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Title: Practical Training for Running, Walking, Rowing, Wrestling, Boxing, Jumping, and All Kinds of Athletic Feats - Together with tables of proportional measurement for height - and weight of men in and out of condition; etc. etc.
Author: James, Edwin
Language: English
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[Illustration: GEORGE SEWARD, THE AMERICAN WONDER, who ran 100 yards in
9¼secs.]



  PRACTICAL TRAINING

  FOR

  RUNNING, WALKING, ROWING,

  WRESTLING,

  BOXING, JUMPING,

  AND

  ALL KINDS OF ATHLETIC FEATS;

  TOGETHER WITH

  TABLES OF PROPORTIONAL MEASUREMENTS
  FOR HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF MEN
  IN AND OUT OF CONDITION;

  INCLUDING

  HINTS ON EXERCISE, DIET, CLOTHING, AND
  ADVICE TO TRAINERS;

  ALSO,

  BANTING’S SYSTEM OF REDUCING CORPULENCY,

  AND

  RECORD OF FAST ATHLETIC PERFORMANCES.

  BY
  ED. JAMES,
  AUTHOR OF “MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES,” “THE GAME COCK,”
  “TERRIER DOGS,” ETC., ETC.

  NEW YORK:
  PUBLISHED BY ED. JAMES, 88 & 90 CENTRE STREET,
  NEW YORK CLIPPER BUILDING.

  1877.
  Price Fifty Cents.


_Twenty-fourth Edition._

  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878,
  BY ED. JAMES,
  in the office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C.



PREFACE.


Notwithstanding that so many books have been written on PHYSICAL
CULTURE, there still remained a large field to be covered--hence the
publication of the present volume. Great care having been taken in its
compilation, we feel confident that the work will be in every sense
of the word practical; so that those who desire may follow whatever
their fancy prefers in athletic sports, in a creditable manner. In
our opinion, the general usefulness of the book could in no way be
improved upon; but, in order to be thoroughly posted in the laws
governing athletic contests, the “MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES,” as a
companion to this work, will be found very beneficial. The table of
Proportional Measurements, according to height and weight, will form
a good guide for the athlete as to his special muscular development.
Banting’s System of Reducing Corpulency, though not exactly intended
for training purposes, is not to be despised, containing, as it does,
much interesting and reliable information, on the subject of diet
especially. To complete the treatise, and in order to prove what can be
done by man when in proper physical condition, we add a record of the
best athletic performances.



CONTENTS.


  INTRODUCTORY                                PAGE 5

  Advice to Trainers                               7

  Training for Pedestrianism                      10

  Sleep                                           14

  Clothing                                        14

  Time and Duration of Training for Running       15

  Sprint Running                                  16

  Quarter and Half Mile Running                   18

  One Mile Running and upwards                    18

  Hurdle Racing                                   18

  Hints In, Before, and After the Race            19

  Training Practice, Fair Walking, etc.           20

  High Jumping                                    23

  Broad Jumping                                   24

  Hammer Throwing                                 25

  Putting the Stone                               26

  Training for Rowing, etc.                       27

  Training for Long Distance Contests             36

  Training for Base Ball                          42

  Advice to Business Men and others               43

  The late John Morrissey’s Views                 49

  Training in Regard to Pugilism and Wrestling    51

  Principal Muscles used by the Athlete           52

  Temperament                                     54

  Growth and Decay                                55

  Meats, etc., to be Avoided                      57

  Natural Sweating                                58

  Artificial Sweating                             58

  Sweating Liquors                                58

  Treatment of the Feet, Hands, Sinews, etc.      58

  Soft Corns                                      60

  Hard Corns                                      60

  Hardening the Flesh                             60

  Bunions                                         60

  Boils                                           60

  Strains                                         60

  Sprains                                         60

  Chapped Hands, etc.                             60

  Blisters                                        60

  Exercise, Sun Baths, etc.                       61

  Baths--Hot, Cold, etc.                          62

  Thirst, Medicine, etc.                          64

  Weight as Proportional to Height                64

  Weight when in Condition for Athletic Feats     65

  Banting on Corpulency                           65

  Record of Best Athletic Performances            68



PRACTICAL TRAINING.



PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

[_According to_ CHARLES WESTHALL, _a physician, as well as one of
England’s greatest pedestrians_.]


Pedestrianism, from its being the basis and principal agent in securing
a thorough and perfect training to all who may have, from choice or
necessity, to undergo a great amount of physical exertion, may be
considered the chief feature in the preparation of men for all contests
in which great strength, speed, and wind may be required. From this
point of view the science of walking will be treated in the present
work; for whether a man may have entered in an engagement to run, walk,
jump, swim, row, or box, no training can be thoroughly accomplished
until the athlete has undergone a certain amount of exercise on foot,
and reduced his superfluous weight to such an extent that he can follow
up his peculiar forte with fair chance of improvement, or at least so
that he may not have to stop short from sheer want of wind or strength.

Pedestrianism, which has before been stated to be more or less
indispensable to the man undergoing preparation, from its healthful and
beneficial effect upon the human frame, is of most vital importance
in keeping the required equable balance which should exist in every
constitution, whether robust or otherwise. Good training is as
requisite to any man who wishes to excel, as it is to the thoroughbred
race-horse. A man who is fleshy and obese might as well attempt to
compete with a well-trained man as the race-horse that has been fed
for a prize-show to again enter the lists with his highly-prepared and
well-trained contemporaries. A man may be endowed with every requisite
in health, strength, muscle, length, courage, bone, and all other
qualifications; but if untrained, these qualifications are of no value,
as, in every instance, a man or horse, well-trained, of much inferior
endowments, has always under the circumstances proved the victor. Good
condition, which is the term used by trainers to indicate the perfect
state of physical power to which the athlete has arrived, is one of
the greatest safeguards to his health; as, in many instances, severe
and long-continued exertion when unprepared has had an injurious and
continuous effect on the constitution, and, in some few but fortunately
almost isolated cases, produced almost instant death. These few words
are not alone intended for the man who has to compete, but for a
great portion of mankind, who go through the regular routine of life
day after day, their business being sometimes performed with apathy,
and the remainder of their time passed in excessive smoking, eating,
drinking, sleeping, sitting, or any small pet vice to which they may
be addicted. That such a man can undergo the same process of training
as the professional who has an engagement to perform some arduous
task against time or a fleet antagonist, we do not ask or expect--his
occupation would not allow the same time; but the assertion that he
would perform his allotted duties with more pleasure to himself and
more satisfaction to all concerned if he were to submit to undergo a
partial training, is a truth that ought to be tested by all who have
any regard for continued good health. Were this system carried out
to even a small extent, the physician would have cause to lament the
decline of his practice, and the advertising quack become a nonentity.
As a proof how necessary training is considered by the professional,
it is only requisite to ask any _pedestrian_ of note for his candid
opinion to satisfy the most incredulous. The higher in the pedestrian
grade the man may be to whom the question may be put the better, in
consequence of his having gone through the whole performance, from
novicehood upwards; and, in every instance, it will be found that
more than one of his defeats will be attributed to want of condition
(proper training) arising from neglect of work or other causes, such as
carelessness in diet, want of practice, and, in some instances, from
the neglect of the precepts attempted to be inculcated by his trainer.
Most of the above mistakes have arisen from overweening confidence
in his own powers, or from underrating his adversaries’ abilities.
However willing and thoughtful he may have been, these _contretemps_
have almost invariably been the fate of all our leading athletes, not
only in the pedestrian circle, but in the ring, on the water, and in
all sports in which a great lead has ever been taken by man. He will
inform the querist that he will require from a month to two months for
his preparation, and if he has been out of practice for some time,
even more--thus showing to the dullest intellect the requisite time
and attention needed; for if a man who has shone pre-eminent in the
sphere he has chosen for his exertions, and has had the benefit of
previous trainings, must again undergo the same ordeal as heretofore,
a man totally untrained must at least require the same preparation, as
well as a greater amount of practice, to fully develop his particular
forte as a pedestrian. To sum up in a few words, training is a complete
system of diet and exercise duly carried out and strenuously adhered
to. From the mode of life which almost all lead, the health becomes
impaired, and the only remedy will be discovered by him who follows
the principle of training in some form or other, the more simple the
better. That the same system of training will suit all constitutions,
it would be absurd folly to advance; or that the same amount of work
and strictness of diet is requisite for a man about to run a race of
one hundred and twenty yards, as for a struggle of an hour’s duration,
would be equally preposterous. Nevertheless, the groundwork of training
arises from the benefits derived from regular diet and steady exercise.
Training will bring out all the hitherto latent powers of the athlete,
raising the man who has previously been considered almost a nonentity
into public notice, the one of mediocre calibre into the first rank,
and thoroughly develop the excellencies, etc., of the first-class
proficient to an extent that will not only surprise himself, but his
associates and long-tried friends and backers.

[Illustration: CHARLES ROWELL, Champion Long-distance Pedestrian of the
World.]

[Illustration: WILLIAM GALE, who walked 4,000 quarter miles in 4,000
consecutive 10 minutes.]



TRAINING is the process of getting a man who has to perform any
muscular feat from a state of obesity and almost total incapability
into a perfect state of health, which is shown by the great increase
of strength, activity, wind, and power to continue great exertion and
pace to the extent of his endowments. It is this acquired power which
enables the pedestrian to persevere in his arduous task, apparently
in despite of nature, which, but for his thorough preparation, would
have long before been utterly prostrate. So much is depending on, and
so many results accruing to the efficiency of the trainer, that a few
words of friendly advice to that official will not be out of place; for
although the veteran has learned the precepts given below by heart,
yet there is always a beginning to all occupations. As a rule, a great
pedestrian is not qualified at the outset of his career as a trainer
to undertake the care of most men, in consequence of there being a
leaven of the remembrance of the manner in which he went through his
work, etc., which will in most instances render him less tolerant
than is requisite to the man of mediocre talent. Another difficulty
is to find one with sufficient education and forethought to be able
to study the different constitutions of the men under his rule. The
above are only a few of the objections; but all are of consequence, so
much depending upon the treatment of the man independent of his daily
routine of exercise and diet. The man who goes first into training
is like an unbroken colt, and requires as much delicate treatment.
The temper of the biped ought to be studied as carefully as that of
the quadruped, so that his mind can be carefully prepared for his
arduous situation, which is one of abstinence, and in some cases total
deprivation, which always tries the patience and frequently the temper
of the competitor, who in these cases should be encouraged by word
and example, showing that the inconveniences he is undergoing are but
the preliminary steps to the attainment of that health, strength, and
elasticity of muscle which have caused so many before him to accomplish
almost apparent impossibilities. Such a trainer is worth a hundred
of those who have no judgment in the regulation of the work which a
man may take without in any way making him anxious to shun his duty
or to turn sullen. Let the trainer bear in mind and always remember
that a fit of ill-temper is as injurious to the man in training as any
other excess. In many instances, from a supposed well-founded cause of
complaint, a continued civil war has arisen in the cabinet, which has
not been quelled, perhaps, until the dissension has had a very serious
effect in destroying the pedestrian’s confidence in his trainer’s
capabilities and temper, as well as throwing back the trained man most
materially in his advance towards condition. Nevertheless, the mentor
should be firm in his manner, intelligible in his explanations, and
by no means bigoted in his favorite notions respecting the use of any
particular medicine or “nostrum” which he may think may be requisite to
the welfare of his man. The trainer, of course, is known or supposed
to be of sterling integrity, and having the welfare of his man as
his first aim; and on this in a great measure depends the monetary
interests of the man and his backers. We are sorry to have to mention
that such a man is requisite as a trainer, but consider it necessary
to mention it, as, if the trainer is not honest, and has not his heart
in the well-doing of his man, all the pains taken by the pedestrian
would be nullified and rendered of no avail. The trainer must be
vigilant night and day, never leave his man, and must act according to
his preaching, and be as abstemious, or nearly so, as his man, whom
it is his duty to encourage in improvement, to cheer when despondent,
and to check if there are at any time symptoms of a break-out from the
rules laid down--but at all times he must, by anecdote, etc., keep the
mind of his man amused, so that he may not brood over the privations
he is undergoing. Let the trainer not forget that cleanliness is one
of the first rules to be attended to, and that the bath can hardly
hurt his man in any season if only due precautions be observed, always
bearing in mind that it is a preventive instead of a provocative to
colds, catarrhs, and the long list of ills attendant upon a sudden
chill. The duration of the bath is, of course, to be limited, and a
brisk rubbing with coarse linen cloths until the surface is in a glow
will always be found sufficient to insure perfect safety from danger.
Of course, the amount of medicine required by any man will depend
upon his constitution as well as the lowness of his nervous system,
in some cases there being no occasion to administer even a purgative.
But these are the times when the skill of the trainer is brought into
requisition, and if he knows his business he will in these instances
give his man stimulating and generous diet, until he is enabled to
undergo the necessary privations to get him into a proper state to
be called upon to work to get into condition. In no instance ought
he to allow his man to sweat during the days on which he has taken a
purgative, as in many instances men have been thrown back in their
preparation, or, as it is professionally termed, “trained off.” The
best test when all the superfluous flesh has been trained off by
sweating, by long walks or runs, as the case may be, is taken from the
fairness and brightness of the skin, which is a certain criterion of
good health. The quickness with which perspiration is dried on rubbing
with towels, sufficient leanness and hardness of the muscles, is also
the right test that reducing has been carried to the proper extent.



TRAINING FOR PEDESTRIANISM.


There being so many classes of individuals who may derive benefit
from training, each of whom have different modes of living, and whose
particular line of excellences are as different from each other as
light from dark, it must be patent to all that the same system carried
out to the letter would not have the same beneficial effect on all,
the more especially in the dietary system, which, in almost every
case, would require some change, as no two men have ever scarcely been
found to thrive equally well on a stereotyped rule. The pedestrian
alone comprises a class by itself, which is subdivided into as many
different ramifications as there are other sports and professions
that require severe training; therefore, as pedestrianism is the
groundwork of all training and all excellence in athletic games, it is
the intention to give the hints requisite for the man who is matched
to get himself sufficiently well in bodily health and bodily power to
undergo his practice with credit to himself and trainer, and justice
to his backers. In all engagements for large amounts there is almost
invariably a trainer engaged to attend to the man who is matched, who
is supposed to thoroughly understand his business; therefore these
few words are not intended for the guidance of those in the said
position, but for those who may wish to contend for superiority, for
honor, or small profit. The same amount of work and strict regimen is
not requisite for the sharp burst of a hundred yards or so, that it
is imperative on the trained man to undergo if in preparation for the
more arduous struggle of a mile’s duration; but, as stated before,
the theory of the practice is the same. Westhall found that the more
work he had taken at the commencement of his training, after having
undergone the requisite medical attention, the easier and better his
fast trials were accomplished when hard work was put on one side and
daily practice took place against a watch. Yet he, in pedestrian
language, could race up to a hundred and sixty yards, but not finish
two hundred properly--could run three hundred yards and a quarter of
a mile, but yet not be equally good at three hundred and fifty. The
same was found to be the case at the different distances up to a mile,
which is the farthest distance he had practiced. The first and primary
aim ought to be the endeavor to prepare the body by gentle purgative
medicines, so as to cleanse the stomach, bowels, and tissues from all
extraneous matter, which might interfere with his ability to undergo
the extra exertion it is his lot to take before he is in a fit state
to struggle through any arduous task with a good chance of success.
The number of purgatives recommended by trainers are legion, but the
simpler will always be found the best. A couple of anti-bilious pills
at night, and salts and senna in the morning, has answered every
purpose. It is reasonable, however, to suppose that anyone who has
arrived at sufficient years to compete in a pedestrian contest has
found out the proper remedies for his particular internal complaints.
The internal portion of the man’s frame, therefore, being in a healthy
condition, the time has arrived when the athlete may commence his
training in proper earnest; and if he be bulky, or of obese habit, he
has no light task before him. If he has to train for a long-distance
match, the preparation will be almost similar, whether for walking or
running. The work to be done depends very much on the time of year. In
the summer the man should rise at five in the morning, so that, after
having taken his bath, either shower or otherwise, there will have
been time for a slow walk of an hour’s duration to have been taken
before sitting down to breakfast--that is, if the weather be favorable;
but if otherwise, a bout at the dumb-bells, or half an hour with a
skipping-rope, swinging trapeze, or vaulting-bar, will be found not
unfavorable as a good substitute. Many men can do without having any
nourishment whatever before going for the morning’s walk, but these
are exceptions to the rule. Most men who take the hour’s walk before
breaking their fast feel faint and weak in their work after breakfast,
at the commencement of their training, and the blame is laid on the
matutinal walk; when, if a new-laid egg had been beaten in a good cup
of tea, and taken previous to going out, no symptom of faintness would
have been felt, although it is expected some fatigue would be felt
from the unwonted exertion. The walk should be taken at such a pace
that the skin does not become moist, but have a good healthy glow on
the surface, and the man be at once ready for his breakfast at seven
o’clock. The breakfast should consist of a good mutton chop or cutlet,
from half a pound upwards, according to appetite, with dry bread at
least two days old, or dry toast, washed down with a cup or two of
good tea (about half a pint in all), with but little and if possible no
milk. Some give a glass of old ale with breakfast, but it is at this
time of the day too early to introduce any such stimulant. After having
rested for a sufficient time to have allowed the process of digestion
to have taken place, the time will have arrived for the work to
commence which is to reduce the mass of fat which at this time impedes
every hurried action of the muscle and blood-vessel. This portion
of the training requires great care and thought, for the weight of
clothing and distance accomplished at speed must be commensurate with
the strength of the pedestrian. At the commencement of the work a sharp
walk of a couple of miles out, and a smart run home, is as much as will
be advisable to risk. On the safe arrival at the training quarters, no
time must be lost in getting rid of the wet clothes, when a thorough
rubbing should be administered, after which he should lay between
blankets, and be rubbed from time to time until the skin is thoroughly
dry. Most of the leading pedestrians of the day now, when they come
in from their run, divest themselves of their reeking flannels,
and jump under a cold shower-bath, on emerging from which they are
thoroughly rubbed down, which at once destroys all feeling of fatigue
or lassitude. In a few days the pedestrian will be able to increase his
distance to nearly double the first few attempts at a greater pace,
and with greater ease to himself. After again dressing, he must always
be on the move, and as the feeling of fatigue passes away he will be
anxiously waiting for the summons to dinner, which should come about
one o’clock, and which should consist of a good plain joint of the best
beef or mutton, with stale bread or toast, accompanied by a draught of
good sound old ale, the quantity of which, however, must be regulated
by the judgment of the trainer. It has been found of late years that
extreme strictness in all cases should be put on one side, and a small
portion of fresh vegetables allowed, such as fresh greens or potatoes;
and, in some instances, good light puddings have been found necessary
to be added to the bill of fare when the appetite, from severe work or
other causes, has been rendered more delicate than usual.

The continued use of meat and bread, unless the man has a wonderful
appetite and constitution, will once, if not more, in almost every
man’s training, pall upon his palate, when the trainer should at once
try the effect of poultry or game, if possible; but, at any rate,
not give the trained man an opportunity of strengthening his partial
dislike to his previous fare. In cases like these, the only wrong thing
is to persevere in the previous diet; for if a man cannot tackle his
food with a healthy appetite, how is it possible that he can take his
proper share of work? The quantity of ale should not exceed a pint,
unless there has been a greater amount of work accomplished in the
morning than usual, when a small drink of old ale at noon would be far
from wrong policy, and a good refresher to the imbiber. Wine in small
quantities is sometimes beneficial, but should not be taken at all when
malt liquors are the standard drink. If it is possible to do without
wine, the better. The chief thing in diet is to find out what best
agrees with the man, and which in most instances will be found to be
what he has been most used to previously.

[Illustration: CELEBRATED SINGLE-SCULL OARSMEN,

  1. Chas. E. Courtney.
  2. W. Ross.
  3. Jas. H. Riley.
  4. Ed. Trickett.
  5. Ed. Hanlan.
  6. E. C. Laycock.
  7. Warren Smith.
  8. J. Higgins.
  9. W. Elliott.]

[Illustration: FRANK HART, Second Winner of the O’Leary Champion
American Belt.]

After a thorough rest of an hour’s duration, the pedestrian should
stroll about for an hour or two, and then, divesting himself of his
ordinary attire, don his racing gear and shoes, and practice his
distance, or, at any rate, some portion of the same, whether he is
training either for running or walking. This portion of the day’s
work must be regulated by the judgment and advice of the trainer, who
of course is the holder of the watch by which the athlete is timed,
and is the only person capable of knowing how far towards success the
trained man has progressed in his preparation. It is impossible for
the pedestrian to judge by his own feelings how he is performing or
has performed, in consequence of, perhaps, being stiff from his work,
weak from reducing, or jaded from want of rest. The trainer should
encourage his man when going through his trial successfully, but stop
him when making bad time, if he is assured the tried man is using the
proper exertion. The rule of always stopping him when the pedestrian
has all his power out, and yet the watch shows the pace is not “up
to the mark,” should never be broken; for the man who so struggles,
however game he may be, or however well in health, takes more of the
steel out of himself than days of careful nursing will restore. If
stopped in time, another trial may be attempted on the following day,
or, at any rate, the next but one. In a trial for a sprint race, which
of course must be run through to know the time, if the day is any way
near at hand, suppose a week or ten days off, total rest should be
taken the following day until the afternoon, when another trial should
take place, when a difference in favor of the pedestrian will in most
instances be found to have been accomplished. In Westhall’s experience
in sprint racing there has been invariably the above successful result.
Of course, after the trial a good hand rubbing should be administered,
and the work of the day be considered at an end. Tea-time will now
have arrived, and the meal should consist of stale bread or toast and
tea, as at breakfast, and, if the man has a good appetite, a new-laid
egg or two may be added with advantage. In the summer a gentle walk
will assist to pass away the time until bed-time, which should be at
an early hour. Before getting into bed another good rubbing should be
administered, and the man left to his repose, which will in most cases
be of the most sound and refreshing character.



SLEEP.


Of this eight hours is an outside limit, and from six to seven will
generally be found sufficient, retiring to rest not later than 11
P. M., and rising from about 6 a. m. to 7.30. A. M., according to
circumstances. The bedroom window should always be kept open at top
and bottom, slightly in winter and wide in summer. Foul air generated
by the human breath is never more hurtful than in a bedroom. Too much
clothing should not be placed over the chest whilst sleeping, as by so
doing respiration is more labored, and the legs and extremities, not
the trunk, require extra covering for purposes of warmth. A mattress
should be always used to sleep on, never a feather bed. High pillows
and bolsters are very injurious. The natural height to which the head
should be raised in sleep is about the thickness of the upper portion
of the arm, which constitutes the pillow as designed by nature.



CLOTHING.


Flannel should be worn next the skin throughout the year, but beyond
this no restriction is necessary when in mufti. The best attire for
running is a pair of thin merino or silk drawers, reaching to the knee
and confined round the waist by a broad, elastic band. For the upper
part of the body a thin merino or silk Jersey is the best. No covering
for the head is usually worn, but, in a race of such long duration as
a seven miles walking or ten miles running contest, it is advisable
to wear a cap or straw hat if the rays of the sun are very powerful.
For running, thin shoes made of French calf, and fitting the foot like
a kid glove when laced up, are worn. The sole should be thicker than
the heel, and contain four or five spikes, the lacing being continued
almost down to the toe. For walking races, the heel should be thicker
than the sole, and containing a few sparrow-bill nails, none being
required in the toes. Chamois leather socks, just covering the toes,
but not reaching above the top of the shoe, are the best adapted for
running. Ordinary merino socks, but not thick and heavy like worsted
ones, and worn over the chamois leather coverings, are the best for
walking, as they prevent the dust and grit raised from the path from
getting between the shoe and the foot. Except for sweating purposes,
heavy clothing should never be worn in practice, the gait and stride
being much impeded thereby. A piece of cork of an elongated, egg shape
should be grasped in each hand while walking or running.



TIME AND DURATION OF TRAINING FOR RUNNING.


The foregoing are the foundation rules which constitute training,
but of course they require modification according to circumstances,
which must be left to the judgment of the pedestrian or the trainer,
if he has that necessary auxiliary to getting into good condition.
For instance, the man has had too much sweating and forced work, in
consequence of which he is getting weak, and, in the professional term,
“training off.” This will easily be recognized by the muscles getting
flaccid and sunken, with patches of red appearing in different portions
of the body, and the man suffering from a continual and unquenchable
thirst. These well-known symptoms tell the trainer that rest must be
given to the pedestrian, as well as a relaxation from the strict rule
of diet. A couple of days’ release from hard work will in most cases
prove successful in allaying the unwelcome symptoms, and far preferable
to flying to purgatives for relief.

The space of time which will be required by a young and healthy man
will be from six weeks to a couple of months; but longer than this, if
possible, would be preferable--not that it would be really wanted to
improve on the mere physical condition of the man, but to enable the
pedestrian, when able, to go to any limit as regards exertion, and to
have _time_ for practice at his particular length; for, however fit
a man may be as regards the proper leanness, if unpractised he would
have no chance of success. The principal rules of training, therefore,
are regularity, moderate work, and abstinence; the other adjuncts
are but the necessary embellishments to the other useful rules. When
training for running a long distance--say from four to ten miles--the
man should most decidedly practice daily; for the shorter length going
the whole distance, and for the longer vary the distance, according to
the state of health on the day, as well as whether the weather be fine
or otherwise. For a short race of a hundred or two hundred yards, the
pedestrian, after the body is in good health, does not require very
much severe work, but the distance must be accomplished at top speed
at least once daily, and about the same time of the day that the match
will take place, if possible. The same rules, with comparatively more
work, will apply up to 440 yards--a quarter of a mile--after which
distance more work becomes necessary.



SPRINT RUNNING.


Let the novice, some five weeks or so before the day of his race, begin
his practice by a steady run, three or four times a day, of a quarter
of a mile or so; so gently at first as to produce no stiffness of the
muscles when the temperature produced by the exercise has subsided,
and the circulation has recovered its usual condition. When the novice
has got his legs into moderate good fettle, so that they could stand
a little sharp work, he might quicken up for about 50 yards in each
of his quarter spins; and as he finds these spins can be accomplished
without the slightest strain on any muscle, the long distances may be
condensed into two a day, and two sprints of his distance at about a
fifth longer time than he would take in the race. By this means the
muscles get worked up by degrees to bear the necessary strain required.

