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Title: Musketry - (.303 and .22 cartridges)
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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[Transcriber’s Note:

Bold text delimited by equal signs, italic text delimited by
underscores.]



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  DRILL AND
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  (4 Company Organisation)

  ATTACK, DEFENCE, OUTPOSTS, SCOUTING,
  BAYONET FIGHTING, FIELD SKETCHING,
  FIGHTING IN WOOD AND VILLAGES,
  NIGHT OPERATIONS, ETC.


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  MUSKETRY

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  ELEMENTARY TRAINING AND PRACTICES,
  FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL, INDIVIDUAL
  AND COLLECTIVE FIELD
  PRACTICES, RANGE PRACTICES, ETC.


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MUSKETRY


VOLUMES IN THE

IMPERIAL ARMY SERIES

_Each 1s. net_

  DRILL AND FIELD TRAINING
  FIELD ENTRENCHMENTS
  SIGNALLING
  MUSKETRY
  CAMPS, BILLETS, COOKING, CEREMONIAL
  PHYSICAL TRAINING. Junior Course
  PHYSICAL TRAINING. Senior Course

_For full particulars see front of book_



  IMPERIAL ARMY SERIES
  BASED ON OFFICIAL MANUALS


  MUSKETRY
  (·303 AND ·22 CARTRIDGES)

  ELEMENTARY TRAINING
  VISUAL TRAINING
  JUDGING DISTANCE
  FIRE DISCIPLINE
  RANGE PRACTICES
  FIELD PRACTICES

  Written by an Officer of the Regular Army

  AND EDITED BY
  E. JOHN SOLANO

  LONDON
  JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.
  1915

  _All rights reserved._

  THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO

  BRIGADIER-GENERAL N. R. MACMAHON, D.S.O.

  KILLED IN ACTION, FLANDERS,

  _November 11, 1914._

  _First Edition_       _January, 1915_
  _Reprinted_           _February, 1915_



EDITOR’S NOTE


=Object of the Book.=--This book is intended to serve as an
introduction to _Musketry Regulations_. The instruction contained
in it is consistent in principle and method with that laid down in
_Musketry Regulations, Infantry Training (1914)_, and other official
manuals. It is hoped that the book may prove useful to officers and men
of the newly raised units of the Regular Army, Territorial Force, and
the Military Forces of the dominions. As great care has been taken to
explain the correct methods of carrying out musketry training, it is
also hoped that it may prove useful to the Volunteer Training Corps,
Officers’ Training Corps, and Cadet Corps. The Preface contains notes
on experience gained at the front in the present campaign, signed by
General Sir O’Moore Creagh, V.C., which will prove of great value to
officers in training their commands.

=Scope of Instruction.=--The scope of instruction in the book is
practically identical with that laid down in _Musketry Regulations_.
It contains the conditions of the individual and collective field
practices recently laid down for the training of the new armies on
classification ranges. It also includes directions for carrying out a
complete course of musketry instruction on miniature ranges with the
aid of the Standard Target Equipment adopted for this purpose.[1] This
instruction includes elementary training, and leads up by progressive
stages to visual training, fire discipline, fire direction and control,
and a variety of individual and collective field practices which can be
fired under conditions approximating as closely as possible to those of
service.

=Acknowledgment.=--The Editor desires to express his thanks and
acknowledgments to the Military Authorities and to His Majesty’s
Stationery Office for permission to reproduce illustrations and
extracts from the _Musketry Regulations_ and other official manuals.
It is intended to keep each edition of this book abreast of the latest
developments in the science with which it deals, and the changes made
from time to time in the official training manuals.

  E. JOHN SOLANO.

LONDON, 1915.



PREFACE

NOTES ON EXPERIENCE GAINED AT THE FRONT

BY GENERAL SIR O’MOORE CREAGH, V.C.


=1.= The experience gained at the front in the present campaign may be
divided broadly under two heads: Firstly, the test under war conditions
of the general principles upon which the British Army has been trained
in peace. Secondly, knowledge concerning the tactics of the enemy and
his method of employing various arms. With regard to the former of
these two heads of information, it is important to note _that the broad
principles upon which the training of the British Army has been based
are described by a General Officer as being sound, and that the need of
paying strict attention to them in carrying out training is emphasized
by him_. On the other hand, valuable experience has been gained as to
the best method of applying these general principles to the peculiar
conditions which have so far prevailed in the present campaign,
including the tactics adopted by the enemy. Information based on this
experience, more especially so far as it concerns the employment of
musketry in attack and defence, is included in these notes, as it may
prove useful to officers in training their commands.

=2.= These notes, therefore, do not affect the general principles of
training laid down in this book. _They merely deal with the application
of these principles to the peculiar conditions which have so far
obtained in the course of the campaign._ These conditions may at any
time give place to others, for it must be remembered that in no two
military operations is the situation exactly the same. _Instructors,
therefore, must avoid the mistake of training their men for any
particular given conditions of warfare, and remember that general
principles and broad rules alone are applicable to the leading of
troops in war (Infantry Training, 1914)._

=3. German Musketry.=[2]--(i) The Germans consider it unnecessary
to teach men to fire at distances beyond 400 metres. Their plan of
infantry attack (see diagram, p. ix) is devised to get within this
range without opening fire. Accordingly, judging distance is practised
by officers only, and no attention is devoted to the indication of
targets, concentration of fire, or to fire direction and control
generally, as practised in the British Army. To concentrate the fire of
a platoon or company on one spot at 1,000 yards range was considered by
Germans to be a waste of ammunition. Their training seems to have been
limited to independent firing by battalions on large areas of ground.

(ii) Only some of their men were practised in rapid firing, which
averaged eight or nine rounds a minute, as against the fifteen
well-aimed shots a minute which British troops are trained to deliver
in rapid firing. In this respect it may be mentioned that the straight
bolt of the German rifle is not so easy to work as the bolt of the
British rifle, nor is its clip so easy to put in. When put to the test
of war, the musketry of the German infantry is characterized by British
officers as poor and “lamentable.”

=4. British Musketry.=--On the other hand, the German officer referred
to in the footnote below described British musketry under the test of
war as “marvellous,” and, in doing so, expressed the views generally
held in the German Army as the result of experience. He states that the
Germans had counted on being able to rush the British troops by weight
of numbers by the plan of attack described in the next paragraph;
but they found themselves unable to do so because the British rifle
fire was “so straight and so quick.” He added that “they had never
had a chance against the British,” because, although they reckoned
on their third line with their machine-guns being able to get within
400 yards of the enemy, they had never been able to do this over open
ground against the British, because their first line was down too
soon--sometimes at 800 to 1,000 yards. Again, on the Aisne, this German
officer’s machine-gun battery came under the concentrated fire of
British infantry at 1,000 yards, and though his men suffered heavily
from it, they were unable to reply to the British, as they were unable
to see them.

=5. A German Plan of Infantry Attack.=--(i) The diagram on page ix
gives a rough idea of a German plan of infantry attack in close
formations, as explained by a German officer. The first line is looked
on as cover from bullets for the second and third lines, to enable
these two lines to get close to the enemy with the minimum of loss. The
Germans considered massed formations to be the only way to get up close
to the enemy. Both ranks of each line in these formations are close
together. When their third line is stopped, they have standing orders
to dig in at once, and for this purpose the third line carries shovels
and small picks. It has already been explained that, owing to the
tremendous effect of British musketry fire, this German plan of attack
has repeatedly failed after very heavy loss has been incurred.

(ii) As regards fire effect, the Germans had considered the machine-gun
to be the most valuable method of discharging bullets, and an
enormous amount of time, trouble, and ammunition has been expended
on machine-gun training, as well as upon their artillery, upon which
they relied largely in their plan of attack. Notes referring to German
machine-guns will be found in _Machine-Gun Training_ of this series.

=6. German Night Attacks.=--(i) The enemy’s night attacks are made
without scouts or advanced parties, and the advance is made with great
rapidity. Infantry in trenches must always be ready to open a burst of
rapid fire at a few seconds’ notice; so long as this can be done, there
will be no chance of a trench being rushed. Supports should be in the
cover-trenches, and, when the firing-line is attacked, should not fire,
but rely on the bayonet.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM SHOWING A GERMAN PLAN OF INFANTRY ATTACK IN
CLOSE FORMATIONS.]

(ii) The Germans usually attack about 3 p.m. (winter) or at dusk, and
then entrench during the night within 200 yards of our lines. They also
take advantage of fog in the early morning. They make a little progress
in this way, but it is slow work, and they have lost enormously, as
already stated. They shoot badly with the rifle, and the effect of
their fire is chiefly obtained by artillery and machine-guns.

=7. Flares to illuminate Foreground at Night.=--(i) No fixed apparatus
can be set in the field for the reliable lighting of foreground at
night which will survive a prolonged bombardment and bad weather, or
admit of renewal or attention in the close presence of the enemy. This
does not apply to electric searchlights employed in carefully chosen
and protected sites in connection with harbour and fortress defences,
nor to flares or bonfires set for the purpose of providing a single
illumination for a given purpose, such as a signal or landmark.

(ii) For the temporary illumination of foreground during an engagement
with the enemy, the best method is to employ hand and rifle
“illumination grenades,” which ignite on impact with the ground upon
the same principle as in the detonation of the explosive or fighting
grenades. By this means temporary illumination can be concentrated at
the exact points at which it is most required. In siege warfare or
trench fighting at close quarters there is special use for a combined
incendiary and illumination bomb or grenade fired from a trench mortar.
These bombs would be charged with inflammable material and liquid, such
as cotton waste in petrol, together with a small charge of explosive,
which would ignite and scatter the contents freely upon impact.

=8. British Infantry Formations in Attack=--(i) =Advance under Rifle
or Machine-Gun Fire.=--Small columns in what are known as “artillery
formations” should never be adhered to when there is a possibility
of their coming under close or medium range fire of infantry or
machine-guns. Troops have suffered severely from insufficient
extension, and the adoption of rigid lines, and also from pushing
forward in close formations without taking the proper military
precautions. Loose elastic formations adapted to the ground, with men
at eight or ten paces interval, are the least vulnerable.

(ii) =Advance under Artillery Fire.=--Several times it has been
necessary to advance under unsubdued artillery fire. Small columns at
50 yards’ interval and 300 yards’ distance have been found to be the
best method of avoiding casualties. The 19th Brigade lying in the open
in this formation were shelled by two batteries for half an hour, and
had only twenty-five casualties.

=9. Cover and Fields of Fire.=--(i) Owing to the effect of German
artillery fire, cover from view has become more important than field
of fire. It is better to have a field of fire of 100 yards and to be
invisible than to have one of 600 yards and be an easy target for
artillery. Owing to the enemy’s artillery fire by day, digging is
nearly always done at night, and this requires much practice. Some sort
of rough cover from shrapnel and head cover is made if time allows, and
also if it can be made without making the trench conspicuous.

(ii) =Defensive Positions and Sites of Trenches.=--Whenever possible,
trenches should be sited so that they are not under artillery
observation. This point is regarded as of great importance, and an
extensive field of fire is a secondary consideration. Trenches should
therefore be sited having regard to possible observation stations
on ground occupied by the enemy, and not solely with regard to the
possible artillery positions of the enemy. In open country it is better
to select a “back position,” behind the crest of a hill, with a field
of fire of 300 or 400 yards. This compels the enemy to expose his
infantry to rifle and shrapnel fire, and affords his artillery little
opportunity of observation. Such positions were held on the Aisne, with
slight loss to our troops and heavy loss to the enemy. A field of fire
of 100 yards is regarded as satisfactory if it cannot be increased
without loss of concealment from artillery observation.

=10. Care of Rifles.=--(i) The following directions are issued with
regard to the care of rifles on service. New rifles are inclined to
work somewhat stiffly at first, owing to slight roughness of the
bearing surfaces of the bolt and bolt-way. This can be appreciably
lessened by frequent and systematic manipulation of the bolt, the
bearing surfaces being well oiled. Primary extraction--the first
loosening of the fired cartridge in the chamber--can be improved by
placing a fired case in the chamber, and working the bolt-lever up and
down without drawing back the bolt.

(ii) Rifles must be kept clean and well oiled, and it has been found
necessary to make an inspection daily or even oftener. Particular care
must be taken to see that the chamber is scrupulously clean. If it is
permitted to become dirty, great difficulty in extraction is likely to
be experienced. It has also been found that cartridges get rusted into
their clips, and that they should be moved at least weekly. Magazine
springs may also become weak, if the magazine is continually kept
loaded with ten instead of five rounds.

=11. Conclusion.=--(i) Up to the present the tactics of the enemy
and the conditions of warfare of the campaign on the Continent have
resulted as a rule in giving the infantryman fairly short fields
of fire and more or less visible targets. This has accentuated the
value of rapid, accurate fire within close range, to which particular
attention should be paid in training men. On the other hand, when
opportunity has afforded, the value of fire direction and control has
been demonstrated by the effect of British rifle fire beyond close
range.

(ii) The principles of training laid down in the _Musketry Regulations_
and in this book as a whole should, therefore, be adhered to and
carried out systematically. Above all, the sound principles that troops
should be trained to make the best possible use of their weapons, not
only at one but at all ranges of the battlefield, and that they should
be trained to adapt their instruction to a variety of conditions, and
not to any given conditions, should be observed faithfully. The correct
application of general principles to the ever-varying circumstances of
warfare should be the object of any sound system of military training.

(iii) The following subjects of training may be mentioned as being
especially important in relation to the present campaign:

1. Rapid fire.

2. Entrenching, especially in the dark.

3. Cover from view of artillery for the trenches.

4. Bringing enfilade fire to bear on enemy’s trenches whenever possible.

5. Skilful use of machine-guns. Infantry must be careful when advancing
that an enemy’s machine-gun is not hidden on the flank ready to open
enfilade fire. Some regiments have lost very heavily from being caught
in this way.

  O’M. CREAGH.

LONDON, 1915.



  CONTENTS


  PREFACE

        PAGE

  NOTES ON EXPERIENCE GAINED AT THE FRONT                           vi


  DEFINITION OF TECHNICAL TERMS AND MILITARY
  VOCABULARY

  I. =Definitions=                                                xxii

  II. =Military Vocabulary for Indication and Recognition of
      Targets=                                                    xxvi


  CHAPTER I

  THE CARE AND CLEANING OF ARMS

  SECTION

  1. =General Remarks=                                               1

  2. =Wear and Fouling=                                              2

  3. =Materials used for Cleaning Arms=                              4

  4. =Instructions for Cleaning Arms=                                7

  5. =Instructions for Care of Arms and Ammunition=                 10

  6. =Examination of Small Arms=                                    12

  7. =Inspection of Arms on Parade=                                 15


  CHAPTER II

  THE THEORY AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF
  RIFLE FIRE

  8. =General Information=                                          18

  9. =Dangerous Space--Ricochets--Firing Up and Down Hill=          25

  10. =Effects of Barometric Pressure, Temperature, Wind, and
       Light=                                                       27

  11. =Need for Collective Fire=                                    29

  12. =Dispersion of Individual and Collective Fire=                31

  13. =Searching=                                                   35

  14. =The Relation of Ground to Fire Effect=                       38


  CHAPTER III

  INSTRUCTION IN AIMING

  15. =General Remarks=                                             43

  16. =Aiming Instruction=                                          47

  17. =Common Faults in Aiming=                                     50

  18. =Triangle of Error=                                           51

  19. =Aiming at Service Targets, Aiming at Ground, and Marking
       Down the Enemy=                                              53

  20. =Aiming-Off for Wind=                                         55

  21. =Aiming Up and Down=                                          57

  22. =Aiming-Off for Movement=                                     58

  23. =Practice in Rapid Adjustment of Sights=                      60


  CHAPTER IV

  ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN FIRING

  24. =Hints to Instructors=                                        62

  25. =Trigger-Pressing and Snapping=                               63

  26. =The Various Firing Positions=                                66

  27. =Loading and Unloading=                                       69

  28. =Use of the Safety-Catch and Cut-Off=                         71

  29. =Instruction in Aiming and Firing=                            72

  30. =Firing in the Open=                                          73

  31. =Firing from Cover=                                           73

  32. =Muscle Exercises=                                            77


  CHAPTER V

  VISUAL TRAINING AND RANGING

  33. =General Remarks on Visual Training=                          81

  34. =Discernment of Targets=                                      82

  35. =Military Vocabulary and Study of Ground=                     84

  36. =General Remarks on Ranging=                                  89

  37. =Judging Distances by Eye=                                    91

  38. =Range-Finding by Observation of Fire=                        96

  39. =Ranging by Auxiliary Methods and by Instruments=             97

  40. =Range-Cards and Range-Marks=                                 98


  CHAPTER VI

  FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  41. =General Remarks=                                            105

  42. =Organization for Fire Action=                               106

  43. =Effect of Fire at Different Ranges on Various Formations
       and Objectives=                                             110

  44. =Tactical Application of Rifle Fire=                         112

  45. =Description and Recognition of Targets=                     119

  46. =Fire Orders=                                                127

  47. =Fire Discipline=                                            130


  CHAPTER VII

  GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING RANGE AND FIELD
  PRACTICES

  48. =Preliminary Training=                                       135

  49. =Tests of Preliminary Training=                              136

  50. =Progression of Instruction in Range and Field Practices=    140

  51. =Range Practices=                                            141

  52. =Grouping and Application=                                   146

  53. =Snapshooting, Rapid Firing, and Firing at Crossing
      Targets=                                                     150

  54. =Field Practices=                                            151


  CHAPTER VIII

  CONDUCT OF RANGE AND FIELD PRACTICES

  55. =Thirty Yards Ranges=                                        159

  56. =Grouping Practices=                                         159

  57. =Timed Practices=                                            161

  58. =General Rules for Range Practices=                          162

  59. =Surplus Ammunition and Computation of Averages=             166

  60. =Conditions of Qualification=                                167

  61. =Classification Practices and Conditions of Classification=  168

  62. =Recruits’ Course, Regular Forces, Cavalry, R.E., and
      Infantry=                                                    171

  63. =Execution of Tables A and B in the Same Year=               171

  64. =Trained Soldiers’ Course=:

  TABLE A--Recruits’ Course (Cavalry, Royal Engineers, and
       Infantry)                                                   174

  TABLE B--Annual Course (Cavalry, Royal Engineers, and
       Infantry)                                                   177

  TABLE A--Recruits’ Course (R.A., R.E., A.S.C., A.O.C.)           180

  TABLE B--Annual Course (R.A., A.S.C., A.O.C.)                    181

  65. =General Rules for Field Practices=                          182

  66. =Field Practices on Classification Ranges=--Individual
      Practices--Collective Practices                              184


  CHAPTER IX

  NIGHT FIRING, HAND GRENADES, AND COMPETITIONS

  67. =Night Firing=                                               193

  68. =Hand Grenade= (=Mark I=)                                    194

  69. =Competitions=                                               201


  CHAPTER X

  INSTRUCTION ON MINIATURE RANGES, INCLUDING
  RANGE AND FIELD PRACTICES

  70. =General Remarks=                                            203

  71. =Targets=                                                    205

  72. =Preliminary Training=                                       207

  73. =Range Practices=                                            213

  74. =Field Practices, Night Firing, and
      Competitions--Lectures--Demonstrations--Individual
      and Collective Field Practices=                              213


  APPENDIX

  I. =Names of the Parts of Rifles--Short M.L.E., Mark III, and
      Charger-Loading M.L.E.=                                      233

  II. =Directions for Use of the Legret Aim-Teacher=               240

  III. =Directions for Use of the Aim-Corrector=                   241

  IV. =Directions for Use of the Aiming-Disc=                      243

  V. =“Harmonizing” Rifles for Miniature Range Practices=          244

  VI. =Scoring and Signalling=                                     245

  VII. =Solano Target--Marks I. and II.=                           248

  VIII. =Solano Elementary and Instructional Targets=              250


  INDEX                                                            258



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


  FIG.      PAGE

  DIAGRAM SHOWING A GERMAN PLAN OF INFANTRY
      ATTACK IN CLOSE FORMATIONS                                    ix

  1. WIRE GAUZE ON PULL-THROUGH                                      5

  2 AND 3. ILLUSTRATION OF TRAJECTORY, ETC.                         19

  4 AND 5. DANGEROUS SPACE                                          26

  6. CONE OF FIRE                                                   32

  7. DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE DISPERSION IN DEPTH
      OF CONCENTRATED COLLECTIVE FIRE AT 1,500
      YARDS AND ITS DISTRIBUTION IN DEPTH BY THE
      USE OF COMBINED SIGHTS                                        36

  8. THE RELATION OF GROUND TO FIRE EFFECT                          39

  9. THE RELATION OF GROUND TO FIRE EFFECT                          40

  10. DEAD GROUND                                                   42

  11. DIAGRAMS SHOWING CORRECT AND INCORRECT
      ALIGNMENT OF SIGHTS                                           48

  12. LONG-RANGE SIGHTS                                             49

  13. FAULTS IN AIMING                                              50

  14. TRIANGLE OF ERROR                                             52

  15. METHOD OF PRESSING TRIGGER WITH FOREFINGER                    64

  16. SHOT GROUP ILLUSTRATING RESULT OF FAULTY
      TRIGGER-PRESSING                                              65

  17. SHOWING GRIP OF RIGHT HAND, AND TRIGGER
      FINGER                                                        66

  18. INSTRUCTOR ILLUSTRATING CORRECT METHOD OF
      PRESSING THE TRIGGER                                          66

  19. CORRECT METHOD OF USING AIMING-DISC                           66

  20. STANDING POSITION--SIDE VIEW                                  67

  21. STANDING POSITION--FRONT VIEW                                 67

  22. PRONE POSITION--SIDE VIEW                                     68

  23. KNEELING POSITION--SIDE VIEW                                  68

  24. KNEELING POSITION--FRONT VIEW                                 68

  25. SITTING POSITION                                              69

  26. SITTING POSITION WHEN FIRING--AIMING DOWN
      STEEP SLOPE                                                   69

  27. LOADING IN STANDING POSITION                                  70

  28. FIRING IN THE OPEN. HEADS LOWERED; OBSERVER
      WATCHING FRONT                                                71

  29. FIRING ROUND COVER--CORRECT                                   74

  30. FIRING ROUND COVER--UNNECESSARY EXPOSURE                      74

  31. FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--SIDE VIEW                         74

  32. FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--UNNECESSARY
      EXPOSURE                                                      75

  33. FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--CORRECT METHOD                    75

  34. FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER                                  75

  35. FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER                                  76

  36. FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER                                  76

  37. FIRING ROUND CONTINUOUS COVER: LYING POSITION--FRONT
      VIEW                                                          76

  38. FIRING ROUND CONTINUOUS COVER: LYING POSITION--SIDE
      VIEW                                                          76

  39. KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN LOADING                  77

  40. KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN LOADED                   77

  41. KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN FIRING                   77

  42. KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN FIRING                   77

  43. MILITARY VOCABULARY--TERMS DESCRIBING COMMON
      FEATURES OF GROUND                                            87

  44. SIMPLE RANGE CARD FOR ATTACK                                  99

  45. SIMPLE RANGE CARD FOR DEFENCE                                100

  46. EXAMPLE OF A FOREGROUND RANGE SKETCH                         102

  47. ROUGH SKETCH OF A FIELD OF FIRE DIVIDED INTO
      OVERLAPPING SECTORS BY THE USE OF DESCRIPTION
      POINTS ON DEPLOYMENT IN ATTACK                               108

  48. DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING TACTICAL APPLICATION OF
      FIRE                                                         115

  49. DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--FINGER-BREADTH
      METHOD                                                       122

  50. DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--CLOCK-FACE METHOD                    123

  51. DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--EXAMPLE OF FIELD OF
      FIRE SUITABLE FOR EMPLOYMENT OF FINGER-BREADTH
      AND CLOCK-FACE METHODS, COMBINED
      WITH DESCRIPTION POINTS                                      124

  52. HAND GRENADE, MARK I                                    196, 197

  53. SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR ELEMENTARY
      PRACTICES BY EIGHT MEN FIRING SIMULTANEOUSLY,
      SHOWING THE TARGETS NUMBERED                                 206

  54. SOLANO TARGET--CLEAT FITTING WITH CORDS WHICH
      OPERATE MECHANISM ATTACHED                                   206

  55. SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR GENERAL
      INSTRUCTION OR FOR FIRING FIELD PRACTICES,
      WITH SCENERY AND SCENIC ACCESSORIES (TYPE A),
      AND WITH SOLANO FIGURES REPRESENTING TROOPS
      AT DIFFERENT RANGES                                          207

  56. SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR GENERAL
      INSTRUCTION OR FOR FIRING FIELD PRACTICES,
      WITH SCENERY AND SCENIC ACCESSORIES (TYPE C),
      AND WITH SOLANO FIGURES REPRESENTING TROOPS
      AT DIFFERENT RANGES                                          207

  57. LANDSCAPE TARGET ON FRAMES ATTACHED TO SOLANO
      TARGET IN POSITION FOR FIRING                                228

  58. LANDSCAPE TARGET PRACTICES--ILLUSTRATION SHOWING
      METHOD OF HARMONIZING RIFLES AND THE
      SYSTEM OF MEASURING COLLECTIVE GROUPING OF
      CONCENTRATED AND DISTRIBUTED FIRE                            229

  59, 60. SHORT MAGAZINE LEE-ENFIELD RIFLE                    234, 235

  61-63. CHARGER-LOADING LEE-ENFIELD RIFLE                     237-239

  64. LEGRET AIM-TEACHER                                           240

  65. AIM-CORRECTOR                                                242

  66. AIMING-DISC                                                  243

  67. SOLANO ELEMENTARY TARGET, NO. 1                              251

  68. SOLANO ELEMENTARY TARGET, NO. 2                              252

  69. A CIRCLE (3 INCHES DIAMETER) AND A TRIANGLE
      (3 INCHES EQUILATERAL), SHOWING THAT THE TRIANGLE
      AS AIMING AND SCORING DIAGRAM INDUCES
      CLOSER GROUPING THAN THE CIRCLE BY ALLOWING
      LESS MARGIN FOR BOTH VERTICAL AND LATERAL
      ERRORS REPRESENTED BY THE DOTS                               253

  70. SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET, NO. 1                           254

  71. SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET, NO. 2                           255

  72. SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET, NO. 3                           256



DEFINITIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS AND MILITARY VOCABULARY


I. DEFINITIONS.

    =Aiming-Off.=--Altering the point of aim laterally, so as to give
    deflection to the rifle-barrel without using the wind-gauge.

    =Aiming Point.=--The point in any target at which aim is taken,
    forming the extremity of the line of sight.

    =Aiming Up and Down.=--Altering the point of aim vertically so
    as to give more or less elevation to the rifle-barrel without
    altering the sight.

    =Angle of Descent.=--Angle at which the bullet falls to the
    ground at the end of its flight (Figs. 4 and 5).

    =Application.=--An elementary musketry practice, designed to
    illustrate methods of correcting aim or sighting in accordance
    with observation or signals from the butts.

    =Approximation of Scoring Rings.=--Concentric rings marked on an
    instructional target and possessing various values which afford
    a simple means of comparing the shooting errors of individuals,
    but having no relation to the vulnerable surfaces of the ordinary
    service targets.

    =Axis of the Barrel.=--The axis of the barrel is an imaginary
    line following the centre of the bore from breech to muzzle (Fig.
    2).

    =Beaten Zone.=--Area of ground beaten by a cone of fire (Fig. 6).

    =Bull’s Eye.=--A circular aiming-mark of varying size used in
    elementary training for grouping practice, with the object of
    eliminating all sources of error other than that of bad holding.

    =Concentration of Fire.=--The directing of fire on one particular
    portion of the enemy’s line. Its value lies in the demoralizing
    effect it produces owing to the heavy loss it inflicts at the
    point at which it is directed (Fig. 48).

    =Covered Approach.=--Ground and natural or artificial cover which
    screens movement towards an objective from the enemy’s view.

    =Culminating Point.=--The culminating point is the greatest
    height above the line of sight to which the bullet rises in its
    flight; this is reached at a point a little beyond half the
    distance to which the bullet travels.

    =Dangerous Space.=--The dangerous space for any particular range
    is the distance between the first catch and the first graze (Fig.
    4).

    =Dead Ground.=--Any ground on which troops cannot be struck by
    missiles fired by defenders of a position owing to the formation
    of the intervening ground (Fig. 10).

    =Deflection.=--The inclination of the rifle-barrel laterally with
    reference to the line of sight, counteracting the effect of wind,
    drift, or other influence which tends to force the bullet out of
    a straight path.

    =Description Points.=--Ground and its natural or artificial
    features used for indication of targets (Figs. 49-51).

    =Distribution of Fire.=--The method of directing fire so that it
    may be scattered over several objects (Fig. 48).

    =Elevation.=--The inclination of the rifle-barrel vertically with
    reference to the line of sight, necessitated by the downward
    influence exercised on the bullet by the force of gravity.

    =Error of the Day.=--A term used to include errors in shooting
    due to miscalculation of atmospheric influences, such as wind,
    temperature, etc.

    =Error of the Rifle.=--Any error inherent in a rifle, independent
    of any error due to the want of skill of the firer.

    =Fire, Kinds of=--

        =Collective Fire.=--The fire of several rifles combined for
        a definite purpose under the orders of a fire-leader. Such
        fire skilfully directed and well controlled may produce good
        effect up to 1,400 yards.

        =Converging Fire.=--Fire aimed at one target from different
        points.

        =Covering Fire.=--Fire delivered from the rear or flank by a
        special body of troops to keep down the fire of the attacked
        during the advance of the attacking body. It also includes
        fire delivered by portions of a line with a view to assisting
        the advance of the remainder (Fig. 48).

        =Effective Fire.=--Fire which has the desired result upon the
        target.

        =Enfilade Fire.=--Fire which sweeps a line of troops or
        defences from a flank (Fig. 48).

        =Frontal Fire.=--Fire which is delivered directly to the
        front.

        =Grazing Fire.=--When the angle of the fall of the bullets
        (see Trajectory) is the same as the slope of the ground and
        the missiles sweep along its surface the fire is called
        grazing (Fig. 9).

        =Individual Fire.=--Fire opened without orders from a
        fire-leader. On account of the difficulty of observation 600
        yards may be taken as the limit of effective fire of this
        nature against small targets.

        =Indirect Fire.=--Indirect fire is fire directed by means of
        auxiliary aiming-marks at an objective which is invisible to
        the firer (Fig. 48).

        =Masked Fire.=--Troops (guns or rifles) in a position whence
        they could employ fire effectively against an enemy, but for
        the fear of causing casualties to their comrades, are said to
        have their fire masked by these latter troops.

        =Oblique Fire.=--Fire directed on a target in a slanting
        direction--_i.e._ not directly to the front (Fig. 48).

        =Rapid Fire.=--Fire delivered as quickly as the nature of the
        rifle admits.

        =Reverse Fire.=--Fire so directed that the bullets strike the
        target in rear (Fig. 48).

        =Searching Fire.=--Searching is the term applied to
        collective fire when the depth of its dispersion over a
        beaten zone is increased by the use of combined sights (Fig.
        7).

        =Sweeping Fire.=--Sweeping fire is fire distributed laterally
        (Fig. 48).

        =Unaimed Fire.=--Unaimed fire is fire directed at a visible
        objective which strikes another objective to the rear of it
        (Fig. 48).

=Fire Control.=--Fire control is the duty of junior officers and
non-commissioned officers, and consists in giving ranges to and
pointing out targets to the fire-units, and seeing that their men
adjust their sights to the range given. It further consists in
regulating the volume of fire, the accurate passing of all orders
and information, and in the cavalry and infantry the collecting of
ammunition from casualties and its redistribution.

=Fire Discipline.=--The training of men so that they will instinctively
carry out all orders of fire-unit commanders, and in the absence of
orders adjust their sights and fire with due regard to the tactical
situation.

=Fire Effect.=--The effect on the target resulting from the fire aimed
at it.

=Fire Fight.=--The struggle for fire superiority.

=Fire Position.=--Positions from which fire is opened during the
advance of an attacking force; during the early stages of the advance
with a view to gaining ground, in the latter stages with a view to
gaining a superiority of fire.

=Fire-Unit.=--A unit, the fire of which is controlled by one commander.
The normal cavalry and infantry fire-unit is the troop and section
respectively.

=Firing-Line.=--In extended formations the line of troops from which
the main body of fire is delivered.

=Firing-Position.=--The position, standing, kneeling, lying, etc.,
adopted for firing, according to circumstances.

=First Catch.=--The first catch is that point where the bullet has
descended sufficiently to strike the head of a man, whether mounted,
standing, kneeling, lying, etc. (Fig. 4, A).

=First Graze.=--The first graze is the point where the bullet, if not
interfered with, will first strike the ground (Fig. 4, B).

=Group, Grouping, or Diagram of Group.=--The pattern made on a vertical
target by a series of shots fired by an individual or the pattern made
on a horizontal surface by concentrated collective fire.

=Grouping.=--An elementary musketry practice designed to test and
standardize holding and the accuracy of rifles, and to expose constant
errors in aiming.

=Holding.=--The form of skill required in order to press the trigger
without disturbing the aim.

=Inclined Sights.=--A common fault in aiming-failure to keep the sights
upright.

=Line of Departure.=--The line of departure is the direction of the
bullet on leaving the muzzle--_i.e._, the prolongation of the axis of
the barrel (Fig. 2).

=Line of Fire.=--The line of fire is a line joining the muzzle of the
rifle and the target (Fig. 2).

=Line of Sight.=--The line of sight is a straight line passing through
the sights and the point aimed at (Fig. 2).

=Marking Down.=--Noting the exact position of an enemy seen to occupy
ground or cover.

=Mutual Support.=--The fire of one unit directed at the enemy to cover
and assist the movement of another unit (Fig. 48). Also individual
soldiers working in pairs to assist each other in firing.

=Observation.=--Watching the effect of fire on the target with a view
to correction or verification of sighting, either by watching for the
dust thrown up by bullets or the behaviour of the enemy.

=Permissible Error.=--Error made in estimating range which does not
render fire ineffective.

=Ranges, Terms applied to.=

  +-------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+
  |Terms applied|     Rifle.     | Field Artillery.| Heavy Batteries. |
  |  to Ranges. |                |                 |                  |
  +-------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+
  |             |     Yards.     |     Yards.      |      Yards.      |
  | Distant     | 2,800 to 2,000 | 6,500 to 5,000  | 10,000 to 6,500  |
  | Long        | 2,000 to 1,400 | 5,000 to 4,000  |  6,500 to 5,000  |
  | Effective   | 1,400 to 600   | 4,000 to 2,500  |  5,000 to 2,500  |
  | Close       | 600 and under  | 2,500 and under |  2,500 and under |
  +-------------+----------------+-----------------+------------------+

    =Recruit (Musketry).=--A man who has not completed Table A (the
    recruit’s course of musketry).

    =Sector.=--A portion of frontage allotted to a fire-unit for the
    purposes of observation and fire action.

    =Snapshooting.=--Firing the most accurate possible shot in the
    shortest possible time.

    =Superiority of Fire.=--The means of pouring a more destructive
    fire into the enemy than he can bring to bear on you. Under
    ordinary conditions a necessity prior to the bayonet charge.

    =Target, Crossing.=--A target moving across the front of the
    firer obliquely or at right angles.

    =Target, Service.=--The various targets of battle.

    =Trained Soldier (Musketry).=--A man who has completed Table A
    (the recruit’s course of musketry).

    =Trajectory.=--The curved line a bullet or other projectile
    follows in its flight. This is dependent on the explosion of the
    charge which drives the bullet forward, gravity which draws the
    bullet towards the earth, and the resistance of the air which
    retards the velocity of the bullet (Fig. 2).


II. MILITARY VOCABULARY FOR INDICATION AND RECOGNITION OF TARGETS.

    =Arable Land.=--Ground under cultivation other than pasture or
    grass land.

    =Brook.=--A small stream.

    =Causeway.=--A made road or path, raised by artificial means
    above the level of the surrounding country.

    =Clearing.=--Where trees and undergrowth have been cut down in a
    wood, so as to make an open space.

    =Cliff.=--A high, steep rock.

    =Col.=--A gap or break in a ridge of hills, often traversed by a
    road, which thus avoids to a great extent the ascent and descent
    otherwise necessary in passing from one side of the ridge to the
    other. This term is also used to describe the narrow ridge often
    seen joining a hill to a main chain of hills.

    =Copse (or Coppice).=--A small wood, composed of young trees and
    undergrowth for cutting.

    =Crest-Line.=--Where the top of a hill or mountain appears to
    meet the sky.

    =Cross-Roads.=--The point where one road crosses another.

    =Culvert.=--A watercourse arched over with brickwork or masonry,
    generally under a road or railway.

    =Cutting.=--An excavation through which a railway line runs.

    =Dense Hedge.=--Growing closely together.

    =Donga.=--A South African term, meaning a dry watercourse,
    bordered by steep and high banks.

    =Embankment.=--Earth banked up above the natural height of the
    surrounding country, to preserve the level of a railway line.

    =Fenced.=--Bounded by a fence, hedge, wall, etc.

    =Fencing.=--A structure, enclosing a piece of land or separating
    it from another piece.

    =Ferry.=--A place where a river or other piece of water may be
    crossed by means of a boat kept at the spot for the purpose.

    =Fold in Ground.=--A slight hollow, caused by the regular lie of
    the ground being broken by a rise or depression.

    =Foliage.=--The leaves of trees, shrubs, etc.

    =Ford.=--A shallow place in a stream where it may be crossed by
    wading.

    =Gorge.=--A rugged and deep ravine.

    =Hollow.=--A depression in the ground.

    =Junction of Roads.=--The point where two or more roads meet, but
    do not cross one another.

    =Knoll.=--A low hill standing by itself.

    =Level Crossing.=--Where a road or path crosses a railway-line at
    the same level.

    =Marshland.=--Low-lying, wet land, covered usually with rushes
    and rank vegetation.

    =Moorland.=--Waste land covered with heath, and having a poor,
    peaty soil.

    =Nullah.=--An Indian term, meaning a dry watercourse bordered by
    steep and high banks.

    =Palings.=--Narrow pieces of wood nailed closely together upon
    rails so as to form a fence.

    =Pastureland.=--Grassland.

    =Plantation.=--A small wood, composed of trees recently planted.

    =Ploughland.=--Land which has recently been ploughed.

    =Posts and Rails.=--A fence composed of posts, with one end sunk
    in the ground, connected by rails.

    =Quarry.=--An excavation from which stone has been extracted.

    =Ravine.=--A deep hollow in a hill or mountain side.

    =Ridge.=--Anything shaped like the back of an animal. For
    instance, the highest part of a long range of hills or the
    angular top of the roof of a building.

    =Ridge and Furrow.=--Land ploughed in such a manner that the
    ground lies alternately heaped up (ridge) and hollowed out
    (furrow).

    =River Bank, Right, Left.=--The right or left bank of a river is the
    bank on the right or left of an observer facing down the stream.

    =Saddle.=--A shallow, central dip in a ridge. The depression is
    less marked than a col.

    =Scrub.=--Stunted trees and bushes growing closely together.

    =Shrub.=--A small bushy tree.

    =Signal--Box or Cabin.=--A small building adjoining a
    railway-line, from which a set of signals is controlled.

    =Sky-Line.=--Where earth or sea appear to meet the sky.

    =Slope, Concave.=--A slope is concave when the actual slope of a
    hill offers no obstruction to an observer standing on the crest
    from seeing the foot of the slope. In this case the upper slopes
    of the hill are steeper than the lower slopes.

    =Slope, Convex.=--A slope is convex when an observer standing on
    the crest is unable, through the slope of the hill bulging out,
    to see the foot of the slope. It is caused by the lower slopes
    being of a steeper nature than the upper slopes, and is met with
    especially in chalk downs.

    =Slope, Forward.=--One that falls away in the direction an
    observer is looking.

    =Slope, Gentle.=--_This term explains itself._

    =Slope, Reverse.=--One that falls away behind the spot where the
    observer is standing.

    =Slope, Steep.=--_This term explains itself._

    =Spur.=--A ridge running out from a hill or from range of hills.

    =Stream.=-- Any course of flowing water.

    =Sunken Road.=--A road that has been cut below the level of the
    surrounding country.

    =Swamp.=--Land so saturated with wet bog as to be useless for
    cultivation.

    =Thicket.=--A small wood, composed of bushes and undergrowth.

    =Track.=--An unmade path, which is marked by use.

    =Undergrowth.=--Small trees, brambles, creepers, etc., in a wood.

    =Viaduct.=--A road or railway carried by a series of arches over
    a valley, river, etc.

NOTE.--_The figures at the hinges of pages refer to the_ SECTIONS.



MUSKETRY



CHAPTER I

THE CARE AND CLEANING OF ARMS[3]


Section =1=.--General Remarks.

=1. Responsibility for Care of Arms.=--Officers commanding companies
are responsible for the condition of the arms in their charge, and for
instructing their men in the use of the gauze, so that no unnecessary
wear of the bore may result through its misuse.

=2. Defects.=--Commanding officers will report in the Regimental Annual
Return any defects in the machine guns, rifles, or ammunition in their
charge which have not been remedied satisfactorily.

=3. Instruction in Care and Cleaning of Arms.=--(i) The soldier’s
training in musketry will commence with instruction, the object of
which is to give him a thorough knowledge of the different parts
of the weapon with which he is armed. Classes consisting of squads
or small numbers will be formed for this purpose under a competent
instructor. The construction of the rifle, the nature, function, and
names of its different component parts, its action in loading, firing,
unloading, and the use of the magazine, will be explained to men, both
verbally and by practical demonstration. The parts of the rifle should
be shown separately, and then assembled before the class to explain
its construction. Instructors should ascertain, by asking the class
questions on different points, that each man has thoroughly understood
what he has been taught, and possesses a practical knowledge of his
weapon. The illustrations in Appendix, I., show the various parts of
the different service rifles, and give their names.

(ii) When he has attained this knowledge, the soldier will be taught
by means of short lectures how to take care of his weapon, reduce the
wear and tear to which it is subjected in ordinary use, and guard it
from unnecessary wear and tear and damage from various causes. Finally,
the soldier must be taught both by demonstration and practice how to
clean his weapon properly without causing damage to it in doing so.
Information on these points will be found in this chapter.


Section =2=.--Wear and Fouling.

=1. Wear.=--(i) Wear in the bore of a rifle is due to three causes:
(_a_) the friction of the bullet; (_b_) the heat generated when
ammunition is fired; and (_c_) the friction of the pull-through gauze
when the bore is being cleaned. When care is used in cleaning, 5,000 to
6,000 rounds can be fired from a rifle before it becomes unserviceable.

(ii) =Undue Wear.=--Undue wear is caused by improper and unnecessary
use of the pull-through gauze, to prevent which it is most important
that the instructions for cleaning be adhered to. It may be necessary
to modify these instructions to suit local climatic conditions, or
particular rifles which are in a bad state of preservation.

(iii) When a rifle barrel is new, the interior of the bore carries a
high polish, and this is a great safeguard against rust and metallic
fouling, but as the bore becomes worn, this polish will diminish.
Efforts to restore it with wire gauze on the pull-through result in
unnecessary wear. In a well-cared-for rifle, while the brilliancy of
the polish will diminish, the lands of the bore should always be bright
and free from all stain of rust or fouling.

=2. Fouling.=--(i) Fouling is of two kinds: (_a_) _Internal_, probably
caused by the forcing of gas or harmful material into the pores of the
metal; (_b_) _Superficial_, caused by the deposit in the bore of the
solid products of combustion of the charge and of the cap composition.
The result of neglect in either case is the formation of _rust_ in
the bore, and, as a consequence, _corroded barrels_, calling for the
excessive use of wire gauze, or even more drastic treatment, thereby
causing unnecessary wear.

(ii) =Internal Fouling.=--Internal fouling can be removed
satisfactorily by the use of boiling water [Sec. 4, para. 6 (ii)]. If
for any reason this method of cleaning cannot be used, the barrel will
“sweat,” and a hard black crust of fouling will appear in the bore.
This will turn to red rust if not removed, and the rifle will then
require repeated cleaning with flannelette, and probably with gauze,
for a time, which will vary according to climatic conditions and the
state of the bore.

(iii) =Superficial Fouling.=--Superficial fouling is readily removed,
when warm, by the use of a pull-through and flannelette, but if it is
allowed to remain long in the barrel, it will become hard and will have
a corrosive effect equal to that produced by internal fouling.

3. =Nickelling.=--The appearance of nickelling, or _metallic fouling_,
should be watched for. It is caused by a portion of the cupro-nickel
of the envelope of the bullet being left on the surface of the bore,
and appears as a whitish streak on the lands, or as a slight roughness
on the edge of the grooves. If it is deposited near the muzzle or the
breech, it is visible to the eye when the bore is clean, but in the
centre of the bore it can only be detected by the use of the gauge
plug. It is a cause of inaccuracy, and if a rifle for no apparent
reason shoots badly, its presence should be looked for as a possible
explanation. The soldier will make no attempt to remove it himself, but
will hand his rifle to the armourer, or other qualified person, to be
cleaned.


Section =3=.--Materials used for Cleaning Arms.

=1. Pull-Through= (Fig. 1).--(i) A pull-through fitted with a weight,
and an oil-bottle to contain Russian petroleum, are carried in the
recess in the butt of the rifle. The pull-through is made with three
loops. The first--_i.e._, nearest the weight--is for the gauze when
used; the second for the flannelette; the third is provided merely as
a means of withdrawing the pull-through in case of a jamb. Neither
flannelette nor gauze should be placed in this loop. When signs of
wear appear, a new cord should be supplied, to avoid the risk of the
pull-through breaking in the rifle. If a breakage does occur, the rifle
must be at once taken to the armourer. No attempt should be made by the
soldier to remove the obstruction.

(ii) =Packing the Pull-Through.=--The pull-through is packed above the
oil-bottle as follows: Hold the pull-through (loop end) between the
forefinger and thumb of the left hand, so that the end falls about 2
inches below the third finger; roll it loosely three times round the
first three fingers. Slip the coil off the fingers, and lap it tightly
with the remainder of the cord, leaving sufficient to allow the weight
to drop easily into the recess in the butt. Push the cord into the
trap, leaving the loop end uppermost, drop the weight into the recess,
and drop the trap.

=2. Use of the Pull-Through.=--(i) Remove the bolt from the rifle,
and in order to insure the gradual compression of the gauze, if used,
and of the flannelette, drop the weight through the bore _from breech
to muzzle_. The pull-through should be drawn through in one motion,
otherwise the spot where the flannelette is allowed to rest while a
fresh grip of the cord is being taken will not be properly cleaned.
Very great care must be taken not to allow the cord to rub against the
muzzle, otherwise a groove, technically known as _cord wear_, will be
cut, which in course of time will destroy the accuracy of the rifle.

[Illustration: Wire Gauze folded

Section

Wire Gauze on Pull-through

Fig. 1.]

(ii) =Flannelette.=--Only regulation flannelette is to be used. When
cleaning or drying the bore after washing out with water, a piece of
dry flannelette large enough to fit the bore tightly (about 4 inches by
2 inches) should be placed in the second loop of the pull-through. For
oiling the bore, a slightly smaller piece of oily flannelette, which
will fit the bore loosely, should be used. Care must be taken not to
use too much oil, as it will be squeezed out of the flannelette at the
entrance to the bore, and will run down into the bolt when the rifle is
placed in the rack, and may then cause miss-fires.

(iii) =Caution.=--The use of _two single pull-throughs attached to one
another_, so as to make a double one, is strictly forbidden, because
this practice has been found to produce “cord-worn” barrels.

=3.= (i) =Wire Gauze= (Fig. 1).--Wire gauze in pieces 2½ inches by 1½
inches is supplied, and should be used for the removal of hard fouling
or of rust. In attaching it to the pull-through, the following method
should be adopted: Turn the shorter sides of the gauze towards the
upper, so that the longer sides take the form of the letter S. Open the
first loop of the pull-through, and put one side of it in each loop
of the S. Then coil each half of the gauze tightly round that portion
of the cord over which it is placed till the two rolls thus formed
meet. _The gauze must be oiled thoroughly before use to prevent its
scratching the bore._

(ii) =Object of Gauze.=--The object of the gauze is mainly to scour
out the grooves, and it should therefore fit the bore tightly. When
it fails to do this, it should be unrolled partially, and packed with
paper or flannelette to increase its bulk.

(iii) =Use of Gauze.=--Grit must be removed from the gauze and
pull-through before use. Cleaning with gauze entails wear of the bore
of the rifle. Gauze should not be pulled through the barrel more often
than three or four times without sufficient cause. The surest way of
preventing the necessity for the continued use of gauze is to keep the
bore well oiled so as to prevent rust. A barrel which has become rusty
will always be more liable to rust than one which has been kept in good
condition. It will therefore require more attention and more frequent
cleaning with gauze. Similarly, a barrel in which erosion has commenced
will require more care than one of which the surface has not been
attacked, for, the eroded portion being rough, moisture is more likely
to collect on it and form rust. It is also more difficult to remove
rust thoroughly from a rough surface than from a smooth one.

=4. Oil.=--No oil other than Russian petroleum should be allowed to
remain in the bore. The function of this oil is to cover the bore with
a waterproof film, and thus prevent moisture attacking the steel and
forming rust. It must be well worked into the flannelette with the
fingers, otherwise it will be scraped off by the breech end of the
barrel. When paraffin has been used, all traces of it should be removed
thoroughly, and the bore coated with Russian petroleum, for paraffin,
though an efficient agent for removing rust, does not prevent its
formation.

=5. Caution.=--_No gritty or cutting material, such as emery powder or
bath brick, is to be used for cleaning any part of the rifle._


Section =4=.--Instructions for Cleaning Arms.

=1. To Remove the Bolt.=--Raise the knob as far as it will go, draw
back the bolt-head to the resisting shoulder, and release it from the
retaining spring. Raise the bolt-head as far as possible (in the short
rifle, Marks I, I*, II, and II*, draw back the charger guide, then turn
the bolt-head to the left), and remove the bolt.

=2. To Replace the Bolt.=--(i) See that the resisting lug and
cocking-piece are in a straight line, and the bolt-head screwed home.
Place the bolt in the body with the extractor upwards, and press it
forward until the head is clear of the resisting shoulder (in the short
rifle, Marks I, I*, II, and II*, turn the head to the right, then push
the charger guide forward as far as possible). Turn the head downwards
until it is caught by the retaining spring. Close the breech, and press
the trigger.

(ii) In some rifles, the bolt can be replaced and closed with the
bolt-head unscrewed a whole turn. It cannot, however, be closed with
the bolt-head in this position if there is a cartridge in the chamber.
The greatest care should therefore be taken to see that the bolt-head
is screwed fully home before the bolt is placed in the rifle.

=3. Daily Cleaning.=--The outside of the rifle will be cleaned daily,
and all parts of the action wiped with an oily rag. The bore of the
rifle will always be left oily, but once a week this oil will be
removed and the bore relubricated. In the case of rifles that have once
become rusty, the bore will be wiped out with flannelette and reoiled
daily, and it will, in addition, be cleaned once a week with the gauze
on the pull-through. The gauze is to be packed as already stated, so as
to fit the bore tightly.

=4. Cleaning before Firing.=--(i) The action will be wiped with an oily
rag, and all traces of oil will be removed from the bore and chamber by
the use of a pull-through _which has no gauze on it_.

(ii) =Caution.=--Neither the cartridge nor the chamber of the rifle
are on any account to be oiled before loading, nor is any other form
of lubricant to be used with a view to facilitate the extraction of
the empty case. Such a procedure greatly increases the thrust on the
bolt-head due to the explosion of the charge, and is liable to injure
the rifle.

