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Title: Historical Record of the Tenth, or the North Lincolnshire, Regiment of Foot, - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment - in 1685, and of its Subsequent Services to 1847
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE TENTH, OR THE NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE,

  REGIMENT OF FOOT,


  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN 1685,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1847.


  COMPILED BY

  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.


  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.


  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30 CHARING CROSS.

  M DCCC XLVII.



  LONDON: PRINTED BY W. CLOWES & SONS, STAMFORD STREET,
  FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers,
  and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment as testifying the value and
importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit, or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers;
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men; but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men; he
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the king added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those
at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the Second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the seven
years' war. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Creçy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarch, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates, in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to insure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world, have in a great
measure been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons
who have the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
       20     20     20     30    2|0     30     20     20     20

  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.       Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10 of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25 of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves: and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  THE TENTH,

  OR

  THE NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE,

  REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON ITS REGIMENTAL COLOUR
  THE _SPHINX_, WITH THE WORD _EGYPT_;

  AND THE WORDS

  "PENINSULA" and "SOBRAON;"

  IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SERVICES
  IN _EGYPT_ IN THE YEAR 1801;
  IN THE _PENINSULA_ FROM 1812 TO 1814;

  AND

  AT THE BATTLE OF _SOBRAON_ IN 1846.



CONTENTS.


  YEAR                                                           PAGE

  1685  Formation of the Regiment                                   1

  ----  Arms and Uniform                                            2

  ----  Station and Establishment                                   3

  ----  Earl of Bath, and other Officers appointed to
          Commissions                                               4

  1688  Declaration of the Regiment, and of the garrison
          of Plymouth, in favour of King William III.
          and the Protestant cause                                  5

  1689  Six companies detached to Jersey and Guernsey               6

  1690  Embarked for Flanders                                       -

  1691  Encamped at Anderlecht                                      -

  1692  Encamped at Halle                                           7

  ----  Battle of Steenkirk                                         -

  ----  Engaged at Furnes and Dixmude                               8

  1693  The French lines at D'Otignies forced                       9

  ----  Battle of Landen                                           10

  1694  Encamped at Ghent                                          --

  1695  Attack on Fort Kenoque                                     11

  ----  Siege of Namur                                             --

  1696  Returned to England and occupied quarters in
          London; afterwards in Suffolk and Essex                  12

  1697  Re-embarked for the Netherlands, and joined the
          army at Brussels                                         --

  ----  Treaty of Ryswick                                          --

  ----  Returned to England                                        --

  1698  Proceeded to Ireland                                       13

  1701  War renewed                                                13

  ----  Embarked for Holland, and reviewed at Breda by
          King William III.                                        --

  ----  Encamped at Rosendael                                      --

  1702  Decease of King William III., and accession of
          Queen Anne                                               --

  ----  March to Duchy of Cleves                                   --

  ----  Arrival at Nimeguen                                        14

  ----  War declared against France                                --

  ----  Siege of Venloo                                            --

  ----  -------- Ruremonde                                         --

  ----  -------- Stevenswart                                       --

  ----  -------- the Citadel of Liege                              --

  1703  Proceeded to Maestricht                                    15

  ----  ------------ Tongres                                       --

  ----  Siege of Huy                                               --

  ----  -------- Limburg                                           16

  ----  Spanish Guelderland wrested from France                    --

  ----  Marched back to Holland                                    --

  1704  Proceeded from Holland to the Danube                       --

  ----  Joined the Imperial Army                                   --

  ----  Battle of Schellenberg                                     --

  ----  Crossed the Danube                                         17

  ----  Joined the Imperial Army under Prince Eugene
          of Savoy                                                 18

  ----  Battle of Blenheim                                         --

  ----  Marshal Tallard and many officers and soldiers
          made prisoners                                           19

  ----  Marched to Holland with prisoners                          --

  1705  Attacks on Helixem, Neer-Winden, and Neer-Hespen           20

  1706  Encamped at Tongres                                        22

  ----  Battle of Ramilies                                         --

  ----  Surrender of Brussels, Ghent, and principal towns
          of Brabant                                               --

  1706  Surrender of Ostend                                        23

  ----  Siege of Menin, on the River Lys                           --

  ----  Capture of Dendermond and Aeth                             --

  1707  Encampment near the village of Waterloo                    24

  1708  Re-embarked for England to repel invasion by
          the Pretender                                            --

  ----  Returned to Flanders, landed at Ostend, and
          proceeded to Ghent                                       --

  ----  Re-taking of Ghent and Bruges by the French                --

  ----  Battle of Oudenarde                                        25

  ----  Siege of Lisle                                             --

  ----  Town of Ghent re-captured                                  26

  1709  Siege and capture of Tournay                               27

  ----  Battle of Malplaquet                                       28

  ----  Siege and surrender of Mons                                29

  ----  Marched into winter-quarters at Ghent                      --

  1710  Forcing the French lines at Pont-à-Vendin                  --

  ----  Siege and surrender of Douay                               30

  ----  Attack and surrender of Bethune                            --

  ----  -------------------- of Aire and St. Venant                31

  ----  Proceeded to Courtray                                      --

  ----  Winter-quarters at Courtray                                --

  1711  Encamped at Warde and on the plains of Lens                --

  ----  Forcing the lines at Arleux                                --

  ----  Siege of Bouchain                                          32

  1712  Negociations for peace                                     --

  ----  Duke of Ormond assumed the command of the army             --

  ----  Surrender of Quesnoy                                       --

  ----  British troops withdrawn to Ghent, and thence
          to Dunkirk                                               --

  1713  Removed to Ghent                                           33

  1714  ---------- Nieuport                                        --

  1715  Returned to England                                        --

  1722  Encamped on Salisbury Plain                                34

  ----  Reviewed by King George I. and the Prince of Wales         --

  1723  Proceeded to Scotland                                      --

  1724  Returned to England                                        --

  1730  Embarked for Gibraltar                                    --

  1749  Returned to Ireland                                        35

  1751  Colours and costume regulated by Royal Warrant             --

  1767  Embarked for North America                                 36

  1768  Proceeded to Boston                                        --

  1775  Advanced to Concord and Lexington;--commencement
          of American War                                          36

  ----  Returned to Boston                                         --

  ----  Victory at Bunkers-Hill                                    38

  1776  Evacuation of Boston                                       39

  ----  Returned to Nova Scotia                                    40

  ----  Attack and capture of Long Island                          --

  ----  Capture of New York                                        --

  ----  ---------- White Plains                                    --

  ----  ---------- Forts Washington and Lee                        41

  ----  ---------- Rhode Island                                    --

  1777  Embarked for Philadelphia                                  --

  ----  Attack at Brandywine Creek                                 42

  ----  March to Germantown                                        --

  ----  Capture of Philadelphia                                    --

  ----  ---------- Billing's-Point                                 43

  ----  Fight at Germantown                                        --

  ----  Returned to Philadelphia                                   --

  ----  Attack at Whitemarsh                                       --

  1778  Concentrated at New York                                   --

  ----  Evacuation of Philadelphia                                 --

  ----  Attack at Freehold in New Jersey                           44

  ----  Returned to England                                        45

  1783  Establishment reduced on  termination  of  the
          American War                                             45

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                                       --

  1786  ------------ Jamaica                                       --

  1795  Returned to England                                        --

  ----  Embarked for West Indies                                   46

  ----  Disembarked on account of a storm, and casualties
          at Sea                                                   --

  1797  Proceeded to Portsmouth                                    --

  1798  Embarked for Madras                                        --

  1799  Removal to Bengal                                          --

  1800  Embarked for Egypt                                         47

  1801  Landed at Cosseir                                          --

  ----  Crossed the Desert of Arabia                               48

  ----  Arrived at Kenna and Girgee in Upper Egypt                 --

  ----  Proceeded down the Nile to Rosetta, and El-Hamed           49

  ----  Surrender of Alexandria                                    --

  ----  French Army evacuate Egypt                                 --

  ----  Authorized to bear the _Sphinx_ with the word
          "EGYPT"                                                  50

  1802  Encamped at Alexandria                                     --

  1803  Arrived at Malta                                           --

  1804  Removed to Gibraltar                                       51

  ----  Second Battalion added to the establishment, and
          formed in Essex                                          --

  1806  Battle of Maida                                            53

  1807  Embarked for Sicily                                        --

  1809  Proceeded on an expedition to Naples                       54

  ----  Returned to Sicily                                         55

  ----  Second Battalion embarked for Walcheren                    --

  ----  Returned to England                                        --

  1810  Embarked for Gibraltar                                     --

  ----  Proceeded to Malta                                         56

  1811  Embarked for Sicily                                        --

  1812  First Battalion embarked for Spain                         56

  1813  Second Battalion proceeded against the Island
          of _Ponzo_                                               57

  ----  Returned to Sicily                                         --

  ----  First Battalion--Battle of Castalla                        58

  ----  Siege of Tarragona                                         --

  ----  Proceeded to Balaguer                                      60

  ----  Accidental and destructive Fire                            --

  ----  Marched to Valls and thence to Vendrills                   61

  ----  Blockade of Barcelona                                      --

  1814  Cessation of hostilities                                   --

  ----  Arrived at Palermo                                         62

  ----  Second Battalion embarked from Sicily for Malta            --

  1815  Return of Napoleon Buonaparte to France                    --

  ----  First Battalion embarked for Naples                        --

  ----  Proceeded to Malta                                         --

  1816  Peace restored; the First and Second Battalions
          incorporated                                             63

  ----  Authorised to bear the word "PENINSULA," on
          the Colours and Appointments                             --

  1817  Embarked for the Ionian Islands                            --

  1819  Re-embarked for Malta                                      --

  1821  Embarked for England                                       --

  1823  Embarked for Ireland                                       64

  1826  Embarked for Portugal                                      65

  1828  Embarked for Corfu                                         --

  1837  Returned to Ireland                                        66

  1839  Embarked for England                                       --

  1841  Proceeded to Scotland                                      --

  1842  Removed from Scotland                                      --

  ----  Embarked for India                                         67

  1845  Proceeded to Meerut                                        --

  1846  Joined the army on the Sutlej                              --

  ----  Battle of Sobraon                                          68

  1846  Authorised to bear the word "SOBRAON," on
          the Colours and Appointments                             71

  ----  Occupation of Lahore                                       72


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  1685  John Earl of Bath                                          73

  1688  Sir Charles Carney                                         74

  ----  Earl of Bath (_re-appointed_)                              --

  1693  Sir Beville Granville                                      75

  1703  Lord North and Grey                                        --

  1715  Henry Grove                                                76

  1737  Francis Columbine                                          77

  1746  James Lord Tyrawley                                        --

  1749  Edward Pole                                                78

  1763  Edward Sandford                                            79

  1781  Sir Robert Murray Keith, K.B.                              --

  1795  Hon. Henry Edward Fox                                      --

  1811  Hon. Thomas Maitland                                       80

  1824  Sir John Lambert, G.C.B.                                   81

  1847  Sir Thomas McMahon, Bt. and K.C.B.                         82


PLATES.

  Original Costume of the Regiment                       _to face_  1

  At the Battle of Steenkirk                                 "      7

  Colours of the Regiment                                    "     36

  Costume of the Regiment 1848                               "     72


APPENDIX.

  Battles, Sieges, &c., from 1689 to 1697                          83

  --------------------- from 1702 to 1713                          84


[Illustration:

  TENTH FOOT

  1685

  For Cannon's Military Records.
]



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE TENTH,

  OR

  THE NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE

  REGIMENT OF FOOT.


[Sidenote: 1661 to 1684]

After the Restoration, when King Charles II. had disbanded the
army of the commonwealth, a small military force was embodied
under the title of "guards and garrisons;" one of the independent
companies of infantry incorporated for garrison duty was commanded
by that distinguished nobleman, JOHN, EARL OF BATH, who had evinced
fidelity and attachment to the royal cause in the rebellion in the
reign of King Charles I., and during the usurpations of Cromwell;
this company was stationed in the fortress of Plymouth, of which
the EARL OF BATH was governor, and it was the nucleus of the
regiment which forms the subject of this memoir.

[Sidenote: 1685]

In June, 1685, when JAMES, DUKE OF MONMOUTH, had landed in the West
of England, with a band of armed followers from the Netherlands,
and erected the standard of rebellion, commissions were issued,
by King James II., for raising eleven companies of foot, of one
hundred private soldiers each, which companies were united to the
Plymouth independent garrison company, and constituted a regiment,
of which the EARL OF BATH was appointed colonel, by commission
dated the 20th of June, 1685, and the corps thus formed now bears
the title of "THE TENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT."

These eleven companies were raised in Derbyshire and
Nottinghamshire; the town of Derby being the general rendezvous
of the corps; and they were raised under the authority of royal
warrants, bearing date the 20th of June, by the following
gentlemen, who evinced their loyalty by coming forward to the
support of the crown at that important crisis:--viz., Colonel,
JOHN, EARL OF BATH; Lieut.-Colonel, SIR NICHOLAS STANNINGS; Major,
SIR CHARLES CARNEY; Captains, MICHAEL BOURK, CHARLES POWELL, SIR
THOMAS WINDHAM, EDWARD SCOTT, BERNARD STRODE, JOHN SYDENHAM,
FRANCIS VIVIAN, and SYDNEY GODOLPHIN.

After the suppression of this rebellion, many newly raised corps
were disbanded, and the EARL OF BATH's regiment was reduced to ten
companies of fifty private soldiers each.

The regiment was armed with muskets and pikes; the uniform was
_blue_, coats lined with _red_, red waistcoats, breeches, and
stockings; round hats with broad brims, the brim turned up on one
side and ornamented with red ribands; the pikemen wore red worsted
sashes. This was the only infantry regiment clothed in blue coats;
the other corps wore red coats; red had been generally worn by the
English soldiers from the time of Queen Elizabeth; but several of
Cromwell's regiments were clothed in blue, and King Charles II.
clothed the royal regiment of horse guards in blue, and a regiment
of marines, raised in his reign, in yellow. A few years after the
revolution in 1688, the TENTH were clothed in red.

In August, 1685, the EARL OF BATH'S regiment marched from Derby to
Hounslow, and encamped upon the heath, where it was reviewed by
the King, and afterwards marched to Plymouth, to relieve the Queen
Dowager's regiment, now second foot.

[Sidenote: 1686]

The following statement of the numbers and rates of pay is copied
from the establishment of the army, under the sign manual, dated
the 1st of January, 1686.

  +----------------------------------------------+---------------+
  |     The Earl of Bath's Regiment.             | Pay per day.  |
  +----------------------------------------------+---------------+
  |               Staff.                         |   £. _s.  d._ |
  |                                              |               |
  |  1 Colonel, _as Colonel_                     |    0  12   0  |
  |  1 Lieut.-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_       |    0   7   0  |
  |  1 Major, _as Major_                         |    0   5   0  |
  |  1 Chaplain                                  |    0   6   8  |
  |  1 Chirurgeon, iv_s._ 1 Mate, ii_s._ v_id._  |    0   6   6  |
  |  1 Adjutant                                  |    0   4   0  |
  |  1 Quarter-Master and Marshal                |    0   4   0  |
  |                                              +---------------+
  |                  Total for Staff             |    2   5   2  |
  |                                              +===============+
  |        The Colonel's Company.                |               |
  |                                              |               |
  |  The Colonel, as Captain                     |    0   8   0  |
  |  1 Lieutenant                                |    0   4   0  |
  |  1 Ensign                                    |    0   3   0  |
  |  2 Serjeants, xviii_d._ each                 |    0   3   0  |
  |  3 Corporals, i_s._ each                     |    0   3   0  |
  |  1 Drummer                                   |    0   1   0  |
  | 50 Private Soldiers, at viii_d._ each        |    1  13   4  |
  |                                              +---------------+
  |               Total for one Company          |    2  15   4  |
  |                                              +---------------+
  |    Nine Companies more                       |   24  18   0  |
  |                                              +---------------+
  |               Total                          |   29  18   6  |
  |                                              |               |
  | Per Annum, £10,922 12_s._ 6_d._              |               |
  +----------------------------------------------+---------------+

Leaving Plymouth in March, 1686, the regiment occupied quarters at
Guildford and Godalming until the 24th of May, when it pitched
its tents on Hounslow-heath, where a numerous body of troops was
assembled for exercise and review. At this camp the regiment had
an independent company of grenadiers attached to it, and after the
reviews it marched into garrison at Portsmouth.

[Sidenote: 1687]

In 1687, the following officers were holding commissions in the
regiment:--

    _Captains._                  _Lieutenants._      _Ensigns._

  Earl of Bath, (col.)         Maurice Roch.       James Mohun.
  Sir Cha. Carney, (lt.-col.)  John Prideaux.      Richd. Nagle.
  Sir Bev. Granville, (major)  D. Bradshaw.        Jas. Granville.
  Sir Thomas Windham.          Cha. Harbine.       Jacob Breams.
  Edward Scott.                Richard Scott.      James Steukly.
  Sydney Godolphin.            Wm. Morgan.         Jno. Granville.
  John, Lord Arundel.          Thos. Trevanion.    Edw. Chard.
  Bernard Strode.              Thos. Lamb.         Thos. Cary.
  Ranald Graham.               John Long.          Hercules Low.
  John Sydenham.               Hy. Hook.           John Jacob.
  John Granville.             { Roger Elliott }  Grenadier Co.
                              { Roger Evans   }
      _Chaplain_, Thos. Nixon.       _Adjutant_, R. Elliott.
      _Chirurgeon_, James Yong. _Quarter-Master_, Jno. Freeman.

