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Title: Miss Parloa's Young Housekeeper - Designed Especially to Aid Beginners; Economical Receipts - for those who are Cooking for Two or Three
Author: Parloa, Maria
Language: English
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                             MISS PARLOA’S

                           YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER

                  Designed Especially to aid Beginners


             ECONOMICAL RECEIPTS FOR THOSE WHO ARE COOKING
                            FOR TWO OR THREE


                                   BY
                              MARIA PARLOA

          FOUNDER OF TWO SCHOOLS OF COOKERY AND AUTHOR OF “THE
        APPLEDORE COOK BOOK,” “MISS PARLOA’S KITCHEN COMPANION,”
                    “MISS PARLOA’S NEW COOK BOOK AND
                 MARKETING GUIDE,” “FIRST PRINCIPLES OF
                      HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT,” ETC.


                             _ILLUSTRATED_


                                 BOSTON
                           ESTES AND LAURIAT
                                  1894



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                            COPYRIGHT, 1893,
                            BY MARIA PARLOA.



                           University Press:
                 JOHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.

                              ―――――◀▶―――――


WHEREVER I have gone in the last fifteen years in following my calling
as a teacher of cooking, earnest appeals have been made to me to plan my
next book for the especial benefit of those who have just begun, or who
are about to begin, to keep house for two or three. The young wives want
to know how to buy supplies for a small family; how to cook economically
and well; what to do with food that is left over from any meal; and
numerous other things pertaining to their daily work. At last I have set
about telling them. They will find that it is not necessary to have an
immense income in order to live well. Strict adherence to careful
instructions will, with a little good sense thrown in, enable a young
housekeeper to accomplish wonders. She can practise economy and at the
same time have a table that is attractively and wholesomely
spread,—something for which most housekeepers strive without knowing the
best way to reach the goal. Of course, not all who begin to build a home
are obliged to count every dollar they expend. For the benefit of those
who can start in their married life with a servant to aid them and money
enough to indulge in luxuries, some special information and advice are
given. But, after all, the aim has been particularly to lend a hand to
those whose incomes are moderate; to make the book a simple one,—one
that even a girl may take interest in studying. If it prove of value to
those young women who are establishing homes for themselves, its chief
mission will be accomplished.

                                                                   M. P.

  ROXBURY, MASS., 1893.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CONTENTS.

                              ―――――◀▶―――――


                                                  PAGE

                  A WORD WITH THE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE    1

                  ABOUT FURNISHING THE HOUSE         4

                  DIVISION OF THE HOUSEHOLD WORK    22

                  SOME THINGS TO BE LEARNED EARLY   31

                  WORK ON WASHING DAY               44

                  IN THE DINING-ROOM                52

                  BUYING FOOD AND CARING FOR IT     60

                  SOUPS                             80

                  FISH                              96

                  HOW TO COOK MEAT                 112

                  SAUCES FOR MEAT AND FISH         164

                  SALADS                           172

                  VEGETABLES                       177

                  MISCELLANEOUS DISHES             200

                  BREAD IN VARIOUS FORMS           217

                  CAKE                             241

                  PASTRY                           253

                  PUDDINGS                         260

                  SWEETS                           289

                  BEVERAGES                        300

                  PRESERVES AND PICKLES            307

                  FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON FARMS      324

                  CARE OF THE SICK                 338

                  WHEN CLEANING HOUSE              352

                  ODD BITS OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE     361


                  INDEX                            391



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             MISS PARLOA’S

                           YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER.

                              ―――――◀▶―――――



                               CHAPTER I.

                    A WORD WITH THE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE.


IF one were to get a hundred reputed good housekeepers to come together
and give their ideas of what constitutes good housekeeping, no two would
agree upon all points. There are essentials which every one recognizes,
but there are many things which one housekeeper considers of the
greatest importance, whereas another may think the same things of minor
consequence or of no consequence whatever. It is a sad fact that some
good housekeepers are not good home-makers. The young housekeeper should
bear in mind that, while it is essential that the home should be clean
and orderly, and the food well cooked and regularly served, this does
not make the home. One can get all these comforts in a well conducted
hotel or boarding-house, but the man or woman is to be pitied who has no
higher ideal of a home than what is furnished by a hotel or
boarding-house, no matter how sumptuous. A selfish woman can make a good
housekeeper, so far as the keeping of the house in perfect running order
is concerned, but it is difficult for a selfish or lazy woman to make a
home. A young woman who would create an ideal home must possess some
judgment, and a heart in which charity and sympathy have a large place.

My idea of good housekeeping is where a woman keeps her home sweet and
orderly; provides simple, well cooked food; makes her home so restful
and cheerful that all who come into it shall be better for breathing the
atmosphere of kindness and cheerfulness that pervades the place; and
where the household machinery always runs smoothly because of the
constant thoughtfulness of the mistress of the house. A place like this
is truly a home, and the woman at the head of it deserves the respect
and admiration of everybody. I have seen such homes among the rich and
among the poor, for neither wealth nor poverty prevents the right person
from filling with the atmosphere of comfort and happiness the house of
which she is the mistress.

A housekeeper’s duties are many, and, to one nervous and fretful, they
are exhausting. What seems to the woman of good digestion and steady
nerves a mere trifle, to be laughed at and forgotten, may appear to the
delicate, nervous woman a calamity to be wept over. Much of the
irritability from which women suffer is due to their expectation of too
much of themselves and others. If women would be reconciled to the
inevitable, they might make everybody about them much happier. A choice
bit of china may be broken. Is it worth the while to make the whole
household miserable for what cannot be helped? A dish may be spoiled in
the cooking. It will not help your digestion or that of the family to
fret over it. You may be naturally very orderly, but some members of the
family may not. Will it pay to make them and yourself uncomfortable by
worrying over the matter? If your servant or any other member of the
household should not come up to your standard, throw the mantle of
charity over the faults that you cannot remedy, and pray that others may
be equally charitable to you.

The good housekeeper will certainly look well to the ways of her
household, but her eyes will be those of the kind, just woman. She will
not look for miracles; she will not expect to get the best supplies and
service when paying only the lowest price; she will not hope to make
something out of nothing; she will be brave enough to live within her
means, even if they be small; she will not be afraid to do her work
honestly and well; and, finally, she will be so true to herself at all
times, and so adjust and simplify her domestic duties that she will not
exhaust body and mind in trying to do two persons’ work for the sake of
“keeping up appearances.” How many families lose all the comforts of
home life in this senseless effort! If you stop to consider what this
“keeping up appearances” means it puts the people in a very unenviable
light, for it simply means that people want to give you a false
impression of their possessions. No member of the family is so much
injured by this deceptive life as the housekeeper. All her power of body
and mind is bent to the task of making the best possible appearance with
the smallest amount of expenditure. Intellect is cramped in the battle
and all repose is gone from home life. No matter how good the
housekeeping, the spirit of the home-maker is not there. No young woman
has a right to dwarf her life for such a purpose. Let her make the most
of the means at her command, but let her never sacrifice her physical,
moral, and mental well-being to a desire to make a display
disproportionate to her circumstances, for that is not good
housekeeping.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER II.

                      ABOUT FURNISHING THE HOUSE.


IN these days of lavish ornamentation and bric-à-brac, the young
housekeeper must be on guard against filling her house with such
furnishings as would make it stuffy and cause it to lack individuality.
The home should be an index to the character of the family. Do not
furnish your house fully until you have lived in it a while. Buy at
first only such furniture as you need for comfort. When you are settled
you can study the needs of each part of the house, and, after you have
fully determined exactly what you want, buy it whenever you see an
advantageous chance.

Never decide hastily upon a piece of furniture; purchase for the future
as much as for the present. It is true fashions change in furniture from
year to year, but it is only people of large means who can follow a
fashion of this kind. The plain, elegant styles are quite expensive as
compared with the ordinary pieces which are turned out of factories by
the thousand, and which are covered with ornamentation to catch the
popular fancy. One quickly wearies of such furniture; besides, it is not
so well made as the plainer styles, and therefore gets out of order very
easily.

Get the things necessary for kitchen, bedroom, dining-room, and
sitting-room before doing anything about the parlor, and let every
article be of good quality, no matter how plain. Make an estimate of
what you can spend on each room; then get the best things possible.


                     What to Buy for the Chambers.

One can get a chamber set for as low a sum as twenty-five dollars; but
the prices run up rapidly until the hundreds are reached. Handsome, well
made sets, with little or no ornamentation (the quality of the wood, and
the finish, giving them a simple elegance not found in more showy
pieces) cost from forty to seventy-five dollars. The set includes
bedstead, dressing-case, wash-stand, towel-rack, a small table, two
common chairs, and a rocker. The more expensive sets have the English
wash-stand. No marble is used with the finest chamber furniture. The
springs, mattresses, etc., must be purchased separately, as a rule. Have
good ones. Have shades and plain muslin curtains for the windows. Stain
the floors, if possible. If you prefer not to do that, use straw
matting, with one rug beside the bed and another in front of the
wash-stand. In buying the toilet set select one that has a plain, fine
shape and simple decoration.


                         Dining-room Furniture.

There are two articles which one must have for this room: a table and
some chairs. It often happens that the young housekeeper, not realizing
the necessity for having these of generous size, and well made, chooses
articles that appear good, but which, in a short time, become unstable.
Oak is the most satisfactory wood for the dining-room. Have the table of
good width, as a narrow one never looks well. The chairs should be
strong, broad-seated, and with high backs.

Having the chairs and table, you can wait for the other things, although
a sideboard table is a desirable thing, if one can afford it. If you
cannot have exactly what you want, be patient. Sideboards, sideboard
tables, and china closets of glass all come in such simple yet tasteful
designs that one may be sure to like them all one’s life. It will pay to
wait for such a piece of furniture. Have a hard-wood floor, if you can;
otherwise have the floor stained. Just enough of the floor may be
stained to make a deep border, and a simple rug be placed in the centre
of the room. Shades, without any draperies, answer very well for this
room.


                      Comfort in the Sitting-room.

In the sitting-room, where the family gathers for the evening, and where
some members of the household spend a good part of each day, put all the
comfort you can. Let it be one of the largest and brightest rooms in the
house. There should be a bookcase, a firm table of good size, several
comfortable chairs, a couch with plenty of pillows, a good lamp, with a
shade that will not try the eyes, some pictures, a few plants and shades
and draperies that will soften, but not exclude, the light. If possible,
have an open fireplace. Let this be a room that shall always be
remembered as one of the pleasantest spots in the world. When possible,
have a hard-wood or a stained floor, with a rug in the centre.


                      Selecting Carpets and Rugs.

In buying carpets remember that the best are always the cheapest. The
more limited one’s means are, the more essential it is that only a good
article shall be purchased. The best quality of body Brussels will
outwear two or more of the cheaper tapestry carpets. A finely woven
smooth ingrain carpet may cost half a dollar more per yard than one of
common texture, but it will be cheaper in the end. Nothing is more
unsatisfactory than one of the loosely woven straw mattings. A fine
matting, costing say from sixty to seventy cents a yard, will last a
dozen years or more, with constant wear, too. It is so fine that but
little dust sifts through, and the strands do not pull apart, as in
coarser grades. Rugs for the centre of the room can be made from a body
Brussels, with a border to match. They should be tacked down. Japanese
cotton rugs, pretty and durable, cost from three to six dollars. They
are good for bedrooms, bath-rooms, and sitting-rooms. Buy handsome rugs
whenever you can afford to. They are a good investment; for, unlike
carpets, they do not wear out, and you can hand them down in the family
the same as silver or diamonds. A beautiful Oriental rug is a joy
forever. In selecting one be particular to see that the colors are rich,
and have some brightness. In general, when choosing carpets, have the
groundwork rather light, and the colors somewhat neutral. Such a carpet
will always look clean, and you will not feel the need of shutting out
the sunlight through fear of the carpet’s fading.


                     Choosing a Dinner and Tea Set.

To the young housekeeper of limited means the choice of her table china
is quite an important matter. One can get sets for seven and eight
dollars, but I should not advise buying anything cheaper than a
fifteen-dollar set. If a decorated set be wanted, take one having soft
tints, because people soon get weary of seeing pronounced colors or
patterns.

Very pretty English sets of one hundred and fifty pieces, decorated in
blue, may be had for fifteen dollars. Minton sets of one hundred and
thirty-six pieces, basket-pattern border, and decorated in a fine shade
of blue, are offered as low as twenty-five dollars.

American china sets in colored decorations are sold at about the same
price as the English. Plain white French china sets of one hundred and
thirty pieces cost about thirty-five dollars. The quality and prices
rise rapidly until sets costing hundreds of dollars are reached.

In making a choice from the great variety displayed there are several
things to consider. For instance, what price can you afford to pay? Is
the style one that will be lasting, and are the goods durable? It often
happens that the decoration of a cheap set is much daintier than that of
some of the more expensive kinds.

The English and American wares are thick, and do not chip or break
easily; but when they do chip, the broken part soon becomes dark. The
glaze on these wares cracks readily when exposed to a high temperature.
In a dinner set one does not notice particularly that the ware is thick;
but thickness in the cups and saucers is disagreeably noticeable,
especially in the English wares. Then, too, unless one get a “stock
pattern,” it will often be difficult and expensive to replace a broken
piece. The dealers intend to carry a pattern five years; after that one
cannot feel sure of replacing a broken piece without much delay and
expense. Plain white French china can always be replaced; the glaze does
not crack when exposed to a high temperature; if chipped, the broken
part does not become discolored; the ware is in good shapes; the cups
and saucers are delicate and pretty, so that a full set of the china is
desirable, which, to my mind, is not the case with the English or
American wares.

In buying the French china it is wise to get plates with rolled edges.
It seems to me, all things considered, that the French china is the most
satisfactory, unless there is to be rather rough handling, when I would
advise the purchase of the English or American productions. In that case
I would further advise that only a dinner set be bought, and that
something daintier be taken for the tea and breakfast table.

Odd cups and saucers are quite proper, and give variety and brightness
to the table. Odd dessert and salad plates, also, are to be preferred to
the regulation sets. The dessert plates and cups and saucers that may be
picked up here and there in one’s travels are constant reminders of
pleasant experiences.


                      Dainty Things for the Table.

Glass has largely taken the place of silver on some of the most elegant
tables, many housekeepers collecting and prizing cut-glass as they would
jewels; but the woman of moderate means and good taste will find it
possible to set her table with plain, clear glass of dainty and elegant
shapes which will add brilliancy to the entire table service. Water
bottles, or carafes, as they are commonly called, are much used, and are
a great convenience. Individual salt-cellars are again used instead of
the salt-shakers which were so popular for many years. These
salt-cellars come in glass, dainty china, and silver. A small silver
salt-spoon is placed by each one. The china and silver are by all odds
the most effective on the table. Pepper bottles of odd designs are
placed by the salt. Castors are not in favor.

Bread-and-butter plates may be used at all meals, but are particularly
suited for breakfast, luncheon, and tea. They are placed at the left of
the regular plate. When the butter and bread are passed, you put them on
this plate, dispensing with the small butter plate. These little plates
are a great help in keeping the table-cloth clean. They come in several
sizes and tasteful patterns.


                          Fashions in Cutlery.

Table cutlery, as the designation was formerly understood, included all
the knives and forks, nut-picks, etc. To-day, among well-to-do people,
all the forks, except that which belongs to the carving set, are either
sterling-silver or silver-plated. It is astonishing how the table
appliances have multiplied in this luxurious age. For the fish course
there are sterling-silver knives and forks of special shapes, and a
broad silver knife and fork for serving the fish. Oyster forks of
another shape are considered indispensable when raw oysters are served.
Knives and forks of medium size are used for entrées, the forks being
silver and the knives having silver, silver-plated, or steel blades. For
the meat course the forks are silver and the blades of the knives steel.
The dessert knives and forks are silver-plated; the butter knives that
are placed by the little bread-and-butter plates are silver. So it will
be seen that the cutlery of to-day does not mean for fine tables what it
did formerly. Common knives and forks are made with flat tangs, to which
pieces of wood or bone are joined for the handle. In fine knives the
tang is made round, and is pressed into a round groove made in the
handle. Sometimes this is fastened with a rivet, sometimes with a
spring, and again with some cement.

The handles of the finest knives are weighted, unless made of a heavy
material like silver. This is important, as it causes the knife to lie
flat upon the table. Handles are made of sterling silver,
mother-of-pearl, ivory, grained celluloid, plain celluloid, etc.
Buckhorn and imitations of buckhorn are used a great deal for carving
sets. Ivory has been used the most for the best class of knives and
forks, but in furnace-heated houses the ivory is apt to split. Even the
greatest care does not insure against it, and dealers find that this
often happens while the goods are kept in their stores. As a substitute
for ivory, celluloid, grained celluloid, and ivorine are coming into
use. These substances neither crack, stain, nor turn yellow, as does the
ivory; which, of course, is a great consideration. Mother-of-pearl
handles cost about twice as much as ivory. With proper care one can keep
them in good condition through a lifetime. Sterling-silver handles are
very handsome and satisfactory. Knives and forks with metal handles,
which are plated with the rest of the knife or fork, are the most
commonly used, because they are so easily cared for and are not liable
to get out of order. They are, however, not found upon elegant tables.



                     WHAT IS NEEDED IN THE KITCHEN.

The kitchen is so important a part of the home that the furnishing
should be such as to make the work there both easy and successful. The
following list may aid the young housekeeper when making her purchases.
The woman with a limited purse may find that she will have to strike out
many things from the list, while the woman with a large house and money
in plenty will probably extend it.


                               The Range.

Upon no one article of household furniture do the comfort and well-being
of the family depend so much as upon the kitchen range or stove. A poor
range will spoil not only food, but also good temper and happiness;
whereas the right sort of range, well treated, will be a source of the
greatest comfort and economy. No matter what else you feel you must
economize in, do not let it be in buying the kitchen range. Some ranges
have reached such a degree of perfection that it is hard to see where
they can be improved. The plainer the range the easier it will be to
keep it clean, and of course the cost will be less than if it be trimmed
very much. Before making a choice, examine every part thoroughly. Always
try to get one that has a large oven in proportion to the size of the
range. There should be plenty of dampers that can be used to hasten the
fire or to check it, so that it will keep twelve hours, if necessary.
Ranges are made that will do this. Learn all the characteristics of your
range, and treat it well; then it will be an invaluable friend to you.

In the kitchen, as in every other part of the house, it is economy to
furnish with good articles. Poor cooking utensils are never cheap. In
buying iron utensils, be sure to get those that are thoroughly finished.
The steel goods come higher than the cast-iron, but they are so smooth
that they are four times as valuable in the kitchen as the rougher
makes.

The granite or agate ware lightens the labors in the kitchen
wonderfully. It is, however, very expensive, and is not so well made as
formerly. When buying this ware, examine it closely to see that there is
no defect in the enamel. A careful housekeeper who does her own work
will find this ware a great comfort, it is so light, smooth, and clean;
and with good treatment it will last well.

Mixing-bowls come in yellow and white ware. The white is stone china,
and is more durable than the yellow; and although it costs more than the
latter, it is cheaper in the end. A steamer of medium size is one of the
most useful utensils. If it be light and simple, it will be used
frequently for making puddings and for warming over food, etc. The
cheapest kind is made of tin, and in two parts, the lower part being a
deep saucepan, into which the water is put, and the upper part a round
pan with a perforated bottom. Be particular to see that the cover and
all other parts fit well.

Here is a list of articles with which all kitchens should be supplied:—


                     List of Articles most in Use.

    Basins, of granite ware,—one three-pint, one two-quart, one
      one-gallon.

    Bowls: yellow,—two two-quart, one three-quart, one one-gallon,
      two six-quart; white,—six, each holding about a pint; two
      smooth ones, each holding about a quart.

    Bread board.

    Bread pans, two, for small loaves.

    Broilers,—one for fish, one for other uses.

    Broom.

    Bucket, or tin box, for sugar.

    Cake pans, three,—one deep, two shallow.

    Carving knife and fork.

    Case knives and forks, six each.

    Chairs, three,—one to be low and comfortable.

    Chopping knife and bowl.

    Coffee-pot.

    Colander.

    Cups and saucers, half a dozen.

    Dipper, long-handled.

    Dish-cloths, two,—one being of wire.

    Dishpans, two.

    Dish rack.

    Double boilers, two,—one holding one quart, the other two.

    Dredgers for salt, pepper, and flour.

    Dripping-pans, two,—large and small.

    Duster.

    Dustpan.

    Egg-beater.

    Flour scoop.

    Flour sieve.

    Frying-basket.

    Frying-pans,—one, small, with short handle; four with long
      handles, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5.

    Glass jars for rice, etc.

    Graters,—one for nutmegs; one coarse, for general use.

    Griddle.

    Lemon squeezer, glass.

    Measuring cups, two.

    Meat board.

    Meat rack, small.

    Moulding board.

    Muffin pans, two,—each holding eight or twelve muffins.

    Pitchers, four, for milk, etc.

    Plates, one dozen.

    Platters, two stone-china, for meat.

    Pudding mould, melon, three-pint.

    Quart measure.

    Range.

    Rolling-pin.

    Roll-pans, French, holding six or eight rolls.

    Scotch bowl, No. 4.

    Skewers, set of steel.

    Soap-shaker.

    Spice boxes or jars.

    Spoons,—six teaspoons, two table spoons, two wooden spoons,
      two large iron spoons.

    Steamer.

    Stewpans,—two one-quart, two two-quart, two three-quart, one
      six-quart.

    Stone pots, several small ones, with covers, for various kinds
      of meal.

    Stove-brush.

    Strainers, two, small,—one for general use, the other for
      gravy; also one of fine wire.

    Tables, two; if possible, have one covered with zinc or enamel
      cloth.

    Teakettle.

    Teapot.

    Tin boxes for bread and cake.

    Tin plates, four, deep.

    Tin sheet.

    Towels,—three kinds for dishes, and others for the hands.

    Vegetable masher.



                      FURNISHING THE LINEN CLOSET.

In olden times the bride came to her new home with a generous supply of
linen, the greater part of which was spun and woven by her own hands; in
many cases, indeed, the flax was raised and prepared for the
spinning-wheel by her. In some parts of Europe this custom still exists.
The bride of to-day takes great pains and pride in providing her
household linen, many months being given to dainty sewing and
embroidery. Each article has stitched into it many bright hopes and day
dreams. Nothing else in the furnishing of the home has blended with it
so many tender, loving thoughts, and to the woman of sentiment it is
more sacred than almost any other household possession. Once acquired,
this love for fine household linen will cling to a woman all her life.
Indeed, what material thing can she bring to her new home that will give
more pleasure than a generous supply for her linen closet?


                            Imported Linens.

Irish, French, Scotch and English table linens cover many grades, from
the coarsest to the finest weaving and the most elaborate patterns. All
the new designs are large, but in some of the choicest damasks it is
possible to get small patterns, if they be preferred. The damask sold by
the yard rarely reaches a higher price than two dollars and a half. If
one wish for especially pleasing designs and extremely fine quality, it
will be necessary to buy the set,—table-cloth and one dozen napkins. The
usual width of the best table damask is two yards and a half, but it may
be three yards in width. The cloths come from two and a half to four
yards in length. In these handsome cloths the border is deep, and the
centre frequently perfectly plain.


                       Table-cloths and Napkins.

The range in quality and price of table linen is greater than that of
almost any other fabric. It is a long step from the materials that are
so coarse, so loosely woven that they might be used for sieves, to the
double damask, so fine that even under a magnifying glass it is almost
impossible to discern the threads. One can buy three or four yards of
the coarse fabric for about a dollar, and it is possible to be asked one
hundred times as much for a dozen napkins and a table-cloth, three or
four yards long, of the finer quality. But the average housekeeper does
not go to these extremes. It does, however, often happen that a woman
with a limited purse, and a thousand calls upon it, makes the mistake of
buying table linen of too inferior a grade. It is not economy to
purchase a mixture of cotton and linen. Better a coarse all-linen table
cloth than a fine one with part cotton, which may look attractive in the
store, but cannot be laundered well, whereas the pure linen will improve
with age and wear. In purchasing table linen the questions that the
housekeeper should ask herself are: Will it be subject to hard wear, and
be laundered by inexperienced hands? Can I afford to replenish it
frequently? Shall it be fine and beautiful, or shall it be durable, with
as much beauty as possible under the circumstances?

The finest goods are of Irish and French manufacture; but the German,
while coarse, wear wonderfully well, and some of them have very handsome
designs. Nothing in the way of linen lasts longer than the half-bleached
damask, and if one live in the country, this may be bleached to a snowy
whiteness in a few months. In purchasing these German goods it is wise
to get a cloth that costs at least one dollar and a half or two dollars
per yard. A cloth of this kind will outwear several of the cheaper
grades that are mixed with cotton, and if properly laundered it will
always look well. Of course, one can get in these goods a fair piece of
table linen at seventy-five cents or a dollar per yard, but the better
quality will be found to be the cheaper in the end. Dinner, luncheon,
and tea sets may be had, the cloth costing no more than if bought by the
yard, with the advantage of having a border all around it.

A piece of heavy felt or double-faced Canton flannel will be required
under the table-cloth. It will cost about eighty cents a yard. It is a
good plan to get one that will answer when the table is enlarged for
guests. It can be folded double when the table is small.


                      Size and Quality of Napkins.

Fashion has decreed that a napkin shall not be put on the table a second
time until it has been washed. Few housekeepers, however, have the means
to provide themselves with such a supply of napkins, not to speak of the
laundress to care for them; so the napkin ring is still a necessity in
the average household. It is important, however, that the supply be
large enough to admit of their being changed two or three times a week.
For general use a dinner napkin is to be preferred, unless a separate
set of table-cloths and napkins be desired for breakfast. In that case
the napkins should be smaller than for dinner. All napkins are finished
with a plain hem, or are hemstitched.

Fringe is rarely used, except on fancy doilies. The plain square napkin
comes in all sizes, from twenty inches to the size of the dinner
napkins, which measure twenty-seven inches; and the cost is anywhere
from one dollar and a half to fifty dollars a dozen. At five or six
dollars a dozen one can get napkins that are good enough for ordinary
use. The cheaper and smaller ones are unsatisfactory. Whenever possible,
the napkin should match the cloth. One cloth will outwear two sets of
napkins; therefore it is well to get two dozen napkins to each cloth.
One cannot err in laying in a generous stock of plain ones, but the
style of the small fancy napkins is constantly changing, and one should
not buy too many of them at a time.


                         A Word about Doilies.

Small square or round doilies are used a great deal under finger bowls,
Roman punch, and sherbet glasses. These dainty bits of napery can be
purchased in all the stores where embroidery and materials for
needlework are sold; also in the linen stores. These doilies are either
hemstitched or fringed. The embroidery is usually in washable silks,
fine flowers or Dresden patterns being the favorites. Doilies also come
in Irish point, Mexican work, and various kinds of lace. Larger doilies
for bread, cake, cheese, etc., are embroidered in white or colored
silks, with appropriate mottoes. Ladies who wish to do this kind of work
for themselves, or their friends, can send to a stamping and embroidery
store for a sample doily, and the materials for a dozen or more. One
should aim to get as much variety as possible in color and design in the
dozen. A very fine linen is the material generally used.

At the Oriental stores there can be found a small doily, of a crêpe-like
material, thickly embroidered with silk, or silver and gold thread. They
come with and without a fringe, the fringed ones costing more than twice
as much as those without. I prefer those without the fringe for table
use. These doilies can be washed, but it must be with great care. If the
housekeeper will be careful to wash and iron her doilies herself, they
will always look fresh and dainty. Make a strong suds with hot water and
white castile soap; wash the doilies in this, and rinse them in several
warm waters. Squeeze them very dry, and spread them on a clean towel,
and cover another towel over them. Roll up tight and iron immediately.


                     Tea, Carving, and Tray Cloths.

For the small tables that are set for five o’clock teas and card
parties, etc., there are many pretty and inexpensive cloths. Plain
linen, with a plain or double row of hemstitching, makes a satisfactory
cloth. The cost is about one dollar for a cloth measuring a yard square;
plain damask, with hemstitching, costs from one dollar and a half to two
dollars a square yard, and one dollar more for a cloth measuring two
square yards. Some long damask cloths, with open-work borders and a
fringe, cost four or five dollars. Small hemstitched cloths of linen and
damask come for carving cloths, tray cloths, and centre pieces. They
cost all the way from twenty-five cents upward. These are useful in
protecting the table, and they may be made decorative by embroidery.


                        Sheets and Pillow Cases.

Sheets should always be of generous length and width; never less than
two yards and three quarters long, with the breadth, of course,
depending upon the width of the bed. While linen sheets are desirable,
they are not within the means of all housekeepers of even fair incomes.
Cotton cloth makes a most satisfactory all-the-year-round sheet, and a
good quality can be purchased at from twenty-five cents to seventy-five
cents per yard, the cloth being from two yards to two and a half wide.
Indeed, one can buy good sheets already made, two yards and a half wide,
for one dollar and a quarter or one dollar and a half apiece. It is
always more economical to buy the cloth and make them at home, for two
hems do not mean much work. Unbleached sheeting may be made up, and
bleached on the grass. Buy unbleached cotton for servants’ sheets and
pillow cases, but do not make them too small. If the bed linen be made
of generous proportions it will protect the bedding, and be more
comfortable for the sleepers. Linen sheets three yards long can be
bought for from five to fourteen dollars per pair. Pillow cases to match
sell from two to three dollars and a half per pair. The finest are
hemstitched.


                       Bed Spreads and Blankets.

For many years the honeycomb and Marseilles spreads have been almost
universally used. They are still sold in large quantities, and will
always be popular, for they need only to be hemmed in order to be made
ready for use. They do not rumple readily, they keep clean a long time,
and are, indeed, a most serviceable article. The Marseilles quilts cost
from two to fifteen dollars. Some come in colors; but let no housekeeper
be tempted by their beauty, for she will find it a difficult matter to
make them harmonize with the other furnishings of her rooms. Dimity is
being used again. It costs from two dollars and a half to four dollars
and a half a spread. If one wish to make a bolster scarf to go with the
dimity, it will be necessary to purchase a small spread and cut it in
two. These spreads, being dainty and easily washed, are in great favor.

Materials for spreads come in all sorts of fabrics. Gobelin cloth and
what is called basket cloth, both soft, pretty goods, are found two
yards wide, and cost about one dollar and a half a yard. These materials
are made into spreads and bolster scarfs; or, instead of the scarfs, a
round bolster may be covered with the material. These spreads and scarfs
are often embroidered in washable silks.

Next to bed linen and towels in plenty, one of the essentials for the
health and comfort of the household is the stock of blankets. Cotton
batting comforters are cheap and warm, but extremely debilitating to the
sleeper; and since they cannot be washed, they are uncleanly, as
compared with the woollen coverings. Use plenty of blankets instead, and
have them washed frequently. For people of limited means, blankets that
cost from five to six dollars a pair are serviceable. People are buying
more blankets that are made of part wool and part cotton than of the
all-wool patterns. This is because they can be washed frequently without
shrinking. Select a smooth, soft blanket with white cotton binding. The
simpler the border the longer it will please you. If possible, have a
pair of summer blankets for each bed. These cost from three to ten
dollars a pair. They can be washed as easily as a sheet, and are a
source of the greatest comfort in hot weather. As they will last the
greater part of a lifetime, get good ones. When blankets are not in use
they should be folded smoothly, pinned in sheets, and placed on shelves
in the linen closet.


                        Bath and Bedroom Towels.

In nothing relating to the supplies of her house does the average
housekeeper make so many errors as in the matter of towels. It has not
been wholly her fault in the past, but it certainly will be in the time
to come, if bright borders and deep fringes decorate the towels with
which she furnishes her chambers and bath-rooms. As in the past, so it
is now: there is nothing so satisfactory for general use as the
huckaback towels. They are excellent for absorbing water, and the slight
friction is both pleasant and healthful. They are now hemstitched, and
cost from twenty-five cents to a dollar and a half apiece, according to
size and quality. The goods can be bought by the yard if one prefer to
make her own towels. There are huckaback towels of fancy weaving, which,
hemstitched, cost from fifty cents to on dollar and a quarter apiece.
Some of these are fringed, at thirty-seven and a half cents apiece.
Damask towels, which are really more for show than use, cost from
twenty-five cents to two dollars and a half. For the bath-room there are
really so many good things that it is a difficult matter to choose.
There always should be soft coarse towels that will absorb water
quickly, and at the same time cause a slight friction. The towels also
should be of generous size. The huckaback is always good for drying off,
but there should be a good friction towel after this. Among the good
bath towels are crash towels, at twenty-five cents apiece. Oxford
towels, something like huckaback, but very large—26 × 50 inches—are one
dollar apiece. Imperial bath towels, of a peculiar style of weaving,
absorbing water like a sponge, cost a dollar apiece. Turkish towels make
an excellent friction towel, and are within the means of all. They can
be bought for even less than twenty-five cents; but I would not advise
anything cheaper than twenty-five or fifty cents, as a towel of this
kind should be large. An article which to me seems ideal as a friction
towel is the kind made of linen tape, which costs one dollar.


                        For Kitchen and Pantry.

There should be a generous supply of kitchen and pantry towels. Nothing
is more satisfactory for glassware than the plaid linen towels. These
should be kept for silver, glass, and fine china. Goods of this same
character come in stripes, and cost from twelve and a half to
thirty-seven and a half cents per yard. Fine Russian crash, when
softened by a little wear, makes the best kitchen dish towel. It grows
finer and whiter with each week’s use, whereas the very coarse fabric
really never softens. Every kitchen should be supplied with half a dozen
stove towels. Get twilled brown cotton crash; cut it into
yard-and-a-half lengths and hem it. Keep but two of these towels in the
kitchen, and have one washed each day. They are to use in handling the
pots and pans about the stove and oven. There should be a generous
allowance of crash towels in the kitchen, as every utensil should be
carefully wiped with one that is clean and dry.

The hand towels in the kitchen should be soft and smooth. Frequent
wiping on the rough Russian crash will soon make the hands red and
rough, as this hard fabric scratches and does not wipe dry. A twilled
crash of cotton and linen, which may be bought from twelve and a half to
fifteen cents a yard, makes satisfactory hand towels. There are many
varieties.

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                              CHAPTER III.

                    DIVISION OF THE HOUSEHOLD WORK.


It is a perplexing task for young housekeepers to divide properly the
weekly work of the household. Even when I start to write on the subject,
many difficulties present themselves, as no two houses are conducted on
exactly the same plan. What would be the right thing for one home would
be entirely impracticable in another. The woman who does her own work,
or keeps but one servant, must, of course, plan her work quite
differently from the woman who keeps two or more servants. Then, too,
the place and mode of living will influence the arrangement of household
work. For example, in the country the style of living is much simpler
than in the city; the hours are more regular, there are fewer stairs to
go over, less dirt and dust accumulate, and, in short, practically all
the work is done on two floors. This makes the duties of mistress and
maid lighter than in the city house. The pure air, quiet surroundings,
and long, uninterrupted hours make it possible for a woman to accomplish
a great deal of housework in a day, and yet have leisure for reading,
sewing, and quiet thinking.

But, on the other hand, the city housekeeper has her advantages, such as
the house fitted with all modern conveniences; stores and markets close
at hand; and, if extra or heavy work is to be done, easy means of
getting men and women to do it. The changing scenes in the city take
woman out of herself and the narrowing cares of home life, and keep her
interested and in touch with the world, thus making her duties less
irksome than they might be in a regular and monotonous life.

Yet, no matter where one resides, there are certain daily duties that
must be attended to if people would live decently and in order. I will
try to map out programmes of these duties, so that the inexperienced
housekeeper will be able to outline her daily work by them. It is not to
be expected that these programmes will be followed exactly; they are
simply suggestions which each housekeeper may adapt to the exigencies of
her own household.


                           Every-day Duties.

As there are many routine duties that must be performed every day, I
will treat of them here. Special work will have a day assigned to it. It
is almost appalling to look at the list of daily duties of the
household, when one remembers that it frequently happens that there is
but one pair of hands to do all the work; yet there are thousands of
women who are well and happy in passing their lives that way, knowing
that they contribute to the health and comfort of their families. If
there be system in doing the work, the burden will be materially
lightened. Each member of the family has his or her duties. Habits of
order and punctuality should be cultivated. Being late at meals and
leaving things out of place will increase the burdens of the housekeeper
in a marked degree.


                       What to do in the Morning.

First, make the kitchen fire; take up and sift the ashes. After brushing
all the dust from the range, wash off the surface with a cloth and soap
and water; then polish it with stove blacking. Rinse out the teakettle,
and after the water has been running from the cold-water pipes for about
five minutes, fill the kettle and place it on the fire. Sweep and dust
the kitchen. Put the breakfast dishes on to heat. Air the dining-room
and set the table; then prepare and serve the breakfast. Clear the
breakfast table, assorting the dishes and freeing them from scraps of
food. Soak in cold water any dishes that are soiled with mush, milk, or
eggs; put the silver in a pitcher of warm water.

Go up stairs and open the chamber windows, if they were not opened the
first thing in the morning. Take the clothes from the beds, one piece at
a time, and spread over chairs or a low screen, so that the air shall
pass through them freely. Beat the pillows and bolsters, and place them
in a current of air. Turn the mattresses so that they shall be aired on
all sides. Leave the rooms to air for an hour, or longer if possible.

Return to the kitchen and wash the dishes; then put them away at once.
Wash the dish-towels in plenty of soap and water, and rinse thoroughly;
when possible, dry them out of doors. Air, brush, and dust the
dining-room; then draw the shades. Make the beds, empty the slops, and
wash and wipe the bedroom toilet china. Put the rooms in order and dust
them. Next wash the basins and the bath-tub, if necessary, and dust the
bath-room.