=5. Cleaning after Firing.=--(i) Arms will be cleaned immediately after
firing. The fouling can be removed easily while it is still warm, and
before it has had time to set hard; while the less the time allowed for
the fouling to exercise its power of absorbing moisture from the air,
the less chance is there of rust forming. _If it is impossible to clean
the rifle at once, an oily rag should be pulled through the bore, and
the rifle should be cleaned at the earliest opportunity._

(ii) =After firing Blank Ammunition.=--After firing blank ammunition,
special care should be taken that the cleaning is thorough, as,
although there is no friction between bullet and bore, and so no
internal fouling or “sweating,” there is greater accumulation of
superficial fouling from blank than ball cartridge. This is due to
the fact that there is no bullet in blank ammunition to scour the
fouling left by the preceding round. The firing also is in most cases
more prolonged, and a greater interval most usually elapse before the
rifle can be cleaned thoroughly. _When blank firing precedes practice
with ball, the rifles will be cleaned carefully before ball practice
commences._

=6. Cleaning the Bore.=--(i) The following method of cleaning the bore
should be adopted. Thoroughly oil the gauze to prevent it scratching
the surface of the metal. Drop the weight of the pull-through through
the bore from the _breech_, and pull the gauze through three or four
times. Then place a tightly fitting piece of dry flannelette in
the second loop of the pull-through, and draw it through till the
bore is clean. Finally oil the bore with a loosely fitting piece of
flannelette, using enough oil to cover the bore thoroughly. _The rifle
will be cleaned in this manner for three days following that on which
it was fired._

(ii) =Use of Boiling Water.=--An effective means of cleaning the bore,
whether firing has taken place or not, is found in the use of boiling
water. Before boiling water is used superficial fouling and grease
should be removed. About 5 or 6 pints should be poured through the
bore from the breech, using a _funnel to prevent its entering the body
or magazine_. The rifle should then be dried thoroughly and the bore
oiled. Not only does the boiling water remove the fouling, but the
expansion of the metal due to the heat of the water loosens any rust
there may be, and facilitates its removal.

=7. Cleaning the Action and Exterior=--(i) =Bolt=.--Thoroughly clean
the bolt, paying particular attention to the face of the bolt-head, the
striker point, and the extractor. _If the bolt requires cleaning inside
it will be taken to the armourer._

(ii) =Magazine.=--See that the recess for the extractor spring is clear
of dirt. Take out the magazine and wipe the inside of the body and the
entrance to the chamber with an oily rag. Remove all dirt from the
slots in the charger guide and from the extractor recess in the front
of the body. Take out the magazine platform if required, and clean the
inside of the magazine with a dry rag.

(iii) =Exterior.=--Wipe the exterior of the rifle with an oily rag,
seeing that the =U= of the backsight, the hole in the aperture-sight,
the gas escape holes, and, in the short rifle, the rack on the side of
the leaf, are free from dirt. Remove any fouling which has collected on
the bayonet boss on the nose-cap. _If allowed to accumulate, this may
cause difficulty in fixing the bayonet._

(iv) =Caution.=--The instructions regarding the use of an oily rag for
cleaning the bolts and bodies will not apply _in dusty countries, where
all parts of the action will be kept dry and clean_.

=8. Cleaning ·22-inch Rifles and Aiming-Tubes.=--(i) As a foul
rifle shoots very inaccurately it is of the utmost importance,
from considerations of safety, that the barrel should be wiped out
frequently during use.

(ii) =Rod and Brush.=--The rod and brush should be inserted from the
_breech end_. Under no circumstances should they be inserted from the
muzzle, as the friction of the rod is liable to enlarge the bore and
make the muzzle bell-mouthed, thus causing inaccuracy.


Section =5=.--Instructions for Care of Arms and Ammunition.

=1. Care of Arms.=--(i) When the rifle is _not in use_, the leaf
and slide of the backsight should be lowered to avoid the risk of
damage from a blow or fall. _No non-commissioned officer or soldier
is permitted to take to pieces any portion of the action, except as
prescribed for cleaning, nor is he allowed to loosen or tighten any of
the screws, unless authorized to do so by his company commander._

(ii) =Mainspring.=--The mainspring should never be allowed to remain
compressed, except when the rifle is loaded, as the spring will thereby
be weakened. The position of the cocking-piece shows whether the
mainspring is compressed or not.

(iii) =Pull-off.=--The pull-off is the amount of pressure which is
required to release the nose of the sear from the full bent of the
cocking-piece; it should not be heavier than 6 nor lighter than 5
pounds in the short rifle, and not heavier than 7 nor lighter than 5
pounds in other rifles. Defects in the pull-off should be remedied by
the armourer only.

(iv) =Magazine.=--The magazine must not be removed from the rifle
except for cleaning purposes, and, to avoid weakening the spring,
cartridges should only be kept in it when necessary. A failure of
the spring to raise the platform can usually be overcome by tapping
the bottom of the magazine smartly with the palm of the hand. If
the failure recurs, the rifle should be taken to the armourer for
examination and repair.

(v) =Bolt.=--The bolts of rifles are not to be exchanged. Each bolt is
carefully fitted to its own rifle, so that the parts which take the
shock of the explosion have an even bearing, and the use of a wrong
bolt will affect the accuracy of the rifle. _The number stamped on the
back of the bolt lever should agree with that stamped on the right
front of the body._

(vi) =Browning.=--Care should be taken to prevent the browning being
rubbed off the rifle.

(vii) =Cover In Dusty Countries.=--In dusty countries it may be found
necessary to cover the muzzle and bolt with a cover of khaki or other
suitable material, to prevent the dust gaining access to the interior
of the rifle, but anything in the nature of a plug in the muzzle is
expressly prohibited.

(viii) =Removal of Oil.=--The oil will only be removed from the bore of
the rifle--

(_a_) Immediately before firing.

(_b_) For inspection, which, except after firing, should not as a rule
be more often than once a week.

(_c_) For parades and duties as may be ordered by the commanding
officer.

In all cases it will be replaced as soon as possible.

=2. Bayonets.=--After firing with bayonets fixed, the bayonet should be
carefully wiped before it is returned to the scabbard. All oil should
be removed from the blade before placing a bayonet in the scabbard.

=3. Care of Ammunition.=--(i) Ammunition should be kept perfectly dry
and clean, and should not be exposed to extremes of temperature.

(ii) =Miss-Fires.=--A miss-fire arises from--

    (_a_) A defective cartridge.
    (_b_) A defective rifle.

In case (_a_) the cartridge will be tried in another rifle, and, if
it still fails to fire, a report will be made in accordance with the
instructions contained in the King’s Regulations. In case (_b_) the
rifle will be taken to the armourer for examination.


Section =6=.--Examination of Small Arms.

=1. Instruction of Officers.=--It is necessary for all company officers
and sergeants to possess a competent technical knowledge of the
inspection, care, and preservation of small arms. Commanding officers
will therefore arrange that they shall be instructed annually by the
regimental armourer in repairing faults most likely to occur in the
field with such tools as would be available, and in the examination of
the various components as directed in the following paragraphs:

=2. Examination of M.L.M. Rifles.=--(i) The interior of the barrel for
rusts and cuts.

(ii) (_a_) The backsight leaf for firmness of joint; that it is not
bent; that the slide moves smoothly and fits firmly on the leaf; that
the =V= is not deformed; and that the lines on the slide are clearly
marked.

(_b_) The foresight; that the barleycorn is not deformed.

(iii) The aperture and dial sights; that they are not bent, and work
smoothly.

(iv) The bolt cover; for security on the bolt and clearance of the body.

(v) The cocking-piece; for firmness on the striker, that the bents are
in good condition, and that the sear nose bears properly.

(vi) The sear; for height of the nose, which should just clear the
bottom of the resisting lug on the bolt.

(vii) The butt; that the stock-bolt is properly screwed up.

_Note_.--In arms marked “2” on the right of the butt, and at the socket
of the fore-end, the latter must be removed before attempting to turn
the stock-bolt. In screwing it home the precautions prescribed in
sub-para. xvii will be carefully observed.

(viii) The cocking-piece and striker; that they fly forward freely on
pressing the trigger.

(ix) The striker-point; that it is the correct shape and projects
sufficiently through the face of the bolt-head.

(x) The magazine; that it is not dented, and that the platform works
freely.

=3. Examination of M.L.E. Rifles.=--The same as for rifles M.L.M., with
the following addition:

(xi) Safety-catch; that the bolt of the safety-catch engages in the
slots in the extension at the end of the bolt.

=M.L.E. Charger-Loading Rifles.=--The same as (i), (iii), (v), (vi),
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x), and (xi), with the following additions:

(xii) (_a_) The backsight leaf, for firmness of the joint; that it is
not bent; that the slide moves freely; that the clamping screw engages
properly; that the windgauge fits firmly; and that the =U= is not
deformed.

(_b_) The foresight; that the blade is not deformed.

=4. Examination of Short, M.L.E., Marks I and I* and Converted Marks II
and II* Rifles.=--The same as (i), (iii), (v), (vi), (viii), (ix), and
(x), M.L.M. Rifles, with the following additions:

(xiii) (_a_) The backsight leaf, for firmness of the joint; that it
is not bent; that the fine adjustment and windgauge fit firmly; that
the slides move smoothly; that the catches engage in the racks on both
sides of the leaf; and that the =V= is not deformed.

(_b_) The foresight; that the barleycorn is not deformed.

(xiv) The bolt; that the striker is not too free on the cocking-piece,
and that it is not screwed too far into the latter; also that the
striker keeper nut-screw (or the striker keeper-screw if fitted) is not
broken, and that the nut is in its proper position.

(xv) The bolt-head; that the charger guide is not too loose on the
bolt-head; that it works smoothly; and that the top screw is intact.

(xvi) The safety-catch and locking-bolt; that the safety-catch engages
in the camway of the bolt and locks it; that it does not move too
easily; and that the cocking-piece is withdrawn slightly to the rear
when the locking-bolt is applied, whether it is at “full cock” or the
“fired” position.

(xvii) The butt; that it is not loose. If the stock-bolt requires
screwing up to tighten the butt, the fore-end must first be removed.
On reassembling, great care will be taken that the square end of
the stock-bolt which protrudes through the socket of the body is in
the correct vertical position, so that it may enter the keeper-plate
properly when the fore-end is replaced. On replacing the fore-end,
see that the fore-end stud and spring, where fitted, are in proper
position; the front guard and inner band-screws must be tightened
carefully.

=5. Examination of Short, M.L.E., Mark III, and Converted Mark IV
Rifles.=--The same as (i), (iii), (vi), (viii), (ix), (x), (xiv),
(xvi), and (xvii), with the following additions:

(xviii) (_a_) The backsight leaf, for firmness of the joint; that it
is not bent; that the windgauge fits firmly; that the slide moves
smoothly, that the thumb-piece and fine adjustment worm work freely and
engage in the rack on the side of the leaf; and that the =U= is not
deformed.

(_b_) The foresight; that the blade is not deformed.

=6. Drill Purpose Rifles.=--These instructions apply also to _Drill
Purpose rifles._ As these are used for the instruction of recruits in
aiming, particular attention should be paid to the state of the sights.


Section =7=.--Inspection of Arms on Parade.

=1. For Inspection=--=Port Arms=.--Cant the rifle, muzzle leading,
with the right hand smartly across the body, guard to the left and
downwards, the barrel crossing opposite the point of the left shoulder,
and meet it at the same time with the left hand close behind the
backsight, thumb and fingers round the rifle, the left wrist to be
opposite the left breast, both elbows close to the body.

Turn the safety-catch completely over to the front with the thumb or
forefinger of the right hand (with Lee-Enfield or Lee-Metford rifle,
lower the safety-catch with the thumb of the right hand). Pull out the
cut-off if closed, first pressing it downwards with the thumb, then
seize the knob with the forefinger and thumb of the right hand, turn
it sharply upwards, and draw back the bolt to its full extent, then
grasp the butt with the right hand immediately behind the bolt, thumb
pointing to the muzzle.

_Note._--A squad, before being inspected, will receive the command
_Rear Rank, One Pace Step Back--March_.

=2. To Ease Springs and come to the Order=--=Ease Springs=.--From the
position described above, work the bolt rapidly backwards and forwards
until all cartridges are removed from the magazine and chamber,[4]
allowing them to fall to the ground, then close the breech (with
Lee-Enfield or Lee-Metford rifle, the cut-off should first be closed),
press the trigger, close the cut-off by placing the right hand over the
bolt, and, pressing the cut-off inwards, turn the safety-catch over to
the rear, and return the hand to the small.

_Or, if the Magazine is Charged_--

=Lock-Bolt.=--Close the breech (with Lee-Enfield or Lee-Metford rifle,
the cut-off should first be closed), then turn the safety-catch
over to the rear (with Lee-Enfield or Lee-Metford rifle raise the
safety-catch), and return the hand to the small.

=Order Arms--One.=--Holding the rifle firmly in the left hand, seize it
with the right hand at the band (with Lee-Enfield or Lee-Metford rifle,
at the lower band).

=Two.=--As in the second motion of the _order_ from the _slope_.

=Three.=--As in the third motion of the _order_ from the _slope_.

=3. Instructions for Inspecting Arms.=--(i) When arms are inspected at
the _port_ only, as in inspecting a platoon on parade, the officer or
non-commissioned officer will see that the exterior of the rifle is
clean and free from rust; that the magazine and action are clean and in
good order; that the sights are at zero; and that no parts are loose
or damaged. He will here and there examine the bore of a rifle to see
that it has been cleaned and oiled, and is free from obstructions.

(ii) Each soldier, when the officer has passed the file next to him,
will, without further word of command, _Ease Springs_, _Order Arms_,
and _Stand at Ease_. When the inspection is completed, the squad will
be closed on the squad commander’s command _Close Ranks--March_, when
the rear rank will take one pace forward.

=4. To Examine Arms=--=Examine--Arms=.--Both ranks, being at the
_port_, will come to the position for loading (Sec. 27, para. 1 (1)),
with the muzzle so inclined as to enable the officer to look through
the barrel, the thumb-nail of the right hand being placed in front of
the bolt to reflect light into the barrel.

The soldier, when the officer has passed the next file to him, will act
as detailed in para. 3 (ii) above.

_Notes._--(i) If it is necessary to examine arms, the men, when in the
position of _for inspection, port arms_, will be cautioned to remain
at the _port_. Ranks will be closed, as in para. 3 (ii), when the
examination has been completed.

(ii) In ordering arms from the examine, the first motion is to seize
the rifle with the right hand between the backsight and the band, at
the same time bringing the left foot back to the right. With the second
motion the rifle will be brought to the order, the left hand being cut
away to the side.



CHAPTER II

THE THEORY AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF RIFLE FIRE


Section =8=.--General Information.

=1. Need of Theoretical Knowledge.=--A knowledge of the theory of rifle
fire is of great importance in enabling the best use to be made of the
powerful and accurate weapon with which the soldier is armed. The next
step in the soldier’s musketry training after he has been instructed
in the construction, care, and cleaning of his rifle will therefore
be devoted to teaching him the theory and application of rifle fire.
This instruction will consist of lectures, important points being
illustrated by the aid of diagrams or drawings made with chalk on a
blackboard, and by practical demonstrations when possible.

=2. Difference between Peace and War Conditions.=--(i) It is, however,
of the utmost importance that the soldier should be taught from the
first to apply his theoretical knowledge correctly. _The soldier must
be made to realize clearly that the moral conditions under which fire
is delivered in war are very different from those of peace._ Therefore
deductions made as to the effect of fire from the theory of musketry
applied under peace conditions, when firing takes place on open level
ground under good conditions of light and atmosphere at visible targets
at known distances with weapons in good condition in the total absence
of any strain of excitement or fatigue and of the enemy’s fire, must
not be applied to conclusions as to the effect of fire delivered under
war conditions.

[Illustration:

  BM  = _Axis of barrel_
  MF  = _Line of departure_
  MS  = _Line of fire_
  LOS = _Line of sight_
  MTS = _Trajectory_

=Fig. 2.= ILLUSTRATION OF TRAJECTORY ETC.]

[Illustration:

  AG  = _Horizontal plane_
  CMF = _Axis of barrel_
  BMO = _Line of sight_
  ML  =    ”   ”  _departure_
  BMC = _Angle of tangent
          elevation--T_
  OMP = _Angle of sight--S_
  FMP = _Angle of quadrant
          elevation--QE_
  LMP = _Angle of departure--D_
  LMF =    ”   ”  _jump--J_
  MHO = _Trajectory_

=Fig. 3.= ILLUSTRATION OF TRAJECTORY ETC.]

(ii) For under war conditions targets beyond close range are usually
invisible or indistinct, and frequently in motion; distances are
uncertain and difficult to judge; firing takes place under all
conditions of light and atmosphere over every variety of ground, under
the strain of excitement and fatigue in the face of artillery and rifle
fire, with weapons which rapidly become imperfect owing to heavy wear.
Accordingly, the theory of rifle fire is considered in this book in
relation to practical service conditions.

=3. Technical Terms.=--The different technical terms used in this
chapter in explaining the theory and application of rifle fire will
be found among the Definitions (p. xxii). Some of these terms are
illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. In addition, the following technical
terms may conveniently be quoted in this paragraph:

(i) =Individual Fire.=--Individual fire is fire opened by individual
soldiers without orders from a fire-unit commander. When men fire
individually, each one selects his target, estimates the range, and
regulates his fire according to his own judgment.

(ii) =Collective Fire.=--Collective fire is the fire of a number of
men combined for a definite purpose under the orders of a fire-unit
commander, who indicates targets, gives ranges, and controls fire as to
rate, etc.

_Note._--Collective fire is necessarily controlled fire. _Individual
fire will also be controlled if circumstances permit._

=4. Rifling.=--A gun-barrel is said to be rifled when it has spiral
grooves cut down the bore. Rifling a barrel enables an elongated bullet
to be used instead of the round “ball” of former days. The advantage
of this form of bullet is that it has great weight in proportion to
the surface directly opposed to the air. It has therefore great power
of overcoming the resistance of the air, and thus maintaining its
velocity and penetrating force[5] over greater distances than would
otherwise be possible. Moreover, when the charge is fired, the bullet
is forced into and follows the spiral grooves up the barrel, the effect
of which causes it to leave the muzzle rotating or spinning on its
longer axis. This spin tends to keep its point foremost, and therefore
to ensure accuracy of flight.

=5. Forces Acting on the Bullet.=--Three forces act on the bullet:
(_a_) The explosion of the charge, (_b_) gravity, and (_c_) the
resistance of the air. The explosion of the charge drives the bullet
forward. Gravity--the natural attraction which draws all unsupported
bodies towards the centre of the earth with ever-increasing
velocity--acts on the bullet immediately it leaves the muzzle. The
resistance of the air causes the velocity of the bullet to decrease
rapidly during its flight.

=6. Trajectory.=--The combined effect of these forces causes the bullet
to travel in a curved line called the _trajectory_, the curvature of
which becomes more pronounced the longer the bullet is exposed to their
action. Thus, a Mark VI bullet leaving the muzzle of a service rifle
at the rate of about 2,060 feet per second falls about 4½ inches below
the line of departure in the first 100 yards. This drop is increased to
about 20 inches at 200 yards. With Mark VII ammunition, giving a muzzle
velocity of 2,440 feet per second, the drops at the above distances are
about 3 inches and 13 inches respectively. Imaginary not actual curves
of trajectories are shown in Figs. 6 and 8.

=7. Method of Explaining Trajectory.=[6]--(i) In explaining the
trajectory to recruits it is not sufficient merely to show or draw a
diagram representing a trajectory distorted in respect of height and
range. When possible the actual path of the bullet through the air at
various short ranges--say 400 and 800 yards--should be shown by means
of discs raised on poles at every 100 yards, or some similar device.

(ii) It must be explained to the soldier that the further an object
has to travel and the longer it is suspended in the air, the higher it
must be thrown to counteract the force of gravity, because the greater
the distance it travels and the longer it remains in the air the longer
will the object be affected by the force of gravity. Consequently the
longer the range the higher will the curve of the trajectory take the
bullet in its flight, and the steeper will be the angle at which it
will fall to the earth.

(iii) On the other hand, the shorter the distance an object is thrown,
and the swifter its flight through the air, the less will it be
influenced by the force of gravity during its flight, and the lower or
flatter will its trajectory be in consequence. Thus, with the backsight
adjusted for the distances in question, a Mark VI bullet does not rise
above the height of a man on foot at 500 yards range, or above the
height of a mounted man at 600 yards range. With Mark VII ammunition,
the bullet does not rise above these heights at 600 and 700 yards range
respectively.

=8. Firing at Close Range without Altering Sights.=--_It is therefore
evident that effective fire can be maintained within close range
without alteration of the backsight._ Apart from the flatness of the
trajectory at close range, and the consequent inclusion of distances
within close range in dangerous space (Sec. 9), there will seldom
be opportunities for altering sights at close range on service, and
necessary allowances for elevation must be made by aiming up and down
(Sec. 21).

=9. Elevation.=--In order to allow for the fall of the bullet, owing to
the force of gravity, it is necessary to direct,the line of departure
as much above the object to be hit, as the bullet will fall below it at
any given distance if the axis of the barrel of the rifle is pointed
at the mark. This raising of the barrel to allow for the curve of the
trajectory is termed _giving elevation_. The target must of necessity
be kept in view. The rifle is therefore provided with sights, which
permit the firer to give the elevation required whilst keeping his eye
fixed on the mark.

=10. The Sighting of Rifles.=--(i) In the sighting of rifles a _mean
graduation for each range has been adopted_, and a high general
standard of accuracy for all practical purposes is thus obtained. Each
rifle is carefully tested before issue, but it must be understood that
_no two rifles behave in an exactly similar manner_, and that even if
compensation could be made for every error in the sighting of the rifle
before issue, the wear of parts and the loosening or tightening of
screws, etc., would bring about faults from time to time which would
affect the shooting of each rifle differently.

=11. Need of Knowledge of Each Weapon.=--_It is therefore necessary
that every man should study the shooting of his own rifle_, and make
himself acquainted with any incorrectness of the graduations marked on
the backsight, in order that he may be in a position to give his rifle
the correct elevation for the estimated or ascertained range of the
target. _At longer ranges the backsight elevation may be regarded as
the best possible guide to errors under all conditions, or any error
may be ascertained by using a long-range sighting target._[7]

=12. Jump.=--Owing to the shock of discharge, a vibratory or wavy
motion is set up in the barrel, which slightly affects the line of
departure of the bullet as it leaves the muzzle, and which is known as
“jump.” The causes and extent of jump are dealt with in the textbook of
_Small Arms_. The effect of jump is allowed for in the sighting of the
rifle, _and will not be taken into account by the soldier in aiming_.

=13. Drift.=--Drift is the term used to express the _lateral deviation_
of the bullet after it has left the barrel. This is due to the
direction of the rifling, which causes the bullet to rotate from right
over to the left in its flight, so that the point works over slightly
to the left, owing to gyroscopic action. The consequent increased
air-pressure on the right side of the bullet forces it to the left as
it flies. _The deflection due to drift at distances within 1,000 yards
is negligible, and need not be taken into account by the soldier in
individual firing._ Beyond 1,000 yards up to the limit of effective
rifle fire at about 1,400 yards, drift will carry the bullet about 7
feet to the left. This deflection, if necessary, will be taken into
account by fire-unit commanders in directing concentrated fire at
narrow-fronted targets at longer ranges.

=14. Effect of Fixing the Bayonet.=--(i) When the bayonet is fixed to
the muzzle of the rifle, its weight checks the jump, and in consequence
slightly affects the position of the muzzle at the moment of the
departure of the shot, and the primary direction given to the bullet.

(ii) =Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Rifle.=--With Mark VI ammunition, the
accuracy of the short magazine Lee-Enfield rifle is not appreciably
affected by fixing the bayonet. With Mark VII ammunition, the soldier
will aim down slightly in firing with fixed bayonet at ranges up to 600
yards.

(iii) =Lee-Metford or Charger-Loading Lee-Enfield Rifles.=--With Mark
VII ammunition, fixing bayonets has a negligible effect. When firing
Mark VI ammunition from the Lee-Metford or Charger-loading Lee-Enfield
rifles with fixed bayonets at ranges up to 600 yards, the soldier
should aim up very slightly, taking care, however, in doing so to aim
low in all cases, and to aim at the ground-line in firing at troops
advancing towards him.

=15. Effect of Resting the Rifle.=--For practical purposes, the
shooting of the rifle is not affected by resting the muzzle or any
portion of the stock lightly on earth or other substance.

=16. Effect of Oily Barrel.=--The first round fired from an oily barrel
is liable to follow an erratic course, the rifle throwing sometimes
high, sometimes low, and at other times to the right or left. A dry
rag should therefore be passed through the bore before practice is
commenced.


Section =9=.--Dangerous Space--Ricochets--Firing Up and Down Hill.

=1.= Dangerous space may broadly be defined as the whole ground covered
by the trajectory of a bullet from the point where it could first come
in contact with the top of an object fired at to the point where it
falls to the earth (Figs. 4 and 5, and Figs. 6 and 8).

=2. Extent of Dangerous Space.=--The extent of dangerous space depends
upon the following factors:

(i) =Range.=--Dangerous space decreases as the range increases, the
reduction being due to the steeper angle at which the bullet descends
at longer ranges (compare Figs. 4 and 5).

(ii) =Firer’s Position.=--The position of the firer and the consequent
height of his rifle above the ground will affect dangerous space. _The
nearer the rifle is to the ground when it is fired, the greater will be
the extent of dangerous space._

(iii) =Height of Object.=--As a rule the higher the object fired at is,
the greater will be the extent of dangerous space.

(iv) =Trajectory.=--The flatter the trajectory--the closer the bullet
keeps to the ground in its flight--the greater as a rule will be the
extent of dangerous space.

(v) =Conformation of Ground.=--The more nearly the slope of the ground
conforms to the curve of the trajectory and to the fall of the bullet,
the greater will be the extent of dangerous space (see Fig. 8).

=3. Example of Conditions affecting Dangerous Space.=--The following
example illustrates the method by which the soldier may be made to
realize the importance of this question, and the principle which
underlies its influence upon the effect of fire: If he is firing in the
_lying position_ with Mark VI ammunition, and aims at the ground-line
of a prone figure at 500 yards range, the dangerous space of his fire
will be _about 50 yards_. If, however, _he stands_ to fire at the same
target, the dangerous space will be reduced to _about 40 yards_.

[Illustration: =Figs. 4 and 5.=--DANGEROUS SPACE.

_Note._--The angles of descent are imaginary, and not accurate for any
distance.]

=4. Ricochets.=--Bullets which rebound after striking the ground or
any other obstacle, and continue their flight, are said to ricochet.
Ricochets may occur from any surface, and bullets may ricochet two
or even three times before their flight is finally arrested. At long
range, they are less likely to ricochet from soft ground than from
hard, smooth surfaces.

=5. Firing Up and Down Hill.=--(i) When a shot is fired at a target
placed on the same level as the firer, the forces acting on the bullet
cause it to travel in its greatest curve, and the greatest elevation
for any given distance must therefore be given to the rifle. If a
shot is fired perpendicularly upwards or downwards, no elevation is
required, for the bullet will travel in an approximately straight line
until its impetus is exhausted. Hence it follows that, when shooting up
or down hill, less elevation is necessary than when the object is on
the same level.

(ii) _For practical purposes, the effect of firing up and down all
moderate slopes will be negligible, and may be disregarded by the
soldier in taking aim on service._ Within close range, in firing up and
down steep slopes, or slopes at an angle of 10 degrees and over, the
decreased elevation necessary will usually be small, and may be allowed
for by aiming down slightly. The correct elevation to be used in firing
up or down hill at longer ranges in various circumstances is a matter
for the judgment of fire-unit commanders, and can best be ascertained
by careful observation of fire, when possible.


Section =10=.--Effects of Barometric Pressure, Temperature, Wind, and
Light.

=1. Barometric Pressure and Temperature.=--Rifles are sighted for the
following conditions: Barometric pressure, 30 inches (sea-level);
thermometer, 60° F.; still air; a horizontal line of sight.

=2.= The rise and fall of barometric pressure and temperature affect
the flight of the bullet and elevation by changing the density of the
atmosphere, and so increasing or decreasing its resistance to the
bullet. For practical purposes, the soldier may disregard the effects
of barometric pressure and temperature as negligible. In operations
conducted at considerable heights above sea-level, orders as to
allowance for barometric pressure will, if necessary, be issued by the
Staff.

=3. Effect of Wind=--(i) =Head Wind, or Wind from the Front.=--A head
wind, or wind from the front, retards the bullet, and necessitates
_more elevation_.

(ii) =Rear Wind.=--A rear wind lessens the resistance of the air, and
necessitates _less elevation_.

(iii) =Side Wind.=--A side wind, or wind blowing _at right angles_
from either side across the front, acts on the greater surface of the
bullet, and has, consequently, more influence on its flight than a wind
blowing from the front or rear.

(iv) =Oblique Winds.=--Oblique winds, or winds blowing from any
intermediate direction between a right angle and a front or rear wind,
have the same effect in varying degree as side winds. Oblique winds, in
addition, affect the bullet to some extent in the same way as head and
rear winds.

=4. Allowance for Head and Rear Winds.=--No fixed rules can be laid
down regarding the degree to which elevation should be increased or
decreased at different ranges for head and rear winds. For practical
purposes, the effect of these winds may be disregarded at ranges under
1,000 yards. At longer ranges, fire-unit commanders will use their
judgment in directing fire, whether they will allow for strong head and
rear winds by increasing or decreasing elevation, and to what extent.

=5. Allowance for Side and Oblique Winds= (see also Sec. 20,
_Aiming-Off_).--(i) No fixed rules can be laid down as to the degree
of allowance to be made by aiming-off for side and oblique winds of
varying direction and velocity. Owing to the increased time during
which the bullet is exposed to the effect of wind, and owing to the
height attained in its flight, the allowance for wind at long ranges
must be out of all proportion greater to that necessary at close range.

(ii) At close range, whether fire is distributed along the dense line
of an infantry attack or concentrated on narrow-fronted attacking
columns, the effect of side wind will cause little, if any, loss of
fire effect. Individual soldiers, however, in taking the deliberate aim
necessary for fire effect, should aim off for side winds of different
velocity (see Sec. 20, para. 3).

(iii) In directing fire beyond close range, fire-unit commanders must
use their judgment in allowing for deflection due to side and oblique
winds by including directions for aiming-off in fire orders. The extent
of the allowance will in every case depend upon a variety of factors,
including the direction and velocity of the wind and the distance of
the target. Neglect to make due allowance for strong winds at longer
ranges may lead to loss of fire effect, more particularly in the
case of concentrated fire aimed at narrow-fronted targets, such as a
machine-gun.

=6. Effect of Light.=--In bad light, the foresight is less distinctly
seen than in good light, and more of it is unconsciously taken into
the line of sight. For practical purposes, the effect of light may be
disregarded in firing at all ranges.


Section =11=.--Need for Collective Fire.

=1.= (i) Only exceptional targets and very favourable atmospheric
conditions will justify soldiers in opening individual fire at
distances beyond about 600 yards. Collective fire is necessary to
give reasonable assurance of fire effect beyond about 600 yards up to
about 1,400 yards, which is usually the limit of effective rifle fire.
_Beyond 1,400 yards, the fire of even large and well-controlled units
of infantry has seldom much effect upon the decision of the struggle
for superiority of fire._

(ii) Collective concentrated fire is also used to form a cone of
fire for observation of fire, when results can be noted by the dust
raised by the strike of bullets on the ground or by the effect of
fire upon the enemy. It must be clearly impressed upon the mind of the
soldier at this stage that, _however skilful individual men may be as
marksmen, the greatest effect is produced by their fire only when it is
efficiently directed and controlled_.

=2.= (i) The soldier must also be made to understand clearly why effect
cannot be obtained from individual fire in battle beyond close range,
and why collective fire is necessary for fire effect at all ranges
beyond close range. The answer to this question may be stated simply
and very broadly as follows: In effect, for various reasons, the
individual marksman cannot as a rule see his target clearly or at all
with the naked eye beyond close range on service, and he can neither
aim at it with accuracy nor be certain of its exact range. Moreover,
the effect of inaccurate firing, whether due to excitement, fatigue, or
other causes, increases with distance.

(ii) Clearly, therefore, the soldier cannot obtain reasonable assurance
of fire effect by individual fire beyond close range. Accordingly,
fire-unit commanders equipped with field-glasses discern and indicate
targets to him. They give him ranges after they have been ascertained
by the use of range-finding instruments, or by observation of fire,
when possible, and they direct the fire of a number of individual
soldiers in a volume which, whether distributed or concentrated, is
sufficient to compensate for individual errors, and so obtain fire
effect as described in Secs. 12 and 13, and in Chapter VI.

=3.= The principal reasons which militate against the assurance of
fire effect, by individual fire, beyond close range may be summed up
as follows: The effects of fatigue and excitement on the firer; the
effects of atmosphere, heat, and light; errors due to imperfections in
the rifle and ammunition; uncertainty in estimating longer ranges; the
difficulty of discerning and aiming at small, moving, and indistinct
or invisible targets; and the steepness of the angle of descent of the
bullet, which becomes rapidly accentuated, and so decreases dangerous
space as range increases.

=4.= The soldier must be made to realize that the results of errors
of marksmanship due to these various causes _increase in extent as
the range increases_, and that they reach their maximum at longer
ranges; that is to say, targets become smaller and more difficult to
see and to aim at, their range becomes harder to estimate, and the
accuracy of fire for other reasons stated becomes less as the range
increases. _Therefore, the effect of individual fire decreases as the
range increases._ It is easily possible for instructors in the course
of lectures on this point to make it sufficiently clear to men that,
under service conditions at longer ranges, effect must be obtained from
collective fire rather than from individual fire, for all the above
reasons. In some degree this important principle of the science of
modern warfare can be demonstrated by firing at service targets on full
distance and also on miniature ranges (see Chapter X).


Section =12.=--Dispersion of Individual and Collective Fire.

=1. Shot Groups.=--Owing to errors on the part of the firer, and also
to imperfections in the rifle and ammunition, it is found that a series
of shots, even when fired by an individual under perfect conditions at
a large, stationary, distinct target at a known and close range, do
not all strike the point aimed at, but they form a group of shot-marks
about this point, the density of which varies mainly with the skill of
the firer.

=2. Cone of Fire= (Fig. 6).--It is evident that the trajectories of
these shots will not coincide, but will together form a figure termed
“the cone of fire.” It is also clear that, when aim is well directed,
the bullets of a cone of fire should always strike an object so long as
the shot group formed by it is either _smaller or of the same size_ as
the object aimed at. But when the shot group is spread over a larger
surface than the size of the object, shots must necessarily miss the
mark in proportion as the size of the grouping exceeds that of the
object aimed at.

[Illustration: =Fig. 6.= CONE OF FIRE

A--B shows the dangerous space due to height of objective.

    _Note:-The Dangerous Space will vary with height of objective.
    The curve of the Trajectory is imaginary and not accurate for any
    distance._]

=3. Dispersion of Individual Fire.=--It is clear, therefore, that
the dispersion of individual fire explained in para. I will of
itself, apart from the various factors mentioned in Sec. II, militate
against the assurance of fire effect by individual fire at longer
ranges, because the dispersion of fire will become greater as the
target decreases in size, owing to distance, and the shot group will
consequently be spread over a much larger surface than that of a
long-range service target, even if stationary and visible to the naked
eye.

=4. Dispersion of Collective Fire.=--When a body of soldiers fires
with the same elevation at the same object, the dispersion of shots
is accentuated by the varying skill and eyesight of the men, with the
result that the cone formed will be of larger dimensions than in the
case of individual fire. The dimensions of the cone of fire will again
be further increased if the firers are from any cause, such as fatigue
or excitement, unsteady; if the rifles are in bad condition or the
target indistinctly seen--factors which are all incidental to firing
under the conditions of active service.

=5. The Beaten Zone.=--(i) The area of ground beaten by a cone of fire
is termed the “beaten zone.” It is regarded as a plane surface. Fig. 6
illustrates this zone together with the additional space which would
have to be taken into account in reckoning the dangerous space of the
cone of fire in consequence of the height of the objective.

(ii) =Depth of Beaten Zone.=--The depth of the beaten zone at short
ranges need not be considered on account of the flatness of the
trajectory, which insures that practically its whole extent from the
firers to the target is swept by bullets. The depth of the beaten
zone at various ranges with the Mark VI and Mark VII ammunition is as
follows:

  +-------------+-----------------------+
  |  Distance.  | Depth of Beaten Zone. |
  |             +-----------+-----------+
  |             | Mark VI.  | Mark VII. |
  +-------------+-----------+-----------+
  |   500 yards | 220 yards | 300 yards |
  | 1,000   ”   | 120   ”   | 180  ”    |
  | 1,500   ”   | 100   ”   | 120  ”    |
  +-------------+-----------+-----------+

(iii) It will be seen that up to 1,500 yards--when the ground is
parallel to the line of sight--the depth of the beaten zone decreases
with the range, on account of the increased angle of descent of the
bullets. This shrinkage of the beaten zone does not of itself increase
fire effect by the closer grouping of bullets, owing to the increased
steepness of the angle of descent, which decreases dangerous space.

(iv) Beyond 1,500 yards it will be found that the depth of the beaten
zone tends to increase in consequence of the influence of atmospheric
conditions on the flight of the bullet, the increased effects of errors
in aiming, and faults in the rifle and ammunition--all of which combine
to increase the dispersion of fire. This increased dispersion does not
of itself increase fire effect owing again to the greatly increased
steepness of the angle of descent at longer ranges, which results in a
correspondingly great decrease in dangerous space.

(v) =Lateral Dispersion.=--On the other hand, owing to faults in
aiming, comparative invisibility of the target, inaccuracies in
the rifle and ammunition, and atmospheric influences, the _lateral
dispersion_ of a cone of fire _increases as the range becomes greater_.
With Mark VI ammunition, the dispersion of the best 75 per cent. of
shots fired may be taken as 7 feet by 220 yards at 500 yards, 14 feet
by 120 yards at 1,000 yards, and 22 feet by 100 yards at 1,500 yards.

=6. Nucleus of Cone of Fire.=--It is found that the bullets in a cone
of fire _are not dispersed evenly over the surface of the beaten zone_.
It is found that they are grouped in such a way _that the majority of
the bullets fall in the general direction of the line of fire, that the
density of the grouping decreases progressively from the centre to the
extreme limits of the beaten zone, and that the bullets are collected
most thickly near the point for which the sights were set_. This dense
grouping is usually termed the nucleus of the cone of fire, and is
regarded for purposes of comparison as including the best 50 shots per
cent.

=7. Zone of Effective Fire.=--The area of ground beaten by the best 75
shots per cent. fired is termed the zone of effective fire, for it has
been found by experiment that _useful results in battle can only be
looked for when the target is within these limits_.


Section =13=.--Searching.

=1. Definition of Searching.=--Searching is the term applied to
collective fire when the depth of its dispersion over a beaten zone is
increased by the use of combined sights as described in para. 4 of this
section.

=2. When Collective Fire is Effective.=--As already stated, collective
fire will not as a rule produce results commensurate with the amount
of ammunition expended, or fulfil the purpose for which it is used
unless the target is included within the area beaten by 75 per cent.
of the bullets directed upon it--that is to say, unless it lies in the
zone of effective fire (Fig. 7, C). [Illustration:

     A            B                C               D

  Nucleus       Error            Target
    on      exceeding half      included        Combined
  Target       depth of            in            Sights
            Effective Zone    Effective Zone

    =Fig. 7.= DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE DISPERSION IN DEPTH OF
    CONCENTRATED COLLECTIVE FIRE AT 1,500 YARDS AND ITS DISTRIBUTION
    IN DEPTH BY THE USE OF COMBINED SIGHTS.]

=3. When Collective Fire is not Effective.=--If an error in sighting is
made which would result in the nucleus of the cone of fire striking at
a distance short of or beyond the target which is equal to _half the
depth measurement of the zone of effective fire_, the target will not
be included in this zone, and the _fire will be ineffective_ (Fig. 7,
B).

=4. When combined Sights are to be Used.=--(i) Under service
conditions it may be assumed that _even if the range is measured with
the range-finder, the probability of error in ranging and judging
atmospheric influences, known as the error of the day, is such that,
at distances beyond 1,000 yards, collective fire concentrated on any
target with one sighting will probably be ineffective_.

(ii) To give a satisfactory degree of assurance of fire effect, it
is advisable in such cases, _unless sighting can be corrected by
observation of results_, to distribute fire in depth by using two
elevations differing by 100 yards. One of these elevations would be 50
yards _over_ and the other 50 yards _under_ the sighting believed to be
correct.

(iii) There will thus be two cones of fire and two beaten zones
overlapping between the nucleus of each cone of fire, and an even
distribution of fire will be obtained over a zone about 150 yards deep
(Fig. 7, D). Thus, if one sighting had been used, as shown in Fig. 7,
B, the fire would have been ineffective, though the grouping of bullets
in the zone of effective fire would have been more dense, because the
error in sighting would have had the result described in para. 3 above.
By using combined sights fire becomes effective, because though the
grouping of bullets is less dense fire is _distributed in depth_ so as
to avoid the result described in para. 3.

(iv) _Ordinarily fire should be closely concentrated with a view to
observation of results, but if observation has failed, or if the
situation calls for immediate application of effective fire, combined
sights should be used at ranges beyond 1,000 yards._ Combined sights
may sometimes be used to increase assurance of effect when the enemy’s
position is ill-defined, but should never be used if observation of
results can be obtained. _Combined sights should not be employed by
bodies of less than two platoons._


Section =14=.--The Relation of Ground to Fire Effect.

=1.= So important is the influence exercised on fire effect by the
shape of the ground in relation to the grouping of bullets, that
it is essential for all officers and non-commissioned officers to
understand thoroughly how the probability of fire effect is increased
or diminished by the inclination of ground with reference to the
trajectory.

=2.= In attack, such knowledge will assist them in _adopting formations
and directing the fire of their men to the best advantage_. In defence,
it will aid them _to select the best positions for fire action_, and
will enable them to take steps to minimize the inherent disadvantages
of these positions. In the following examples only _plane surfaces,
without undulations or accidents, are considered_.

=3. Level Ground.=--As already stated, on level ground the zone beaten
by collective rifle fire varies considerably with the range. The extent
of this zone is further influenced by the _inclination of the ground to
the line of sight_.

=4. Rising Ground.=--(i) The more steeply the ground rises with
reference to the line of sight, the greater will be the decrease in
the extent of the beaten zone. For example, when firing with Mark VI
ammunition at ground rising 2, 5, and 10 degrees, the depth of the
beaten zone at 1,500 yards range is decreased roughly by quarter, half,
and two-thirds respectively (Fig. 8). Since the grouping of the
bullets becomes closer as the upward slope of the ground increases,
the effect of errors in estimation of range will be more serious, and
as the bullets will fall at a steep angle the dangerous space will be
proportionately reduced.

[Illustration:

    _The Beaten zone is greatest on slope A-D, the Trajectory being
    practically parallel to the surface of the ground._

=Fig. 8.= THE RELATION OF GROUND TO FIRE EFFECT.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 9.= THE RELATION OF GROUND TO FIRE EFFECT.]

(ii) =Formations, Supports, and Reserves.=--As a general rule,
therefore, on ground which rises with reference to the line of sight,
_troops should be drawn up in shallow formations, but supports and
reserves may be nearer the firing-line than is normally advisable_.

=5. Falling Ground.=--(i) When the ground beaten by bullets falls
in respect of the line of sight, _the depth of the beaten zone is
augmented in proportion as the downward slope increases, until it
reaches its greatest magnitude when the angle of the fall of the
bullets is the same as the slope of the ground_; or, in other words,
when the trajectory is practically parallel to the ground surface
(Fig. 8, Depth of Zone, A--D). In these circumstances the fire becomes
_grazing_ (Fig. 9), _and the extent of the dangerous space is nearly
identical with the beaten zone_.

(ii) _At close ranges_, therefore, where the trajectories are flat, the
depth of the beaten zone will be much increased if the ground behind
the target _falls at a gentle slope_ (Fig. 9, A). _At long ranges_, on
the other hand, a greater area will be beaten when ground falls more
steeply (Fig. 9, C).

(iii) For example, at 1,500 yards range the depth of the beaten zone
is roughly increased by three-fifths when the bullets strike ground
falling at 2 degrees. On ground falling at 5 degrees, which is nearly
parallel to the trajectory at this range, the depth beaten is about ten
times greater than on level ground.

(iv) It is clear, therefore, that falling ground _far behind the
objective will at times be swept by unaimed fire_, and it follows that
in such circumstances supports should either be under cover or, if
there is no cover, in shallow columns on narrow frontages with the
object of reducing target surface as much as possible.

=6. Crest Line.=--(i) When the objective is a crest line the depth of
the beaten zone is greatest, and part of the fire is grazing, when the
ground beyond the crest is parallel, or nearly so, to the trajectory
of the bullets (Fig. 9, A and B). At close ranges, in this case, there
will be behind the crest-line a _defiladed zone, or space not swept by
fire_ (Fig. 9, C), greater or less according to the distance from which
fire is delivered, the inclination of the line of sight, the extent of
the hill top, and the inclination of the reverse slope.

(ii) =Position of Supports and Reserve.=--It appears, therefore, _that
when the firing-line is placed on the crest of a razor-backed hill_,
with steep reverse slopes (Fig. 9, C), supports and reserves will at
all ranges be but little exposed to unaimed fire when posted in its
vicinity. In other cases, when the crest of a hill is occupied, the
vulnerability of supports and reserves will be least if, when the enemy
is at long range, they are withdrawn from, and as he approached closed
on, the firing-line (Fig. 9, C).

=7. Dead Ground= (Fig. 10).--Dead ground is ground on which, owing to
its conformation or to the existence of natural or artificial cover,
fire cannot be brought to bear from a given locality. The term is thus
a relative one, for though an area of ground may be dead in relation
to one locality it may be possible to bring fire to bear upon it from
another locality, in relation to which it will not therefore be dead.

[Illustration: =Fig. 10.=--DEAD GROUND.]



CHAPTER III

INSTRUCTION IN AIMING


Section =15=.--General Remarks.

=1. Principles of Instruction.=--The instruction of recruits in
aiming and firing should be carried out on a systematic method. The
progression of training must in every case lead by gradual steps
from simple to more difficult stages. Instructors must necessarily
teach by explanation to some extent, but they must limit explanation
to short and very clear statements, and rely chiefly upon practical
demonstration for training their men. With regard to results they
must aim at insuring _accuracy_ in every stage of training before
they permit men to attempt _rapidity_. Any sacrifice of accuracy for
rapidity must be guarded against carefully and corrected at once. Short
daily lectures, followed by questions to test the knowledge of men,
should form part of the scheme of instruction.

=2. Progression of Instruction in Aiming and Firing.=--The progressive
stages of instruction in aiming and firing are set out in a definite
order in this and the following chapter which deal respectively with
these subjects. Instructors, however, are not bound to follow this
order, and may modify it at their discretion.

=3. Concurrent Instruction in Aiming and Firing.=--Aiming instruction
should proceed simultaneously with firing instruction and muscle
exercises to develop speed and facility in handling the rifle and
steadiness in firing it. The following scheme of concurrent instruction
in aiming and firing is suggested for the guidance of instructors, who
may modify it at their discretion:

  AIMING                                 FIRING

  A.                                     A.

  1. Aiming at bull’s-eye target         1. Correct position for firing
  with the foresight and                 standing.
  backsight.

  2. Explanation of trajectory           2. Practice in loading
  and and the need for elevation by      unloading in standing position.
  sighting.

  3. Laying an aim with Legret           3. Adjustment of sights and
  Aim-Teacher.[8]                        standard tests of same.

  4. Rules of aiming.                    4. Trigger-pressing and
                                         adjustment of sights with
                                         rifle rested.

  5. Common faults in aiming
  and their results.

  6. Aiming at bull’s-eye target
  from a rest.

  7. Test of aim by triangle of
  error.

  8. Aiming at figure targets
  and at ground.

  B.                                     B.

  9. Aiming practice (_a_) at            5. Practice in assuming the
  bull’s-eye and (_b_) figure targets    different firing positions with
  with (i) rifle rested, (ii) rifle      standard tests of same.
  unsupported.[9]

  10. Test of aim by aiming-disc.        6. Practice in combining
                                         aiming with trigger-pressing.

  11. Aiming and trigger-pressing        7. Practice in muscle exercises
  combined, practised with               in the standing and lying
  eye-disc or aim-corrector.             firing positions.

  12. Practice in firing at
  bull’s-eye target on miniature
  range and 30-yards range.

                   C.                                C.

  13. Explain influence of side          8. Practice kneeling and
  wind.                                  sitting firing positions, and
                                         taking cover in these positions.

  14. Explain aiming-off for
  wind, and wind table for 500
  yards. Apply tests in aiming-off
  for wind.

    15. Explain aiming-off for
  movement. Practise same on
  miniature range and check
  with aim-corrector.

                    D.                              D.

  16. When accuracy in deliberate        9. Practise firing over and
  firing at elementary and               round cover in various firing
  service targets is assured, explain    positions at elementary and
  the nature and practical               service targets.
  value in warfare of snapshooting
  and rapid firing.

  17. Practise gradually quickening
  the aim with aiming-disc,
  and on miniature and 30-yard
  ranges. Apply grouping and
  application tests.


E.

18. When the recruit has shown proficiency in grouping, deliberate
firing, and snapshooting, on the miniature, 30-yard, and open range,
explain and practise adjusting long-range sights.

19. Practise aiming from a rest at figure targets and ground.

20. Practise snapshooting and rapid fire at figure targets and ground
on miniature, 30-yard, and open range.

21. Practise aiming-off for movement at figure targets on miniature
range.

_Note._--(1) Ample time should be devoted to trigger-pressing and
declaring the point of aim on discharge. This instruction may
conveniently be given indoors.

(2) The aiming position should not be taught until aiming has been
taught.

(3) Aiming and trigger-pressing should not be combined until
trigger-pressing has been taught.

(4) The test for trigger-pressing should not be applied until after the
lying position has been taught.

(5) The miniature range may be used when assurance of reasonable
proficiency has been ascertained by means of the aiming discs.

(6) The 30-yards range with service ammunition may be used when the
results on the miniature range are satisfactory.

(7) Grouping on the open range may be commenced when the recruit is
able to make good groups on the 30-yards range.

=4. Selecting Rifles for Recruits.=--(i) Before the instruction of
recruits in aiming and firing commences they must be fitted with
rifles having long, normal, or short butts, according to the build and
preference of the men. The choice should be made after tests carried
out in the standing and lying positions, and should be based on the
readiness with which the firer brings his rifle up to the firing
position, and aligns his sights without letting his nose and mouth come
into close proximity to the thumb and fingers of the right hand.

(ii) The principal consideration is _the distance of the nose from the
shoulder_, and it is as a rule the broad-shouldered and long-necked men
that require the long butts. A bad trigger release, due to incorrect
holding of the small of the butt, will often result from the use of
too short a butt. _The butt selected should be the shortest which can
be used comfortably when firing, both standing and lying down, in the
correct positions._ These rules for fitting rifles of course apply also
to non-commissioned officers.

=5. Sights.=--Special care must be taken that _the sights of any
rifle used in aiming instruction are in perfect order_. Instructors
must inspect the sights frequently to insure that they are _correctly
adjusted_ in accordance with his orders.

=6. Appliances for Aiming and Firing Instruction.=--(i) The following
appliances will be needed by instructors:

    (_a_) Diagrams showing position of sights correctly and
    incorrectly aligned.

    (_b_) The Legret aim-teacher.

    (_c_) Aim-corrector.

    (_d_) Aiming-disc.

    (_e_) Aiming-rest.

    (_f_) Firing-rest.

    (_g_) Charger and dummy cartridges.

    (_h_) Measuring rings [see Sec. 49, para. 6 (xi)].

=Note.=--_The method of using the aim-teacher, aim-corrector, and
aiming disc, and grouping gauges is described in the Appendix. Aiming-
and firing-rests are described in “Musketry Regulations,” Part II._

(ii) =Aiming Marks.=--(i) The aiming marks to be used in aiming
instruction will consist of elementary bull’s-eye targets for the early
stage of instruction, and of a variety of figure targets similar to
those used for firing practices for later stages.

(ii) When the habit of accuracy has been acquired in aiming at
elementary targets, service targets will only be used and care will be
taken that there is no falling off in accuracy owing to the shape and
comparative invisibility of these targets. A list of figures for use on
miniature ranges will be found in the Appendix, VII, para. 5.


Section =16=.--Aiming Instruction.

=1. Rules for Aiming.=--The instructor will explain the following
rules, and demonstrate the results to be anticipated from common errors
in aiming:

(i) The backsight must be kept upright.

(ii) The left or right eye, according to the shoulder from which the
man shoots, must be closed.[10]

(iii) Aim must be taken by aligning the sights on the centre of the
lowest part of the mark, the top of the foresight being in the centre
of, and in line with, the shoulders of the =U= or =V= of the backsight
(Fig. 11).

[Illustration: =Fig. 11.=--DIAGRAMS SHOWING CORRECT AND INCORRECT
ALIGNMENT OF SIGHTS.]

_Note._--The low point of aim is essential in firing at service
targets, as it facilitates a clear view of marks which are usually
difficult to discern, and also because service targets are frequently
in movement towards the firer, thus necessitating aiming down to alter
elevation owing to their decreasing distance.