The regiment left Portsmouth, in April, 1687, for Winchester and
Taunton; in June, it once more pitched its tents on Hounslow-heath,
and in August marched into quarters in London. It did not remain
long in the metropolis: and after several changes of quarters it
was placed in garrison at Plymouth.

[Sidenote: 1688]

When King James II., who was a zealous Roman Catholic, pursued the
interests of papacy so far as to occasion much alarm among his
Protestant subjects, the EARL OF BATH stood aloof from the measures
of the Court, and he was one of the noblemen who communicated
privately with the PRINCE OF ORANGE, to whom the nation looked for
aid to oppose the arbitrary proceedings of the King. In November,
1688, when the Prince of Orange arrived with a Dutch armament, the
TENTH and Thirteenth regiments were in garrison at Plymouth,--the
TENTH occupying the citadel, and the two colonels were with their
regiments. The Earl of Bath was in the interest of the Prince of
Orange; but the Earl of Huntingdon adhered to King James: the
lieut.-colonel of the TENTH, Sir Charles Carney, was a steadfast
supporter of the Court, and the lieut.-colonel of the Thirteenth,
Ferdinando Hastings, was a warm advocate for the Prince of Orange;
thus the interest of the superior officers of the two regiments
was equally divided. It appeared doubtful, for some time, to which
party the garrison of Plymouth would devote itself; but eventually,
the Earl of Bath, being the senior officer and governor of the
fortress, ordered the Earl of Huntingdon to be arrested: he also
ordered four Roman Catholic officers of the Thirteenth,--viz.,
Captain Owen Macarty, Lieutenants William Rhodesby, Talbot
Lascelles, and Ensign Ambrose Jones, to be arrested; he then
declared for the Prince of Orange, and induced the two regiments to
engage in the same interest. The garrison having been settled in
the name of the Prince of Orange, the Earl of Huntingdon and the
Roman Catholic officers of his regiment were released.

The news of the loss of Plymouth, and of the two regiments having
declared for the Prince of Orange, together with similar events
taking place in other parts of the kingdom, proved to King James
that his soldiers would not fight against the Protestant religion
and the laws of the realm. His Majesty deprived the Earl of Bath
of his commissions, and appointed Lieut.-Colonel Sir Charles Carney
to the colonelcy of the TENTH foot by commission dated the 8th of
December. The regiment had, however, engaged in the interest of
the Prince of Orange, and this change in the colonel produced no
alteration in the sentiments of the regiment. King James fled to
France, and on the 31st of December the Prince restored the Earl of
Bath to the colonelcy.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The accession of the Prince and Princess of Orange to the throne
was followed by a civil war in Scotland and Ireland; but the TENTH
were intrusted with the charge of the citadel of Plymouth, and they
were not employed in the field in 1689 or 1690; they, however,
detached six companies to the islands of Jersey and Guernsey.

[Sidenote: 1690]

[Sidenote: 1691]

In 1690, the powerful efforts of the French monarch to reduce
the Spanish provinces in the Netherlands under his dominion,
occasioned the regiment to be called into active service. Embarking
from Jersey, Guernsey, and Plymouth, the TENTH foot, commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Sir Beville Granville, nephew of the Earl of
Bath, sailed to Ostend, and landing at that port marched up the
country, and joined the army commanded by King William III. The
regiment enjoyed the confidence of the King to a great extent, and
on joining the army, it was ordered to pitch its tents near His
Majesty's quarters at Anderlecht. It was formed in brigade with
the seventh, sixteenth, and Fitzpatrick's (afterwards disbanded),
under Brigadier-General Churchill, and after taking part in several
movements, went into winter-quarters.

[Illustration:

  _J. M. Jopling del^t._    _Madeley lith. 3 Wellington S^t. Strand._

  TENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.

  AT THE BATTLE OF STEENKIRK, 3^{RD} AUG^T. 1692.

  _For Cannon's Military Records._
]

[Sidenote: 1692]

Quitting its cantonments among the Flemish peasantry, in May, 1692,
the regiment again took the field, and was employed in several
operations. In the beginning of August it was encamped at Halle,
and, early on the morning of the 3rd of that month, it advanced
at the head of the main body of the confederate army to attack
the French in position at _Steenkirk_. After passing through some
narrow defiles among trees, the Third and TENTH foot halted at the
extremity of a wood, at the moment when the brigades forming the
van of the army were severely engaged with very superior numbers.
A short distance in front of the TENTH, and near the skirt of the
wood a little to the left, a regiment of Lunenburgers, commanded by
the Baron of Pibrack, was contending with two French battalions,
and was nearly overpowered; it was falling back, fighting, and in
some disorder; the French were gaining ground; and its colonel,
the Baron of Pibrack, lay dangerously wounded a few yards in front
of the muzzles of the enemy's muskets. Prince Casimir of Nassau
galloped up to the TENTH, and requested them to advance to the aid
of the Lunenburgers; when the regiment formed line, the pikemen
in the centre, and the musketeers and grenadiers on each flank,
and Lieut.-Colonel Sir Beville Granville led it forward with great
gallantry. At that moment the Lunenburgers were overpowered, and
the French were hurrying forward with shouts, and a heavy fire of
musketry, when suddenly the TENTH, conspicuous by their blue coats,
scarlet breeches and stockings, and three stand of scarlet colours
floating in the breeze, were seen issuing from among the trees in
firm array. So noble a line of combatants, separating itself from
the broken sections of the retreating Lunenburgers, startled the
enemy; the French artillery thundered against its flanks,--their
musketry smote it in front,--yet the regiment bore sternly forward
to close on its numerous enemies, when the French fell back. Two
serjeants of the TENTH sprang forward and rescued the Baron of
Pibrack, bearing him from among his enemies to the rear, and the
regiment pressed forward, without firing a shot, until it gained a
hollow way beyond the skirts of the wood, where it halted, and the
musketeers, taking sure aim over the bank, soon cleared the ground
in their front of opponents. Numerous narrow defiles and other
obstructions prevented the main body of the British infantry from
arriving in time to support the brigades in advance; King William
ordered a retreat, and Prince Casimir of Nassau arrived with orders
for the TENTH to withdraw from their post. The Prince highly
commended the conduct of the regiment on that, the first occasion
of its being engaged, and its bearing proved a presage of future
renown.

The regiment had a number of private soldiers killed and wounded;
also Captain Elliott, Lieutenants Thomas Granville and John
Granville, wounded.

Towards the end of August, the TENTH were detached from the main
army, and having joined a number of troops which had arrived
from England under Lieut.-General the Duke of Leinster, they
were employed in seizing and fortifying the towns of Furnes and
Dixmude. On the 22nd of September, as working parties of the
seventh and TENTH foot were enlarging the ditch of a bastion, they
found a quantity of hidden treasure, consisting of old French
coins, amounting to nearly five hundred pounds sterling, supposed
(according to D'Auvergne's history of the campaign of 1692) to have
been concealed there during the civil war in Flanders towards the
close of the preceding century.

In the middle of October, the regiment marched to Damme, a little
strong town, situated between Bruges and Sluys, where it passed the
winter.

[Sidenote: 1693]

The TENTH regiment of foot appears in the list of troops under
King William III., at Parck camp near Louvain, in June, 1693, and
they were ordered to pitch their tents in the fields adjoining
the defiles of Berbeck, to guard that avenue to the camp. While
the army was at this place, several skirmishes occurred; but the
only loss sustained by the TENTH was on the 25th of June, when
an outpost of a serjeant's party, covering a number of horses at
grass, was attacked, and three men were severely wounded.

On the 1st of July, the regiment was detached from the main army,
with other forces under the Duke of Wirtemberg, to attack the
enemy's fortified lines between the rivers Scheldt and Lys. After
a march of eight days, the troops arrived in front of the lines
near _D'Otignies_, and on the following day the works were attacked
at three points. The grenadiers formed the van of each attack;
the right column was composed of Danes; the Argyle highlanders
headed the centre column, and the TENTH foot took the lead of the
column on the left. When the signal for the assault was given, the
TENTH raised a loud shout and ran forward. The pikemen arrived at
the little river Espiers, which ran in front of the lines, and
cast a number of fascines into the water, but the stream carried
them away. The grenadiers of the TENTH and other regiments, being
anxious to signalize themselves, dashed into the current, at the
same time the musketeers advanced to the bank and fired upon
their opponents on the works. The river was so deep that many of
the soldiers were up to the chin in water; but they gained the
shore without serious loss,--sprang forward with astonishing
rapidity,--forded the ditch,--pulled down the palisadoes,--and
ascended the lines, sword in hand; the officers and grenadiers
of the TENTH being the first that entered the works. As the
soldiers climbed the entrenchments, shouting and flourishing their
swords, the French fled, and the lines were carried with little
loss. D'Auvergne states that the grenadiers of the EARL OF BATH'S
regiment (TENTH) found a cask of brandy in one of the abandoned
redoubts, which proved very welcome, as the soldiers had been
exposed to a heavy rain for several days.

After forcing the lines, contributions were levied on the territory
subject to France, as far as Lisle: and the Duke of Wirtemberg
was so well pleased with the conduct of the TENTH, that he made a
donation of a ducat to each man, and the same to the men of the
other regiments engaged in forcing the lines.

While the TENTH were levying contributions, the main army under
King William was defeated at Landen; after this disaster the
regiment was ordered to join the army, but it was not engaged
in any service of importance, and in October it marched into
winter-quarters at Bruges.

On the 29th of October, the Earl of Bath was succeeded in the
colonelcy by his nephew, Lieut.-Colonel Sir Beville Granville.

[Sidenote: 1694]

Leaving Bruges in May, 1694, the regiment pitched its tents near
Ghent. It served the campaign of that year in Brigadier-General
Stewart's brigade, in the division commanded by Major-General
Sir Henry Bellasis; and after taking part in several operations,
and performing many long and toilsome marches, it proceeded into
quarters at the pleasant town of Malines.

[Sidenote: 1695]

Early in the spring of 1695, the French commenced some new works
between the Lys and the Scheldt, when five hundred men of the TENTH
were withdrawn from Malines in the expectation of taking part in an
attempt to interrupt the enemy's proceedings; but this enterprise
was laid aside, and the regiment encamped at Marykirk until the
army took the field, when it was joined by the men left in quarters.

The TENTH were subsequently detached to Dixmude, in West Flanders;
and they were one of the corps which pitched their tents before
the _Kenoque_, a fortress at the junction of the Loo and Dixmude
canals, where the French had a garrison.

On the 9th of June, the grenadiers of the TENTH were engaged in
driving the French from the entrenchments and houses near the Loo
canal. A redoubt was afterwards taken, and a lodgment effected on
the works at the bridge; in which service the regiment had several
men killed and wounded.

This enterprise was only designed as a diversion to favour the
operations of the main army, and when King William had besieged the
strong fortress of _Namur_, the regiment traversed the country to
the banks of the Lys, and joined the covering army under the Prince
of Vaudemont.

When Marshal Villeroy advanced, with a force of very superior
numbers, to attack the covering army, the Prince of Vaudemont
retreated to Ghent, and during this retrograde movement, the
commanding officer of the TENTH, Lieut.-Colonel Sydney Godolphin,
and a serjeant and twelve men, resting at a house on the road too
long, were made prisoners.

The regiment was subsequently employed in several movements to
protect the maritime and other towns of Flanders, and to cover the
army carrying on the siege of Namur. In August it was encamped
between Genappe and Waterloo, and after the surrender of the castle
of Namur, it marched into quarters in the villages between Nieuport
and Ostend.

[Sidenote: 1696]

In the spring of 1696, Louis XIV. endeavoured to weaken the power
of the confederate army in Flanders, by causing England to become
the seat of civil war. The partisans of King James were excited
to rise in arms; a plot was formed for the assassination of King
William, and a French army approached the coast to embark with King
James for England. The TENTH foot was one of the corps selected
to return to England on this occasion, and the regiment, having
embarked at Ostend, arrived at Gravesend in March. In the meantime
the conspirators had been discovered; a British fleet was sent
to blockade the French ports, and the designs of Louis XIV. were
frustrated.

Several corps returned to Flanders; but the TENTH were selected to
remain on home service.

The regiment landed at Gravesend, occupied quarters a short period
in London, and afterwards marched into extensive cantonments in the
counties of Suffolk and Essex.

[Sidenote: 1697]

In May, 1697, the regiment was ordered to embark for the
Netherlands, and it joined the army at the camp in front of
Brussels in July; but in a few weeks afterwards the treaty of
Ryswick gave peace to Europe.

During the winter, the regiment returned to England; it landed at
Gravesend and Tilbury in December, and marched into quarters in
Essex.

[Sidenote: 1698]

[Sidenote: 1699]

[Sidenote: 1700]

Considerable reductions were made in the strength of the army,
after the peace of Ryswick, and the TENTH regiment was one of the
corps selected to proceed to Ireland; it embarked at Highlake in
July, 1698, and was stationed in Ireland during the following two
years.

[Sidenote: 1701]

Pursuing his schemes for the aggrandizement of his family with
unceasing assiduity, the King of France procured the accession
of his grandson, Philip, Duke of Anjou, to the throne of Spain,
and this open violation of existing treaties involved Europe in
another war. Among the corps first ordered to proceed on foreign
service to aid the continental powers in arresting the progress of
French usurpations, was the TENTH regiment of foot. It embarked at
Cork on the 15th of June, 1701, sailed to Holland, and was placed
in one of the frontier garrisons of that country. In September
it was encamped on Breda-heath, where it was reviewed, with the
remainder of the British troops in Holland, by King William III.,
and afterwards returned to its former station in garrison.

[Sidenote: 1702]

In the spring of 1702, the regiment took the field to serve as
auxiliaries to the army of the Emperor of Germany, England not
having declared war against France; and at the camp at Rosendael,
news was received of the death of King William III. and of the
accession of Queen Anne on the 8th of March. From Rosendael the
TENTH marched to the Duchy of Cleves, and encamped at Cranenburg
on the Lower Rhine, forming part of the covering army during the
siege of _Kayserswerth_. In June a French force of superior numbers
marched through the forest of Cleves and plains of Goch to cut off
the allied army from Grave and Nimeguen; in consequence of this
movement the British, Dutch, and Germans at Cranenburg, struck
their tents a little before sunset on the 10th of June, and, by a
forced march, arrived within a few miles of _Nimeguen_, about eight
o'clock on the following morning, at which time the French columns
appeared on both flanks and in the rear. Some sharp fighting
occurred; the British corps forming the rear-guard evinced signal
gallantry, and the TENTH regiment distinguished itself: the enemy
was held in check until the army effected its retreat under the
works of Nimeguen.

England declared war against France: additional troops arrived
in Holland, and the EARL OF MARLBOROUGH assumed the command. The
TENTH were engaged in the movements by which the French were driven
from their menacing position near the confines of Holland. The
regiment also formed part of the covering army during the siege of
_Venloo_,--a fortress on the east side of the river Maese, which
surrendered on the 25th of September. The regiment was next engaged
in covering the sieges of _Ruremonde_ and _Stevenswart_, both of
which places were captured in the early part of October. The army
afterwards advanced to the city of _Liege_, which immediately
opened its gates, but the citadel, and a detached fortress
called the Chartreuse, held out. The TENTH regiment was employed
in the siege of the citadel, and the grenadier company behaved
with great gallantry at the capture of that fortress by storm on
the 23rd of October. The citadel being carried by assault, the
garrison was nearly annihilated; the garrison of the Chartreuse
were eye-witnesses of this event, and surrendered immediately
afterwards, from apprehension of a similar fate.

The city of Liege being rescued from the power of the enemy, the
regiment marched back to Holland, and passed the winter in garrison
at Breda.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Sir Beville Granville having been appointed governor of Barbadoes,
the colonelcy of the TENTH foot was conferred on William, Lord
North and Grey, by commission dated the 15th of January, 1703.

Colonel Lord North and Grey proved a very gallant aspirant
for military fame; serving at the head of his regiment, and
distinguishing himself on numerous occasions. The TENTH left their
winter-quarters towards the end of April, 1703; on the 6th of
May, they arrived at Maeswyck, where they halted on the following
day; but, information having been received of the approach of a
powerful French army to cut off the detachments of the confederate
forces, the regiment struck its tents at sunset, with several other
corps, and, by a forced march, arrived at the city of _Maestricht_
about noon on the following day. When the French army approached
that city, the regiment was in position, being one of the corps
stationed at Lonakin; some skirmishing and cannonading occurred,
and the French withdrew without venturing a general engagement.

When the Duke of Marlborough advanced against the French at
Tongres, the TENTH were formed in brigade with the second battalion
of the royals, and the sixteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-sixth
regiments, under Brigadier-General the Earl of Derby. The enemy
took refuge behind an extensive line of works, and the English
General besieged the strong fortress of _Huy_, situate on the Maese
above Liege. The TENTH foot were employed at the siege; and, on
the 18th of August, when the enemy had vacated that portion of
the town which lay beyond the river, Colonel Lord North and Grey
took possession of it with the TENTH: another corps was afterwards
placed under his lordship's command, and the regiment held this
post during the remainder of the siege.