As he finds his muscles become hard and flexible, he should lessen the
length of his spins until they are of the same length as in the race.
This point will be arrived at some nine days or so before the day,
and in these nine days all his energies must be devoted to practicing
starts and getting quickly into stride. As the day approaches, let him
obtain the services of some sprint runner to use as a trial horse;
and the best way of turning his trial horse to account is by making
him start slowly some 10 yards in the rear, and, as he passes the
novice, who is ready at the scratch, let him quicken up into racing
pace for about 50 yards. By this means the novice is encouraged to
get off quickly, and a surer line can be taken as to improvement in
starting than if the trial and himself started on even terms. Again,
the tendency of all young runners to watch their adversary at the
start is counteracted, the opponent in this way being in advance, with
a straight course only left open for the novice to the goal. So many
sprinters, from standing in a wrong position at the scratch, or from
taking a longer stride with one leg than the other, jostle or run
across their opponent in the spin, thereby either losing their own
chance of success or depriving others of it. A bad beginning makes a
bad end, and nothing is so detrimental to a sprinter as a bad start.
He may get shut out, he loses his stride, or perhaps get spiked by the
man who has crossed him; and when he does get into proper swing, he is
too far behind to be able to make up what was lost at the beginning.
Avoid walking long distances; they rather tend to stiffen the muscles
and make them slow. Never miss your race; if you can only get one spin
daily, make the most of it. Always run in form--that is to say, as you
would in the race, on your toes, with an easy, springing action of the
thighs. In the race keep your eyes well on the tape, and never lessen
your pace when in front, or let misgivings disturb you when behind;
your opponent may have the pace of you and not be able to stay. It is
better to be a good second than nowhere. Every race you engage in will
increase your experience and give you confidence for the next time.
Good time for 100 yards ranges from 11 seconds to 10¼, according to
the ground, &c. The top speed is seldom obtained until 40 yards are
covered. A good sprinter will generally beat two others in 200 yards,
each to run 100 yards with him on end. For sprinting, wind is not
such a desideratum as elasticity of muscle. The shorter the distance,
the greater care and practice should be made in starting; the longer
you have to sprint, the greater will be the necessity for working up
the muscles. In practice, run with as slight clothing on as possible;
_buff_ is to be preferred. The action of the air on the skin keeps up
a healthy flow of blood to the surface, and will do more towards a
beneficial reduction of weight than any amount of sweatings, baths, or
other appliances of the old school.



QUARTER AND HALF MILE RUNNING.


A quarter of a mile is, perhaps, next to the 300 yards, the most
patronized of any. Assuming our trainee to be in robust health, the
muscles should be gradually accustomed to the exercise by slow spins of
half a mile each, two or three times a day, taking about from 3min. to
2min. 25sec., according to the individual, to do it. When the distance
is accomplished with comparative ease, practice style and pace for
about 300 yards to 350 yards to within about a week of the race, when
the whole distance may be run, two or three times at top speed for 400
yards, slower the last 40. Ease up the practice in the last three days,
merely working up pace for 100 yards or so. The same method of training
will suit the half mile runner, with the exception of his spins being
longer, and more attention paid to an equal pace of going. The quarter
requires more speed than the half mile; consequently that point must be
attended to. A steady, machine-like style of going pays best for the
half mile runner.



ONE MILE RUNNING AND UPWARDS.


In practicing for a mile race and upwards, a long, steady course
of slow running must be gone through to get the limbs and the wind
gradually accustomed to the work. As they improve, quicken your
pace, and for mile running practice half a mile or so in about 2min.
20sec., until the wind becomes good; then lengthen the daily spins to
three-quarters of a mile fast, and the last quarter slowly. Never do
much work the last few days, but have a few fast spins of 300 yards or
so, to keep the muscles in form. In longer distance training, the same
steady practice must be followed, with this exception, that, instead of
practicing pace, rather get the condition of wind and muscle up as high
as practicable, and reserve your energies for the day of the race.



HURDLE RACING.


The usual hurdle race distance is 120 yards, with 10 flights of hurdles
3ft. 6in. high and 10 yards apart. This gives a run of 15 yards at
both ends. The quickest way of getting over them is by taking them in
stride, or technically bucking them. If the ground is firm and level,
this can be done, and three strides will take the jumper from hurdle
to hurdle, the fourth taking him over. Should the ground be uneven,
slippery or heavy, great care is required in bucking them. Touching the
top bar will inevitably be followed by a fall or a stumble sufficient
to put the jumper out of the race. In bucking, the spring is taken from
one leg, and the alight comes on the other; so that the jump, instead
of being an actual interruption of the regular strides, as happens
when the spring and the alight come on the same leg, is merely an
exaggerated stride. The advantage of bucking is apparent to anyone who
has tried both systems under favorable circumstances, and who is strong
enough to bear the strain which the high hurdles require. The lower the
hurdles are, the greater is the superiority of bucking over jumping. To
acquire the art of taking the hurdles in stride, practice over jumps
about 2ft. 6in. high, at the proper distance apart, until the style is
learnt.

[Illustration: HARRY VAUGHAN, The Famous English Long-distance Walker.]

[Illustration: JOHN HUGHES, First Winner O’Leary International Belt.]

[Illustration: DAN’L O’LEARY.]



HINTS IN, BEFORE, AND AFTER THE RACE.


In sprinting, a good start is of such importance that we would suggest
a careful practice in it. It is a curious fact that a novice will
invariably start with one foot a yard or so behind the other, either
with the body bent down low, or with the body erect, and swinging
the arms as if they were the means of propulsion about to be trusted
to. In the former case, he runs one yard more than his distance, in
the latter he exhausts and unsteadies himself. Start with both feet
within six inches of one another, the weight of the body resting on
that foot which is farthest from the scratch, and the toe on the side
nearest the goal, just touching the ground, and ready to take the first
step over the mark; the body must be kept well up, so that the first
spring is taken steadily and in a straight line. As this method is the
quickest for getting off the mark, it will apply to every description
of pedestrianism.

Before any contest, when you are stripped, take a trot to get the limbs
into order and keep them warm; the muscles will be less likely to get
strained if well heated beforehand. In running with a chicken-hearted
man, race at him, and, if you feel done, fancy that he feels worse.
Run as straight to the goal as possible; it is the nearest way home,
and therefore the quickest. The arms should be kept well up, and moved
in the direction of the course, and not swung across the body. Any
scrambling in the race is fatal to a good walker; the motion of his
legs should be mechanical. In walking races, if a stitch bothers you,
keep well on, and try and forget it; it will never last long if you are
in good condition. In a race with heats, after a heat lie down on your
back, and keep the legs raised up, in order that the blood forced into
the extremities by the exercise may be assisted by its own gravity to
return to the trunk. Rest is the best cure for a strain, and is much
assisted by cold water application. In a strain of the internal organs,
their complexity renders repair a more difficult operation, as they do
not allow of repose; recourse should therefore be had to a physician.

Running on the toes on a path is to be recommended, as enabling a
longer stride to be taken, and giving an easier motion to the body, and
less jar at each step. In heavy ground, however, it is of little use,
as the sinking of the toe in the soil interferes with the spring, and
necessitates a larger surface of the foot to get a purchase for the
next stride.

Never in practice run with many clothes on; if the weather is cold,
clothe in proportion. The action of the air on the skin increases its
healthy vigor. A piece of cork is often held in each hand to grasp
while running. In a long distance race, rinsing the mouth out with warm
tea with a little brandy in it, and munching a crust, will often take
away any dryness of throat. Never commence fast sprinting in practice
unless the muscles are thoroughly warm. Strains would seldom happen
if this was attended to. Fruit fresh picked is not to be discarded.
A small quantity, when ripe, will often give tone to the stomach and
cool the blood. Of dried fruits, figs are supposed to be the most
serviceable.



TRAINING PRACTICE, FAIR WALKING, ETC.


Walking is the most useful and at the same time most abused branch
of athletic sports; not so much from the fault of the pedestrians
as from the inability or want of courage of the judge or referee to
stop the man who, in his eagerness for fame or determination to gain
money anyhow, may trespass upon fair walking, and run. Walking is a
succession of steps, not leaps, and with one foot always on the ground.
The term “fair toe and heel” was meant to infer that, as the foot of
the back leg left the ground, and before the toes had been lifted,
the heel of the foremost-foot should be on the ground. Even this
apparently simple rule is broken almost daily, in consequence of the
pedestrian performing with a bent and loose knee, in which case the
swing of his whole frame when going at any pace will invariably bring
both feet off the ground at the same time; and although he is going
heel and toe, he is not taking the required succession of steps, but is
infringing the great and principal one, of one foot being continually
on the ground. The same fault will be brought on by the pedestrian
leaning forward with his body, and thereby leaning his weight on the
front foot, which, when any great pace is intended, or the performer
begins to be fatigued, first merges into a very short stride, and then
into a most undignified trot. There is no finer sight among the long
catalogue of athletic sports, more exhilarating and amusing to the
true sportsman, than to see a walking-match carried out to the strict
letter of the meaning, each moving with the grandest action of which
the human frame is capable, at a pace which the feeble frame and mind
is totally unable to comprehend, and must be witnessed to be believed.
To be a good and fair walker, according to the recognized rule among
the modern school, the attitude should be upright, or nearly so, with
the shoulders well back, and the arms, when in motion, held well up
in a bent position, and at every stride swing with the movement of
the legs, well across the chest, which should be well thrown out. The
loins should be slack, to give plenty of freedom to the hips, and the
leg perfectly straight, thrown out from the hip boldly, directly in
front of the body, and allowed to reach the ground with the heel being
decidedly the first portion of the foot to meet it. The movement of
the arms, as above directed, will keep the balance of the body, and
bring the other leg from the ground, when, the same conduct being
pursued, the tyro will have accomplished the principal and most
difficult portion of his rudiments. This will in a very short time
become natural to him, and the difficulty will be the infringement of
the correct manner. The novice having learned how to walk, and being
matched, requires training, which must be under the same rules as have
been laid down previously, with the difference, however, that his
sweats must be taken at his best walking-pace, the trot by all means
being totally barred. A continued perseverance in the practice of this
rule will enable the pedestrian to persevere, notwithstanding all the
shin-aches, stitches, and other pains attendant on the proper training
for a walking-match, and which every man must undergo before he can
be considered worthy of being looked upon as a fast and fair walker.
The tyro must not be discouraged with his first feeble and uncertain
attempts if they should not come up to his crude anticipations, but
bear in mind that, although the accomplished pedestrian goes through
his apportioned task with great apparent ease, he has gone through
the rudiments, and that nothing but great practice has enabled him to
perform the apparent impossibilities which are successfully overcome
almost daily. Therefore the young walker must take for his motto
“Perseverance,” and act up to the same by continued practice. The man
training for a match should walk some portion of his distance, if
weather permits, daily, in his walking-dress, which should consist of a
light elastic shirt, short drawers, and light Oxford ties. On starting,
he must go off at his _very_ best pace, and continue it for at least
three hundred yards or a quarter of a mile, by which time he will have
begun to blow very freely, and then, getting into a good, long, regular
stride, his principal aim must be to keep his legs well in advance of
his body.

The rule of getting away fast in trials should be invariably carried
out; it prepares the man for a sharp tussle with his opponent for
the lead, and will hinder him being taken off his legs in the match.
When tired he can also ease his exertions; but if he is in the habit
of going off at a steady gait, in the generality of instances he
is virtually defeated in a match before he has commenced racing.
Moreover, he must, when undergoing distress from the pace he has been
doing, never by any chance cease his resolute and ding-dong action;
for distress, if once given way to by easing, will of course leave
the sufferer, but at the same time all speed has also departed, and
not for a short space of time either, but sufficiently long for the
gamer man, who would not succumb to the inevitable result of continued
severe exertion, to obtain such an advantage as would be irrecoverable,
as well as to conquer the aches and pains which invariably leave the
well-trained pedestrian when the circulation and respiration become
equalized--“second wind” it is better known by. After this happy and
enviable stage of affairs has been reached the work becomes mechanical,
and the pedestrian from time to time is enabled to put on spurts and
dashed that would astonish himself at any other time when not up to
thorough concert pitch. The recovery from these electrifying dashes
is almost instantaneous, and the pedestrian keeps on his satisfactory
career until sheer fatigue gradually diminishes his speed, although
none of the previous aches and pains are present. The trainer must not
forget the previously-mentioned rule of stopping the man when good time
is not the result of his best and hardest exertions, as that bad time
proves unerringly that something must be amiss which requires looking
to thoroughly. As well might the engineer of a locomotive, on finding
out that some of the internal works of his engine were out of gear, put
on all his steam, and then wonder at the machinery being out of order
at a future time of trial.

One word more. Let the man continually bear in mind that “it is the
pace that kills,” and that slow walking never made a fast race or fast
man; let him practice at his best pace, which will daily improve. The
commencement of fast work will most likely bring on pain of the shins,
which will be sore after the exertion has been discontinued, as well as
other portions of the frame being in the same predicament. Hand-rubbing
with a stimulating embrocation (of which the recipe is appended) before
a good fire will in most instances be all that is required; but if
obstinate, a hot bath will insure the removal of all the obstinate
twitches, etc. The shoes for match-walking should be of the lightest
description commensurate with strength for the distance required.
They should be of sufficient width and length to give the muscles and
tendons of the foot full play, without being in the slightest degree
cramped. They should be laced up the front, and care taken that the
lace is sound and new. So much importance is attached to this, that
stout wax-ends are now invariably in use. Some advocate the use of
boots; but, although stated to be useful if there is any weakness of
the ankle--a pedestrian with weak ankles!--is there no cold water?--the
heat generated by them would certainly counterbalance the supposed
benefit; and there is the difference in the weight, which would tell at
the finish of a long match.



HIGH JUMPING.


Begin by gentle runs of about three hundred yards, with a few low
jumps, say ten, about three feet high. Practice over these jumps for
a few days until the stiffness of the muscles wears off, and then
gradually raise them to four feet or four feet six inches. If this
height cannot be cleared easily, place the jumps at the most suitable
height. Care must be taken to do them quickly and neatly. The run
between may be slow, but the jumps should always be taken with a quick
spring, landing on both feet every time. If this _modus operandi_ is
paid attention to, the muscles will soon become accustomed to the sharp
contraction required, and the legs will, by keeping them well together
over low jumps and alighting on both feet, lose their tendency to
straddle when a higher jump than usual is attempted.

Some, when in practice for high jumps, strengthen their muscles by
standing on one leg and lowering the body down until the hams touch the
heels, and then raising themselves up gradually again. This action,
however much it may be beneficial to the sinews, cannot but give them
a tendency to be slow, which should be avoided as much as possible. A
heavy coat, with a weight in both pockets, is of some service to those
athletes stripped and ready to compete, as a great sense of lightness
and elasticity is imparted to the frame on its removal. The heavy coat
should never be worn except in the few minutes preceding the trial, as
by constant use the good effects wear off. Always have a soft place
to alight upon, as it not only eases the jar of the jump, but gives
a jumper more confidence when he feels secure from the chances of a
twist of the ankles on touching the ground. Hard turf, with very fine
ashes rolled in until the surface is quite level, makes the best fair
taking-off place both for high and broad jumping.



BROAD JUMPING.


Begin with a few jumps about twelve feet or so, taking your run for
them slowly, starting about twenty yards off and quickening in the last
few strides. The great object to be guarded against is taking off to
far from the mark, or getting out of step in the run; this can only be
obviated by practicing at a certain distance until the necessary swing
of the last few strides is acquired. The run to the jump cannot be too
fast; in the air the legs should be raised as in going over a high
jump, and thrown as far forward on landing as can be done with both
heels close together. No fear need be entertained of falling back on
alighting if the run is sufficiently fast and the landing place level
and soft; the impetus derived from the run gives the heaviest part of
the jumper, the trunk, sufficient momentum to carry itself forward
when the progress of the feet and legs is arrested. The landing
place should be soft to the depth of eight inches, and sufficiently
binding to show the marks of the heels clearly on alighting; clay and
mould mixed make the best landing ground. A soft place to jump on will
prevent any jar to the knees, and will give the jumper more confidence.
The concussion caused by landing on hard ground may sometimes cause a
serious accident.

[Illustration: SIX-DAY PEDESTRIANS.

  1. J. Dobler,        2. S. Merritt,        3. Geo. Hazael,
  4. F. Khrone,        5. P. J. Panchott,    6. Wm. Dutcher,
  7. Nick Murphy,      8. Norman Taylor,     9. George Guyon.]

[Illustration: W. GIBB, Who ran ten miles in 54min, 49sec., London,
England.]



HAMMER THROWING.


The muscles of the loins and back are the ones principally brought
into play in hammer throwing, and by their development they become
extremely serviceable in assisting the spine to bear the upper portions
of the body. The practice of this kind of exercise must, therefore, be
beneficial to those whose lungs and heart are too delicate to stand any
of those sports, such as rowing, running, etc., which so particularly
tax their working powers. Commence practicing with a hammer about 7lb.,
until the art of swinging while running is acquired; to learn this the
run should be taken at first only six or seven yards from the scratch;
before the run swing the hammer well, like a pendulum, in the direction
of the mark two or three times, until it has acquired a good momentum,
and then start, taking, at the first few attempts, one turn only in
the run; afterwards, as the practice becomes easier, two turns can be
made, and the runs lengthened in proportion. Some athletes, however,
take three or four turns, but, as a rule, two will be found sufficient.
Between the turns, run as far towards the scratch as possible, taking
long, even strides to acquire a good impetus, and keeping up the
centrifugal force of the hammer by swinging it well round low, and in
a plane at right angles to the body. The arms should be kept quite
straight the whole time, merely acting as if they were a prolongation
of the handle. The work is done by the muscles of the back and loins,
and in delivering the hammer at the scratch the athlete should, above
all things, bear in mind that he does not lift it as if lifting to leg.
The “devil” must be put into the swing as the hammer descends in the
last half of the turn, so that the force has culminated by the time the
hammer is crossing the line parallel to the scratch, where it must be
let go, the body at the same moment being thrown back to counteract the
impetus of the swing. The hammer should describe a curve at its highest
point of not more than 11 or 12 feet from the ground. Avoid pulling
at the handle in the run, and increase the pace and swing at each
successive turn. The farthest throw of the 11lb. hammer, 3 feet handle,
on record, is 176 feet. The 22lb. hammer has been thrown over 94 feet.



PUTTING THE STONE.


Balance the body on the right leg, the left side turned towards the
scratch, the right foot being placed as near the seven-foot mark as
possible, and the right hand balancing the weight, with the knuckles
close to the shoulder; raise the weight up to the full stretch of
the arm two or three times, till the muscles get into play, still
keeping the weight of the body thrown on to the right leg, the left
foot touching the ground slightly; when the balance of the body is
obtained, hop three feet towards the mark, and then spring up sharply
to the scratch line, throwing the weight away at the same moment, and
bringing the right leg down, with the toe touching the scratch line
and the right side of the body to the mark. By this means the follow
of the body after the weight is prevented, and, by bringing the right
leg forward at the moment of throwing, the whole force of the thighs
are brought into play, and the muscles of the loins assist in the
sudden turn of the body from left to right. The weight must be held on
the lowest joints of the fingers and the palm of the hand, the wrist
being kept as stiff as possible, and all tendency to throw it as a ball
avoided. A heave is not so effective as a quick jump, with the muscles
concentrated at the same moment. The quicker the hop and the throw are
made, the further the distance put, provided that the balance is not
lost. Any delay between the first hop and the final spring is fatal.
In delivering the weight, let it be put upwards--that is to say, aim
to hit an object about fourteen feet above the spot where the weight
will pitch. The further the weight has to be put, the higher must be
the elevation. No exercise is a greater proof of strength than this.
Very little skill is required; and when once the way of putting is
learnt, it seldom happens that a strong man gets beaten by the knack of
a weaker antagonist.

The ankle is the part most likely to suffer, from the fact of having to
spring with the whole of the body, and the addition of the weight. To
practice, a cricket ball may be used instead of a heavy weight, and the
spring made as before, with the delivery of the ball. After a little
practice, a heavier weight may be tried until the one required can be
put properly. The best “puts” on record are for the 22lb. weight over
36 feet, and for the 16lb. over 41 feet.



TRAINING FOR ROWING, ETC.


The present work is not intended for the guidance of professional
oarsmen, or those who may row for large stakes, and who, when matched,
leave their usual occupations and devote their energies to the better
observance of the stricter rules of training. Such men invariably have
a mentor worthy of following, and whose knowledge of right and wrong
will lead them to success or otherwise, as the fates may dispose. The
amateur, however, must be treated more gently and with more attention
than the sturdier and hardier professional, or those who may have made
the river and adjuncts their capital in their struggle through the
world for a subsistence. The amateur, when he has an engagement before
him, should take into consideration the time he has allowed him to
train, and the mode of proceeding will depend in a great measure on the
condition and previous habits of the man engaged. If a man is fleshy
and of a full habit of body, a dose or two of mild purgative medicine
should be taken, and slow walking exercise only taken on the day the
doses have been administered. After the medicine has done its duty, if
the amateur is very fleshy, a Turkish bath or two may be taken with
advantage, the usual precautions against cold being used. The subject,
after one or two of these sweats, is prepared for more arduous work,
which may be taken at a fair pace in the form of good sharp runs and
fast walks, which, like all other trainings, will become easier of
accomplishment at each repetition.

The above work, with rowing exercise, will infallibly bring the
practitioner, if continued for any time, into a proper condition to
contend with confidence and success in any rowing contest.

He must rise at five in the summer, and after his bath (cold), and
having been well rubbed down, a good sharp walk of about a mile out and
a rattling spin taken by running home, when another good rub will be
rendered imperative Should the run not be taken, a row of a couple of
miles at three parts speed must be accomplished. When thoroughly cooled
down, breakfast should be taken, which should consist of good wholesome
meat (either broiled mutton-chops or steak, with no seasoning), stale
bread or toast, and tea. When dinner can be taken at mid-day, say about
one P. M., it is better, and should consist, like the breakfast, of
good wholesome roast meat, with no vegetable except a mealy potato,
stale bread, and not more than a pint of really good sound ale (old, if
palatable to the drinker, the best); some prefer sherry, but, although
agreeing with a few, the ale, as a rule, is more strengthening and
wholesome. The row should be taken before tea, which should then be
of the same viands and liquids as the breakfast. The above rules, of
course, are open to alteration, according to circumstances, and the
diet varied successfully by the introduction of fowls, either roast
or boiled--the latter preferred--and when there is any indication of
training off, a small portion of green-meat, in the shape of sound
cabbage or any fresh vegetable in season. The last food before retiring
to rest should be either about half a-pint of thin gruel or a glass of
ale with dry toast. The other portion of the day’s training must be
left to circumstances; but it must never be lost sight of that sharp
work, regularity and cleanliness are the chief if not the only rules
to be followed to produce thorough good condition. The use of the bath
should never by any chance be missed. Nothing is more injurious to the
wind, etc., than hard rowing on a full stomach, the ill effects of
which, although scarcely felt at the time, have at a more remote time,
in many instances, proved to be the germ of serious disorders.

In rowing, the legs, loins, trunk, arms, hands, the digestive organs
and the lungs are made to perform their regular and legitimate
functions simultaneously, and the danger of building up one part of
the system at the expense of another thereby avoided, and to the
recognition of these facts is ascribed the popularity of aquatic sports
here and abroad. But it is not always convenient for large numbers of
our people to indulge in this healthful pastime; the expense of owning
and keeping a boat, the difficulty of reaching an acceptable place for
rowing, no less than the dangers incident to inexperienced oarsmen upon
the water, are drawbacks which can only be met by the substitution of a
machine giving all the advantages without the disagreeable accessories;
to this end several machines have been introduced to public notice,
but none have filled all the requirements until by careful observation
of the defects of former attempts the Eureka Parlor Rowing Machine was
introduced, which gives an exact and perfect imitation of rowing. It
teaches to feather the oar correctly, it gives the dip of the oar, it
has the sliding seat, it can be regulated for heavy or light, short
or long stroke, and is manufactured for either open or cross-handed
rowing, and the pressure can be changed to suit the weak or the strong.



MORE INFORMATION ABOUT TRAINING FOR ROWING.


For the further information of those who cannot have too much of a good
thing as to the preparation for rowing a race, we subjoin the latest
ideas of modern authorities upon the subject.



JOSH WARD’S SYSTEM OF TRAINING.


The following rules, from the pen of Josh Ward, ex-champion sculler and
captain of the Ward crew, which among their other achievements won the
International four-oared race at Saratoga in 1871, will be first-class
authority:

First, be sure that the men are in perfect health, so that they will be
able to stand the work which they are about to commence.

A mild medicine is usually required to cleanse the blood, as, unless
the blood is in good order, and in very many cases it is in any other
condition than a good one, the food taken will not digest well.

Upon getting up in the morning take a sponge bath, dry well with a
coarse towel, after which walk about two miles before breakfast.

Breakfast should consist of a good tender porterhouse steak, broiled
rare, and thoroughly masticated before swallowing. As a drink, a cup of
black tea. Drink no more than absolutely necessary either at meals or
any other time.

After breakfast, eaten slowly, no exercise should be taken for about an
hour; at the expiration of which time, the crew can get in the boat and
row the same distance expected to be rowed in the race, and at a good
pace.

After returning from the row, a rub down and then a moderate walk,
until shortly before dinnertime. Dinner should consist of roast beef or
broiled chicken, with soft boiled eggs, etc.

If any drink is taken, tea or water, in moderate quantity, should be
used. After dinner no exercise for about two hours, when the crew take
the afternoon pull, which should be over about the same distance and at
the same pace as that of the morning.

After coming ashore, rub down as in the morning, with a coarse towel,
and then take a moderate walk, returning home about an hour before
supper, which, when eaten at all, should be a light one, composed of a
little broiled meat, with a piece of dry toast and a cup of tea.

Two meals, at the least, should always be taken; and where only two
are taken, they should, in all cases, be what is known as breakfast
and dinner, as both these meals, or rather either of them, are more
essential to the man in training than supper, particularly if he, as I
would advise him to do, rises with the sun and retires at about nine
o’clock, or half-past, in the evening.

After a night’s sleep, and after having left the bed at five in the
morning and walked or ran two, three or four miles, as well as taking a
bath, the system is generally quite importunate for sustenance by seven
o’clock or half-past.

This is not always the case, however, in regard to supper; as, after
having eaten a hearty dinner, at 1 o’clock, without any other exercise
thereafter than the afternoon row, a man with very little practice
can accustom himself to doing without more food until the following
morning, if he retire at about nine o’clock.

Up with the sun in the morning and pursue the regular plan of bath,
walk, etc., unless stormy, in which case exercise indoors should be
substituted for the walk.

The dumbells and clubs are proper implements to use for this purpose,
and every man in training, whether amateur or professional, should have
one or other, or both.

The man in training should always have plenty of exercise given him at
regular and proper intervals. By plenty of exercise I mean just enough,
neither too much nor too little; and to be able to tell just when a
man has just enough belongs only to those who have had an extensive
experience in preparing men for aquatic or other contests.

His habits must, of necessity, be very regular, otherwise the course
which he is pursuing will result in very little good.

[Illustration: CELEBRATED FEMALE PEDESTRIANS.

  1. Cora Cushing.     2. Mary Marshall.     3. Exilda La Chapelle.
  4. Fanny Edwards.    5. Bertha Von Berg.   6. Fanny Rich.
  7. Bella Kilbury.    8. Madame Tobias.     9. Madame Franklin.]

[Illustration: MADAME ANDERSON, the great 2,700 Quarter-mile Walker.]

In regard to the oars which myself and brothers--the Ward
crew--generally use, they are sweeps, about twelve feet long and five
inches wide. A boat for our crew of four would be forty-six feet long
and twenty inches wide. In pulling we use the legs, and in a four or
six-oared boat pull forty and forty-two strokes per minute. In pulling
a pair of sculls, I pull about thirty-eight strokes to the minute, and
use the legs.

We used spoon oars, and our boats were constructed with the stroke on
the starboard side.

In sculling, I have always pulled open-handed, but I think cross-handed
is the better style.

To make a successful rower great practice will be required, although in
this, as in everything else, some learn much more rapidly than others.