=2. Method of Instruction.=--(i) When these principles have been
mastered, the instructor will loosen the sling of the rifle, adjust the
sights for any given range, and aim from a rest at the target, taking
care that _his eye is immediately above the butt-plate_. It will be
convenient to use a sandbag aiming-rest to steady the head during the
aiming.

(ii) Having aimed, he will make each recruit observe the correct method
of aligning the sights on a mark. Each recruit in turn will then be
made to align the sights on a mark, after which the instructor will
verify his aim, point out errors, and explain how they would have
affected the accuracy of the shot, and how they are to be avoided. For
example, Fig. 11 shows incorrect sighting, the rifle being inclined
to the right, aimed to the right, and aimed too low, the top of the
foresight being well below and to one side of, instead of in the centre
of and in line with, the shoulders of the =U= of the backsight. The
obvious result of these errors would be to fire low to the right of the
mark.

[Illustration: =Fig. 12.=--LONG-RANGE SIGHTS.]

(iii) The instructor should also make recruits verify their comrades’
aim under his supervision as above described, and point out any errors
which may have been made. _Extreme accuracy of aim must be insisted on
even during the first lesson._

(iv) =Long-Range Sights.=--In aiming with the long-range sights a
similar procedure to that which is described above will be pursued, but
the eye will be placed _about 1 inch behind the small of the butt_, and
the top of the head of the dial sight will be seen in the centre of the
aperture (Fig. 12). _Unless special care is taken, lateral error will
be made in centring the head of the dial sight._


Section =17=.--Common Faults in Aiming.

=1. Taking too much or too little Foresight into the U or V of the
Backsight.=--(i) It should be explained that a fine or half sight will
cause the bullet to strike with Mark VI ammunition about 5 inches and
3 inches lower respectively, and with Mark VII 7 inches and 4 inches
lower respectively per 100 yards of range, than when the correct sight
is taken.

(ii) The following method will be found useful to guide the soldier
in taking the correct amount of foresight: Lay the edge of a piece
of paper on the upper edge of the backsight cap, when the sight will
appear as shown in one of the subjoined diagrams. A piece of cardboard
laid on the cap and held in place by an elastic band will answer the
same purpose.

[Illustration:

  Incorrect:    Incorrect:    Correct
   Too much     Too little
  foresight.    foresight.

=Fig. 13.=--FAULTS IN AIMING.]

=2. Inaccurate Centring of the Foresight in the Notch of the
Backsight.=--The soldier should understand that this inaccuracy will
deflect the muzzle of the rifle to the side on which the line of aim is
taken. For example, if aim be taken over the right edge of the notch
the direction of the line of fire will be to the right of the line of
sight.

=3. Inclining the Backsight to one Side.=--In this case the bullet will
strike low and to the side towards which the sights are inclined. The
resulting error will be considerable at long ranges.

=4. Fixing the Eyes on the Foresight and not on the Object.=--(i) If
the eye is focussed on the foresight, the firer _will retain only
a blurred image of the target_. This may not affect the result of
his shooting at the distinct stationary bull’s-eye target, but when
firing at troops in neutral-tinted uniforms, whether stationary or in
movement, or at natural features of ground, _it is essential for fire
effect that the eye should be focussed not on the foresight, but on the
target, which must be watched closely while firing_.[11]

(ii) Unless service targets are closely watched while aiming, the firer
will be apt to lose them altogether, or see them as a blurred image
at the moment of firing, with consequent loss of fire effect. For
this reason it is of great importance that recruits should, from the
earliest stage of their training, be taught to aim at service targets
_with the eye focussed on the target_, and not on the foresight.
If early stages of instruction were confined to the aiming at the
bull’s-eye target, the fault of focussing the eye on the foresight
in aiming might be contracted owing to the distinct nature of this
mark, which makes it possible to aim at it with the eye fixed on the
foresight. (See Appendix, VII., para. 2.)


Section =18=.--Triangle of Error.

=1.= The following method of recording a triangle of error will be
employed to test proficiency in aiming, and to demonstrate the errors
which will arise from inaccuracies.

=2.= The rifle will be placed on an aiming-rest, and pointed at a sheet
of blank white paper, fixed to any convenient object at a distance of
about 10 yards from the muzzle. A second aiming-rest should be used to
steady the head in aiming.

=3.= A marker will hold an aiming-disc flat on the paper, the front
facing the instructor. The instructor will align the sights on it
correctly, and its position on the paper will then be marked by a dot
made with a pencil passed through the hole in its centre.

=4.= Each man in succession will then be called up and ordered to look
along the sights, but without touching the rifle, and when he has
satisfied himself as to the correctness of the aim, the disc will be
removed. It will then be replaced on the paper as before, and moved at
his direction until the lower edge of the bull’s-eye is brought into
the line of sight, when its position will be marked as before. This
operation will be repeated three times in the case of each man, and the
points thus fixed will be joined in such a way as to form a triangle.

[Illustration: B. _Horizontal_

A. _Vertical_

=Fig. 14.=--TRIANGLE OF ERROR]

=5.= The position of these points in relation to the _instructor’s aim_
will expose any constant error in aiming. If the recruit’s aim is below
that of the instructor, it shows that he has taken too full a sight; if
above, that his sighting has been too fine; if to the right, that the
foresight was on the left of a perpendicular drawn through the centre
of the notch; if to the left, _vice versa_.

=6.= The position of the points in regard _to one another_ will show
_inconsistency_. If the triangle is formed so that its greatest side
lies vertically on the paper, it proves that the soldier’s principal
fault is inconsistency in respect of _the amount of foresight taken
up into the line of sight_ (Fig. 14, A); if the greatest side of
the triangle lies horizontally it shows that his principal error is
_inaccurate centring of the foresight_ (Fig. 14, B).

=7.= If any one of the sides of the triangle exceeds ⅓ inch from the
instructor’s aim, the recruit will be noted for further instruction.

=8. Aim-Corrector.=--The aim-corrector will also be used to enable the
instructor to supervise the soldier’s methods and test his progress,
the aim being taken from an aiming or firing rest.


Section =19=.--Aiming at Service Targets, Aiming at Ground, and Marking
Down the Enemy.

=1. Aiming at Service Targets.=--From an early stage in his instruction
the soldier’s eye must be trained to discern and aim at service
targets. Elementary instruction may be carried out in barracks, on the
range, on ground in the vicinity of barracks, or on miniature ranges.
Figures should be used representing men in the various firing positions
at different distances in the open, or partly behind cover.

=2. Aiming at Ground.=--(i) Service targets will frequently consist
of ground or cover occupied by the enemy. Fire-unit commanders will
verbally indicate such targets to men, who must be trained to recognize
and fire at them. This training should be carried out concurrently with
instruction in aiming at figures and marking down the enemy--the latter
practices to some extent will also train men to aim at ground.

(ii) Practice in aiming at ground may be carried out on miniature
ranges, as described in Sec. 72, para. 2 (i), as well as in open
country. It must always be carried out under practical conditions, and
will include aiming at various ill-defined targets, such as a spot on
a bare hillside or a stretch of grass-land. Targets will be indicated
verbally by the instructor, and recruits will aim at them with rifles
on aiming-rests. The instructor will then criticize each man’s aim
and correct faults. Practice in aiming at ground will prove a useful
preparation for training in recognition of targets (Sec. 45) and fire
discipline (Sec. 47).

=3. Marking down the Enemy.=--(i) It is of the utmost importance that
soldiers should be trained to mark down the exact position of an enemy
seen to occupy ground or cover. This duty refers equally to individual
enemies at close range and to hostile troops at longer ranges.
Individual soldiers will mark down the enemy within close range, and
fire-unit commanders and observers at longer ranges. If the position
marked down affords concealment from view without protection from fire,
fire may be opened after the range has been ascertained or estimated.
If it affords protection from fire, the range should be ascertained
or estimated, and fire-units or individual men should remain ready to
open fire the instant the enemy exposes himself or resumes movement.
Delay in opening fire in the latter case will lead to the loss of a
favourable opportunity (see Practices, Nos. 3 and 4, pp. 217, 218).

(ii) =Method of Instruction.=--Instruction will best be carried out
on the ground or on the miniature range as described in Chapter X.
When carried out on the ground a fatigue-man will be sent out to the
front, and directed to move from cover to cover to the front of the
class which will be provided with rifles on aiming-rests. At each halt,
when the fatigue-man has taken cover, recruits will note the point on
the ground or cover which conceals him, and take aim at it. After an
arranged interval the fatigue-man will expose himself to view, and
remain stationary while the instructor criticizes each man’s aim and
corrects faults.


Section =20=.--Aiming-Off for Wind.

=1. The Wind-Gauge.=--_The use of the wind-gauge is not the normal
means of making allowance for wind under service conditions._

=2. Judging Strength and Direction of Wind.=--The soldier should be
taught to discriminate between mild, fresh, and strong winds, or winds
blowing ten, twenty, or thirty miles an hour. The strength of the
wind may be judged partly by sensation and partly by its effect on
natural objects, such as clouds, water, trees, crops, hedges, bushes,
undergrowth, dust, and smoke. The soldier may judge the direction of
the wind, as front, rear, side, or oblique, by turning his face fully
towards the wind.

=3. Wind Deflection Table for Side Winds= (=Right-Angle Winds=).--The
following figures give the approximate deflection of the bullet due
to winds of varying direction and velocity at different ranges, and
provide a rough guide for aiming-off for wind which is sufficiently
accurate for practical purposes:

  +-------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
  |             |                 Strength of Wind.                   |
  |             +-----------------------------------------------------+
  |   Range.    |      Mild.      |     Fresh.      |    Strong.      |
  |             | Miles per hour, | Miles per hour, | Miles per hour, |
  |             |       10.       |       20.       |      30.        |
  + ------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
  |             |   Deflection.   |   Deflection.   |   Deflection.   |
  |   500 yards |     2 feet      |     4 feet      |     6 feet      |
  | 1,000 ”     |     3 yards     |     6 yards     |     9 yards     |
  | 1,500 ”     |     6   ”       |    12  ”        |    18   ”       |
  | 2,000 ”     |    12   ”       |    24  ”        |    36   ”       |
  +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+

=Note--Oblique Winds.=--For oblique winds the approximate deflection
at the above ranges may roughly be estimated as _half that of a side
wind of the same velocity_ and allowance in aiming-off may be made
accordingly.

=4. Exercises in Aiming-Off.=--(i) Having memorized the approximate
allowances for side and oblique winds of varying direction and
velocity, as stated in para. 3, the recruit will next be taught to make
allowance in aiming-off for wind at a full-length figure target on the
range, according to the strength and direction of the wind which is
actually blowing, or which may be supposed to be blowing, as given by
the instructor. In carrying out these exercises the recruit should be
taught to aim-off with reference to the breadth of a full-length figure
target, which is rather less than 2 feet wide. Thus the amount of
allowance will be measured as one breadth, two breadths, etc., to right
or left.

=5. Orders for Aiming-Off.=--Finally, the recruit must be exercised in
aiming-off at all ranges according to orders, the amount of allowance
being given as so many times the breadth of the target indicated, or
so many times the width of the intervals between targets consisting
of close formations. The amount of allowance may also be indicated
by the use of auxiliary aiming or description points (Sec. 45), as,
for instance, a tree or bush, the lateral distance of which from the
target equals approximately the required allowance. When none of these
methods of indicating allowances are possible men must be taught to
aim-off so many feet or yards to the right or left of the target, these
measurements being taken as representing the lateral distance between
the sight of the rifle and the target aimed at.

=6. Method of Indicating Errors.=--In aiming-off exercises it is
necessary to employ a fatigue-man at the target to indicate the correct
point of aim with a marking-disc _after_ each aim taken by the recruit,
which to commence with should be done with a rifle on an aiming-rest.
He will carry out the duty according to previous instructions as to
the correct point of aim for each exercise. The amount of allowance
made by the recruit will be observed by the instructor with an
aim-corrector, unless an aiming-rest is used. The recruit will be made
to note his errors, which will be criticized by the instructor.

=7. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--Instruction in aiming-off can
be carried out on miniature ranges, as described in Chapter X (see
Practice No. 2, p. 227).


Section =21=.--Aiming Up and Down.

=1. When to Aim Up and Down.=--The rifle will be aimed up or down to
increase or reduce elevation at all ranges when there is no time to
alter sights, as, for example, in firing at targets in movement, in
repulsing a charge at close range, in case of surprise, when very
slight alterations of elevation are seen to be necessary, as the
result of observation of fire, and to avoid frequent small changes of
sighting which lead to loss of fire effect. _Correction of sighting in
individual firing at close range is seldom possible in war. Therefore
aiming up and down is the normal means of altering elevation in firing
at targets within close range._

=2. Rules for Aiming Up and Down.=--There is no fixed rule for aiming
up and down. As a general rule aim should be directed at a point not
more than 3 feet above or below the six o’clock line, according to the
position of the target beyond or short of the zone for which the sights
are set. The degree of allowance in aiming up and down will depend on
the rate and direction of movement and the range of the target, and
will be a matter for individual judgment. _If the difference between
the range and the sighting exceeds 200 yards it will be best to alter
the sighting._

=3. Exercises in Aiming Up and Down.=--To practise aiming up and
down, under conditions approximating to those of service, the
sights should first be fixed for a given range, and then fatigue-men
or standing-figure disappearing targets disposed at various ranges
should be alternately brought into view for short periods of
time, representing troops in movement. Men should be told whether
targets represent retreating or advancing troops, and aim up or
down accordingly. Aim maybe criticized by using aiming-rests or
aim-correctors.


Section =22=.--Aiming-Off for Movement.

=1. Instruction.=--Instruction in aiming at moving targets will be
carried out during the latter portion of preliminary training. It
will consist of practice in shooting at crossing targets on 30 yards
or miniature ranges (see Chapter X). The pace of movement should be
regulated as far as possible in strict accordance with that of service
targets (see Practice No. 2, p. 217).

=2. Crossing Targets.=--This term is applied to targets moving across
the front of the firer, either at right angles from either side, or
obliquely towards or away from him to either side. Such targets are not
as a rule met with in battle except in the case of surprise, ambush,
or a sudden encounter. Crossing targets may be met with by cavalry
and infantry patrols, and by scouts during reconnaissance. _Fire will
rarely be effective at a single man moving across the front at more
than 300 yards range, or at a single horseman beyond 500 yards._

=3. Method of Aiming at Crossing Target.=--(i) When firing at crossing
targets aim will first be taken on the object. Then, following it
sideways, the aim will be carried in advance of the object, and kept in
front of it at the desired distance until the rifle has been fired. The
distance to which aim should be carried in advance of the target will
vary according to the range, rate of movement, direction of movement
and wind. For this reason no fixed rules can be laid down regarding
aiming-off in firing at crossing targets. Fire effect will depend upon
the judgment of individual men and fire-unit commanders, and on the
fruits of practical experience.

=4. Rules for Aiming-Off for Movement=--(i) =Targets crossing Front
at Right-Angles.=--The following general rules will serve as a guide
in firing at crossing targets at close range _moving at right-angles
across the firer’s front_.

(_a_) Up to 500 yards range, aim should be taken--

    About 1 foot in front per 100 yards at a single man walking.

    About 2 feet in front per 100 yards at a single man doubling.

    About 3 feet in front per 100 yards at a single horseman trotting.

    About 4 feet in front per 100 yards at a single horseman
    galloping.

Thus, at 100 yards a soldier should aim about the breadth of a man in
front of an individual walking, and at 200 yards about a horse-length
in front of a single horseman trotting.

(_b_) Beyond close range aim should be taken _at the head of a body of
troops moving to a flank_.

(ii) =Targets crossing Front Obliquely.=--The general rules regarding
aiming up and down laid down in Sec. 21, para. 2, apply also to
crossing targets moving obliquely towards or away from the firer. _In
firing at such targets, allowance must be made for elevation as well
as for aiming-off._ At short range both allowances will be made by
individual men. At longer ranges men will allow for aiming up and down,
and when necessary fire-unit commanders will allow for aiming-off in
fire orders.

(iii) =Targets moving directly Towards or Away from the Firer.=--In
aiming at an object moving _directly_ towards or away from the
firer, allowance for elevation will usually be made _by aiming up or
down_--not by waiting to alter sights (Sec. 21, paras. 1 and 2).


Section =23=.--Practice in Rapid Adjustment of Sights.[12]

=1.= This instruction should be carried out concurrently with
instruction in loading in the various firing positions. Frequent small
changes of sighting lead as a rule to loss of fire effect, and may be
avoided by aiming up or down. _But when there is time the sights will
be adjusted for every alteration in the range, and aim will be taken
at the lowest part of the mark._ It is essential that men should be
trained to adjust their sights accurately and rapidly, and that this
power should become to all intents and purposes instinctive, so that
this vitally important duty on which fire effect in a large measure
depends will be carried out by the soldier with certainty in moments of
the most extreme stress and excitement.

=2. Training in Rapid Adjustment.=--Instructors will frequently test
their squads in setting their sights rapidly and accurately. They will
give orders for aiming or firing at definite targets, but without
naming the range, and require their squads to adjust their sights
before they bring the rifle to the shoulder, judging the distance
for themselves, which will help to make the careful adjustment of
sights, which is essential for fire effect, habitual to the soldier.
Adjustment of sights will also be practised under the same conditions
in connection with the movement of the firer or the target, represented
by fatigue-men.

=3. Rules for Adjusting Sights.=--(i) =To Adjust the Backsight.=--Hold
the rifle in the loading position (Sec. 27), so that the lines on the
backsight can be seen clearly. Press in the stud (or studs) on the side
of the slide with the left or right hand; move the slide until the
line is even with the place on the leaf giving the elevation for the
distance named, taking care that it is firmly fixed. _Charger-Loading
Lee-Enfield Rifle._--Loosen the clamping screw with the thumb and
forefinger of the right hand, move the slide until the top is even with
the line on the leaf giving the elevation for the distance named, and
then tighten the clamping-screw.

(ii) =To Lower the Backsight.=--Press the stud or studs inwards
with the left or right hand, and draw the slide backwards as far
as possible. _Charger-Loading Lee-Enfield Rifle._--Loosen the
clamping-screw, lower the slide to the bottom of the leaf with the
firefinger and thumb of the right hand, then tighten the clamping-screw.

(iii) =Fine Adjustment of the Backsight.=--(_a_) _S.M.L.E. Rifle, Marks
III and IV._--Press the stud on the slide with the thumb of the left
hand till the worm-wheel can be easily revolved; turn the worm-wheel
with the thumb-nail of the right hand until the required elevation
is obtained. The stud must not be pressed to such an extent that the
worm-wheel is entirely disengaged from the rack.

(_b_) _Other Marks._--Turn the fine adjustment screw with the
forefinger and thumb of the right hand until the line on the leaf is
level with the line on the fine adjustment scale giving the required
elevation.

(iv) =To Adjust the Long-Range Sights.=--Hold the rifle in the loading
position, so that the dial can be seen clearly. Move the pointer to the
place on the dial giving the elevation for the distance named, and then
raise the aperture sight.



CHAPTER IV

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN FIRING


Section =24=.--Hints to Instructors.

=1.= Instructors will teach by force of example rather than by word of
mouth, and be careful to refrain from any form of comment which may
discourage young soldiers. Words of command are seldom required except
in collective firing instruction, all motions of firing being performed
independently, and each man being required to use his own judgment as
much as possible. Faults must not, however, be overlooked or allowed
to become formed habits. _The essential points of the firing positions
are to be insisted upon from the beginning, as the foundation of fire
discipline._

=2.= In the early part of training squads will not as a rule consist
of more than seven men, who will be assembled round the instructor in
a semicircle. The instructor will explain the uses of the different
firing positions and illustrate them to the squad. Recruits will
practise the motions separately until able to combine them, and _assume
each position rapidly and without constraint_.

=3=. The position of each individual will be corrected in turn. The
regulation positions may be varied if physical characteristics render
them unsuitable in any case, but awkwardness in the first stages of
instruction will not be accepted as an indication that the regulation
position requires modification. The instructor should stand about five
paces from the recruit and to his right front while correcting his
faults.

=4.= The firing-rest will be employed frequently in early instruction
to enable the recruit to support the rifle and rest his muscles,
whilst the instructor modifies, or corrects, his position. An incorrect
position, however, usually arises from want of accuracy in the
preliminary actions which lead to it, and it is to these that attention
must be given, for a faulty position once acquired cannot easily be
corrected.

=5.= With regard to the firing positions, the standing position is a
convenient one to commence elementary instruction. When recruits have
acquired facility in handling the rifle, they will be trained for the
most part in the lying position, either in the open or behind cover,
and occasionally in the kneeling position behind cover.

=6. Progression of Training.=--Elementary instruction in firing will be
divided into the following stages:

    (i) Trigger-pressing from aiming-rest.

    (ii) Snapping from aiming-rest.

    (iii) Assuming the various firing positions.

    (iv) Loading and unloading in the various firing positions.

    (v) Aiming and firing in the various firing positions in the
    open, including loading, adjusting sights, and unloading.

    (vi) As in (v), with the various firing positions adapted to
    different forms of cover.

    (vii) Muscle exercises.


Section =25=.--Trigger-Pressing and Snapping.

=1. Importance of Trigger-Pressing.=--(i) Instruction in firing will
commence with training in pressing the trigger. The vital importance
of performing this action correctly must be impressed upon recruits.
They must understand that, however carefully and accurately the rifle
is aimed, accurate shooting is impossible if trigger-pressing is
faulty, as aim will be disturbed at the moment of discharge. Faultless
trigger-pressing is absolutely essential for accurate firing.

=2. Need for Mental Effort.=--Trigger-pressing requires most careful
individual instruction, during which the necessity for determination
and strong personal effort of will will be impressed on the mind of
every recruit. The power of concentrating the mind and controlling the
nerves and muscles by exercising the will are all developed by practice
in trigger-pressing, and these qualities of character are essential for
good shooting and for fire discipline.

=3. Rules for Trigger-Pressing.=--(i) The trigger of the S.M.L.E.rifle
has a double pull-off, and two distinct pressures are necessary to
fire the rifle. The first pull should be taken when the rifle has
been brought into position for aiming; the second when the sights are
aligned on the mark. The charger-loading Lee-Enfield rifle has a single
pull-off.

[Illustration: =Fig. 15.=--METHOD OF PRESSING TRIGGER WITH FOREFINGER.]

(ii) The direction of the pull-off is diagonally across the small of
the butt. The first joint of the forefinger should be placed round the
_lower_ part of the trigger (Fig. 15). In order not to disturb the aim
_breathing must be restrained when pressing the trigger. In firing the
trigger must be pressed so as to release the cocking-piece without
disturbing aim._

(iii) To do this _a gradually increasing pressure_ must be exerted
on the trigger until the spring is released. Such pressure will
be facilitated if the grip of the trigger hand on the rifle is
strengthened slightly, as though to oppose the inward pressure of the
trigger finger with an equal gradual counter-pressure. This will give
the whole action the effect of a squeeze with the hand, of which the
pressure of the trigger finger is the most important part--the part on
which the mind must be concentrated. _On no account must the pressure
of the finger in any degree take the form of a pull or jerk._

(iv) Fig. 16 shows the results of faulty trigger-pressing in firing.
The trigger has been pulled or jerked to the left instead of being
properly pressed, and the grouping of shots--low to the right--shows
how aim has been disturbed in consequence.

=4. Method of Instruction.=--(i) The rifle will be rested on sandbags
(Fig. 17), or an aiming-rest, and the recruit will be seated with
his elbows rested on a table. The instructor will first see that the
recruit can _move his trigger-finger independently of the remainder of
the hand and arm_, if necessary, by making him practise this action.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.=--SHOT GROUP ILLUSTRATING RESULT OF FAULTY
TRIGGER-PRESSING.]

(ii) In order that he may learn from experience the pressure required
to release the cocking-piece, the soldier in commencing instruction
in trigger-pressing, will be directed to place his forefinger under
that of the instructor, but without exercising pressure, whilst the
instructor carries out the motion (Fig. 18). Then, to enable the
instructor to ascertain whether the method is understood, the soldier
will place his finger over that of the instructor, and exert the
pressure. Finally, the soldier will himself press the trigger, while
the instructor uses the aim-corrector to see that aim is not disturbed
when the trigger is pressed. Special care will be taken that the
_breathing is restrained while pressing the trigger. The use of the
sling for steadying the rifle during firing is not to be taught._

=5. Declaring the Point of Aim.=--The recruit must always be made
to say after the spring is released whether the aim was maintained
truly at the moment of snapping. If not, he must state definitely the
direction in which the rifle was pointed at the moment of discharge. By
this means recruits will find out and correct their own faults, and the
contraction of bad habits will be avoided.

=6. Tests of Trigger-Pressing and Snapping.=--From time to time
the instructor will test the aim and steadiness of each recruit in
trigger-pressing and snapping with an aim-corrector or an aiming-disc
(Fig. 19). If necessary, further lessons in trigger-pressing will be
given. Progress should also be tested from time to time by grouping
practice on the miniature range or 30 yards range. These practices
will help to develop steadiness until range practice is begun. Daily
practice in snapping is necessary for trained soldiers as well as for
recruits.


Section =26=.--The Various Firing Positions.

=1. Vulnerability of Different Firing Positions.=--In the open up to
1,000 yards the lying position will usually prove the least vulnerable
to the effects of both rifle and artillery fire, as it is the most
difficult to discern and exposes the smallest surface to fire. As a
rule, the lying position is also the least vulnerable to the effects of
rifle fire at all ranges. On the other hand, it is more vulnerable
to the effects of shrapnel in the open than the kneeling or sitting
positions. The use of entrenchments, however, whenever possible,
usually obviates the necessity for assuming the lying position in the
open in attacking a strongly-held defensive position.

[Illustration: =Fig. 17.=--SHOWING GRIP OF RIGHT HAND, AND TRIGGER
FINGER.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 18.=--INSTRUCTOR ILLUSTRATING CORRECT METHOD OF
PRESSING THE TRIGGER.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 19=--CORRECT METHOD OF USING AIMING-DISC.

(_See Appendix, Sec. IV., “Aiming-Disc.”_)]

[Illustration: =Fig. 20.=--STANDING POSITION--SIDE VIEW.

  _Points to note:_

  1. Body well balanced.
  2. Left elbow well under rifle.
  3. Good bed for the butt.
  4. Firm grip with both hands.
  5. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  6. Sights perfectly upright.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 21.=--STANDING POSITION--FRONT VIEW.

  _Points to note:_

  1. Body well balanced.
  2. Left elbow well under rifle.
  3. Good bed for the butt.
  4. Firm grip with both hands.
  5. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  6. Sights perfectly upright.]

=2. Need for Avoiding Unnecessary Movement.=--Recruits will be trained
to assume the various firing positions rapidly, and to perform the
loading and aiming motions with as little movement as possible. All
unnecessary movement in performing these motions must be avoided,
especially in the open, as movement attracts the eye and tends to
betray the position of targets which, when stationary, would be
invisible or extremely difficult to discern.

=3. Standing Position= (Figs. 20 and 21).--(i) The standing position
will, as a rule, be used on service to fire from breastworks, high
walls, and cover, such as long grass or standing corn, or to take
a snap-shot when advancing, so that the pace of the advance is not
materially checked. For the height over which a man can fire standing
see Sec. 31, para. 2.

(ii) =Rules for the Standing Position.=--Body turned half right, left
foot carried to the left and slightly forward, so that the body is
erect and well-balanced, left elbow well under the rifle, the butt well
into the hollow of the shoulder, rifle gripped firmly with both hands,
eye well back from the cocking-piece, sights perfectly upright.

=4. Lying Position= (Fig. 22).--(i) The lying position will generally
be adopted by troops on open ground, or when firing from continuous low
cover, or from behind small rocks, trees, etc. Preliminary instruction
in firing and firing exercises will, as a rule, be carried out in the
lying position as being the most convenient.

(ii) Other conditions being equal, this position has the advantage that
its use in firing results in a greater extent of dangerous space than
in the case of other firing positions [Sec. 9, para. 2 (ii)].

(iii) =Rules for Firing In the Lying Position.=--Turn half right, bring
the rifle to the right side as when standing, holding it in the left
hand. Place the right hand on the ground, and lie down on the stomach
with the legs separated, left shoulder well forward, left arm extended
to the front, and rifle resting in the left hand in a convenient
position, muzzle pointing to the front and clear of mud or dust on
the ground. The line of the body may be slightly oblique to the line
of fire, _but this oblique angle must not be exaggerated, as it will
tend to increase vulnerability by presenting a greater surface to the
enemy’s fire than when the body is parallel to the line of fire_ (see
Fig. 30).

(iv) =Adjusting Sights.=--To adjust sights in the lying position draw
the rifle back with the left hand until the lines on the backsight
can be seen clearly. In the case of S.M.L.E. and Charger-loading
Lee-Enfield rifles, draw the rifle back through the left hand.

(v) =Height of Rifle above Ground.=--For the height over which a man in
the lying position can fire see Sec. 31, para. 2. If it is necessary
for improving the field of fire and obtaining better fire effect to
increase the height of the body above ground, this can be done by
raising it on the elbows and at the same time slightly retiring it.

=5. Kneeling Position= (Figs. 23 and 24).--(i) The kneeling position
is used mainly when firing from continuous cover, such as a low wall,
bank, or hedge, or in long grass, crops, etc., which would obstruct the
line of sight if the prone position were adopted. For the height over
which a man in the kneeling position can fire see Sec. 31, para. 2.

(ii) =Rules for Firing in the Kneeling Position.=--The soldier may
kneel on either or both knees. When kneeling on one knee the body may
be supported on the heel, or not, as desired. The left knee will be in
advance of the left heel, and the left elbow will rest on or over
the left knee. The left leg, hand, and arm, and the right shoulder,
should be in the same vertical plane when firing in the open kneeling
on the right knee. When kneeling on both knees, the body may rest on
both heels, or be kept upright to suit the height of the cover, the
elbows in both instances being unsupported by the body.

[Illustration: =Fig. 22.=--PRONE POSITION--SIDE VIEW.

  _Points to note_:

  1. Body oblique to line of fire.
  2. Legs separated.
  3. Heels on ground.
  4. Good bed for the butt.
  5. Firm grip with both hands.
  6. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  7. Sights perfectly upright.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 23.=--KNEELING POSITION--SIDE VIEW.

  _Points to note_:

  1. Body well balanced.
  2. Left elbow well under rifle.
  3. Good bed for the butt.
  4. Firm grip with both hands.
  5. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  6. Sights perfectly upright.
  7. Left heel slightly behind left knee.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 24=--KNEELING POSITION--FRONT VIEW.

  _Points to note_:

  1. Body well balanced.
  2. Left elbow well under rifle.
  3. Good bed for the butt.
  4. Firm grip with both hands.
  5. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  6. Sights perfectly upright.
  7. Left knee, forearm, rifle, and
      right shoulder, in one vertical
      plane.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 25.=--SITTING.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 26=--SITTING POSITION WHEN FIRING--AIMING DOWN
STEEP SLOPE.]

=6. Sitting Position= (Figs. 25 and 26).--The sitting position will
be the most suitable when on ground falling at a steep slope. In this
position the right shoulder should be kept well back, the left forearm
supported by the thigh, and the right elbow resting against the right
knee, or unsupported, as desired.


Section =27=.--Loading and Unloading.

=1. To Load= (Fig. 27).[13]--(i) Bring the rifle to the right side
in front of the hip, with the muzzle pointing upwards, small of the
butt just in front of the hip, grasping the stock with the left hand
immediately in front of the magazine. Turn the safety-catch completely
over to the front with the thumb or forefinger of the right hand.
(_Charger-loading Lee-Enfield Rifle._--Lower the safety-catch with the
thumb of the right hand.)

(ii) Pull out the cut-off if closed, first pressing it downwards with
the thumb, then seize the knob with the forefinger and thumb of the
right hand, turn it sharply upwards, and draw back the bolt to its full
extent.

(iii) Take the charger between the thumb and first two fingers of the
right hand, and place it vertically in the guides. Then, placing the
ball of the thumb immediately in front of the charger, and hooking
the forefinger under the cut-off, force the cartridges down with
a firm and continuous pressure until the top cartridge has engaged
in the magazine. Force the bolt sharply home, turning the knob well
down, and, with the thumb or forefinger of the right hand, turn the
safety-catch completely over to the rear. (_Charger-loading Lee-Enfield
Rifle._--Raise the safety-catch with the forefinger of the right hand.)
Then button the pouch, seize the rifle with the right hand in front of
the left, bring the left foot back to the right and order arms.

(iv) =Loading the Magazine.=--The magazine will hold two charges of
five cartridges each, but should in ordinary circumstances be loaded
with one only, as the soldier will thus retain the power of adding
another charge at any time should necessity demand. If, when on the
line of march, it is desired to charge the magazine without loading the
rifle, the top cartridge may be pressed downwards with the thumb and
the cut-off closed. _After the rifle is once charged the soldier is
responsible that his magazine is refilled at once whenever it has been
emptied._

=4. To Unload.=--Carry out the directions in para, 1 (i) and (ii), but
after drawing back the bolt, without turning the knob down, work the
bolt rapidly backwards and forwards until the cartridges are removed
from the magazine and chamber, allowing them to fall on the ground.
Then close the breech, press the trigger, close the cut-off by placing
the right hand over the bolt and pressing the cut-off inwards, apply
the safety-catch, lower the backsight or the long-range sights, and
order arms.

=5. Rapid Loading.=--(i) When he is able to aim and fire steadily in
all positions and from various classes of cover, the soldier will be
exercised in combining rapid loading with the greatest rapidity of
aim consistent with accuracy. Rapid loading will first be practised
separately, using dummy cartridges in chargers. When five rounds have
been inserted in the magazine, the bolt will be closed and turned
over, and the rifle will at once be unloaded and another charger
inserted similarly. Rapid loading should be practised in all positions,
but especially in the lying position.

[Illustration: =Fig. 27.=--LOADING IN STANDING POSITION.

  _Points to note_:

  1. Body erect and well balanced.
  2. Left elbow close to body.
  3. Firm grip with left hand, close in front of magazine.
  4. Muzzle pointing upwards.
  5. Butt well forward.
  6. Forefinger of the right hand under the cut-off.
  7. Eyes on the mark.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 28.=--FIRING IN THE OPEN. HEADS LOWERED; OBSERVER
WATCHING FRONT.]

(ii) =Rapid Firing.=--The rate of firing should be increased gradually,
provided that faults of aiming and trigger-pressing are not acquired.
Short bursts of rapid fire only will be permitted, the firing being
carefully regulated and controlled. A target will always be indicated.

=6. Caution.=--Before dummy cartridges are used on parade, special
precautions will be taken to insure that neither ball nor blank
ammunition is taken to the parade ground. _The instructor will
personally examine all cartridges, rifles, pouches, and bandoliers,
before loading takes place._


Section =28=.--Use of the Safety-Catch and Cut-Off.

=1.= Troops armed with rifles fitted with safety-catches will
invariably set the catch to safety before movement. The use of the
cut-off is to be confined in their case to occasions when they are
not actually engaged with the enemy. Then it may be employed for the
purpose either of charging the magazine without inserting a cartridge
in the chamber, or to unload the rifle while retaining cartridges in
the magazine.

=2.= The cut-off is never to be used to enable the rifle to be used as
a single loader, and is not to supersede the use of the safety-catch.
In the case of rifles which have no safety-catches, the cut-off
will be pressed in and the rifle unloaded on all occasions when the
safety-catch is ordered to be applied in these instructions. In an
advance in extended order, however, these rifles may be carried during
movement at the slope instead of being unloaded.


Section =29=.--Instruction in Aiming and Firing.

=1. Rules for Aiming and Firing.=--(i) The rules for taking accurate
aim have already been stated. In combining aiming with the movements
for firing in the various firing positions the following rules will be
observed:

(ii) Direct the eyes on the mark. Then bring the rifle into the hollow
of the right shoulder, and press it in with the left hand, grasp the
small firmly with the thumb and three fingers of the right hand,
place the forefinger round the lower part of the trigger, and exert
sufficient pressure to take the pull. In making these motions, the
backsight will be kept upright, the left elbow brought well under the
rifle, and the right elbow brought a little lower than and well to the
front of the right shoulder.

(iii) As the rifle touches the shoulder, bring the cheek down on the
butt, keeping the face well back from the right hand and cocking-piece,
close the left eye, align the sights on the mark, _restrain the
breathing_, and press the trigger.

(iv) _Great care must be exercised to insure that the forefinger is not
placed on the trigger before the rifle is in contact with the shoulder,
and that a firm grip is maintained with both hands while firing. Unless
the butt rests firmly in the hollow of the shoulder, accurate shooting
is impossible._

(v) _The further the eye is kept from the backsight the more clearly
will the sights be defined, the less strained will be the position of
the head and neck, and the less will be the effect of recoil._

=2. Aiming and Firing Practices.=--In aiming and firing practices, the
firer should always declare the direction of his aim at the moment of
discharge before removing the rifle from the shoulder for the reasons
given in Sec. 25, para. 5. The instructor will carefully supervise
practices, and will test the accuracy of aiming with the aim-corrector
or aiming-disc. Having carried out the motions described in paras, (ii)
and (iii) above, the recruit after a pause will bring the rifle to the
loading position, and practise the motions again, or he will apply the
safety catch and order arms, according to the orders of the instructor.


Section =30=.--Firing in the Open.

=1.= The need for avoiding unnecessary movements in assuming the
various firing positions in loading and aiming will have been impressed
upon recruits during their instruction in the firing positions and
loading. Recruits must be taught that it is especially important to
avoid these unnecessary movements when firing in the open [Sec. 72,
para. 3 (iii)]. _In firing in the open, the head should be lowered in
the intervals of firing, but the ground in front must be watched by
selected observers_ (Fig. 28).

=2. Positions in the Open.=--Besides avoiding movements betraying their
position, recruits will be taught to select positions in the open
so as to avoid as far as possible backgrounds which increase their
visibility [Sec. 72, para. 4 (ii)]. They will be taught, as part of
their instruction in visual training, to note the effect of different
backgrounds upon the visibility of service targets. They will learn
that concealment may be possible even in the open without cover, for
troops at longer ranges when not in movement may be invisible to the
naked eye. Individual men, when motionless in the open, may also be
invisible to the naked eye within close range.


Section =31=.--Firing from Cover.

1. Instruction in the choice and use of ground and its natural or other
features as cover for concealment or protection from the enemy’s fire,
and in adapting the different firing positions to various forms of
cover, will be part of the field training of men at a stage which will
combine training in fire discipline and manœuvre (see Chapters III.
and VI. of _Drill and Field Training_ of this series). Full directions
regarding the choice and use of the ground and its existing features
as cover are contained in Sec. 33[14] of _Drill and Field Training_ of
this series. Training in the construction and use of hasty fire-cover,
and more elaborate forms of constructed cover, such as various field
entrenchments, are dealt with in _Field Entrenchments_ of this series,
which also deals with the preparation of doors, windows, and buildings,
as well as banks, ditches, etc., to serve as cover. Training in firing
in the different firing positions from behind various common forms
of cover will form part of the elementary instruction of recruits in
firing.

=2. Height of Cover for Use in Different Firing Positions.=--The
heights over which a man of average stature can fire on level ground in
the various firing positions are as follows: Lying, 1 foot; kneeling,
3 feet; standing, 4 feet 6 inches. On level ground a man can fire over
about five-sixths of his own height. Higher cover can be used when
firing uphill than when firing downhill.

=3. Rules for Firing from Cover.=--(i) Instructors must impress on
recruits that the most important requirement in firing from cover is
_the ability of a man to use his rifle to the best advantage, and that
the eyes must be kept on the enemy between shots_ to avoid losing sight
of targets. In using cover, the recruit must be taught to keep as near
to the cover as possible, compatible with ease in firing. He must also
be taught when possible to fire round the side of cover rather than
over it.

[Illustration: =Fig. 29.=--FIRING ROUND COVER--CORRECT.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 30.=--FIRING ROUND COVER--UNNECESSARY EXPOSURE.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 31.=--FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 32.=--FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--UNNECESSARY
EXPOSURE.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 33.=--FIRING FROM FOLD OF GROUND--CORRECT METHOD.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 34.=--FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER.

Waiting to Fire. Centre, correct position; right and left, incorrect
positions--unnecessary exposure.]

(ii) =Adapting Firing Positions to Different Forms of Cover.=--The
following notes and illustrations lay down general rules as to the
correct method of adapting the different firing positions to various
forms of cover commonly found in the field.

(iii) =Isolated Cover.=--Figs. 29 and 30 illustrate the correct and
incorrect methods of using isolated cover. Fig. 29 shows the minimum
exposure, the whole body being protected by cover. Fig. 30 shows
unnecessary exposure of the head and body, and also of the legs, owing
to the extreme oblique angle of the body to the line of fire. As a rule
isolated cover should be avoided even if it affords protection from
fire, as in the case of occasional rocks or small mounds of earth,
especially at close ranges, because men, if seen occupying such cover,
can easily be marked down by the enemy, and hit on leaving it. Rocks
may also be dangerous, owing to the risk of injury from splinters.

(iv) =Continuous Cover=--(_a_) _Ridges and Folds of Ground._--Figs.
31, 32, and 33 show correct and incorrect methods of using ridges
and folds of ground as cover. These features commonly provide good
cover, especially the latter, which may be difficult to recognize
from a distance. If properly used, they may afford concealment and
protection from the enemy’s fire, for which as a rule they do not offer
well-defined targets. For instance, the fold of ground in Fig. 33 would
be invisible if it were not indicated by the men’s heads.

(_b_) _Low Cover._--Figs. 34 to 38 show the correct and incorrect
methods of using low cover. Figs. 39 to 42 show correct and incorrect
methods of using higher forms of continuous cover, such as stone and
brick walls, banks, etc. As a rule these forms of cover, whether
consisting of hedges, with or without ditches, banks, or walls, have
the disadvantage of offering well-defined targets to the enemy’s fire
and may, in addition, obstruct the advance of troops occupying them.
Stone and brick cover, in addition, involves the risk of injury
through splinters or demolition if subject to artillery fire.

=4. Method of Instruction.=--(i) Instruction should be carried out
under practical conditions. If necessary, different forms of cover
can be improvised by the use of sandbags, hurdles, boxes, etc. The
instructor will give practical illustrations of the correct method of
adapting the different firing positions to various forms of cover. He
will then order each man to adapt the different firing positions to
cover, and criticize faults, or call on other recruits in the class to
criticize them.

(ii) When recruits have progressed sufficiently, they should be sent
out to the front of the class as fatigue-men to make use of various
forms of cover, such as folds of ground, hedges, ditches, walls, trees,
isolated bushes, undergrowth, tufts of grass, etc., in advancing
towards the class. Besides taking cover, they should go through the
loading and aiming motions as though firing at the class.

(iii) The instructor will make use of these object-lessons to point out
the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of cover, the correct
and incorrect methods of using cover, and the danger of exaggerated or
unnecessary movement of the head, arms, or rifle in loading and aiming
which tend to betray the position of men or make them easy to mark
down. This instruction can be carried out on miniature ranges according
to the directions laid down in Chapter X., Sec. 72, para. 3 (iv).

=5. Rules for Selecting Cover.=--The following general rules will
help to guide soldiers in selecting cover. They must remember that in
the field the selection of cover may often involve a choice between
alternative disadvantages. It may not be possible to avoid bad cover
or to find good cover, and it may sometimes be better to use bad cover
than to remain in the open. Soldiers, therefore, must be taught in the
course of their field training to make the best use of ground and cover
under the varying conditions of each tactical situation.

[Illustration: =Fig. 35.=--FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER.

Correct and incorrect prone position for loading and waiting to fire.
The unnecessary exposure and movements of the rifle of the man on the
right are wrong.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 36.=--FIRING OVER CONTINUOUS COVER.

Correct and incorrect prone positions. Unnecessary exposure of man on
right.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 37.=--FIRING ROUND CONTINUOUS COVER: LYING
POSITION--FRONT VIEW.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 38.=--FIRING ROUND CONTINUOUS COVER: LYING
POSITION--SIDE VIEW.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 39.=--KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN LOADING.

  _Points to note_:

  1. No undue exposure.
  2. Watching front.
  3. Trigger guard downwards to facilitate loading
        and sight-setting.
  4. Muzzle clear of cover.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 40.=--KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN LOADED.

  _Points to note_:

  1. No undue exposure.
  2. Watching front.
  3. Trigger guard outwards.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 41.=--KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN FIRING.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 42.=--KNEELING BEHIND COVER--POSITION WHEN FIRING.]

  _Points to note_

  1. No undue exposure.
  2. Body well balanced.
  3. Left elbow well under rifle.
  4. Good bed for the butt.
  5. Firm grip with both hands.
  6. Eye well back from the cocking-piece.
  7. Sights perfectly upright.
  8. Rifle, but not hand, resting on cover.
  9. Position adapted to the cover.

(i) =Good Cover.=--Perfect cover--which, however, will very rarely be
found--will combine the following advantages:

    (_a_) Affords a clear view up to the enemy’s position.

    (_b_) Permits the free use of the rifle.

    (_c_) Gives concealment to the firer.

    (_d_) Provides protection for him against the enemy’s fire
    without hindering forward movement.

(ii) =Bad Cover= involves any of the following disadvantages:

    (_a_) Offers a well-defined target for the enemy’s fire, and
    provides no protection from its effects.

    (_b_) Gives a restricted view of the enemy’s position.

    (_c_) Restricts the free use of the rifle.

    (_d_) Obstructs the advance of troops occupying it in attack.

(iii) =Dangerous Cover.=--Features of ground which offer clearly
defined targets for the enemy’s fire, and afford no protection from
its effects, are dangerous cover if occupied in view of the enemy,
especially if they run parallel to his position. Common examples of
such features are an isolated hedge or the edge of a wood.

=6. Penetration of the Pointed Bullet.=--A table will be found in the
Appendix to _Field Entrenchments_ of this series giving the approximate
penetration of the pointed bullet when firing at various substances.
In order to obtain bullet-proof cover, an extra thickness of substance
must be added to these measurements of penetration. Earth should not be
less than 3½ feet thick to afford bullet-proof cover. If the soil is
free from stones, a thickness of 4 feet is desirable. _This thickness
may roughly be measured with a service rifle, 3 feet 8½ inches long._


Section =32.=--Muscle Exercises.

=1.= (i) To accustom the muscles to the strain of prolonged firing the
following exercises will be performed daily during the elementary
training of recruits, and frequently by trained soldiers. Care must
be taken that men are not unduly fatigued by the exercises, and that
they do not commence them when they are tired. In each practice, a
conspicuous object, representing the target, will be indicated, and the
rifle will invariably be thrown into approximate alignment with it.

(ii) In the first and third exercises the correct aiming position
will be assumed, including taking the pull, bringing the cheek on to
the butt, and closing the left eye, but without actually aligning the
sights. In the second exercise the first pull will be taken when the
right hand grasps the rifle, but the head will not be lowered, the left
eye will not be closed, nor will the sights be aligned.

=2. First Practice.=--To be performed with and without bayonet fixed.
Caution:--_Muscle Exercise._ _First Practice._ Commands:--_Standing or
Lying_--_Load_.

    _One._--Bring the rifle to the position for aiming, return at
    once to the position for loading, and continue the practice.

    _Unload._

=3. Second Practice.=--Caution:--_Muscle Exercise._ _Second Practice._
Commands:--_Standing or Lying_--_Load_.

    _One._--Bring the rifle to the position for aiming.

    _Two._--Quit the rifle with the right hand.

    _Three._--Seize the rifle with the right hand, and at the same
    time quit it with the left hand.

    _Unload._

_Note._--The words _Two_ and _Three_ will be given at intervals of
about 10 seconds. The trigger will not be pressed when in the third
position.

=4. Third Practice.=--To be performed with and without bayonet fixed.
Caution:--_Muscle Exercise._ _Third Practice._ Commands:--_Standing or
Lying_--_Load_.

    _One._--Bring the rifle to the position for aiming.

    _Unload._

_Note._--The men will be trained progressively to hold the rifle in
this position until they can do so without fatigue for two minutes.

5. =Cadet Muscle Exercises.=--(i) In the case of Cadets, the above
muscle exercises may be carried out with a light rifle. Alternatively
the special exercises for Cadets suggested in the following paragraph
may be carried out in preference to the second and third Regulation
muscle exercises, the strain of which may develop slowness of movement
in young, growing lads by making the muscular tissues heavy rather than
well-toned. Moreover, the repetition of these exercises is monotonous,
and may cause a distaste for them in youths. Cadet muscle exercises
which consist of going through the various movements of assuming the
different firing positions, loading, sighting, _aiming_, and pressing
the trigger, are therefore suggested as a substitute for the Regulation
muscle exercises. The introduction of aiming at a mark--preferably a
service target--in the course of muscle exercises will help to develop
the muscles of the eye, together with those of the body and limbs.

(ii) These exercises have the advantages of occupying the mind of the
cadet while exercising his muscles, and so diverting attention from
the mere repetition of continued muscular effort, which is wearisome.
They avoid the heavy strain of the third Regulation musketry exercise,
and attain the object of the second--namely, to develop a firm grip of
the hand on the weapon, which is essential to service shooting, while
practising cadets in seizing the weapon quickly in the proper places.
They further embrace all the muscles used in the act of firing by
including the firing positions and trigger-pressing instead of those
used in taking aim alone, and at the same time co-ordinate them into
the quick, active movements essential for snapshooting and rapid firing.

(iii) Cadets must not be practised at these exercises till they have
been trained to perform correctly the various movements necessary for
assuming the different firing positions, loading, sighting, bringing
the rifle to the shoulder for aim, and pressing the trigger. They may
be exercised in squads, but the instructor must supervise the work
of each cadet, and be careful to see that all the separate movements
combined in each exercise are carried out correctly, without being
slurred or wrongly made.

(iv) The instructor must also be careful to see that no cadet continues
any muscle exercise until he is fatigued. The exercises must be
light at first, and gradually increased according to the strength
of individual cadets as their muscles grow stronger. Exercises will
be carried out under the control of the instructor and according to
his directions. Each exercise will be carried out in a series of
three movements, which may be repeated for a number of times at his
discretion.

(v) =Cadet Muscle Exercise.=--Caution:--_Muscle Exercise._
Commands:--_Firing Position._ _Rate of Fire._

    _One._--Assume the firing position ordered, and bring the rifle
    to the position for loading.

    _Two._--Perform the action of loading and adjusting sights
    correctly to a given range.

    _Three._--Bring the rifle to the position for aiming, press the
    trigger, and return at once to the position for loading.

_Note._--Rapid loading and unloading in the prone position with the
rifle to the shoulder will also prove a useful muscle exercise.



CHAPTER V

VISUAL TRAINING AND RANGING


Section =33=.--General Remarks on Visual Training.[15]

=1. Importance of Visual Training.=--Great as is the loss of fire
effect due to errors in judging distance and sighting, an even greater
amount of ammunition will be expended without good results unless the
soldier is trained to discern and select targets at close ranges, and
to recognize targets described to him at longer ranges.

=2.= Even at close range, in the open, service targets consisting
of troops are often impossible to discern with the naked eye when
motionless if their background harmonizes with their uniform. At
all ranges, except short distances within close range, troops in
neutral-tinted uniform, adopting formations which allow full use to be
made of ground and cover, are usually difficult to discern with the
naked eye even when in motion.

=3.= Finally, targets which consist of ground or its natural features
are not easy to recognize unless the eye of the soldier is specially
trained for this work, upon which fire effect in battle beyond close
range will depend. The eyesight of the soldier must, therefore, be
developed in special powers to enable him to discern and recognize the
targets of the modern battlefield at all ranges before he is able to
fire at them effectively.

=4. Scope of Training.=--(i) Visual training will include discernment
of targets, study and description of ground, recognition of and aiming
at targets described by word of mouth, judging distance by eye, and,
when possible, observation of the results of fire. Visual training
should at first be separated from training in judging distance, but as
proficiency is attained both should be combined after men have been
instructed in military vocabulary and study of ground, which lays
the foundation of instruction in recognition of targets. Training in
observation of results of fire by watching the strike of bullets on the
ground will be difficult to carry out except on dusty soil.

=5. Visual Training on Miniature Ranges.=--Directions for training
men in the different subjects of instruction mentioned in the above
paragraph, including observation of fire, are contained in Chapter X,
Sec. 72, para. 4.


Section =34=.--Discernment of Targets.