_Huy_ having been captured, the siege of the city of _Limburg_ was
next undertaken, and this fortress was surrendered before the end
of September. Thus Spanish Guelderland was wrested from the power
of France, and in October the regiment marched back to Holland,
where it passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1704]

While the Duke of Marlborough was capturing fortress after fortress
in the Netherlands, the French and Bavarians had great success in
Germany; their united efforts threatened to overturn the imperial
throne, and, in 1704, the British commander led his army from
Holland to the Danube, to the succour of the Emperor Leopold.
The TENTH foot, commanded by Colonel Lord North and Grey, had
the honour of being employed in this splendid enterprise, which
elevated the reputation of the British arms, and immortalized the
name of Marlborough for the conception of the movement, and the
secrecy and rapidity with which it was executed.

To engage in this undertaking, the regiment left its
winter-quarters early in May, 1704, and directing its march to
the Rhine, proceeded along the banks of that river to Coblentz,
where it passed the Rhine and the Moselle on the 25th and 26th of
that month. From Coblentz the army marched towards the Maine, and
traversing the several states of Germany, arrived at the seat of
war to co-operate with the forces of the empire.

On the 2nd of July, after a long march through a difficult country,
the British approached the fortified post of _Schellenberg_, a
commanding height on the left bank of the Danube, where a body
of French and Bavarians were stationed under the Count d'Arco,
and about six in the evening, a detachment from each British
regiment, with the foot guards, royals, and twenty-third, under
Brigadier-General Fergusson, and a Dutch force under General Goor,
advanced to attack the entrenchments. A very spirited resistance
was made by the enemy, and, eventually, the TENTH were led up the
contested height to join in the attack. Firmly and steadily the
soldiers of the TENTH moved up the steep ascent, which was strewed
with killed and wounded; arriving within range of the enemy's fire,
an iron tempest smote the ranks, and the firm order of the regiment
was shaken: a short pause ensued. At that moment the British
cavalry approached to support the infantry, and the Germans under
the Margrave of Baden arrived to prolong the attack and assail the
enemy in the rear. Encouraged by these circumstances, the British
and Dutch infantry raised a loud shout, and, breaking with terrific
violence into the entrenchments, overpowered all resistance. The
Duke of Marlborough led the British cavalry forward, and completed
the overthrow of the enemy.

The TENTH had Captain Crow and fifteen rank and file killed; three
serjeants, and thirty-six rank and file wounded.

Crossing the Danube, and advancing into Bavaria, the regiment was
engaged in various operations; it proceeded to the vicinity of the
enemy's fortified camp at Augsburg, and afterwards returned to the
Danube at Donawerth: in the meantime a numerous body of French
troops had traversed the Black Forest and joined the enemy.

About ten o'clock on the night of the 11th of August, the army
under the Duke of Marlborough joined the imperialists commanded by
Prince Eugene of Savoy, at the village of Munster, near the bank of
the Danube. On the following day the regiment was ordered forward
to support the piquets, which were attacked by the enemy's hussars.

At daybreak, on the morning of the memorable 13th of August, the
regiment was under arms, to engage in a battle which appeared
to involve the fate of the Christian world: it formed, on this
occasion, part of the brigade under Brigadier-General Row.

Advancing from the camp-ground, the soldiers arrived in front of
the enemy's position, and the TENTH, commanded by their gallant
young colonel, LORD NORTH AND GREY, were destined to attack the
village of _Blenheim_, where the enemy had posted a numerous body
of troops, thrown up entrenchments, and constructed palisades.
Against this village, Brigadier-General Row's brigade advanced
with great gallantry: the TENTH and Royal Scots Fusiliers led
the attack, and were distinguished for their intrepid bearing;
but all efforts to force the village against an enemy of so very
superior numbers, and advantageously posted, proved ineffectual. As
the brigade withdrew, it was charged by some French cavalry, who
were repulsed by the fire of a Hessian brigade. Brigadier-General
Fergusson led a brigade against the other side of the village;
but without success. A sharp fire was afterwards kept up at this
point, and the army deployed to engage the main body of the French
and Bavarians. In the conflict which followed, British valour was
conspicuous, and after a contest of several hours' duration, the
French and Bavarian armies were overthrown and nearly annihilated;
Marshal Tallard, and many officers and soldiers being made
prisoners.

When the main body of their army was overthrown, the French troops
in Blenheim were insulated; thrice they attempted to escape, but
they were forced back. They took shelter behind the houses and
enclosures; but they were soon surrounded, and twelve squadrons
of cavalry, with twenty-four battalions of infantry, surrendered
prisoners of war. Thus ended the mighty struggle of this eventful
day, so glorious to the British arms!

The honours acquired by the regiment had been attended with the
loss of many valuable lives. Captains Dawes, Sir John Sands,
Cavendish, and Burton; Lieutenants Frazer and Wycks; Ensigns Breams
and Dawson, were killed: Colonel Lord North and Grey lost his
right hand; Major Granville; Captains Cunningham and Spotswood;
Lieutenants Bulwer, Boylblanc, and Hornby; Ensigns Crow and
Rossington, were wounded. The number of non-commissioned officers
and private soldiers of the regiment, killed and wounded, has not
been ascertained.

After passing the night on the field of battle, surrounded with
the ensanguined trophies of victory, the TENTH were selected to
guard the prisoners from Germany to Holland, in which service five
British battalions were employed. The prisoners were marched to
Mentz, where they were put on board of small vessels, and sailed
to Holland. The regiment arrived at the Hague in October, and,
having delivered up the prisoners, it was placed in garrison for
the winter: its services are not, therefore, connected with the
operations of the army in Germany after the victory at Blenheim.

[Sidenote: 1705]

A numerous body of fine recruits arrived from England, in the
spring of 1705, to replace the losses of the preceding campaign,
and in May, 1705, when the regiment took the field, its appearance
was admired. It was reviewed by the Duke of Marlborough, at the
camp on the left bank of the Maese, and afterwards marched to
Juliers. From Juliers the regiment marched through a mountainous
country to the valley of the Moselle, and pitched its tents near
the ancient city of Treves. The army being united, it passed the
rivers Moselle and Saar on the 3rd of June, traversed the difficult
defile of Tavernen, and encamped within seven miles of Syrk. At
this place the army halted, waiting for the imperialists, whose
tardy movements and inefficient state disappointed the expectations
of the English commander, and rendered it necessary for him to
hurry back to the Netherlands to arrest the progress of the French
on the Maese.

In the forced march from Syrk to the Maese, the regiment lost many
men from fatigue; and soon after its arrival, it was selected to
take part in storming the enemy's fortified lines, which were
protected by a numerous army. To render this great undertaking as
certain as possible, these formidable barriers were menaced on the
south of the Mehaigne, and the French troops being drawn in that
direction, the point selected for the attack was thus weakened. On
the evening of the 17th of July, the corps selected to commence the
attack marched in the direction of _Helixem_ and _Neer-Hespen_, the
TENTH forming part of the leading brigade of infantry; and they
were followed by the remainder of the army. About four o'clock on
the following morning, they approached the lines and surprised
the enemy's guards. Inspired with emulation, the soldiers soon
cleared the villages of Neer-Winden and Neer-Hespen, seized the
village and bridge of Helixem, and carried the castle of Wange
with little loss; the enemy being surprised and confounded by
the suddenness of the attack. Encouraged by this success, and
stimulated by the noble example of several officers, the troops
rushed through the enclosures and marshy grounds, forded the river
Gheet, and crowded across the fortifications; the French retreating
in a panic. Thus the lines were forced, and the soldiers of the
TENTH stood triumphant on the captured works, where the cross of
St. George, floating in the air, served as a beacon to impart a
knowledge of this splendid success to the main body of the army,
still at some distance. A numerous body of the enemy's cavalry and
infantry hurried to the spot to drive back the troops which had
passed the lines, when some sharp fighting occurred, which ended in
the overthrow of the enemy, who made a precipitate retreat behind
the river Dyle. This daring enterprise was thus achieved; and the
talents of the Duke of Marlborough, with the intrepidity and valour
of the British soldiers, were admired by all nations. The English
commander stated in his despatch, that the troops _acquitted
themselves with a bravery surpassing all that could have been hoped
of them_.

The TENTH shared in the operations of the main army during the
remainder of the campaign, but had no opportunity of distinguishing
themselves in action: they passed the winter in garrison in Holland.

[Sidenote: 1706]

Each successive victory had inspired the troops with additional
confidence in their commander, and in their own prowess: to besiege
a town, or fight a battle, and not conquer, when the DUKE OF
MARLBOROUGH commanded, appeared impossible. With a bold assurance
that fresh triumphs awaited them, the soldiers took the field in
May, 1706, and the TENTH foot joined the camp near Tongres on the
19th of that month. On the 23rd of May, as the army was advancing
in eight columns, information was received that the French,
Spaniards, and Bavarians, commanded by Marshal Villeroy and the
Elector of Bavaria, were taking up a position at Mont St. André,
with their centre at the village of _Ramilies_, and the allies
prepared for battle.

Diverging into the open plain, the allied army formed line and
advanced against the enemy. The TENTH foot, being on the right of
the line, proceeded, with a number of other corps, in the direction
of the village of Autreglise, and made a demonstration of attacking
the enemy's left. The French weakened their centre to support their
left, and the British commander instantly seized the opportunity
and attacked the weakened point. The TENTH foot were among the
corps which, occupying some high ground on the right, were not
engaged during the early part of the battle; but they had a full
view of the conflict on the plain. At length a crisis arrived: the
brigades on the right were ordered into action, when the TENTH
evinced that intrepidity and firmness for which the regiment had
been distinguished on former occasions, and another decisive
victory exalted the fame of the British arms. The broken remains
of the French, Spanish, and Bavarian legions were pursued for many
miles, and an immense number of prisoners, cannon, standards, and
colours was captured.

The effect of this surprising victory was the immediate surrender
of Brussels, Ghent, and the principal towns of Brabant, and the
intelligence of these events produced such an electric sensation
throughout England, that the gallant exploits of the heroes of
_Ramilies_ became a general theme of conversation, and the subject
of numerous addresses to the throne. Rewards were conferred on
officers who had distinguished themselves, and the commanding
officer of the TENTH, the gallant Lord North and Grey, was promoted
to the rank of brigadier-general, and placed at the head of three
battalions of infantry.

Several towns in Flanders held out; and in June the TENTH marched
to Arseele, and afterwards to Rouselaer, and formed part of the
covering army during the siege of _Ostend_, which fortress was
delivered up on the 8th of July.

After the surrender of Ostend, the regiment was selected to take
part in the siege of _Menin_, a strong town pleasantly situated on
the little river Lys. This fortress was accounted the key to the
French conquests in the Netherlands, and one of the masterpieces
of the celebrated Vauban: the siege therefore excited an unusual
degree of interest. The town was invested on the 23rd of July;
and the conduct of the TENTH during the progress of the siege,
corresponded with the high character of the regiment. Considerable
loss was sustained in carrying on the attacks, but the soldiers had
the gratification of witnessing this place added to the numerous
conquests made during this memorable campaign.

Dendermond and Aeth were afterwards captured; and in November the
regiment took up its winter-quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1707]

During the campaign of 1707, the regiment formed part of the
brigade commanded by its colonel, Brigadier-General Lord North and
Grey, and it was some time encamped near the village of Waterloo.
The English commander was unable, this year, to bring his cautious
opponents to a general engagement. In October, the regiment
returned to Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1708]

While the regiment was reposing in quarters at this city, the king
of France fitted out a fleet, and embarked troops at Dunkirk,
for the invasion of Great Britain, with a view of placing the
Pretender on the throne. To repel the invaders, the TENTH regiment
embarked for England in the middle of March, 1708, and arrived at
Tynemouth on the 21st; but the French squadron, with the Pretender
on board, was chased from the British coast by the English fleet,
and the TENTH were ordered to Flanders: they landed at Ostend, and
proceeded in boats to Ghent, where they arrived towards the end of
April.

In May the regiment quitted Ghent, and was engaged in the
operations of the main army; and soon afterwards the French, by
treachery and stratagem, obtained possession of the two towns
of Ghent and Bruges. They also invested _Oudenarde_, and this
circumstance led to a general engagement, in which the TENTH gained
new honours.

Passing the Scheldt on pontoon bridges near Oudenarde, on the 11th
of July, the allied army encountered the legions of the enemy,
commanded by his Royal Highness the Duke of Burgundy and the
Duke of Vendome, in the fields beyond the river, and the battle
immediately commenced. The TENTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Grove, passed the Scheldt by the bridge between Oudenarde and the
abbey of Eename, and ascended the heights of Bevere. At this place
they halted a short time, then descended into the plain, and
engaged the French battalions in the grounds beyond the rivulet,
near the village of Eyne. About five o'clock in the afternoon the
regiment opened its fire, and it continued to gain ground upon its
opponents, until the shades of evening gathered over the field of
battle. The wings of the allied army gained upon the enemy, and
the circling blaze of musketry enveloped the French troops, whose
destruction appeared inevitable, but the darkness of the night soon
rendered it impossible to distinguish friends from foes, and the
Duke of Marlborough ordered his soldiers to cease firing, and to
halt. The darkness favoured the escape of the enemy, and the wreck
of the French army retreated in disorder towards Ghent.

This victory prepared the way for an undertaking of great
magnitude,--viz., the siege of _Lisle_, the capital of French
Flanders,--a fortress deemed almost impregnable, and garrisoned by
fifteen thousand men, commanded by the veteran Marshal Boufflers.
This enterprise put the abilities of the generals, and the courage
and endurance of the troops, to a severe trial. The TENTH formed
part of the covering army under the Duke of Marlborough, while the
siege was carried on by the brigades under Prince Eugene of Savoy.
The services of the TENTH were of a varied character,--escorting
supplies,--furnishing out-posts,--confronting the French army which
advanced to raise the siege; and eventually the grenadier company
joined the besieging army, and took part in the attacks on the town.

When the Elector of Bavaria besieged Brussels, the TENTH formed
part of the force which advanced to raise the siege. The enemy's
strong positions on the _Scheldt_ were forced on the 27th of
November; and the Elector made a precipitate retreat from before
Brussels.

The citadel of Lisle surrendered on the 9th of December, and,
notwithstanding the lateness of the season, the soldiers of the
TENTH were called upon to engage in another enterprise. They
appeared before _Ghent_,--drove back the enemy's out-guards, and
took part in opening the trenches between the Scheldt and the Lys,
on the night of the 24th of December, on which occasion their
colonel, Lord North and Grey, evinced signal gallantry, and he was
rewarded, a few days afterwards, with the rank of major-general.
On the 26th of December, ten companies of French grenadiers issued
from the town to attack the besieging troops, and they put the
first regiment they came in contact with in some confusion.

The TENTH were immediately led to the spot, and they engaged
the French grenadiers with spirit. The commanding officer of
the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Grove, was made prisoner, and
Brigadier-General Evans, who commanded the troops at that point,
was also captured; but the enemy was soon driven back into the
town. On the 2nd of January, 1709, the governor surrendered; and
the TENTH took up their quarters for the winter in the captured
town.

[Sidenote: 1709]

From Ghent, the regiment marched, in the spring of 1709, to the
plain of Lisle; and was afterwards encamped on the Upper Dyle.
After menacing the enemy's lines, and causing Marshal Villars
to draw all the troops out of the fortified towns, which could
possibly be spared, to strengthen his army in the field, the allies
suddenly invested _Tournay_. During the siege of the town the TENTH
regiment formed part of the covering army, but when the citadel was
attacked, this, with several other regiments, left the covering
army, and marched to Tournay to take part in the siege.

The citadel of Tournay was situated on some high ground, with a
gentle ascent from the town, and the siege proved a service of
the most difficult character. The peculiarities arose not so much
from the strength of the fortifications, as from the multiplicity
of the subterraneous works, which were more numerous than those
aboveground. The approaches were carried on by sinking pits several
fathoms deep, and working from thence underground, until the troops
arrived at the casements and mines. The soldiers engaged in these
services frequently encountered parties of the enemy, and numerous
combats occurred in these gloomy labyrinths. On some occasions
the men at work underground were inundated with water; on another
occasion three hundred men were suffocated with smoke, and a
hundred men were buried by the explosion of a mine. A detachment
of the eighteenth foot was blown into the air, and their limbs
scattered to a distance; and a battalion of Germans was destroyed
by another mine; the TENTH foot also lost a number of men in the
mines. At length it became difficult to induce the soldiers to
enter these dark caverns, and engage in so appalling a service;
they were, however, persuaded to persevere, and the citadel
surrendered in the beginning of September.

After the capture of Tournay, the allied army traversed the country
with a view of besieging the city of Mons, the capital of the
province of Hainault; but when on the march, the allies found the
French army, under Marshals Villars and Boufflers, in position near
_Malplaquet_, and resolved to hazard an engagement.

At three o'clock on the morning of the 11th of September, the
TENTH were on parade in the meadow where they had passed the night,
and the chaplain performed divine service. A thick mist concealed
the opposing armies from each other, but the din of hostile
preparation was heard, and the soldiers, having confidence in their
leaders, were anxious to acquire new laurels under their favourite
chiefs. They waited till the sun broke forth, and then the battle
commenced.

Entrenchments, _abatis de bois_, and other defensive works, covered
the front and flanks of the French, and the storming of these
formidable works occasioned a greater loss of life, than occurred
at the battles of Blenheim, Ramilies, and Oudenarde put together.