       *       *       *       *       *

Benjamin F. Brady, ex-president of the Amateur Rowing Association,
furnishes the subjoined:

Coxswains are carried in the gigs and barges only; all the shells being
constructed to dispense with them, and it is safe to predict that they
will soon come to be a thing of the past in all American shell races.
Whether with or without a coxswain is the more practical or scientific,
depends, in a great measure, upon the nature of the course pulled, and
the efficiency of the bow oar; but an experienced crew can well get
along without one. While the fact has been several times proven that a
good coxswain has been the means of winning a race with an acknowledged
inferior crew.



COXSWAIN’S ORDERS


Among the Clubs of the Association, are given as follows:

1st. “Oars.”--The crew raising their oars to an angle of forty-five
degrees and then placing them in the thole pins.

2d. “Out.”--The crew running their oars out to the proper distance for
rowing, the blade being parallel with the gunwale of the boat.

3d. “Give-way.”--At the word “Give” throwing the handle of the oar
forward well over the toes, the blade being at a proper angle to strike
the water; and at the word “Way” dipping the oar in the commencement of
the pull.

4th. “Weigh.”--To stop rowing.

5th. “Weigh-starboard,” or “Weigh-port.” To turn right or left.

6th. “Easy-all.”--To slacken speed.

7th. “Oars-apeak.”--To salute when at rest. The oars to be raised
perpendicularly, the handles resting on the floor, and the blades
running fore and aft.

8th. “Weigh-across,” “Apeak.” To salute when under headway. Running the
oars across both gunwales.

9th. “Let-fall.”--To regain former position. At the word “Let,” raising
the oar about four inches, and at the word “Fall,” throwing it into the
thole-pins, the blade “first” touching the water.

10th. “Across-ship.”--To get the oars in the boat. At the word “Ship,”
raising the oar at a distance to clear the heads of the crew, and
dropping it lightly in the centre of the boat.

11th. “Trail-oars.”--In passing through bridges, culverts, etc.,
unshipping the oar and trailing it at the side of the boat.

12th. “Recover-oars.”--To regain former position.

The number of strokes pulled by the association crews it would be
impossible to designate, with any degree of accuracy, as all rowers
have their own peculiar styles; and in many cases a man, or a crew, may
start at the rate of thirty-six to the minute and increase to forty,
and finish at, or near, thirty-two. In practicing a crew, a “pull,”
and “tire out,” is certainly detrimental to proper training, as a crew
should “never” be over-worked.

The mode of dipping the oar among the association crews is, as a
general rule, to immerse about one-half the blade; row with the back
straight, elbows well at the sides.



STEPHEN ROBERTS’ SYSTEM.


In training a crew for a race, the habits and mode of living of a man
are to be consulted more than any set of rules. If he is used to eating
meat well cooked, it will not do to give him meat cooked rare, as this
is apt to produce a looseness in his bowels. A man must eat according
to the state of his system, and if he trains hard, eats meat, and is
troubled with loose bowels, he should train light and live on toast,
bread, and coffee or tea, for a few days, with puddings, or bread and
milk; and if he is used to drinking, good fresh ale will not hurt
him, but no liquor stronger than porter or ale should be used. On the
other hand, if costiveness is present, no longer than forty-eight
hours should be permitted to elapse without a motion, and this should
be brought about, if possible, by making use of the suitable food and
drink; such, for instance, as the veal steaks cooked rare, with cider
or water as a drink.

The main thing, in training a man or crew, is to give him or them
plenty of the same kind of work performed in the race. Be careful,
however, not to put on too much at first. If a mile race is to be
pulled, twenty days’ training will be required.

The first day, row, say one mile; the second and third day, about the
same, or a little more, not too hard. After this, increase the distance
half a mile every day, until five miles are gone over at each row.
Then, if there are no blisters on the hands, row the whole distance
at racing pace. Every other day, row eight or ten miles, up to within
twenty-four hours of the race. Less rowing than this should not be
taken; more will not hurt.

Clerks, bookkeepers, etc., generally require two weeks more of training
than men who have been always used to heavy lifting; but, when a man
once does get into good training, his race becomes an easy matter for
him.



THE HARVARD SYSTEM.


Broiled steak or chops, potatoes in almost any style, without grease,
bread nearly fresh, tea if desired, water, or milk if preferred,
oatmeal porridge or gruel, and eggs poached or boiled--not very
hard--render the breakfast of a Harvard student in training palatable
and even attractive.

The best roast beef or mutton procurable, potatoes, bread, cracked
wheat, rice, oatmeal gruel, and the various vegetables in the market,
often, if not regularly, make the dinner inviting; and a piece of
salmon or a dish of poultry or game is an occasional visitor, aiding
to vary yet more the programme. Tapioco, farina and other vegetable
puddings make an admirable substitute for heavy puddings as a desert.
Milk, water, and tea again, and also butter and salt, in reasonable
quantities, are permitted.

Bread and milk, or tea, butter, oatmeal gruel, dry toast and crackers,
are the chief and often only articles taken at supper.

About a half hour’s careful rowing at a tolerable pace, with an
occasional stop or “easy,” for instruction and rest, in the morning.

In the afternoon, an hour’s rowing, with not more than two or three
rests, will complete the day’s water work.

The rate of speed in the afternoon should go up from thirty-five
strokes a minute when commencing training to racing gait during the
last two weeks, and pulling over the proposed course once “on time”
will be plenty of work for this last period.

A three or four mile walk, at a four-mile gait, starting an hour after
breakfast, will not, unless in extremely hot weather, prove too much
for a vigorous young man with ordinarily good legs. The speed of this
walk should be reached gradually, and after, perhaps, if a man in the
start is much out of condition, say two weeks slower going.

A thorough rubbing of the entire body, until the skin is absolutely
red, should “immediately” follow each row, and then a dry suit should
be donned. Flannel is the best material for it.

Eight hours should seem a good medium for sleep. If a man feels all
right with a less amount than this, he should regulate his own hours;
but if he is nervous and excitable, he should have more. He should
never lie abed awake in the morning, but spring up at once, and take
his sponge bath, or in warm weather, if convenient, a plunge into cold
water.



HARRY CLASPER’S SYSTEM.


Rise between 6 and 7 A. M., walk four or five miles. Breakfast at 8 A.
M.--Chop or couple of eggs, bread, tea, Rest for half an hour, and then
a brisk walk or run. If morning exercise has not been heavy, a row,
terminating about 11 A. M. Dinner at 12 M.--Beef or mutton, broiled;
egg-pudding, with currants in it if desired, or other light farinaceous
pudding; old ale, one glass; wine, one glass, (port); or ale, two
glasses, without wine. Rest for an hour, and then on the river again
for a hard row. “Rowing exercise should be taken twice every day.” Tea,
with toasted bread sparingly buttered, with one egg only--more has a
tendency to choke the system. Supper, not recommended. When taken, to
consist of new milk and bread, or gruel, with raisins and currants
and a glass of port wine in it. Bed about 10 P. M. _Summary_: sleep,
between eight and nine hours; exercise, walking and rowing about four
or five hours; diet, limited.



CHARLES WESTHALL’S SYSTEM.


Rise at 6 A. M. or earlier in the summer; cold bath and rub down; sharp
walk about a mile out, and run home; or a row of a couple of miles at
three-parts speed; a dry rub down. Breakfast at 8 A.M.--Mutton chop or
steak, broiled; stale bread or toast, tea, half a pint. Dinner at 2 P.
M.--Meat as at breakfast with a mealy potato, stale bread, old ale,
one pint. Rowing. If dinner be late, luncheon to be taken, to consist
of beef or mutton, hot or cold; bread, old ale, one glass. If dinner
be early, “tea with viands and liquids as at breakfast” to be taken.
Supper--Half a pint of thin gruel, or dry toast and a glass of old ale.
That the above rules are of course open to alteration according to
circumstances, and the diet varied successfully by the introduction of
fowls, either roast or boiled--the latter preferred; and it must never
be lost sight of that sharp work, regularity and cleanliness are the
chief if not the only rules to be followed to produce thorough good
condition. _Summary_: sleep, about eight hours; exercise, four or five
hours; diet, limited.



H. F. WALSH’S, OR STONEHENGE’S SYSTEM.


Rise at 8 A. M. According to season and weather, cold bath. Exercise,
8.30 to 9 A. M.--Let all take a gentle run or smart walk. In most
instances a smart run of three miles will be about the best distance.

Breakfast; 9 to 9.30 A. M.--Oatmeal porridge, with beef or mutton
broiled, and bread; tea or coffee, or old ale, one pint. Tea is
preferred to coffee. Cocoa is too greasy.

Exercise, 9.30 to 11.30 A. M.--Billiards, skittles, quoits, or other
light exercise. 11.30 A. M. to 1.30 P. M.--Rowing. 1.30 to about 2.30
P. M.--Running, rubbed dry and linen changed.

Dinner, 2.30 to 3 or 3.30 P. M.--Beef (roast) or mutton, (boiled mutton
occasionally), roast fowl, partridges, or pheasants (allowed), or
venison (nothing better); bread, puddings occasionally, made of bread,
eggs, and milk, and served with preserved fruits. Vegetables--Potatoes
(one or two only), cauliflowers and broccoli (only as an occasional
change). Old ale, from a pint to a pint and a half; wine, a glass or
two, port or sherry. After dinner, until 5 or 6 P. M., a gentle stroll.
Rowing 6 to 7 P. M.

Supper, 8 P. M.--Oatmeal porridge, with dry toast, or chop, with glass
of port. Bed at 9 or 10 P. M.

_Summary_: sleep, ten or eleven hours; exercise, say four hours
(exclusive of billiards, etc.); diet, varied.



WINGATE’S SYSTEM FOR A MONTH’S TRAINING.


Rise at about 7 A. M. (Glass of cold water recommended). The crew meet
at 7 A. M., walk and run for four or five miles; or, in later practice,
quick run of two miles. Wash and dress.

Breakfast, 9 A. M.--Meat (broiled), bread (brown) and butter, tea, two
cups. Cocoa made of the nibs boiled for four hours is better than tea
for breakfast.

Luncheon at 1 P. M.--Beef sandwich, with half a pint of old ale, or
biscuit and glass of sherry, or egg in sherry. At 2.30 P. M. row about
four or five miles. This altogether depends on the state of the crew.

Dinner at 6 P. M.--Wash in tepid water. Meat (roast, broiled or
boiled). Vegetables--“The green foods permissible contain in their list
spinach--the very best of all; sea-kale, asparagus, but without melted
butter; turnip-tops, young unhearted greens, but not solid cabbages;
broccoli, carrots, parsnips, and cooked celery. Turnips are also
favored, and peas condemned, also cucumbers, and all salad mixtures.
But boiled beet-root is good, and Jerusalem artichokes; and French
beans stand next to spinach in virtue.” “Any kind of wholesome meat
thoroughly cooked.” The course is varied daily, so that no two days
together shall see the same articles on the table. “Light puddings may
be eaten.” Old ale, one pint. Wine, two glasses of old port or sherry,
or three of claret. Biscuits and dried fruits, as cherries, figs, etc.,
allowed. “All fresh fruits are avoided. Plain jellies are innocuous. As
much spring water as they have a mind to.”

Supper, 9 P. M.--Oatmeal gruel, if desired. Bed at 10 P. M.

_Summary_: sleep, eight or nine hours; exercise, about three hours;
diet, varied.



TRAINING FOR LONG-DISTANCE GO-AS-YOU-PLEASE CONTESTS.


About the first recognized legitimate contest of this kind was
originated by Sir John Astley, a Crimean veteran and general athlete,
giving a valuable gold and silver belt, open to the world, to the
one who should cover the greatest distance, in whatever way he chose,
unassisted, on his legs, for a period of six days. Long distance feats
were not in themselves new, by any means, Capt. Barclay, Foster Powell,
George Wilson, and others in auld lang syne figured conspicuously in
England and Scotland, their journeys being traveled out of doors, on
the roads, similar to the long walks of Weston, Sergeant Bates, Wm.
Gale, and others. The athletic mania, which had lain dormant for so
many years, was suddenly revived in this country, and spread like an
epidemic far and wide, bringing with it a healthy reaction. The saloons
and viler resorts began to lose caste for the running and walking
match. Street cars and stages, and elevated railways complained of lack
of patronage on fine days, as old and young, rich and poor, fell into
the walking rage, and amateur spurts from home to place of business and
_vice versa_ became visible on every few blocks. Even the working girls
caught the health imparting habit, and stepped out as jauntily and with
as much snap as your La Chappelle or Fannie Edwards. Dailies, weeklies
and monthlies saw increased interest and patronage by devoting space
to athletics, while Beecher, Talmage, Moody, and other lesser lights
mixed athletics up with their dogmas, until at the present time it is
the fashion, and with us style is everything. True, druggists, doctors
and undertakers found their business falling off, but we are candid
enough to admit feeling pleased at this state of things, as, from
being looked upon as a nation of tobacco-chewing, nervous, dried-up,
money worshipers, experience has proved that Americans now, instead of
following, take the lead in everything worth speaking about.

[Illustration: BASE BALL.

  1. J. M. Ward, Pitcher.
  2. Ed. N. Williamson, 3d Base.
  3. Fred. Dunlap, 2d Base.
  4. Jas. O’Rourke, Right-field.
  5. Geo. Wright, Short-stop.
  6. P. A. Hines, Centre-field.
  7. Joe Start, 1st Base.
  8. Chas. N. Snyder, Catcher.
  9. Joseph Hornung, Left-field.

CELEBRITIES.]

[Illustration: LLEWELLYN H. JOHNSON,

The Distinguished Amateur American Champion Bicyclist.]

It is not every boy or man who will make a Rowell, an O’Leary, a
Blower Brown, a Frank Hart, or whoever happens to be the head of the
class when this meets the reader’s eye--neither must a young lady
expect to become a Madame Anderson, a May Marshall, or a Von Berg.
Both sexes can, if they have the will, in time, accomplish what now
seems an utter impossibility. Does any one suppose that Daniel O’Leary
walked his square heel-and-toe contests, Madame Anderson her great
accomplishments, Captain Webb his swimming across the English Channel,
Ed. Hanlan conquering all the world as an oarsman, by saying “I can’t,”
and making no further effort? To become adept at anything, perseverance
is the keystone, as “Little by little great oaks from small acorns
grow,” and constant dripping even wears stones away, so that “if at
first you don’t succeed, try, try, try again.” If necessary, commence
by walking only a block at a time, Madame Anderson used to tell her
lady admirers, increasing to two, four, eight, and so on, doubling and
doubling until it will be found as easy to go miles as it was before
the length of a single row of houses. Youth is the best time for
practice, and the smallest, sickliest looking boy or girl will, with
one or two companions, manage to cover an amount of ground that would
make ordinary grown-up people very much inclined to doubt, and very
loth to attempt. The youth has ambition in this direction, not having
yet got into politics, money worshiping or being addicted to chewing,
smoking, drinking, etc., which to many men are considered absolutely
necessary. A party of boys with jackets on their arms will walk and
run eight or ten miles, on a Fourth of July day, cutting up, prattling
away, whistling or singing, with no other refreshment than a little
water or fruit. They fix upon a certain place to go to, may be an
orchard, or to hunt bird’s nests, or to a place to swim, row or fish,
and get there, whereas a man or party of men, unless conveyed straight
to the spot, would probably consume half a dozen lagers at least, and
smoke as many bad cigars, pipesfull of strong tobacco, or chew a paper
of so-called solace. We have tried both, and found out we could travel
twice the distance on a few oranges or a mouthful or two of spring
water, a biscuit or sandwich, than all the lager or tobacco taken in
our life.

Presuming the individual to be in good health, the walks, trots, or
runs must be gradual at first, and increased daily, not exactly in the
order laid down in previous chapters, for the six-day business is more
a trial of endurance than speed. It is not necessary to measure the
distance between meals, but keep on the go until pretty well tired,
rest at intervals, then buckle to again. The “Rowell trot” won him
the belt and drew a $50,000 gate, his share the first time he came to
New York, after all expenses being over $20,000. It has been proved
beyond all argument that trotting or running beats walking, and when
once acquired the dog trot will come as easy to a man (if not easier)
as a fast walking gait. In practicing long-distance running, style is
nothing--wind and freshness everything--let your arms, therefore, swing
easy which ever way comes most natural, as the legs are the motors for
this kind of work. Neither attempt long or short strides, no matter
what your gait, clumsy or otherwise, for it is the distance to be got
over that will land you a winner, not your shape or traveling on your
“pretty,” however people may criticise. An old car-horse will keep
up the same jog-trot nearly all day apparently undistressed, while a
terrible three-mile dash at full speed will perhaps use the fast horse
up. It was not natural for the car-horse to go that gait at first,
but he was broke to it, and men are pretty much like horses in this
respect, except that they can endure more in the long run. You will
doubtless have “bellows to mend,” stitches in your side, etc., but
stick it out and they will not come again probably twice the same day.
A short stick, easy-fitting clothes, light head cover, well-seasoned
and easy fitting laced-up shoes, seamless, woolen stockings, and a
cheerful companion are all necessary. If troubled with sore feet
the pedestrian should follow Dr. Parks’ advice to the British Army,
viz.: Before setting out dip the feet for a minute or two in very hot
water, wipe them quite dry, and then rub them with soap (soft soap
is best) till there is a good lather; then put on the stockings. If,
notwithstanding, they are yet foot-sore, at the end of the day wipe
the feet with a damp cloth, and rub them with a mixture of tallow
and spirits of wine. Besides this, great attention should be paid to
the stockings, which should be constantly washed. Worsted and merino
stockings are preferable to cotton ones.

If thirsty, one or two oranges will quench that, and be most agreeable
to the stomach, as well as being of more benefit than anything else.
When in-doors, light dumb-bells and the skipping-rope may be used
vigorously to improve the wind, but nothing heavy or too violent, as
in this branch of athletics the muscles to be controlled are those
of the legs instead of the arms; change of flannels, socks, shoes, a
salt water sponge-bath, rub down; then apply a little bay rum, mouth
rinsed out, and a pleasant chat with a friend will make you feel like
a new man, and after meals, before alluded to, ready and willing to
tackle hard work again. If the pedestrian’s appetite falls off, whether
from nervousness, sleeplessness or whatever causes, a preparation of
iron and gentian may be taken, say a teaspoonful about ten minutes
before eating, until his natural appetite returns, when it should be
discontinued. If, on the other hand, the food taken does not digest
readily, and symptoms of dyspepsia follow eating, then a tablespoonful
of wine of pepsin a quarter of an hour after meals will soon bring that
trouble over, discontinuing when it does. When sickness at the stomach
succeeds, a tablespoonful of prepared lime water, taken in a little
milk, when the feeling comes on, acts like a charm. When the bowels are
lax, thickened flour and milk are good. If costive, rhubarb preserves,
or prune tea, or a mild injection of soap and warm water will be found
to answer every purpose.

Some enterprising Knight of St. Crispin, with a view to increase their
trade by working on the feelings of pedestrians and others, introduced
the old-fashioned piece of steel under the instep, between the welt and
the sole, and designated them spring walking-shoes, for which there
used to be quite a demand. Experience, however, has proved that the
only spring likely to lead to the winning-post is what nature gave,
and that all artificial appendages are more likely to do harm than
good. The shoe best adapted for a walker of from one to ten miles is
a low-cut shoe, laced nearly to the toe, with low heel, broad instep
and plenty of room for the toes, and light as possible and of the best
seasoned leather. Ordinary shoemakers can no more make professional
running or walking shoes than an ordinary blacksmith can turn out a
razor or set of chicken-gaffs, and, therefore, the business should be
entrusted to those who make a specialty of it.

The most successful and tractable of modern pedestrians, Charles
Rowell, has made more money in his two six-days’ contests in New York
than he would have in fifty years at a trade or in his own country.
Here we are carried away with almost anything of an international
character, both press and public. When Rowell made his 500 miles in the
first visit and 524 on his second, it was generally conceded that he
performed the distance on the square, and hence the patronage bestowed.
Other six-day contests have been given with nearly 40 more miles tacked
on to the winner ahead of Rowell’s time by the black-board, but the
receipts were as quarters to dollars in comparison. There appears to
be a weakness for figures not altogether warranted by the financial
results at the end of the week.

To all, therefore, who compete in long distances for love or money, do
not worry about the score, but _keep ahead all the time_. A gain of ten
miles on the first day, when honestly made, and with the intention of
staying on the track through the competition, will be pretty sure to
find the leader far enough ahead to carry off the lion’s share, for, as
the veteran Jack Goulding’s logic proves, if there is a dollar at the
end of every mile it is surprising how many miles a man will go. The
practice of the crack flyers competing on the first day, with no idea
of going the week more by preconcert, may suit the betting ring and the
book-makers, but it has hurt the business more than can ever be patched
up again by the most adroit, self-interested parties.

In addition to Rowell, Brown, Hazael and others have been brought out,
but they either went wrong or could not be managed by their trainers.
Self-reliance is very well, but an ungovernable temper or dissipated
habits are sure to be left behind when opposed to tractability and
abstemiousness. The English peds used to say there were lots of better
men than Rowell over there, but John Astley knew he was unapproachable
and as honest as they make them, and, whether the best or not, he
carried off the belt against all competitors.

The advantage of an intelligent, capable trainer cannot be
over-estimated, and, one who can satisfy his protege of his superiority
in his business, as well as a man of nerve, is what is required.
When Dan Donnelly, the champion pugilist of Ireland, was trained by
Capt. Kelly for his fight with George Cooper, he was in magnificent
condition, but when he met Tom Oliver, having had men to look after him
whom he considered only his equal or perhaps inferior, he was in no
condition at all. We are of the opinion that John Ennis but for James
Cusick would never have got second place to Rowell, or Nick Murphy,
Steve Brodie, Hart, Panchot, etc., made the time they did but for men
of superior qualification.

It will be interesting to the young athletes to know the length of
time taken for rest by the six-day men, and therefore supply this
information so as to be easy of reference. We allude to the contest
from April 5th to 10th, 1880, inclusive: Hart, 23 hours 2 minutes 59
seconds; Pegram, 31 hours 30 minutes 53 seconds; Howard, 30 hours, 50
minutes 39 seconds; Dobler, 22 hours 37 minutes 12 seconds; Allen, 34
hours 24 minutes 49 seconds; Krohne, 27 hours 18 minutes 15 seconds;
Williams, 28 hours 52 minutes 33 seconds, and Hanwaker, 27 hours 58
minutes 21 seconds. Hart’s actual time on the course was 118 hours 20
minutes and 1 second, and his average walk in that time was at the rate
of 4 7-10 miles per hour.

Rowell’s regular food when on a six-days march is beefsteak, chops,
bread, vegetables, tea and coffee; occasionally he takes a little
pudding and cheese. Guyon feeds on beef tea, chops, potatoes, toast,
tea and coffee, but no stimulants. Weston, beef tea, custard, lime
water and tea, beefsteak and no stimulants. Ennis, oatmeal, beef tea,
rare beef and oysters. Hazael, chops, steaks, crackers, toast and lemon
soda. Merritt feeds on jellies, fruits, beef, mutton and vegetables,
with tea and coffee. Hart eats chops, chopped eggs, toast, corn bread,
tea and coffee.



TRAINING FOR BASEBALL.


It is well known that an athlete desirous of excelling in any
special sport or game must be trained only to the extent to suit the
requirements of the sport he desires to become an expert in. To train
young men in a gymnasium alike for rowing, running or for field work in
baseball, cricket or lacrosse, putting them through the same routine of
exercises, is simply to unnecessarily overwork them for one particular
sport, and to give them insufficient exercise for another. Of course,
to a certain extent, all kinds of gymnastic exercises, if moderately
engaged in, tend to develop a healthful physique, if gone through
with under the rules of an intelligent system; but the indiscriminate
way in which baseball players enter a gymnasium and go through with
what they call their training is ofttimes worse than useless work in
preparing them to sustain the fatigue incident to their game. What is
necessary for a baseball player in gymnastic exercise is to take only
that exercise which makes him agile and quick of movement, and which
trains the eye to judge the ball, or the arms and chest to wield the
bat, or the legs to run the bases. Lifting heavy weights or exercise
which is calculated to develop strength for such purposes is useless.
Swinging clubs, if carried to excess; jumping is unnecessary; work on
the parallel bars, the trapeze, etc., is needless. In fact, a ball
player can find far better training for quick movements, gaining
keen sightedness and endurance in a handball or racket court than
is possible in a gymnasium. Exercise in short-distance running is
good, and all exercises which tend to strengthen the muscles of the
ankles--such as skating, for instance--help to train a ball player.
But what is particularly required in the system of training for
professional ball players is that very activity which handball yields.
This game strengthens the hands, trains the sight, and especially
gives a player endurance in the very fatigue he has to undergo on the
ballfield. A skillful handball player, when he be comes accustomed to
baseball field work, will always excel in picking up hard-hit ground
balls.

[Illustration: L. E. MEYERS,

The Renowned American Runner.]

[Illustration: WELCOMING O’BALDWIN TO NEW YORK.

The Irish Giant, Joe Coburn, Ed. James, J. C. Heenan.]



ADVICE TO BUSINESS MEN AND OTHERS.


The majority of our readers are doubtless young men having in view
perfecting their frames for some muscular feat, and the bulk of this
work was written principally for their benefit. There is still another
and larger class for whom no author seems to have troubled his head
about. We allude to those compelled by circumstances to spend their
time in sedentary occupations, and are not likely to get time or means
to pursue a regular course of training.

It would be simply ridiculous to advise a letter-carrier to take
exercise after going his rounds of forty or fifty miles a day, as
physicians sometimes do without being aware of the calling of their
patient, or to suggest fasting forty days and nights for dyspepsia
because Dr. Tanner did it, giving no impossibilities or absurdities,
but such as we are willing to practice and carry out. As a general
thing, to keep down flesh, if inclined to corpulency, avoid sugar,
salmon, eels, herrings, pork, potatoes, beer, bread, butter, milk,
champagne, port and anything calculated to create bile. It would be
well to dispense with fat meats, eggs, pastry, new bread, cheese and
whatever else may produce nausea or indigestion after eating.

Before making your morning toilet, a sponge saturated in tepid salt
water should be applied to all parts of the body, and then rubbed dry
with a Turkish towel. If too much of a shock to the system, apply a
flesh-brush or the palm of your hands vigorously to the skin, after
which the sponge bath, and when dry the brush or hand, as before.
When the shower-bath is used, and a person feels exhilarated from its
effects, it is better than the sponge bath; but when it produces a
shiver or weakness, it should be discontinued until strong enough to
indulge in this great summer luxury.

The mere fact that millions of human beings are strong and healthy
upon a purely vegetable diet should of itself suggest that, although
animal food, as more concentrated, and yielding more force with less
expenditure in its digestion, is superior to vegetable food, yet there
is excellent nutriment to be extracted from vegetables. The anatomical
indications of man, being omnivorous, should also point in the same
direction, and the need of vegetable acids, no less than the advantages
of variety, at once disclose the error of banishing vegetable food.
The chief mistake lies in the cooking. The water in which green
vegetables are cooked is poisonous. There is not one house in fifty
where the vegetables are not cooked in small vessels, containing very
little water, which is never _changed_, and where the greens are sent
to table with the water properly squeezed from them. Let any person
unable to eat broccoli, or greens cooked in a quart of water, try the
effect of having them cooked in a gallon of water, or of having the
quart changed three or four times during the process, and he will soon
discover the difference. If potatoes are “watery,” it is because they
are ill-cooked. No Irishwoman serves up watery potatoes.