=1. Elementary Training.=--Training will begin with questions framed
to develop a man’s powers of discerning objects, _and describing
accurately and shortly what he sees_. At first any ordinary objects in
the vicinity of barracks will be counted, or instruction may be carried
out as in the elementary stage of training in observation and memory
according to the directions laid down in Sec. 45 of _Drill and Field
Training_ of this series.

=2. Training on the Ground.=--Training will then be carried out on
the ground. Exercises should first be carried out in good light, the
recruits being allowed to stand and obtain a good field of view.
Afterwards exercises should be carried out under all conditions of
light, and in cloudy or misty weather, men being trained to discern and
describe objects in the prone position in the open or behind cover,
when their field of view will be restricted.

=3. Visibility of Distinct and Neutral Colours.=--For exercises in the
field a certain number of dummy targets or fatigue-men will be placed
or posted beforehand in various selected positions unknown to the class
in the open, or partly behind cover, and against different backgrounds.
The targets should include both the distinct bull’s-eye and service
figure targets of different colours, and the fatigue-men should be
dressed in uniforms of both distinct and neutral tints, with the
object of showing the difference in visibility of distinct and neutral
colours against the same background. Neutral-tinted targets should
also be arranged against various backgrounds to show how background
affects visibility, as, for example, the difference in visibility of a
khaki uniform against a white wall, a sheet of water, a skyline, dark
ploughland, a green field, a brown hedge.

=4. Effect of Background on Visibility.=--During these exercises
opportunity will be taken by instructors to utilize the useful
object-lessons they provide upon the use of ground and cover. Men
should be made to note the varying visibility of objects according
to their background. They should be taught that the visibility of
targets naturally tends to increase the effect of fire directed at
them by facilitating discernment, judging distance, and aiming, while
the vulnerability of targets is decreased in proportion as they are
invisible or difficult to discern. Men must, therefore, be taught
to note the effect of different backgrounds upon the visibility of
fatigue-men in service uniforms. When being trained in the use of
ground and cover, they should learn, when possible, to avoid positions
such as a skyline or a background which contrasts sharply with their
uniforms, and may render them distinctly visible to the enemy [Sec. 72,
para. 4 (ii)].

=5. Describing Targets.=--In all exercises men will be given a definite
period of time--which may be decreased as progress is made--in which
to locate and count targets. Each man should then be asked how many
he has discerned. Men will in turn be asked to describe clearly and
shortly the nature and position of any target they have discerned which
has not already been described by a comrade. They should be taught to
use military vocabulary in describing targets, and to indicate their
position by the methods explained in Sec. 45. Visual training will thus
lay the foundation of instruction in recognition of targets.

=6. Use of Field-Glasses.=--In the case of targets which are difficult
to see, and which have not been discerned, the instructor may allow men
to discern the target with the aid of field-glasses, and then make them
try to discern the target with the naked eye, using natural features of
the ground in the vicinity of the target to locate its position. This
instruction will help to train men in the use of field-glasses and in
recognition of targets.

=7. Effect of Movement on Visibility.=--Finally, fatigue-men will be
employed to skirmish from cover to cover, and to perform the firing
motions from behind cover, in order to show how motion catches the eye
and exposes the firer’s position (Sec. 72, para. 3 [iii]).

=8. Locating an Enemy by Sound.=--Blank ammunition will be used to give
practice to the ear in locating an enemy by sound.


Section =35=.--Military Vocabulary and Study of Ground.[16]

=1. Importance of Military Vocabulary.=--(i) Soldiers must be trained
not only to discern, but to describe service targets of various kinds.
For this purpose they must be instructed in military vocabulary.
Military vocabulary comprises the technical terms applied to the
organization, weapons, equipment, formations, and duties of various
arms. Definitions of these technical terms are contained in the
various books of this series, including _Drill and Field Training_,
_Field Entrenchments_, and _First Aid_.

(ii) In this book, besides definitions of the technical terms which
apply especially to musketry, a list of terms and definitions applied
to natural and other features of ground and country is included on p.
xxvi as being a necessary part of the military vocabulary used in the
recognition and indication of targets.

=2. Need of a Standard Vocabulary.=--It is important that the military
vocabulary in each unit of an army, and, if possible, in the whole
army, should be uniform as to its various terms, especially in regard
to the indication and description of targets. Both fire-unit commanders
and men should therefore be thoroughly trained in applying a uniform
military vocabulary correctly to various service targets, such as units
of various arms in different formations and to the different natural
and other features of ground and country.

=3. Method of Instruction.=--(i) Instruction in military vocabulary may
be carried out in the following manner. In early lessons the instructor
will describe in detail simple prominent features, such as part of a
skyline or the line of a bank or hedge, and get each man in the class
to describe in similar terms another part of the line. He will then
practise them by the same method in describing more difficult and
extensive features. In this way men will gradually learn the correct
terms to apply to a great variety of natural features of ground. When
men have learnt how to describe various features of ground in correct
terms, the instructor will proceed to describe small areas of ground,
the limits of which he will first clearly define.

(ii) He will describe the shape and nature of the ground, as, for
instance, whether it is level, undulating or broken, and rocky, sandy,
or pasture. He will then describe its various natural and artificial
features, the different kinds of trees, fences, undergrowth, etc., on
it, and the shape and size of the fields, with the colour of the earth
or of crops growing in them. The approximate measurements of objects,
roughly estimated, may also be given, as, for instance, whether they
are large, small, of moderate size, tall, short, wide, or narrow. These
rough measurements will often help to distinguish objects, such as
trees, fields, hedges, or houses from one or more objects of a similar
nature. Men will first be thoroughly practised in completing the
description of ground and its features commenced by the instructor, and
then, as progress is made in describing ground which is merely pointed
out by the instructor without being partly described by him. Fig. 43
illustrates common features of ground which may be described in the
manner outlined in these paragraphs.

=4. Study of Ground.=--It is clear that instruction in military
vocabulary provides a good opportunity for training fire-unit
commanders and men in the study of ground, which is of the greatest
military importance. Therefore, in training men in the description of
ground, instructors should also train them _to recognize all features
of military importance_, such as good defensive positions, good lines
of approach, good halting-places for attack, covered approaches, dead
ground, obstacles, and good or dangerous cover.[17] When men have
learned to recognize features of military importance, the instructor
will indicate an area of ground, and question the class in turn as
to what military features may be seen on it. Men must describe these
military features in the correct terms, and they will thus learn an
extremely important branch of military vocabulary--namely, that applied
to ground--which must frequently be described to them and recognized
by them as aiming points in a later stage of their training.

[Illustration:

  A. _Skyline_
  B. _Hollow_
  C. _Gentle slope_
  D. _Steep slope_
  E. _Dense cover_
  F. _Crest of Hill_

=Fig. 43.=--MILITARY VOCABULARY--TERMS DESCRIBING COMMON FEATURES OF
GROUND.]

=5. Studying Ground from Cover.=--As progress is made in the study of
ground, the class should be made to examine the ground and to describe
it from behind cover to accustom them to its appearance, as they will
see it when firing from cover. This instruction will form a useful
preparation for the duties of reconnaissance and scouting. When the
class is sufficiently advanced, the areas of ground described will be
increased gradually, and, when necessary, these areas will be divided
into sectors, as described in Sec. 42, paras. 3 and 5, and each sector
will be divided into foreground, middle distance, and background. Men
will be trained to note the different zones of ground to which these
terms are applied, and then to apply them correctly in describing
ground.

=6. Committing Features of Ground to Memory.=--When men are
sufficiently advanced, they may be practised in examining ground for a
limited time, and then giving a correct description of its prominent
features and principal military features with their backs to it. The
instructor will check their description while it is being given by
looking at the ground, and bring out points which may have been missed
or forgotten by asking men questions. This practice will develop
the extremely useful power of rapidly noting features of ground,
and also of memorizing ground. The latter power will be useful in
reconnaissance, scouting, and reports.

=7. Study of Ground in Strange Country.=--As the ground and its
features, both natural and artificial, together with the names by which
they are called, differ considerably in different countries, men should
be trained in military vocabulary, the description and study of ground
both before and during military operations in unfamiliar country.


Section =36=.--General Remarks on Ranging.

=1. Importance of Ranging.=--(i) Accurate ranging when firing is of
vital importance, especially at distances beyond close range. Mistakes
in judging distance or range-finding, and errors in sighting, cause a
greater loss of fire effect than personal errors in shooting except
at close range. But even within close range mistakes of more than 100
yards are not infrequently made in judging distance. _The more accurate
the firing, the less will be the result if the sighting is incorrect
from any cause._

(ii) The measurement of ranges will commence the moment a firing-point
has been chosen. Range-taking increases in importance rapidly with
every 100 yards beyond 600 yards up to 2,000 yards, at which distance
troops not in a close formation are only visible when in motion, or
with a very favourable background or light.

=2. Methods of Ranging.=--(i) The principal means of ranging are--(_a_)
Judging distance by eye; (_b_) observation of fire; (_c_) use of
instruments such as the mekometer and the one-man range-finder. There
are several auxiliary methods of ranging such as back-reckoning, use of
maps, information obtained from aircraft, artillery or machine-guns,
sound and flash, cross-bearings, etc., which may be used occasionally
or in exceptional cases.

(ii) Observation of fire, when possible, is an effective means of
ranging. If uncertainty exists as to elevation, it is better to
underestimate than to overestimate the range. If it is necessary to
fire at ranges beyond 1,000 yards, and observation is not possible,
or the situation demands that some effect should be produced, quickly
combined sights may be employed. In all cases every available means
should be employed to find correct ranges. _No available means of
ascertaining ranges should ever be neglected, if time and opportunity
allow them to be used._

=3. Reconnaissance as an Aid to Ranging.=--As already stated,
range-finding will as a rule be in progress before fire is opened,
and the rapid reconnaissance of any ground on which a fire-fight is
likely to take place should provide information of the greatest value
to company officers responsible for the direction of fire. In preparing
a defensive position, there is usually ample time for ascertaining
ranges, and for using range-marks (Sec. 40, para. 5) and preparing
range-cards (Sec. 40, para. 1).

=4. Training of Officers and N.C.O.’s.=--As fire is controlled at
longer ranges, practice in judging distance is more necessary for
officers and non-commissioned officers than for the private soldier.
Soldiers who show aptitude in judging short distances by eye should,
however, be given training with their leaders at judging longer
distances. These men may also be selected for training in the use of
range-finding instruments and in the duties of observers (Sec. 42,
para. 9).

=5. Reduction of Errors by Training.=--Officers and non-commissioned
officers, by constant practice, will reduce their mean error in
judging distance from about 20 per cent. of the correct distance to
about 10 per cent., but much depends on the local conditions to which
the observer is accustomed. With thorough training the mean error of
private soldiers in judging distances within 800 yards should not
exceed 100 yards. Special attention should be paid to men whose mean
errors exceed this distance, with a view to discovering the cause and
reducing the error.

=6. Effect of Strange Conditions.=--Serious errors must be expected in
judging under strange conditions of ground and atmosphere. Exercises
in judging distance must therefore be carried out before, as well as
during, military operations in unfamiliar country.


Section =37=.--Judging Distances by Eye.

=1. Methods of Judging Distance by Eye.=--Distances may be judged by
eye in the following ways: (_a_) By measuring the intervening ground
with the eye in terms of some familiar unit, such as 100 yards; (_b_)
by the apparent size of the object, if its size is known, or, in other
words, by visual angles; (_c_) by the visibility of the object as
affected by light, atmospheric effect, background, etc.

=2. Rules for Judging Distance by Eye.=--(i) The varying nature of the
ground and its features, together with different conditions of light
and atmosphere, affect general impressions of distance as measured by
the eye by making objects look smaller or larger, and so making them
seem nearer or further away from an observer than they actually are.

(ii) =Conditions which appear to Increase Distance.=--Objects will
appear smaller, and therefore farther away than they are, under the
following conditions:

(_a_) When objects are of the same colour or a colour which harmonizes
with their background.

(_b_) On broken ground.

(_c_) When seen across a valley or undulating ground.

(_d_) In avenues, long streets, or ravines.

(_e_) When in shadow.

(_f_) When viewed in mist or failing light.

(_g_) When heat is rising from the ground.

(_h_) When seen near any other object which makes it appear smaller
than it is by the effect of comparison.

(_i_) When only partially seen, as in the case of troops firing from
cover.

(_j_) Troops kneeling or lying in the open seem farther away than when
standing.

(iii) =Conditions which appear to Decrease Distance.=--Objects will
appear larger, and therefore nearer than they are, under the following
conditions:

(_a_) When both object and background are of different or contrasting
colours.

(_b_) When the sun is behind the observer.

(_c_) In bright light or clear atmosphere.

(_d_) When the intervening ground is level or covered with snow.

(_e_) When seen across water or a deep chasm.

(_f_) When looking upwards or downwards.

(_g_) When the object is large, or when seen near any other object
which makes it appear larger than it is by effect of comparison.

(iv) =A General Rule.=--A good general rule to remember for practical
purposes is that _when a target is indistinct distance is apt to be
over-estimated, and that when a target is distinct distance is apt to
be under-estimated_. This general rule roughly sums up the effects
and the various factors mentioned in paras. (ii) and (iii), which
respectively tend to render targets less or more distinct.

=3. Judging Lateral Distance by Eye.=--The following is a rough guide
for judging lateral distances running at right angles to the observer
at various distances. With one eye shut and the hand at arm’s length to
the front with the fingers perpendicular, the breadth of six fingers
will cover 100 yards of lateral distance at a distance of 500 yards
from the observer. Under the same conditions, the breadth of three
fingers will cover a lateral distance of 100 yards at a distance of
1,000 yards. The breadth of two fingers will cover a lateral distance
of 100 yards at 1,500 yards, and the width of the thumb will roughly
cover 100 yards of lateral distance 2,000 yards away. This method
may be employed for estimating the approximate length of an enemy’s
column, or the extent of frontage known to be occupied by him.

=4. Method of Instruction=--(i) =Units of Distance.=--All the methods
mentioned in para. 1 should be practised by officers, N.C.O.’s, and men
under a variety of practical conditions, and in the prone, kneeling,
and standing positions, until it is found that distances can be judged
approximately from the general impression conveyed to the eye. The
class will first be familiarized with short units of distance not
exceeding 600 yards. _Special care will be taken to enable soldiers to
recognize the distance of 600 yards, as it is the limit of individual
fire._

(ii) =Figures.=--The class will at the same time study the visibility
of the figure standing, kneeling, and lying at known distances. They
will be required to remember the results of their observation, and be
given opportunities of seeing figures in varying conditions of light,
atmosphere, and background at known distances.

(iii) =Features of Ground.=--The class will next be practised in
judging the distance of natural features of ground, such as folds of
ground, hedges, patches of undergrowth, and other forms of cover, at
various known distances. This instruction will be followed by judging
the distances of fatigue-men seen at unknown distances in the different
firing positions both in the open against various backgrounds and
partly behind cover. The class will then be practised in judging the
distance of features of ground and different forms of cover at various
unknown distances. These various practices should be carried out with
the class in the standing, kneeling, and prone positions.

(iv) =Reasons for Estimates.=--Each observer should be asked by the
instructor to give reasons for his estimate of distance to guard
against the habit of rough guessing. To train observers in the habit
of taking into account every factor which will help them to judge
distance, the instructor should consider and explain the effects of
local conditions and other factors which affect judging the distance
of each object he indicates after the class have made their estimates.
Ample time should at first be allowed for judging distance, but as
progress is made the time should be limited. The above exercises must
include instruction in estimating lateral distances. _Rough guessing is
never to be allowed._

=5. Aids to Judging Distance by Eye.=--(i) The class should be trained
in various methods of assisting the eye when the distance of objects is
especially difficult to estimate approximately. For example, a maximum
and minimum estimate of the distance may be made, and the mean taken as
correct. Half the distance from the object may be estimated with the
aid, if possible, of some feature of ground, and double may be taken as
correct. When the object is partly hidden in a fold of ground, or when
it is of unknown size, distance from it may be estimated with the help
of some object of known size, such as a natural feature of the ground
or a human figure which may be near it.

(ii) Other rough methods which will assist them in judging distance
approximately may be explained to the men. For instance, the foresight
of the rifle _when correctly aligned_ will be approximately equal to
the height of a standing figure at 400 yards. The width of an ordinary
pencil held horizontally at arm’s length before the eye will cover an
upright figure at 200 yards, and the lead at its thick part will cover
a standing figure at 600 yards.

=6. Tests in Judging Distance by Eye=--(i) =Directions regarding
Tests.=--In every company, and at depôts, in addition to instructional
exercises, at least one test in judging the distances of four objects
will be held for all ranks in every three months, the distances of the
objects being between 200 and 800 yards.

All company officers, non-commissioned officers, and those men who are
in possession of badges for judging distance, will also be tested once
in every three months under regimental arrangements in judging the
distances of four objects between 200 and 1,400 yards.

Brigade commanders and officers commanding districts will issue such
orders as may be necessary for exempting non-commissioned officers and
men from these tests, but every officer and sergeant who would command
a company or smaller unit on mobilization should attend four tests
annually in judging distance up to 1,400 yards.

(ii) =Conditions of Tests.=--During tests in judging distance no
assistance from maps or other means should be allowed. The tests will
be conducted on unfamiliar ground, half the objects consisting of
fatigue-men or dummy figures representing skirmishers, and half of
natural objects marking fire positions, such as would be occupied on
service.

The observers will lie down or kneel behind cover, and estimates
will be recorded by adjusting the sights (or in the case of officers
by writing) in multiples of 50 yards; the objects should have been
previously placed or selected, or the position of the observers should
be chosen, so that the correct distance may closely approximate to some
multiple of 50 yards.

Half a minute will be allowed for each estimate, reckoned from the
moment when the object is pointed out or a shot is fired to draw
attention to the position of the object. At the conclusion of the
half-minute a whistle should be blown, when the observers will stand
to attention, and no further adjustment of the sights or writing will
be permitted. The register-keeper will then examine each rifle or
paper, and record the estimates in the register. On return to barracks,
the mean percentage of error of each observer will be entered in the
register, which will be preserved for record.

On the completion of the classification practices, the mean percentages
of error made by each individual officer, non-commissioned officer and
man since the last classification will be added together and divided by
the number of tests which he has attended, the average thus obtained
being regarded as the standard of proficiency of the individual until
the next classification.

Officers, non-commissioned officers, and men whose mean error exceeds
20 per cent., and those who have attended less than two tests, will be
regarded as inefficient. Additional practice will be afforded weekly
to all officers, non-commissioned officers, and men who are recorded
as inefficient, until the next quarterly test. Officers and sergeants
whose mean error exceeds 20 per cent. will not be classified as better
than second-class shots.


Section =38=.--Range-finding by Observation of Fire.

=1. When Observation is Possible.=--Observation of results is the best
means of correcting errors in sighting, but it is only practicable
(_a_) when the ground in the vicinity of the objective is of a nature
to show the strike of the bullets by dust, or (_b_) when the enemy is
in the open, and the accuracy of fire can be judged by its effect upon
him.

=2. Nature of Fire Necessary for Observation.=-_-A considerable volume
of rapid and concentrated fire is necessary to enable the strike of
bullets to be observed_, and for this purpose one or more Maxim guns,
or not less than two platoons, should be employed to fire. The distance
and nature of the ground will determine the volume of fire required,
but the greater the difficulty of observation the greater must be the
volume of fire. When trying for observation, third-class shots should
not be permitted to fire.

=3. Method of applying Fire for Observation=--(i) =Elevation.=--An
elevation well _under_ the estimated distance should first be selected,
and if the fire can be observed, the elevation should be increased by
not less than 100 yards at a time until the nucleus of the bullets is
seen to fall on the desired spot.

(ii) =Objective.=--The point at which the fire is directed may be the
actual objective, or ground in its vicinity which is more suited to
observation of the strike of the bullets.

(iii) =Position for Observation.=--The best position from which to
observe fire is behind, and, if possible, above the firers; but in this
position the bullets which fall short will be most easily seen, and
may be mistaken for the nucleus of the fire. Further, all shots will
appear to strike nearer to the observer than is really the case.

(iv) =Hints for Observers.=--To an observer on or behind a flank of the
firers, shots which pass over the mark will appear to fall towards the
flank on which he is posted, and those which drop short to fall towards
the opposite flank. Thus, if the majority of shots seem to an observer
on the _right_ flank to fall to the _right_ of the mark, the range has
been _over-estimated_, and if they seem to fall to the _left_, it has
been _under-estimated_.

=4. Verifying Ranges by Fire.=--When there is time and opportunity for
doing so, ranges which have been taken beforehand, especially those
taken in preparing a defensive position, should be verified by the
results of firing a number of rounds.


Section =39=.--Ranging by Auxiliary Methods and by Instruments.

=1.= Training in ranging should include instruction in practical
auxiliary methods such as by maps and range-finding instruments.
_Exercises in ranging by means of maps, range-finders, and the
eye, used in combination, should form an essential part of the
fire-direction practices of the annual course of musketry._

=2. Ranging by Map-Reading.=--Ranges may be ascertained by the use of
small scale maps, though large scale maps, if available, will be better
for this purpose. Instruction in field-sketching and reconnaissance
affords excellent opportunities for training in judging distance. For
map-reading, see _Signalling_ of this series; and for field-sketching
and reconnaissance, see _Drill and Field Training_ of this series.

=3. Back-Reckoning.=--Back-reckoning may be defined as deduction as to
distance made from any known range. For instance, in advancing on a
position the range of which is ascertained on commencing the advance,
the distance gained by each forward movement may be deducted from the
original range of the position in estimating its range for firing on it
at successive halts. Again, the range of an objective further away than
another objective, of which the range is known, may be estimated by
adding to the known range the estimated distance of the former from the
latter objective. An example of back-reckoning is shown in Fig. 44.

=4. Ranging by Gun-Flash and Sound.=--Light travels at the rate of
186,000 miles a second, so that a gun-flash is practically seen as it
issues from the muzzle, irrespective of the distance of the observer.
Sound, on the other hand, travels about 1,100 feet, or about 365 yards,
a second. By timing the interval between seeing the flash of a gun and
hearing the report, its approximate distance may therefore be deduced.
This, of course, will only be possible when the position of the gun is
betrayed by the flash, and when guns are fired singly at appreciable
intervals, or simultaneously, so that there is practically one flash
and one report at a time.

=5. Range-Finding Instruments.=--A certain number of officers,
N.C.O.’s, and men in each unit will be trained to use the One-Man
Range-Finder or the Mekometer instrument, full directions regarding the
use of which will be found in the official handbooks dealing with these
instruments.


Section =40=.--Range-Cards and Range-Marks.

=1. Range-Card.=--A range-card is a device for giving ranges to various
points in a field of fire for use in attack or defence. Range-cards
should be prepared by fire-unit commanders for their own use and for
use by N.C.O.’s and observers. When possible, the best way to prepare
a range-card is to use a piece of a large scale map of the country on
which to draw the range circles and direction lines. There will usually
be more time for preparing range-cards in defence than in attack, and
consequently range-cards prepared for defensive positions will as a
rule be more elaborate than those made for use in attack.

[Illustration: =Fig. 44.=--SIMPLE RANGE-CARD FOR ATTACK.

    _Note._--The distances on the left are those from the enemy’s
    position. Those on the right in brackets are only for the
    range-taker’s information, and should not be shown on the card to
    avoid confusion.]

=2. A Simple Range-Card for Attack.=--Fig. 44 shows a rough example of
a simple range-card made for use in attack over the ground shown in the
left sector of the sketch in Fig. 47, from which it will be seen that
the objects on the range-card are taken. This has been done to make
the example more practical and interesting. The ranges are supposed to
be taken from the cross-roads at X to a series of prominent objects
on or a little to either side of the line of advance. The distance of
each of these points _from the enemy’s position_ (2,000 yards away)
is carefully noted, and thus ranging during the attack is greatly
facilitated. The range of the enemy’s position from intermediate points
can also be more easily estimated by back-reckoning.

[Illustration: =Fig. 45.=--SIMPLE RANGE-CARD FOR DEFENCE.

    _Note._--The point from which ranges are taken should always be
    described clearly on the card to facilitate setting it.]

=3. A Simple Range-Card for Defence.=--Fig. 45 shows a rough example
of a simple range-card made for use in defence. The ranges in this
case are supposed to be taken from the point _A_ immediately south of
the church. The direction line from _A_ to the church is drawn thicker
than the other lines to facilitate “setting” the range-card in the
same manner in which a map is set. When the card is set for the point
from which ranges are taken--which is noted on the card--by pointing
the thick direction line on the church, the other direction lines will
indicate the ranges of the other points marked on the card.

=4. Foreground Range Sketch.=--(i)Fig. 46 shows an example of a
foreground range sketch for use in a defensive position. Such a
sketch would as a rule only be made in connection with very carefully
prepared firing-points; but as from seven to ten hours or more is
required to make any serious attempt to prepare and conceal a series
of firing-points carefully, it is clear that the range-taking and
range-marking party should have ample time to make an exhaustive
reconnaissance of the foreground, to put out the range-marks, and to
record their work in some simple form. One sketch such as Fig. 46 is
sufficient for the commander of a group of firing-points.

(ii) Points, the range of which may be ascertained and marked with
advantage in such sketches, include the exits and entrances to all
areas of dead ground, or likely cover from view or fire; the crests or
skylines--as seen from the firing-points--of all ridges and humps on
the foreground; patches or lengths of road likely to be traversed by
the enemy; gaps and gates in fences; corners of fields and enclosures;
bridges, culverts, etc.; and conspicuous single objects, as guide-marks
from which to estimate adjacent distances, such as isolated buildings,
signposts, rocks, milestones, double telegraph-posts, or other such
features.

(iii) As will be seen in Fig. 46, names may also be allotted to patches
of dead ground within 1,000 yards or so of the firing-point. The
abbreviated names of months and days of the week lend themselves to
such a purpose, though any other short names will do equally well.

[Illustration: =Fig. 46.=--EXAMPLE OF A FOREGROUND RANGE SKETCH.

    _Note._--Ranged points are indicated by a thick line. The
    appearance of the Range-Marks is shown thus:--VIII. [= 850 yds.]
    Names have been allotted to important dead spots within 1,000
    yards--_e.g._, FEB. refers to the dead area immediately behind
    the ridge ranged as 850.]

=5. Range-Marks.=--Range-marks are of special value to the defenders
in those firing-points in which they have been told off _to watch for
and deal with the enemy’s supports and reserves_ during their advance,
after fire has been opened and the enemy’s firing-line is already
pinned down, or is unable to cross certain areas on a foreground
prepared for defence until strongly reinforced (see p. 162, para. 3
(x), _Field Entrenchments_ of this series).

=6. Marking Ranges on Ground.=--(i) The actual marking of ranges on the
ground by means of visible marks may be done as follows: Range-marks
should be provided, and should be placed on that side of large trees,
houses, banks, etc., which is only visible to the defence. The simplest
arrangement consists of one white object per 100 yards range; 500 yards
may be denoted by the sign =V=, made with two boards, poles, etc.; and
1,000 yards by the sign =X=; intermediate hundreds being indicated by
single objects in addition, as above described. On a bank or slope
facing the firing-points Roman numerals may be cut out on the turf,
etc., or formed by arranging stones or planks.

(ii) =Marking on Trees.=--For marking on a tree the hundreds marks must
be one below the other, and patches of tin do very well for this. For
marking “fifties” an object much smaller but distinctly visible may be
added, or one object quite different to the remainder. On a tree marked
with tin discs, for example, half a disc would do for 50 yards.

(iii) =Marking on Buildings.=--For marking on a building, the colour to
be used depends on that of the masonry, etc. A whitewash-brush is one
of the best implements, if obtainable, and the marking, can be either
large Roman numerals or ordinary figures if they can be read clearly.

(iv) =Examples of Marks.=--In Fig. 46 five artificial range-marks
are shown--namely, 0000·(450) at the stack, V on May hill, VII on
March-April ridge, VII·(850) on Dec.-Feb. ridge, and X where Monday
road disappears into Hereham village. The walls round the village might
be marked in a similar manner, but the sketch is too small to show the
marks.

(v) =Size of Marks.=--A practical rule for the _size_ of mark is 1 foot
of height to the mark per 100 yards in the range, unless the background
is very good--such as black spots on a white wall--when half this
allowance will be ample.



CHAPTER VI

FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL


Section =41=.--General Remarks.

=1.= In the previous stages of instruction the foundation of training
for fire action beyond close range will have been laid. The eyesight
of both fire-unit commanders and men will have been trained to discern
service targets at all ranges, and they will have become familiar with
their appearance under various conditions of light and atmosphere, and
accustomed to look for them and detect them quickly. Both fire-unit
commanders and men will also have been trained in military vocabulary
and the study of ground, so that they apply a common phraseology to
various military objects, especially those under the head of service
targets, and also to the ground and its natural features, the military
value of which they will have learned in field training through
instruction in the use of ground and cover.

=2.= Fire-unit commanders and men must now be taught to work together
as an unit in directing fire at service targets beyond close range
by the efficient performance of the various duties described in the
following sections. This instruction should commence with lectures,
illustrated if possible by the use of the Solano and landscape targets
as described in Secs. 72, 73, and 74. Lectures should deal with
organization for fire action, the effect of rifle fire at various
ranges, the tactical application of rifle fire, the description and
recognition of targets, fire orders, fire discipline, and night firing.

=3. Lectures and Demonstrations= (see pp. 221-225). Special lectures in
their duties should be given to fire-unit commanders, non-commissioned
officers, and observers, and these lectures should include information
and hints which will enable fire-unit commanders to train their men
both by lectures and practical instruction. Lectures to men should
be given by their fire-unit commanders, and should deal with all
the various duties which are combined for fire action, including
organization and the duties of fire-unit commanders. These lectures
must deal thoroughly with the duties of men in the firing-line and with
the vitally important subject of fire discipline (see pp. 214, 215).


Section =42=.--Organization for Fire Action.[18]

1. Fire direction and control depend in a great measure upon good
organization for fire action. The value of this organization depends
on the fitness of superior officers and battalion commanders to handle
their troops efficiently, and issue such clear and concise orders as
will enable each unit to carry out its allotted task well supported,
with their communications and ammunition supply well maintained. The
duties of organization for fire action may be described generally as
follows:[19]

    (i) Allotment of frontages and objectives to various units.

    (ii) Arrangements for communications and ammunition supply.

    (iii) Arrangements for covering fire by supports and reserves,
    machine-guns, and artillery.

=2. Allocation of Frontages and Objectives.=--Both in attack
and defence a definite frontage in the field of fire--termed a
_sector_--should be allotted to each fire-unit by company and platoon
commanders. Thus the enemy appearing in any given sector will at
once be engaged by the unit to which that particular sector has been
allotted. Each fire-unit commander on receiving orders as to his
frontage, will indicate it to his unit in the manner described in the
following paragraphs, and must make sure that the N.C.O.’s, observers,
and men of his unit clearly understand the extent and limits of their
sector.

=3. Indicating the Limits of Sectors= (Fig. 47).--The limits of each
sector will be indicated by means of suitable description points (see
Sec. 45, para. 3) on each flank of the frontage allotted to an unit.
These description points should, as a rule, consist of distant features
of a landscape or of the field of fire. If no suitable description
points mark the limits of a sector exactly, the limits will be
indicated as being so many hand or finger breadths (Sec. 45, para. 7)
to the left or right of the nearest suitable description point. The
limits of sectors may be made to overlap in the same manner. In defence
there will generally be ample time for allotting frontages. In attack
frontages will usually be allotted on deployment, but whenever possible
they will be selected beforehand by preliminary reconnaissance.

=4. Object of Overlapping the Sectors.=--The overlapping of sectors
insures that the entire front is kept under close observation, and
that no part of it remains unswept by fire should occasion arise for
delivering fire at a target in any part. It also prevents waste of
ammunition and loss of fire effect through units firing at objectives
outside their own sectors unless this is necessary for the purpose of
mutual support.

=5. Example of Field of Fire divided into Sectors.=--(i) Fig. 47
shows a field of fire divided into overlapping sectors by the use
of description points. The sketch illustrates the arrangements made,
as the result of a hasty preliminary reconnaissance, by a company
commander for fire action by the four sections or normal fire-units of
his command on deployment in the early stage of attack. In defensive
positions similar arrangements may be made for indicating sectors
allotted to each locality. Defensive positions will usually include
a number of localities of special tactical importance. From these
localities either direct or flanking fire, or both, is brought to bear
on all ground over which the enemy may advance. As long as this is
done the intervening ground between localities need not be held in a
continuous line.

(ii) In defence, the arrangements for fire action will include the
various measures described in Chapter VIII of _Field Entrenchments_
of this series, such as clearing the foreground of features which
would afford cover to the enemy and assist his advance, and clearing
it of features to improve the defenders field of fire, together with
the construction of different obstacles to impede and check the
enemy’s advance or cause him to select lines of approach along avenues
commanded by the fire of the defenders.

=6. Direction and Control of Fire.=--Fire is said to be _directed_ by
the commander, who defines the objective against which it is to be
used, and to be _controlled_ by the fire-unit commanders, who give
the necessary executive words of command. In attack occasions will
frequently arise when fire-unit commanders must both direct and control
the fire of their units, while at close ranges, or when men are widely
extended, it may happen that the transmission of any fire-order is
impossible, and that each individual man must control his own fire.

=7. Fire-Unit.=--The normal infantry fire-unit is the section, though
under certain conditions at the longer ranges the fire of a platoon,
or even a whole company, may be controlled by its commander. _The
efficiency of section commanders is therefore of paramount importance._

[Illustration:

  Emery Walker Ltd. sc.

=Fig. 47.=--ROUGH SKETCH OF A FIELD OF FIRE DIVIDED INTO OVERLAPPING
SECTORS BY THE USE OF DESCRIPTION POINTS ON DEPLOYMENT IN ATTACK.]

=8. Duties of Fire-Unit Commander.=[20]--(i) The value of a fire-unit
commander depends upon his ability _to apply the fire of his unit
at the right time and in the right volume to the right target_. In
addition to his other duties, the fire-unit commander is responsible
for:

    (_a_) Indicating targets.

    (_b_) Issuing orders for sighting, and, when possible,
    supervising the correct adjustment of sights.

    (_c_) Regulating the volume of fire, whether deliberate or rapid.

    (_d_) Reporting to platoon or company officers when ammunition is
    running short.

(ii) The additional duties of the fire-unit commander referred to in
the above paragraphs may be described generally as follows:

    (_a_) Watching for favourable targets.

    (_b_) Watching for signals from platoon or company officers.

    (_c_) Observing effect of fire.

    (_d_) Seizing all chances of firing for mutual support.

    (_e_) Seeing that all orders are properly passed.

    (_f_) Seeing to issue and redistribution of ammunition.

    (_g_) Selecting halting places in attack.

    (_h_) Making best use of ground and cover.

    (_i_) Re-forming and telling off units as opportunity offers.
    During the attack advantage will be taken of dead ground and
    cover to re-form separate units which may become mixed owing to
    confusion, especially in the later stages of attack.

=9. Duties of Observers.=--Men trained as observers will be employed,
as necessary, to assist fire-unit commanders in observation of fire,
in watching the enemy and neighbouring troops, and in keeping up
communication between platoons. Observers will also be trained in the
duties of ranging and control of fire, so that they can carry them out
if fire-unit commanders are incapacitated.


Section =43=.--Effect of Fire at Different Ranges on Various Formations
and Objectives.

=1. Effect of Fire at Various Ranges=--(i) =Close Range=.[21]--Owing
to the flatness of the trajectory, it should be possible to obtain the
maximum effect from rifle fire at targets within close range--given a
good field of fire and the absence of dead ground and other conditions
unfavourable to fire effect at all ranges--_provided that fire
discipline is good and that individual soldiers select their targets
and fire carefully, making due allowance for elevation by aiming down
when necessary_.

(ii) =Effective Ranges.=--Between 600 and 1,400 yards, carefully
controlled collective fire produces better results than the
uncontrolled fire of individual men, which ceases to be sufficiently
effective beyond ranges of about 600 yards to counterbalance the
expenditure of ammunition involved. At effective ranges troops
advancing steadily and rapidly suffer less than when they remain lying
down, even under moderately good cover. This is due to the moral effect
on the enemy and to the constant alteration of the range.

(iii) =Long and Distant Ranges.=--Beyond 1,400 yards the fire of even
large and well-controlled units of infantry has seldom much effect upon
the decision of the struggle for superiority of fire. Exceptional
circumstances, such as the appearance of considerable bodies of the
enemy in vulnerable formations, may, however, justify the use of
long-range fire, especially in the defence.

=2. Effect of Rifle Fire on Various Formations and Objectives=--(i)
=Infantry.=--On open ground swept by effective rifle fire an extended
line is the least vulnerable formation for infantry, and on such ground
it will usually be advisable to extend before it becomes necessary for
the advancing troops to open fire. The greater the extension of a line,
the fewer will be the casualties, but the less will be its fire effect
[see Preface, para. 8 (i)].

(ii) =Cavalry.=--The fire effect which infantry can develop against
cavalry is such that infantry which is ready to open a steady and
timely fire has nothing to fear from a cavalry charge, provided the
cavalry cannot find dead ground over which to approach. Any formation
which allows fire to be delivered quickly and accurately is suitable
for meeting cavalry. Closing an extended line to meet cavalry delays
the opening of fire, and may offer a vulnerable target to the enemy’s
artillery. Even if cavalry succeeds in riding through a firing-line,
it can inflict little loss upon it if the infantry holds its ground.
Whenever there is a possibility of being charged by cavalry, special
care must be taken to watch and guard the flanks.

(iii) =Artillery.=--Artillery coming into action, limbering up, or
in movement, is a vulnerable target against which rapid fire or even
fire at long infantry ranges is justifiable. Infantry will experience
difficulty in putting shielded artillery out of action by _direct fire_
even at close infantry ranges, but it can prevent the artillery from
moving and interfere with the service of the guns. Infantry can best
obtain decisive effect against guns with shields by means of _enfilade
or oblique fire_.

(iv) =Machine-Guns.=--Machine-gun sections with their guns on
travelling carriages are as vulnerable as artillery limbered up; but
detachments carrying the gun into action are difficult to distinguish
from infantry. Machine-guns in position _are usually concealed_, and
are a difficult target. To obtain good effect against them it is
usually necessary to employ a considerable number of rifles.

(v) =Aircraft.=--Aircraft form a very difficult target to fire
directed from the ground, and only a small proportion of their area
is vulnerable. Bullets can pass through the fabric of aeroplane wings
without doing serious damage. Indiscriminate fire at hostile aircraft
is, moreover, likely to cause casualties in neighbouring units, and
will also disclose the position of the troops to the enemy’s observer.
The strictest control must be exercised over all fire directed against
aircraft. In the case of rifle fire at _aeroplanes_, men should be
instructed to aim _six times the length of the machine in front_, and
_at the nose of the envelope in the case of airships_.

(vi) =Retiring Troops.=--Other conditions being equal, the effect of
fire in the open at all ranges is always greater when directed at
retiring troops as compared with the effect on troops advancing.


Section =44=.--Tactical Application of Rifle Fire.

=1.= In connection with the tactical application of rifle fire,
it must be remembered that the essence of infantry tactics in the
attack consists in breaking down the enemy’s resistance by the weight
and direction of its fire, and then completing his overthrow by
assault--that is, by _bayonet charge_. Although the enemy may not await
the assault, _infantry must always be animated with the desire to close
with him as quickly as possible_. Troops under cover, unless enfiladed,
can seldom be forced to retire by fire alone, and a decision by
fire, even if possible, takes long to obtain. _To drive an enemy from
the field, assault, or the immediate threat of it, is almost always
necessary._

=2. Superiority of Fire.=--The object of fire action is to attain
superiority of fire over the enemy’s fire. Fire is said to attain
superiority when by its superior effect it beats down or silences the
enemy’s fire. Superiority of fire in the different stages of attack
enables the advance to be pushed up by degrees to ground from which the
assault can be delivered on the enemy’s position. Superiority of fire
enables the defence to check the enemy’s advance, and in active defence
to create opportunities for a general assumption of the offensive
or for local counter-attacks. _Superiority of fire is produced by
superior efficiency in_ (_a_) _fire direction and control_, (_b_) _fire
discipline_, (_c_) _use of the rifle, and_ (_d_) _ammunition supply._

=3. Opening Fire.=--When from his position it is possible to do so,
the company commander decides as to the time for opening fire, subject
to such orders as the battalion commander may issue, and regulates the
supply of ammunition. In the defence he also normally arranges for
the distribution or concentration of fire, and indicates the targets
generally to his subordinates; but in the attack these duties will
usually devolve upon the subordinate commanders with the firing-line.

=4. Decision as to Opening Fire.=--In forming a decision as to when
fire should be opened, regard must be had to the necessities of the
tactical situation. The following conditions must also be taken into
account:

(i) =Surprise.=--The early opening of fire discounts surprise, and,
whether in attack or defence, often indicates the position of troops
which would otherwise be unnoticed by the enemy. In attack it may delay
the advance unnecessarily.

(ii) =Effect of Fire at Different Ranges.=--The effect of fire at
various ranges must be taken carefully into account. This subject is
dealt with in Sec. 43, para. 1.

=5. Opening Fire in Attack.=--(i) In connection with the considerations
mentioned in para. 4 (i) and (ii) above, fire, as a general rule,
should rarely be opened by infantry in attack when satisfactory
progress can be made without it. The leading troops in particular
should save every possible round for the final struggle for superiority
of fire at close range, as the replenishment of ammunition in the
firing-line at that time will be a matter of considerable difficulty.

(ii) When progress is no longer possible, fire should be opened, either
by such parts of the firing-line as cannot advance, or by bodies of
infantry specially detailed for this purpose, to enable a further
advance to be made. Subject to these principles, fire may be opened in
attack when there is a probability of its producing good effect, or
when withholding fire might lead to heavy loss.

=6. Opening Fire in Defence.=--When infantry is acting on the
defensive, there is usually less difficulty in arranging for the supply
of ammunition. Fire may therefore be opened at longer ranges than when
attacking, if it seems probable that any advantage will be gained
thereby, especially when it is desired to prevent the enemy coming to
close quarters, and when the ranges have been ascertained beforehand.
If, however, the object is to gain decisive results, it is generally
preferable to reserve fire for closer ranges and for surprise (Practice
No. 1, p. 226).

=7. Fire and Movement.=--It is clear from the above considerations that
fire is closely related to movement. The direct object of fire in the
case of attack and counterattack is to facilitate movement, and also
to check or hinder the movements of the enemy. The direct object of
fire in defence is to check the movements of the enemy, and in the case
of active defence to create an opportunity for the assumption of the
offensive or for local counter-attacks. _Fire, therefore, is related
to movement, and its proper application with respect to movement is one
of the principal objects of training in fire control._

[Illustration: Fig. 48 Diagram illustrating the Tactical Application of
Fire.]

=8. Concentrated Fire= (Fig. 48).--Collective fire may be concentrated
or distributed. Concentrated fire produces a cone of fire favourable to
observation of results, and is more effective than distributed fire at
the point of application. Against narrow-fronted targets, such as the
head of a column or a machine-gun, or against very vulnerable targets,
or to produce an increased effect at a particular point, fire may be
concentrated with advantage.

=9. Distributed Fire.=--(i) It is usually necessary to distribute fire
so as to keep the enemy’s firing-line under fire throughout its length,
in order to disturb his aim and prevent his movements. Fire employed
to cover movements or directed on entrenchments should be distributed
carefully and systematically [see also Sec. 54, para. 3 (v)].

(ii) =Sweeping Fire= (Fig. 48).--Fire distributed _laterally_ is called
sweeping fire. Such fire is to be preferred for neutralizing an enemy’s
fire along any portion of his front.

(iii) =Searching Fire=[22] (Fig. 7).--Fire distributed in depth is
called searching fire. Such fire gives greater assurance that some
portion of the fire will be effective when the target has not been
located definitely, or when serious errors in sighting are to be
expected.

=10. Oblique and Enfilade Fire= (Fig. 48).--Both oblique and enfilade
fire have greater moral and material effect than frontal fire, for they
usually come from an unexpected direction, and the targets presented
to them are generally more vulnerable than those presented to frontal
fire. In defence, opportunities for the employment of enfilade fire
may be created by careful pre-arrangement between the commanders of
adjoining units.

=11. Converging Fire= (Fig. 48).--Converging fire is fire directed at
a target from two or more different points simultaneously. The moral
and material effect of converging fire may be very great, as it may
combine the effects of frontal, oblique, and enfilade fire at one and
the same time (Demonstration No. 3, p. 222).

=12. Mutual Support= (Fig. 48).--(i) The various portions of the
firing-line will also on occasions be able to afford each other mutual
support by fire, and all commanders must be on the alert to assist
units on their flanks in this manner when the situation requires.
Covering fire in mutual support should consist of heavy bursts of rapid
fire, sustained during the forward movement, and directed at the enemy
to the front of the advancing unit, as well as to the front of the unit
firing (Practice No. 1, p. 226).

(ii) Mutual support in the firing-line will as a rule, however,
be more automatic than deliberately arranged, and in no case must
its employment be allowed to induce hesitation in the advance. The
paramount duty of all leaders in the firing-line is to get their troops
forward, and if every leader is imbued with a determination to close
with the enemy, he will be unconsciously assisting his neighbour also,
for as a rule _the best method of supporting a neighbouring unit is to
advance_.

=13. Covering Fire= (Fig. 48).--(i) When the ground permits, it is
generally necessary to detail special detachments of infantry to
provide covering fire for the leading troops. These detachments will
usually be detailed by battalion commanders from local reserves in the
original distribution for the attack, but any commander, at any stage
of the fight, may detail troops from those under his command to assist
his advance. No fire-unit commander, however, is justified, on his
own initiative, in withdrawing from the advance or ceasing to seek an
opportunity to advance in order to constitute his command a detachment
for providing covering fire (Demonstration No. 6, p. 223).

(ii) In undulating or mountainous country it may be possible for
detachments employed to provide covering fire to cover the advance
from positions in rear, but in flat country it may be dangerous or
impossible for infantry or machine-guns to fire over the heads of their
own troops, and opportunities for providing covering fire should be
sought on the flanks.

(iii) Troops detailed to provide covering fire for the advance must
take care to select as targets _those bodies of the enemy whose fire
is chiefly checking the advance_. Great difficulty will often be
experienced in discovering which these bodies are, and all ranks must
be on the alert to notice any indication which may help to discover
them.

(iv) As soon as their fire ceases to be effective in aiding the advance
of the firing-line, it is the duty of troops detailed to provide
covering fire _at once to join in the advance_, unless definite orders
to the contrary have been received.

=14. Volume of Fire.=--In deciding on the volume of fire to be directed
against the enemy at any particular time, a commander should consider
chiefly the tactical situation, the target presented, the effect it is
desired to produce, the range, and the state of the ammunition-supply.

=15. Rates of Fire.=--_The rate of fire will always be regulated
carefully according to tactical requirements._

(i) =Slow Desultory Fire= may disturb the enemy’s aim, but it is
opposed to principles of surprise.

(ii) =Deliberate Fire.=--The rate of deliberate fire should not exceed
six rounds a minute.

(iii) =Rate when Working in Pairs.=--Soldiers working in pairs for
observation and mutual support (Sec. 47, para. 4) may _each_ fire about
three rounds a minute.

(iv) =Rapid Collective Fire.=--In rapid collective fire the rate will
vary according to the visibility of the aiming-mark, the range, and the
standard of training a man has reached. With a distinct aiming-mark
within about 1,000 yards a well-trained man should be able to fire
from twelve to fifteen rounds per minute without serious loss of
accuracy.

=16. Use of Rapid Fire.=--(i) _Rapid fire should be considered as a
reserve of power to be used when the occasion demands it._ It must
never be used except when occasion most fully justifies it, otherwise
serious waste of ammunition will result. _Rapid fire must combine
accuracy with rapidity, and never degenerate into a wild expenditure
of ammunition at the fastest possible rate._ If rapid fire is ordered,
_each man will fire at his own best rate for combining rapidity with
accuracy_.

(ii) Rapid fire may be employed generally when it is necessary to beat
down the enemy’s fire quickly; when covering the withdrawal of other
troops; when pursuing an enemy with fire; when meeting cavalry attacks;
and when good targets are exposed. In attack, rapid fire is employed
by all troops as final preparation for the assault. In defence, it is
employed to beat off an enemy in the act of assaulting (Practices Nos.
5 and 6, p. 228).

=17. Short Bursts of Fire.=--(i) The effect of surprise by a sudden
burst of accurate fire from an unexpected quarter is very great.
Short bursts of rapid fire, followed by pauses, favour observation
of results, and give time for the adjustment of sights. They also
facilitate the control of fire in critical situations.

(ii) The duration of such bursts must be strictly controlled, and
limited to the requirements of the occasion, for if rapid-fire is
continued for any length of time, it excites and exhausts the troops,
and leads to waste of ammunition. In order to insure control and
facilitate the passing of orders, the number of rounds to be fired may
be named, as, for instance, _ten rounds fire, or rapid fire_.

=18. Surprise.=--A sudden effective fire is known to have a
particularly demoralizing effect on the enemy; it is often
advantageous, therefore, to seek for surprise effects of this sort by
temporarily withholding fire.

=19. Unsteady Firing.=--Wild, unsteady fire causes little or no loss,
and tends to encourage the enemy by inducing a belief in his mind that
his opponent is shaken. It is therefore worse than useless against good
troops. _If firing tends to become wild, it should be stopped, and only
resumed under strict control and detailed orders._


Section =45=.--Description and Recognition of Targets.

=1. Importance of Good Description.=--(i) Owing to the difficulty of
discerning service targets beyond close range with the naked eye,
collective fire cannot be effective unless the objective is described
by the fire-unit commander in such a way that every individual of his
unit can immediately recognize the target or point of aim indicated,
and unless men are also trained to recognize targets and to bring
fire to bear upon them immediately they are indicated. These three
conditions--good indication of targets, immediate recognition of
targets, and instant opening of accurate fire--are essential if full
effect is to be obtained from fire, especially when directed at
fleeting targets, such as troops in movement.

(ii) Bad description of targets or delay in opening fire due to this
or other causes will lead to loss of fire effect, which may prove
disastrous in critical phases of action. For example, bad description
at the best will result in recognition of the target by some instead
of all the men in an unit, as well as in delay in opening fire, which
in the case of fleeting targets will render fire partly or wholly
ineffective. Bad description may result in part or the whole of an
unit mistaking another aiming-point near it for the target described,
with total loss of fire effect due to firing at the wrong target. It
may result in part or the whole of an unit becoming confused and not
firing at all. It is clear, therefore, that good description and quick
recognition of targets is essential for fire effect at longer ranges,
and that these duties form a vitally important part of the training of
fire-unit commanders and men.

=2. Need of System in describing Targets.=--As service targets,
such as a fold in the ground or a patch of open ground, will often
be without any definite feature to distinguish them from similar
aiming-points near them, or to locate their position exactly, and as
targets generally will be difficult to describe on ground devoid of
prominent or well-marked features, it is necessary to adopt a system of
description which will enable fire-unit commanders to indicate the most
difficult aiming-points to their men clearly by some consistent method.

=3. Description Points.=--A good system of indicating targets is
by description-points, consisting of natural or other features of
the ground in the frontage allotted to an unit. If targets cannot
be indicated sufficiently accurately by description-points alone,
supplementary methods, known respectively as the Finger-breadth and
Clock-face methods, may be used in connection with description-points,
as described in paras. 7 and 8. As a rule the former of these
supplementary methods only will be employed, and both will seldom be
employed together in combination with description-points.

=4. Selecting Description-Points.=--(i) Company officers will select
description-points when occupying a position or at the conclusion of
movement. The number of description-points necessary will depend on the
nature of the ground, and whether it has much or little detail in the
shape of prominent natural and other features; but points should be
selected so as to facilitate the indication of targets in all parts of
the field of fire.

(ii) _The most prominent objects should be chosen._ They should be
in the distance or middle of the field of fire, and as far off as
possible. No two points, if it can be avoided, should be similar--as,
for instance, two church spires or clumps of trees. The points should
be at least two hands’ breadth apart. Each point should be named, and
the name by which it is to be known should be communicated to fire-unit
commanders and the men of their units.

(iii) There will usually be more time for selecting description-points
in defence than in attack. For example, Fig. 46 illustrates a field of
fire in front of a defensive position, in which almost every feature
of ground has been named and the range of all prominent objects taken.
Such preparation will be impossible, and to a great extent unnecessary,
in attack, when time for even a short preliminary reconnaissance may
not always be available. _Company, platoon, and section commanders
should therefore be trained to select a few good description-points
as quickly as possible, and indicate them by suitable names to their
commands._

=5. Points of Military Importance.=--In addition to the
description-points, when there is time, any points in the field of
fire which are of military importance--such as a road, a bridge (Fig.
50), or the forward edge of dead ground--at which fire may suddenly
have to be directed, should also be named and indicated to fire-unit
commanders. This should be done, if possible, whenever such points are
difficult to describe and cannot be indicated quickly.

