
        _flava_, Kirby.
     7. _lateralis_, Panzer, ♂ ♀.  4-4½ lines. (Plate X. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
     8. _ochrostoma_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines. Hillana, Kirby.
     9. _signata_, Jurine, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines. (Plate IX. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
    10. _borealis_, Zetterstedt, ♂ ♀. 3½-5 lines.
    11. _lineola_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-6 lines.
        _cornigera_, Kirby.
        _subcornuta_, Kirby.
        _Capreæ_, Kirby.
        _sexcincta_, Kirby.
    12. _xanthosticta_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2-2¾ lines.
    13. _flavoguttata_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 2-3 lines. (Plate IX. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
    14. _furva_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 2-2½ lines.
        _rufocincta_, Kirby.
        _Sheppardana_, Kirby.
        _Dalii_, Curtis.
    15. _Germanica_, Panzer, ♂ ♀.  4 lines.
        _ferruginata_, Kirby.
    16. _Fabriciana_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 3½-5 lines. (Plate IX. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
        _Fabriciella_, Kirby.
        _quadrinotata_, Kirby.
    17. _armata_, Schaeffer, ♂ ♀. 5-5½ lines.
        _Kirbii_, Stephens.

                     §§ _With subclavate antennæ._

    18. _Jacobeæ_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines. (Plate X. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
        _Jacobeæ_, Kirby.
        _flavopicta_, Kirby.
    19. _Solidaginis_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 3½-4 lines. (Plate X. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
        _picta_, Kirby.
        _rufopicta_, Kirby.
    20. _Roberjeotiana_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 3 lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus was named by Fabricius from the _Nomades_, a pastoral
Scythian tribe, in allusion to the assumed wandering habits of the
insects, and it is the fact indeed that they are usually found leisurely
hovering about hedge-rows, or the banks enclosing fields, or about the
metropolis or nidus of any bee upon which they are parasitical. They are
the gayest of all our bees, their colours being red or yellow intermixed
with black, in bands or spots; they are also very elegant in form, which
is after the type of that of the most normal _Andrenidæ_, and to which
they have a further affinity by the silence of their flight, and by
their parasitism upon many of the species of that subfamily. From their
very general resemblance to wasps in colour they are often mistaken for
wasps, and are popularly called wasp-bees, although they have none of
the virulence of that vindictive tribe, for although all the females are
armed with stings, they are not prompt in their use, or if roused to
defence the puncture is but slight. In addition to their prettiness of
colour and elegance of form, they have a further attraction in the
agreeable odours they emit, sometimes of a balmy or balsamical, and
sometimes of a mixed character, and often as sweet as the _pot-pourri_,
and occasionally pleasantly pungent. A fine string of specimens of the
several species is a great ornament to a collection, but to secure this
in its perfection some care is required in the mode of killing them.
Their colours are best permanently retained by suffocating them with
sulphur, which fixes the reds and yellows in all their natural and
living purity. My method was in my collecting excursions to convey with
me a large store of pill-boxes of various sizes, and as I captured
insects in my green gauze bag-net, I transferred them separately to
these boxes. When home again I lifted the lids slightly on one side and
placed as many as would readily go beneath a tumbler, and then fumigated
them with the sulphur. This is a better plan than killing them with
crushed laurel-leaves, for it leaves the limbs much longer flexible for
the purposes of setting, whereas the laurel has a tendency to make them
rigid, and this rigidity is extremely difficult to relax, whereas the
setting of those killed with sulphur, if they are kept in a cool place,
may be deferred for a few days, until leisure intervene to permit it,
and even then if they become stiffened they are readily relaxed for the
purpose.

A division might very consistently be established in the genus by the
separation of those which have subclavate antennæ, and the segments of
whose abdomen are slightly constricted; these also are more essentially
midsummer insects, and usually frequent the Ragwort. This is the only
genus of parasites amongst the true bees whose parasitism is directed
exclusively upwards in the scientific arrangement; the parasitism of all
the rest of the genera of _Nudipedes_ bears upon the genera below them
in the series. Some of the species of the _Nomadæ_ attack more than one
species or one genus, but the majority are strictly limited to but one
genus and one species. The genera obnoxious to this annoyance are
_Andrena_, _Halictus_, _Panurgus_, and _Eucera_; the latter two have but
one of these enemies each, the _Nomada Fabriciana_ infesting the
_Panurgus Banksianus_, and the _N. sexfasciata_ frequenting the _Eucera
longicornis_. Under _Panurgus_ I have alluded to the relative abundance
of the parasite at the metropolis of its sitos. As far as known, the
other species are thus distributed. Those frequenting several
indifferently are the _Nomada alternata_, _Lathburiana_, _succincta_,
and _ruficornis_, which are found to infest _Andrena Trimmerana_,
_tibialis_, _Afzeliella_, and _fulva_, without displaying any choice;
whereas others confine themselves to one sitos exclusively: thus _Nomada
ochrostoma_ limits itself to _Andrena labialis_; _N. Germanica_ to _A.
fulvescens_; _N. lateralis_ to _A. longipes_; _N. baccata_ to _A.
argentata_; _N. borealis_ to _A. Clarkella_; _N. Fabriciana_ to
_Panurgus Banksianus_; and _N. sexfasciata_ to _Eucera longicornis_.
Observation has not yet fully determined whither each species of
_Nomada_ conveys its parasitism; several infest the _Halicti_,
especially the smaller species; the association of these it is difficult
to determine; I have usually found several of the small _Halicti_
burrowing together in the vertical surface of an enclosure bank, and
several of the small _Nomada_ hovering cautiously opposite, now
alighting and entering a burrow, then retreating backwards and winging
off. I lost patience in endeavouring to combine the species by the aid
of blades of grass or slight straws thrust into the aperture, but the
crumbling nature of the soil frustrated my wishes, and I abandoned the
attempt. This field of observation is widely open to the exertions of
observing naturalists, and the novelty of their discoveries would well
reward the toil of the undertaking, for it would not be long before they
gathered fruit.

                                -------

                    Genus 15. MELECTA, _Latreille_.
                        (Plate XI. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
                          APIS ** _a_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD transverse, scarcely so wide as the thorax; _ocelli_
in a triangle on the vertex; _antennæ_ filiform, rather robust, and but
slightly geniculated, the scape not longer than the two following
joints, the second joint of the flagellum the longest and clavate, the
rest short, nearly equal, and the terminal one laterally compressed at
its extremity; _face_ flat, very pubescent; _clypeus_ short transverse,
lunulate, convex; _labrum_ irregularly gibbous, obovate; _mandibles_
strongly bidentate; _tongue_ long, slightly expanding towards the middle
and thence tapering to the extremity, and with a central line;
_paraglossæ_ scarcely half the length of the tongue, almost setiform,
but robust at the base; _labial palpi_ more than half the length of the
tongue, the two first joints membranous and very slender, the first
longer than the rest united, the second about half the length of the
first, and terminating acutely, the third not more than one-fourth the
length of the second, and inserted laterally before its termination, the
fourth about as long as the third, and, like it, subclavate, both being
more robust than the second; _labium_ not half the length of the tongue,
and acutely triangular at its inosculation; _maxillæ_ subhastate, not
quite so long as the tongue; _maxillary palpi_ five-jointed, about
one-third the length of the maxillæ, the basal joint clavate, short, and
robust; the second elongate, subclavate, the remainder gradually but
slightly diminishing in substance and length, the terminal not so long
as the basal joint. THORAX very retuse, and its divisions scarcely
distinguishable; _scutellum_ bidentate; _metathorax_ abruptly truncated;
_wings_ with three closed submarginal cells, the second the smallest,
irregularly triangular, and receiving the first recurrent nervure just
beyond its centre, the third submarginal considerably larger than the
second, sublunulate, but angulated externally and receiving the second
recurrent nervure about its centre; the _legs_ robust and spinulose,
especially the tibiæ externally (where they are very convex) and the
femora beneath; the _claws_ short, strong and bifid. The ABDOMEN
conical, truncated, and retuse at its base, the apical segment with a
central triangular plate ridged laterally, and fimbriated at its sides
with strong setæ.

The MALE scarcely differs in personal appearance, excepting that its
antennæ are more robust and its ornamental pubescence is more profuse,
its posterior tibiæ very robust and almost triangular, and the terminal
segment of its abdomen slightly emarginate and concave at its extremity.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. punctata, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 6 lines. (Plate XI. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
       _? Atropos_, Newman.
       _? Lachesis_, Newman.
    2. _armata_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 6-7 lines.
       _punctata_, Kirby.
       _? Tisiphone_, Newman.
       _? Alecto_, Newman.
       _? Clotho_, Newman.
       _? Megæra_, Newman.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Named from _μέλι_, _honey_, _λέγω_, _I collect_; which is scarcely the
case, for the parasites, although they may indulge in the luxury of
honey as epicures, or resort to it as a repast, cannot be said to
collect it, for it is only the labouring bees that truly collect it for
the purpose of storing.

These insects are extremely handsome, their ground-colour being
intensely black, brightly shining on the abdomen, upon the segments of
which it is laterally ornamented with silvery pubescent tufts and spots;
the black legs are also variously ringed with similar silver down. The
great variation these spots and markings undergo—from what cause we know
not—has induced several entomologists to consider them as distinct
species. But the strongest varieties so rarely recur with identical
ornaments, and as almost all can be closely connected together in a
regular series by interlacing differences impossible to divide, it would
be certainly incorrect, without stronger characteristics, to raise such
fugitive variations to specific rank. Whether the curious spines of the
scutellum which they possess furnish a more certain character is
doubtful, for we find all such processes equally liable to variation in
size and form. What can be the uses of these spines? They can hardly be
for defence, although an entomologist has said that a male which he held
endeavoured to pinch by that means. We find similar processes in the
same situation in _Cœlioxys_, equally a parasitical genus; but the
former genus infests the _Scopulipedes_ and the latter the
_Dasygasters_, whose economies are so very different, and thus it can
hardly be supposed to have reference to habits. In _Epeolus_ and
_Stelis_ the same part is mucronated, a tendency to which we see in the
_Nomadæ_ with subclavate antennæ. Under _Anthophora_ I have given an
account of the pugnacious spirit of these insects in their contests with
the sitos, and it is necessary to be cautious in handling them, as they
sting very severely. Our two native species are parasitical upon the two
species of the first division of _Anthophora_,—those which are
gregarious. The circumstance of _Melecta_ being often caught with many
of the extremely young larvæ of _Meloë_ upon it seems to confirm the
fact of this coleopterous insect preying upon _Anthophora_, as it may be
thus assumed to prey simultaneously upon the larva of _Melecta_. I have
never captured these insects upon flowers, nor can I trace what flowers
they frequent, although Latreille tells us, in the name he has imposed,
that they are honey collectors; but Curtis reports that he has found the
genus upon the common furze or whin (_Ulex Europæus_).

                                -------

                    Genus 16. EPEOLUS, _Latreille_.
                        (Plate XI. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
                          APIS ** _b_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY glabrous. HEAD transverse, vertex convex; _ocelli_
placed in a triangle on its summit; _antennæ_ short, linear, the joints
of the flagellum subequal; _face_ flat, carinated longitudinally in its
centre between the insertion of the antennæ; _clypeus_ transverse,
lunulate, convex, margined anteriorly; _labrum_ transversely ovate, with
a small process in the centre in front; _mandibles_ bidentate, the
internal tooth minute, the external robust and broad; _tongue_ rather
long, more than twice the length of the labium, tapering to its
extremity; _paraglossæ_ short, about one-fourth the length of the
tongue, broad at the base, and acuminate towards the apex; _labial
palpi_ more than half the length of the tongue, the basal joint longer
than the three following, membranous, and gradually decreasing to the
second, which is one-third the length of the first, and acute at its
apex, where the third subclavate joint is articulated, the terminal
joint considerably shorter than the third; _labium_ not more than
one-third the length of the tongue, and trifid at its inosculation, the
central division being hastate; _maxillæ_ subhastate, more than one-half
the length of the tongue; _maxillary palpi_ consisting of one robust
short conical joint inserted in a deep circular receptacle. THORAX
subglobose; _prothorax_ conspicuous, with its lateral angles slightly
prominent; _mesothorax_ with its bosses prominent; _wing_-scales large;
_scutellum_ transverse, gibbous, margined posteriorly, slightly
mucronated laterally, slightly depressed in the centre, and impending
over the _post-scutellum_, which is inapparent; _metathorax_ abruptly
truncated; _wings_ with three submarginal cells, and a fourth feebly
commenced, the first as long as the two following, the second
subtriangular, and receiving the first recurrent nervure about its
centre, and the third lunulate, and receiving the second recurrent
nervure also about the centre; _legs_ short, stout, the _tibiæ_ slightly
spinulose externally; _claws_ very small, short, robust and simple.
ABDOMEN obtusely conical, truncated at the base, its terminal segment
triangular, and the lateral margins slightly reflected.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the usual male characteristics,
and that the apical segment of the abdomen is rounded and margined.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _variegatus_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 3-4 lines. (Plate XI. fig. 2 ♂ ♀.)
       _variegatus_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

It is difficult to assign a reason for the name of this genus, or to
trace an applicable derivation from _ἐπίαλος_, for the insect in no way
suits, either directly or by anti-phrase, any of the significations of
this word. It is one of the prettiest of our little bees, and is
parasitical upon the _Colletes Daviesiana_, and it may be found in
abundance wherever the metropolis of this species occurs. There is one
special locality near Bexley, in Kent, a vertical sandbank within a few
hundred yards of the village, where I have always found it in the spring
months, and have there taken it as numerously as I wished. I have
already alluded, in another part of this work, to the uniformly greater
beauty of the parasitical bees, to those which they infest, and their
exceedingly different appearance in every case excepting in that of the
genus _Apathus_. We might have expected that they would have been
disguised like these, the better to carry on their nefarious practices,
but what can well be more dissimilar than _Epeolus_ and _Colletes_, or
than _Nomada_ and all its supporters, and the same of _Melecta_,
_Cœlioxys_, and _Stelis_. These facts puzzle investigation for a reason;
nor will the perplexity be speedily solved. All that we can surmise is
that there must be a motive for it, for wherever we successfully elicit
her secret from the veiled goddess, we invariably find the reason
founded in profound wisdom. In some cases the mystery seems devised to
test our sagacity, but it cannot be so here, for the most palpable and
plausible cause that would suggest itself in the supposition of its
being for the guardianship and apprisal of the sitos is often
contravened, as in this instance, by it and its parasite living in great
harmony together, again by the desertion of its nidus by _Eucera_ in
favour of the parasite, although itself is a very much more powerful
insect; but in the cases of _Panurgus_, _Halictus_, and _Andrena_, they
all live well reconciled to the intrusion of the stranger’s young, and
this, without their enumeration, may be adopted as nearly the universal
case. The hostility of _Anthophora_, previously noticed, is an almost
insulated case of the contrary. The form of these insects does not
promise much activity, and we accordingly find that they are slow,
heavy, and indolent; yet they must be cautiously handled, for they sting
acutely; but indeed it is not well ever to handle insects whose
markings, as we find them in these, consist of a close nap, as
evanescent as the down upon a plum, and of course the fingers carry it
readily off, and disfigure the beauty of the little specimen. When their
special habitat is not known they may often be found upon the blossoming
Ragwort in the vicinity, or upon the Mouse-ear Hawkweed (_Hieracium
murorum_) within whose flowers they are frequently observed enjoying
their siesta.

                                -------

                    b. _With two submarginal cells._
                      Genus 17. STELIS, _Panzer_.
                        (Plate XI. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
                       APIS ** _c_, 1 _β_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY glabrous, much punctured. HEAD transverse, curving
posteriorly to the thorax, where it is angulated laterally; _ocelli_ in
a triangle at the summit of the vertex; _antennæ_ short, slender,
filiform, scarcely geniculated, the scape about as long as the three
first joints of the flagellum, all the joints of which are subequal but
slightly increasing in length towards the apical one, which is a little
compressed laterally; _face_ entirely flat; _clypeus_ transverse, rather
convex; _labrum_ elongate, convex; _mandibles_ robust, tridentate, the
external tooth considerably the stoutest; _cibarial apparatus_ long,
tongue three times as long as the labium, slightly inflated in the
centre, and terminating in a small knob; _paraglossæ_ very short, not
more than one-sixth the length of the tongue and acuminate; _labial
palpi_ about two-thirds the length of the tongue, the two first joints
membranous, the basal one the most robust, and both tapering to an acute
apex, shortly before which the two very short subclavate terminal joints
articulate; _labium_ about one-third the length of the tongue, its
inosculation trifid, the central division considerably the longest and
truncated at its extremity; _maxillæ_ subhastate, nearly as long as the
tongue, acutely acuminated towards their apex; _maxillary palpi_ very
short, two-jointed, the basal joint subclavate and slightly the longest,
and inserted in a circular cavity, the terminal joint short ovate.
THORAX subglobose; _prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesothorax_ very convex;
_scutellum_ lunulate, very gibbous, and impending over the
post-scutellum and metathorax, mucronated laterally; _metathorax_
abruptly truncated; _wings_ with two submarginal cells, and a third very
slightly commenced, the two subequal, the second being the largest and
receiving the first submarginal cell near its commencement and the
second at the inosculation of the terminal transverso-cubital nervure;
_legs_ short, moderately stout, the _tibiæ_ very slightly setose
externally; _claws_ short, bifid, the internal tooth near the external.
ABDOMEN oblong, truncated at its base, very convex above and flat
beneath, deflexed towards its extremity, and the terminal segment almost
rounded, being very slightly produced in the centre and margined.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the usual male characteristics,
and by the apical segment being obsoletely tridentate.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _aterrima_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines.
       _punctulatissima_, Kirby,
    2. _phæoptera_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 4-4½ lines. (Plate XI. fig. 3 ♂ ♀.)
    3. _octomaculata_, Smith, ♂ ♀. 3 lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The name of this genus may be derived from _στελὶς_, _a sort of
parasitical plant_, perhaps _mistletoe_, if we could be sure that Panzer
imposed it after being aware of the parasitical nature of these bees. It
is true his book (the ‘Revision’) was published in 1805, and Kirby, who
first intimated a suspicion of such cuckoo-like habits in some of the
bees, published his in 1802; therefore it might have been given in
allusion to that peculiarity of their economy, but it may also be from
_στηλὶς_, _a little column_, in application to their cylindrical form.
In but few of the parasitical bees do we know the precise nature of
their transformations, I have therefore been obliged to be silent upon
this point of their natural history, and I have nothing to state of its
nature in these, although I expect there is much uniformity with but
slight modifications in all. The species of this genus are parasitical
upon the _Osmiæ_; thus the _S. phæoptera_ is found to infest the _O.
fulviventris_, and the _S. octomaculata_ intrudes itself into the nests
of _O. leucomelana_, both of which occur tolerably abundantly near
Bristol. I have no doubt that the south-west and west of England, if
well searched, would yield many choice insects.

It is singular that bee-parasitism does not prevail throughout all the
genera of bees, some being subject to it and others not. Thus the genera
_Colletes_, _Andrena_, _Halictus_, _Panurgus_, _Eucera_, _Anthophora_,
_Saropoda_, _Megachile_, _Osmia_, and _Bombus_ have all parasites,
whereas the genera _Cilissa_, _Macropis_, _Dasypoda_, _Ceratina_,
_Anthidium_, _Chelostoma_, _Heriades_, _Anthocopa_, and _Apis_ have
none, as far as we yet know; and some of the genera of parasites
frequent two or more genera indifferently, whilst others are restricted
to a single one; also some of the species of the parasitical genera
infest indifferently several of the species of the genus to which their
parasitism is mainly limited; other species have a more circumscribed
range and do not visit the nests of more than a single species. What law
may control all these seeming anomalies we cannot discover,—it may
possibly be scent that guides them, and this may control their
parasitism by indicating the species they are taught by their instinct
to be most suitable from the quality of the pollen with which it
supplies its own nest, to be that which is best adapted for the nurture
of their young. It is not likely that we shall very speedily lift the
veil from these mysteries, but they are suggestive of observation which
in seeking one thing may fall upon another equally interesting.

I have usually caught these insects settled upon the leaves of shrubs,
especially of fruit bushes, particularly that of the black currant, upon
which, in a favourable locality, many bees, as well as numerous small
fossorial _Hymenoptera_ may be found in genial weather. I have never
caught them upon flowers, nor do I know what flowers they frequent. The
end of May, if warm, and throughout June, they are usually found most
abundantly.

                                -------

                    Genus 18. CŒLIOXYS, _Latreille_.
                       (Plate XII. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
                      APIS ** _c_ 1 _α_, _Kirby_.

_Gen. Char._: BODY subglabrous. HEAD transverse, concave posteriorly to
fit the anterior portion of the thorax; _ocelli_ in a triangle on the
vertex; _antennæ_ filiform, short, subgeniculated, the basal joint of
the flagellum globose, the second subclavate, and all from the second
subequal, the terminal joint compressed laterally; _face_ flat, very
pubescent; _clypeus_ ovate, concavely truncated in front, its surface
convex; _labrum_ oblong, with its sides parallel, but with lateral
processes at its articulation; _mandibles_ broad, quadridentate;
_cibarial apparatus_ long, the _tongue_ very long, nearly three times
the length of the labium, linear but slightly inflated in the centre,
and thence tapering to its extremity, and slightly covered with a very
short down; _paraglossæ_ wholly wanting; _labial palpi_ membranous, the
two first joints long, the second slightly the longest, and both
tapering to the extremity of the second, which is acute, and has the
third joint, which is very short and subclavate, articulated before the
extremity, with the terminal one of equal length, and rounded at the
apex, appended to it; _labium_ about one-third the length of the tongue,
its inosculation trifid and equal, and the central division acute;
_maxillæ_ subhastate and acuminate, not quite so long as the tongue;
_maxillary palpi_ very short, three-jointed, the basal joint the
smallest, the second the most robust, and the terminal one ovate. THORAX
subglobose; _prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesothorax_ convex;
_wing-scales_ large; _scutellum_ produced horizontally, and impending
over the post-scutellum and metathorax, and having at each lateral
extremity an acute, slightly-curved tooth projecting backwards;
_metathorax_ abruptly truncated; _wings_ with two submarginal cells and
a third commenced, the first slightly the longest, the second receiving
both the recurrent nervures, the first near its commencement, and the
second close to its termination; _legs_ slender, spinulose externally on
the tibiæ; _claws_ rather long, slender, and simple. ABDOMEN very
conical, truncated at the base, its segments slightly constricted, the
apical one long, superficially carinated longitudinally in the centre,
and much deflexed.

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting that the whole of the front of the
head is more densely pubescent; the mandibles are deeply, acutely, and
nearly equally tridentate, the terminal segment of the abdomen is
variously mucronated or toothed at its apex, these processes pointing
backwards, and the penultimate segment is more or less produced
laterally.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _conica_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀. 4-5 lines.
       _quadridentata_, Linnæus, ♂.
       _quadridentata_, Kirby, ♂.
    2. _simplex_, Nyland, ♂ ♀. 5 lines.
       _conica_, Kirby.
       _conica_, Curtis, viii. 349.
       _Sponsa_, Smith, ♂.
    3. _umbrina_, Smith, ♂ ♀.
    4. _rufescens_, St. Fargeau, ♂. 4-6 lines.
    5. _vectis_, Curtis, ♂ ♀. 5-6 lines. (Plate XII. fig. 1 ♂ ♀)
    6. _inermis_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

This genus is named from _κοιλία_, _belly_, _ὀξὺς_, _acute_, in
application to the conical abdomen of the female. The insects of this
genus are parasitical upon the genera _Megachile_ and _Saropoda_. Thus,
_C. simplex_ infests _M. circumcincta_; _C. rufescens_, _M.
Willughbiella_; _C. vectis_, _M. maritima_; and _C. umbrina_ is
parasitical on _Saropoda bimaculata_. Linnæus, from the different
appearance of the two sexes made two species of them, and from the
circumstance of his having described first the male as _Apis
quadridentata_, this, by the law of priority, supersedes the name of _C.
conica_ as the name of the species, which is its female, and which he
next described, and thus that sex, whose form Latreille adopted as
typical of the genus, is in the series of species totally superseded and
reduced to a synonym. The species of this genus are extremely difficult
to separate from each other, no tangible character presenting itself
conspicuously, although the Swedish entomologist Nylander supposes he
has found one in the plates of the apical segment of the abdomen,
especially those of the venter, in which he detects both a difference of
form and a difference of relative length to that of the superior plates,
and in the males he assumes that the teeth of the apical segment are
constant characters. Not having had sufficient opportunity since this
supposed discovery was made, for the examination of a great multitude of
specimens, for it is only upon such an investigation that it can be
firmly based, I cannot speak corroboratively upon the point, but it is
very possibly a correct solution of the difficulty.

The peculiarity of these spines at the apical segments of the abdomen of
the males is remarkable, they being straight projecting processes, or
they have even a slight upward bearing. In the males of _Anthidium_ and
_Osmia_ we observe spines also arming the apex of the last segment, but
in these we can trace an evident use, both from the downward curvature
of the abdomen itself, and that same tendency also in the spines. But in
the insects of this genus they have not the same conspicuously apparent
object, the abdomen itself even having an upward curvature, or rather a
greater facility for turning upwards than downwards. These insects
appear to be most abundant in the midland and southern counties, and,
according to Curtis, they are numerously found at the back of the Isle
of Wight. I have usually taken them on the wing and never on a flower,
and I do not know the plants which they may prefer.

                                -------

        Subsection 3. DASYGASTERS (convey pollen on the belly).
             _All with two submarginal cells to the wings._
           Genus 19. MEGACHILE, _Latreille_. (Leaf-cutters.)
                       APIS ** _c_ 2 _α_, Kirby.
                     (Plate XII. fig. 2 and 3 ♂♀.)

_Gen. Char._: HEAD as wide as the thorax, flat and broad on the
_vertex_, where, on the anterior edge, the _ocelli_ are disposed in a
triangle; _antennæ_ shortish, filiform, geniculated; _scape_ about as
long as two first joints of flagellum, which increases both in length of
joints and their substance from base to apex, the terminal one being the
longest, and longitudinally compressed; _face_ and clypeus very
pubescent, concealing their divisions; _clypeus_ transversely lunulate,
scarcely convex; _labrum_ longitudinally slightly convex and oblong,
with the sides parallel; _mandibles_ broad, widening outwardly,
irregularly quadridental, the two inner teeth obtuse; _cibarial
apparatus_ moderately long; _tongue_ more than twice the length of the
labium, tapering from the base to the apex, where it terminates in a
minute knob; _paraglossæ_ very short, scarcely one-sixth the length of
the tongue, coadunate at the base and acuminate at the apex, where, in
repose, they lap round the base of the tongue; _labial palpi_
three-fourths the length of the tongue, the two basal joints long,
subequal, membranous, linear, slightly tapering to the acute apex of the
second, where the third subclavate joint articulates just before its
termination, and conterminous with which is the fourth, shorter than the
third, but also subclavate; _labium_ not quite half the length of the
tongue, with a long subobtuse process in the centre of its inosculation;
_maxillæ_ subhastate, and very acuminate, nearly as long as the tongue;
_maxillary palpi_ very short, two-jointed, the basal joint the shortest,
and the terminal one obtuse at its apex, where it is furnished with
brief setæ. THORAX subglobose, pubescent, the pubescence almost
concealing its divisions; _prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesothorax_
convex, subglabrous on the disk; _scutellum_, lunulate, convex;
_metathorax_ truncated; wings with two submarginal cells, the
commencement of a third slightly indicated, the two complete ones nearly
equal, the second of which receives both the recurrent nervures, one
towards each extremity; _legs_ robust, very setose; the posterior
_tibiæ_ slightly curved longitudinally, concavo-convex, broad at the
extremity; all the _plantæ_ as long as their tibiæ and as broad at the
base but decreasing at the apex to the width of the following tarsal
joints, the anterior pair fimbriated externally, and the posterior pair
clothed, on the inner surface, with a dense, short brush, the three
following joints short, subequal, the claw-joint as long as the three,
and the _claws_ with a broad basal inner tooth. ABDOMEN ovate, with
parallel sides, convex above, truncated and concave at its base to fit
the metathorax, distended horizontally in length, or with an upward
curve, the four first segments slightly constricted, and their edges
usually clothed with decumbent down; the terminal segment obtusely
pointed and slightly depressed transversely towards its extremity; the
_ventral segments_ commencing with the second, clothed with parallel
layers of moderately long, straight setæ, which in each parallel are of
equal length, but those on the fifth segment are the shortest, upon all
of which the insect conveys the pollen it collects.

The FEMALES of the second division of the genus scarcely differ.

The MALES of the first division differ in having the _head_ slightly
larger and squarer above; the _antennæ_ very slightly longer; the
_mandibles_ more acutely tridentate, with a distinct powerful basal
tooth beneath, terminating the concavity of the organ; the anterior
_femora_, _tibiæ_, and joints of their _tarsi_, excepting the terminal
one, concavo-convex, the four first joints of the latter distended
laterally, and edged with a dense fringe of setæ, the distension of
these joints is widest at their articulation with the tibiæ and they
decline in length to the claw-joint which is long; the _claws_ bifid;
the interior claw acute, but remote from the apical one; the posterior
_femora_ are very robust, their _tibiæ_, much curved, robust, almost
triangular, and externally very convex; their _plantæ_, almost glabrous,
not so long as the three following joints, externally rather twisted,
and beneath furnished with a dense brush of long stiff hair.