Dust the halls and sitting-room, and any other rooms that may require
it. Collect the lamps and trim them. Prepare the dinner or luncheon. If
you live in the city, the vestibule and sidewalk must be swept, and
perhaps washed. The earlier this work is done, the better, as there will
be less annoyance from frequent passers early in the morning. If the
home be in the country, the front and back steps and the piazzas should
be swept at the hour most convenient for the housekeeper. In freezing
weather do not, of course, attempt to wash the piazza, steps, or
sidewalk, as the result would be an icy surface, dangerous to limb and
life.


                     Special Work for Special Days.

On Monday, as soon as the water is warm, put the clothes to soak in
strong suds. After the breakfast dishes have been washed, begin to wash
the clothes. While one boilerful is being scalded and a second batch of
clothes has been prepared for the boiler, put out the line. Now put the
scalded clothes in the rinsing water. Take nearly all the hot suds from
the boiler, and replace with clean cold water, putting the second batch
of clothes to scald in this. Rinse the first lot and put on the lines to
dry; continue the work until everything except the flannels and colored
articles have been washed. While the coarse towels are being scalded,
wash and hang out the flannels; next wash the colored things. When all
the clothes have been hung out, empty the boiler and wash and wipe it
until perfectly dry; also clean the laundry. Now take a luncheon. Do the
chamber-work, and then prepare the family luncheon or dinner. The
brushing up and dusting must be omitted to-day. After the noonday meal,
wash the dishes and clean up the kitchen. Bathe, and change your
clothes; and after resting, take the clothes from the lines and sprinkle
and fold them. Flannels must be taken in while they are still slightly
damp. Iron the flannels, and after that prepare the evening meal. In the
short winter days it will be best to wash the flannels and colored
clothes before the white articles, as the more rapidly a woollen or
colored fabric dries the better it will look.

On Tuesday, directly after the breakfast dishes have been washed and the
dining-room put in order, begin ironing, starting with the plain pieces,
such as sheets and pillow-cases. As soon as the irons work smoothly,
iron the starched clothes. In about two or three hours the fire must be
replenished. When this is done, and while it is burning up, do the
chamber work. If all the ironing cannot be done in the forenoon, finish
it, if you can, in the afternoon. The meals for washing and ironing days
should be as simple as possible.


                       Where one Servant is Kept.

If there be one servant in the house, the mistress can make these two
days less burdensome, if she herself will wash the breakfast dishes, put
the dining-room in order, and make the beds. If there be children in the
family, they can be taught to do the lighter work. In suggesting that
the chamber work be left until the fire is renewed, it is supposed that
hard coal is used. If wood or soft coal be used, the fire will have to
be replenished frequently; and since these substances burn much more
readily, the time for chamber work will be limited unless the draughts
be closed. Wednesday is often taken by housekeepers for a sort of off
day; but if, as is the case in many Eastern towns, Thursday be the
servant’s day out, it will be better to sweep on Wednesday, and have the
lighter work done on Thursday. Once in two weeks should be often enough
for a thorough cleaning of most of the rooms in a well regulated house.
A room properly cleaned will be in a better sanitary condition at the
end of two weeks than one that is only half cleaned every week. If the
floors be of natural wood, or be stained or painted, the dust and lint
must be wiped off with a dry cloth every few days, but if the floors be
carpeted the thorough sweeping once in two weeks should be sufficient,
except in a sitting-room or dining-room. I will give the method of
cleaning a room properly. These directions, slightly modified, apply to
all rooms.


                       Cleaning a Room by System.

Remove the draperies, and dust and remove all small articles. Dust all
the furniture, removing the lighter articles and covering the heavy
pieces; dust and cover the pictures. Brush the walls and ceilings, being
careful to remove all dust from the tops of the doors and windows. Brush
all dust from the window frames, ledges, and blinds. If there be rugs on
a bare floor, roll them up and put them out of doors to be beaten and
aired; then sweep the floor with a soft brush. After all the dusting and
washing of windows has been finished, rub the floor with a soft, dry
cloth. If it be a stained or painted floor, wipe it a second time with a
cloth slightly dampened with kerosene; or if it be polished, do the
polishing at this time. If the room be carpeted, sweep it with a clean
broom; if the carpet be very dusty, sprinkle over it, before sweeping,
corn meal or sawdust, slightly dampened; or, if it be more convenient,
take dry salt. Let the dust settle, then sweep the carpet a second time.
Now dust the room, wash the windows, and remove the covers from the
furniture and pictures. After this has been done, put two gallons of
tepid water in a pail with four tablespoonfuls of household ammonia.
Wring a cloth out of this and wipe the carpet, rubbing hard to remove
any dust. Beat the rugs by spreading them face down on clean grass or a
smooth board and beating with a switch or rattan beater. If it be
impossible to lay them flat, hang them on a line and beat them. Place
them on the floors, and put the furniture, ornaments, and draperies in
place. Clean one or more rooms in this manner on Wednesday morning.
Prepare the noonday meal, and after this has been served, and the
dining-room and kitchen put in order, rest until it is time to attend to
the evening meal.


                       The Last Half of the Week.

On Thursday, after the regular work is done, the morning should be
devoted to various odd tasks, such as cleaning the refrigerator, and
inspecting and cleaning the cellar. See that no decaying vegetation,
damp paper, etc., is there. Wash the cellar stairs. Next clean the
kitchen and prepare something for the evening meal; then serve the
noonday meal.

The remainder of the weekly sweeping should be done on Friday morning.
Every two weeks the silver should be cleaned in the afternoon. Many
housekeepers clean silver every week, but if it be properly washed and
wiped each day this will be unnecessary.

As there must be some extra cooking done on Saturday for Sunday, plan
for that on Friday, making all the arrangements possible, so that this
work may be done early Saturday morning, while the fire is at its best.
All the materials for cooking should be in the house on Friday afternoon
or early Saturday morning. If fruits are to be prepared for the next
day’s baking, get them ready some time on Friday. Saturday is usually a
busy day. Extra cooking and cleaning must be done, that the work on
Sunday may be light. Many housekeepers change the beds on Saturday,
rather than on Sunday. If this be the practice, when the rooms are put
to air, remove the soiled linen and spread out the fresh, that it may be
well aired. If possible, rise early enough to clean the steps, piazza,
and sidewalk before breakfast. As soon as the regular morning work is
done, attend to the extra cooking. When this is finished, clean the
kitchen and its closets, the china closets, and the back hall.


                             A Day of Rest.

Plan to have as little work as possible to do on Sunday, but do not fall
into the error of wearing yourself out on Saturday and making all the
family uncomfortable on Sunday, simply because you would not break the
Sabbath. The woman who manages to keep her family comfortable and happy
on this day, even if it be necessary to do a little extra work to attain
that end, will have a better moral and spiritual influence than she who
makes all the members dread the day as being one of the most
uncomfortable in the whole week at home. In most families on this day
the breakfast is late and the dinner served about two o’clock, the
supper being light and informal. While there are many housekeepers who
still cling to the old custom of having cold dinners, the majority have
a hot one, as it often happens that this is the only meal throughout the
week at which the whole family is sure to meet.

If but one servant be kept, she ought not to be required to perform any
duties after the dinner dishes have been washed and put away. The
remainder of the day and evening should belong to her. If there be no
servant, the housekeeper surely is entitled to what little rest she can
get after dinner, and the other members of the family should find it a
pleasure to prepare whatever light refreshments may be required in the
evening. Remember that there are heavy duties for Monday morning, and do
not leave a lot of dishes in disorder to add to these burdens.


                   Two or More Servants in a Family.

The round of duties for the week having been thus outlined, I wish to
make a few suggestions to the woman who keeps two or more servants. The
duties must be so divided that each shall bear her proper proportion of
the work. In the case where there are several servants, there is greater
ceremony in the mode of living. Suppose there be two servants, and the
family be fairly large. The second girl must do all the upstairs work,
take care of the parlors, halls, dining-room, china closet, etc. It will
be her duty to care for the silver, glass, and fine china. Every
evening, after the dining-room work is finished, she will go to the
chambers, empty all slops, refill the water pitchers, turn back the bed
clothes, and lay the night garments on the bed. She will draw the shades
and see that there is a stock of matches, towels, etc. In the morning
she will attend to the dining-room, put the breakfast dishes on to heat,
dust the lower halls and parlors, and sweep the steps and sidewalk. The
cook will care for all the lower part of the house, her own room, the
cellar, and the back steps and stoop. The washing and ironing must be
divided between them. It is usual to have the cook do the plain washing
and ironing, while the second girl takes the starched clothes. If,
however, the second girl be required to do plain sewing, the cook does
the heavier part of the washing.

In the matter of the duties of a servant each housekeeper must make her
own laws, but the more servants there are, the more clearly must each
one’s responsibility be defined, and the mistress will save herself an
immense amount of annoyance if she will take pains to divide the work of
the household with good judgment and with justice, not allowing any
dictation in the matter. She should not be hasty in reaching a
conclusion, but should be firm in her decisions.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER IV.

                    SOME THINGS TO BE LEARNED EARLY.


                      Proper Management of Fires.

ONE of the first things a young housekeeper must master is the science
of managing fires. Now, a coal fire is like some people: it will stand a
certain amount of nagging, pressure, and neglect, but it will make you
suffer in some way for all your abuse. On the other hand, with uniformly
fair treatment, it will repay a hundred-fold in comfort.

The demands upon the kitchen fire are varied. Sometimes we want a very
hot oven or surface, and again we must have only a moderate amount of
heat. The degrees of heat must be regulated by the various checks and
draughts in the range, rather than by the use of a greater or less
amount of coal. In the morning remove all the ashes and cinders. Put the
shavings or paper on the grate loosely, and then put in the kindling
wood, crossing the pieces, that there may be a free circulation of air.
Open all the draughts and light the fire. As soon as the wood begins to
burn, put on some coal. Let the fire burn for ten minutes; then shut all
the dampers, but keep open the draught in front of the fire. When the
coal begins to burn well, add enough fresh fuel to come nearly to the
top of the lining of the fire-box. Keep the front draught open until all
the coal has become ignited, but not until it becomes red-hot. Now close
the front draughts, and the fire will be hot enough for anything you may
want to do for hours to come. Should you want only a moderate heat,
there are checks with all modern ranges which enable you to make the
combustion very slow. If greater heat be wanted, open the draughts, and
in ten minutes you will have a glowing fire.

These are the great secrets of always having a good fire when you want
it: Do not let the coal burn to a white heat; when you do not require a
hot fire, open all the checks; when you want a hot fire, close the
checks and open the draughts; and, of course, the moment there is no
further need of a hot fire, close the draughts and open the checks
again. A fire built and managed in this manner can be used constantly
for four or five hours.


                     Points about the Furnace Fire.

The furnace fire should be shaken down and raked perfectly clear in the
morning. A few shovelfuls of coal should be put on, and all the draughts
opened. The ashes should then be taken up. As soon as the coal begins to
burn well and the fire looks clear at the bottom, put in enough coal to
come almost to the top of the fire-pot. Keep the draughts open until all
the gas has burned off; then close them, and later, if the fire be too
hot, open the checks. Except in extremely cold weather, this is all the
attention that ought to be necessary through the day. The fire must be
raked down and fresh coal or cinders put on in the evening, but a small
amount of coal will answer for the night, unless the draughts have been
open the greater part of the day.

On an extremely cold day it may be necessary to have the draughts open a
part of the time, and some coal put on at noon.

All the clinkers should be removed when the fire is raked down in the
morning. The water pan should be replenished at least once a day. Some
careless people leave the ashes for a day at a time at the bottom of the
furnace, where they absorb the heat, robbing the house of its share.

If the furnace fire be allowed to burn to a white heat it will be ruined
for that day, unless more coal be put on a little later. The cold-air
boxes must admit enough air to drive the hot air through the house, but
not more than can be heated.

Heating stoves and open grates are to be managed as far as possible the
same as a furnace. With the stove there is no trouble, there being
plenty of checks and draughts. The open grate is not so well provided.


                    Keeping the Refrigerator Sweet.

Few duties are more important than that of keeping the refrigerator in
perfect condition. If the lining be broken in any part, so that the
water soaks into the wood, attend to the relining at once; or, if the
refrigerator be not worth that, discard it wholly. Never have the
waste-pipe connected with the plumbing in the house.

Have the refrigerator placed where it can be flooded with air and light
whenever necessary, but, of course, in as cool a place as possible. Once
a week have everything removed from it. Take out the shelves and wash
them in hot soap-suds; then pour boiling water over them. Place them in
the sun; or, if that fails, by the range, that they may be perfectly
dried. Now take out the ice rack and wash and scald in the same way,
except that, as there are grooves or wires in this, the greatest care
must be used to get out every particle of dirt that may have lodged
there. Next wash out the ice compartment, running a flexible wire rod
down the waste-pipe, that nothing shall lodge there. Put two
tablespoonfuls of washing soda into a quart of boiling water and set on
the fire. When this boils, pour it into the ice compartment; follow this
with a kettleful of boiling water, and wipe dry. Now wash the other
parts of the refrigerator with hot soap-suds, and wipe perfectly dry. Be
careful to get the doors and ledges clean and dry. Leave the
refrigerator open for an hour, and then return the ice and food to it.
Plan this work for a day when the iceman is due. The work should be done
immediately after breakfast, so that the refrigerator shall be ready
when the ice comes.

Should you, after this care, still have trouble, do not use the
refrigerator. It will be far better to get along without the comfort it
affords than to endanger health and life by using a contaminated
article. Food never should be put in a refrigerator while warm, because
it absorbs the flavors of other food and also heats the refrigerator.


                Getting the Greatest Good out of Lamps.

In these days, when lamps are used so much, the care of them is quite an
important matter. If the lamps be good and have proper attention, one
cannot wish for a more satisfactory light; but if badly cared for, they
will be a source of much discomfort. The great secret of having lamps in
good working order is to keep them clean and to use good oil. Have a
regular place and time for trimming the lamps. Put a folded newspaper on
the table, so that any stray bits of burned wick and drops of oil may
fall upon it. Wash and wipe the chimneys and shades. Now take off all
loose parts of the burner, washing them in hot soap-suds and wiping them
with a clean soft cloth. Trim the wicks and turn them quite low. With a
soft, wet cloth, well soaped, wipe the burner thoroughly, working the
cloth as much as possible inside the burner, to get off every particle
of the charred wick. Now fill the lamps within about one inch of the
top, and wipe with a damp towel and then a dry one. Adjust all the parts
and return them to their proper places.

Whenever a new wick is required in a lamp, wash and scald the burner
before putting in the wick. With a student lamp, the receptacle for
waste oil, which is screwed on the bottom of the burner, should be taken
off at least once a week and washed. Sometimes a wick will get very dark
and dirty before it is half consumed. It is not economy to try to burn
it; replace it with a fresh one. The trouble and expense are slight, and
the increase in clearness and brilliancy will repay the extra care. When
a lamp is lighted, it should not at once be turned up to the full
height; wait until the chimney is heated. Beautiful shades are often
cracked or broken by having the hot chimneys rest against them. Now,
when lighting a lamp be careful that the chimney is set perfectly
straight, and does not touch the shade at any point. The shade should be
put in place as soon as the lamp is lighted, that it may heat gradually.


                    Take Good Care of the Plumbing.

The care of the plumbing is an important duty; yet, provided there be
nothing wrong about the plumbing at the start, and the supply of water
be constant and generous, this duty will not be found a hard one. The
housekeeper should impress upon the younger members of her family the
importance of thoroughly flushing the water-closets. She should at least
once a day personally see to it that there is sufficient flushing. The
best time for this is after the morning work is done.

The laundry tubs should be thoroughly rinsed after washing. Be free with
the water, that no trace of suds shall be left in the pipes.

After the midday work is done, and again at night, the pipe in the
kitchen sink should be thoroughly flushed with hot water, if possible.
In case there be no hot water, be generous with the cold. Once a week
put half a pint of washing soda in an old saucepan, and add six quarts
of hot water. Place on the fire until the soda is all dissolved; then
pour the water into the pipes, reserving two quarts of it for the
kitchen sink.

Have an old funnel to use in the bath-tub and basins, that the hot soda
shall not touch any of the metal save that in the pipes.

Particles of grease sometimes lodge in the sink-pipe and cause an
unpleasant odor. The hot soda dissolves this grease and carries it away.

Copperas will remove odors from drain-pipes. Put one pound of the
crystals in a quart bottle and fill up with cold water. Cork tightly and
label, writing “Poison” on the label. Pour a little of this into the
pipes whenever there is any odor.

If thorough flushing and an occasional use of the hot soda will not keep
the pipes sweet, there is something wrong with the plumbing, and it
should be attended to at once.

It seems as if one need not caution people in regard to throwing into
either water-closet or basin anything that may clog the pipes, but it is
because of ignorance or carelessness on the part of the people who use
these conveniences that much of the trouble with the pipes arises. Here
are some of the things that should never have a chance to get into the
pipes: hair, lint, pieces of rags, no matter how small; matches, fruit
peelings, etc.

If for any reason there should be a bad odor from the drain, two
tablespoonfuls of carbolic acid, mixed with a cupful of cold water and
poured into the pipes, will prove a good disinfectant. A small bottle of
carbolic acid, plainly labelled, always should be kept in the house, out
of the reach of the children.


                          About the Bath-room.

The bath-room should have special attention daily, and once a week a
thorough cleaning. A woollen carpet is not desirable for this room. The
floor may be of tiles, or of hard wood, stained or painted, or be
covered with lignum or oil-cloth. Of course, there must be a rug or two.
The Japanese cotton rug is cheap and pretty for this purpose; or, one
can make rugs from pieces of carpet.

Not only should the wash-basin be washed clean and the bowl in the
water-closet washed every day, but, if the bath-tub has been used, this
too should be washed and carefully wiped dry. Dust the room, and hang
the soiled towels where they will dry before being put in the hamper
provided for such things.

Once a week give the room a thorough cleaning. Wash the toilet articles.
Wash all the marble with soap and water, and if there be any spots that
are not easily removed, put a little sand soap on the wash-cloth and rub
the spot well. The bowl in the water-closet should have a good scrubbing
with sand soap. Rub the bath-tub with whiting, wet with household
ammonia, and then wash it with plenty of hot water and wipe dry.

Never use for the bath-tub sand soap, or any substance that would
scratch, unless it be an enamel tub, in which case no harm will be done.
Clean the faucets with whiting. Take a long-handled boot-buttoner and
draw from the waste-pipes all the bits of lint that have gathered there.
Dust the room and wash the floor, wiping very dry. Now lay down the
rugs, which already should have been well beaten and aired.


                   Do not Neglect the Garbage Barrel.

The garbage barrel or tub should be thoroughly washed once a week. In
summer, after the barrel has been cleaned, sprinkle into it one
teaspoonful of carbolic acid mixed with half a cupful of cold water.
This will keep the barrel free from offensive odors even in the hottest
weather.



                            WASHING DISHES.

Sort the dishes and scrape them free from fragments. Have two pans, one
for washing and the other for rinsing. Have also a large tray on which
to drain the dishes. Wash the glassware first.


                       Proper Care of Glassware.

It must be remembered that even a scratch on the surface of a piece of
glass often will cause it to break at that point under the slightest
shock; therefore, it is essential that it shall not come in contact with
a sharp, hard substance. A grain of sand on the bottom of the dishpan,
or on the cloth with which the article is washed or wiped, may be the
means of breaking a valuable dish. When possible, a wooden or paper tub
should be used in washing glass. A soft silver-brush, soft cloths for
washing, and soft linen towels for wiping, also are necessary. Have the
water cool enough to bear the hand in comfortably. Make a strong suds
with hard soap. The second dish of water should be of the same
temperature. Wash each piece carefully, rubbing with the soft cloth;
then put in the rinsing water. When four or five pieces have been
washed, spread a coarse towel on an old tray, and place the glass on
this to drain. Wipe the hands dry, and then wipe the pieces of glass
with a perfectly clean, dry towel. Rub gently, to polish. Hold the glass
up to the light, to see if it is perfectly clear, then place on a clean
tray. Always keep the towel between the hands and the glass, and as soon
as the towel becomes damp change it for a dry one. The glass should not
drain long enough to become cold; for this reason it is best to wash
only a few pieces at a time. If the glass be cut, or an imitation of
cut, use the soft silver-brush to cleanse all the grooves. As it is
almost impossible to get the deeply cut glass perfectly dry, it should
not be placed at once on a polished-wood surface. It is a good plan to
have a soft cloth on which to place cut pieces for ten or fifteen
minutes after they have been wiped. Glass that is ornamented with gold
must be treated with great care, to prevent the ornamentation from
wearing off. Use only castile soap, and do not have the suds strong.
Wash one piece at a time, and wipe immediately.

It will be seen by the foregoing that the care of glass can be summed up
in a few words: wash in clean warm suds and wipe perfectly dry, using
clean dry linen towels; be careful not to scratch nor hit a piece of
glass, and do not expose the surface to sudden heat or cold.


                       Other Dishes and Utensils.

After the glass the silver should be washed and wiped. Next wash the
china in hot suds, and then rinse in the second pan of hot water. Drain
on the tray, and wipe while yet warm. The kitchen crockery should follow
the china, then the tins, and finally the iron cooking dishes. Change
the dish-water often, having the first water very soapy and the rinsing
water hot. Be as careful to have clean water and clean dry towels for
the pots and kettles as for the china, and wash in the same way as a
piece of china, having the outside as clean as the inside. Some kind of
sand soap or mineral soap is necessary to keep the tins, granite-ware,
and iron saucepans perfectly clean and bright. After wiping such
utensils with a dry towel, place them on the hearth, to become perfectly
dry, as they rust easily and quickly.

Now rub the steel knives with either Bristol brick, wood ashes, or sand
soap. Wash them, and wipe perfectly dry. Next wash the tray, the rinsing
pan, the table, and the sink. Finally wash the dish-towels, and then the
dishpans.


                         Some Special Cautions.

Pitchers, bowls, pans, and other utensils used for milk, should have
cold water stand in them for half an hour or so, then be washed in
plenty of clean soapy water. After this they should be scalded with
boiling water, wiped dry, and placed in the sun and open air, if
possible, for several hours.

Teapots, coffee-pots, chocolate-pots, and the like, should be washed in
hot soapy water and be rinsed in boiling water. Use a wooden skewer to
remove every particle of sediment that may lodge in the spouts or
creases of the pots. Wipe perfectly dry, and expose to the sun and air,
if possible, for an hour or more.

Pans in which fish or onions have been cooked, should be washed and
scalded; then they should be filled with water, in which should be put a
teaspoonful of soda for every two quarts of water. Place them on top of
the stove for half an hour or more. This will insure the removal of the
flavor of fish or onions.


                            Care of Silver.

Silver that is properly washed and wiped every day will require very
little extra cleaning. Remove it from the table on a tray and then put
it into a wide-mouthed kitchen pitcher containing warm water. When ready
to wash it, have a pan of hot soap-suds and a clean soft dish-cloth. Put
all the silver, except the knives, into the suds, and wash a few pieces
at a time, rubbing well with the cloth. Wipe the silver, while it is
still warm, with a fine soft silver-towel, rubbing it until perfectly
dry and bright. Always keep the towel between the hands and the silver.
As fast as a piece is finished lay it on the tray, and when all the work
is done wipe the hands perfectly dry, and then put the silver away.

Should there be any tarnish on any of the pieces, rub with a little wet
whiting and a piece of chamois skin. Wash again in the hot suds, and
wipe.

When the silver is to have a regular cleaning, put it in a pan of hot
suds and wash well. Spread several thicknesses of paper on the table.
Have at hand a saucer of French whiting, finely powdered and sifted. Wet
a little of this with water, unless the silver is very much tarnished,
in which case use half water and half alcohol; or, instead of the
alcohol, half household ammonia. Rub the article with this and then with
dry whiting and a chamois skin, finally using a soft silver-brush to
clean out all the chasing and creases. When all the silver has been
cleaned in this manner, wash it in clean hot suds, wipe on a towel kept
for silver, and put away.

Do not put silver in woollen bags, as the sulphur in this cloth
tarnishes the metal. Rubber should not be placed near silver.

Only substances which are well known have been suggested for the
cleaning of the various articles of silver. There are preparations in
the market which many housekeepers use because they consider them
harmless, and great savers of labor. Each one will decide for herself in
these matters.


                    Do not Slight the Knife Blades.

In nearly all cases the blade of the knife requires different treatment
from the handle. If it be of unplated steel it must be thoroughly
polished every time it is used. If it be of silver, or be silver-plated,
a careful washing with soap and water, and a thorough drying, will be
all the daily care that is required,—a thorough cleaning about once a
week sufficing to keep the blade perfectly clean. There should be a
knife-board for the steel knives. Boards covered with leather that come
for this purpose may be purchased at any first-class kitchen furnishing
store.

To clean the knives have at hand a pan of clean, soapy water and a soft
cloth. Hold the knives in the left hand and wash the blades with the
cloth, only wiping the handles with the wet cloth, unless they be
silver, in which case wash them thoroughly with the soap-suds and cloth.
Sprinkle the board with some knife-polish. Hold the blade flat on the
board and rub back and forth until it is polished. If the stain be hard
to remove, dip a cork in the strong soap-suds, then in the polishing
powder, and, laying the blade of the knife perfectly flat on the board,
rub with the cork until the stain disappears. Now wipe the polish off
with a soft cloth and rub the blade with a piece of chamois skin. The
handles of the knives should be protected while the blades are being
polished. Have a long, narrow bag of Canton flannel to slip over the
handle while the blade is being rubbed.


                       Rust and Other Annoyances.

If it should happen that the steel of knives or forks becomes rusted,
dip them in sweet oil and let them stand for twenty-four hours, then rub
them with powdered quicklime, and the stain will be removed. If the
handles of the knives be ivory, and they become stained, rub them with
whiting and spirits of turpentine. This will remove all ordinary stains.
Still, the appearance of the ivory will be greatly improved by a
vigorous rubbing with the whiting and turpentine. Frequent wettings with
hot water and soap will dull the mother-of-pearl handles, which should
be wiped with a damp cloth and rubbed dry with a soft towel. Silver
handles should be rubbed frequently with whiting. Celluloid, ivorine,
bone, etc., require the same general treatment as ivory and pearl. The
handles of knives, no matter what the material, should never be allowed
to stand in water. The water, particularly if it be hot, loosens the
handles from the tang, and also dulls them. A tin or granite-ware pail
or pitcher should be kept exclusively for knives. When used, it should
have some water in it, but not enough to come up to the handle of the
knife. As soon as the table is cleared the knives should be put in this,
to remain until the time for washing them.

If you have no regular case for the knives, they may be kept in one made
of Canton flannel. To make this take a piece of flannel about three
quarters of a yard wide and cut off twenty-one inches. Fold over eleven
and a half inches of the selvage end, leaving a single thickness of
about four inches at the other end. Baste the doubled part together;
then stitch it into twelve compartments. Bind the bag with tape, and sew
tapes on the single flap at the centre. Of course, the flannel is on the
inside. When steel cutlery is to be put away for any length of time,
melt pure mutton suet, and dip the steel part of the knives and forks in
it. When cool, wrap in tissue paper, and then in thicker paper or Canton
flannel.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER V.

                          WORK ON WASHING DAY.


ON washing day arrange the white clothes in this manner: Half fill two
tubs with warm suds. Put in one tub the pieces soiled the most; put the
remainder of the articles in the second tub. Have a third tub half full
of warm water and the wash boiler half full of cold water. Wash the
cleaner clothes first, rubbing soap on the parts which are soiled the
most. Wring from this water and drop into the tub of clean warm water.
When all are done, rinse the clothes well in the warm water; then wring
out and soap the parts that were badly soiled. Put these same pieces in
the boiler of cold water and set on the fire. Let the water get almost
boiling hot; then take up the clothes and put them in a tubful of cold
water. Rinse them from this into another of warm water and from this
into a third of bluing water. Wring them as dry as possible; then shake
them out and hang on the lines. They should become perfectly dry before
they are folded. All the white clothing should be washed in this manner.
The second tubful can, of course, be rubbed out and rinsed while the
first is being scalded. If clothes be not thoroughly rinsed and bluing
be used, the soap will combine with the bluing to give a yellow tinge to
the clothing. This is especially the case when liquid bluing is used. A
thorough rinsing is really one of the most important steps in all the
work.


                     Satines, Ginghams, and Prints.

These kinds of goods look better when no soap is used and they are not
starched in the usual way. For two dresses make one gallon of starch by
mixing one cupful of flour with one pint of cold water. Pour on this
three quarts and a half of boiling water. Pour half of this mixture into
a tub containing four gallons of warm water. Wash one of the dresses in
this, rubbing the fabric the same as if soap were used. Now rinse in two
clean waters and hang out to dry. The starch cleans the fabric, and
enough is held in the cloth to make it about as stiff as when new. Wash
the second dress in the same way. This method is not for light cambrics,
but only for satines, ginghams, and dark prints.

If the colors run, put half a cupful of salt in the second rinsing
water. If the color of the fabric be blue and faded, put two
tablespoonfuls of acetic acid, or twice as much vinegar, into the last
rinsing water. This will often restore the color, but not always, as it
depends upon the chemicals used in the dyeing. The acid can be used in
the last water in which faded blue flannels are rinsed. Colored goods
should be dried thoroughly and dampened only a few hours before you are
ready to iron them. They should be ironed on the wrong side.


                     How Flannels should be Washed.

Have a tub half full of strong soap suds, in which has been dissolved a
tablespoonful of borax. Shake all the dust and lint from the flannels,
and then put them into the suds. Wash them by rubbing with the hands and
sopping them up and down in the water. Wring them out of this water and
put them into a tub of clean hot water. Rinse thoroughly in this water,
then in a second tubful. Wring dry, shake well, and hang on the lines.
When nearly dry, take them in and fold, rolling them very tightly. Wrap
a clean cloth around them, and, if possible, iron the same day. Do not
have the irons very hot, but press the flannels well. Have clean suds
for the colored flannels. To prevent shrinking, the temperature of the
water should be the same in all the tubs.

Never use yellow soap for washing flannel, and never rub any other kind
of soap upon the cloth.

To wash blankets, make strong suds with some white soap. To every three
gallons of water add a tablespoonful of powdered borax. Have the suds as
hot as the hands will bear comfortably. Shake the blankets, and, if the
bindings be of colored silk, rip them off. Put the blankets in the hot
suds and sop them up and down until the suds show that the dirt has been
removed. If there be any stains on the blankets, rub the spots well
between the hands, but remember the caution not to rub soap on such
goods. Have a tub half full of clear water as hot as the suds. After
squeezing the suds from the blankets, put them in the rinsing water. Sop
them well in this, and then squeeze out the water; finally rinse in a
tub of bluing water, having the temperature still as hot as the suds.
Press all the water possible from the blankets and hang them on the
lines to dry, shaking out all the wrinkles. When dry, fold smoothly and
lay on a clean board. Put another board on top, and on this place some
heavy weights. In a day or two the blankets will be pressed.

Wash only two blankets at a time, and select a clear day for this
work,—a windy day, if possible.


               The Right Way to Wash Silk Undergarments.

To three gallons of warm water add three tablespoonfuls of household
ammonia. Let the silk garments soak in this for twenty minutes; then rub
soap on the parts which are the most badly soiled, and wash the articles
with the hands. Never rub them on a board. Rinse in two waters, wring
dry, and hang on the line. When nearly dry, take in and fold, and, if
possible, iron within a few hours. Never let an iron come in contact
with the silk; lay a piece of cloth over the fabric, and iron on that.

The ammonia may be omitted, and the silk garments be washed in strong
suds made with white castile soap and warm water.


                   How to Launder Washable Curtains.

There are many inexpensive cotton or cotton and silk fabrics used for
curtains which launder very well if treated properly. Shake out all the
dust. Make weak suds with white castile soap. Wash the curtains in this,
and rinse them in two waters; then wring dry. Next dip them in a
preparation made as follows: Soak half an ounce of isinglass in one
quart of cold water for an hour or more. Steep one ounce of saffron on
the fire in two quarts of hot water for two hours. Stir the soaked
isinglass and half an ounce of alum into this, and then strain into a
bowl. Put one fourth of this mixture into another large bowl, and dip
one curtain into it, sopping it well, that the color and stiffening may
be equally distributed. Shake out and hang on the line to dry.

When the curtains are dry, sprinkle them, making them very damp. Draw
out evenly; then fold, and roll up in a cloth; finally iron them, being
careful to move the iron lengthwise of the curtain, and to get the
fabric very dry.

The alum and saffron may be omitted, and the stiffening be used for
washable dresses or thin muslin curtains.


                        Cleaning Lace Curtains.

Lace curtains will not bear rubbing. All the work must be done carefully
and gently. For two pairs of curtains half fill a large tub with warm
water, and add to it half a pound of soap, which has been shaved fine
and dissolved in two quarts of boiling water; add also about a gill of
household ammonia. Let the curtains soak in this over night. In the
morning sop them well in the water, and squeeze it all out; but do not
wring the curtains. Put them into another tub of water, prepared with
soap and ammonia, as on the night before; sop them gently in this water,
and then, after squeezing out the water, put them in a tub of clean warm
water. Continue to rinse them in fresh tubs of water until there is no
trace of soap; next, rinse them in water containing bluing. After
pressing out all the water possible, spread the curtains over sheets on
the grass; or, if you have no grass, put them on the clothes-line. When
they are dry, dip them in hot thick starch, and fasten them in the frame
that comes for this purpose. If you have no frame, fasten a sheet on a
mattress, and spread the curtains on this, pinning them in such a manner
that they shall be perfectly smooth and have all the pattern of the
border brought out. Place in the sun to dry. If it be desired to have
the curtains a light écru shade, rinse them in weak coffee; and if you
want a dark shade, use strong coffee.

If the curtains be dried on a mattress they must be folded smoothly, the
size of the mattress. Lace curtains can be spread two or three
thicknesses in the frame.


                    Points on Starching and Ironing.

In making and using starch have all the utensils and the water perfectly
clean. Mix the dry starch with cold water enough to make a thin paste.
Pour on this the required amount of boiling water, stirring all the
while. To each quart of starch add a teaspoonful each of salt and lard.
Boil the starch until it looks clear, which will be in about ten
minutes. Strain it through a piece of cheese-cloth (it will have to be
squeezed through the cloth). White articles should be dipped into the
hot starch, but have it cooled a little for colored articles. For
collars, cuffs, shirts, etc., have the starch very thick; for white
skirts it should be rather thin; for dresses, aprons, and children’s
clothing also, the starch must be thin, and for table linen only the
thinnest kind imaginable should be used.

Always have starched clothes thoroughly dried; then sprinkle evenly with
enough cold water to make them very damp. Fold smoothly and roll up in a
clean cloth for several hours. In ironing, begin with the plain pieces,
like the sheets and pillow cases. This will get the irons in condition
for the starched clothes, which should be done next; and after these
finish the plain pieces. Have the ironing blanket and sheet spread
smoothly on the table and tacked in place, and have some fine salt
spread on a board. Tie a large piece of beeswax in a cloth, and after
rubbing the hot iron on the salt, rub the beeswax over it. Finally wipe
the iron on a clean cloth. This process will make the iron clean and
smooth. Starched clothes must be made very damp; other articles should
be dampened only slightly. Starched clothes must be ironed until
perfectly dry. In ironing, do the rubbing lengthways when possible,—that
is, with the selvage.


                      A Rule for Making Hard Soap.

                  18 pounds of clarified grease.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of powdered borax.
                   3 pounds of potash.
                   4 quarts of cold water.

Put the fat on the back part of the range, where it will melt slowly.
The potash is put into a large earthen or stone bowl or jar. Upon this
is poured three quarts of cold water, and three tablespoonfuls of
powdered borax is added. This mixture is stirred with a wooden stick
until the potash is dissolved; then it stands until cold.

When the fat is melted pour it into a butter tub. It must not be hot
when the potash is added; should it be, it must stand until so cool that
it will hardly run when poured. When the potash mixture is perfectly
cold pour it in a thin stream into the fat, stirring all the while. When
all has been added, continue stirring for about ten minutes, when the
soap should begin to look thick and ropy. At this stage pour it into a
box, having it about three or four inches deep. Let it stand a few
hours; then cut it into bars, and the bars into pieces of a convenient
length for handling. It will still be soft, and should not be removed
from the box for at least two days. It will be hard and white.

If you attempt to combine the fat and potash mixture while the latter is
at all warm it will take a long time to make the soap, and the result
will not be so satisfactory. It is well to put paper under the soap tub
and the bowl in which the potash is prepared. Remember that potash is
very strong, and do not spatter it on yourself or on the floor.

This is a hard soap,—a most desirable quality.


                              Borax Soap.

                      2 pounds of good white soap.
                      3 ounces of borax.
                      2 quarts of water.

Shave the soap and put it in a porcelain kettle with the water and
borax. Place on the fire, and stir frequently until the soap and borax
are dissolved and combined. Pour the hot mixture into a clean butter
tub, and when cold, cover. This soap is excellent for washing flannels,
blankets, etc.


                               Soft Soap.

It is best to make the soap a few weeks before you wish to use it, as it
is rather hard on the hands when new. Here is a good rule for making the
soap without heating the grease:—

Put fourteen pounds of crude—not concentrated—potash in a wooden pail
and pour over it enough boiling water to cover it. Stir well, and let
the mixture stand over night. In the morning pour this mixture into a
large kettle and place on the fire. Now add another pail of boiling
water, and stir frequently with a stick until all the potash is
dissolved. Next put ten quarts of soap grease in a water-tight barrel
and gradually pour in the hot potash. Stir until all the grease is
united with the potash. Let this stand for three hours; then add a
pailful of hot water and stir well. Add another pailful three hours
later. After this add a pailful each day for the next six days, stirring
well with a long stick each time. The soap should be stirred every day
for the next three weeks, when it will be ready for use.