The TENTH were formed in brigade, on this occasion, with the
foot guards, royals, and thirty-seventh, and were in the column
commanded by General Count Lottum. To this column was allotted
the task of storming the enemy's entrenchments in the wood of
Taisniere, which proved a difficult service. The foot guards led
the attack, and behaved with great gallantry, but they encountered
such formidable opposition that they were repulsed. The royals
seconded the foot guards, and the buffs, being at the head of
the next brigade, prolonged the attack to the left. The TENTH
penetrated between the royals and the buffs, and the whole rushing
forward with determined resolution, forced the entrenchments,
when the French fell back fighting, but halted and renewed the
contest in the wood. The TENTH, and other corps at this point,
penetrated among the trees, and a sharp fire of musketry was kept
up. The foliage was thick, every tree was disputed, and the wood
re-echoed the din of battle. In the meantime a severe contest was
taking place at other parts of the field, and obstacles deemed
insurmountable were overcome; but the carnage was dreadful.
The enemy's centre was forced; the cavalry of the allied army
triumphed over the French horsemen, and the TENTH, and other
British regiments in the woods of Taisniere, gained ground on
their opponents. Eventually the French legions were driven from
the field, with the loss of many prisoners, colours, standards,
and cannon. When the soldiers of the allied army gazed at the
formidable entrenchments, and other difficulties they had overcome,
they were astonished at their own success.

On this occasion the regiment did not sustain a very severe loss
in killed and wounded: the only officers mentioned in the list are
Lieutenants Fellowes and Elstead wounded.

After the victory of Malplaquet, the siege of _Mons_ was
undertaken, and the TENTH formed part of the covering army: the
garrison surrendered on the 20th of October, and shortly afterwards
the regiment marched into winter-quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1710]

Leaving its winter-quarters in the middle of April, 1710, the
regiment directed its march to the vicinity of Tournay, where the
allied army assembled. The capture of the small post of _Mortagne_
proved a prelude to another campaign in which several fortresses
were wrested from the French monarch. By a forced march the enemy's
lines were passed at _Pont-à-Vendin_, and the siege of _Douay_, a
considerable fortress in the second line of defence which covered
the frontiers of Artois, was undertaken. Douay is a town of
antiquity, having been a place of note in the time of the first
Counts of Flanders; the river Scarpe running through the town, the
river Haine being near it, the works being also strong, numerous,
and well garrisoned, the siege of this place was an important
undertaking. The TENTH foot, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Henry
Grove, had their post in the lines of circumvallation, but did not
take part in the attacks upon the works. When the French army,
under Marshal Villars, advanced to raise the siege, the regiment
was in position to oppose the enemy, and it had several men killed
and wounded by a heavy cannonade which occurred on that occasion.
Marshal Villars did not hazard an engagement, and the governor of
Douay, after a very gallant defence, surrendered on the 27th of
June.

After this conquest the English general resolved to attack
_Bethune_, a strong town formerly belonging to the Counts of
Flanders; but having been taken by Gaston, Duke of Orleans, it was
annexed to the French monarchy at the peace of the Pyrenees in
1659. During the siege of Bethune, the TENTH had their post in the
covering army encamped at Villars-Brulin, where the regiment was
stationed until the garrison surrendered on the 29th of August.

The next undertaking in which the army was engaged was the siege
of _Aire_ and _St. Venant_, which towns were so situated as to
admit of a simultaneous investment, and as the capture of these
fortresses would secure the navigation of the Lys, and open a
water communication with Tournay, Lisle, and Ghent, the skill of
the generals and the valour of the troops were called forth to
insure their reduction. The TENTH were among the corps engaged
in the siege of Aire, and as the governor of that place made a
very vigorous defence, a severe loss was sustained in killed and
wounded. The regiment was several times warmly engaged in carrying
on the attacks and storming the out-works; on which occasions its
gallant bearing called forth the commendations of the Prince of
Anhalt, who commanded the troops employed in the siege. On the 9th
of November, the garrison surrendered; but the possession of Aire
was purchased at a serious loss of brave soldiers.

Thus, fortress after fortress fell before the superior skill of the
commanders and the prowess of the troops composing the allied army.
After the surrender of Aire, the TENTH marched to Courtray, a town
of Hainault, situate on the river Lys, and defended by towers and a
strong castle erected by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, in 1385: at this
place the regiment passed the winter, and its losses were replaced
by recruits from England.

[Sidenote: 1711]

Towards the end of April, 1711, the regiment was again in the
field; it was reviewed at the camp at Warde by the Duke of
Marlborough, on the 8th of June, and commended for its appearance
and discipline: it afterwards encamped on the plains of Lens. A new
line of formidable entrenchments, defended by a powerful French
army under the command of Marshal Villars, appeared as a barrier to
arrest the victorious career of the allied army; but the British
General, by menacing the enemy's left, and making ostentatious
preparations for storming the works at that point, occasioned the
French troops to be drawn to that quarter; in the meantime he had
privately assembled a number of corps at Douay, and by a forced
march these formidable works were passed at the unguarded post of
_Arleux_. The TENTH regiment of foot had the honor to take part
in forcing these lines, on which occasion the British General
developed that sublimity of military talent which has justly
stamped this campaign as peculiarly scientific and glorious. The
regiment was afterwards engaged in the siege of _Bouchain_, a
well-fortified town, situate on both sides of the river Scheldt:
and in carrying on the attacks, and performing its turn of duty in
the trenches, the regiment had several men killed and wounded. The
garrison surrendered in September, and after the damaged works were
repaired, the TENTH went into winter-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1712]

The French monarch saw his generals overmatched, his soldiers
beaten and dispirited, the barriers of his kingdom trampled down,
and the great Duke of Marlborough ready to lead his victorious
legions into the heart of France. Under these circumstances the
ambitious Louis XIV. solicited peace. Negociations commenced before
the TENTH foot took the field in April, 1712: the British troops
were, however, assembled near Tournay, and the Duke of Ormond
assumed the command in succession to the Duke of Marlborough.

According to the returns of this period, the regiment brought six
hundred and twenty-three rank and file into the field.

From Tournay the regiment advanced to the vicinity of Bouchain;
it subsequently formed part of the covering army, encamped at
Cateau-Cambresis, during the siege of _Quesnoy_, which fortress
surrendered on the 4th of July. Soon afterwards a suspension of
arms was proclaimed between the British and French, preparatory to
a treaty of peace, and the Duke of Ormond withdrew, with the troops
under his orders, to Ghent, from whence several corps were detached
to Dunkirk, to take possession of that fortress.

[Sidenote: 1713]

[Sidenote: 1714]

The TENTH regiment of foot was subsequently quartered at Ghent; it
remained in Flanders while the negociations were being carried on
at Utrecht, and, in April, 1714, it was in garrison at the strong
maritime town of Nieuport.

While the regiment was in garrison at Nieuport, Queen Anne died
(1st August), and was succeeded by King George I.; several corps
were ordered home on this occasion, but the TENTH were selected to
garrison one of the fortresses in Flanders during the negociations
for the barrier treaty.

[Sidenote: 1715]

In the summer of 1715, the adherents of the Stuart dynasty,
who were numerous, particularly in Scotland, made active
preparations for the elevation of the Pretender to the throne,
and Lieut.-General Lord North and Grey, being known to entertain
sentiments favourable to the Stuart family, was removed from
the colonelcy of the TENTH foot, which was conferred on the
Lieut.-Colonel, Brigadier-General Henry Grove (who had often
signalized himself at the head of the regiment), by commission
dated the 23rd of June, 1715.

King George I., supported by his parliament, adopted very energetic
measures to oppose the designs of the Jacobites, and His Majesty,
having great confidence in the zeal of Brigadier-General Grove, and
in the attachment of the TENTH foot to the Protestant succession,
gave directions for the regiment to return to England: it landed
at the Tower-stairs, London, about the middle of August, and
afterwards marched to Colchester.

The rebellion broke out in Scotland in September, and the Earl
of Mar headed the insurgent bands; but it was found necessary to
detain a number of corps in England, to overawe the disaffected;
and the TENTH were ordered to march, in the beginning of October,
to Hammersmith, Kensington, and Chelsea, to be near the court.
After the victories gained by the King's troops at Dumblain
and Preston, the regiment marched to Lichfield and Newcastle,
in Staffordshire, where it remained during the winter and the
following spring.

[Sidenote: 1716]

[Sidenote: 1717]

In the summer of 1716, the regiment was stationed in Warwickshire,
and in 1717, in Lancashire.

[Sidenote: 1722]

The regiment continued to occupy various quarters in England,
until the summer of 1722, when it was encamped on Salisbury Plain,
where it was reviewed with a number of other corps, on the 30th
of August, by King George I. and his royal highness the Prince of
Wales. After the review, the regiment proceeded to Wolverhampton
and Birmingham.

[Sidenote: 1723]

[Sidenote: 1724]

During the summer of 1723, the regiment marched to Scotland, from
whence it returned in 1724, and was stationed at Nottingham.

[Sidenote: 1727]

On the prospect of hostilities taking place on the Continent,
in the spring of 1727, between the Emperor of Germany and the
Dutch, the regiment was held in readiness to proceed on foreign
service; at the same time its colonel was promoted to the rank of
major-general, but no embarkation took place.

On the 11th June, 1727, King George I. died, and King George II.
was proclaimed Sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland on the
following day.

[Sidenote: 1730]

In June, 1730, the regiment marched to Portsmouth, where it
embarked for Gibraltar, and formed part of the garrison of that
important fortress during the following nineteen years.

[Sidenote: 1736]

[Sidenote: 1737]

[Sidenote: 1746]

The decease of Lieut.-General Grove occurred on the 20th of
November, 1736, and the colonelcy of the regiment remained vacant
until June of the following year, when it was conferred on
Major-General Francis Columbine, who commanded the regiment nine
years, and was succeeded in December, 1746, by Lieut.-General James
Lord Tyrawley, from the third troop of life guards, which King
George II. had resolved to reduce, in order to diminish the public
expenditure.

[Sidenote: 1749]

On the conclusion of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1749,
the regiment was relieved from garrison duty at Gibraltar, and
proceeded to Ireland.

General Lord Tyrawley was removed to the fourteenth dragoons, in
July, 1749; and in August King George II. conferred the colonelcy
of the TENTH foot on Colonel Edward Pole, from the lieut.-colonelcy
of the twelfth dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1751]

A royal warrant was issued on the 1st of July, 1751, in which the
King's or first colour of the regiment was directed to be the great
Union: the second colour to be of _bright yellow_ silk, with the
Union in the upper canton, and in the centre of the colour the rank
of the regiment, in gold Roman characters, within a wreath of roses
and thistles on the same stalk.

The costume of the regiment at this period was,--Three-cornered
cocked hats bound with white lace; scarlet coats faced and turned
up with bright yellow, and ornamented with white lace; scarlet
waistcoats and breeches; white linen gaiters reaching above the
knee; white cravats; buff belts.

[Sidenote: 1757]

[Sidenote: 1759]

[Sidenote: 1762]

Colonel Pole was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1757,
and to that of lieut.-general in 1759. He commanded the regiment
thirteen years, and died in the winter of 1762; when King George
III. conferred the colonelcy on Major-General Edward Sandford,
from the twenty-sixth regiment, by commission dated the 4th of
January, 1763.

[Sidenote: 1763]

[Sidenote: 1767]

[Sidenote: 1768]

The regiment was stationed in Ireland during the whole of the seven
years' war, but when the disputes between Great Britain and her
North American colonies began to assume a serious aspect, the TENTH
was one of the first corps ordered to proceed across the Atlantic.
The regiment embarked from Ireland in the spring of 1767, and after
a short stay in Nova Scotia, it was ordered to Boston, where, in
1768, the conduct of the populace assumed so violent a character as
to render the presence of a military force necessary.

[Sidenote: 1769]

The policy pursued by the British government towards the North
American provinces alienated the affections of the people from the
mother-country, and the idea of these extensive colonies becoming
a great and independent empire, having gained possession of many
minds, the Americans became impatient of their condition. The
events of each succeeding year appeared to mature the revolutionary
designs of the colonists, and the determination to assert their
independence became prevalent.

[Illustration: COLOURS OF THE TENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.]

[Sidenote: 1775]

In the spring of 1775, General Gage, who commanded the British
troops at Boston, ascertained that the Americans were collecting
military stores at Concord, about eighteen miles from Boston, and
the flank companies of the TENTH, and of several other corps,
embarked in boats, at ten o'clock on the night of the 18th of
April, under Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Smith of the TENTH, for the
purpose of destroying the stores. Proceeding to the entrance of the
Cambridge-river, the troops landed at Phipps's farm, and advanced
upon Concord, while the Americans, by the ringing of bells and the
firing of guns, spread an alarm over the country. About four
o'clock on the morning of the 19th of April, the light company of
the TENTH, being in advance, approached the village of _Lexington_,
where a body of American militia was forming; they were called
upon to lay down their arms, but instead of obeying the order,
they attempted to take shelter behind a stone wall, and several of
them fired at the King's troops, wounding a soldier of the TENTH,
which was the first blood shed in this unhappy contest. The light
infantry responded to this act of hostility with an irregular
volley, which killed and wounded several Americans, and dispersed
the remainder: the commencement of the American war thus took place.

After this rencounter, the flank companies continued their route
to _Concord_, and Captain Parsons of the TENTH was detached with
several companies to secure the bridge beyond the town, while the
remainder of the detachment searched for and destroyed the military
stores. The light companies of the fourth and TENTH regiments
were posted on some heights near the bridge; crowds of armed
men assembled on the high grounds near the town, and a party of
Americans fired upon the soldiers at the bridge, killing three men
and wounding several others, when the fire was returned, and the
detached companies joined the main body in the town.

The military stores having been destroyed, the troops commenced
their march back to Boston, when the country was found swarming
with armed men, who commenced a sharp fire from behind walls,
fences, trees, &c., and skirmish succeeded skirmish until the
soldiers were exhausted, and had expended nearly all their
ammunition. Arriving at Lexington, they were met by a brigade
of infantry and two guns, under Colonel Earl Percy, who formed
his men into a square, with the exhausted flank companies in
the centre, and, after a short halt, continued the retreat to
Charlestown, from whence he crossed the river by the ferry to
Boston, having lost several men from the incessant fire which the
Americans kept up from behind walls, trees, and other coverts on
both sides of the road.

The regiment had two men killed; Lieut.-Colonel Francis Smith,
Captain Lawrence Parsons, Lieutenant Waldron Kelly, Ensign Jeremiah
Lester, and thirteen rank and file wounded.

Hostilities having thus commenced, the whole province of
Massachusetts-bay was speedily in arms, and an immense number
of men invested Boston, where the King's troops were stationed
on the land side. The Americans commenced constructing works on
_Bunkers-hill_, a high ground beyond the river, from which it was
determined to dislodge them, and the flank companies of the TENTH
formed part of the force selected for this service.

Embarking from Boston in boats, about noon on the 17th of June,
the soldiers crossed the river, and landed on the opposite shore.
The ships of war opened their fire upon the enemy's works, and
the troops ascended the steep hill, which was covered with grass
reaching to the knees, and intersected with walls and fences of
various enclosures, and advanced to storm the works in the face
of a well-directed fire. The difficulty of the ascent, the heat
of the weather, and the enemy's superior numbers and incessant
fire, combined to render this enterprise particularly arduous;
twice the King's troops appeared to stagger; but recovering, they
rushed forward with renewed ardour, and drove the Americans out
of the works at the point of the bayonet; thus proving their
superior bravery and discipline, by gaining a complete victory over
an enemy three times as numerous as themselves and protected by
entrenchments.

The flank companies of the TENTH were among the troops which
distinguished themselves, and every officer was wounded. Their loss
was two serjeants and five rank and file killed; Captains Parsons,
Fitzgerald, Lieutenants Pittigrew, Verner, Hamilton, Kelly, one
drummer, and thirty-nine rank and file wounded.

The valour of the British soldiers in North America excited the
admiration of their sovereign and country; yet, the circumstances
in which they were placed rendered it impossible for their prowess
to be exercised with the prospect of ultimate success. The great
superiority of the numbers of the enemy more than counter-balanced
the advantages of superior skill and discipline, and the troops in
Boston remained in a state of blockade; live cattle, vegetables,
and even fuel, were sent for their use from England; many of
the vessels were, however, wrecked, and others captured by the
Americans, and great distress, sickness, and loss of life occurred.

[Sidenote: 1776]

No advantage being likely to result from the possession of Boston
under the circumstances in which the troops were placed, it was
evacuated in the middle of March, 1776, and the TENTH were moved to
Nova Scotia. They were stationed at Halifax until June, when they
sailed with the expedition to Staten Island, to take part in an
extensive plan of operations.

The regiment landed on Staten Island in the early part of July;
reinforcements arrived from England, also a body of Hessians,
and the TENTH, thirty-seventh, thirty-eighth, and fifty-second
regiments, formed the third brigade of the army, under
Major-General Jones, in the division commanded by Lieut.-General
Earl Percy.

On the 22nd of August, a descent was made on the south-west end of
_Long Island_, and on the night of the 26th, the TENTH advanced,
in support of the leading division, to seize on a pass in the
mountains. This pass was occupied without opposition; the troops
crossed the hills, and directed their march towards the enemy's
lines at _Brooklyn_. Arriving at Bedford, an attack was commenced
on the American battalions which were quitting the woody heights
to return to their lines, and the enthusiastic ardour of the royal
forces overcame all opposition. Encouraged by their success, and
inspired with lively anticipations of victory, the soldiers urged
their way towards the lines to storm the works; but they were
ordered to desist, to spare the unnecessary effusion of blood
which an attack by storm would have occasioned. The conduct of the
British troops on this occasion was highly commended in General Sir
William Howe's despatch.

The Americans abandoned their lines, and retreated across the
East River to New York. The TENTH having thus had the honour of
taking part in the reduction of _Long Island_, crossed the river
to New York Island, and were engaged in the movements by which the
American army was driven from the city of _New York_.