Veal and pork are rigidly excluded by the trainer, which some will hear
it with amazement, and will ask how it was that the ancients gave the
athletes nothing but pork. Would the old hen be thought nutritious, and
the chicken injurious? Would the sheep be tender, and the lamb tough?
And why is the calf to be blooded, and the ox not? Yet, so long as this
practice continues, no one should indulge in veal, unless his digestion
be vigorous. Fried dishes, rich gravies and pastry should also be
avoided, because of their tendency to develop fatty acids in the
stomach. Some cannot endure fat; others cannot get on without it. Some
cannot touch mutton; others are made ill by eggs. Let each find out
his own idiosyncrasy. The only thing the trainer teaches us is to take
abundant exercise in the open air, and to be simple and moderate in our
diet, with regularity in hours. If neither time nor strength permits
our abundant exercise, and if our avocations prevent regularity, what
remains but moderation in diet?

The effects of exercise are two-fold: on the one hand a stimulus is
given to the action of the heart and lungs, which enables the blood
to be more thoroughly oxygenated and more rapidly circulated; on the
other hand, there is an expenditure force, accompanying the increased
activity of the organic changes. Exercise strengthens the parts
exercised, because it increases the nutrition of those parts. When
any organ is inactive, the circulation in it becomes less and less,
the smaller ramifications of its network of blood vessels are empty
or but half filled, the streams gradually run in fewer channels, and
the organ, ceasing to be thoroughly nourished, wastes away. When the
organ is active all its vessels are filled; all the vital changes, on
which depend its growth and power, proceed rapidly. The force expended
is renewed, unless the expenditure has been excessive, in which case
there is a disturbance of the mechanism, and depression or disease
results. But unless there has been excess, we see that the great
advantage of exercise consists in keeping up a due equalization of
the circulation, an equable distribution of nutrition to the various
organs. Perfect health means the equable activity of all the functions;
not the vigor of the muscular system alone, nor of the nervous system
alone; not the activity of this gland or that, but the equable vigor
of all. Remember that when life makes great demands upon the muscular
energy, the demands upon the brain must be less; and when the demands
upon the brain are energetic, there is less force disposable for
muscles and glands. The advantage of exercise to a student or any other
brain-worker, is that it _lessens_ the over-stimulus of his brain,
distributes the blood more equably, calling to his muscles some of
those streams which would impetuously be rushing through his brain. And
understanding what this advantage is, he should be careful to avail
himself of it; but he should be careful to remember at the same time
that within certain limits all the force with drawn by his muscles is
withdrawn from the brain or some other organ. He must not burn the
candle at both ends.

It is certain that sedentary men, and men of hard-worked intellects,
are greatly in need of some means of distributing the circulation
through the muscles. Exercise is the means. When the avocations are
such as to render continuous exercise in the open air difficult or
impossible, we should seek to compensate for this by variety of
gentle activities distributed throughout the day. No error is more
common than that of supposing open-air exercise to be indispensable
to health: we may have no time for walking, rowing, riding or any
of the ordinary modes of out-door activity, yet--as the excellent
health and strength of domestic servants, who scarcely ever stir out,
will show--the mere activity of the body, in various occupations,
suffices for the equalization of the circulation. Let the sedentary
stand as well as sit, changing the posture frequently, and using back
and arms as variously as possible. A variety of gentle activities is
more beneficial to the student than bursts of violent exercise. Above
all things, remember that in exercise, as in diet, the grand rule is
moderation. Avoid fatigue; as you would cease eating when appetite
abates, cease muscular activity when the impulse to continue it abates.

In general, the healthy man may eat almost anything in moderation; but
it is wiser for all to avoid meat twice cooked, rich gravies and fried
dishes. Nature tells us very plainly that that pleasure is a means no
less than an end. The exercise which has in it the element of amusement
is ten times as beneficial as a listless walk; and the meal which is
eaten with a relish is far more nutritious than a meal eaten only as a
periodical necessity. Solitary walks along familiar or uninteresting
roads, or solitary meals on dishes unstimulating to the palate, are
not to be compared with rambles through interesting tracts, or with
stimulating companions, and meals where the guests, no less than
dishes, add their pleasurable excitement.

There is one point of regimen to which attention may be called, and
that is, never to attempt severe mental or bodily labor after a full
meal. If possible, let all such labor be got through in the early part
of the day, after breakfast, but before dinner; not only because the
bodily vigor is then greatest, but also because the restoration of
that vigor through dinner should not be interfered with. We know that
in many cases this advice is impracticable. Night-work is inevitable
in some lives, and is fancied to be so in the lives of students and
literary men. In such cases, there is, at least, this mitigating
resource--not to commence hard work until the labor of digestion is
over. Thousands ruin their digestion by disregarding this simple
advice. If work after dinner be inevitable, let the dinner be a very
light one, and let a light supper be eaten.

In order to prove the facts above cited, a physician of our
acquaintance tried the experiment upon two healthy dogs. They were both
fed alike and in similar quantities, one being allowed to rest in quiet
an hour after feeding, and the other permitted to run around and frolic
for a similar length of time. Both dogs were then killed, and the food
of the one allowed to rest was quite digested, while that of the other
was scarcely digested at all.

No better general advice can be given in conclusion than that furnished
us by the greatest physician of the present time, Dr. Willard Parker,
now enjoying rugged health at the advanced age of eighty, and being a
living example of the truth of his reasoning.

The blood will be either good or bad, according as the material or
food is good or bad. The character of blood made depends on the kind
of food taken. In this country, as a rule, too much meat is eaten;
meat once a day is sufficient, especially for brain workers. The waste
matter from a meat diet is eliminated through the kidneys. Too much
labor thrown upon those organs produces disease. An overloaded stomach
is unfavorable to active brain work. Man is like an engine with two
service pipes, one for the brain and one for the body, and no man has
the requisite force to work both at once. Generally Americans bolt
their food. It should be cooked. The first process of cooking a steak
is on the range; the second is in the mouth, and this is done by
working the saliva into the food by chewing. Thus is the food prepared
to be acted upon by the juices of the stomach. Infants in nursing
move the jaws to obtain the milk, and the working of the infant’s jaw
mixes the milk with the saliva, and thus fits that milk to go into the
stomach. After being subjected to the action of the stomach for two
or three hours the food becomes fitted to pass into the circulation
by absorption. To have good food, therefore, it is necessary that it
be made of proper material properly prepared. We are furnished with
milk to start with as we enter the world. Had meat been the best diet,
we should have been born with beefsteaks in our hands. But we are
given milk. Milk and blood are nearer alike than any other two fluids;
a large proportion of each is water. After milk, breadstuffs and
vegetables are the best diet, and in warm climates fruit. Then meats.
Sugar and fat go into the body not so much to nourish it as to be a
fuel to give it warmth. Meat contains much nitrogenous matter.

A limited quantity of spirits at the principal meal, especially
for persons advanced in life or of weak digestion, may aid in the
combustion of the food. Spirits aid digestion in feeble and aged
persons; but only the feeble or the aged require such a stimulus. The
young and vigorous do not need it, and are better off without it.
Middle aged persons may perhaps drink a little spirit with their meals
without danger; but they cannot safely make it a beverage. In small
quantities alcoholic drinks stimulate, and if not enough is taken to
coagulate the pepsin and the albumen in the food they promote digestion
in proper cases, and thus help to repair the system. But whenever
more alcoholic liquor is taken into the stomach with the food than is
demanded it passes into the circulation, disturbs the action of the
heart, flushes the face and confuses the brain. When so much fermented
or distilled liquor is taken into the system that the functions of
the organism are disturbed positive harm is done--the system has been
so far poisoned. An irritation has been set up instead of the desired
healthful stimulation of the stomach.

The human system contains water, fat, starch, sugar, nitrogenous
substances, iron, sulphur, phosphorus, animal quinine, sodium potassium
and chlorine; but no alcohol is found. It has no like in the system,
hence there is nothing that it can repair, and it cannot, therefore,
be ranked as a food of any kind. It possesses an inherent deleterious
property, which, when introduced into the system, is capable of
destroying life, and it has its place with arsenic, belladonna, prussic
acid and opium. Like these, it is to be employed as a medicine, and has
its true position in works on materia medica. It is both a poison and a
medicine.

It has been settled by science that alcohol, which passes into the
blood when more is taken than can be employed as a condiment or tonic,
undergoes no change in the blood, but exists there as a foreign
substance, creating irritation; and the excitement involved in the
effort to throw off the irritating substance wastes the energy and life
of the system. After alcohol has produced disease of the stomach it
next expends its force upon the neighboring organs, inducing disease of
the liver and dropsy or Bright’s disease, both of which are fatal to
health, if not to life.

The life insurance companies understand it. Their figures show that
while a temperate young man at twenty may reasonably look forward to
forty-four years and two months of life, the young man of the same age
who poisons his system with drink can expect not more than fifteen
years and six months. He who uses alcohol becomes an easy prey of
epidemics; his system cannot resist the poison of diphtheria, cholera
and fevers.

To make good blood we require good food, pure water, pure air, sunlight
and exercise. Either foul air or impure water poisons the blood. If you
don’t throw off two pounds and three-quarters of effete matter every
twenty-four hours through the lungs and two pounds through the pores
you must expect sooner or later to fall. Nothing is more essential than
pure air. Impure air is the source of our ship fevers.

Cleanliness has been classed as akin to godliness. It certainly takes
high rank in equalizing the circulation. The jockeys appreciate its
importance. How regularly and carefully they groom their horses! Is
not man as precious as the horse? Every man should groom himself every
morning--sponge himself from head to foot with water of the temperature
of the room in which he sleeps. The purpose of wetting the surface is
merely to make the friction of a rough towel more effective as it
is rubbed over the person. You should not sleep in any garment that
you wear by day, and the room in which you sleep should be perfectly
ventilated by a fireplace and a partly opened window if possible.

[Illustration: PETER J. PANCHOT,

First Winner U. S. Six-day Go-as-you-please Champion Belt; making 480
miles and defeating 40 competitors.]

[Illustration: BLOWER BROWN,

Second Winner Six-day Go-as-you-please English Champion Belt, making
over 542 miles, April, 1879.]

[Illustration: EDWARD PAYSON WESTON,
the American Long-distance Walker.]

If, after you have observed the rules of hygiene to the extent
indicated you have cold feet and limbs and indigestion and a tendency
to vertigo, plunge your feet into water as hot as you can bear it,
and keep them there five minutes. Then put them into cold water for a
second.

“Cool head, free bowels, warm feet and a good-salary” is the old
aphorism. If you suffer your feet to get cold you are in danger of
apoplexy of the brain or of the lungs. Cold feet are very likely to
be associated with a sluggish state of the bowels. The feet are cold
because there is too much blood in one place and too little in another.
Cold feet follow the breaking of an equilibrium of the circulation.
Sedentary occupations are provocative of cold feet. If you keep the
skin clean and the bowels free and take moderate exercise you will
maintain an equilibrium of circulation, and this equalized circulation
will keep the feet warm. When the feet are cold it is better to warm
them with exercise than at a fire. Look at the wood chopper, swinging
his arms so that his hands slap his sides. Thus he carries the blood
to his hands, and it warms them. That is the best warmth for either.
There is a vast difference between the longevity of men who take care
of themselves and of those who do not. It is, as the life insurance
companies’ tables show, as thirty-five is to about seventy. The man
who bows to all the known laws of hygiene not only lives longer, but
is able also to enter into all the joys of life without the aches and
pains.



THE LATE JOHN MORRISSEY’S VIEWS.


The Honorable John Morrissey, ex-champion pugilist of America, in
conversation with us about diet, said:

“Mr. James, you can form no idea of the glorious feeling that a man
experiences when he gets himself in perfect condition. Everything in
the world looks different to him from what it does when his system is
clogged up with bile, and he is carrying a quantity of flesh that is
only a burden to him. It is almost impossible to get a man when in such
a condition into a bad humor. He feels like a young colt, and wants to
kick up his heels and have a good time with everybody and everything he
meets.” His course of training was as follows:

FIRST. Take a black draught. Any druggist will put it up. All
prize-fighters take this when they begin to train for a fight. You’ll
find it the liveliest dose of medicine you ever took.

SECOND. Be sure and get at least seven or eight hours of good sound
sleep every day.

THIRD. In the morning when you first get up drink a glass of hard cider
with a raw egg in it. If the cider is not to be had then use sherry
wine, but I prefer the cider. Then start out and walk briskly for a
couple of miles. When you come back take a sponge bath and rub yourself
dry with a coarse towel. Bub until your skin is all aglow.

FOURTH. For breakfast eat a lean steak, cooked rare, and stale bread.
Use no milk, no sugar, no butter, and no potatoes, with the exception
of about once a week. If you wish you can eat a roast or baked potato
in the morning. Drink sparingly of tea and coffee. Tea is the best.

FIFTH. For dinner eat rare roast beef and stale bread. Use no potatoes
or vegetables of any kind with this meal. For change you can have
occasionally a mutton chop.

SIXTH. For supper, a lean steak or a mutton chop, without fat. Do
not eat any warm biscuits or warm bread, at any time. Stick to good
wholesome stale wheat bread. Eat no pies, cakes or pastry of any kind,
and use pepper, salt and all other seasonings very sparingly.

SEVENTH. Use no stimulants of any kind. Do not smoke. Drink sparingly
of water. Do not eat berries or vegetables of any kind, excepting
occasionally a raw onion.

EIGHTH. If you feel weak in the morning before breakfast, it comes from
the bathing, and it should be discontinued for a few days.

The system for hardening the muscles, etc., most approved of by the
Senator and the leading pugilists, is being first sponged with a
decoction of arnica flowers, alum, borax and Jamaica rum, then bathed
with hartshorn liniment, and an application of white wine vinegar
mixed with alum and borax to the face and hands. The proportions of
the ingredients used in the sponge bath have hitherto been a profound
secret with the professional trainer. For the benefit of the fraternity
we here print them: Take two pounds of arnica flowers, five cents’
worth of borax, five cents’ worth of alum, and steep all together,
after pulverizing the alum and borax, in a gallon or so of Jamaica
rum, and after letting it steep for twenty-four hours, apply as before
stated.



TRAINING IN REGARD TO PUGILISM AND WRESTLING.


The work necessary to reduce or otherwise bring the pugilist into
something like condition will be, of course, nearly if not precisely
similar to the training required for a pedestrian or other match.
The physicing will require great attention; all drastic and griping
medicines are to be avoided, if possible, and cases will occur from
time to time where no medicine ought to be given whatever. The man in
one of these instances will be in a low state, and require feeding and
training up. In another, the body will be in so open and relaxed a
state that the prescribing and giving the usual dose would be followed
to a certainty by the patient training right off, and failing into a
low and prostrate condition. In the general state of health, however,
which characterizes the pugilist when matched to fight (with a full
habit of body, flushed countenance, and a pulse full and slow), the
usual dose, salts, etc., may be introduced with advantage, but the
quantities and frequent use left to the usual habit of the man, or to
the judgment of the trainer. The physicing and preparation for the
hard work should occupy the first week; and the number of sweats taken
during the second week should be regulated by the state of inside and
the loose flesh on the body. A sharp run will soon show the state of
the inside by the state of “the bellows,” whether the wind is short
or not, and the manner in which the looser flesh shakes when sparring
is a pretty fair criterion of there being a good quantity of outside
superfluity to get away. He ought to be rubbed down after his runs and
fast walks, and dry clothes put on in a warm, dry room. The loss of
weight should be gradual. If, on the contrary, the loss be too rapid,
and continue daily, the reducing system must cease, and feeding up take
the place of sweating for a few days until the system is restored. The
meals, of course, must be taken regularly, and consist of the same kind
of animal food as recommended previously, and the beverage most suited
to the constitution of the man taken in small quantities--the kind and
quantity, of course, being left to the judgment of the trainer. Wine
is principally given when the man has to be trained up, and then good
old port wine will be found to be of the most service. The pugilists of
the present day strengthen the arms, loins, and shoulders by hitting
out at a striking-bag suspended from a beam, and a large bladder
hung in like manner; by exercise with pulleys, the ropes passing over
wheels and having weights attached; plenty of practice with the gloves,
diversified with the use of a skipping-rope, and finally, but by no
means of minor importance, by continual sharp practice with dumb-bells
of about seven pounds weight or under. Good condition in the pugilist
will be shown by the healthy state of the skin, which will be clear,
with a ruddy tinge underneath, as well as soft, with the muscles
underneath swelling and feeling firm to the touch at every movement
of the limb or portion under manipulation. The eye will be clear and
bright, and a look of confidence and ease of mind characterize the
expression and looks of the athlete. As regards the pickle for the
hands and face, the nostrums for the first are legion, and one as good
as another; but we believe that nothing is better than the simple juice
of a lemon for the latter, and which will be found to answer every
intended purpose.

The trainer ought to be chosen with regard to his conversational
powers, as well as for his knowledge of what is requisite for the
physical health of his pupil, that he may amuse and instruct him to
the fullest extent of his power. The trainer should inform him, if
possible, of all the peculiarities of the antagonist, his mode of
attack and method of defense, the weak points of his temper, or any
physical deficiency under which he might labor, as well as the manner
in which he may have won or lost any previous battle. And, as in many
cases the first or second telling may not have the effect of raising
the curiosity of his man, the patience of the trainer should not give
way under the repetition before the slow and obtuse curiosity is roused
to such an extent that the pugilist commences the interrogation in his
turn, and becomes anxious in his inquiries for information, which will
almost invariably be the case when he finds out the importance that the
trainer’s continued repetitions have invested the apparent trifles with.



PRINCIPAL MUSCLES USED BY THE ATHLETE.


In high jumping, the front muscles of the thigh are principally used.
They are attached at one end to the top part of the thigh bone, at the
ocher to the knee cap, which passes over the knee, and is fixed to
the top part of the shin bone. In the act of jumping, these muscles
contract violently, and straighten the leg with a jerk, the quickness
of which mainly contributes to the height of the jump.

In long jumping, the muscles of the back part of the thigh are used;
these are attached to the back part of the shin bone at one end, and to
the lower part of the pelvis at the other, and by contracting draw the
leg backwards on the trunk. This action is also assisted by the glutœus
maximus, which is fixed at one end of the top part of the thigh, at the
other to the lowest part of the vertebral column.

In long distance running, the front and back muscles of the thigh are
used in equal proportions; the former in raising the body at every
stride, the latter in propelling it forward. But in the case of running
on the toes, the calf of the leg will be the weak part; so much so that
no amount of practice will enable some, especially heavy men, to run
any distance on their toes.

In short distance running, the front muscles of the thigh which lie
nearest to the trunk, bring the leg forward in the rapid repetition of
the strides. These are a different set from those that straighten the
leg, and are used in long distance running; they are attached at one
end to the lower and front part of the pelvis, and at the other end to
the top part of the thigh bone. The back muscles of the thigh are the
same that are used in long distance running for propelling the body
forwards. A narrow pelvis is a great assistance in this, as indeed in
all running; for on the narrowness of the pelvis facility in repeating
the strides principally depends.

In throwing the hammer, more depends on the swing than on the strength
of any particular muscle, though the strain comes more particularly on
the small of the back--that is, on the muscles which raise and keep the
back erect, and are attached to all the vertebra of the spine.

In putting the stone, the muscles called particularly into action are
the front part of the deltoid, which is attached to the top part of
the arm, and at the other end to the collar bone, and brings the arm
upwards and forwards; the top part of the pectoral muscle, which also
runs from the top of the arm to the collar bone, and brings the arm
forwards; the triceps, which is fixed at one end of the shoulder and
shoulder blade, and at the other end of the forearm, below the elbow,
and extends the arm at the elbow joint. The feet are also assisted by a
simultaneous spring with the legs, and a rapid turn of the body.

In walking, the muscles of the whole body are brought into action
more than in any of the other exercises we have alluded to. The arms
and back assist the legs greatly in changing the balance of the body,
and in bringing the hips forward at each stride. The calf of the leg
has much work to do, even as much as running on the toes. The muscle,
however, that suffers most is that which rises on the outside of the
shin bone, near the knee, and runs down the leg, crossing the shin near
the ankle, to be inserted near the inside of the sole of the foot. This
muscle raises the foot, and draws it back towards the leg at the end of
the stride, and also points the heel at the commencement; so that in
fast walking it has no rest, and consequently becomes very painful. The
front and back muscles of the thigh also come in for a large share of
work.

The following measurements are an average of the dimensions of some
of the best runners, and may be taken as a fair guide of what the
proportion of the limbs should be respectively:

  Height    5ft. 6in.   5ft. 8in.   5ft. 10in.    6ft.
  Weight     116lbs.     133lbs.     149lbs.      168lbs.
  Chest      35in.       37in.       39in.         40in.
  Waist      27in.       28in.       29in.         31in.
  Hips       34in.       35½in.      37in.         38in.
  Thigh      20in.       21in.       22in.         23in.
  Calf       13½in.      14in.       14½in.        15in.

The dimensions of the chest may appear small at first sight, but it
must be remembered that the runner has no muscles of the shoulder
blades to increase his measurement. A well-made runner has not that
top-heavy appearance that characterizes the gymnast who does much arm
work.



TEMPERAMENT.


The Sanguine Temperament belongs to that class with bright, ruddy
complexion, light hair, and full circulation. Their disposition is
energetic and spirited, but their power of resisting disease or of
bearing protracted exercise is not great, and their ardent character is
rather the result of nervous excitability than of vital force. Their
power lies in dash rather than in endurance.

The Bilious Temperament is of an opposite description. The circulation
is sluggish, the disposition persevering and obstinate; the
constitution as a rule is tough, and is capable of severe tasks, under
which the sanguine would succumb. These men are good subjects for
training, but they require good food and much exercise.

[Illustration: NOTED SWIMMERS.

  1. Geo. Werhan.
  2. Fred. Beckwith.
  3. Capt. M. Webb.
  4. E. Von Shoening.
  5. Geo. F. Ferns.
  6. Geo. Wade.
  7. Wm. H. Daly.
  8. H. Troutz.
  9. Wm. Beckwith.]

[Illustration: WILLIAM MULDOON, Wrestler.]

The Lymphatic are of a pale complexion, with delicate skins and full
habit of body. There is a torpor about their mental as well as muscular
actions. When subject to disease they become peevish and are difficult
to treat. When united to a nervous disposition, they are perhaps the
worst class of men for training, though we sometimes find much latent
energy in them. To a certain extent, nervousness is overcome by habit;
but the nutrition of the nerve power ought to be the main point in the
advancement of health. The nerves are the controllers of the actions;
they regulate the contraction of muscles in the activity of the body.
The work done by the muscles depends on the proper adjustment of the
mechanism, their guidance and activity on the energy of the nerves. The
important work that the nerves fulfill is evident, when we consider
that the brain itself needs one fifth of the whole supply of the
blood in the body. It must suffer, therefore, if the supply of air to
the blood is bad. How easily is accounted for the dull aching of the
temples of the athlete accustomed to pure air in a badly ventilated
theatre or room. If deficient oxidation of the blood is the cause of
derangement to the nervous system, blood of bad quality must be equally
hurtful to the muscular. The sensibilities of the internal organs are
the disposition of each person to such a degree as to be influenced
by the slightest sensation of pain, joy, grief, or any feeling of the
mind. The reaction affects the muscular system; all the functions of
body are carried on by a system of self and mutual help, so intimately
united together as to be dependent for proficiency on one another.



GROWTH AND DECAY.


The food after mastication by the teeth, and solution by the action
of the saliva, gastric and other juices, is taken up by a system of
vessels, and, mingling with the venous blood, is carried to the heart,
whence it is sent to the lungs to be aerated, and back again by another
set of vessels to the heart, to be finally pumped through the arteries
to all parts of the body, carrying materials for the repair of the
tissue, and production of heat. In the very minute terminations of the
capillary arteries in those structures, where the molecular change of
the body goes on, the current of the blood is very slow, to enable
the warmth and sustenance of the body to be kept up by the chemical
actions of destruction and reproduction of tissue. The oxygen in the
arterial blood obtained from the lungs is carried throughout the system
and assists these actions, therefore perfect respiration and pure air
are the great promoters of change of tissue. This shows the necessity
of the blood being in a sufficiently liquid state to hold gases and
nutritive matter in solution for the purposes of oxydizing tissue and
of forming flesh. The amount of water in the blood determines to a
great extent the health of the body, the blood being the organ of the
vital processes of change. The severe restrictions on liquid imposed
on those in training, who by arduous exercise waste much tissue and
need much repair, are, therefore, physiologically wrong. The action of
the air on the skin stimulates the secretion, and exercise, indirectly
raising the heat of the body, induces perspiration, which is nature’s
remedy to keep the temperature of the body constant. Evaporation and
secretion require water. On a daily average, 2lb. of water is thrown
off by the skin in moderate exercise. Water forms 70 per cent. of
the whole body, and for the digestive fluids the proportion of water
to solid is as 12 to 1. Liquidity is necessary, also, for the actual
processes of decay and repair, by causing the passage of fluids of
different densities through the various animal membranes from the
oxydation of venous blood in the moist air of the lung cells to the
repair of tissue by the smallest capillary in the extremities.

Want of liquid causes a stagnation of the circulation, an inflammatory
state of the body, and excites the nervous system to an extraordinary
degree. Owing to this want, under the usual system of training regimen,
the body is frequently in a state of fever about the second week, until
either the trainee gives up the preparation, or his constitution has
temporarily accommodated itself to the change at the expense of his
vital energy.

The nourishment of the body by the food taken is important in its
regard to health, and its variety. The primary object of food is to
form blood, and according to the condition in which the body receives
it, greater or less nutriment, at the same expense of vital activity,
can be obtained. The assistance of nature, by proper cooking and
careful selection of articles, is in our own hands. Our vegetables
should be well cooked, and the animal food ought to be done so as to
retain the juices of the meat. Let it be rather under than overdone.
Brown meat is more nutritious than white. If the digestion is good,
the athlete need not be particular as to description of food. Rich
sauces are not to be recommended, or even heavy puddings, but jellies
and light ones are most acceptable. A healthy, robust man, in hard
work, may eat nearly anything in moderation. The food should be well
masticated, to enable the saliva to dissolve the starchy matter in it,
and also to prevent a sudden loading of the stomach. The blood during
digestion is principally employed about the stomach. Exercise or mental
work, therefore, directly after a meal, will retard the operation of
digestion by taking away the blood to the limbs or brain.

Great mental activity requires much repose. In the winter more sleep
is required than in the summer, from the fact that the activity of the
system, in keeping up its warmth, etc., though of shorter duration, is
greater. Sleep after food is often required by nervous persons of weak
digestion, but the athlete is better without it, an amusing book, light
study, etc., taking its place. A mattress gives the soundest sleep.
The quantity of clothing should be sufficient to keep up a gentle
exhalation from the skin. The wasting of the body to reduce weight is
frequently carried to a ridiculous extent. It has been proved that the
body in daily work loses about 1-24th of its weight, and that life
ceases when the waste has reduced it to 3-5ths of its original weight.
In the nerves, however, the loss is hardly perceptible; while the fat
suffers in double the proportion of the muscles, 90 and 45 per cent.
respectively.

This may well explain the nervous excitability of the body when kept
beyond its regular time for food, or when supplied with food of
deficient quality. The arrangement of the internal mechanism must go
on, respiration continues, circulation and heat result, at the expense
of the machine itself. By regularity in meals the stomach accommodates
itself to the changes of action and repose, and the system harmonizes
with it.



