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Title: A Book of Distinctive Interiors
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                  _A_ BOOK _of_

              DISTINCTIVE INTERIORS


                   _EDITED BY_

               WILLIAM A. VOLLMER

                 [Illustration]


                    NEW YORK
             McBRIDE, NAST & COMPANY
                      1912



         COPYRIGHT, 1910, 1911, 1912, BY
             McBRIDE, NAST & COMPANY


           _Published November, 1912_



      Contents
                                                PAGE

  PLANNING THE LIVING-ROOM                         5

  By _A. Raymond Ellis_


  DESIGNING THE DINING-ROOM                       47

  By _A. Raymond Ellis_


  DECORATING AND FURNISHING THE BEDROOM           69

  By _Margaret Greenleaf_


  THE PROBLEM OF THE BATHROOM                     87

  By _A. Raymond Ellis_


  THE PROPER TREATMENT FOR THE NURSERY            99

  By _Sarah Leyburn Coe_


  CHARACTERISTIC HALLS AND STAIRWAY TYPES        108


  PLANNING THE KITCHEN                           116

  By _James Earle Miller_

[Illustration:

    Pleasing decorative effects may be obtained by bringing out the
    natural graining of the woodwork. Chestnut and cypress are
    particularly suitable for this as they may be stained and wax
    finished, or stained and rubbed down to produce this effect. This
    fireplace was built with outside bricks selected for their color.
    There is a mottling of purple and bluish tones among the reds that
    harmonizes strikingly with the Oriental rug before it
]



[Illustration]



Planning the Living-room


[Illustration:

    A lounge before the fireplace becomes more useful if a table bearing
    a lamp is placed behind it. Cypress is reasonable for interior trim,
    costing from sixty to sixty-eight dollars a thousand feet
]

After the method of modern planning, the living-room is treated as the
principal room in the house. I do not mean to say that this room should
be overdone, or given undue prominence to the exclusion of the other
rooms, but it is essential that this room be treated differently from
the old-fashioned way we formerly treated our living-rooms, then
generally a front and back parlor. These two rooms have now been
superseded by one large room, as our mode of living and entertaining
makes it more desirable than the two small, stuffy rooms, then used
only occasionally.  To-day we plan to give pleasure and comfort to the
family, rather than the occasional guest.

[Illustration:

    The drawing of the suggested room arrangement shows the fireplace
    and the French doors leading to the piazza. Above the ivory tinted
    wainscoting the background paper is of a putty color and panels are
    filled with a striped and foliated fabric held in place by a molding
    strip

    The ground plan of the room shows a good arrangement of rugs and
    furniture in order that advantage may be taken of the fireplace and
    the various lights. Conversation may be carried on with ease and
    comfort and the room used for various purposes conveniently
]

[Illustration: This reception room has chiefly Louis XVI furniture,
which appears well with the light gray and white woodwork designed
after the Adam style]

There are probably two or three dozen ways that the living-room can be
planned and decorated and at the same time be comfortable and
attractive. I have chosen to illustrate this with a type of living-room
that adapts itself to almost any house and offers the greatest amount
of free space when the room is properly furnished. The room is 15 ft.
× 29 ft. 6 in., with a ceiling height of 9 feet, these dimensions
giving a well-proportioned room.  The fireplace is in the center of the
west wall, flanked on each side by two French doors which open out on a
piazza. At each end of the room are two windows, balancing one another.
On the east wall a wide opening with French doors permits access to the
main hall. The most prominent feature of the room is the fireplace,
which is accentuated and made a natural center. This is an important
consideration when planning a natural grouping of the family or its
guests.

[Illustration: Such architectural features as beamed ceilings should
only be used in rooms of pretentious size. A good example of Caen stone
fireplace is found here]

The treatment of the room is Colonial. A low wainscot, 2 ft. 6 in.
high, comprising a base, panel, and cap, is carried around the room.
The ceiling is beamed with four substantial beams and a half beam to
form a cornice around the room at the junction of the wall and ceiling.
Over the heads of the doors and windows there is a wide wooden frieze
with a cap which ties them, one might say, to the bottom of the
cornice, and makes them more completely an integral part of the
woodwork. The window stools form a part of the wainscot cap.

[Illustration: A summer living-room that achieves a brilliant note
through white woodwork and figured hangings with upholstery to match]

The finish of the room is white wood, given four coats of lead and oil
paint, with a fifth coat of white enamel, rubbed down, and a sixth and
final finishing coat of enamel of an ivory shade that dries out with a
very dull satin-like luster that is very durable and not easily marred.
Above the wainscot the walls are covered with a heavy background paper
having a body color almost of a putty shade, enlivened in certain
lights with a pinkish caste. This is accented by the panels, between
the windows and doors, of a delicately hued fabric with a foliated
striped design. A flat molding covers the edge of the fabric and forms
the panel. In order to balance these and add character to the room, the
draperies at the windows and doors are of soft blue velour, without
which the scheme would be lifeless and flat. The facing of the
fireplace is of Sienna marble surmounted with a simple mantel,
consisting merely of a heavy classical architrave, with a shelf above
and a large plate glass mirror over it. One must not lose sight of the
fact that the colors of this room, while light and delicate, are all
very rich and warm, due to the predominating ivory color of the
woodwork, enlivened and strengthened by the richer and heavier color
used in the panels and curtains.

[Illustration:

    Some would consider it bold to combine white walls and white
    woodwork in the living-room. The rug, pictures and furniture
    covering, however, are chosen with an eye to bright colors
]

The ceiling is sand-finished and tinted to match the walls. The floor
is of quartered oak, filled and given two coats of a finish which
produces a durable even surface with a dull luster that is not so
slippery as a waxed floor. The disposition of the rugs over this floor
is a matter of personal taste and the amount one can afford for rugs.
The rugs should be Oriental and of light uniform coloring. The plans
show probably the most economical way of covering the floor--using one
large rug as a center and filling with smaller rugs. One large rug
might be obtained that would extend from the piano to the pier glass,
but it would have to be an odd shape or specially made.  Two large rugs
might be used, one in each end of the room, with a small rug to fill in
before the fireplace. The approximate positions and proper design for
the various pieces of furniture used in the room are indicated.

In order to obtain the real benefit of the fireplace, it is necessary
to have a broad comfortable sofa or an upholstered mahogany seat in
front of it. In back of this should be a small mahogany table on which
an ornamental lamp may stand. On each side of the table can be drawn up
large comfortable chairs. This arrangement permits the light of the
lamp to fall in the correct position for anyone wishing to read in the
chairs or on the seat in front of the fireplace. At one side of the
fireplace a large wing-chair would be well placed. The bookcases would,
of course, be unnecessary if there were a library in the house, but
where the living-room is to answer the general purposes of the family,
the book-shelves would be found very useful, and could be movable or
built in as part of the finish. Between the northern windows a fine
position is obtained for the piano, on the right of which is a good
place for a davenport.

[Illustration:

    Where a living-room is long, various parts of it may be devoted to
    different uses, one end being a library and the other a sitting-room
    for instance, with a corner for deskwork
]

The disposition of the minor pieces of furniture need not be mentioned,
except the fact that a pier glass at the opposite end of the room,
between the two southern windows is a very decorative treatment, and
that the corner at the left affords a place for a tea table or a
Colonial pie-crust table.

[Illustration:

    The low hanging center light is rapidly being superseded by
    individual fixtures about the room or hung from chains. The
    three-quarter paneling here is attractive when combined with some
    conventionalized frieze design
]

In addition the electric lights are provided with switches, and in the
baseboard around the room are two plugs for attaching portable table
lamps.  There must also be a bell registering its signal on an
annunciator in the kitchen,--one ring for a maid--two rings for tea, or
as the housewife may arrange.

The cost of the furniture used in this room, covered in cotton, made
from the architect's drawings, would be as follows: 18th century sofa,
rolled ends, $90; and it requires 3-1/6 yards of 50-inch goods to cover
it. Low-boy with drawers, $90--size 2 ft. 6 in. × 4 ft. 6 in. Tip-top
tea table, 38 in. in diameter, $60. Martha Washington wing-chair, $54,
in cotton; requires 5 yards of 50-inch goods to cover. Martha
Washington armchair, $40, in cotton; requires 2 yards of 50-inch goods
to cover. The crown ladder-back side chairs would cost about $35 each
in cotton, and the armchair to match, $40.

[Illustration:

    As a general color rule for decoration, red should be used for north
    rooms and blue for east and west rooms; the warmer tones in
    living-rooms than in bedrooms. This shows a good use of scrim
    curtains with a gathered valance
]

The beamed ceiling, door and window casings, mantel and wainscot in the
room would cost about $450. If the wainscot were omitted about $75
would be saved--the mantel and marble facing cost about $100 separately.