In the second week of October, the regiment again embarked in
boats, and proceeded up the river to the vicinity of West Chester,
where it went ashore; but afterwards re-embarked and sailed to
Pell's Point, where a sharp skirmish occurred. The regiment was
also engaged in the movements by which the passage of the Brunx
river was effected, and the American army forced to abandon its
fortified lines on _White Plains_. In the action on the 28th of
October, the TENTH lost two men.

From White Plains the army withdrew to engage in the siege of
Forts Washington and Lee, which obstructed the navigation of the
North River. _Fort Washington_ was invested, and on the 16th of
November, the TENTH were engaged, under Lieut.-General Earl Percy,
in assaulting the right flank of the enemy's entrenchments; they
took part in carrying an advanced work, and afterwards passed the
lines, which were carried in a most gallant manner, and upwards of
two thousand provincials surrendered prisoners of war. The loss of
the regiment was limited to Captain Mackintosh and three rank and
file killed; five rank and file wounded.

In the early part of December, the regiment was detached, with
other troops, under Lieut.-Generals Clinton and Earl Percy, against
_Rhode Island_, which was the principal station of the enemy's
naval force, and from whence the Americans sent out privateers
which interrupted the British commerce. The regiment sailed on this
enterprise in the early part of December; a landing was effected on
the morning of the 9th of that month, and the island was speedily
reduced to submission to the British government.

[Sidenote: 1777]

After passing several months on Rhode Island, the TENTH embarked
for New Jersey, and formed part of the army which took the field,
under General Sir William Howe, in the early part of June, 1777.

General Washington kept the American army in the mountain
fastnesses, where he could not be attacked, except under great
disadvantages, and the English general resolved on an expedition
against Philadelphia.

Embarking on board the fleet, the regiment sailed for
Chesapeak-bay, and from thence up the Elk River, to Elk Ferry,
where it landed about the end of August: the fifth, TENTH,
twenty-seventh, fortieth, and fifty-fifth regiments, formed the
second brigade under Major-General Grant.

The American army took up a position at _Brandywine Creek_, to
oppose the advance of the British on Philadelphia, and on the 11th
of September the enemy's posts were attacked; the TENTH forming
part of the force selected to attack the American troops posted at
Chad's Ford. After a sharp cannonade, the troops rushed through the
stream with fixed bayonets, the fourth foot taking the lead, and,
overpowering all resistance, captured three brass field-pieces and
a howitzer. The Americans were routed at all points, and they made
a precipitate retreat. The TENTH had two rank and file killed, and
six wounded, on this occasion.

The regiment passed the night on the field of battle, and marched
on the following day to Concord; on the 13th of September it
arrived at Ashtown, and on the 25th the troops pitched their tents
at Germantown, about six miles from Philadelphia, which city was
taken possession of by the grenadiers.

On the 29th of September, the TENTH and forty-second regiments
were detached from the camp at Germantown, under the orders of
Lieut.-Colonel Stirling, of the forty-second, to attack a strong
redoubt erected by the Americans on the Jersey shore, at a place
called _Billing's-point_, to prevent the removal of a sunken
barrier across the river Delaware. The two regiments crossed the
river from Chester on the 1st of October, and on approaching the
redoubt, three hundred Americans in garrison fled; having first
set fire to their barracks and spiked their cannon. The TENTH and
forty-second pursued the Americans about two miles, but were unable
to overtake them.

Billing's-point redoubt being thus captured, the obstructions to
the navigation of the Delaware at that point were removed, and the
TENTH and forty-second crossed the river to Chester, where they
were joined by the twenty-third, and the three regiments escorted a
large convoy of provisions to the camp at Germantown.

The British general having sent off several detachments, the
Americans resolved to hazard another battle, and they attacked
the position at _Germantown_ at daybreak on the morning of the
4th of October; but were repulsed. The light company of the TENTH
signalized itself on this occasion and had several men killed and
wounded: the battalion companies of the regiment had their post on
the right of the village, but they were not engaged.

In the middle of October, the army removed to the immediate
vicinity of Philadelphia, and two forts on the river were reduced.
In the early part of December, the British advanced towards the
enemy's fortified camp at _Whitemarsh_; the TENTH took part in
several movements and skirmishes, designed to bring on a general
engagement, but the Americans kept close behind their entrenchments
and abatis-de-bois, and the British returned to Philadelphia.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The TENTH regiment passed the winter in comfortable quarters in
the city of Philadelphia; but before the season for opening the
campaign of 1778 arrived, the King of France concluded a treaty
with, and agreed to aid, the Americans, which so completely changed
the nature of the war, that it was deemed necessary to concentrate
the army at New York.

Philadelphia was evacuated in the middle of June, and the TENTH
took part in the difficult service of retreating through a wild and
woody country, intersected by rivulets, the bridges over which had
been destroyed. On the 28th of June, the regiment was in advance
under Lieut.-General Knyphausen, and as the last division of the
army descended from the heights above _Freehold_, in New Jersey,
the American troops appeared in the rear and on both flanks, and
some sharp fighting took place, which terminated in the repulse of
the enemy. The grenadier company of the TENTH had an opportunity
of distinguishing itself on this occasion; it had Major Gardiner
wounded, and several private soldiers killed and wounded.

Having repulsed the enemy, the army continued its march, crossed
the channel to Sandy Hook, and embarked from thence for New York.

The TENTH had lost many men, during the period they had been in
America, from fatigue, privation, disease, and other casualties,
besides those killed and disabled in action with the enemy, and
soon after the regiment arrived at New York, it was selected to
return to England. The men fit for service, who volunteered to
remain in the country, were transferred to other corps, and the
remainder embarked from New York towards the end of October;
they arrived in England in December, and immediately commenced
recruiting their numbers.

[Sidenote: 1781]

After the decease of Lieut.-General Sandford, King George III.
conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on Major-General Sir R.
Murray Keith, K.B., from the late eighty-seventh foot (which was
disbanded at the peace in 1763), by commission dated the 10th of
October, 1781.

[Sidenote: 1783]

[Sidenote: 1784]

[Sidenote: 1785]

The American War having ceased in 1783, reductions took place in
the military establishments, and the numbers of the Tenth Regiment
were consequently diminished; in the autumn of 1783 the regiment
embarked for Ireland, and it was stationed in that part of the
United Kingdom during the years 1784 and 1785.

[Sidenote: 1786]

On the 2nd of March, 1786, the regiment embarked from Ireland for
Jamaica, to relieve the first battalion of the sixtieth foot, which
was ordered to proceed to Nova Scotia.

[Sidenote: 1793]

[Sidenote: 1794]

[Sidenote: 1795]

The regiment was stationed at Jamaica when the French Revolution
occurred, which involved Europe in war and occasioned the West
India islands to become the theatre of anarchy and devastation; the
mulattoes and blacks imbibing the doctrine of equality, breaking
the ties of subordination, and committing every description of
crime. Active measures were adopted to rescue the French West India
islands from republican domination; but the TENTH had sustained
so serious a loss of men from disease during the nine years they
had been at Jamaica, that they were ordered home to recruit: they
arrived in England in August, 1795, and were stationed at Lincoln,
from whence recruiting parties were sent out.

After the decease of Lieut.-General Sir R. Murray Keith,
Major-General the Honorable Henry Edward Fox, was appointed
colonel of the TENTH foot, from the 131st regiment, by commission
dated the 23rd of June, 1795.

[Sidenote: 1796]

The establishment was completed by drafts from other corps, and,
in three months from the date of its arrival from Jamaica, the
regiment was ordered to furnish seven companies to take part in
completing the deliverance of the French West India Islands from
the power of the republicans. The force designed for this service,
under Major-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, sailed from Spithead in
December, and the departure of the fleet, accompanied by a division
of the royal navy under Admiral Christian, presented a most
splendid spectacle; but this armament was overtaken by a storm,
the fleet was dispersed, many vessels were wrecked, and others
returned to Spithead. The ship containing the grenadier company of
the TENTH, and several other corps, withstood the storm; but it had
not been long at sea before the yellow fever broke out on board,
when it returned to England, and the soldiers went into hospital
at Plymouth, from whence the grenadiers of the TENTH marched to
Chatham, where the regiment was assembled in 1796.

[Sidenote: 1797]

From Chatham the regiment embarked on an expedition to the
Continent, but was ordered to land at Lymington, from whence it
proceeded to the Isle of Wight, and was stationed on that island
and at Portsmouth until the winter of 1798.

[Sidenote: 1798]

The TENTH, having been appointed to transfer their services from
Europe to the British possessions in Hindoostan, embarked from
Portsmouth during the winter, and arriving in the south of India,
landed at the celebrated city and fortress of Madras, the capital
of the British possessions in that quarter of the globe, on the
13th of April, 1799.

[Sidenote: 1799]

At Madras the regiment remained nearly four months, and on the
6th of August, it embarked for the rich and extensive province of
Bengal, where it arrived on the 26th of the same month.

[Sidenote: 1800]

For fifteen months the TENTH were stationed in the Presidency
of Bengal, in a country abounding in all that is essential to
the comfort and even the luxury of man, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Richard Quarrell, and in November, 1800, they were
sent down the river Ganges to be embarked for Egypt, which country
was overrun by an army of French veterans, vauntingly designated
the "Army of the East," and commanded by the celebrated General
Buonaparte.

[Sidenote: 1801]

To effect the expulsion of the French "Army of the East" from
Egypt, a British force sailed from Europe under General Sir Ralph
Abercromby, and about six thousand men from India and the Cape of
Good Hope, under Major-General Baird, were appointed to co-operate.
To engage in this service, the TENTH sailed from Kidgaree on the
5th of December, joined the expedition, under Major-General Baird,
at Bombay, and sailed from thence for the Red Sea. The original
design was to proceed to the port of Suez, at the head of the Red
Sea, on the borders of Arabia; but the monsoon had commenced before
the fleet entered the Red Sea in April, 1801, and Major-General
Baird resolved to land at Cosseir, and brave the difficulties of
the desert, in the hope of affording important aid to the troops
which had landed in Egypt from Europe.

Eight companies of the TENTH arrived at Cosseir on the 15th of
June, and the remainder of the regiment, having been separated
by the monsoon gales, was some days later.[6] On landing, the
country presented a frightfully desolate prospect, but the soldiers
commenced their march through the desert with cheerful alacrity;[7]
although suffering from excessive heat and dysentery, occasioned by
bad water.

The march was made during the night. A little way from Cosseir the
soldiers entered a ravine, which appeared to be the old bed of a
river, along which they travelled three days, when it terminated at
Moilah. From Moilah the desert had a hard gravelly soil, generally,
until the troops arrived at Baromba, where the first habitable
spot was met with after leaving Cosseir; not a single hut having
previously been seen. The troops suffered greatly from thirst and
oppressive heat, with an almost irresistible inclination to sleep;
some soldiers straggling from the line of march, that they might
lie down and sleep, lost their lives. The little town of Baromba
lay on the borders of the desert, and the Arabs offered milk, eggs,
and poultry for sale, in great abundance, and very cheap.

On arriving at Kenna, the regiment was ordered to proceed to
Girgee, a large town of Upper Egypt, situate about a quarter of a
mile from the river Nile. The regimental baggage was sent to Suez,
but the "Cavera" transport foundered at sea, and all the baggage,
books, &c. of the TENTH were lost.

In the meantime, the British army from Europe had triumphed
over the French before Alexandria, where General Sir Ralph
Abercromby was mortally wounded; the French troops at Cairo
had also surrendered, and the siege of _Alexandria_ was the
next undertaking. The TENTH embarked from Girgee in dgerms,
and proceeded down the Nile to the Island of Rhoda, where they
encamped. On the 2nd of August they again embarked, and proceeded
to Rosetta, a town celebrated for the beauty of its environs;
beyond the Nile lay the richest parts of the Delta, the garden of
Egypt. From Rosetta the regiment proceeded to El-Hamed, and joined
the forces encamped at that place.

Alexandria surrendered in the beginning of September, and Egypt was
thus delivered; the French "_Army of the East_" being forced to
evacuate a country from whence Buonaparte had vainly imagined he
should extend his conquests throughout Asia.

Lieut.-General (afterwards Lord) Hutchinson stated in his
despatch:--"This arduous and important service has at length been
brought to a conclusion. The exertions of individuals have been
splendid and meritorious. The conduct of the troops of every
description has been exemplary in the highest degree; there has
been much to applaud, and nothing to reprehend; their ardour and
regularity in camp having been as conspicuous as their courage in
the field."

In this service, although the TENTH had not been brought into
contact with the enemy, their conduct had been exemplary, and
they had sustained a loss of thirty men from the climate, and
other casualties incident to the service in which they were
employed. They received, in common with the other regiments, the
expression of the high approbation of their Sovereign, the thanks
of Parliament, and the royal authority to bear on their colours
the "SPHYNX," with the word "EGYPT," to commemorate this splendid
event. The officers were also rewarded with gold medals, presented
to them by the Grand Seignior, in commemoration of the important
service rendered to the Ottoman empire.

The TENTH were selected to remain a short period in Egypt; they
marched from El-Hamed on the 4th of December, arrived at Alexandria
on the 5th, and encamped under the walls until the 18th, when they
were removed into Fort Triangular.

[Sidenote: 1802]

In the city of Alexandria, formerly celebrated as the seat of
learning and commerce, the regiment was stationed for several
months. On the 29th of April, 1802, an explosion took place in the
fort which the TENTH occupied, by which they had four men killed
and ten wounded; also two Indian followers killed and ten wounded.

The regiment was afterwards encamped near Alexandria; it was struck
off the Indian establishment, and commenced receiving pay on the
British on the 1st of May.

[Sidenote: 1803]

While the TENTH were encamped near Alexandria, the plague broke
out among the natives. The army suddenly embarked on the 5th of
March, 1803, leaving its camp equipage standing, and on the 7th the
regiment sailed out of the Western Harbour.

Arriving at Malta on the 27th of April, the regiment performed a
quarantine of forty-two days, and afterwards sailed to Gibraltar,
where it arrived on the 20th of June.

[Sidenote: 1804]

A treaty of peace was concluded with the French republic while
the TENTH were in Egypt; but hostilities had recommenced before
the regiment arrived at Gibraltar, and in 1804 a second battalion
was added to the establishment. The head-quarters of the second
battalion were fixed at Maldon in Essex; it was formed of men
raised in Essex, for limited service, under the Additional Force
Act, passed 20th July, 1804, and was placed upon the establishment
from the 25th of December, 1804.

[Sidenote: 1805]

[Sidenote: 1806]

The first battalion was stationed at Gibraltar during the years
1804, 1805, and 1806.

In the meantime numerous changes occurred among the states of
Europe, and the great success which at this period attended the
French arms, enabled Napoleon Buonaparte, who, in 1804, had been
invested with the title of Emperor of the French, King of Italy,
&c., to assume the position of a dictator: his conduct towards the
royal family of Naples occasioned the history of that court to
become connected with the services of the TENTH regiment of foot.

When war recommenced between Great Britain and France in 1803,
Buonaparte occupied a portion of the Neapolitan territory with
his troops. In 1805 a treaty of neutrality was concluded between
the French Emperor and the King of Naples, by which the former
engaged to withdraw his troops from the Neapolitan territory,
and the latter was bound not to admit the fleets or armies of any
of the states at war with France into his ports or territory. The
conditions of this treaty were, however, violated by Ferdinand IV.,
who admitted an English and Russian armament into the Bay of Naples
in November, 1805, and a body of British and Russian troops was
landed at that city.

The conduct of the King of Naples excited the indignation of the
French Emperor, who concluded that this little kingdom was united
with his enemies, and on the morning after the signatures were
affixed to the treaty of Presburg, Napoleon issued a proclamation
declaring that "the Neapolitan dynasty had ceased to reign," and
denouncing vengeance against the family he had thus resolved
to dethrone, in terms which left no hope of accommodation. The
Russians withdrew from Naples, leaving the court to its fate. The
British, under General Sir James Craig, were too few in number to
defend the Neapolitan state, but they took possession of the island
of Sicily, which they preserved in the interest of King Ferdinand
IV.

The armies of France, under Joseph Buonaparte, invaded the kingdom
of Naples in the early part of 1806; the King and Queen fled
to Sicily, which the British preserved as an asylum for their
Majesties; they were accompanied and followed by part of the
Neapolitan army, also by a number of persons connected with the
court, and they took up their residence at the city of Palermo,
situate in a bay on the northern coast of the island, where they
received pecuniary aid from England.

When their country was invaded, the Neapolitans exhibited neither
public spirit nor the love of freedom, but abandoned their
sovereign to his fate, and submitted to the invaders. Persons of
all ranks attached themselves to the French interest, and Napoleon
issued a decree conferring the crown of Naples on his brother
Joseph and his legitimate heirs male, without prejudice to the
eventual claim of the throne of France, but with the proviso that
the crown of France and that of Naples should never be united
on the same head. The city of Naples was illuminated, and the
nobles were eager to manifest their attachment to their new king.
Insurrections occurred in several places, but the French arms were
successful, and the provinces became tranquil under the Buonaparte
dynasty.