MEATS, ETC., TO BE AVOIDED.


Veal, pork, and salt beef or bacon should be avoided; also goose, duck,
and wildfowl generally; as well as butter, cucumbers, sweets, and all
seasonings, except salt with a little black pepper. Venery should not
be indulged in under any circumstances while training.



NATURAL SWEATING.


Put on extra clothing over those parts more particularly which are
loaded with fat. Thus, if the legs are very fat, two or three pair of
trowsers should be drawn on; if the abdomen is full, then a double
apron of flannel should be suspended from the neck under the trowsers;
and if the arms and neck are loaded, two or three thick undershirts
may be worn, and a woolen shawl wrapped round the neck. When thus
clothed, a brisk walk or a slow run of two or three miles brings on a
profuse perspiration, which may be kept up for an hour or so by being
covered with blankets, or by lying in front of a good fire; the clothes
should be then stripped off, beginning with the upper part of the
body, and sponging each with hot salt water, before drying it with a
coarse towel, after which horse-hair gloves should be used freely. The
dressing may be as usual, taking care to expose each limb as short a
time as possible.



ARTIFICIAL SWEATING.


Take a Turkish bath, or the whole body should be stripped and
immediately wrapped in a sheet wrung out of cold water, but not so
as to get rid of all the water; then, rolling the patient in a thick
blanket, inclosing the arms, like a mummy, he is placed beneath a
feather bed, covering all up to the chin. In a quarter of an hour or so
reaction comes on, and a most profuse perspiration breaks out over the
whole body. When the sweating has continued from an hour to an hour and
a half, everything should be taken off, and cold water poured over the
whole body by means of a shower bath; then rub dry and clothe.



SWEATING LIQUORS.


A scruple of Dover’s powder at night, or half a pint of whey made with
white wine, and with thirty drops each of antimonial wine, and sweet
spirits of nitre added. Care should be taken to rub the whole body with
horse-hair gloves night and morning.



TREATMENT OF THE FEET, HANDS, SINEWS, ETC.


The chief cause of tender feet rests with the socks and shoes or boots
in which the pedestrian may commence his work. By no means attempt
work in new boots, or in those, however well seasoned, that are not
of sufficient length and width in the tread and across the toes.
The thickness, so as they are of a sound double sole and perfectly
water-tight at the lower part, does not so much matter; but a few days’
use will soon prove to the training man that a rather stout pair will
keep his feet sounder and be of more comfort to him, in a long journey,
than the lighter kind, Different men, however, are of various opinions;
but Westhall, during a long experience, found that a pair of boots
laced up the front and reaching a trifle above the ankle and of medium
stoutness, answered every purpose required by anyone who is satisfied
with doing well. A very thick pair, of course, may be kept in reserve
for very wet and muddy weather, when slow work only will be advisable
to be taken. Should the pedestrian, however, be obstinate, and take
fast work in the heavy boots, he will in most cases be punished by sore
shins, which will prove a source of such trouble that the lighter sort
of boots will be in requisition for the future. The socks should be
of an easy fit and of fine warm lambs’-wool. The chief care about the
socks, however, is taking the precaution that a pair of socks should
never be worn a second time until thoroughly aired, and if possible a
supply should be so provided that they may be rinsed out in cold water,
and then dried before again being worn.

The above precautions will prove of the greatest value to those who
have feet given to sweating, and in some instances have proved an
effectual cure for the inconvenience. The toenails should be attended
to regularly, and the shape of the foot will be the best criterion for
their treatment. To prevent the hands from swelling, a short stick or
switch, carried in the hand will be efficacious while walking about.
Strains are of frequent occurrence, and chiefly arise from the man
making some sudden effort when the tendons or the fascia (the thin
covering) of the muscles are stiff and sore from previous hard work.
The tendon Achilles--from the heel to the calf of the leg--is the
principal seat of the most dangerous of the strains of the tendons, and
is incurable except by rest, and that of some duration. Should there be
any swelling and hardening of the injured portion of the tendon, _do
not_ attempt any methods of self-treatment, but seek _medical_ advice.
All strains are assisted in their cure by bandaging, but they should
not be applied until hot fomentations for some time have been applied,
and finished up by the application of the embrocation, with plenty of
friction, before a fire.



SOFT CORNS.--Pick off with the nails as much as possible; next day
apply caustic, rubbing it in; afterward keep a piece of carded cotton
between the toes night and day.



HARD CORNS.--Pare off the hard cuticle; then apply tincture of iodine
with a brush or caustic.



HARDENING THE FLESH.--Lemon juice is one of the simplest and best for
rubbing on the hand. Horseradish grated and mixed with vinegar is also
good. Whiskey poured in the shoe is frequently used.



BUNIONS.--Apply two or three leeches every day for a week; when the
bites are well, brush with tincture of iodine every other day. An
application of “Papier Fayard” is sometimes very beneficial.



BOILS.--Apply linseed poultice, or open it with a knife. If on the
“seat of honor,” apply a plaster spread on leather, and composed of
equal parts of mercurial and opiate plaster. Do not use the knife.
To those subject to boils use the following as a preventative: take
nitrate of silver, from fifteen to twenty grains to the ounce, made
into a wash, and paint the surface every night. This turns the skin
black, but do not mind that.



STRAINS.--The following is the receipt of Westhall’s stimulating
embrocation: Spirits of wine, ¼ pint; spirits of turpentine, ¼ pint;
white vinegar, ¼ pint. Mix thoroughly, warm by the fire, beat up a
fresh egg, and mix gradually with the spirits, etc.; shake the bottle
well.



SPRAINS.--For sprained ankle, make a flannel bag about a foot long by
six inches wide, which fill with bran and plunge into boiling water
until thoroughly saturated; then squeeze almost dry, and apply it as
hot as the patient can bear on the weak part. There should be a couple
of bags, so that when one application gets cool fresh heat may be
immediately applied.



CHAPPED HANDS, ETC.--Smear over the parts chapped with glycerine, by
means of a brush or feather, night and morning.



BLISTERS.--Prick with a fine needle before they burst, inserting the
needle obliquely, and the water presses out, repeating whenever the
blister fills again. If the blister is broken, apply collodion with a
brush; if too painful, use finely carded medicated cotton in a thin
layer, under a kid glove, or powdered gum-arabic, taking care to keep
the hands from water for twenty-four hours. For feet blisters,
spread a piece of kid with soap-plaster, applying over the skin; also
bathe in strong salt water mixed with powdered alum and vinegar. If
large, run a stocking-needle threaded with white worsted through; then
cut the end off, leaving the worsted in the blister until the water
runs out. Do not leave off washing the feet in salt water, etc., as
this will act as a preventative.

[Illustration:

  LARRY FOLEY,      JACK THOMPSON,

Noted Australian Pugilists.]

[Illustration: JOHN ENNIS,

Long-distance Walker.]

[Illustration: CHARLES A. HARRIMAN,

American Long-distance Walker.]



EXERCISE, SUN BATHS, ETC.


The increasing interest in the matter of healthy exercise is shown by
the number of athletic clubs and gymnasiums throughout the country,
especially so in our colleges of learning and public institutions.
Most of these have every gymnastic appliance, as also professors to
give instruction; but where such do not exist a complete outfit at a
very moderate expense can be obtained, all ready for use. The rowing
machine has been previously described. The health lift, as a gentle
exercise, is rapidly becoming an institution of necessity to persons
of sedentary habits, and brings into action, when properly used, as
many muscles of the human frame as any other exercise, and yet consumes
but a few moments of time daily, which of itself is an important
item to brain-workers and industrious humanity generally. It is so
adjustable as to be alike suited for the weakest, strongest, shortest
and tallest persons of either sex. Indian clubs, dumb-bells, trapeze
bar and rings and striking bag may all be readily obtained, and,
simpler still for in-door exercise, Goodyear’s Patent Parlor Gymnasium,
which can be used by ladies and children without any fear of strain
or the slightest jar to the system. Dr. Dio Lewis, in his work on New
Gymnastics, gives a series of movements and illustrations without the
aid of any auxiliaries, so that there can be no possible excuse for
neglecting exercise. Sun and air baths, involving no expense, can
always be had. By these we mean exposing the body naked a certain
portion of the day to their effects. It was the custom of John Quincy
Adams to walk up and down his bedroom nude, and with open windows as
a preventative of colds. This he practiced both winter and summer,
with the desired effect, living to be over eighty. With a view still
more to the assistance and preservation of nature, General Pleasanton
has written an elaborate work, claiming wonderful effects in nervous
diseases from the sun’s rays as reflected through blue glass panes, and
his theory is extensively practiced with very encouraging results. Dr.
Samuel R. Elliott of this city, an athlete as well as a very skillful
physician and scientist, has found that in some cases the blue glass
alone produces too strong an effect, and believes that alternate blue
and white strips, two or three inches wide, engender the proper form
and quantity of electricity; and we therefore suggest that his plan
be adopted. The patient should sit for an hour or more daily in such
position that, whatever part of the body is affected, may be acted
upon by the rays thus received. Where advice can be had it is better
to obtain it, as all persons cannot even take electricity in the same
manner, quantity or proportion. The glass should not be colored on the
surface alone, but through and through, of a deep mazarine hue.



BATHS--HOT, COLD, ETC.


The use of water cannot be too much applied to any athlete as regards
outward application, but of course cold is the most beneficial if the
constitution of the recipient be of sufficient vigor; and there are but
very few indeed who are so delicate as to require tepid or warm water;
but even the latter are better than the absence, even partially, of
the bath. Cold baths may be taken anyhow and anywhere, provided the
whole of the body is immersed or thoroughly sponged over, but the most
decided benefit will be derived from the plunge bath. However, equally
successful results may be gained by the use of a large bath well filled
with water, the body being well sluiced with the water from a large
sponge. The shower is also of great benefit, but in some conditions of
body the sudden shock has rendered the nervous system so irritable that
it has undone all the good intended by the reaction. Where there is not
the convenience of a bath of any kind, a towel dipped in water and the
body thoroughly and briskly rubbed will insure a thorough cleansing of
the pores of the skin, and of course a proportionate share of vigor
given to the frame. In the present system of training, the pedestrian
puts on his sweaters and does the work set him by his trainer, and
then, when he is in a state of perfect perspiration, he throws off
his wet and reeking flannels, and takes his shower with the greatest
unconcern, knowing that the friction which is afterwards applied will
restore the proper heat of the body after the sudden shock of the
shower has closed the pores of the skin for the time and relieved him
of all his previous fatigue. The rubbing restores the circulation of
the small blood-vessels of the skin, and so strong and fresh do the
pedestrians feel after this treatment that, when dressed, they all
declare they feel no remains of their previous fatigue. Nothing but
good has accrued from the treatment, and those who have undergone a
trial of the sweat and shower swear by the method.

The Turkish bath is only fit to reduce an infirm and obese man to
something like weight to begin work, and can only be looked upon as a
luxury, and not an adjunct to training, besides being far from healthy.
The hot bath is of course required when a man is stiff and tired all
over from cold or overfatigue, when they will modify the symptoms; but,
as they are so simple and so easily obtainable, they require no further
comment. A vapor bath is of considerable use in assisting a healthy
and fat man to reduce his weight; but after sweating he must be rubbed
with a wet cloth, or have a shower; he should then put on a set or two
of flannels, and do at least an hour of severe work, during which time
the reducing process will be going on in perfection. On arriving home
the wet towel should be applied, or a sponging with cold water; after a
good rub, and fresh clothing being donned, it will be found there has
been a good morning’s work accomplished.

The vapor bath can be made in a very home-spun and simple manner, but
equally efficacious with those attached to baths of large name, etc.
A washing or any other flat tub, a third filled with very hot water,
in which is placed a stool, will do for the ground-work of the vapor.
Take your seat on the stool, the feet of course outside the tub, and be
well covered with blankets round the neck, and round the tub, leaving
an opening which can be closed at leisure. Having heated two or three
large bricks to a red heat, put one into the water, and when cooled
another, until the bath has been prolonged a sufficient time. This is a
primitive but a very useful bath to put into use to relieve a bad cold,
or for any other service required at a short notice.



THIRST, MEDICINE, ETC.


The chief punishment when a man is in the course of training requisite
to reduce his bulk is thirst, which is in most cases of rather a
severe character. The same amount of pluck which enables the man to go
through his work and adhere to other rules must be here called into
requisition. The best plan is to gargle the mouth, but not swallow
any; but the application of cold water will be found to afford the
greatest relief--washing the hands, wrists, and face freely will give
relief; a little pebble kept in the mouth is a very good thing, but
faithfully avoid all nostrums such as cream of tartar, tartaric acid,
etc., when suffering from thirst, as they only gratify the palate
without relieving the craving for liquid immediately the acid taste has
passed, when the before troublesome feeling becomes much augmented.
Should relief, however, become imperative, a small portion of powdered
nitre will be followed by an immediate flow of saliva, which will give
instant but unfortunately only partial ease. There, however, is no
increase of the symptoms from the application of the remedy, which will
assist the action of the kidneys, and allay the accompanying fever of
the system. The chief cure is to wait until the next meal-time, when
the previous abstinence from stolen enjoyment will be rewarded by an
approving conscience in having resisted a severe temptation. The thirst
will leave a man when he leaves off sweating.



WEIGHT AS PROPORTIONAL TO HEIGHT.


  HEIGHT.              WEIGHT.

  5ft. 1in. should be 120 pounds.
  5ft. 2in.           126   “
  5ft. 3in.           133   “
  5ft. 4in.           136   “
  5ft. 5in.           142   “
  5ft. 6in.           145   “
  5ft. 7in.           148   “
  5ft. 8in.           155   “
  5ft. 9in.           162   “
  5ft. 10in.          169   “
  5ft. 11in.          174   “
  6ft. ----           178   “

The above table was formed by Dr. Hutchingson, and was taken from a
mean average of 2,648 healthy men. By this scale life insurances are
regulated in England. The Doctor’s calculations were made upon the
volume of air passing in and out of the lungs, and this was his guide
as to how far the various organs of the body were in health, and the
lungs in particular.



WEIGHT WHEN IN CONDITION FOR ATHLETIC FEATS.


  HEIGHT.            WEIGHT.

  5ft. 1in.  From 106 to 111 pounds.
  5ft. 2in.       112 “  115   “
  5ft. 3in.       117 “  118   “
  5ft. 4in.       119 “  125   “
  5ft. 5in.       125 “  129   “
  5ft. 6in.       128 “  134   “
  5ft. 7in.       133 “  140   “
  5ft. 8in.       140 “  147   “
  5ft. 9in.       148 “  154   “
  5ft. 10in.      155 “  163   “
  5ft. 11in.      165 “  174   “
  6ft. ----       175 “  186   “

The proper measurement according to the height and weight:

MEASUREMENTS.

  Height                   5 feet.
  Weight                 103 pounds.
  Neck                    12 inches.
  Chest (uninflated)      32½   “
  Wrist                    5½   “
  Ankle                    7⅔   “

ALLOWANCES.

The following allowances should be made where the dimensions are found
to be greater than shown in the preceding table:

  For every inch in height          1¾ pounds.
  For every inch around neck         ¾   “
  For every inch around chest       1    “
  For every ⅛ inch around wrist      ½   “
  For every ⅛ inch around ankle     1    “



BANTING ON CORPULENCY.


The system of reducing corpulency as adopted by William Banting, an
old retired merchant of London, England, in 1863-4, by the advice and
direction of Doctor William Harvey, of Soho square, in that city,
though not by any means admissible or advisable for training purposes,
we give the substance for the benefit of any one who feels interested.
At the time Mr. Banting commenced his reducing system he was sixty-six
years of age, weighed 202 pounds, standing only 5ft. 5in. in height,
and, having spent seven years in consultation with the greatest medical
lights of England for relief of his affliction, but in vain. He had
followed an active business life of fifty years, and attributed his
obesity not to neglect of necessary bodily activity nor from excessive
eating, drinking, or self-indulgence of any kind, except that he
partook of simple aliments of bread, milk, butter, beer, sugar, and
potatoes more freely than his aged nature required, and hence he
believes the generation of the parasite, detrimental to comfort, if
not really to health. He tried both rowing before breakfast for two
hours and other bodily exercises; also sea air and bathing in various
localities; took gallons of physic and liqure potassae, rode much on
horseback, and tried the waters and climate of various springs in
England, as well as Turkish and vapor baths, shampooing, etc. Banting
could not stoop to tie his shoe, had to walk backwards down stairs
to save the jar of increased weight upon the ankle and knee-joints,
puffed and blowed at every exertion, particularly going up stairs,
suffered from an umbilical rupture, had to wear a truss as well as
knee bandages, his sight failed and hearing became impaired, he had
indigestion, heartburn, palpitation of the heart, and could not attend
to the little offices which humanity required without considerable pain
and difficulty, which only the corpulent man can understand.

Upon consulting Dr. Harvey, previously alluded to, he was told that
all his ailments were caused principally by corpulence, and prescribed
a certain diet, no medicine beyond a morning cordial as a corrective,
with immense effect and advantage both to his hearing and the decrease
of his corpulence. The items from which he was advised to abstain as
much as possible were bread, butter, milk, sugar, parsnips, beet root,
turnips, carrots, champagne, port, beer and potatoes, on account of
their containing starch or saccharine matter, tending to create fat;
smoking was not prohibited. This is the diet prescribed by Doctor
Harvey: for breakfast, four or five ounces of beef, mutton, kidneys,
broiled fish, bacon, or cold meat of any kind except pork, owing to its
fattening character; or veal, on account of its indigestible quality;
a large cup of tea (without milk or sugar), a little biscuit, or one
ounce of dry toast; for dinner, five or six ounces of any fish except
salmon, herrings and eels (owing to their oily nature); any meat
except pork or veal; any vegetable except potato, parsnips, beet root,
turnips or carrots; one ounce of dry toast, fruit out of a pudding,
any kind of poultry or game, and two or three glasses of good claret,
sherry, or madeira; for tea, two or three ounces of fruit, a rusk or
two, and a cup of tea without milk or sugar; for supper, three or four
ounces of meat, or fish, similar to dinner, with a glass or two of
claret--night-cap, if required, a tumbler of grog (gin, whiskey, or
brandy, without sugar) or a glass or two of claret or sherry. Eggs, if
not hard boiled, are unexceptionable; also cheese, if sparingly used,
and plain boiled rice.

[Illustration: T. H. ARMSTRONG, JR.,

Who walked one mile in 6 min. 44½ sec., New York City.]

[Illustration: EDWARD C. HOLSKE,
the Celebrated Young American Walker.]

On rising in the morning, between six and seven, Banting took a
tablespoonful of a special corrective cordial, not aperient, and
partook of solids and liquids as follows: about five or six ounces
solid and eight of liquid for breakfast; eight ounces of solid and
eight ounces of liquid for dinner; three ounces of solid and eight
of liquid for tea; four ounces of solid and six ounces of liquid for
supper and the grog afterwards. He took his meals as follows: breakfast
between eight and nine; dinner between one and two; tea between five
and six; supper at nine. His former dietary table was bread and milk
for breakfast, or a pint of tea with plenty of milk and sugar, and
buttered toast; meat, beer, much bread, and pastry for dinner; the tea
similar to that of breakfast, and generally a fruit tart or bread and
milk for supper.



THE REDUCING SCALE.


Under the new dietary, Banting lost flesh according to the following
scale:

  On  7th September it was 200 pounds, having lost 2 pounds.
  “  27th September   “    197    “      “      “  3 more.
  “  19th October     “    193    “      “      “  4   “
  “   9th November    “    190    “      “      “  3   “
  “    3d December    “    187    “      “      “  3   “
  “  24th December    “    184    “      “      “  3   “
  “  14th January     “    182    “      “      “  2   “
  “   4th February    “    180    “      “      “  2   “
  “  25th February    “    178    “      “      “  2   “
  “  18th March       “    176    “      “      “  2   “
  “   8th April       “    173    “      “      “  3   “
  “  29th April       “    170    “      “      “  3   “
  “  20th May         “    164    “      “      “  3   “
  “  10th June        “    164    “      “      “  3   “
  “   1st July        “    161    “      “      “  3   “
  “   22d July        “    159    “      “      “  2   “
  “  12th August      “    157    “      “      “  2   “
  “  26th August      “    156    “      “      “  1   “
  “  12th September   “    156    “      “      “  0   “
                                                  --
                 Total loss of weight             46 pounds.

His girth during that time was reduced round the waist 12¼ inches;
these desiderati were attained by the most easy and comfortable means,
with but little medicine, and almost entirely by a system of diet. At
the end of one year Banting asserts that he was restored in health,
both bodily and mentally, had more muscular vigor, ate and drank with a
good appetite, and slept well; all symptoms of acidity, indigestion and
heartburn vanished; he left off using boot-hooks and other such aids,
which were before indispensable; he lost all feeling of occasional
faintness; left off knee-bandages, which he had worn for twenty years,
and gave up a truss almost entirely.

Corpulence, says Banting, though giving no actual pain, must naturally
press with undue violence upon the bodily viscera, driving one part
upon another, and stopping the free action of all.

Saccharine matter is the great moving cause of fatty corpulence,
producing increased weight and a large amount of flatulence; stouty
matter is not so troublesome as saccharine, which largely increased
acidity as well as fat. Pure genuine bread may be the staff of life, as
it is termed; it is so, particularly in youth, but it is decidedly more
wholesome in advanced life when it is thoroughly toasted. Any starchy
or saccharine matter tends to the disease of corpulence in advanced
life, whether it be swallowed in that form or generated in the stomach;
that all things tending to these elements should be avoided, of course
always under sound medical authority. Vegetables, and ripe or stewed
fruit, are generally ample aperients. The dietary system only attacks
the superfluous deposit of fat, and purges the blood, rendering it
more pure and healthy, strengthens the muscles and bodily viscera, and
sweetens life, if it does not prolong it.



RECORD OF FAST PERFORMANCES

UP TO JANUARY, 1877.

CONDENSED FROM NEW YORK CLIPPER ALMANAC.


ROWING.

 2 miles--13min. 21½ sec., single-scull, turn, James Riley--Aug. 9,
 1876.

 3 miles--15min. 37¼ sec., four oars, straight, Argonauta R. A.--Sept.
 8, 1875.

 3 miles--16min. 32⅘sec., six-oars, straight, Amherst University
 crew--best college time--July 24, 1872.

 3 miles--17min. 40½sec., six-oars, turn, Ward Bros. and Jared
 Raymond--July 22, 1868.

 3 miles--17min. 58sec., four-oars, turn, Halifax (N. S.) Fisherman
 crew--Sept. 4, 1876.

 3 miles--20min. 28sec., pair-oar, turn, Geo. Faulkner, P.
 Reagan--Sept. 5, 1876.

 3 miles--21min. 9½sec., single-scull, turn, Edward Hanlon- Sept. 6,
 1876.

 4 miles--24 min. 40sec., four-oars, turn, Ward Brothers--Sept. 11,
 1871.

 4 miles--28min. 30sec., single-scull, turn, Wallace Ross--Oct. 19,
 1876.

 4⅜ miles (about)--23min. 4sec., single-scull, straight, Geo.
 Tarryer--Oct. 19, 1876.

 5 miles--30min. 44¾sec., four-oars, turn, Biglin Bros, and Denny
 Leary--Sept. 10, 1860.

 5 miles--32min. 1sec., pair-oar, turn, John and Barney Biglin--May 20,
 1872.

 5 miles--35min. 10sec., single-scull, turn, for champion belt, Joshua
 Ward--Oct. 11, 1859.

 6 miles--39min. 20⅗sec., four-oars, turn, Paris crew--Aug. 23, 1871.


PEDESTRIANISM.--RUNNING.

 100 yards--9¼sec., George Seward--Sept. 30, 1844.

 150 yards--15sec., C. Westhall--Feb. 4, 1851; and George Forbes--Dec.
 20, 1869.

 200 yards--19½sec., G. Seward--March 22, 1847.

 300 yards--31½sec., J. Nuttall--April 27, 1863; and D. Wight--Aug. 5,
 1876.

 440 yards--48¼sec., R. Buttery--Oct. 4, 1873.

 600 yards--1min. 13sec., James Nuttall--Feb. 20, 1864.

 880 yards--1min. 53½sec., Frank Hewitt--Sept., 1871.

 1,320 yards--3min. 7sec., W. Richards--June 30, 1866.

 1 mile--4min. 17¼sec., W. Richards and W. Lang, level ground, dead
 heat--Aug 19, 1865; in 4min. 2sec., part down hill, W. Lang; in 4min.,
 four starts, C. Westhall.

 2 miles--9min. 11½sec., W. Lang--Aug. 1, 1863.

 3 miles--14min. 36sec., J. White--May 11, 1863.

 5 miles--24min. 40sec., J. White, as above.

 6 miles--29min. 50sec., J. White, as above.

 10 miles--51min. 45sec., John Lovett--Oct. 11, 1852.

 12 miles, less 100 yards--1h. 2min. 2½sec., W. Lang--April 3, 1863.

 20 miles--1h. 58min. 18sec., R. Manks--Dec. 16, 1851.

 50 miles--6h. 17min., G. Martin--Sept. 22, 1863.


WALKING.

 1 mile--6min. 23sec., Wm. Perkins--June 1, 1875.

 2 miles--13min. 30sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 3 miles--20min. 27sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 4 miles--28min. 59sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 5 miles--36min. 32sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 6 miles--44min. 24sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 7 miles--51min. 51sec., W. Perkins, as above.

 8 miles--58min. 28sec., W. Perkins, Brighton, Eng., July 29, 1876.

 9 miles--1h. 9min. 41sec., G. Davison, London--Dec. 6, 1869.

 10 miles--1h. 17min. 33sec., G. Davison, as above.

 20 miles--2h. 42min. 48sec., G Davison, as above.

 21 miles--2h. 53min. 34sec., G. Davison, as above.

 25 miles--3h. 42min. 16sec., J. Smith--Nov. 10, 1851.

 40 miles--6h. 33min. 1sec., G. Ide--Oct. 16, 1876.

 50 miles--8h. 19min. 55sec., G. Ide, as above.

 60 miles--10h. 46min. 2sec., Daniel O’Leary--Oct. 16, 1875.

 100 miles--18h. 51min. 35sec., W. Vaughan--May 9, 1876.

 120 miles, 1,560 yards--in 24h., P. Crossland--Sept. 12, 1876.

 1,000 miles in 1,000 consecutive hours--one single mile in each single
 hour, Captain Barclay--June 1 to July 12, inclusive, 1809.

 15 miles 508 yards walked in 2 hours--George Davison--Dec. 6, 1869.


PRIZE RING.

 Longest Battle on Record--6h. 15m., James Kelly and Jonathan
 Smith--Australia, Nov., 1855.

 Longest Battle in England--6h. 3m., Mike Madden and Bill Hayes--July
 17, 1849.

 Longest Battle in America--4h. 20m., J. Fitzparick and James O’Neil,
 Berwick, Maine--Dec. 4, 1860.


JUMPING.

 29ft., 7in., by John Howard, running wide jump, taking off from
 a block of wood, 1ft. wide, 2ft. long, 3in. thick, and elevated
 4in.--May 8, 1854.

 13ft. 7in.--Joseph Greaves, standing-wide jump--Sept. 18, 1875.

 6ft. 2½in.--M. J. Brooks (Oxford University), running high jump--April
 7, 1876.

 47ft. 7in.--R. Knox, running hop, step and jump--August, 1870.