A. RAYMOND ELLIS

[Illustration: The use of a single large rug as the basis for the floor
covering is often very satisfactory. This house shows an interesting
treatment with a molding that acts as cornice]

[Illustration:

    There is something in the restraint shown in the fireplace of
    Indiana limestone with no mantel shelf that overdecoration could
    never have obtained. An interesting feature is the use of candle
    sconces as an auxiliary to the electric lighting
]

[Illustration: Heavy woodwork requires the use of heavy, substantial
furniture. In this room, where the appearance of craftsmanship is
prevalent, such furniture is very suitable]

[Illustration: A very unpretentious room, but one in good taste. The
furniture has all been planned for a distinct location and has been
built in to it]

[Illustration:

    A large living-room demands some such architectural treatment as
    these pillars. The usual mistake is on the side of overdecoration.
    Here, however, a decided simplicity is employed, leaving the
    flanking windows in small bays
]

[Illustration:

    Oftentimes four beams only are used
    for the ceiling; two as a cornice and two framing
    in the chimney-piece
]

[Illustration:

    A consideration of modern house decoration is to provide comfort for
    all members. A small den off the living-room affords privacy when
    others occupy the living-room
]

[Illustration:

    In a California bungalow there is an interesting decorative
    combination where old heirlooms of furniture from the Eastern
    ancestors of the family are carefully preserved and Navajo rugs are
    used as a floor covering. These rugs and the Indian baskets are
    chosen of a color that will not clash with the polished mahogany
]

[Illustration:

    Another corner of the bungalow living-room on page 18 shows a good
    type of secretary. The Navajo rugs seem to add a tone of vigor that
    is not found in the rag rugs generally used in this connection
]

[Illustration:

    A living-room given a Manorial treatment with the use of Gothic
    arches. It is carefully treated, even to the rug, which is
    rectangular in pattern somewhat like the ceiling beams. Although
    this is in a great house, there is no reason why smaller houses
    might not be furnished with equal consistency
]

[Illustration:

    Two living-rooms in an old Connecticut Colonial house that are
    decorated with furniture in use during Revolutionary times. These
    flowered papers were considered very rich then and have colors well
    chosen as a background for the dark mahogany furniture
]

[Illustration:

    An antique stone fireplace forms
    the keynote for this room and gives the suggestion
    for large commodious chairs and lounges. The table
    and chair in the foreground show Jacobean
    influences
]

[Illustration:

    There is surely a decorative quality in bookcases that is heightened
    by the color of books when arranged properly. Perhaps the results
    might have been better had all the bookcases been built the same
    height entirely around the room. The furniture here is of a type
    that is particularly comfortable and wears well
]

[Illustration:

    A living-room decorated along Colonial lines, where the fireplace of
    red brick with wide white mortar joints is particularly effective.
    French doors open onto a veranda that is used as a living-room
    annex. The mantel is a reproduction of an old one
]

[Illustration:

    A charming, little Colonial room is decorated entirely in white
    woodwork with a baseboard. The prim pattern of the flowered
    wallpaper is quite appropriate. The only modern furniture appearing
    is the wicker chair, but it lends no jarring note
]

[Illustration:

    This room with its heavy settles and rag rugs, its ornaments and
    pictures, is furnished with nothing but objects from Colonial times.
    The floor with its original wide boards is stained a dark color and
    much of it left bare
]

[Illustration:

    This room shows the possibility of combining various sorts of
    furniture. Wicker and willow are suitable for the living-room when
    used with furniture of an informal type. Above the fireplace is a
    plaster reproduction of a section of the Parthenon frieze that is
    well placed
]

[Illustration:

    The architects of the West are achieving distinction in the creation
    of a particular style. This interior is characteristic of their
    work. Horizontal lines are emphasized and colored brickwork enters
    as a part of the decoration
]

[Illustration:

    A bay with three connecting windows of this sort may be curtained as
    a unit. There is but one valance for the three windows and light
    silk curtains are used to match the grass cloth of the walls
]

[Illustration:

    Living-rooms need not always be indoors. In this home a glazed in
    piazza makes it possible to enjoy the early days of spring and late
    fall when the weather is too uncomfortable to remain out-of-doors.
    The porch is furnished with all the conveniences that may be found
    in an indoor living-room and has connections for reading lights and
    other lamps. The furniture is of grass cloth, willow and wicker, and
    there are rugs covering the entire floorspace
]

[Illustration:

    Much of the Colonial carving was extremely simple. Here added
    decorative detail appears in the old-fashioned fireback of modeled
    iron. The covering of the old rosewood furniture is quite in harmony
    with the wallpaper
]

[Illustration:

    An exemplification of the use of deep colors in the living-room
    treatment is here shown. A restful green makes a good background for
    large and variously formed pieces
]

[Illustration:

    This studio living-room is a successful exponent of the same
    principle of color harmony shown in the previous illustration. A
    heterogeneous collection of various styles of furniture is rendered
    harmonious by the use of kindred tones of browns, tans and dull reds
]

[Illustration:

    Built-in furniture is not limited to seats and cupboards. This desk
    is carpenter built, and although quite inexpensive fits more exactly
    than many products that could be purchased. The bookcases encircling
    the room are made part of the desk
]

[Illustration:

    The living-room of two stories and with mezzanine floor is receiving
    more and more favor for its spacious effect. The simple woodwork in
    this room is well chosen and there is a good suggestion in the
    lighting fixtures
]

[Illustration:

    The cream colored walls and woodwork in this English drawing-room
    make an especially fine background for mahogany furniture. This
    fireplace nook is a good example of modern English work
]

[Illustration:

    English architects consider that woodwork may be decorative in
    itself, and finish it so that its natural colors take the place of
    wall paper. The walls are of unfinished plaster
]

[Illustration:

    Some straight lines might be introduced by different curtains and by
    doing away with the fussy table-covers and frilled lounge pillow.
    The mantel is particularly good Dutch Colonial but is too much
    cluttered with bric-à-brac
]

[Illustration:

    Every house builder should consider that the downstairs living-room
    may not always be occupied by the entire family at one time. The
    upstairs sitting-room provides privacy on all occasions. The mantel
    treatment here is interesting
]

[Illustration:

    The living-room in the same house is rendered distinctive by a large
    inglenook. It is finished in rough plaster and colored in a light
    tan
]

[Illustration:

    Green and white is a scheme for this summer living-room. White
    wicker chairs are combined with green willow ones and the green
    design of the wall paper is echoed in the green rug with a white
    pattern
]

[Illustration:

    Even the most modest bungalow may have personality. The match board
    wall is finished with a light stain that shows the grain. India
    prints with their bold colors and striking designs are used for
    curtains, table and couch covers and for the pillows
]

[Illustration:

    The inside curtains in this living-room are of figured Madras.
    Although they fade, their price is reasonable enough to permit
    reduplication every few years with small expense
]

[Illustration:

    A more formal room is this with its intricate mahogany paneling. The
    ceiling has an architectural cornice, below which the wall is
    decorated with a velour in proper coloring
]

[Illustration:

    There is a growing desire to build living-rooms that open into the
    light and air. This is as completely furnished as any other room in
    the house, but is given a dark stained lattice background as
    suitable for plants
]

[Illustration:

    An informal living-room, where the plaster walls are divided by
    vertical strips run from a wide molding to the baseboard. This is a
    cheap, and if properly handled, effective substitute for paneling
]

[Illustration:

    A living-room that was designed to take advantage of the view in
    many directions from a high situation. A large rug with harmonious
    colors occupies the center of the floor space
]

[Illustration:

    Dutch house builders make a feature of the window nook and most of
    the light is directed toward one part of the room. Matting of an
    ivory color has been selected as a floor covering
]

[Illustration:

    An English mantel treatment that is worth copying is shown here. A
    single-color carpet is used and the brilliant chintzes lend the
    completing note of cheerfulness
]

[Illustration:

    In contrast is this room where deeper tones are emphasized in rugs
    and wall treatment and it is desired to produce a more serious
    effect
]

[Illustration:

    Another example of the two-story living-room is here shown in more
    elaborate style where the precedent was the Manorial hall of
    England. Tapestries and heavy wall papers are used and the
    chandeliers are large and elaborate
]

[Illustration:

    This sun room is an integral part of the house and is fitted with
    casement windows, but is by no means a porch. The fireplace renders
    it a comfortable place in the most severe weather
]

[Illustration:

    Furniture covering and draperies here are of a large figured English
    chintz. As the ceiling was low, a green paper with a perpendicular
    stripe was used for heightening effect
]

[Illustration:

    The chief feature of this room is the doorway with its fine fan
    light. The chairs in the foreground are of Heppelwhite design
]

[Illustration:

    In England a great deal of attention is given to centering the
    family life about the hearth. This inglenook has almost the value of
    an additional room. The walls are plain except for the woodwork and
    the tiling
]

[Illustration:

    The inglenook here has a raised floor of ordinary brick and an
    attractive brick fireplace the mantel of which is a cypress beam
    supported by projecting bricks. The furniture is made consistent by
    being stained and then waxed
]

[Illustration:

    Glazed tile fireplaces are very much the vogue in England. Here the
    colors are selected to go well with the light ash treatment of the
    woodwork
]

[Illustration:

    The heavy beams in this living-room made it a simple matter to place
    the inglenook. The curved lines of the seat, however, and the
    grotesque plaster figures might grow tiresome, and are most suitable
    for the house occupied only in the summer or one with more informal
    treatment
]

[Illustration:

    An architect's suggested treatment of a Flemish dining-room. The
    fireplace is of Caen stone and the plaster wall is sand-finished in
    a dark shade
]



[Illustration]

Designing the Dining-room


We have a habit, generally, of making the dining-room either English or
Colonial in style, I suppose for the reason that we have so many good
types of furniture in these two styles that their use makes it easier
to obtain an attractive dining-room. The room of Flemish character is
probably more unusual and I have, therefore, chosen to offer a design
in this style.