It was important to England that Sicily should not fall under the
dominion of France, and when the enemy made preparations for the
invasion of the island, they were met in Calabria; the battle of
Maida, on the 4th of July, 1806, proved the superiority of the
British troops, and the provinces of Upper and Lower Calabria were
restored to their legal sovereign.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The services of the TENTH regiment of foot became connected with
the interests of the exiled royal family of Naples in the autumn
of 1807, when the regiment embarked from Gibraltar, and arrived on
the 28th of September at Messina, a city on the north-east side of
the island of Sicily. The TENTH did not land at Messina, but were
ordered round to Augusta, where they disembarked on the 2nd of
October, and occupied quarters in the citadel.

[Sidenote: 1808]

On the 5th of April, 1808, Major J. Otto Beyer, five lieutenants,
one ensign, six serjeants, and three hundred and sixty-two rank and
file joined from England.

About this period the two flank companies were ordered to be
completed to one hundred rank and file each, and to join the flank
battalion formed on the island.

In June four companies were sent to reinforce the garrison of
Syracuse, a fortified town situated on the south-east of the
island, and celebrated in ancient times for its great population.
These companies returned in August; but were again detached on the
same services in October.

[Sidenote: 1809]

On the 20th of March, 1809, the head-quarters marched from Augusta,
and the detachment from Syracuse, for Catania. At this celebrated
city, which is beautifully situated in the Val di Demona, on the
east coast of the island, and on the borders of Val di Nota, the
regiment remained ten days, and afterwards marched to the port
of Melazzo, and joined the army encamped on the plains of that
town. Meanwhile Joseph Buonaparte had been removed to the throne
of Spain, and the French Emperor had placed Marshal Murat, his
brother-in-law, on the throne of Naples.

In the beginning of June, General Sir John Stuart, Count of Maida,
commanding the British troops in Sicily, embarked fifteen thousand
men for the south of Italy, and for the capture of Naples, as a
diversion in favour of the Austrians, who were once more at war
with France. The TENTH regiment embarked on this enterprise,
leaving two companies in garrison at Melazzo.

The first attack made by the main body of the expedition was
on Ischia, a small island in the gulf of Naples, situate about
six miles from the coast. The batteries for the defence of the
shores of the island being turned by the British troops, were
successively deserted by the enemy, and after a short resistance,
the garrison of Ischia surrendered. The garrison of Procida,
another island on the same coast, was also forced to surrender; and
forty gun-boats were captured.

An attack was likewise made on the castle of _Scylla_, situate
in a promontory in the straits of Messina, which separate Sicily
from the Neapolitan territory. The TENTH regiment was selected
to take part in this enterprise: having landed on the coast, it
crossed the heights of Jovanni on the 14th of June, and proceeding
through the mountains to the heights of Mela, immediately above
the castle, bivouacked on the high grounds; at the same time
the works were commenced for the attack. On the 29th of June
a strong reinforcement of the enemy appeared, and the British
troops were concentrated; but the French had so great an excess
of numbers, that it was deemed necessary to withdraw. The stores
were destroyed, the retreat effected, and the TENTH regiment was
conveyed across the straits to the Messina side; having only
sustained a loss of two men.

The diversion so far succeeded as to prevent Murat taking part in
the war with Austria, and the troops returned to Sicily: the TENTH
were stationed in the citadel of Messina until the 8th of July,
when they were encamped along the coast near the Faro.

[Sidenote: 1810]

During the summer of this year an expedition sailed from England
against the coast of Holland, and Flushing, on the island of
_Walcheren_, was captured. The second battalion of the TENTH
embarked from Portsmouth on the 9th of November, and landed on the
island of Walcheren on the 22nd of that month; but the climate
proved very injurious to the health of the British soldiers,
and the island was evacuated. The second battalion of the TENTH
embarked from Flushing on the 10th of December, and on arriving in
England it was ordered to Jersey, where it landed on the 17th of
January, 1810.

From Jersey the second battalion embarked on the 10th of April,
1810, for Gibraltar, and arrived at that important fortress in
eighteen days. The battalion remained at Gibraltar three months,
then embarked for the island of Malta, and landed there on the 12th
of August.

The first battalion remained on the coast of Sicily until November,
when it marched into the citadel of Messina.

[Sidenote: 1811]

After the decease of General the Honorable Henry Edward Fox, who
held the command of the regiment sixteen years, the colonelcy was
conferred on Major-General the Honorable Thomas Maitland, from the
fourth West India regiment, by commission dated the 19th of July,
1811.

On the 22nd of August the second battalion embarked from Malta for
the island of Sicily, and landed at Messina on the 27th of that
month.

[Sidenote: 1812]

In the meantime, the efforts made by Great Britain to enable the
Spaniards and Portuguese to deliver themselves from the power of
Napoleon, began to assume a favourable prospect, and sanguine
hopes of final success were anticipated. To aid the cause of
Spanish independence, a small army was sent from Sicily to the
eastern coast of Spain, and the first battalion of the TENTH was
destined to take part in this service. The battalion left Messina
in January, 1812, embarked at Melazzo, for Palermo, and was in
quarters in that part of Sicily until June, when it joined the
expedition which sailed for Spain.

Approaching the coast of Spain towards the end of July, the
armament appeared off Palamos, in Catalonia, but the town was too
strong to be attached by so small a force, and the fleet sailed
for Alicant, in Murcia, where it arrived at a critical moment, the
Spanish troops in that quarter having been defeated by the French.
The Anglo-Sicilian troops landed and advanced a few stages to Elda,
but afterwards withdrew; the TENTH marching to Palermo, where they
passed the winter, the soldiers being much disappointed at the
state of inactivity in which they were detained.

In November, the grenadier company of the second battalion embarked
from Sicily, and joined the army on the eastern coast of Spain.

[Sidenote: 1813]

On the 16th of February, 1813, the second battalion embarked from
Sicily, against the island of _Ponzo_, on the coast of Naples,
which capitulated on the 26th of that month, when the battalion
returned to Sicily.

In the spring of this year, the distresses of the Spanish troops
near Alicant, which could only be relieved by enlarging their
cantonments, induced the British commander, Lieut.-General Sir John
Murray, to make a forward movement. The TENTH formed part of the
fourth column, which advanced by Xixona upon Alcoy; some fighting
occurred, and the cantonments were enlarged. On the 18th of March,
the regiment crossed the mountains to Ibithe, and on the 20th went
into cantonments at Castalla.

The French army under Marshal Suchet advanced in the early
part of April, and attacked the outposts on the 12th, when
Lieutenant Thompson of the TENTH regiment, deputy-assistant
quartermaster-general, was killed by a cannon-shot. The
Anglo-Sicilian army took up a position three miles from the pass
of Biar; the TENTH having left their cantonments at Castalla, took
post in the line.

On the 13th of April, the enemy cleared the pass of Biar, and the
battle of _Castalla_ was fought, when the French were repulsed and
driven back through the pass: the TENTH did not sustain any loss on
this occasion; on the day after the battle they marched to Alcoy,
and, on the 19th of April, to Castalla.

About this period, the grenadier companies of the first and second
battalions returned to Sicily.

The siege of _Tarragona_, a seaport of Catalonia, situate on a
hill near the mouth of the river Francoli, having been resolved
upon, the TENTH left Castalla on the 29th of May, embarked at
Alicant on the 31st, and landed on the 3rd of June in the vicinity
of Tarragona. Marshal Suchet advancing with an army of superior
numbers, the siege was raised, and the troops were re-embarked, on
the 8th of June, on which day the regiment had a man killed by a
cannon-ball. On the following day the regiment landed at Balaguer,
and remained a short time in Catalonia; it afterwards sailed for
Alicant. During the voyage a violent tempest drove fourteen sail of
transports on the sands off the mouth of the Ebro, and the "Alfred"
transport, having two companies of the TENTH on board, was wrecked.
After landing at Alicant, the regiment went into cantonments at
Palermo.

Lieutenant-General Lord William Bentinck assumed the command of the
army in the east of Spain, in succession to Lieutenant-General Sir
John Murray, on the 18th June, 1813. The following General Order
was issued by His Lordship, dated _Alicant, 25th June, 1813_:--

"The Commander of the Forces sees with the utmost gratification the
military spirit, and the determination to conquer, which pervades
the whole army. We are engaged in a glorious cause,--the cause of
universal liberty! It is the cause of us all; of those who are
free, and those who are not. To-day the contest is fought in Spain
and Germany, to-morrow it will be in Italy. Brave Italians, once
so great, once masters of the world, but now, though brave and
enlightened as ever, the unwilling slaves of a French tyrant, it
is for the interest of the whole, that the efforts should be made
where the enemy is the weakest. Success in Spain is success in
Germany, in England, and in Italy! We form a great brotherhood;
we must emulate each other in affection, union, and courage, and
Providence, in whose hands is victory, will bless our cause!"

Lieutenant-General Lord William Bentinck continued in command of
this division of the army until the 23rd September, 1813, when his
Lordship issued the following General Order, dated _Tarragona, 23rd
September, 1813_:--

"The Commander of the Forces deeply laments that he is compelled
to leave the army. It is a pleasing part of his duty to express
his perfect satisfaction with the subordination and perseverance
displayed by the troops upon all occasions.

"He only regrets that the part assigned to this army in the plan
of the campaign has not permitted the troops to partake in those
brilliant triumphs, which would have been the just recompense of
their valour and discipline."

Lieutenant-General William Clinton succeeded Lord William Bentinck
in the command of this division of the army on the 23rd September,
1813.

The battle of Vittoria, on the 21st June, gained by the army under
the Marquis of Wellington, changed the aspect of affairs in Spain,
and the French troops in Murcia made some retrograde movements.
The Anglo-Sicilian army advanced; the TENTH left their cantonments
on the 5th of July, and, advancing into Catalonia, they once more
appeared before the fortress of _Tarragona_, which was again
invested. While before Tarragona, Assistant-Surgeon Rolston lost
a leg, and a private soldier lost both feet from cannon-shot.
The opposing armies in Catalonia made several movements, and the
regiment withdrew from before Tarragona and proceeded to Balaguer.

On the 22nd of August, five hundred men of the TENTH were sent
into the interior to cut wood for the use of the army; during
their absence a fire was accidentally kindled to the windward of
the bivouac ground, and communicating rapidly to the dry grass
and shrubs, the ground occupied by the TENTH regiment was soon
enveloped in flame. The exertions of the few men of the regiment
left in the lines were impeded by the explosions of the cartridges,
and few of the arms and appointments of the corps were saved:
four hundred stand of arms, and about the same number of sets of
accoutrements, knapsacks, and suits of clothing were destroyed. By
this accident the regiment was rendered unfit for the field; it
embarked for Salo, and on arriving there, all the tailors and other
mechanics were employed to refit it. Arms were also procured, and
it was so speedily re-equipped, that it returned to the seat of war
in the beginning of September: having landed at Villa Nova on the
5th of that month, it went into cantonments at Villa Franca.

On the evening of the 12th of September, the advanced corps of the
Anglo-Sicilian army posted at _Ordal_ were attached and overpowered
by the superior numbers of the enemy. The TENTH were suddenly
ordered out at two o'clock on the following morning, and they
formed across the road, covering the retreat of the broken remains
of the corps in advance. At daybreak the French cavalry appeared,
advancing rapidly and in great force, when the regiment commenced
retiring, and skirmishing with the enemy during the retrograde
movement; the army falling back towards Tarragona. In the evening
the regiment took post on a height near Vendrills, where it halted
several hours, and afterwards continued its retreat to the vicinity
of Tarragona.

On the 24th of September, the regiment marched into quarters at
Valls, and in October it was removed to Vendrills.

The brilliant success of the allied army under the Marquis of
Wellington, and the disasters of Napoleon in Germany, had a great
effect upon the war in Catalonia, and the troops under Marshal
Suchet withdrew from several posts. The TENTH marched, in February,
1814, to the vicinity of _Barcelona_, and formed part of the force
employed in the blockade of that fortress.

[Sidenote: 1814]

Hostilities were terminated in April by a treaty of peace;
Buonaparte was removed from the throne of France, and the Bourbon
family restored.[8] The TENTH withdrew from before Barcelona,
marched to Tarragona, and embarked at that port on the 25th of
April; on the 19th of May they landed at the beautiful city of
Palermo, situate in a bay on the northern coast of Sicily, where
they went into barracks.

In March, 1814, the second battalion embarked from Sicily, and
landed on the island of Malta on the 24th of that month.

[Sidenote: 1815]

The return of Napoleon Buonaparte to France from Elba, and the
declaration of war against the usurper by the allied sovereigns,
in the spring of 1815, occasioned the TENTH to be removed from
Sicily. They proceeded, in the first instance, by sea, from Palermo
to Melazzo, and were stationed in the castle; at the same time the
grenadier and light companies joined the flank battalion formed
at Melazzo. The battalion companies afterwards sailed for Naples,
where they landed on the 25th of May; three days after landing they
went on board of two Neapolitan line of battle ships, "Geochinria"
and "Carpi," and proceeded to Malta, where they landed on the 9th
of June, and occupied Fort St. Elmo barracks.

The battle of Waterloo was succeeded by the flight of Buonaparte
from France, and his surrender to the captain of a British
man-of-war. Three hundred men of the TENTH, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel J. O. Beyer were detached to Fort Emanoel, in charge
of the Duke of Rovigo, Lieut.-General L'Allemand, and six other
French officers who had belonged to the suite of Buonaparte: these
officers had been sent to Malta as state prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1816]

Peace being restored, the army was reduced; the two battalions of
the TENTH regiment, at Malta, were incorporated, and the invalids
and limited-service men were sent to England; this took place in
January, 1816.

The good conduct of the regiment during the period it was employed
on the eastern coast of Spain, in 1812, 1813, and 1814, was
rewarded with the royal authority to bear the word "PENINSULA" on
its colours.

[Sidenote: 1817]

In August, 1816, the regiment commenced embarking by detachments
from Malta, for Corfu, where it was stationed until the end of
August, 1817, when the head-quarters and five companies, under
Colonel Travers, embarked for the islands of Cephalonia and Zante.

[Sidenote: 1818]

On the 21st of March, 1818, five companies embarked from Corfu,
under the orders of Major Trickey, for Malta, and occupied the
barracks in the Cottonera district.

[Sidenote: 1819]

In March, 1819, the head-quarters embarked from Cephalonia, and the
detachment from Zante, for Malta, where the regiment was assembled,
and occupied the lower St. Elmo barracks at Valetta, under the
command of Lieut.-Colonel Mathew Stewart, who was appointed from
half-pay in succession to Colonel Travers, nominated an Inspecting
Field-officer of Militia in the Ionian Islands.

[Sidenote: 1820]

During the year 1820, the regiment occupied the barracks in the
Cottonera district, with detachments at Floriana, forts Manvel and
Tigni, and the island of Giza.

[Sidenote: 1821]

From Malta, the regiment embarked, in April, 1821, for England,
and landing at Portsmouth in June, was stationed at that fortress
three months; it afterwards sailed to Plymouth, and occupied the
citadel and Stonehouse barracks.

[Sidenote: 1822]

In April, 1822, the regiment embarked from Plymouth for Deptford,
and after several changes of quarters it was stationed at Chatham
and Sheerness.

[Sidenote: 1823]

On the 28th of May, 1823, the regiment embarked at Chatham, for
Ireland; after landing at Cork, it proceeded to Fermoy, and in
October it was removed to Rathkeale, with detachments at twelve
other stations.

[Sidenote: 1824]

On the decease of Lieut.-General the Honorable Sir Thomas Maitland,
G.C.B. and G.C.H., King George IV. conferred the colonelcy of the
TENTH on Major-General Sir John Lambert, K.C.B. by commission dated
the 18th of January, 1824. On the 8th January, 1824, Colonel Sir
Robert Travers, was reappointed, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel
Stewart, who retired from the service.

[Sidenote: 1825]

In April, the regiment was removed to Fermoy, and Lieut.-Colonel
James Payler was appointed on the 2nd June, 1825, from the
half-pay, unattached, in succession to Sir Robert Travers, promoted
to the rank of Major-General. Lieut.-Colonel Payler assumed the
command in June, 1825, and in September following the head-quarters
were removed to Templemore.

[Sidenote: 1826]

From Templemore, the regiment was removed, in February, 1826,
to Castlebar, where a pair of new colours, bearing a "SPHINX,"
with the words "EGYPT," and "PENINSULA," was presented to it by
Lieut.-Colonel Payler, the commanding officer, on the 19th of May.

After several changes of quarters, in the autumn of this year the
regiment was formed into six service and four depôt companies, at
Buttevant, from whence the service companies marched to Cork,
where they embarked, in December, for Portugal, the government
of which country had solicited British aid, in consequence of
an apprehended insurrection, and an invasion from Spain, which
threatened to oppose the introduction of a constitution conferring
more liberty on the Portuguese people than they had previously
possessed.

[Sidenote: 1827]

The service companies, under Lieut.-Colonel Payler, landed at
Lisbon, in January, 1827; they formed part of the first brigade
under Major-General Sir Edward Blakeney, and advanced up the
country to Coimbra. The apprehension of invasion and insurrection
ceasing to exist, the regiment left Coimbra, and occupied the
palace and convent at Mafra, during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1828]

In March, 1828, the service companies embarked from Lisbon, for
Corfu, where they landed on the 31st of that month, and were
stationed at Port Raymond barracks. In December a detachment joined
from the depôt in Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1829]

During the summer of 1829, the regiment was removed from Corfu to
Zante, with detachments at the islands of Cerigo and Paxo.

[Sidenote: 1830]

[Sidenote: 1831]

[Sidenote: 1832]

The head-quarters remained at Zante during the years 1830 and 1831;
in May, 1832, they were removed to Corfu, and in July to Vido; but
returned to Corfu in December.