 40ft. 2in.--D. Anderson, standing hop, step and jump--July 24, 1865.

 11ft. 1in.--High pole jump, J. E. Woodburn--July 21, 1876.


MISCELLANEOUS.

 Regulation base-ball thrown 133yds. 1ft. 7½in. by John Hatfield--Oct.
 15, 1872.

 R. A. Pennell put up a dumbbell weighing 201¼℔--Jan. 31, 1874.

 Mr. Pennock put up a 10℔ dumb-bell 8,431 times in 4h. 34m.--Dec. 13,
 1870.

 1,000 yards swam by E. T. Jones in 15min. 30sec.--Sept. 7, 1874.

 Mr. Forbes threw a cricket-ball 132 yards, slightly aided by the
 wind--Oxford, Eng., March, 1876.

 LIFTING.--Hand: 1,250℔, health-lift machine, John M. Cannon--Jan. 16,
 1875; 1,210℔, R. A. Pennell--Nov. 8. 1873. The athletes hereinafter
 named are credited with having lifted the following weights; but these
 feats are not properly attested. With harness: W. B. Curtis, New
 York, 3,300℔; Ambrose A. Butts, Auburn, O., 2,737¾℔; John J. Lucas,
 Belleville, Ill., 2,700℔--Oct. 26, 1875; Dr. G. W. Winship, Boston,
 Mass, 2,600℔. Hand lift--W. B. Curtis, 1,230℔; G. W. Winship, 1,200℔.


VAN FLEET, PRINTER, 88 & 90 CENTRE STREET, NEW YORK.



COMPLIMENTARY PRESS NOTICES

ABOUT

Health, Strength and Muscle.


From a number of very lengthy and elaborate criticisms of the press in
various sections of the United States we give the following extracts:

“Here we have in condensed form a vast amount of valuable information
upon a subject which should deeply interest everybody, the substance
of numerous other foreign and domestic publications on like subjects
mingling with impressions and advice born of the author’s observation
and practical experience. A treatise on the muscular system, tables
showing the correct measurements of noted athletes and proportions of a
perfect human figure, with remarkable feats of strength, etc., are also
given. It is written in language clear to the understanding, and is a
work which we can cheerfully recommend all to read, confident that no
one can peruse it without profit to themselves.”--NEW YORK CLIPPER.

“The many interesting facts and hints contained in this ably compiled
work will immensely benefit everyone, it giving the cream of the best
authorities upon everything concerned in its title.”--PHILADELPHIA
SUNDAY MERCURY.

“A compendium of useful information.”--N. Y. SUN.

“Should be in the hands of all our athletes.”--YONKERS (N. Y.) GAZETTE.

“Richly deserving of perusal. The work is not intended for professional
athletes exclusively, but for all who desire to enjoy perfect physical
health, which can only be acquired and retained by a proper regard for
the laws of nature. Mr. James thoroughly understands the subjects of
which he writes, and presents them in a straightforward, attractive
manner. The book deserves to be widely read, and its teachings, if
followed, will do more than doctors’ prescriptions toward preserving
health.”--NEW YORK HERALD.

“It is filled with useful hints and practical suggestions.”--UTICA (N.
Y.) OBSERVER.

“Of incalculable benefit to the health of many who are suffering from a
lack of physical training.”--WASHINGTON SUNDAY HERALD.

“Mr. James is authority in matters which this volume treats upon.
He has here given a plain, well-arranged system as to the manner of
acquiring Health, Strength and Muscle.”--BOSTON SATURDAY EVENING
EXPRESS.

“A complete dissertation on the treatment of free livers and sedentary
people in matters of air, clothing, food, stimulants, and the best
modes of exercise for all ages.”--ST. LOUIS (MO.) HERALD.


This Book will be sent prepaid by Mail on receipt of Fifty Cents.

ADDRESS

ED. JAMES, Publisher, 88 & 90 Centre St., N. Y.



WHAT THE PAPERS SAY

ABOUT

“PRACTICAL TRAINING,” AND “MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES.”


Below will be found a few from the many encomiums of the New York press
on the excellence of these works:


NEW YORK HERALD.

“TREATISE ON PRACTICAL TRAINING.”--At a season of the year when most
needed EDWIN JAMES’ “Treatise on Practical Training” has appeared.
This neatly gotten-up book is full of valuable hints to athletes of
whatever kind and character, having been compiled with rare judgment,
which long years of laborious work in the sporting world has given its
author. The unpretentious volume, among other things, contains useful
chapters on Training for Rowing, Boxing, Wrestling, and Pedestrianism,
in addition to instructions for High and Broad Jumping, Fair Walking,
Hammer-throwing, and in fact everything else useful to the professional
or amateur athlete.


NEW YORK CLIPPER.

“TREATISE ON PRACTICAL TRAINING.”--A new friend, and a most welcome one
to all devoted to the pursuit of athletic exercises, has just made its
appearance in the form of a neatly gotten-up book bearing the above
title. It has been compiled with care and good judgment by ED. JAMES.
In addition to the useful chapters on Training for Pedestrianism,
Rowing, Boxing, Wrestling, etc., the book contains instructions in
regard to practice for High and Broad Jumping, Running, Fair Walking,
Hammer-throwing, Hurdling, and Putting the Stone, and tells what to
do in case of accident, tender feet and hands, boils, etc. “Banting’s
System of Reducing Corpulency,” a Table of Proportional Measurements
according to Height and Weight, and Records of Best Performances are
also included.


NEW YORK SUN.

MR. ED. JAMES has just published an edition of his “Practical Training
for Running, Walking, Rowing, and Wrestling,” embracing “Banting’s
System of Reducing Corpulency.” It is an excellent work.


NEW YORK SPIRIT OF THE TIMES.

“TREATISE ON PRACTICAL TRAINING.”--The well-known sporting author, ED.
JAMES, has just published a “Treatise on Practical Training,” which
gives an immense amount of condensed practical information, valuable
to lovers of athletics and all kinds of sports, besides containing
important Tables of Statistics, revised up to January, 1877.


NEW YORK SUNDAY DISPATCH.

“TREATISE ON PRACTICAL TRAINING.”--The celebrated sporting writer, MR.
ED. JAMES, has just issued a “Treatise on Practical Training,” which we
can confidently recommend to every amateur and professional athlete in
the land. It contains minute instructions as to the method of training
for races, walking-matches, wrestling, pugilism, jumping, stone and
hammer throwing, and sports of every kind, beside a fund of useful
record matter concerning time, weight, conditions, etc.


NEW YORK CLIPPER.

“MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES.”--This is the title of a work issued by
MR. ED. JAMES. It contains rules regulating Trap-shooting, Cocking
Contests, Boat-racing, Prize Ring, Wrestling (different styles),
Running, Walking, Jumping, Bagatelle, Lacrosse, Quoits, Rifle and
Pistol Shooting, Archery, Shuffleboard, Shinny, Rackets, Handball,
Swimming, Pin-pool, Fifteen-ball Pool, Skittles, Foot-ball,
Knurr-and-spell, Scottish Games, Ten Pins, Skating, Curling,
Fly-casting, Polo, etc. Heretofore where rules were in existence they
could be procured only through private sources, or separately; but we
now have them in such shape as will meet all demands. In many instances
there were no rules, but the publisher has, by consultation with the
leading exponents of the several games, combined with his own intimate
knowledge of sporting matters, been enabled to supply such wants in
a satisfactory manner. The volume is illustrated with engravings
representing various games. The work should command a steady sale.


TURF, FIELD AND FARM.

“MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES.”--A very complete work, comprising the
latest and best authenticated revised rules governing all the various
games played and practiced here and elsewhere, has been published by
ED. JAMES, a gentleman long and favorably known to sportsmen. In it
we find rules for Trap-shooting, Canine, Ratting, Badger-baiting,
Cock-fighting, the Prize Ring, Wrestling, Running, Jumping, Walking,
Knurr-and-spell, Lacrosse, Boating, Bagatelle, Archery, Rifle and
Pistol Shooting, Billiards, Scottish Games, Skating, Curling, Polo,
etc., and about everything else upon which it may be desirable to have
information at hand to decide disputed questions.



SPECIAL NOTICE.


Patrons ordering goods will please be particular in giving explicit
directions where they are to be sent, with name of town, county and
State. The safest way to send money is by Post-office Order, Registered
Letter or Draft. A deposit required on all orders exceeding $5 in
value, and, for less amount, cash should accompany order. Books and
Prints sent by mail, post-paid, unless otherwise desired. Boxing
Gloves, Indian Clubs and all bulky goods, sent by express. When goods
are sent C. O. D., the parties ordering must pay the charges on the
same, and for returning money. In the Territories, where express
charges are very heavy, or where there is no express communication,
Gloves, etc., can be sent by mail, at the rate of one cent per ounce,
which has to be prepaid. Live Stock cannot be sent C. O. D., as the
express companies will not forward on such conditions. No extra charge
for boxing and packing. All letters of enquiry will be cheerfully and
promptly answered on receipt of a stamped envelope. No merchandise
exceeding 4℔ in weight or 18 inches in length can be sent per mail.


REFERENCES:

  FRANK QUEEN, ESQ.,
    Ed. and Prop. “New York Clipper.”

  COL. S. D. BRUCE,
    Prop. “Turf, Field and Farm.”

  H. F. WILKINSON, ESQ.,
    Editor “Field,” London, England.

  ---- T. GRIFFITH, ESQ.,
    Ed. “Bell’s Life,” London, England.

  GEO. WILKES, ESQ.,
    Ed. and Prop. “Spirit of the Times.”

  GEO. BARTHOLOMEW, ESQ.,
    Man. Editor “New York News.”

  E. J. DORLING, ESQ.,
    Prop. “Sporting Life,” London, Eng.

  WM. BLAKIE, ESQ.,
    Ex-stroke Harvard U. B. C.


👉 Amounts of less than one dollar may be forwarded in one or two cent
postage stamps. A silver half-dollar requires an EXTRA three cent
stamp. No goods exchanged. Twenty-five per cent. deposit required on
all C. O. D. orders when the parties are unknown to us.

Respectfully,

[Illustration: _Ed. James_.]

CLIPPER BUILDING, 88 and 90 CENTRE ST., N. Y.



[_In this line we challenge the world to produce a superior article to
ours at the same price._]


BOXING GLOVES.

[Illustration]

_Per set._

 A.--Buckskin, stuffed with hair,

  $2 50

 B.--Buckskin, stuffed with hair, very substantial,

  3 50

 C.--Extra Buckskin, stuffed with curled hair

  4 00

 D.--Extra fine soft Buckskin, bound with fancy colored leather, with
 strings to tighten, stuffed with curled hair

  5 00

 E.--Extra fine and soft Buckskin, white kid palms, stuffed with the
 best selected curled hair, with strings to tighten, and bound with
 fancy colored leather

  5 50

 F.--“SOUNDERS,” white kid leather, stuffed with the best selected
 curled hair, bound with fancy colored leather and strings to tighten
 the wrists

  6 00


👉 White French Kid Gloves, made of very best materials, style and
finish, with gauntlets, very tastefully trimmed with fancy colored
leather, per set, $10.


INDIAN CLUBS.

[Illustration]

   3 lb. each, per pr   2 50
   4 lb.  “      “      2 50
   5 lb.  “      “      3 00
   6 lb.  “      “      3 00
   7 lb.  “      “      3 50
   8 lb.  “      “      3 50
  10 lb. “       “      4 50
  12 lb. “       “      5 50


DUMB BELLS.

Iron, from 1 lb. to 100 lbs. each, per lb., 10cts.; Maple Wood, per lb.
each, 25cts.; Lignumvitæ, per lb. each, 50cts.; Rosewood, per lb. each,
75cts.


PATENT STRIKING BAG,

For Pugilists and Athletes of Every Description.

This bag is intended to strengthen the arms, wrists, shoulders, back,
loins, and particularly the muscles of the abdomen, and will teach the
striker how to deal a blow.

  No. 4, 20 lbs., covered with English canvas   $12 00
  No. 5, 25 lbs., covered with English canvas    15 00
  No. 1, 20 lbs., covered with buff leather      20 00


Association RUBBER FOOTBALL.

[Illustration]

  1. 20in.   $1 50
  2. 22in.    2 00
  3. 24in.    2 50
  4. 26in.    2 75
  5. 28in.    3
  6. 30in.    3 75


QUOITS.

[Illustration]

NICELY MODELED AND JAPANNED.

_Per set of 4._

  2 lbs. ea.  $1 25
  3   do.      1 50
  4   do.      1 75
  5   do.      2 00
  6   do.      2 25

Iron pins, pair 50


Rapiers, Foils, Single-sticks, Masks, Gloves, Etc.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

  English Haute Rapiers                   per pair $6 00
  Iron-mounted Foils                          “     2 50
  Brass-mounted Foils                         “     3 00
  Brass-mounted Silinger blade, curved
    handle wound with fancy leather                $4 50
  Wire Masks                              per pair $3 50
  Wire Masks, with ear protectors                   4 50
  Wire Masks, with ear and forehead
    protectors                                      5 50
  Wicket-handle Fencing Sticks                      2 25
  Fencing Gloves                                    2 00
  Fencing Gauntlets                                 3 50
  Plastrons for protecting the chest                3 00



THE NEW PATENT SEAMLESS BOXING GLOVES

[Illustration]

Without fingers or thumbs, being held on firmly by grasping a leather
strip inside the glove (see cut). No ripping or bursting or falling off
the hands; they are seamless and fit to perfection. The most durable
article ever made, and the only glove which brings the art of boxing to
as near the real thing as possible.

  Manufactured of best French white kid, with ventilators at the sides,
    per set of four gloves       $6 00
  Superior buckskin, per set      4 50

In ordering this glove please specify that you wish THE PATENT SEAMLESS
GLOVES, in order not to cause any mistakes.

ED. JAMES has the sole agency for New York State, and the Patent
Seamless Glove can only be obtained by sending to headquarters.


B. B. CATCHER’S MASKS AND CATCHER’S GLOVES.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

The gloves are made of Indian tanned buckskin, with padded palms, half
fingers, and are as soft and pliable to the hands as kid. Price per
pair, $2.

The Catcher’s Masks are made of wire, and cushioned with soft leather,
filled with the best curled hair. They are light and easy to adjust.
Price, each, $3.


BATTLEDORES AND SHUTTLECOCKS.

[Illustration]

  BATTLEDORES,
  from $1.25 to $3.00 per pair.

  SHUTTLECOCKS,
  from 30 cents to $1.00 per pair.


Address ED. JAMES, Clipper Building, 88 and 90 Centre st., N. Y.



EUREKA ROWING MACHINE,

[Illustration]

This machine gives an excellent and exact representation of rowing.
It has the sliding-seat movement, and its propelling action is with
oars (as in a boat). It is simple in construction and durable, and it
packs so small that it can be stowed away in almost any cupboard or
closet, and can be put up and worked in any ordinary-sized bed room.
Total weight, 27℔. A beginner can learn on it to be a good sculler, as
well as increase his muscular and physical development. By shifting the
chain links attached to the lever it can be adapted to the strength
of any person, or used and worked by a child 12 years of age. Price,
complete and ready for use, $10.


NEW ATHLETIC SUITS.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

  Seamless Shirt, pink or white,  $1 00
  Knee Tights, pink or white,     $1 00
  With fancy trimming, each       $1 25
  Flannel Caps, from 75c. to      $2 00

In ordering state width across chest, waist, and size of cap worn.


RUNNING AND WALKING SHOES.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

  American spikes, Running Shoes, per pair   $3 50
  English imported spiked Running Shoes      $6 00
  Balmoral canvas Walking Shoes,             $3 50


AMERICAN PEDOMETER,

[Illustration]

Easily adjusted to any length of step from 23 to 35 inches, measures
accurately, is the size of an ordinary watch, in a nickel-plated
case, and can be carried in the vest pocket. It will measure the
exact distance you walk. It is a true indicator of the amount of
exercise taken in and out of doors. Invalids will find it invaluable
in regulating their exercise. Full directions, together with ready
reference table, accompanies each one.

Price, $5 00.


Address ED. JAMES, Clipper Building, 88 and 99 Centre st., N. Y.



[Illustration: FISHING TACKLE]


REELS.

   60yds., brass, English make, stop, each                       $2 50
   80yds., brass, English make, click, each                       4 00
  150yds., German silver, American, balance handle                3 00
  300yds., Ger. silver, steel, pivot and patent cap, balance
     handle                                                      13 00


BASKETS.

  French or English make, for trout, from   $1 50 to 4 00
  Square Fish Baskets, from                  2 50 to 5 00


RODS.

  Trout Rods, 4 pieces, full mounted reel bands and best cap,
    fine finish                                                   5 00
  Trunk Rods, 6 pieces, full mounted, hollow but solid reel
    plates, each joint 2ft. each                                 13 00
  Fly Rods, 4 pieces, full mounted, hollow but extra tip,
    each                                                         10 00
  Brass Rods, 4 pieces, general rods, hollow butt and swelled
    ferrules, extra tip, each                                    13 00
  Bamboo Rods, 4 pieces, reel bands and guises                    5 00


SEINES OR NETS.

  Crab Net, ring, and jointed handle  1 50
  Minnow Nets, linen, 22 inch, each   1 50
  Landing Nets, linen, each           2 00

Also Hooks, Eagle Claws, Lines, Floats, Fly Books, Baits, Sinkers, etc.


FIREMEN’S GOODS.

[Illustration]

HATS AND CAPS.--Enameled leather and front Hats, each $3; four cone
Hats, each $6.50; eight cone Hats, each $7; enameled leather Helmet
Caps, per doz., $18; New York Regulation Cap, cloth, very fine, per
doz., $21.

BELTS.--Patent leather, 10 different styles, per doz., from $9 to $24.

SHIRTS.--Firemen’s Service Shirts, with figure or monogram, best
flannel, per doz., $29.

TRUMPETS.--Duty, Nickle plated, 20 inch, each $7; Parade, chased and
plated, 20 inch, each $21.

MISCELLANEOUS.--Buttons, with F. D. on, per doz., large $1.25, small
75c. Badges, with fine design and number and name of company, per doz.,
$10. Silk, Cord and Tassels, for trumpets, each $1.50.


Address ED. JAMES, Clipper Building, 88 and 90 Centre st., N. Y.



[Illustration: RIFLE AIR PISTOL]

As a parlor game for ladies and gentlemen, it has not an equal.

It has not only the accuracy and distance requisite for the common
pistol target practice, but is without the expense of ammunition,
and also free from the annoyance of danger, smoke, smell, &c., that
accompany the use of firearms.

Each Rifle is put up in a neat box, with three darts and two targets.
Price of Rifle, complete, $5. Darts, per dozen, $1. Targets, postage
prepaid, 25 cents per dozen.


W. CLARK’S PATENT HORSE CLIPPER.

[Illustration]

This instrument will clip a horse in two hours, and when clipped the
coat is equal to a natural Summer coat. Anyone can use it. Over 200
horses have been clipped by one single machine, without sharpening.
Price $=5=. The Dexter Horse Clipper. Price $8. Addler’s Patent
Clipping Machines, $8.50, $10.50, $12.50.


SAWS, SPURS AND MUFFS.

[Illustration]

Muffs for Sparring Cocks, per set of four. $1.50. Steel
Spurs.--Regulation, per pair, $5; Drop Socket, per pair, $6.50; Thimble
Heels, per pair, $6.50; 3 Cornered, or Bayonet Blade, per pair, $6.50;
Sword Blade, per pair, $6.50. In ordering spurs, it is necessary to
name the length of blade and style required. Directions for Measuring
Spurs.--The dotted line indicates the correct way of measuring. The
socket does not count in measurement. Saws for sawing off the heels,
finest quality, $2.50 without the knife; knife included, $3.50.


TEN PINS AND BALLS.

[Illustration]

  4½ inch ball         $2 00
  5 inch ball           2 50
  5½ inch ball          2 75
  6 inch ball           3 00
  6½ inch ball          3 25
  7 inch ball           4 00
  7¼ inch ball          4 25
  7½ inch ball          4 50
  8 inch ball           4 75
  8½ inch ball          5 00
  9 inch ball           5 25
  Pins, per set         6 00


SKITTLE PINS AND BALLS.

  7 ℔ cheese ball         $3 50
  11½℔ cheese ball         4 50
  14 ℔ cheese ball         5 50
  Skittle pins, per set   12 00


IVORY CROQUET BALLS.

  1⅛ inch, per set of eight      $5 50
  1¼ inch, per set of eight       6 50

TROTTING AND RUNNING HORSES.

SIZE 14×18. PRICE 30 CENTS EACH.

  Judge Fullerton.
  Huntress.
  Commodore Vanderbilt, with running mate, and Dexter.
  Tom Bowling.
  Dexter against Ethan Allen.
  Bassett against Longfellow.
  Goldsmith Maid against Lucy, 2:17.
  Dexter against Butler, to wagons.

See page 15 for other Horse Pictures, same size and price.


LIFTING MACHINES AND LUNG TESTERS.

Straight Gauge Lifter, $70. Dial Gauge, $90. The Lifter platform is
12×20 inches, while the gauges are silver plated. They lift from 1℔ to
800℔.

Straight Gauge Lung Tester, $45. Dial Gauge Lung Tester, $50. The Lung
Tester comes in a nicely painted box, with legs to screw on, 13 inches
square, 2½ feet high.


GENUINE DIAMONDS.

One Carat Stone, $100; Half Carat, $50; Quarter Carat, $25; an Eight
Carat, $15. These may be had either spiral or with pin. Rings, same
price as Shirt Pins. Diamond Clusters, from $50 to $150.


IMITATION DIAMONDS.

Pins or Spiral Studs, from $2 each, according to size. Rings, from $5
each. Clusters, from $5 each.



IRA PAINE’S PATENT SPRING TRAPS,
for throwing GLASS BALLS FOR SHOOTING.

[Illustration]

The best substitute ever invented. Safe, simple, durable; will not get
out of order.

  Price      Glass Balls, per 100, $3.
  Cartridges, ready for use, per 100, $5.


H. and T. TRAPS.

For Pigeon Shooting, $8.


HAND BALLS.

$3 per dozen, or 30 cents each.


BASE BALLS.

  Professional, red or white dead ball, each $1.50.
  Professional Star, each $1.
  Professional Practice, each 50 cents.


BALLOT BOXES.

  Black Walnut, with white and black balls complete, $5.
  Cheaper quality, complete, $3.
  Gavels from $1 to $4 each.


FRENCH POOL WHEELS.

 For Trotting Courses, Fair Grounds and Saloons, 27in. in diameter, the
 best kind manufactured $50.

 Same size but cheaper design, $30.


TARGETS.

 20 inch square in fancy colors, lead bulls-eye, wood face for darts,
 and fancy figure to raise when bull’s-eye is hit, $5.

 20 inch round target, with iron plate, bell and comic figure, $6.

 Rabbit Race Target, iron, nicely painted, Calling when bull’s-eye is
 hit. Size 10×24. Price $8.


PLAYING CARDS.

[Illustration]

 Dougherty’s Steamboat, assorted.

 Star and calico backs, per dozen, $2.25.

 Other patterns from $2.50 to $12 per dozen, according to the finish
 and quality.

 Triplicates, round cornered, per doz., $10.

 Goodall’s Superior English Linen Playing Cards, from $2.25 to $18
 according to finish and quality.


QUOITS.

 Nicely modelled Japanned Iron Quoits, per set of four, from $1 to
 $2.50.


CARD PHOTOGRAPHS

  of Actors,
  Actresses, Politicians
  and distinguished
  people.
  25 cents each, 6 for $1.

[Illustration]


LA CROSSE.

  Bats, per pair (hickory handle), $3.50.
  Balls, per dozen, $6.


RACKETS.

  English Rackets, $6.
  American Racket Bats, all wood, 50 cents.
  Racket Balls, per dozen, $2.


SPORTING SHOES.

[Illustration]

RUNNING PUMPS,

 American make, $3.50.

 English imported, $7.

 Welcher’s make, with steel spring shank, $8.

 Welcher’s Walking Shoe, with steel spring shank $8.

 Baseball Shoes, of heavy white canvas, with instep strap, $2.50.

 Boating and Gymnastic Slippers, of white canvas, $1.25.

 Racket Shoes, $8.


[Illustration: COLT’S 7-shot CARTRIDGE REVOLVER sent by mail (postage
paid) to any address, on receipt of $5.]


  REMINGTON
  RIFLE CANE
  $10.

  BOWIE KNIVES,
  $2.50 to $5.

  DARK LANTERNS,
  $2 and $2.50.


MISCELLANEOUS GOODS.


DOG COLLARS.

[Illustration]

 Enameled Leather, Ger. Silver Trimmings.

   9 to 13 inches, 50 cents.
  10 to 16 inches, 65 cents.
  14 to 20 inches, $1.00.
  18 to 24 inches, $1.50.

 Enameled, raised edges and centre, German Silver Trimmings.

   9 to 13 inches, 60 cents.
  10 to 16 inches, 75 cents.
  14 to 20 inches, $1.25.
  18 to 24 inches, $1.75.

BRASS COLLARS.

  2½ to 3½in. diam., 35c.
  2½ to 4½in.  do    50c.
  4 to 6in.    do (with ring), 75c.
  5½ to 7in.   do    do       $1.00

GERMAN SILVER COLLARS.

  2½ to 3½in. diam., 50c.
  2½ to 4½in.  do    60c.
  2½ to 3½in.  do (with ring), 60c.
  2½ to 4½in.  do     do       70c.
  4  to 6in.   do     do      $1.00
  5½ to 7in.   do     do      $1.50

Large Brass Chain Collar, from $2.


DOG LEADERS.

 Of steel or iron, platted or linked, 75 cents to $1.50 each.

 Of platted leather, with tassels, 50 cents to $1.00.


SPRING PAD LOCKS.

  ⅝ inch, Brass Spring,  30 cents.
  ¾ inch, Brass Spring,  35 cents.
  ⅝ inch, German Silver, 35 cents.
  ¾ inch, German Silver, 35 cents.


DOG MUZZLES.

Hand made, wire frame and leather neck strap, 50c. Leather, small,
closed or open snout, 50c. Wire, 40c.


NEW SAFETY ROLLER SKATE.

[Illustration]

The front link prevents the operators from falling forward and enables
them to spring from the toe, and can walk up a steep incline, turn
round and run down. The back check is to prevent falling backward; also
to enable the operator to stop at will in case of danger. Can be used
any place. Enables learners to use them without danger of falling and
hurting themselves, which is very common with other skates. The wheels
being of iron, are warranted. Price per pair, all sizes, $2.25.


LAWN TENNIS GOODS.

[Illustration]

Four English bats, four plain balls, two polished portable poles, in
sections to pack in box; one net, 26×5ft.; two guy ropes and runners,
four pegs, one mallet, book of rules, all complete, in box.

  Price, $15.


WHIPS.

[Illustration]

Cowhides, Dog and Jockey Whips, from 50 cents to $1.50.


POLICEMEN’S GOODS, Etc.

[Illustration]


POLICE CLUBS OR BILLETS.

22in. $1.75, 18in. $1.25, 14in. $1, 8in. 60c.


THE SECRET BALLOT BOX.

[Illustration]

Made of Black Walnut, Fine French Polished and Lined. Can be used
for Baseball, Cricket, Archery, Football, Boating, and all Sporting
Clubs; also for Masonic and Odd Fellow Lodges, Temperance and all other
societies. Size, 6½×5¼×6 inches. Each, $5.