Be sure the potash is pure.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER VI.

                          IN THE DINING-ROOM.


ONE’S dining-room should be large enough to enable a person to pass
around the table comfortably when the family or guests are all seated.
It should also be light and sunny, and easily heated and ventilated. The
most essential pieces of furniture are a table of generous width,
capable of being enlarged, comfortable chairs, and a sideboard. After
that, if the room be large enough and the purse will admit of the
purchase of a cabinet or two, with glass fronts and sides, so much the
better. In these there can be kept dainty bits of china and glassware.
These cabinets will brighten a dining-room more than anything else you
can put into it, possibly excepting pictures. If there be no room for a
cabinet, a corner cupboard and some hanging shelves will be a great
addition. Pictures that suggest pleasant things are, of course, always
desirable. A few thrifty ferns, flowering plants, or evergreens add a
great deal to the brightness and beauty of any room, but particularly
the dining-room. Have them there if you possibly can.


                           Setting the Table.

The table should stand in the middle of the room. Cover it with a thick
felt or a double-faced Canton flannel cloth. Over this spread the white
damask cloth, having the centre fold come exactly in the centre of the
table. Pass the hand over the cloth to make it lie smooth. If there be a
centrepiece, carving, or tray cloths, or table mats, have them lie
perfectly straight and smooth on the cloth. At each seat place on the
right the knives, spoons, and glasses; on the left, the forks and
napkins. Have the edge of the knife toward the plate. Lay the forks with
the tines up, and the spoons with the bowls up. Have the spacing between
the seats regular, and the space between the knife and fork about seven
inches. Set the glasses at the points of the knives. If individual
salt-cellars and pepper bottles be used, they are to be placed at the
head of the plates; otherwise, place the cellars and bottles at the
corners of the table. The tablespoons may be placed at the corners of
the table, or near the dishes where they will be required in serving. In
the centre of the table there may be set a dish of flowers or fruit.

These general directions apply to the setting of the table for any meal.
Nearly all housekeepers have their own ideas about the arrangement of
the table, thus securing variety and individuality.


                Refinement not Exclusively for the Rich.

The incomes and style of living in this country have such a wide range
that it would be impossible to give here directions for the table
service which would meet the wants of all classes. The woman of limited
means who does her own work could not serve her meals the same as one
who keeps one or more servants. As far as possible she will so arrange
her meals that it shall not be necessary to rise from the table more
than once or twice. Indeed, it is possible to have everything on the
table for breakfast, tea, or luncheon, but at dinner time the meat,
vegetables, and soiled plates should be removed before the dessert is
put on. No woman, no matter how simply she lives, should get into a
slipshod way of serving her meals. The table can be made, and should be,
a means of refinement and pleasure. Do not have it ceremonious, yet
strive for neatness, brightness, and order. No one has a right to mar
the sociability of a meal by bringing a gloomy countenance or
disagreeable subject to the table. When the housekeeper has done all she
can to make the meal suitable and appetizing, each member of the family
should do his or her share to bring life and sunshine into the
conversation.

The directions which follow may, it is hoped, be helpful in some degree
to the young housekeeper, no matter what her manner of living may be. It
is easy to omit all but one or two courses, thus making the table
arrangement and service simple; but the general principles may be
observed just the same.


                        At the Breakfast Table.

Breakfast being the plainest meal of the day, the arrangement of the
table should always be simple. The cloth should be spotless. At each
person’s seat place a knife, fork, teaspoon or dessert spoon, tumbler,
and napkin, and if fresh fruit is to be served, a finger bowl, if there
be no servant. If you have a waitress, she will place the finger bowls
on as you finish with the fruit. If fresh fruit be served, there must
also be placed at each seat a fruit knife and plate. Have the dish of
fruit in the centre of the table. Have a tray cloth at each end of the
table. Place a little butter plate near the top of each plate. Put four
tablespoons on the table, either in two corners, or beside the dishes
where they will be used in serving. Put the carving knife and fork at
the head of the table, and the cups and saucers, sugar and cream,
coffee-pot, hot-water bowl, and the mush dishes at the other end.

The mistress of the house serves the mush, and when the fruit and this
course have been served, the dishes are removed and the hot plates and
other food brought in; the head of the house serving the hot meats,
etc., while the mistress pours the coffee. It sometimes happens that a
man of business lacks time to serve breakfast, in which case the
mistress of the house attends to that duty. If there be a waitress, she
passes the plates when they are ready; also the bread, butter, and
coffee. The hostess usually puts the sugar and cream in the coffee,
first asking each one if he will have these additions. After all have
been served, it is quite common to dismiss the waitress, ringing for her
if her services be again required. When there is but one servant, the
family help each other after the breakfast has been placed upon the
table. Fresh water is good for most people, and each person should be
served with a tumblerful on taking a seat at the table. If there be hot
cakes or waffles, they should come after the meats, and there should be
a fresh set of warm plates, as well as of knives and forks.


                           The Dinner Table.

The silver required depends upon the number of courses to be served, but
a few suggestions may help one to decide what is proper for her own
table. The silver for all the courses except the dessert may be put on
the table when it is set, or it may be placed there by the waitress as
needed for each course. Dinner plates are placed on the table or not,
when it is set, as one pleases. The silver needed for an ordinary course
dinner would be a small fork for raw oysters, tablespoon for soup, fork
for fish, knife and fork for meat, and fork for salad; carving knife and
fork at the head of the table, soup ladle at the head of the mistress’s
plate, and, if the dinner be served from the table, spoons for serving.

In the centre of the table set rather a low dish containing flowers or
ferns. On each side of it place some small dishes of pretty design for
olives, salted almonds, confectionery, and such things; or these small
dishes may be set in the corners of the table. If the dinner is to be
served on the table, the small dishes should be put in the corners; but
if it is to be served from the sideboard, such dishes may be placed
wherever they look best and are most convenient. Lay the tablespoons in
pairs; in the corners, of course, if the dinner is to be served on the
table. In the fold of each napkin lay a small square of bread or a small
roll. The fruit and dishes for the dessert may be disposed on the
sideboard. All the dishes for a handsome dinner service may be of one
pattern, or for each course a different kind of china may be used. For
the olives, almonds, etc., it is desirable to have bits of cut glass, or
pretty little china dishes. Such wares are used much more than silver.
The dishes on which fish, meats, and entrées are served may be round,
oval, square, plain white, or richly colored Chinese or Japanese ware.
The plates for the several courses are, of course, carefully to be kept
hot or cold, as each course may require, until serving time.
After-dinner coffee cups, when all are of different patterns, give a
remarkably pretty effect. Indeed, there is so much that is beautiful in
table-ware nowadays that one can have a handsome service with means
either large or limited.


                           Luncheon and Tea.

Family luncheons and teas are rarely served in courses. Tea, cocoa, or
chocolate is, as a rule, served at these meals, so that the table is set
in practically the same manner as for breakfast; but the plates are
placed for each person, and unless there be meat to carve, the carving
knife and fork are not put on. The bread, butter, cake, preserves, etc.,
are placed on the table when it is set. If hot meats, vegetables, soup,
or cakes be served, the cold plates must be changed for hot ones. When
meats, vegetables, or salads have been served at these meals, the plates
should be changed before the cake and preserves are passed.

For luncheon, such dishes as these are suitable: eggs in any form,
soups, salads, cold meats, with baked or warmed up potatoes, any kind of
broiled meat or fish, any simple made dish, fresh fruit, stewed fruit,
preserves, cake, gingerbread, etc.

Any dish (except soup and fresh fruit) that you serve for luncheons will
be suitable for tea.


                        Duties of the Waitress.

Although every housekeeper may have some methods peculiarly her own in
the matter of waiting upon the table, still there are some customs that
are almost universal in refined households.

If the water has not already been poured, the waitress pours it as soon
as the guests sit down at the table. If there be raw oysters, they
should be served first. Usually they are arranged on the plates, and
placed at each person’s seat before the guests come in.

When the oyster plates have been removed, the soup tureen and hot soup
plates are placed before the hostess. The waitress lifts the cover off
the tureen, inverting it at once, that no drops of steam shall fall from
it, and carries it from the room. The hostess puts a ladleful of soup
into each plate and hands it to the waitress, who places it before the
guests, going in every case to the right hand side. Some hostesses
always serve the ladies first, while others serve the guests in
rotation.

The meat is set before the host, the vegetables being placed before the
hostess or on the sideboard, as one chooses. The waitress passes each
plate as the host hands it to her. She then passes vegetables, bread,
sauce, etc.

The salad is to be served by the hostess. After that the table is
brushed and the dessert is brought in and placed before the hostess. The
coffee follows. If fruit be served, it is passed before the coffee.

Finger bowls are brought in after the made dessert has been served. A
dainty doily is spread on a dessert plate and the finger bowl placed on
this. The bowl should be about one quarter full of water. Each guest
lifts the bowl and doily from the plate and places them at the left hand
side. The doily is never to be used to wipe the fingers.

A good waitress will not pile one dish upon another when removing them
from the table. She should be provided with a tray for all the smaller
dishes, and should remove the plates one or two at a time.

All dishes from which people help themselves, such as vegetables, bread,
butter, etc., should be passed at the left; those that are set before
people, such as soup plates, clean plates, water glasses, finger bowls,
etc., should be passed at the right.


                    Serving Meals without a Servant.

A housekeeper who keeps no servant is often puzzled as to how to serve
dessert, how to serve the other dishes at dinner, whether the plates
should be distributed on the table or placed beside the carver, and so
forth.

The conditions are so different in different families that no arbitrary
rules can be given for these things, but here are a few suggestions
which may be helpful. Have everything ready in the kitchen to put on the
table without delay, and place the dishes where they will keep hot until
wanted. Eggs in any form must, of course, be served as soon as cooked;
therefore they must be timed very carefully. The mush should be put on
the table at the housekeeper’s own place, and served in saucers or
little dishes that come for that purpose. Any one who does not eat mush
or fruit may decline it, and wait for the next course. After the mush
has been served, remove the dishes, and place the rest of the breakfast
on the table. The plates should be hot, and be piled before or at one
side of the carver. While he is serving, pour the coffee. When there is
another member of the family who can put the second course on the table,
the housekeeper should be relieved of this part of the work. It is hard
on a woman not only to have to prepare the breakfast, but also to rise
from the table, bring in the second course and serve this, as she often
must, since, as a rule, men are in a hurry in the morning and cannot
assist their wives in serving the breakfast.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER VII.

                     BUYING FOOD AND CARING FOR IT.


                            Going to Market.

WHEN a housekeeper understands just what to do, and can spend the time
to go to the market herself, she will find that she can have a better
table, with greater variety and at less expense, than when she orders
from the provision man who comes to the house each day. It is true that
there are a great many housekeepers who have neither time nor strength
for daily or even weekly visits to the markets, but the average
housekeeper has the time, and she will find that in the end it will add
to her mental and physical health, as well as to the attractiveness of
her table.

[Illustration: FIRST FIVE RIBS.]

In ordering at the house it is a difficult matter to keep in mind all
the things that the provision man briskly calls off. Even if he should
not miss many little things that one might choose for the sake of
economy and variety, it would be almost impossible to remember them all
when giving him the order. In the market, however, the articles are
spread out before you, and one thing suggests another. Here the prices
can be kept in mind when selecting the food; and should the thing that
you have decided upon be too expensive, something else that you will
find to be nearly or equally good may be substituted. For example, you
may have planned to have halibut for dinner, and found that, instead of
being eighteen cents, it has gone up to twenty-five or thirty cents. You
will naturally hesitate before adding fifty per cent to the expense of
the dish. A cod, haddock, whitefish, red-snapper, or something else of
moderate price, will make a satisfactory substitute. Although the prices
of beef, mutton, pork, etc. are not subject to great changes, the prices
of fresh fish, vegetables, fruit, and game fluctuate constantly. Then
again, many little savory dishes are suggested by the sight of the
various little odds and ends found in the stalls. The sight and odor of
a piece of smoked bacon may give you visions of the many savory dishes
to which it will give relish,—liver and bacon, chicken livers en
brochette, and rashers of bacon with chops or beefsteak.

[Illustration: CHUCK RIBS.]

In the market, too, perhaps you will see sheep’s hearts, which when
boiled make a cheap and savory breakfast, luncheon, or supper dish.
Calves and lambs’ tongues are both cheap and good. They may be kept in
brine for a week or two and then boiled, the same as beef tongue; or
they may be boiled while fresh. They make an attractive dish when served
in jelly, or they may be braised, and served with vegetables à la
jardinière, making an elegant as well as an economical dish. Sheep and
lambs’ kidneys are delicious when broiled, stewed, or sautéd. They are
always cheap. Perhaps you may see a piece of honeycomb tripe which would
make a pleasing dish for breakfast. The liver of nearly all animals is
used, but beef, calves, and pigs’ livers are the most common. Sheep and
lambs’ livers are delicious.

[Illustration: HIND QUARTER OF BEEF.]

                        EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM.

 ┌────────────────────────┬───────────────────────┬───────────────────────────┐
 │        BOSTON.         │       NEW YORK.       │       PHILADELPHIA.       │
 ├────────────────────────┼───────────────────────┼───────────────────────────┤
 │ 1. Tip end of sirloin. │ First cut of ribs.    │First cut of ribs.         │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 2. Second cut of       │ Porter-house steak or │Sirloin roast or steak.    │
 │      sirloin.          │  sirloin roast.       │                           │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 3. First cut of        │ Flat-boned sirloin    │Sirloin roast or steak.    │
 │      sirloin.          │  steak or roast.      │                           │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 4. Back of rump.       │⎧(_a_) Large sirloin   │Hip roast; also rump steak.│
 │                        │⎪                      │                           │
 │ 5. Middle of rump.     │⎨(_a_) steaks or       │Middle of rump.            │
 │                        │⎪                      │                           │
 │ 6. Face of rump.       │⎩roasts.               │Face of rump.              │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 7. Aitchbone.          │ Aitchbone.            │Tail end of rump.          │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 8. Best round steak.   │ (and 4_b_ and 5_b_)   │Best round steak.          │
 │                        │  Rump steak or roasts.│                           │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │ 9. Poorer round steak. │ (and 12_c_) Round     │Poorer round steak.        │
 │                        │  steak.               │                           │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │10. Best part of vein.  │ Best part of vein.    │Best part of vein.         │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │11. Poorer part of vein.│ Poorer part of vein.  │Poorer part of vein.       │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │12. Shank of round.     │ (_d_) Leg of beef.    │Leg.                       │
 │                        │                       │                           │
 │13. Flank.              │ (_e_) Flank.          │(_e_) Flank.               │
 └────────────────────────┴───────────────────────┴───────────────────────────┘

[Illustration: FORE QUARTER OF BEEF.]

                        EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM.

 ┌────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────┬──────────────────────┐
 │          BOSTON.           │      NEW YORK.       │    PHILADELPHIA.     │
 ├────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────┼──────────────────────┤
 │ 1. First cut of ribs.      │ First cut of ribs,   │ First cut of ribs,   │
 │                            │  with tip of sirloin.│  with tip of sirloin.│
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 2. Second cut of ribs.     │ Second cut of ribs.  │ Second cut of ribs.  │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 3. Third cut of ribs.      │ Third cut of ribs.   │ Third cut of ribs.   │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 4 and 5. Best chuck ribs.  │ Best chuck ribs.     │ Best chuck ribs.     │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 6 and 7. Poorer chuck ribs.│ Poorer chuck ribs.   │ Poorer chuck ribs.   │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 8. Neck piece.             │ Neck piece.          │ Neck chuck.          │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │ 9. Rattle-ran.             │ Plate piece.         │ Plate piece.         │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │10. Shoulder of mutton.     │⎫                     │⎧Shoulder of mutton   │
 │                            │⎬Shoulder of mutton.  │⎨ or boler piece.     │
 │11. Sticking piece.         │⎭                     │⎩Sticking piece.      │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │12. Middle cut or rib plate.│⎫                     │                      │
 │                            │⎬Navel end of brisket.│ Navel end of brisket.│
 │13. Navel end of brisket.   │⎭                     │                      │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │14. Brisket piece.          │ Brisket piece.       │ Brisket piece.       │
 │                            │                      │                      │
 │15. Shin, thick end of      │ Shin and thick end of│ Shin and thick end of│
 │  brisket, part of sticking │  brisket.            │  brisket.            │
 │  piece.                    │                      │                      │
 └────────────────────────────┴──────────────────────┴──────────────────────┘

[Illustration: SIRLOIN ROAST,—SECOND CUT.]

Perhaps you want just about two pounds of the neck of mutton for a
broth. You see it cut off and are sure to get nearly what you want. It
may be you want a pound or two of the round of beef chopped for a
Hamburg steak or for beef tea. If you see it cut, you will not get three
or four pounds instead of two. This is true of all the cuts of meat and
fish. It is a rare thing that the provision man, who takes your order at
the house, does not bring you more than you want. In the fish,
vegetable, and fruit market there is constant change, and we cannot be
well supplied with the best and cheapest except by a personal visit to
the sales place.

If one have a large and cold room to keep stores in, and the family be
large, it will pay to buy in quantity, provided the housekeeper knows
what to do with the supplies when she gets them.

[Illustration: CARCASS OF MUTTON.]

                    1.⎫               1.  Leg.
                    2.⎬ Hind quarter. 2.  Loin.
                    4.⎭               3.  Shoulder.
                    3.⎫               4.  Flank.
                    5.⎬ Fore quarter. 5.⎫ Breast.
                    5.⎭               5.⎭

In cold weather I often buy a hind quarter of mutton. To give the
housekeeper an idea of what can be done with such a piece of meat, let
me explain how I use it. This is for a family of three, with an average
of one guest for one meal each day. It must be kept in mind that the
part of the hind quarter which will spoil first is the flank; next come
the ribs and loin; the leg will keep many weeks if hung in a cold dry
place. When the piece of mutton is sent home, I cut off the flank and
the thin end of the ribs, leaving the rib and loin chops quite short.
Should I want to cook any of the chops that day or the next I cut off
the required number, but if I do not care to use them for several days,
they are not cut off until that time. The piece of meat is now hung in
my cold room, and cut from as required. The flank and thin ribs are
freed from every bit of fat; the lean meat is cut into cubes and placed
in a stewpan with four tablespoonfuls of chopped onion, a generous
half-cupful of pearl barley, two level tablespoonfuls of salt, one level
teaspoonful of pepper, and three quarts of cold water. These materials
for a soup are placed on the fire and skimmed carefully when they begin
to boil; then the stewpan is set back where the contents will just
bubble for three hours. The bones are placed in another stewpan with one
quart of cold water. They cook for two hours and then the water is
strained into the soup in the other stewpan. When the soup has been
cooking for three hours, two tablespoonfuls of butter are put into a
small frying-pan and set on the fire. When this becomes hot, two
tablespoonfuls of flour are stirred into it, and when the mixture
becomes smooth and frothy it is added to the soup; after which a
tablespoonful of chopped parsley is added. The result is a gallon of the
most delicious Scotch broth. This soup is just as good when warmed over
as when first made, and it is so substantial that it answers for
luncheon, no meat, fish, or vegetables being required. From the
remainder of the hind quarter I get fourteen chops, cutting the last
four from the leg, and a good roast. All the fat is rendered for soap
grease; and as I make my own soap, this is quite an item.

[Illustration:

  SIRLOIN ROAST.

  A, Tenderloin. B, Back of Sirloin. C, Flank. D, Suet.
]

The weight of the hind quarter described is about twenty pounds, and I
save about one third what it would cost me to buy the soup meat, chops,
and roast separately. One must have a good sharp knife, a meat-saw, and
a cleaver to cut up meats in this manner.

Before going to market one should look through her supplies, and then
make a list of things for use with them. A list of the meals that are to
be arranged, and such purchases as must be made for these meals, is next
in order. One may find it best to make radical changes in her plans when
she gets to the market; still, the list will be a great aid as a guide.
With it, one is not likely to buy too much or too little.

[Illustration: RIB CHOP BEFORE TRIMMING.]

[Illustration: RIB CHOP AFTER TRIMMING.]

In some places it is a great pleasure to go through the markets,
especially on the regular market days. This is particularly true where
there is a large German or French population. The women of these
nationalities have stalls where they sell eggs, butter, cheese, poultry,
fruit, vegetables, and flowers,—the product of their own and neighbors’
farms. Nothing can be brighter or more picturesque than are such markets
in the spring, summer, and fall, when flowers and vegetables are in
abundance. Even the poor laborer’s wife takes home her little growing
plant, or a bunch of fresh flowers. Going to market has not been all
prose to that poor woman, although she had to calculate very closely in
her purchases for her table; for has she not had the sight and odor of
the plants and green vegetables, and did not their beauty and freshness
fill her mind with visions of a beautiful and fragrant country? What a
pity there are not such markets in all our cities!

If you have never made a practice of going to market, try the plan now.
It will pay you.


                    Buying Food for a Small Family.

[Illustration: LOIN.]

A woman who has to provide for a large family can plan and buy with
greater economy than if her family consisted of only two or three. This
is especially the case with meats and some kinds of fish. In buying
meats, if the family be small, it is wiser to get only the parts
actually wanted than to buy large pieces, simply because they are
cheaper by the pound. When planning to cook a large piece of meat or
fish, its adaptability to being made over into various little dishes
should be considered. Pork is the least desirable of the fresh meats for
such purposes. For warming over in various ways the following-named
meats are the most valuable: poultry, veal, lamb, mutton, and beef. The
white meats are better than the red for this purpose. This is also true
of fish; the white, dry varieties are much better for made-over dishes
than the dark, oily kinds.

The smallest prime roast of beef is one of the short ribs, weighing from
three to four pounds. There are two of these short ribs. In Boston they
are called the tip of the sirloin; outside New England, the short ribs
or first cut of the ribs. The two ribs are included in the cut, but it
is possible to get the cut divided.

A small loin of lamb, mutton, or veal, weighing about three or four
pounds, makes a roast that will not last forever. Great care must be
used in treating these small roasts. The heat must be moderate after the
roast is browned and there must be a generous and frequent basting, else
the meat will be dry.

[Illustration: RUMP.]

A turkey weighing between six and seven pounds is about the smallest one
can find in the market, but it can be served in so many ways that one
need not grow to hate the sight of turkey before it is all gone.

In the season of lamb it is possible to get a small leg from which there
can be cut one or two cutlets. The remainder of the leg can be roasted
the following day. If there be a cold room where meats can be hung, a
leg of mutton can be used for several meals. Cut off about one third for
a roast. In about two or three days cut off a thick slice, to be breaded
and fried, and served with tomato sauce. In four or five days the
remainder of the leg can be roasted. The leg of mutton that one can get
small enough for this purpose will probably be what butchers call
yearling lamb. It is not possible to get the best kind of beef or mutton
in so light a weight that it can be used to advantage in a small family.

One grouse or partridge, a chicken, duck, or rabbit, a pair of pigeons
or of quail, all can be used as a roast in a family of two.

Here are some of the things that can be bought in small quantities: half
a pound of sausages, a thin slice of ham that will not weigh more than
half a pound, a quarter of a pound of dried beef, a quarter of a pound
of smoked bacon, a quarter of a pound of smoked salmon or halibut, one
pound of salt codfish, which will answer for three or four
dishes,—fish-balls, fish in cream, fish hash, etc.; one thin slice of
round steak, weighing about a pound, can be used for beef olives or
roll; a slice of veal from the leg can be used in the same way; a piece
of beef, cut from the shoulder, and weighing about two or three pounds,
can be braised; about a pound and a quarter of fresh beef, cut from any
of the tough parts of the animal, can be prepared in a stew; mutton and
veal can be used in the same way.

A short porter-house steak may be made to answer for two meals. Cut out
the tenderloin, broil it, and serve with brown or mushroom sauce. The
remainder of the steak should be put in a cold place and used a day or
two later.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

In summer vegetables should be bought from day to day, as they are
required. In the fall and winter tuberous vegetables may be bought in
larger quantities, if there be a cool place in which to store them. The
common white potatoes may be purchased by the barrel, but as the sweet
potato decays rapidly, it is best to buy it by the pound. Carrots,
turnips, beets, onions, squash, etc., are vegetables that can be stored,
and if one live in a country town it will be well to store them; but for
the housekeeper in the city it will be economy to purchase these
vegetables only as she requires them.

Squash spoils quickly after it has been cut. Since one can purchase as
small a quantity as two or three pounds, it would, therefore, be unwise
to buy a whole squash simply because it costs a little less per pound
than when bought in a small quantity.

If one have a cold cellar, it would be well to put in one or two barrels
of apples late in the fall; but as all fruits as well as vegetables
require a low, dry temperature, it would be unwise to make large
purchases unless one have a proper place to keep them in.


                        Butter, Eggs, and Milk.

Butter is an expensive article, and should be selected with care. If one
have the proper place for storing it, and can get it direct from some
trustworthy dairy, it would be economical to purchase the winter’s
supply in October. About fifty pounds will be enough for a family of two
for six months. This should be put up in two or three small tubs. It
must be kept in a cool, sweet place.

Eggs, of course, are best fresh. It is wise economy for the young
housekeeper to pay the extra price, and always be sure of the quality of
her supply.

Pure milk is a most important adjunct to the table. As far as it is in
her power to do so, the housekeeper should see that the supply comes
from a wholesome source, and then do her part to keep the milk good by
having the vessels perfectly clean and the surroundings such that the
milk shall not be contaminated.


                            About Groceries.

Flour, if stored in a cool, sweet, dry place, will be better for
bread-making if kept several months after being made. All the meals are
better when fresh, and only a small quantity should be purchased at a
time. Sugar is about the same price, whether you buy it in small or
large quantities. It saves much bother to buy the granulated and cut
sugar in sufficient quantities to last a month or more. Powdered sugar
“cakes,” and only a small amount should be kept in store. English
breakfast tea improves with age, while the lighter teas do not. The
green coffee berry grows better as it grows older; but after coffee is
roasted it quickly loses strength and flavor, so that only a small
quantity of the roasted berry should be bought at one time.

Buy flavors, spices, etc. in small quantities, and get only the purest.
The store closet should always contain macaroni, rice, fine breakfast
hominy, tapioca, barley, corn-starch, arrowroot, farina, chocolate,
breakfast cocoa, tea, coffee, some of the cereal preparations for mush,
white and red pepper, mustard, a small supply of whole spices, such as
cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, mace, allspice, and pepper; also ground
cinnamon, mace, and allspice. The less ground clove one uses the better.
It is well to have on hand a bunch each of dried thyme, savory, and
sage, and half an ounce of bay leaves, which can be purchased at the
grocer’s or druggist’s, a few packages of gelatine, and a small package
of sea-moss farina, which insures a foundation for a cold dessert at
short notice.

For emergencies, the store closet should always contain some canned
peas, tomatoes, corn, fruit, chicken, salmon, a box of fancy crackers,
some plain soda crackers, a bottle of olives, and a can of condensed
milk. One need never be at a loss to prepare a good meal at short notice
with this supply in reserve.



                             CARE OF FOOD.

One may buy food with good judgment, and yet fail to be an economical
provider because she does not take proper care of it. Perfect
cleanliness is essential for the best preservation of food. The cellar,
pantries, storerooms, refrigerators, and all the receptacles in which
food is kept, should be frequently inspected and thoroughly cleaned.
Heat and moisture tend to cause decay; therefore it is important that
all foods should be surrounded with pure, cool, dry air. When it is
possible, expose every closet and food receptacle to the sun and air
several times a week.

All kinds of cooked food, particularly the animal foods, spoil quickly
when covered closely while still warm. All soups, meat, fish, bread,
etc., that are to be kept for many days or hours, should be cooled
thoroughly and quickly in a current of cold air. In hot weather it is a
good plan, when cooling soups, milk, or any liquid mass, to place the
vessel containing the food in another of cold water,—with ice, if
convenient,—and set it in a cool draught.

All meat, when not hung up, should be placed on a dish and set in a cool
place. If poultry be drawn, and a few pieces of charcoal be placed in
the body, it will keep longer than if hung undrawn. It must not be
washed until it is to be cooked. The dryer the meat is kept the better.

A dish of charcoal placed in the refrigerator or pantry helps to keep
the atmosphere dry and sweet.

Milk and butter should be kept in a cool place, and away from all strong
odors.

Bread and cake must be thoroughly cooled before being put in boxes or
jars; if not, the steam will cause them to mould quickly. The bread box
should be washed, scalded, and thoroughly aired in the sun, twice a
week. The crusts and stale pieces of white raised bread, for which there
is no other use, should be put in a pan, be dried slowly in a warm oven,
and then be pounded, sifted, and put in glass jars for future use.

All the trimmings of fat should be rendered while they are sweet; then
strained into jars or pails kept for that purpose. Put beef, pork, and
chicken fat together; this will answer for deep frying. Ham, bacon, and
sausage fat answers for frying potatoes, hominy, mush, etc. All the
strong-flavored fats, such as mutton, duck, turkey, and the skimmings
from boiled ham, are to be kept by themselves for making soap.

It should be remembered that pure fat will keep sweet many months, but
if water or any foreign substance be left in it, it will spoil quickly.
When rendering or clarifying fat, cook it slowly until there are no
bubbles. As long as bubbles form, you may be sure that there is water in
the fat. If put away in that condition it will become rancid.


                            Clarifying Fat.

To clarify fat that has been used for frying, put it into a frying
kettle, being careful not to let the sediment go in, and place the
kettle on the fire. When the fat becomes hot, add three raw potatoes cut
into slices, and stir well. The impurities gather on the potatoes. Three
potatoes will be enough for four pounds of fat. Whenever there are any
trimmings of fat from any kind of meat cut them in bits and place in a
frying-pan on the back part of the stove, where they will cook slowly
until all the liquid fat has been extracted. Strain this into a pot kept
for this purpose.

As soon as the fat is skimmed from soups, gravies, and the water in
which meat has been boiled, it should be clarified, as the water and
other objectionable particles contained in it will cause it to become
rancid if it stands a long time. Put it on the stove, in a frying-pan,
and heat it slowly. When it becomes melted, set it where it will simply
bubble, and keep it there (being careful not to let it burn) until there
is no motion, and all the sediment has fallen to the bottom of the pan.
When this stage is reached the fat is clarified.

Sometimes fat that has been used several times for frying, and has not
been strained, will become dark and unfit for use. This may be put into
a kettle with about six times as much hot water, boiled for twenty
minutes, turned into a large pan, and set in a cold place. When the
contents of the pan become cold, the fat will be found in the form of a
solid cake on the surface of the water. It must be removed, and
clarified in the manner already described.

To clarify butter, put it in a stewpan, and set it on the back part of
the range, where it will heat slowly. When a clear, oily substance is
found on top, and a cloudy sediment at the bottom of the pan, lift the
pan gently and pour off the clear substance, which will be the clarified
butter.

When the fat is ready to strain, draw it back where it will partially
cool; then strain it through a piece of cheese-cloth.

Tin or stoneware vessels are the best in which to keep fat. The pails in
which lard comes are very good for soap grease, because, knowing their
exact capacity, one knows just how much grease there is on hand. Have
the pails covered, and keep them in a cool place.

Save for stock all the bones and trimmings from fresh meat, the bones
from roasts or broils, and such pieces of cooked meat as are too tough
or hard to serve cold or in made dishes. Put these in a stewpan, with
water enough to cover them, and simmer for five or six hours. Strain
into a bowl, and cool quickly. No matter how little bone or meat there
may be, cook it in this way while it is fresh and sweet. A gill of stock
has great value in warming over meats, fish, and vegetables.


                             Odds and Ends.

It is true that the care of remnants and their preparation for the table
is not a slight matter; but in the household where attention is given to
this matter there is no waste, and a pleasant change of fare can be made
daily. If a housekeeper looks into her larder each morning, and avails
herself of the opportunities she finds to make little dishes of the bits
of food which she sees before her, the work of caring for the odds and
ends may become a pleasure rather than a burden; the preparation of this
food giving a bright woman an opportunity to exercise much taste and
skill in producing dainty and healthful dishes.

Pieces of cold meat or fish may be divided into small pieces, and warmed
in a white or brown sauce; or the sauce and meat or fish may be put in a
small baking dish, covered with grated bread crumbs, and then browned in
the oven. If there be not enough fish or meat to serve to the entire
family, use an extra quantity of sauce, and fill up the dish with either
well seasoned mashed potatoes, hominy, rice, or macaroni. Cover lightly
with grated bread crumbs, and dot with butter. Bake this for half an
hour in a moderately hot oven.

Cold meat or fish may be hashed fine and mixed with potato, rice, or
hominy, and a sauce, and made into croquettes.

Bits of cooked ham or sausages may be minced fine and mixed with hashed
potatoes; the mixture being then well seasoned and put into a
frying-pan, with a little butter or sweet drippings, and browned. If
there be a little gravy of any kind, it may be added to any of the
above-mentioned dishes.

Nearly all kinds of vegetables may be combined in a salad or a hash.

Tough pieces of meat and bones may be used in making little stews or a
little soup stock. All kinds of meats may be combined in making a stew
or soup.

A few spoonfuls of almost any kind of meat, fish, or vegetable may be
heated in a sauce and spread over a plain omelet, just before rolling it
up, thus giving a change in this dish of eggs.

A soft-boiled egg left from a meal may be boiled until hard, and then
used in a salad or an egg sauce.

Pieces of bread may be used for puddings and griddle-cakes, and, in the
form of dried crumbs, for breading.

Pieces of cake and gingerbread may be used in puddings.

Gravies, sauces, and soups, no matter how small the quantity, should be
saved to use in warming over meat, fish, or vegetables.

A few tablespoonfuls of cold rice or hominy are often a pleasing
addition to muffins or griddle-cakes. Indeed, it is rarely necessary to
waste a particle of food if the proper attention be given to the little
details of kitchen management.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER VIII.

                                 SOUPS.


                          A Good Plain Stock.

                  7 quarts of cold water.
                  A shin of beef weighing ten pounds.
                  4 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 generous tablespoonful of salt.
                  A piece of cinnamon two inches long.
                  1 teaspoonful of pepper-corns.
                  A tiny bit of mace.
                  6 whole cloves.
                  1/2 pint of minced onion.
                  4 tablespoonfuls of minced carrot.
                  4 tablespoonfuls of minced celery.
                  A bouquet of sweet herbs.

Have the butcher cut the shin of beef into several parts. Wash it in
cold water, and then cut off any particles that do not seem perfectly
sweet. The lower end of the leg, near the hoofs, is apt to be a little
tainted. Cut all the meat from the bones, and then cut it into small
pieces. Put one tablespoonful of the butter in the soup pot, and place
on the hottest part of the fire. Put the meat in the pot, and stir
frequently until it is browned. It will take about half an hour for
this. At first the juices are drawn out of the meat, making a great deal
of liquid in the pot. The cooking must be continued until all this juice
has evaporated, leaving a dry, brown substance on the bottom of the pan.
Now add one pint of the water, and stir the meat well, scraping the
brown substance from the bottom of the pot. Add the remainder of the
water and the salt and bones. As soon as the soup comes to the boiling
point, skim carefully several times. Lay a piece of cheese-cloth in a
strainer and place in a bowl. Skim into this, and when the soup has
ceased to throw up any more scum, pour back into the soup pot the clear
liquid which will be found in the bowl. Draw the soup pot back where the
contents will bubble gently for eight hours.

Put the minced vegetables and three tablespoonfuls of butter in a small
frying-pan, and cook slowly for half an hour. At the end of that time
draw forward to a hotter part of the range and stir until they begin to
brown; then draw them to one side of the pan and press out the butter.
Add them to the soup, and pour the butter into a cup, as it will be
useful in making sauces.

Tie up the spice and the bouquet of sweet herbs in a piece of
cheese-cloth and put into the soup pot. Cook the soup for an hour and a
half longer; then strain through a coarse napkin into two or three
bowls, and cook rapidly. Set away in a cold place and it will become a
jelly. When about to use it, remove all the fat and turn into a
saucepan, being careful to keep back any sediment there may be at the
bottom of the bowl. It will then be ready to serve as a clear soup; or
it can have any kind of a garnish added to it, such as cooked rice,
macaroni, vegetables, etc. It may require a little more salt and pepper.

This soup may be kept for months if sealed in jars. Have the jars hot
and the soup boiling hot. On filling the jars, seal at once, and keep in
a cool, dark place.


                             Second Stock.

Put away in a cold place the meat and bones which were left from the
strained stock. In the morning add six quarts of water to it, and cook
gently for six hours; then strain and put away to cool. This stock lacks
the fine flavor of the first stock, but it is useful for thick soups,
sauces, and made-over dishes.


                             Macaroni Soup.

                       1-1/2 pints of clear soup.
                       4 sticks of macaroni.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.

Break the macaroni into small pieces and throw it into one quart of
boiling water containing the teaspoonful of salt. Let it boil for
twenty-five minutes with the cover off the stewpan. Drain off the water
and add the macaroni to the hot stock. Cover, and cook for ten or
fifteen minutes, being careful to have the soup only bubble at one side.
It may require a little more salt and pepper.

Vermicelli and any of the smaller forms of Italian paste may be added to
the clear stock and cooked gently for about twenty minutes.


                               Rice Soup.

Wash two tablespoonfuls of rice and cook it the same as the macaroni;
then drain it, and add to the pint and a half of hot stock. Cook the
mixture gently for ten minutes.