In the second division of the genus the males are destitute of the
distension of the anterior tarsi, these being instead densely fimbriated
externally; the legs in them are much less robust, and more closely
resemble those of their females.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

               § _Anterior tarsi of males much dilated._

    1. _Willughbiella_, Kirby, ♂♀. 5-7 lines.
    2. _maritima_, Kirby, ♂♀. 6-7 lines. (Plate XII. fig. 2 ♂♀.)
    3. _circumcincta_, Kirby, ♂♀. 4½-5½ lines.

                 §§ _Anterior tarsi of males not dilated._

    1. _ligniseca_, Kirby, ♂♀.  5-7 lines.
    2. _centuncularis_, Linnæus, ♂♀.  4-6 lines.
       _centuncularis_, Kirby.
    3. _argentata_, Fabricius, ♂♀.  3-4½ lines. (Plate XII. fig. 3 ♂♀.)
       _Leachella_, Kirby.
       _Leachella_, Curtis.
    4. _odontura_, Smith, ♂. 4½ lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Named from the great development of the labrum, _μέγα_ _large_, _χεῖλος_
_lip_, which is characteristic of all the _Dasygasters_, and also of
some of the proximate _Nudipedes_, those parasitical upon them, _Stelis_
and _Cœlioxys_, and which, too, resemble the sitos in the expansion and
dentated formation of their mandibles, although they do not use them for
the same purposes; this again exhibits an analogy of structure, that
appears in the parasite to be merely corroborative of identity of
existence.

These are more essentially summer insects than the majority of the
preceding genera, although some of them present themselves with genial
spring weather. The genus may be separated into two distinct divisions
by the peculiar dilatation of the tarsi of the males of some of the
species, but such division is not indicative of a difference of habits,
as is distinctly the case in the genus _Anthophora_, and in which these
combined circumstances Mr. Kirby suggested as acceptable for generic
division, or, as he called it, the institution of another _family_. But
in these we find in both divisions both wood-borers and earth-tunnelers,
and some species are indifferently either as suits their accidental
convenience. The general appearance of the insects is more that of
ordinary bees, and the sexes are more approximate in their habit than is
usually the case.

With this genus commences essentially those designated as artisan bees,
although _Colletes_ might very suitably come under that denomination.
The species themselves of the genus are called leaf-cutters, from the
habit they have of cutting pieces from the leaves of various shrubs and
trees, for the purpose of lining their nests. The description of the
operations of one species will apply precisely to that carried on by
all, the occasional difference between them being the selection of the
leaves of distinct plants; and it will exhibit the patient industry and
perseverance with which these little upholsterers carry on their
labours.

Thus _M. centuncularis_, the type of the genus, burrows in decaying wood
or in brick walls, and sometimes also in the ground, and makes use of
the cuttings of rose leaves,—not the petals,—and the leaves of the
annual and perennial Mercury (_Mercurialis annua_ and _M. perennis_).
The _M. ligniseca_ bores into sound Oak and the Mountain Ash, as well as
into putrescent Elm, and uses Elm leaves to line its nests, sometimes
called _centunculi_ from their being as it were patched together. This
is the largest of all our species, and is found very abundantly
everywhere around London frequenting the flowers of the Thistle. The _M.
argentata_, Fab., or _Leachella_ of Kirby, is perhaps the prettiest of
all the species, and forms its tunnels in sandbanks. I do not know what
leaves this species selects, which used to be extremely rare, indeed for
a long time only known by the specimen in the British Museum, until that
ardent entomologist the Rev. F. W. Hope, to whom the University of
Oxford owes its superb entomological collection, brought it in abundance
from Southend, where, during his brief annual stay at his residence
there, he used to find it in the grove which runs under the cliff edging
the terrace of the village; it is extremely local, as that and
Weybridge, in Surrey, are the only two spots where I have known it to be
found. It is one of the most vivid fliers among the bees, and darts
about, especially during brilliant sunshine in June, with the velocity
of a sand-martin, and its note is shrill, but harmonious; it is not
often caught upon flowers, being so extremely alert, but has been seen
to visit the common Viper’s Bugloss (_Echium vulgare_). The _M.
odontura_, the last of the second division, which is known only in a
single male specimen in the cabinets of the British Museum, is one of
Dr. Leach’s west country captures, of which nothing precise is known,
and it is only noticed here on account of the singular peculiarity of
the armature of the apex of its abdomen, which brings it closer to the
genus _Osmia_ in that particular, although the majority of the males of
the genus have the terminal segment slightly furcated.

In these observations I have commenced with the division which contains
the type, and to which the present name of the genus would attach from
that circumstance, were it ever thought desirable to separate those
species, which have dilated anterior tarsi in the males, into a distinct
genus, but which I could scarcely recommend. In the arrangement of the
species in the preceding list, I have placed these latter first, from
their more symmetrical appearance in the cabinet, by leading down to the
terminal smaller species in due order, from these larger and more
conspicuous ones.

The _M. Willughbiella_ and _maritima_ prefer decaying wood, and they
have been found upon decaying Willows in the Midland Counties in extreme
abundance; they might be called gregarious were the material within
which they burrow connected in a continuous plane. The _M.
Willughbiella_ makes use of the leaves of the Rose and of the Laburnum,
but the _M. maritima_ seems to prefer the leaves of the Sallow. The _M.
circumcincta_ invariably burrows in banks, confirming the
semi-gregarious habits of the genus, where it forms large colonies, and
it is only by accident that it constructs secluded and solitary nests;
it also makes use of rose leaves for lining its apartments. The insects
are subject to the molestation of bee-parasites of the genus _Cœlioxys_,
the _C. quadridentata_ having been bred from the cells of this latter
species,—that parasite also frequenting the _M. Willughbiella_, and the
_C. vectis_ is well known to infest the _M. maritima_. Thus, it appears
to be only the species of this division with the dilated tarsi that are
exposed to such incursions, there being no record of parasites
frequenting the division in which the males have simple anterior tarsi.
Besides this bee-parasite, they are also subject to the attacks of some
dipterous insect, whose larvæ destroy the larvæ of the _Megachile_. Much
difficulty exists in separating the females of some of the species from
each other; in others the specific character is sufficiently noticeable.
It is a singular concomitant that those males with the dilated anterior
tarsi have the apical joint of the flagellum of the antennæ considerably
compressed and also dilated laterally.

The proceedings of these bees are very curious. Although the tubes they
usually form are long, they are so constructed as not to branch far away
from the exterior of the material into which they bore,—sound or
putrescent wood or earth, or old mortar joining the bricks of walls,—if
in the second material, they usually follow the putrescent vein, and
their tunnel in every case is rarely further than an inch or an inch and
a half from the external surface. Both the sides of the tube, and the
cells they form within them, will necessarily vary in diameter and
length with the size of the species, but in the larger species they are
about an inch and a quarter long and half an inch in diameter. Some
entomologists have surmised that different species use the leaves of
different plants for lining their cells; this, however, is not strictly
the case, as shown in the preceding remarks; but, although not so, the
series of nests in the same tube are always lined with cuttings from the
same plant; perhaps a varying caprice operates upon each day’s labours
and changes the plant, influenced by the drift of the wind or some
casual freak.

The cylindrical tube being prepared, which is done very similarly to the
way in which it is practised by all the labouring genera, by the gradual
removal of the particles of the wood, or sand, or earth of which it
consists, the insect’s instinct prompts it to fly forth to obtain the
requisite lining, that the lateral earth may not fall in, or the wood
taint the store to be accumulated for the young, for it is before this
is done that the upholstery is commenced. Having fixed upon the
preferred plant, Rose-bush or Laburnum or Sallow, or whatever it may be,
it alights upon the leaf, and fixing itself upon the edge, it holds it
with three legs on each side, then using its mandibles as the cutter of
silhouettes would his scissors, and, just as rapidly as he cuts out a
profile, does this ingenious little creature ply the tools it is
furnished with by nature. The oval or semicircular cutting being thus
speedily dispatched, with the legs still clinging to the surfaces, the
insect biting its way backwards, the piece cut off necessarily remains
within the clutch of the legs, and, when about falling, the rejoicing
labourer expands her wings and flies off with it with a hum of
delightful triumph, the cutting being carried perpendicularly to her
body. In a direct line she wings her way to the receptacle, and arrived
at the mouth of the aperture within which she has to convey it, she
rolls it to its requisite tubular form and thrusts it forward to the
bottom of the cavity. The first piece for the lining of each cell is
always oval and larger in proportion than the succeeding ones, which, to
the number of three or four, are semicircular, the first piece having an
extra use to serve in forming a concave bottom to the cavity. Having
completed the requisite manipulation, for adjusting it to shape the
external lining of the bottom and sides of the first cell, she withdraws
backwards, again flies off, and, as if she had traced a trail in the
air, or had marked its limpidity with a frothy surge, like that left in
the wake of a ship, to note the road for her return, back she wends to
the same plant, and proximately to the spot of her recent triumphant
exploit renews the operation, but the result of which, this time, is to
be semicircular. Home she flies again, and the arrangement within of
this piece is different to that of the first, for this is simply
tubular, and so placed that it imbricates with its cut margin within the
serrated edge of the first and the third, and in case of a fourth the
fourth also is similarly placed, so that one laps within the other, the
edges of two of these cuttings never being conterminous. The number of
the coatings is apparently regulated by the drier or moister condition
of the substance in which the tunnel is drilled. Another duty has now to
be performed, indeed, that for which all the preceding labours were
undertaken,—the provision for its young, wherein it perpetuates its
kind,—and thus on and on flows the wonderful stream of life, whose
origin who shall estimate through the millennia it has hitherto so
placidly and uniformly traversed, and whose termination who shall
predict? Having completed the requisite store of honey mixed with
pollen, this is carried to the brush with which the under side of the
abdomen is furnished, by means of the posterior legs. The honey and
pollen are gathered from different kinds of thistles, whence it acquires
a reddish hue and looks almost like conserve of roses, and the nest is
filled with it to within a line of its top; the egg is then deposited,
but the coating of leaves, which enclose the cell completely, secures
the store from lateral absorption, although the mixture is rather more
fluid, consisting of a relatively greater quantity of honey than is
usual, excepting perhaps in the case of _Ceratina_, and although no
viscous secretion is used to bind the leaves together, which retain
their position from merely lateral pressure. The cell has now to be
closed, and the artificer knowing that the transverse section of the
cylinder is circular, again flies forth, and without compass, but with
all the accuracy with which Leonardo da Vinci struck a circle with his
pencil, to testify his mastery, cuts the leaf again in that form, and as
surely: and, three or four, or five or six times, repeats this
operation, returning each time with each piece, so many having been
variously observed. The separation between the cells being thus
consolidated, it is further thickened by the lateral, spare, protruding
edge of the leaf first introduced lapping over it. The whole process is
again renewed in the same manner as at first, the bottom edge of the
cutting of the external leaf is again curved to form a concave bottom to
the next cell, and the sides are similarly formed, and each cell fits
the preceding like the top of one thimble placed in the mouth of
another. The repetition of all this is continued until the completion of
the five or six cells necessary to fill the tube, when another is formed
with the same routine, if her store of eggs is not exhausted; and the
orifice of the tube, upon the completion of the last cell, which is
closed in the usual way, is filled up with earth. Should any casualty
interfere with her labours or temporarily derange their utility, without
the obstruction being one that would permanently affect it, the
remarkable patience and rapidity with which the repairs are effected, or
the obstructions removed, is worthy of all admiration,—the _στοργὴ_, or
love of offspring, being the predominant passion which overthrows and
controls every difficulty.

When full fed, the larva spins a thick cocoon of silk, which is attached
to the sides of the cell; the outer coating of this cocoon is of a
coarser and browner silk than the interior, which is formed of very
delicate threads of a slaty-whitish colour and of a close texture, and
which is as lustrous as satin. The exact period of their evolution from
this state is not recorded, but it is probable that they pass the winter
enveloped in their cocoon as pupæ, and in their season come forth the
following year.

                                -------

                   Genus 20. ANTHIDIUM, _Fabricius_.
                        (Plate XIII. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
                      _Apis_ ** _c_ 2 _β_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY subglabrous. HEAD transverse, as wide as the thorax;
_ocelli_ in a triangle on the vertex, which is flat; _antennæ_ shortish,
slender, filiform, subgeniculated; the _scape_ stouter than the
flagellum, subclavate, first joint of flagellum globose, the remainder
subequal; _face_ flat; _clypeus_ triangular, truncated at its base,
slightly rounded in front and convex; _labrum_ longitudinally oblong,
the sides parallel and concavo-convex; _mandibles_ dilated at the apex,
where they are quinque-dentate; the _alternate teeth_ smallest;
_cibarial apparatus_ long; _tongue_ very long, tapering to its
extremity; _paraglossæ_ very short, one-sixth the length of the tongue,
coadunate at the base and subhastate; _labial palpi_ more than half the
length of the tongue, the two first joints very long, the second the
longest, and both tapering to the acute extremity of this, where, just
before its apex, the third very short subclavate joint articulates with
the still shorter terminal joint conterminous with it; _labium_
one-third the length of the tongue, its inosculation with an acute
projection in the centre; _maxillæ_ as long as the tongue, subhastate
and acuminate; _maxillary palpi_ springing from a deep sinus at its
base, very short, two-jointed, the basal joint the shortest, and the
second obtuse one terminating with a few rigid setæ. THORAX subglobose;
_prothorax_ inconspicuous; _mesathorax_ slightly convex, wing-scales
large; _scutellum_ lunulate, projecting and impending over the
metathorax, which is truncated; _wings_ with two submarginal cells, and
a third indistinctly commenced, the second slightly the longest, and
receiving the two recurrent nervures one at each extremity; _legs_
moderate, subsetose, the tibiæ fimbriated along the edges, the anterior
_spurs_ slightly palmated; the _plantæ_ of the four anterior pairs
longer than their tibiæ, but those of the posterior not quite so long,
and all densely clothed all round with a brush of short close hair; the
_claws_ distinctly bifid. ABDOMEN semicircular, very convex; the base
truncated and hollowed to fit the metathorax; the _segments_ slightly
constricted, the _terminal segment_ transversely concave, and its apex
terminating in three slight angles; the _venter_, which is flat, is
densely clothed from the second segment with parallel layers of equal,
moderately long, shining hair, the segment being distinctly indicated by
these layers.

The MALE differs in being considerably larger; the _mandibles_ merely
tridentate; the _legs_ longer and more robust; the _tibiæ_ and _tarsi_
more densely fimbriated externally, and the tarsi relatively much
longer; the _abdomen_ densely edged laterally with short curled hair,
the terminal segment with three processes, the lateral ones strong and
curved internally, the central one shorter and straight, and the
penultimate segment transversely concave, with a strong tooth on each
side curved externally, and the venter glabrous beneath.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _manicatum_, Linnæus. 5-8 lines. (Plate XIII. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
       _manicatum_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The generic name in this instance seems to be manufactured from the root
_ἄνθος_, _a flower_. I cannot trace any other derivation as it may not
be attributed merely to the habits of the species in frequenting
flowers, for is not this the prime function of all the bees, wherein
they fulfil a most important office in the economy of nature? How easy
might it have been to regulate that flowers should fertilize themselves,
as many do without any extraneous intervention, but by this wise and
benevolent ordination a tribe of sensitive creatures is introduced to be
perpetuated by the perpetuation they supply to that which supports them,
and in this circle of reciprocal good offices lend an additional charm
to the genial seasons, by the animation which they give to the face of
nature, in embellishing the plants they visit with their vivacity and
music.

These bees are gay insects, for both sexes are richly spotted with
yellow, and they present the single instance which occurs amongst our
bees of the male being considerably the largest, and so boisterous is he
in his amours that he forcibly conveys his partner to the upper regions
of the air, where she is compelled to yield to his solicitations. His
whole structure is fully adapted to carry out this violent abduction, as
well in the length and power of his limbs as in the prehensile teeth
with which the apex of his abdomen is armed.

We have but one species of the genus, although the southern parts of the
Continent abound in them. The habits of ours differ very considerably
from those of the preceding genus. First, in the peculiarity just
described, and then in the formation of their nests. They do not, like
the majority of the wild bees, excavate or bore a cavity for themselves,
but take one already formed by the xylophagous larva of some
considerable insect, such as _Cerambyx moschatus_, or _Cossus
ligniperda_. This they line, to the depth suitable to them, with cottony
down which they scrape from the leaves or stalk of the Woolly
Hedge-nettle (_Stachys Germanica_), the Wild Lychnis (_Agrostemma_), and
other woolly-leaved plants. In collecting this wool the insect is very
active, scraping it off rapidly with its broad mandibles, and as this is
doing she gradually rolls it up into a little ball, making with the
vibration of her wings a considerable hum all the time she is gathering
it, and when the ball is sufficiently large she flies off with it to her
nidus; this operation she continues until sufficient is accumulated for
her purpose, which consists in lining the cavity with the material; she
then forms cells within it in succession, gluing the same material
together to resist the escape of the mixed store of pollen and honey she
intends to fill it with, having in the operation smoothed the sides of
the cell which is closed after the deposit of the egg, and another
similar cell is then proceeded with, and this is repeated until the
selected cavity is filled, or that she has exhausted her store. Having
completed her labours, she wanders away. Sometimes the cavity is large
and admits of the conjunction of many of these cells together; in that
case they are all collectively covered with the same envelope of downy
substance. The larva, having consumed its entire store of food, spins a
cocoon of brown silk wherein it remains throughout the winter, and with
the evolution of spring, feeling its propulsive energy, it changes into
the pupa. In June and July, but earlier if the weather be continuously
warm, the imago comes forth in its maturity, to live its little life of
labour intermingled with pleasure, and in its pleasing hum to give
cheerful notification of its perfect satisfaction.

                                -------

                   Genus 21. CHELOSTOMA, _Latreille_.
                       (Plate XIII. fig. 2, ♂♀.)
                    APIS ** _c_ 2 _γ_ partly, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY nearly glabrous and coarsely punctured. HEAD
subglobose, rather wider than the thorax; _ocelli_ in a triangle in the
centre of the vertex, which is broad and slightly convex; _antennæ_
short, subclavate, geniculated, the scape nearly one-half the length of
the flagellum and more robust; the first and second joint of the
flagellum subclavate, the basal one the longest and most robust, the
remainder short, subequal, and gradually enlarging to the apical one,
which is obtuse and as long as the basal joint; _face_ flat, slightly
convex between the insertion of the antennæ; _cheeks_ large and
protuberant; _clypeus_ concave, projecting, lobated in front, where it
is slightly emarginate in the centre; _labrum_ elongate at its
articulation, broader than beyond, and from this expansion immediately
and abruptly contracting, from the inner angles of the contraction
waving to about three-fourths its length, whence it is produced into an
equal truncated oblong; _mandibles_ bidentate, external tooth acute,
inner one obtuse; _cibarial apparatus_ long; the _tongue_ twice the
length of the labium, narrowest at its base and obtuse at the extremity,
and clothed with short setæ; _paraglossæ_ very short, coadunate at the
base and acuminate; _labial palpi_ two-thirds the length of the tongue,
with the three first joints membranous and flat, conterminous and
tapering to their extremity, the first joint about one-half the length
of the second, the third twice the length of the fourth, which is
clavate and articulated within the apex of the third; _maxillæ_
subhastate and acuminate, as long as the tongue; _maxillary palpi_ very
short, rather stout, the joints subequal and the terminal one acute.
THORAX oval, convex; _prothorax_ inconspicuous _wing-scales_ rather
large; _scutellum_ transversely quadrate, convex; _post-scutellum_
transverse, linear; _metathorax_ gradually declining, with a glabrous
triangular space at its base; _wings_ with two submarginal cells nearly
equal and a third commenced; the second receives both the recurrent
nervures, the first beyond its commencement and the second before its
termination; _legs_ shortish, subsetose, the anterior spurs short,
broad, and emarginate at the apex; the _posterior plantæ_ with a compact
dense brush within; _claw-joint_ long; _claws_ simple. ABDOMEN longer
than head and thorax, subclavate, convex above, retuse at the base, and
the apical segment obtuse at its extremity, the venter flat, its
segments clothed from the second with dense parallel brushes of longish
hair for the conveyance of pollen.

The MALE differs in having the _head_ less conspicuously globose; the
_cheeks_ less protuberant; the whole body more pilose, the anterior
_spurs_ robust, short, and abruptly obliquely truncated; the _antennæ_
slender, filiform, much longer than in the female, but not much longer
than the head, and from the fourth to the ninth joints serratulate
within, adapting it to a sharp curve; the _abdomen_ being equal,
cylindrical, retuse at its base, convex above, and flat on the venter,
where it has a longitudinal deeply concave mucro in the centre of the
second segment, which concavity runs along all the subsequent segments,
and it is densely pilose on the fourth; the terminal dorsal segment
being deeply emarginate in the centre and produced on each side into a
broad obtuse process; the _claws_ are more robust than in the female and
bidentate; the posterior pair being subclavate, and their single tooth
abruptly reflected.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _florisomne_, Linnæus, ♂♀. 3-5 lines. (Plate XIII. fig. 2 ♂♀.)
       _maxillosa_, Linnæus.
       _maxillosa_, Kirby.
    2. _campanularum_, Kirby, ♂♀. 2-2½ lines.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

These insects are named from _χηλὴ_, _a forceps_, and _στόμα_, _a
mouth_,—in allusion to the forcipate form of the mandibles, which are
strong, and cross each other in inaction.

They and the next genus are styled _carpenter bees_, but they are not
more consistently thus called than might be _Anthophora furcata_ and the
genus _Ceratina_; they, in fact, like the latter, just as often avail
themselves of an empty straw to form their cells in, or the cylinder
that has been drilled by some xylophagous beetle of their own size, as
they themselves drill into palings and solid wood for the purpose, but
when they do this, it is facilitated to them by their powerful mandibles
and their square and strong head. They are certainly very compactly
formed, their structure being indicative of great power, of course
relatively to their size. When they drill their cylinders themselves
they are extremely persevering in its execution, and in the process, the
material they extract, which is like fine sawdust, they withdraw from
the depth of the cavity by passing it beneath them, and pushing it out
at the orifice by means of their posterior legs and the apex of the
abdomen, for they are too long to be able to turn within the cavity they
have formed, its capacity not being sufficient to permit this, as it is
very little larger in diameter than themselves. I have repeatedly
watched them in these operations.

Having found or drilled a suitable cylindrical tube, they do nothing
further to it but collect a sufficient store of provender for the
nutriment of the young one, upon which they deposit the egg which is to
produce it. The insect then flies away to collect a small quantity of
clay intermingled with sand, and this they knead together by means of a
viscous secretion which they disgorge, and this forms a concrete that
hardens firmly and rapidly; to anticipate its rapid drying they speedily
fly back, carrying this small ball within their mandibles, and with it
they cover over the provision they have collected, and which, adhering
to the sides of the cavity, forms a firm and hard division, effectually
separating it from the next store of provision that is to be accumulated
for the supply of the larva that will be hatched from the egg that is to
be deposited, and the same process is repeated again and again until all
the eggs are laid. In their development, which takes place near
midsummer, the males precede the females by about ten days. They
associate sometimes in colonies, often using the tubes of the straw
thatch which covers cottages for their nidus.

These bees are subject to the parasitical intrusion of _Fœnus jaculator_
and _assectator_, which I have repeatedly caught at Battersea, hovering
opposite the cells of these insects bored in the shingles forming the
enclosure of an old garden outhouse. These parasites are themselves
peculiar creatures, forming a type distinct from the Ichneumons, and
belonging to the group _Aulacus_, upon which see my paper in the
‘Entomologist,’ June, 1841. In these insects, the abdomen springs from
immediately beneath the scutellum. _Chrysis cyanea_ and _ignita_ are
also bred at the expense of these bees, neither of the species of which
are uncommon; the smaller one, the _C. campanularum_, which is the
smallest of our true bees, excepting perhaps one or two of the _Nomadæ_,
I used to find in abundance upon the railings of the fields that skirt
Hampstead Heath, on the right-hand going from London, parallel with the
Vale of Health, and thence rising to the Holly enclosure of the Earl of
Mansfield’s mansion. This spot has been productive to me of many very
choice aculeate _Hymenoptera_, and supplied me with them in abundance at
a time when even the chief metropolitan collections were bare of them.
It has also furnished me with several very desirable _Diptera_ of
extremely rare genera. The male of the larger species of this genus
Linnæus called _florisomne_, from its habit of curling up its abdomen
and antennæ, and passing the night in flowers. Those which they chiefly
frequent are the species of Wallflower, and the _Campanula_, especially
the round-leaved Throatwort.

                                -------

                     Genus 22. HERIADES, _Spinola_.
                        (Plate XIII. fig. 3 ♂♀.)
                     APIS ** c 2 _γ_ partly, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY glabrous and much punctured. HEAD globose and curving
to the thorax posteriorly; _ocelli_ in a triangle far forward on the
vertex; _antennæ_ slightly subclavate, the scape not half so long as the
flagellum, the first joint of which is robust, subclavate, and twice the
length of the second, which, with the rest, are subequal, very slightly
lengthening to the terminal one, which is as long as the basal one and
laterally compressed; _face_ slightly convex, cheeks large and convex;
_clypeus_ lunulate, convex, and with two minute central teeth on its
front margin; _labrum_ longitudinally oblong, rather broadest at the
base and slightly waved laterally, concavo-convex and subemarginate at
the apex; _mandibles_ subequal, tridentate at the apex, and the central
tooth obtuse; _cibarial apparatus_ moderately long, _tongue_ twice the
length of the labium, with a small knob at its apex; _paraglossæ_ very
short, almost obsolete, coadunate at the base; _labial palpi_ two-thirds
the length of the tongue, the two first joints membranous and long, the
first one-third the length of the second, which tapers to its acute
extremity, before the end of which the two terminal, subclavate, very
short, subequal joints are inserted; _labium_ half the length of the
tongue, slightly produced in the centre of its inosculation; _maxillæ_
subhastate, two-thirds the length of the tongue; _maxillary palpi_
three-jointed, short, robust, equal, and collectively subfusiform, the
terminal one rather acute. THORAX globose; _prothorax_ inconspicuous;
_scutellum_ lunulate; _post-scutellum_ linear, transverse; _metathorax_
declining; _wings_ with two submarginal cells, and the commencement of a
third indicated, the second larger than the first, subtriangular, and
receiving both the recurrent nervures, one at each of its extremities;
_legs_ short, rather robust, subsetose and spinulose; _posterior tibiæ_
convex externally and with their plantæ rugose, the latter covered
beneath with a dense brush of short hair; _claws_ simple. ABDOMEN
cylindrical, convex above, retuse at the base, and the first and second
segments slightly constricted at their extremity, obtuse, and from the
end of the third segment sensibly declining to the apex; plane on the
venter, where, from the second segment, the plate of each, excepting the
glabrous terminal one, is covered with a dense brush of short hair for
the conveyance of pollen.

The MALE differs in the _antennæ_ being rather longer, more distinctly
filiform, the seventh segment of the _abdomen_ concealed under the
extremity of the sixth, and the _venter_ from the third segment
longitudinally deeply concave, the plate of the third itself covered
with hair; the _claws_ more robust and each equally bifid, not
bidentate.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _truncorum_, Linnæus, ♂♀.  3-3½ lines. (Plate XIII. fig. 3 ♂♀.)
       _truncorum_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The names of insects are not always very aptly given, for the only
available derivation of this appears to be from _ἔπιον_, _wool_; in
allusion to the clothing of its venter; but, if so, it should be spelt
without the H, for the first letter is without an aspiration. The habits
of these closely resemble those of the preceding genus, to which they
have a great personal likeness, and therefore their natural history
would be but its reiteration. Our solitary species is a rare insect, but
I expect western England would produce it. It is like those of the
preceding genus, of a uniform black colour, punctured, but it
approximates more closely than they do to the type of form exhibited in
the genus _Osmia_. They visit the same flowers as the preceding genus.

                                -------

                  Genus 23. ANTHOCOPA, _St. Fargeau_.
                        (Plate XIV. fig. 2 ♂♀.)

_Gen. Char._: BODY glabrous, subpubescent, shining. HEAD subglobose, as
wide as the thorax; _ocelli_ placed in a slight curve on the summit of
the vertex; _antennæ_ short, geniculated, the _flagellum_ subclavate
seen in front, but seen from above, owing to the compression of the
terminal joint, subfusiform, the first joint of the flagellum globose,
rather robust, the second short, subclavate and subequal with the rest,
which increase gradually in length and substance to the terminal one,
which is the longest, and laterally compressed; _face_ flattish;
_clypeus_ subquadrate, very convex and very pubescent; “_labrum_ oblong,
quadrate; _mandibles_ strong, tridentate; _labium_ (tongue) long,
filiform; _labial palpi_ having the third joint articulated externally
on the outer side of the second; _maxillary palpi_ four-jointed.” THORAX
globose; _scutellum_ lunate; _post-scutellum_ transverse, linear;
_metathorax_ rounded; _wings_ with two submarginal cells and the
commencement of a third just indicated, the second very slightly larger
than the first, and receiving both the recurrent nervures, the first
just beyond its commencement and the second close to its termination;
_legs_ short, rather robust, subsetose; the _posterior tibiæ_ externally
convex and the _posterior plantæ_ with a dense, short brush beneath; the
_claws_ simple. ABDOMEN cylindrical, retuse at the base, convex above,
declining from the base of the fourth segment to the extremity, the
first and second segments very slightly constricted, the margin of the
posterior one, at the apex, slightly crenulated, the ventral segments
plane and from the second covered with a dense brush of parallel hair,
excepting the sixth, which is reflected laterally and longitudinally,
convex down the centre.