DRINKING FLASKS.

[Illustration]

With metal screw tops, covered with roan, hog-skin morocco and Russia
leathers, in ¼, ½, ¾ and pints, from $1 to $4 each.


SMITH & WESSON’S NEW MODEL.

[Illustration]

With Patent Automatic Ejector; five shot; weight, 16oz.; calibre,
38-100; length of barrel, 3¼in. Blue, each, $12.50. Nickel-plated, $14.


ROUND POLICE OR DARK LANTERN.

[Illustration]

Made of tin and painted. 3in. bull’s-eye, $1.50. Flat Police or Dark
Lanterns, 2in. bull’s-eye, $1.25.


SHELL POWDER FLASKS.

[Illustration]

  8oz                $1.00
  10oz               $1.50
  12oz., extra fine, $3.00
  16oz., extra fine, $3.50


WHISTLE.

[Illustration]

Polished metal, with rattle, 30c.


NIPPERS AND CUFFS.

[Illustration]

Police Nippers, Chain, nickel-plated, per pair, $1.25. Police Nippers,
patent spring, the best made, $2.00. Handcuffs, polished, $4.00.
Handcuffs, polished, for conveying three prisoners together, $6.00.


THE BOGARDUS PATENT

Glass Ball Trap and Rough Balls.

[Illustration]

These Traps and Balls, patented by Bogardus, and used by him many
thousand times, prove to be just what is wanted by all sportsmen’s
clubs and amateurs. $6 each. The Patent Rough Ball.--The only ball that
will break sure when hit by shot. Every ball marked. Patent Rough Glass
Balls, $2 per hundred; Patent Filled Ball, $2 per hundred; Smooth Glass
Balls, $1.75 per hundred. The above balls are packed three hundred in a
barrel, ready for shipping.

Field, Cover and Trap Shooting, by Bogardus. Price, $2.50.


[Illustration]

SPOON OARS.

  Leathered and coppered, 7 to 7½ft., $3.50
      do          do      8 to 9ft.,     $3.75
      do          do          10ft.,     $4.00
  With buttons, right and left,
      9  to 10ft                         $6.00
  Plain spruce oars, per foot            15c.
  Plain ash oars, per foot               12c.


ROWLOCKS.

  Side plate, brass, per pair     $2.50
      do     galv. iron, pr pair  $1.25


CLEATS AND CHOCKS.

  Galv. cast iron, per lb          14c.
     do     do     chocks, per lb. 14c.


TACKLE BLOCKS.

 Galv. malleable iron, with wrought hooks, length 2½

  to 3½in. each     50c. to $1.50


RUDDER BRACES.

Galv. malleable iron, per doz.

  sets             $3.25 to $4.50


[Illustration]

Readers or trick cards, as used by magicians and others, puzzling
everybody not in the secret. Price, with full directions, per pack, $1.


WINNING DICE.

[Illustration]

Of best ivory, three high, three low and three square. Price per set of
nine, with directions for use, $5.


Strippers or Magic Euchre Cards.

[Illustration]

By means of which the most celebrated card tricks known can be
performed without practice. Per pack, $1.50.


TOMMY DOD TOPS.

[Illustration]

Will spin high or low, as desired. Of best ivory, with explanation of
the secret, $3.00.


[Illustration: THE NEW

AIR GUN.

$16]

Self charging, no crank, no lever, loads at breech by letting down
the barrel, shoots either darts or bullets; a profitable acquisition
to shooting galleries and saloon keepers. Weight, 6℔. Full length,
36 inches. Also the New Air Gun, improved, same style as above,
solid rifled barrel, with firing pin, will throw a No. 22 cartridge
accurately 600 feet, and can also be used in a parlor or saloon as an
Air Gun for darts and bullets. Extra finished stock, complete, with
firing pin, $30. Either of the above, full nickel plated, $5 extra.
Darts, by mail, $1.50 per dozen. 14 inch paper targets, 50 cents per
dozen; 8 inch, 25 cents; fancy 20 inch target, with Comic Figure, to
raise when bull’s eye is hit, $5 each; or iron face for bullets, $6.


REVOLVERS.

The Governor Pocket Revolver, for No. 22 cartridge, 7 shots, $6. Swamp
Angel Revolver, 5 barrel Derringer $13. National Revolver, 6 barrels,
nickel plated, $10. Derringers, per pair, $18. Colt’s Navy Revolver,
with mould $15. Knuckle Revolver, 7 shot, $10.75. Ethan Allen Revolver,
7 shot, weight 6oz., $9. The Terror, 6 shot, weight 13oz., $12. Bull
Dog, 5 shot, weight 14oz., $13.



HORSE GOODS.

[Illustration]

  Jockey Cap, silk, any color, to order, $3.50.
  Weight Boots, per pair, from 4 oz. to 1½℔, §5.50.
  Boston Reins, $12.
  Holders for Reins, $3.50.
  Shin Boots, $6.
  Lolling Bit, $6.
  Derby Bandages, per set of four, $5.
  Knee Boots, for protecting above and below the knee, $10.
  Toe Boots, per pair, $6.
  Spurs, per pair, $1 00 to 6 00.
  Whips, Gutta Percha, 8 ft., $4.25; 4 ft., $2.


MASONIC, ETC.

Gold Enameled Slipper, $2. Gold Square and Compass, $3. Gold Three
Links, $2. Gold Printers’ Composing Stick, $2.50. Trowel, with coral
handle, $3.


THEATRICAL GOODS, ETC.

Red Clogs, all sizes, with jingles, from $3. per pair upwards.
Directions for measurement:--

[Illustration]

  No. 1, Measurement around foot at toe.
  No. 2, Measurement around foot at instep.
  No. 3, Measurement around heel over instep.
  No. 4, Measurement of length of foot.

Silver Clogs, $7. Ankle Boots, $8.

Sandals, $8. Song and Dance Shoes, 15in. long.

Spangles, silver or gold, from $2.50 per lb. upwards. Worsted Knee
Tights, trimmed, scroll spangled, $14. Knee Tights, with velvet leaves,
and flowers spangled, $17. Tamborine, large size, brass rim and screws,
$3. Moccasins, per pair, $2.50. Helmets, each, from $8 to $15. Plain
Steel Armor Cloth, per yard, $2. Shell Armor Cloth, per yard, $3.
Harmonicon, with mouthpiece, $4.50. Bones, rosewood, 75 cents per set;
ebony, $1.25. Burnt Cork, prepared and ready for use, 50 cents a box,
or $2 per lb. Colored Fire, for tableaux and fairy scenes, $2 per lb.
Mongolian, in a paste, for Indians, etc., per box, 60 cents. Prepared
Whiting, for clowns, statuary, etc., not affected by perspiration, per
box, 60 cents. Pencils, for eyebrows, 60 cents; Pencils, for veins, 60
cents. Lightning, per box, 60 cents. Moonlight light, for statuary,
etc. 40 cents per package.


AMERICAN RACE HORSES.

STEEL ENGRAVINGS.

SIZE 18×24. PRICE 60 CENTS EACH.

  Col. W. R. Johnson, of Virginia, the Napoleon of the Turf.
  Boston.
  Gray Eagle.
  Shark.
  Black Maria.
  John Bascombe.
  Monmouth Eclipse.
  Ripton and Confidence in their celebrated Two Mile and Repeat Match
      over the Centreville, L. I., Course, in 1842.
  Imported Leviathan.
  Wagner.
  Imported Monarch.
  Imported Hedgeford.
  Fashion.


MISCELLANEOUS GOODS.

Fine Silk Umbrella, $5. Fine Silk Umbrella, with gold plated cup, $6.
Double Nine Dominoes, $6 per set. Dice Boxes, leather, per pair, 50
cents. Large Ivory Dice, 20 cents each. Sporting Knife, with screw,
saw, hoof digger, etc., $1.50. Hunting Knife, 10in. long, $2.50. Bowie
Knife, 10in. long, $2.50. 14in. Leather Checker Board, $2.50. 15in.
Leather Checker and Backgammon Board, $4. Rubber Suit (boots and
pants), $15. Pewter Mugs (half pints), per dozen, $12. Dog Couplings,
used in coursing, $3. Bezique Box, $2. Dark Lantern, $1.50. Signal
Lamp, for Mast Head, $5. Side Light, for vessels, $7. Decoy Duck, with
movable head, $2.25. Genuine Black Thorn Stick, $2. Cuckoo Clock, $20.
Patent Stilts, per pair, 50 cents. Abdominal Supporters, $6. Shoulder
Brace, $6. Stockings for Varicose Veins, per pair, $6. Ear Trumpets,
$2.50, $6 and $10. Respirator, for consumptives, $2. Loaded Dice,
three high, three low, and three square, $5 the set; Gymnastic Morocco
Slippers, $2.25. Rattlesnake Game, or Going Around the Horn, 50 cents.
Magic Tobacco Box, 50 cents. Magic Cigar Case, $1.50.



MISCELLANEOUS GOODS.

[Illustration]

Falling Birds and Stars, falling back when hit. Made for out-door
shooting. Iron, for cap and shot, $5. Set by a rope from stand.


MECHANICAL TARGETS.

[Illustration]

Plain Round 18-inch Target with 12-inch iron plate, for cap and shot,
comic figure rising and ringing a gong when bull’s-eye is hit. Nicely
painted, set by a rope from stand, $5. Rooster, small chick springing
on his back when bull’s-eye is hit, iron, for cap and shot, 14 × 16in.,
$2.50. Eagle, opening his wings and ringing a bell when bull’s-eye is
hit, iron covered, for cap and shot, 28×28in., $6.


THE ABBOTT POCKET MICROSCOPE.

[Illustration]

It examines, in focus, whole insects, bugs or worms, alive or dead,
transparent or opaque, feet up or down, confined in a cage--which
is a part of the instrument--while in motion or in fixed position
without harming the insect; also for examining seeds, flowers, plants,
minerals, fabrics, engravings, bank notes, etc. Price $1.


COMPASSES.

[Illustration]

CHARM COMPASS, gold plated.-¾in. in diameter, 50 cts.; 13-16ths
in. in diameter, fine, 75cts. FLOATING DIAL COMPASS, for yachts
and boating.--2½in., brass, each, $1.50. HUNTING AND FISHING
COMPASS--1¾in., brass, each, $1.25. HUNTING-CASE COMPASS, with
stop--2in., $2.50.


TURTLE SLEEVE BUTTONS.

[Illustration]

Nickle-plated, 50 cents.

MAGIC TURTLE, all alive, a great curiosity, at 30 cents.


THE PARLOR KALEIDESCOPE.

[Illustration]

Elegantly mounted on walnut stand, and furnished with revolving brass
Object Box, containing transparent tubes filled with liquids of the
most brilliant colors. Price, complete, each, $3.



MINSTREL AND THEATRICAL GOODS.


NEGRO MINSTREL GOODS.

[Illustration]

BURLESQUE Song-and-Dance SHOES (buff), 15 inches long, per pair, $7.

 SONG-AND-DANCE CAPS, flannel, long peak, $1; fine opera flannel,
 $1.50; satin, $2; silk, $2.50.

PREPARED BURNT CORK, per box, 50c.


TIGHTS--AS SHOWN IN CUT.

[Illustration]

 Full length cotton, flesh, white or black, per pair, $2.50; in fancy
 colors, same style, $3; fine worsted, black, white, or flesh color,
 $4; in fancy colors, $5.


MEASUREMENTS

  1. Around waist.
  2. Full length.
  3. From crotch to heel; also, give the length of foot.


STOCKINGS.

[Illustration]

 In any color or colors, long lengths to come over the knee, all wool,
 per pair, $1.

  Extra heavy quality        $1 50
  Fine worsted, plain         2 00
  Fine worsted, fancy         2 50
  Worsted, striped            3 50
  Worsted, striped up & down  9 00

 BONES, per set, Rosewood, 50c., 75c., $1; Ebony, $1.25.

FOR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, _see another page_.


KNEE BREECHES.

[Illustration]

 Worsted (various colors), trimmed with gold or silver lace, per pair,
 $10.

 Velvet (any color), trimmed, fancy scroll, spangled, per pair, $15.


DANCING CLOGS.

[Illustration]

 Red or blue, with jingles, per pair, $3.; black calfskin, per pair,
 $4; black Balmoral, per pair, $5; Silver or gold leather, $7; Dutch
 Clogs, all wood, per pair, $3.


LEOTARD SHIRTS.

[Illustration]

 Worsted Leotard Body and Body Shirt, $3.50 each.

  1. Around chest under arms.
  2. Around hips.
  3. From crotch to neck.


EQUESTRIAN SHIRTS.

 Theatrical Shirts, white, black, or flesh color, $2 each; in fancy
 colors, $2.75; fine worsted, black, white, or flesh color, $4; in
 fancy colors, $5.


THEATRICAL WIGS.

[Illustration]


MEASUREMENTS.


No. 1.

From forehead to nape of neck.


No. 2.

Around the head.


No. 3.

From ear to ear across the crown.


No. 4.

From ear to ear across forehead.

 Gentlemen’s Dress Wigs, with natural parting, $10 each; of ordinary
 color, extra red or light, $18 to $20; Bag Wig, continental style, $5;
 Bald Wigs, according to shade and quality, from $5 to $15; Yankee Wig,
 ordinary colored hair, $5; Yankee Wig, very light or extra red, $10 to
 $15; Irish Crop Wigs, ordinary color, $4.50; Irish Crop Wigs, white
 grey, $4.50; Dutch Character Wig (Gus Williams), $5; Indian Wigs, $5;
 Judge and Jury Wig, $10; Clown Wig, $5; Pantaloon Wig and Beard, $6.


NEGRO WIGS.

 Plantation, or Short Crop, per doz., $12; Astrachan ditto, each,
 $4.50; Hat Plush ditto, each, $3; Middle-men or End-men, each, $2;
 Wench or Topsey, each, $5; Fright, each, $6; Bald Negro Wigs, with
 whiskers and eyebrows, $4.


MOUSTACHES.

[Illustration]

 Full Beard with Moustaches, $2 to $5.

 Military Whiskers with Moustaches, $1.50.

 Moustaches or Imperials, 50c.

 Combination Beard, in four parts, which can be used for full Beard,
 Side Whiskers and Goatee, or Dundreary’s, with and without Moustache,
 from $3 to $6.


COLORED FIRES.

  Lightning, per box                                      0 50
  Moonlight light, for statuary, pr box                   0 50
  Colored Fires, any color, in half-pound boxes, per box  1 00
  Tableau Lights, for parlor use, any bright color, each  0 25
  Fire-eating Preparation, per box                        0 50


COSMETICS.

  Prepared Burnt Cork, per box          0 50
  Clown White, per box                  0 50
  Eyebrow Pencils, each                 0 50
  Mongolian Paste for Indians, per box  0 50
  Pencils, for veins, each              0 50



BASEBALL, CRICKET, AND CROQUET GOODS.


BASEBALL GOODS.

[Illustration]


CLUB OUTFITS.

 Outfit No. 1, embracing Shirt, Pants, Cap, Belt, Hose, Shoes and
 Spikes, complete, per man, $9.

 Outfit No. 2, same as No. 1, but of inferior goods, per man, $7.


BASEBALLS.

 P. & S. New Treble Ball, red or white, per dozen, $15; each, $1.50.

 P. & S. Professional Ball, red or white, per dozen, $12; each, $1.25.

 P. & S. Amateur Ball, red or white, per dozen, $9; each, $1.


BATS.

 Ash, Bass, Spruce or Willow, per dozen, $2.50; Light American Willow,
 half polished, per dozen, $5; Sapling Ash, wound and waxed handles,
 per dozen, $6; American Willow, loaded at handle with ash, per doz, $8.


FLANNEL SHIRTS.

[Illustration]

 First quality, any solid color with letter or number on shirt, $36
 per doz.; $3.25 each. Second quality, $33 per doz.; $3 each. Third
 quality, cheaper style of flannel, $27 per doz.; $2.50 each.

 First quality opera-flannel, any color, stripe or check, $32 per doz.;
 $3.75 each.


FLANNEL PANTS.

 First quality, of any solid color desired, $36 per doz.; $3.25 per
 pair. Second quality, $32 per doz.; $3 per pair.


SHOES.

[Illustration]

 Oxford or Low Cut, made of fine white canvas, with patent spikes,
 $34 per doz., $3 per pair. Ditto, without spikes, $24, $2.25 per
 pair. Balmoral or high cut, made of fine canvas, with leather, instep
 straps, etc., and with patent spikes inserted between the soles when
 made. The spikes can be taken out and put in the soles in two minutes’
 time, and the shoes worn in the streets without injury, $36 per doz.,
 $3.25 per pair.


CAPS.

 Leading styles, flannel, any colors, $6, $8, $12, per doz.; Jockey
 Club shape, $9, $12, $15, per doz.


STOCKINGS.

[Illustration]

 First quality goods, long lengths, $10 per doz. pair, $1 per pair.
 Second quality goods, long lengths, $6 per doz. pair. Extra quality
 goods, all wool, and long lengths. $27 per doz. pair; $2.50 per pair.
 Extra quality goods, all wool and long lengths, cotton feet, $24 per
 doz. pair; $2.25 per pair.


BELTS.

[Illustration]

 American Union Web, different colors, 2½ inches wide, 24 to 36 inches
 long, black leather finish, double straps and buckles, $3.50 per doz.


CRICKET GOODS.

  Cricket Bats, all patterns, with bag,
    each, $1 to                            $12 00

  Cricket Balls from $1.25 to                4 00

  Wickets or Stumps and Bails, per
    set, from $2.25 to                       3 50

  Leg Guards, from $3.50 to                  6 00

  Knee Pads, per pair                        3 25

  Abdominal Protector                        2 50

  Open Palm Batting Gloves, per pair         5 00

  Batting Gloves, ordinary tubular           3 50

  Wicket-keeping Gauntlets, tubular          5 00

  Long-stop Gloves, per pair                 3 50

  Belts, each, from 75c. to                  1 50

  Morocco and Leather Belts, stitched,
    painted names sunk in, $2 to             3 00

  Cricket Score Books, each $2 and           3 00


CROQUET GOODS, _per set_

 BOXWOOD.--The most durable set made; superior in every respect;
 separate compartments for the balls; with patent design Mallets, in
 chestnut case

  $15 00

 BEACH, OR ROCK MAPLE.--Imitation Boxwood. This is the best set that
 can be made from these fine American woods. Patent design Mallets, in
 chestnut case

  9 00

 ROCK MAPLE.--French polished. A very handsome and durable set. Patent
 design Mallets

  7 50

 SELECTED HARD WOOD.--Thoroughly made and varnished; a handsome set;
 patent design Mallets

  6 00

 HARD WOOD.--Good selection of hard wood; barrel-shape Mallets;
 handsomely striped; full set and very durable. Balls and Mallets
 varnished

  5 00

 HARD WOOD.--Barrel-shape Mallets; substantially made. One of the best
 cheap sets made in this country. Balls varnished

  4 00

 HARD WOOD.--Oil finish

  3 00

 YOUTH’S SET.--Good selection of hard wood; well made and varnished;
 strong and durable

  4 00

 YOUTH’S SET.--Hard wood; oil finish

  3 00



ATHLETIC GOODS.


SLEEVELESS SHIRTS.

[Illustration]

 Cotton Tights (no seams), solid colors, $30 per doz., $2.75 each.

 Same as above, in stripes, $36 per doz., $3.25 each.

 Extra fine qualities, knit from worsted, in solid colors, $48 per
 doz., $4.25 each.

 Same as the above, in stripes, $54 per doz., $5 each.

 Any of the above, with Initial Letters, Anchors, Oars, Stars, etc.,
 extra, $8 per doz., 75 cents each.


KNEE TIGHTS.

[Illustration]

 Of cotton, solid colors, $27 per doz., $2.50 each.

 Extra fine quality, knit from worsted, in solid colors, $45 per doz.,
 $4 each.

 Stripes knit in either of the above, extra, $3.50 per doz., 35 cents
 each. Also imported goods of cheaper qualities, furnished when desired
 at 20 per cent. less than the above prices.


TRUNKS.

[Illustration]

 Cotton, any colors, $12 per doz., $1.25 each; good quality, $18 per
 doz., $1.75 each; heavy worsted, $24 per doz., $2.25 each; extra fine
 worsted, $30 per doz., $2.75 each.


SKULL CAPS.

 Cotton, any colors, $9 per doz., $1 each; heavy quality, $12 per doz.,
 $1.25 each; fine worsted, $18 per doz., $1.50 each.


ENGLISH BOATING SHOES.

 White canvas, leather soles, $2.50 per pair; white canvas, extra
 strong rubber soles, $4 per pair.


WHITE CANVAS SLIPPERS.

[Illustration]

 Low cut, with draw strings, $12 per doz. pairs; extra quality, with
 eyelets and laces, $15 per doz. prs.


GYMNASIUM BELTS.

English Web, $1; Union Web, fifty cents.


RUNNING SHOES.

[Illustration]

 American Spiked Running Shoes (buff), per pair, $3.50.

 Best imported Spiked Running Shoes (black), per pair, $7.


Hydraulic Rowing Machine.

 Single machine, complete and ready for use, $30; two machines, one
 seat, two levers, $55; four machines, four seats, four levers, $110.


HEALTH LIFT MACHINE.

 A complete gymnasium for men, women and children. Elastic, reactionary
 and cumulative. Price, complete, $30.


Patent POCKET GYMNASIUM.

 Over fifty different Exercises can be performed with this apparatus.
 No. 1, for children from 4 to 6 years, $1; No. 2, for children from
 6 to 8 years, $1.10; No. 3, for children from 8 to 10 years, $1.20;
 No. 4, for children from 10 to 14 years, $1.30; No. 5, for ladies and
 children 14 years and upward, $1.40; No. 6, for gentlemen of moderate
 strength, $1.50; No. 7, $2; complete set of seven, $9. No. 7. is
 fitted with a screw-eye and hook to attach to the wall or floor. Two
 of this size, properly arranged, make a complete gymnasium.


Improved HORIZONTAL BARS.

 For Gymnasium, Stage or Parlor. It can be fixed easily in a few
 minutes in any room, and as quickly removed; and is adapted for both
 sexes and all ages. The fastenings are most ingeniously arranged to
 adjust the bar to any height. Height of upright, eight feet; it can be
 adjusted as low as four feet, and regulated to use from a four to a
 six foot bar. With two pairs of the Iron Stanchions, very strong and
 neat Parallel Bars can be made. Horizontal Bars made of the best young
 hickory wood, and finely finished. Price $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2,
 $2.25, $2.75, and $3.25 each. Size, 3½, 4, 4½, 5, 5½, 6, and 6½ feet.
 Price, with everything complete, $25.


PULLEY MACHINES.

 10℔ to 100℔ each. No. 1, without weights, $20; No. 2, on platform,
 $25; weights for the above, per pound, 6c.


FENCING STICKS.

  Basket handle, per pair      $1 50.


BOOKS ON ATHLETICS.

 Prof. Wm. Wood’s “Manual of Physical Exercises,” $2.

 Dr. Dio Lewis’ “New Gymnastics for Men, Women, and Children,” 300
 illustrations, $1.75.

 Ed. E. Price’s “Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling,” 75c.

 Kehoe’s “Work on Indian Club Exercises,” $1.25.


 Ed. James’ “Treatise on Practical Training for Running, Walking,
 Rowing Boxing, Wrestling, Jumping,” etc., etc., 50c.

 Ed. James’ “Manual of Sporting Rules,” governing in and outdoor
 pastimes, 50c.


AMERICAN BAR TENDER,
containing over 100 Summer and Winter Drinks.

50 cents.

[Illustration]

HOW TO MIX DRINKS.

BY

JERRY THOMAS.

130 pages, $1.


ROLLER SKATES.

Sixes, 7, 8¼, 9¼, 10¼, 11¼in. foot-plate.

This skate is neater, lighter, and more durable than any skate yet
offered. The foot-plate is of sheet-iron, with mountings (well secured)
which will not cause pain or injury to the feet. The axle runs through
a steel collar upon which the wheel revolves, thereby preventing
friction. The roller is made of solid vulcanized rubber, and will not
become soft or peel off when in use.

Per pair, $2, $3, $4, $4 50.


CHESS MEN.

[Illustration]

  Boxwood, 8 sizes, per set,            $2 00 to $6 50
  Hardwood, 5 sizes, per set,            1 25 to  3 00
  Bone, 4 sizes, per set,                4 00 to  8 00
  Traveling chess-board, mahogany, draw
    out, bone men, small and large, per
    set,                                $4 00 to $6 00


CHECKER MEN.

Lignumvitæ and Boxwood, 1¼ inches.

  Black walnut box, per set         $1 00
  Bone, 1¼in., black walnut box      4 00
  Checker and Chessmen combined      1 50


DOMINOES.

  Bone, per set   $1 00 to $3 00


CLUB SKATES.

[Illustration]


STRAPPED, with heel button.

Sizes, 8, 8½, 9, 9½, 10, 10½, 11, 11½in.

 Japanned sheet-iron foot-plates, converted steel runners, steel heel
 button, strapped with broad toe straps. Per pair

  $1 25


MEDIUM QUALITY.

Sizes, 8, 8½ 9, 9½, 10, 10½ 11, 11½in.

 Stamped Eagle, No. 3, well finished, blued foot-plate, right and left
 screw, improved guides, per pair

  $2 00


HALF-ROCKER.

Sizes, 9, 9½, 10, 10½ 11 inches.

 Half-rocker welded steel and iron runners hardened, French polished
 beech woods, mounted with heavy brass heel and toe plates, very highly
 finished, pierced for 1¾ inches, broad toe straps, per pair

  $2 00


NEW YORK CLUB.

Sizes, 8, 8½, 9, 9½, 10, 10½, 11, 11½in.

 Blue finished, steel foot-plate, polished runners, same quality and
 style as nickel plated, per pair

  $3 00


ALL CLAMP STEEL.

(See cut above.)

Sizes, 8, 8½, 9, 9½, 10, 10½, 11, 11½in.

In constructing this skate, no new or untried mechanical principle for
obtaining the desired motions and power is employed. The transverse
sliding clamp for grasping the sole, operated and held by means of
pins and slots, is a mechanical device long and successfully employed
on skates; which, with the single and directly acting heel clamp and
longitudinal screw, make this the most desirable of all clamp skate
in the market. All of the important parts of these skates are made of
steel; and the runners are manufactured of the best welded steel and
iron, carefully tempered.

  No. 9, Nickel Plated, per pair     $5 50
  No. 8, Blue Top, per pair           4 50


LADIES’ SKATES.

Sizes, 7, 7½, 8, 8½, 9, 9½, 10 inches.

 Monitor pattern, solid post frame skate, tempered runners, polished
 beech woods, trimmed with black leather, broad toe and heel straps,
 roller buckles, brass plates, per pair.

  $2 00


Address ED. JAMES, 88 and 90 CENTRE STREET, New York City.


RARE ENGLISH SPORTING PRINTS.

 Westminster Dog Pit, representing a dog fight in this famous pit in
 the last century. Size 16×22. Price $1.50.

 Crib and Rosa, two high bred bull dogs. Size 16×20. Price $1.50.

 Bubble and Squeak, terrier and rat. Size 18×20. Price $1.50.

 Rat Catcher, dog killing rats. Size 12×15. Price $1.50.