=6. Rules for describing Targets.=--(i) Targets must be indicated by
short, accurate, clearly understood, descriptions of their nature,
features, and exact position.

(ii) Field-glasses may be used to discern targets before indicating
them. _But aiming-points must always be described as they are seen with
the naked eye, and not as seen through field-glasses, otherwise the
men, being without glasses, may fail to recognize them._

(iii) In both attack and defence _the front should always be pointed
out_, so that if a general direction, such as _half right_, is used to
indicate a target, men will look in the proper direction with regard to
the front. This is necessary, because the formation of the ground, the
line of cover, and the siting of trenches does not always permit of men
facing directly to the front.

(iv) As a general rule the finger-breadth and clock-face methods of
describing targets will only be used when they will _shorten and
simplify_ the description, as well as make it more accurate.

(v) Only one system of indicating targets should be employed in a
battalion, and, if possible, in an army, so that the men may recognize
targets described by commanders of other fire-units should they become
separated from their own in action.

(vi) When possible, targets will always be described and their range
given _before the occasion for firing arises_, so that men may adjust
their sights and be ready to open fire without further orders as soon
as the target appears.

=7. Finger-Breadth Method= (Fig. 49).--(i) This method may be employed
to indicate roughly the approximate distance of an objective from a
description-point. Only one hand should be used, even if more than one
hand’s breadth is required to indicate the distance. The arm must be
held out perfectly straight from the shoulder in front of the face,
with the fingers vertical. If, however, the object is immediately
_above_ or _below_ the description-point, the fingers should be
horizontal. In measuring distances, one eye should be closed, and both
the description-point and the objective kept in view.

(ii) =Instruction in the Finger-Breadth Method.=--Results obtained by
this method are necessarily inaccurate, because the hands and fingers
vary in size and in distance from the eye with each individual. It is,
however, a useful guide for measuring approximate distances. After the
first few lessons in the use of this method, measurements should first
be judged, and then the fingers should be used to check them. It will
be found that when men have been thoroughly trained in this method they
will seldom have to use their fingers for measurements at all except in
very doubtful cases.

[Illustration: =Fig. 49.=--DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--FINGER-BREADTH
METHOD.

(“Section Fire” Landscape Target, Panel No. 2.)]

[Illustration: =Fig. 50.=--DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--CLOCK-FACE METHOD.

(“Section Fire” Landscape Target, Panel No. 1.)]

=8. Clock-Face Method= (Fig. 50).--This method may be used to
indicate the position of the target described in relation to
a description-point. In employing it, the clock-face must be
imagined as hanging vertically, with its centre directly over
the description-point. Thus, an objective vertically above the
description-point would be described as being at twelve o’clock, while
objectives to the right and left on the same horizontal plane as the
description-point would be respectively at three and nine o’clock,
and an objective directly below the description-point would be at six
o’clock. _The direction, right or left, should always be given, as well
as the hour, to avoid possible mistakes._

=9. Examples of Description of Targets=--(i)
=Description-Points=.--Fig. 49 shows a field of fire with plenty of
detail, and serves to illustrate the method of indicating targets by
the use of description-points alone, and by the use of these points
in combination with the finger-breadth method. If the landscape in
this figure is taken as representing a sector, the following features
might be as description-points: (_a_) Right edge of wood on hill; (_b_)
tallest poplar half right; (_c_) white house on left. The fire-unit
commander would inform his unit that they would be named and referred
to respectively as _Wood_, _Poplar_, _House_, in using them to direct
fire.

(ii) =Indication by Description-Points.=--Examples of indicating
targets by these description-points alone are as follows:

    (_a_) _At 1,000--at centre of hedge running from left of
    poplar.--Ten rounds. Rapid fire._

    (_b_) _At 1,400--brown field to right of house--at right half of
    hedge running along top.--Fire._

(iii) =Indication by Description-Points and Finger-Breadths.=--Examples
of indicating targets by description-points combined with the
finger-breadth method are as follows:

    (_a_) _At 800--at foot of big tree two fingers left of
    poplar.--Five rounds. Fire._

    (_b_) _At 900--at fold of ground one finger below house.--Five
    Rounds. Rapid fire._

For the purpose of illustration the finger-breadths are shown drawn on
the landscape.

(iv) =Indication by Description-Points and Clock-Face.=--Fig.
50 illustrates the method of indicating targets by the use of
description-points combined with the clock-face method. The point
of river bend right bank might be indicated and named: _Bend_: This
description-point would be imagined as the centre of a clock-face,
which, for the purpose of illustration, is shown drawn on the landscape.

(v) The following example illustrates the method of indicating targets
by this arrangement:

    (_a_) _At 1,400--at junction of three hedgerows--bend--right--two
    o’clock.--Ten rounds. Fire._

    (_b_) _At 1,000--at spit of land--bend--left--between eight and
    nine o’clock.--Fire._

(vi) =Indication by Description-Points, Finger-Breadths, and
Clock-Face.=--Fig. 51 shows a sector consisting of a field of fire with
very little detail, in which targets might have to be indicated by
the use of description-points, combined with both the finger-breadth
and clock-face methods, which rarely have to be used together in
combination with description-points.

The small tree in centre of hedge, the right end of the hedge, and the
left end of the hedge, or the small tree to the left, may be taken
as description-points, named respectively _hedge right_,--_hedge
left_,--_centre tree_, and _left tree_. This will be an exception to
the general rule that no two points should consist of features of a
similar nature, but it is justified, as there is no danger of men
confusing these similar features in the case illustrated.

[Illustration: =Fig. 51.=--DESCRIPTION OF TARGETS--EXAMPLE OF FIELD OF
FIRE SUITABLE FOR EMPLOYMENT OF FINGER-BREADTH AND CLOCK-FACE METHODS,
COMBINED WITH DESCRIPTION POINTS.

(“Section Fire” Landscape Target, Panel No. 3.)]

Folds and ridges of ground could then be indicated in the manner of
the following examples: _At 900--at fold of ground--centre tree--six
o’clock--one-finger._ This would mean that fire will be directed
at a fold of ground one finger-breadth directly below the centre
tree. Another example of this method is: _At 800--at ridge--left
tree--right--three o’clock--one finger._

=10. Instruction in Description of Targets.=--Training in description
of targets should be carried out under practical conditions, according
to the rules laid down in the preceding paragraphs. Training should
be carried out on as great a variety of ground as possible under all
conditions of light and atmosphere and at all ranges beyond close
range. Instruction in the description as well as recognition of targets
will form part of the field training, as well as of the advanced
musketry training of both fire-unit commanders and men.

=11.= _In commencing an exercise, a front should always be pointed
out._ At first the aiming-points to be described should be simple,
and should consist of targets easily indicated with the aid of
description-points alone. Subsequently more difficult targets may
be indicated, which will necessitate the employment of either the
finger-breadth or clock-face methods of description.

=12.= Fire-unit commanders may be trained in classes with a number of
rifles on aiming-rests in the following manner: The instructor will
indicate various aiming-points in different parts of a sector of ground
to each member of the class in turn, not verbally, but by aiming a
rifle at it, while the class are turned about, with their backs to the
instructor. The instructor will next move his rifle from aim at the
target and order the class to turn about, when the fire-unit commander
will describe the target in his own words, using description-points
alone, or combining their use with the finger-breadth or clock-face
methods, as may, in his opinion, be necessary. The class will then aim
their rifles at the target which they recognize from his description.
_If they do not recognize any target from his description, they will
not aim their rifles._

=13.= The instructor will next note the target at which each rifle has
been aimed, and criticize faults both of description and recognition,
pointing out those which caused errors or confusion. _Absolute accuracy
of aim must be insisted upon, and faults in aiming at targets correctly
recognized must be pointed out._

=14. Indication of Targets in Strange Country.=--As the nature of
the ground and its features will vary greatly in different kinds
of country, fire-unit commanders and men should be trained in the
description and recognition of targets, both before and during military
operations in unfamiliar country.

=15. Standard of Indication.=--A very low standard of indication is
one which results in four out of every five in the class recognizing
the target from the description given, for it must be remembered that
the class will consist of men who should have been thoroughly trained
in military vocabulary and study of ground before they commence their
instruction in recognition of targets. Fire-unit commanders, therefore,
will not be considered efficient in indicating targets until all the
members of a class are able with ease to recognize a variety of targets
described by him.

=16. Instruction in Recognition of Targets.=--Instruction in
recognition of targets may be carried out on the same method as
training in description of targets, the targets being described
verbally by the instructor, or by an efficient fire-unit commander.
Men aiming at wrong targets, or not aiming because they have failed to
recognize the target, will be asked to explain their difficulty, and
the instructor must try in each case to explain the cause of errors or
failure to recognize targets, with a view to helping men to overcome
it. Men will be trained to recognize targets by description-points
alone, as well as in combination with the finger-breadth and clock-face
methods.

=17. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--Training in description and
recognition of targets can be carried out on miniature ranges, as
described in Sec. 72, para. 8 (ii).


Section =46=.--Fire Orders.[23]

=1. Words of Command.=--The following words of command will be used as
may be found necessary:

_At_--(_Elevation and deflection_).

_At_--(_Object_).

  _Fire or_       {On which the firer will load, adjust
    _Rapid Fire_  {  his sights, aim and fire, deliberately or
                  {  rapidly.

                  {On which fire will be discontinued, and
  _Cease Fire_    {  the firer will bring the rifle to the
                  {  loading position, recharge the magazine,
                  {  and apply the safety-catch.

                  {On which the safety-catch will be applied
                  {  and an easy position assumed.
                  {When rifles are not provided with
  _Rest_          {  safety-catches, on the command “_Rest_”
                  {  the cut-off will be pressed in, the bolt
                  {  opened and closed, and the spring
                  {  eased.

                  {On which all cartridges will be removed
  _Unload_        {  from the chamber and magazine, and
                  {  other motions performed as detailed
                  {  in Sec. 27, para. 4.

=2.= Words of command in fire orders will be as few as possible. _They
must be announced clearly and deliberately by fire-unit commanders,
and repeated if necessary, should they notice by the actions of their
men that they are not properly heard or understood._ If the noise of
firing, the distance due to deployment of the unit, the wind, or other
conditions prevent the hearing of orders, they must be passed from
N.C.O. to N.C.O., from observer to observer, or from man to man.

=3.= As already stated, when possible, directions as to sighting as
well as the target _will be given before the occasion for firing
arises, and fire will be opened without further orders as soon as the
target appears_. Orders for adjusting the sights should be given first,
so that there may be no necessity for the firers to remove their eyes
from the target after it is indicated, otherwise the order of the words
of command is not of material importance.

=4. Anticipatory Orders.=--Fire orders should anticipate events as far
as possible, so that lengthy orders will not be needed after the target
appears. The following is an example of an anticipatory order, which
includes the use of combined sights: _The enemy is about to advance
from that fir-wood on the hill half left. When he moves, concentrate on
the thickest part of his line--1250 and 1350._

=5.= If all ranks are kept informed of the course of events,[24] and
led to anticipate occasions for fire action, _there should be no need
for any words of command other than those which regulate movement, the
opening and closing of fire, and the rate of fire_; and even these may
be dispensed with if the firers are well trained, and combine their
efforts according to orders issued in anticipation. _The results of
observation and alterations to be made in sighting or point of aim must
be notified at once._

=6. Instruction in Fire Orders.=--Fire-unit commanders, observers, and
N.C.O.’s should be thoroughly trained in giving clear, concise fire
orders under practical conditions. They must watch to see if their
orders are understood by the actions of their men. _Men must be trained
not to put their rifles to their shoulders until they understand
the orders given and recognize the target indicated._ This rule is
essential _to prevent useless waste of ammunition in war_, and to serve
as a check in peace training, as to whether orders are given or passed
from man to man so that they are immediately understood and carried
out by the men. It will enable fire-unit commanders to know when their
orders are not heard or understood, and also enable company and platoon
commanders to supervise the training of fire-unit commanders.

=7. Passing Fire Orders from Man to Man.=--(i) Soldiers are trained in
passing short verbal messages and orders accurately and quickly as part
of their field-training, and this instruction is contained in _Drill
and Field-Training_ of this series in Sec. 8 and also in Sec. 42,
which deals with training in passing messages in whispers during night
operations. Training in passing fire orders quickly and accurately
from man to man is a vitally important part of the musketry training
of N.C.O.’s, observers, and men. Orders passed from man to man in the
firing-line must be short. They may be passed a sentence or two at a
time, or as a whole, the latter being the best and quickest method if
orders are short.

(ii) =Instruction in passing Fire Orders.=--Fire-units must be trained
thoroughly in passing fire orders, and this duty should be practised
during extended order drill, and later during manœuvre, when units are
deployed, and especially when they are firing with blank cartridge, so
as to accustom men to listening to orders and passing them while firing
and in the noise it involves. In practising passing orders from man to
man, an N.C.O. should be told off to record orders passed from man to
man as received at the end of a line to check their accuracy.

=8. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--Fire orders can be practised on
the miniature range as described in Sec. 74, para. 4 (iii).


Section =47=.--Fire Discipline.

=1. Importance of Fire Discipline.=--If full effect is to be obtained
from the results of fire, a high standard of fire discipline in men is
as important as skilful direction and control of fire by commanders.

=2. Qualities Necessary for Fire Discipline.=--Good fire discipline
demands the following qualities in men:

(i) Strict attention to the signals and orders of the commander,
combined with intelligent observation of the enemy.

(ii) Careful adjustment of the sight, economy of ammunition, and prompt
cessation of fire when ordered or when the target disappears.

(iii) Power to endure the enemy’s fire even when no reply is possible.

(iv) A cool and intelligent use of the rifle when the commander can no
longer exercise control.

=3. Rules for Fire Discipline.=--In addition to the above qualities,
men must be trained to carry out their duties according to the
following rules:

(_a_) In collective firing no man will fire until he clearly
recognizes the target described by his commander, or without selecting
a definite target in individual firing.

(_b_) In collective firing every man will press his trigger
independently. _Bursts of independent fire are more effective than
volleys._

(_c_) As a rule fire should be delivered deliberately, but each man
must always satisfy himself that every time he presses the trigger he
will hit the object aimed at.

(_d_) If rapid fire is ordered, every man will fire at his own best
rate for combining rapidity with accuracy.

(_e_) Each man will take care to pass orders carefully and accurately.

(_f_) Each man will make the best use of ground and cover, _primarily
to increase fire effect_, and secondarily for concealment and
protection. He must remember that the most important requirement, when
firing from behind cover, is the ability of a man to use his rifle
to the best advantage, and that _his eyes must be kept on the enemy
between shots to avoid losing sight of targets_.

(_g_) _Each man must watch the front and remain alert and attentive
while awaiting orders. He must open fire smartly when ordered to do so
on such fleeting targets as troops in movement, and continue firing,
unless otherwise ordered, while they present a favourable target during
movement._

(_h_) He must, when employing individual fire on the defensive,
especially at shorter ranges, _mark down troops by noting their
position on the ground or behind cover, and open fire the moment they
expose themselves or rise up to advance_.

=4. Working in Pairs.=--Combined action is always more likely to be
successful than isolated effort, and so long as control is possible
the individual man must watch his leader and do his best to carry
out his intentions. When, however, the section is under heavy fire,
section commanders cannot always exercise direct control, and in these
circumstances men should endeavour to work in pairs, indicating
targets and estimating the range for each other, firing steadily,
observing the results of each other’s fire, and husbanding their
ammunition.

=5. Ammunition.=--If incapacitated from advancing, the soldier’s first
duty is to place his ammunition in a conspicuous place, ready to be
picked up by other men, and all ranks must seize opportunities that
offer for replenishing their ammunition in this manner.

=6. Duty of Soldier when separated from Unit Commander.=--If, when
reinforcing the firing-line, or at any other time, a soldier loses
touch with his section commander, it is his duty to place himself
under the orders of the nearest officer or non-commissioned officer,
irrespective of the company or battalion to which he may belong.

=7. Training in Fire Discipline.=--The foundation of training in
fire discipline will be laid in the general training of the soldier,
especially in the instruction which imbues him with the soldierly
spirit, and develops his character in discipline and other soldierly
qualities.[25] The recruit’s instruction in aiming and firing and fire
discipline will be carried out concurrently with his training in drill
in both close and extended order, as laid down in the directions for
the annual individual training of the soldier in _Infantry Training,
1914_, and other official textbooks. Training in fire discipline
may commence when the recruit is sufficiently instructed in aiming
and firing, and will be combined with training in extended order
drill. _Fire discipline can only be taught by constant and systematic
training._

=8. Exercises in Fire Discipline.=--These exercises should be carried
out progressively. In the preliminary stages of instruction men should
be trained in squads, as already described in para. 9, the fire orders
being simple and the targets easy to recognize. More advanced stages
of instruction in fire discipline will be combined with the soldier’s
training in extended order drill and manœuvre (see Chapters III and
VII of _Drill and Field Training_ of this series), and also during
advanced stages of musketry training. Thus training in fire discipline
can be combined with field exercises consisting of tactical schemes in
attack and defence, etc., when blank cartridge is used, and with fire
direction and collective field practices fired with ball cartridge on
field firing ranges.

=9. Preliminary Exercises.=--(i) In preliminary exercises the squad
will be drawn up in line at one or two paces interval, and on the
command from the instructor--_Sitting, Standing, or Kneeling, at_
(range); _at_ (object); _Fire_ or _Rapid fire_--will perform the
necessary motions, and continue firing until the order _Cease fire_ or
_Unload_ is given. If no orders are given as to the firing position,
the squad will assume the lying position. The standing, kneeling, and
sitting positions will only be practised under conditions suitable to
their employment.

(ii) If it is desired to change front or position, the instructor will
give the necessary commands, but without as a rule causing fire to
cease. All commands given during firing are to be passed down the line
of firers, to practise them in passing orders, the orders being taken
down at the of the line to check their accuracy.

=10.= When the squad has gained sufficient experience, the fire orders
should be combined with those for movement, as in the following
example, given to a section in fours: _Section, line that ridge--To
the left three paces extend--At 1,000--At the enemy just left of that
house on the hill, half left--Fire--Cease Fire--Advance._ In exercises
carried out with blank ammunition, _the safety-catch will be applied_,
or rifles will be _unloaded_ or _sloped_, before a movement is
undertaken. In all fire discipline exercises the rule mentioned in Sec.
46, para. 6, regarding not bringing the rifle to the shoulder if they
do not recognize targets, should be strictly observed by men for the
reasons given.

=11. Development of Individual Judgment.=--In more advanced exercises,
to develop individuality, the complete detail of commands will
occasionally be dispensed with. Thus, on a target appearing suddenly
for a limited time, the executive command _Fire_ or _Rapid Fire_ only
will be given, on which each individual will adopt the firing position
he considers most suitable to the tactical conditions, adjust his
sight, and open fire. The instructor will observe and criticize the
positions and the sighting of the rifles.

=12. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--Instruction in fire discipline
can be carried out on miniature ranges during the Fire Direction
Practices and Collective Field Practices contained in Sec. 74.



CHAPTER VII

GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING RANGE AND FIELD PRACTICES


Section =48=.--Preliminary Training.

=1. Lectures.=--The instruction contained in Chapters I to VI of this
book is classified under the head of Preliminary Training, as it lays
the foundation of the soldier’s training in the use of the rifle,
and prepares him for instruction in both range and field practices.
Thus, preliminary training commences with information regarding the
construction of the rifle and directions for taking care of the
weapon and cleaning it, includes instruction in aiming, firing,
visual training, and ranging, and concludes with standard tests in
preliminary training and grouping practices on miniature and 30 yards
ranges. An extremely important part of preliminary training consists
of a systematic course of lectures given concurrently with practical
instruction. These lectures will deal with the theory of rifle fire,
important points in elementary training, and the tactical application
of fire through fire direction and control, including the use of ground
and cover, and the duties of fire-unit commanders and observers in the
firing-line [see Sec. 74, para. 5 (iii)].

=2. Recruits.=--Although it is only by practice in shooting that a high
degree of proficiency can be attained in the use of the rifle, the
ammunition allowances are necessarily limited, and are calculated on
the assumption _that firing will be preceded by a most thorough course
of preliminary instruction_. Recruits, before they begin a course of
firing, must reach a satisfactory standard in aiming, and in holding
their rifles steadily while pressing the trigger, otherwise range
practice will merely result in waste of ammunition.

3. =Trained Soldiers.=--(i) _Besides thoroughly grounding recruits
in elementary training, trained soldiers must also be kept efficient
in their preliminary instruction._ Preliminary training in musketry
exercises should therefore be continued throughout the year by trained
soldiers. Skill in judging distance, a perfect trigger release,
dexterity in the loading motions, and the habit of adjusting sights,
cannot be retained without frequent practice.

(ii) It is therefore of the utmost importance that trained soldiers
should develop by constant practice a habit of recognizing targets,
judging their distance, adjusting their sights, and firing quickly but
steadily without undue effort. It is advisable to test the ability of
trained soldiers in the standard tests of preliminary training before
they begin firing in range practices. Reconnaissance and ranging
exercises will be a necessary preliminary to successful fire direction.


Section =49=.--Tests of Preliminary Training.

=1. Objects of Tests.=--The tests of elementary training have been
devised to fulfil the following purposes:

(i) Provide instructors with a means of testing recruits to insure
that they have reached a sufficient standard before they begin range
practices.

(ii) Insure that trained soldiers have retained their efficiency.

(iii) Prevent any detail of elementary training from being overlooked.

(iv) Provide a standard to be attained by technical and other troops
who are unable to devote as much time as is desirable to elementary
training.

=2. Nature Of Tests.=--These tests are divided into _oral_,
_inspection_, and _standard_ tests. It is important that teaching
should not be confused with testing. In the former a man is instructed
by example and explanation; in the latter he is questioned, or ordered
to carry out a certain exercise without any explanation or assistance,
and either passes the qualifying standard or is relegated for further
instruction.

=3. Record of Tests.=--A record will be kept for each man of the
results of the various tests, which will be inspected periodically by
the commanding officer. Extracts from these records will furnish useful
guides as to efficiency when men are transferred to other companies or
battalions. Men, particularly recruits, should themselves keep a record
of their performances.

=4. Oral Tests.=--(i) =Care of Arms and Ammunition.=--A few questions
should be put to each man on these subjects.

(ii) =General Theoretical Knowledge.=--A few questions should be put
to each man regarding the theory of rifle fire and its practical
application.

(iii) =Description of Targets.=--Each man separately should be called
upon to describe one or two objects in a landscape, and be questioned
as to shape, colours, sizes, units of measure, etc.

5. =Inspection Tests.=--(i) =Firing Positions.=--Every man should be
inspected individually in all firing positions, and the existence of
any of the following serious faults should be noted in a book for
production at subsequent tests: (_a_) Firing from left shoulder; (_b_)
eye near cocking-piece or thumb in aiming; (_c_) want of grip with
either hand; (_d_) finger round trigger in loading position; (_e_)
excessive constraint of the limbs, body, or head in firing.

(ii) =Fire Discipline.=--Men should be tested for ability to execute
orders for fire direction and control rapidly and correctly, including
accurate adjustment of sights after each advance in attack, and after
every advance of the enemy--represented by fatigue-men--at distances
between 600 and 1,400 yards.

=6. Standard Tests.=--(i) =Regulation Aim.=--To be tested by triangle
of error. _Standard--No side of a triangle to be over one-third of an
inch, or the centre of the triangle more than one-third of an inch from
the instructor’s aim._

(ii) =Trigger-Pressing.=--Trigger-pressing will be tested by means of
the aim-corrector.

(iii) =Adjustment of Sights.=--Several distances will be named and
sights examined after three seconds [M.L.E. rifle, five seconds].

(iv) =Aiming-Off for Wind or Movement.=--Tests in aiming-off for wind.
The men will be ordered to lay their rifles on a point at some number
of feet, not exceeding 6, right or left of a fatigue-man. One foot of
error only, measured from the regulation point of aim, will be allowed.
Allowance in aiming-off for wind or movement will be tested with the
aim-corrector, the percentage of serious errors being recorded.

(v) =Rapidity of Aim.=--The time required to bring the rifle from the
loading position to the shoulder, on the command _Fire_, and to align
the sights on an aiming disc held to the eye, will be measured with a
stop or ordinary watch with a second-hand. Lying position.

The instructor will stop the watch when the trigger is pressed,
provided he is satisfied with the aim. _Standard time, four seconds._

(vi) =Rapid Loading.=--The men to be tested will be equipped with
a bandolier, pouch, or cartridge pockets, and six chargers filled
with dummy cartridges. The chargers will be placed in the pouches or
pockets, which will be buttoned over them. The time required to load,
close the bolt, eject the cartridges, the rifle being held in the
correct loading position, one charger being inserted at a time, the
pouch or pocket, whether empty or not, being buttoned up every time a
charger is withdrawn, will be noted. _Standard time, one minute._

(vii) =Rapid Firing.=--This will be a combination of (v) and (vi). On
the command _Rapid fire_, each man will load with dummy cartridges in
chargers from the pouch or cartridge pocket, the pocket being buttoned
up each time a charger is withdrawn, and aim ten rounds at an aiming
disc held to the instructor’s eye. If the aiming is unsatisfactory, the
test will be repeated more slowly. The time required will be noted.
_Standard time, one minute._

(viii) =Eyesight.=--To be carried out in conjunction with Standard Test
(iii). Four fatigue-men as “points” should be placed under cover in
various directions and at different distances, not exceeding 800 yards.
The men to be tested lie down extended to two paces. Each point is
called up by signal.

The fatigue-man stands, kneels, or raises his head, according to
the degree of visibility required, and fires four rounds of blank
ammunition in half a minute, then returning to cover. During the
half-minute the observers adjust their sights and place their rifles at
arm’s length to the front.

At the end of the half-minute a whistle is blown, and those men who
have failed to discern the point are noted, while non-commissioned
officers record the elevations found on the sights in connection with
Standard Test (x).

In every case the point should be signalled to rise a second time in
order that his position may be shown to those men who previously failed
to see him, and half a minute should then be allowed to these men to
adjust their sights for Standard Test (x). Failures must not exceed
one per man, but consideration must be given to the visibility of the
points.

(ix) =Recognition of Targets.=--The men to be tested should each have
an aiming-rest or sandbags for laying aim. A non-commissioned officer
from behind them will describe some difficult aiming-point, such as a
point in a hedge or area of open ground. The men aim their rifles at
the point which they recognize from the description. Four points should
be described for every man tested.

(x) =Judging Distance.=--The distances of four standing fatigue men
should be judged at distances not exceeding 800 yards.

(xi) =Grouping with Miniature Cartridges.=--For regular troops, the
grouping standards for miniature cartridge practice at 25 yards will
be: Marksmen, 1-inch ring; 1st Class, 2-inch ring; 2nd Class, 3-inch
ring.


Section =50=.--Progression of Instruction in Range and Field Practices.

=1.= After the soldier has been trained thoroughly in elementary
instruction in aiming and firing, and has passed the oral inspection
and standard tests of preliminary training satisfactorily, he may be
considered fit to commence range practices, with which his instruction
in individual and collective firing will begin. The progression of this
instruction may be divided roughly into the following stages:

(i) =Individual Firing.=--(_a_) Instruction on miniature ranges and 30
yards ranges.

(_b_) Range practices.

(_c_) Individual field practices.

(ii) =Collective Firing.=--Collective field practices.

=2. Instruction on 30 Yards and Miniature Ranges.=--Instruction on 30
yards ranges is dealt with in Sec. 55. Instruction on miniature ranges
is dealt with fully in Chapter X, which contains directions for firing
elementary and instructional range practices, as well as individual and
collective field practices on these ranges.

3. =Range Practices.=--Range practices consist of the following
practices and stages of instruction:

(i) =Practices.=--(_a_) _Grouping._ (_b_) _Application._ (_c_)
_Snap-shooting._ (_d_) _Rapid Firing._

(ii) =Stages of Instruction.=--The above practices are arranged in
a series of tables for recruits and trained soldiers, demanding a
gradually increasing degree of skill on the part of the firer, and are
divided into the following stages of instruction:

(_a_) _Qualifying Practices._ (_b_) _Instructional Practices._ (_c_)
_Classification Practices._

=4. Field Practices.=--Individual and collective field practices are
dealt with in this chapter and in Chapters VIII and X. The general
programme of field practice should be arranged as follows:

    (i) Individual field practices.

    (ii) Fire direction practices.

    (iii) Collective field practices, divided into--

(_a_) Exercises for sections and platoons in fire direction and
application of collective fire.

(_b_) Standard tests of collective grouping and fire effect.

(_c_) Comparative demonstrations of fire effect and vulnerability.

(_d_) Exercises for companies designed to reproduce service conditions
as far as possible, and to illustrate tactical principles.

(iv) Combined field firing (see _Musketry Regulations_).


Section =51=.--Range Practices.

=1.= When recruits have shown clearly that they have acquired a
satisfactory standard of skill in all branches of preliminary training,
they will commence range practices. _Range practices merely lay the
foundation of musketry in its elementary stages._ They are only a means
to an end--namely, to prepare soldiers for field practices, by which
they are trained to fire under conditions approximating as closely as
possible to those of service.

=2. Qualifying Practices.=--The range practices for the Regular
Army and Special Reserve begin with qualifying practices, for which
standards are prescribed. _If these standards are not attained, it is
a sign that the preliminary training has failed in its object._ After
passing standard tests in miniature range practice, and firing on the
30 yards range, every man should begin his practice on the open range
confident in his own powers, and determined to prove his ability to hit.

=3. Preliminary Training and Range Practices.=--Instructional range
practices need not be continuous. Intervals of time between the
exercises are often beneficial, especially to nervous men; but in any
case, time should be found to continue the exercises of preliminary
training on days allotted to range practices, in order that there may
be no separation between theory and practice.

=4. Scope of Range Practices.=--(i) In range practices the soldier
should attain a high standard of skill in shooting at known distances
under easy conditions and in various positions, at large vertical
targets easy to see, and furnished with scoring or approximation
rings, which enable the error in shooting to be expressed in figures
convenient for comparative purposes.

(ii) He will confirm in practice the lessons learned in preliminary
training, and be thoroughly acquainted with the peculiarities of his
rifle. He will fire in the open and from behind cover in deliberate
and rapid practices, and will learn the rate of fire which, in his
own case, best combines volume with accuracy. In snapshooting he will
realize the necessity for rapid alignment of sights, and the value of
time in taking advantage of targets exposed under service conditions.

=5. Hints to Instructors=--(i) =False Standards=.--Instructors must
guard against the danger of men setting up false standards of musketry
based on the results of their shooting in range practices. Lectures
based on the instruction laid down in Sec. II. may be given to recruits
at the commencement of or during range practices, so that they clearly
understand that the assurance of effect in battle through individual
fire is limited to distances within close range, and that collective
fire is necessary for fire effect beyond close range.

(ii) =Deliberate Practices.=--Instructors must bear in mind that
deliberate practice at bull’s-eye targets tends to inculcate a slow
method of shooting, as minute attention to changes of wind and light,
and fine adjustments of the backsight based on shot-by-shot marking,
are necessary to produce the best results under such conditions.
Therefore, directly recruits have attained a satisfactory degree of
skill at deliberate practices, they must commence snapshooting and
rapid firing. _Instructors must make it clear to soldiers that high
scores in range practices under easy conditions and shot-by-shot
marking bear no relation whatever to the results to be expected from
their skill when firing under service conditions even in peace time._

(iii) =Range Practices and Service Conditions.=--In battle at close
range fire effect depends on snapshooting and rapid firing under
conditions in which the effect of wind and light may usually be
disregarded; alteration of sights is seldom possible, and the result
of fire is frequently impossible to ascertain by observation. Beyond
close range in battle, accurate ranging, allowance for deflection due
to wind, and observation of fire, which are all necessary for accurate
individual firing, are beyond the powers of unassisted individuals,
even when targets are easy to discern and recognize with the naked eye,
which is not ordinarily the case.

(iv) As the conditions of range practices differ in all these important
respects from those of service, it is clear that another and extremely
important stage of training, for which range practices are only a
preparation, must be carried out before the soldier can be considered
fit to perform his duties in the firing-line efficiently. This further
stage of training is known as “field practices.”

(v) =Standard of Accuracy.=--There is no object in establishing a
phenomenal standard of accuracy in elementary range practices and
deliberate shooting. A satisfactory degree of proficiency is soon
attained by the majority of men, and they should then proceed to
snapshooting and rapid firing practices. _It is in snapshooting and
rapid firing up to 600 yards that a very high degree of proficiency is
desired._

(vi) =Faults of Aim.=--Although instruction on the firing-point is an
indispensable form of musketry instruction for young soldiers, if it
leads to continual alterations of sighting to meet errors in shooting,
the firer is confirmed in his errors, and his faults are only obscured.
_During the firing the instructor should watch the recruit, not the
target, and should insist on being told the probable result of the shot
before it is signalled._

(vii) =Firing Positions.=--No departure from correct firing positions
should on any account be permitted. The rifle must be gripped firmly,
the face kept back from the right hand, and there should be no
constraint in the position of the body.

(viii) =Breathing and Let-Off.=--The management of the breathing
and the let-off must be noticed, and the recruit reminded of them
continually, so that his mind may be centred on the more important
details of shooting, and not on changes of wind or light, with which he
will become familiar later.

(ix) =Dwelling on Aim.=--Although care and deliberation are necessary
in elementary firing instruction, recruits must not be allowed to
fall into the habit of dwelling on their aim nor of aiming and
returning to the loading position repeatedly before pressing the
trigger. These errors arise chiefly from taking a fine sight, and
focussing the eye on the foresight instead of on the target. When such
methods are adopted, it is a sign that the object of range practices
is misunderstood, and that the firer is in need of more practical
instruction.

(x) =Shock of Discharge.=--In preliminary training the recruit has
not accustomed himself to the shock of discharge. In some cases there
is extreme difficulty in overcoming the tendency to flinch from this
shock, and this is one of the commonest causes of inaccurate shooting.
Men who flinch should not proceed with firing practice. The cause of
the flinching can be detected, and can sometimes be removed after one
or two rounds only.

(xi) =Important Points for Instructional Practices.=--The following are
important points to remember with reference to range practices:

(_a_) That best instruction available must always be given.

(_b_) One instructor can only watch and instruct one man at a time.

(_c_) No hurry should be allowed. It is better to discuss the reasons
for failure of a few shots thoroughly than to hurry over many.

(_d_) The first shot is the important one, and from the result of it
the others must be applied to hit the mark.

(_e_) A true declaration of the point of aim when the shot was actually
fired must be made immediately after firing.

(_f_) The firer or his rifle should never be touched. He should be made
to correct his position and alter his own sights, etc., as required.

(_g_) The firer should not be told the reason for his faults until he
has first been questioned regarding them, and made to reason out for
himself the causes and remedies for failure.

(xii) =Measures to prevent Faults becoming Habitual.=--It is a common
experience that serious faults become formed habits in recruits before
they are discovered by the instructor, and that they are exposed only
after repeated visits to the range, by which time it will be difficult
to correct them. In order to compel analysis of faults, to indicate
clearly how defects may be remedied, and to remove all suspicion as to
the accuracy of his rifle, preliminary and qualifying practices are
divided into exercises in (_a_) grouping, and (_b_) applying fire.


Section =52=.--Grouping and Application.

=1. Definition of Grouping.=--The term “group” as applied to a number
of shots fired at an objective has previously been explained. Grouping
practices consist of firing a series of shots--usually five--at a
distinct and fixed aiming mark without any alteration of sighting or
point of aim.

=2. Object of Grouping Practices.=--The object of grouping practices is
not to score hits on the mark aimed at, but to develop in men the power
of grouping a series of shots as closely as possible. In other words,
the object of these practices is to teach soldiers to shoot steadily
and consistently as the foundation of their training in rifle-shooting.
When they are able to fire so that their shots are grouped closely
together, their training will be advanced another stage to application
practices, when they will be taught to “apply” their shot groups to an
aiming-mark. That is to say, they will be taught to hit the mark aimed
at, as well as to group their shots closely.

=3. Testing the Value of Groups.=--Thus, in grouping practices, the
position of a shot group in relation to the aiming-point is no test of
its value, which is judged only by the closeness of the shots in each
group. Shot groups are measured by rings, as described in Sec. 56,
para. 2, and in Sec. 49, para. 6 (xi) (Miniature Ranges).

=4. Point of Mean Impact.=--(i) When all the shots in a group are
contained in a measuring-ring, the point where the centre of the ring
falls on the target is termed the _point of mean impact_. The position
of the group in relation to the point of aim is decided by recording
the distance and direction of the point of mean impact from the point
of aim. As already stated, the position of the group in relation to the
point of aim is immaterial, and it does not matter if all the shots
miss the point of aim. Nevertheless, the position of the point of mean
impact in relation to the point of aim is important for instructional
purposes, because it indicates the constant faults of the firer and
errors of the rifle.

=5. Faults of Firer shown by Shot Groups.=--For example, a very small
group well placed shows consistency of aim, trigger-pressing, and
holding. If badly placed, it may show inaccuracy of the rifle, or a
constant error in aiming. A group dispersed vertically on the target
shows vertical variation either of the amount of foresight, or of the
point of aim; whilst a group dispersed horizontally shows incorrect
centring of the foresight in the notch of the backsight, or horizontal
errors in aiming. A group low left may show forward movement of the
shoulder; and one low right may show jerking the trigger, and high
right flinching. These faults, however, can only be ascertained _if the
firer has been watched closely whilst firing_.

=6. Analysis of Faults.=--(i) Thus, grouping practices are valuable for
discovering and correcting the faults of the firer at the commencement
of his instruction on the range. Instructors should carefully note the
positions of good groups as well as bad ones, for some constant error
in aiming or fault of the rifle may thus be discovered, which will
escape notice in application practices when every shot is signalled,
and error is attributed to wind or other causes for which allowance
is easily made in sighting. Such errors are not uncommon even among
marksmen, and often affect their shooting unfavourably in field
practices when the result of each shot is not signalled.

(ii) =Testing Rifle for Faults.=--Should a soldier make a bad group,
and the rifle is suspected, it should at once be fired under similar
conditions by a reliable marksman. Should the marksman also make a bad
group with the rifle, the rifle should be tested according to the rules
laid down in _Musketry Regulations_, and, _if found inaccurate, the man
to whom the rifle belongs should be allowed to recommence the course,
the necessary ammunition being found from the authorized allowances_.
If the rifle is proved accurate, the soldier’s aim should next be
tested by the triangle of error, and his let-off should be tested by
means of the aim-corrector. His eyesight should also be examined.

(iii) =Faults due to Nervousness, etc.=--If no other cause for constant
faults can be discovered, unsteadiness may be traced to illness,
to some habitual excess, such as cigarette smoking, to lack of
determination, or to nervousness due to some natural or exciting cause.
If faults are found to be due to nervousness or lack of will-power,
the best remedy lies in developing the power of nerve and muscular
control through physical exercises which develop these powers.[26]
Rope-climbing is a good exercise for developing nerve and will-power.

(iv) =Faults due to Firing Position, Eyesight, etc.=--Faults may
sometimes be remedied at once by correcting the fire positions, by
allowing time to elapse between the shots, or by snapping practice.
Some men can aim quickly, but lose their power of seeing objects well
defined if the eye is strained by dwelling on aim. Thus, the cause of
the failure may sometimes be due to the firer’s effort to succeed.
By dwelling too long on aim the muscles of the eye become tired,
the vision becomes blurred, and the will-power is impaired. It is
necessary to take time in overcoming difficulties in such cases. In
serious cases the soldier should be examined medically with a view to
discharge, or the provision of proper glasses.

(v) =Record of Analysis of Faults.=--A complete analysis of the faults
of the firer and his rifle should be made before leaving the range, and
a note should be made on the register of the steps decided upon for
remedying defects.

=7. Application Practices.=--(i) When a man has acquired sufficient
skill in aiming and trigger-pressing to make a good group with
certainty, he will commence application practices. These teach the
firers to adjust their sights and point of aim so as to apply the
result of their groups to an aiming mark.

(ii) Application practices should be fired first at bull’s-eye targets
similar to those used for grouping, but when once a man becomes
proficient at these easy targets, figure targets should be used.
Figure targets have been devised to accustom men gradually to the
difficult targets which will be found in war, and also to counteract
the following faults: (_a_) Taking too long an aim; (_b_) taking a fine
sight; (_c_) focussing the eye on the foresight instead of the target
at the moment of firing. _All these are common errors when a bull’s-eye
target is used._

(iii) Grouping standards may in some cases be attached to application
practices in order to emphasize the importance of care and consistency
in shooting. In application practices instruction is given in making
allowance for atmospheric influences, chiefly cross-winds; but it is
not desirable that trifling changes of wind should be met by minute
adjustment of the wind-gauge. The instructor should call upon the
soldier to estimate the wind before firing, and tell him the corrected
allowance which he is to place on his sights. Subsequent alteration
should be unnecessary. _In application, and, in fact, any practice,
small adjustments of sights should be discouraged._ The point of aim
should be varied as may be found necessary to counteract any error of
the rifle.


Section =53=.--Snapshooting, Rapid Firing, and Firing at Crossing
Targets.

=1. Snapshooting.=--(i) Snapshooting means firing an effective shot in
the shortest possible time, and necessitates--

    (_a_) Watching the front.

    (_b_) Quickness of aim.

    (_c_) Observation of the strike of the bullet, when possible.

    (_d_) Loading immediately after firing.

Snapshooting may follow application practices, and in the early stages
it is advisable to use the figure-targets used for these practices,
which can be exposed for any length of time to suit the skill of the
firers at different stages of training. Six seconds is sufficient in
the early stages, and this may be reduced to four or three seconds as
progress is made.

(ii) =Snapshooting from Cover.=--In snapshooting practices from cover,
not only the exposure of the target, but also that of the firer, should
be limited. Strict attention must be paid to adapting the firing
positions correctly to cover, and to firing with the least possible
movement and exposure.

(iii) =Snapshooting on Miniature Ranges.=--Practices in snapshooting on
miniature ranges will be found in Chapter X.

=2. Rapid Firing.=--(i) Rapid fire, which has been dealt with in
previous sections, means firing as many rounds as possible with
reasonable accuracy in a given time. This method of firing shows the
best rate of individuals, and brings out the necessity for clean and
quick loading and manipulation of the bolt, with the butt to the
shoulder, combined with quickness of aim. The best rate of fire
depends in every case upon the degree of training of the individual and
the size and visibility of the aiming-mark. In rapid firing a man of
normal temperament should be able to attain the regulation rate with
trifling loss of accuracy, _but it is not desirable to make a great
sacrifice of accuracy to produce even the regulation rate_.

(ii) Dexterity of loading and a habit of rapid alignment of the sights
should be developed in preliminary training. In the range practices the
opportunity is afforded to every man to ascertain his own best rate for
combining accuracy in shooting with rapidity of fire so as to produce a
high average of hits per minute, but there is no obligation to fire all
the rounds allotted in any rapid practice.

(iii) =Rapid Firing on Miniature Ranges.=--Instructions for carrying
out rapid firing practices on miniature ranges will be found in Chapter
X.

=3. Firing at Crossing Targets.=--As already stated, practices in
firing at crossing targets can be carried out economically and with
good results on miniature ranges. Practices in firing at crossing
targets are contained in Chapter X.


Section =54=.--Field Practices.

=1. Scope of Training.=--(i) Field practice consists of firing at
service targets at unknown ranges under conditions approximating as
closely as possible to those of service. In field practice every
care should be taken to develop further the skill already acquired
in snapshooting and rapid firing in instructional practices. The
nerve control gained in deliberate shooting should be supplemented by
vigour and alertness, deftness in loading, the habit of correct action
under distracting conditions, and skilful use of cover, based on the
determination to make fire effective.

(ii) There must be further training in picking up an indistinct
target, such as is likely to be presented in war, in estimating its
range, in rapidly opening fire, and in making the best use of ground.
Every individual must learn to recognize the distances at which
individual fire will be effective, and to act in co-operation with his
comrades.

(iii) Officers and fire-unit commanders must be practised in their
duties of direction, control, and observation of fire, in the use of
ground, and in mutual support. With these must be combined the study of
the results to be obtained from the delivery of concentrated fire at
targets representing troops in different formations, and on ground of
varying character, in order that practical experience may be acquired
of the principles which govern the employment of fire in the field.

(iv) Under the conditions of peace manœuvres with blank ammunition,
fire control may be neglected, targets may be insufficiently described,
and it is not known whether the firers recognize them, distances are
sometimes roughly guessed, sights are not always adjusted, and men
aim carelessly. Unless, therefore, tactical exercises are conducted
sometimes with ball ammunition, there will be a want of realism in
training during peace time.

=2. Individual Field Practices=--(i) =Progression of
Training=.--Training in individual field practices may be carried out
in the following stages: (_a_) Snapping at vanishing figures without
firing; (_b_) practices on miniature ranges, or 30 yards range with
Solano or other figure targets; (_c_) individual field practices on
open ranges.

(ii) In the individual practices each firer will be provided with a
separate target. He will learn to fire at unknown distances, depending
on the observation of a comrade for information as to the result of
his shots. He will fire at targets representing an advancing enemy,
and will advance himself, firing at each halt. He will learn to use
ground for fire effect and cover, to pass all orders and information
received, to recognize the limits for effective individual fire, and
the principles which govern the choice of targets in individual fire.

(iii) It will be well to conclude the individual field practices with
a demonstration of the comparative inefficiency of individual fire
at distances beyond 600 yards. This may be effected by detailing
individuals to fire at low service targets, and noting the time
required to produce any required effect, and then applying collective
fire at the same targets under proper direction and control of fire
leaders, equipped with field-glasses.

(iv) =Points for Criticism.=--Instructors should note the following
points for criticism, besides faults connected with any lessons taught
in the course of elementary training:

(_a_) Correct use of ground and cover, and correct method of resting
rifle when possible.

(_b_) Watching the front and quick location of targets, including
marking down.

(_c_) Accurate judging distance within close range.

(_d_) Quick opening of fire and rate of fire.

(_e_) Instant reloading after firing.

(_f_) Reloading magazine as opportunity occurs.

(_g_) Co-operation when working in pairs, including the following
points: (1) Consultation as to choice of targets; (2) hesitation in
opening fire and settling who shall fire and who shall observe; (3)
whether observer reports results of shots accurately.

(v) =Justification for Opening Fire.=--Men will be trained in
individual field practices to use their judgment as to opening fire.
Tendency to open fire prematurely must be checked, and men must be
taught to watch for favourable targets and good opportunities so as to
enable them to obtain the fullest effect from fire.

(vi) =Choice of Targets.=--Men must also be trained to choose their
targets so as to obtain the fullest effect from fire--that is to say,
they must choose the most favourable target presented at any moment.

=3. Fire Direction Practices.=--(i) Just as the men have been trained
in progressive stages in preliminary training, range practices, and
individual field practices, so fire-unit commanders must be practiced
thoroughly in fire-direction, and make a careful study of it before
undertaking the direction of collective field practices.

(ii) These practices are useful for training officers and N.C.O.’s in
simple problems connected with the tactical application of fire, and to
illustrate clearly that fire effect depends on (_a_) correct estimation
of range, (_b_) fire orders being clearly given, correctly understood,
and instantly obeyed. In other words, these practices serve to prove
that good fire direction and control and fire discipline are essential
for fire effect beyond close range.

(iii) =Progression of Training.=--Fire direction practices may be
carried out in the following stages: (_a_) On the Solano Target, or
landscape targets, without firing; (_b_) on miniature and 30 yards
ranges, with ·22 and ·303 cartridges on Solano Target, or landscape
targets; (_c_) on open ranges at distances beyond 600 yards.

(iv) At the conclusion of the fire-direction practices, all fire-unit
commanders should be familiar with the effects of winds and temperature
in shooting at 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 yards. The range tables
should be studied, and lectures given on the influence of ground,
ranging errors, and other details of fire direction.

(v) =Concentration and Distribution of Fire.=--Fire-direction practices
will afford opportunities for training fire-unit commanders in the
concentration and distribution of fire (see Sec. 44, paras. 8 and 9).
Fire should generally be concentrated against very vulnerable targets,
or when it is required to produce great effect at a particular point;
it should be distributed when it is required to disturb the enemy’s
aim along a portion of his front in order to assist movement.

(vi) For example, a company commander wants to produce great effect at
a particular point, so he concentrates the whole of his fire on it; or
he wishes to strike the enemy’s line in two, four, or eight places, and
orders: _By platoons_, or _By sections_, when the commanders of these
units each select an aiming-mark for their unit in the enemy’s front
corresponding to the position of their own unit in the company. Should
the company commander wish each man to select his own aiming-mark in
the enemy’s line corresponding to his own position in the company, he
orders: _Distribute fire_.

(vii) The chief guides in deciding on the amount of distribution to be
employed will be the visibility of the aiming-marks, the volume of fire
available, and the range. In the absence of clear aiming-marks service
targets usually consist of large scattered groups, which require a
greater volume for assurance of fire effect. The greatest distribution
of fire occurs when each man selects his own aiming-mark. Such
distribution will not as a rule be employed beyond 600 yards, owing to
the difficulty at longer ranges of finding sufficient aiming-marks.

=4. Collective Field Practices.=--(i) Collective field practices are
primarily intended to afford the commanders of fire units practice
in their duties of direction and control of fire. With this must be
combined the study of the results to be obtained from the delivery
of fire at targets representing troops in different formations, on
ground of varying character, in order that practical experience may
be acquired of the principles which govern the employment of fire in
the field. _Any omission or neglect in fire direction, as well as any
failure to adjust the sights, should, at this stage of training, be
regarded very seriously._

(ii) =Progression of Training.=--Training in collective field
practices will be carried out on the following stages: (_a_) On the
Solano Target, or landscape targets, without firing; (_b_) on the
miniature, or 30 yards range with the Solano Target, or landscape
targets; (_c_) on the open range.

(iii) =Points for Criticism.=--The principal points to be considered in
collective field practices are:

(_a_) The choice of targets.

(_b_) The justification or necessity for opening fire.

(_c_) The volume of fire required to effect the object in view.

(_d_) The method of ranging and error of the day.

(_e_) The orders for fire direction.

(_f_) Timing of movement.

(_g_) Mutual support.

(_h_) Regulation of volume of fire.

(_i_) Concentration or distribution of fire.

(_k_) The description and recognition of target and aiming-point.

(_l_) Skilful use of ground and cover.

(_m_) Reinforcement.

(_n_) Ammunition supply.

(_o_) Mutual assistance.

(_p_) Passing of orders and information.

(_q_) Communication with flanks and rear.

NOTE.--With respect to (_a_) and (_b_), all opportunities for
delivering enfilade, oblique, or converging fire should be seized,
together with opportunities for bringing a crushing volume of fire to
bear on favourable targets and at critical moments. Further important
points which may be considered in collective field practices are the
necessity for searching or distribution in depth and the probable
dispersion of the cone of fire.

(iv) =Tactical Schemes.=--_Section and Platoon Exercises._--The earlier
exercises for the smaller fire units will be carried out under simple
tactical schemes framed by the company commander, and arranged so as
to give a progressive training to all ranks engaged. Schemes will
be so drawn up as to give separate instruction in each phase of the
combat, rather than to combine in each exercise all the operations
included in the execution of a successful attack. They will also be
designed to illustrate the various situations which may be expected on
active service. They should test the proficiency of leaders in making
fire effective on first opening and in regulating the volume of fire
in accordance with the situation. Mutual support and combined action
should be frequently practised, with and without the exercise of
control. (See _Musketry Regulations_, Sec. 98.)

(v) =Company Exercises.=--_Combined Field Firing._--When all the
fire-unit commanders have shown proficiency in fire direction and
control, companies will be trained to fire collectively against
firing-lines at effective ranges. The leaders will be exercised in
judging distance, in describing targets, and in concentration or
distribution of fire. Great weight will be attached to the accurate
passing of orders and information, and to the quickness of the men
in recognizing their targets and applying fire. (See _Musketry
Regulations_, Sec. 101.)

(vi) =Criticism of Collective Field Practices.=--At the conclusion of
a collective field practice, in addition to criticism of the conduct
of the exercise, there should be a conference as to the conclusions to
be drawn from the results. For this reason a complete record must be
made of the targets and conditions; the figures showing results must be
carefully and fully tabulated.