The MALE differs in having “the sixth segment of the _abdomen_
emarginate, and with a strong tooth on each side; the terminal segment
emarginate, thus producing two strong, lateral, obtuse teeth, the
ventral plates of these same segments emarginate at the extremity, and
the emargination fringed with hair; the claws bifid.”


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _papaveris_, Latreille. (Plate XIV. fig. 2 ♂♀.)


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Named by St. Fargeau from _ανθος_, a _flower_, and _κοπὴ_, a _cutting_
or _incision_, from its habit of cutting sections out of the petals of
the common scarlet poppy with which to line the cells it forms within
the cylinder it excavates, just as _Megachile_ does with the leaves of
various plants. It is noticed as British upon the faith of the specimens
introduced by Leach into the cabinets of the British Museum and
presumptively caught in the west or south-west of England, a region rich
in rarities. Rennie in fact tells us that he has found it at Largs, in
Scotland. One of Leach’s specimens I received in exchange from that
establishment in 1842, and which is now in the possession of Mr.
Desvignes, to whom my collections passed in the following year. This
genus forms a sort of combination between the genera _Megachile_ and
_Osmia_, it having the upholstering habits of the former in the mode
with which it lines its nest, and the general habit of the latter. At a
first glance, before its habits were known or its structure examined,
even an experienced entomologist might have placed it under _Osmia_, as
an unrecognised species, for it very strongly resembles the _Osmia
leucomelana_. This proves how very inconclusive habit is as an index to
habits, the latter of these insects drilling into the pith of brambles,
and the _Anthocopa_ tunnelling cylinders into the hardest trodden roads
or pathways and lining them with its crimson hangings.

From the extreme rarity of the insect, I have been unable to examine the
cibarial apparatus, and thence to ascertain upon what substantial
grounds the generic distinctions are based, which separate it from
_Osmia_. Whether it was these mere habits of the insect which induced Le
Pelletier de St. Fargeau to establish the genus I do not know, but he is
always extremely slovenly, and therefore very unsatisfactory in his
characteristics, which are never framed in a strictly explicit manner.
In consequence of all these difficulties, I have merely been able under
the generic character to introduce such as he has given, which I could
not derive from the personal external inspection of Mr. Desvignes’
female (my own selection of whose bees for the purposes of this work he
has been so kind as to lend me, and whom I thus publicly present with my
best thanks). I have therefore compounded a character as well as I could
from St. Fargeau’s descriptions, inserted in the tenth volume of the
‘_Encyclopédie Méthodique_,’ and from his work on the _Hymenoptera_,
forming one of the ‘_Suites à Buffon_.’

The habits of these bees, as said above, are to excavate vertical
cylinders in hard down-trodden pathways and roads, by the sides of
fields where corn is grown, and where consequently the common red poppy
is abundant. From the petals of the flowers of this plant they cut out
semicircular pieces, precisely as is done by _Megachile_ with the more
rigid leaves of shrubs and trees, and convey them home and line their
nests with them, just as is practised by that genus with those
leaves,—with this difference merely, that a sufficient portion of the
upper edge of the pieces of the petals used is left projecting, for the
purpose of forming a covercle to the nidus, and which, when filled with
provender and the egg deposited, is refolded over it and covered in, and
it is closed up with earth. They then proceed to make another
excavation, which is treated in the same manner, for they deposit only
one larva in a tube. If disturbed in their retreat, they will show
themselves at its mouth, like _Dasypoda_, to see what is the matter.

I would urge our collecting entomologists, especially those who have the
opportunity of hunting up the west of England, to use due diligence and
strive to confirm the native existence of this bee and add specimens to
the cabinets of their fellow-entomologists.

                                -------

                     Genus 24. OSMIA, _Latreille_.
                     (Plate XIV. figs. 1 and 3 ♂♀.)
                       APIS ** _c_ 2 _δ_, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: HEAD subglobose, concave, posteriorly fitting the
prothorax and about as wide as the thorax; _ocelli_ placed far forward
on the vertex, which is wide and convex, in a curved line; _antennæ_
filiform, sometimes subclavate, short, and geniculated, the _scape_
robust, as long as the four following joints, the basal joint of the
_flagellum_ globose, its second joint clavate and as long as the
terminal one, the remainder short, subequal, and gradually but slightly
increasing in length; the _face_ flattish; the _clypeus_ a truncated
triangle, convex; _labrum_ longitudinally oblong, a little laterally
distended at the articulation, from whence the sides are parallel;
_mandibles_ broad at the apex, obscurely tridentate, the internal teeth
obtuse and short; _cibarial apparatus_ long; the _tongue_ three times
the length of the labium, clothed with short hair and tapering from the
base to the acute apex; _paraglossæ_ very short, coadunate at the base
and acuminate at the apex; _labial palpi_ more than half the length of
the tongue, the two first joints membranous and long, the basal one the
broadest, seated on a petiole and not so long as the second, which
tapers to an acute point, before the apex of which the remaining two
short subclavate conterminous joints articulate; _labium_ about
one-third the length of the tongue, acutely produced in the centre of
its inosculation; _maxillæ_ as long as the tongue, subhastate and
acuminate; _maxillary palpi_ four-jointed, rather short, the joints
subequal and subclavate, but the second is both the most robust and
slightly the longest. THORAX oval or globose; _prothorax_ inconspicuous;
_scutellum_ lunulate and convex; _post-scutellum_ transverse and linear;
the _metathorax_ abruptly truncated; _wings_ with two submarginal cells,
and a third distinctly commenced, the second the longest, and receiving
both the recurrent nervures, the first towards its centre and the second
near its termination; _legs_ moderate, setose, the plantæ of all with a
dense brush beneath; _claw-joint_ longer than the three preceding;
_claws_ simple. ABDOMEN short, cylindrical, convex, the terminal segment
slightly pointed, the ventral segments densely pilose in parallel lines
from the second.

The MALE differs in having the _antennæ_ longer and always filiform, the
ventral segments very concave, and the terminal dorsal segment variously
mucronated, tuberculated, spinose or serrated, and the claws bifid.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

     1. _leucomelana_, Kirby, ♂♀. 3-4½ lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 3 ♂♀.)
     2. _spinulosa_, Kirby, ♂♀. 3-4 lines.
     3. _pilicornis_, Bainbridge, MS., ♂♀. 4-4½ lines.
     4. _bicolor_, Schrank, ♂♀. 4-5 lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 1 ♂♀.)
     5. _fulviventris_, Panzer, ♂♀. 4-5 lines.
        _Leaiana_, Kirby.
     6. _ænea_, Linnæus, ♂♀.  3-4½ lines.
        _cærulescens_, Linnæus, ♀.
        _cærulescens_, Kirby, ♀.
     7. _parietina_, Curtis, [V. 222.] ♂♀. 3-4 lines.
     8. _xanthomelana_, Kirby, ♂♀.  4-7 lines.
        _atricapilla_, Curtis, [V. 222.] ♀.
     9. _aurulenta_, Panzer, ♂♀. 4-6 lines.
        _tunensis_, Kirby.
    10. _rufa_, Linnæus, ♂♀. 3-6 lines.
        _bicornis_, Linnæus.
        _bicornis_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Named from _ὀσμὴ_, _sweet-scent_, from some fancied idea of their
possessing the property of emitting a sweet odour; but this, although it
is the case with many of the bees,—for instance, with the genera
_Prosopis_, _Halictus_, _Nomada_, some of the _Anthophoræ_, _Saropoda_,
and the male _Bombi_ and _Apathi_,—I have not noticed in any of this
subsection, the _Dasygasters_, and therefore not in any of the present
genus. It is possible that when richly laden with pollen, this may emit
some smell, but I am not aware that any of the scent of flowers lies in
the anthers or their pollen, although this in some cases has a spermatic
odour pointing to its express function; but be this as it may, such is
their name. These as a group are what are called the ‘Mason Bees,’ from
the habit they have of agglutinating particles of sand or earth mixed
with minute pebbles, scarcely larger than grains of sand, or raspings of
wood combined in the same manner, with a secretion which they emit, and
of which they form their cells. The instinct of the creature prompts it
to be speedy in the operation, as the material, like plaster of Paris,
dries very rapidly to a hard substance. Whether they have the power of
softening the edges as the manufacture of the cell proceeds is not
known, nor whether, as they add the material, it instantaneously
consolidates itself, but the colour of the structures themselves would
indicate a simultaneous mixture. This could not be the case, if the
mortar or mixture were formed away from the domicile and brought home in
little pellets, each being added upon the insects’ arrival, although
they obtain it all from the same spot, whence arises its uniformity in
colour, and they are speedy in the formation of their nests. These cells
are rather rough externally, according to the nature of the material of
which they are composed, but they are very smooth within. The nature of
the cells varies with the places of their deposit, which is dependent
upon the idiosyncrasy of the species. Thus, those which construct their
cells in wood, form them of moistened particles of wood, and those which
make them in cavities of any kind, in the earth, beneath stones, or
within empty snail-shells, make a mortar of earth and sand and small
pebbles. Some are strictly uniform in the selection of the material
wherein they build, but others are perfectly indifferent to its
locality, and adopt either earth or wood, and sometimes the mortar of
walls, sandbanks or chalk cliffs. According to the nature or the size of
the receptacle which they select, is the adjustment of these cells.
Where the cavity is restricted they place them end to end, but where it
is more roomy they affix them side to side, completely adapting
themselves to the circumstances of the locality as I shall instance
below, in the description of the special habits of the more conspicuous
species. I have elsewhere referred to the metallic colouring of many of
the species of this genus, and amongst them is found the greatest sexual
disparity of personal appearance, the _O. leucomelana_, and one or two
of the neighbouring species being, perhaps, the only ones wherein
uniformity of appearance would unite the partners together. The majority
are very pubescent insects, and the females of the terminal species in
the foregoing list are remarkable for a couple of inwardly curved horns,
springing from the base of the clypeus just below the insertion of the
antennæ, an appendage usually a male attribute.

There is very great dissimilarity in the habits of the various species,
whence no single characteristic will embrace them, nor is there any
distinctive feature whereby the genus might bear subdivision, either
from habits or habit, as will be collected from the following cursory
survey of their special natural history.

Thus the first species, the _O. leucomelana_, named so from the white
decumbent down which edges the black segments of the abdomen, extracts
the pith from bramble sticks, and its cells are formed and closed with a
composition made of triturated wood or leaves. The cylinders it forms
are usually about five inches deep, and within this it constructs about
the same number of cells proportionate to the small size of the insect.
These are midsummer insects, coming forth in June and July; they are
very local, but seem to abound in the vicinity of Bristol, whence Mr.
Thwaites formerly sent me specimens. A very few days serve for the
hatching of the larva, which spins a slight silken cocoon, and in this
dormitory it reposes until its season again comes round. Under the
influence of the following first genial spring weather, the larva is
transmuted into the pupa, and the active little imago comes forth upon
the settlement of our variable spring, in the merry days of June, and
thus is perpetuated the circle of its existence, but which is sometimes
abridged by its special parasite, the pretty little _Stelis
octomaculata_. Many of the species in the males are distinguished by a
peculiar armature of the apex of the abdomen; the second being named by
Kirby from the circumstance. A very remarkable singularity distinguishes
the males of the third species, in the fringe of short hair that runs
along the flagellum of its antennæ. This, I believe, was first noticed
by the late Mr. Bainbridge, a very active practical entomologist, who
took the insect at Darenth or Birchwood, and distributed specimens with
this manuscript name attached, which has since been appropriated by
another entomologist to whom the science was wholly unknown at that
time, but as it is scarcely consistent with scientific courtesy to adopt
such a course, and as the MS. names of Linnæus and Kirby have been
retained, where it was authorized by their being attached to undescribed
species, I have restored to Mr. Bainbridge his just rights, and have
claimed the same for myself, in the case of _Andrena longipes_, and
which many cabinets must still possess with my name attached, in my own
writing, unless their possessors have chosen to adopt the illegitimate
parentage; for the entomologists of my own standing well know that I
always freely distributed specimens to all who desired them of the many
very desirable insects which I have captured in the course of my
entomological career. The fourth and the ninth species, the _O. bicolor_
and _O. aurulenta_, have very much the same habits, both usually
burrowing in sandbanks, sometimes however in wood, in which case the
perforation, contrary to the mode of wood-drilling bees, is made
upwards, a sagacity or instinct which saves it much trouble, for the
particles as they are removed by the mandibles are passed beneath the
insect, and their own gravity carries them downwards, and thus the
insect saves itself the labour of conveying them out as they accumulate
in inconvenient quantities. The cells in this case are placed end to
end. When they burrow in the earth, the latter species often associate
gregariously in large numbers, and if they select a cavity, instead of
tunnelling it themselves, and it be too large to take one cell upon the
others, they form them side by side, and thus fill the space. This is
the case when they adopt snail-shells as the receptacle for their
incunabula, and this is done by both these species, and the shells they
select are the empty ones of _Helix nemoralis_, _hortensis_, and
_adspersa_. The capacity of the latter shell being much greater than
that of the others, and too wide for a single succession, she fills the
interval by placing them side by side, and with the increase of the
whorl of the shell towards its orifice she places them across the space,
and thus completes her task. In the former shells, the cavity at first
admits of the succession of but one upon the other, but with its
enlargement she places them side by side, and this repeated fills the
hollow. Its aperture is then closed with earth and pebbles or sticks
agglutinated together, as described at the commencement. The _O.
fulviventris_ burrows in wood, and upon this species the _Stelis
phæoptera_ is parasitical; and that very pretty but extremely common
species the _O. ænea_, in which the male is of a rich bronzy tint, and
the female of a beautiful blue, verging sometimes to nearly black,
burrows also in wood, although sometimes it capriciously selects old
walls or chalk-cliffs, and is subject to the incursions of the same
parasite. Perhaps the most extraordinary species is the _O. parietina_,
figured and named by Curtis, and which he first found at Ambleside; it
has since been found in the Grampians very considerably above the level
of the sea, and it is thus essentially a northern species both from
altitude and locality. It would appear that this species selects some
flat stone of about a foot in surface, lying upon the ground over a
hollow spot. Such a specimen, sent to the British Museum, had attached
to its under side two hundred and thirty cocoons, indicative of a
considerable colony, or perhaps the accumulation of successive years, as
one-third of these cocoons were empty of tenants. These, in their new
depository, continued developing themselves in the perfect state between
March and June, males appearing first. When the transformations of the
season ceased, five-and-thirty were still left to present themselves
another year, and the following spring these were developed; thus,
including those which had already escaped when the stone and its
treasure was secured, three successive seasons were occupied in their
transmutations. It may be a species that requires three years for its
metamorphosis, and the whole deposit of cocoons may have been the result
of three years’ accumulative structure, the vital activity of their
northern life being perhaps more sluggish than in species frequenting
the south. The last species the _O. rufa_, that in which the female is
remarkable for its inverted horns, which must be for some use in its
economy, is perhaps the most common of all. I have found it in abundance
upon old walls with a sunny aspect at Erith, and throughout the pleasant
Crays of Kent. It is indifferent as to the choice of its domicile,
selecting either walls, where I have chiefly found them, sandbanks, or
the decaying stumps of pollard-willows. Its processes are similar to
those of some of the earlier described, but its larva is longer in full
feeding, which, when it has consumed all its provender spins a tough
cocoon of brown silk, wherein it undergoes its changes; some, depending
much upon locality, pass into pupæ in the autumn, others hibernate as
larvæ which are subject to destruction from the attacks of the
_Chalcideous_ insect, _Monodontomerus dentipes_, previously noticed
under _Anthophora_. Some of the _Chrysididæ_ also infest several of the
species of this genus, and I have no doubt that _Stelis aterrima_ is
parasitical upon one of them, although it has not been recorded. The
various species frequent many flowers, especially those abundant in the
locality they inhabit, but the _O. pilicornis_ chiefly affects the
common Bugle (_Ajuga reptans_), and they much frequent composite
flowers, especially the species of the genus _Hieracium_.

                                -------

           Section 2. _Cenobites_ (_dwellers in community_).
                         Subsection 1. SPURRED.
                            † _Parasitical._
                      Genus 25. APATHUS, _Newman_.
                      (Plate XIV. figs. 1 and 2.)
          APIS ** _e_ 2 partly, Kirby.—PSITHYRUS, St. Fargeau.

_Gen. Char._: BODY subhirsute. HEAD subglobose; _vertex_ broad,
glabrous, with a deeply impressed cross upon its summit, in the centre
of which the ocelli are placed in an almost straight line and
contiguously; _antennæ_ short, filiform, geniculated, the _scape_
slightly curved, the basal joint of the _flagellum_ subglobose, its
second joint as long as the terminal one and subclavate, the rest short,
subequal, but gradually increasing in length to the terminal one, which
is laterally compressed; the _face_ flat; _clypeus_ transversely lunate
but straight in front; _labrum_ lunulate, tuberculated laterally;
_mandibles_ broad and obscurely bidentate; _cibarial apparatus_
moderate; _tongue_ twice the length of the labium, tapering from base to
apex, where it terminates in a small knob, and is clothed with short
hair; _paraglossæ_ obsolete; _labial palpi_ as long as the tongue, the
two first joints long and membranous and tapering to the apex of the
second, which is acute, and about one-fourth the length of the first, it
has the two very short, subclavate, terminal joints, which are
conterminous, and articulated just before its acute apex; _maxillæ_
subhastate and acuminate; _maxillary palpi_ very short, linear, and
equal. THORAX globose, pubescent, concealing its divisions; _metathorax_
truncated; _wings_ with three submarginal cells nearly equal, or the
third the largest, the second receiving the first recurrent nervure at
about one-third its length, and the second is received by the third
submarginal cell near its extremity; _legs_ setose; the _posterior
tibiæ_ convex, very slightly enlarging from base to apex, rounded at the
extremity externally, and unfurnished with means to convey pollen;
_posterior plantæ_ oblong, narrowly equal, and not auriculated; _claws_
bifid. ABDOMEN ovate, convex above, deflecting toward its extremity, and
subglabrous on the disk, the terminal dorsal segment triangular, and its
ventral plate straight at its apex with the lateral angles reflected,
making it concave beneath and subcarinated longitudinally in the centre,
or also triangular and the sides of the prominent angle deflected.

The MALE differs in having the antennæ slightly longer, in being rather
more pubescent, more highly and rather differently coloured, and its
terminal segment merely rounded.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    3. _campestris_, Panzer, ♂ ♀. 6-9 lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 2. The
       fig. marked ♂ by mistake for ♀.)
       _campestris_, Kirby, ♀.
       _Rossiella_, Kirby, ♂.
       _Leeana_, Kirby.
       _Franciscana_, Kirby.
       _subterranea_, Kirby.
    2. _Barbutellus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀. 6-9 lines.
    3. _vestalis_, Fourcroy, ♂ ♀. 6-10 lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 2 ♀.)
       _vestalis_, Kirby, ♀.
    4. _rupestris_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀. 6-10 lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 1 ♂ ♀.)
       _albinella_, Kirby, ♂.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

Named from _α_, privative, _πάθος_, _affection_; that is to say, without
affection, from their habit of leaving their young to be nurtured by
others, in allusion to their parasitical instincts, for the young of
these bees are brought up in the nests of the _Bombi_. They form the
only instance in bee-parasitism of the parasite closely, or nearly so,
resembling its sitos, if not always in colour, certainly in habit.
Having no labours to undergo they consist of merely males and females,
but the latter, although very like the large female _Bombi_, are much
less pubescent than these, for they have a broad disk, upon the upper
surface of the abdomen, always smooth and shining. Both sexes appear to
have free in- and egress to the nests of those _Bombi_ which they
infest, without any let or hindrance on the part of the latter, with
whom they seem to dwell in perfect amity. In the times of their
appearance they closely resemble the _Halicti_ and the neighbouring
_Bombi_. Thus the females, after impregnation in the autumn, having
hibernated during the winter in selected receptacles, come out with the
first gleams of spring conjunctively with the large maternal _Bombi_, in
whose nests they have taken their long repose in perfect torpidity; and
as soon as these begin to accumulate the masses of conglomerated honey
and pollen whereon to deposit their eggs, the parasite takes advantage
of it, lays her eggs too, and thus secures food for her offspring. There
being two broods of them in the year, many are gradually developed with
the advance of summer, but the great hatching takes place in the autumn,
when the thistles are in blossom. Then both males and females come forth
in abundance, the latter are made fertile, and their partners enjoy the
brief interval of the still blossoming flowers until the usual period is
put to their existence by natural decay, the first frosts, or the
rapacity of insectivorous birds. Connected with this last circumstance I
have a personal experience to record, and which its repetition would
indicate as being one of Nature’s prompting acts. A lofty sandy level,
very near the high-road which leads at the upper part of Hampstead
Heath, to Highgate, from which road it was separated by merely a band of
whins and coarse grass, used to be a very favourite collecting place of
mine, for there, and in its immediate vicinity, I have often caught,
within a very brief period, more than half the genera, and a very large
number of the species of the fossorial _Hymenoptera_. One particular
little spot was inhabited by _Psen equestris_, rare everywhere else, and
our largest _Cerceris_, who carried on their instinctive pursuits during
all the summer months, but at a particular time in the autumn, varying
slightly with the nature of the season, a flock of wagtails
(_Motacilla_) would alight and make brief work of those fossores which
were still aflight; and this was repeated season after season, as if the
wagtails thought it was time that their own rapacity should stop the
course of these predacious insects. But to return, the female _Apathi_
then resort to the nests of the _Bombi_ whence they have issued, and lay
themselves up in their winter dormitory. That this must take place
speedily after impregnation is rendered almost conclusive by the fine
state in which their pubescence appears in the spring, which would be
tarnished did they loiter about visiting flowers previous to their
return home. But the labours of the female and neuter _Bombi_ themselves
are now over, and they would therefore find no store whereon to deposit
their eggs. The parasitical allocation of these insects is as follows.
_Apathus rupestris_ infests _Bombus lapidarius_; _A. vestalis_ the _B.
terrestris_, and this forms an instance in which the parasite is not
clothed in the colours of its sitos. But _A. Barbutellus_ has a wide
range, for it frequents the nests of _B. pratorum_, _B. Derhamellus_,
and _B. Skrimshiranus_.

             †† _Not parasitical._ _Collectors of pollen._
                        ‡ _Temporarily social._
                     Genus 26. BOMBUS, _Latreille_.
       (Plate XIV. figs. 3 and 4, and Plate XVI. figs. 1, 2, 3.)
                         APIS **  _e_ 2, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._: BODY densely hirsute. HEAD small, subglobose, not so wide
as the thorax; the _vertex_ glabrous, with a longitudinal, short, deep
channel, crossed in its centre by a deeper transverse one, wherein the
_ocelli_ are disposed in a very slightly-curved line; _antennæ_ short,
geniculated, and filiform; the _scape_ half as long as the flagellum,
the first joint of which is globose, the second subclavate, the rest
short and subequal, and the terminal one compressed laterally; _face_
flat, densely pubescent; _clypeus_ subtriangular, gibbous, its base
truncated, and apex convexly lobated, or straight and margined; _labrum_
lunulate; _mandibles_ broad at the base, and obscurely tridentate;
_cibarial apparatus_ moderate; _tongue_ twice the length of the labium,
clothed with pubescence to within a brief distance of its apex, and
terminating in a small knob; _paraglossæ_ about one-fourth the length of
the tongue, coadunate at the base, and acuminate; _labial palpi_
three-fourths the length of the tongue, broad at the base, and tapering
to the extremity of the acute apex of the second joint, which is about
one-fifth the length of the first, the two terminal joints very short
and articulated laterally just before the end of the second; _labium_
one-half the length of the tongue, broadest at its base, and acutely
produced in the centre of its inosculation; _maxillæ_ as long as the
tongue, subhastate and acuminate; _maxillary palpi_ two-jointed, short,
sometimes equal, and slightly robust, or with the basal joint very
robust, and its terminal joint twice as long and linear. THORAX globose,
very hirsute, whence its divisions are inconspicuous; _scutellum_
lunate; _metathorax_ truncated; _wings_ with three submarginal cells
subequal, or the third the longest, and a fourth slightly commenced, the
second receiving the first recurrent nervure near its centre, and the
third receiving the second recurrent nervure close to its extremity;
_legs_ robust, pilose, the four anterior plantæ with a dense, short,
setose brush beneath; the _posterior tibiæ_ triangular, very smooth, and
irregularly concave on their external surface, fringed with long pile
along its two external edges, and its extremity tipped with a short
pecten of stiff setæ; the _plantæ_ elongate and broad, nearly equal,
externally shagreened and spinulose, with a longish auriculated process
at the external angle of the superior edge, a dense brush of short,
stiff hair beneath, and a short pecten of stiff setæ edging its
subemarginate extremity; the _claw-joint_ the longest of the four short
subsequent joints, and the _claws_ bifid. ABDOMEN ovate or globose,
deflected towards its extremity, its base retuse, the last segment
triangular, and terminating obtusely.

The MALE differs in always being more intensely coloured; in having the
_antennæ_ distinctly longer, less distinctly geniculated, the _scape_
shorter, the third joint of the _flagellum_ almost as short as its basal
joint, and the fourth as long as the terminal one, which latter two are
the longest of all, and the joints from the fourth to the eleventh
severally more or less slightly curved.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

     1. _lapidarius_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 6-10 lines.
        _lapidarius_, Kirby.
     2. _Harrisellus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 6-10 lines. (Plate XVI. fig. 1 ♀.)
     3. _subterraneus_, Linnæus. ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-10 lines.
        _Soroensis_, Kirby?
     4. _Latreillellus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-8 lines.
        _Tunstallana_, Kirby.
     5. _hortorum_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-10 lines.
        _hortorum_, Kirby.
     6. _Soroensis_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-8 lines. (Plate XV. fig. 4 ♂.)
        _Cullumana_, Kirby, ♂.
     7. _lucorum_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-9 lines.
        _lucorum_, Kirby.
        _virginalis_, Kirby.
     8. _terrestris_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 7-11 lines.
        _terrestris_, Kirby.
     9. _Skrimshiranus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-8 lines.
        _Jonella_, Kirby.
    10. _nivalis_, Dahlbom, ♂ ♀. 6-8 lines.
    11. _pratorum_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 4-8 lines.
        _pratorum_, Kirby.
        _subinterrupta_, Kirby.
        _Donovanella_, Kirby.
        _Burrellana_, Kirby.
    12. _Derhamellus_, Kirby, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 4-8 lines.
        _Raiella_, Kirby, ♀.
    13. _Lapponicus_, Fabricius, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-9 lines.
        _regelationis_, Newman.
    14. _fragrans_, Pallas, ♂ ♀ ⚲. 5-10 lines. (Plate XIV. fig. 3 ♀.)
        _fragrans_, Kirby.
    15. _sylvarum_, Linnæus, ♂ ♀ ⚲.  6-8 lines. (Plate XVI. fig. 3 ♀.)
        _sylvarum_, Kirby.
    16. _Smithianus_, White, ♂♀⚲. 4-10 line
    17. _senilis_, Fabricius, ♂♀⚲. 6-9 lines.
        _muscorum_, Kirby.
    18. _muscorum_, Linnæus, ♂♀⚲. 4-9 lines.
        _Francillonana_, Kirby.
        _floralis_, Kirby.
        _Sowerbiana_, Kirby.
        _Beckwithella_, Kirby.
        _Curtisella_, Kirby.
        _Forsterella_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

These, perhaps the most conspicuous of our native bees, certainly the
largest, and probably the most generally known after the domestic bee,
have their scientific generic name from _βόμβος_, an imitative word,
made to indicate the sound of the hum of the insects themselves. They
have many popular names such as bumble bees, dumbledors, humble-bees,
and in Scotland they are called foggie bees. They consist of three
sexes, males, females, and neuters, which differ considerably in size,
the females being very much the largest, and the neuters the smallest.
Of course, individually, like all other insects, there is much variation
among them in the intensity or diversity of the colouring of their
pubescence, from which it is chiefly that they derive their specific
distinctions; in the relative sizes of individuals also there are great
differences. It is the males, as is usual among the bees, which are the
gayest in their attire, and take the widest range of variation, and
sometimes so much exceed the typical specific character in their
markings as to require experience to identify them, and to place them
correctly with their true species, which can only be ascertained with
certainty by the examination of the male organs of generation, which
differ in the various species, but are undeviating in their specific
uniformity. Of this character, which I was the first to discover as
being of specific value for critical determination in the separation of
the species of very difficult insects, I was enabled to make important
use in the genus _Dorylus_, in a monograph on the _Dorylidæ_, an exotic
family proximate to the ants, and which was published in Taylor’s
‘Annals of Natural History’ for May, June, and July, 1840. The females
and neuters of _Bombus_ are less subject to such extensive
dissimilarity, and may be usually associated, by their pubescence, in
their legitimate groups. Form also frequently lends its aid as
subsidiary to their specific identification.