                               Beef Soup.

                  2 pounds of beef from the round.
                  2 quarts of water.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                  1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                  1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                  1/2 pint of potatoes, chopped fine.
                  1/2 gill of barley.
                  1 clove.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 tablespoonful of flour.
                  1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.

Free the meat from fat and cut it into fine pieces. Put it in the soup
pot with the cold water and heat slowly to the boiling point. Skim
carefully, and set back where the soup will just bubble at one side of
the pot. Wash the barley and put it on to cook in one pint of cold
water. At the end of half an hour pour off the water and add the barley
to the soup. When the soup has been cooking for three hours put the
butter, minced onion, carrot, and celery into a frying-pan and cook
slowly for fifteen minutes. Skim the vegetables from the butter and put
them in the soup. Stir the flour into the butter remaining in the pan.
Cook until brown, stirring all the while; then add to the soup. Now add
the potatoes and salt and pepper, and cook for half an hour longer.


                              Oxtail Soup.

                1 oxtail.
                1 quart of water.
                1 pint of stock.
                1 heaping tablespoonful of corn-starch.
                1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                20 pepper-corns.
                2 whole cloves.
                A tiny bit of mace.
                A small piece of cinnamon.
                1 bay leaf.
                1 small leaf of sage.
                1 small sprig of parsley.
                1 small sprig of thyme.

Free the oxtail from fat and cut into small joints. Wash these in
several waters and then put them in a stewpan with the cold water. Place
on the range and heat slowly to the boiling point; then skim, and move
the stewpan back where the water will just bubble at one side of the
stewpan. Cook for one hour. Tie the vegetables, herbs, and spice in a
piece of netting, and put them in the stewpan. Add the salt, and cook
for one hour longer. Strain the broth into a bowl and set away in a cold
place. Rinse the oxtail in cold water and put in a cold place.

When the broth is cold, skim off all the fat. Put the soup stock and
skimmed broth in a stewpan, and set on the fire. When this boils, add
the corn-starch, mixed smoothly with a gill of cold water. Cook for
fifteen minutes; then add the oxtail and cook for ten minutes longer.
Taste, to see if seasoned enough, and serve very hot.

A few tablespoonfuls of sherry will improve this soup for many tastes.
It should be added just before the soup is poured into the tureen.


                              Veal Broth.

                 2 pounds of the poorer parts of veal.
                 2 quarts of water.
                 3 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                 1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                 1 whole clove.
                 1 inch piece of cinnamon.
                 1 level tablespoonful of salt.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of celery seeds.
                 2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                 2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                 1 pint of raw potato cubes.

Cut the veal into cubes and put the bones and meat into a stewpan with
the water, seasoning, and vegetables. Place on the fire, and when the
soup comes to the boiling point, skim carefully, and then set back where
it will just bubble. Heat the butter in a small saucepan, and add the
flour to it. Stir until the mixture is smooth and frothy; then stir it
into the broth. Simmer the broth for two hours and a half, and, after
adding the pint of potato cubes, cook for half an hour longer.

The potatoes may be omitted and a quarter of a cupful of rice be added
when the broth has been cooking for an hour and a half.


                             Scotch Broth.

              1-1/2 pounds of neck or shoulder of mutton.
              1 tablespoonful of pearl barley.
              1 tablespoonful of minced onion.
              1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
              1 tablespoonful of minced turnip.
              1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
              1 tablespoonful of butter.
              1 tablespoonful of flour.
              1 heaping teaspoonful of salt.
              1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
              1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
              3 pints of water.

Remove all the fat from the mutton and cut the lean meat into cubes,
which should be put in a stewpan with the chopped vegetables, salt,
pepper, and the barley, well washed. Tie the bones in a piece of coarse
white netting and put them in the stewpan with the other ingredients.
Add the three pints of cold water and cover the stewpan. Place the soup
on the stove where it will heat slowly to the boiling point. When it
reaches that temperature, skim it and set back where it will only bubble
slightly at one side of the pan. Cook in this manner for three hours,
being careful not to let it more than bubble gently in all that time. At
the end of the three hours take out the bones. Now put the butter in a
little saucepan and set on the fire to heat. When hot, stir in the
flour, and cook—stirring all the time—until the mixture is smooth and
frothy. Stir this into the broth; then add the chopped parsley, and cook
ten minutes longer.


                            Vegetable Soup.

                   1 pound of beef.
                   2 quarts of water.
                   1 gill of minced carrot.
                   1 gill of minced turnip.
                   1/2 gill of minced onion.
                   1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                   1/4 pint of potato cubes.
                   1 tablespoonful of rice.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 generous teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Cut the meat into cubes; then put it in a stewpan and set on the fire
with the cold water. When this boils, skim carefully. Mix the flour to a
smooth paste with one gill of cold water, and stir into the boiling
ingredients. Next add the rice. Move the stewpan back where the contents
will bubble at one side for one hour; then add the onion and carrot.
Cook for one hour longer, and then put in the turnips, potatoes, salt,
and pepper, and simmer for half an hour longer. Serve hot.

Two quarts of the water in which the bones and hard pieces of meat have
been cooked may be substituted for the beef and water. If one choose,
half a pint of finely shred cabbage may be added at the same time the
onions and carrots are put in the soup.


                             Chicken Soup.

            3 pints of the water in which a fowl was boiled.
            2 tablespoonfuls of rice.
            1 tablespoonful of butter.
            1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
            2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
            2 tablespoonfuls of minced celery.
            1 teaspoonful of salt, generous.
            1/8 of a teaspoonful of pepper.
            1/2 teaspoonful of parsley.

Wash the rice and put it in a stewpan with the chicken stock. Place on
the fire and cook for two hours. The soup must not boil in that time;
keep it where it will be at the point of boiling, but do not let it
bubble. At the end of two hours put the butter and vegetables in a small
frying-pan and set on the fire, to cook slowly for twenty minutes. Now
draw the pan to a hotter part of the range, and stir for one minute.
After pressing the butter from the vegetables, put them with the soup.
Put the flour with the butter remaining in the pan, and stir until
smooth and frothy; then stir the mixture into the soup. Add the salt,
pepper, and chopped parsley, and cook the soup for thirty minutes
longer, allowing it to bubble at one side of the saucepan.

If you have a little cold chicken, cut it into small cubes and add it to
the soup at the same time the vegetables are put in. If you cannot get
celery, take half a teaspoonful of celery salt, and in that case use
only half a teaspoonful of the common salt.

This soup can be made with the stock from boiled fowl, or that obtained
by boiling the bones of roast chicken.


                          Cream of Rice Soup.

Make this in the same way as chicken soup, with the addition of one
tablespoonful of rice, a slight grating of nutmeg, a tiny bit of mace,
and a piece of stick cinnamon about an inch long, and the omission of
the parsley.

When the time required for the cooking has expired, take out the spice
and pour the soup into a fine sieve. Rub all the rice through, using a
wooden vegetable masher. Put the strained mixture in a clean saucepan
with a pint of milk, and let it boil up once.

If you have cream in plenty, use half cream and half milk. The soup will
be much smoother if it is strained a second time, after the milk has
been boiled with it.


                              Mock Bisque.

                       1 pint of stewed tomatoes.
                       1 pint of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of flour.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.

Reserve half a gill of the milk and put the remainder on to cook in the
double-boiler. Put the tomatoes on to cook in a stewpan. Mix the flour
with the cold milk and stir into the boiling milk. Cook for ten minutes;
then add the salt, pepper, and butter. Stir the soda into the hot
tomatoes and stir for half a minute; then rub through a strainer. Add
the strained tomatoes to the thickened milk, and serve at once.

If canned tomatoes be used, stir the contents of the can before
measuring, that the proper proportion of the juice of the tomatoes shall
be used. If it be inconvenient to serve the soup when the tomatoes and
thickened milk are done, keep them hot in their separate stewpans, and
do not mix until just before the time to serve.


                              Tomato Soup.

                  1 pint of canned tomatoes.
                  1/2 pint of stock or water.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                  1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 tablespoonful of flour.
                  1 heaped teaspoonful of corn-starch.
                  2 whole cloves.

Put the tomato and stock in a saucepan and set on the fire. Cook the
vegetables slowly in the butter for twenty minutes; then press out the
butter and put the vegetables in the soup. Into the butter remaining in
the pan put the flour, and stir until smooth and frothy; then add to the
soup. Mix the corn-starch with four tablespoonfuls of cold water, and
stir into the soup. Add the other ingredients, and simmer for one hour.
Strain, and serve with toasted or crisped bread.


                          Tomato Soup, No. 2.

                       1 pint of canned tomatoes.
                       1/2 pint of water.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1 tablespoonful of flour.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                       1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put the tomato, water, and seasonings in a stewpan and set on the fire.
Beat the butter and flour together until creamy. When the soup begins to
boil, stir this mixture into it, and cook for ten minutes. Strain, and
serve with toasted or fried bread.


                       Tomato and Macaroni Soup.

                    1 pint of meat stock.
                    1 quart of stewed tomatoes.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 gill of cold water.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of corn-starch.
                    1/2 pint of broken macaroni.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.

The stock can be made with any bits of dry hard meat, or the bones from
roasted or broiled meat; or one can take the water in which a fowl was
boiled.

Put the tomatoes and stock in a stewpan and set on the fire. Mix the
corn-starch with the cold water, and stir into the boiling liquid. Add
also the sugar, salt, and pepper.

Put the macaroni in a stewpan with a quart of boiling water and boil for
twenty minutes. Pour off the water, and put the macaroni in the soup.
Add the butter at the same time, and cook for ten minutes longer.

If the soup be preferred smooth, it can be strained before the macaroni
is added.


                               Corn Soup.

                    1/2 can of corn.
                    1-1/2 pints of milk.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 tablespoonful of minced onion.

Mash the corn as fine as possible, and then put it in the double-boiler.
Reserve one gill of the milk, and, putting the remainder with the corn,
cook for fifteen minutes. Cook the butter and onions together for ten
minutes, and add to the corn and milk. Mix the cold milk with the flour,
and stir into the hot mixture. Add the salt and pepper, and cook for ten
minutes longer. Strain, and serve hot.


                              Potato Soup.

                   4 potatoes of medium size.
                   1-1/2 pints of milk.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced celery.
                   4 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1 tablespoonful of butter.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Pare the potatoes, and, placing on the fire in enough boiling water to
cover them, cook for thirty minutes. Reserve one gill of the milk, and
put the remainder in the double-boiler with the onions and celery, and
place on the fire. Mix the cold milk with the flour, and stir into the
boiling milk. When the potatoes have been cooking for thirty minutes,
pour off all the water and mash them fine and light. Gradually beat into
them the milk. Now add the salt, pepper, and butter, and rub the soup
through a sieve. Return to the fire, and add the minced parsley. Cook
for five minutes, and serve immediately.


                               Hub Soup.

                      1/2 pint of baked beans.
                      1/2 pint of stewed tomatoes.
                      1 pint of water.
                      1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of mustard.

Put all the ingredients into a stewpan and simmer for half an hour, with
the stewpan covered; then rub the mixture through a coarse sieve and
return to the fire. Simmer for ten minutes, and serve with toasted
crackers or bread.


                            Lima Bean Soup.

                   1/2 pint of beans.
                   1/2 pint of milk.
                   2 quarts of water.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                   1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                   1 bay leaf.
                   2 whole cloves.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Soak the beans over night in two quarts of cold water. Pour this water
off and rinse the beans in fresh water. Now put them in a stewpan with
two quarts of cold water. Cook slowly for two hours. Cook the vegetables
in the butter for twenty minutes. On taking them out, add them to the
soup. Put the flour into the butter remaining in the pan, and stir until
smooth and frothy. Add this mixture to the soup. Now add the other
seasonings, and cook for one hour longer. At the end of this time take
out the spice and rub the soup through a fine sieve. Return to the fire
and add half a pint of hot milk. Stir the soup until it boils; then
serve.


                            Dried Pea Soup.

                1/2 pint of peas.
                2 quarts of water.
                4 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                2 tablespoonfuls of drippings or butter.
                1 ounce of ham, or a ham bone.
                1/2 pound of cold roast or broiled meat.
                1 tablespoonful of flour.
                1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                1 teaspoonful of salt.
                1 bay leaf.

Soak the peas over night in two quarts of cold water. In the morning
pour off the water, and put the peas, the meat and bone, and two quarts
of fresh water in the soup kettle, and place on the fire. Cook gently.
At the end of three hours put the drippings and vegetables in a small
saucepan, and cook slowly for half an hour. When the vegetables have
been cooked for this time, draw the saucepan forward where they will
cook a little faster for one minute. Stir all the time; then draw them
to the side of the pan to press out the fat, and after that put them
with the soup. Into the fat remaining in the pan put the tablespoonful
of flour, and stir until the mixture becomes smooth and frothy. Stir
this into the soup, and add the salt, pepper, and bay leaf. Cover, and
cook for three hours longer. At the end of that time take out the meat
and bay leaf, and rub the soup through a coarse sieve or colander.
Return to the fire and make very hot. Serve with crisped bread.

The soup must be stirred from the bottom frequently all the time it is
cooking, and it must never more than bubble gently. If it cooks too
rapidly it will get too thick and be in danger of scorching.


                        Cream of Dried Pea Soup.

Make the same as the dried pea soup; and, after straining, add a pint of
milk and a little more salt and pepper. Stir all the time until it
boils; then strain again, and serve.


                               Bean Soup.

                1/2 pint of white beans.
                1/4 pound of lean salt pork.
                3 quarts of water.
                4 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                1 tablespoonful of minced carrot.
                1 tablespoonful of minced celery.
                3 tablespoonfuls of drippings or butter.
                1 tablespoonful of flour.
                1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                Salt to taste.

Make this the same as the dried pea soup.


                          Cream of Bean Soup.

Make the same as bean soup; then add a pint of hot milk, and boil up
once. Strain, and serve.


                              Oyster Soup.

                    1 pint of oysters.
                    1 pint of milk.
                    1/2 pint of cold water.
                    2 level tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    Salt.

Put a strainer over a bowl and turn the oysters into it. Pour the water
over the oysters and stir with a spoon until all the liquid has passed
through the strainer. Turn the oysters into a dish and set in a cold
place.

Reserve a gill of the milk, and, pouring the remainder in the
double-boiler, set it on the fire. Put the oyster liquor in a stewpan
and heat slowly, being careful not to burn. Mix the cold milk with the
flour, and, stirring into the boiling milk, cook for ten minutes. When
the oyster liquor boils, skim it. When the flour and milk have cooked
for ten minutes, add the oysters, butter, salt, pepper, and oyster
liquor, and continue cooking until the oysters curl on the edge and are
plump. Serve at once.

It is well to provide toasted or crisped crackers with this soup.


                               Clam Soup.

                   1 pint of clams.
                   1 pint of milk.
                   1/2 pint of water.
                   2 tablespoonfuls cracker crumbs.
                   1 heaping tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 heaping tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Separate the heads from the clams, and put them on to simmer with the
water for fifteen minutes. Beat the flour and butter together, and stir
into the water in which the heads of the clams are cooking. Now add the
seasoning and milk; and when the mixture boils, strain into another
stewpan. Chop the soft parts of the clams and add them to the soup. Now
add the cracker crumbs. Boil the soup for three minutes, and serve.


                             Clam Chowder.

                   1 pint of clams.
                   1 pint of water.
                   1 pint of milk.
                   3 gills of potato cubes.
                   2 ounces of sliced salt pork.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   3 Boston butter crackers.

Wash the clams in the water and turn both into a strainer which has been
placed over a bowl. Cut the soft parts of the clams from the hard, and
put away in a cold place. Chop the hard parts fine and put them in a
stewpan. Strain on these, through a piece of cheese-cloth, the clam
water; after which place it on the fire and cook gently for twenty
minutes. Fry the sliced pork for ten minutes; then add the onion, and
cook ten minutes longer. Take the pork and onions from the pan and add
to the chopped clams. Put the flour into the fat remaining in the pan,
and stir until smooth and frothy. Add this mixture to the clam broth and
cook for ten minutes longer. Now put the potato cubes in a stewpan and
strain the clam broth over them. Season with the salt and pepper, and
cook for twenty minutes. Split the crackers and soak them in the milk
for four minutes. Add the soft parts of the clams and the milk and
crackers to the cooking mixture. When all boils up, serve.

The milk may be omitted and half a pint of strained tomato be added when
the potatoes and broth have been cooking for ten minutes.


                             Fish Chowder.

                   2 pounds of fish.
                   3 ounces of salt pork.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   3 gills of potato cubes.
                   1 pint of water.
                   1/2 pint of milk.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                   3 Boston butter crackers.

First, skin the fish; and after cutting all the flesh from the bones and
cutting it in small pieces, cook the bones with the water for ten
minutes. Cut the pork into thin slices and fry until crisp and brown. On
taking it from the pan, put the onions into the fat, and cook slowly for
ten minutes. Put a layer of fish in a stewpan and sprinkle half the
potatoes, fried onions, and salt and pepper on this. Put in the
remainder of the fish, and finish with the rest of the potatoes, onions,
salt, and pepper. Into the fat remaining in the frying-pan put the
flour, and stir until smooth and frothy. Gradually pour on this the
water in which the fish bones were boiled. Stir until it boils; then
pour on the fish mixture.

Lay the slices of pork on top, and cook gently for twenty minutes. Split
the crackers and soak them in the milk for four minutes. Remove the
slices of pork and turn crackers and milk into the chowder. When this
boils up, serve.

For a change, the milk may be omitted and half a pint of tomatoes be
added. Any kind of light fish will answer, such as cod, haddock,
catfish, whitefish, etc.


                         Salt Codfish Chowder.

                   1 pint of milk.
                   1/2 pint of shredded codfish.
                   3 gills of potato cubes
                   3 ounces of salt pork.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   Salt.
                   3 Boston crackers.

Wash the fish and cut it into two-inch lengths. Tear these in pieces,
and, covering with cold water, soak for three or four hours. Slice the
pork, and cook in the frying-pan for ten minutes. Add the onion and cook
for ten minutes. Now add the flour, and stir until smooth; after which,
stir in one gill of water. Put the potatoes in a stewpan and pour the
mixture in the frying-pan over them. Season with the pepper and half a
teaspoonful of salt. Place on the fire and cook for ten minutes; then
take out the slices of pork and add the fish, milk, and the crackers
split. Cook gently for half an hour, being careful to let the chowder
only bubble at one side of the stewpan. At the end of the half-hour,
taste before serving, to be sure to have it salt enough.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER IX.

                                 FISH.


FRESH fish should frequently be substituted for meat. For those who live
in seaboard towns there is no trouble in obtaining a variety. Every
inland place has its own peculiar species, which should have precedence
over other kinds; for the first thing to be taken into account is
freshness. Fish brought from a distance deteriorates with the handling
it receives and the time it is out of the water.

The lighter the fish, the greater the variety of modes by which it may
be cooked. It also may be served more frequently without one’s becoming
tired of it. For example, at the Isles of Shoals visitors are offered
broiled scrod every day in the week, yet they do not weary of the dish
in a stay of months. At Nantucket broiled bluefish is served daily, and
it is so delicious that its appearance three times a day would at first
be hailed with pleasure; but after a short time the appetite would
become palled, because the fish is rich. It would be the same with the
freshest and most toothsome salmon and mackerel. A rich fish satiates
much sooner than a lighter and poorer kind, and for this reason it is
advisable to avoid having the richer varieties frequently. Of course,
the poorer kinds require more and richer sauces than salmon, mackerel,
or bluefish. Whitefish, like cod, haddock, cusk, halibut, and flounders,
is improved by the addition of sauces made of milk, cream, or white
stock.

Boiling is the least desirable mode of preparing fish, because it causes
the greatest loss of flavor and nutriment. A fine sauce is needed to
make the dish satisfactory. But boiling has one merit: the remains of
the fish after the first meal are in better form for use in little
dishes of many kinds than they are if any other way of cooking be
employed. Small fish, like brook trout, smelts, etc., are best when
fried.


                           How to Boil Fish.

Fresh fish should always be put on to cook in salted boiling water. A
little lemon juice or vinegar in the water makes the flesh of the fish
firmer and improves the flavor. For some tastes the flavor is improved
still more by putting in the water, tied in a piece of cheese-cloth, a
few spoonfuls of minced onion, carrot, and celery, two bay leaves, a
sprig each of thyme, parsley, and summer savory, a small bit of
cinnamon, and two whole cloves. There should be only water enough to
cover the fish. If there be a fish-kettle with a tray, lay the fish in
the tray and do not wrap it in a cloth. If, however, there be no regular
fish-kettle, pin the fish in a piece of cloth, put a large plate in the
bottom of a large flat saucepan, and lay the fish on this. A thick
square of fish will take longer to cook than the same number of pounds
cut from a long, slender fish. A small cod, haddock, bluefish, lake
trout, salmon trout, whitefish, etc., weighing from three to five
pounds, will require thirty minutes’ cooking. The water should bubble
only at the side of the saucepan. A large fish of the same kind,
weighing six or eight pounds, would require only ten minutes’ more time.
A thick square or cube of halibut or salmon, weighing from three to five
pounds, would require forty minutes’ cooking; and if it weighed six or
eight pounds, it would require an hour. If the fish be put into cold
water the juices will be drawn out. The fish will be broken if the water
be allowed to boil hard during the cooking. A good sauce should always
be served with boiled fish.


                              Baked Fish.

               1/2 pint of cracker crumbs.
               1/2 pint cold water.
               1 teaspoonful of salt.
               1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
               2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
               1/2 teaspoonful of summer savory.
               1 teaspoonful of minced parsley.
               1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.
               3 ounces of fat salt pork.
               A fish weighing about four or five pounds.

For the dressing, mix the cracker crumbs, herbs, salt, pepper, and
butter together; then moisten with water, and add the onion juice. Have
the fish split and drawn, but leave on the head and tail. Gut off the
fins and scrape off any scales that may still cling to it. Wash and wipe
dry; then rub one tablespoonful of salt into it, put the dressing in the
opening, and pin together with a skewer. Cut slits on the top of the
fish, about two inches long and half an inch deep. Cut the salt pork in
strips and fit them into these slits.

Butter a flat tin sheet and place in the dripping-pan. Lay the fish in
the pan, having uppermost the side containing the pork. Dredge with
pepper, salt, and flour. Put enough hot water in the pan to cover the
bottom, and place in the oven. Bake for forty-five minutes, basting
every fifteen generously with the gravy in the pan and lightly with
salt, pepper, and flour. When done, lift the tin from the dripping-pan
and slide the fish upon a warm dish. Serve with brown, tomato, or
Hollandaise sauce.

Fish that cannot be stuffed, such as halibut, may be cooked in the same
way. Three pounds of halibut would be equivalent to a five-pound cod or
haddock.

In giving the rule for so large a fish, allowance was made for the
leaving of enough cold fish to make a dish of escaloped fish the next
day.


                          Baked Salt Mackerel.

                    1 salt mackerel of medium size.
                    3 gills of milk.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 level tablespoonful of flour.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Wash the mackerel and soak it in a pan of cold water, having the split
side down. In the morning put the fish, split side up, in a shallow
baking pan. Pour the milk over it, and place in a moderate oven. When
the mackerel has been cooking for twenty minutes, mix the butter, flour,
and pepper, and stir the mixture into the milk in the pan. Cook ten
minutes longer; then slide the fish out on a hot dish and pour the sauce
over it. Serve hot.

This dish is suitable for breakfast, luncheon, dinner, or supper. Serve
with it potatoes in some form.


                      How Fish should be Broiled.

Simple as is the work of broiling a piece of fish, it is more often done
badly than well. If not cooked enough the fish is extremely disagreeable
to the taste, and if cooked too much it is hard and dry. It is always
best to have an exact rule as to the time it shall be cooked; when the
fish is put on the fire, look at the clock, and take it off as soon as
it is done.

A split fish, such as shad, whitefish, mackerel, scrod, bluefish, etc.,
should be timed according to the thickness. If the fire be bright and
hot, a fish an inch thick can be cooked twelve minutes. If two inches
thick, it will take twenty minutes. Of course, when the fire is dull it
will take longer.

Always season fish with salt and pepper before cooking. A fish with the
skin on should be broiled with the skin side from the fire until the
last five minutes of cooking, when that side can be turned to the fire;
but it must be watched closely, that it shall not burn.

It is only dry halibut that requires the butter and flour before
broiling. Many people prefer to dip the slice of fish in olive oil
rather than butter. If the oil be used it must not be heated, and it is
well to apply it to the fish an hour or more before the cooking.

Various sauces are often served with broiled fish, but there is nothing
better than sweet butter, salt, pepper, a little lemon juice, and
perhaps a little chopped parsley; or, the lemon juice may be omitted and
a fresh lemon be cut into six parts as a garnish for the dish. Each
person can then use as much of the acid as pleases him.


                            Broiled Halibut.

                     1-1/2 pounds of halibut.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                     1 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
                     1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Have the halibut cut in a slice about an inch thick. Put half the
butter, salt, and pepper in a hot soup plate, and stir until the butter
is melted. Wash and wipe the fish, then lay it in the plate of seasoned
butter. When one side is coated with the butter, turn it down and season
the other. Dredge lightly with flour, place in the double-broiler, and
cook over a hot, bright fire for fourteen minutes. Put on a hot dish and
season with the remaining salt, pepper, butter, and the lemon juice, all
mixed. Serve very hot.


                              Fried Fish.

                       2 pounds of fish.
                       3 ounces of fat salt pork.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.
                       Flour.

Have the fish cut in slices about an inch thick. Season these with the
salt and pepper, and roll in flour. Cut the pork in thin slices and fry
until crisp and brown. Take the pork from the pan, and put the fish in
the hot fat. When it has become browned on one side, turn it and brown
the other side. It will take about twelve minutes to fry the fish.
Arrange on a hot dish and lay the slices of pork on top. Serve hot.

All small fish, such as trout, perch, and smelts, may be cooked in this
manner. Draw and wash them, but leave on the heads and tails of the
smelts and trout. Some kinds of small fish need to be skinned, but this
is done at the market.


                             Breaded Fish.

                    1/2 pint of dried bread crumbs.
                    1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                    1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 egg.
                    2 pounds of any kind of fish.
                    Fat for frying.

Have the fish free from skin and bones, and cut it into handsome pieces.
Season it with the salt and pepper. Beat the egg in a soup plate and dip
the fish in it, one piece at a time, getting every part covered with the
egg; then roll in the crumbs and lay on a plate. Have enough fat in the
frying kettle to float the fish. When it becomes so hot that blue smoke
rises from the centre, put in the fish and cook for five minutes. Drain
on brown paper and serve very hot.

Tartar sauce is particularly good to serve with breaded fish. Smelts are
especially palatable when cooked in this manner.


                            Escaloped Fish.

                1/2 pint of cooked fish.
                1 teaspoonful (scant) of salt.
                1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                1 tablespoonful of butter.
                1/2 tablespoonful (scant) of flour.
                1-1/2 gills of milk.
                4 tablespoonfuls of grated bread crumbs.

Use any kind of cold cooked fish; but the white kinds, such as halibut,
cod, haddock, etc., are the best. Have it broken into flakes and freed
of bones and skin. Season it with half the salt and pepper. Put a
generous half of the butter in a small pan and set on the fire. When it
is hot add the flour, and stir until the mixture is smooth and frothy;
then gradually add the milk. Boil up once, and stir in the remainder of
the salt and pepper. Put a layer of this sauce in a small baking dish,
then a layer of the fish, and follow with a second layer of sauce. Now
put in the rest of the fish and cover with the remainder of the sauce.
Sprinkle with the bread crumbs and dot with the other half tablespoonful
of butter. Bake in a moderately hot oven for twenty minutes, and serve
at once.

The baking dish should hold nearly a pint.


                         Salt Codfish in Cream.

                   1/2 pint of fish, solidly packed.
                   1-1/2 gills of milk.
                   1 teaspoonful of butter, generous.
                   1 teaspoonful of flour.
                   1/3 saltspoonful of pepper.

Cut the salt fish into pieces about an inch and a half long, and tear
these pieces into thin strips. Wash them and, putting them in a bowl
with one pint of cold water, let them soak over night, or at least four
or five hours. In the morning put the fish and water in a saucepan and
set on the fire. Heat to the boiling point, but do not let boil. Drain
off the water, and, after adding the milk, heat again to the boiling
point.

Beat the butter and flour together until light and smooth. Stir this
mixture in with the fish, and boil up once. Add the pepper, and also
some salt if any be required. Set back where the fish will continue to
cook, but not boil, for twenty minutes.

If cream be plentiful use half cream and half milk. Serve baked or
mashed potatoes with this dish.


                              Fish Balls.

                    1 cupful of raw salt codfish.
                    6 potatoes of medium size.
                    1 egg.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 level tablespoonful of butter.

Tear the raw fish into fine shreds, and measure out a cupful. Pare the
potatoes, and put them in a large stewpan. Sprinkle the fish on top and
cover with boiling water. Cover, and cook for just thirty minutes. Pour
off every drop of the water, and mash the fish and potato together until
light and fine; then beat into the mixture the salt, pepper, butter, and
the egg, which should first be well beaten. Shape into small balls, and,
putting them in the frying-basket, cook in deep fat until brown,—say for
about four or five minutes.

Great care must be taken to follow the directions exactly, and to have
the fat so hot when the fish balls are put in that blue smoke rises from
the centre. If the fat be not hot enough, or the water be not all
drained off, or if too much butter be used, the fish balls will absorb
fat and be spoiled. If all the work be done carefully, the dish will be
perfect.


                              Fish Cakes.

   1 pint of minced salt codfish.
   1 pint of hot mashed potatoes (about six potatoes of medium size).
   1/2 gill of hot milk.
   1 tablespoonful of butter.
   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
   2 ounces of fat salt pork.

Wash the fish and soak it over night, in one piece. In the morning put
it in a saucepan and on the fire, with enough cold water to cover it.
When the water is heated to the boiling point set the saucepan back
where the water will keep hot, but not boil. Cook the fish in this
manner for one hour; then take from the water and cool. When cold,
remove the skin and bones and chop the fish fine. Pare the potatoes, and
put them in a stewpan with boiling water enough to cover them. Cook for
just thirty minutes; then drain off the water, and mash and beat the
potatoes with a fork. Beat the fish, butter, salt, pepper, and milk into
the potato. Shape the mixture into round, flat cakes, and fry brown on
both sides in pork fat.

The pork is cut into slices and fried rather slowly until crisp and
brown. The pan is then placed on a hotter part of the fire, and the pork
removed; and as soon as the fat is smoking hot, the cakes should be put
in to brown. Serve the cakes on a hot dish, garnishing them with the
slices of crisp pork.

This is a generous amount for three people, and in some families it may
be found that half the amount will be enough.

When the fish cakes are for breakfast, cook, cool, and mince the fish
the day before. Pare the potatoes, and let them stand in cold water over
night. These preparations will insure having the fish cakes on time and
in perfection for an early breakfast.


                           Fresh Fish Cakes.

                     1/2 pint of cooked fresh fish.
                     1/2 pint of hot mashed potato.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of pork fat.

Free the cold fish from skin and bones, and shred it fine with a fork.
Season it with the salt and pepper. Mash the potato fine and beat the
butter and fish into it. Shape into flat cakes. Have the pork fat
smoking hot in the frying-pan and put in the fish cakes. When brown on
one side, turn and brown on the other. Serve immediately.


                            Fried Scallops.

                    1 dozen scallops.
                    1 egg.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/2 pint of dried bread crumbs.
                    Fat for frying.

After seasoning the scallops with the salt and pepper, dip them in the
beaten egg and roll them in the dried bread crumbs. Put the scallops in
the frying-basket and immerse the basket into fat so hot that blue smoke
rises from the centre. Cook for two minutes. Drain on brown paper and
serve very hot.

Do not put more scallops in the basket than can be spread on the bottom.

Tartar sauce is especially good for this dish.


                              Oyster Stew.

                    1 gill of water.
                    1-1/2 pints of oysters.
                    1-1/2 pints of milk.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    Salt.

Put a strainer over a bowl and turn the oysters into it. Drain off all
the liquor, and then pour one gill of water over the oysters. Pour this
liquor into a stewpan, being careful not to turn in the sandy sediment.
Place where it will heat slowly, being careful not to burn. When the
liquor boils, skim it, and set back where it will keep hot. Meantime
heat the milk to the boiling point in the double-boiler. Add the hot
liquor, oysters, butter, salt, and pepper to the boiling milk. Boil up
once, and serve immediately.


                           Oysters on Toast.

                    1-1/2 pints of oysters.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
                    1/10 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    Salt.
                    3 slices of toast.

Put the oysters in a frying-pan and set on the fire. When they begin to
boil, skim them; then add the seasonings. Have the toast arranged on a
hot dish and pour the oysters over it. Serve at once.


                           Oysters au Gratin.

                    1 solid pint of oysters.
                    1 gill of oyster liquor.
                    1/2 gill of milk or cream.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/2 pint of grated bread crumbs.

Heat the oysters to the boiling point in their own liquor; then turn
them into a strainer, which should be placed over a bowl. Put a gill of
the oyster liquor in a saucepan, and heat slowly. Beat one tablespoonful
of the butter and flour together until light and smooth. Stir this
mixture into the hot liquor, and cook for three minutes; then add the
milk, salt, and pepper. Heat to the boiling point and add the drained
oysters. Now turn the oysters into rather a shallow escalop dish.
Sprinkle the crumbs over them, and over the crumbs sprinkle the half
tablespoonful of butter, broken in bits. Bake for twenty minutes in a
moderately hot oven. If the flavor of nutmeg and Parmesan cheese be
liked, add to the sauce one teaspoonful of the grated cheese and a
slight grating of nutmeg.


                           Escaloped Oysters.

                  1-1/2 solid pints of oysters.
                  2 generous tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1-1/2 gills of cracker crumbs.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put half the oysters in a dish that will hold about one quart. Sprinkle
over them half the salt and pepper and half a tablespoonful of butter,
broken in bits. Spread half the cracker crumbs over this. Now put in the
remainder of the oysters, salt, pepper, and half a tablespoonful of the
butter. Spread the remainder of the cracker crumbs over this, and then
dot with the remaining tablespoonful of butter. Pour the liquor on the
cracker crumbs, and bake in a hot oven for half an hour.


                             Fried Oysters.

                     2 dozen large oysters.
                     3 gills of dried bread crumbs.
                     1 egg.
                     1 tablespoonful of milk.
                     1 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.

Drain the oysters, and season them with the salt and pepper. Put a few
tablespoonfuls of the crumbs on a plate and roll the oysters in them.
Beat the egg in a soup plate and afterward stir the milk into it. Dip
the oysters, one at a time, in this mixture, and roll in plenty of bread
crumbs. Place them on a platter and set in a cool place. When it is time
to cook them, put a layer in the frying basket and plunge into fat so
hot that blue smoke rises from the centre. Cook for one minute and a
half, and serve at once.

Never place one breaded oyster on top of another before they have been
fried.

The milk may be omitted, and two tablespoonfuls of tomato ketchup be
used instead.


                            Creamed Oysters.

                    1-1/2 pints of oysters.
                    3 gills of milk or cream.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    A tiny piece of mace.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.

Put the milk and mace in the double-boiler, and set on the fire. Mix the
flour with three tablespoonfuls of cold milk, reserved from the three
gills, and stir into the boiling milk. Cook for ten minutes. Heat the
oysters to the boiling point in their own liquor; then skim and drain
them. Put the oysters, salt, pepper, and onion juice into the thickened
cream, and serve.

If milk be used, add a tablespoonful of butter to the thickened milk.


                                Lobster.

Lobster should be perfectly fresh. If it be cooked, the odor should be
fresh and the shells look bright, and when the tail is drawn back it
should spring into position again. If the lobster be bought alive, see
that it moves lively. To boil it, plunge it into boiling water and cook
gently from ten to twenty minutes. A very small lobster will cook in ten
minutes and a large one in twenty. Cooking a lobster too long or at too
high a temperature makes it tough, dry, and stringy. When it is
impossible to get the fresh lobster, the canned article may be used
instead, though it is of the greatest importance to buy only the goods
put up by first-class houses.


                           Curry of Lobster.

                   1-1/2 gills of lobster meat.
                   1/2 pint of meat stock.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 generous tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/6 teaspoonful of Cayenne.
                   1/6 teaspoonful of white pepper.
                   1 teaspoonful of curry powder.
                   1 tablespoonful of minced onion.
                   3 slices of toast.

Cut the lobster into small pieces and season with half the salt and
pepper. Put the butter and onion on the fire, in a frying-pan, and cook
until the onion turns a straw color; then add the flour and curry-powder
and stir until brown. Gradually add the stock to this, stirring all the
while. Season with the remainder of the salt and pepper, and cook for
three minutes. Strain this into a saucepan, and add the lobster. Cook
for five minutes. Cut the slices of toast in strips and lay in a warm
dish. Pour the lobster over these and serve at once.

The toast may be omitted, and a dish of boiled rice be served with the
curry.


                         Fricassee of Lobster.

A fricassee of lobster is prepared the same as a curry; omitting,
however, the curry-powder and onion. Milk may be substituted for the
meat stock.


                            Breaded Lobster.

                       1 large lobster.
                       1 egg.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       Dried bread crumbs.
                       Fat for frying.

Split the claws and tail and set aside. Take the meat from the large
joints and the body, and chop fine. Mix with this one fourth of the
teaspoonful of salt and two tablespoonfuls of the “tom-alley.” Shape
this into three small flat cakes. Season the pieces of lobster with the
salt and pepper. Beat the egg in a soup plate. Dip the pieces of lobster
and the little cakes, one at a time, into the egg; then roll in the
bread crumbs, and, after arranging on a plate, put in a cool place until
the hour to cook them. When that time comes, put the breaded lobster in
the frying basket and cook in fat until crisp and brown (about two
minutes). Serve with Tartar sauce.