The criticism of the conduct of the exercise should be complete, and
should deal with the application of the tactical principles laid
down in the Training Manuals, as well as with the application of the
principles contained in these regulations. In appreciating results,
chief attention should be paid to the successful or unsuccessful
result of the first application of fire, since surprise effect is
all-important, and correction of sighting by observation is rarely
possible in war.

(vii) =Results of Firing.=--The percentage of hits to rounds fired is
an index to the steadiness of the firing only if the fire direction
has been proved to be satisfactory. If the fire direction fails, the
more accurate the shooting the fewer will be the hits recorded. In
considering the results of fire, the percentage of loss inflicted on
the enemy within a limited period of time is the best means of judging
the value of the fire.

For general comparison of the collective fire results of units, the
average number of hits per man per minute should be calculated if
fire was concentrated, or the average number of figures hit per man
per minute if it was distributed, but due regard must be paid to the
justification of the rate of fire as indicated by the scheme.



CHAPTER VIII

CONDUCT OF RANGE AND FIELD PRACTICES


Section =55=.--Thirty Yards Ranges.

=1.= When no classification range is available, elementary practices
with service ammunition may be carried out on a 30 yards range. Such
practice will render recruits familiar with the discharge of the rifle,
and improve their trigger release under easy conditions. No practice
will take place unless an officer or experienced serjeant is present.

=2. Precautions for Safety.=--All precautions for safety will be taken.
Loading, in all positions except lying, will be carried out with the
rifle held just above the waist, and the muzzle directed towards the
target. _Charging or uncharging magazines is not to be carried out with
the muzzle pointing upwards._

=3. Practices.=--Practice at vanishing, moving, and landscape
targets can be carried out as on miniature ranges, but with service
ammunition. Long-range sighting-targets should be provided as a means
of ascertaining the error of the rifle, and practice may be carried out
with long-range sights.


Section =56=.--Grouping Practices.

=1.= One firer will be detailed to each target, and fire five shots,
maintaining the regulation point of aim throughout. Targets will be
changed, and a second detail of men will fire similarly. Both details
will then proceed to the targets, see their groups measured, and note
the positions of the points of mean impact with reference to the points
aimed at. If it is impracticable to proceed to the targets, the group
may be marked by means of small spotting-discs (see also Appendix, VI,
para. 2, note 3).

=2. Rules for Measuring Groups.=--(i) The groups will be measured with
wire rings, 4, 8, and 12 inches in diameter, counting 25, 20, and 15
points respectively; 10 points will be allowed for a 12-inch group with
one wide shot.

(ii) The ring which will contain all the shots will be recorded as the
measure of the group. A shot-mark is included within a ring when it
cuts the circumference of the largest circle which can be described
within that ring by means of a pencil held at right angles to the
target.

(iii) All shot marks found on a target will be included in the group
to be measured. No points will be allotted to a group unless there are
five shot-marks at least on the target. If more than five shot-marks
are found on the target, there will be no score, and the practice will
be repeated.

(iv) =Point of Mean Impact.=--When the ring is placed to include all
the shots, the centre of the ring will be taken as approximately the
point of mean impact. Its distance from, and direction with reference
to, the point aimed at will be recorded on the register--_e.g._, 7
inches, four o’clock.

(v) On return to the firing-point other details will fire, but steps
will be immediately taken to ascertain the cause of any bad shooting of
men in the first two details.

=3. Third-Class Shots.=--As a rule, third-class shots should not be
allowed ammunition for further training in application practice until a
satisfactory standard in grouping has been attained. This may be fixed
at a ring of diameter equal to one-three-hundredth of the range, but
officers should exercise their discretion as to allowing one wide shot
in five when dealing with young soldiers.


Section =57=.--Timed Practices.

=1. Deliberate Practices.=--In deliberate practices, twenty seconds is
the time limit allowed for each shot, reckoned from the act of loading.
If there is a tendency to exceed the limit, a whistle should be used to
mark the beginning and end of each period, but not otherwise.

=2. Timed Exposure of Targets.=--The timed exposure of targets for
snapshooting and rapid fire practices will be reckoned from the time
when the target is in position and stationary to the time when it is
again moved for lowering. The movements of raising and lowering must
be conducted with the utmost rapidity, but without jarring the target
frames.

=3. Timing in Rapid Practices.=--(i) Timing in rapid practices should
be reckoned from the word of command “_Rapid Fire_,” and fire should
be stopped by the command “_Cease Fire_.” The command “_Rapid Fire_”
should be given as soon as the target appears. The target should
be lowered at the end of the time allowed for firing under orders
of the officer on butt duty, but the officer superintending at the
firing-point should also time the practice and order “_Cease Fire_”
at the end of the time allowed for firing, reckoned from the command
“_Rapid Fire_.” Four points will be deducted for every shot fired after
the order to cease fire has been given.

(ii) =Charging Magazine in Rapid Practices.=--In rapid practices,
unless otherwise stated in the “Instructions for the Conduct of the
Practice,” the magazine will be charged with four rounds, and the rifle
will be loaded before the target appears.

=4. Firing from Cover.=--(i) In firing from behind cover, the position
adopted must be such as would enable the firer on service to obtain the
fullest protection from the cover, having due regard to the efficiency
of his fire. In the prone position, the grip of the left hand must be
maintained on the rifle, and there must be no undue exposure of the
shoulder or legs.

(ii) In firing from behind cover, the butt of the rifle will be in
contact with the ground, and the firer will remain in observation, but
otherwise completely covered, until the command “_Rapid Fire_” is given
in rapid-firing practices, or the target appears in “Snapshooting”
and “Crossing-Shot” practices. When snapshooting or firing rapid in
the open, the rifle may be held in the loading or aiming position, as
preferred.

=5. Jambs.=--In the event of a jamb occurring in a timed practice, and
provided that it is not caused by any fault on the part of the firer,
the time allowed for the practice will be increased to the extent
due to the delay caused thereby. Should, however, a jamb in a rapid
practice be due to a breakage of mechanism or other defect that cannot
readily be rectified on the range, the whole practice will be fired
again.

=6. Missfires.=--In the event of missfires, extra rounds will be
allowed equal to the number of missfires in the practice concerned, a
proportionate part of the time allowed for the whole practice being
given for each extra round.

=7. Extra Time.=--Whenever extra time is allowed for a timed practice,
a report giving the reason, and stating whether the jamb or missfire
was due to the rifle or to the ammunition, will be rendered to Command
Headquarters.


Section =58=.--General Rules for Range Practices.[27]

=1.= Range practices, unless otherwise ordered, will be fired in
drill order. Range practices should be fired, as far as possible,
in favourable weather. It is of the utmost importance that recruits’
firing should not take place in cold and unsuitable weather.

=2. Order of Practices.=--Range practices should as a rule be fired in
the order in which they appear in the tables, but brigade commanders
may vary the order at their discretion. When deliberate and rapid
practices for classification are fired at the same distance, each man
may fire the rapid practice immediately after the deliberate practice.

=3.= In the case of ranges of less than full extent, general officers
commanding-in-chief may frame special instructions, make proportionate
changes in the size of targets, and vary the points for classification.

=4. Distribution of Ammunition.=--(i) _The general distribution
of ammunition laid down in the several parts of Tables A and B
respectively should be adhered to._ In the Regular Army and Special
Reserve not more than fifteen rounds should be fired in one day, except
in classification practices, when twenty-five rounds may be fired, if
necessary. It is always better, when time is pressing, to reduce the
number of rounds fired in instructional practices than to hurry through
them. All available officers should be present at the firing-points
during instructional practices.

(ii) =Forfeiture of Rounds.=--Omission to fire the rounds allotted
and failure to fire during an exposure or run in vanishing and moving
practices will entail forfeiture of the rounds that should have been
fired, and misses will be recorded for them. Ammunition required for
repetition of qualifying practices will, when necessary, be taken from
the surplus.

=5. Firing Positions.=--In range practices the regulation positions
are obligatory, except in firing from cover, when the rifle should be
rested and the position adapted to the ground. This includes resting
the arm as well, if suitable, but the cover is not to be specially
constructed as a rest for the rifle.

=6. Commencing Practice.=--No man will load, or assume a firing
position, until the senior officer present has ordered the practice
to commence. After firing, men will return to the loading position,
but will not open the breech in the deliberate practices until the
last shot has been signalled. If it is necessary to suspend firing,
all men who are in position will raise the safety-catch (or unload if
no safety-catch is provided), until the order is given to resume the
practice.

=7. Important Rules.=--(i) =Loading.=--_Loading will always be through
the magazine._

(ii) =Sling.=--_Dependence on the sling should be discouraged, and it
will not be used for steadying the rifle in range practices._

(iii) =Rifle.=--_No soldier equipped with a rifle is permitted to fire
with any but his own._

(iv) =Sighting Shots.=--_No sighting shots are allowed._

(v) _Men will fire singly, never in twos or threes._

=8. Shots to verify Wind or Elevation.=--Occasional shots to verify
elevation or strength of wind, or to prove the accuracy of a rifle,
may sometimes be fired by an officer or non-commissioned officer,
with the senior officer’s permission. They will not be fired during
classification practices or standard tests. Notification of their
commencement and conclusion will be made to the officer in the butts by
telephone, signal, or bugle-sound. The target in use will be lowered
and checked, and a clean one raised for the occasional shots. When they
are completed, it will be lowered and checked, and the original target
raised for the firer to complete his rounds.

=9. Resting Arm or Rifle.=--A coat or waterproof-sheet may be used to
protect the uniform, but _except when firing from cover, or when rests
are authorized, neither rifle, forearm, wrist, nor hand, is to rest
against anything, or to be supported_.

=10.= No one is allowed at the firing-point, except the men actually
firing, the instructors, and officers. All non-commissioned officers
and men not on duty at the firing-point will ground or pile arms, and
remain not less than 30 yards in rear of the firing-point. No shouting
is allowed; men next to fire will be brought up by signal.

=11. Instruction during Intervals of Firing.=--(i) During intervals of
firing an opportunity should be given occasionally to all ranks for
revising their impressions as to the visibility of the human figure
at short distances, by placing men on the firing-platforms up the
range. The study of visibility under conditions of known distance and
in relation to targets used for practice in shooting is especially
valuable.

(ii) Those men who are not actually engaged in firing should receive
instruction in ground reconnaissance, use of the eyes, use of
field-glasses, range-finding, and description of ground, while waiting
behind the firing-point.

=12. Field-Glasses.=--Field-glasses or telescopes will be carried by
all officers and section commanders. The men should be encouraged to
use them during spare time on the range.

=13. Condition of Sights.=--The sights will be used as issued, without
alteration of any kind. They may not be blackened; the browning is
renewed by an armourer when required. No additions, marking, or
colouring, are permitted, nor are orthoptics allowed.

=14. Observation Practices.=--The change which takes place in
conditions of shooting when there is no signalling of each shot is
not always appreciated, and it is essential that the importance of
the first application of fire should be realized. Troops, therefore,
which are unable to fire field practices should fire some at least of
the instructional practices without signalling. Such practices are
called “observation practices.” The targets should be placed on the
face of the stop-butt or at the foot of the gallery-bank, and may with
advantage be falling or collapsible targets.

=15. Precautions.=--To guard against accidents, the following orders
will be observed:

    (i) No firing will take place until a large red danger-flag
    is hoisted on the signal-staff at or near the butts, and the
    necessary look-out men posted.

    (ii) A smaller red danger-flag will be hoisted at the butts as a
    warning to cease fire. This flag will remain exposed during the
    entire period of cessation of fire, and will not be withdrawn
    until the whole of the butt party is under cover. No one will
    leave the butts until cessation of fire has been notified from
    the firing-point.

    (iii) A red flag will be kept raised at the firing-point when no
    firing is taking place, and will be lowered only on the order of
    the senior officer. This order will not be given until the flag
    at the butts has been withdrawn.

    (iv) Aiming or snapping during target practice may only take
    place from the firing-point after the red flag has been lowered.


Section =59=.--Surplus Ammunition and Computation of Averages.

1. =Surplus Ammunition.=--The rounds shown as “surplus” in Tables A
and B will be distributed primarily by commanding officers for the
following purposes:

    (i) Repetition firing, as prescribed in the tables.

    (ii) Fifteen rounds per man to be expended by company commanders
    for further training of indifferent shots.

    (iii) The further training of recruits.

    (iv) Fire-direction practices.

    (v) The testing of rifles when necessary.

    (vii) Occasional shots on the rifle-range (Sec. 58, para. 8).

    (vii) Ten rounds per man who commences the course for voluntary
    practice.

    (viii) Any surplus available after the above requirements have
    been fulfilled will be distributed to companies for general
    practice. It is not to be used for practice for competitions.

=2. Computation of Averages.=--The best shot of each squadron or
company will be determined by his aggregate score in Part III. Averages
made by companies in each of the classification practices will be
calculated to one place of decimals, and published in regimental
orders. Only the scores of those officers, non-commissioned officers,
and men who completed a practice will be included in the numbers by
which the total points made in that practice are divided. Points made
by casuals (see footnote to Sec. 63) will be included at the end
of the year, and fresh averages struck. The sum of the averages of
the practices of Part III. will be termed the “company average” in
classification practices.


Section =60=.--Conditions of Qualification

=1.= The conditions for qualification in Part I., Table B, are:

    A score of not less than 15 in each of Practices 1 and 4, and a
    total of not less than 45 in Practices 2, 3, 5, and 6.

=2.= Those who fail to reach any of these standards will, after firing
Practices 7 to 14, repeat those practices of Part I. in which they
failed, until the standard is attained or a third failure is recorded.
They will omit Practices 15, 16, and 17. Those who fail to reach all
the standards after two repetitions of those practices in which they
failed will be classified as Third-Class shots, and will not fire
Part III., but will fire Part VI. if ammunition is available. Special
reports will be submitted in the case of men who are found to be
incapable of reaching the second class standard in Table B.


Section =61=.--Classification Practices and Conditions of
Classification.

=1.= The classification practices should be fired during the most
favourable time of year for individual firing. As a man’s pay is
affected by these practices, every facility should be given for firing
to be carried out under favourable conditions.

=2.= With the exception of those who are exempted from musketry by the
regulations, every man on the strength of his unit on the last of the
four days allotted to classification firing will be classified at or
before the end of the year.

=3.= Trained men, not exempted by the regulations, who for any reason
do not commence Table B will be classified as Third-Class shots.
Those who commence Table B, Part III., but do not complete it, will
be classified according to the number of points obtained in those
practices which they complete.

=4.= A note will be made in the Company and Battalion annual returns of
the number of men (if any) who are classified without having completed
the range practices of Table B.

=5. Cavalry and Infantry.=--(i) Cavalry and infantry soldiers, if
qualified in Part I., will be classified upon their total scores in
Part III. as follows:

  Those who obtain 130 points and upwards }       Marksmen.

  Those who obtain 105 points and less    }       First-Class shots.
    than 130                              }

  Those who obtain 50 points in Practices }
    18 to 22 inclusive, or in the         }       Second-Class shots.
    alternative obtain 70 in Part III.    }

  Those who for any reason fail to attain }       Third-Class shots.
    the Second-Class standard             }

(ii) Commanding officers will take every opportunity of stimulating all
ranks to take an interest in shooting and judging distance by granting
indulgences to the most proficient, and by giving prominence to the
best shooting company in any manner considered desirable.

(iii) Third-Class shots will not be employed in any capacity which will
interfere with their attendance at all parades and instructional duties.

=6. Royal Engineers.=--The sappers and pioneers of the Royal Engineers
(Regular Forces) will fire the following practices:

(i) _Table A._--_Recruits’ Course Regular Forces (Cavalry, R.E.,
Infantry), and Special Reserve (R.E., and Infantry), Parts I., II.,
III., and IV._ They will not repeat Part I., nor any practices of Part
II., unless they fail to make a total score of 90 points in these
practices. Those who fail to obtain 90 points will, after firing Part
III., repeat Practices 5 to 12, instead of firing Part IV. Surplus
ammunition will be used for the further training of indifferent shots,
for testing rifles, or for occasional shots.

(ii) _Table B._--_Annual Course, Regular Forces (Cavalry, R.E., and
Infantry). Parts I., II. (Practices 7, 9, 12, and 14), and III._
The qualification standard will be the same as for the cavalry and
infantry. Those who fail to qualify in Part I. at the first attempt
will proceed with the prescribed practices of Part II. (twenty
rounds), and then repeat those practices of Part I. in which they
failed. Those who fail twice in any of the standards in Part I. may,
provided sufficient ammunition is available out of the authorized
annual allowance, repeat those practices in which they failed once
more, with a view to qualification. Those who repeat any practices of
Part I. will, if they qualify on first or second repetition, fire the
whole of Part III., or, failing that, Practices 19, 20, 23, 24, and 25,
according to the amount of ammunition available.

(iii) Any man who qualifies in Part I. on the first, second, or third
attempt, and completes the practices of Part III., will be classified
according to the standards of Part III., but not below Second-Class
shot. Those who complete Practices 19, 20, 23, 24, and 25 only will be
classified as Second-Class shots, provided they have qualified in Part
I.; those who fail in Part I., or who, having qualified in Part I. for
any reason do not complete these five practices, will be classified as
Third-Class shots. Any ammunition unexpended will form a surplus for
further instruction.

=7. R.A.M.C. and A.V.C.=--Recruits of the R.A.M.C. and A.V.C. will
fire Practices 1 to 4, Table B (Royal Artillery, etc.). The following
standard will be required:

_Practice 1._--All shots in a 12-inch ring. Those who fail to attain
this standard will repeat Practice 1 until they do so, or expend the
full allowance of ammunition. Ammunition not required for the above
practices is to be expended on preliminary training on the 30-yards
range, as considered necessary.


Section =62=.--Recruits’ Course, Regular Forces, Cavalry, R.E., and
Infantry.

=1. Part I.=--Part I. should be fired intermittently during the latter
part of preliminary training, and may be repeated as often as is
considered necessary. The conditions may be varied, with the object of
removing any particular defects observed in previous shooting.

=2. Part II.=--On the completion of Part II., recruits will repeat once
those practices of Part II. in which they failed to reach the Grouping
Standard, or, if they obtain less than 90 points in Part II., they will
repeat, once, the whole of Part II. before proceeding to Parts III. to
VI.

=3. Elementary Field Practices.=--Recruits who have completed their
course of instruction in range practices will fire elementary field
practices before joining their companies in the trained soldiers’
course in order that they may realize the true function of elementary
shooting as a means to an end and a preparation for field firing--not
as an end in itself.


Section =63=.--Execution of Tables A and B in the Same Year.

=1.= Soldiers of the cavalry, Royal Engineers, and infantry of the
Regular Forces who complete Table A will be exercised in the whole of
Table B (sappers of the Royal Engineers the prescribed practices only),
with their own companies, if possible, in the same year; but their
scores in Part III. will not be included in the company or battalion
averages. In special cases, which should be exceptional, commanding
officers may direct that backward men shall repeat Part II., Table A,
instead of firing any portion of Table B in the same year.

=2.= If Part II., Table B, has been commenced before they are
available, they will begin firing at any practice which their companies
are executing at the time they become qualified, and will then complete
the remainder of the table. If all the companies in the battalion
have completed Part II., Table B, before they are available, the
brigade commander will decide as to whether they shall be exercised
as casuals.[28] They will be awarded marksmen’s badges if they attain
the necessary standard in Table B. In any case, they will receive
such further practice in firing as may be considered by their company
commanders to be necessary.


Section =64=.--Trained Soldiers’ Course.

=1. Object of Range Practices.=--Range practices are fired by trained
soldiers in order that they may revise their knowledge of elementary
and timed shooting before entering upon more advanced practices.
Soldiers who have missed the whole or a portion of the range practices
and have become available to commence the field practices with their
companies may, if they are known to be good shots, be allowed by their
commanding officers to execute the field practices, and fire the range
practices subsequently.

=2. Programme of Instructional Practices.=--Considerable latitude is
allowed as regards the programme of instructional practices. Officers
commanding companies may vary the number of rounds to be fired by
individuals, or they may alter the order of the practices in Part
II. Officers commanding battalions may, with the approval of general
officers commanding brigades, vary the instructional practices in
any way calculated to further instruction; but it is not permitted
to design practices, or to vary the details of practices in Part
II. with the object of assimilating the conditions to those of the
classification practices.

=3. Uncompleted Practices.=--If a man has fired one or more rounds in
any range practice, and is prevented from completing it, the points
made will not count, and the whole practice will be recommenced when
his training is resumed. _Every soldier not exempted by Musketry
Regulations or by the King’s Regulations will execute the full course
of range and field practices yearly._

=4. Correction of Sighting.=--Correction of sighting in individual
firing is rarely possible in war. It is therefore all-important to
estimate the elevation and deflection for the first shot. When a
reasonable standard of skill in trigger-pressing has been shown in
grouping practices, and the principle of application is understood,
further practice in deliberate fire should aim at successful
application of fire from the first shot, and less importance should be
attached to correction of sighting, according to the signalling, of a
series of shots.

=5. Sighting Shots.=--For this reason skilled shots should fire two or
three shots at each of several ranges for sighting practice rather than
long series of shots at one or two distances. Only a few rounds in all
should be devoted in their case to deliberate shooting; a high standard
of snapshooting should be developed. Officers and sergeants may fire
sighting-shots at ranges beyond 600 yards, but as a rule such training
should be reserved for the fire-direction practices.

=6. Allowance for Wind.=--It is convenient to memorize the effect
of right-angle winds at some one distance, as a guide in estimating
deflection allowance for winds of similar strength at other distances.
Five hundred yards is a satisfactory range for this purpose, and the
approximate effect of right-angle winds blowing ten, twenty, and thirty
miles per hour may be studied with advantage. _The use of elaborate
wind-tables, and dependence on flags, telescopes, or sighting-shots, is
prohibited._


TABLE A.

RECRUITS’ COURSE--REGULAR FORCES (CAVALRY, ROYAL ENGINEERS, AND
INFANTRY).

N.B.--Royal Engineers (Sappers and Pioneers) of the Regular Forces will
fire those practices only which are detailed in the Instructions for
Royal Engineers (see Sec. 61, para. 6).


PART I.--INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES (ELEMENTARY).

  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
     |             |                      | Distance  |         | Instructions for Conduct
  No.| Practice.   |      Target.         | in Yards. | Rounds. |       of Practice.
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
   1 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying, with arm or rifle
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |   rested.
   2 | Application | 2nd Class Elementary |   200     |    5    | Lying, with arm or rifle
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |   rested.
   3 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
   4 | Application | 2nd Class Elementary |   200     |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |       Total rounds   |           |   20    |


PART II.--INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES (REPETITION).

   5 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying. All shots in
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |   12-inch ring.
   6 | Application | 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying, with arm or rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested. Five hits,
     |             |                      |           |         |   including four within
     |             |                      |           |         |   inner (24-inch) ring.
   7 | Application | 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying. Five hits within
     |             |                      |           |         |   Magpie (36-inch) ring.
   8 |     ”       |                      |   300     |    5    | Lying. Five hits.
   9 |     ”       | 1st Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Kneeling. Four hits at
     |             |                      |           |         |   least within inner
     |             |                      |           |         |   (40-inch) ring.
  10 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   300     |    5    | Kneeling with arm or rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested. Four hits at
     |             |                      |           |         |   least within inner
     |             |                      |           |         |   (40-inch) ring.
  11 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   400     |    5    | Lying. Four hits at least.
  12 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying, with arm or rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested.
  13 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying.
  14 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   600     |    5    | Lying, with side of rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   only rested.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |       Total rounds   |           |   50    |


PART III.--INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES (TIMED).

  15 | Deliberate  | 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying.
  16 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   200     |    5    | Kneeling.
  17 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |   200     |    5    | Lying. 40 seconds allowed.
  18 | Deliberate  | 1st Class Figure     |   400     |    5    | Lying.
  19 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |   400     |    5    | Lying. 40 seconds allowed.
  20 | Deliberate  |     ”       ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |         |   stones or sandbags
     |             |                      |           |         |   representing a parapet
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing over them.
  21 | Snapshooting| 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying. Exposure, 6 seconds
     |             |                      |           |         |   for each shot.
  22 | Snapshooting|     ”       ”        |   200     |    5    | Kneeling. Taking cover in
     |             |                      |           |         |   a trench, or behind a
     |             |                      |           |         |   screen representing a
     |             |                      |           |         |   wall, and firing over the
     |             |                      |           |         |   parapet. Exposure, 6
     |             |                      |           |         |   seconds for each shot.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
                         Total rounds     |           |   40    |


PART IV.--INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES.

  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
     |             |                      | Distance  |         | Instructions for Conduct
  No.| Practice.   |      Target.         | in Yards. | Rounds. |       of Practice.
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
  23 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |    100    |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
  24 | Application | 1st Class Figure     |    300    |    5    | Kneeling.
  25 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |    300    |    5    | Lying. 40 seconds allowed.
  26 | Snapshooting| 2nd Class Figure     |    200    |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as in
     |             |                      |           |         |   20. Exposure, 5 seconds
     |             |                      |           |         |   for each shot.
  27 | Application | 1st Class Figure     |    500    |    5    | Lying.
     |             |                      |           +---------+         |
     |             |     Total rounds     |           |   25    |
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------


PART V.--INDIVIDUAL FIELD PRACTICES.

Twenty rounds will be expended in elementary practices, 10 rounds in
an attack practice from 700 to 200 yards, and 10 rounds in a defence
practice against full-length figures representing an advancing enemy.

  Total rounds               20

For the Conditions of Individual Field Practices on Classification
Ranges, see pp. 185-188.


PART VI.--COLLECTIVE FIELD PRACTICES.

Twenty-five rounds will be expended, if ammunition is available.

  Total rounds                25
  Surplus rounds              20
  Total rounds for Table A   200

For the Conditions of Collective Field Practices on Classification
Ranges, see pp. 188-192.


TABLE B.

ANNUAL COURSE--REGULAR FORCES (CAVALRY, ROYAL ENGINEERS, AND INFANTRY).

N.B.--The Royal Engineers (Sappers, Regular Forces), including Regular
Establishment of the R.E. Special Reserve, will fire those practices
only which are detailed in the Instructions for Royal Engineers (see
Sec. 61, para. 6).

Trained drivers of the Royal Engineers will fire:

  Part I.--Practices 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6.
  Part II.--Practices 7 and 9.
  Part III.--Practice 19.

They will be classified on the same standard as laid down for the forty
rounds fired in Table B, p. 169.


PART I.--QUALIFYING PRACTICES.

  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
     |             |                      | Distance  |         | Instructions for Conduct
  No.| Practice.   |      Target.         | in Yards. | Rounds. |       of Practice.
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
   1 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying, with arm or rifle
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |   rested.
   2 | Application |   ”       ”          |   200     |    5    | As in 1.
   3 |     ”       | 2nd Class Figure     |   300     |    5    | Kneeling, with arm or  rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested.
   4 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
   5 | Application | 1st Class Figure     |   400     |    5    | Lying.
   6 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying, with side of rifle
     |             |                      |           |         |   only rested.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |      Total Rounds    |           |   30    |


PART II.--INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES (TIMED).

   7 | Snapshooting| 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying.  Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |         |   stones or sandbags
     |             |                      |           |         |   representing a parapet
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing over them.
     |             |                      |           |         |   Exposure, 6 seconds for
     |             |                      |           |         |   each shot.
   8 |     ”       |     ”        ”       |   200     |    5    | Sitting or kneeling. Bayonet
     |             |                      |           |         |   fixed. Exposure, 6
     |             |                      |           |         |   seconds for each shot.
   9 | Rapid       | 2nd Class Figure.    |   200     |    5    | Lying. Bayonets fixed.
     |             |                      |           |         |   30 seconds allowed.
  10 | Deliberate  |     ”       ”        |   300     |    5    | Lying.
  11 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |   300     |   10    | Lying. Rife unloaded and
     |             |                      |           |         |   magazine empty until the
     |             |                      |           |         |   target appears. Loading
     |             |                      |           |         |   from the pouch or bandolier
     |             |                      |           |         |   by 5 rounds afterwards.
     |             |                      |           |         |   One minute allowed.
  12 | Deliberate  | 1st Class Figure     |   500     |    5    | Lying.
  13 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as in
     |             |                      |           |         |   7. 45 seconds allowed.
  14 | Deliberate  |     ”       ”        |   600     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |         |   stones or sandbags
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing round them,
     |             |                      |           |         |   with side of rifle only
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested.
  15 | Snapshooting| Figure No. 3         |   200     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as in
     |             |   (silhouette)       |           |         |   14. Exposure, 4 seconds
     |             |                      |           |         |   for each shot.
  16 |     ”       |     ”       ”        |   200     |    5    | Kneeling. Taking cover in
     |             |                      |           |         |   a trench or behind a
     |             |                      |           |         |   screen representing a wall
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing over the parapet.
     |             |                      |           |         |   Exposure, 5 seconds
     |             |                      |           |         |  for each shot.
  17 | Crossing    | Figure No. 6         |   200     |    5    | Lying. One shot at each
     |   shot      |   (silhouette)       |           |         |   run of 30 feet. Pace of
     |             |                      |           |         |   target--quick time.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |      Total rounds    |           |   60    |


PART III.--CLASSIFICATION PRACTICES.

  18 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
  19 | Snapshooting| Figure No. 3         |   200     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as in
     |             |   (silhouette)       |           |         |   7. Bayonet fixed. Exposure,
     |             |                      |           |         |   4 seconds for each
     |             |                      |           |         |   shot.
  20 | Deliberate  | 2nd Class Figure     |   400     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |         |   in 14.
  21 | Deliberate  | 2nd Class Figure     |    300    |    5    | Kneeling. Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |         |   in 16.
  22 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |    300    |   15    | Lying. Rifle to be loaded
     |             |                      |           |         |   and 4 rounds in the magazine
     |             |                      |           |         |   before the target
     |             |                      |           |         |   appears. Loading from
     |             |                      |           |         |   the pouch or bandolier
     |             |                      |           |         |   by 5 rounds afterwards.
     |             |                      |           |         |   One minute allowed.
  23 | Deliberate  | 1st Class Figure     |    500    |    5    | Lying.
  24 | Rapid       |     ”       ”        |    500    |    5    | Lying. 30 seconds allowed.
  25 | Deliberate  |     ”       ”        |    600    |    5    | Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |         |   in 7.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |    Total rounds      |           |   50    |
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------

NOTE.--No instruction or assistance of any kind will be given to
any man during the firing of Part III., Table B (Cavalry, R.E., and
Infantry).

The use of the wind-gauge or of the fine adjustment will not
be permitted in any classification practice or standard test
classification practice.


PART IV.--INDIVIDUAL FIELD PRACTICES.

  Total rounds    35

For the conditions of Individual Field Practices on Classification
Ranges see pp. 185-188.


PART V.--FIRE DIRECTION PRACTICES.

Short series of shots will be fired at distances beyond 600 yards by
officers and non-commissioned officers for practice in observation of
fire, estimating atmospheric influences, and verifying sighting by
trial shots. Screens, or any visible objects such as might serve as
range marks on service, will be used as targets. About 300 rounds,
drawn from the surplus, should suffice. Special fire-direction
exercises should be substituted for these practices if range
accommodation does not extend beyond 600 yards.


PART VI.--COLLECTIVE FIELD PRACTICES.

  Total rounds                50
  Surplus rounds              25
  Total rounds for Table B   250

For the conditions of Collective Field Practices on Classification
Ranges see pp. 188-192.


TABLE A.

    RECRUITS’ COURSE--ROYAL ARTILLERY, DRIVERS ROYAL ENGINEERS
    (REGULARS), ARMY SERVICE CORPS (REGULARS AND SPECIAL RESERVE),
    AND ARMY ORDNANCE CORPS.

GROUPING PRACTICE FOR THOSE RECRUITS OR TRAINED MEN WHO FAIL IN THE
PRELIMINARY TEST.

  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
     |             |                      | Distance  |         | Position and Grouping
  No.| Practice.   |      Target.         | in Yards. | Rounds. |       Standard.
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
   1 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |    100    |    5    | Lying, with rest.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
   2 |    ”        | 2nd Class Elementary |    100    |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |    ”        |     Total rounds     |           |   10    |


ELEMENTARY COURSE FOR FIRST-YEAR MEN AND THIRD-CLASS SHOTS.

   1 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |    100    |     5    | Lying. All shots in 12-inch
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |          |   ring.
   2 | Application | 2nd Class Elementary |    200    |     5    | Lying, with rest. Five
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |          |   hits including four within
     |             |                      |           |          | Inner (24-inch) ring.
   3 |      ”      | 2nd Class Elementary |    200    |     5    | Lying. Five hits, including
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |          |   four within Inner
     |             |                      |           |          |   (24-inch) ring.
   4 |      ”      | 1st Class Figure     |    300    |     5    | Lying. Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |          |   stones or sandbars
     |             |                      |           |          |   representing a parapet
     |             |                      |           |          |   and firing over them.
     |             |                      |           |          |   Four hits.
   5 |      ”      |     ”       ”        |    400    |     5    | Lying.
   6 |      ”      |     ”       ”        |    500    |     5    | Lying. Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |          |   in 4.
     |             |                      |           +----------+
     |             |   Total rounds       |           |    30    |
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------

NOTE.--The course should be fired in five days as follows:--

Practices 1 and 2, _first day_. Repetition, _second day_. Practices 3
and 4, _third day_. Repetition, _fourth day_. Practices 5 and 6, _fifth
day_.

Practices 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be repeated once each if the grouping
standard is not attained, but not on the same day. Should the firer
have attained the grouping standard in any of the first four practices
without repetition, he may on conclusion of all the practices be given
the option of repeating No. 6 with a view to increasing his score for
qualification.

In all cases of repetition the second score only will count for
classification.

As a rule five days should be devoted to firing the course, of which
the second and fourth would be reserved for repetition and careful
instruction of indifferent shots.

Surplus rounds will be used as the officer commanding the battery or
company may direct on preliminary or further training, testing rifles,
occasional shots, or marksmen’s firing in Part III., Table B, for
cavalry and infantry.

Points required for 2nd Class=65. Grouping standards have no effect on
classification; they govern repetition only.


TABLE B.

ANNUAL COURSE--ROYAL ARTILLERY, ARMY SERVICE CORPS, AND ARMY ORDNANCE
CORPS.

TRAINED SOLDIERS’ COURSE FOR MARKSMEN, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS SHOTS.

  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
     |             |                      | Distance  |         |       Position
  No.| Practice.   |      Target.         | in Yards. | Rounds. |
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------
   1 | Grouping    | 2nd Class Elementary |   100     |    5    | Lying.
     |             |   (Bull’s-eye)       |           |         |
   2 | Application | 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |         |   stones or sandbags
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing round them
     |             |                      |           |         |   with side of rifle only
     |             |                      |           |         |   rested.
   3 |     ”       | 2nd Class Figure     |   300     |    5    | Sitting or kneeling.
   4 |     ”       | 1st Class Figure     |   400     |    5    | Lying.
   5 | Rapid       |      ”      ”        |   400     |    5    | Lying. 40 seconds allowed.
   6 | Application |      ”      ”        |   500     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover behind
     |             |                      |           |         |   stones or sandbags
     |             |                      |           |         |   representing a parapet
     |             |                      |           |         |   and firing over them.
   7 | Snapshooting| 2nd Class Figure     |   200     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |         |   in 2. 5 seconds’ exposure.
   8 | Observation | Iron falling         |   300     |    5    | Lying. Taking cover as
     |             |                      |           |         |   in 6. Firing in pairs.
     |             |                      |           +---------+
     |             |      Total rounds    |           |   40    |
  ---+-------------+----------------------+-----------+---------+--------------------------

NOTE.--Three points will be allowed for every direct hit in Practice 8.

In Practices 5 and 8 there will be no signalling until the firer has
completed his practice.

In Practice 8 there will be separate targets for each firer, and the
firers in each pair will fire alternately, assisting each other by
observation.

Classification:--

  Those who obtain 95 points or more             1st Class shots.
  Those who obtain 60 points and less than 95    2nd Class shots.
  Those who obtain less than 60 points           3rd Class shots.


Section =65=.--General Rules for Field Practices.

=1. Special Instructions.=--(i) (_a_) Not more than twenty rounds
should be fired in field practices in one day.

(_b_) The dress for individual field practices will be drill order, and
for collective field practices marching order.

(_c_) The firing positions will be any that are suited to the ground or
conditions of the scheme.

(_d_) Some practice should be given in snapshooting in the standing
position during rapid advances at short range.

(ii) =Practices on Classification Ranges.=--If it is absolutely
necessary to use classification ranges (see Sec. 66), the practices
should be performed on a flank, if the extent of the danger area will
permit. In this case, or if the actual range is used, the ground should
be broken by means of screens, earth parapets, brushwood, or any other
suitable contrivance, with a view to introducing some realism and
uncertainty as to distances.

(iii) =Allotment of Ammunition.=--The allotments of ammunition to
individual and collective field practices respectively may be varied as
general officers commanding may decide, but the total amount allotted
to field practices is to be fired in field practices, even if a
classification range only is available. Due safety precautions must be
taken (see _Musketry Regulations_, Part II.).

(iv) =Registers and Records.=--Company commanders will keep registers
of all collective practices fired. Ricochets will not be included in
the figures recording results of standard or comparative firing. They
will be shown separately from other hits in the registers.

=2. Individual Field Practices.=--(i) The distances should not exceed
600 yards. Training should be progressive in regard to targets,
distances, and all other respects. _It is essential to give firers full
information as to the object of the practice, and to criticize freely
the good and bad points of their shooting_ [Sec. 54, para. 2 (iv)].

(ii) The firers should be formed into small squads, but there should
be no fire control, nor any orders except such as may be necessary to
regulate fire and movement in the interest of safety and to insure that
the objects of the training are fully carried out.

(iii) Practice will be afforded in acting promptly against targets
appearing suddenly and disappearing after a short period of exposure.
The value of every shot will be ascertained by markers, and notified to
the firer. The men will as a rule fire alternately, working in pairs
for mutual assistance. When a successful shot is observed, the correct
sighting as found will be immediately notified by the firer to the
remainder of the squad.

(iv) Any preliminary information as to the ground and results of
range-finding at long range which might be available on service should
be given in the later practices in order to combine all methods of
ranging.

=3. Collective Field Practices.=--(_a_) Collective field practices, if
ground is available, should be fired almost entirely at longer ranges.
When ground is not available for firing at ranges beyond 600 yards,
practice in collective firing is necessarily conducted at shorter
ranges, but such practice must be supplemented by fire-direction
practices without ammunition at longer ranges.

(_b_) _Arranging Targets._--The practice of requiring units to arrange
targets or positions for others to fire at, or during a skirmish to
place head-and-shoulder targets on the ground to represent themselves
in position at any temporary halt, has been found to stimulate interest.

=Casualty Competitions.=--Falling or collapsible targets are of great
value in all field practices, and may be used with advantage in
casualty competitions designed to test the relative abilities of two
firing lines, which simultaneously fire at separate sets of targets
representing their opponents. Each man is represented by a target
placed in front of the opposing firing-line, and becomes a casualty if
that target falls. In this way superiority of fire is soon established
by one line or the other, and fire ceases.


Section =66=.--Field Practices on Classification Ranges.

=1. General Rules.=--The following are examples of individual and
collective field practices for use on classification ranges, as used
at the School of Musketry, Hythe. They are intended as a guide to
officers who have to frame practices for their units. These practices
and similar ones may be fired on classification ranges on which rapid
practices are allowed if the following points are observed:

    (i) =Damage to Gallery.=--It is most important, for the safety
    of the range, that any damage done to the gallery-bank should be
    made good each day, as soon as the practices are completed.

    (ii) =Oblique Fire.=--In practices involving oblique fire, such
    as those in which the crossing figure No. 6 is used, the run of
    the figure or figures should be confined to a lateral space of
    25 yards. The firers should occupy a corresponding space at the
    firing-point. These oblique practices must not be fired at ranges
    less than 400 yards.

    (iii) =Falling Plates.=--Earthenware tiles should be used, as
    steel plates give back-splashes which may endanger the markers.
    _Tiles_ should be placed about 4 feet below the top of the
    stop-butt. If there is no stop-butt, they may be placed at the
    foot of the gallery-slope.

=2. Targets.=--Targets will be supplied by R.E. (_vide_ _Musketry
Regulations_, Part II., 1910, para. 141).

    (i) =Wood.=--Veneer figures can be supplied, or they can be cut
    out of match-boarding. Dimensions will be found in _Musketry
    Regulations_, Part II., 1910, Plate 37 _et seq._ For use in a
    gallery, the figures must be mounted on poles.

    (ii) =Tiles.=--Earthenware tiles can be obtained. Ordinary
    roofing tiles are cheaper, and answer the purpose. A useful and
    cheap substitute is 3 bricks placed on end on a flat piece of
    wood, and tied together with a piece of string or wire.

=3. Markers.=--The success of a practice depends largely on the
markers. They should be rehearsed carefully, but not in view of the
firers.


INDIVIDUAL FIELD PRACTICES.

=No. 1.=

=Object=: To teach the necessity for quick opening of fire with effect
from the first shot.

=Rounds=: 5 per man.

=Targets=: 2 iron falling-plates for each pair of firers.

=Distance=: Unknown--about 250 yards.

=Method=: 2 squads, each of four firers, are extended in pairs, rifles
unloaded and at safe, sights normal, till the command “Fire.” Squads
fire against each other.

Targets represent the firers of the opposing squad.

When a target is knocked down, the man of the opposing team in a
corresponding position ceases fire, unloads, and takes no further part
in the practice; his ammunition is available for the other man of his
pair.

Points are allotted as follows:

For each hit, 5 points; total, 10 points.

If both targets hit within 40 seconds, 5 points; total, 15 points.


=No. 2.=

=Object=: To bring out the dependence of movement on fire.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: A Figure 3 target for each firer, to be exposed 3 times for
35 seconds at 35 seconds’ interval. Targets to be twirled and lowered
when hit, and not to reappear till the next exposure.

=Distance=: Known--600 to 400 yards.

=Method=: (6) Firers, with rifles loaded and extended behind cover on
the 600 yards’ firing-point; they open fire on the targets appearing.
On the completion of each of the first two exposures the order
“Advance” is given, when the firers double forward 100 yards.

=Scoring=: 3 points for each hit. 1 point for each unfired round handed
in, if target has been hit at each range.


=No. 3.=

=Object=: To test men’s intelligence and marksmanship.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 3 Figure 6 targets concealed behind a short length of wall
(built of sandbags on the marker’s gallery), or represented by a
specially prepared screen, which is understood to be bullet-proof. One
of the targets (representing a man observing) looks round one end of
the wall for 10 seconds, and if not fired at moves in quick time along
the gallery, followed by the other two targets at 3 paces interval.

On the first shot being fired, all targets move at the double towards
the nearest cover (either the wall or the end of the gallery). Any
targets which are still under cover when fire is opened do not appear.

Targets to be twirled and lowered when hit.

=Distance=: Known--400 yards.

=Method=: 2 men with rifles loaded are concealed behind cover on the
400 yards’ firing-point, and are told the following:

“You are a patrol; before reaching this point you saw an enemy’s patrol
of 3 men move behind the wall on the marker’s gallery; you have crept
up here unseen by them.

“None of your troops are within a mile of you, and it is unlikely that
the enemy’s patrol is closely supported.

“Your object is to try to shoot all the enemy’s patrol. The marker’s
gallery represents flat ground, with cover at each end of it.”


=No. 4.=

=Object=: A test of rapidity of fire, combined with accuracy after
movement.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: A Figure 3 target and 5 iron falling-plates for each firer.

The Figure 3 target to be exposed twice for 3 seconds at an interval of
30 seconds.

=Distance=: 200 to 300 yards.

=Method=: (6) Firers are formed up about 50 yards in rear of the
selected fire position (rifles unloaded and at safe).

On the command, “Advance,” they rush to the fire position, load, and
adjust sights. 25 seconds after the order “Advance,” the Figure 3
target is exposed, when fire will be opened. The falling-plates will
then be engaged till the second exposure of the Figure 3 target, after
which fire will cease.

=Scoring=: 2 points for each hit on the Figure 3. 1 point for each
plate knocked down.

(If desired, this practice can be carried out without movement.)


=No. 5.=

=Object=: To teach the necessity for quickness in obtaining effect.

=Rounds=: 5 per man.

=Targets=: 1 Figure 6 target, 1 Figure 3 target, and 2 Figure 4 targets
for each firer, to appear as follows within a given sector at about 5
seconds’ interval:

Figure 6 moving to a flank for 5 seconds.

Figure 3 appears for 4 seconds.

Figure 4 appears for 3 seconds.

2 Figures 4 appear for 10 seconds.

Targets when hit will not be replaced.

=Distance=: Known--300 yards.

=Method=: (6) Firers with rifles loaded are extended behind cover, and
told to watch their front. They open fire on the appearance of the
targets.

  =Scoring=: Figure 6 target--3 points.
                    ”    3    ”    2   ”
                    ”    4    ”    1 point.


=No. 6.=

=Object=: A test of rapidity and accuracy of fire.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: A Figure 4 target for each firer, exposed for 45 seconds,
divided into 3 unequal exposures, at intervals of 5 seconds. Targets to
appear in a different place at each exposure (within certain limits).

=Distance=: Known--200 yards.

=Method=: (6) Firers lying in the open (rifle unloaded and at safe) are
told to watch their front. On the appearance of the targets, they load
and open fire.


COLLECTIVE FIELD PRACTICES.

=No. 1.=

=Object=: To practise section commanders in applying collective fire
from observation.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 8 iron falling-plates 1 yard apart, in two groups of four,
on the stop-butt.

=Distance=: Unknown--about 850 yards.

Method: A section (12 firers) is formed up in rear of the 800 yards’
firing-point. Rifles to be unloaded and at safe till warning,
“Commence,” 3 minutes after which fire will cease.

NOTES.--Method of ranging and correction. Point of aim given. Fire
orders.


=No. 2.=

=Object=: To exercise section commanders in giving fire orders and in
controlling fire.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

  =Targets=: (_a_) 3 Figure 3 targets, 1 yard apart.
                  (_b_) 1 Figure 6 target.

(_a_) and (_b_) are exposed twice separately and once together in any
order for 30 seconds at irregular intervals.

Targets hit will be twirled and lowered, and will not reappear till the
next exposure.

=Distance=: Known--500 yards.

=Method=: A section (12 firers) is extended on the firing-point; on the
appearance of the targets, the commander gives his fire orders.

=Notes=.--Rapidity in dealing with the situation. Fire orders. Volume
employed. Point of aim.


=No. 3.=

=Object=: To bring out the necessity for (_a_) opening fire in full
volume to produce surprise, (_b_) making fire effective from the first
opening.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 8 Figure 1 targets, representing men in close formation. On
the first shot being fired, these are replaced by 8 Figure 6 targets
extending outwards; when these are well extended, they are replaced by
8 Figure 4 targets, which remain exposed for 1 minute. Any figure hit
will be lowered, and not replaced by another.

=Distance=: Known--500 yards.

=Method=: A section (12 firers) is ordered to ambush and shoot all of
a small body of the enemy in order to obtain some written information
which is believed to be in their possession. The enemy is expected to
cross a piece of flat ground represented by the marker’s gallery.

NOTES.--Use of cover for concealment. Preliminary arrangements.
Simultaneous and quick opening of fire in full volume at the close
formation. Change of rate to slow fire at the extended line.


=No. 4.=

=Object=: Superiority of fire. A test of rapidity and accuracy of fire.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 10 Figure 3 targets, reinforced by 3 more after 15 seconds,
and then every 10 seconds up to 55 seconds.

Targets hit are lowered.

If at any time all targets have been hit, no more will be put up;
benefit of doubt to be given to the firers.

Should the number of targets at any time exceed 10, the firers have
lost superiority of fire, and fire ceases.

=Distance=: 400 yards.

=Method=: A section (10 firers), with rifles unloaded and at safe, lie
down on the firing-point. Sights may be adjusted.

On the appearance of the targets, the commander gives orders to load,
and fire orders. Fire will cease (_a_) should the number of targets
exceed 10, (_b_) if all targets are down, (_c_) one minute after the
first appearance of the targets.

The time in which all targets are hit, or the number of targets left
standing at the end of a minute, should be noted.

NOTE.--This practice may be fired as a competition.


=No. 5.=

=Object=: A practice which brings out rapidity of loading,
sight-setting, movement, and fire, combined with accuracy.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 10 iron falling-plates extended to 3 paces.

=Distance=: 600 yards to position.

=Method=: A section (10 firers) lie down on the firing-point, rifles
unloaded and at safe, sights normal, till the warning, “Commence,” when
the commander gives his orders.

One round at least must be fired by each man before an advance of 100
yards is allowed. The whole section must advance together.

NOTE.--Should this practice be fired as a competition, the section
which knocks down all its plates in the shortest time, or that which
knocks down most plates, wins.

It will generally be found that the section which reaches 300 yards
quickest will win. Teams to be disqualified if anyone advances till all
safety-catches are on.


=No. 6.=

=Object=: To bring out the great advantage of ranging by observation,
before the target appears, when circumstances permit.

=Rounds=: 15 per man.

=Targets=: 20 Figure 6 targets. A length of wooden hurdles on the
marker’s gallery represents a bridge.

=Distance=: 800 yards.

=Method=: A section (10 firers). The commander is given the following
information:

“You are placed here to cover that bridge, which is the only way the
enemy can cross.

“They are now 500 or 600 yards from it, and mean to get across.

“You are being supported, and your first duty is to be prepared to
bring a heavy fire on the bridge.

“There is no need for concealment.”

NOTE.--The enemy appears near the bridge 3 minutes after these
instructions are given. Method of ranging. Anticipatory orders.


=No. 7.=

=Object=: A practice to exemplify fire and movement during an advance.

=Rounds=: 15 per man.

=Targets=: A screen 10 by 3 feet at 800 and 700 yards. Both will be put
up together; one will be lowered when hit by 10 shots at 800 yards, the
other will similarly be lowered when hit 10 times at 700 yards.

5 Figure 3 targets extended to 3 paces will be exposed 5 seconds after
the disappearance of the second screen.

Targets to be exposed till hit; they will be lowered when hit.

5 seconds after the last target is hit they will be again exposed till
they have been exposed 5 times.

=Distance=: Known--800 to 200 yards.

=Method=: 2 sections (20 firers) under the platoon sergeant, lie down
on the 800 yards’ firing-point, rifles unloaded and at safe, sights
normal. On the warning, “Commence,” the commander gives his orders, 10
minutes after which fire will cease.

A screen must be lowered before any advance may be made at 800 and 700
yards.

All five targets must be lowered before an advance may be made at the
other ranges.

Advances will each be 100 yards.

No advance will be made beyond 200 yards.

NOTE.--If fired as a competition, the 2 sections who get most targets
down win; if more than one team get all their targets down, that with
the most ammunition in hand wins.


=No. 8.=

=Object=: A practice to show the dependence of movement on fire.

=Rounds=: 10 per man.

=Targets=: 12 Figure 3 targets, extended to 3 paces; each to be lowered
when hit.

5 seconds after the last one has been lowered, the targets will be
again exposed till hit.

=Distance=: Known--600, 500, 400 yards.

=Method=: A section (10 firers) is extended to 3 paces on the 600
yards’ firing-point, rifles unloaded and at safe, sights normal.

On the warning, “Commence,” the commander gives his orders.

No advance will be made from 600 yards till four targets have been
lowered.

No advance will be made from 600 yards till the remaining eight targets
have been lowered.

NOTE.--If fired as a competition, the section which hits all its
targets at 400 yards in the shortest time wins, or the section which
hits most targets.


CHAPTER IX

NIGHT FIRING, HAND GRENADES, AND COMPETITIONS


Section =67=.--Night Firing.[29]

=1. Methods of Night Firing.=--A body of troops in a position
commanding open ground or an approach which may be used by the enemy
may arrange to sweep it with fire by laying rifles in rests constructed
by daylight, by preparing illuminated aiming-marks giving a horizontal
line of sight, or by firing at the flashes of the enemy’s rifles, or
other marks by automatic alignment of the rifle. These various methods
are explained in the following paragraphs. _Firing at night should only
be employed within close range._

=2. Automatic Alarms and Flare Lights.=--(i) Automatic alarms and flare
lights to illuminate the foreground are useful against night attacks.
They should be used in combination with obstacles, if any have been
constructed, and either protected or concealed, so as to prevent the
enemy removing them. _No mechanical signal must be relied upon as a
substitute for the efficient use of the eyesight and hearing._

=3. Fixed Rifle-Rests and Aiming-Marks.=--On a dark night it is
difficult to insure the men’s rifles being aimed in the required
direction. Any device to assist them in this matter is useful. Fixed
rifle-rests may be made, or, failing these, some such device as a
wooden bar can be arranged across loopholes, to prevent a man raising
his rifle-barrel too high. Posts painted white on the defenders’ side
make a good aiming-mark, if the night is not too dark.