[Sidenote: 1833]

Lieut.-Colonel John Henry Belli was appointed on the 17th May,
1833, in exchange with Lieut.-Colonel Payler; and Lieut.-Colonel
William Gardner Freer was promoted by purchase on 24th May, in
succession to Lieut.-Colonel Belli, who retired.

[Sidenote: 1836]

Lieut.-Colonel W. G. Freer died at Corfu on the 2nd August, 1836,
where he was in command of the regiment: he was succeeded by
Brevet Lieut.-Colonel William Cochrane.[9]

[Sidenote: 1837]

Lieut.-Colonel W. Cochrane was appointed Assistant Adjutant-General
at head-quarters on the 16th June, 1837, and was succeeded by
Lieut.-Colonel Holman Custance from the half-pay.

[Sidenote: 1838]

The head-quarters continued to be stationed at Corfu and Vido
alternately, until November, 1837, when the service companies
of the TENTH were relieved from duty in the Ionian Islands, and
embarked for Ireland, where they arrived in December, 1837, and
January, 1838, and landed at Cork.

[Sidenote: 1839]

The regiment was stationed in Ireland until May, 1839, when it
embarked at Dublin for England; it landed at Liverpool, and was
afterwards quartered in Lancashire.

[Sidenote: 1840]

During the year 1840 the regiment was stationed at Burnley and
Manchester.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The regiment proceeded to Newcastle-on-Tyne on the 25th June, 1841,
and marched from thence to Scotland; it arrived at Edinburgh on
the 21st, 24th, and 27th July, and proceeded to Glasgow on the 9th
August following.

[Sidenote: 1842]

On the 29th March, 1842, Colonel James Considine was appointed from
the half-pay unattached, in succession to Colonel Custance, who
was nominated to the command of the Depôt Battalion in the Isle of
Wight.

In March, 1842, the regiment left Glasgow, and proceeded in
divisions to Winchester. On the 1st April, it was augmented to the
India establishment, preparatory to its embarkation for Bengal. It
proceeded to Gravesend, and embarked in freight ships for Calcutta
in April and May, 1842, under the command of Colonel Considine,
K.H. The regiment disembarked at Calcutta in August and September
of that year.

Lieut.-Colonel Gervas Power was promoted on the 8th April, 1842,
on the augmentation of the regiment: he died at Calcutta on the
30th December following; and was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel John
Luard, who was promoted from the twenty-first Royal North British
Fusiliers on the 31st December.

[Sidenote: 1843]

[Sidenote: 1844]

The regiment remained at Fort William, Calcutta, until the 15th
November, 1844, when it marched for Meerut under the command of
Major Franks.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The head-quarters arrived at Meerut on the 22nd February, 1845.

Lieut.-Colonel Luard exchanged to the half-pay on the 28th
March, with Colonel Sir George Couper, Bart., who retired from
the service, and Lieut.-Colonel Thomas H. Franks was promoted by
purchase, on the 28th March, 1845. Colonel James Considine died at
Meerut on the 4th September, from an attack of cholera, and was
succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel C. L. Strickland on the 5th September.

[Sidenote: 1846]

The regiment marched from Meerut, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel Franks, on the 16th December, 1845, and joined the
_Army of the Sutlej_ on the 8th January, 1846, both officers and
men animated with the laudable desire to share the dangers, and to
reap some of the laurels already acquired by the army in this brief
but exciting campaign.

A month, however, passed without the main army being employed
in any occurrence of note, the Governor-General and
Commander-in-Chief taking advantage of the interval to collect the
munitions of war; while on the other hand, the Sikhs, having been
strengthened by reinforcements, continued to hold strong positions
on the banks of the Sutlej; and notwithstanding their defeat in
the battles of Moodkee and Ferozeshah on the 18th, 21st, and 22nd
December, 1845, they subsequently formed a strongly entrenched camp
at _Sobraon_. Although the intelligence of the victory of Aliwal
on the 28th January, 1846, and the sight of the numerous bodies
which floated from the vicinity of that battle-field to the bridge
of boats at Sobraon, apparently disheartened the enemy, and caused
many of them to return to their homes, yet in a few days they
appeared as confident as ever of being able in their entrenched
position to defy the Anglo-Indian army, and to prevent the passage
of the Sutlej.

The heavy ordnance having arrived on the 8th February, the day
on which the forces under Major-General Sir Henry Smith, who had
been detached to Loodiana, and had obtained a signal victory over
the enemy at Aliwal, rejoined the main body of the army, it was
determined on coming at once to a battle with the Sikhs, to storm
their entrenchments, and finally to drive them out of Hindoostan.
This was an undertaking of some magnitude. From observations made
during the time the head-quarters of the army were stationed at
the village of Nihalkee, it was ascertained that the position at
Sobraon was covered with formidable entrenchments, and defended by
thirty thousand of the _élite_ of the Khalsa troops; besides being
united by a good bridge to a reserve on the opposite bank of the
river, on which was stationed a considerable camp, with artillery,
which commanded and flanked the enemy's field-works on the British
side of the Sutlej.

About daybreak on the 10th February, the mortars, battering guns,
and field-artillery were disposed on the alluvial land, embracing
within its fire the enemy's works. As soon as the sun's rays
cleared the heavy mist which hung over the plain, the cannonade
commenced, but notwithstanding the admirable manner in which the
guns were served, it would have been visionary to expect that
they could, within any limited time, silence the fire of seventy
pieces of artillery behind well-constructed batteries, or dislodge
troops so strongly entrenched. It soon became evident to the
Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Hugh Gough, that musketry and the
bayonet must ultimately decide the contest.

Accordingly the seventh brigade, in which was the TENTH foot,
reinforced by the fifty-third regiment, and led by Brigadier
Stacy, was ordered to head the attack, to turn the enemy's
right, to encounter his fire before his numbers were thinned, or
spirit broken, and (to use the soldier-like expression of the
Commander-in-Chief General Sir Hugh Gough) "_to take off the
rough edge of the Sikhs in the fight_." An opportunity was now
afforded for the TENTH to distinguish itself, and the regiment
nobly availed itself of this opportunity. At nine o'clock the
brigade moved on to the attack over the sandy flat in admirable
order, halting to correct, when necessary, any imperfections in
its line. For some moments, notwithstanding the regularity and
coolness of the assault, so hot was the fire of the Khalsa troops,
that it seemed almost impracticable to gain the entrenchments. A
brief halt ensued, the brigade again advanced, and persevering
gallantry triumphed. The TENTH foot, under Lieutenant-Colonel
Franks, now for the first time brought into serious contact with
the enemy, greatly distinguished itself. With cool and steady
courage, the regiment marched on with the precision of a field-day,
and _never fired a shot until within the works of the enemy_[10]--a
forbearance much to be commended, and worthy of constant imitation,
to which the success of the first effort, and the small loss
sustained by the regiment, may be attributed.[11]

Other brigades, at the moment of this successful onset, were
ordered forward in support. The thunder of upwards of one hundred
pieces of ordnance reverberated through the valley of the Sutlej,
and it was soon perceived, that the weight of the whole force
within the enemy's camp was likely to be thrown upon the two
brigades (sixth and seventh) that had passed the trenches.[12] The
Sikhs fought with the energy of desperation, and, even when some
of their entrenchments were mastered with the bayonet, endeavoured
to recover with the sword the positions they had lost. It was not
until the weight of all three divisions of infantry, in addition
to several regiments of cavalry, with the fire of every piece of
field-artillery that could be sent to their aid, had been felt,
that the enemy gave way. The Sikh regiments retreated at first in
tolerable order, but the incessant volleys of the British soon
caused them to take to a rapid and discomfited flight. Masses of
them precipitated themselves on to their bridge, which being broken
by the fire of the British, was incapable to sustain the multitude
pressing forward, and the sudden rise of the Sutlej rendered the
ford almost impassable, adding another obstacle to the escape of
the enemy. A dreadful carnage ensued. The stream was red with the
bodies of men and horses, the bridge in many places had given way,
and it is considered, that, at least a third of the Sikh army
perished in this battle; sixty-seven of their guns fell into the
hands of the victors, together with two hundred small camel-swivels
(zumboo-rucks), numerous standards, and vast munitions of war.

In this manner ended the _Battle of_ SOBRAON; at six in the morning
it commenced; at nine it became a hand-to-hand conflict; and by
eleven the victory was gained.

The TENTH regiment had Lieutenant Walter Yonge Beale, one serjeant,
and twenty-eight rank and file killed. Lieutenants Henry R. Evans
and Charles J. Lindam, two serjeants, and ninety-eight rank and
file wounded.

Her Majesty has been graciously pleased to authorise the TENTH
regiment to bear on its colours and appointments the word
_Sobraon_, in commemoration of its gallantry in that battle; and
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Harte Franks was nominated a Companion of
the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath.

The regiment left Nihalkee on the 11th February, crossed the Sutlej
on the 13th, and on the 20th of the same month arrived before
_Lahore_, where it was present at the occupation of that city, and
at the signing of the treaty, which, while it convinced the world
of the moderation and justice of the paramount power of India,
is calculated to add to the stability of the Anglo-Indian empire,
and also to provide for the future tranquillity of the Punjaub, by
maintaining a Sikh government at Lahore, capable of controlling its
army, protecting its subjects, and securing the British frontier
against similar acts of aggression.

On the 23rd of March, 1846, the regiment marched from Lahore,
recrossed the Sutlej on the 26th of that month, and arrived at
Meerut on the 15th of April following. It marched again from
Meerut, _en route_ to Ferozepore, on the 27th of October, 1846, and
arrived in cantonments on the 20th of November, where it remained
encamped until the 28th of December, when it again proceeded to
Lahore, under the charge of Lieutenant-Colonel Strickland, with
a body of troops under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Franks,
and occupied quarters in the garrison of that city on the 2nd of
January, 1847.

[Sidenote: 1847]

The TENTH regiment continued in the occupation of Lahore, as a part
of the garrison of that city, to the end of the year 1847, at which
period this record is concluded.


  NOTES TO PAGES 45 AND 59.

  _Page 45._--In 1783, the regular regiments of infantry were
  authorised to assume "_County Titles_," in order to promote the
  recruiting service, and the Tenth was directed to bear the title
  of _North Lincolnshire_ Regiment in addition to the numerical
  title.

  _Page 59._--Lieutenant-General Lord William Bentinck returned
  to Sicily in October, 1813, and in February, 1814, he proceeded
  with a body of English and Sicilian troops, amounting to 6,500
  men, from that island to Leghorn, from whence he published a
  Proclamation, inviting the Italians to shake off the French yoke:
  he subsequently landed his combined troops, and after a few
  slight actions made himself master of Genoa, on the 18th April,
  1814. On the termination of the War in 1814 His Lordship retired
  for some time to Rome.


[Illustration:

  _Madeley lith. 3 Wellington S^t. Strand._

  TENTH FOOT.

  1848.

  _For Cannon's Military Records._
]


FOOTNOTES:

[6] Disembarkation Return, TENTH Foot, June, 1801--LANDED AT
COSSEIR, 2 lieut.-colonels, 2 majors, 6 captains, 16 lieutenants, 5
ensigns, 5 staff, 46 serjeants, 18 drummers, and 854 rank and file.

Lieut.-Colonel Samuel Auchmuty of the TENTH performed the duty of
adjutant-general to the expedition.

[7] Route from Cosseir on the Red Sea to Kenna on the Nile.

                                  Miles.
  From Cosseir to the New Wells     11  _Water._
  Half way to Moilah                17  _No water._
  Moilah                            17  Water and provisions.
  Advanced Wells                     9  _Water._
  Half way to Legaitte              19  _No water._
  Legaitte                          19  _Water and provisions._
  Baromba                           18  Water.
  Kenna                             10  The Nile.
                                   ---
                                   120

The distances were thus computed at the time, but it was believed
that they were greatly underrated.

[8] Extract from a despatch from Field-Marshal the Marquis of
Wellington, dated _Toulouse, 19th April, 1814_:--

"Upon the breaking up of this army, I perform a most satisfactory
duty in reporting to your Lordship my sense of the conduct and
merit of Lieutenant-General William Clinton, and of the troops
under his command since they have been employed in the Peninsula.
Circumstances have not enabled those troops to have so brilliant
a share in the operations of the war, as their brother officers
and soldiers on this side of the Peninsula; but they have not been
less usefully employed; their conduct, when engaged with the enemy,
has always been meritorious; and I have had every reason to be
satisfied with the General Officer commanding, and with them."

[9] Now Deputy Adjutant-General to the Forces in Ireland.

[10] Despatch of General Sir Hugh Gough, Commander-in-Chief in
India.

[11] A similar proof of coolness on the part of the TENTH Regiment
of Foot was evinced at the Battle of _Steenkirk_, in 1692, and is
narrated at page 8.

[12] The sixth brigade consisted of Her Majesty's 80th regiment,
and 33rd and 63rd regiments of native infantry.

The seventh brigade consisted of Her Majesty's 10th and 53rd
regiments, and 43rd and 59th regiments of native infantry.



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE TENTH, OR THE NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE,

REGIMENT OF FOOT.


JOHN EARL OF BATH.

_Appointed 20th June, 1685._

JOHN GRANVILLE, son of Sir Beville Granville, Knight, who was
distinguished for his devotion to the royal cause during the
rebellion in the reign of King Charles I., commanded his father's
regiment of loyal Cornishmen in His Majesty's service, when in his
fifteenth year, and was so conspicuous for valour and discretion
beyond what is usually evinced at that age, that after taking part
in several skirmishes in the west of England, he was placed at the
head of a brigade of six regiments, with the rank of major-general,
and he was severely wounded at the second battle of Newbury. He
held the appointment of Gentleman of the Bedchamber to His Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Charles II., whom he
attended, during the exile of the royal family, and shared in His
Majesty's travels and afflictions in France, Flanders, Holland, and
the island of Jersey. The King appointed him governor of the Scilly
Islands, which he defended against the fleet of Cromwell, under
Admirals Blake and Askew. He took part in bringing to maturity
the measures which led to the restoration of the royal family,
frequently consulting with General Monk, his near kinsman; and in
April, 1661, His Majesty rewarded this faithful and zealous servant
of the Crown with the dignity of Baron Granville of Kilkhampton
in Cornwall, and of Bideford in Devonshire, Viscount Granville
of Lansdown, and EARL OF BATH. He was heir to the titles of Earl
of Carboile, Thorigny, and Granville, in Normandy, in as full
and ample a manner as his ancestors had formerly enjoyed them,
before that dukedom was lost to the Crown of England, and he was
authorized, by royal warrant, to use the same. The EARL OF BATH was
appointed governor of Plymouth and commandant of an independent
company of foot in garrison at that fortress, and on the breaking
out of the rebellion of James Duke of Monmouth, in June, 1685, his
lordship was appointed colonel of a newly-raised corps, of which
his independent company was the nucleus,--now the TENTH, or the
NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT. When the destruction of the
established religion and laws of the kingdom appeared to have been
resolved upon by the court, the EARL OF BATH communicated with the
Prince of Orange, and when His Highness arrived with an armament
from Holland, he arrested the Earl of Huntingdon, and several other
officers in garrison at Plymouth, and declared for the Prince of
Orange, for which he was deprived of his commissions by King James,
but he was restored by the Prince in three weeks afterwards. In
1693, he resigned the colonelcy of the TENTH foot, in favour of his
nephew, Lieut.-Colonel Sir Beville Granville. He died in 1701.


SIR CHARLES CARNEY.

_Appointed 8th December, 1688._

SIR CHARLES CARNEY was an officer in the reign of King Charles
II., and served on the Continent in the war between the United
Provinces, the Emperor of Germany and France; and on the breaking
out of the rebellion in 1685, he raised a company in the EARL OF
BATH's regiment, now TENTH foot, of which corps he was appointed
major, and was afterwards promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy, in
succession to Sir Nicholas Stannings. He adhered to King James
II. at the Revolution in 1688, and obtained the colonelcy of his
regiment, but was removed by the Prince of Orange, on the 31st of
December, 1688. He was not afterwards employed in the service.


JOHN EARL OF BATH.

_Reappointed 31st December, 1688._

_Resigned in October, 1693._


SIR BEVILLE GRANVILLE.

_Appointed 29th October, 1693._

SIR BEVILLE GRANVILLE obtained a commission in the army in June,
1685, and served in the regiment of which his uncle, JOHN EARL OF
BATH was colonel, now TENTH foot, of which corps he was appointed
lieut.-colonel at the Revolution in 1688. He highly distinguished
himself at the battle of Steenkirk in 1692, leading his regiment
into action with cool collected valour, which procured for him the
commendations of the general officers who witnessed his conduct.
He also displayed intrepidity and firmness at the forcing of the
French lines in 1693; and the Earl of Bath resigned the colonelcy
of the TENTH in his favour, in the autumn of the same year. He
continued to serve in the Netherlands, and commanded a brigade
in the campaign of 1695. Queen Anne promoted him to the rank
of major-general, and appointed him governor of the island of
Barbadoes, when he was succeeded in the colonelcy of his regiment
by Lord North and Grey. The climate of Barbadoes not agreeing with
his constitution, he obtained permission to return to England, but
died on his passage home in 1706.


WILLIAM LORD NORTH AND GREY.