                           Escaloped Lobster.

                    3 gills of lobster.
                    1/2 pint of cream or stock.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1/2 pint of grated bread crumbs.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of Cayenne.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.

Mix in a saucepan one tablespoonful of the butter and all the flour.
Have the stock or cream hot, and pour it gradually on the butter and the
flour, stirring all the time. Add half the salt and pepper, and cook for
one minute. Have the lobster cut fine, and seasoned with the other half
of the salt and pepper. When the sauce has cooked for one minute, add
the lobster. Now pour the mixture into a shallow escalop dish. Sprinkle
the grated bread crumbs on this, and then dot with the half
tablespoonful of butter. Bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.

If cream be used, measure the flour lightly; but if stock be taken,
allow a generous tablespoonful.


                            Escaloped Crabs.

Prepare the same as escaloped lobster; using, however, only half a pint
of crab meat.


                           Escaloped Shrimps.

Prepare this dish in the same manner as escaloped lobster; substituting,
however, shelled shrimps for the lobster.


                             Stewed Clams.

                    1 pint of shelled clams.
                    1 gill of milk.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 heaping teaspoonful of flour.
                    3 Boston butter crackers.

Put the milk on the fire in the double-boiler. Put the clams in a
strainer and pour a quart of cold water over them. Let them drain for
about one minute, and then, turning them into a stewpan, place them on
the stove. Beat the butter and flour to a cream, and stir this mixture
into the pan containing the hot clams. Add the hot milk, salt, and
pepper, and cook for two minutes longer. Have the crackers soaked for
two minutes in cold water, and then toasted. Lay them in the bottom of a
deep dish, and when the clams are stewed pour them over the toast.


                              Roast Clams.

Wash the clam shells thoroughly and drain them in the colander for a few
minutes. Spread them in an old dripping-pan and put them into a hot
oven. The shells will begin to open in five or eight minutes. Take them
from the oven, and, holding the shell over a warm dish, let the clam and
juice drop out. Season with butter, salt, and pepper, and serve very
hot, with thin slices of buttered brown bread.

When possible, get the clams twenty-four hours before they are to be
used, and after washing them thoroughly put them in a pan with just
enough cold water to cover them; then, for a peck of clams, sprinkle in
half a pint of corn meal. This will make the clams plump and tender.


                             Steamed Clams.

Prepare the clams as for roasting, but put them in a dish and place it
in the steamer. When the shells open the clams are done.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER X.

                           HOW TO COOK MEAT.



                                BOILING.

IN boiling meats the temperature of the liquid should be kept at about
the boiling point or a few degrees lower; that is, the water should
bubble gently at one side of the pot or stewpan. Great care must be
taken that the water shall never boil rapidly, and that the temperature
shall not be much lower than that indicated by a slight bubbling at the
side of the stewpan. The meat and liquid will both be spoiled if kept
for any length of time in a closed vessel with the temperature too low.
A piece of meat cooked in water that boils rapidly all the time will be
hard, dry, and stringy, no matter how long it is cooked or how tender
and good it was originally; but even a tough, dry piece will be tender
and juicy if cooked at the temperature indicated by the water’s bubbling
at one side of the pot. All meats will be juicier if they be allowed to
cool, or even partially to cool, in the liquid in which they were
boiled. The dish in which a food material is cooling must always be
_uncovered_ until the substance is perfectly cold.


                         Boiled Leg of Mutton.

Wipe carefully with a damp cloth a leg of mutton weighing between eight
and ten pounds, and put it in a deep kettle with enough boiling water to
cover it. Set the kettle where the water will boil rapidly for a quarter
of an hour. Skim the water when it begins to boil. At the end of the
fifteen minutes draw the kettle back where the water will only bubble.
If the meat be desired very rare, cook it for an hour and a half; but if
you want it rather well done, cook it for two hours, being careful that
the water only bubbles except during the first fifteen minutes.

When the mutton is done place it on a warm dish. Pour a few
tablespoonfuls of butter sauce over it, and, if convenient, garnish with
parsley. Send to the table at once with the caper sauce and vegetables.

Of course, this is more meat than three persons would want, but if only
half a leg be boiled the result will not be very satisfactory; therefore
it would be better to roast or steam a part of the leg, unless the
family be large.


                            Steamed Mutton.

When the family is so small that it is necessary to cut a leg of mutton,
it is better to steam than to boil it. Place the piece of mutton on a
kitchen plate, the cut side down. Set the plate in the steamer and over
a kettle of boiling water. Cover closely, and keep the water boiling
until the meat is done. A piece weighing about four or five pounds will
be cooked rather rare in one hour. If liked well done, cook it longer.
Serve the same as boiled leg of mutton.


                          Boiled Corned Beef.

A piece of corned beef will take about the same time to cook, whether it
weigh four pounds or ten. Wash the meat and put it into a stewpan with
enough boiling water to cover it generously. When the water begins to
boil, skim thoroughly; then draw the stewpan back to a place where the
water will just bubble for five hours. Never let the water boil hard,
but it must not get much below the boiling point at any time. If the
meat is to be pressed, take it from the boiling water and place it on a
flat dish. Put a tin pan or sheet on top of the hot meat, and on this
place two bricks or some other weight. Set away in a cool place. When
the meat is cold, trim the edges, using a sharp knife. The trimmings may
be used for a corned beef hash.


                          Spiced Corned Beef.

                  6 pounds of the plate piece of beef.
                  1 pint of coarse salt.
                  3 pints of water.
                  3 dozen whole allspice.
                  2 dozen whole cloves.

This is a cheap and savory dish for luncheon and tea. Put the water and
salt in a stewpan and set on the fire. Stir frequently until the water
boils, and then skim carefully. Take from the fire and set away to cool.
Remove the bones from the meat by slipping a sharp knife between the
flesh and bone and cutting the meat from the bone. Place the beef in a
stone jar or earthen bowl, and when the brine is cold pour it over the
meat. Cover the dish and set it away in a cool place for six or eight
days. At the end of that time remove the meat and wipe it. Spread it on
a board and sprinkle the spice over it. Roll up and tie firmly. Place
this roll in a kettle and cover it with boiling water. When the water
begins to boil, (it will at first be somewhat cooled by the meat,) skim
it carefully; then set the kettle back where the water will just bubble
for six hours. At the end of that time take the beef from the kettle and
place it on a large dish. Put upon it a tin pan and weights, (two bricks
will be sufficient,) and set away in a cool place. The meat should be
cut in thin slices when served.

In New York many of the marketmen salt and spice beef for their
customers. If one can get a plate piece of corned beef that has not been
too long in brine, it will answer just as well as a fresh piece, and
save the housekeeper the trouble of corning it. Almost any marketman
will willingly remove the bones for a customer.


                              Boiled Ham.

Wash the ham and then soak it in cold water for ten or twelve hours. Put
it on to cook in cold water. When the water begins to boil, skim it, and
draw the kettle back to a part of the range where the water will only
bubble gently. Cook the ham for five hours; then take it up and draw off
the skin. Place the skinned ham in a dripping-pan and sprinkle over it
one cupful of fine dried crumbs mixed with two tablespoonfuls of sugar.
Cook it slowly in the oven for one hour.

If only a part of a ham is to be boiled, it would be better to steam it
than to put it in the water. Wash and soak it; then steam it the same as
mutton, cooking it for six hours. Brown it in the oven if you like.


                             Fresh Tongue.

Wash the tongue and put it in a stewpan with boiling water enough to
cover it generously. Add four tablespoonfuls of salt. When the water
begins to boil, skim carefully and draw the stewpan back to a place
where the water will bubble gently for five hours. Take the tongue from
the boiling water and plunge it into cold water. Draw off the rough
skin, beginning at the roots of the tongue. Place the tongue on a dish,
cover it lightly with a coarse towel, and put it in a cold place.


                            Smoked Tongues.

Cook a smoked tongue exactly the same as a ham, except that it is not to
be browned in the oven. It will require five hours’ time to boil it.


                            Pickled Tongue.

Treat a pickled tongue the same as a piece of corned beef. It will
require five hours’ cooking.



                       SCIENCE IN ROASTING MEAT.

A roast of meat, be it rare or well done, should be juicy and tender.
One should not roast a tough piece of meat; stewing, braising, or
boiling is better, because the cooking can be continued for a long time
at a low temperature, and this method will make the toughest piece of
meat tender. The meat always should be exposed to a high temperature at
first, that the surface may become hardened and the juices protected. If
the high temperature be continued all the time of cooking, the meat will
become hard, dry, and stringy, as far as the heat has penetrated. It
will be seen, therefore, that the high temperature should be kept up
only long enough to form a thin, hard crust on the meat. From twenty to
thirty minutes will suffice for this. The temperature should then be
lowered by closing the draughts of the range.

Basting is another important item in roasting. If one use no water in
the dripping-pan, and baste only with the fat that drops from the meat
into the bottom of the pan, the roast will have a beautiful glossy brown
surface when it is done; but it must be remembered that fat can be
heated to a much higher point than water, and that basting with this
boiling hot fat will help to harden the piece of meat.

If a small quantity of water be kept in the bottom of the dripping-pan,
the drippings from the meat, mingling with it, will be kept at a low
temperature, so that, if the meat be freely basted with this mixture
every fifteen minutes, the surface of the piece of meat will be kept
moist, and at a lower temperature than when basted with the hot fat, or
not basted at all. By basting with this mixture of drippings and water,
the heat is driven from the surface to the centre of the piece of meat,
insuring a roast that will be rare from a point about half an inch from
the surface to the centre. Bear these facts in mind when roasting meats.


                     How to Roast Meat in the Oven.

Have a dripping-pan of Russian iron and a meat-rack three or four inches
shorter than the pan.

[Illustration: DRIPPING-PAN.]

[Illustration: MEAT-RACK.]

Examine the piece of meat, and if there be any places that have become
tainted trim them off with a sharp knife. Wipe the meat with a wet
towel. Now season with salt and pepper, and dredge lightly with flour.

All the seasoning must be done with the meat resting on the rack, that
the stray particles may fall to the bottom of the pan. Dredge flour over
the bottom of the pan until the surface is white.

Have the oven very hot (about 400 or 450 degrees), and place the meat in
it. Watch closely, and as soon as the flour in the pan turns dark brown
pour in enough boiling water to cover the bottom of the pan. The flour
may brown in five minutes, yet it may take ten or more for this process,
the time depending upon the bottom of the oven. When the meat is brown
on one side, baste well, and turn it over to brown the other side. When
the meat has been in the oven for about thirty minutes, close the
draughts to reduce the heat of the oven.

Baste the meat every fifteen minutes in this manner. With a long spoon,
dip up the liquid from the bottom of the pan and pour it over the meat.
Continue this until nearly all has been absorbed by the meat; then
dredge lightly with salt, pepper, and flour. Now pour into the pan
enough hot water to cover the bottom. The last time the meat is basted
omit putting the water in the pan, and at the end of fifteen minutes all
the liquid will be evaporated. Now take up the meat and place it on a
hot platter. Take out the rack, and then pour all the fat from the pan
into a cup. Put half a pint of hot water in the pan and set on top of
the range. Scrape all the sediment from the sides and bottom, and
thicken this gravy with a teaspoonful of flour smoothly mixed with a
gill of cold water. Season with salt and pepper, and simmer for two
minutes; then strain into a hot dish and serve with the roast meat.

The time of cooking a roast depends upon the shape in which it is cut
and whether it is to be rare or well done. The rule of so many minutes
for each pound is not a good one; for a long, thin, rib roast might
weigh just the same as a short, thick piece cut from the round, rump, or
shoulder, and, of course, the thin piece would cook much more quickly
than the short thick piece.

A leg of mutton weighing eight or nine pounds should be cooked for an
hour and three quarters, if to be served rare; if to be medium rare, two
hours, but if well done (a pity it should ever be!) two hours and a
quarter. Half a leg of mutton, weighing about four pounds, should be
cooked for an hour and a quarter. The meat will be rare.


                           Roast Rib of Beef.

For three persons one rib will be enough. Wipe the meat with a damp
towel. Place a meat-rack in a dripping-pan and lay the beef on it.
Dredge with salt, pepper, and flour, turning the meat over in order that
every part shall receive a portion of the coating. Dredge the bottom of
the pan lightly with the flour and salt. Set the pan in a very hot oven,
and watch carefully to prevent the flour on the bottom of the pan from
burning. When the flour turns dark brown, pour in enough water to cover
the bottom of the pan; this will be in from two to five minutes after
the pan is placed in the oven. After the water has been added let the
meat cook awhile, and then baste it. To baste, draw the pan out of the
oven and tip it a little, that all the gravy shall flow to one end of
the pan. With a long-handled spoon, dip up this gravy and pour it over
the meat. Continue this until the entire piece is well moistened. Now
dredge the meat lightly with salt, pepper, and flour. Pour into the pan
enough boiling water to cover the bottom, and return to the oven. At the
end of a quarter of an hour draw the pan out again, turn the meat over,
and baste as before. Add some water and then set the pan in the oven.
Now reduce the heat by shutting the draughts, and baste every fifteen
minutes in the manner described. Do not use any water the last time. The
meat should cook in all one hour if wanted rather rare. When the beef is
done, take it up and place it on a warm dish. Pour all the fat from the
dripping-pan, and, after setting the pan on the range, pour into it half
a pint of boiling water. Scrape all the brown sediment from the sides
and bottom of the pan. Mix one teaspoonful of flour with three
tablespoonfuls of cold water, and gradually pour this mixture into the
dripping-pan, stirring all the while. It may not take all the mixture of
flour and water to thicken the gravy. Stop when the gravy is about as
thick as cream. Season with salt and pepper, and strain into a hot bowl.

If all this work be properly done, the beef will be rare and juicy, and
the gravy rich, brown, and smooth.


                              Roast Lamb.

Lamb, being immature meat, should be rather well done. The spring lambs
are so small that a leg will not make a burdensome roast in a small
family. The loin and breast make good small roasts. Roast the lamb
according to the rule given for roast rib of beef. Serve with the made
gravy and mint sauce. Asparagus, peas, young beets, summer squash, and
any delicate summer vegetable, may be served with lamb.


                             Roast Mutton.

Mutton is roasted like beef. For a small roast the loin or breast is
good. A leg of mutton may be cut into two parts, using one for a roast
and the other for steaming. Mutton should always be cooked rare and
served hot. Currant jelly should be provided with a roast. The most
appropriate vegetables are potatoes, onions, mashed turnips, rice,
squash, tomatoes in any form, sweet potatoes, Lima beans, canned corn,
etc.


                            Stuffed Mutton.

Make the dressing given for roast veal, substituting a generous
tablespoonful of butter for the chopped pork, and adding also one
teaspoonful of onion juice. Have the bone removed from half of a leg of
mutton. Cut deep incisions in the inside of the leg, and press the
dressing into these. Sew up the leg, and roast the same as directed for
roast beef, cooking the meat an hour and a half. The same vegetables as
suggested for plain roast mutton are suitable for the stuffed leg.


                              Roast Veal.

                  5 pounds of loin or breast of veal.
                  1 pint of stale bread.
                  3 ounces of salt pork.
                  1 gill of cracker crumbs.
                  1 teaspoonful of sweet marjoram.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of sage.
                  Salt, pepper, flour.

To make the dressing. Soak the bread in cold water for two or three
hours. Press out nearly all the water; then add one ounce of salt pork
chopped fine, one teaspoonful of salt, one third of a teaspoonful of
pepper, the herbs, and crackers. Let this stand while the meat is being
washed and seasoned.

The parts of the veal that are good for roasting are the loin, breast,
and fillet. Veal requires a great deal of seasoning, and is almost
always stuffed. It must be remembered that in the loin and breast there
is a great deal of bone. On the other hand, the fillet has not a
particle of waste except a small bit of round bone. Veal is delicious
cold, and the cold roast meat can be prepared in many savory ways. For
these reasons, if the family do not object to the meat in all forms, it
would be well to get a roast of good size. This is a kind of meat that
must be thoroughly done; not even a pinkish tinge should be seen after
it is cooked.

For a family of three get a loin or breast weighing about four or five
pounds. Wash it in cold water and wipe it with a clean towel. Rub into
it one tablespoonful of salt, and sprinkle lightly with pepper. Stuff
it, roll it up, and skewer it. Place on a rack in the dripping-pan, and
lay upon it two ounces of salt pork cut in thin slices. Cook for two
hours and a half, following the directions given for roasting.

Any of the following named vegetables may be served with roast veal:
potatoes, rice, macaroni, spinach, asparagus, beets, turnips, parsnips,
salsify, string beans, shell beans, grated horseradish, etc.


                              Roast Pork.

The piece termed the sparerib is the best for roasting. Wipe the meat
with a damp towel. Season it with salt, pepper, and sage, using a
teaspoonful of powdered sage to four pounds of pork. Follow the
directions for roast rib of beef, cooking a four or five pound roast for
two hours. Any of the following named vegetables may be served with
roast pork: white potatoes, sweet potatoes, rice, hominy, squash,
turnips, onions, etc.; and apple sauce always is desirable.


                               Roast Ham.

Prepare the ham the same as for boiled ham; boiling it for only three
hours, however, and baking it slowly for three hours more.



                               BROILING.

There are several modes of broiling: over clear coals, before the coals,
or under a bed of coals; also under a sheet of flame, as in a gas stove.
No matter what the fuel may be or the mode of broiling, the principles
are the same. A steak or chop, properly broiled, should have a thin,
well browned crust. Beyond this crust the meat should be red and juicy;
hardly a shade rarer at the centre than near the surface. A common mode
of cooking a steak is to keep it over the coals until one side is rather
well done; then turn it, and treat the other side in the same manner.
The result of following this method is, that as far as the heat has
penetrated the meat is hard and dry, and if the steak be thick it will
be almost raw in the centre.

[Illustration: DOUBLE-BROILER.]

If the broiling is to be done on a range have the fire very bright and
clear. Open every draught, that smoke and flame may be drawn up the
chimney. Place the piece of meat in the double-broiler, and hold it as
near the coals as possible until the surface is brown, turning
frequently. It will take three or four minutes for this. Now raise the
broiler several inches above the bed of coals, and continue the cooking
until the meat is done. The broiler must be turned often. A good rule is
to count ten slowly, then turn the broiler. A steak or chop, cut a
little more than an inch thick, will cook rare in ten minutes; if liked
medium well done, it should be cooked for twelve minutes. A chicken
weighing about three pounds will require slow broiling for half an hour;
or the chicken may be broiled over the fire until a rich brown,—say
about fifteen minutes,—then put it in a shallow pan in a moderate oven
for about twenty minutes.

Veal and pork must be broiled slowly until cooked thoroughly. Chops or
cutlets cut about half an inch thick will cook in twelve minutes.

Steaks and chops which, before cooking, are dredged lightly with salt,
pepper, and flour, will be much richer than those cooked without any
seasoning. Both steaks and chops should be served the minute they come
from the fire. Season them with salt and butter. Never put them in the
oven for the purpose of melting the butter. It spoils the dish. If a
steak or chop must wait a little time before it is served, keep it warm,
but do not add the butter until serving time.


                       To Broil in a Frying-pan.

It sometimes happens that one has no means of broiling over coals or
under heat. The next best thing is broiling in a pan. For example, have
a steak cut about an inch thick. After making a frying-pan very hot,
sprinkle in some fine salt, and lay the steak in the pan. Cook for two
minutes; then lift the steak up and sprinkle the pan with salt. Turn the
steak and cook for two minutes. Cook the piece of meat ten minutes in
all, turning every two minutes. Put the meat on a hot dish, and season
with salt and butter.


                       Broiled Chops with Bacon.

Bacon that is to be broiled should be boneless and fat, and the slices
should be about as thin as the blade of a knife. The bars of the broiler
should be very close, what is called an oyster broiler being best.

Place the slices of bacon in the broiler and over a clean fire, having
all the draughts open. Cook the meat for about four minutes, turning
constantly. The fat will blaze up continually, but will not hurt the
bacon if that be turned all the while. Put the cooked bacon on a hot
plate, and keep warm until the chops are cooked.

If the chops be cut an inch thick, cook them for nine minutes, turning
almost continually. Season with salt and pepper, and place on a hot
dish. Lay a slice of bacon on each chop, and arrange the remainder
around the dish. Serve hot and on hot plates.


                         Beefsteak and Onions.

                Steak for broiling.
                1 pint of sliced onions.
                1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                3 tablespoonfuls of butter or drippings.

Pare and slice the onions. Put them in a stewpan with two quarts of
boiling water and cook for fifteen minutes. Drain off all the water. Put
the butter or drippings in a frying-pan and add the drained onions.
Cover the frying-pan and place on the range. Cook for half an hour,
being careful not to burn. Stir the onions frequently. Broil the steak
rare and lay it on the bed of onions for five minutes, having the pan
covered; then place the steak on a hot dish, and arrange the onions
around it.

The onions need not be boiled, if a strong flavor be liked.



                                FRYING.

The word “frying” may mean either of two modes of cooking food: using a
common frying-pan, with only a small amount of fat, or immersing the
article to be cooked in a deep kettle of hot fat.

The first method is unhealthful, extravagant, and troublesome; the
second saves time and is more economical and healthful. When a
housekeeper once masters this method of frying, she will not return to
the more unsatisfactory and indigestible mode.

There should be enough fat to float the article to be cooked. The fat
must be so hot as to harden the surface of the article of food the
moment it is immersed, making it impervious to the fat or the juices
contained in the food itself. Different articles of food brown at
different temperatures, so that the frying temperature varies from 345°
to 400° Fahrenheit. Most mixtures composed in part of flour, sugar,
milk, or eggs—like fritter batters, doughnuts, etc.—may be cooked at
350°; whereas such articles as oysters, white-bait, croquettes, etc.,
require a heat of at least 400°. French fried and thin fried potatoes
need ten minutes’ cooking. The fat must have a temperature of about 370°
when they are put into it, because the potatoes should stand in
ice-water for some time before they are cooked. Moisture will cling to
them; and this, with their chilliness, reduces the fat at least 20° as
soon as the frying begins, making it then 350°. At this heat the
potatoes may be cooked brown and crisp in ten minutes. As already
stated, oysters require a heat of 400°. Drop a piece of stale bread into
the fat; and if the temperature be right, the bread will become brown in
half a minute. Oysters and white-bait should be cooked brown and crisp
in one minute; longer cooking will make them rather tough and dry. A
little lower temperature—say 380°—will do for croquettes, which should
be fried for about two minutes. If the temperature be too low,
croquettes will burst open during the cooking; particularly rice and
potato croquettes.

Put the fat into a deep kettle (that called a Scotch bowl being best)
and heat it slowly. When the time for frying the food is near at hand,
set the kettle on the hottest part of the range, and watch to see the
blue smoke rise from the centre of the surface of the liquid. The smoke
indicates the temperature to be about 350°. Drop a piece of stale bread
into the fat; and if one minute be required to brown it, the fat may be
used at once for frying muffins, doughnuts, fritters, breaded chops, and
indeed nearly all articles that require three or four minutes’ cooking.


                            How to keep Fat.

When the frying has been finished, take the fat from the fire and let it
cook slightly. Next place a piece of cheese-cloth in a colander or
strainer, and, after setting this over a jar or pail, strain the fat
through the cloth. This straining never should be omitted; for, with
good care, the same fat may be used many times.


                        The Kind of Fat to use.

Olive oil would be the best liquid to use if the matter of expense were
not to be considered. Any pure, clear fat that is free of strong odor
will answer. Many folk use mutton and ham fat, and say that they do not
find the flavor of the meat in the articles fried; but others would
discover the taste at once, and consider it disagreeable.

But the housekeeper will select the material she will use according to
her taste and means; and attention may as well be turned now to the
conditions which will insure satisfactory and comparatively wholesome
fried food. In the first place, the fat must be perfectly clarified.
Even the purest and sweetest butter must go through this process before
being used for frying. Oil and lard, when pure, already are clarified.
When the fat to be clarified is that which has been skimmed from
gravies, soups, or the water in which corned beef has been boiled, it
will contain water and other impurities. While there is water in fat the
latter cannot be heated to a temperature suitable for frying purposes;
and if there be other foreign substances present, such as particles of
meat, gravy, flour, or starch, they will burn at as high a temperature
as 345°, blackening the fat and making it unfit for frying articles of
food.


                           The Frying Basket.

While it is possible to fry food in deep fat without the use of the
frying basket, that invention will be found a most valuable aid in this
branch of cookery. The basket is made of fine wire, and has a bail
across the top. Do not get one of coarse wire and open meshes.

[Illustration: THE WAY TO LOWER THE FRYING BASKET.]

After the articles to be fried have been put into it, it should be
lowered into the fat; gently, because the particles of moisture which
cling to the food are instantly converted into steam, and this would
expand beneath the surface and force some of the fat from the kettle if
the basket were lowered quickly. The operation may be performed safely
by hanging the basket on a long spoon or fork, and then letting it
settle gently in the fat. Do not crowd into the basket the articles that
are to be fried. When the food has been cooked as long as seems
necessary, lift the basket with the spoon or fork, and, after allowing
the fat to drip from it, place it on a plate. Remove the cooked
articles, and lay them on brown paper that has been spread on a warm
pan. If properly cooked, they will hardly stain the paper.


                             Breaded Chops.

Mutton or lamb chops may be breaded and served with tomato or brown
sauce. Have the chops cut an inch thick. Trim them, and season with salt
and pepper. Dip them in beaten egg and roll in dry bread crumbs. Lay
them in deep fat for six minutes if they are to be rare done, and for
ten minutes if to be well done. Slices from the leg may be prepared in
the same manner.


                         Breaded Veal Cutlets.

                   1 pound of veal, cut from the leg.
                   1 egg.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   Dried bread crumbs.
                   Fat for frying.

Have the cutlets about one fourth of an inch thick, and cut into pieces
about four inches long and three wide. Season them with half the salt
and pepper. Beat the egg in a soup plate, and season with the remainder
of the salt and pepper. Dip the cutlets in the egg and roll them in the
bread crumbs. Fry them in deep fat for ten minutes. Serve with tomato or
brown sauce.

If you prefer, the cutlets may be fried in pork fat. In that case fry
two ounces of fat salt pork. Take up the pork and put the cutlets into
the fat remaining in the pan. When brown on one side, turn and brown on
the other. They should be cooked for fifteen minutes.


                         Mutton Cutlets Sauté.

             1 slice of mutton from the leg, or five chops.
             1 tablespoonful of butter.
             1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
             1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
             1 tablespoonful of flour.
             1 gill of stewed and strained tomato.

Trim most of the fat from the chops, and season them with half the salt
and pepper. Put them in a hot frying-pan and cook them for four minutes,
turning often. Sprinkle the flour over them and cook for two minutes
longer, turning them twice in that time. Now add the tomato, butter, and
the remainder of the salt and pepper. Cook for three minutes longer, and
serve very hot.


                           Breaded Sausages.

                    6 small sausages.
                    1/2 pint of dried bread crumbs.
                    The yolk of one egg.
                    1 tablespoonful of milk.
                    Fat for frying.

Beat the yolk of the egg in a soup plate, then beat into it the milk.
Prick the sausages with a fork and roll them, one by one, in the egg,
and then in the bread crumbs. Arrange them in the frying basket and cook
for ten minutes in smoking hot fat. Drain and serve.



                          MISCELLANEOUS MODES.


                          Stewed Shin of Beef.

                    4 pounds of shin of beef.
                    1 small onion.
                    1 bay leaf.
                    1 whole clove.
                    1 sprig of parsley.
                    1 small slice of carrot.
                    1/2 tablespoonful of salt.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    2 quarts of boiling water.

Have the butcher cut the bone into six parts. Wash the shank carefully,
being sure to remove any particles of meat or gristle that are not
perfectly sweet. They will be found at the small end, if at all. Put the
shin in a stewpan with the onion, carrot, bay leaf, parsley, clove,
salt, pepper, and water.

Place the stewpan on the fire, and when its contents begin to boil, skim
the liquid carefully, and set the pan back where the meat will only
simmer for six hours. At the end of five hours and a half, dip out one
pint of the liquid; and after allowing this partially to cool, skim off
the fat.

Put the butter in a saucepan and place it on the stove. When the butter
begins to bubble, add the flour, and stir the mixture until it is smooth
and brown; then gradually add three gills of the cold liquid. Cook for
three minutes, stirring all the time. Season with salt and pepper, and
set back where it will keep hot.

Take up the meat, removing it from the bones; also remove the marrow
from the bones. Put the meat and marrow into the stewpan with the sauce.
Draw the pan forward and let its contents boil up once. Serve on a hot
dish with a garnish of potato cubes.

The remainder of the liquor in which the shin was boiled may be used for
a soup the next day.

To prepare the potatoes, pare raw ones, and cut them into inch cubes.
Put these in a stewpan, and cover with boiling water. Cook them for
fifteen minutes, counting from the time the cover is placed on the
stewpan. At the end of that time pour off all the water and sprinkle
salt over the potatoes,—half a teaspoonful to a pint of the cubes. Place
the stewpan on the fire for about one minute; then shake well. For three
persons cook a pint and a half of cubes.


                               Pot Roast.

                   3 pounds of a tough piece of beef.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   2 level tablespoonfuls of flour.
                   1 whole clove.
                   1 pint of boiling water,
                   1 gill of cold water.

Wipe the meat and season it with the salt and pepper. Put it in an iron
or granite-ware stewpan, and set it on a part of the range where it will
brown slowly. Turn it frequently. Cook the meat in this manner for
thirty minutes. Now add a gill of boiling water, and draw the stewpan to
a part of the range where the contents will cook slowly for four hours.
Add a gill of boiling water whenever the liquid in the stewpan becomes
low. When the meat has been cooking for three hours, mix the flour
smoothly with a gill of cold water, and turn into the gravy in the
stewpan. Add enough boiling water now to make the full pint; the whole
clove also may be added. Cook the meat an hour longer; then serve on a
warm platter, with a part of the gravy poured over it. Serve the
remainder of the gravy in a bowl.


                             Braised Beef.

                   3 pounds of beef.
                   2 ounces of fat salt pork.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                   3 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1-1/2 pints of water.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced carrot.
                   2 whole cloves.
                   1 sprig of parsley.

Cut the pork into thin slices and fry until brown and crisp. Take out
the pork, and, putting the vegetables into the fat remaining in the pan,
cook slowly for fifteen minutes.

Rub half the pepper and two teaspoonfuls of the salt into the piece of
meat, and place it in a deep granite-ware pan. When the vegetables are
cooked, put them with the meat, first pressing from them as much fat as
possible. Into the fat remaining in the pan put the flour, and stir
until it becomes a dark brown. Add the water gradually, stirring all the
while. Season this gravy with the remainder of the salt and pepper, and
boil for five minutes; then pour over the meat in the pan. Add the
cloves and parsley. Cover the pan and set in a very moderate oven. Cook
for five hours, basting every half-hour with the gravy in the pan. The
oven must never be so hot that the gravy will bubble.

This long, slow cooking will make the toughest piece of meat tender; but
if it be cooked too fast, the meat will become hard, dry, and stringy.
Any of the tough pieces can be used for this dish.

Veal, mutton, chicken, and turkey all can be cooked in this manner. With
the light meats use a little celery, if convenient.


                            Beefsteak Roll.

            1/2 pint of strained tomato.
            1 egg.
            1-1/2 pounds of round steak.
            4 tablespoonfuls of pork fat or beef drippings.
            1 tablespoonful of butter.
            1/2 cupful of cracker crumbs.
            1-1/4 pints of water.
            2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
            1/2 teaspoonful of thyme.
            1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
            1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
            1 tablespoonful of minced onion.

Have the steak cut thin. Make a dressing by mixing together the cracker
crumbs, thyme, half a teaspoonful of the salt, half the pepper, the
butter, a little more than a gill of cold water, and the egg, well
beaten. Season the slice of steak with half a teaspoonful of salt, and a
little of the pepper. Spread the dressing on it, and roll up. Wind soft
darning cotton around the roll, to keep it in place.

Put the pork fat in a frying-pan, and set on the fire. Dredge the roll
with flour, and place it in the hot fat. Cook until brown on all sides,
then place it in a stewpan. Put the onion and a tablespoonful of flour
into the fat remaining in the pan. Stir until brown; then gradually add
the scant pint of water, and stir until the sauce boils up. Add the
remainder of the salt and pepper, and half a pint of strained tomato.
Strain this on the beefsteak roll. Cover the stewpan, and place where
the sauce will bubble at one side for three hours. When done, take up,
remove the strings, and place the roll on a warm dish. Pour the sauce
over it, and serve.

This dish is suitable for luncheon or dinner. Any of the following named
vegetables may be served with it: potatoes, rice, hominy, carrots,
turnips, cabbage, or macaroni.


                              Beef Olives.

                   1-1/2 pounds of round of beef.
                   1/2 pint of cracker crumbs.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                   3 ounces of salt pork.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of thyme.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of summer savory.

Have the beef cut in a thin slice. Cut all the fat from this and chop it
fine. Mix together the cracker crumbs, chopped fat, half a teaspoonful
of salt, one sixth of a teaspoonful of pepper, the herbs, and a gill of
cold water. Cut the slice of beef in pieces about four inches long and
three wide. Season the meat with the remainder of the salt and pepper.
Spread the cracker dressing on these strips of meat and then roll them
up. Tie them with soft darning cotton and then roll them in the flour.
Cut the pork in slices and fry until crisp and brown. Take out the pork
and lay the olives in the fat remaining in the pan. Fry on all sides
until brown; then put the olives in a small stewpan. Put into a
frying-pan such flour as remained after the olives were rolled, and stir
until brown. Gradually pour upon this one pint of cold water. Stir until
it boils and then pour over the olives. Cover the stewpan and place
where the contents will just bubble at one side for two hours. At
serving time take up the olives, remove the strings, and arrange in the
centre of a warm platter. Free the gravy from fat and pour over the
olives. The dish may be served plain or with a border of either boiled
rice, mashed potatoes, or strips of toast.


                            Hamburg Steaks.

             1 pound of round, shoulder, or flank of beef.
             1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
             1 teaspoonful of salt.

Have the butcher chop the meat very fine. Season it with the salt and
pepper and make it into small cakes about half an inch thick. Rub the
bars of the broiler with a bit of fat and lay the cakes in it. Broil
over clear coals for six minutes, if the steaks be liked rare; or eight
minutes, if to be well done. Place on a hot dish and season with butter
and salt. Another method is to put into a frying-pan about a
tablespoonful of butter or pork fat and cook the steaks for eight
minutes. Place the steaks on a hot dish, and into the pan in which they
were cooked put one tablespoonful of butter and half a tablespoonful of
flour. Stir until smooth and brown; then add a gill of cold water,
stirring all the time. Season this sauce with half a teaspoonful of salt
and a little pepper. A gill of strained tomatoes will be an improvement.
Pour the sauce over the steaks and serve at once.


                     Beef Stew from the Cold Roast.

                  The bones of the roast.
                  About a pound and a quarter of meat.
                  5 tablespoonfuls of liquid fat.
                  1 large onion.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of minced carrot.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of minced celery.
                  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                  2 level teaspoonfuls of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1 pint of boiling water.
                  1 pint of sliced potatoes.

Take the bones and the tough pieces left from a cold roast of beef.
After cutting all the meat from the bones, remove all the fat from the
meat and put it on the fire in a frying-pan. Cut the lean meat into
small pieces. Place the bones in a stewpan and lay the meat on top of
them. Take from the frying-pan five tablespoonfuls of liquid fat and put
it in another frying-pan. Add the minced vegetables, and cook slowly for
half an hour. At the end of that time draw the pan forward to a hotter
part of the range and cook rapidly for three minutes, stirring all the
time. Now draw the vegetables to one side of the pan and press out the
fat, then put the vegetables in the stewpan. Put the flour into the fat
remaining in the pan, and stir until it becomes smooth and brown; then
add the water, and stir until it boils. Add the salt and pepper and cook
for three minutes. Pour this gravy into the stewpan, and, covering the
pan, set it back where the contents will just bubble at one side for two
hours and a half. The potatoes are then to be added and the stewpan
brought forward to a hotter place. At the end of half an hour the stew
will be done. Remove the bones and serve the stew on a warm dish. It may
be garnished with a circle of small baking powder biscuit, or with
dumplings.


                     Stew from Cold Lamb or Mutton.

With the bones and tough pieces of cold lamb or mutton a stew can be
made the same as beef stew with cold roast beef. If you have the small
white turnips use a gill of these cut in cubes and fried with the other
vegetables.


                          Creamed Dried Beef.

                   3 ounces of smoked dried beef.
                   1 heaping tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of flour.
                   1-1/2 gills of milk.

Have the beef cut in slices as thin as shavings, and put it in a bowl.
Pour upon it one pint of boiling water, and let it stand for two
minutes; then turn off the water and drain the beef dry. Put the butter
on the fire, in a frying-pan, and when it becomes hot add the beef. Cook
for three minutes, stirring all the time. Now pour on one gill of cold
milk. Mix the half-gill of milk with the flour, and stir it into the
cooking mixture. Cook for two minutes, and serve.


                         Frizzled Smoked Beef.

                     2 ounces of dried smoked beef.
                     3 eggs.
                     1 gill of milk.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.

Have the beef shaved thin and then cut it into small bits. Beat the eggs
well, and add the milk to them. Put the butter on the fire, in a
frying-pan, and when it becomes hot, add the beef. Stir the meat for
three minutes; then draw the pan back to a cooler place and add the eggs
and milk. Stir constantly until the egg begins to thicken; then turn
into a warm dish and serve.