=4. Automatic Alignment of the Rifle.=--(i) The automatic alignment
of the rifle is as a general rule the most effective method of firing
at night. Men should therefore be practised in aligning their rifles
automatically for night firing at ranges of about 300 yards and under.

(ii) =Method of Instruction.=--Aiming-marks should be selected just
above the ground-line, and within 100 yards of the squad. The men
should then be ordered to bring their rifles into the firing position
with both eyes shut. The right eye should then be opened, and the
approximate alignment of the rifle verified. After some practice each
man will be able to ascertain his individual tendency, which he should
correct with practice until able to align the rifle with his eyes shut
with approximate accuracy.

(iii) This exercise should be carried out in the daytime until
proficiency is attained, when men should be practised in firing a few
rounds after dark at large screens at a range not exceeding 300 yards.
The position of the screen may be indicated by some rough expedient
to represent the flash of a rifle. Much material effect is not to be
anticipated from night firing except against an enemy in movement, but
the moral effect should be considerable.

=5. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--Directions for night firing on
miniature ranges are contained in Sec. 74, para. 7.


Section =68=.--Hand Grenade (Mark I).

=1. General Description= (see Fig. 52).--The grenade consists of the
following principal parts: Cap A, body B, detonator C, cane handle D,
wood block E, tail F, charge G, and cast-iron ring R.

=2.= The body B of the grenade carries the lyddite charge G. The wood
block E is put into the recess in the cup H, and the cup, wood block,
and body are then firmly secured together by means of the three brass
screws J. Attached to the wood block E is the cane handle D, to the end
of which is securely bound the tail F, the cane handle D being for the
purpose of throwing the grenade, and the tail F to steady it in flight
and to assist to make it travel and fall point foremost.

=3.= The upper part of the body has a groove M formed in it for the
purpose of securing the cap A in position. The groove M is provided
with four leads into it, two N.N., to allow of the insertion and
removal of the cap, and two O.O., to allow the cap to move forward upon
the grenade striking the ground or other obstacle. Two projections,
e.e., are made in the groove M for the indent X in the cap A to jump
when the cap enters or leaves the travel position. One projection is
to be made long enough to carry the indent into the _Fire_ position.
The object of these two projections is to give a definite indication of
when the cap is in the _Travel_ and _Fire_ positions. Two indicating
knobs P.P. are secured to the body, and two stop pins Q.Q. are fixed
below the indicating knobs P.P., preventing the cap A being pushed down
too far (except when turned into the _Fire_ position--see later) if by
any accident the safety-pin had been removed or displaced. Fixed to
the top of the body are two holding studs R.R. to secure the detonator
C when in position. The body has also painted on it in red two arrows
L.L. for the purpose of indicating positions of cap A as to the
removing, travel, or firing positions.

=4.= The detonator C is formed with a flange S on which are two lugs
T.T. for the purpose of turning the detonator when in position, so
as to secure it under the heads of the holding studs R.R. On the
face of the flange S is fixed a brass plate spring U, for locking the
detonator into position. The two grooves V.V. in the flange S of the
detonator C are to allow the flange S to pass the holding studs R.R.
during insertion or removal of the detonator.

[Illustration: =Fig. 52=.--HAND GRENADE (MARK I). Scale ⅓]

=5.= The cap A carries a steel needle W for firing the detonator. Two
small indents X.X. are formed on the cap to engage with the groove M on
the body B. The raised lips I.I, are to allow the cap A to clear the
indicating knobs P.P. when the cap is being placed or removed from the
body of the grenade.

=6.= Two raised lips K.K. are to allow the cap A to move forward when
the cap is turned into its firing position, the lips K.K. being raised
sufficiently to clear the stop pins Q.Q., this only being possible when
the cap is in the firing position. The raised portions Y.Y. are for the
indicating knobs to engage with when the cap is turned to the travel
position, and thus give a further indication when the cap A is in this
position. The cap is also fitted with a safety-pin Z, which passes
through the needle and the cap, and prevents the cap moving forward
while the pin is in position. The pin Z is secured by a whipcord becket
passed over the cap A, and is also further secured by a thin leather
strip d passing through a slot at one end, it being necessary to remove
both these safeguards before the pin Z can be withdrawn. The safety-pin
Z is also passed through the cap A in such a position that if by any
mischance the detonator C was not properly secured after being placed
in position, the act of placing the cap A on and turning it to the left
into the firing position causes the pin Z to engage with the two lugs
T.T. on the flange S of the detonator, and automatically locks the
detonator under the heads of the holding studs R.R.

=7.= The hook _t_ fixed to the body of the grenade is for attaching the
latter to the soldier’s belt. The grenade with the stick downward is
hung on to the belt by the hook.

=8. To Prepare the Grenade for Use.=--(i) Turn the cap A on to the body
B to the right until the indicating knobs P.P. are in the raised lips
I.I. formed in the cap A. This can be seen by means of the arrows L.L.
painted on the body B being opposite the words “remove” on the cap A.
Then pull off the cap.

(ii) Place the detonator C in the recess for it. See that the two
grooves V.V. in the flange S coincide with the two studs R.R., then
press down the detonator into position. When the flange S is home, turn
the detonator C to the left, passing the flange under the heads of the
studs R.R., and continue turning until the brass plate spring U is
released, thus locking the detonator.

(iii) Replace the cap A with the raised lips I.I. over the indicating
knobs P.P., and push down into position. After the cap A has been put
on, it must be turned one-eighth of a turn to the left, thus bringing
the indicating knobs P.P. into the raised positions Y.Y. of the cap A.
This is done by pointing the indicating arrows L.L. to “travel” on the
cap.

(iv) The grenade is intended to be carried with the raised portions
Y.Y. always over the indicating arrows L.L.--_i.e._, in the travel
position, whether the detonator C is in position or not.

(v) =To Throw the Grenade.=--The tail is unwound, and allowed to hang
loose at full length.

(vi) The cap is turned from the “travel” to the “fire” position.

(vii) The safety-pin is withdrawn.

(viii) The grenade is thrown by means of the cane D. The latter is
grasped between the end furthest from the grenade itself and the
attached point of the tail--_i.e._, on the grooved portion. The grenade
is thrown in the required direction either under or over hand, care
being taken that the tail cannot entangle itself with the thrower or
with any object near him.

(ix) When throwing, the following points should be remembered:

    (_a_) The grenade should be thrown well upwards at not less
    than an angle of about 35 degrees. This, besides assisting in
    increasing the range to which the grenade can be thrown, renders
    its action more absolutely certain by causing it to strike the
    ground nearly vertically. This is especially important when
    throwing with a following wind.

    (_b_) Any obstacle lying between the thrower and the objective
    must be cleared, as the grenade will almost certainly act on
    anything it strikes during any part of its flight.

(x) =Caution.=--(i) Should the hand grenade not be used, the cap is to
be turned back to “travel” from “fire,” the safety-pin (which must be
retained) is to be replaced in position, care being taken that the pin
passes through the cap, and is secured by passing the whipcord becket
over the cap, and by replacing the leather strip _d_ through the slot
in the end of the safety-pin Z, and the tail rolled up and secured.

(ii) Immediately the grenade has left the hand, the thrower should
lie down or get behind cover to reduce the chances of being hit by a
splinter, as, of course, the explosion sends these in all directions.
Dummy grenades are supplied for practice in throwing.

=9. Use of Grenades.=--In addition to the hand grenade, grenades may
be improvised by filling tins with explosive for throwing by hand.
Grenades are also constructed so that they can be fired from rifles.
Grenades can be used with effect against sap-heads in siege warfare and
in trench fighting at close range.


Section =69=.--Competitions.

=1. Object of Competitions.=--The principles governing competitions
are laid down in para. 102, _Musketry Regulations_. The object of
competitions is to encourage proficiency in service shooting under
practical conditions. This object must not be confined to a few
champion shots, but must include every man in each fire-unit. _A
good average standard of marksmanship, especially in shooting at
service targets at unknown ranges, is the ideal to be aimed at._ Team
competitions in which fire-unit commanders are exercised in their
duties, and in which they work together with their units, are the most
practical and valuable form of competition. The various instructional
practices, together with individual and collective field practices in
Chapters VIII and X of this book, are suitable for competitions.

=2. General Rules.=--(i) The conditions of each competition must be
suited to the rank and skill of competitors, and practise them in the
duties they will perform in the firing-line.

(ii) =Programmes.=--Programmes should as far as possible embrace all
elements of musketry training. Rules for the conduct of competitions
should be the same as those for the conduct of range and field
practices.

(iii) =Individual Firing.=--Individual firing competitions beyond 600
yards have little military value.

(iv) =Targets.=--Bull’s-eye targets should as a rule be used in
elementary competitions only for young soldiers in the first year of
service. Service targets should be used of neutral colours, and of
visibility approximating to that of the targets seen on service.

(v) =Scope of Competitions.=--Specializing in any one kind of shooting
should be discouraged. Competitions for trained soldiers should include
not less than three different forms of shooting, such as snapshooting,
rapid firing, observation, appreciation of fire limits, etc., with
as much variation of targets and conditions as can be conveniently
arranged, according to the facilities available.

(vi) =Rate of Firing.=--Conditions for soldiers with more than one year
of service should never permit of a slower rate than three rounds a
minute for a series of shots, exclusive of time taken for signalling.
In deliberate shooting, the best military shot is probably the man who,
in skirmishing, first applies an effective shot to a target at unknown
range. In rapid firing, the sighting to be used would very often be
communicated to the soldier on service, and a high rate of fire,
combined with reasonable accuracy, would be expected from him.

(vii) =Coaching.=--Coaching should never be allowed, but individual
soldiers in observation and skirmishing competitions may be allowed to
work in pairs, giving mutual assistance.

(viii) =Rifles and Aids to Shooting.=--It is essential that in
competitions open to the rank and file, competitors should be allowed
to fire only with a rifle in charge of their unit, and no departure
from the regulations governing the painting of sights, use of slings,
provision of wind flags, targets, rifle accessories, etc., is to be
permitted in service-rifle competitions.



CHAPTER X

INSTRUCTION ON MINIATURE RANGES, INCLUDING RANGE AND FIELD PRACTICES


Section =70=.--General Remarks.

=1. Instruction on Miniature Ranges.=--(i) Instruction on miniature
ranges is in no sense a final training, but it is a useful and
economical preparation for service shooting--especially useful where
range accommodation is distant or altogether lacking. It should be
commenced during the recruit’s training, when frequent visits should
be made to the miniature range, and the lessons of aiming, pressing
the trigger, declaring the point of aim on discharge, etc., should be
illustrated practically by firing at elementary targets.

(ii) =Object of Instruction.=--Instruction should be carried out on
the same principles as on open ranges. It should be progressive, and
may with advantage precede instruction on open ranges. Instruction
and firing may be carried out throughout the year; but if this work
on miniature ranges is done during the winter months it will prove
a useful preparation for subsequent practice on open ranges and for
field training in the spring and summer months (see _Drill and Field
Training_ of this series, Sec. 29, para. 1).

=2. Scope of Training.=--The instruction, which may be carried out with
the Solano Target and Landscape targets is more or less identical in
scope with that which can be carried out on open ranges. It must be
remembered, however, that the effects of varying light, wind, and other
atmospheric influences are absent on miniature ranges, that instruction
in judging distance is not possible [see Sec. 72, para. 2 (iii)],
that firing with sights adjusted for different ranges can only be
carried out to a limited extent, and that the general conditions under
which training takes place are artificial and easier as compared with
training on open ranges.

=3. Rifles.=--The rifles used should be service pattern, ·22-inch
R.F., or aiming or Morris tubes used in service rifles with regulation
sights. Service rifles must be used, so that the firer may become
accustomed to the weight, length, bolt action, and sighting of the
weapon he will use in war. Unless this principle is adhered to,
practice on miniature ranges cannot be regarded as satisfactory
preparation for service shooting. _Rifles must be “harmonized” both
for firing at targets direct or with elevation in landscape practices
according to the directions laid down in Appendix, V. Rifles must also
be cleaned after every ten to fifteen rounds, otherwise they become
inaccurate._

=4. Windgauge.=--The windgauge may be used to represent wind, and the
firers taught to aim off so as to correct the deflection given, acting
sometimes on their own judgment, sometimes according to orders for fire
direction.

=5. Cover.=--Cover of various kinds can be improvised at the
firing-point with sandbags, screens, or other available material.

=6. Empty Cases.=--Empty cartridge-cases and lead should be collected,
and may be sold at market rates.

=7. Precautions.=--(i) As the ·22 cartridge used on miniature ranges
has considerable power, every precaution must be taken to insure
safety. _Rifles must be laid down at the firing-point unloaded and with
the breech-action open, and firers must stand clear whenever it is
necessary for anyone to be in front of the firing-point._

(ii) A non-commissioned officer will be placed in charge of each range,
and will attend whenever any practice takes place. Firing will take
place only during the hours fixed by the commanding officer.

(iii) No person, except the officer or non-commissioned officer in
charge, or the marker, is to pass from the firing-point up to the
target during practice. Should it be necessary to stop firing, the same
precautions are to be taken as at rifle practice.

(iv) Every possible precaution must be taken to avoid accidents, the
strictest order and discipline being maintained at the firing-point.
When practice takes place on a classification range, the same orders
for safety, etc., are to be observed as when service ammunition is used.

(v) In practices combining firing and movement, the non-commissioned
officer in charge of the range will examine the rifles to see that they
are not loaded before movement is commenced.


Section =71=.--Targets.

=1. Standard Equipment.=--(i) The various targets of the standard
equipment to be used for miniature range instruction are described in
Appendix, VII, the information in which must be carefully noted. It is
important to avoid confusing the Solano Target when used with scenery,
etc., as shown in Figs. 55 and 56, with various Landscape targets when
fixed to the Solano Target for instruction as in Fig. 57. The points of
difference between the Solano and Landscape targets mentioned in the
following paragraphs must also be noted.

(ii) The scenery, scenic accessories, and Solano figures of the Solano
Target are all correctly drawn to scale for 25 yards, and at that
distance give correct impressions of what they represent. Landscape
targets are not all drawn to scale for 25 yards, _but they must always
be used at this distance when possible_.

(iii) On the Solano Target the various features of the scenery,
including background and details, as well as the position of troops,
can be altered quickly to any extent. The features of landscape targets
cannot be altered, therefore they should be changed frequently, as they
lose their value when their features become well known.

(iv) In firing at the Solano Target when fitted with scenery, the
bullets _strike the objective aimed at_. In firing at landscape targets
rifles must be given elevation so that bullets _strike a screen above
the landscape_, not the objective aimed at (Fig. 58).

(v) The Solano Target, with or without scenic effects and figures,
can be used for the whole scope of the instruction in this chapter,
and for all range and field practices. The scope of instruction which
can be carried out on landscape targets is strictly limited, and
does not include important branches of elementary training nor range
and individual field practices. Firing at landscape targets has the
advantage of practising men in the adjustment of sights. On the other
hand, landscape target practice lacks elements of realism and surprise,
as it does not include arrangements for representing the movement
of troops at different distances, and does not afford practice in
watching the front for the appearance of targets representing troops,
discerning and opening fire quickly at such targets, and in marking
down, snapshooting, and rapid firing at moving and disappearing
targets, especially within close range, which has proved of such vital
importance in modern battles (see Preface, paras. 4 and 5).

=2. Elementary Targets.=--(i) The elementary bull’s-eye and other
targets for use in miniature range instructional practices should be
similar to those used on the classification range, but are supplied
reduced to the correct scale.

[Illustration: =Fig. 53.=--SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR
ELEMENTARY PRACTICES. (_See Appendix, Sec. VII., para. 2._)]

[Illustration:

    =Fig. 54.=--SOLANO TARGET--CLEAT FITTING WITH CORDS WHICH OPERATE
    MECHANISM ATTACHED. (_See Appendix, Sec. VII., para. 2._)]

[Illustration:

    =Fig. 55.=--SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR GENERAL
    INSTRUCTION OR FOR FIRING FIELD PRACTICES, WITH SCENERY AND
    SCENIC ACCESSORIES (TYPE A), AND WITH SOLANO FIGURES REPRESENTING
    TROOPS AT DIFFERENT RANGES. (_See Appendix, Sec. VII., paras. 3
    to 5 inclusive._)]

[Illustration:

    =Fig. 56.=--SOLANO TARGET, MARK I, ARRANGED FOR GENERAL
    INSTRUCTION OR FOR FIRING FIELD PRACTICES, WITH SCENERY AND
    SCENIC ACCESSORIES (TYPE C), AND WITH SOLANO FIGURES REPRESENTING
    TROOPS AT DIFFERENT RANGES.]

=3. Regulation Figure Targets= include those in the list in
Appendix, VII, para. 5. Targets representing troops advancing in
close formations, such as those shown in the Preface, p. ix, may be
improvised by cutting strips of card to the required length. The height
of the card for various distances, scaled for 25 yards, is as follows:
400 yards, 4 inches; 600 yards, 3¾ inches; 800 yards, 2 inches; 1,000
yards, 1 inch. To these measurements ½ inch should be added in every
case for the base held by the clips of the target. Brown or grey card
should be used.

(iii) _It must be noted that if figures are made with card which is
not sufficiently thick, the impact of the bullet will not cause them
to fall when fixed in the falling clips of Tier B of the Target_
(Appendix, VII, para. 2).

=4. Solano Elementary and Instructional Targets.=--These targets have
been officially approved by the Army Council for miniature range
practices (see Appendix, VIII).

=5. Nomenclature of Targets.=--In the subsequent Sections of this
chapter the Solano Target will be referred to as =The Target=, Figure
Targets as =Figures=, and Landscape Targets as =Landscapes=.


Section =72=.--Preliminary Training

=1. Instruction to Precede Firing.=--(i) As already stated, range and
field practices carried out before men have been thoroughly instructed
in preliminary training will merely result in waste of ammunition.
Therefore, before firing on miniature ranges commences men should be
thoroughly trained in the following duties: (_a_) Quick and accurate
adjustment of sights; (_b_) laying an absolutely correct aim from
aiming-rest at easy aiming-mark; (_c_) correct trigger pressing; (_d_)
assuming correct loading and firing positions, including adjustment of
sights, aiming, and release of trigger without disturbing aim.

(ii) Particular subjects of instruction which relate to different
firing practices should precede them as follows:[30]

(_a_) _Before firing from cover_: Adapting the firing position to
different kinds of cover.

(_b_) _Before application practices_: Aiming-off; the extent being
reckoned by the breadth of the aiming-mark as ordered, and aim being
laid from aiming-rest.

(_c_) _Before firing at moving targets_: Aiming-off for movement
at crossing figures on the Solano Target; aim being tested with
aim-corrector.

(_d_) _Before snapshooting practices_: Combining rapidity with accuracy
of aim; aim being tested with aiming-disc.

(_e_) =Before firing at the Target with scenery and figures or at
landscapes=: Marking down an enemy, and aiming at ground and service
targets; aim being laid from aiming-rest at points or targets indicated.

=2. Instruction in Aiming.=--(i) This training can be carried out on
the Target without scenery (Fig. 53), as described in Chapter III.
_Elementary training_ should be carried out as described in Sec. 70,
para. 1. _Aiming at service targets and ground_ can be taught on the
Target with scenery and figures and on landscapes as described in Sec.
19, para. 2 (ii). _Marking down an enemy_ can be taught on the Target
with scenery and figures as described in Sec. 19, para. 3 (ii), a
number of figures representing men at different distances being exposed
from behind cover or in the open to represent the movements of the
fatigue-men.

(ii) _Aiming-off for wind_ can be taught on the Target with scenery
and figures as described in Sec. 20, para. 4, figures representing men
at different distances instead of fatigue-men. _Aiming up and down_
may also be taught as above according to the instruction laid down in
Sec. 21, para. 3, figures representing men at various distances being
exposed on Tiers A and B to represent an advance or retirement in the
place of fatigue-men. _Aiming-off for movement_ can be taught with the
crossing figures on the Target as described in Sec. 22, para. 1.

(iii) _Rapid adjustment of sights_ can be taught on the Target with
scenery and figures by exposing a number of figures representing men
at different distances. The distance of each figure will not be given.
Men will adjust their sights for the distance at which they estimate
it to be. The correct range of the figure will then be given, and the
men will declare their estimate. As the figures are correctly scaled
to size for 25 yards range, this practice will help to accustom the
eye to the appearance of men at different distances, and so help to
some extent to train them in judging distance, though it cannot be
considered wholly satisfactory for this purpose for the reasons given
in Sec. 70, para. 2.

=3. Instruction in Firing=--(i) =Elementary Training.=--This training
can be carried out on the Target without scenery, according to the
directions laid down in Sec. 24 and the rest of Chapter IV.

(ii) =Vulnerability of Different Firing Positions= (Sec. 26, para.
1).--This can be illustrated on the Target with the aid of figures
representing men in the standing, kneeling, and lying positions
at various distances. Figures in the standing and lying positions
respectively are shown at various ranges in Figs. 55 and 56, arranged
on Tier B of the Target.

(iii) =Need for Avoiding Unnecessary Movements in Loading and Firing=
(Sec. 30, para. 1).--This important rule can be illustrated on the
Target with scenery and a number of figures representing men in various
firing positions at different distances, disposed either singly or in
groups in the open or _partly_ behind cover such as bushes, rocks,
walls, etc. The figures should be placed in front of background which
harmonizes with their colour, so that they are invisible to the naked
eye when motionless. The mechanism should then be operated so as to
move the figures slightly to demonstrate to the class (_a_) that a
figure which is invisible to the naked eye while motionless catches the
eye through movement, and (_b_) that while quick movements may escape
the eye, and even if seen may make marking down difficult, movements
prolonged even for a short time catch the eye and facilitate marking
down. This object-lesson will emphasize the rule that movements in the
open should be confined to those which are absolutely necessary, and
that these should be made smartly.

(iv) =Firing from Cover.=--This instruction can be practised on
miniature ranges, according to the rules laid down in Sec. 31, para. 4,
with cover improvised by the use of sandbags, etc. Care must be taken
to see that the firing positions are correctly adapted to different
forms of cover. The need for keeping the eye fixed on the target
when firing from cover can be illustrated on the Target by the use
of scenery and disappearing and crossing figures representing men at
different distances. The correct and incorrect method of using various
kinds of cover can also be illustrated on the Target, together with
faults such as firing over instead of round the side of cover when this
is possible, undue exposure, and unnecessary movement. The Target can
also be used with scenery and figures for lectures on the choice of
cover and the advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of cover
according to the instruction laid down in Sec. 31, para. 3 (ii) to (iv)
inclusive, and para. 5.

=4. Visual Training=--(i) =Discernment of Targets.=--Training can be
carried out on the Target as described in Sec. 34 with different types
of scenery and figures representing both men and bodies of troops in
different formations at various ranges. The methods of instruction
described in paras. 3 to 8 of this section, inclusive, can be carried
out on the same principle as in training on the ground.

(ii) =Effect of Background on Visibility.=--Figs. 55 and 56 illustrate
object-lessons in the effect of background on the visibility of service
targets. For instance, lying figures in front of the hedge to the left
of the tree on the left of the white house in the foreground of Fig.
55 are hardly visible at close range in the open, while a khaki figure
near the right edge of the dark wood to the right of the hills in Fig.
56 is distinct, though it represents a man 1,400 yards away, while the
rest of a line of similar figures coloured grey extended to his right
in front of the wood are invisible. It must be remembered that in
photographic reproduction the visibility of the figures is exaggerated
as compared with their visibility against the scenery when observed
with the naked eye at 25 yards.

(iii) Figures which are invisible to the naked eye against the scenic
background of the Target can be made distinctly visible by holding a
white piece of paper behind them to throw them into sharp relief. This
object-lesson will illustrate the manner in which a sky-line or a sheet
of water, for instance, affects the visibility of object seen against
such backgrounds. The effect of movement on visibility has been dealt
with in para. 3 (iii) of this section.

(iv) =Use of Field-Glasses.=--This can be practised as described in
Sec. 34, para. 6.

=5. Military Vocabulary and Study of Ground.=--This instruction can be
carried out on the Target with scenery and figures, including those
which represent troops in different formations, artillery, transport,
etc., and also on Landscapes according to the rules laid down in Sec.
35, paras. 3 to 6 inclusive.

=6. Range-Cards and Range-Marks= (Sec. 40).--The Target with scenery
and also Landscapes may be used for lectures on the choice of features
of ground for taking ranges, and for the preparation of range-cards and
range-marks in attack and defence.

=7. Observation of Fire.=--Observation of fire can be practised on
miniature ranges as described in Sec. 73, para 4.

=8. Fire Direction and Control.=--(i) =Lectures.=--Lectures on
organization for fire action and the tactical application of fire,
based on the instruction laid down in Chapter VI, can be illustrated
on the Target with scenery and figures, and also to some extent on
Landscapes. These lectures should include subjects such as allocation
of frontages and objectives to fire-units, indication of the limits of
sectors by description points, justification for opening fire, choice
of targets, concentration and distribution of fire, mutual support,
surprise, and use of rapid fire [see Sec. 74, para. 5 (iii)].

(ii) =Description and Recognition of Targets.=--This instruction should
be carried out as described in Sec. 45 on the Target with scenery and
figures, and on Landscapes. In training fire-unit commanders in the
description of targets on the Solano Target the apparatus should be
arranged beforehand, so that the instructor is able suddenly to expose
targets representing bodies of troops at different distances in various
parts of the field of fire (see Sec. 74, para. 4).

=9. Fire Discipline.=--Men may be practised in the duties of fire
discipline, including passing fire orders, concurrently with the
training of fire-unit commanders as described in Sec. 47, paras. 8 to
11 inclusive. They may also be practised in working in pairs during
exercises in fire discipline, and by individual field practices and
observation practices.


Section =73=.--Range Practices.

=1. Arrangement of Target.=--The arrangement of the Target for grouping
and application practices is shown in Fig. 53. This arrangement must be
modified if the practice is an instructional one, fewer targets being
used, as it may not be found possible to accommodate eight firers and
eight instructors at the firing-point at the same time. In this case
targets should be placed on Tier A only. The arrangement of the Target
for observation practices is described in Appendix VII, para. 6, and
shown in Fig. 57.

=2. Grouping Practices.=--The dimensions of the rings to be used in
measuring groups in grouping practices fired on miniature ranges are
given in Sec. 49, para. 6 (xi). Instruction will be carried out on
the principles laid down in Sec. 52, and Sec. 56. The conditions of
practices are laid down in Tables A and B.

=3. Instructional Practices.=--The conditions of these practices are
laid down in Tables A and B.

=4. Observation Practices.=--These practices can be carried out with
figures to practise men in the duties described in Sec. 47, para. 4.
The range may be estimated by the size of the figure fired at, and aim
corrected by observing the results of fire as the bullets strike the
sawdust bank or paper screen (see Sec. 74, para. 6, Practice No. 4).


Section =74=.--Field Practices, Night Firing and Competitions.

=1. Arrangement of Target and Number of Firers.=--The arrangement of
the Target for individual and collective field practices is shown
in Figs. 55 and 56, and fully described in the _Official Handbook_
mentioned in the Appendix, VII, para. 1. Targets may be arranged on
both tiers. If necessary, as many as eight men may fire individual
field practices at the same time. Six or eight men under a fire-unit
commander is a convenient number for firing collective field practices
either on the Target or landscapes. The Firers may represent a
single fire-unit under its commander, or be divided into two or more
fire-units, each under its own commander. The arrangement of landscapes
for collective field practices is shown in Figs. 57 and 58, and
described in the _Official Handbook_ referred to above.

=2. Conditions of Practices.=--(i) The conditions of practices as laid
down in this chapter may be varied at the discretion of the instructor
to suit the skill of firers. Instructors should encourage fire-unit
commanders and men to devise the conditions of practical individual and
collective field practices. Interest will be added to a practice if men
are allowed, under his supervision, to arrange the scenery and place
targets in position for practices to be carried out by their comrades.
Before commencing, the object of each practice will be explained to the
firers by the instructor.

(ii) After firing, the squad will proceed to the Target, when the
results of firing will be criticized and the causes of failure
discussed. Hits on figure targets will be counted for scoring according
to the rules laid down in the field practices in Chapter VIII and in
Appendix, VI, paras. 4 and 5. Rifles are to be loaded before or after
commencement of practice or appearance of targets, as ordered. Movement
may be carried out by running distances representing an advance either
outside the range or between firing-point and butt, _due precautions
being taken to avoid accidents_.

=3. Individual Field Practices=--(i) =Demonstrations.=--Individual
field practices may with advantage commence with demonstrations carried
out with or without firing on the Target, arranged with scenery
and figures to illustrate lectures on important subjects, such as
justification for opening fire, choice of targets, and the duties of
men working in pairs.

(ii) =Justification for Opening Fire.=--For example, justification
for opening fire may be illustrated by the following object-lesson,
which will also help men to recognize the limit of individual fire,
and explain the need for collective fire beyond close range. Figures
representing infantry lines in extended order at 2,000, 1,800, 1,600,
1,400, 1,200, 1,000, 800, 600, and 400 yards, may be exposed on
Tiers A and B to represent the advance of an enemy in attack. All
the figures will be shown against background which harmonizes with
their colouring. The difficulty of discerning targets beyond close
range will be demonstrated. The difficulty of estimating the range
of the figures beyond close range by the difference in their size,
even when difficulties due to atmospheric influences and movement are
absent, will also be indicated. Finally, a good shot may be told off
to fire five rounds at a 1,000 yards figure; five rounds at a 600
yards figure; and five rounds at a 400 yards figure, to illustrate the
limit of probable assurance of fire effect from individual fire, and
to demonstrate the principle which underlies justification for opening
individual fire--namely, that such fire must not be opened unless there
is at least probable assurance of effect.

(iii) =Choice of Targets.=--The principle underlying the choice of
targets in individual firing may be illustrated in the same manner
by arranging figures on the Target so as to represent more or less
favourable or important targets between which firers may commonly
have to choose. For instance, figures representing a line of men in
extended order may be arranged so that the intervals between the men
in some parts of the line are considerable, while in others they art
crowded together, shoulder to shoulder (see footnote, p. 226). Here
the thickest part of the line is the more favourable target. Again,
targets which are distinctly visible owing to the effect of background
are more favourable than those which are rendered indistinct owing
to this cause. Targets consisting of men in the standing position
are, other conditions being equal, more favourable than those in the
kneeling and lying positions, and men in the open are obviously more
favourable targets than those partly concealed behind cover, especially
if it affords protection from fire. These object-lessons illustrate
the principle underlying the choice of targets--namely, to select the
target which gives the greatest probable assurance of fire effect, or
which in any given situation is the most important.

(iv) Object-lessons illustrating other important points may be arranged
on the Target by instructors on the same principle as the above
examples.

(v) =Conditions of Practices.=--_The Individual Field Practices Nos. 1
to 6 on pp. 185-188, Chapter VIII, can all be adapted with necessary
modifications as to targets, numbers firing, etc., for firing on the
Solano Target with scenery, scenic accessories, and figures._ The
following are examples of other individual field practices which can
be carried out on the Target, and are suitable for both instruction
and competitions. Firing should be carried out in the different firing
positions from behind cover, as well as without cover, or rest for arms
or rifle.


INDIVIDUAL FIELD PRACTICES ON THE SOLANO TARGET.


=No. 1.=

=Object=: To teach men to open fire with effect quickly.

=Rounds=: 6 per man.

=Targets=: 2 per man--one 300 yards head and shoulders, and one 400
yards standing figure on different tiers.

=Directions=: Each target to be exposed singly in any order, 3 times
for 5 seconds, at uncertain intervals of not less than 10 seconds. 1
round to be fired on each exposure.


=No. 2.=

=Object=: To teach men to open fire with effect quickly and to aim off.

=Rounds=: 5 per man.

=Targets=: 1 per man--400 or 600 yards standing figure.

=Directions=: The figures will be arranged on the carriers of the
crossing mechanism on Tier A. Scenic accessories, such as houses,
trees, foliage, etc., will be arranged on the Target so as to conceal
the figures at their starting-points, and also along the _front groove_
of the Tier across which the figures will be moved with irregular
intervals of some 6 to 12 inches between them. The figures will be
moved from the concealment of cover to represent an enemy’s scout
doubling across the firer’s front from cover to cover. On disappearing
behind each successive piece of cover the figures will be halted for
an uncertain time, not less than 5 seconds, after which they will be
retired or advanced to the shelter of the nearest cover, when they will
again be halted. Each figure will be exposed in this manner 5 times. 1
round will be fired on each exposure while the figure is in motion.


=No. 3.=

=Object=: To teach men to mark down an enemy.

=Rounds=: 6 per man.

=Targets=: 2 per man--400 or 600 yards standing figure.

=Directions=: One figure on each tier of the Target fixed to clips
either without cover in front or behind cover which affords protection
from fire, such as rocks, a wall, or a bank. The cover must not
conceal more than half the figure when exposed. At first cover may
be isolated to facilitate marking down, but as progress is made it
should be continuous. Each target to be exposed singly for 3 seconds
in any order and at uncertain intervals of not less than 10 seconds,
then disappeared for 10 seconds, and then exposed again for 4 seconds.
1 round to be fired at each target on second exposure. This practice
can also be carried out with the men working in pairs and taking it in
turns to fire and to help to observe and mark down.


=No. 4.=

=Object=: To teach men to fire at ground.

=Rounds=: 3 per man.

=Targets=: 1 per man--400 or 600 yards standing figure.

=Directions=: The figure, must be fixed to clips on either tier
behind cover which does not afford protection from fire, such as a
bush or hedge. The cover must not conceal more than half the figure
when exposed. At first, to render marking down and aim easy, cover
may be isolated, such as a bush, but as progress is made it should
be continuous. Each figure will be exposed for 3 seconds and then
disappeared to represent a man advancing and taking cover. 10 seconds
will be allowed for firing 3 shots at the ground line of the spot
marked down for the position of the figure behind cover. This practice
can also be carried out with the men working in pairs and taking it in
turns to fire and to help to observe and mark down. Hits may be checked
as follows--on the back of cover immediately in front of the figure an
outline in pencil must be drawn of its head and shoulders to represent
the figure in the lying position behind cover. The shot-holes will then
show whether hits have been scored.


=No. 5.=

=Object=: To teach men to snapshoot.

=Rounds=: 6 per man.

=Targets=: 3 per man--300 or 400 yards head and shoulders figures and
400 or 600 yards standing figures.

=Directions=: A great variety of these practices can be arranged, and
men should be encouraged to devise the conditions. Targets must be
concealed on the moving and disappearing mechanism Tier A and on Tier B
behind cover such as walls, rocks, trees, hedges, bushes, houses, and
cottages (see Appendix, Sec. VII, para. 4). Figures will be exposed
to represent men firing over cover and round the side of cover. The
doors and windows of the larger houses and cottages may be cut out
and disappearing figures exposed for short intervals to represent men
firing from them as in _street fighting_. Targets may also be exposed
to represent men moving quickly across open spaces between cover such
as trees, etc., to represent targets seen in _wood fighting_.

Men will fire from behind cover, care being taken to see that they
watch ground while waiting to fire in correct positions with the
minimum of exposure, and that all unnecessary movements in loading and
firing are avoided. Men will be trained to aim and fire immediately on
the appearance of the target with the minimum of exposure while doing
so, and to take cover, load, and resume their watch for targets as
quickly as possible after firing. Each target will be exposed twice
for 4 seconds. They will be exposed singly in any order at intervals
not exceeding 10 seconds, 1 round will be fired on each exposure. They
may also be exposed simultaneously to test the judgment of men in the
_choice of targets_.


=No. 6.=

=Object=: To teach men to combine rapidity with accuracy of fire.

=Rounds=: 5 per man.

=Targets=: 1 per man--400 or 600 yards standing figure.

=Directions=: On the exposure of the target men will fire 5 rounds as
rapidly as possible. The time taken by each man in firing 5 rounds will
be checked. Accuracy must not be sacrificed for rapidity, and hits
scored will be more important than the time taken in firing.


=No. 7.=

=Object=: To teach men to combine fire and movement.

=Rounds=: 6 per man.

=Targets=: Any of the following: (_a_) A row of Solano figures
representing a line of loopholed head-cover entrenchments. (_b_) A row
of 300 or 400 yards head-and-shoulder figures representing men firing
from a bank or open trench. (_c_) A row of low bushes representing
the line of a screened entrenchment. (_d_) A stone wall marked with
loopholes or with head-and-shoulder figures exposed at intervals to
represent men firing over it. (_e_) A row of houses defended from doors
and windows. (_f_) Folds of ground, etc.

=Directions=: The above targets, (_a_) to (_e_) inclusive, may be
arranged on either tier; (_f_) will consist of features shown on the
scenery itself. The firers will represent a firing-line advancing at
close range. Firing will be carried out as follows: 2 rounds will be
fired; the men will then run 50 yards and fire 2 more rounds, after
which they will run 50 yards again and fire the last 2 rounds.

=4. Fire Direction Practices= (Sec. 42, paras. 8 and 9, Sec. 47, paras.
2 to 4 inclusive, and Sec. 54, para. 3).--(i) Though officers and
N.C.O.’s cannot be trained satisfactorily in the important duties of
ranging on miniature ranges, much useful instruction can be carried out
by fire direction practices on the target and landscapes, the object of
which will be to teach fire-unit commanders and men to work together in
some of the principal duties of fire direction, control, and discipline
before proceeding to fire collective field practices.

(ii) The object of these practices is to train fire-unit commanders
to discern targets quickly, describe them accurately, and give clear,
correct fire orders (Sec. 46, paras. 1 to 6 inclusive), and to train
men to recognize targets, obey and pass fire orders. Both officers and
men will previously have been trained to some extent in these duties.
In fire direction practices they should be carried out as a whole under
a time limit, reckoned from the appearance of the target to the end of
firing or aiming in obedience to fire orders. The time limit should
be decreased as progress is made. Observers should also be trained
in their duties in these practices, which should be devised so as to
train both fire-unit commanders and observers to watch for signals and
maintain communication with neighbouring units (Sec. 42, para. 8 (ii)
(_b_), and para. 9).

(iii) The target should be arranged before practices with a variety of
figures representing various arms and troops in different formations
at various ranges (Appendix, VII, para. 5). They should be exposed
suddenly for short time limits corresponding approximately to the
probable time exposure of such targets on service. Fire-unit commanders
should use field-glasses and include ranges estimated by the size of
the figures in fire orders. Passing fire orders may be practised by
passing them down a line of men to those at the firing-point (Sec. 46,
para. 7). This should be done if possible while firing is proceeding.
Practices may be carried out with firing or by aiming with rifles on
rests for laying aim. Instructors must carefully criticize the work of
both fire-unit commanders and men.

=5. Collective Field Practices= (Sec. 54, para. 4)--(i)
=Demonstrations.=--These practices may be preceded by lectures
demonstrating some of the _Points for Criticism_ set out in Sec. 54,
para. 4 (iii), and also points in the instruction laid down in Sec. 35,
para. 4 (_Reconnaissance of Ground in Attack and Defence_), Sec. 42
(_Organization for Fire Action_), Sec. 43 (_Effect of Fire at Different
Ranges on Various Formations and Objectives_), and Sec. 44 (_Tactical
Application of Fire_).

(ii) =Arrangement of Target for Demonstrations.=--Demonstrations
should be carried out on the Target arranged with scenery and figures
with or without firing to illustrate instruction. The arrangement of
the target for lectures and demonstrations affords scope for skill
and ingenuity on the part of instructors, and may be used to give
practical instruction to N.C.O.’s and men engaged to help in arranging
the scenery and figures to illustrate various principles and tactical
schemes. The following are examples of simple lessons which may be
demonstrated on the Target.

(iii) =Examples of Demonstrations.=

=No. 1. Need for Collective Fire.=--The instruction laid down in Sec.
11 may be demonstrated by arranging figures on the Target as above
described in para. 3 (ii), adding figures representing troops in
different formations, artillery and transport at ranges up to 2,500
yards. If the demonstration is carried out with firing, a useful object
lesson may be provided as follows. A row of 1,000 and 1,200 yard
figures can be arranged on the clips so that when exposed their heads
will appear over continuous cover, such as low bushes, to represent men
firing from a bank or fold of the ground. The figures will be arranged
against background which renders them invisible to the naked eye from
the firing-point. The firers will be told that they have come under
the fire of the enemy somewhere to their front, and that the need for
replying to it immediately to minimize its effect is urgent. They will
depend upon individual firing for fire effect. When they have realized
their helplessness, a fire-unit commander will indicate the target and
direct fire, the results of which will be noted.

=No. 2. Justification for Opening Fire= (Sec. 43 and Sec. 44, paras. 3
to 6 inclusive).--This may be demonstrated by various examples carried
out with or without firing to illustrate the principle that fire must
not be opened in attack or defence without reasonable assurance of
effect in regard to the object for which it is delivered. For instance,
a number of rounds may be fired at an extended line of 2,000 or 1,600
yard figures, and an equal number of rounds at an extended line of
1,000 and 800 yard figures, to illustrate the greater effect of fire
at closer ranges. It must be explained, however, that exceptionally
favourable targets may justify the opening of fire at long and distant
ranges [Sec. 43, para. 2 (iii)].

=No. 3. Choice of Targets= [Sec. 54, Note to para. 4 (iii)].--The
principle that the more favourable or important targets should be
chosen may be illustrated by various examples, as for instance by
exposing a line of 800 yard figures so that the heads and shoulders
only are visible above cover affording protection from fire, and
exposing a line of the same figures upright in the open to one side. If
carried out with firing, a demonstration of the effects of converging
fire (Sec. 44, para. 11) may be combined with that of the choice of
targets as follows: The firers may be divided into two fire-units
of four men each under its own commander. Each unit will deliver
deliberate fire for half a minute at a line of 1,000 yard figures on
Tier A within its own sector or frontage. A dense line of 800 yards
figures will then be exposed in the centre of Tier B to represent
a part of the enemy’s line which has taken advantage of a covered
approach or dead ground to push forward. Both fire-unit commanders
will at once divert the fire of half their unit in a burst of rapid
converging fire for half a minute at this favourable target while
continuing to keep the enemy’s line to his front under fire with the
rest of his unit for the same time. Results of firing will be compared.

=No. 4. Control of Fire as to Rate and Volume= (Sec. 44, paras.
14-17 inclusive).--The above object lesson illustrates the principle
governing the control of fire as to volume and rate, both of which are
increased to get the greatest possible effect against very favourable
or important targets. Many other object lessons can be devised on the
Target with figures to illustrate the principles of fire control. For
instance, against an enemy’s entrenchment or firing line under cover,
fire at longer ranges will usually be deliberate, while against the
dense line of an attack at close range or against very favourable or
important targets, especially if they are fleeting, it will usually be
delivered in rapid bursts and in as great a volume as possible. The
relation between the rate and volume of fire and the object for which
it is delivered, and the circumstances under which it is delivered,
should be explained and demonstrated in connection with fire control.

=No. 5. Concentration and Distribution of Fire= [Sec. 44, paras.
8 and 9; and Sec. 54, para. 3 (v) to (vii) inclusive].--The broad
principles which govern the concentration and distribution of fire may
be illustrated by arranging figures representing troops in different
formations, machine guns, etc., at various ranges on the Target, so
that men can see the different kinds of targets against which fire will
be concentrated or distributed. For instance, against a narrow-fronted
column or machine gun fire will be concentrated, while against lines
of infantry in extended order or the frontage of a defensive position
fire will usually be distributed. Fire may, however, be concentrated if
part of a line offers a favourable target through the men failing to
keep their extension and crowding together, on the principle that fire
should be concentrated against very vulnerable targets or at points
where it will produce increased effect.

=No. 6. Mutual Support and Covering Fire= (Sec. 44, paras. 12 and
13).--The broad principles governing the application of fire in mutual
support and covering fire may be illustrated by arranging simple
tactical schemes on the Target in the following manner: The firers will
be divided into two fire-units, as in Demonstration No. 3. They are
supposed to be part of a firing line in attack. To illustrate _mutual
support_, one unit will be represented by a line of figures on Tier B,
directly in front of it. When the figures are disappeared, the unit
they represent is supposed to be halted, and when they are exposed, it
is supposed to be advancing. The enemy’s position will be indicated as
a definite frontage in front of each unit on the scenery above Tier A,
or the scenic accessories on this tier. While both units are supposed
to be firing during a halt, the figures on Tier A will be exposed,
denoting that one unit is advancing. The commander of the other unit
will at once direct fire from part of his unit in rapid fire against
the front of the enemy’s position to the front of the advancing unit,
while keeping the enemy’s position to his front under fire from the
rest of his unit. To illustrate _covering fire_, a line of figures on
Tier B will represent the firing line of an attack, to which the firers
are supports on high ground. The enemy’s front will be indicated on
Tier A. When the figures are exposed, denoting an advance by the firing
line, the supports will cover the advance by delivering heavy fire at
the enemy’s position to the front of the figures.

=No. 7. Fire and Movement= (Sec. 44, para. 7).--The control of fire
in its application to movement may, for example, be illustrated by
supposing the firers to be part of a force acting on the defensive
against an attacking force, represented by figures on the Target.
Considerations relative to opening fire may be studied, together with
the control of fire against advancing troops, with the object of
obtaining increased effect at closer ranges and attempting surprise
(Sec. 44, paras. 17 and 18). The rate and volume of fire in relation
to movement may be demonstrated by illustrating by figures arranged
on both tiers of the Target the different stages of an attack[31] in
column and extended order formations from 1,600 to 600 or 400 yards
range, an advance, and explaining that the rate of fire is usually
deliberate when the enemy halts or takes cover, and is increased in
rate and volume when his troops present favourable targets during
forward movement, more especially to beat them off in the act of
assaulting [Sec. 44, para. 16 (i) and (ii)].

=No. 8. Organization for Fire Action= (Sec. 42).--Before commencing
collective field practices, the principles of organization for fire
action, so far as it concerns the allotment of frontages and the
division of the field of fire into separate sectors for each fire unit
should be demonstrated to fire-unit commanders on the Target or on
landscape targets. Platoon and section commanders

inclusive. may be practised in indicating the limits of sectors to
their units, after the frontage allotted to their unit in a field of
fire has been pointed out to these commanders. The limits of sectors
must be indicated in the manner described in Sec. 42, para. 3, and
illustrated in Fig. 47. The nature and details of fields of fire should
be varied as much as possible to accustom unit commanders to dealing
with all kinds of ground. The field of fire may be divided up into
two, three, or four sectors, a different unit commander being made to
indicate the limits of each sector.

(iv) =Conditions of Practices.=--_The collective field practices on pp.
188 to 192 inclusive may be adapted for miniature range firing on the
Target by modifying the conditions as may be necessary._ The conditions
of practices may also be based on the ideas contained in the examples
of demonstrations given in para. (iii) above. Instructors should
encourage fire-unit commanders and N.C.O.’s to devise simple tactical
schemes for collective field practices which, besides training officers
and men in the duties of fire direction, control, and discipline,
will teach them to give effect to the principles which govern the
application of fire. The arrangement of the Target by men for practices
to be fired by their comrades may also be used by the instructor for
imparting useful practical knowledge. Special attention should be paid
in these practices to firing from cover, passing fire orders, and fire
discipline generally. The following examples of practices will serve as
a guide to instructors with regard to conditions.

(v) =Special Rules.=--Practices will begin with the caution _Commence_,
and will end with the order _Cease Fire_. The number, nature, and
positions of targets will be unknown to firers, and must be invisible
until exposed or moved. Targets may be exposed without warning any
time after the caution _Commence_, and the order, time, and duration
of exposure or movement will be unknown to firers in every case. All
information which will help commanders and men to use their judgment
will be given them beforehand, when the object of the practice will be
explained, but no help or suggestion as to the manner in which they
will carry out their duties will be told them either before or during
a practice. Criticism will not be confined to the points noted in the
following examples of practices, but will be general. These examples
are purposely made simple, and devised as far as possible to deal with
situations which may confront men in the present campaign. They may be
varied by Instructors as desired.


COLLECTIVE FIELD PRACTICES ON THE SOLANO TARGET.

=No. 1.=

=Object=: Test of fire direction and control.

=Targets=: Tier A (left section) infantry line standing, extended
order, 1,200 yards. Right section, infantry line standing, extended
order, 800 yards. Tier B (left half) infantry line standing, extended
order, 1,000 yards--half of line crowded together.[32]

=Directions=: The firers will represent two separate units in
neighbouring localities of a defensive position. The target on Tier A
(right section) will first be exposed for ten seconds. After a pause,
both targets on Tier A will be exposed together for ten seconds. After
a pause the targets on Tier A (right section) and Tier B will be
exposed together for ten seconds. =Particulars=: The enemy at 1,200
yards is difficult to discern owing to background and undergrowth, and
the defence know that he is close to a covered approach which will
bring him to 1,000 yards of their line. =Criticism=: (i) _Justification
for Opening Fire_: (_a_) By both units on first exposure of 800 yards’
target; (_b_) by both units on exposure of 1,200 yards target. (ii)
_Choice of Targets and Mutual Support_: By left unit on simultaneous
exposure of 1,200 and 800 yards targets. (iii) _Rate of Fire_: (_a_) By
both units on first exposure of 800 yards target; (_b_) by left unit at
1,000 yards target. (iv) _Concentration and Distribution of Fire_: By
left unit at 1,000 yards target. (v) _Results of Firing._


=No. 2.=

=Object=: Test of fire direction by auxiliary aiming-marks (aiming-off).

=Target=: A point on the scenery indicated to unit commander as
concealing enemy’s machine-gun at 1,400 yards.

=Directions=: Commander is ordered to open fire at once, allowing one,
two, or three fingers’ breadths for the deflection of right-angle
winds of varying strength from left or right. He will select auxiliary
aiming-marks for direction of fire and aiming-off under a time limit.
=Criticism=: _Choice of description-point. Clearness of fire orders.
Quick opening and rate of fire. Results of firing._


=No. 3.=

=Object=: Test of fire direction by anticipatory orders.

=Directions=: A variety of targets and tactical schemes may be
employed for this practice, which may also be made to combine fire and
movement. For example, the firers may represent a force in pursuit
of retreating troops, and run 100 yards in intervals of firing to
represent an advance. At the end of movement prearranged crossing and
disappearing targets will be exposed or moved at points previously
known to commander, who will indicate them to men, telling them to
open fire when target appears without further orders. To develop
individual judgment, men will be made to use their judgment in applying
fire according to nature and importance of targets. =Criticism:=:
_Recognition of targets. Quick opening of fire. Application of fire as
to rate, volume, concentration, or distribution according to nature of
target. Fire discipline._


=No. 4.=

=Object:=: Test of individual judgment in applying rapid fire.

=Targets=: Tier A (left section), infantry line standing, extended
order, 600 yards. Line of head and shoulder figures 400 yards on right
section. Tier B, dense line standing figures, 400 yards, or strip of
cardboard of same measurements.

=Directions=: Targets will be exposed once separately for 15 seconds
each at intervals of 10 seconds between exposures in following order:
(i) 600 yards target; (ii) 400 yards head and shoulders; (iii) 400
yards standing. Men will fire without orders. =Criticism=: _Quick
opening of fire. Rate of fire at first, second, and third targets. Fire
discipline. Unsteady firing. Results of fire._


=No. 5.=

=Object=: Test of individual judgment in applying fire to a tactical
situation.

=Targets=: Tier A, infantry line standing, 800 yards. Tier B, dense
infantry line standing, 600 yards (figures or cardboard strip).

=Directions=: 600 yards target will first be exposed alone representing
attack at close range. 800 yards target representing enemy’s supports
will then be exposed for 15 seconds, the 600 yards target also
remaining exposed for this period. Firers will be told that they will
succeed in checking enemy’s firing line represented by first target
exposed, and will then deal with the situation as it develops without
orders owing to sudden loss of their commander at critical moment.
=Criticism=: _Quick opening of fire. Discernment of 800 yards target.
Proportion and rate of fire diverted from enemy’s firing-line to
supports. Fire discipline._


No. 6.

=Object=: Test of rapid fire.

=Target=: Tier B, dense line of figures or strip of cardboard--400
yards or closer.