These and _Apis mellifica_ are our only social bees, which live in
numerous communities under a kind of municipal government which is
considerably less perfectly organized in the present genus than in the
domestic bee, and thence they are called “villagers,” in
contradistinction to the citizenship of the hive bee, earned by its
comparatively metropolitan institutions, and the centralization of its
government, which wholly emanates from the pervading influence of the
queen upon the labours, and, indeed, upon the existence of her subjects.
But the _Bombi_ are under much less social restraint, and admit of
several co-regents in the same community, without its being productive
of any disturbance of social harmony. In the account of the genus
_Apathus_, the last described, we have seen that the _Bombi_ are subject
to bee-parasites, which in some closely resemble the species they
infest, and we have also shown there how these are distributed. The hive
bee is not exposed to such intrusion, although, like these, they have
many enemies. In the very earliest spring months these _Bombi_ are
abroad; for as soon as the catkins of the sallow are ripe for
impregnation, they are on the wing. But it is now that the large females
only are at work, for they have to create their companions before they
can be surrounded by them. Their fruition is the result of the previous
autumn’s amours, at a period too late to form sufficient stores for the
numerous brood they will produce, and accordingly, after revelling in a
brief honeymoon, they resort, like staid matrons, to a temporary
domicile, some cavity just large enough for themselves. In this
retirement they pass the cheerless wintry months, requiring perhaps the
incubation of time thoroughly to mature their fruit. Whether this be the
case or not, as soon as the earth begins to feel the warmth of the sun
upon its return from its far southern journey, and to respond to the
renewed vitality it gives to vegetation, these bees feel its active
influence and come forth. With the progress of the spring and summer
most flowers are exposed to their rifling, but they revel upon the
elegant flowers of the Horse-chestnut, and their hum is the music of the
lime when it is in blossom. According to the species, they select a
cavity for their nest, or construct it upon the surface of the ground,
this being the case with the CARDER-BEES, which gather moss to construct
their residence. In those which inhabit beneath the surface, the
selection of an already formed cavity greatly abridges their labour, and
their instinct prompts them to choose one sufficiently large for the
prospective community, but the nest itself is gradually extended in size
suitable to their progressive increase in numbers. All that the parent
female does at first is to form a receptacle sufficiently large for her
first gatherings of pollen and honey, whereon to deposit her first eggs,
and to form a waxen cruse or two to contain the honey requisite for the
nest operations of keeping these masses moist enough for the nurture of
the larvæ. The material of these pots although called wax is not
properly so, but is an agglutination of collected vegetable matter, for
it is not plastic to the fingers like wax, and it burns, leaving a
carbonaceous residuum very attractive to moisture. The larvæ hatched
from the eggs now deposited produce the first neuters, which spin a
cocoon wherein they rapidly undergo their transformations. They are, in
the first instance, aided to emerge from their silken cot by the parent
gnawing off its top, but subsequently this duty is performed, as the
family increases, by the neuters then developed. The young bee, on
emerging from its cocoon, is not thoroughly hardened in its integument,
and its pubescence also acquires by degrees only its proper colouring;
all this is not long in being effected, but, until they are thoroughly
able to fly forth, they continue to be fed by their elder sisterhood,
for the neuters are properly abortive females. Males, and further
productive females are produced later in the spring, and are smaller
than the normal sizes of those sexes; the autumnal brood, consisting
also of males and females, again resume the full size of the complete
insect, and it is these females which, after impregnation, hibernate and
reappear in the following early spring to be each the parent of a new
progeny. The population of these nests varies considerably in the
several species: in some, as in that of _Bombus terrestris_, there are
more than two hundred, and in that of _B. senilis_ there are about a
hundred and forty; but it is in those that construct their nests above
the ground that the fewest are found. As with the general population, so
with the relative proportions of the sexes, the several species vary. Of
course all these numbers are approximative only, as under certain
conditions they will necessarily differ, nor are the general or relative
numbers identical, even in the same species, in the same season, and in
the same locality. The proportions are usually somewhat like this, about
double the number of neuters to females, and nearly the same number of
males as of females. In some of the communities there are even as few as
twenty neuters, and these, of course, comprise those species which are
most rarely found by collectors. The most pugnacious of all, and the
fiercest in their attacks and most painful in their stings, are those
which live underground or in cavities formed of accumulations of stones,
and it is these which are the least constructive in their habitations,
as if their truculent nature rejected the concomitants of incipient
civilization; for it is those which build moss-nests, requiring a
certain amount of skill, that are the most gentle in their habits. With
the increase of numbers in the habitation, the rapidity of the labours
progresses, and the accumulations quickly increase; but there is always
opportunity for the entire community to find employment, either in
enlarging their nests, when they build them, or in securing them from
the intrusion of water, or repelling enemies, or feeding the young, and
accumulating stores. In collecting pollen they are often covered as if
they had rolled themselves in it, and this they brush from their hairy
bodies chiefly with their posterior legs; sometimes they return in this
disguised condition, and free themselves from it only at home; in other
cases they bring it home collected in little masses upon the corbiculum,
or basket, of the posterior shanks. They may be often caught thus laden,
and I once captured a large female of _B. terrestris_, with the shanks
and plantæ of both intermediate and posterior legs covered with masses
of thick clay, required doubtless at home for some domestic repairs. The
instinct of these bees teaches them that where the tube of the flower is
too narrow for the introduction of their body, and too long for even
their long proboscis to reach the nectarium at the bottom, they may get
at the honey by piercing a hole near that organ, which they know where
to find, and thus they readily get at the treasure that they seek,
lapping it through the aperture and carrying it off. If, in their
collecting excursions, they are intercepted by heavy rains, or loiter
far away too long until the twilight closes, they will pass the night
away from home, and return laden with their gatherings as soon as the
warmth of the sun reanimates them to activity; thus they will often
sleep in flowers, and a nest therefore taken at night is not always a
sure indication in those found within it, of its complete population. In
their amours, the autumnal females evince considerable coquetry to
attract their partners: they place themselves upon some branch in the
most fervid sunshine, and here they practise their cajoleries in the
vibrations of their wings, and allure them by their attractive postures.
The males are simultaneously abroad, and soon perceive them. The
seduction is complete, and they pounce down upon them with impetuosity,
but their brief indulgence terminates in death, for with his abating
vigour the female repulses him, and he falls to the ground never to take
wing again. Amongst their insect enemies the _Dipterous_ genera,
_Volucella_ and _Conops_, are very destructive to their larvæ,—the first
of these genera in its colouring greatly resembling the species upon
which it preys. Foxes, weasels, field-mice, all prey upon them, and,
like schoolboys, often destroy the bee for the sake of its honey-bag, an
instance of which I have before recorded as illustrative of their
endurance of the loss of a considerable portion of the body without its
being fatal.

The most interesting part of their history is perhaps that upon which I
have not yet enlarged, namely, the structure of their nests. This is
particularly the case with the carder-bees, which felt and plait the
filaments of moss to form its whole enclosure. Such species select a
spot close to an abundant supply of the material; this they bite off and
form pellets of. To these nests a moderately long arched passage is
formed of the same material, of sufficient size to permit the free
passage of the bees to and fro. This necessarily is shorter at first and
leads to a smaller receptacle when the parent bee works alone. But as
her offspring of workers increases, the passage is lengthened and the
nest enlarged. To construct it, when in full activity, the bees form a
chain, one behind the other, extending from the growing material to the
entrance of their passage to the nest, all their heads being turned
towards the moss and their backs to the nest. The first bites off the
raw material, rolls it and twists it, and passes it to the second, by
whom and the succeeding ones it undergoes further manipulation, and
where the chain terminates at the commencement of the passage another
bee receives it and conveys it along this into the interior, and then
applies it itself or passes it to others thus employed where it is
required. A vaulted covering and sides is thus formed or extended within
the cavity by the plaiting or wreathing together of these sprigs of
moss, and the inside of which is further strengthened by being plastered
with a coating of the pseudo-wax, which, however, smells much like true
wax, and with which the lower loose filaments of the moss are
intermingled, that one cannot be separated from the other without
tearing the whole to pieces. Thus ingeniously do these insects enclose
their home. These nests are not always on the surface, but often
cavities of the necessary size are thus lined, and then they are doubly
secure. Within these nests, with the increase of the population the
number of the cocoons of course increases, as they are never used twice
over, excepting that when they are conveniently situated for the purpose
they are converted into honey pots. Thus sometimes several layers are
formed of these irregularly-placed cocoons, of which the longest
diameter is, however, always perpendicular to the horizon. In this way
_B. muscorum_, _senilis_, _fragrans_, and others build. Some use a naked
cavity, and merely secure it in its crevices from the filtering
intrusion of rain or other water, the closing patches being formed of
the usual waxy material. This is the practice of _B. terrestris_, which
associates the largest communities of all; and _B. lapidarius_ seeks
cavities among stones or in the earth, and forms a nest of a regular
oval, but merely clothes the sides, which is done by bits of moss and
grass carried carefully home. The domestic arrangements within are much
the same in all, the prolific females and the neuters being the
labourers, which perform all the duties of building, the collecting and
caring for the young, the function of the males being limited to the
perpetuation of the species.

          Subsection 2. WITHOUT SPURS TO THE POSTERIOR TIBIÆ.
                        ‡‡ _Permanently social._
                       Genus 27. APIS, _Linnæus_.
                       (Plate XVI. fig. 4 ♂ ♀ ⚲.)
                         APIS ** _e_ 1, Kirby.

_Gen. Char._:—THE NEUTER.—BODY nearly cylindrical and subpubescent. HEAD
transverse, about as wide as the thorax; _vertex_ and _face_ deeply
longitudinally channelled in the centre, the latter to the apex of a
small triangular elevated space between the insertion of the antennæ,
and extending to the base of the clypeus, the sides of the face flat;
the _ocelli_ rather large, seated far back upon the vertex in a
triangle, the anterior one in the depth of the longitudinal channel, the
two lateral ones placed further back towards the occiput in a transverse
indentation crossing the longitudinal one; _compound eyes_ very
pubescent; the _hexagonal facets_ very minute; _antennæ_ short,
filiform, geniculated; the _scape_ nearly half the length of the
flagellum and subfusiform, the basal joint of the flagellum globose, the
second subclavate and subequal with the remainder, very slightly
lengthening to the apical joint, which is compressed and as short as the
second; _clypeus_ quadrate, convex; _labrum_ transverse, linear,
slightly waved in front; _mandibles_ broad at the apex, edentate,
obliquely truncated and concavo-convex; _cibarial apparatus_ shortish;
_tongue_ nearly twice the length of the labium, linear, pubescent, and
terminating in a small knob; _paraglossæ_ obsolete, coadunate with the
base of the tongue; _labial palpi_ not quite so long as the tongue, the
first joint four times as long as the remainder, and tapering from the
base to the apex of the second joint, which is about one-fourth the
length of the preceding, and has the two very short terminal joints
articulated just before its acute apex; _maxillæ_ broad, hastate;
_labium_ half the length of the tongue, its inosculation straightly
transverse, not so long as the tongue and acuminate; the _maxillary
palpi_ extremely short, the basal one the shortest. THORAX subglobose;
_prothorax_ inconspicuous; _scutellum_ lunulate and impending over the
post-scutellum, which is transverse and linear; _metathorax_ truncated;
_wings_ with a long marginal cell extending nearly to the end of the
wing, and obtuse at its extremity, three submarginal cells which
terminate at less than half the length of the marginal, the second the
largest and receiving the first recurrent nervure towards its
commencement, the third oblique and narrow and receiving the second
recurrent nervure just beyond its centre; _legs_ slender, subpilose; the
anterior and intermediate _tibiæ_ with a spur, their _plantæ_ with a
dense short close brush all round, the _posterior tibiæ_ triangular,
glabrous within, externally smooth, shining, and irregularly concave,
the edges fringed longitudinally with long hair curving inwards, and
forming the sides of the corbiculum, or basket, which conveys the
_matériel_ of the nest, the apex transverse and pectinated with short
rigid setæ, but wholly without spurs; the _plantæ_ oblong, not quite so
long as the tibiæ, the sides nearly parallel, the upper edge fringed
with long loose hair, subglabrous externally, but furnished internally
with ten transverse, parallel rows of short stiff golden hair, with an
auricle at the outer angle, forming collectively a dense brush, and its
oblique apex pectinated with short stiff setæ, the remainder of the
tarsal joints short, the fourth the shortest, and the claw-joint the
longest; the _claws_ short, robust, and bifid. ABDOMEN retuse at the
base, subcylindrical, convex above, and terminating conically, the first
segment very short, the second the longest, the ventral segments ridged
longitudinally in the centre.

The FEMALE, or QUEEN differs in the head not being quite so wide as the
thorax, in having the _cibarial apparatus_ very much shorter; the
_mandibles_ distinctly bidentate, the inner edge of the inner tooth
stretching obliquely to the acute inner extremity of the broad apex of
the organ; the _labial palpi_ as long as the tongue, with all the joints
conterminous, the basal one slightly acuminate, the second linear, the
two terminal ones more slender and shorter, the pubescence of the eyes
very much longer than in the neuter; the _legs_ more robust and less
pilose; the _posterior tibiæ_ convex externally, without the lateral
fringes of hair, and their plantæ merely oblong, without the external
basal auricle. The ABDOMEN is also considerably relatively longer; and
has not the central ventral ridge.

The MALE or DRONE differs from both in being considerably more robust
and more completely cylindrical, and very much more densely pubescent;
the _compound eyes_ contiguous at the summit, occupying the whole of the
vertex, and nearly all the lateral portions of the face, extending below
to the articulation of the mandibles, their pubescence much shorter but
denser than in the other sex; the _ocelli_ large, and seated at the top
of the central portion of the face in a close triangle, a little above
the insertion of the antennæ, and in front of the conjunction of the
compound eyes, the lateral ones of the triangle being closely contiguous
to the upper inner edge of those eyes; the _antennæ_ are more robust and
rather longer; the _cibarial apparatus_ very short; the _labial palpi_
about three-fourths the length of the tongue, and the joints
conterminous, the _tongue_ robust; the _thorax_ is nearly quadrate; the
_legs_ are nearly naked, the four anterior very slender; the _posterior
tibiæ_ slightly curved, convex externally; the _posterior plantæ_ more
robust, and more convex externally than their tibiæ, they are regularly
oblong, and without the basal auricle, the rest of the joints of the
tarsi are very short. The ABDOMEN robust, and obtuse at its extremity,
but its seventh segment is concealed beneath; the _ventral segments_
concave longitudinally.


                            NATIVE SPECIES.

    1. _mellifica_, Linnæus. (Plate XVI. fig. 4 ♂♀⚲.)
       _mellifica_, Kirby.


                         GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The name of this genus, _Apis_, adopted by Linnæus as the classical
generic name of the bee, although with him it comprised the whole modern
family of these insects, but which, as now restricted, in accordance
with its limitation exclusively to the congeners of his adopted type, is
the ancient Latin vernacular name of the honey-bee, and to which it has
been ever since uniformly attached. This name, as shown by its
derivative meaning, was originally imposed with direct reference to the
insect’s constructive habits, as was the case with the names given to it
in the more primitive languages before referred to, and which is also
the origin of its Teutonic and Scandinavian appellations—_Biene_, _Bie_,
and _Bi_, whence our own common name for it is obtained through the
Saxon _Beo_, and we have beside Bye or bee, signifying _a dwelling_.
From this circumstance it would seem that a very early and universal
discernment existed of its ingenuity and skill, its significant name
being everywhere analogous.

The habits and economy of these industrious little creatures have been a
source of greater wonder and admiration the more closely and accurately
they have been observed. They have attracted the thoughtful speculation
of minds of the largest compass throughout all ages, which, reasoning
upon the _modus operandi_ of these insects, have endeavoured to define,
and determine the differences between instinct and reason, with their
precise limitations. But baffled in their attempt to settle whether
these be affinities or analogies, it should rather have persuaded them
to adopt the motto of Montaigne, and exclaim, _Que sais-je?_ Into these
metaphysical discussions it is not necessary to enter, and I confine
myself to the natural history of the insect.

Although the description of the three sexes which comprise the
population of the hive are technically given above with scientific
precision, it will be as well, perhaps, to recapitulate them briefly,
with their distinctive attributes, in a more popular form.

They consist of a queen, or productive female, whose function is thought
to be exclusively to lay eggs, but who may perhaps have some hitherto
undiscovered control over the executive of the hive, to be implied by
the confusion invariably following her death or her removal from the
community, and which becomes totally destructive to its organic
constituency unless stayed by another monarch being improvised, or by
one extraneously supplied; one monarch alone rules without a coadjutor,
and without any equal being tolerated, for the presence of a second
queen, or the immature larva of one, even of her own progeny, maddens
her to murderous aggression, or to the impulse of emigration accompanied
with a host of adherents. She never leaves the hive when once her duties
have fully commenced, for by distinction of structure she is rendered
incompetent to execute any of the labours that devolve upon the workers;
her tongue is formed only to lap nutriment; she has no cysts for the
secretion of wax, she is without the honey-bag for conveying that liquid
home, and her posterior shanks are convex externally, and thus deficient
in the concave basket for carrying home the stores of pollen or
propolis, whilst their plantæ are without the little earlet at the top
externally, or the close dense brush arranged in rows within, which aid
these workers in their many manipulations. Her wings are too short to
convey her ponderous body through the air, and her sting becomes
stronger by being curved. Thus she is exonerated from labour by the
incapacity of her structure to execute it, although her duties are quite
as incessant and as arduous, being indispensable to the perpetuation of
the species.

Her consort, the DRONE, is the male of the hive, and although the queen
is monandrous or single-spoused, and although the hive during the season
rarely throws off more than three swarms, usually restricted to the
accompaniment of a single queen, and thus but three males are absolutely
required, nature is so provident of the great design of perpetuation,
that to provide against the possibility of its frustration, the hive
usually produces about a thousand drones. A peculiarity in the structure
of the drone which facilitates his discovery of the virgin queen when
she issues from the hive on the bridal excursion, which she makes
preliminary to her heading a swarm of emigrants, or assuming monarchy at
home, consists in the vertical enlargement of his compound eyes, which
meet over the brow, and in the posterior expansion of the inferior
wings, which take a broad backward sweep, giving the insect larger
powers of flight, but perhaps required as much by its own bulkiness and
weight as for the purpose of ascending above his bride in the upper
regions of the air; but that its weight cannot be the sole reason is
testified by the analogous structure in the male of the genus _Astata_,
one of the fossorial _Hymenoptera_, where a similar expansion of the
inferior wing is concomitant with a similar development of the compound
eyes, yet in which the abdomen is very small, and this power is
therefore evidently given to these merely to increase the velocity or
the duration of their flight. The rest of the structure of these drones
disables them, like all other male bees, for any labour; and as they
must be sustained as long as they may be of service, the possibility of
which terminates with the last issue of a swarm from the hive, a period
appreciated by the instinct of the workers, they are then driven forth,
but it is in dispute whether the workers destroy them, or whether their
destruction is effected by exposure and hunger, or by the natural
limitation of their lives, for although their tongues are formed upon
the same type as that of the worker, it is considerably less developed,
and appears to be adapted only to obtain nutriment from the honey
already collected in the cells, as they seem even deficient in the
instinct to gather it for themselves from flowers, never being observed
to visit them.

The last inhabitant of the hive is the WORKER, or abortive female, whose
labour has several phases. A difference of size amongst them has been
supposed to have been noticed by observers as varying with their
occupation and duties, but as they are all constructed in the same
manner, with precisely the same organs, which are of the same form and
in the same situation, this must be a mere imaginative surmise. Their
similarity of structure permits them, collectively, to apply themselves
to the same occupations which the needs of the community may at any
moment demand. Taking them separately with their distinctive occupations
at any given time, without implying by it a permanent separation of
classes, we find them to consist of wax secreters, builders or
cell-sculpturers, honey collectors, pollen collectors, propolis
collectors, nurses of the young, ventilators, undertakers to carry off
the dead, who are perhaps also the scavengers which cleanse away any
occasional dirt, sentinels to guard the hive outside and inside, and
attendants upon the queen, or as the “‘Times’ Bee Master” very aptly
designates them “ladies in waiting,” and at all times many slumberers
are reposing from their toils. That all these duties are transferable,
and consequently are transferred indifferently from one to the other, is
implied by their general capacity for fulfilling them resulting from
this identity of structure, which will be understood as not at all
infringed by the separate capacities I unfold as devolving from their
temporarily limited functions, all being simultaneously in action, but
distributed amongst the several individuals.

The first important occupation of the worker is the secretion of wax for
the structure of the cells, and, to effect this, honey must be
collected, for it is solely from the digestion of honey that the wax is
produced. This in due course passes from the first stomach or
honey-pouch wherein it is collected, thence to the second stomach, and
then on to the cysts or little bags which run along on each side from
the second to the fifth ventral segments, and correspond and communicate
with eight trapezoidal depressions placed externally upon the plates of
the ventral segments—four on each side, through the concavity of which
the secreted wax exudes in a liquid, transparent, hot state, forming a
thin scale within each, which the air hardens into a white substance, as
the pulp of paper is hardened upon the form into which it is introduced,
or like salt crystallizing into flakes from sea-water in shallow
salines. This, however, is not yet wax, although its essential
constituent, but to become so these scales are removed by the scopulæ of
the posterior plantæ and their auricle, to the intermediate feet and by
these transferred to the anterior pair, which pass them to the
mandibles, where they are masticated and mixed with a saliva issuing
from the mouth, and thus intermingled they consolidate into a white
opaque mass, which issues from the mouth like a thin strip of riband,
and constitutes true wax, plastic to their manipulation. To form this
secretion, the bees having collected the honey themselves in the first
instance, or having consumed sufficient before leaving the hive with the
swarm, but which they subsequently obtain from the supplies stored in
the present hive, hang themselves in festoons in all directions about
its cavity, each festoon being formed by two parallel chains of bees
clinging together; the top bee on each side hangs by its anterior claws
to the top of the hive, and the next in succession grasps with its fore
claws the hind claws of that and so on, until the depth of the festoon
they find to be sufficient, when the bottom bees of each chain swing
themselves together, and cling to each other in the same manner by their
hind claws only. These festoons are speedily suspended, and with a fresh
swarm are in immediate active operation. The secretion requires about
twenty-four hours to complete, and as this is accomplished the festoons
break up, and these secreters convey it to where the sculpturer bees or
builders are moulding the cells, to whom it is successively supplied by
the secreters themselves as wanted, for none is stored, although the wax
of old or dilapidated parts of the hive, or of the vacated cells of the
new-born queens are reconverted to use. These builders are very rapid in
their construction of the hexagonal cells, which, as they are
progressively completed, are stored with honey, this being during the
time assiduously gathered by the honey collectors, and these cells are
interspersed occasionally with those wherein pollen or propolis is
stored, each of which, as the bees collecting them successively return,
is cast into the selected cell by the bee collecting it, who returns at
once to the same employment, whilst the store thus deposited is
immediately compactly pressed in and warehoused by other bees who fulfil
that duty, or who cover it in when the cells are filled, with a waxen
covercle formed of concentric circles; or, in the case of the
honey-cells, to keep the thickened operculum deposited upon it in due
position and repair, after the retiring of the bee which brought home
the fresh store of honey, and which had displaced it to regurgitate her
addition into the cell. This operculum or cover is of a thicker
consistency than the honey itself, and prevents its oozing from the
cells, which would often take place from their uniformly horizontal
position, were it not for the sagacity which prompts them to introduce
this preventive, and which is not removed until the cell is filled; it
is then covered hermetically with its waxen top.

A sufficient number of cells being ready, and sufficient stores of
honey, pollen, and propolis for the progressive labours of the hive, and
a great number of empty cells all finished for the use of the queen, she
begins to lay her eggs. As these are hatched the duty of the
nursing-bees commences, which is to feed the young, who crave for food
like young birds, and are as diligently supplied by these nurses with a
material called bee-bread, which consists of masticated pollen, the
pollen being exclusively stored and used for the purpose. This is mixed
with some secretion from the mouth, which converts it into a sort of
frothy jelly. These bees are never negligent of their duties, and with
their feeding the larvæ rapidly grow.

To keep up a necessary supply of air in the hive, and to prevent
suffocation from heat, a certain number of the community are employed in
fanning the passages between the cakes of comb and the whole interior of
the hive, by the vibration of their wings, which thoroughly ventilates
it, and the accumulation of deleterious air is prevented; some, for this
purpose, being posted at the aperture to the hive, where, this vibration
causing a temporary vacuum, the external air rushes in, and the chain of
succession of bees within becoming thus vibrating air-valves completes
the ventilating arrangement. While all these operations are progressing,
a certain number are acting as a militia of citizens, who have
substitutes only in the succession and change of duties. These act as
sentinels, who guard the entrance and patrol the interior and
courageously intercept all inimical intrusion, for the bees have many
enemies, but who are merely so to benefit themselves, and are not
parasites of the nature of the bee-parasites of the solitary kinds; and
where they cannot individually avert it, they obtain collateral aid from
others of their staff. The next class is the attendants upon the queen:
these vary in number from twelve to twenty; they invariably accompany
her wherever she proceeds throughout the hive, for the purpose of laying
her eggs; and whether their custom gave rise to the etiquette which
attends human royalty, that a subject may never turn the back upon the
sovereign, these attendant bees surround her with the head always turned
towards her, and seem to caress her with their antennæ and pay her every
kind of deferential homage, those in front moving backwards as she
advances, and those on each side, laterally, so that they ever face her;
and as they tire others succeed them in their duties. Another set fulfil
the office of keeping the hive thoroughly clean, for the transit of such
large numbers will inevitably collect occasional dirt, as will the drift
of the wind at the entrance of the hive and the action of the
ventilators themselves. Their duty it is also to remove any extraneous
organic body that has forcibly entered and which may have succumbed to
the vindictiveness of the bees. Where they are not strong enough, even
collectively, to effect the removal, as in the case of a mouse or
anything else as large or larger, they then call to their aid the wax
workers and the repairers; these enclose the obnoxious body, which they
have the judgment to know will become dangerous from putrefaction, to
aid in its prevention, by a cerement of wax or propolis, which prevents
any offensive exhalation, and thus secures the wholesomeness of the
hive.

Here is completed, with the enumeration of those which successively
repose from their toil, the several labours of the community which
inhabits the hive.

The structure of the workers, which enables them to carry on all these
operations with the requisite facility, is very different from that of
the two sexes we have just described. As before said, they are abortive
females, but, as I shall have occasion to explain lower down, capable of
having this special incapacity removed, if the necessary process
requisite to be adopted for the purpose be applied within three days of
their being hatched into the larva state. The acquisition of the faculty
of fertility entails, however, the loss of all power of pursuing any of
the other occupations of the hive practised exclusively by the workers
in general. The nurture that gives it them converts them into queens,
and moulds them to the structure of this sex described above. As a
remarkable and rare exception, some one or other of these workers will
occasionally have power of laying a few eggs, but which are always those
of drones. The other peculiarities of their structure are its adaptation
to the secretion of wax above described; and their power of throwing up
the honey they have collected in the first stomach or honey-bag, before
it passes on by digestion, somewhat in the way the ruminant quadrupeds
bring up the cud, of course by muscular action, without the convulsion
of vomiting. Their next distinction is that their mandibles are edentate
and more like spoons, and are often so used, or as the plastering-trowel
of masons is for smoothing surfaces. Their legs remarkably differ from
those of the other sexes, all of their limbs being somewhat adapted to
the collection and conveyance of pollen and its manipulation, as well as
that of propolis; but it is the posterior shanks which are specially
constructed for the conveyance of these materials, by being framed
externally like a little basket; being hollowed longitudinally and their
lateral edges fringed with recurved hair, which retains whatever may be
placed within the smooth and hollow surface, and the apical extreme edge
has a pecten or comb of short stiff bristles. The first joint of the
posterior feet have also their distinctive form, adapted to special
branches of their economy. These are oblong, wider than the shank, and
about two-thirds its length, and consequently powerful limbs; at the
outer angle of the edge, nearest the shank, is a little projection
called the auricle or earlet, the inner surface is clothed with ten
parallel transverse rows of close dense hair, and its apical edge has
along its whole width a pecten similar to that of the apex of the shank.
This shank being without spurs, which only the domestic bee is deficient
in, gives the pecten a freedom of action it would not otherwise have,
and enables it to be used together with the earlet opposite to it on the
foot, as an instrument for laying hold of the thin flakes of wax upon
the venter, and to bring them forward to the intermediate legs to be
passed on to the mouth, and there to be converted into wax. The pecten
of the foot and also its brush aid in their removal in case of need, and
help as well both in the manipulation and the storing the materials
collected. Thus, this whole structure, exclusively possessed by the
worker, is pre-eminently designed for the manifold operations of the
hive; and the bee itself and its works are but one closely linked chain
of wonderful contrivances.

The entire economy of the hive seems to emanate exclusively from the two
most prominent attributes of instinct, that of self-preservation, and
that other more important axis of the vast wheel of creation, the
secured perpetuation of the kind by the conservative _στοργὴ_, or
absorbing love of the offspring. The latter is more eminently developed
in the social bees than in any other group of the family of these
insects. In the solitary bees it presents itself as a blind impulse,
unconscious of its object; for did we admit the consciousness of the
purpose of their labours, we should evidently endow them with reason.
How could they know, without reflection, that the food they store in the
receptacle they form for the egg they will deposit, and which receptacle
is exactly adapted to the size that the larva which will be hatched from
it will take, is to nurture a creature they will never see, and whose
wonderful transformations they will not therefore witness? In the hive
bee the maternal instinct exhibits itself as an energy diffused through
a multitude of individuals, but these witness the results of their
solicitude, and exclusively promote its successful issue; and in these
also the instinct of self-preservation is a diffused impulse, which
likewise includes the preservation of the society.