                              Veal Olives.

In making veal olives use a tablespoonful of butter in the cracker
dressing, as there will be no fat to cut from the veal. Add half a dozen
celery seeds when the gravy is put with the olives. With these
exceptions proceed exactly as for beef olives.


                          Veal Cutlets Sauté.

                     1 slice of veal from the leg.
                     2 ounces of fat salt pork.
                     1 tablespoonful of flour.
                     1 gill of strained tomatoes.
                     1 generous gill of cold water.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.

Nick the edge of the cutlet with a sharp knife; this will keep the slice
flat. Cut the pork in slices and cook slowly in the frying-pan for
fifteen minutes. Draw the pan forward to a hotter part of the range and
take up the pieces of pork. Season the cutlet with half the pepper and
salt, and lay it in the hot fat. Cook slowly for fifteen minutes,
turning frequently. Now take up the meat and put the flour into the
gravy remaining in the pan. Stir until it turns dark brown; then add the
cold water, tomatoes, salt, and pepper, stirring all the while. Cook the
sauce for five minutes; then lay the fried cutlet in it and cover the
pan. Set back where the sauce will hardly bubble at one side for half an
hour. At end of that time place the cutlet on a hot dish and strain the
sauce over it. Serve at once.


                           Fricassee of Veal.

                      1 pound of veal.
                      2 ounces of fat salt pork.
                      1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                      3 gills of water.
                      1 gill of strained tomatoes.

Cut the pork in thin slices and fry brown. Have the veal cut in small,
thin pieces. Season it with the salt and pepper, then roll it in the
flour. Take the pork from the pan and lay the slices of veal in the hot
fat. Let them fry until they have a good brown color, turning them when
brown on one side. Take up the veal and stir the remainder of the flour
into the fat. When the flour is brown, add the cold water, stirring all
the time. When this gravy boils up put the browned veal into it and
simmer for half an hour. Add the tomatoes and boil up once.

The flavor and appearance of this dish may be varied by changing the
gravy. Measure the water generously, and omit the tomatoes, and you have
a simple brown fricassee. Be scant in the measurement of water and
tomatoes, adding the tomatoes to the gravy when the meat is put in;
then, at the end of half an hour, add a gill of milk, and boil up once,
and you have a bisque of veal. Or you may omit the tomatoes, and at the
end of the half-hour add a generous gill of milk, and you have a white
fricassee. In this case do not brown the flour when it is added to the
fat.


                           Ragout of Mutton.

            2 pounds of mutton from the shoulder or breast.
            1 pint of turnip cubes.
            1/2 pint of carrot cubes.
            2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
            1 tablespoonful of butter.
            1 tablespoonful of flour.
            1 tablespoonful of corn-starch.
            1 level tablespoonful of salt.
            1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
            1-3/4 pints of water.

Have the mutton free from bones. Cut off all the fat and put it in the
frying-pan and on the fire. Cut the meat into pieces about two inches
square. When there is about five tablespoonfuls of liquid fat in the
pan, take out the solid pieces and move the pan to a part of the range
where the fat will become smoking hot. Now put in the mutton, and stir
until it becomes brown,—which will be in about six minutes. Take the
meat from the fat and put it into a stewpan. Put the turnips, carrots,
and onion in the fat remaining in the pan and cook for ten minutes,
being careful not to brown them. Press all the fat from the vegetables
and put them in the stewpan with the meat. Now, after pouring all the
fat from the pan, put in the butter and flour, and stir until the
mixture becomes smooth and dark brown; then draw back to a cooler place
and gradually stir in one pint and a half of water. When this boils up
add it to the contents of the stewpan.

Mix the salt, pepper, corn-starch, and a gill of cold water. Stir this
mixture into the stewpan. When the ragout boils, skim it, and move the
stewpan back where the contents will bubble gently at one side for three
hours. Serve very hot.

If you choose, a pint of potato cubes can be added the last half-hour.


                        Blanquette of Cold Meat.

                    1 pint of cold white meat.
                    1 gill of milk or cream.
                    1-1/2 gills of stock.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1-1/4 teaspoonfuls of pepper.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.

Veal, lamb, or any kind of poultry, will answer for this dish. Have the
meat free from fat and bone, and cut into dainty pieces. Season it with
half the salt and pepper. Put the butter in a frying-pan and set on the
fire. When hot, add the flour, stirring until the mixture is smooth and
frothy; then gradually add the stock. Cook for two minutes; then add the
milk and cold meat, and simmer gently for fifteen minutes. Turn out on a
warm dish and garnish with rice, toast, or pastry cakes. A teaspoonful
of lemon juice, added just as the blanquette is being removed from the
fire, is an addition that pleases most tastes. A teaspoonful of
curry-powder may be stirred into the butter when the flour is added,
thus changing the dish to a delicate curry.


                              Pork Chops.

                     1-1/2 pounds of pork steak.
                     1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1/2 pint of strained tomatoes.
                     1 tablespoonful of flour.

Season the chops with one teaspoonful of the salt and half the pepper.
Put them in a hot frying-pan and cook them rather slowly for twenty
minutes. Take up the chops and stir the flour into the fat remaining in
the pan. When the mixture is smooth and frothy, add the strained
tomatoes and simmer for five minutes. Season with the remainder of the
salt and pepper. Arrange the chops on a warm dish and pour the sauce
around them.

If a plain brown sauce be preferred, substitute cold water for the
tomatoes.


                            Fried Salt Pork.

Have the slices cut about one fourth of an inch thick. Drop them into
boiling water and cook for five minutes. After draining the pieces of
pork, put them in the frying-pan and set them on the fire. Let them cook
slowly at first; then draw the pan to hotter part of the range, and cook
more rapidly until they are crisp and brown. Draw the pan back, and,
taking up the pork, arrange it on a hot dish.

Pour all the pork fat, except about two tablespoonfuls, into a bowl. Put
the pan back on the fire, and into the fat remaining put one
tablespoonful of flour. Stir until the mixture is smooth and brown; then
gradually add half a pint of cold water. Simmer for three minutes, and
then taste to be sure it is salt enough. Serve this gravy in a sauce
bowl.

A brown sauce made in this manner is much more healthful and appetizing
than the clear pork fat.


                          Salt Pork in Batter.

                       6 slices of pork.
                       3 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                       5 tablespoonfuls of milk.
                       1 egg.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Have the pork cut in thin slices. Drop it into boiling water and cook
for two minutes. Take it up and drain; then put it in a frying-pan, and,
setting it on the fire, cook until it turns a delicate brown, which
should be in five minutes. Draw the pan back and take up the pork.

Make a batter with the flour, milk, salt, and egg. Dip the pork in the
batter. Have the pork fat hot, and lay the masked pork in it. Cook until
brown on one side; then turn and brown on the other. Serve at once.


                             Sausage Cakes.

                   1 pound of fresh pork.
                   1/2 pint of stale bread.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1/2 tablespoonful of salt.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of powdered sage.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of powdered thyme.

Have the meat one fourth fat and three fourths lean, and chopped fine.
Soak the bread in cold water until it is soft, then press out all the
water. Mix the seasonings and the bread with the meat. When all the
ingredients are thoroughly combined, shape into small flat cakes, and
fry until brown on both sides. It will take twenty minutes to cook the
cakes thoroughly.


                            Stewed Kidneys.

            1 beef kidney, or two pairs of sheep or lambs’.
            1 pint of water or stock.
            1 teaspoonful of salt.
            1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
            1 tablespoonful of butter.
            1 level tablespoonful of flour.
            1 teaspoonful of lemon juice.

Draw the thin, white skin off the kidneys; then cut them into thin,
round slices, removing the hard, white substance. Wash them, and soak
them in salted water for half an hour. At the end of that time put them
in a stewpan with the pint of water. Place on the fire; and when they
begin to boil, skim carefully. Draw the stewpan to a part of the range
where the water will only bubble gently for two hours. At the end of
that time put the butter in a small pan, and set over the fire. Add the
flour, and stir until the mixture is smooth and brown. Stir this into
the pan containing the kidneys. Now add the seasonings, and simmer for
half an hour longer. Serve toasted bread with the kidneys.


                             Kidneys Sauté.

                     2 pairs of sheep’s kidneys.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
                     1 gill of stock or water.
                     1 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
                     1 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Prepare the kidneys as for stewing. Drain and wipe them. Put the butter
and flour in a frying-pan, and set on the fire. Season the kidneys with
the salt and pepper. Put them into the pan with the butter and flour,
and cook for two minutes, stirring all the time. Add the stock or water,
_cold_. Stir until this boils up, then add the lemon juice. Turn the
sauté into a warm dish, and garnish with points of crisp toast.


                            Broiled Kidneys.

                   2 pairs of sheep or lambs’ kidneys
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   Flour.

Draw the thin skin off the kidneys; then cut each kidney almost in two.
Cut out the hard, white substance from the centre. Wash the kidneys and
soak them in salt and water for half an hour. At the end of that time
wipe them dry. Melt one tablespoonful of the butter and add the lemon
juice, salt and pepper to it. Dip the kidneys in this; then roll lightly
in flour, and, placing them in the broiler, cook over clear coals for
six minutes. Arrange on a hot dish and season with the remaining
tablespoonful of butter; or, instead of the plain butter, use two
tablespoonfuls of maître d’hôtel butter.

The kidneys may be rolled in fine bread crumbs instead of flour.


                         Stewed Sheep’s Hearts.

                   2 sheep’s hearts.
                   2 ounces of fat salt pork.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of minced onion.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1-1/2 pints of water.

Split and wash the hearts. Season them with half the pepper and salt,
and roll them in the flour. Fry the pork in the frying-pan. Put the
onions with the fried pork and cook for ten minutes. At the end of that
time take the pork and onions from the frying-pan and put them in the
stewpan. Lay the hearts in the frying-pan, and cook until they are brown
on one side; then turn them and brown the other side. After that, put
them in the stewpan. Pour the hot water into the frying-pan and stir
until all the sediment is mixed with it, then pour it over the hearts.

To the flour left after the hearts were rolled, add two tablespoonfuls
of cold water, and stir until the mixture becomes perfectly smooth, when
it should be stirred into the gravy in the stewpan. Add the remainder of
the salt and pepper, and place the stewpan where the gravy will bubble
gently at one side for three hours. The hearts will be tender and
delicious if the cooking be slow, but if the gravy be allowed to boil
hard, the meat will be tough and unsatisfactory.

At serving time arrange the hearts on a dish and strain the gravy over
them. Serve boiled rice with this dish.


                         Fried Liver and Bacon.

                      2 ounces of breakfast bacon.
                      1/2 pound of liver.
                      1 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Have the bacon cut in as thin slices as possible and keep it cold until
the time to cook it. Have the liver cut into slices about one third of
an inch thick. If it be calf or sheep’s liver, wash it in cold water and
let it drain; but if it be beef liver, after washing it, cover with
boiling water and let it stand for five minutes; then drain it.

Put the pieces of bacon into a hot frying-pan and turn them constantly
until they are crisp; then take them up. Draw the pan back to a cooler
part of the range, and, laying the slices of bacon in the hot fat, cook
them for eight minutes, turning often. Season with the salt and pepper.
Arrange the liver on a warm platter and garnish with the bacon.

Remember that slow cooking spoils bacon, and rapid cooking hardens and
ruins liver.


                          Calf’s Liver Sauté.

                    1 pound of calf’s liver.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                    1/2 pint of water.

Cut the liver in slices one third of an inch thick, and wash and wipe
them. Season with one teaspoonful of the salt and half the pepper.

Put the butter into a frying-pan and set on the fire. When it becomes
hot, stir in the flour, and then lay the slices of liver in the pan.
Cook slowly for six minutes, turning often. At the end of that time add
the water, stirring all the while. When this boils up, add the remainder
of the salt and pepper and the lemon juice, and cook gently for two
minutes.

The lemon juice may be omitted and milk be substituted for the water in
making the sauce. Pig, sheep, and lamb’s liver can be treated in the
same manner.


                      Chicken Livers en Brochette.

                      4 chicken livers.
                      8 slices of breakfast bacon.

Cut the bacon as thin as possible. Cut the livers in two parts, and
after washing them, season them with salt and pepper. Fold each piece of
liver in a slice of bacon and fasten with a small bird skewer. Broil
over clear coals for ten minutes. Remove the skewers and serve the liver
and bacon on slices of toast.


                             Broiled Tripe.

                       1 pound of tripe.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       A little flour.

Wash and drain the tripe. If it has been in pickle, put it in a saucepan
with cold water enough to cover it, and place on the fire. Simmer gently
for half an hour. If milk be plentiful use half milk and half water. If
the tripe has not been pickled, fifteen minutes will be enough time for
the simmering. Take it from the hot liquid and drain.

Melt the butter in a soup plate. Add the salt and pepper to it and then
roll the piece of tripe in the mixture. Dredge the tripe with flour and
broil over a hot fire for six minutes. Serve at once.

Tripe may be broiled without using the butter and flour, but it is apt
to be dry. Get the thick, juicy part for broiling.


                              Fried Tripe.

                     1 pound of tripe.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of drippings.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                     1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 gill of water or milk.

Wash the tripe and cut it into small pieces. Season it with salt and
pepper and roll it in the flour. Put the drippings in the frying-pan and
set on the fire. When hot, lay in the tripe, and cook for ten minutes,
browning both sides. Take up the tripe, and into the fat remaining in
the pan scrape such part of the flour as did not adhere to the tripe.
Stir the mixture, and then add the cold water or milk. Cook for two
minutes. Taste, to see if seasoned enough, because more salt and pepper
may be needed. Strain this gravy over the tripe, and serve. If any one
of the following named seasonings be liked it may be added to the gravy:
half a teaspoonful of onion juice, one tablespoonful of tomato catsup,
one teaspoonful of lemon juice, or one teaspoonful of vinegar.


                         Tripe Fried in Batter.

                     1 pound of tripe.
                     6 tablespoonfuls of drippings.
                     3 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                     5 tablespoonfuls of milk.
                     1 egg.
                     1 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Cut the tripe in small squares and season it with half the salt and
pepper. Pour the milk on the flour, and beat to a smooth paste. Add the
egg, well beaten, and the remainder of the salt and pepper, and beat for
two minutes longer. Have the drippings smoking hot in the frying-pan.
Dip the tripe in the batter and lay it in the hot fat. When brown on one
side, turn and brown on the other. Serve at once.

The tripe may be fried in deep fat. In that case it will cook in three
minutes.


                           Corned Beef Hash.

                     1 pint of hashed corned beef.
                     1 pint of hashed potatoes.
                     1 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1 gill of milk.

Have the meat about one fourth fat and three fourths lean. Chop it
rather coarse. Chop the cold boiled potatoes a little coarser than the
meat and season them with the salt and pepper. Mix the potato and meat,
stirring with a fork. Add the milk, and stir lightly. Put the butter in
the frying-pan, and when it becomes hot put in the hash, spreading it
lightly and evenly, but not stirring it. Cover the pan and set where the
hash will cook slowly and evenly for half an hour or more. There should
be a rich brown crust on the bottom. At serving time fold and turn out
on a hot dish, and serve on hot plates.


                          Hash of Fresh Meat.

Any kind of meat can be used to make a meat-and-potato hash; but, of
course, nothing is so good as corned beef. Cold roast, boiled, or
broiled beef, mutton, lamb, veal, or tongue can be freed from skin, fat,
and bones, seasoned highly with salt and pepper, and cooked like corned
beef hash. Even two or three kinds of meat can be used. If it happens
that you have a bit of steak, a part of a chop, and perhaps a slice of
tongue, use them all.


                             Sausage Hash.

                       3 cold boiled potatoes.
                       2 cooked sausages.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       1 teaspoonful of butter.

Chop the potatoes rather coarse, and the sausage a little finer. Season
the potatoes with the salt and pepper, and mix the sausage with them.
Put the butter in a frying-pan, and when it becomes melted put in the
hash. Spread lightly in the pan, but do not stir. Cover the pan and set
on the back part of the range, where the hash will brown slowly. Cook
for half an hour. Fold it, and, turning out on a hot dish, serve at
once.


                              Baked Hash.

                   1/2 pint of hashed meat.
                   1/2 pint of cold mashed potatoes.
                   1/2 pint of milk or stock.
                   3 teaspoonfuls of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of flour.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Use any kind of cold cooked meat. Have it freed from fat and bones, and
chopped rather fine. Season it with the salt and pepper. Put two
teaspoonfuls of the butter in a small pan and set it on the fire. When
the butter is hot, add the flour, and stir until the mixture is smooth
and frothy. Gradually add the milk, and boil for three minutes. Add the
meat to this, and boil up once; then put in a baking-dish. Spread the
mashed potatoes over this and dot with the remaining teaspoonful of
butter. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes.

Cooked hominy or rice may be substituted for the potatoes.


                         Minced Meat on Toast.

                     1/2 pint of cold hashed meat.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                     1 teaspoonful of flour.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1 gill of stock or water.
                     3 slices of toast.

Have the meat free from fat and bones and hashed rather fine. Mix with
it the salt, pepper, and flour. Put it into a small stewpan and stir in
the stock or water. Cover the pan and set it on a part of the range
where the hash will cook slowly for thirty minutes; then add the butter,
and cook five minutes longer.

Have the toast crisp and brown. Dip the edges in boiling water. Cut each
slice of toast into two triangular pieces. Spread the meat on these, and
serve at once.


                             Tongue Toast.

                       1 gill of minced tongue.
                       1 gill of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of flour.
                       Salt, pepper.
                       3 slices of toast.

Use the dry end of a boiled tongue and mince very fine. Put the butter
on the stove in a small frying-pan, and when it becomes hot, add the
flour. Stir until smooth and frothy; then draw the pan back to a cooler
part of the range, and gradually add the milk. Now move the pan to a
hotter place and cook its contents for two minutes, stirring all the
time. Add the tongue and seasoning, and simmer for five minutes. Toast
the bread, and place it on a warm dish. Spread a little of the tongue
and sauce on each slice, and serve at once.


                              Meat Cakes.

               1 gill of finely minced cold cooked meat.
               1 gill of mashed potato.
               1 tablespoonful of butter.
               1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
               1/10 teaspoonful of pepper.
               1 tablespoonful of sweet drippings.

Season the meat with the salt and pepper, and beat it and the butter
into the hot mashed potatoes. Shape into round flat cakes and fry brown
on both sides, using the drippings for frying.


                                Sanders.

                    1/2 pint of minced cold meat.
                    1/2 pint mashed potatoes.
                    1/2 pint of stock or milk.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 heaping teaspoonful of flour.
                    1-1/4 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.
                    1 gill of grated bread crumbs.

Almost any kind of cold cooked meat may be used; preferably veal,
mutton, or lamb. Season it with half a teaspoonful of salt, half the
pepper, and all the onion juice. Put one tablespoonful of butter in a
small frying-pan and set on the fire. When hot, add the flour, and stir
until brown; then draw the pan back and gradually add the stock or milk,
stirring all the time. Season with half a teaspoonful of salt and the
remaining pepper. Put the meat in this sauce. Divide the mixture into
six parts and put each part into a little baking-dish or shell. Season
the mashed potatoes with one fourth of a teaspoonful of salt and spread
it over the little dishes. Sprinkle the crumbs over these and dot with
the half tablespoonful of butter. Bake in a moderately hot oven for
fifteen minutes, and serve at once.

Two potatoes of medium size will make the half-pint of mashed potatoes.
If you have cold mashed potatoes on hand, use them. The crumbs may be
omitted.

Cold boiled rice may be substituted for the potatoes.


                            Small Timbales.

                    3 gills of hashed cooked meat.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of onion juice.
                    1 gill of stock.
                    1 egg.
                    1 gill of fine bread crumbs.
                    A slight grating of nutmeg.

Have the meat free from bone, fat, and gristle, and chopped very fine.
Mix all the seasonings and the bread crumbs with it. Now add the stock,
and let it stand in a cool place for one or two hours. At the end of
that time beat the egg well and mix it with the other ingredients.
Butter four small timbale moulds,—small cups will do,—and pack the
mixture into them. Put them in a pan and surround them with tepid water.
Lay a piece of thick brown paper over the top. Place the pan in a
moderate oven and cook the timbales for twenty minutes. Turn them out on
a warm platter, and pour a white, brown, or bisque sauce around them.

This mixture may be cooked in one mould. In that case allow ten minutes
longer. At no time during the cooking should the oven be hot enough to
have the water boil.


                           Mutton Croquettes.

                1/2 pint of finely chopped cold mutton.
                2 eggs.
                1 gill of milk or cream.
                1 tablespoonful of butter.
                1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
                1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                1/2 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                A few drops of onion juice.
                Bread crumbs.
                Fat for frying.

Add the seasoning to the meat. Put the milk in a small pan and set on
the fire. Beat the butter and flour together, and stir into the boiling
milk. Now add the meat, and cook for two minutes, stirring often. Add
one of the eggs, well beaten, and take from the fire at once. Pour the
mixture on a plate and set away to get chilled. When it is chilled,
shape the croquettes, and bread and fry them.

The second egg and the crumbs are for use in breading.

Any kind of tender cooked meat may be used instead of the mutton.

[Illustration: BREADING CROQUETTES.]


                      Meat and Potato Croquettes.

                  1 cupful of cold meat, chopped fine.
                  1 cupful of cold mashed potatoes.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1/2 cupful of milk.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  2 eggs.
                  Dried bread crumbs.
                  Fat for frying.

Mix the meat, potatoes, and seasoning. Put the milk and butter in a
frying-pan, and when the liquid boils up put in the meat and potatoes,
and cook for one minute. Beat one egg well and stir it into the hot
mixture. Take from the fire immediately, and, after pouring out on a
plate, set away to cool. When cold, shape into cylinders about three
inches long, and bread and fry.

[Illustration: CROQUETTES READY FOR SERVING.]

The second egg and the crumbs are for the breading.

Hominy or rice may be substituted for the potatoes.


                               Meat Pie.


                               _Filling._

                    1-1/2 pints of cold meat.
                    1 pint of stock or water.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 teaspoonful of minced onion.
                    1 teaspoonful of minced carrot.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.


                                _Crust._

                    1/2 pint of flour.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of lard.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.
                    1/2 gill of cold water.

Use any kind of cooked unsalted meat, and have it free from skin, bones,
and fat. Put it in a stewpan. Put the vegetables and butter in a
frying-pan, and cook for ten minutes. At the end of that time take the
vegetables from the butter and put them with the meat. Into the butter
remaining in the pan put half a tablespoonful of flour, and stir until
smooth and frothy. Gradually add the stock or water, and stir until the
sauce boils. Add this to the meat and vegetables, and place the saucepan
on the fire. Mix the remaining tablespoonful of flour with four
tablespoonfuls of cold water, and stir into the meat mixture. Add the
seasonings, and cook for fifteen minutes. Turn this into a dish that
will hold nearly two quarts, and set away to cool.

Now make the crust. Mix the salt, sugar, and baking-powder with the
flour, and then rub through a sieve into a bowl. Add the butter and
lard, and cut and mix through the flour, with a knife, until quite fine.
Wet with the cold water, stirring all the time with the knife. Sprinkle
the board lightly with flour, and turn out the paste upon it. Roll very
thin; then fold and roll again into a thin sheet. Fold up, put in a tin
pan, and set on the ice for an hour or more; or it may be used at once.
Roll the paste into the shape of the top of the dish in which the pie is
to be baked, only about an inch larger on all sides. Cut a small slit in
the centre of the paste that the steam may escape. Cover the prepared
meat with this paste, turning in the edges. Bake the pie in a moderate
oven for one hour.

The bones and bits of gristle may be boiled in water to make a stock.


                    How to Clean and Truss Poultry.

Cut off the head, and then the legs, being careful in the latter case to
cut in or below the joints. Now cut the skin on the back of the neck;
then turn the skin over on the breast and cut off the neck. Take out the
crop, being particular to remove all the lining membrane. Put the
forefinger into the throat and break the ligaments that hold the
internal organs to the breastbone. Next cut the bird open at the vent,
beginning under the left leg, and cutting in a slanting direction toward
the vent. Stop there. Insert the hand in this opening, and work around
the organs until they are loosened from the bones. Gently draw all the
organs out at once. Put the hand in to learn if either the windpipe or
lights are left in the body. Cut the oil bag from the tail. This is a
hard, yellow substance. Now singe the bird by holding it over a lighted
newspaper. The paper should be drawn into a long, fluffy piece, then
twisted lightly. Hold the burning paper over an open fire or a coal hod
during the operation of singeing.

Wash the poultry quickly in cold water; then season it with salt, and
fill the crop and breast with dressing. Draw the skin at the neck on to
the back, and fasten it with a skewer to the backbone. Turn the tips of
the wings under the back, and fasten them in that position with a long
skewer. Pass a short skewer through the lower part of the legs, and then
through the tail. Tie with long piece of twine. Turn the bird on its
breast and bring the string up around the skewers that hold the neck and
wings. Tie firmly, and the bird will be ready for cooking.


                              Boiled Fowl.

A boiled fowl is one of the most satisfactory and economical dishes of
poultry. The meat can be used in making a great variety of dishes, and
the water in which the fowl was boiled may be used in soups, or for the
foundation of meat, fish, and vegetable sauces.

Select a short, plump, fat fowl. Singe and draw it, and wash it quickly
in cold water. Put it in a stewpan, breast down, with boiling water
enough to cover it. When the water begins to boil, skim thoroughly; then
draw the stewpan back, where the water will bubble at one side of the
pan, until the fowl is tender. This you can tell by pressing the wing
back with a fork. If it breaks away from the breast readily, the fowl is
cooked enough. Take the stewpan from the fire, and set it, with the
cover off, in a cool, airy place. When cool, take up the fowl and put it
away. Pour the water into a large bowl and set in a cool place for
future use.

If the fowl is to be served hot, take it up when tender, place it on a
platter and pour over it a little butter, Béchamel, or parsley sauce.
Serve the remainder of the sauce in a gravy bowl.

If the fowl is to be served hot for dinner, boil four ounces of mixed
salt pork with it.

The time of boiling a fowl cannot be given, because it depends upon the
age. A fowl about a year old will cook in two hours; one two or three
years old may take three or four hours.

Cold boiled fowl may be used for a fricassee, blanquette, salad, pie,
creamed chicken, croquettes, etc.


                             Roast Chicken.

                1 chicken, weighing four or five pounds.
                2 tablespoonfuls of soft butter.
                Salt, pepper, flour.

                        _Dressing._

                1 pint of grated bread crumbs.
                1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                1 teaspoonful of minced parsley.
                1/4 teaspoonful of powdered thyme.
                1/4      do.        do.    sage.
                1/4      do.        do.   savory.
                1/4      do.        do.  marjoram.
                2 generous tablespoonfuls of butter.

Have all the materials for the dressing mixed together in a bowl,
cutting the butter into small bits. Remember that there is no liquid
used in this dressing. Clean the chicken and stuff the crop and body
with the dressing. Truss the chicken and dredge it with salt. Rub soft
butter over the breast and legs, and dredge thickly with flour. Place a
rack in the dripping-pan, and, after laying the chicken on it, put in
half a pint of hot water. Set the pan in a hot oven and baste the
chicken every fifteen minutes, pouring over it the gravy in the
dripping-pan until every part is well moistened, and then dredging
lightly with salt, pepper, and flour. At the last basting omit the
gravy, and moisten instead with a tablespoonful of butter dissolved in a
tablespoonful of hot water; then dredge lightly with flour. After the
first half-hour the heat of the oven should be reduced. It will take an
hour and a half to cook a chicken weighing four or five pounds. If the
tin kitchen be used, the chicken should be prepared and basted in the
same manner, but it will take fifteen minutes longer to cook it. Serve
on a hot platter with a garnish of parsley.


                             Roast Turkey.

         A turkey weighing eight or nine pounds.
         4 tablespoonfuls of butter.
         Salt, pepper, flour.
         Double the amount of dressing given for roast chicken.

Prepare and cook the turkey the same as directed for roast chicken;
cooking it, however, two hours and a half. It makes a pleasant change to
stuff the crop with a mixture prepared as for sausage cakes. Fill the
rest of the body with the usual dressing.


                             Chicken Gravy.

          1-1/2 pints of cold water.
          1 tablespoonful of butter.
          1 tablespoonful of flour.
          1 teaspoonful of salt.
          1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
          The neck, liver, heart, and gizzard of the chicken.

Wash the giblets—that is, the neck, liver, etc.—and put them in a
stewpan with the water. When the water boils, skim it. Simmer for two
hours or more. There should be about half a pint of liquid at this time.
Take up the giblets. Mash the liver until perfectly fine, and return to
the liquid. Put the butter in a small frying-pan and place on the fire.
When hot, add the flour, and stir until brown. Pour on this, gradually,
the liquid in the saucepan, stirring all the time. Season with the salt
and pepper. Pour this sauce back into the saucepan; cover, and set back
where it will keep hot.

When the chicken is cooked, pour the gravy from the dripping-pan into
this sauce. Serve in a hot dish.

Turkey gravy is made in the same manner.


                      Turkey or Chicken Dressing.

                      1-1/2 pints of stale bread.
                      1 gill of cracker crumbs.
                      1 egg.
                      1 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      1/3 teaspoonful of sage.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of savory.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of marjoram.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of thyme.
                      1/3 cupful of butter.

Soak the bread in cold water until soft; then press out all the water.
Add all the other ingredients to the bread, and mix well. Fill the
breast of the turkey or chicken with this, and put the remainder in the
body of the bird.


                            Breaded Chicken.

                     A young roasting chicken.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                     1 level tablespoonful of salt.
                     1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 gill of dried bread crumbs.

Use a chicken weighing about three or four pounds, and have it split
down the back. Singe and wipe it. Let the tips remain on the wings. Turn
the wings back and skewer them into place. Fasten the neck under the
body. Press the chicken out flat, and press the legs back on the body,
skewering them in this position. Season with the salt and pepper, and
place in a dripping-pan. Rub the soft butter over the breast and legs,
and then sprinkle the crumbs over the chicken. Place the pan in a hot
oven and cook for forty-five minutes. Reduce the heat after the first
fifteen minutes.

Remember that the chicken is put in the bottom of the pan split side
down, and that there is no water or basting of any kind used.

This dish is especially good served with a Tartar sauce, but it is very
good without any sauce whatever.


                             Fried Chicken.

                    1 tender chicken.
                    2 ounces of salt pork.
                    3 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1 generous teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.

Singe the chicken and wipe it with a damp towel. Cut it into handsome
joints. Season it with the salt and pepper, and roll it in the flour.
Cut the pork into thin slices, and fry it slowly until all the fat has
been extracted, then take out the pork. Draw the frying-pan to a hotter
part of the range, and when the fat begins to smoke lay in the slices of
chicken. Fry the chicken brown on all sides. It will take about half an
hour to cook it. When it is done, arrange it on a warm platter. Put the
butter with the fat remaining in the pan, and add all the flour that did
not cling to the chicken, stirring until smooth and frothy. Gradually
add the milk, stirring all the time. When the sauce boils up, taste it,
to learn if it requires more salt and pepper. Pour the sauce over the
chicken and serve. If parsley be liked, add to the sauce half a
teaspoonful, finely minced.


                            Creamed Chicken.

                 1 pint of cold boiled fowl or chicken.
                 1 heaped tablespoonful of butter.
                 2 level tablespoonfuls of flour.
                 1 gill of chicken stock.
                 1-1/2 gills of milk or cream.
                 1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                 A few drops of onion juice.

Have the chicken free from skin, fat, and bones, and cut into long
strips. Season it with half of the salt and pepper. Put the butter in a
frying-pan and set on the fire. When hot, add the flour, and stir until
the mixture is smooth and frothy. Now add the stock, stirring all the
time, and when this boils gradually add the milk. Season the sauce with
the remainder of the salt and pepper, and the onion juice. Put the
chicken in this and simmer for ten minutes.

This dish is suitable for breakfast, luncheon, supper, or dinner.


                            Creamed Turkey.

Prepare and serve cold roast or boiled turkey the same as chicken.


                            Stewed Chicken.

        1 chicken or fowl, weighing about three or four pounds.
        1 tablespoonful of butter.
        1 tablespoonful of minced onion.
        3 tablespoonfuls of flour.
        3 pints of boiling water.
        1 tablespoonful of salt.
        1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.

Singe the chicken and cut it into handsome joints. Wash it, and, putting
it in a stewpan with the water, place it on the fire. When the water
begins to boil, skim carefully, and draw the stewpan back to a place
where the liquid will just bubble at the side. Put the onion and butter
in a small pan and cook gently for twenty minutes. Take the onions from
the butter and add them to the chicken. Add half a tablespoonful of
flour to the butter remaining in the pan, and cook until smooth and
frothy. Add this to the stew. Mix the remainder of the flour smoothly
with a gill of cold water, and stir into the stew. Add the salt and
pepper. Cook gently for three hours. At the end of this time draw the
stewpan to a hotter part of the range, and, after adding some dumplings,
cook just ten minutes after the cover is put on the stewpan.


                              Chicken Pie.

        1-1/2 pints of cooked chicken.
        1 pint of stock.
        2 level tablespoonfuls of flour.
        2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
        1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
        1 teaspoonful of salt.
        Half the materials named in the rule for delicate paste.

Have the chicken free from fat, skin, and bones, and cut it in delicate
pieces. Season it with half the salt and pepper. Put the butter in a
frying-pan and place on the fire. Add the flour to the melted butter,
and stir until smooth and frothy. Gradually add the stock, stirring all
the time. Season with the remainder of the salt and pepper. Stir the
chicken into the sauce, and turn into the dish in which the pie is to be
baked. Set away to cool. When it is time to finish the pie, roll the
paste into the same shape as the top of the dish, but a little larger.
Make a hole in the centre to allow the steam to escape. Cover the meat
with this and bake in a moderately hot oven for one hour.


                      White Fricassee of Chicken.

Make this the same as the filling for chicken pie.


                              Roast Duck.

Singe and wash the duck, and then wipe it. Season it with salt and
pepper, and put half an onion in the body. Truss it, and dredge lightly
with flour. Roast it in a hot oven for half an hour, and serve it with a
hot currant sauce. This time will cook the duck rare, which is the
proper way to cook all kinds of ducks. If, however, you prefer to have
it well done, stuff it, and treat it exactly like roast chicken.


                             Roast Grouse.

                    1 grouse.
                    1 small onion.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of soft butter.
                    1 ounce of fat salt pork.
                    Salt, pepper, flour.

Cut off the neck and wings close to the body. Cut off the feet in the
joints, or just below; see that all the feathers are removed; then draw
the bird and wash quickly in cold water. Peel the onion and cut it into
four parts. Put these into the body of the bird and then truss it.
Season with salt and pepper. Rub the butter over the breast and legs of
the grouse, then dredge thickly with flour. Have the pork cut in thin
slices and lay it over the breast, fastening it with small skewers or
wooden toothpicks. Rest the grouse on its back on a tin plate and place
it in a hot oven. Cook for half an hour, having the oven quite hot the
first fifteen minutes, and then reducing the heat. When the bird is
done, remove the skewers. Pour half a pint of bread sauce on a hot dish,
and place the bird on this, breast up. Sprinkle fried crumbs over the
bird and sauce, and garnish with a few sprays of parsley.


                            Roast Partridge.

Prepare and serve the same as grouse; but as it is white meat it must be
well done. Cook it for forty-five minutes, and baste it every ten
minutes with a gill of hot stock or water, in which have been melted two
tablespoonfuls of butter.


                            Roast Ptarmigan.

Cook and serve this exactly the same as grouse, except that it should be
cooked but twenty minutes, being smaller than grouse.


                          Broiled Small Birds.

All birds that are to be broiled must be split in the back; the necks
must be cut off, the birds wiped, and the legs drawn up over the breast.
This will give a compact form to the bird. Now season with salt. Spread
soft butter over the breast and legs, and then dredge thickly with
flour. Put in the double-broiler and cook over clear coals, having the
buttered and floured side toward the fire at first, that the two
materials may unite and form a paste on the bird. Cook quail or squab
for ten minutes, and smaller birds six or eight. Partridge and grouse
may be cooked in the same way, but the grouse should be cooked for
twenty minutes and the partridge thirty. Serve the small birds on slices
of crisp toast.


                          Fricassee of Rabbit.

                     1 rabbit.
                     4 tablespoonfuls of pork fat.
                     1 pint of water.
                     1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     6 tablespoonfuls of flour.

Have the rabbit skinned and drawn. Wash it, and then cut into joints.
Next season it with the salt and pepper, and roll it in the flour,
covering every part. Put the fat in a frying-pan and set on the fire.
When hot, lay in the rabbit and cook it until brown on all sides. When
the meat is well browned take it up. Into the fat remaining in the pan
put such part of the flour as did not cling to the rabbit, and stir
until brown. Gradually add the cold water, stirring all the time. When
this boils up, taste it to see if it is seasoned enough; then lay the
browned meat in the gravy and simmer gently for half an hour. Serve
boiled rice or boiled hominy with this dish.

If one like the flavor of onions or herbs, a little may be added to the
gravy.


                            Curried Rabbit.

Prepare the rabbit as for fricassee. Add to the gravy one teaspoonful of
onion juice, one heaping teaspoonful of curry-powder, mixed with a
little cold milk or water. Always serve boiled rice with this dish.


                            Broiled Venison.

Have a venison steak cut an inch thick, and cook it the same as
beefsteak. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. Serve currant jelly
with the steak.


                          Venison Steak Sauté.

                   1 pound of venison steak.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 tablespoonful of currant jelly.
                   1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/10 teaspoonful of cayenne.