[Illustration:

    The plan shows an arrangement for a dining-room about fifteen by
    sixteen feet, showing suggested positions for the rugs and furniture
    that is consistent with the scheme
]

[Illustration:

    A very similar treatment to that described in the article is shown
    in this room with its high rectangular panel wainscot. Instead of a
    cornice the sand-finished walls are rounded into the ceiling and the
    ceiling is lower. An interesting candle fixture is hung above the
    plain oak table. The picture framed in the paneling is an additional
    possibility
]

[Illustration:

    Warm tones are appreciated in a dining-room where the woodwork is
    all white. Here they are obtained in an Oriental rug of good colors.
    Chairs are of present-day manufacture, suggested by Sheraton's work
]

The room is 15 × 16 feet in size, opening from a broad hall from which
it is shut off with glass doors. The morning sun, a very essential
feature in any dining-room, is obtained through the eastern window and
through the southern windows in the summer, while the after-glow of the
summer sunset comes through the west window, thus insuring a pleasant
dining-room at all times.  There is nothing so cheerless as a
breakfast-room which is cut off from the sun in the winter, by being
isolated in the north or northeastern part of the house; it continually
exerts a depressing influence on the family at meals.

The dining-room is adjoined by the serving-room, which connects with
the kitchen, affording a quick and direct line of service.

[Illustration:

    Most dining-rooms need color, which may be introduced in a frieze,
    as here, or by the use of tapestry. Side fixtures, such as these in
    duplication of old Colonial lamps, may be purchased for six or seven
    dollars. The center light is of etched glass
]

It is suggested that the room be wainscoted in oak to a height of seven
feet, with rectangular panels formed by very flat rails and stiles,
without any panel moldings. A wide plate-rail forms the cap of the
wainscot, affording a place to put bits of china and old pieces of
pewter or copper. Above the wainscot the plaster is sand-finished, as
is also the ceiling, and at the intersection of the ceiling and side
walls a cornice is carried around the room. On the north side is a
large fireplace, which is a necessity on a rainy day to make breakfast
cheerful and the room comfortable. It is built of light gray Caen
stone, which has almost the appearance of limestone. It is imported in
blocks and is soft enough to be worked into a variety of shapes. The
hearth has a curb border, raised an inch or two above the level of the
stone hearth in order to retain the ashes better. A heavy carved casing
is carried around the stonework of the fireplace, surmounted by a
carved shelf supported on heavy brackets.

[Illustration:

    All the furniture necessary beside the chairs and dining-table is a
    sideboard and a serving-table. The china closet may be dispensed
    with if a place for decorative china is made on a plate rail. This
    china closet matches well and seems part of the room
]

French doors are an essential feature in the dining-room because they
permit it to be shut off from the hall and kept warm, and they prevent
interruptions during the dinner hour. As they are of glass, they afford
a view into the hall--a very attractive feature, which does away with
that feeling of oppressiveness experienced sometimes from being shut up
in a room with solid doors of wood. The floor is of oak, filled and
given two coats of a finish which has a dull luster and enough
elasticity to make it durable. The floor should be of a shade that is
not too light or so dark that it readily shows the dust.

[Illustration:

    Instead of using the separate pieces of dining-room furniture, two
    sideboards were built in flanking the fireplace and as an extension
    of its woodwork. A tapestry paper is used above this wainscot
]

Opposite the fireplace is a position for the sideboard and there is
wall space enough for a china-cupboard although I should prefer to omit
this cumbersome piece of furniture, which everybody shuns with the
admonition of childhood still ringing in his ears, "mustn't touch."
Near the door to the serving-room is the proper place for the
serving-table, and there remains plenty of wall space for chairs. By
referring to the plan the position of these pieces of furniture will be
made more clear.

[Illustration:

    A possible variation for the seven-foot wainscot suggested, is the
    room entirely paneled with cypress finished to show the grain. The
    French doors in this room are desirable in a dining-room, as they
    allow plenty of light to enter
]

The decoration of this room is a simple problem.  On the floor there
should be a rich-colored rug with deep reds in it, strong enough to
afford a foundation for the dark sturdy Flemish furniture and the dark
finish of the wainscot. Above the wainscot, the sand-finished ceiling
and side walls should be sized and painted with three coats of oil
paint of a dull golden shade which reflects a warm glow over the room
when lighted. The rough texture of the sand-finish is well adapted for
such use as this. Of course a frieze of foliated tapestry paper, or
real tapestry, could be used with good effect, or even an oil-painted
frieze representing a scene from medieval history is permissible. It is
safe to say that all of these schemes would be good, though, of course,
there would be a great difference in their cost. The radiator under the
east window should be painted to match the color of the wainscot. To
obtain the correct shade for this wainscot, the wood should go through
several processes of staining. The first coat is a deep penetrating
stain of burnt Sienna hue to form a mellowing base, similar to the warm
colors the old masters used in their paintings. This makes a warm color
to reflect through the succeeding coats of darker stain, each coat of
which should be rubbed into the wood and any superfluous stain rubbed
off, exposing each time the high lights of the wood's grain. The final
coat should be a thin coat of wax or a flat-drying oil paint to give
the wood a dull luster.

[Illustration:

    The woodwork treatment here is much the same as that suggested in
    the text, but of a Colonial or English style and finished white. A
    good stenciled frieze is used above it. The chairs are of
    Chippendale design
]

The furniture should be of the Flemish type, preferably a shade lighter
or a shade darker than that of the finish of the woodwork, in order to
give contrast. The dining-room table should be a modern extension table
with heavy, turned legs, which would of course be repeated in the
sideboard, serving-table and chairs. This type of furniture depends
entirely for its beauty upon its plain sturdy lines and simple
turnings. The chairs should have leather seats and backs, studded with
copper nails. The brasses of the fireplace should be of odd design, and
the electric lights and fixtures should be of old brass to add a touch
of color to the dark wood finish.

It seems hardly necessary to mention that the lights of this room
should be governed by an electric switch, and an electric bell on the
table should ring a buzzer in the serving-room.

In the serving-room there is a counter shelf two feet eight inches high
on each side wall, over which there are glazed cases with sliding doors
to contain the china. Under the window there is a sink for the washing
of fine china, glass, and silver, which should not go into the kitchen
with the heavier dishes. Under the counter are cupboards and drawers
and at one end a plate-warmer and a small refrigerator, in order that
one may obtain a bite to eat late at night without having to go through
the kitchen to the kitchen pantry--which is sometimes awkward if there
is no servant's dining-room and the maid is entertaining.

[Illustration:

    Still another substitute for the wainscot is the use of wood strips
    applied in this fashion. The Moravian tiles in the fireplace add
    welcome color
]

The finish of the room would cost approximately $575 in selected white
oak. The mantel alone is worth $80 and the wainscot about $300. The
furniture for the room, made from detail drawings, would cost about
$450 in oak and leather.


  A. RAYMOND ELLIS

[Illustration:

    Where the dining-room woodwork shows its natural grain, a specially
    designed buffet of quartered oak, such as this, proves very
    attractive and satisfactory
]

[Illustration:

    The rough plaster walls here are surmounted by a plaster frieze of
    grapes in color. This design is echoed in the center drop light
]

[Illustration:

    Flanking china closets, when in perfect balance, form an admirable
    feature for the decoration of a Colonial room
]

[Illustration:

    The ladder back design of Chippendale is most attractive. In this
    room with its white woodwork an attempt has been made to repeat the
    dominant colors of the rug in the wall paper
]

[Illustration:

    In this dining-room there is architectural treatment that could by
    no means find place in any but a large room. Panels at one end of
    the room are filled with tapestries that give a fine color effect.
    The scheme is Georgian and the furniture Hepplewhite
]

[Illustration:

    Having a large quantity of old blue china, the owner of this room
    selected a brown figured paper that would harmonize with it. The
    plates have almost the value of a stenciled frieze
]

[Illustration:

    Two types of modern furniture are shown here. The china closet is
    unnatural and is of no decorative value and but little usefulness.
    The table and chairs are of simple design and good, solid
    workmanship
]

[Illustration:

    This Colonial room shows an effective panel treatment that can be
    secured at low cost by applying a molding directly to the plaster
    and then painting the plaster and the woodwork alike. Good Colonial
    fixtures are shown above the mantel.
]

[Illustration:

    Faithfulness to Colonial tradition does not necessarily make the
    most comfortable room, but the Windsor chairs are serviceable and
    easy
]

[Illustration:

    White woodwork in this dining-room permits such a set design as this
    with the little green bay trees. A gate-legged table is not always
    the most comfortable thing for a dining-room
]

[Illustration:

    Furniture, made of applewood, finished with a plain smooth surface
    and covered with reeds, is especially applicable to the small house
    and suggests the original home, the English cottage
]

[Illustration:

    White enameled furniture as well as woodwork is a novel suggestion
    for the summer home and makes a brilliant, cheery dining-room,
    especially when accompanied by bright reds or blues in the rugs,
    chair cushions and curtains
]

[Illustration:

    In the summer camp little ornamentation is necessary, yet the
    natural attractiveness of wood finish is both useful and beautiful
    here
]

[Illustration:

    In remodeling an old tavern, the taproom with its smoke-blackened
    beams and dark wainscot was converted into the dining-room. The use
    of handmade floor tile is particularly interesting
]

[Illustration:

    This Dutch interior offers a suggestion for a summer camp in the
    dining-room alcove placed at one end of the living-room
]