As male and female conjunctively make up the species, thus do the
queen-bee and the neuters collectively make up one sex,—the mother,—for
the functions performed by the female alone in the case of the solitary
kinds of bees are, in the genus _Apis_, separately executed. The cares
and labours of maternity devolve upon these neuters, while the
queen-bee’s maternal function is limited to merely laying the eggs with
which she is replete, with the instinctive power of selecting for them
their proper depository,—each of which is adapted in size to that of the
sex which will be produced. Her maternal instinct stops abruptly here,
without the development of an afterthought or care for their future
thriving. The instinct of the neuters, like the anticipative promptings
of the human mother, to prepare the clothing and other necessaries for
her expected infant, has forecast the queen’s needs in its intermittent
urgency, by progressively constructing cells fitted severally in size
for the growth and nurture of neuters, the first developed; of drones,
the next produced; and lastly, of queens, which soon afterwards appear;
she instinctively knowing the proper time and the suitable use of them,
having the faculty of distinguishing them with a view to the deposit of
the particular kind of eggs of which she is for the moment parturient.

The drones, or male bees, appear to receive life for one substantial
purpose only, which is soon accomplished, but during the short space of
time its successive performance requires, it is incidentally accompanied
with assistance to the general community whilst they remain permitted
occupants of the hive, by aiding in heating and ventilating it,—a labour
repaid by the food, which they obtain from the stores kept open for
daily consumption. Although uncontributive to the acquisition of the
riches of the hive, yet are they indispensable to the perpetuation of
the species, and their murder as supposed by some apiarians, or their
expulsion as thought by others, in either case equally terminating in
their destruction, seems an unworthy return for the important service
performed, although this is restricted to the number of individuals
required by the equal number of queens that may be produced. To this
number their production might be limited, but for the chance of either
or all of these queens failing by some casualty to obtain a prince
consort. To baffle the possibility of this mischance, a very superfluous
number of these drones is hatched, as above stated, which are on the
alert, when each queen successively issues forth upon her bridal morn,
to catch her favouring glances, and be the accepted groom. That they are
not further conducive to the well-being of the hive is the fault of
their structure and of their instinct, which are correlative, they being
as little fitted either in their tongue or their legs for the uses of
the hive as the queen herself. The physiology of their intercourse is a
mystery of mysteries, and would seem to partake of the principle,
modified, of that developed in the aphides, where the vital power passes
on through successive generations by the efficiency of the energy of one
ancestral intercourse. In the hive bee this is not the case, but in
these the one espousal fertilizes eggs to the number of often a hundred
thousand, yet undeveloped and even indiscernible by the aid of the
microscope in the ovaries of the queen, and which become bees
progressively in the course of a couple of years, the supposed duration
of her existence, during the whole of which time she is laying. The
accepted male is destroyed by the effects of the amour, and when all the
queens which are to be the heads of independent communities are
successively fertilized, and have led forth their colonies, the
remaining drones issue compulsively from the hive and are lost in the
wideness of nature, and die by the natural limitation of their
existence, or become the prey of their numerous enemies.

The neuters or workers are, as it were, emanations of the queen, or the
organs whereby her several functions as a mother are performed,
considering the species as restricted to two sexes, and thus they
comprise with her, collectively, one organic whole. That this is a
consistent view of their condition is further proved by the circumstance
that from their larvæ, upon the failure of a queen, a new queen is
produced upon one being supplied with a certain nutriment that developes
the capacity that would remain inert and abortive, were it not thus
promoted from its primary state. It may be questioned whether the eggs
deposited by the queen in the royal cells are other than neuter eggs,
their subsequent nature being changed by the different quality of the
sustenance they are fed with when hatched, as is the case in the above
noticed defection of a queen. This then would limit the queen’s eggs to
the eggs of neuters and of drones, thus further corroborating the idea
of the existence of but two sexes.

I have stated above the supposition that the queen’s office may be
restricted to the laying of eggs, but it must be inferred that it has a
wider compass, and possibly comprises some administrative function in
the regulation of the hive, from the circumstance that with her loss the
entire community loses its self-possession and self-control. Labour then
ceases and the hive becomes the scene of turmoil and confusion, and
unless the loss be repaired in the way named above, which their instinct
teaches them to adopt, if any eggs have been already deposited, or if
supplied by the surreptitious introduction of another queen which they
immediately raise to their superintendency, paying her the same
deference they had done to their lost monarch, or would do to a
legitimately native birth, it disperses and destroys the community. Such
a loss in its natural course must necessarily, to be effectively
repaired, take place in the interval after the laying of the drones’
eggs, and before those of the queens are deposited, for otherwise she
would remain unimpregnated. Having thus shown reasons for supposing that
the hive actually contains but two sexes, and having also shown that the
first phase exhibited of this distributed maternal instinct by which the
neuters form conjunctively with the queen a many-headed and many-hearted
mother, is their preparation of the cells for all the purposes
required,—the next and most important, and the one perhaps which
elevates them vastly higher in the scale of social intelligence and
affection, is the absolute development in them only of maternal
solicitude for the well-being of the offspring. This certainly proves
the existence of the diffused maternity urged, for they feed the hatched
young as the bird does its callow, from hour to hour, and which, when
full grown, they enclose in its formative cell, to undergo its changes
and become one amongst themselves. It is not absolutely determined
whether the functions performed within the hive are restricted to
distinct sets of the workers, but it may be presumed that the duties are
transferable, for the most plausible supposition is, that all the
offices are interchangeably performed by the entire population, possibly
merely limited to daily alternation of individuals taled off each
morning for the day’s duties. That an administrative regulation must
exist under some executive authority, emanating doubtless from the
centralization of all in the queen, and communicated to the rest by her
relays of attendants, may be conclusively inferred, otherwise all might
similarly employ themselves from day to day, and thus overwhelm with one
work the multiplicity of labours required for the well-being of the
hive. For whilst some are secreting the wax from the honey they have
consumed, others are moulding it into shape, others are harvesting the
bee-bread to feed the voracious larvæ, others are gleaning the propolis
for the security of the domicile, others are collecting honey to store
as needful supplies, others are either ventilating or heating the
interior, others act as sentinels and guard the approaches or patrol the
passages within, and will die in that defence like genuine patriots, and
others are in attendance upon the queen in her progresses through her
dominions, and who may individually act as _aides-de-camp_ to convey her
commands to the rest. All these are not fanciful embellishments of the
narrative, but substantial and well-authenticated facts, supported by
the repetition on many sides of careful observations, but perplexing to
human intelligence, for not the least wonder of this conventicle of
wonders—the hive—is that it confounds the astute reason of man to
comprehend it in all its significancies.

The first necessity of a new colony is the selection of a locality for
habitation, which is usually effected by preliminary trustworthy
intelligencers determining upon a site suitable from its concurrent
conveniences. A sufficient supply of sustenance must be conveyed by the
emigrants to accompany the preparatory construction of the settlement,
until land can be cleared, grain grown, etc., and a year at least will
pass, even under the most favourable circumstances of the exertion of
the greatest industry, concurrently with the most propitious succession
of the seasons, before it can become self-sustaining. But when once the
wheel is fairly on the move, round it spins without interruption or
relaxation. The colony thrives, increasing rapidly in its population;
and where all have put the shoulder to the wheel it climbs the steep and
rugged hill of prosperity, whilst those who are carried onward by its
evolutions, from each of the many successive terraces of this noble
height, survey a broad, cheerful, and fertile landscape, extending
itself with their elevation, spread out to a distant horizon, which many
of the more venturous spirits amongst them, urged by the teeming
increase of their compatriots, have already traversed, and who
themselves are now rejoicing in the establishment of offshoots, which
speedily rival, in successful fruitfulness, the wide-branched
productiveness of the parent stock.

This is strictly the history of the hive, and the parallelism is
complete, even to the conveyance with them of the preliminary needful
stores. Before a swarm issues from the hive, some fly forth to select a
dwelling-place, and return, it is presumed, to make their report.

The population of the hive becoming so dense that there is no longer
room for the free and unrestrained circulation of the ordinary
processes of the community, and so hot from the inconvenient
accumulation of such numbers,—for they extend sometimes to as many as
fifty thousand,—instinct prompts a portion of the community to
migrate. This disposition is further promoted by the progressive, or
completed development of some of the young queens. The inveterate and
internecine animosity of these—anticipated rivalry, suggesting, it is
surmised, the murderous desire, but being prevented from its
indulgence by the defensive guardianship of several of the
workers—urges the old queen to abandon at this conjuncture her royal
metropolis. The inclination to do so, it would appear, is already
foreseen by a very large body of her subjects, for if her departure be
delayed by her successor’s protracted incapacity for undertaking the
sovereign rule, the intending emigrants, having already abandoned all
the labours of their old domicile preparatory to their issuing forth,
will cluster in groups about the bee board until she is ready to
emerge. This condition will sometimes last a day or two, and thence of
course all is confusion both within and without the hive, for her
subjects have suspended their labours and she has suspended her
egg-laying, and roams wildly about within, striving, whenever she
approaches a royal cell, or a fully developed young queen, to attack
the latter, and destroy her by stinging her to death, or, to tear the
former to pieces to get at the imago within, which indicates its
apprehension by a shrill piping sound. But she is forcibly dragged
back from this apicidal purpose by the working bees which surround
each, and who now intermit their usual deference to prevent this
destruction, and bite her and drag her back. The future queen of the
abdicated throne having, during this turmoil, returned from her
wedding tour, and being still protected from slaughterous aggression,
the old queen indignantly issues forth. This exodus takes place
usually on a brilliant and warm day, between twelve and
three,—accordingly during the hottest hours. This is the first swarm
of the year, and if the season be very genial it will take place in
May. In this migration she is accompanied by all her most faithful
lieges, which comprise, to the honour of beehood, by very much the
largest majority of the inhabitants, to the number usually, in a
well-stocked hive, of several thousands,—say from ten to twenty,
depending on the population of the hive.

Having thus issued forth in a body, they shortly alight upon and about
the branch of some adjacent tree, clustering, in as close proximity as
they can, to their royal leader. In a natural state, when duly organized
to proceed, they would thence start for the domicile that had previously
been selected by the emissaries above noted; but, as their natural
habits are not at all perverted by their subjugation to man, we will
pursue their history under his dominion. This will be the more
convenient, for in the comfortable hive to which they have been
transferred by his agency, we shall have every opportunity of exactly
watching their manœuvres by the facilities yielded in its being glazed
for the purpose. We shall thus be enabled to see and follow the
wonderful economy of the hive and its many mysteries, which it would not
have been possible to accomplish in an abode of their own choice,—some
cavity presented by Nature herself, the hollow of a tree, or an
excavated rock. They are, therefore, now housed, and after the survey of
the capacity of their abode, which is a short affair, with all the
prompt energy peculiar to them they at once commence their labours. The
queen is already matured, and ready to lay eggs. In a natural abode the
gathering of propolis would perhaps be a first necessity to make their
home water-and-wind-tight, for they abhor the inconveniences of the
intrusion of wet or cold. It is with this material that they make
repairs, fill crevices, and strengthen the suspension of their combs,
which are hung vertically; and they apply it also to other purposes,
which we shall see hereafter. This material is of a resinous nature, it
has a balsamic odour, and is of a reddish-brown or darker colour, and is
supposed to be collected from fir or pine trees, or from the envelopes
of the buds of many plants, or their resinous exudations, especially
that of the blossoms of the hollyhock. It is exceedingly clammy, and
they have been observed ten minutes moulding it into the lenticular
pellets in which they carry it home in the corbicula, or little basket,
of the posterior tibiæ. They gather it like pollen with the fore feet,
and pass it to the intermediate ones, whence it is taken by the
posterior plantæ, kneaded into shape, and deposited upon the hind
shanks. It dries so rapidly that often, upon arriving home, the bees
which store it have much difficulty in tearing it from the legs of these
collectors. The hottest days only are propitious to its gathering, for
all moisture is injurious to it, and the hottest period of the day,
also, is alone occupied in its collection. It is said that they have
been known to fly as many as from three to five miles for it, from the
circumstance that suitable plants were not to be found within a lesser
radius; but this may be a mistake, for their ordinary excursions are not
supposed to range wider than a single mile or something more, and bees
may be able to find it where we may suppose it not to occur. In the
abode with which we have provided them it is not so urgent a necessity,
this being already wind-and-water-tight, although in the progress of
their labours they find it indispensable, and use it to fasten the
crevices that intervene between the bottom of the hive and the bee
board, and, as before noticed, to strengthen the support of the cakes of
comb which hang from the roof. The name it still retains is that which
was applied to it by the ancients, and signifies _before the city_, as
indicative of its use in strengthening the outworks.

Conjoined herewith is the imperative need for the construction of cells
for every purpose of the hive, namely, for the storing of the propolis,
and that of the pollen, as also the collected honey, as well as for the
reception of the young brood, for the mature queen is waiting
impatiently to deposit her eggs. Simultaneously, therefore, is the wax
being secreted and elaborated by the processes previously noticed. The
community is already late, and all are at once in active operation, but
four-and-twenty hours must elapse before the cells can he commenced, for
it takes that time to secrete the first batch of wax. Festoons, as
before described, of these wax secreters are hanging in every direction
within the cavity of the hive, and as soon as the process is completed
by the first festoon, this dissolves itself by the several bees
unlinking their feet, and a leading bee proceeds to the top of the
centre of the hive, where she makes herself room from the lateral
pressure of other bees, by turning herself sharply about and agitating
her wings, and there she collects the scales from the surface of her
ventral segments, manipulates them as before noticed, and thus converts
them into wax. The rest follow her, and she collects it from them into a
little oblong mass of about half an inch; whilst other bees from other
festoons are continually arriving to deposit their produce; and as soon
as the mass is sufficiently large, which is speedily the case, a
sculpturer bee succeeds, and the first cell is laterally commenced. On
the opposite side to where this is being framed, two other bees are at
work, moulding the bottoms of two cells in apposition to the basis of
the first one. The wax keeps constantly increasing by fresh deposits,
and the rudiments of more cells are as rapidly formed. These all emanate
laterally, in a horizontal direction or with a very slight incline
towards their base. They gradually form the vertical cake of comb, for
the bottom of one entire range of cells suffices for both sides and
inevitably they are so adjusted that the bottoms of those on either side
are each covered by one-third of the bottoms of each cell on the
opposite side, and so conversely, receiving and communicating strength
by three thus supporting one. Here comes the great wonder of the hive;
here in this fragile structure abides a mystery that has perplexed man’s
keenest sagacity. Is it accident or is it intelligence that instructs
the bee, or is it the impulse of the instinct implanted by that Supreme
Intelligence which gives man his reason and moulds all things to their
most fitting use?

Ray’s view is precisely this; he says:—“The bee, a creature of the
lowest forms of animals, so that no man can suspect it to have any
considerable measure of understanding, or to have knowledge of, much
less to aim at, any end, yet makes her combs and cells with that
geometrical accuracy, that she must needs be acted by an instinct
implanted in her by the wise Author of Nature.” To support this idea of
the geometrical skill of the bee, he cites “the famous mathematician
Pappus,” the Alexandrian, of the time of Theodosius the Great, who
“demonstrates it in the preface to his third book of _Mathematical
Collections_.” “First of all (saith he, speaking of the cells), it is
convenient that they be of such figures as may cohere one to another,
and have common sides, else there would be empty spaces left between
them to no use but to the weakening and spoiling of the work, if
anything should get in there, and therefore though a round figure be
most capacious for the honey, and most convenient for the bee to creep
into, yet did she not make choice of that, because then there must have
been triangular spaces left void. Now, there are only three rectilineous
and ordinate figures, which can serve to this purpose, and inordinate,
or unlike ones, must have been, not only less elegant and beautiful, but
unequal. [Ordinate figures are such as have all their sides and all
their angles equal.] The three ordinate figures are triangles, squares,
and hexagons; for the space about any point may be filled up either by
six equilateral triangles, or four squares, or three hexagons; whereas
three pentagons are too little, and three heptagons too much. Of these
three, the bee makes use of the hexagon, both because it is more
capacious than either of the others provided they be of equal compass,
and so equal matter spent in the construction of each. And, secondly,
because it is most commodious for the bee to creep into. And, lastly,
because in the other figures more angles and sides must have met
together at the same point, and so the work could not have been so firm
and strong. Moreover, the combs being double, the cells on each side the
partition are so ordered that the angles on one side insist upon the
centres of the bottoms of the cells on the other side, and not angle
upon or against angle; which also must needs contribute to the strength
and firmness of the work.”

Each cell therefore is in shape a hexagon, that is to say, a figure with
six equal sides, to each of which six other hexagons attach, for each
wall forms also one wall of another hexagon. The basis of each hexagonal
cavity is of an obtuse three-sided pyramidal shape inverted, and
consisting of three rhomboidal plates, each forming one-third of the
basis of the three opposite cells; thus the edges of these three basal
plates of one side support three lateral walls of three hexagons on the
other side. The inverted triangular pyramid thus made by these three
equal rhomboidal plates, form, at one extremity and at each pair of
their posterior edges a re-entering angle, and at the other extremity a
salient angle. From these edges spring the lateral walls of the
hexagonal cell, this shape being superinduced by the form of the edges
of the basal cavity. That the bees should have been thus guided to elect
a form which combines conjunctively the advantages of strength and
capacity evidently proves that it is their instinct which guides them,
which, being an afflation from the highest source, ensures the most
complete perfection in its result. That it cannot be the effect of
simultaneous lateral pressure is proved incontestably by the whole
superstructure resulting from the design of the base; and this is
further corroborated by the base of one cell on one side forming
invariably equal portions of the base of three cells on the opposite
side,—all clearly the result of preconceived design impressed upon their
sensorium. From this combination of forms results the security procured
to the fragile tenement, which consists of the very smallest quantity of
material that will cohere substantially, for the bees are exceedingly
parsimonious of their wax, as if the production of it were attended with
pain or inconvenience, and it is only upon the construction of the royal
cells that a profusion of this choice material is squandered. As soon as
these cohorts of bees are in active operation, it is astonishing with
what pertinacity and rapidity they labour, for within the space of
four-and-twenty hours they will construct a cake a foot deep and six
inches wide, containing within its double area some four thousand cells.
Other cakes parallel to each side of the original are being at the same
time carried forward with an interval between each sufficient for two
bees to pass each other _dos à dos_, and further to promote the
convenience of traffic within the hive, and ready communication to its
several parts, passages are left through these cakes from one to the
other, so that the means of transit are opened, which of course saves
much time. The queen is already making her progresses from one side of
each comb to the other, and depositing her eggs as rapidly as she can,
and is constantly attended by her _aides-de-camp_, as I have suggested,
which act, as they evidently sometimes are, as the emissaries of her
commands. They consist of ten or twelve or sometimes more, and have been
previously described. They are replaced by others as they quit to obey
orders, or as they retire fatigued, so that she is always surrounded.
The number of eggs she will lay in a day is about two hundred. In doing
this she first thrusts her head into a cell to ascertain its fitness,
which having done, she withdraws it, and then curving her body she
thrusts the apex of her abdomen, which tapers to the extremity for the
purpose, into the cell, wherein by means of the sheaths of her curved
sting, which act as an ovipositor, she places the egg at the bottom of
the cell. It is possibly from some taction of this instrument that she
discerns the sizes of the eggs, and thence their respective sex. This
process she continues repeating, passing from one side of the comb to
the other by means of the passages perforated through it, making the
numbers as nearly as possible tally on each side and as opposite to each
other as may be, and she will then go forward to further cakes of comb.
In this way she lays about ten or twelve thousand in six weeks,
depending much upon the propitiousness of the season, but the rapidity
of this laying intermits according to the months; the above estimate is
based upon what April and May produce, as it slackens during the summer
heats and again revives in the autumn, but totally terminates with the
first cold weather. She thus will lay from thirty to forty thousand or
more in a year.

Apiarians do not state whether the same queen heads another swarm on the
following year, which perhaps she does in those cases of excessive
fertility where her abundance is estimated at one hundred thousand, when
by her sole individual capacity she populates three hives. In the more
usual and ordinary case of her teeming with about seventy thousand, or
fewer, she evidently heads but one swarm. With the described rapidity of
the production of the cells, although the majority are store cells and
not brood cells, conjunctively with her prolific laying, the population
of the hive rapidly increases, which, added to the large original
colony, will enable it in a propitious year to throw off a swarm of its
own; but ordinarily she does not again lay drone eggs and royal eggs
until the following season. The period at which to do this is taught her
by the condition of the hive, as urgent for relief to its oppressive
population by an exodus. The drone eggs are then laid, and are speedily
succeeded by the laying of the royal eggs, so that the males of the
season and the new queens may be hatched almost simultaneously, the
drones slightly preceding the development of the queens. As soon as the
egg of a worker is hatched, which, by means of the high temperature, is
effected in four days after the laying, it, from its birth, is
sedulously attended by the bees called nurse-bees. The little vermicle
is very voracious and is heedfully supplied by these careful attendants,
when it has consumed the quantity of bee bread already deposited in the
cell by some of these nurses as soon as the egg was laid. This bee bread
consists of pollen, taken from the cells by the nurses, where it is
garnered for the purpose, being therein mixed with a slight quantity of
honey. This, in masticating, the nurses intermingle with some secretion
of their own, which gives it a sort of gelatinous frothy appearance, and
upon this the young thrives so rapidly, greedily opening its jaws to
receive it, that in four more days it is full grown, and fills the whole
cell. The nursing-bees then cover this in with a light brown top, convex
externally, and within it the larva spins for itself a cocoon to undergo
its subsequent transformations. This cocoon is spun of a fine silk,
which issues from the organ of the larva called the spinner, in two
delicate threads, which, as they pass out, cohere together. It works at
this labour for thirty-six hours, and then changes into the pupa or
grub; thus it lies quiescent for three days, when it gradually undergoes
its transformation into the imago, and it issues as a perfect insect
about the twenty-first day after being deposited as an egg. The cocoon
it has formed exactly fills the cell it has left, which still continues
to serve as a brood cell until the succession of cocoons with which it
is thus lined renders it too small for the purpose, it is then cleaned
out by the scavengers of the hive and changed into a honey depository,
but the honey stored in such a cell is never so pure as that which comes
from the exclusively waxen cell. Thus is effected the transformation of
the working bee, which, upon the very day of its emancipation from its
nursery, commences its duties as an active member of the community, in
the successive and several labours undertaken for the benefit of the
commonwealth, and these it assiduously follows for the period of its
natural life, which extends to about six or eight months.

The hive is now in the liveliest activity. The swarm which entered with
the queen, and the large addition to the population which has already
been produced from her incessant laying, are all at their several
avocations. The whole hive, its entrance and the immediate vicinity, and
far around is jocund with the bustle and the buzz of the busy little
creatures going and coming; those returning are all laden, although some
do not appear so, but these are conveying riches home within them, as
they are returning from their excursions with their honey-bag well
filled. There is welcoming recognition at the entrance to the hive,
where, on its broad platform, they all alight, and there many are to be
seen touching each other with their antennæ, or refreshing themselves by
the vibrations of their wings, and in doing this they often raise
themselves on the hind legs, or they are resting for a few seconds
before they enter. Others are to be seen arriving unrecognizable from a
coloured envelope of pollen which mantles them. The incessant hum that
accompanies these proceedings is like the mildest tones of the surge of
the distant sea, or the inarticulate buzz of the voice of large crowds.
In this seeming confusion all obey the strictest order, for each attends
to his own business only; there is no collision or loss of time or
labour, each one fulfilling precisely its own mission. At this period
the hive is a perfect model of order, neatness, and beauty. The combs we
have seen so rapidly growing are to be filled, and fresh cells are being
constantly constructed. The honey there stored from the gradual
gatherings of these active harvesters is partly to be reserved for the
winter’s needs, and is carefully husbanded, for each of these cells is,
when filled, closed by a covercle of wax moulded as it is supplied to
the operator in concentric circles, commencing at the edge, and each
circle being completed before another is begun, and not in a spiral
twist towards the centre. To prevent the trampling of the discharging
bees from injuring the delicate structure of the walls of the cell, each
edge is furnished with a strengthening rim of wax. The bulk of these
stores is never broken, except in bad wet seasons, in times of great
dearth, or upon any suspension of torpidity during their hibernation.
For the ordinary and daily consumption of those of the community whose
labours confine them to the hive, open stores are left. As of course it
occupies the excursions of several bees for some time to fill one of
these vases, and to prevent the liquid flowing out, as it might do from
its exceeding tenuity through the influence of the summer heat, and the
then increased temperature of the hive, as well as from its inclined
horizontal position,—this is guarded against by the precautional
sagacity of the little creatures placing upon it from the deposit of the
very first supply a sort of operculum, as before described, of a thicker
consistency, which lies upon the top of its progressive increase, and
thus prevents its oozing. It lies upon the honey across the transverse
diameter of the cell, and consequently in a vertical position. Its
purpose, like that of the flat pieces of wood which are placed upon the
water of full pails when carried by the yoke, is to prevent its spilling
or overflowing. This small cover has to be partially removed upon the
arrival of a bee with fresh store, which she herself does by tearing
aside a portion of it to enable her to regurgitate into the cavity the
portion she has brought home; upon freeing herself from this she does
not wait to restore the dilapidation she has caused, but proceeds on a
fresh harvesting. Another bee, whose duty it is, then readapts this
cover to its purpose, and repairs it. Their excursions to collect are
variously estimated at from one to three miles, and they make about ten
a day. The bees, in their temporary distribution of labour, are
something like the Indians which have caste, among whom each service has
its special servitor, who never undertakes or interferes with the duties
of another. The collection of pollen is almost as needful to the
well-being of a hive as honey, this being used exclusively as the basis
of the sustenance of the new brood in their larva state, in all their
conditions of worker, drone, and queen, the perfect bee itself never
partaking of it. It is variously commingled upon its application to use
with secretions of their own, which convert it into bee bread or royal
jelly, as the case may be, to fit it for its special employment, which
is done by the nurse-bees, who diligently attend to the nurture of all
the young. The cells for storing this material are not so numerous as
the honey-cells, and they are jotted about without any distinct order,
amongst them. When a bee arrives with her store of pollen on the edge of
one of these cells, she turns round with her back to it and thrusts it
in as fast as she can free it from her legs, both by their aid and the
twisting about of her abdomen, and then, like the honey-gatherer,
commences another journey. As soon as she is gone, another bee
manipulates it with a small stock of honey, and packs it closely in.
Whilst all this is doing, the set which watch the condition of the hive,
like surveyors, to apply repairs where necessary, or to add strength and
further support to the suspended cakes of comb, impatiently await the
return of the collectors of propolis; this they tear from their shanks
as fast as they arrive and as quickly as they can, for it rapidly
hardens, especially in fine hot weather, and they convey it away for
their requirements, whilst those which collected it fly off for fresh
supplies, should more be needed. Concurrently with the execution of all
these things, wax is still being secreted by festoons of bees suspended
wherever there is space, the sculpturer bees are still moulding cells,
the queen is still laying eggs, deferentially attended, as usual, by her
maids of honour; the young brood is still being fed; other bees are
ventilating the hive at its entrance and within its streets and lanes by
the rapid vibration of their wings; the sentinels are diligently keeping
guard to repel the inimical intrusion of wasps or snails or woodlice, or
the moth which is so destructive to the interior in her larva state,
from the covered moveable silken retreat which she constructs impervious
to the sting, and thence with impunity gets at the silk of the cocoons
and consumes the wax, making, when once fairly domiciled, such fearful
havoc in the hive that the bees are fain to desert it,—and the many
other numerous enemies which lust for the luscious honey, or whose
voracity is attracted by the poor little diligent bees themselves, but
who in such contingencies exhibit invincible courage, which, if not
always successful in its efforts, is always meritorious. Where
self-preservation is not the prompter, or the rivalry of love the
instigator, but the duration of which is limited to a season, the feuds
of the animal world all seem to proceed from the urgency of their
gastronomic suggestions, the acrimony of which urges craft and strength
to their most powerful exhibition. To allay hunger, destruction is
perpetrated and order despoiled, and thus our bees become the victims of
the imperativeness of this universal law. But sometimes they are
triumphant over a very large enemy; for instance, an intrusive mouse, or
a slug that has slimed its way through the arched portal. They have been
known to kill these enemies within the hive as they could not make them
withdraw, but perplexity results from their success; they are, however,
gifted with the sagacity to know that the putridity of these masses will
poison with its effluvia the atmosphere of their city which no
ventilation can purify, and they convert that part of their metropolis
into a mausoleum, covering the carcases with a coating of propolis,
alone or mixed with wax, as before noticed. Those which execute this
summary martial law are the sentinels—the armed police of the hive—which
guard its entrance and avenues, and patrol its streets and lanes and
passages. Concurrently with all these doings, scavengers are heedfully
conveying away any particles of dirt or other undesirable superfluity
which may have accidentally found its way in. That all these labours
produce fatigue and exact rest is proved by the circumstance that many
bees are always observed in a state of repose,—perhaps only forty winks
during the day just to restore exhausted energy,—for they are soon seen
again to resume their toil, this inactivity never being idleness.
Whether they proceed with the same kind of employment upon the renewal
of their work is not known, nor how long lasts a particular kind of
labour, but the change of occupation may be one of frequent occurrence,
and it may be presumed that each bee severally and successively
undertakes each task, that the faculty for exercising it may not be
extinguished. It is very possibly a daily change, which circulates
through the entire civic population of workers.

Although the labours of the bees are divided, we do not find that even
the most successful observers, who have had every opportunity, by the
nature of the hives they possessed, and the sagacity they applied to the
detection of the most minute particulars, have been enabled to discover
that these workers were permanently separated into distinct
classes,—indeed, although surmising from this distribution of labour
that such might be the case, and thus made alert to the discovery of its
positive confirmation by direct observation, they have never been able
to do so; and they strongly deny it, maintaining that these duties are
individually transferable, and that they are not restricted to certain
classes, already sufficiently implied by the organization of the
workers. Huber, it is true, states that the wax-sculpturers—those which
finish the cells to their nicety of perfection—are smaller than any of
the rest of the community, to facilitate their operations within the
cells, which may perhaps be a foregone conclusion.