=Directions=: Target will be exposed for 30 seconds to represent an
enemy delivering attack from his trenches on firers who are entrenched
close to and opposite his earthworks. When practice commences, one
firer as observer will watch the front, while others will sit with
their backs to target. When the observer gives the alarm, firers will
rise and open rapid fire. Arrangements should be made to carry out this
practice standing with rifles rested, and if possible by firing from
loopholed head-cover improvised with sandbags, etc., as shown on p.
82 of _Field Entrenchments_ of this series. The practice may also be
fired at dusk or with artificial lighting lowered to give the effect of
uncertain light. =Criticism=: _Work of observer. Quick opening of fire.
Fire discipline. Percentage of hits to rounds fired._

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--LANDSCAPE TARGET ON FRAMES ATTACHED TO
THE SOLANO TARGET, IN POSITION FOR FIRING.

Shadowgraph facsimile.

Colour-printed portion.

(“Section Fire” Target.)]

[Illustration:

    =Fig. 58.=--LANDSCAPE TARGET PRACTICES. ILLUSTRATION SHOWING
    METHOD OF HARMONIZING RIFLES AND THE SYSTEM OF MEASURING
    COLLECTIVE GROUPING OF CONCENTRATED AND DISTRIBUTED FIRE FOR
    SCORING. (_See Appendix, V., para. 2, and Appendix, VI., para.
    5._)]

=6. Landscape Target Practices.=--As already stated, range and
individual field practices cannot be carried out on landscape targets.
Collective field practices can be carried out on landscape targets
with either ·303 or ·22 ammunition on 30 yards and miniature ranges.
As progress is made, landscape target practices should be carried out
with a time limit for indicating targets, giving and passing fire
orders, and firing. When firing at landscape targets, rifles will be
given elevation, so that bullets aimed at objectives on the landscapes
will strike a blank or shadowgraph sky screen above the whole of the
landscape, even if the objective is at the bottom of the landscape
(Fig. 57). For method of valuing hits and scoring in these practices,
see Appendix, VI, para. 5. The following are examples of collective
field practices which may be carried out on landscape targets:


Collective Field Practices on Landscape Targets.

=No. 1.=

=Object=: To teach concentration of fire.

=Directions=: Fire is opened on a given point on the landscape as
ordered. If the point is clearly indicated and recognized, and if
sighting and fire are accurate, a dense group of shot-holes will be
made on sky-screen, the point of mean impact being a point the correct
height _vertically_ above the point of aim [see Appendix, VI, para. 5
(i)].


=No. 2.=

=Object=: To teach distribution of fire.

=Directions=: Fire is opened along a given line of country as ordered.
The shot-holes should appear evenly distributed along a line on the
sky-screen at a certain height, and immediately above the line of
country indicated [see Appendix, VI, para. 5 (ii)].


=No. 3.=

=Object=: To teach the use of combined sights.

=Directions=: As in No. 1, but half the firers will adjust sights 50
yards above and half 50 yards below the range given. Results will show
two groups, which would be merged into one group of great depth in
the case of fire of sufficient volume, such as that of two platoons,
and illustrates the use of combined sights for increasing the zone of
effective fire.


=No. 4.=

=Object=: To teach observation of fire.

=Directions=: A point is indicated on landscape (preferably near
the top), and a visible[33] sketch of it is made at any height on
the screen and _vertically_ above it. The commander will open fire
with such elevation as he thinks necessary, and then correct from
observation of shot-holes until on the target.

=7. Night Firing.=--The automatic alignment of rifles may be practised
on miniature ranges. Aim may be taken at a strip of brown or grey paper
representing a line of standing figures at 100 and 200 yards’ distance,
scaled down to size for 25 yards, and attached to the landscape target
screen faced with blank paper (Fig. 57). Men may also be taught to
aim rifles from improvised night-firing rests at objectives on the
Solano Target or Landscape Targets. The field of fire containing
the objectives may then be concealed by a paper screen, the rifles
fired, and results examined. As there is no recoil with the miniature
cartridge, this practice will not prove the utility of the rest.


=8. Miniature Range Cadet Competitions.=--The rules regarding
competitions set out in Sec. 69 apply also to miniature ranges. The
various practices laid down in this chapter and Chapter VIII will
serve as the basis of various competitions on miniature as well as
open ranges. Tests in grouping and application may be found suitable
for cadet competitions in elementary forms of shooting. Regulation as
well as Solano elementary and instructional targets may be used (see
Appendix, VIII).


CADET COMPETITIONS.


=No. 1.=

=Object=: To teach cadets grouping under a timed limit when firing from
cover, and to train the eye to aim at marks seen against backgrounds of
natural tints.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: Solano Elementary Target No. 1.

=Directions=: Kneeling. Firing over cover with arm or rifle rested. Two
minutes allowed for firing reckoning from the order _Commence_.


=No. 2.=

=Object=: To teach cadets to focus the eye on the mark instead of the
sights of the rifle.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: Solano Elementary Target No. 2.

=Directions=: Lying. Firing round cover with side of rifle rested.


=No. 3.=

=Object=: To teach cadets to assume a firing position and open fire
quickly with effect.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: Solano Instructional Target No. 1.

=Directions=: Firer stands to attention at firing-point. Ten seconds
allowed for assuming the lying position, loading, and firing one shot,
reckoned from command _Fire_.


=No. 4.=

=Object=: To teach cadets to snapshoot.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: Solano Instructional Target No. 2.

=Directions:= Lying. Firing round cover. Target exposed six seconds for
each shot. Time reckoned from the exposure of the target.


=No. 5.=

=Object=: To teach cadets to combine accuracy with rapidity of fire.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: As in No. 3.

=Directions=: Lying. Rifle to be unloaded and breech closed until the
command _Rapid fire_. Target exposed for thirty seconds, reckoned from
command _Rapid fire_.


No. 6.

=Object=: To teach cadets to combine fire with movement.

=Rounds=: 5 per cadet.

=Target=: Solano Instructional Target No. 3.

=Directions=: Lying. A distance of 25 yards to be run before firing
each shot. Fifteen seconds reckoned from the order _Commence_ allowed
for running and firing each time. One minute to elapse between the
firing of a shot and the commencement of the next run.



APPENDIX



I. NAMES OF THE PARTS OF RIFLES--SHORT M.L.E., MARK III, AND
CHARGER-LOADING M.L.E.

(_a_) =Short M.L.E. Mark III= (Figs. 59 and 60).

  1. Blade foresight.

  2. Foresight block.

  3. Band foresight block.

  4. Key foresight block.

  5. Crosspin foresight block.

  5A. Backsight bed.

  6.     ”       ” crosspin.

  6A.    ”       ” sight spring screw.

  7. Backsight leaf.

  8.      ” slide.

  9.      ” slide-catch.

  10.     ” fine adjustment worm wheel.

  10A. Windgauge.

  10B.      ” screw.

  11. Backsight ramps.

  12. Seating for safety-catch.

  13. Safety-catch.

  14. Locking-bolt stem.

  15. Bolt.

  16. Bolt-head.

  17. Striker.

  18. Cocking-piece.

  19. Striker collar with stud.

  20. Bolt-head tenon.

  21. Cocking-piece locking recesses.

  22. Locking bolt.

  23.    ”     ” flat.

  24.    ”     ” thumb-piece.

  25.    ”     ” aperture sight stem.

  26.    ”     ” stop-pin recesses.

  27.    ”     ” safety-catch stem.

  28.    ”     ”     ”   ”  arm.

  29.    ”     ” screw threads.

  30.    ”     ” seating.

  31. Bolt cam grooves.

  32. Sear.

  33.   ” seating.

  34.   ” spring.

  35. Magazine catch.

  36. Full bent of cocking-piece.

  37· Short arm of sear.

  38.}
     } Trigger ribs.
  39.}

  40. Trigger.

  41. Trigger axis pin.

  41A. Magazine case.

  41B.    ”  platform spring.

  41C. Magazine auxiliary spring.

  42. Guard-trigger.

  43. Stock fore-end.

  44. Spring and stud fore-end.

  45. Protector backsight.

  46. Handguard front and rear.

  47. Spring handguard gear.

  48. Lower band groove.

  49. Lower band.

  50. Nosecap.

  51. Protector foresight.

  52. Sword bar.

  53. Boss for ring of sword-bayonet cross-piece.

  54. Swivel seating.

  55.   ”    piling.

  56. Nosecap barrel opening.

  57. Inner band.

  58.   ”     ”   screw.

  59·   ”     ”     ”    spring.

  60. Butt sling swivel.

  61. Sword bayonet, pattern ’07.

  62. Bridge-charger guide.

  63. Cut-off.

[Illustration: =Fig. 59.=--SHORT RIFLE, MAGAZINE LEE-ENFIELD (MARK
III).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 60.=--SHORT RIFLE, MAGAZINE LEE-ENFIELD (MARK
III).]


(_b_) =Charger-Loading M.L.E.= (Figs. 61, 62, and 63)

  1. Backsight bed

  2.    ”       ”  ramp.

  3. Aperture sight.

  4. Dial sight plate.

  5.   ”    ”   pointer.

  6. Aperture sight peep-hole.

  7·     ”      ”   pivot-screw.

  8.     ”      ”   spring.

  9.     ”      ”   spring ribs.

  10.     ”    sight cross-cut notches.

  11. Pivot aperture sight pointer.

  12.   ” screw.

  13. Spring disc.

  14. Bead pointer.

  15. Screwed boss, fixing dial-sight.

  16. Centring-pin dial-sight.

  17. Index-point of pointer.

  18. Bolt rib.

  19. Extractor seating.

  20. Bolt lug.

  21. Tongue of cocking-piece.

  22. Recess for lug of bolt.

  23. Body bead.

  24. Retaining catch.

  25. Resistance shoulder.

  26. Cut-off slot.

  27. Body socket.

  28.   ”     ”    boss.

  29. Stock-bolt.

  30. Gas escape hole.

  31. Bolt-breech.

  32. Lever bolt-breech.

  33. Lug seating.

  34. Long cam groove.

  35. Short cam groove.

  36. Cam-shaped face.

  37. }
      } Cam grooves separating studs.
  38. }

  39. Bolt-head.

  40.   ”  tenon.

  41.   ” projection.

  42. Extractor slot.

  43. Extractor.

  44.     ”      axis-screw.

  45.     ”      spring.

  46.     ”         ”    pin.

  47.     ”         ”    pin-hole.

  48. Bolthead hook.

  49. Striker.

  50. Cocking-piece.

  51. Striker collar.

  51A. Cocking-piece full bent.

  52.     ”      ”   half bent.

  54.     ”      ”   seating for safety-catch.

  55. Safety-catch.

  56. Striker keeper-screw.

  57. Recess in striker for the keeper-screw.

  58. Safety catch stem.

  59.   ”      ”   finger-piece.

  60.   ”      ”   locking grooves.

  61.   ”      ”   plunger.

  62. Seating for plunger and spiral spring of safety-catch.

  63. Nipple holes for plunger of safety-catch.

  64. Retaining catch spring.

  65. Ejector.

  66. Sear.

  67.   ”   screw.

  68.   ”   seating in body.

  69.   ”   spring.

  70. Trigger.

  71.    ”    axis pin.

  72. Magazine box or case.

  73. }
      }   ”    platform guides.
  74. }

  75.     ”    stop clip.

  76.     ”    stop-clip stud.

  77.     ”    platform.

  78.     ”    clip stop.

  79.     ”    tooth.

  80.     ”    catch tooth.

  81.     ”    catch.

  82.     ”      ”     finger-piece.

  83.     ”    platform plate.

  84.     ”      ”     plate tongues.

  85.     ”      ”     spring.

  86.     ”      ”     auxiliary spring.

  87. Cut-off.

  88.    ”     screw.

  89.    ”     thumb-piece.

  90.    ”     catch.

  91. Guard-trigger.

  92. Screw-guard front.

  93.   ”   collar.

  94·   ”     ”    rear.

  95. Lower band.

  96. Sling swivel.

  97. Nose-cap.

  98.     ”     band.

  99.     ”     fixing screw.

  100. Piling swivel.

  101. Diagonal slot in nose-cap to clear the foresight block when assembling, etc.

  102. Stock-bolt, plate-keeper.

  103. Stock-butt swivel.

  104. Oil-bottle, Mark III (latest Mark IV).

[Illustration: =Fig. 61=.--CHARGER-LOADING LEE-ENFIELD.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 62.=--CHARGER-LOADING LEE-ENFIELD.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 63.=--CHARGER-LOADING LEE-ENFIELD.]


II. DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THE LEGRET AIM TEACHER.

The Legret Aim Teacher.

[Illustration: _This instrument provides a most easy means of teaching
the elementary principles of aiming with Military Sights and also
enables an instructor to check his pupils faults._]


Aims Chart

For use with “Aim Teacher” Mark 1.

[Illustration: No. 1]

No. 1. Stage I. _Proper relation of fore-sight to aiming mark. Aim
taken at 6 o.c. point with fore-sight only._

[Illustration: No. 2]

No. 2. Stage II. _Proper relation of fore-sight and back-sight. Lay on
sheet of paper or, sky (just above horizon most convenient)._

[Illustration: No. 3]

No. 3. _Stage III. Proper relation between fore-sight, back-sight, and
aiming mark._

[Illustration: No. 4]

No. 4. Stage IV. _Instructor will first lay correct aim as in diagram
3. Rifle is then moved and shutter turned gently to left. Recruit then
relays rifle as in diagram 4. Instructor turns shutter gently to right
and checks faults. Care must be taken not to move “jointed arm” in this
stage._


=Fig. 64.=--DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING USE OF LEGRET AIM TEACHER.


III. DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THE AIM-CORRECTOR.

1. This device is illustrated in Fig. 65. It consists of a small steel
box moving freely on a stem, so as to enable it to be made level with
the back-sight when the latter is set at various elevations. It is
secured to the rifle, behind the back-sight, by a spring clip. A piece
of smoked glass is inserted into one of the two cross grooves, so that
it forms an angle of 45 degrees with the barrel.

2. In placing the aim-corrector on the rifle, the open side of the box
may be turned to the right or left, care being taken that, when the
glass is inserted in the box, it is placed in the cross-groove, which
will cause it to present to the observer, who is opposite the open end,
a reflection of the backsight, the foresight, and the mark at which aim
is to be taken. If the glass is placed in the wrong cross-groove, the
only image reflected upon it will be the recruit’s eye.

3. The instructor, who may take up his position on either side of the
recruit, can see the alignment of the sights while the trigger is being
pressed by means of the reflection in the glass, without in any degree
obscuring the recruit’s aim. He can see if aim is correctly maintained
when the trigger is pressed, or if it is deflected by this act, and
can tell whether the recruit has noted and correctly declared any
deflection due to faulty trigger-pressing. In certain lights, the image
on the glass may be rather indistinct, but with care it is possible
to discern it sufficiently clearly for instruction. In correcting
errors, the instructor must remember that, when looking in the glass,
the reflection, as in the case of an ordinary mirror, is _reversed
laterally_, but is _correct vertically_. For instance, if the sight
appears upon the glass to the right of the mark, it is actually to the
left of it. If, however, it appears high or low in relation to the
mark, it is actually above or below the mark.

[Illustration: =Fig. 65.=--DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING USE OF AIM-CORRECTOR.]


IV. DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THE AIMING-DISC.


The aiming-disc is a small rod, bearing a disc of metal or cardboard,
painted white, about 1½ inches in diameter (Fig. 66). On the front is a
black bull’s-eye ½ inch in diameter, in the centre of which is pierced
a hole just large enough to admit the point of a pencil. On the back is
a bull’s-eye, also ½ inch in diameter, placed so that the six o’clock
line is just above the hole which is in the centre of the bull’s-eye on
the front.

[Illustration: =Fig. 66.=--AIMING-DISC.]

The instructor may ascertain the accuracy of the recruit’s aim and his
power to press the trigger without disturbing aim by the use of the
aiming-disc in the following manner: He should take up his position
in front of the recruit at a distance of about 4 or 5 feet from the
muzzle of his rifle when held to the shoulder for firing in the lying
position, with his eye to the hole in front of the disc (Fig. 19).
The recruit is then instructed to bring the rifle to his shoulder for
aiming, to aim and press the trigger at the aiming-mark at the back of
the disc.

Through the aperture at the bottom of the bull’s-eye at which the
recruit takes aim and snaps, the instructor is able to see the
recruit’s faults of aim, and to note whether his aim is disturbed
when the trigger is pressed. The instructor is also enabled to note
the rapidity with which he takes aim and presses the trigger.--This
practice is useful to develop in men the power of aiming rapidly and
correctly, which is essential for snapshooting and rapid firing,
without the danger of their contracting bad or careless habits through
hurried movements.


V. “HARMONIZING” RIFLES FOR MINIATURE RANGE PRACTICES.

=1.= Rifles are said to be harmonized when their slight individual
differences in shooting are corrected by adjustment of sights. This
harmonizing or correction of differences in the shooting of the rifles
used in miniature range practices is necessary to obtain satisfactory
results. _Rifles must be harmonized for firing direct at targets as
well as for firing with elevation_, as in landscape practices. With
reference to direct firing at targets, it has been found that with
service rifles an elevation of 300 yards is necessary to obtain the
greatest possible accuracy. Consequently, rifles must be sighted for
300 _yards_ before being harmonized for firing direct at targets
according to the method described in the following paragraph, aim
being taken at the aiming-marks on the _lower_ horizontal line,
and differences being discovered by the grouping of shots on the
aiming-marks--not on the line above. The sighting necessary to correct
differences in each rifle will also be recorded on a board hung for
reference on the miniature range, as described in para. 3.

=2. Method of Harmonizing Rifles= (see sky screen, Fig. 58).--(i) The
following is the method of harmonizing rifles: The rifles selected for
miniature range practices must be numbered from 1 on consecutively.
Each rifle must be marked with its number. When this is done, a
horizontal line must be drawn along the bottom of the blank sky screen.
At intervals of about 12 inches along this horizontal line a number of
aiming-marks must be painted. The number of aiming-marks must equal
that of the rifles to be harmonized, so that there is one aiming-mark
for each rifle. At a distance of 26½ inches above the line of
aiming-marks another horizontal line must be drawn on the sky screen,
which must be visible from the firing-point. This distance has been
chosen because it is sufficient to cause shots aimed at objectives at
the bottom of the landscape to clear the top of it and strike the sky
screen.

(ii) _Harmonizing Rifles for Elevation._--Each rifle will then be
adjusted for 1,200 yards. Each rifle, thus sighted, will be fired by a
reliable shot with regular aim at one of the aiming-marks. The sights
of each rifle will be adjusted until shots which strike above or below
the upper horizontal line on the sky screen (when it is sighted for
1,200 yards) strike the line itself. When shots fired from all the
rifles strike the line after sights have been adjusted in this manner,
they are said to be harmonized.

=3. Record of Sighting.=--The variations of each rifle, if any, from
the original sighting at 1,200 yards--or 300 yards in the case of
sighting for direct hits--will be noted, and its variations written
down for reference against the number of the rifle on a board to be
hung on the wall of the miniature range. The following is an example of
the record of sighting:

Twenty-Five Yards Miniature Range.

  +------+----------------------+-------------------------+
  |Rifle.| Elevation for Direct | Elevation for Landscape |
  |      |         Hits.        |         Targets.        |
  |  1   |         300          |          1,200          |
  |  2   |         300          |          1,200          |
  |  3   |         350          |          1,250          |
  |  4   |         250          |          1,150          |
  +------+----------------------+-------------------------+


VI. SCORING AND SIGNALLING.

=1.= When a shot strikes the target so that the circumference of the
mark cuts the outer edge of any ring or figure, it is to be counted as
hitting within that ring or figure, as the case may be. No shot is to
be counted unless the whole or part of the mark of the bullet is seen
on the face of the target. A _ricochet_ usually makes a long, ragged
hole or mark.

=2. Elementary and Figure Targets.=--For scoring in Practice 22, Table
B, see Note 2 below.

  +-------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
  |       Signal.                 |           Methods of Signalling.             |     Value of    |
  |                               |                                              |       Hit.      |
  +-------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
  | Bull’s-eye or figure.         | Polished metal or white disc placed on       |    4 points.    |
  |                               |   shot-hole.                                 |                 |
  |                               |                                              |                 |
  | Inner (remainder of inner     | Black disc waved twice across the face       |    3 points.    |
  |   circle).                    | of the target and placed on the shot-hole.   |                 |
  |                               |                                              |                 |
  | Outer (remainder of elementary| Polished metal or white disc revolved        |    2 points.    |
  |   target) or magpie           |   in front of the target and then placed     |                 |
  |   (remainder of large         |   on the shot-hole.                          |                 |
  |   circle on figure target).   |                                              |                 |
  |                               |                                              |                 |
  | Outer (remainder of figure    | Black disc moved vertically up and           |    1 point.     |
  |   target).                    |   down the left of the target and then       |                 |
  |                               |   placed on the shot-hole.                   |                 |
  |                               |                                              |                 |
  | Ricochet or miss              | Red and white flag shown on the same         |    Nil.         |
  |                               |   side as the direction of the miss. If      |                 |
  |                               |   the direction cannot be determined         |                 |
  |                               |   the flag will be waved across the face     |                 |
  |                               |   of the target.                             |                 |
  +-------------------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+

NOTE 1.--The scoring bull’s-eye on second-class elementary targets is a
12-inch invisible ring.

NOTE 2.--In Practice 22, Table B, a hit on the figure or remainder of
inner circle will count 3 points and will be signalled as a bull’s-eye.
Hits elsewhere on the target will count as in table above.

NOTE 3.--When for any reason it is found to be impracticable to send
the firers into the gallery after a grouping practice, the following
signals may be used:

  Bull’s-eye signal denotes a 4-inch group.
  Inner         ”      ”      8   ”    ”
  Magpie        ”      ”     12   ”    ”
  Outer         ”      ”     12   ”    ”    with one wide shot.

When the signal has been made, after a short pause, the point of the
pole will be placed on the point of mean impact of the group.


=3.--Figures No. 3 and No. 6= (_Open Range_).

  +------------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+
  |      Signal.     |        Methods of Signalling.       |  Value of |
  |                  |                                     |    Hit.   |
  +------------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+
  | Hit              | The figure will be raised above the | 3 points. |
  |                  |   marker’s gallery and twirled.     |           |
  |                  |                                     |           |
  | Ricochet or miss |               --                    | Nil.      |
  +------------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+

=4. Figures= (_Miniature Range_).--Scores for hits and misses as in
para. 3 above.

=5. Scoring in Landscape Target Practices.=--(i) A measuring-rod, 26½
inches long, is required to test the accuracy of both concentrated
and distributed collective grouping. The following is the method of
valuing groups for scoring. When collective fire has been concentrated
on any objective on the landscape, the rod is held vertically against
the screen with the bottom of it resting on the point of aim. A mark
is then made on the sky-screen at the top of the rod. This mark
indicates where the centre of the group of shot-holes should be. For
instructional practices the groups may be valued on the principle that
the smaller the group the greater the fire effect. For competitions
two concentric wire rectangles, 5 inches by 4 inches and 2½ inches by
2 inches respectively, may be used for scoring. The rectangles will be
placed over the group, their longest sides being vertical, with their
centre placed on the mark indicating where the centre of the shot
group should be. Every shot in the inner rectangle will then count two
points, and every shot in the remainder of the larger rectangle will
count one point. For every shot outside the larger rectangle two points
will be deducted.

(ii) When fire has been distributed between two points on the
landscape, a mark is made 26½ inches vertically above each point, as
already described. These two marks are joined by a line parallel to
that along which fire has been distributed. A line 1½ inches above, and
another 1½ inches below, this line are drawn parallel to it. The ends
of these lines are then joined by vertical lines which pass through
the two marks joined by the centre line. The rectangle formed in this
manner is divided vertically into equal parts, being either one for
each firer or one for each fire-unit. Each group of shots fired by a
firer or a fire-unit should be found grouped in the proper part of the
rectangle. Each shot in its proper part will count two points. For each
shot outside its proper part two points will be deducted. For every
part of the rectangle which is empty five points will be deducted.


VII. SOLANO TARGET--MARKS I AND II.

1. =Official Handbook.=--Full directions regarding the Solano Target
and landscape targets, together with information as to their use
for instruction, are contained in the official handbook--_Standard
Equipment for Miniature Ranges_ (40, War Office, 2005)--from which the
following short extracts are made. One of these handbooks is supplied
to units with each Solano Target, and should be kept for reference.

2. =Framework and Mechanism.= (Fig. 53).--The Mark I Target consists
of a framework containing two tiers 10 feet long--Tier A (higher),
and Tier B (lower). Tier A is fitted with crossing target mechanism,
operating two target carriers from opposite ends of the Tier, and clips
for disappearing targets arranged in two separate sections which can be
operated simultaneously or separately. Tier B is fitted with falling
target clips, which allow targets to fall when hit. Falling clips can
be raised and lowered from the firing-point, like the disappearing
clips on Tier A. The former can be shifted to right and left, and the
latter linked together with coupling clips to facilitate any desired
arrangement of targets or figures. All mechanism can be operated from
the firing-point by means of cords labelled to show the particular
mechanism they operate (Fig. 54).

3. =Scenery.=--There are two types of scenery--A and C--consisting of
backgrounds which will serve to represent foreground, middle distance,
and distance of almost any kind of country in any part of the world.
The scenery is pasted on frames, and can be placed in position on the
target in a moment (Figs. 55 and 56). Patching pieces are provided to
repair shot-holes which are not visible from the firing-point to the
naked eye.

4. =Scenic Accessories=.--The details of a landscape can be arranged
on the target by placing the various scenic accessories, consisting of
colour-printed representations of various natural and other features,
mounted on stiff card, in any desired position on either tier by fixing
them in grooves made for this purpose either behind targets or in front
to represent cover. The scenic accessories are coloured and scaled for
different ranges, the range being printed on each. They may be used to
represent the following features:

  _Wooded hills._
  _Flat-topped hills or kopjes._
  _Conical hills._
  _Woods._
  _Fir-wood._
  _Group of houses with church._
  _Group of cottages._
  _House._
  _Cottage._
  _Oak-tree._
  _Elm-tree._
  _Fir-tree._
  _Palm-tree._
  _Hedgerow._
  _Thick hedge or bush._
  _Bushes._
  _Stone wall._
  _Undergrowth._
  _Folds of ground._
  _Low banks._
  _Indian hill fort._
  _Sangar._
  _Rocks._

5. =Solano Figures.=--The Solano figures are all scaled to size for
various distances, and consist of the following brown, grey, or
colour-printed figures. Each figure is provided with a base equal in
depth to the clips which hold them in position.

  +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
  | Reference |                     Description.                           | Distance |
  |   Number. |                                                            | (Yards). |
  +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
  |    42     | Infantryman in kneeling position                           |    200   |
  |     1     |      ”       ” standing position                           |    400   |
  |     2     |      ”       ” prone position or firing from open          |          |
  |           |                   trench                                   |    400   |
  |     3     |      ”      firing from behind sand-bag                    |    400   |
  |     4     |      ”        ”      ”  loophole in head cover             |    400   |
  |     5     |      ”      in standing position                           |    600   |
  |     6     |      ”       ”    ”        ”                               |    800   |
  |     7     |      ”       ” kneeling position                           |    800   |
  |     8     |      ”       ” lying position                              |    800   |
  |     9     | Mounted cavalryman                                         |    800   |
  |    19     | Machine-gun in action                                      |    800   |
  |    25     | Infantry line in extended order                            |  1,000   |
  |    26     |     ”      ”   ”     ”                                     |  1,200   |
  |    27     |     ”      ”   ”     ”                                     |  1,400   |
  |    29     | Machine-gun in action                                      |  1,400   |
  |    30     | Infantry line in extended order                            |  1,600   |
  |    31     |     ”      ”   ”     ”                                     |  1,800   |
  |    32     | Company of infantry in fours                               |  2,000   |
  |    33     | Infantry line in extended order                            |  2,000   |
  |    34     | Field-gun in action                                        |  2,000   |
  |    35     | }                {Convoy waggon facing firer’s right       |  2,000   |
  |    35_a_  | }Crossing-targets{   ”      ”      ”      ”    left        |  2,000   |
  |    37     | }                {Squadron of cavalry facing firer’s right |  2,000   |
  |    37_a_  | }                {   ”         ”       ”      ”    left    |  2,000   |
  |    38     | Company of infantry in fours                               |  2,500   |
  |    39     |    ”     ”    ”        column                              |  2,800   |
  +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+----------+

6. =Observation Practices.=--Observation practices may be carried out
by heaping a bank of sawdust at the foot of the apparatus below Tier
B, with its surface sloping at the same angle as the end-frames. To
fix targets in the sawdust, attach to _Observation Practice Holders_
consisting of iron pins grooved at the top to hold targets. _Care
must be taken to remove all sawdust and grit displaced by bullets
from the falling target clips and other mechanism, or their action
may be clogged. A brush should be used to clean the mechanism after
observation practices._

7. =Landscape Targets.=--The official handbook above referred to
contains information as to fixing landscape targets to the framework of
the Solano Target in position for instruction in firing (Fig. 57).


VIII. SOLANO ELEMENTARY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TARGETS.[34]

1. In _Musketry Regulations_, para. 361, it is laid down that in
carrying out training on miniature ranges _due regard must be paid
to the visibility of service targets, and bull’s-eye targets must be
used for the first few rounds only_. In para. 206 (iii) of _Musketry
Regulations_ (see Sec. 17, para. 4 of this book) focussing the eye on
the fore-sight of the rifle instead of on the object is indicated as a
common fault which instructors must guard against in elementary stages
of training. This error is common when bull’s-eye targets are used, and
unless remedied will adversely affect shooting at service Targets, on
which the eye must be focussed, and which must be watched closely when
firing.

2. =Elementary Targets= (Figs. 67 and 68).--The Solano Elementary
Targets have been designed to counteract the tendency to focus the
eye on the fore-sight instead of on the target, and may be used for
grouping and application practices after firing at the bull’s-eye
target. These targets are coloured green, brown, and grey, instead
of white, to accustom the eye to the tints of natural backgrounds
against which service targets will be seen. The aiming-mark in No. 2 is
less distinct than in No. 1, to accustom the eye gradually to focussing
on indistinct targets when aiming.

[Illustration: =Fig. 67.=--SOLANO ELEMENTARY TARGET NO. 1.

(Actual size. See footnote, p. 250.)]

[Illustration: =Fig. 68.=--SOLANO ELEMENTARY TARGET NO. 2.

(Actual size. See footnote, p. 250.)]

3. =Triangle Aiming and Scoring Diagrams.=--(i) Triangles have been
substituted in these targets for concentric circles as aiming and
scoring diagrams, because they have a truer relation to the shape of
the human figure in both lying and upright positions. The triangle on
No. 1 target has relation to the human figure in an upright position,
and the triangle on No. 2 target to the human figure in a lying
position. The _dimensions of the triangles on these targets correspond
with the regulation grouping standards of the British Army_.

[Illustration:

    =Fig. 69.=--A CIRCLE (3 INCHES IN DIAMETER) AND A TRIANGLE
    (3 INCHES EQUILATERAL) SHOWING THAT THE TRIANGLE AS AIMING
    AND SCORING DIAGRAM INDUCES CLOSER GROUPING THAN THE CIRCLE
    BY ALLOWING LESS MARGIN FOR BOTH VERTICAL AND LATERAL ERRORS
    REPRESENTED BY THE DOTS.]

(ii) For elementary instruction in aiming the important six o’clock
line--the centre of the base of the triangle--is on these targets an
indicated instead of an imaginary line, as in the case of the circular
bull’s-eye. More consistent grouping is induced by the triangle owing
to the fact that it allows a much narrower margin for lateral errors,
while its conical shape and straight base considerably curtail the
scoring area for vertical errors off the six o’clock line as compared
with the circle (Fig. 69). The triangle, moreover, as an aiming and
scoring surface puts a premium upon a _low point of aim_ and from
the first inculcates in men, as a habit, this vital principle of
marksmanship in war.

[Illustration: =Fig. 70.=--SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET NO. 1. UPRIGHT
FIGURE. 25 YARDS = 400.

(Slightly reduced from actual size. See footnote, p. 250.)]

[Illustration: =Fig. 71.=--SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET NO. 2. UPRIGHT
FIGURE. 25 YARDS = 500.

(Actual size. See footnote, p. 250.)]

(iii) The centre triangles are not made smaller, firstly, because it
is not desired to encourage the habit of slow aim which is engendered
by individual practice at very small marks, and which militates
against efficiency in snapshooting and rapid firing; and, secondly,
because it is not desired to encourage men to attain a useless and
disproportionate degree of excellence in firing at elementary targets
which is merely preparatory for practice at service targets.

[Illustration: =Fig. 72.=--SOLANO INSTRUCTIONAL TARGET NO. 3. LYING
FIGURE. 25 YARDS = 300.

(Actual size. See footnote, p. 250.)]

4. =Instructional Targets= (Figs. 70, 71, and 72).--(i) These targets
are also coloured green, grey, and brown, the colour of the uniform
of the figures on them corresponding in each case with that of the
target. The figures are accurately scaled down to correct size at 25
yards for the actual distances, so as to help men in judging close
range by accustoming the eye to the appearance of men seen at different
distances against backgrounds which harmonize with the colour of their
uniform. It must be remembered that the figures on these targets,
though necessarily depicted in fixed postures as stationary marks,
represent men in movement during which they are seldom stationary or
seen in a fixed posture, except, possibly, for a few seconds while
lying down to fire.

(ii) Accordingly, marks are not given for hits scored on any particular
part of the figures depicted in fixed postures, which would usually be
seen in movement, but for shots grouped in areas of comparative value
as regards probable assurance of fire effect, chosen in the light of
experience of war as the best aiming points for firing at figures in
movement which frequently and suddenly alternate between the upright
and lying positions. The centre triangles, representing the most
valuable of these grouping areas, are purposely made fairly large for
the reasons stated in connection with the elementary triangles--namely,
that they are grouping areas for snapshooting, and not for deliberate
firing.



INDEX


  Aim corrector, use of, 53, 241

  ---- teacher, Legret, use of, 240

  Aiming and firing, instruction and practices in, 43-46, 72

  ---- at crossing targets, 58

  ---- at ground and service targets, 53, 54

  ---- disc, use of, 52, 243

  ---- instruction in, 43-61, 208

  ---- marks, 47, 193

  ---- off for movement, 58, 59, 217

  ---- ---- ---- wind, 55-57

  ---- rules for, 47, 48

  ---- up and down, xxii, 57, 58

  Aircraft, firing on, 112

  Alarms, automatic, 193

  Alignment, automatic, of rifles, 194

  ---- of sights, 48, 49

  Ammunition, care of, 12

  ---- Mark VI bullet, 21, 22, 24, 34, 35, 38, 50

  ---- Mark VII bullet, 21, 22, 24, 34, 50

  ---- surplus, 166

  Annual courses, 177, 181

  Anticipatory orders, 128, 227

  Application practices, 149

  ---- tactical, of rifle fire, 112-119, 228

  Arms, care of, xii, 10-12

  ---- cleaning of, 4-10

  ---- defects in, instructions regarding, 1

  Arms, inspection of, on parade, 15-17

  ---- small, examination of, 12-15, 17

  Army Ordnance Corps, courses for, 180, 181

  ---- Service Corps, courses for, 180, 181

  ---- Veterinary Corps, classification practices for, 170

  Artillery, effect of rifle fire on, 111

  Averages, computation of, 167


  Background, effect of, on visibility of targets, 73, 83, 211

  Backsight, adjustment of, 60, 61

  Back-reckoning, range finding by, 97

  Barometric pressure, effect of, on shooting, 27

  Bayonet, fixed, effect of, on shooting, 24

  Beaten zone, 33, 34, 38-42

  Bolt, 7, 9, 11

  Bore, cleaning of, 9


  Cadet competitions, 230

  ---- muscle exercises, 79, 80

  Casualties, ammunition of, 132

  Cavalry, classification practices for, 168

  ---- courses for, 171, 174, 177-179

  ---- effect of rifle fire on, 111

  Classification practices, conditions of, 168-170, 178, 179

  Classification practices in judging distance, 94-96

  ---- ranges, field practices on, 184-192

  Cleaning of the rifle, 4-10

  Clock-face method of describing targets, 123

  Close range, effect of fire at, 110

  ---- ---- firing without sighting at, 22

  Collective field practices, 155-158, 176, 179, 188-192

  ---- ---- ---- conduct of, 183

  ---- ---- ---- on Landscape targets, 229

  ---- ---- ---- on Solano target, 226-228

  ---- fire, dispersion of, 31-35

  ---- ---- need for, 29-31, 221

  Combined sights, use of, 36-38, 89, 230

  Competitions, directions for all, 201, 230

  Conduct of range and field practices, 159-192

  Cone of fire, 31, 35, 36

  Countryside, terms describing, xxvi

  Cover, adapting firing positions to, 75, 76

  ---- firing from, 73-77, 161, 210

  ---- improvising on miniature ranges, 204

  Crossing targets, aiming and firing at, 58, 59, 151

  Cut-off, use of, 71


  Dangerous space, conditions affecting extent of, 25, 26, 34

  Dead ground, 42

  Defiladed zone, 40, 42

  Deflection, table of, for side winds, 55

  Deliberate practices, 143, 161

  Demonstrations of individual and collective field practices, 214, 221

  Description of targets, 83, 119-127

  ---- ---- ---- instruction in, on miniature ranges, 212

  ---- points, 120

  Discernment of targets, 82-84, 210

  Distant range, effect of fire at, 110

  Drift, effect of, 24


  Effect of fire at different ranges on various formations and objectives, 110-112

  Effective fire, zone of, 35, 36

  ---- range, effect of fire at, 110

  Elementary figure targets, 206, 245, 246

  ---- targets, Solano, 207, 250-256

  Elevation. See Sighting

  Error of the day, xxiii, 37

  Examination of small-arms, 12-15, 17


  Field-glasses, use of, 84, 121, 165

  Field practices, 141, 151-158

  Field practices, elementary, 171

  ---- ---- on classification ranges, 184-192

  ---- ---- ---- miniature ranges, 213-230

  Figure targets, 207, 246

  Figures, miniature range, 207, 247

  ---- Solano, 249

  Finger, use of, for judging lateral distance, 92

  Finger-breadth method of describing targets, 122

  Fire, accuracy of, practices in, 187-190, 219, 232

  ---- action, organization for, 106-110, 224

  ---- and movement, 114, 186, 191, 219, 224

  ---- collective. See Collective fire

  ---- concentrated, 115, 154, 223, 229

  ---- control, 105-134, 212, 223

  ---- ---- practices in, 188, 226

  ---- converging, xxiii, 115

  ---- covering, xxiii, 116, 223

  ---- direction, 105-134, 212

  ---- ---- practices, 154, 179, 220, 226-227

  ---- discipline, 130-134, 212

  ---- dispersion of, 31-36

  ---- distributed, 36, 115, 154, 223

  ---- ---- practices in, 227, 229

  ---- effect of, at various ranges, on various formations and objectives, 111, 112

  ---- ---- relation of ground to, 38-42

  ---- effective, xxiii, 35, 36, 110

  ---- enfilade, xxiii, 115

  ---- grazing, xxiii, 41, 42

  ---- individual, 29-31

  ---- oblique, xxiv, 115

  ---- observation of. See Observation of fire

  ---- opening of, 113, 114, 153, 222

  ---- ---- ---- practices in, 185, 189, 216, 217, 228

  ---- orders, 127-130, 188

  ---- rapid, 117, 118, 150

  ---- ---- practice in, 187-189, 219, 227, 228

  ---- rates of, 117

  ---- searching, xxiv, 35-38, 115

  ---- short bursts of, 118

  ---- superiority of, xxvi, 113, 189

  ---- sweeping, 115

  ---- tactical application of, 112-119, 228

  ---- theory of rifle, 18-42

  ---- trenches, xi

  ---- unaimed, xxiv, 41, 42

  ---- unit commander, duties of, 109, 212

  ---- ---- composition of, xxiv, 108

  ---- unsteady, 119

  ---- volume of, 117

  Firing, aiming and, instruction, 43-46, 72

  ---- elementary, instruction in, 62-80

  ---- from cover, 73-77, 161, 210

  ---- positions, 66-69

  ---- ---- adapted to cover, 75, 76

  ---- ---- height of cover for different, 68, 74

  ---- ---- vulnerability of different, 66, 67, 209

  ---- rapid, instruction in, 150

  ---- ---- practices in, 187-189, 227, 228, 232

  ---- up and down hill, 26, 27

  Flare lights, 193

  Foreground, illumination of, x

  ---- range sketch of, 101

  Foresight, use of, in aiming, 50, 51

  Formations, effect of fire on various, 111

  Fouling, cause and removal of, 3

  Frontages and objectives, allocation of, 107


  Gauze, use of, for cleaning, 5, 6

  German musketry, vii

  ---- night attacks, ix

  ---- plan of attack, viii

  Grenade, hand, 194-200

  Ground, aiming at, 53, 54

  ---- dead, 42

  ---- firing at, practice in, 218

  ---- relation of, to dangerous space, 26

  ---- ---- ---- to fire effect, 38-42

  ---- study of, instruction in, 86, 88, 211

  Group of shots, 31, 146, 147

  ---- ---- ---- rules for measuring, 140, 160, 247

  Grouping and application, 146-150

  ---- practices, 146, 159, 160, 180, 213, 231

  Gun-flash, range finding by, 98


  Hand grenades, 194-200

  Harmonizing rifles, 244, 245


  Illumination grenade, x

  ---- of foreground, x

  Indication of targets, 123-126

  Individual field practices, 152-154, 176, 179, 185-188

  ---- ---- ---- on miniature ranges, 214-220

  ---- fire, limit of, 29-31

  Infantry, courses for, 171, 174, 177

  ---- classification practices for, 168

  Inspection of arms, 15-17

  Instructional practices, 174-177, 213

  ---- targets, Solano, 207, 254-257


  Jambs, instructions regarding, in timed practices, 162

  Judging distance by eye, 91-96

  Jump, effect of, 23, 24


  Kneeling position, 68


  Landscape target practices, 229, 247

  Lateral distance, estimating, 92

  Lectures, 18, 31, 43, 105, 106, 135, 212, 214, 221

  Legret aim-teacher, use of, 240

  Loading, instruction and practices, 69-71

  Long range, effect of fire at, 110

  ---- ---- sights, 49, 61

  Lying position, 67, 68


  Machine-guns, effect of rifle fire on, 111

  Map-reading, range-finding by, 97

  Marking down, instruction in and practice in, 54, 217

  Military vocabulary, instruction in, 84, 85

  ---- ---- ---- ---- on miniature ranges, 211

  ---- ---- list of terms, xxvi-xxviii

  Miniature ranges, cadet competitions on, 230

  ---- ---- collective field practices on, 26-30

  ---- ---- field practices on, 213-230

  ---- ---- fire-direction practices on, 220

  ---- ---- improvising cover for, 204

  ---- ---- individual field practices on, 214-220

  ---- ---- instruction on, 207-212

  ---- ---- precautions for safety on, 204

  ---- ---- preliminary training on, 207-212

  ---- ---- range practices on, 213

  ---- ---- rifles for firing on, 204

  ---- ---- scope of training on, 203

  ---- ---- targets for use on, 205

  Missfires, cause and directions regarding, 12, 162

  Movement, avoidance of, in loading and firing, 67, 73, 209

  ---- effect of, on visibility of targets, 84, 209

  ---- fire and, 114, 186, 191, 219, 224

  Muscle exercises, 77, 80

  Mutual support, 116, 223


  Nickelling, cause and removal of, 3

  Night firing, 193, 194, 230


  Observation practices, 165

  ---- ---- on miniature ranges, 213, 250

  ---- of fire, ranging by, 29, 38, 89, 96, 97

  ---- ---- ---- practices in, 188, 190, 230, 250

  Observers, duties of, 110

  Organization for fire action, 106-110, 224


  Pairs, working in, 131

  Point of mean impact, 147, 160

  Preliminary training and tests, 135-140

  ---- ---- on miniature ranges, 207-212

  Pull-off, 11, 64

  Pull-through, use of, 4, 5


  Qualification, conditions of, for Part I., Table B, 167


  Range-cards and range-marks, 98-103, 212

  ----- finding, methods of, 96-98, 190

  ----- practices, conduct of, 162-166

  ---- ---- instruction in, 141-146

  ---- sketch of foreground, 101

  Ranges, effect of fire at different, 110

  ---- terms applied to, xxv

  Ranging, methods of, 89, 90, 190

  Recognition of targets, 126, 212

  Recruits’ course, 171, 174-176, 180

  Ricochets, 26

  Rifles, care of, xii, 10-12

  ---- cleaning of, 4-10

  ---- drill purposes, 15

  ---- examination of, 13-15, 17

  ---- for firing on miniature ranges, 204

  ---- inspection of, on parade, 15-17

  ---- M.L.E., 13, 15-17

  ---- ---- charger loading, 14, 236-239

  ---- M.L.M., 13, 15-17

  ---- parts of various, 233-239

  ---- selection of, for recruits, 46

  ---- short, M.L.E., 14, 15, 233-235

  Rod for measuring groups, 247

  Royal Army Medical Corps, classification practices for, 170

  Royal Artillery, courses for, 180, 181

  Royal Engineers, classification practices for, 169

  ---- ---- courses for, 171, 174-180


  Safety-catch, use of, 71

  Scoring, directions for, 245-247

  Searching, 35-38

  Sectors, method of dividing Field of Fire into, 107

  Service targets, aiming at, 51, 53

  Shot group. See Group of shots

  Sighting of rifles, 23

  Sights, alignment of, 48, 49

  ---- combined. See Combined sights

  ---- long-range, aiming with, 49

  ---- rapid adjustment of, 60, 61, 209

  Sitting position for firing, 69

  Snapping, 63-66

  Snapshooting, instruction in, 150, 218, 231

  Solano elementary and instructional targets, 207, 250-257

  Solano figures, list of, 249

  ---- scenery anti scenic accessories, 248

  ---- target, arrangement of, for practices, 213, 220, 221

  ---- demonstrations on, 214, 221

  ---- Marks I and II, 248-250

  Sound, location of enemy by, 84

  ---- range-finding by, 98

  Standing position, 67

  Surprise, effect of, 113, 118


  Tables A--Recruits course, 174-176, 180

  ---- B--Annual course, 177-179, 181 Targets, choice of, 153, 215, 222

  ---- figure. See Figure targets

  ---- for use on miniature ranges, 205-207

  ---- indication of, 123-126

  Temperature, effect of, on shooting, 27

  Thirty yards range, practices on, 159

  Timed practices, rules for, 161

  Trained Soldiers’ course, rules for conduct of, 172-174

  ---- ---- ---- Tables B, 177, 181

  Trajectory, 21, 22, 25

  Trenches, fire, xi

  Triangle aiming and scoring diagrams, 252

  ---- of error as a test of proficiency in aiming, 51-53

  Trigger-pressing, 63-66


  Unloading, directions for, 70


  Visibility of targets, effect of background on, 73, 83, 211

  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- movement on, 84, 209

  Visual training, 81, 82

  ---- ---- on miniature ranges, 210

  Volume of fire, 117


  Wear, causes and prevention of, 2

  Wind, aiming-off for, 55-57, 227

  ---- allowance for, 28-29

  ---- deflection table for, 55

  ---- effect of, on shooting, 28

  ---- head, 28

  ---- judging strength and direction of, 55

  ---- oblique, 28, 29, 56

  ---- rear, 28

  ---- side, 28, 29, 55

  Wire gauze, 5, 6


  Zone, beaten, 33, 34 38-42

  ---- of effective fire, 35-37



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FOOTNOTES:

[1] See Appendix, VII.

[2] These paragraphs contain information given by a captured German
officer who speaks with authority in regard both to musketry and
machine guns. His statements appear to represent the views held in the
German Army before the war, on which the training of the German soldier
has been based.

[3] See Preface, para. 10.

[4] This precaution will also be adopted when magazines are not charged.

[5] For the maximum penetration of the pointed bullet in various
substances see Appendix, _Field Entrenchments_, of this series.

[6] Tables giving the maximum height of the trajectory of the Mark VI
and VII bullets at different ranges, together with tables showing the
angles of descent for the last 100 yards of each range, will be found
in _Musketry Regulations_.

[7] This target is described in para. 152, _Musketry Regulations_, Part
II.

[8] For description of and directions for use of Legret Aim-Teacher,
the Aim-Corrector, and Aiming-Disc, see Appendix. A list of necessary
appliances for aiming instruction, including aiming and firing rests,
etc., will be found in para. 6 of this section.

[9] The position for aiming when lying will be taught previously to
this practice.

[10] Shooting from the left shoulder is not to be permitted unless
it is rendered necessary by defective eyesight in the opinion of the
Company Commander.

[11] See Fig. 33 illustrating this point. See also _Drill and Field
Training_ of this series, Fig. 41, and _Field Entrenchments_ of this
series, Figs. 67 and 68.

[12] For directions for adjusting sights in the lying position, see
Sec. 26, para. 4 (iv).

[13] The command _Load_ is only required for drill purposes, or when
charging rifles before leaving quarters on service. It is not used in
fire orders.

[14] The advantages and disadvantages of different forms of cover,
such as hedges, banks, walls, ridges, folds of ground, bushes and
undergrowth, knolls and small hollows, buildings and enclosed spaces,
rocks, mounds of earth, skyline and continuous cover running diagonally
to the line of advance, or which runs or zigzags across the line of
advance, are discussed in this section.

[15] Instructions for training both the eyesight and hearing for use by
night are contained in Sec. 41 of _Drill and Field Training_ of this
series.

[16] See also Sec 72, para 5.

[17] Military features of importance in connection with ground
and cover are dealt with in _Drill and Field Training_ and _Field
Entrenchments_ of this series.

[18] See also Sec. 72, para. 8.

[19] See Sec. 28 of _Drill and Field Training_ of this series for
information as to _communications_, for which, with information as
to _ammunition supply_ see also _Infantry Training 1914_. _Infantry
covering fire_ is dealt with in Sec. 44, para. 13, of this book.
Arrangements for covering fire by machine-guns are dealt with in
_Machine-Gun Training_ of this series (see also _Field Service
Regulations_ and _Infantry Training, 1914_).

[20] With regard to opening fire, see Sec. 44 paras. 3 to 6.

[21] See Preface, para. 11.

[22] Sec. 13 should be read in connection with this paragraph.

[23] See also Sec. 54, para. 3 (vi).

[24] All subordinate commanders are responsible for keeping their
respective superiors, as well as neighbouring commanders, regularly
informed of the progress of events, and of important changes in the
situation as they occur. All ranks should notice what takes place
within their view and hearing, and report anything of importance
accurately and at once to their immediate superior, who must pass the
information on to the higher commanders and to neighbouring units. This
is the foundation of co-operation in war, and is essential not only in
battle, but at every stage of a campaign.--_Infantry Training, 1914_.

[25] The methods by which the development of the soldierly spirit is
inculcated in men, and their character developed in discipline and
other soldierly qualities, are dealt with in Chapter I of _Drill and
Field Training_ of this series.

[26] See the _Physical Training_ books of this series.

[27] The range duties of officers supervising range practices, together
with directions for signalling hits, etc., will be found in _Musketry
Regulations_.

[28] All men not fully exercised in Table B with their companies
(except those referred to in the first sentence of the paragraph to
which this note refers) will be attached to other companies to carry
out the range or field practices omitted; or, if all companies have
completed Table B, a party of casuals may be formed to insure that all
men qualified are fully exercised in the whole of Table B.

[29] For various arrangements to facilitate night firing, and their
combination with automatic alarms, flare lights, and obstacles to
increase fire effect and check the enemy, see Chapter VIII., _Field
Entrenchments_, of this series (see also Preface, para. 7)

[30] See also Sec. 15, para. 3.

[31] See _Drill and Field Training_ of this series, Sec. 31, paras. 4
to 8

[32] Solano figures representing Infantry Lines consist of strips
containing a number of figures at intervals. Lines made of these
figures can be crowded together by overlapping two strips and fixing
them together in the clips.

[33] This is not necessary on the “Section Fire” Landscape Targets,
because the details of each landscape are reproduced in a monotint
or shadowgraph facsimile on the sky-screen to be used with it (Fig.
58). Shot-marks are therefore seen grouped on or about the sky-screen
facsimile of the objective directly above it.

[34] The illustrations of these Targets in this section only show the
aiming-marks and scoring diagrams. These are printed in the centre of
square card surfaces of convenient size in the usual manner, the cards
being green, grey, or brown, instead of white.


[Transcriber’s Note:

Obvious printer errors corrected silently.

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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