[Illustration:

    Wilton rugs in a single color with a darker toned border serve well
    for the dining-room. The curtains repeat the color in a figured
    pattern
]

[Illustration:

    During house cleaning there are various objections to a plate rail.
    In this dining-room it was done away with and a frieze was set low
    and secured by the use of a narrow white molding. If the room were
    irregular, it would have been almost impossible to locate in this
    position, but in a rectangular room it is not so difficult. It is in
    neutral colors and the friezes are in Delft blue with draperies of a
    darker blue. The furniture is Hepplewhite
]

[Illustration:

    The combination of gray and white as used here is an effective
    background for mahogany. The candle sconce fixtures at either side
    of the sideboard alcove are in good taste
]

[Illustration:

    Although the furniture need not be permanently fixed to the room it
    may be planned to accommodate certain spaces, as here. The chairs
    are reproductions along Colonial lines
]

[Illustration:

    In a house where there is an additional room, there is a suggestion
    from the German boudoir. This is really the modern woman's workroom
    and place of rest and adjoins the sleeping apartment. It is also a
    place to receive intimate friends
]



[Illustration]

Decorating and Furnishing the Bedroom


[Illustration:

    Attractive results are achieved in adopting a central figure or idea
    and planning the room about it. The main unit of design in the wall
    paper has been repeated on the ivory white furniture
]

In the bedroom the individuality of the occupant is more in evidence
than in any other room of the house, as such rooms or suites are
complete in themselves and need not necessarily be considered
relatively. Where the house has the marked characteristics of any
period the architectural detail of the wood trim in the bedrooms as
well as that in the other apartments will, of course, express this and
must in a measure influence the furnishings, but even under these
conditions more latitude is permissible in the chambers than in the
living-rooms.

[Illustration:

    This room, also shown in the two illustrations following, uses the
    blue bird as a _motif_. Cretonne repeats the design that is echoed
    again in the cut out border. A blue and white rag rug, having a blue
    bird edging, is suitable for the floor
]

A room in which no period idea is dominant may be made very charming,
and the individual taste of the occupant may influence the entire
scheme of decoration. A very dainty and attractive room is shown in the
illustration on page 69.

The floral paper used on the side wall here is beautiful in color and
design, and the crown of this has a cut out extension of flowers and
leaves that is applied directly to the ceiling proper.  The furniture
of ivory enamel finish has been painted with clusters of the same
flowers as those shown in the wall paper. Much of the green of the
foliage in this design is repeated in the two-tone rug upon the floor.
The curtains and bedspread are made of ivory white linen taffeta and
bordered with four-inch bands of cretonne showing the same floral
design as the side walls.

Much of the comfort as well as the attractiveness of a bedroom depends
upon the arrangement of the furniture it holds. The space for the bed
is usually indicated by the architect in the first drafting of the
plans, and should be adhered to unless the room is unusually large.
However, the other furniture may be arranged and rearranged until the
right position is found for each piece.

Where a couch is included this may be placed near the window with the
bookshelves conveniently at hand, or it may be set directly across the
foot of the bed. The reading- or work-tables and easy-chairs should
find their permanent place, as their proper grouping adds much to the
livableness of any room.

[Illustration:

    The wall paper is plain with a satin stripe in what is known as a
    cerulean blue. The crown effect of the border is a silhouetted
    pattern cut out and attached separately
]

The English idea of placing a dressing-table directly in front of a
window is not especially favored here as we are loath to sacrifice so
much of direct sun and air as the closed window would necessitate,
although by such an arrangement we secure a good overhead light.

[Illustration: A white bedstead of this style may be had either of wood
enameled or of metal]

The placing of the lighting fixtures should also be given some careful
study. Side or drop lights should be near the dressing-mirror, and a
convenient stand or drop light, well shaded, should be placed near the
head of the bed. And a well-arranged table light for reading and sewing
is of great convenience in a large bedroom which is used at all as a
sitting-room. However small the room, the light must be well arranged
for the dressing-table. A central light for a bedroom is a very
objectionable feature.

[Illustration:

    In many cases the bedroom serves more purposes than for sleeping
    quarters. There should be space for a desk, comfortable chairs and
    books
]

Light and crisp colors are more acceptable in the decorative scheme of
the bedroom than any other room of the house. Where plain walls and
figured cretonnes or chintzes are used in combination the latter should
appear generously, that is, not only in valanced curtains at windows,
but as slip covers, or cushion covers for chairs, window-seat, or
lounge.

The old-time idea of a blue, a pink, a green, and a yellow room is
falling into disuse, although any one of these colors may be brought
out prominently in the scheme of the room, or, as is even more usual,
all may be combined in either wall covering or drapery material. The
dominant color should appear again in the plain or two-tone floor
covering.

Plain and embroidered muslins for window draperies and covers for
dressing-tables are effective and dainty, and by having two sets for a
room it may be kept always delightfully fresh and clean, as these
muslins launder well. A small coin-dot of color on a very sheer, though
not fine, white ground can be purchased from 25 to 35 cents a yard and
gives a dainty charm to a room in which it is freely used that few
other fabrics at the same cost will supply.

[Illustration:

    There is a preference for bedrooms furnished in light colors. Here
    the paper is figured and the color of the design appears in curtains
    of a solid color. The closet doors have full length mirror panels
]

Where the decorative scheme must be very inexpensively carried out, a
floral paper on an ivory ground can be purchased for 25 cents a roll of
eight yards. In these cheaper papers one finds a better selection in
yellow and old rose than in other colors; greens, too, are usually soft
and attractive. If plain colored over-draperies are desired for the
windows these may be made from cheese-cloth which has been dyed to the
desired shade, matching the color of the flower in the wall paper. It
is not a difficult matter for the amateur to do.

There are now made some very attractive cotton crepes showing a variety
of floral and other patterns. Some of these are beautiful in color and
good in design, and, with plain tinted walls, a room in which the
curtains and slip covers for cushions and pillows are made from this
fabric is very attractive.

[Illustration:

    The lighting fixtures should be planned for the position the
    dressing table and chiffonier is to occupy. This is an attractive
    bedroom paper of an old-fashioned design
]

Old furniture may be revamped and given a fresh coat of ivory white
enamel, and a central rug or a number of small rugs made after the
old-fashioned rag carpet in one or two colors makes a satisfactory
floor covering for use in such rooms.  If the woodwork can be painted
ivory white the scheme is more successful, as this is an important
factor in the completed whole. In fact for bedrooms there is no better
finish than the ivory white enamel. It is easy to apply and durable,
and harmonizes with almost any scheme of furnishing one may desire to
bring out in the room.

Attractive little shades for electric lights or candles may be made
from bits of silk or even tissue paper, and, used in a room in which
old rose predominates, the effect is charming, as the light showing
through the rose color is very soft and pleasing.


  MARGARET GREENLEAF

[Illustration:

    An unusual decorative treatment is
    the division of walls into colored panels which
    are held in place by molding strips
]

[Illustration:

    The perpendicular stripe in this paper serves to increase the height
    of a rather low ceiling. The window is fitted with sash curtains and
    draperies of a figured pattern on the order of the crown border
]

[Illustration:

    An interesting feature of this house is the long window seat placed
    for reading or sewing. Beneath it is a quantity of space for many
    things
]

[Illustration:

    A room consistently decorated along Colonial lines. Some sort of a
    couch or lounge is a decided boon in the bedroom, as it provides a
    place for the afternoon nap
]

[Illustration:

    The so-called craftsman's house or
    house with woodwork left in natural condition may
    well use furniture built to match the trim
]

[Illustration:

    The informal bedroom of rough
    plaster and brick substitutes strength of color
    and form for the delicacy of Colonial white
    woodwork
]

[Illustration:

    Many people still delight in the old-fashioned four-poster or in the
    canopy bed. This should be considered in planning the room, as the
    architect generally arranges a certain set position for it
]

[Illustration:

    This dressing table shows a satisfactory arrangement for
    lighting--two flanking lights and one overhead light. The striped
    walls require the color furnished by the hangings
]

[Illustration:

    In this little under-the-eaves bedroom a surprising saving of space
    has been made by fitting part of one side of the room with a series
    of drawers painted in white enamel. There is room here for the
    household linen and for storing away clothes
]

[Illustration:

    Where neutral grays are chosen for the walls there should be some
    warmth of color elsewhere. Here most of the decoration is left to
    the furniture in its warm mahogany tones and to the brighter colors
    of the rug
]

[Illustration:

    In the small bedroom that must be used as a study there should be a
    space for living-room comforts. The sash curtains combined with
    inside ones of sill length are attractive
]

[Illustration:

    Even a small under-the-eaves bedroom may be well arranged. This is
    consistent Colonial with its rag rugs and Windsor chair
]

[Illustration:

    A bedroom in which the cream colored chintz with pink and green
    design is repeated in the upholstery and echoed in the carpet
]

[Illustration:

    Curtains may be very simple but in good taste. This is a fine
    cheesecloth with a stencil design, which conventionalizes the
    flowers in the wall paper
]

[Illustration:

    Another treatment of cheesecloth, showing a poppy design that is
    taken from the cut out band pasted at the top of a gray striped wall
    paper
]

[Illustration:

    Views of an old-fashioned bedroom that is finished in dull grayish
    blue. Such heavy furniture would appear uncomfortably bulky in any
    smaller room
]

[Illustration:

    The carpet helps to make the room homelike, with bare floors the
    height and size of the room would be more apparent
]

[Illustration:

    A short length of cretonne hanging between two sill length curtains
    may be used instead of a valance
]

[Illustration:

    The cut out paper border goes well with a shaped valance and side
    curtains. The valance is hung on a projecting frame
]

[Illustration:

    The Japanese design is repeated on the gathered valance of the
    curtains, chairs and the table-cover. Several original stencils of
    butterflies are framed as decorations
]

[Illustration:

    Ivory white is always a
    satisfactory color for the woodwork of most
    bedrooms. Here it takes the place of wall paper
]

[Illustration:

    One article of bedroom furniture that should not be neglected is a
    bedside cabinet on which an electric light may be placed. These twin
    beds are of gray ash with a natural finish
]

[Illustration:

    An example of several of the uses for stenciled borders is shown
    here in this desk corner. The room makes good use of wicker
    furniture and bungalow rugs
]



[Illustration]



The Problem of the Bathroom


Only a few years ago, sanitary conveniences, which were very crude when
compared with those of to-day, were considered luxuries; to-day they
are necessities, demanded for our physical comfort and welfare. The
old-fashioned Saturday tubbing was a much dreaded and messy event; but
with sanitary house plumbing, bathing became a pleasure and a valuable
adjunct to good health. It is, therefore, interesting to note the
treatments of the present bathroom.