The idea of administrative vigilance in the distribution of the labour
of the community is strongly corroborated by the fact that all the
labours proceed _pari passu_ and in equable order, no excessive
preponderance of any particular work having been observed, which would
certainly sometimes be the case were there no limiting control over
their individual action, and thus the harmonious concurrence of all to
one effect seriously disturbed. The supposition is also strengthened by
the unfailing attendance of the queen’s numerous and deferential
retinue, some one or other of whom, every now and then, quits that
service—perhaps as an envoy on business of government—and is replaced by
another. All these many circumstances lead to the presumption that the
queen is the heart of the whole body, the organ which forces forward the
circulation through its diverse channels, giving to all the temperate
pulsation of vigorous health.

The hive is, of course, quite dark within, and to carry on the numerous
operations which we have noticed are done there, either sight of a
peculiar nature must lend its aid, or some faculty residing in a
sensation analogous to touch, but which it may be cannot be known, nor
where it may lie, but if it exist its organ is most probably the
antennæ. We can, it is true, compute their eyes, which comprise more
than sixteen thousand, namely, about eight thousand in each of the
compound organs placed laterally upon the head, each separate eye being
an hexagonal facet furnished with its separate lens and capillary branch
of the optic nerve, and also edged with short hair; in this hair,
therefore, may lie the particular sensation which guides them, for we
cannot be sure that this large congeries of hexagonal facets facilitate
sight in the dark, as in number and position they do not exceed or
differ from the analogous structure and number of the same organs in
many other insects which we know to be only seers by day, and which
repose at night; but the hairy addition to the eyes of these bees is a
structure not observed in them.

This constitution of the hive and its various operations continues
during the remainder of the season until the approach of winter cautions
them from venturing abroad, when, if the temperature of the hive is much
lowered, they hibernate and remain in a torpid condition until the
sunshine of the following spring, and with it the flowering of plants,
rouses them again to resume their suspended labours. The population of
the hive having continued to increase, although not so vigorously as at
first, up to the very intrusion of winter, and the renewed year giving
renewed energy to the queen, the population thence rapidly further
increasing, it becomes inconveniently thronged, especially as spring
advances and hot weather sets in. These promptings then urge her to lay
drone eggs, for which preparations have already been made by the
workers, who have already framed for their reception—they being much
larger insects—larger cells moulded precisely in the same manner, and
which are also used occasionally as receptacles for honey, and always
skirt the bottom of the several combs. This task she has completed in
about five days, and it is carried on precisely in the same way as is
practised in the case of the neuters; and they are nurtured by
nursing-workers just like them. Of these eggs she lays, as before said,
about a thousand, and the workers by some instinctive faculty have
framed about such a number of the needful cells. The transformations of
the drone occupy about twenty-four or twenty-five days, of which three
are passed in the maturing of the egg which then hatches into the larva.
This occupies nearly seven days in attaining its full growth, and the
remaining portion of the time is spent in its spinning its cocoon, in
the same way as the larva of the worker does, and it changes into the
imago. To effect all these changes in the transformations of all the
sexes, a heat of about seventy degrees is indispensable, but that of the
hive in summer is considerably higher. They as well as the workers are
assisted to emerge from the cocoon by some of the older workers, who use
their mandibles to bite through the enclosure, and who also help to
cleanse them from their exuviæ.

Concurrently with the formation of the brood cells of the drones, some
of the workers are constructing cells to receive the royal eggs. These
cells are totally unlike the other cells of the hive, and are of a sort
of pear-shape five times as large as the drone cells, and are attached
laterally to the edges of the comb in a vertical position, with the
narrowest part, which is the orifice, hanging downwards. In the forming
of these cells the workers are very lavish of their wax, making the
coats of them thick and opaque, and they are irregularly rough outside,
but within very smoothly polished. Just as the construction of these
cells intervenes irregularly with the formation of the cells of the
drones, so does the queen intermit at intervals the laying of the drone
eggs to deposit occasionally an egg in one of the royal cells, which are
not usually completed at the time she commences laying them, but are
finished afterwards, even during the time the larva is growing. This
provision seems to be made for the earliest development of the young
queens after the drones come forth, with the possible prevision that the
sooner all of these young queens are fertilized that are needful for the
requirements of the swarms that the hive may throw off, the sooner will
the hive be rid of the incumbrance and the consumption of stores caused
by the drones. The transformations of the queens take place more rapidly
than the others, for in sixteen days they are completed, of which three
are occupied in hatching the egg, and for five they are feeding as
larvæ, and in that time attain their full growth; the cell is then
closed in with a waxen cover by the workers, and the full-fed larva
within is occupied in spinning its cocoon, which it takes twenty-four
hours to accomplish. This cocoon is unlike that of the drones and
workers, both of which completely enclose the pupa, but the royal larva
only forms so much of a cocoon as will cover the head and thorax, and by
which imperfection she unconsciously facilitates her destruction by her
rivals in case they are permitted to attempt it before she emerges,—this
being supposed to be the object of it, as the close texture of the silk
of the cocoon would intercept the action of the rival queen’s sting. In
this state she remains in complete repose up to a part of the twelfth
day, and it takes about four days more to change into the imago, which
is ready to emerge on the sixteenth. In her larva state she has been
very carefully and profusely supplied by her nurses with the royal
jelly, made in the manner before described. This royal jelly is very
stimulating, it is pungent, rather acescent, and is very different from
the food supplied to the drone- and worker-larvæ. A great many of the
drones being now perfect insects, some young queen, that is ready to go
forth, is at length permitted to do so by her guardian protectors, for
the old queen is already aware of her existence, and has more than once
attempted her destruction, but from which she has been prevented. At a
suitable opportunity this young queen issues, attended by a bevy of
drones; she immediately ascends in a spiral direction high into the air,
far out of sight, and is followed by her suitors. Their larger capacity
of flight speedily permits them to overtake her, and they ascend above
her; one being favoured, the rest descend again, and either at once
return to the hive or frolic about in its vicinity. It is not long
before this young queen returns, matured into an incipient mother. Now
comes renewed hostility from her own parent, who is still prevented from
the murderous assault, but who succeeds in ejecting her young rival.
During this contest the hive has become a scene of confusion, and the
preliminaries and accompaniments of fresh swarming take place, and in
going forth she is accompanied by a large body of the present
population, and thus the first swarm of the fresh season is thrown off.
Other queens become gradually developed, and other swarms similarly
accompany them, but each swarm successively diminishes in the number of
its participating emigrants, the last consisting perhaps of not more
than two thousand. The order of the hive is speedily restored after each
swarming convulsion has subsided, until the population being
sufficiently reduced, the motive to leave is destroyed, and the queen is
then permitted to execute her murderous onslaught on the hapless young
queens, which are either still embryonic, or, if developed, have not
been allowed to leave their cells; but, where they have done so, and are
still within the hive, her attendants and the old queen’s attendants
open their ranks, and the furious rivals attack each other. The contest
is sharp but short, the young queen is stung to death, the body is
conveyed away, and the old queen reigns paramount. Her next effort is to
destroy the royal brood in their cells; the cells she tears to pieces,
the young ones within, where developed, may be heard uttering a
plaintive cry, whilst she sounds a triumphant note as loud as the
highest note of a flute. Her throne is now free from pretenders, and
after the expulsion of the drones, which then takes place, the entire
harmony of the hive is restored for another season. The queen meanwhile
is growing old, a new spring has set in, her stock of eggs is being
exhausted, and mortality, which afflicts even royalty itself, lays her
low. Now comes into operation that extraordinary faculty possessed by
these insects. Her death has taken place after she had laid new spring
eggs, which are to produce a further addition of neuters and a supply of
drones. The loss of their queen is soon communicated to the inhabitants
of the hive, confusion ensues, and labour is suspended. They group about
in clusters of a dozen or more, and after about a day’s intermission of
the ordinary routine of labour they appear to have come to a resolution.
Bustle is again renewed, and several, as the delegates of the general
body, pass into the midst of the neuter brood cells, tear down the
separating walls of three, kill two of the very young larvæ, convert
these three cells into one by fitting alterations, and transfer the care
of this vermicle to the nursing-bees. Under their care, they heedfully
feeding her with the royal jelly, her transformations speedily are
completed, and whilst this is being done, drones are coming forth. As
soon as she is ready she is aided to quit her cell. She now leaves the
hive, and the drones which are already perfected accompany her; she
makes her wedding tour in the air, and quickly returns as the
queen-regnant of the rejoicing monarchy, whose vacant throne is again
royally occupied, and the entire harmony of the hive renewed.

The quantity of pollen that is collected in the course of a season, by
the diligence of the bees, has been estimated at from sixty to seventy
pounds; and the weight of the honey, so affluent a hive will produce by
abstraction from the bees, is calculated at as much as sometimes fifty
pounds. This, however, must be vastly exceeded by the quantity
collected, as it is being constantly consumed for sustenance, and for
the secretion of the raw material of wax, as well as for the production
of the liquid which converts this into its mouldable consistency. It is
possible to estimate pretty nearly the quantity of honey required for
each secretion of the raw material, by finding what the honey-bag will
contain when gorged, as it is this quantity which seems to make the
eight scales of it upon the ventral plates, for they cannot convey more
up when they hang themselves in the festoons to secern it. But it is
impossible to know what addition this liquid from their mouths makes to
it when they manipulate it into its plastic state, other bees often
undertaking this task, which may apply themselves to it with a larger
stock than the wax secreters possess, they being perhaps already
exhausted by their labours. It is a singular fact that wax is more
rapidly and largely made by feeding the bees with dissolved sugar than
from the honey they collect themselves, the sugar thus evidently
containing more of its productive elements.

Some of the labours within the hive are apparently continued at night,
or the bees may be then revelling, after the day’s toils, in social
enjoyment, or otherwise more worthily employed; for, to use the words of
the benevolent apiarian, the Rev. Wm. Chas. Cotton, “If you listen by a
hive about nine o’clock, you will hear an oratorio sweeter than any at
Exeter Hall. Treble, tenor, and bass are blended in the richest harmony.
Sometimes the sound is like the distant hum of a great city, and
sometimes it is like a peal of hallelujahs.”

This is the history of the hive and its inhabitants. Modifications may
occasionally occur, but nothing of sufficient consequence seriously to
affect or neutralize this ordinary routine. It would occupy space
already too largely encroached upon to go into these minute particulars,
which, although parts of their general history, where treated of in
special detail, are not necessarily the province of a work which speaks
of them as but one member of the family of which it collectively
discourses. As the space occupied by what was really essential to be
known about them, has exceeded the due dimensions of their share to it,
although of paramount interest, infinitely greater than that which
attaches to the economy of the whole of the rest of the group combined,
it will not, I trust, be considered that I terminate abruptly, in
drawing here to a close.

                             --------------

The close of the work concurs with the termination of the history of its
crowning marvel; and I take leave of my readers, with a reiteration of
the hope that it may stimulate them to undertake a study, wherein, each
step of their progress, expands the delightful contemplation of the
manifestations of the predominance of a vast design, emanating from the
paternal benevolence of an august, supreme, and wisely superintending
Providence.

         “To-morrow to fresh woods and pastures new.”—_Milton._



                       [Illustration: Decoration]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                     GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX.


 Abdomen, 25.
   and its differences of form, 47.
   causes of differences of clothing and form lie in its use, 48.
   colour and marking and clothing of, characteristic, 47.
   elliptical, or lanceolate and truncated, 48.

 Acari infest bees, 110.

 Activity of a hive at work, 348.

 Acuminate, terminating gradually in a sharp point.

 Affinity, doctrine of, 136.

 Agassiz’ ‘Nomenclator Zoologicus,’ 130.

 Analogies between the stages of bees and flowers, 15.

 Analogy, doctrine of, 138.

 Andrena, general observations upon, 264
   geography of, 67.
   infested by Stylops and Nomada, 208.
   list of native species, 201.
   natural history of, 205.
   scientific description of, 200.

 Andrenidæ, abnormal bees, 160.
   diagram of mode of folding the tongue in repose, 39.

 Animals, domestication of, 5.

 Antennæ, 26, 28.
   apparatus for cleaning, 42.
   form and structure in Eucera, 29.
   possible complex function of, 57.

 Antennæ, sexual differences in length, 233.
   their probable use, 55, 57.
   used as means of communication, 58.

 Anthidium, general observations on, 281.
   geography of, 75.
   native species, 279.
   natural history of, 282.
   scientific description of, 279.

 Anthocopa, general observations on, 292.
   geography of, 76.
   native species of, 292.
   natural history of, 293.
   scientific description of, 290.

 Anthophora, general observations on, 238.
   geography of, 70.
   infested by Melecta, 240.
   list of native species, 238.
   natural history of, 238.
   scientific description of, 236.
   trophi of, 29.

 Apathus, general observations on, 304.
   geography of, 77.
   list of native species, 304.
   scientific description of, 302.
   the Bombi they infest, 306.

 Apidæ, diagram of the mode of folding the tongue in repose, 39.
   = normal bees, 160, 227.

 Apis, general observations on, 321.
   geography of, 79.
   native species, 321.
   natural history of, 322.
   origin of names, 321.
   scientific description of, 318.
   see “Bee” and “Bees.”

 Appearance of bees intermittent, 54.

 Appendiculated, when there is a small appendage, as in the lip of
    Halictus, and at the end of the marginal cell of the wings, etc.

 Arrangement and description of British bees, 184.

 Artesian well, peculiar results from its soil, 223.

 Articulate, where jointed, or the point of attachment.

 Artisan bees = Dasygasters, 272.

 Aryans, one of the primitive divisions of the human race, 4.

 Atmosphere, its conditions affect bees, 50.

 Aulacus, 287.

 Auriculated, with a small ear-like appendage.

 Bee, constructive habits of the, early noticed, 93.
   general history of the, 17.
   parasites, 115.
   parasitism limited, 264.
   probably earlier known to man than the silkworm, 6.
   Queen, description of, 322.
   see “Apis.”
   several species of, 87.
   symbol of royalty with the Egyptians, 5.
   The, one of the Suras of the Koran, 90.
   why attractive, 1.

 Bee-bread, 347.

 Bees, amount of their susceptibility of pain, 57.
   construction of cells, 327.
   duties performed in the hive, 325.
   duties transferable, 336.
   early cultivated, 3, 90, 91.
   economy, early known, 92.
   emit an odour, 52.
   enemies, 51.
   extent of flight, 340.
   flight, modes of, varies, 49.
   found in the Orkneys, 7.
   genera of, determined by an artificial mode, 170.
   habits of, in America, 7.
   hairiness of, reason of, 14.
   intimately connected with flowers, 3.
   largely contribute to the impregnation of plants, 11.
   make about ten journeys a day, 351.
   many disclosed in autumn for the following year’s spring flight, 53.
   not early risers, 51.
   number of eyes, 355.
   other than social, also known, 8.
   rarely walk, 50.
   sagacity in finding the honey of flowers, 13.
   scientific arrangement and description of the genera of, 184.
   secretion of wax, 325.
   stages of life of,—
     egg, 18.
     larva, 19.
     pupa, 22.
     imago, 23.
   swarming, 337.
   their relative perfection, 56.
   voice, a scale of music, 49.

 Beehive represented on a tomb at Thebes, 6.

 Beehives moved on rafts, 84.

 Bifid, divided into two parts.

 Binomial system invented by Linnæus, 129.

 Body of the bee, its structure, 25.

 Bombus, difficulty in determining the species of the males, 311.
   general observations on, 310.
   geography of, 78.
   infested by _Apathus_, 311.
   list of native species, 308.
   natural history of, 312.
   peculiarities in times of appearance, 312.
   scientific description of, 307.

 Boss of mesothorax, 45.

 Bougie, derivation of, 84.

 British bees, new arrangement of, 153, 158.

 Carder-bees, 316.

 Carelessness of describers of new species, 125.

 Carinated, having a longitudinal elevated line.

 Carpenter bees, 286.

 Cells of hive, geometrical form of, 343.
   results from instinct, 343.
   how constructed, 342.
   of wings characteristic, 44.

 Cenobites = social bees, 167, 302.

 Ceratina, disputed parasitism of, 247.
   general observations on, 246.
   geography of, 71.
   list of native species, 246.
   natural history of, 247.
   scientific description of, 245.

 Cereal plants early cultivated, 4.

 Chelostoma, general observations on, 286.
   geography of, 76.
   infested by Fœnus, 287.
   native species of, 285.
   natural history of, 286.
   scientific description of, 283.

 Chrysis infests Chelostoma, 287.
   infests Halictus, 219.
   infests Osmia, 302.

 Cibarial apparatus = trophi = collective organs of the mouth, 163.

 Cilissa, general observations on, 213.
   geography of, 67.
   list of native species, 213.
   scientific description of, 211.

 Clavate, club-shaped.
   antennæ, 28.

 Claws, 42.
   reflected, 285.

 Climate inoperative on low forms of life, 24.

 Clothing of bees, 60.

 Clypeus, 26, 28.

 Coadunate, closely united without perceptible articulation.

 Cœlioxys, difficulty of their specific separation, 267.
   general observations on, 267.
   geography of, 74.
   list of native species, 267.
   parasitical on Megachile and Saropoda, 267.
   scientific description of, 265.

 Collar, 41.

 Colletes, general observations on, 187.
   geography of, 64.
   list of native species, 187.
   natural history of, 187.
   parasites upon, 190.
   scientific description of, 185.

 Colour of bees, 60.
   more intense in males than females, 52.
   most conspicuous in parasites, 66, 105.

 Combs, structure of, 345.

 Corbiculum, 319.

 Correlative relations of structure and function, 10.

 Cotton, Rev. Chas. Wm., a distinguished apiarian, 361.

 Coxa, or hip, 41.
   useful as a specific character, 42.

 Compound eyes, 26, 27.

 Compressed, when the transverse section is shorter than the vertical.

 Constricted, with tightened edges.

 Conterminous, where the joints follow each other in a straight line of
    succession.

 Crenulated, cut into segments of very small circles.

 Cubital cells of wings, 45.

 cuckoo-bees = Nudipedes, 249.

 ‘Cui bono?’ answer to, 141.

 Curtis, inferior merit of his system, 152.

 Dasygasters, artisan bees, 167, 269.

 Dasypoda, general observations on, 225.
   geography of, 69.
   native species, 225.
   natural history of, 226.
   scientific description of, 224.

 Deflected, when bent downwards.

 Dentate, toothed.

 Depressed, when the vertical section is shorter than the transverse.

 Describers, duties of, 125.

 Describing, modes of, before Linnæus, 129.

 Differences of appearance between the parasite and the sitos, 260.

 Digiti, anterior tarsi, 42.

 Dissimilarity frequent between the sexes, 52.

 Domestication of animals, 5.

 Dorylus, 311.

 Drone = male bee, description of, 323.

 Edentate, without teeth.

 Egg of bees, 18.

 Egyptian hieroglyphics and sculptures represent the bee, 6.

 Elenchus, habits of, described by Dale, 113.
   infests Halictus, 113, 219.

 Elliptical, oval but with the longitudinal diameter more than twice the
    length of the transverse.

 Enemies of bees, 51.

 Epeolus, general observations on, 260.
   geography of, 73.
   native species, 260.
   parasitical on Colletes, 190, 260.
   scientific description of, 258.

 Epipharynx, 29, 30.

 Eucera, general observations on, 232.
   geography of, 70.
   infested by Nomada sexcincta, 235.
   native species, 232.
   natural history of, 234.
   scientific description of, 231.

 Face of bees, 26, 27.

 Families, characteristics of, differ, 136.

 Family, 134.

 Feeling of bees, 56.

 Femur, or thigh, 41.

 Fertilization of flowers produced by bees, 11, 51.

 Feuds of animals, the occasion of, 352.

 Filiform, thread-like, of uniform thickness.
   antennæ, 28.

 Fimbriated, = fringed.

 Flagellum of antennæ, 18.

 Flight of bees, variation of their modes, 49.

 Floral clock of Linnæus, 50.

 Flowers, the, chiefly agreeable to bees, 15.
   earliest, sought by the bees, 14.
   fertilized by bees, 11, 51.

 Fœnus infests Chelostoma, 287.

 Forcipate, when crossing each other.

 Foreign bees, conspicuous genera of, 101.

 Form of parasitical bees often adapted to that of their sitos, 48.
   determined by function, 48.

 Fossorial Hymenoptera, 45.

 Fruit preserved in honey, 83.

 Fusiform, = spindle-shaped.

 Genæ, 26, 28.

 Genera of bees determined artificially, 176.
   that emit scents, 296.
   with and without parasites, 264.

 Geniculated, bent like a knee or angle.

 Genus, 132.
   type of, 133.

 Geography of the British genera of bees, 61.

 Gibbous, = irregularly swollen.

 Glabrous, without hair or pubescence.

 Gregarious, its application to bees, 57.

 Habit, 127.

 Habitat, 127.

 Habits, 127.
   and structure correlative, 24.

 Halictophagus, 115.

 Halictus, general observations on, 216.
   geography of, 68.
   its enemies, 220.
   list of native species, 215.
   natural history of, 217.
   parasites that infest it, 219.
   peculiar autumnal appearance, 218.
   scientific description of, 214.
   structure of labrum, 30.

 Hastate, halberd shaped.

 Head of bees, 26.

 Hedychrum infests Halictus, 219.

 Heriades, general observations on, 288.
   geography of, 76.
   native species of, 288.
   scientific description of, 288.

 Hindoo Koosh, supposed cradle of the human race, 3.

 Hirsute, covered with long stiffish hairs, thickly set.

 Hives, darkness of, 355.
   moved on rafts, 85.

 Homer mentions bees, 6.

 Honey, different kinds of, 87.
   green, 87.
   its use in the East, 83.
   mode of lapping, described by Réaumur, 35.
   mode of storing, 350.
   prescribed by Mahomet, 91.
   quantity in a well-filled hive, 360.
   sometimes poisonous, 86.
   used in medicine by the Egyptians, 90.

 Honey-bee, see “Apis,” “Bee,” “Bees.”
     mode of secreting wax, 330.

 Hypopharynx, 29.

 Imago of bees, 23.

 Inosculation, point of close contact or attachment.

 Insect-feeding reptiles before glacial period, 5.

 Inserted, where joined.

 Instinct, its applications, 56.
   occasional divergence of, 55.
   of bees, 55.

 Job mentions bees, 6.

 Kirby’s merits, 144.
   system of bees, 147.

 Labial palpi, 30, 32.
   number of joints invariable, 32.
   structure in Andrenidæ, 32.
   structure in Apidæ, 32.

 Labium = lower lip, 30, 31.

 Labrum = upper lip, 28, 30.

 Lacerate, with a roughened irregular edge.

 Lanceolate, oblong but gradually tapering.

 Latreille’s classification not adopted, 168.

 Leg, diagram of, 42.

 Legs, general description of, 41.

 Length of an insect is taken from the front of the head to the apex of
    the abdomen; the breadth, or the expansion of the wings, it is not
    usual to give, excepting under such circumstances as would be
    particularly mentioned, viz. in cases of an excessive enlargement or
    diminishment of the typical size.

 Life, duration of, of bees, 54.

 Line, the twelfth part of an inch; the ordinary measure used in
    entomology for the fractions of an inch, unless the insect is much
    more than an inch long.

 Linnæus, author of the binomial system, 129.
   great merits of, 129.

 Lobated, divided into equal rounded parts.

 Low forms of life unaffected by climate, 24.

 Lunate, semicircular.

 Lunulate, crescent-shaped.

 Macropis, general observations on, 222.
   geography of, 68.
   native species, 221.
   scientific description of, 220.
   strong analogy to the Scopulipedes, 222.

 Maculæ indicantes, 13.

 Mahomet prescribes honey, 91.

 Males, how to be united to their partners, 179.

 Mandibles, 30, 40.
   used for boring, 44.

 Marginal cells of wings, 45.

 Marginate, edged with a ridge.

 Mason bees, 296.

 Maxillæ, 30, 31.

 Maxillary palpi, 30, 32.
   number of joints invariable in Andrenidæ, 32.
   number of joints variable in the Apidæ, 32.

 Megachile, general observations on, 272.
   geography of, 74.
   infested by Cœlioxys, 275.
   list of native species, 271.
   natural history of, 273.
   scientific description of, 269.

 Melecta, general observations on, 255.
   geography of, 72.
   list of native species, 255.
   parasitical on Anthophora, 240.
   scientific description of, 255.
   very pugnacious, 258.

 Melittobia, a parasite upon Anthophora, 241.

 Meloë proscarabæus, parasitical on bees, 110.
   said to infest Andrena, 209.

 Mesothorax, 26, 44.

 Metallic colouring of bees, 248.

 Metathorax, 26.

 Metropolis, 128.

 Miltogramma, parasitical upon Colletes, 190.

 Mode of killing coloured insects, 253.

 Moniliform, bead-like.
   antennæ, 129.

 Monodontomerus, parasitical on Anthophora and Osmia, 302.

 Moths help to fertilize flowers, 13.

 Motives for new arrangement, 163.

 Mouth, organs of = trophi = cibarial apparatus, 163.

 Mucronated, having one or more short stout processes.

 Mutilla, parasitical on bees, 117.

 Names usually given from a sexual peculiarity, 232.

 Natural history, attractions of, 141.
   modes of treating, 140.

 Natural system, 139.

 Nature, its large operations, 8.

 Nectaria of plants indicated to bees by a difference of colour, 12.

 Nervures of wings, 44.

 Nomada, general observations on, 252.
   geography of, 72.
   intermittent appearance of N. Fabriciana, 230.
   list of native species, 250.
   scientific description of, 249.
   sexcincta infests Eucera, 235.
   the bees infested by them, 253.

 Nomenclature simplified by Linnæus, 130.

 Nudipedes, = cuckoo-bees or parasites, 116, 167, 249.

 Nylander’s mode of determining the species of Cœlioxys, 268.

 Obsolete, more or less inapparent.

 Ocelli = simple eyes = stemmata, 26, 27.

 Oman, no bees in the province of, 84.

 Osmia, general observations on, 296.
   geography of, 76.
   list of native species, 295.
   natural history of, 296.
   parasites of, 302.
   scientific description of, 294.

 Ovate, oval, but with the ends circumscribed by unequal segments of
    circles.

 Ovipositor = egg-depositor, 17.

 Pain, doubtful susceptibility of, 57.

 Palmæ, 41.

 Palmated, spread like a hand.

 Palpi, their probable use, 55.

 Panurgus, general observations on, 229.
   geography of, 69.
   infested by Nomada Fabriciana, 230.
   list of native species, 228.
   natural history of, 229.
   scientific description of, 227.

 Paraglossæ, 33.
   obsolete in the artisan bees, 33.
   where attached, 33.

 Parasites, different kinds of, 110.
   of bees, 109.

 Parasitical bees always the most highly coloured, 66, 105.
   unlike the sitos, 116.
   Cenobites, 302.

 Passions of bees, 56.

 Pecten or comb, a fringe of very short stiff hair attached to an organ,
    for various purposes.

 Pectinated, having an edge like a comb.

 Pediculus Melittæ, 209.

 Petiole, a foot stalk.

 Pharynx, 29, 30.

 Pile, long loose hair.

 Pilose, with long, distinct, flexible hair.

 Plantæ, 42, 46.
   structure of, in hive bee, 46.

 Plants agreeable to bees, 15.
   impregnated by bees, 11.

 Pleasures attending the pursuit of natural history, 14.

 Plumose, with long hair, but not thick.

 Pollen, collection of, 351.

 Pollen, mode of collecting and transferring from limb to limb, 43.
   probable reasons for the ways of carrying, 47.
   quantity usually collected, 360.

 Polliniferous, = pollen-collecting.

 Posterior legs, their structure for the conveyance of pollen, 46.
   where attached, 46.

 Post-scutellum, 26, 45.

 Priority, law of, the basis of synonymy, 131.

 Proboscis, 39.

 Process, a protuberance.

 Processes in bees, peculiarities of, 258.

 Propolis, nature of, 340.

 Prosopis emits an agreeable odour, 195.
   general observations upon, 193.
   geography of, 65.
   list of native species, 192.
   presumed parasitism of, 193.
   scientific description of, 191.
   supposed liable to Stylops, 195.

 Prothorax, 26, 41.

 Pubescent, covered with short fine hair.

 Pubescent, hirsute, setose, pilose, plumose, various relative
    conditions of hairiness.

 Pulvillus, 42.

 Punctate, impressed with many points.

 Punctulate, with fine impressed points.

 Punctured, with coarsely impressed points.

 Pupa of bees, 22.

 Queen-bee, administrative function of, 336.
   and worker constitute a unity, 331.
   description of, 322.
   etiquette of attendants, 329.

 Queen-bee, great fertility of, 334.
   loss of, disorganizes the hive, 335.
   number of eggs laid by, 346.

 Ray’s merits, 142.

 Réaumur’s description of the mode of lapping honey, 35.
   description of the structure of the tongue, 35.

 Recurrent nervures of wings, 45.

 Retuse, with an obtuse cavity.

 Ridged, with a slight projecting margin.

 Rugose, rough or irregularly wrinkled.

 St. Fargeau’s merits, 151.

 Sanskrit notice of bees and honey, 92.

 Saropoda, general observations, 243.
   geography of, 71.
   native species of, 243.
   rapidity of flight, 245.
   scientific description of, 242.
   vivacity of its eyes, 244.