_Appointed 15th January, 1703._

WILLIAM LORD NORTH AND GREY, of Rolleston, acquired great
reputation in the wars of Queen Anne, while serving under the
celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. He was appointed colonel
of the TENTH regiment of foot in January, 1703, and served the
campaign of that year at the head of his regiment, performing a
conspicuous part at the siege of Huy. In the following year he
accompanied his regiment to Germany, evinced signal gallantry at
Schellenberg, and had his right hand shot off at the battle of
Blenheim. This loss did not occasion him to retire from active
service; but he continued at the head of the TENTH, and soon after
the celebrated victory of Ramilies, in 1706, he was promoted to
the rank of brigadier-general and placed at the head of a brigade
of infantry. During the campaign of 1707, he was at the head of
the fifth brigade of foot; at the battle of Oudenarde, in 1708, he
commanded a battalion of the royals, and the TENTH, twenty-first,
and twenty-sixth regiments; he also took part in covering the
siege of Lisle, and evinced signal gallantry at the siege and
capture of Ghent. On the 1st of January, 1709, he was promoted to
the rank of major-general, and in 1710 to that of lieut.-general.
He served the campaign of 1712, under James Duke of Ormond, and
his services were rewarded with the appointment of governor of
Portsmouth. When measures were adopted to prevent the accession of
the house of Hanover to the throne of Great Britain, Lord North
and Grey espoused the interest of the Stuart dynasty, and became a
secret advocate for the elevation of the Pretender to the throne.
King George I. deprived his lordship of the colonelcy of the TENTH
foot, and of the government of Portsmouth; also confined him in the
Tower of London. He was subsequently released, and he withdrew to
the Continent. Although a very gallant officer in the field, yet
he lost sight of the best interests of his country; and during his
residence at Brussels, he embraced the Roman Catholic religion. He
died at Madrid in October, 1734.


HENRY GROVE.

_Appointed 23rd June, 1715._

This officer entered the army on the 1st of December, 1688, as an
ensign in one of the regiments which had declared for the Prince
of Orange. He was many years an officer of the TENTH foot, and
served with the regiment in the wars of King William III., which
were terminated by the peace of Ryswick in 1697. He also served
the campaigns of 1702, 1703, and 1704, with the regiment, and was
at the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. In the autumn of 1704
he succeeded Major Granville, who was wounded at the battle of
Blenheim, in the majority of the TENTH, with which corps he served
at the forcing of the French lines in 1705, and at the battle of
Ramilies in 1706; and he succeeded lieut.-colonel Rawley in the
lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment in the same year. Lieut.-Colonel
Grove commanded the TENTH at the battle of Oudenarde, in July,
1708, and in December following he was taken prisoner at the
siege of Ghent. He was liberated soon afterwards, and in the
following year he commanded the regiment at the siege of the
castle of Tournay, and at the battle of Malplaquet. The practice
of giving medals, promotion, and inscriptions on regimental
colours, for battles and sieges, had not been introduced; but
lieut.-colonel Grove's services were rewarded with the rank of
colonel in the army, and in 1711 he was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general. King George I. conferred the colonelcy of the
TENTH foot on brigadier-general Grove, who was promoted to the rank
of major-general in 1727, and to that of lieut.-general in 1735. He
died on the 20th of November, 1736.


FRANCIS COLUMBINE.

_Appointed 27th January, 1737._

FRANCIS COLUMBINE served in the wars of Queen Anne, under the
celebrated John Duke of Marlborough; he was many years an officer
of the eighth regiment of foot, in which corps he rose to the rank
of major, and he was subsequently promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy
of the TENTH. He performed the duty of commanding officer of the
TENTH upwards of twelve years, and preserved the regiment in a high
state of discipline and efficiency. He was promoted to the rank of
major-general on the 29th of October, 1735, and was rewarded with
the colonelcy of the TENTH foot in 1737; on the 2nd of July, 1739,
he was advanced to the rank of lieut.-general. He died on the 22nd
of September, 1746.


JAMES LORD TYRAWLEY.

_Appointed 22nd December, 1746._

THE HONOURABLE JAMES O'HARA entered the army on the 15th of March,
1703, as lieutenant in the royal regiment of fusiliers, commanded
by his father. He proceeded with his regiment to the relief of
Barcelona in 1706; in the following year he served on the staff
of the army in Spain, and was wounded at the battle of Almanza,
where he was instrumental in saving the Earl of Galway's life.
He afterwards served in Catalonia, and in the island of Minorca,
and in 1713, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the seventh
royal fusiliers, in succession to his father, at whose decease,
in 1733, he succeeded to the dignity of BARON TYRAWLEY. The rank
of brigadier-general was conferred on his lordship, in 1735, that
of major-general, in July 1739, and in the following month he was
removed from the royal fusiliers to the fifth horse, now fourth
dragoon guards. In March, 1743, he was promoted to the rank of
lieut.-general, and in April of the same year, he obtained the
colonelcy of the second troop of horse grenadier-guards, from which
he was removed, in 1745, to the third troop of life-guards, which
gave him the privilege of taking the court duty of gold-stick.
King George II. resolved to disband the third and fourth troops of
life-guards, in 1746, and LORD TYRAWLEY was removed to the TENTH
foot; he was again removed, in 1749, to the fourteenth dragoons;
in 1752 to the third dragoons, and in 1755, to the second regiment
of foot-guards. He was appointed governor of Portsmouth, in 1759,
and was promoted to the rank of general in 1761. LORD TYRAWLEY
held the appointment of governor of Minorca for several years, and
was employed as envoy and ambassador to the courts of Portugal and
Russia. He died in 1773.


EDWARD POLE.

_Appointed 10th August, 1749._

This officer was appointed cornet in the Scots Greys on the 23rd of
January, 1709, and he served with his regiment in the Netherlands
during the remainder of the war, which was terminated by the treaty
of Utrecht, in 1713. He was at the battle of Malplaquet in 1709,
and was actively employed in suppressing the rebellion in Scotland,
in 1715 and 1716. He was several years major in the twenty-third
foot; in 1739 he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the
twelfth dragoons, and in 1749, King George II. rewarded his long
and faithful services with the colonelcy of the TENTH foot. He
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1757, and to that of
lieut.-general in 1759. His decease occurred in December 1762.


EDWARD SANDFORD.

_Appointed 14th January, 1763._

EDWARD SANDFORD served many years in the first regiment of
foot-guards, in which corps he was promoted to captain and
lieut.-colonel in February, 1748. On the 21st of April, 1758, he
was appointed colonel of the sixty-sixth regiment, which was formed
at that period of the second battalion of the nineteenth; and in
June of the same year he was removed to the fifty-second foot. He
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1761; was removed
to the TENTH regiment in 1763, and was advanced to the rank of
lieut.-general in 1770. He died in 1781.


SIR ROBERT MURRAY KEITH, K.B.

_Appointed 10th October, 1781._

When King George II. discovered the excellent qualities of the
Scots Highlanders, as soldiers of the regular army, His Majesty
authorized several corps to be raised among the clans, and they
proved a valuable addition to the military establishment of the
kingdom. One of these corps was designated the eighty-seventh, or
Highland volunteers; it was raised by Robert Murray Keith, who
was appointed lieut.-colonel commandant on the 10th of May, 1760.
This officer served with his regiment in Germany, under Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick, and the Highland volunteers signalized
themselves on several occasions, but they were disbanded at the
peace in 1763. Lieut.-Colonel Keith was promoted to the rank of
colonel in 1772, and to that of major-general in 1777; in 1781 he
was appointed colonel of the TENTH foot, and promoted to the rank
of lieut.-general. His services were rewarded with the dignity of
Knight of the Bath. He died in 1795.

THE HONOURABLE HENRY EDWARD FOX.

_Appointed 23rd June, 1795._

This officer was appointed cornet in the first dragoon guards in
1770, lieutenant in 1773, and captain in the thirty-eighth foot in
1774. He was serving with his regiment at Boston, when the American
war commenced, and throughout the campaigns which followed, he
was actively employed. The thirty-eighth shared in the actions at
Concord and Bunker's Hill in 1775; the capture of Long Island; the
action at White Plains in 1776; and the expedition to Philadelphia
in 1777. On the 12th of July, 1777, he was appointed major in the
forty-ninth foot, which corps was also serving in America, from
whence it was removed to the West Indies. About the period of its
embarkation, he received his appointment to the lieut.-colonelcy of
the thirty-eighth foot, then occupying the lines in front of New
York. At the termination of the war he was appointed aide-de-camp
to the King with the rank of colonel. In 1793 he received the
rank of major-general, and the colonelcy of the 131st regiment,
then newly raised, and two years afterwards his services were
rewarded with the colonelcy of the TENTH regiment of foot; in 1799,
he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general. During the war
which followed the French Revolution, when the British had taken
possession of several places in the Mediterranean, the services of
lieut.-general the Honourable Henry Edward Fox were transferred
to the Mediterranean, where he held the local rank of general,
excepting at Gibraltar, in 1801, and at Gibraltar, also, in 1804.
In 1808, he was promoted to the rank of general, and his services
were also rewarded with the government of Portsmouth. He died in
1811.


THE HONOURABLE THOMAS MAITLAND.

_Appointed 19th July, 1811._

THE HONOURABLE THOMAS MAITLAND, third son of James, seventh Earl of
Lauderdale, was appointed ensign in the twenty-fifth foot in July
1777, and in the following year he was promoted to captain in the
seventy-eighth regiment. In 1794 he obtained the lieut.-colonelcy
of the sixty-second foot. He served in the West Indies during the
early part of the war of the French Revolution; took an active
part in the attempt to deliver, from the power of the republicans,
the island of St. Domingo, where he obtained the local rank of
brigadier-general in 1797; when St. Domingo was evacuated, his
services were extended to the other islands, and in September,
1798, he was appointed colonel of the tenth West India regiment.
On the 14th of September, 1799, he was promoted to the local
rank of major-general on a particular service on the coast of
France. In January, 1805, he received the rank of major-general,
and in February of the same year he was appointed colonel of
the third garrison battalion. He was appointed to the staff of
the island of Ceylon, with the local rank of lieut.-general, on
the 31st of July 1806, and in 1807, he obtained the colonelcy
of the fourth West India regiment. In 1811, he was promoted to
the rank of lieut.-general, and removed to the TENTH regiment of
foot. On the 15th of July, 1813, he was appointed governor and
commander-in-chief of the island of Malta and its dependencies; and
he was subsequently nominated privy councillor of Malta, commander
of the forces in the Mediterranean, and Lord High Commissioner
of the Ionian Islands. He performed the important duties which
devolved upon him in consequence of these appointments, to the
satisfaction of the Crown, and to the advantage of the inhabitants
of the islands committed to his charge, who highly prized the
order, equitable rule, and personal safety they enjoyed under the
protection of Great Britain. He was honoured with the dignity of
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, and Knight Grand Cross
of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order. He was greatly beloved and
esteemed among the natives of the Ionian Islands, and a monument,
erected by the inhabitants of Corfu, bears an inscription, in
Greek, expressive of their estimation of his character and virtues.
He died at Malta, on the 17th January, 1824, and was buried in the
bastion which contains the remains of the celebrated Sir Ralph
Abercromby.


SIR JOHN LAMBERT, G.C.B.

_Appointed 18th January, 1824._

GENERAL SIR JOHN LAMBERT, G.C.B. entered the army as an Ensign in
the First Foot Guards in January, 1791; he was promoted to the
rank of Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel on the 9th October 1793;
he served in the campaign of 1793 in Flanders, was present at the
siege of Valenciennes, the action of Lincelles, and the siege of
Dunkirk. He served also with the Foot Guards in Ireland during
the rebellion in 1798. In 1799 he embarked with the expedition
to Holland, and was present in the actions of the 27th August,
10th and 19th September, and 2nd and 6th October of that year. He
embarked for the Peninsula and served with Lieut.-General Sir John
Moore in 1808 and 1809, and was present with him at the battle of
Corunna. In 1809 he commanded the Light Companies of the First and
Third Brigades of Foot Guards in the expedition to the Scheldt, and
attained the rank of Colonel on 25th July, 1810. In May 1811 he
embarked in command of the Third Battalion of the Grenadier Guards
for Cadiz, from whence he proceeded in January 1812 with a Brigade
to Carthagena. He returned to Cadiz on the 15th April, and assumed
the command of the Reserve in the Isla de Leon, and in October of
that year he joined the main army at Salamanca. He was promoted to
the rank of Major-General on the 4th June, 1813, and was appointed
to the Staff of the Army under Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington
in the Peninsula; he commanded a Brigade in the Sixth Division at
the Battles of Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse, for which he
received the distinction of a Cross. He was subsequently appointed
to the Staff of the Division of the Army sent to America in 1814,
and took part in the attack on New Orleans in January 1815, and
at the siege of Fort Bowyer; he succeeded to the command of that
division of the Army on the deaths of Major-Generals Pakenham and
Gibbs. He returned from America in the spring of 1815, and arrived
in sufficient time to take the command of a Brigade in the campaign
of 1815, and to participate in the victory obtained at Waterloo.
He was appointed to the colonelcy of the 10th Regiment of Foot on
the 18th January 1824; he attained the rank of Lieutenant-General
on 27th May 1825, and that of General on 23rd November 1841. In
addition to the order of G.C.B., he was a Knight of the Third
Class of Wladimir of Russia, and Commander of the Bavarian order
of Maximilian Joseph. His decease took place on the 14th September
1847.


SIR THOMAS M'MAHON, BART. and K.C.B.

_Appointed from 94th Regiment, 28th September, 1847._



APPENDIX.


_Battles, Sieges, &c., in the Netherlands, during the reign of
King_ WILLIAM III., _from 1689 to the Peace of Ryswick, in 1697._

  Battle of Walcourt                       25 August 1689
  --------- Fleurus                         4 July   1690
  Mons surrendered to the French           10 April  1691
  Namur   ditto       ditto                20 June   1692
  Battle of Steenkirk                       3 August ----
  Furnes and Dixmude captured              -- Sept.  ----
  The French lines at D'Otignies forced    10 July   1693
  Battle of Landen                         29 July   ----
  Surrender of Huy                         17 Sept.  1694
  Attack on Fort Kenoque                    9 June   1695
  Dixmude surrendered to the French        16 July   ----
  Namur retaken by King William III.       25 July   ----
  Citadel of Namur surrendered              5 Sept.  ----
  Treaty of Ryswick signed                 11 Sept.  1697


_List of Sieges, Battles, &c. in the Netherlands and Germany,
during the Campaigns under the_ DUKE _of_ MARLBOROUGH _from 1702 to
1711._

                                            Invested.     Surrendered.

  Siege of Kayserswerth                     16 April     17 June   1702
  Skirmish near Nimeguen                       ..        11 June   ----
  Siege of Venloo                           29 August    25 Sept.  ----
  Capture of Fort St. Michael                  ..        18 Sept.  ----
  Siege of Stevenswaert                        ..         3 Oct.   ----
  -------- Ruremonde                           ..         6 Oct.   ----
  Capture of Liege Citadel                     ..        23 Oct.   ----
  Siege of Bonn                             24 April     15 May    1703
  -------- Huy                              16 August    25 Aug.   ----
  -------- Limburg                          10 Sept.     28 Sept.  ----
  Battle of Schellenberg                       ..         2 July   1704
  --------  Blenheim                           ..        13 Aug.   ----
  Siege of Landau                           12 Sept.     24 Nov.   ----
  Huy captured by the French                   ..        -- May    1705
  Re-capture of Huy                            ..        11 July   ----
  Forcing the French lines at Helixem, near Tirlemont    18 July   ----
  Skirmish near the Dyle                       ..        21 July   ----
  Siege of Sandvliet                        26 October   29 Oct.   ----
  Battle of Ramilies                           ..        23 May    1706
  Siege of Ostend                           28 June       8 July   ----
  -------- Menin                            25 July      25 August ----
  -------- Dendermond                       29 August     5 Sept.  ----
  -------- Aeth                             16 Sept.      3 Oct.   ----
  Battle of Oudenarde                          ..        11 July   1708
  Siege of Lisle                            13 August    23 Oct.   ----
  Capture of the Citadel                       ..         9 Dec.   ----
  Battle of Wynendale                          ..        28 Sept.  ----
  Passage of the Scheldt                       ..        27 Nov.   ----
  Siege of Ghent                            18 Dec.      30 Dec.   ----
  -------- Tournay                          27 June      29 July   1709
  Capture of the Citadel                       ..         3 Sept.  ----
  Battle of Malplaquet                         ..        11 Sept.  ----
  Siege of Mons                             21 Sept.     20 Oct.   ----
  Passage of the French lines at Pont à Vendin           21 April  1710
  Siege of Douay                            25 April     27 June   ----
  -------- Bethune                          15 July      29 August ----
  -------- Aire                              6 Sept.      9 Nov.   ----
  -------- St. Venant                        6 Sept.     30 Sept.  ----
  Passage of the French lines at Arleux        ..         5 August 1711
  Siege of Bouchain                         10 Aug.      13 Sept.  ----
  Treaty of Utrecht signed                     ..        30 March  1713


LONDON: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For Her
Majesty's Stationery Office.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  foot-guards, foot guards; out-post, outpost; intrusted; lodgment;
  dgerm.

  Pg xxxi, two missing items added to the list of 'PLATES', namely
           'At the Battle of Steenkirk' and 'Costume of the Regiment
           1848'.
  Pg 8, 'the Fench fell' replaced by 'the French fell'.
  Pg 19, 'non-commissoned officers' replaced by 'non-commissioned
         officers'.
  Pg 36, the Plate caption 'TENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT. [_To face page_ 1.'
         replaced by 'COLOURS OF THE TENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.'
  Pg 76, 'October, 173.4' replaced by 'October, 1734.'.





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