The average house to-day contains at least two bathrooms, the simplest
equipment being a water-closet, lavatory, and tub, the two latter
fixtures supplied with hot and cold water supply pipes. From these
three fixtures of the simplest kind, installed in a room not smaller
than 5 ft. 6 in. × 6 ft. 6 in., we may enlarge the scheme to contain a
shower-bath, with floor receptor to catch the water, a sitz or
foot-bath, double lavatories, if for the owner's bath, with marble or
porcelain pier slabs for toilet articles. These fixtures may be simple
in pattern, of enameled iron or of porcelain or marble, in a room
having tile or marble floors and wainscot. There are, happily,
inexpensive fixtures of good quality that are just as efficient as the
most expensive ones, and the plainer the lines of the fixtures the more
beautiful they will appear in the finished bath; heavy ornamentation in
color or molded design should be avoided--it is not so easily kept
clean, nor is it so beautiful.

In many houses having but one servant, a separate bath is provided for
her use, and in a house costing $8,000 it is customary to provide a
private bath connecting with the owner's chamber, as well as a general
bath for the family and guests, and a servants' bath in the attic. The
importance the bath and sanitary plumbing have attained is shown by the
fact that seven or eight per cent of the cost of a house is taken for
plumbing, and in houses costing from $8,000 to $15,000, three bathrooms
are installed.

[Illustration:

    Two oval lavatories are generally representative of the latest
    convenience for the modern bathroom
]

The model servants' bath should have a floor of small hexagonal white,
unglazed tile with hard plastered walls, above a sanitary base, painted
with four coats of moisture-resisting paint and equipped with a
five-foot enameled iron tub, quiet syphon-jet closet, with oak seat and
tank, and a plain pattern enameled iron lavatory. A medicine closet
should be built in the wall over it, having a mirror set in the door.
The fixtures cannot be properly set in an area less than 5 ft. 6 in. ×
6 ft. 6 in., and 5 ft. 6 in. × 7 ft. 6 in. would be much better.

The owner's bath is largely a matter of personal taste and cost.
Usually this has a floor of 2 in.  white, unglazed hexagonal tile, with
a 4 × 6 in.  white glazed tile for walls, with cap and sanitary base,
marble thresholds and plinth blocks. The height of the wainscot is
optional; but 4 ft. 6 in. is usual, with the walls and ceilings above
it oil painted. The room should not be smaller than 8 ft. × 10 ft. and
may open from the owner's chamber or dressing-room. Its equipment
usually comprises two lavatories of vitreous china, placed at least six
inches apart, unless a double lavatory is used in one slab, over which
may be a medicine closet built into the wall with mirror door set in;
the bathroom door should have a full-length mirror. In the illustration
that appears on page 95 is shown a silent syphon-jet closet with
low-down tank finished in mahogany. The "low-down combinations," as
they are called, are made in oak, cherry, mahogany, and white enamel.
The tub should be at least 5 ft. long, of enameled iron or porcelain,
finished on both sides if enameled, and supported on porcelain block
feet, with standing waste and mixing cocks. The tub must be set far
enough from the wall to permit cleaning.

[Illustration:

    The great problem in planning a bathroom is not to sacrifice all
    warmth and color to sanitation. At present there are washable and
    sanitary papers made by the decorators that are very proper for
    bathroom furnishings. The seagull design in blues and greens and the
    kingfisher in a brilliant, cool green are both suitable and
    attractive
]

[Illustration:

    The upper left hand plan shows excellent spacing and good
    arrangement combining all the desirable features and conveniences of
    a bathroom. The upper right hand plan shows a desirable arrangement
    for minimum space. The lower left hand plan shows a modern idea of
    dividing the bathroom into two sections. In the lower right hand
    plan there is a complete equipment, well arranged, but with few more
    than the necessary conveniences
]

Every fitting or exposed pipe in the bathroom should be nickel-plated.
The shower may be installed over the tub, as in one of the
illustrations, or made a separate fixture with a floor receptor to
drain off the water. It may be inclosed with a cotton duck curtain,
which is more agreeable to the body than rubber or marble slabs.  The
merits of each fixture and its equipment I shall leave to the reader,
because these things he can readily determine for himself; but the
arrangements and number of fixtures required must be considered--the
quality is a matter of price.  The general bathroom of a house should
be similar to the owner's--in some cases it is divided into two
compartments, as shown in one plan, with the water-closet by
itself--permitting independent use.

[Illustration:

    One especial convenience that should not be neglected is the shower
    with the duck curtain arranged over the top. For bathroom floors the
    hexagonal tile is very suitable and enduring
]

In homes costing from $15,000 up, the number of bathrooms is in
proportion to the number of occupants. Every room may have a connecting
bath with tile floor and wainscot, completely equipped--in such a case
the visit of a guest is not fraught with hasty skirmishes to the
nearest bath, perhaps only to retreat, and wait and listen for an
opportunity to use it.

Plumbing fixtures are made in many materials; the most popular of
these, on account of durability and cost, is cast iron with an enamel
glaze fused on the iron. This ware will stand hard usage, is not easily
fractured, does not craze, and therefore holds its color. The vitreous
china ware is, I think, more appropriate for bathrooms finished in
tile, because the materials, being similar, are in harmony, while the
enameled iron is not quite as heavy or substantial looking when used
with tile. Vitreous china is potter's clay, properly fired, with a
vitreous glaze baked on; porcelain is similar and their cost is about
the same, except that this increases rapidly with the larger pieces;
because fewer perfect fixtures are obtained. Fixtures cut from solid
marble block are the most expensive and their relative merit with their
relation to cost is a question for the owner to determine.

[Illustration:

    A sunken bathtub is a form of luxury that is desirable but requires
    low ceiling in the room below, or that the bathroom be built on the
    ground floor. This is oftentimes an impossible arrangement
]

There is little difference between the enameled iron, vitreous china
and porcelain or marble as far as the retention of heat is concerned,
or the feeling from bodily contact. There are in every kiln some
fixtures that are not quite perfect; they are called "seconds," and
catalogued as "Class B" goods, with a lower price.

The weight of massive plumbing in a frame dwelling is considerable and
will cause a settlement of the floors unless carefully supported.

The fashions in tubs are many. The usual shape is square at the foot
and round at the head-at the foot are the waste and supply pipes which
are made in several combinations. The double bath cock, which gives hot
or cold water or a mixture of both, is advisable for tubs-the small cup
between the faucets is a ring tray and can be replaced with a soap dish
if desired. Most shower-baths have a shampoo attachment or body spray
that can be used instead of the overhead shower, so that the head and
hair are kept dry if desired, and if a shower is not to be installed
this can be provided in the tub.

[Illustration:

    The bathroom to-day finds great need of such built-in conveniences
    as wall chests and cupboards. These should be arranged for at the
    time the house is built
]

A tub incased in tile is a perfectly sanitary treatment, and in some
cases the tub has been sunk into the floor a foot and then incased to
avoid the high step necessary to get into the tub. The plunge--sunk in
the floor--is an unusual treatment that permits more freedom of
movement than the tub; but the tile, when wet, is slippery, and I
should expect one might carelessly slip in with fatal results. Roman
tubs are alike at each end--with fixtures in the middle of one side of
the rim. Solid porcelain tubs rest on the floor, set into the tile. The
ideal position for the tub, if there is available room, is with the
foot against a wall and ample room on either side to get in or out of
it. Tubs are made in lengths ranging from 4 ft. to 6 feet, and about 30
inches in width over rims.