 Scape of antennæ, 28.

 Scent emitted by bees, 52.

 Scientific arrangement and description of the genera, 184.
   principles of, 118.
   cultivation of British bees, 142.

 Scopulipedes = brush-legged bees, 163, 227.

 Sculpture, 60.

 Scutellum, 26, 45.

 Senses of bees, 56.

 Sensorium of bees, 55.

 Serrate, edged like a saw.

 Serratulate, edged like a fine saw.

 Setæ, slightish bristles.

 Setiform, like bristles.

 Setose, bristled.

 Shakespeare on the polity of the bee, 1.

 Shemitic branch of the human race, 4.

 Sight of bees, 56.

 Simple eyes = ocelli = stemmata, 26, 27.

 Sinus, a cavity.

 Sitos, the supporter of a parasitical bee.

 Sizes, differences of, what caused by, 41.

 Smell of bees, 56.

 Social bees = Cenobites, 302.

 Species, 122.
   name of, 128.
   the basis of natural science, 121.
   vary in number of individuals, 123.

 Specific character, 124.
   descriptions, 125.
   differences, 123.

 Sphecodes, difficulty of specific distinction in, 198.
   doubts as to its parasitism, 199.
   general observations on, 197.
   geography of, 66.
   list of native species, 197.
   scientific description of, 196.

 Spines at apex of abdomen of bees, 268.

 Spinose, with minute spiny processes.

 Spinulose, with fine spiny processes.

 Spiral hair of the scopa, 226, 229.

 Spurs, 42.

 Squamulæ = epaulettes = wing-scales, 26, 44.

 State of Great Britain before the glacial period, 5.

 Stelis, general observations on, 263.
   geography of, 73.
   infests Osmia, 302.
   list of native species, 263.
   scientific description of, 262.

 Stemmata = simple eyes = ocelli, 26, 27.

 Stephens, inferior merit of his system, 152.

 Strepsiptera parasitical on bees, 111.

 Strigilis, 42.

 Structure and habits correlative, 24.
   of the body of the bee, 25.
   similarity of, caused by direct and proximate affinities, 48.

 Stylops infests Andrena, 208.
   infests Halictus, 219.
   Kirby’s description of, 112.
   manners of, described by Thwaites, 114.
   some particulars of its history, 208.

 Sub, a prefix indicating the diminution of a condition, as subhastate,
    subovate, subtruncate, etc. etc.

 Submarginal cells of wings, 45.

 Swarming, 358.

 Synonymy, 130.

 System, value of, 119.

 Tarsus of fore legs in some males greatly dilated, 43.
   or foot, 41.

 Taste of bees, 56.

 Thorax, 26, 41.

 Tibia, or shank, 41.

 Tomb at Thebes with representation of a beehive, 6.

 Tongue improperly called labium, 34.
   of Andrenidæ folded in repose, 39.
   of Apidæ folded in repose, 39.
   once thought tubular, 34.
   where situated, description of it, 33.

 Topical geography of British bees, 96.

 Tooth, a long sharp process.

 Toothed, spinose, spinulose, tuberculated, mucronated, dentate, the
    various conditions of extraneous prominences or processes.

 Transformations of worker bee, 347.
   of the drone, 356.
   of the Queen, 357.

 Transverso-cubital nervures of wings, 45.

 Travellers, suggestions to, 64, 95.

 Trifid, divided into three parts.

 Trivial name, 128.

 Trochanter, 41.

 Trophi = organs of the mouth, 26, 29.
   diagram of, 30.

 Truncated, abruptly terminated.

 Tuberculated, with small processes.

 Turonian branch of the human race, 4.

 Uses of bees in the impregnation of plants, 11.

 Vedas mention bees, 6.

 Velum, 42.

 Ventilation of the hives, 328.

 Ventral segments, peculiarities of structure of, 234.

 Vernacular names of insects, 9.

 Vertex, 26.

 Vertigo of bees, 87.

 Voice of bees, 49.

 Wagtails destroy fossorial Hymenoptera, 306.

 Wax, secretion of, 325.

 Wax used by the Romans, 85.

 Westwood’s classification not adopted, 168.

 Wild bees, 8.
   come forth early in the spring, 10.

 Will of bees, 56.

 Willughby’s merits, 143.

 Wing, treatise on the, 45.

 Wing-hooklets for uniting the upper and lower wings, 45.

 Wing-scales = squamulæ, 26.

 Wings, 44.
   diagram of, 45.

 Worker bee, description of, 324.
   duties performed by, 325.
   peculiarities of structure, 330.
   secretion of wax, 325.

 Xenophon’s description of poisonous honey, 86.

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                PLATE I.

    1 ♂. Colletes Daviesiana, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "          "      _female_.
    2 ♂. Prosopis dilatata, _male_.
    2 ♀. Prosopis signata, _female_.
    3 ♂. Sphecodes gibbus, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "         "     _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate I. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE II.

    1 ♂. Andrena fulva, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "      "    _female_.
    2 ♂. Andrena cineraria, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "        "      _female_.
    3 ♂. Andrena nitida, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "       "     _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate II. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE III.

    1 ♂. Andrena Rosæ, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "       "   _female_.
    2 ♂. Andrena longipes, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "       "       _female_.
    3 ♂.Andrena cingulata, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "       "       _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate III. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE IV.

    1 ♂. Halictus xanthopus, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "       "         _female_.
    2 ♂. Halictus flavipes, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "       "        _female_.
    3 ♂. Halictus minutissimus, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "       "            _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate IV. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                PLATE V.

    1 ♂. Cilissa tricincta, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "         "     _female_.
    2 ♂. Macropis labiata, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "         "    _female_.
    3 ♂. Dasypoda hirtipes, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "         "     _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate V. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE VI.

    1 ♂. Panurgus Banksianus, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "        "        _female_.
    2 ♂. Eucera longicornis, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "        "       _female_.
    3 ♂. Anthophora retusa, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "        "      _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate VI. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE VII.

    1 ♂. Anthophora furcata, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "         "      _female_.
    2 ♂. Saropoda bimaculata, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "         "       _female_.
    3 ♂. Ceratina cærulea, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "         "    _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate VII. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              PLATE VIII.

    1 ♂. Nomada Goodeniana, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "       "        _female_.
    2 ♂. Nomada Lathburiana, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "       "         _female_.
    3 ♂. Nomada sexfasciata, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "       "         _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate VIII. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE IX.

    1 ♂. Nomada signata, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "       "     _female_.
    2 ♂. Nomada Fabriciana, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "       "        _female_.
    3 ♂. Nomada flavoguttata, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "       "          _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate IX. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                PLATE X.

    1 ♂. Nomada Jacobææ, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "      "     _female_.
    2 ♂. Nomada Solidaginis, _male_.
    2 ♂*  (should be ♀). "  _female_.
    3 ♂. Nomada lateralis, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "      "       _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate X. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE XI.

    1 ♂. Melecta punctata, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "        "      _female_.
    2 ♂. Epeolus variegatus, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "        "        _female_.
    3 ♂. Stelis phæoptera, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "        "      _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate XI. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE XII.

    1 ♂. Cœlioxys Vectis, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "         "   _female_.
    2 ♂. Megachile maritima, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "         "      _female_.
    3 ♂. Megachile argentata, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "         "       _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate XII. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              PLATE XIII.

    1 ♂. Anthidium manicatum, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "         "        _female_.
    2 ♂. Chelostoma florisomne, _male_.
    2 ♀.    "         "          _female_.
    3 ♂. Heriades truncorum, _male_.
    3 ♀.    "         "       _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate XIII. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE XIV.

    1 ♂. Osmia bicolor, _male_.
    1 ♀.   "      "     _female_.
    2 ♂. Anthocopa Papaveris, _male_.
    2 ♀.   "      "           _female_.
    3 ♂. Osmia leucomelana, _male_.
    3 ♀.   "      "         _female_.

    [Illustration: Plate XIV. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE XV.

    1 ♂. Apathus rupestris, _male_.
    1 ♀.    "        "       _female_.
    2 ♂ (should be ♀). Apathus campestris, _female_.
    2 ♀. Apathus vestalis, _female_.
    3 ♀. Bombus fragrans, _female_.
    4 ♂.   "    Soroensis (var. Burrellanus), _male_.

    [Illustration: Plate XV. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               PLATE XVI.

    1 ♀. Bombus Harrisellus, _female_.
    2 ♀.   "    Lapponicus, _female_.
    3 ♀.   "    sylvarum, _female_.
    4 ♂. Apis mellifica, _male_.
    4 ♀.   "     "       _female_.
    4 ⚲.    "     "       _neuter_.

    [Illustration: Plate XVI. E. W. Robinson, Delineavit et Sculpsit
        1866.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                          LOVELL REEVE & CO.’S

                            PUBLICATIONS IN

                    Botany, Conchology, Entomology,

                    CHEMISTRY, TRAVELS, ANTIQUITIES,

                                  ETC.

          “None can express Thy works but he that knows them;
          And none can know Thy works, which are so many
          And so complete, but only he that owes them.”
                             _George Herbert._

                       [Illustration: Decoration]

                                LONDON:
       LOVELL REEVE AND CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

                                 1866.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               CONTENTS.

                                -------

                                             PAGE
                       BOTANY                   3
                       FERNS AND MOSSES         9
                       SEAWEEDS                10
                       FUNGI                   11
                       SHELLS AND MOLLUSKS     12
                       INSECTS                 14
                       TRAVELS                 15
                       ANTIQUARIAN             16
                       MISCELLANEOUS           18
                       WORKS IN PREPARATION    19

      _All Books sent post-free to any part of the United Kingdom
          on receipt of a remittance for the published price._

            _Post-Office Orders to be made payable at_ KING
                         STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

                                -------

                             LIST OF WORKS
                              PUBLISHED BY
                           LOVELL REEVE & CO.

                                -------

                                BOTANY.

                                  ---

  HANDBOOK OF THE BRITISH FLORA; a Description of the Flowering Plants
      and Ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in, the British Isles. For
      the Use of Beginners and Amateurs. By GEORGE BENTHAM, F.R.S.,
      President of the Linnean Society. Crown 8vo, 680 pp., 12_s_.

Distinguished for its terse and clear style of description; for the
introduction of a system of Analytical Keys, which enable the student to
determine the family and genus of a plant at once by the observation of
its more striking characters; and for the valuable information here
given for the first time of the geographical range of each species in
foreign countries.

                             --------------

  HANDBOOK OF THE BRITISH FLORA, ILLUSTRATED EDITION; a Description
      (with a Wood-Engraving, including dissections, of each species) of
      the Flowering Plants and Ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in,
      the British Isles. By GEORGE BENTHAM, F.R.S., President of the
      Linnean Society. Demy 8vo, 2 vols., 1154, pp. 1295
      Wood-Engravings, from Original Drawings by W. Fitch. £3. 10_s_.

An illustrated edition of the foregoing Work, in which every species is
accompanied by an elaborate Wood-Engraving of the Plant, with
dissections of its leading structural peculiarities.

                             --------------

  THE FIELD BOTANIST’S COMPANION; a Familiar Account, in the Four
      Seasons, of the most common of the Wild Flowering Plants of the
      British Isles. By THOMAS MOORE, F.L.S. One volume, Demy 8vo, 424
      pp.. With 24 Coloured Plates, by W. FITCH, 21_s_.

An elegantly-illustrated volume, intended for Beginners, describing the
plants most readily gathered in our fields and hedge-rows, with the
progress of the seasons. Dissections of the parts of the flowers are
introduced among the Figures, so that an insight may be readily obtained
not only of the Species and name of each plant, but of its structure and
characters of classification.

                             --------------

  CURTIS’S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, comprising the Plants of the Royal
      Gardens of Kew, and of other Botanical Establishments. By Dr. J.
      D. HOOKER, F.R.S., Director of the Royal Gardens. Royal 8vo.
      Published Monthly, with 6 Plates, 3_s_. 6_d_. coloured. Vol. XXII.
      of the Third Series (being Vol. XCII. of the entire work) in
      course of publication. A Complete Set from the commencement may be
      had.

Descriptions and Drawings, beautifully coloured by hand, of
newly-discovered plants suitable for cultivation in the Garden,
Hothouse, or Conservatory.

                             --------------

  THE FLORAL MAGAZINE, containing Figures and Descriptions of New
      Popular Garden Flowers. By the Rev. H. HONYWOOD DOMBRAIN, A.B.
      Imperial 8vo. Published Monthly, with 4 Plates, 2_s_. 6_d_.
      coloured. Vol. I. to IV., each with 64 plates, £2. 2_s_.

Descriptions and Drawings, beautifully coloured by hand, of new
varieties of Flowers raised by the nurserymen for cultivation in the
Garden, Hothouse, or Conservatory.

                             --------------

  THE TOURIST’S FLORA; a Descriptive Catalogue of the Flowering Plants
      and Ferns of the British Islands, France, Germany, Switzerland,
      Italy, and the Italian Islands. By JOSEPH WOODS, F.L.S. Demy 8vo,
      504 pp., 18_s_.

Designed to enable the lover of botany to determine the names of any
wild plants he may meet with while journeying in our own country and the
countries of the Continent most frequented by tourists. The author’s aim
has been to make the descriptions clear and distinct, and to comprise
them within a volume of not inconvenient bulk.

                             --------------

  CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF MENTONE. By J. TRAHERNE MOGGRIDGE. Royal
      8vo. Parts I. and II., each, 25 Coloured Plates, 15_s_.

In this work a full page is devoted to the illustration of each Species,
the drawings being made by the author from specimens collected by him on
the spot, and they exhibit in vivid colours the beautiful aspect which
many of our wild flowers assume south of the Alps.

                             --------------

  A FLORA OF ULSTER, AND BOTANIST’S GUIDE TO THE NORTH OF IRELAND. By G.
      DICKIE, M.D., F.L.S., Professor of Botany in the University of
      Aberdeen. A pocket volume, pp. 176, 3_s_.

A small volume, not exclusively of local interest, containing, as it
does, much valuable information relative to the geographical and
altitudinal range of the Species.

                             --------------

  A SECOND CENTURY OF ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS, selected from the subjects
      published in Curtis’ ‘Botanical Magazine’ since the issue of the
      ‘First Century.’ Edited by JAMES BATEMAN, Esq., F.R.S. Royal 4to.
      Parts I. to III., each with 10 Coloured Plates, 10_s_. 6_d_., now
      ready.

During the fifteen years that have elapsed since the publication of the
‘Century of Orchidaceous Plants,’ now out of print, the ‘Botanical
Magazine’ has been the means of introducing to the public nearly two
hundred of this favourite tribe of plants not hitherto described and
figured, or very imperfectly so. It is intended from these to select “a
Second Century,” and the descriptions, written at the time of
publication by Sir W. J. Hooker, will be edited, and in many cases
re-written, agreeably with the present more advanced state of our
knowledge and experience in the cultivation of Orchidaceous plants, by
Mr. Bateman, the acknowledged successor of Dr. Lindley as the leading
authority in this department of botany and horticulture.

                             --------------

  MONOGRAPH OF ODONTOGLOSSUM, a Genus of the Vandeous Section of
      Orchidaceous Plants. By JAMES BATEMAN, Esq., F.R.S. Imperial
      folio, Parts I. to III., each with 5 Coloured Plates, and
      occasional Wood-Engravings, 21_s_.

Designed for the illustration, on an unusually magnificent scale, of the
new and beautiful plants of this favoured genus of _Orchidacea_, which
are being now imported from the mountain-chains of Mexico, Central
America, New Granada, and Peru.

                             --------------

  SELECT ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS. By ROBERT WARNER, F.R.H.S. With Notes on
      Culture by B. S. WILLIAMS. In Ten Parts, folio, each, with 4
      Coloured Plates, 12_s_. 6_d_.; or, complete in one vol., cloth
      gilt, £6. 6_s_.

Second Series, Part I., 3 Coloured Plates, 10_s_. 6_d_.

                             --------------

  PESCATOREA. Figures of Orchidaceous Plants, chiefly from the
      Collection of M. PESCATORE. Edited by M. LINDEN, with the
      assistance of MM. G. LUDDEMAN, J. E. PLANCHON, and M. G.
      REICHENBACH. Folio, 48 Coloured Plates, cloth, with morocco back,
      £5. 5_s_., or whole morocco, elegant, £6. 6_s_.

                             --------------

  THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYA; being an Account, Botanical and
      Geographical, of the Rhododendrons recently discovered in the
      Mountains of Eastern Himalaya, from Drawings and Descriptions made
      on the spot, by Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. By Sir W. J. HOOKER,
      F.R.S. Folio, 30 Coloured Plates, £3. 16_s_.

Illustrations on a superb scale of the new Sikkim Rhododendrons, now
being cultivated in England, accompanied by copious observations on
their distribution and habits.

                             --------------

  GENERA PLANTARUM, ad Exemplaria imprimis in Herbariis Kewensibus
      servata definita. By GEORGE BENTHAM, F.R.S., President of the
      Linnean Society, and Dr. J. D. HOOKER, F.R.S., Assistant-Director
      of the Royal Gardens, Kew. Vol. I. Part I. pp. 454. Royal 8vo,
      21_s_. Part II., 14_s_.

This important work comprehends an entire revision and reconstruction of
the Genera of Plants. Unlike the famous Genera Plantarum of Endlicher,
which is now out of print, it is founded on a personal study of every
genus by one or both authors. The First Part contains 56 Natural Orders
and 1287 Genera. The Second, now printing, will contain as many more.
The whole will be completed in Four or Five Parts.

                             --------------

  FLORA OF THE ANTARCTIC ISLANDS; being Part I. of the Botany of the
      Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,’ in
      the years 1839-1843. By Dr. J. D. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 4to. 2
      vols., 574 pp., 200 Plates, £10. 15_s_. coloured. Published under
      the authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

The ‘Flora Antarctica’ illustrates the Botany of the southern districts
of South America and the various Antarctic Islands, as the Falklands,
Kerguelen’s Land, Lord Auckland and Campbell’s Island, and 1370 species
are enumerated and described. The plates, which are executed by Mr.
Fitch, and beautifully coloured, illustrate 370 species, including a
vast number of exquisite forms of Mosses and Seaweeds.

                             --------------

  FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND; being Part II. of the Botany of the Antarctic
      Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,’ in the years
      1839-1843. By Dr. J. D. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 4to, 2 vols., 733
      pp., 130 Plates. £16. 16_s_. coloured. Published under the
      authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

The ‘Flora of New Zealand’ contains detailed descriptions of all the
plants, flowering and flowerless, of that group of Islands, collected by
the Author during Sir James Ross’ Antarctic Expedition; including also
the collections of Cook’s three voyages, Vancouver’s voyages, etc., and
most of them previously unpublished. The species described amount to
1767; and of the Plates, which illustrate 313 Species, many are devoted
to the Mosses, Ferns, and Algæ, in which these Islands abound.

                             --------------

  FLORA OF TASMANIA; being Part III. of the Botany of the Antarctic
      Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror,’ in the years
      1839-1843. By Dr. J. D. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 4to, 2 vols., 972
      pp., 200 Plates, £17. 10_s_., coloured. Published under the
      authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

The ‘Flora of Tasmania’ describes all the Plants, flowering and
flowerless, of that Island, consisting of 2203 Species, collected by the
Author and others. The Plates, of which there are 200, illustrate 412
Species.

                             --------------

  HANDBOOK OF THE NEW ZEALAND FLORA; a Systematic Description of the
      Native Plants of New Zealand, and the Chatham, Kermadec’s, Lord
      Auckland’s, Campbell’s, and Macquarrie’s Islands. By Dr. J. D.
      HOOKER, F.R.S. Demy 8vo, Part I., 475 pp., 16_s_. Published under
      the auspices of the Government of that colony. [_Part II. in the
      Press._

A compendious account of the plants of New Zealand and outlying islands,
published under the authority of the Government of that colony. The
present Part contains the Flowering Plants, Ferns, and Lycopods; the
Second Part, containing the remaining Orders of _Cryptogamia_, or
Flowerless Plants, with Index and Catalogues of Native Names and of
Naturalized Plants, will appear shortly.

                             --------------

  FLORA AUSTRALIENSIS; a Description of the Plants of the Australian
      Territory. By GEORGE BENTHAM, F.R.S., President of the Linnean
      Society, assisted by FERDINAND MUELLER, F.R.S., Government
      Botanist, Melbourne, Victoria. Demy 8vo. Vol. I. 566 pp., and vol.
      II. 530 pp., 20_s_. each. Published under the auspices of the
      several Governments of Australia. [_Vol. III. nearly ready._

Of this great undertaking, the present volumes, of more than a thousand
closely-printed pages, comprise about one-fourth. The materials are
derived not only from the vast collections of Australian plants brought
to this country by various botanical travellers, and preserved in the
herbaria of Kew and of the British Museum, including those hitherto
unpublished of Banks and Solander, of Captain Cook’s first Voyage, and
of Brown in Flinders’, but from the very extensive and more recently
collected specimens preserved in the Government Herbarium of Melbourne,
under the superintendence of Dr. Ferdinand Mueller. The descriptions are
written in plain English, and are masterpieces of accuracy and
clearness.

                             --------------

  FLORA HONGKONGENSIS; a Description of the Flowering Plants and Ferns
      of the Island of Hongkong. By GEORGE BENTHAM, P.L.S. With a Map of
      the Island. Demy 8vo, 550 pp., 16_s_. Published under the
      authority of Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for the Colonies.

The Island of Hongkong, though occupying an area of scarcely thirty
square miles, is characterized by an extraordinarily varied Flora,
partaking, however, of that of South Continental China, of which
comparatively little is known. The number of Species enumerated in the
present volume is 1056, derived chiefly from materials collected by Mr.
Hinds, Col. Champion, Dr. Hance, Dr. Harland, Mr. Wright, and Mr.
Wilford.

                             --------------

  FLORA OF THE BRITISH WEST INDIAN ISLANDS. By Dr. GRISEBACH, F.L.S.
      Demy 8vo, 806 pp., 37_s_. 6_d_. Published under the auspices of
      the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

Containing complete systematic descriptions of the Flowering Plants and
Ferns of the British West Indian Islands, accompanied by an elaborate
index of reference, and a list of Colonial names.

                             --------------

  FLORA VITIENSIS; a Description of the Plants of the Viti or Fiji
      Islands, with an Account of their History, Uses, and Properties.
      By Dr. BERTHOLD SEEMANN, F.L.S. Royal 4to, Parts I. to IV. each,
      10 Coloured Plates, 15_s_. To be completed in 10 Parts.

This work owes its origin to the Government Mission to Viti, to which
the author was attached as naturalist. In addition to the specimens
collected, the author has investigated all the Polynesian collections of
Plants brought to this country by various botanical explorers since the
voyage of Captain Cook.

                             --------------

  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE NUEVA QUINOLOGIA OF PAVON, with Observations on
      the Barks described. By J. E. HOWARD, F.L.S. With 27 Coloured
      Plates by W. FITCH. Imperial folio, half-morocco, gilt edges, £6.
      6_s_.

A superbly-coloured volume, illustrative of the most recent researches
of Pavon and his associates among the Cinchona Barks of Peru.

                             --------------

  ILLUSTRATIONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYAN PLANTS, chiefly selected from
      Drawings made in Sikkim, under the superintendence of the late J.
      F. CATHCART, Esq., Bengal Civil Service. The Botanical
      Descriptions and Analyses by Dr. J. D. HOOKER, F.R.S. Imperial
      folio, 24 Coloured Plates and an Illuminated Title-page by W.
      FITCH, £5. 5_s_.

                             --------------

  VICTORIA REGIA; or, Illustrations of the Royal Water Lily, in a series
      of Figures chiefly made from Specimens flowering at Syon and at
      Kew, by W. FITCH, with Descriptions by Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S.
      Elephant folio, 21_s_.

                             --------------

  THE LONDON JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Original Papers by eminent Botanists,
      Letters from Botanical Travellers, etc. Vol. VII., completing the
      Series. Demy 8vo, 23 Plates, 30_s_.

                             --------------

  JOURNAL OF BOTANY AND KEW MISCELLANY. Original Papers by eminent
      Botanists, Letters from Botanical Travellers, etc. Edited by Sir
      W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. Vols. IV. to IX., Demy 8vo, 12 Plates, £1.
      4_s_. A Complete Set of 9 vols., half-calf, _scarce_, £10. 16_s_.

                             --------------

  ICONES PLANTARUM. Figures, with brief Descriptive Characters and
      Remarks, of New and Rare Plants, selected from the Author’s
      Herbarium. By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. New Series, Vol. V., Royal
      8vo, 100 plates, 31_s_. 6_d_.

                              FERNS AND MOSSES.

                             --------------

  THE BRITISH FERNS; or, Coloured Figures and Descriptions, with the
      needful Analyses of the Fructification and Venation, of the Ferns
      of Great Britain and Ireland, systematically arranged. By Sir W.
      J. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 66 Plates, £2. 2_s_.

The British Ferns and their allies are illustrated in this work, from
the pencil of Mr. FITCH. Each Species has a Plate to itself, so that
there is ample room for the details, on a magnified scale, of
Fructification and Venation. The whole are delicately coloured by hand.
In the letterpress an interesting account is given with each species of
its geographical distribution in other countries.

                             --------------

  GARDEN FERNS; or, Coloured Figures and Descriptions, with the needful
      Analyses of the Fructification and Venation, of a Selection of
      Exotic Ferns, adapted for Cultivation in the Garden, Hothouse, and
      Conservatory. By Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 64 Plates,
      £2. 2_s_.

A companion volume to the preceding, for the use of those who take an
interest in the cultivation of some of the more beautiful and remarkable
varieties of Exotic Ferns. Here also each Species has a Plate to itself,
and the details of Fructification and Venation are given on a magnified
scale, the Drawings being from the pencil of Mr. FITCH.

                             --------------

  FILICES EXOTICÆ; or, Coloured Figures and Description of Exotic Ferns,
      chiefly of such as are cultivated in the Royal Gardens of Kew. By
      Sir W. J. HOOKER, F.R.S. Royal 4to, 100 Plates, £6. 11_s_.

One of the most superbly illustrated books of Foreign Ferns that has
been hitherto produced. The Species are selected both on account of
their beauty of form, singular structure, and their suitableness for
cultivation.

                             --------------

  FERNY COMBES; a Ramble after Ferns in the Glens and Valleys of
      Devonshire. By CHARLOTTE CHANTER. _Second Edition._ Fcp. 8vo, 8
      coloured plates by Fitch, and a Map of the County, 5_s_.

                             --------------

  HANDBOOK OF BRITISH MOSSES, containing all that are known to be
      Natives of the British Isles. By the Rev. M. J. BERKELEY, M.A.,
      F.L.S. Demy 8vo, pp. 360, 24 Coloured Plates, 21_s_.

A very complete Manual, comprising characters of all the species, with
the circumstances of habitation of each; with special chapters on
development and structure, propagation, fructification, geographical
distribution, uses, and modes of collecting and preserving, followed by
an extensive series of coloured illustrations, in which the essential
portions of the plant are repeated, in every case on a magnified scale.

                               SEAWEEDS.

                             --------------

  PHYCOLOGIA BRITANNICA; or, History of British Seaweeds, containing
      Coloured Figures, Generic and Specific Characters, Synonyms and
      Descriptions of all the Species of Algæ inhabiting the Shores of
      the British Islands. By Dr. W. H. HARVEY, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 4
      vols., 765 pp., 360 Coloured Plates, £6. 6_s_. Reissue in Monthly
      Parts, each 2_s_. 6_d_.

This work, originally published in 1851, at the price of £7. 10_s_., is
still the standard work on the subject of which it treats. Each Species,
excepting the minute ones, has a Plate to itself, with magnified
portions of structure and fructification, the whole being printed in
their natural colours, finished by hand.

                             --------------

  SYNOPSIS OF BRITISH SEAWEEDS, compiled from Dr. Harvey’s ‘PHYCOLOGIA
      BRITANNICA.’ Small 8vo, 220 pp., 5_s_.

A Descriptive Catalogue of all the British Seaweeds, condensed from the
‘Phycologia Britannica.’ It comprises the characters, synonyms,
habitats, and general observations, forming an extremely useful pocket
volume of reference.

                             --------------

  PHYCOLOGIA AUSTRALICA; a History of Australian Seaweeds, comprising
      Coloured Figures and Descriptions of the more characteristic
      Marine Algæ of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South
      Australia and Western Australia, and a Synopsis of all known
      Australian Algæ. By Dr. HARVEY, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 5 vols., 300
      Coloured Plates, £7. 13_s_.

This beautiful work, the result of an arduous personal exploration of
the shores of the Australian continent, is got up in the style of the
‘Phycologia Britannica’ by the same author. Each Species has a Plate to
itself, with ample magnified delineations of fructification and
structure, embodying a variety of most curious and remarkable forms.

                             --------------

  NEREIS AUSTRALIS; or, Algæ of the Southern Ocean, being Figures and
      Descriptions of Marine Plants collected on the Shores of the Cape
      of Good Hope, the extra-tropical Australian Colonies, Tasmania,
      New Zealand, and the Antarctic Regions. By Dr. HARVEY, F.R.S.
      Imperial 8vo, 50 Coloured Plates, £2. 2_s_.

A selection of Fifty Species of remarkable forms of Seaweed, not
included in the ‘Phycologia Australica,’ collected over a wider area.

                                 FUNGI.

                             --------------

  OUTLINES OF BRITISH FUNGOLOGY, containing Characters of above a
      Thousand Species of Fungi, and a Complete List of all that have
      been described as Natives of the British Isles. By the Rev. M. J.
      BERKELEY, M.A., F.L.S. Demy 8vo, 484 pp., 24 Coloured Plates,
      30_s_.