 Cocker and Woodcock. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Spaniel and Wild Duck. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Setter and Grouse. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Pluck, small black and tan dog, with large rat. Size 19×24. Price
 $1.50.

 Bull Broke Loose, bull baiting with dogs in the olden time. Size
 16×22. Price $1.50.

 Pot and Kettle Race, two dogs with pot and kettle tied to their tails.
 Size 16×21. Price $1.50.

 Pugilist, monkeys as pugilists, with seconds, etc. Size 15×16. Price
 $1.50.

 Duelist, monkeys fighting a duel. Size 15×16. price $1.50

 Lurcher and Rabbit. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Retriever and Pheasant. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Pointer and Partridge. Size 16×13. Price $1.

 Derby Day. Size 27×50. Price $20.

 English Race Horses, winners of the Derby and Ascot, beautifully
 colored. Size 18×22. Price $5.


[Illustration]

THE SET-TO.

 Two Game Fowl in the act of fighting, beautifully colored lithograph.
 Size 14×18. Price 50 cents.


DR. COOPER’S GREAT WORK

ON

GAME FOWL.

Over 300 pages, with two elegant chromos. Price $5.


PIGEON SHOOTING PLATE.

 The Great Championship Pigeon Shooting Match between John Taylor
 and William Seeds, the “Jersey Boy,” giving portraits of over 50
 celebrated shots. Tinted lithograph. Size 28×48. Price $2.50.
 Beautifully colored, price $3.50.


SPORTING WORKS.

 American Racing Calendar, $1.

 Racing Rules, 50 cents.

 Trotting Rules, 50 cents.

 Frank Forrester’s Horse of America, 2 vols., $15.

 Pigeons: their Variety, Management, Breeding and Disease. By Hugh
 Piper. 75 cents.

 Sweet’s Elements of Draughts, for beginners. 60 cents.

 Sweet’s Ready Reckoner. 50 cents.


LIVE STOCK.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Below are given prices of birds, animals, etc. (express charges not
included), which invariably have to be prepaid by express and money
forwarded in advance. No live stock sent C. O. D.

  Maltese Cat                               $10 00
  6℔ Black and Tan Terrier                   40 00
  8℔ do                                      25 00
  Bull Terrier, from                 $25 to 100 00
  Italian Greyhound, from             30 to  75 00
  Scotch Terrier, from                20 to  50 00
  Skye Terrier, from                  20 to  50 00
  Newfoundland, from                  30 to 100 00
  Coach Dog                                  35 00
  Retriever, from                            25 00
  Fox Hound                                  40 00
  Setter                                     40 00
  Pointer                                    40 00
  Beagle Hound                               40 00
  Ferrets, per pair                          30 00
  Game Fowl, $10 each, or the trio           25 00
  Parrot, from                       $12 to  50 00
  Parroquet                                   8 00
  Cock of the Rock                           75 00
  Silver Pheasant and Hen, per pair          50 00
  Monkey, from                        15 to  25 00
  Canary, from                         5 to  10 00
  Anaconda Snake, from                       50 00
  Cockatoo, from                             20 00
  Mocking Bird, from                         25 00


VETERINARY INSTRUMENTS.

  Metal Horse Syringes, 24, 36 and 48 oz.,          $3 50, $4 50, $5 50
  Brass Horse Syringes                                            13 00
  Reed’s Patent Injection Pump, best                              35 00
  Reed’s Patent Injection Pump, plain                             23 00
  English Imported Horse Tooth Rasp                                5 00
  English Imported Horse Tooth Rasp, guarded                       6 25
  Two Fold Case Veterinary Instruments                            18 00
  Three Fold Case Veterinary Instrum’ts                           27 00
  Pricking Knives, 1, 2 and 3 blade, plain       $2 50, $3 25 and $4 00
  Pricking Knives, 1, 2 and 3 blade, spring back  $2 75, $3 50 and 4 25
  Castrating Clamps                                     $4 00 and 10 00
  Castrating Eraseur                                              17 00
  Set of Hobbles                                                  35 00
  Firing Irons                                                     3 00
  Balling Guns, wood                                               2 50
  Balling Guns, brass                                              3 50
  Elastic Horse Catheders                                          3 00
  Metalic Horse Catheders                                          3 00
  Seton Needles, plain                                   $1 25 and 1 75
  Seton Needles, long screw, 3 parts.                              4 25
  Horse Fleams, 1, 2 and 3 blades                 $2 25, $2 75 and 3 25
  Tracheotomy Tubes, metal                                         7 50
  Tracheotomy Tubes, hard rubber                                   5 25
  Spring Lancets                                                   3 25
  Tooth Forceps, from                                              6 00
  Clipping Shears                                        $1 75 and 2 25
  Clipping Combs, horn                                               75
  Clipping Combs, steel                                              75
  Apparatus for Singing with gas                           $6 50, 18 00
  Apparatus for Singing, with alcohol                       $2 50, 5 00
  Trocars and Canulus                                              3 75
  Hypoderme Syringes                                     $3 75 and 6 00
  Silver Milk Tubes                                                2 00
  Horse Muzzle                                                     7 50
  Small Nippers                                                    2 25
  Baldwin Bit                                             $2 50 to 5 00
  Bit to Prevent Wind Sucking                                      3 00



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.


BANJOS.

[Illustration]

 All BANJOS here described are 11 inches in diameter.

                                           _Each._

  Tack head, sheepskin, with walnut
      handle                                $2 50
  6 plain screws, sheepskin, walnut
      handle, iron hoop                      3 25
  6 eagle brackets, sheepskin, walnut
      handle, brass hoop                     5 00
  6 eagle brackets, calfskin, walnut
      handle, brass hoop                     6 00
  10 eagle brackets, stained rim, calfskin,
      walnut handle, brass hoop              7 00
  8 shields, stained rim, rosewood
      veneered handle                        8 00


PROFESSIONAL BANJOS.

                                           _Each._

  10 brackets, fine head, fret, walnut
      handle, and oak rim                   $8 50
  16 brackets, fine calf head, walnut
      handle, oak rim                       10 50
  16 brackets, polished veneered rosewood
      handle and rim                        12 50
  16 brackets, extra fine rosewood
      veneered handle and rim               15 00
  16 brackets, extra fine solid rosewood
      handle and veneered rim               21 00
  10 brackets, German silver rim,
      lined with wood inside, walnut
      fretted handle                        13 00
  16 brackets, German silver rim,
      lined with wood inside, walnut
      fretted handle                        15 00
  16  brackets, German silver rim,
      lined with wood inside, inlaid
      handles                               13 00
  18 brackets, German silver rim,
      lined with wood inside, solid
      rosewood                              25 00


DOBSON’S

“IMPROVED PATENT BANJOS.”

PATENTED FEBRUARY, 1873.

  _No._                                    _Each._
   400   8 screws, im rosewood rim,
       cherry neck, brass trimmings          $7 60
   405   10 screws, im rosewood rim,
       walnut neck, brass trimmings           8 50
   410   12 screws, im rosewood rim,
       cherry neck, brass trimmings           9 50
   415   14 screws, im rosewood rim,
       walnut neck, fretted brass trimmings  10 50
   425   14 screws, im rosewood rim,
       nickel plated trimmings                5 00
   430   16 screws, im rosewood rim,
       nickel plated trimmings               17 00
   435   20 screws, rosewood rim, nickel
       plated trimmings                      21 00
   440   20 screws, inlaid rosewood rim,
       nickel plated trimmings               24 00
   445   20 screws, inlaid rosewood rim,
       nickel plated trimmings, metal
       tailpiece                             30 00
   450   20 screws, inlaid rosewood rim,
       nickel plated trimmings, covered
       back                                  30 00
   455   20 screws, brass rim, new style,
       with nuts inside                      21 00
   460½  20 screws, brass extra fine
       rim, nickel plated trimmings          25 00
   465   20 screws, German silver rim,
       nickel plated trimmings               25 00
   470   20 screws, German silver rim,
       nickel plated trimmings               30 00
   475   20 screws, German silver rim,
       new style, with nuts inside           25 00

The patent consists mainly in the application of an entirely new style
of screw and clamp, the latter catching upon the metal hoop, and the
screw passing through it and into a solid ash rim, forming for itself
a thread almost as durable as one of metal, and producing an equal and
powerful pressure upon the flesh hoop.

The advantages of this banjo over all former patents are many, and
comprise, mainly, a power of tone never before attained in a low-priced
banjo; extreme lightness, durability, and an attractive appearance,
which assures the dealer of a ready sale.

On ALL these Banjos we use the best quality French calf head, Italian
strings, and thoroughly seasoned wood for the necks and rims.


TAMBOURINES.

  TACK-HEAD TAMBOURINES.

                                       _Each._

  10 inch, sheepskin                    $1 50
  12 inch, sheepskin                     2 50
  10 inch, calfskin, stained rim         3 00
  12 inch, calfskin, stained rim         3 50
  10 inch, calfskin, wooden rim lined
       with brass                        4 50
  12 inch, calfskin, wooden rim lined
       with German silver                6 00

  SCREW-HEAD TAMBOURINES.

  10 inch, plain, sheepskin, iron
       trimmings                         2 00
  12 inch, plain, sheepskin, iron
       trimmings                         2 75
  10 inch, calfskin, painted, brass
       trimmings.                        3 50
  12 inch, calfskin, painted, brass
       trimmings.                        4 25
  10 inch, handsomely painted, calfskin,
       with fancy gilt trimmings         5 00
  12 inch, handsomely painted,
       calfskin,brass trimmings.         5 75


ED. JAMES’ STANDARD SPORTING SERIES.


HOW TO ACQUIRE

HEALTH, STRENGTH, AND MUSCLE,
with Cures for various Diseases, Proportions of a perfect Human Figure,
Measurements of Noted Athletes, Remarkable Feats of Muscular Strength,
Description of the Muscular System, Nutrition and Digestion, Food, Air,
Exercise, Stimulants, etc., etc. Sent prepaid by mail for fifty cents.


THE

DUMB-BELL AND CLUB-SWINGER’S MANUAL,

Containing all the Movements and What Muscles they Develop, with
upwards of thirty-six illustrative figures and portraits, original and
engraved expressly for this work. Sent by mail on receipt of thirty
cents.


Practical Training for Running, Walking,

Rowing, Wrestling, Boxing, Jumping, and all kinds of Athletic Feats,
Banting’s System of Reducing Corpulency, Record of best Athletic
Performances, Proportional Measurements according to Height and Weight,
etc. Price, by mail, prepaid, fifty cents.


THE COMPLETE HANDBOOK

OF

BOXING AND WRESTLING;
 with full and simple Directions on Acquiring these Useful,
 Invigorating, and Health-giving Arts. Illustrated with fifty original
 Engravings and Portraits. PRICE FIFTY CENTS, PREPAID BY MAIL.


THE GAME COCK.

 How to Breed, Feed, Train, Handle, Heel and Trim; Treatment and Cure
 of Diseases, Cockers’ Tricks Exposed, and all the Cocking Rules, etc.
 By Ed. James Illustrated, cloth, by mail, $1.25.


TERRIER DOGS, ETC.

 How to Breed, Crop, Physic, etc., with Points and Properties; Rats
 and Rat Killing, Ratting, Badger Baiting and Dog Fighting Rules, How
 to Train for the Pit, Dog Fighters’ Tricks Exposed, with a chapter
 Teaching Dogs Tricks. By Ed. James. Cloth, illustrated, price $1.


MANUAL OF SPORTING RULES,

COMPRISING THE LATEST AND BEST AUTHENTICATED REVISED RULES

GOVERNING

 Trap Shooting, Canine, Ratting, Badger Baiting, Cock Fighting, the
 Prize Ring, Wrestling, Running, Walking, Jumping, Knurr and Spell,
 La Crosse, Boating, Bagatelle, Archery, Rifle and Pistol Shooting,
 Shuffle Board, Shinny, Quoits, Skittles, Hand Ball, Rackets, Fly
 Casting, Swimming, Foot Ball, Pin Pool, Fifteen Ball Pool, Scottish
 Games, Ten Pins, Skating, Curling, etc. For the United States, Canadas
 and Great Britain. By Ed. James. Illustrated. Paper, by mail, prepaid,
 50 cents.


The Modern Oarsman;

 Teaching how to Row, Scull, Steer, Slide, Trim, Sit, Feather, etc.
 Also, Record of Important Sculling Matches in both Hemispheres,
 Portraits of Noted Oarsmen, Boating Rules, etc. Price FIFTY CENTS.


  PUBLISHED BY
  ED. JAMES, 88 AND 90 CENTRE STREET, NEW YORK,
  NEW YORK CLIPPER BUILDING.



ED. JAMES’ PUGILISTIC SERIES


Illustrated Life and Battles of


JACK RANDALL,
known as The Prime Irish Lad, with full account of his battles with
Leonard, Jack Payne, Walton, Dodd, Ugly Boruk, Dick West, Harry Holt,
Aby Belasco, Burke, Joe Parish, Dan McCarthy, Ned Turner and Jack
Martin, containing portraits from steel plates. Price, 25c.

Illustrated Life and Battles of


DAN DONNELLY,

Champion of Ireland, who defeated Tom Hall, George Cooper and Tom
Oliver, being knighted for his bravery, with portraits from original
steel plates. Price, 25c.

Illustrated Life and Battles of


JOHN MORRISSEY,

Conqueror of Heenan, Sullivan and Thompson; his turn-up with Bill
Poole; Senator and Member of Congress, with portraits. Price, 25c.

Illustrated Life and Battles of


JOHN C. HEENAN,
containing full accounts of his International fights between Tom Sayers
and Tom King, etc., with portraits. Price, 25c.

Illustrated Life and Battles of


TOM HYER.

All about his great $10,000 championship battle with Yankee Sullivan;
contest with Country McCluskey, etc. Four cuts. Price, 25c.


CHAMPIONS OF ENGLAND,
from the year 1700 to the present time, containing Authentic Records,
Anecdotes, Personal Recollections, etc., etc., with 30 engravings, from
original portraits by Ed. James. Price, 50 cents.

Illustrated Life and Battles of


YANKEE SULLIVAN,
including his Convict Life and Prize Fights in Australia, fights with
Hammer Lane, Vince Hammond, Tom Secor, Billy Bell, Bob Caunt, Tom Hyer
and John Morrissey, down to his assassination in California. Price, 25
cents.

The Life and Adventures of


BEN HOGAN,
who delights in being looked upon as the Wickedest Man in the World.
Containing a full account of his thrilling and remarkable experience,
together with a complete report of his triumphs in the Prize Ring,
and his career in the Oil Regions, in the Far West, and on the sea.
Illustrated profusely; 300 pages. Price, 50 cents.



HEENAN AND SAYERS FIGHT,


for £200 a side and the Championship of the World. Containing 250
portraits from life of the pugilistic celebrities and sporting men of
the day.

Framing size, 22×28.

Price, with key-plate included (unframed), $3

When sent by mail 50c. additional required for postage, etc.


Photographs of Pugilists, Etc.

Imperial size, taken from life. Price, 35 cents each.

  Joe Goss,
  Mike Donovan,
  Billy Edwards,
  Jim Murray,
  Patsy Sheppard,
  Edwin Bibby,
  Ed. Hanlan,
  Wm. Muldoon,
  Paddy Ryan,
  Dooney Harris,
  Arthur Chambers,
  Mike Coburn,
  Ed. McGlinchy,
  Prof. Bauer,
  John McMahon,
  Jimmy Kelly,
  George Rooke,
  Johnny Dwyer,
  Wm. C. McClennan,
  Dick Goodwin,
  Frank White,
  John Morrissey,
  Matt Grace.

No other photographs of pugilists for sale.

  DAN DONNELLY’S Life and Battles, profusely illustrated    25 cents
  JOHN MORRISSEY’S Life and Battles, with portraits         25 cents
  JOHN C. HEENAN’S Life and Battles, with portraits         25 cents
  TOM HYER’S Life and Battles, with portraits               25 cents


PUGILISTICA,
or the History of British Boxing for 144 years. Published in monthly
parts. This work, illustrated, was commenced in March, 1880, and is
issued every month. Price, per part, 50c.


GAME FOWLS.

Their Origin and History, with a Description of the Breeds, Strains
and Crosses; The American and English Modes of Feeding, Training and
Heeling; How to Breed and Cross, Improving Qualities and Preserving
Feather, together with a Description and Treatment of all Diseases
incident to Game Fowls. Illustrated with two beautiful chromos of a cut
out Game Cock and Game Cock in full feather. Over 300 pages. By Dr. J.
W. Cooler. Elegantly bound in cloth and gilt. Price, per copy, $5 00.


THE AMATEUR

NEGRO MINSTREL’S GUIDE.

Containing full instructions for everything appertaining to the
business, with specimen programmes, stump speeches, end-men’s gags,
etc., etc. Illustrated with characters, scenes and portraits. Price, 25
cents. Address:

ED. JAMES, Clipper Building, 88 and 90 Centre st., New York.



_ED. JAMES’ PRICE LIST._


YACHTS, Etc.

[Illustration]

SIZE, 14×18. PRICE 25 CTS. EACH.

  Sappho,
      Meteor,
          Dauntless,
              Henrietta,
                  Vesta,
                      Fleetwing,
                          Cambria.

  Yacht Race for the Queen’s Cup, 1870.
  Sappho and Livonia Yacht Race Cup of 1870.
  Little Ship Red, White and Blue.
  Ship Great Republic.
  Steamship Great Eastern.
  The R. E. Lee and Natchez Race.
  Race on the Mississippi.
  Ice Boat Race on the Hudson.
  Boat Race--Rowing.
  New York Ferry Boat.


HORSE PICTURES.

[Illustration]

PRICE 20 CENTS EACH, OR 6 FOR $1.

  Lucille Golddust,
  Prospero,
  Frank,
  Rarus and Great Eastern,
  Trotters on the Snow,
  Parole, saddle,
  Sweetzer,
  Ethan Allen,
  Dexter,
  Goldsmith Maid,
  Lucy,
  American Girl,
  Dexter vs. Butler,
  Gloster,
  Red Cloud,
  Smuggler,
  Camors,
  Fleety Golddust,
  Nettie,
  Mambrino Gift,
  Lula,
  Bodine,
  May Queen,
  Sensation,
  Gov. Sprague,
  Henry,
  Lady Thorn,
  Dutchman,
  Lady Fallon,
  Hambletonian,
  Flora Temple,
  Occident,
  Harry Bassett,
  Longfellow,
  Mollie McCarthy,
  Edwin Forrest,
  Lucille,
  Croxie,
  Sam Purdy,
  Blackwood, Jr.,
  Hopeful,
  Lady Maud,
  Rarus,
  Bella,
  Smuggler vs. Fullerton,
  Great Eastern,
  Ten Broeck,
  Tom Ochiltree,
  Jay Gould,
  Hannis.


PUGILISTIC

CELEBRITIES.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

SIZE, 17×21,

COLORED,

PRICE $1 EACH.

  JOHN C. HEENAN,
  TOM SAYERS,
  NAT LANGHAM,
  JAMES MACE,
  TOM PADDOCK,
  WM. EDWARDS,
  ARTHUR CHAMBERS,
  JOHN J. DWYER.


The BULL TERRIER

“MAJOR.”

RAT-KILLING SCENE.

SIZE, 25×31, COLORED,

Price $1.25. each.


👉 AMERICAN FISTIANA.

Containing rounds, etc., of principal Prize Fights from 1816 to date.
160 pages. By mail, 50 cts.


PIG PAPE AND DOG CRIB,

As they appeared in their celebrated fight in New York in March, 1849,
with portraits of handlers and celebrities. Size, 17×21. Price 50 cts.


MISCELLANEOUS.

SIZE, 14×18. PRICE 25 CTS. EACH.

  Burning of Chicago.
  East River Bridge, New York.
  Family Register.
  Royal Family of Prussia.
  Talked to Death.
  Dolly Varden.
  Burns and Highland Mary.
  Byron in the Highlands.

  Family Photographic Tree.
  Tomb and Shade of Napoleon.
  Assassination of Lincoln.
  View of New York City.
  Daniel O’Connell.
  Robert Emmett.
  The Setter Dog.
  The Pointer Dog.
  Empress Eugenie.
  Royal Family of England.
  The Broken Slate (for bar rooms).
  The Heathen Chinee.


BOAT RACING CHROMOS.

[Illustration]

Walter Brown and James Hamill’s Great Sculling Match, 25×33. Price, $3.

A Modern College Scull, 17×21. Price, 50 cents.

Amateur Muscle in the Shell, 17×21. Price, 50 cents.


PORTRAITS OF THE GREAT TROTTERS

[Illustration]

=Size, 25×23. Price, $3.=

  Goldsmith Maid, to sulky, 2.14.
  Lula, to sulky, 2.15.
  Smuggler, to sulky, 2.15¼.
  American Girl, to sulky, 2.16½.
  Occident, to sulky, 2.16¾.
  Hopeful, to sulky, driven by Mace, 2.17¼.
  Judge Fullerton, to sulky, 2.19.
  Red Cloud, to sulky, 2.18.
  Lucy, to sulky, 2.18¼.
  Lady Thorn, to wagon, 2.24; to sulky, 2.18¼.
  Music, to sulky, 2.21¼.
  Thos. Jefferson, to sulky, 2.23.
  George Wilkes, to sulky, 2.22.
  Joe Elliott, to sulky, 2.15½.
  Tom Moore, to sulky, 2.31.
  Dan Rice, better known as Rhode Isl’d, to wagon, 2.81½; s’ky, 2.23½.
  Trustee, to sulky, twenty miles in 59min. 35½sec.
  Rarus, to sulky.
  Rarus to sulky, and Great Eastern to saddle.

=Size, 22×28. Price, $1.50.=

  Com. Vanderbilt, to wagon.
  Jack Rossiter, to sulky.


RUNNING HORSES.

Harry Bassett, with jockey waiting for the signal; size 25×33. Price,
$3.

Petonia and Fashion running their great race May 13, 1845; size, 25×33.
Price, $3.

Flying Dutchman and Voltigeur, running race; size, 22×28. Price, $2.


Road and Track Scenes.

_Size 26×36, each $4.00._

  A Stopping Place on the Road.
  Trotting Cracks at Home--A Model Stable.
  Trotting Cracks at the Forge.
  Going to the Trot--A Good Day and Good Track.
  Coming from the Trot--“Sports” on “Homestretch.”
  Fast Trotters on “Harlem Lane.”
  Speeding on the Avenue.
  A Brush for the Lead, New York “Flyers” on Snow.
  First Trot of the Season--To go as they please.

_Size 25×33, each $3.00._

  Scoring--Coming up for the Work.
  A Brush on the Homestretch.
  Won by a Neck.
  Trotting Cracks on the Snow.


Famous Trotting Horses.

_Size 25×33, each $3.00._

  The King of the Road, Dexter and Bonner.
  American Girl, and Lady Thorn.
  Goldsmith Maid, and American Girl.

  Billy Boyce--Pacer, To Saddle, 2:14¼.
  Dexter--To Sulky, 2:17¼.

  Monk.                           $ 5.50
  King Lear Wig and Beard.         12.00
  Clown Wigs

By sending the size of Hat worn, a good fit can be obtained.


Beards, Moustaches, Etc.

  Full Beard.                            $3.00

  Extra long.                             4.00

  Side Whiskers and Moustache, on
  wire.

  Side Whiskers and Moustache, on
  gauze.                                  3.00

  Moustaches, all colors, each.             50

  Imperials.                                50


Banjos.

  Stage Banjo, 14 Screws.               $15.00
  Solo Banjo, 15 Screws.                 18.00
  Rosewood Banjo, 16 Screws.             25.00
  Solid Rosewood Banjo, 16 Screws.       35.00
  Silver Plated, 16 Screws.              45.00


Sundries.

  Tambourines,
  Violins, from                          10.00
  Accordeons,
      Concertinas,
      Mouth Harmonicons, 32 Holes.
      Best Ebony or Rosewood Bones,
      Triangles, each.                    1.50
  Burnt Cork, the Receipt for making it.    25
  Magic Lanterns, from                    2.00
  Albums, for 50 Cartes.                  2.00
  Albums, with 50 Cartes of Celebrities.  4.00

  IVORY SLEEVE BUTTONS--Horse, Dog,
      Stag, Frog, Turtle, Owl, and
      Egyptian Heads, with glass eyes,
      per pair                            75c.


Faro and Keno Goods Etc.

[Illustration]


Ivory Faro Checks.

FIRST QUALITY.

  1½       in., plain, per hundred.    $35.00
  1^9/_{16} “     “     “     “         37.50
  1⅝        “     “     “     “         40.00
  1½        “   fancy,  “     “         37.50
  1^9/_{16} “     “     “     “         40.00
  1⅝        “     “     “     “         42.50

SECOND QUALITY.

  1^7/_{16} in., plain, per hundred     27.50
  1½         “     “     “     “        30.00
  1^9/_{16}  “     “     “     “        32.50
  1⅝         “     “     “     “        35.00
  1½         “   fancy,  “     “        32.50
  1^9/_{16}  “     “     “     “        35.00
  1⅝         “     “     “     “        37.50

Coppers, Splits and Markers included. Broken Sets of Checks filled up
at short notice.


Welling’s Patent


Compressed


IVORY FARO CHECKS.

  Plain    1½ inch, per hundred           $10.00
    “      1⅝  “     “     “               11.50
  Lined    1½  “     “     “               11.50
    “      1⅝  “     “     “               13.00
  Engraved 1½ in.    “     “               13.00
    “      1⅝  “     “     “               16.00
  Plain    1½ in. pr. set of six hundred   50.00
    “      1⅝  “     “    “    “     “     60.00
  Lined    1½  “     “    “    “     “     60.00
    “      1⅝  “     “    “    “     “     70.00
  Engraved 1½ in.    “    “    “     “     80.00
    “      1⅝  “     “    “    “     “     90.00


Poker Chips.


IVORY.

  1   inch               per hundred, $10.00
  1⅛   “                        “      12.00
  1¼   “                        “      15.00
  1⅜   “                        “      16.00

Either red, blue or white.


BONE.

  1     in.,            per hundred,
  1⅛ “ plain                “            3.00

          cut to measure,
  1⅛ “       “              “            4.00
  1¼ “       “              “            6.00
  1⅜ “       “              “            8.00
  1⅝ “       “              “           10.00
  Boston Counters, per set               4.00


Welling’s Patent Compressed

IVORY POKER CHIPS.

  Poker Chips, pr. set of six hundred,   $38.00
        “           “     one    “         7.00

Parties sending for Poker Chips will please specify the number wanted
of each color.


  Faro Boxes and Tools.

  Square Dealing Faro Box, fine make,
    German Silver, extra heavy                               $25.00

  Card Punches, steel                                          4.00

  Card Punches, silver, with hinge                            10.00

  Trimming Shears, double edged Cutter                        35.00

  Trimming Shears, Knife small                                20.00

  Trimming Shears, Knife large                                50.00

  Stripper Plates, to use with Knife, per set                  5.00

  Card Press, without cover                                    6.00

  Card Press, with slide cover, compartment
    for dealing Box, lock
    and key                                                   10.00

  The same, to hold a dozen packs, Double                     14.00

  Case Keepers, Cards, Wooden markers                         12.00

  Case Keepers, Cards, Composition markers                    15.00

  Square Props, per set, 4 in a set                            3.00

  Case Keepers, finest painted Ivory markers                  25.00


[Transcriber’s Note:

Obvious printer errors corrected silently.

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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