[Illustration:

    This room contains the desirable articles and fixtures for the
    modern bathroom in a very satisfactory arrangement. There is the
    latest thing in nickel plumbing and modern equipment, but at the
    same time there is an attractiveness that is so lacking in the cold,
    hospital type of room
]

[Illustration:

    The small hexagonal floor tiles permit sections to be taken up with
    little difficulty and replaced at small expense. Wall tile, however,
    should be made of the larger rectangular units with a cornice at the
    top and a rounded surbase that obviates a sharp angle at the
    junction with the floor
]

The lavatory is an important fixture that is made in a great many
varieties. The old-fashioned bowl is obsolete--the oval has taken its
place, though probably the best is the kidney-shaped bowl, as it
permits a free and natural movement of the arms in raising water to
lave the face. The bowl should be at least 14 × 17 inches, in a slab 22
× 32, with a space surrounding the bowl countersunk a little to form a
border that tends to confine the splashed water. All the fixtures
manufactured by responsible concerns are equipped with nickel-plated
faucets, wastes, traps, and supplies that are very satisfactory; but
quite often the plumber who installs the work buys the fixtures without
the selected trimmings and substitutes a cheaper pattern. Some tubs and
lavatories are sold in "A" and "B" qualities, and it will be to your
advantage to select the fixtures with your architect, who knows the
grades and fittings.

[Illustration:

    All the wood that is in these bathrooms is heavily enameled in
    white. Both rooms show a good use of colored tile worked in
    attractive designs. The room on the left has a mosaic pattern in
    several shades as a decoration, while in the right hand room there
    is a bright border and vertical strips making panels. The tiles
    between them are laid in herring-bone fashion. Both tubs are without
    supports and rest flat on the floor
]

[Illustration:

    This European treatment is particularly effective for the owner's
    bath, which opens into his bedroom. The glass doors provide all the
    lighting necessary and are very decorative with their curved
    segments
]

A particularly pleasing treatment is the bath opening from the owner's
chamber, and separated from it by glass partition. This arrangement is
good where outside light cannot be afforded or obtained, and a curtain
effectively screens it.

[Illustration:

    A simple bathroom where waterproof enameled paint was used in
    several coats instead of a tiled wainscot, and above this an
    attractive waterproof paper that suggests tiling. Such an
    arrangement is a possibility where tiles may not be purchased
]

Bath-room accessories should be arranged with care and consist of the
following devices: Plate glass shelves supported on nickel-plated
brackets are the best; towel-racks; toothbrush holders; clothes-brush
hangers; clothes hooks; soap dishes; and soiled towel baskets. Hardware
is usually of nickel-plated tubing screwed into the tile. The
accompanying photographs and plans will illustrate the subject further
and are self-explanatory.


  A. RAYMOND ELLIS



[Illustration]

The Proper Treatment for the Nursery


Furnishings for the modern child's room, like everything else that
belongs to that important personage, are as complete in the smallest
detail as skill and ingenuity can make them, and every feature of a
well-appointed bedroom may be duplicated in miniature for the
youngsters.

The wall-papers and draperies especially designed for nurseries and
children's rooms are in a way more distinctively juvenile than the
actual pieces of furniture, and are a most important consideration in
fitting out such apartments. If one does not care to go to the expense
of furnishing a nursery completely, paper and curtains that will leave
no doubt as to the identity of the room may be had at small cost, and
from this simple touch the scheme of decorations and the furniture, to
say nothing of the cost, may be indefinitely extended.

Strictly hygienic parents who scout the idea of wall-paper as being
unhealthy and will have nothing but painted walls in a bedroom are
confronted by a bare expanse that may be sanitary, but is neither
attractive nor interesting for the child. With walls treated in this
way a decorative frieze may be used with good effect. The friezes,
which come in panels varying in depth from fourteen to nineteen and
one-half inches, are printed in gay colors on backgrounds of blue-gray,
ivory-white, drab, and other neutral tones that can be matched exactly
in the color of the walls.  The designs include processions of Noah's
ark inhabitants, farmyard animals, chickens and ducks, Normandy
peasants going to market, toy villages with stiff little soldiers and
prim-looking trees, hunting scenes, and a row of Dutch kiddies
indulging in a mad race across the paper.

If wall-paper is used it also matches the background of the frieze, the
paper being either in a solid color or with a figure so inconspicuous
that it gives the impression of a single tone.

One of the new papers for children's rooms is a reproduction of the
quaint Kate Greenaway figures that are quite as fascinating to little
people in these days as they were years ago. The background is a pale
yellow and the figures are printed in rather delicate colors, each
group representing one of the calendar months. The effect is
particularly dainty and the designs are diverting for the children
without becoming tiresome from too great contrast in color. Another
paper that shows groups quite as charming is printed from designs by
Boutet de Monvel, the famous French illustrator of child life.

A new idea, and one that is proving popular, is a decided departure
from the conventional wall-paper, with its figures at regularly
repeated intervals. This consists in first putting on the walls a paper
of solid color to be used as a background for single figures or groups
that are cut from friezes and pasted on to suit one's individual taste.
The figures, of course, must be quite large, in order to be effective,
and in some favorite groups cut from a frieze showing little Dutch
girls and yellow chicks the latter are even larger than life. For
nurseries, when the children are very small, the figures are often
arranged in a frieze just above the foot-board, so that they come on a
line with the child's eye, and are therefore vastly more entertaining
than when placed at the infinite distance of the top of the wall.

Blue and white seems to be the favorite combination of colors for
nursery draperies, and among the all-over patterns are a lot of
roly-poly children picking gigantic daisies on a pale blue ground, and
also a Delft design on a white ground covered with black cross lines
that are far enough apart to give a tiled effect. A number of other
colors and patterns may be had as well as the gay printed borders that
come two strips to a width of the material. When figured wallpaper is
used, draperies of solid color with the printed border are rather more
satisfactory, as one set of children or animals tumbling over the
walls, and another set chasing across the draperies, create a
bewildering impression that is anything but restful and quieting for
the small occupant. The borders are particularly attractive for
curtains made of plain scrim or some soft white material, and are
stitched on in strips or cut out and put on in silhouette.

[Illustration:

    The playroom in this house was to be made use of by the grown folks
    occasionally for their handicraft work. Special attention was paid
    to built-in closets convenient for toys and tools
]

Floor coverings especially suitable for children's rooms are to be
found in the more or less recently revived rag carpet rugs, either
plain or with figured borders. Almost any of these rugs with their
decorative strips showing queerly constructed landscapes are suitable,
but most appropriate is one that has a solemn procession of geese
across either end, or another that is ornamented with a family of black
and white bunnies lined up against a red brick wall. They come in
various sizes, from the small hearthrug up to the one that is large
enough for the center of an average size room.

A new rug for nurseries that is rather more practical than pretty is
woven in the same way as the rag rugs, but instead of cotton materials,
strips of oilcloth are used, rolled so that the glossy side is
uppermost. The idea was first employed in making small rugs for
bathrooms, as they are waterproof and easy to keep clean, but they are
quite as serviceable and sanitary for children's rooms, and are cleaned
by wiping off with a damp cloth. They are made in different sizes, and
in a mixed design, like the ordinary rag rug, or with white centers and
borders of solid color.

In the way of furniture, chairs and beds are to be had in a much
greater variety than the other pieces, and the miniature Morris chair
is no doubt the most attractive piece of furniture that is made for the
little folks. It comes in almost as many different styles and prices as
the grown-up variety, and may be had in light or dark wood, with
cushions of velour or leather or figured cotton material, and is a
perfect reproduction of the large chair. Little sets consisting of
table and two chairs, one straight, the other with arms, are decorated
with juvenile figures in color, and may be had for prices that are
quite reasonable.  They are especially useful when no attempt can be
made at arranging a regulation nursery. One of the most serviceable of
these sets is of dark wood with leather seat chairs and a table of good
size, the top of which is hinged and may be raised disclosing a
receptacle for toys or books.

Small willow and wicker tables and chairs are made in attractive
shapes, many of them copies of the larger pieces, and are used either
in the natural color or stained to harmonize with the color scheme of
the room. Less substantial than the pieces made of solid wood, they are
rather more practical for older children than for small ones who are no
respecters of furniture, and, while designed for use all the year
round, they are particularly suitable for summer rooms or to be carried
outdoors.

In spite of the fact that the little white bed is always associated
with the child's room in story and song, to say nothing of the popular
imagination, there are various kinds of brass and wooden beds made in
small sizes that are thoroughly in keeping with one's idea of a typical
nursery. The white enamel beds, which may be had as plain or as
elaborate as one desires, are always dainty, and have the advantage of
harmonizing perfectly with furniture and hangings of almost every
description. Brass beds have the same characteristic, but they are much
more expensive than those of iron, and seem to require rather more
elaborate surroundings. The newest brass beds for children are quite
low, only about half as high as the ordinary bed, which is a distinct
advantage, as it is much easier for the child to climb into, and less
dangerous in case he falls out.

[Illustration:

    The sense of possession that the child has in its own room produces
    much satisfaction. Substantial furniture may be purchased in small
    sizes and a variety of wall treatments are suggested with
    interesting friezes
]

A recently designed wooden bed of attractive appearance shows severely
plain lines in the head and foot boards, and in the sides long narrow
panels are cut out, through which the covering of the box spring is
seen. This bed is made only to order, and is intended for elaborately
decorated rooms in which a definite color scheme is carried out. It may
be had in any desired width and stained any color to match the other
furniture, while the box spring and little pillow and mattress are
covered with the same material as the draperies of the room.