Although entitled simply ‘Outlines,’ this is a good-sized volume, of
nearly 500 pages, illustrated with more than 200 Figures of British
Fungi, all carefully coloured by hand. Of above a thousand Species the
characters are given, and a complete list of the names of all the rest.

                             --------------

  THE ESCULENT FUNGUSES OF ENGLAND. Containing an Account of their
      Classical History, Uses, Characters, Development, Structure,
      Nutritious Properties, Modes of Cooking and Preserving, etc. By C.
      D. BADHAM, M.D. Second Edition. Edited by F. CURREY, F.R.S. Demy
      8vo, 152 pp., 12 Coloured Plates, 12_s_.

A lively classical treatise, written with considerable epigrammatic
humour, with the view of showing that we have upwards of 30 Species of
Fungi abounding in our woods capable of affording nutritious and savoury
food, but which, from ignorance or prejudice, are left to perish
ungathered. “I have indeed grieved,” says the Author, “when reflecting
on the straitened condition of the lower orders, to see pounds of
extempore beefsteaks growing on our oaks, in the shape of _Fistulina
hepatica_; Puff-balls, which some have not inaptly compared to
sweetbread; _Hydna_, as good as oysters; and _Agaricus deliciosus_,
reminding us of tender lamb-kidney.” Superior coloured Figures of the
Species are given from the pencil of Mr. Fitch.

                             --------------

  ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRITISH MYCOLOGY, comprising Figures and Descriptions
      of the Funguses of interest and novelty indigenous to Britain. By
      Mrs. T. J. HUSSEY. Royal 4to; First Series, 90 Coloured Plates,
      £7. 12_s_. 6_d_.; Second Series, 50 Coloured Plates, £4. 10_s_.

This beautifully-illustrated work is the production of a lady who, being
an accomplished artist, occupied the leisure of many years in
accumulating a portfolio of exquisite drawings of the more attractive
forms and varieties of British Fungi. The publication was brought to an
end with the 140th Plate by her sudden decease. The Figures are mostly
of the natural size, carefully coloured by hand.

                          SHELLS AND MOLLUSKS.

                             --------------

  ELEMENTS OF CONCHOLOGY; an Introduction to the Natural History of
      Shells, and of the Animals which form them. By LOVELL REEVE,
      F.L.S. Royal 8vo, 2 vols., 478 pp., 62 Coloured Plates, £2. 16_s_.

Intended as a guide to the collector of shells in arranging and naming
his specimens, while at the same time inducing him to study them with
reference to their once living existence, geographical distribution, and
habits. Forty-six of the plates are devoted to the illustration of the
genera of shells, and sixteen to shells with the living animal, all
beautifully coloured by hand.

                             --------------

  THE LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS indigenous to, or naturalized in, the
      British Isles. By LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S. Crown 8vo, 295 pp., Map,
      and 160 Wood-Engravings, 10_s_. 6_d_.

A complete history of the British Land and Freshwater Shells, and of the
Animals which form them, illustrated by Wood-Engravings of all the
Species. Other features of the work are an Analytical Key, showing at a
glance the natural groups of families and genera, copious Tables and a
Map illustrative of geographical distribution and habits, and a chapter
on the Distribution and Origin of Species.

                             --------------

  CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA; or, Figures and Descriptions of the Shells of
      Mollusks, with remarks on their Affinities, Synonymy, and
      Geographical Distribution. BY LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S. Demy 4to,
      published monthly in Parts, 8 Plates, carefully coloured by hand,
      10_s_.

Of this work, comprising illustrations of Shells of the natural size,
nearly 2000 Plates are published, but the plan of publication admits of
the collector purchasing it at his option in portions, each of which is
complete in itself. Each genus, as the work progresses, is issued
separately, with Title and Index; and an Alphabetical List of the
published genera, with the prices annexed, may be procured of the
publishers on application. The system of nomenclature adopted is that of
Lamarck, modified to meet the exigencies of later discoveries. With the
name of each species is given a summary of its leading specific
characters in Latin and English; then the authority for the name is
quoted, accompanied by a reference to its original description; and next
in order are its Synonyms. The habitat of the species is next given,
accompanied, where possible, by particulars of soil, depth, or
vegetation. Finally, a few general remarks are offered, calling
attention to the most obvious distinguishing peculiarities of the
species, with criticisms, where necessary, on the views of other
writers. At the commencement of the genus some notice is taken of the
animal, and the habitats of the species are worked up into a general
summary of the geographical distribution of the genus.


                   CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA IN MONOGRAPHS.

           Genera.                    Plates.  £.  _s_. _d_.
           ACHATINA                        23  1    9    0
           ACHATINELLA                      6  0    8    0
           ADAMSIELLA                       2  0    3    0
           AMPHIDESMA                       7  0    9    0
           AMPULLARIA                      28  1    15   6
           ANASTOMA                         1  0    1    6
           ANATINA                          4  0    5    6
           ANCILLARIA                      12  0    15   6
           ANCULOTUS                        6  0    8    0
           ANOMIA                           8  0    10   6
           ARCA                            17  1    1    6
           ARGONAUTA                        4  0    5    6
           ARTEMIS                         10  0    13   0
           ASPERGILLUM                      4  0    5    6
           AVICULA                         18  1    3    0
           BUCCINUM                        14  0    18   0
           BULIMUS                         89  5    12   0
           BULLIA                           4  0    5    6
           CALYPTRÆA                        8  0    10   6
           CANCELLARIA                     18  1    3    0
           CAPSA                            1  0    1    6
           CAPSELLA                         2  0    3    0
           CARDITA                          9  0    11   6
           CARDIUM                         22  1    8    0
           CARINARIA                        1  0    1    6
           CASSIDARIA                       1  0    1    6
           CASSIS                          12  0    15   6
           CERITHIUM                       20  1    5    6
           CHAMA                            9  0    11   6
           CHAMOSTREA                       1  0    1    6
           CHITON                          33  2    2    0
           CHITONELLUS                      1  0    1    6
           CHONDROPOMA                     11  0    14   0
           CIRCE                           10  0    13   0
           COLUMBELLA                      37  2    7    0
           CONCHOLEPAS                      2  0    3    0
           CONUS                           56  3    11   0
           CORBULA                          5  0    6    6
           CRANIA                           1  0    1    6
           CRASSATELLA                      3  0    4    0
           CRENATULA                        2  0    3    0
           CREPIDULA                        5  0    6    6
           CRUCIBULUM                       7  0    9    0
           CYCLOPHORUS                     20  1    5    6
           CYCLOSTOMA                      23  1    9    0
           CYCLOTUS                         9  0    11   6
           CYMBIUM                         26  1    13   0
           CYPRÆA                          27  1    14   6
           CYPRICARDIA                      2  0    3    0
           CYTHEREA                        10  0    13   0
           DELPHINULA                       5  0    6    6
           DIONE                           12  0    15   6
           DOLIUM                           8  0    10   6
           DONAX                            9  0    11   6
           EBURNA                           1  0    1    6
           ERATO                            3  0    4    0
           EULIMA                           6  0    8    0
           FASCIOLARIA                      7  0    9    0
           FICULA                           1  0    1    6
           FISSURELLA                      16  1    0    6
           FUSUS                           21  1    6    6
           GLAUCONOME                       1  0    1    6
           HALIA                            1  0    1    6
           HALIOTIS                        17  1    1    6
           HARPA                            4  0    5    6
           HELIX                          210  13   5    0
           HEMIPECTEN                       1  0    1    6
           HEMISINUS                        6  0    8    0
           HINNITES                         1  0    1    6
           HIPPOPUS                         1  0    1    6
           IANTHINA                         5  0    6    6
           IO                               3  0    4    0
           ISOCARDIA                        1  0    1    6
           LEPTOPOMA                        8  0    10   6
           LINGULA                          2  0    3    0
           LITHODOMUS                       5  0    6    6
           LITTORINA                       18  1    3    0
           LUCINA                          11  0    14   0
           LUTRARIA                         5  0    6    6
           MACTRA                          21  1    6    6
           MALLEUS                          3  0    4    0
           MANGELIA                         8  0    10   6
           MARGINELLA                      27  1    14   6
           MELANIA                         59  3    14   6
           MELANOPSIS                       3  0    4    0
           MELATOMA                         3  0    4    0
           MEROE                            3  0    4    0
           MESALIA & EGLISIA                1  0    1    6
           MESODESMA                        4  0    5    6
           META                             1  0    1    6
           MITRA                           39  2    9    6
           MODIOLA                         11  0    14   0
           MONOCEROS                        4  0    5    6
           MUREX                           37  2    7    0
           MYADORA                          1  0    1    6
           MYOCHAMA                         1  0    1    6
           MYTILUS                         11  0    14   0
           NASSA                           29  1    17   0
           NATICA                          30  1    18   0
           NAUTILUS                         6  0    8    0
           NAVICELLA & LATIA                8  0    10   6
           NERITA                          19  1    4    0
           NERITINA                        37  2    7    0
           OLIVA                           30  1    18   0
           ONISCIA                          1  0    1    6
           ORBICULA                         1  0    1    6
           OVULUM                          14  0    18   0
           PALUDINA                        11  0    14   0
           PALUDOMUS                        3  0    4    0
           PARTULA                          4  0    5    6
           PATELLA                         42  2    13   0
           PECTEN                          35  2    4    6
           PECTUNCULUS                      9  0    11   6
           PEDUM                            1  0    1    6
           PERNA                            6  0    8    0
           PHASIANELLA                      6  0    8    0
           PHORUS                           3  0    4    0
           PINNA                           34  2    3    0
           PIRENA                           2  0    3    0
           PLACUNANOMIA                     3  0    4    0
           PLEUROTOMA                      40  2    10   6
           PSAMMOBIA                        8  0    10   6
           PSAMMOTELLA                      1  0    1    6
           PTEROCERA                        6  0    8    0
           PTEROCYCLOS                      5  0    6    6
           PURPURA                         13  0    16   6
           PYRAMIDELLA                      6  0    8    0
           PYRULA                           9  0    11   6
           RANELLA                          8  0    10   6
           RICINULA                         6  0    8    0
           ROSTELLARIA                      3  0    4    6
           SANGUINOLARIA                    1  0    1    6
           SCARABUS                         3  0    4    0
           SIGARETUS                        5  0    6    6
           SIMPULOPSIS                      2  0    3    0
           SIPHONARIA                       7  0    9    0
           SOLARIUM                         3  0    4    0
           SOLETELLINA                      4  0    5    6
           SPONDYLUS                       18  1    3    0
           STROMBUS                        19  1    4    0
           STRUTHIOLARIA                    1  0    1    6
           TAPES                           13  0    16   6
           TELESCOPIUM                      1  0    1    6
           TEREBRA                         27  1    14   6
           TEREBELLUM                       1  0    1    6
           TEREBRATULA & RYNCHONELLA       11  0    14   0
           THRACIA                          3  0    4    0
           TORNATELLA                       4  0    5    6
           TRIDACNA                         8  0    10   6
           TRIGONIA                         1  0    1    6
           TRITON                          20  1    5    6
           TROCHITA                         3  0    4    0
           TROCHUS                         16  1    0    6
           TUGONIA                          1  0    1    6
           TURBINELLA                      13  0    16   6
           TURBO                           13  0    16   6
           TURRITELLA                      11  0    14   0
           UMBRELLA                         1  0    1    6
           VENUS                           26  1    13   0
           VERTAGUS                         5  0    6    6
           VITRINA                         10  0    13   0
           VOLUTA                          22  1    8    0
           VULSELLA                         2  0    3    0
           ZIZYPHINUS                       8  0    10   6

                             --------------

  CONCHOLOGIA SYSTEMATICA; or, Complete System of Conchology. By LOVELL
      REEVE, F.L.S. Demy 4to, 2 vols. pp. 537, 300 Plates, £8. 8_s_.
      coloured.

Of this work only a few copies remain. It is a useful companion to the
collector of shells, on account of the very large number of specimens
figured, as many as six plates being devoted in some instances to the
illustration of a single genus.

                                INSECTS.

                                -------

  CURTIS’ BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY. Illustrations and Descriptions of the
      Genera of Insects found in Great Britain and Ireland, containing
      Coloured Figures, from nature, of the most rare and beautiful
      species, and, in many instances, upon the plants on which they are
      found. Royal 8vo, 8 vols., 770 Plates, coloured, £21.

                       Or in separate Monographs.

                  Orders.         Plates.  £.  _s_. _d_.
                  APHANIPTERA        2  0    2    0
                  COLEOPTERA       256  8    0    0
                  DERMAPTERA         1  0    1    0
                  DICTYOPTERA        1  0    1    0
                  DIPTERA          103  3    5    0
                  HEMIPTERA         32  1    1    0
                  HOMOPTERA         21  0    14   0
                  HYMENOPTERA      125  4    0    0
                  LEPIDOPTERA      193  6    0    0
                  NEUROPTERA        13  0    9    0
                  OMALOPTERA         6  0    4    6
                  ORTHOPTERA         5  0    4    0
                  STREPSIPTERA       3  0    2    6
                  TRICHOPTERA        9  0    6    6

‘Curtis’ Entomology,’ which Cuvier pronounced to have “reached the
ultimatum of perfection,” is still the standard work on the Genera of
British Insects. The Figures executed by the author himself, with
wonderful minuteness and accuracy, have never been surpassed, even if
equalled. The price at which the work was originally published was £43.
16_s_.

                             --------------

  INSECTA BRITANNICA; Vols. II. and III., Diptera. By FRANCIS WALKER,
      F.L.S. 8vo, each, with 10 plates, 25_s_.

                                TRAVELS.

                                -------

  THREE CITIES IN RUSSIA. By Professor C. PIAZZI SMYTH, F.R.S. Post 8vo,
      2 Vols., 1016 pp. Maps and Wood-Engravings, 26_s_.

The narrative of a tour made in the summer of 1859 by the Astronomer
Royal of Scotland, to the cities of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and
Novgorod.

                             --------------

  THE GATE OF THE PACIFIC. By Commander BEDFORD PIM, R.N. Demy 8vo, 430
      pp., with 7 Maps and 8 Tinted Chromo-Lithographs, 18_s_.

A spirited narrative of Commander Pim’s explorations in Central America,
made with the view of establishing a new overland route from the
Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, through English enterprise, by way of
Nicaragua.

                             --------------

  TRAVELS ON THE AMAZON AND RIO NEGRO; with an Account of the Native
      Tribes, and Observations on the Climate, Geology, and Natural
      History of the Amazon Valley. By ALFRED R. WALLACE. Demy 8vo, 541
      pp., with Map and Tinted Frontispiece, 18_s_.

A lively narrative of travels in one of the most interesting districts
of the Southern Hemisphere, accompanied by Remarks on the Vocabularies
of the Languages, by Dr. R. G. LATHAM.

                             --------------

  WESTERN HIMALAYA AND TIBET; a Narrative of a Journey through the
      Mountains of Northern India, during the Years 1847-1848. By Dr.
      THOMSON, F.R.S. Demy 8vo, 500 pp., with Map and Tinted
      Frontispiece, 15_s_.

A summary of the physical features, chiefly botanical and geological, of
the country travelled over in a mission undertaken for the Indian
Government, from Simla across the Himalayan Mountains into Tibet, and to
the summit of the Karakoram Mountains; including also an excellent
description of Kashmir.

                             --------------

  TRAVELS IN THE INTERIOR OF BRAZIL, principally through the Northern
      Provinces and the Gold and Diamond Districts, during the years
      1836-1841. By Dr. GEORGE GARDNER, F.L.S. Second Edition. Demy 8vo,
      428 pp., with Map and Tinted Frontispiece, 12_s_.

The narrative of an arduous journey, undertaken by an enthusiastic
naturalist, through Brazil Proper, Bahia, Maranham, and Pernambuco,
written in a lively style, with glowing descriptions of the grandeur of
the vegetation.

                              ANTIQUARIAN.

                                -------

  MAN’S AGE IN THE WORLD ACCORDING TO HOLY SCRIPTURE AND SCIENCE. By an
      ESSEX RECTOR. Demy 8vo, 264 pp., 8_s_. 6_d_.

The Author, recognizing the established facts and inevitable deductions
of Science, and believing all attempts to reconcile them with the
commonly received, but erroneous, literal interpretation of Scripture,
not only futile, but detrimental to the cause of Truth, seeks an
interpretation of the Sacred Writings on general principles, consistent
alike with their authenticity, when rightly understood, and with the
exigencies of Science. He treats in successive chapters of The Flint
Weapons of the Drift,—The Creation,—The Paradisiacal State,—The
Genealogies,—The Deluge,—Babel and the Dispersion; and adds an Appendix
of valuable information from various sources.

                             --------------

  THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN. An Examination of Sir Charles Lyell’s recent
      Work. By S. R. PATTISON, F.G.S. Second Edition. 8vo, 1_s_.

                             --------------

  HORÆ FERALES; or, Studies in the Archæology of the Northern Nations.
      By the late JOHN M. KEMBLE, M.A. Edited by Dr. R. G. LATHAM,
      F.R.S., and A. W. FRANKS, M.A. Royal 4to, 263 pp., 34 Plates, many
      coloured, £3. 3_s_.

The principal material left by the late Mr. Kemble for this work was an
extensive and interesting series of drawings; and the thirty-four Plates
consist of a selection from these, with some important additions,
described and figured under the superintendence of the Director of the
Society of Antiquaries. The objects delineated comprise Stone Implements
and Weapons, Axes and Hammers, Bronze Implements, Arrow-Heads, Spears,
Daggers, Swords, Shields, Helmets and Trumpets, Iron Daggers and Swords,
Enamelled Horse-Trappings, Bronze Horse-Trappings, Fibulæ, Armlets,
Diadems, Collars and Personal Ornaments, Teutonic Swords, Weapons, and
Brooches, and a variety of Urns and other sepulchral objects.

                             --------------

  A MANUAL OF BRITISH ARCHÆOLOGY. By CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A. Royal 16mo,
      398 pp., 20 coloured plates, 10_s_. 6_d_.

A treatise on general subjects of antiquity, written especially for the
student of archæology, as a preparation for more elaborate works.
Architecture, Sepulchral Monuments, Heraldry, Seals, Coins, Illuminated
Manuscripts and Inscriptions, Arms and Armour, Costume and Personal
Ornaments, Pottery, Porcelain and Glass, Clocks, Locks, Carvings,
Mosaics, Embroidery, etc., are treated of in succession, the whole being
illustrated by 20 attractive Plates of Coloured Figures of the various
objects.

                             --------------

  THE BEWICK COLLECTOR. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of THOMAS
      and JOHN BEWICK, including Cuts, in various states, for Books and
      Pamphlets, Private Gentlemen, Public Companies, Exhibitions,
      Races, Newspapers, Shop Cards, Invoice Heads, Bar Bills, Coal
      Certificates, Broadsides, and other miscellaneous purposes, and
      Wood Blocks. With an Appendix of Portraits, Autographs, Works of
      Pupils, etc. The whole described from the Originals contained in
      the Largest and most Perfect Collection ever formed, and
      illustrated with a Hundred and Twelve Cuts from Bewick’s own
      Blocks. By the Rev. THOMAS HUGO, M.A., F.S.A., the Possessor of
      the Collection. Demy 8vo, pp. 562, price 21_s_.; imperial 8vo
      (limited to 100 copies), with a fine Steel Engraving of Thomas
      Bewick, £2. 2_s_. The Portrait may be had separately, on imperial
      folio, price 7_s_. 6_d_.

                             --------------

  WHITNEY’S “CHOICE OF EMBLEMS;” a Facsimile Reprint by
      Photo-lithography. With an Introductory Dissertation, Essays
      Literary and Bibliographical, and Explanatory Notes. By HENRY
      GREEN, M.A. Post 4to, pp. lxxxviii., 468. 72 Facsimile Plates,
      42_s_.

A beautiful and interesting reproduction by Photo-lithography of one of
the best specimens of this curious class of literature of the sixteenth
century. An Introductory Dissertation of eighty-eight pages traces the
history of Emblematic Literature from the earliest times, and gives an
Account of the Life and Writings of Geoffrey Whitney, followed by an
Index to the Mottoes, with Translations, and some Proverbial
Expressions. The facsimile reproduction of the ‘Emblems,’ with their
quaint pictorial Illustrations, occupies 230 pages. Then follow Essays
on the Subjects and Sources of the Mottoes and Devices, on Obsolete
Words in Whitney, with parallels, chiefly from Chaucer, Spenser, and
Shakespeare; Biographical Notices of some other emblem-writers to whom
Whitney was indebted; Shakespeare’s references to emblem-books, and to
Whitney’s emblems in particular; Literary and Biographical Notes
explanatory of some of Whitney’s emblems, and of the persons to whom
they are dedicated. Seventy-two exceedingly curious plates, reproduced
in facsimile, illustrate this portion of the work, and a copious General
Index concludes the volume.

                             --------------

  SHAKESPEARE’S SONNETS, Facsimile, by Photo-Zincography, of the First
      Printed edition of 1609. From the Copy in the Library of
      Bridgewater House, by permission of the Right Hon. the Earl of
      Ellesmere. 10_s_. 6_d_.

                             --------------

  A SURVEY OF THE EARLY GEOGRAPHY OF WESTERN EUROPE, as connected with
      the First Inhabitants of Britain, their Origin, Language,
      Religious Rites, and Edifices. By HENRY LAWES LONG, Esq. 8vo,
      6_s_.

                                MISCELLANEOUS.

                                -------

  MANUAL OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, Qualitative and Quantitative; for the Use
      of Students. By Dr. HENRY M. NOAD, F.R.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 663, 109
      Wood-Engravings, 16_s_. Or, separately, Part I., ‘QUALITATIVE,’
      6_s_.; Part II., ‘QUANTITATIVE,’ 10_s_. 6_d_.

A Copiously-illustrated, Useful, Practical Manual of Chemical Analysis,
prepared for the Use of Students by the Lecturer on Chemistry at St.
George’s Hospital. The illustrations consist of a series of
highly-finished Wood-Engravings, chiefly of the most approved forms and
varieties of apparatus.

                             --------------

  PHOSPHORESCENCE; or, the Emission of Light by Minerals, Plants, and
      Animals. By Dr. T. L. PHIPSON, F.C.S. Small 8vo, 225 pp., 30
      Wood-Engravings and Coloured Frontispiece, 5_s_.

An interesting summary of the various phosphoric phenomena that have
been observed in nature,—in the mineral, in the vegetable, and in the
animal world.

                             --------------

  DICTIONARY OF NATURAL HISTORY TERMS, with their Derivatives, including
      the various Orders, Genera, and Species. By DAVID H. M’NICOLL,
      M.D. Crown 8vo, 584 pp., 12_s_. 6_d_.

An attempt to furnish what has long been a desideratum in natural
history,—a dictionary of technical terms, with their meanings and
derivatives.

                             --------------

  THE ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. SAMARANG, under the command of
      Captain Sir Edward Belcher, C.B., during the Years 1843-46. By
      Professor OWEN, Dr. J. E. GRAY, Sir J. RICHARDSON, A. ADAMS, L.
      REEVE, and A. WHITE. Edited by ARTHUR ADAMS, F.L.S. Royal 4to, 257
      pp., 55 Plates, mostly coloured, £3. 10_s_.

In this work, illustrative of the new species of animals collected
during the surveying expedition of H.M.S. Samarang in the Eastern Seas
in the years 1843-1846, there are 7 Plates of Quadrupeds, 1 of Reptiles,
10 of Fishes, 24 of Mollusca and Shells, and 13 of Crustacea. The
Mollusca, which are particularly interesting, include the anatomy of
_Spirula_ by Professor Owen, and a number of beautiful Figures of the
living animals by Mr. Arthur Adams.

                             --------------

  LITERARY PAPERS ON SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS. By the late Professor EDWARD
      FORBES, F.R.S., selected from his Writings in the ‘Literary
      Gazette.’ With a Portrait and Memoir. Small 8vo, 6_s_.

                             --------------

  THE PLANETARY AND STELLAR UNIVERSE. A Series of Lectures. With
      Illustrations. By R. J. MANN. 12mo, 5_s_.

                             --------------

  THE GEOLOGIST. A Magazine of Geology, Palæontology, and Mineralogy.
      Illustrated with highly-finished Wood-Engravings. Edited by S. J.
      MACKIE, F.G.S., F.S.A. Vols. V. and VI., each, with numerous
      Wood-Engravings, 18_s_. Vol. VII., 9_s_.

                             --------------

  OUTLINES OF ELEMENTARY BOTANY, as Introductory to Local Floras. By
      GEORGE BENTHAM, F.R.S., President of the Linnean Society. Demy
      8vo, pp. 45, 2_s_. 6_d_.

                             --------------

  ON THE FLORA OF AUSTRALIA, its Origin, Affinities, and Distribution;
      being an Introductory Essay to the ‘Flora of Tasmania.’ By Dr. J.
      D. HOOKER, F.R.S. 128 pp., quarto, 10_s_.

                             --------------

  GUIDE TO COOL-ORCHID GROWING. By JAMES BATEMAN, Esq., F.R.S., Author
      of ‘The Orchidaceæ of Mexico and Guatemala.’ Woodcuts, 1_s_.

                             --------------

  A TREATISE ON THE GROWTH AND FUTURE TREATMENT OF TIMBER TREES. By G.
      W. NEWTON, of Ollersett, J.P. Half-bound calf, 10_s_. 6_d_.

                             --------------

  PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS; or, Practical Notes on Country Residences,
      Villas, Public Parks, and Gardens. By CHARLES H. J. SMITH,
      Landscape Gardener. Crown 8vo, 6_s_.

                             --------------

  THE STEREOSCOPIC MAGAZINE. A Gallery for the Stereoscope of Landscape
      Scenery, Architecture, Antiquities, Natural History, Rustic
      Character, etc. With Descriptions. 5 vols., each complete in
      itself and containing 50 Stereographs, £2. 2_s_.

                             --------------

  THE CONWAY. Narrative of a Walking Tour in North Wales; accompanied by
      Descriptive and Historical Notes. By J. B. DAVIDSON, Esq., M.A.
      Extra gilt, 20 stereographs of Welsh Scenery, 21_s_.

                             --------------

  THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF FISH. By PISCARIUS. Third Edition. 1_s_.

                             --------------

               =Commencement of a New Series of Natural History
                               for Beginners.=

                             --------------

  BRITISH BEETLES; an Introduction to the study of our Indigenous
      COLEOPTERA. By E. C. RYE. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured Steel Plates,
      comprising Figures of nearly 100 Species, engraved from Natural
      Specimens, expressly for the work, by E. W. ROBINSON, and 11
      Wood-Engravings of Dissections by the Author, 10_s_. 6_d_.
      [_Ready._

                             --------------

  BRITISH SPIDERS; an Introduction to the study of the ARANEIDÆ of Great
      Britain and Ireland. By E. F. STAVELEY. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured
      Plates and Wood-Engravings, 10_s_. 6_d_. [_Ready._

                             --------------

  BRITISH BEES; an Introduction to the study of the Natural History and
      Economy of the Bees indigenous to the British Isles. By W. E.
      SCHUCKARD. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured Plates, and Wood-Engravings,
      10_s_. 6_d_. [Ready.

                             --------------

  BRITISH BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS; an Introduction to the study of our
      Native LEPIDOPTERA. By H. T. STAINTON. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured
      Plates, and Wood-Engravings, 10_s_. 6_d_. [_In preparation._

                             --------------

  BRITISH FERNS: an Introduction to the study of the Ferns, LYCOPODS,
      and EQUISETA indigenous to the British Isles. With Chapters on the
      Structure, Propagation, Cultivation, Diseases, Uses, Preservation,
      and Distribution of Ferns. By MARGARET PLUES. Crown 8vo, 16
      Coloured Plates, and Wood-Engravings, 10_s_. 6_d_. [_Ready._

                             --------------

  BRITISH SEAWEEDS; an Introduction to the study of our Native Marine
      ALGÆ. By S. O. GRAY. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured Plates, and
      Wood-Engravings, 10_s_. 6_d_. [_In preparation._

⸪ A good introductory series of books on British Natural History for the
use of students and amateurs is still a _desideratum_. Those at present
in use have been too much compiled from antiquated sources; while the
figures, copied in many instances from sources equally antiquated, are
far from accurate, the colouring of them having become degenerated
through the adoption, for the sake of cheapness, of mechanical
processes.

The present series will be entirely the result of original research
carried to its most advanced point; and the figures, which will be
chiefly engraved on steel, by the artist most highly renowned in each
department for his technical knowledge of the subjects, will in all
cases be drawn from actual specimens, and coloured separately by hand.

                                LONDON:

         LOVELL REEVE & CO., 5 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ The drawing for Fig. 5 (on page 26 of the printed book) was
      corrected to show that (b) is the face and the two arrows pointing
      to the compound eyes are marked (d).
    ○ Missing or obscured punctuation were corrected.
    ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
    ○ On page 250, the number of the Genus was wrong. It was changed
      from
      “Genus 2. ANTHOPHORA, _Latreille_.” to
      “Genus 11. ANTHOPHORA, _Latreille_.”
    ○ On page 211, in the description of Genus 5, the notation for the
      sexes shows the female symbol inverted. There is no other use of
      the symbol in this manner, so it was corrected. (Plate V. fig. 1 ♂
      ♀.)
    ○ Spelling and hyphenation were made consistent when a predominant
      form was found in this book; otherwise it was not changed.





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