Have the steak cut an inch thick. Put the butter in the frying-pan and
set it on the fire. When hot, put in the steak. Cook for ten minutes,
turning often. When it has been cooking for five minutes add the jelly
and seasoning. Serve hot.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XI.

                       SAUCES FOR MEAT AND FISH.


                              Brown Sauce.

                  1/2 pint of brown stock.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 tablespoonful of flour, generous.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put the butter in a frying-pan and set on a hot fire. When the butter
becomes hot, add the flour, and stir the mixture until it becomes smooth
and turns dark brown. Draw the pan back to a cool part of the range, and
stir the mixture until it cools slightly. Now gradually add the stock,
stirring all the time. Move the pan back to a hot part of the range, and
stir the sauce until it boils. Add the seasoning, and simmer for three
minutes. It will then be ready to serve.


                          Brown Sauce, No. 2.

                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                     1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                     1-1/2 gills of stock or water.
                     1 bay leaf.
                     1 small slice of onion.
                     1 whole clove.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put the butter in a frying-pan and set on the fire. When it becomes
smoking hot, add the flour, and stir until it turns dark brown. Draw the
pan back, and gradually add the cold stock or water, stirring all the
time. Add the other ingredients, and simmer for ten minutes; then strain
and use. If there be no stock, and water be used, add a teaspoonful of
beef extract.

This sauce may be used with roasted or broiled meats, or when warming up
meats; or it may be served with baked fish.


                            Mushroom Sauce.

Make a brown sauce and add to it half a small can of mushrooms, or four
ounces of fresh ones. If canned mushrooms be used, simmer them for five
minutes, but if fresh ones be used, simmer twice as long. Any large
mushrooms should be cut up.


                              White Sauce.

                    1/2 pint of hot milk.
                    1 large tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 level tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.
                    1 spray of parsley.

Beat the butter to a cream, and then beat the flour with it until light
and creamy. Add the salt, pepper, and onion juice, and beat a little
longer. Pour the hot milk on this. Add the parsley, and place the
saucepan on the range. Stir until the sauce boils. Cook for two minutes;
then remove the parsley, and serve. A slight grating of nutmeg may be
added to this sauce, if the flavor be liked.

This sauce is good to serve with boiled fish and various kinds of meat
and vegetables.


                            Béchamel Sauce.

           1/2 pint of hot white stock.
           1 gill of cream.
           1 heaped tablespoonful of butter.
           1 tablespoonful of flour.
           Piece of onion the size of half a dollar.
           Piece of carrot the size of a quarter of a dollar.
           1 spray of parsley.
           1 bay leaf.
           A tiny bit of mace.
           1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
           1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.

Beat the flour and butter together. Pour the hot stock on the mixture.
Add the seasonings, and place on the fire. Stir the sauce until it
begins to boil; then move the saucepan back to a place where the
contents will just bubble at the side for fifteen minutes. Add the
cream; and when the sauce boils up, strain and serve.


                             Mustard Sauce.

                    1 gill of hot milk.
                    1 large tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 teaspoonful of flour.
                    1 level teaspoonful of mustard.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                    A grain of cayenne.

Beat the butter, flour, and mustard together until smooth and creamy.
Pour the hot milk on this mixture, and place the saucepan on the range.
Stir until the sauce boils. Add the salt and pepper, and serve.

This sauce is nice to serve with broiled lobster, roasted or steamed
clams, and other fish.


                              Cream Sauce.

                      1/2 pint of milk.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put the butter in a pan and set it on the fire. When it becomes hot, add
the flour, and stir until smooth and frothy. Draw the pan back and
gradually add the milk, stirring all the time. Set the pan back in a
hotter place. Add the salt and pepper, and stir the sauce until it
boils; then serve. It will not do to let this sauce simmer or stand for
any length of time.


                             Parsley Sauce.

Put one teaspoonful of minced parsley with the cream sauce. If the sauce
be liked richer, a teaspoonful of butter may be added with the parsley.


                               Egg Sauce.

                  1 hard-boiled egg.
                  2 heaped tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 tablespoonful of flour.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1 scant half-pint of boiling water.

Boil the egg for ten minutes; then drop into cold water, keeping it
there for five minutes. Remove the shell, and with a plated knife chop
the egg rather fine. Put the butter in a small saucepan and beat to a
cream. Beat the flour, salt, and pepper into this, and then pour on the
boiling water. Cook for two minutes, and finally add the chopped egg and
serve. This sauce is suitable for boiled fish.


                             Butter Sauce.

Make this sauce in the same way as directed for egg sauce, omitting the
egg.


                              Caper Sauce.

                    3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                    1/2 pint of water.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of capers.

Set on the fire a small stewpan containing two tablespoonfuls of butter.
When the butter gets hot, add the flour, and stir until the mixture
becomes smooth and frothy, being careful not to brown it. Draw the pan
back and gradually add the water. Stir the sauce until it boils; then
add the salt, pepper, and the remaining tablespoonful of butter. Boil
for one minute; then add the capers, first taking out a few spoonfuls of
the sauce to pour over the mutton.


                              Curry Sauce.

                   1 heaped tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 tablespoonful of curry-powder.
                   1 teaspoonful of minced onion.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/2 pint of milk.
                   1/2 pint of cooked meat.

Put the butter and onion in a frying-pan and set on the fire. Cook
slowly until the onion begins to turn a light straw-color. Now add the
flour and curry-powder, and stir until frothy. Gradually pour in the
milk, stirring all the while. When the sauce boils up, season with the
salt and pepper, and add the half-pint of tender cooked meat, cut very
fine. Chicken or turkey is particularly nice for this dish. Less meat
can be used. Cook three minutes longer and serve with a dish of rice.

The mode of serving at table is to put a spoonful of rice on the plate
and pour a spoonful of sauce over it.


                             Bisque Sauce.

               3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
               1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
               1 teaspoonful of salt.
               1/2 pint of hot stock,—white if possible.
               10 pepper-corns.
               1 gill of strained tomato.
               1 gill of milk.
               1 small slice of onion.
               1 sprig of parsley.

Beat the butter and flour in a saucepan until smooth and light. Pour
upon this mixture the hot stock, stirring all the time. Now add the
salt, pepper-corns, onion, and parsley, and stir until the sauce boils;
then cover, set back, and cook gently for ten minutes. Add the tomato,
and cook for three minutes longer. Finally add the milk, and stir until
it boils. Strain and serve at once.


                           Hollandaise Sauce.

                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                    3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 gill of boiling water.
                    Yolks of two eggs.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/10 teaspoonful of cayenne.

Beat the butter to a cream; then beat in the unbeaten yolks of the eggs.
Add the lemon juice, salt, and pepper. Place the bowl in a pan of
boiling water, and beat the sauce for two minutes. Add the boiling
water, and continue beating until the sauce is thick and light. It will
take about five minutes for this. Serve either in a warm bowl, or poured
around or over the fish, meat, or vegetable.


                             Tomato Sauce.

                      3 gills of canned tomatoes.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1 tablespoonful of flour.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      2 whole cloves.
                      A tiny bit of onion.

Put the tomatoes, onion, cloves, salt, and pepper in a stewpan and set
on the range. Cook for ten minutes after the mixture begins to simmer.
Put the butter in a small pan and set on the fire. When hot add the
flour, and stir until smooth and frothy. Stir this into the tomatoes,
and simmer for four minutes longer. Rub the sauce through a strainer
fine enough to keep back the seeds. Serve hot.


                             Tartar Sauce.

             1/2 gill of olive oil.
             4 teaspoonfuls of vinegar.
             1 level teaspoonful of mustard.
             1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
             1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
             1/4 teaspoonful of onion juice.
             1/2 tablespoonful of minced capers.
             1/2 tablespoonful of minced cucumber pickles.
             1 egg yolk.

Beat the egg, salt, pepper, and mustard together until thick and light;
then add the oil, a few drops at a time, beating after each addition of
oil, until all is used. As the sauce thickens, add a few drops of
vinegar to thin it. When the sauce is smooth and thick, stir in the
minced pickle and capers.

Tartar sauce may be served with many kinds of breaded, fried, and
broiled fish or meat.


                              Mint Sauce.

                       2 tablespoonfuls of mint.
                       1 gill of vinegar.
                       1 tablespoonful of sugar.

Wash the mint and chop it fine. Put it in a dish with the vinegar and
sugar, and let it stand for twenty minutes or longer. If the vinegar be
very strong, half vinegar and half water may be used.


                          Currant Jelly Sauce.

                   1 tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of flour.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1 teaspoonful of vinegar.
                   1 tablespoonful of currant jelly.
                   1 small bay leaf.
                   1 clove.
                   1 teaspoonful of minced onion.
                   1 gill of stock.

Cook the butter and onion together for five minutes. Add the flour, and
stir until smooth and frothy. Gradually add the stock, stirring all the
time. When the sauce boils up, add the other ingredients, and simmer for
five minutes. Strain, and serve hot.

This sauce is for roast venison or mutton.


                         Maître d’Hôtel Butter.

                    2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Beat the butter to a cream; beat the lemon juice into this; then add the
seasoning and parsley.

This butter is not to be cooked. It should be spread on broiled meats or
fish like plain butter. The heat of the food will melt it sufficiently.


                              Bread Sauce.

                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1 generous gill of dried bread.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1/8 of a small onion.

The bread used should be stale, and it should be dried in a warm—not
hot—oven. When it is so dry that it will readily crumble, place it on a
bread board, and with a rolling-pin crush it lightly; for about two
thirds of the bread, when done, should be in the form of coarse crumbs.
Measure out half a cupful of these crumbs, and, putting them in the
flour sieve, rub all the fine crumbs through. Put these fine crumbs in
the double-boiler with the milk and onion. Place on the fire and cook
for half an hour. At the end of that time take out the onion, and add
the salt, white pepper, and half a tablespoonful of butter. Put the
remaining butter in a frying-pan, and set the pan on the stove. When the
butter becomes hot, add the coarse crumbs, and stir them until they are
brown and crisp. Now spread the sauce on a warm dish, and place the bird
or fowl on the same dish. Sprinkle the crumbs over all, and garnish with
a few sprigs of parsley. Serve very hot.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XII.

                                SALADS.


A SALAD should be light, fresh, and crisp; no matter what it is made of,
it should never be “mussy.” Much decoration or handling will produce a
heavy-looking dish.

Celery, lettuce, tomatoes, etc. should be thoroughly chilled before
being combined in a salad. All meats and fish that are to be served in a
salad must be seasoned with salt, pepper, vinegar, and oil before being
combined with the green vegetable and the dressing. It is well to have
this seasoning added several hours before the salad is to be served.


                          Mayonnaise Dressing.

                    1/2 pint of olive oil.
                    1 teaspoonful of mustard.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
                    Yolks of two uncooked eggs.
                    A grain of cayenne.

Put the yolks of the eggs into a bowl, being careful not to let any of
the white go in. Add the dry ingredients to the yolks, and place the
bowl in a flat pan. Put a little cold water and ice in the pan. Beat
these ingredients until light and thick; then begin to add the oil, a
few drops at a time. Beat well between each addition of oil. When the
mixture gets thick and ropy, a larger quantity of oil may be added each
time. When the dressing is so thick that the beater turns hard, add a
few drops of vinegar to thin it. When all the other ingredients have
been used add the lemon juice, and beat for a few minutes longer. This
sauce will keep for three or four weeks, if covered and kept in a cool
place.

The secret of success in making a Mayonnaise dressing is to have
everything cold, to beat the yolks of eggs and dry ingredients until
thick, and at first to add the oil only in drops. It is also essential
that the beating should be regular, and always in one direction.

If a milder flavor of the oil be liked, a gill of whipped cream may be
stirred into the dressing when it is about to be used.


                         Cooked Salad Dressing.

                      1 gill of vinegar.
                      2 eggs.
                      1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of mustard.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1 gill of rich cream.

Beat the eggs well, and stir into them the sugar, salt, and mustard,
which should first be mixed together. Now add the vinegar, and place the
bowl on the range in a saucepan of boiling water. Beat constantly with
an egg-beater until the dressing becomes thick and light. Take from the
fire at once, and turn into a cold bowl to prevent curdling; or the bowl
in which it was cooked may be placed in a pan of ice water, and the
mixture be stirred until cool.

Beat the cream to a thick froth, and stir it into the cold dressing. If
you have no cream stir a tablespoonful of butter into the hot mixture.
When cold, if too thick, add a few tablespoonfuls of milk.


                            French Dressing.

                      3 tablespoonfuls of oil.
                      1 tablespoonful of vinegar.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/10 teaspoonful of pepper.

Mix these ingredients together and the dressing is made. French dressing
is particularly good for lettuce and cooked vegetables.


                             Chicken Salad.

                  1/2 pint of chicken,
                  1 gill of celery, white and tender.
                  1 gill of Mayonnaise dressing.
                  1 tablespoonful of vinegar.
                  1/2 tablespoonful of oil.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.

Have tender cooked chicken, free from fat, skin, and bone, and cut into
cubes. Season it with the vinegar, salt, pepper, and oil, and let it
stand in the refrigerator for an hour or more. Clean the celery and cut
it into thin slices. Put this in a napkin and surround it with ice. It
should stand for ten or twenty minutes in the ice bath, and will then be
crisp.

Mix the celery, seasoned chicken, and half the dressing. Heap in a dish
and mask it with the remainder of the dressing. Garnish the dish with
some of the tiny, bleached celery leaves.

In summer the salad may be made with lettuce. Put two or three tender
bleached leaves together, and place a spoonful of chicken in the centre
of the leaves. Drop a teaspoonful of dressing on the chicken. Arrange
these lettuce nests on a flat dish, and serve at once.


                             Lobster Salad.

Make the same as chicken salad, substituting lobster for chicken and
lettuce for celery.


                              Fish Salads.

Any kind of cold fish may be combined with lettuce and the Mayonnaise
dressing or cooked dressing.

Oysters to be used for a salad should be heated to the boiling point in
their own liquor; then skimmed, drained, seasoned, and thoroughly
chilled before being combined with the celery or lettuce.


                           Vegetable Salads.

Any kinds of vegetables may be used in salads. They may be seasoned with
the French or cooked dressing. A single vegetable may be used, or
several kinds be combined.


                             Lettuce Salad.

Have the lettuce washed clean, and then let it remain for a little time
in ice water to become crisp. Drain well, and dress it with the French,
Mayonnaise, or cooked dressing. Serve at once.

If you prefer, the lettuce may be served plain, each one dressing it to
please himself.


                       Tomato and Lettuce Salad.

                    1-1/2 pints of canned tomatoes.
                    1/2 box of gelatine.
                    1 gill of cold water.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 head of lettuce.
                    1/2 pint of Mayonnaise dressing.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours. Heat the tomatoes to
the boiling point, and stir the gelatine, sugar, and salt into the
vegetable. Turn this mixture into a mould, and set away to harden. Have
the lettuce washed and chilled. Arrange it in a flat dish, and turn the
mould of tomatoes out upon it. Heap the dressing at the base of the
mould. This salad may be made in winter when it is impossible to get the
fresh tomatoes.


                              Beet Salad.

Cold boiled beets may be cut into thin slices, and the slices into small
pieces; or the beets may be cut into small cubes. Season with Mayonnaise
sauce or the cooked salad dressing, and serve.


                             Potato Salad.

    1 pint of potato cubes.
    1/2 pint of celery.
    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
    1/10 teaspoonful of pepper.
    1 tablespoonful of vinegar.
    1 tablespoonful of oil.
    1 tablespoonful minced chives, or 1 teaspoonful of onion juice.
    1 gill of cooked dressing.

Have the potatoes cut into cubes. Mix the oil, vinegar, salt, pepper,
and onion juice together, and sprinkle over the potatoes. Stir lightly
with a fork and set away in a cold place for several hours. At serving
time add the celery and dressing, stirring lightly with a fork. Turn
into a deep dish, and garnish with celery leaves or parsley.


                          Potato Salad, No. 2.

             1 pint of potato cubes.
             1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
             1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
             1 teaspoonful of minced onion.
             1 gill of cooked dressing, or the quantity of
               French dressing made by the rule given.

Mix the seasonings and dressing with the potato cubes. Turn into a dish,
and garnish with parsley. Let the salad stand for an hour or more before
serving, that the seasonings may strike through the potatoes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XIII.

                              VEGETABLES.


ALL vegetables should be put in boiling water when set on the stove to
cook. Peas, asparagus, potatoes, and all delicately flavored vegetables
should be only covered with water, but those with a strong flavor, like
carrots, turnips, cabbage, onions, and dandelions, should be cooked in a
generous quantity of boiling water. All green vegetables should be
cooked with the cover partially off the stewpan. It gives them a better
color and a more delicate flavor.

The average housekeeper is careless as to the time of cooking
vegetables, yet a vegetable is as much injured by too much or too little
cooking as is a loaf of bread or cake. When vegetables are underdone
they are hard and indigestible, and when overdone they become dark,
strong-flavored, and indigestible.

Now, although a potato will be hard if not cooked enough, even two
minutes’ cooking after the proper time will injure it. If potatoes be
covered with boiling water and placed on the fire they will cook in
thirty minutes. If they be very small, they may get done in twenty-eight
minutes, and if they be large it may take thirty-two to cook them
sufficiently. They should be kept boiling all the time after they once
begin, but not at a furious rate, as a too rapid boiling breaks the
surface of the potato before the centre is cooked. The time of cooking
is to be counted from the moment the boiling water is poured over the
potatoes. When the potatoes are done, the water should be poured off and
the steam allowed to escape. Should it be necessary to keep them warm
after that, cover them with a coarse towel, never with the pot cover;
for if the steam does not have a chance to escape it will be absorbed by
the potatoes, which will become sodden, dark, and strong-flavored. Baked
potatoes take about forty-five minutes for cooking. A great deal depends
upon the oven. If it be necessary to keep a baked potato warm, break it
open, wrap it in a towel and put it in a warm place.

Now, as to turnips. The small white ones should be boiled, if cut in
thin slices, for thirty minutes, but if they be cooked whole, forty
minutes’ time will be needed. Yellow turnips, when sliced, need
forty-five minutes’ cooking.

Carrots should be cooked for forty-five or fifty minutes; cauliflower,
only thirty minutes; with peas and asparagus much depends upon the state
of freshness and tenderness when picked, and the time varies from twenty
to thirty-five minutes; indeed, peas sometimes require fifty minutes’
cooking.

It is a pity that it is the fashion to serve such vegetables as peas and
asparagus in a sauce. They have so delicate a flavor that only a little
salt and good butter should be added to them. This is true, also, of
turnips. Cauliflower, onions, and carrots, however, need a sauce.


                            Boiled Potatoes.

Pare five or six potatoes and let them stand in cold water for an hour
or more. Forty minutes before dinner time put them in a kettle and pour
boiling water over them,—enough to cover. Put the cover on the kettle
and cook the vegetables for half an hour, counting from the moment the
water is poured over them. When they have been cooking for fifteen
minutes, add one teaspoonful of salt. At the end of the half-hour pour
off all the water and set the pan on the back part of the range. Cover
the potatoes with a clean, coarse towel. At serving time put the
potatoes in a hot dish, and cover with a napkin. Never put the china
cover on the dish. Cooked in the way described, the potatoes will be
mealy and have a fine flavor.


                            Stewed Potatoes.

                    1 quart of sliced raw potatoes.
                    2 ounces of fat bacon.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 gill of water.

Have the potatoes and bacon sliced thin. Spread half the meat on the
bottom of a round baking dish. Put half of the potatoes into the dish
and sprinkle half of the seasoning over them; then spread in the other
half, and use the remainder of the seasonings. Mix the water with the
flour, and pour this into the dish. Now spread the remainder of the
bacon on top of the potatoes. Cover the dish closely, and, putting into
a moderately hot oven, cook for forty-five minutes. At the end of that
time take off the cover and bake twenty minutes longer. The bacon should
become crisp and brown at the end of that time. Serve in the dish in
which it is cooked.


                        Stewed Potatoes, No. 2.

                 1 quart of raw potatoes, cut in cubes.
                 2 ounces of fat salt pork.
                 1 tablespoonful of flour.
                 1 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                 1 pint of water.

Pare and cut into cubes enough potatoes to make a quart, and let them
stand in cold water for one hour. Cut the pork into thin slices, and fry
slowly until crisp and brown; then take from the pan. Add the flour to
the hot fat, and stir until smooth and brown; then gradually add the
water, and boil for three minutes. Season with the salt and pepper.
Drain the potato cubes free from water, and, after putting them in a
stewpan, pour the sauce over them and lay the slices of pork on top.
Cover the stewpan and place where the contents will just bubble for
forty-five minutes; then turn into a warm dish and serve.


                          Potatoes au Gratin.

                1/2 pint of cooked potato cubes.
                1 gill of white stock.
                1/2 gill of milk.
                1 teaspoonful of flour.
                1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of butter.
                3/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                3 tablespoonfuls of grated bread crumbs.

Have cold boiled potatoes cut into small regular cubes. Season them with
half the pepper and salt. Put one teaspoonful of the butter in a small
frying-pan and set on the fire. When hot, add the flour, and stir until
smooth and frothy; then gradually add the stock. When this boils, add
the milk and the remainder of the salt and pepper, and boil up once. Put
a layer of this sauce in a small escalop dish; then put the potatoes in
the dish and pour the remainder of the sauce over them. Sprinkle the
grated bread crumbs over this, and dot with the half-teaspoonful of
butter. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. A few drops of onion
juice and one fourth of a teaspoonful of chopped parsley may be added to
the sauce, if these flavors be liked.


                            Hashed Potatoes.

                 1 pint of sliced cold boiled potatoes.
                 1 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.

Season the potatoes with the salt and pepper. Put the butter in the
frying-pan and set on the fire. When hot, add the potatoes. Stir and cut
the potatoes with a case knife until they are hashed fine and have
become hot and slightly browned. Serve in a hot dish.

Ham, sausage, or pork fat may be substituted for the butter.


                          Nichewaug Potatoes.

                     1 pint of potato cubes.
                     1 tablespoonful of minced ham.
                     1 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 tablespoonful of fat.

Season the potato cubes with the salt and pepper. Put a tablespoonful of
ham, bacon, pork, or sausage fat in the frying-pan, and set on the fire.
When hot, put in the potatoes and stir frequently with a fork until they
become brown. When the potatoes are done, turn them into a hot dish and
sprinkle a tablespoonful of finely chopped cooked ham over them. Serve
very hot.


                          Lyonnaise Potatoes.

                 1 pint of cold boiled potato cubes.
                 1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                 1/8 of a teaspoonful of pepper.
                 1 level tablespoonful of butter.
                 1 teaspoonful of finely-minced onion.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Season the potatoes with the salt and pepper. Put the butter and onion
in the frying-pan, and cook slowly until the onion begins to turn a
delicate straw-color. Now add the potatoes, and cook over a hot fire for
five minutes, stirring with a fork. Add the parsley, and cook for one
minute longer. Serve very hot.


                             Potato Cakes.

Shape cold mashed potatoes into round, flat cakes. For six cakes put one
tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan, and place on the fire. When the
butter is hot, put in the potato cakes and cook until brown on both
sides. A tablespoonful of either pork, ham, or sausage fat may be used
instead of the butter.


                           Potato Croquettes.

                     3 potatoes of good size.
                     4 tablespoonfuls of hot milk.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 egg.
                     Bread crumbs.

Boil the potatoes for thirty minutes; then drain them and mash fine and
light. Beat in the seasoning, milk, and butter. Let the mixture cool
slightly; then roll into cylinders or balls. Beat the egg in a soup
plate. Coat the croquettes, one at a time, with the egg, then roll in
dried bread crumbs. When all are done, fry in hot fat until they are
brown,—about a minute and a half. Drain on brown paper and serve at
once.


                         Boiled Sweet Potatoes.

Potatoes of medium size should be cooked for one hour; very large ones
should be boiled for an hour and a half, or be cut into several parts.


                         Baked Sweet Potatoes.

Wash the potatoes and bake from an hour to an hour and a quarter in a
moderately hot oven. The longer they bake, the sweeter and moister they
will be.


                        Browned Sweet Potatoes.

Boil for half an hour three potatoes of medium size. On taking them from
the water pare them. Now cut them in two, lengthwise, and lay them in
the pan under a piece of roasting meat. Season them with salt, and let
them cook for half an hour. Serve in a hot dish.

Or, the potatoes may be boiled for three quarters of an hour, paired and
split, then laid in a baking pan, seasoned with salt, and finally spread
with soft butter. It will take one tablespoonful of butter for three
potatoes. Bake in a hot oven for twenty minutes or half an hour.


                      Warming over Sweet Potatoes.

Cold boiled sweet potatoes may be warmed in several ways. Cut them in
halves, season with salt, and put in the frying-basket. Fry in deep fat
for five minutes; then season with salt and serve.

Another way is to cut them in thick slices lengthwise, dip them in
melted butter, season with salt and pepper, dredge lightly with flour,
and broil over clear coals. Serve on a hot dish.

Still another mode is to cut them in round slices, season with salt and
pepper, and fry in pork or bacon fat.


                             Boiled Onions.

Put the onions in a saucepan with plenty of boiling water and cook for
one hour. If milk be plentiful, pour off the water when the onions have
been cooking for half an hour, and add just enough hot milk to cover
them. Simmer for half an hour longer; then season with salt, pepper, and
butter, and serve.

For half a dozen small onions use one tablespoonful of butter, one
teaspoonful of salt, and one fourth of a teaspoonful of pepper.


                            Creamed Onions.

Boil three or four onions for one hour in two quarts of boiling water
into which one teaspoonful of salt has been sprinkled. Pour off the
water and cut up the onions. Put them in a hot dish and pour half a pint
of cream sauce over them. Serve hot.


                           Onions au Gratin.

Prepare the creamed onions and put them in an escalop dish. Cover them
with a gill of grated bread crumbs and dot with a teaspoonful of butter.
Bake for twenty minutes in a quick oven.


                            Sliced Tomatoes.

Select smooth, ripe tomatoes. Drop them into boiling water for one
minute, then into cold water. This will make the skin come off easily.
Put them on a plate and in a cool place,—on the ice if possible. At
serving time cut them in slices and place on a cold dish.


                            Stewed Tomatoes.

                    1 pint of canned tomatoes.
                    1/2 gill of fine cracker crumbs.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1/2 tablespoonful of sugar.
                    1/2 tablespoonful of butter.

Put all the ingredients, except the butter, in a stewpan, and cook for
twenty minutes. Add the butter, and cook for ten minutes longer.

One pint of fresh tomatoes may be cooked in the same manner. The
crackers may be omitted. Long cooking makes the tomatoes thicker and
dark, but for most tastes this is not desirable.


                          Tomatoes au Gratin.

                1 pint of stewed tomatoes.
                1 gill of dried bread crumbs.
                3 tablespoonfuls of grated bread crumbs.
                1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                1/6 teaspoonful of pepper.
                1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of butter.

Reserve the grated bread crumbs and half a teaspoonful of the butter.
Mix all the other ingredients together and turn into a small baking
dish. Sprinkle the grated bread crumbs over this. Cut the butter into
small bits, and sprinkle over the crumbs. Bake in a moderately hot oven
for half an hour, and serve hot.


                                 Beets.

Beets, when young and fresh, will cook in forty minutes, but as they
grow larger they require longer cooking. The time has to be increased as
the season advances, and in winter beets require from two to three
hours’ boiling. Wash them in cold water, being careful not to break the
skin or little tendrils. Put them in boiling water and cook until
done,—the time depending upon the season. Lay them in cold water and rub
off the skin; then slice them into a hot dish, and season with salt and
butter. Serve hot.


                            Boiled Turnips.

                    1 quart of white turnip cubes.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 level tablespoonful of sugar.
                    1 heaped teaspoonful of salt.

Pare and cut up enough of the small flat white turnips to make one
quart. Let them stand in cold water for an hour or more. Pour off all
the water and turn the turnips into a stewpan containing two quarts of
boiling water. Cook for just thirty minutes and then pour off all the
water. Put into the saucepan with the turnips, butter, sugar, salt, and
one gill of boiling water. Place the saucepan on the hottest part of the
fire and cook the turnips rapidly until all the liquid has been
absorbed, shaking the pan frequently to prevent the turnips from
burning. Turn into a hot dish and serve.


                            Mashed Turnips.

Pare one yellow turnip or six white ones and cut in slices. Put in a
large stewpan with a generous supply of boiling water. If white turnips
be used, cook them for half an hour; but if the yellow kind be taken,
cook for fifty or sixty minutes. Too little water and too much cooking
will make any turnips’ strong-flavored, and give them a dark color. When
the turnips are done, drain off all the water and mash them well. Season
with salt, pepper, and butter.


                            Boiled Carrots.

Scrape and cut into cubes enough raw carrots to make a quart. Cook them
for one hour in three quarts of boiling water, and then proceed as
directed in the rule for boiled turnips. White stock may be substituted
for the gill of boiling water.

Turnips, carrots, and green peas, cooked in this manner, and then mixed
together, make a handsome and savory dish.

Success in cooking these vegetables depends upon their being boiled in
plenty of water, and for only the time mentioned; also in cooking very
rapidly after the seasonings are added.


                               Parsnips.

Scrape and slice the parsnips, and let them stand in cold water for an
hour or more. Drain them and put them in a stewpan with plenty of
boiling water. Cook them, if fresh, for forty-five minutes; but if they
have been out of the ground any length of time they will require an
hour’s cooking.

When they have been boiling for half an hour, add a teaspoonful of salt
for about a pint of the parsnips. Drain, and season them with salt and
butter; or, pour a butter or Béchamel sauce over them.


                                Salsify.

Cook this vegetable the same as parsnips.


                          Boiled Cauliflower.

                  1 cauliflower of medium size.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of salt.
                  1/2 pint of cream or Béchamel sauce.

Remove the leaves from the cauliflower, and place it head downward in a
pan of cold water, to which add one tablespoonful of salt. Let it stand
in a cold place an hour or more. Have about three quarts of boiling
water in a stewpan and put the cauliflower into it head down. Cover, and
cook gently for thirty minutes. At the end of this time drain the
cauliflower and put it in a deep dish. Dredge lightly with salt, and
pour the sauce over it.


                         Cauliflower au Gratin.

                  3 gills of cold boiled cauliflower.
                  1/2 pint of cream sauce.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                  1 teaspoonful of butter.
                  1 gill of grated bread crumbs.

With a fork, break the cauliflower into small pieces; then sprinkle the
salt and pepper over it. Put a layer of sauce in a small escalop dish,
next a layer of cauliflower, then a second layer of sauce, then
cauliflower, and finish with sauce. Cover this with the bread crumbs and
dot with the butter. Bake in a moderately hot oven for twenty minutes.


                              Green Corn.

The fresher the corn is, the less time it will take to cook. It should
be freed from husks and the silk threads. Have a large saucepan nearly
full of boiling water. Drop the corn into this, and cook for ten
minutes. Serve in a napkin.


                              Canned Corn.

                       1 can of corn.
                       1 gill of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.

Put all the ingredients in the double-boiler, and heat to the boiling
point; it will take about ten minutes. Serve at once. Too much cooking
spoils this dish.


                             Corn Oysters.

                     1/2 pint of grated green corn.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of milk.
                     1 gill of flour.
                     1 egg.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.

Mix the flour, seasoning, and corn together. Add the butter, melted, and
beat well. Beat the egg till light, and add to the mixture. Fry on a
griddle, in cakes a little larger than a silver dollar. Serve with the
meat course at breakfast.


                             String Beans.

String the beans and then break them into pieces about an inch long.
Wash them, and let them stand in cold water for an hour or more. Cook
them in plenty of boiling water for two hours. When they have been
cooking for one hour add one teaspoonful of salt for each quart of
beans. When done, pour off all the water and add to the beans one
tablespoonful of butter and four tablespoonfuls of boiling water. If not
salt enough, add a little more seasoning. Return to the fire for three
minutes; then serve.


                             Butter Beans.

These are cooked the same as string beans.


                           Fresh Lima Beans.

                      1 pint of shelled beans.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1 level teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the beans and let them stand in cold water for an hour or more. On
draining off the cold water, put them on to boil in three pints of
boiling water. Cook for one hour; then drain off nearly all the water
and add the seasonings. Serve hot.


                           Dried Lima Beans.

                      1/2 pint of beans.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1 level teaspoonful of salt.

Put the beans to soak over night in one quart of cold water. Two hours
before dinner time pour off the water, and, putting the beans in a
stewpan with a quart of boiling water, let them simmer gently for an
hour and fifty minutes. At the end of that time pour off the water, and
add the salt and butter and a gill of boiling water. Let them stand in
the saucepan on the back part of the stove until serving time.


                        Dried Lima Beans, No. 2.

                      1/2 pint of beans.
                      1/2 pint of milk.
                      1 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/2 tablespoonful of butter.

Soak and cook the beans as in the recipe just given; then drain off all
the water, and add the seasoning and milk, having the latter hot. Simmer
for ten minutes and serve.


             Succotash of Dried Lima Beans and Canned Corn.

                    1/2 pint of dried Lima beans.
                    1/2 can of sweet corn.
                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    1 generous teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.

Soak the beans over night, and then cook them in one quart of clear
water for an hour and fifty minutes. Pour off the water, and, after
adding the seasoning, milk, and corn, cook for three minutes after the
mixture begins to boil. Serve very hot.


                         Shelled Kidney Beans.

Prepare the same as fresh Lima beans, but cook for one hour and a half.


                              Baked Beans.

                     1 pint of small white beans.
                     1/2 pound of salt pork.
                     1 teaspoonful of mustard.
                     1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                     1 teaspoonful of molasses.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 small onion.
                     1 level tablespoonful of salt.

Pick the beans free from stones and dirt. Wash them, and let them soak
over night in three quarts of cold water. In the morning pour off the
water and wash the beans in fresh water; then put them in a stewpan with
cold water enough to cover them generously, and place on the fire.

Have the pork mixed lean and fat. Score the rind. Put the pork in the
stewpan with the beans, and simmer until the beans begin to crack
open,—not a minute longer. Drain all the water from them and rinse with
cold water. Put the onion in the bottom of the bean pot. Put about half
the beans in the pot, then put in the pork, having the scored side up.
Next put in the remainder of the beans. Mix the mustard, salt, pepper,
sugar, and molasses with a pint of boiling water and pour over the
beans. Add just enough boiling water to cover the beans. Cover the pot
and place in a slow oven. Bake for ten hours or more, adding boiling
water whenever the beans look dry. The oven must never be hot enough to
make the water on the beans bubble, and there should never be more water
in the pot than will barely come to the top of the beans.

An earthen pot should be used in baking beans. The onion and molasses
may be omitted.


                              Green Peas.

The time of cooking green peas depends upon the age and the length of
time they have been picked. If they be young and freshly picked, they
will cook in twenty minutes; but it may take forty or fifty if they have
matured too much, or have been picked for a day or more. They should not
be shelled many hours before they are cooked. Wash the pea pods and
drain them, then shell them. Put them in a stewpan with just enough
boiling water to cover them, and cook until tender. They must not boil
rapidly, and as soon as they begin to boil the cover of the stewpan
should be drawn a little to one side. Pour off a part of the water, and
to every pint of peas add one tablespoonful of butter and half a
teaspoonful of salt.


                              Canned Peas.

                    1 can of peas.
                    1 heaped teaspoonful of butter.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1 gill of hot water.

Turn the peas into a strainer, and pour cold water over them until they
are thoroughly rinsed. Put them in a saucepan with the other
ingredients, and simmer for ten minutes.


                          Asparagus on Toast.

                       1 bunch of asparagus.
                       3 slices of toast.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1 tablespoonful of salt.

Cut off the tough white ends of a bunch of asparagus. Now cut the string
that ties the bundles together, and put the asparagus in a colander. Let
cold water run on it until it is perfectly free from sand. Tie again in
a bundle, and put it in a stewpan with one tablespoonful of salt and
enough boiling water to cover it. Cook gently for half an hour. Toast
three slices of bread, and dip the edges in the water in which the
asparagus was cooked. Arrange these on a warm platter, and spread the
asparagus upon them. Now season the green part of the vegetable with the
tablespoonful of butter, and serve.

The toast may be buttered also, if one like to have it rich.

Asparagus should be placed with the cut end in a little cold water until
it is time to cook it.


                      Asparagus with Cream Sauce.

                      1 quart of asparagus.
                      3 gills of milk.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
                      2 teaspoonfuls of salt.

Cut up enough of the tender ends of asparagus to make one quart. Put
these in the colander, and let cold water run on them until every
particle of sand is removed. Put them in a saucepan with one quart of
boiling water and one teaspoonful of salt, and cook gently for half an
hour; then drain, and, after putting in a warm vegetable dish, pour the
cream sauce over them.

To make the sauce, put the butter on the fire, in a pan, and when it is
melted add the flour. Stir until smooth and frothy; then gradually add
the milk, stirring all the while. Season with a scant teaspoonful of
salt, and boil up once.

If you prefer, the asparagus may be seasoned with salt and butter, using
a generous tablespoonful of butter and half a teaspoonful of salt;
moistening with a gill of the water in which it is boiled.


                                Spinach.

                  1/2 peck of spinach.
                  1 generous tablespoonful of butter.
                  1 level tablespoonful of salt.

Pick over the spinach, removing all the roots and brown leaves. Have two
pans filled with cold water. Put the spinach in one pan and wash it, a
few leaves at a time, dropping it into the second pan of water. When all
is done, turn the water from the first pan, which should at once be
rinsed and filled again with clean water. Continue washing the spinach
in this way until there is not a grain of sand left in it. This you
learn by passing the hand over the bottom of the pan. Put the cleaned
spinach in a stewpan with a pint of boiling water and the salt, and cook
for half an hour. Turn into the colander and cut with a knife. Put into
a hot vegetable dish and add the butter.