[Illustration:

    Japanese prints are being received with increasing favor and
    thousands of beautiful designs are particularly appropriate for the
    children's room. The subjects are chiefly natural history figures
    and they serve as an inspiration to have stories woven about them
]

Furniture of a special size for children's rooms is made in a design
that is substantial and handsome, by the manufacturer of a well-known
and widely used type. There is a wardrobe just five feet high, with
compartments for hats, clothing, and shoes; a bureau twenty-nine inches
high, with a twenty-inch mirror on it; a bed with high sides, the
simple decorations of which match those of the bureau; rocking chairs
and straight chairs with leather seats, a settle, and tables of
different sizes and shapes. Nothing could be more attractive or
complete than a room furnished in this way for a child of six or seven
years who has outgrown the daintier surroundings of the nursery. It has
all of the dignity of a well-appointed grown-up room, but with
everything in proportion to the size of its owner.

Even washstand sets, suitable as to shape and decoration, may be had
for the child's room in which no detail is to be omitted. They are
little if any smaller than the usual sets, but the decorations are in
keeping with those of the other appointments, and the pitchers are
designed with a view to their being handled easily by small hands.
They are not unlike milk jugs in shape, with a substantial handle over
the top and another at the back, so that there is small chance of their
slipping while in transit, and the mouth is a definitely formed one
that will not fail to pour in the direction intended.

For a comparatively small amount a room may be fitted up with enough
distinctive juvenile furnishings to impart individuality and to give
the child a sense of possession that it will never have in grown-up
surroundings. Even though circumstances are such that it has not had an
elaborate nursery, as soon as a child is old enough to have a room of
its own there is no reason why the furnishings should not be in
keeping, and with the expenditure of a little money a dainty and
attractive room may be arranged. High-priced beds and other pieces of
furniture are by no means necessary, and, as is often the case, the
most reasonably furnished room may be the most satisfactory if a little
ingenuity and good taste are brought into service.

[Illustration:

    There are various ways that Japanese prints may be used in the
    child's room. This and the opposite illustration show prints put on
    the wall and held by a molding at top and bottom. This also may
    contain a glass to protect each picture
]

[Illustration:

    There are decorations such as this that have an educational value
    and that take the place of toys. These little figures on the left
    are really companions, while the plaster plaque illustrates
    Stevenson's Verses
]

[Illustration:

    These bas-reliefs make interesting decorations and at the same time
    serve as object lessons in illustrating good poetry
]

Thirty to thirty-two dollars can be made to cover the cost of
wall-paper, curtains, bed and mattress, a rug and a bureau, all in
sizes and designs suitable for children. The wall-papers in juvenile
patterns are not expensive, and the cost of papering a room of average
size would be about five dollars. A little white iron bed may be had
for as low as five dollars, with seven dollars additional for the
mattress, and a rug 3 × 6 feet in size with a decorative border is
$3.50. A bureau of small size, such as comes in an inexpensive grade of
the so-called antique oak, costs about $8.00. For the very reason that
the furnishings of the room are only temporary, and soon to be outgrown
and discarded, it is quite satisfactory to buy a cheap grade of
furniture whenever possible, if price is a consideration. A small
bureau is less expensive than one made especially in a child's size,
and is equally practical if not so substantially made. Such a bureau
can be done over in white enamel to match the bed, or in any dark color
that may be preferred in place of the shiny oak finish.

For curtains that hang straight from the top of the window to the lower
edge of the sash, scrim at twenty-five cents a yard would cost two
dollars.  Allowing four yards for each of two windows, and enough
printed cretonne to make a decorative border, it would cost a dollar
and a half additional.

These figures are of the very lowest for which a child's room can be
fitted up, but even with everything of the most inexpensive grade it
will give more real pleasure than one on which a much greater amount
has been spent if the room is nondescript in its furnishings and fails
to impress the child with a sense of ownership.

  SARAH LEYBURN COE

[Illustration]

Characteristic Staircase Types and Hall Treatments

[Illustration:

    In the right place half-timber work on plaster has many
    possibilities for hall decoration
]

[Illustration:

    Japanese grass cloth in golden color is an excellent combination for
    chestnut stained light brown. Wood strips are used instead of
    paneling
]

[Illustration:

    In certain old Colonial halls the entrance is fashioned in a
    semicircular recess up which the stairs curve in a spiral. The
    effect is exceedingly beautiful but requires much space
]

[Illustration:

    The front door in this house opens directly into the living-room,
    into which stairs come down at one side. The wood has natural
    treatment and part of the banister forms the wainscot of the room
]

[Illustration:

    Some of the best Colonial detail is to be found in newel posts where
    careful craftsmen worked a variety of spirals
]

[Illustration:

    One method of securing pleasing decorative effects was the use of
    balusters in three different designs
]

[Illustration:

    In the old farmhouses for the sake of warmth the main stairway was
    made with the smallest possible well and often closed with a door at
    the main hall
]

[Illustration:

    This is a modern example by Wilson Eyre of the stair well inclosed
    for the greater part of its length. Such arrangement is only
    possible under certain lighting conditions
]

[Illustration:

    The stairs that rise from this living-room are designed to take up
    as little room as possible. In this they are very successful and
    little of the banister rail and stair woodwork can be seen
]

[Illustration:

    Where there is a large room made dignified by architectural
    decoration the twin stairways curving either side of a main flight
    are decidedly impressive; but one should not plan to make use of
    this effect in any but a pretentious house
]

[Illustration:

    The hall paper should not be a decided contrast to rooms opening
    onto it. Tapestry paper may often be found successful in this
    situation
]

[Illustration:

    Another stairway that divides on the way to the upper flight, but a
    treatment particularly fit for houses in English style of decoration
]

[Illustration:

    This view shows to good advantage the value of an archway between
    living-room and hall. Woodwork, simply carved, frames in
    delightfully the stairway which is so appropriately treated with a
    forest frieze. Curtains would be objectionable here
]

[Illustration:

    This hall is of generous width, and the stairs rise straight with
    but one landing lighted by a large window. A window is almost a
    necessity in the hall as it permits a free circulation of air
    throughout the house
]

[Illustration:

    A use of the Colonial flat arch which separates this stairway from
    the living-room and makes a small room of it
]

[Illustration:

    Simplicity characterizes this Colonial stairway that is very similar
    to the one at the top of page 114. There is, however, a baseboard
    treatment which, like the banister rail, is crowned with mahogany
]

[Illustration:

    In the recess made by the vestibule the stairway is economically
    placed. The hall serves the double purpose of entrance and reception
    room
]



[Illustration]

Planning the Kitchen


There is a growing and altogether proper tendency to treat the kitchen
as an integral part of the house, which was almost entirely absent in
English and American houses of early times; in fact, until within the
last twenty-five years very little thought was attached to it. A
century ago it was regarded advisable to have the kitchen occupy a
separate building somewhat removed from the main building or located at
a great distance from the dining or living rooms, ofttimes the whole
length of the house. The principal reason for this was the primitive
methods used in cooking and preparing foods which were very
objectionable at close range. Odors, noises and unsanitary appliances
made the kitchen a place to be abhorred and to be kept as far away as
possible. The present-day intelligent methods of dealing with the
kitchen, particularly in America, have effected a complete
transformation in this old idea. Our modern successful architect of the
home attaches great importance to the planning of the kitchen, with its
adjoining pantries, closets, storage rooms, etc.; and rightfully he
should, as it goes more towards making for the convenience, help and
comfort of the up-to-date household than possibly any other feature of
the home.

The modern English kitchen with its relation to the dining-room is
interesting for comparison with those here in America, chiefly because
the early English settlers constitute the original source from which we
obtain our start in house-building.  The English kitchen's adjuncts
practically comprise separate departments, such as the scullery,
larder, wood, ashes, knives and boots, fuel, etc. This condition
naturally requires the employment of considerable help even in the
smaller homes. On the other hand, the compactness so noticeable in
American homes--requiring perhaps one-half the space, thus reducing the
necessary help to a minimum and obtaining the maximum of
convenience--has brought our kitchen to a standard, nearly, if not
entirely, approaching the ideal. The American architect has based his
idea for this compactness upon the same reasoning as is exercised in
fitting up a convenient workshop, for truly a kitchen is the workshop
of the house.  Again, the peculiar custom of medieval times in placing
the kitchen a considerable distance from the dining-room still survives
in the English homes, while in American homes a marked difference has
long prevailed. The kitchen here is usually placed as near as possible
to the dining-room, only separated, if at all, by a china-closet,
pantry, or butler's room.

[Illustration:

    The model kitchen has developed considerably from the
    higgledy-piggledy arrangement of Colonial times. Supplies are
    limited to the most necessary articles, and these stored away in a
    handy location
]

[Illustration:

    Such a kitchen _de luxe_ is expensive, but not extravagant. The
    built-in range, tiled wall and floor, together with the open
    plumbing, give the highest degree of sanitation
]

Convenience, cleanliness and ventilation are three essentials that must
be paramount in arranging the up-to-date kitchen and its accessories.

While there may be differences as to minor details, the principal
features to be obtained in establishing a modern kitchen may be found
in the various suggestions herein contained:

1st. The kitchen should be roomy but not excessively large. This
applies to any size of house, as too large a kitchen is maintained at
the expense of convenience and labor. An ideal size for a kitchen in a
house measuring 25 × 50 (containing living-room, reception room,
dining-room and pantry on first floor) would be 12 × 15 feet.

2nd. The general construction of the interior is of the utmost
importance. The floor may be of hard Georgia pine, oiled, or covered
with linoleum or oilcloth. As a covering, linoleum of a good inlaid
pattern, while more expensive than oilcloth, proves the best and most
economical in length of service. In a house where comfort is demanded
regardless of cost, an interlocking rubber tiling is suggested. This
flooring absolutely avoids noises and slipping and is comfortable to
the feet, as well as being of an exceptional durability. Other floors
of a well-merited character are unglazed tile, brick, or one of the
many patented compositions consisting chiefly of cement, which is also
fireproof.

The wainscoting, if adopted for the kitchen, can be of tile, enameled
brick, or matched and V-jointed boards, varnished or painted; but in
any event should be connected with the floor in a manner to avoid
cracks for collecting dust or dirt. This is accomplished (when a wooden
wainscot is used) by means of a plain rounded molding which is set in
the rightangle formed by the junction of the floor with the wainscot.
While seldom seen, because of the expense, a kitchen completely tiled
or bricked on walls, floor and ceiling is indeed a thing of beauty and
necessarily an ideally sanitary room.

[Illustration:

    The sink should have a drainboard space and be located where the
    light may fall directly upon it. The row of hooks for utensils saves
    much walking
]

The doors, window frames, dressers and other necessary woodwork should
be plain, made of medium wood and painted some light color or enameled
white; or finished in the natural state with a transparent varnish.

[Illustration:

    The butler's pantry should have an indirect connection between the
    kitchen and the dining-room. The two doors here keep out odors,
    noise and heat from the dining-room. The refrigerator is in the
    cook's pantry and opens out on the porch
]

The walls and ceiling, if not tiled or bricked, should be finished with
a hard smooth plaster and painted three or four coats of some light
color--light yellow, green, or blue making a very agreeable color to
the eye. This manner of treatment permits the walls to be washed and
kept free from dust and dirt, which latter is a disagreeable feature in
the use of wall papers.

3rd. The proper installation of the various furnishings of the kitchen
is worthy of much thought and consideration. Of all these, nothing is
of more vital importance nor appeals more strongly to the household
than the range. The size of the range is largely governed by the size
of the house or the number of persons it is intended to serve. However,
it is advisable to have a range not less than three feet square for a
seven or eight-room house. It should be of a thoroughly modern style,
with a hood over it, either built in or of sheet iron, an excellent
provision for drawing away the steam and fumes of cooking. And, by all
means, the range should be placed so that direct daylight falls upon
it. Most present-day houses also have either gas or electric ranges
installed in them and these should be near the coal range so as to
confine all cooking to one part of the kitchen; and further, especially
in winter when large gatherings are entertained, they furnish a
combined service. Some large establishments, in addition to the range,
are especially equipped with "warmers."

[Illustration:

    The modern kitchen may be neat and clean if all of wood, with
    V-matched boards varnished or painted. The space under the
    drainboard here for a table is a feature worth adopting. The
    cupboard over the shelf is also an attractive feature
]

The sink, being so closely allied in its usefulness to the range,
should be placed near the latter and under, between or near windows,
but never where the person using it would have his back to the light.
It may be of galvanized iron, copper, soapstone or enameled porcelain,
and provided with an ample draining-board; two being much preferred. If
there is a special sink for vegetables required, it should be
immediately adjoining the draining-board to insure compactness and
convenience as well as economy in plumbing.  The draining-board may be
of hard wood or of wood covered with copper or zinc. The best are made
of enameled ware similar to the sinks.  Draining-boards of copper or
zinc should be given only a slight slope to prevent the possibility of
dishes slipping therefrom.

[Illustration:

    A feature of this plan is the sliding door connecting the kitchen
    and pantry. This may be closed when cooking is in progress and
    successfully keeps all odors from finding their way into the
    dining-room. Opposite windows provide a cross draft and excellent
    ventilation
]

The refrigerator should be built in or placed against an outside wall
in order that the ice can be put in easily from without through either
a small opening or window. If it can be avoided, the refrigerator
should not be placed immediately in the kitchen, but rather in the
entry, pantry or enclosed porch.

The kitchen of the small house which sometimes has no communicating
pantry should have built therein dressers of such proportions as will
accommodate all the necessary dishes, pots, vessels, bins for flour,
sugar, etc., cutlery, and other things essential for obtaining the best
results under the circumstances. A dresser of commodious size is always
a blessing. The top portion, of plain shelves, should be enclosed
either with doors or sliding glass fronts; the lower portion, first
lined with zinc and enclosed with solid wooden doors so constructed to
fit nearly if not airtight. If an exclusive pot closet is desired, it
should be handy to the range and at the same time be under cover for
sanitary reasons.

[Illustration:

    This German kitchen is a model of neatness and cleanliness in its
    white enamel furnishings. The cupboard provides space for china, the
    long shelf beneath being a great convenience, while the various bins
    and drawers provide proper places for everything
]

Frequently in a small kitchen a counter or drop leaves against the wall
are substituted for a table, but in most kitchens a good-sized
substantial table, preferably in the center of the room, is found
indispensable. The table should have a smooth top that can be easily
kept clean.  Although costly, a heavy plate glass fitted perfectly with
rounded edges makes a splendid top for the table.

The service part of the house, of which the kitchen is the central
room, should fit together just as parts of a machine and form a unit in
themselves. The pantries, store rooms, etc., should be placed so as to
afford easy access one to the other.

In a house, which has two or more servants, a dining-room or alcove
should be provided for their use. This may be a part of the kitchen or
immediately adjoining, and merely large enough to seat comfortably the
servants around a table.

[Illustration:

    A kitchen in a large country place that is equipped with every
    possible convenience, sliding doors, built-in refrigerator, clothes
    chute, dumbwaiter and a revolving drum between kitchen and butler's
    pantry. There is also provision made for a servants' dining-room,
    advisable wherever possible
]

The cook's pantry should contain cupboards in which are all the
necessary paraphernalia for preparing pastries, puddings, etc., such as
bins, bakeboards, crockery, pans and supplies, and should be lighted by
at least one window.

The butler's pantry, or china-closet as it is often called--generally
located and affording direct communication between the kitchen and the
dining-room--is essentially a serving-room and should contain a sink
with draining-boards, cupboards and shelves to accommodate the fine
china, glassware and other requisites for the table. With such a plan
the door between the pantry and kitchen may be either sliding or double
swinging, but between the pantry and the dining-room, a noiseless
double-swinging door. A slide, with small shelves or counters on either
side, between the kitchen and pantry, for the passing of food and
dishes, saves time and steps.  It is well to have the communication
rather indirect through the pantry to prevent in a measure the passage
of odors or a direct view of the kitchen by those entering the
dining-room or seated at the table. This can be partly accomplished by
not having the communicating doors directly opposite each other.

[Illustration:

    The kitchen need not be large, if it is compact. In the house 25´ ×
    50´ the ideal size is about 13´ × 15´. A work table of this sort
    does away with many unnecessary steps, the lower shelf being a
    convenient place to put articles that are in constant use
]

The outside entrance to the kitchen should be so placed as to
facilitate the delivery of provisions, preferably through an entry or
an enclosed porch.

The laundry in many houses is combined with the kitchen or immediately
adjoining, in which latter case it often serves as an entry and a place
to store certain articles, such as brooms, buckets and possibly the
refrigerator. The very best plan is to have the laundry in the
basement, with separate outside stairs. In such a case, a chute for
sending soiled linen, etc., should run from the kitchen or pantry to
the laundry.

[Illustration:

    The butler's pantry or serving-room should be equipped with a
    cupboard and sink in order that the finer glass ware can be stored
    and the more fragile articles be washed without finding their way
    into the kitchen
]

[Illustration:

    A rather unusual plan, in which great economy of space is made by
    building the service stairs about the chimney. The pantry is
    exceedingly well arranged in that it takes up no room from the
    kitchen or the dining-room
]

[Illustration:

    Plaster walls should be finished with a hard surface and given
    several coats of a waterproof paint. The shelves beneath the sink
    here provide a place useful and easily accessible
]

The kitchen should above all be well ventilated and have plenty of
daylight. The necessary fumes and heat arising from the cooking should
be taken care of in such a way that none of it is carried to the
dining-room or to other parts of the house.  This can partly be
accomplished by the hood over the range, but plenty of fresh air is
required.  Generally in country homes, the living-rooms are given the
southern exposure, so the kitchen usually faces the north. The best
location is either the northern or eastern exposure, as the cooling
breezes in the summer generally come from that direction, especially in
this part of the country, and combined with the morning sun, make the
kitchen cheerful and cool. If possible there should be exposure on at
least two sides, opposite, affording cross ventilation as well as an
abundance of light. All windows should be well fitted with screens in
summer to keep out flies and other insects attracted by the odors of
cooking.

The best artificial lighting is obtained by a reflector in the center
of the kitchen, possibly with side brackets where necessary, as at the
sink or at the range.

[Illustration:

    A very novel kitchen cupboard is this, with the shelf space in the
    doors giving almost a double capacity. The bread board slides
    beneath a shelf and is provided with handles
]

In a large house the service portion may be situated in a separate wing
and if so the stairs should be in a small hall, centrally located and
near the kitchen, especially the stairs to the cellar. This hall may
contain a closet for brooms and a lavatory for the use of the servants.
It it well not to have the stairway ascending directly from the
kitchen, as it lessens the valuable wall space. The rooms directly over
the kitchen can best be utilized in most cases for servants' sleeping
rooms as they are often objectionable for members of the household, or
guests.


  JAMES EARLE MILLER


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes: Italic text is denoted by _underscores_, bold text
by =equals signs=.





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