                                Greens.

Greens of all kinds are cooked in about the same way that spinach is,
but they all require boiling water enough to cover them, and most of
them require a much longer time to boil.

A small piece of salt pork or smoked bacon, or a shank of ham, is often
boiled in the water for two or more hours before the greens are put in
to cook. This meat is served with the greens, which require no seasoning
except salt.


                            Hashed Cabbage.

                      1 small head of cabbage.
                      1 tablespoonful of salt.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.

Take all the green and broken leaves from a small head of cabbage. Then
divide the cabbage into eight parts, cutting from the top down to the
stalk. Wash it and let it stand in cold water for an hour or more. Put
it in a large kettle of boiling water and boil rapidly for forty-five
minutes. The kettle must not be covered. When the cabbage is done,
drain, and put in a chopping bowl. Mince rather fine and season with the
salt and butter. If the cabbage be fresh from the garden, half an hour’s
cooking will be sufficient.


                            Creamed Cabbage.

                 1 quart of raw white cabbage, sliced.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.
                 1 teaspoonful of flour.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 gill of milk.

Let the cabbage stand in cold water for an hour or more; then drain off
the water and put the cabbage in a stewpan with two quarts of boiling
water. Cover, and cook for ten minutes. At the end of that time pour off
the water and put in two quarts of fresh boiling water. Cook rapidly,
with the cover off, for about three quarters of an hour. When that time
has passed, put the cabbage in a colander and press out all the water;
then cut it with a sharp knife. Put the butter in a frying-pan and set
on the range. When it becomes hot, add the cabbage, as well as the salt
and pepper. Cook for five minutes, stirring all the time; then cover,
and set back where it will cook gently for ten minutes. Mix the milk
with the flour, and pour the mixture over the cabbage. Stir gently, and
again cover the pan. Cook for ten minutes more and serve.


                             Baked Cabbage.

                  1 pint of boiled and hashed cabbage.
                  2 ounces of salt pork.
                  1 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Boil and hash the cabbage, as directed for hashed cabbage. Sprinkle with
the salt and pepper, and mix lightly with a fork. Turn into a baking
dish and spread over it the pork cut in thin slices. Bake for half an
hour in a moderate oven. Serve in the dish in which it is cooked.


                             Fried Cabbage.

             1 quart of boiled cabbage.
             3 tablespoonfuls of butter or beef drippings.
             1 teaspoonful of salt.
             1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Boil the cabbage as for hashed cabbage, and mince rather fine. Add the
seasoning. Put the butter or drippings in a frying-pan and set on the
fire. As soon as the butter is melted, put in the cabbage and cook one
hour, stirring often, and having the pan covered. Serve very hot.


                                Squash.

Pare the squash and remove the seeds and the stringy substance from the
inside. Cut it into small pieces, and place in a stewpan with enough
boiling water to cover it. Cook for thirty-five minutes; then drain off
the water, and mash fine. Season with salt, pepper, and butter. For a
pint of mashed squash use a teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of
butter. Serve very hot.

The squash may be steamed instead of boiled; in which case cook it for
fifty minutes.


                             Summer Squash.

Get a tender fresh squash. If the rind be very tender do not pare it.
Cut up the squash and steam for one hour; then rub it through a colander
into a saucepan. Place the saucepan on the fire, and to each pint of the
strained squash add one tablespoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of
salt. Cook for five minutes, and serve hot.


                            Fried Egg Plant.

                         1 small egg plant.
                         1 egg.
                         1 teaspoonful of salt.
                         Dry crumbs.
                         Fat for frying.

Pare the egg plant and cut it in slices about half an inch thick. Season
with the salt. Beat the egg in a soup plate, and dip a slice of egg
plant in it, covering every part of it; then dip the slice in fine dry
crumbs. Continue this until all the egg plant is breaded. Have the
frying fat three or four inches deep, and when it is so hot that blue
smoke rises from the centre put two slices of the vegetable in, and cook
for about three minutes. Take up and drain on brown paper; then serve.


                            Boiled Macaroni.

Macaroni varies as to the time it will take to cook. Half an hour is the
usual time, but it often requires forty-five minutes. Break it into
pieces two or three inches long, and drop it into a saucepan of boiling
water. Boil rapidly until tender, having the saucepan uncovered. When it
has been cooking for fifteen minutes, add a teaspoonful of salt for
every two ounces of macaroni. When done turn it into a colander to
drain; then put it into a hot dish, and pour half a pint of sauce over
it. The sauce may be cream, Béchamel, tomato, or brown sauce. A little
grated cheese may be added to the cream sauce, if that be the kind used.
Serve at once.


                         Macaroni with Cheese.

                        2 ounces of macaroni.
                        1/2 pint of cream sauce.
                        1 teaspoonful of salt.
                        1 gill of grated cheese.

Boil and drain the macaroni. Add the sauce to it, and put into an
escalop dish. Cover with the cheese, and bake for half an hour.


                             Baked Hominy.

                    1 gill of fine breakfast hominy.
                    1 pint of boiling water.
                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1 egg.
                    1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 teaspoonful of butter.

Wash the hominy in three waters, and stir it into the boiling water,
into which the salt should be sprinkled. Boil gently for one hour,
having the cover on the stewpan, and stirring often. Now add the butter,
cold milk, and the egg, well beaten, and bake in a moderate oven for one
hour. Three gills of cold boiled hominy may be substituted for the fresh
article.

This is to be served with meat or eggs for breakfast, luncheon, or
dinner.


                              Boiled Rice.

                       1 gill of rice.
                       3 pints of boiling water.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the rice by putting it in cold water and rubbing it hard between
the hands. Do this three times. Drain off all the water, and put the
rice in a large stewpan with the boiling water. Place it where it will
boil all the time with the stewpan uncovered. When it has been cooking
for fifteen minutes add the salt; but do not stir it, for rice is
spoiled if stirred during the cooking. When it has boiled for
twenty-five minutes, turn it into a colander and drain off all the
water. Place the colander on a plate, and set it on the hearth or the
back part of the range. Cover the rice with a coarse towel. In this way
it can be kept hot and dry for a long time.


                              Baked Rice.

                        1/2 pint of boiled rice.
                        1/2 pint of milk.
                        1 teaspoonful of salt.
                        1 teaspoonful of butter.
                        1 egg.

Add the egg, well beaten, to all the other ingredients, and bake slowly
for half an hour.


                            Rice Croquettes.

                   1/2 pint of boiled rice.
                   1 gill of milk.
                   2 eggs.
                   1 tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   The grated yellow rind of a lemon.
                   Bread crumbs.

Put the milk, rice, butter, and seasoning on to boil. Beat one egg till
light, and stir it into the boiling mixture. Cook for one minute,
stirring all the time. Turn the mixture out on a plate, and set away to
cool. When cold shape into small cylinders. Beat the second egg in a
soup plate. Cover the croquettes, one at a time, with the beaten egg,
then roll in dried bread crumbs. Fry in deep fat for one minute and a
half. Drain on brown paper, and serve at once.


                            Vegetable Hash.

                  1 pint of hashed cabbage,
                  1 pint of hashed potatoes.
                  1/2 pint of hashed turnips.
                  1/2 pint of hashed beets.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of corned beef fat.

When the above-named vegetables, or any other kinds, such as parsnips
and carrots, are left over from a boiled dinner, chop them separately
and rather coarse. Season them with salt and pepper, the amount
depending upon how well the vegetables were seasoned when served hot.
Mix them together. Put the corned beef fat in a frying-pan and set on
the fire, and when it is melted add the vegetables and cover the pan.
Place on a moderately hot part of the range, and cook for half an hour,
stirring frequently with a fork.

Just before serving draw the pan forward to a hotter part of the fire,
and stir for three minutes. Serve very hot.

Two tablespoonfuls of butter may be used instead of the beef fat.


                                Celery.

Celery should be kept in a cool place, but it must not be wrapped in wet
paper or kept in water. Break the blades from the stalks, and scrape off
any brown spots that may be found; next wash the celery, and let it
stand in ice-water for ten or twenty minutes to become crisp. Put it in
a celery dish with some bits of ice, and serve at once.


                       How to Keep Lettuce Crisp.

Lettuce can be kept crisp and fresh for several days, if necessary, by
placing the roots in water. Do not let the water come up as high as the
leaves. When ready to serve the lettuce, wash it leaf by leaf in a pan
of cold water, and drop it into another pan of ice-water. It will become
crisp in a few minutes. Shake the water from the leaves before serving.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XIV.

                         MISCELLANEOUS DISHES.


                              Boiled Eggs.

THE white and yolk should be equally well cooked in a boiled egg, the
white being soft and creamy. Put the eggs in a deep saucepan, and pour
over them a generous amount of boiling water,—one quart or more of water
for four eggs. Cover the saucepan, and set on a part of the range where
it is so cool that the hand can rest on it comfortably. At the end of
ten minutes the eggs will be cooked to a soft creamy consistency. If the
eggs be liked medium well done, cook for five minutes longer; if to be
hard, they may remain in the water for twenty minutes.


                             Poached Eggs.

Put in a frying-pan boiling water to the depth of two or three inches.
To each pint of water add a teaspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of
vinegar. Have the water just bubbling at one side of the pan. Break an
egg close to the pan, and drop it gently into the water. Continue
putting in eggs until you have the required number. When the white of
the egg is set, slide a cake-turner under the egg, and lift it from the
water. Slide it upon a slice of buttered toast.

In most parts of New England eggs cooked in this way are called dropped.

Muffin rings may be placed in the pan of water, and the eggs be dropped
into them. This gives a better shape. There are several inventions in
the market by the use of which eggs can be poached easily and
successfully.


                              Fried Eggs.

These are usually served with ham, but they may be served separately.
Put into a pan any kind of clean sweet fat; ham or bacon fat is
generally considered as the best. Have the fat about a quarter of an
inch deep in the pan. Break the eggs separately, and slide them gently,
one at a time, into the hot fat. With a long spoon dip up the fat and
pour over the eggs. As soon as the whites are set, slide a cake-turner
under the eggs and place them on a warm dish. They may be arranged on
slices of ham, or the ham may be put in the centre of the dish, and the
eggs arranged around it.


                            Scrambled Eggs.

                       4 eggs.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/6 teaspoonful of salt.

Beat the eggs with a spoon. Add the salt. Put the butter on the fire, in
a frying-pan, and when hot stir in the eggs. Continue stirring until the
eggs begin to set. Instantly turn them into a warm dish and serve.


                            Eggs au Gratin.

                   4 eggs.
                   1/2 pint of grated bread crumbs,
                   1 teaspoonful of Parmesan cheese.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/10 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   3 generous teaspoonfuls of butter.

Mix the salt, pepper, cheese, and butter with the crumbs. Beat the white
of one egg to a stiff froth; then add the yolk and beat for a moment
longer. Stir this egg mixture into the other ingredients.

[Illustration: GRATIN DISH.]

Butter a gratin dish—or a small pie plate will do—and make little nests
in it with the preparation. Cook in rather a hot oven for ten minutes.
Take from the oven, and then break a fresh egg into each nest. Return to
the oven and cook for three minutes longer. If there be objection to
cheese, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a few drops of onion juice
may be substituted for it.


                              Baked Eggs.

Butter a gratin dish, or a deep pie plate, and break the required number
of eggs into it. Put the plate in a moderate oven, and cook until the
white is set. It will take from five to eight minutes to bake the eggs.

Pretty round and oval dishes come for this purpose. They are made of
French china, and are fireproof.


                             Breaded Eggs.

                    5 eggs.
                    1/2 pint of dried bread crumbs.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/5 teaspoonful of pepper.
                    Fat for frying.
                    1/2 pint of bisque sauce.

Boil four of the eggs for ten minutes. Drop them into cold water and
remove the shells. Cut the eggs in halves, lengthwise, and season them
with the salt and pepper. Beat the uncooked egg in a soup plate. Dip the
halves of eggs in this, and then roll in the bread crumbs. At serving
time put the breaded eggs in the frying basket, and plunge into hot fat.
Cook for about two minutes; then drain, and serve on a hot dish with the
bisque sauce poured around them.


                             Creamed Eggs.

                      4 slices of toast.
                      4 hard-boiled eggs.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      1 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1 tablespoonful of flour.
                      3 gills of milk.

Cut the eggs into thin slices. Cut the slices of toast in halves, and
lay them in a warm platter. Put the butter on the fire, in a frying-pan,
and when it becomes hot add the flour. Stir until the mixture is smooth
and frothy. Gradually add the cold milk, stirring all the time. When
this boils up, add the salt and pepper.

Mix the eggs with the sauce and spread on the toast. Bake in a moderate
oven for six minutes and serve immediately.


                              Egg Cutlets.

                       5 eggs.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       3/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                       Crumbs for breading.
                       Fat for frying.

Put four of the eggs in a deep saucepan, and fill up with boiling water.
Cover, and let them stand on the hearth or the coolest part of the range
for twenty minutes. At the end of this time pour off the hot water and
cover with cold water. Remove the shells and cut the eggs in two,
lengthwise, using a plated knife.

Let a soup plate stand in hot water until heated through. Put the
butter, salt, and pepper in this plate, and stir until the butter is
melted. Beat the fifth egg in another soup plate, and have a third plate
filled with dry and sifted bread crumbs. Drop the eggs, one at a time,
in the melted butter, then in the beaten egg, and finally roll them in
the crumbs. Lay them on a platter and set in a cold place until it is
time to cook them; then put them in the frying basket and cook in hot
fat for one minute. Serve with a bisque or curry sauce.

This dish is suitable for luncheon or supper.


                             Plain Omelet.

                    2 eggs.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of cold water.
                    1 heaped teaspoonful of butter.

Beat the egg enough to break it well, but not to make it light. Have the
omelet pan warmed, and put the butter in it. Place over a very hot fire.
As soon as the butter becomes so hot that it turns slightly brown, pour
the eggs into the pan. With the left hand lift the pan a little at the
handle side, tipping it forward slightly, so that the liquid egg shall
flow to the other side. As soon as the egg begins to set, draw it up to
the raised side of the pan. While the egg is yet quite soft, begin to
roll the omelet. Begin at the left hand, and turn over in small folds
until the lower part of the pan is reached. Let the omelet rest a few
seconds, and then turn out on a hot dish.

[Illustration: ROLLING AN OMELET.]

The work of making an omelet is very simple, but there must be intense
heat, and the work of folding and removing from the pan must be done
rapidly. Practice is essential to perfect omelet making. The great
mistake which beginners usually make is, that they work too slowly, and
cook the omelet too much. It should be a soft, creamy mass when done.

[Illustration: THE OMELET WHEN FINISHED.]

One can make a great variety of omelets by adding a few spoonfuls of any
kind of delicate meat, fish, or vegetable, hashed fine and heated in a
sauce. Spread the heated mixture on the omelet before you begin to fold
it.


                             Baked Omelet.

                 3 eggs.
                 1 heaped tablespoonful of corn starch.
                 1-1/2 gills of milk.
                 1 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.

Heat one gill of the milk to the boiling point. Mix the corn starch with
the half-gill of cold milk and stir into the boiling milk. Cook for one
minute, stirring all the time. Add the salt and butter, and take from
the fire. Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately; then stir
them into the cooked ingredients. Turn the mixture into a buttered
baking dish and cook in a moderate oven for about twelve minutes. Serve
at once.


                             Bread Omelet.

               2 ounces of stale bread (one large slice).
               1 gill of boiling water.
               1 gill of cold milk.
               1 level teaspoonful of salt.
               2 eggs.
               1 tablespoonful of butter.

Have the bread free from crust. Pour the boiling water over it. When
soft, add the salt and milk, and break up with a spoon. Beat the yolks
and whites of the eggs separately, and stir into the bread mixture. Put
the butter in a frying-pan of good size, and set on the fire. When hot,
turn in the omelet, and cook until it begins to set; drawing it back a
little, as you would a plain omelet. Fold, and brown slightly. Turn out
on a hot dish, and serve at once.


                             Welsh Rarebit.

                     1/2 pint of soft mild cheese.
                     1/2 gill of milk.
                     1 egg.
                     1/2 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of mustard.
                     A grain of cayenne.
                     3 slices of toast.

Break the cheese into small bits. Beat the egg, and add the other
ingredients to it. Put the mixture in a small saucepan, which place in
another of boiling water. Stir over the fire until the mixture becomes a
smooth, creamy mass. Immediately spread this on the hot toast, and
serve. The rarebit can be made on the table in the chafing dish.


                        Roasted Oyster Crackers.

                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1 gill of boiling water.
                      3 gills of oyster crackers.

Melt the butter in the water; then stir the crackers into the mixture,
that they may all get a slight coating of butter and water. Spread them
in a shallow pan and put in a hot oven for ten or twelve minutes. They
should be brown and glossy at the end of that time. Serve in a deep dish
with oyster soup or oyster stew.


                              Fried Bread.

Cut slices of stale bread into half-inch squares. Put into a small
frying-pan or granite-ware saucepan six tablespoonfuls of lard, and set
on the fire. When the lard is so hot that it smokes all over, put in one
square of the bread. If this becomes browned in one minute and a half,
the lard is hot enough; if it is not hot enough, make another test very
soon. Now put in the rest of the squares of bread,—there should be about
half a pint. Fry until brown, which will be in about a minute and a
half. While the bread is frying, stir it with a fork, in order that all
parts may be equally browned. Take from the fat with a skimmer and drain
on brown paper. When the fat has become slightly cooled, strain it
through a piece of cheese-cloth and it will be ready to use again.

This bread is to serve with tomato, pea, and other soups.


                        Maple Syrup from Sugar.

Break up a pound of maple sugar and put it in a saucepan with half a
pint of hot water. Boil for ten minutes. Pour into a pitcher, and when
cold, cover, and put in a cool place. It is well to buy maple sugar in
the spring and keep it in a cool, dry place for use in making syrup
until the fresh syrup comes the next year.


                       Batter for Fruit Fritters.

                  1 gill of flour.
                  1/2 gill of milk.
                  1 egg.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                  1/2 tablespoonful of melted butter.

Mix the dry ingredients together. Add the milk, and beat the batter
until light and smooth. Add the butter, and beat again. Finally add the
egg, well beaten. This batter will answer for any kind of fruit.


                            Apple Fritters.

Core and pare large tart apples. Cut them in slices about one third of
an inch thick. Season the slices with nutmeg, then dip them in the
batter. Lift them, one by one, from the batter and drop gently into hot
fat. Cook for three minutes; then lift from the fat, drain, and serve
immediately. Powdered sugar may be sprinkled on the fritters when they
are arranged on the dish.

Peaches, bananas, oranges, grapes, pears, etc., may be cooked in the
form of fritters.


                              Milk Toast.

                       1 pint of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of flour.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       5 slices of toasted bread.

Mix the flour with one gill of cold milk. Put the remainder of the milk
in the double-boiler and set on the fire. When the milk boils, stir in
the flour mixture, and cook for ten minutes. Toast the bread till it is
nicely and evenly browned. Stir the salt and butter into the cooking
mixture; then dip the slices of toast in it. Lay the toast in a deep
warm dish and pour the remainder of the cream over it. Cover the dish
and serve.

Indian, brown, or graham bread may be used for this toast.


                              Baked Toast.

For this toast use a flat dish, such as comes for baking eggs, or a meat
platter of stone china. Toast the bread and spread it, one slice deep,
in the platter. Cover it with cold milk, and put in a moderately hot
oven. When the milk is boiling hot, add bits of butter, and let the
toast cook for one minute longer. Serve in the dish in which it was
cooked. If salt be liked, sprinkle a little on the toast before the milk
is added.

Allow one pint of milk and one teaspoonful of butter to five slices of
toast.

If cream be plentiful, use that, and omit the butter.


                           Soft Butter Toast.

Toast stale bread till nicely browned. Dip it quickly into hot salted
water, spread it with soft butter, and serve.

The butter must be only soft enough to spread easily. It will spoil it
to melt it.

Use one teaspoonful of salt to a quart of boiling water.


                          Cracker Cream Toast.

Toast crackers and drop them into a cream, made as for milk toast. Let
them soak in this for ten minutes; then dish and serve.

The crackers will be more delicate if they be soaked in cold water and
toasted as for butter toast before being put in the cream.


                         Cracker Butter Toast.

Split Boston butter crackers and soak them in cold water until they
begin to swell. Remove them from the water and drain on a plate. Arrange
in the double-broiler and toast brown on both sides. Butter, and serve
at once on a hot dish.


                                 Mush.

Time was when the housekeeper was limited to three or four kinds of
material for mush; but that is all changed, and the market is filled
with many different preparations of wheat, oats, corn, etc. Each new
article is pronounced by its makers to be the best. One of the principal
recommendations which each manufacturer claims for his product is that
it can be cooked in a short time. Many good articles that are prepared
for the table by the printed directions on the package, calling for
about ten minutes’ cooking, are discarded because of unsatisfactory
results, whereas if the cooking were continued for half an hour or more
the dish would be delicious. It must be remembered that all cereals
require thorough cooking, because of the starch in them. No matter what
the cereal product may be, it should be cooked not less than half an
hour.

Be sure to have the full quantity of water called for in the receipt,
and to have it boiling when the meal is stirred into it. When dry meal
is to be sprinkled into boiling water, stir the water briskly for a few
moments before adding the meal, and stir constantly while the meal is
being sprinkled in. Rules can be given here for only a few kinds of
cereals, but these rules can be followed in cooking almost any one of
the breakfast cereals.


                             Oatmeal Mush.

                        1 gill of oatmeal.
                        1 pint of boiling water.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Stir the boiling water; then sprinkle in the oatmeal, stirring all the
time. After adding the salt, cover the stewpan, and set back where the
contents will cook gently for half an hour or longer. Do not stir the
mush after the first five minutes.


                            Corn Meal Mush.

                   1 gill of yellow corn meal.
                   1 generous pint of boiling water.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the meal in a stewpan and gradually pour the boiling water upon it,
stirring all the time. Add the salt, and put the stewpan where the mush
will cook gently for an hour or more. Stir frequently, and keep the
stewpan covered.


                              Fried Mush.

                       1/2 pint of corn meal.
                       2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 quart of boiling water.

Mix the dry ingredients well in a stewpan and pour the boiling water on
them, stirring all the time. Beat vigorously and cook slowly for three
hours, keeping the stewpan covered. At the end of that time dip a small
bread-pan in cold water, and pour the mush into it, packing smoothly.
Set away to cool.

In the morning turn the mush out on a board and cut in slices about half
an inch thick. Roll these in dry flour and fry in hot fat until brown.
Drain on sheets of brown paper, and serve very hot.


                             Boiled Hominy.

                        1 gill of hominy.
                        1 pint of boiling water.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the hominy in two or three waters, and stir into the boiling water.
Add the salt. Cover the stewpan, and set where the hominy will cook
gently for half an hour or more. Stir frequently. Use the fine breakfast
hominy. This mush may be served with sugar and milk, or as a vegetable,
with meat.


                             Fried Hominy.

Cook the hominy as directed in the rule for boiled hominy. Wet a deep
dish and pour the hot hominy into it. When cold, cut in slices about
half an inch thick. Roll the sliced hominy in flour.

Put two tablespoonfuls of sweet drippings in the frying-pan and place on
the fire. When the fat is hot, lay in the slices of hominy. Cover the
pan, and cook until brown on one side; then turn, and brown on the
other. It will take about twenty minutes’ time to brown the hominy.
Serve very hot. Bacon or ham fat is the best for this dish.


                             Hominy Cakes.

                     1/2 a pint of cold hominy.
                     1 egg.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1/8 teaspoonful of pepper.
                     1 tablespoonful of drippings.

Beat the hominy well with a fork, and add the seasonings and the egg,
well beaten. Shape with the hands into small, flat cakes, and, after
sprinkling these lightly with flour, fry them until brown on one side,
and then turn and brown on the other side. Beef, pork, ham, bacon, or
sausage fat may be used for frying. Do not use more than the
tablespoonful.

These cakes are good for breakfast, luncheon, or tea.


                             Fruit Sauces.

All kinds of fruit may be used for sauces. The juicy fruits will require
but little water, whereas the dry ones will need a great deal. The
amount of sugar used in these fruit sauces depends upon the acidity of
the fruit and the taste of the family. If the fruit is to be kept whole,
add the sugar when the fruit is put on to stew, and cook slowly.

Never cook fruit in tin.

Fruit sauces that are to be served with meats should have very little
sugar added to them.


                          Baked Sweet Apples.

Wash and wipe the apples. Put them in a deep earthen dish, with water
enough to come up about an inch. Sprinkle sugar over the apples and bake
in a moderate oven for two hours. Baste them twice with the water in the
dish. Six apples will require two tablespoonfuls of sugar and a scant
half-pint of water.


                           Baked Sour Apples.

Wash, wipe, and core six large apples, and place them in a deep earthen
dish. Fill the holes with sugar, and sprinkle two extra tablespoonfuls
over the apples. Pour a gill of hot water into the dish. Bake in a
moderately hot oven until tender. It will take about an hour’s time to
cook them.


                            Broiled Apples.

Pare, core, and cut tart apples in slices about half an inch thick. Dip
the slices into melted butter, and broil them over rather a bright fire.
When soft, put them on a warm dish and sprinkle with sugar. Serve at
once.


                             Fried Apples.

                     1 quart of tart apples.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of drippings.
                     1 tablespoonful of sugar.

Pare and slice the apples. Put the drippings in a frying-pan and set on
the fire. When hot, add the apples. Cover the pan and cook until the
apples are tender, turning them often. Add the sugar, and cook ten
minutes longer.

These are particularly good when served hot with fresh pork.


                           Green Apple Sauce.

Pare, quarter, and core some tart apples and put them in a granite-ware
or porcelain stewpan. Nearly cover them with water; then cover the
stewpan and place on the fire. Cook until the apples are tender, and
season with sugar. The exact time of cooking and the amount of sugar
cannot be stated for any given measure of apples, because some apples
cook so much more quickly than others, and some require more sugar.

Should you wish to have the pieces of apple kept whole in the cooking,
add the sugar when the fruit is put on to stew, and cook slowly. If, on
the other hand, the apple be liked all broken up and of light color,
boil rapidly, and sweeten after the fruit is stewed.


                        Evaporated Apple Sauce.

                      1 pint of evaporated apples.
                      1 gill of sugar.
                      About one quart of water.

Wash the apples and let them soak over night in the quart of cold water.
In the morning put the apples and water in a granite-ware or porcelain
stewpan; cover, and place on rather a cool part of the range. Cook
gently for one hour; then add the sugar, and cook for half an hour
longer. There should be water enough to cover the apples generously when
they are put on to stew. Do not stir this sauce. The juice of a lemon
may be added if you choose.


                          Evaporated Peaches.

Cook this fruit the same as the evaporated apples.


                          Evaporated Apricots.

This fruit is to be cooked the same as evaporated apples.


                              Baked Pears.

                            9 pears.
                            1 gill of sugar.
                            1 pint of water.

Wash the pears and put them, with the water and sugar, in a deep earthen
dish. Cover the dish and bake the pears in a slow oven for three hours.


                             Stewed Prunes.

Put the prunes in a bowl of cold water. Wash them one by one by rubbing
them between the hands, and drop them into a bowl of cold water. Wash
them in this second water and put them in a stewpan. To half a pound of
prunes add one quart of cold water. Place the stewpan on the range and
cook the prunes slowly for two hours or more. When done, they will be
plump and tender. Turn them into a bowl and put in a cool place.


                            Cranberry Sauce.

                     1 pint of cranberries.
                     1/2 pint of granulated sugar.
                     1/2 pint of water.

Pick over the cranberries. Wash them, and put in a granite-ware or
porcelain stewpan; then add the water and the sugar. Cook the sauce
rapidly for ten or fifteen minutes; then turn into a bowl and set away
to harden. This gives a sauce that will jelly. If liked softer, use a
little more water.


                            Cranberry Jelly.

Make the same as cranberry sauce, but cook five minutes longer; then rub
through a strainer fine enough to keep back the seeds.


                             Rhubarb Sauce.

Rhubarb may be stewed or baked. Pare and wash the stalks and cut them in
pieces about an inch long; then put in a granite-ware stewpan. To a
quart of the rhubarb add one gill of sugar and one gill of water, and
stew gently until done; then turn into an earthen bowl. Another way is
to put the rhubarb, water, and sugar in an earthen dish, cover the dish,
and bake in a moderate oven for an hour and a half.

If the sauce be liked sweet more sugar may be used.


                               Dumplings.

                    1/2 pint of unsifted flour.
                    1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1/3 cupful of milk.

Mix the dry ingredients and rub through a sieve. Wet with the milk, and
stir quickly into the form of a smooth ball. Sprinkle the bread board
with flour and roll the dough into a sheet about three quarters of an
inch thick, which should then be cut into small cakes. If the dumplings
are to be cooked with the stew, set the stewpan where the contents will
cook rapidly, and arrange the dumplings on top of the stew. Cover the
pan, and cook for exactly ten minutes. If they are to be steamed, place
them on a plate in the steamer and cook for twelve minutes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XV.

                        BREAD IN VARIOUS FORMS.


PERFECT bread will be light and sweet, and with a rich, nutty flavor of
the wheat. To get this result good yeast and flour must be used; the
dough, while rising, must be kept at a proper temperature, about 75° F.,
and the heat of the oven, when baking the dough, must be high enough to
raise the inside of the loaf to about 220° F. This is necessary to cook
the starch, expand the carbonic acid gas, air, and steam, and drive off
the alcohol.

A good way to test the heat is to put in a piece of white paper. If it
turn a dark brown in five minutes, the oven will be of the right
temperature; but if it burn, the oven will be too hot, and must be
cooled a little before the loaf is put in; or if the paper be only a
light brown at the end of the five minutes, the oven must be made
hotter.

When the bread is baked it should be cooled in such a way that the pure
air shall circulate freely around it. The best way is to put the loaf
across the pan, or to let it lean against the pan, having it rest on its
edge. In this way the gases, alcohol, and steam pass off, making the
loaf much sweeter and crisper than when it is wrapped in a cloth. The
loaf should be perfectly cold before being put in the bread box.

When you are baking bread the heat should be greatest when the loaf is
first put in the oven; then, after cooking for twenty-five minutes, the
heat should be reduced a little. White bread made with water should get
the greater part of its browning the first half-hour. If made with milk
it will brown in twenty minutes; but it must be remembered that being
brown does not mean that the bread is baked.

A piece of woollen blanket is of great value in making bread. Wrap it
around the bowl in which the dough is rising, and it will keep the
temperature even. Nothing is more injurious than chilling the dough
before it is risen. It does not hurt it after it is well risen.

Bread can be made with either milk or water; simply substitute milk
where water is called for. The milk should first be boiled and cooled.


                               Hop Yeast.

Put a tablespoonful of hops in one quart of cold water and place on the
fire. Now pare and grate into a tin pan three large uncooked potatoes.
When the hops and water begin to boil, strain the boiling water on the
grated potatoes. Place the pan with the potatoes and hop-water on the
stove, and stir until the mixture boils up. Take from the fire, and add
one tablespoonful of salt and two of granulated sugar. Let this mixture
stand until it is blood warm; then add half a cupful of liquid yeast, or
half a cake of compressed yeast dissolved in one fourth of a cupful of
water. Pour the mixture into a large earthen bowl which has been
thoroughly heated. Cover, and set in a warm place for six hours. In that
time the yeast should be so well risen that it is foamy all through. Now
pour this into a stone jar, or into two preserve jars (the jars should
be not more than half full), and put in a cold place, but not where the
yeast will freeze. This yeast will keep three or four weeks. Made in
this way it is called liquid yeast.

Liquid, compressed, or dry yeast, if sweet and good, will all make
excellent bread. In very hot countries the dry yeast is by far the best,
unless one have an ice chest to keep the liquid yeast in. As the method
of making bread with the dry yeast is different from that of making with
liquid yeast, a separate rule may be valuable.


                       Bread Made with Dry Yeast.

_For three Loaves._

            2 quarts of flour.
            1-1/4 pints (2-1/2 cupfuls) of blood-warm water.
            2 tablespoonfuls of butter or lard.
            1 yeast cake.
            1 tablespoonful of sugar.
            1 teaspoonful of salt.

For three small loaves there will be required two quarts of flour, one
pint and a gill of blood-warm water, one yeast cake, one tablespoonful
of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter or lard, and one teaspoonful of
salt.

Sift the flour in the bread pan. Break up the yeast cake and put it in a
quart bowl; then add a gill of the water, and mash with a spoon until
the yeast and water are well mixed. Beat in one gill of the flour. Cover
the bowl and set in a warm place for two hours. At the end of that time
the batter should be a perfect sponge. Add to the sponge the pint of
warm water, half the butter or lard, and the salt and sugar. Stir this
mixture into the flour and mix well with a spoon. Sprinkle the moulding
board thickly with flour, and, turning the dough upon it, knead for
twenty minutes, using as little flour as possible. At the end of this
time the ball of dough should be soft, smooth, and elastic. Place the
dough in the bowl and rub the second spoonful of butter or lard over it.
Cover with a clean towel and then with a tin or wood cover. Set the bowl
in a warm place and let it rise over night. In the morning the dough
will have increased to three times its original volume, and will be a
perfect sponge. Knead it in the bowl for five minutes—do not use
flour—and then shape into three small loaves. Put these in deep pans,
and with a sharp knife cut lengthwise through the centre of each loaf.
Put the pans in a warm place and cover with clean towels. Let the loaves
rise to twice their size, and then bake in a moderately hot oven for
fifty minutes.


                              Water Bread.

       1 quart of flour.
       1/2 pint of water, generous measure.
       1 tablespoonful of butter or lard.
       1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/2 gill of liquid yeast.
       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
       1 teaspoonful of sugar.

Sift the flour into the bread bowl. Take out half a cupful to use in
kneading. Put the salt, sugar, and half the butter in the flour.
Dissolve the yeast and mix with the flour. Beat well with a strong
spoon.

Sprinkle flour on the board and knead the dough for twenty minutes or
half an hour. Return to the bowl, and rub the remainder of the butter or
lard over it. Cover with a clean towel; then put a tin or wooden cover
on the bowl and raise and finish as directed in the rule for bread made
with dry yeast. This will make two small loaves or one large one.


                             Potato Bread.

       1 quart of flour.
       1/2 pint of boiling water, generous measure.
       1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/2 gill of liquid yeast.
       1 potato.
       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
       1 tablespoonful of sugar.
       1 tablespoonful of butter or lard.

Cover the potato with boiling water and cook for thirty minutes. Take it
up and mash fine and light; then pour the boiling water on it. Let this
stand until it is blood-warm; then beat into it the yeast, sugar, and a
pint and a half of flour. Beat well for ten minutes; then cover the
dough and set it in a warm place to rise. It will take between four and
five hours. When the dough has risen to a light sponge, add the salt and
butter or lard to it, and beat well.

Sprinkle the board with flour, turn the dough out on it and knead for
fifteen or twenty minutes. Return the dough to the bowl; cover, and set
in a warm place to rise. When it has risen to more than double the
original size, shape it into two small loaves, or a loaf of medium size
and a small pan of rolls. Cover the bread with a clean towel and raise
to double the original size.

If all the dough be put into one loaf, it must be baked for one hour; if
two small loaves be made, bake them for forty-five minutes. This is
delicious bread. Milk may be substituted for water.


                          Entire-wheat Bread.

      3 gills of water.
      3 pints of entire wheat flour.
      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
      1 level tablespoonful of sugar.
      1/2 tablespoonful of butter or lard.
      1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/4 cupful of liquid yeast.

Sift the flour into the mixing bowl, but take out a gill to use in
kneading. Dissolve the yeast in the water. Mix the salt, sugar, and
butter with the flour, and stir in the yeast and water. Beat well; then
knead for twenty minutes or half an hour. Cover, and set to rise. Finish
the same as water bread.

This bread must be mixed as soft as possible and should be baked
thoroughly. Bake a loaf of medium size one hour and a quarter.


                             Graham Bread.

       1 pint of graham meal.
       1 pint of white flour.
       3 gills of water, generous measure.
       1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/4 cup of liquid yeast.
       1 level teaspoonful of salt.
       1/2 gill of molasses.

Sift the meal and flour into the mixing bowl, turning in the bran also.
Dissolve the yeast in the water, and add the salt and molasses to it.
Turn this mixture out on the flour, and beat the dough vigorously for
twenty minutes or longer. Cover the bowl and let the dough rise over
night. In the morning wet the hand in cold water and beat the dough for
five or ten minutes; then shape, and put in a well buttered pan. Let it
rise to nearly double the original size, and bake for an hour and a
half, having the oven quite hot the first half-hour, and very moderate
the last hour.

Success in making this bread depends upon the thorough beating and
baking. Flours vary so much that it is impossible to give the exact
amount of liquid, but the dough should be as thick as you can mix and
beat it with the hand. It must, however, never be kneaded stiff, like
bread made with white flour.


                               Rye Bread.

Substitute rye meal for graham, and proceed exactly as directed for
graham bread.


                           Rye Bread, No. 2.

Make this bread as directed for entire-wheat bread, substituting fine
rye flour for the entire-wheat flour.


                          Boston Brown Bread.

                    3 gills of corn meal.
                    3 gills of rye meal.
                    5 gills of sweet milk.
                    1 gill of molasses.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 level teaspoonful of soda.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of cold water.

Sift all the meal into a bowl. Put the milk, molasses, and salt into a
bowl. Dissolve the soda in the cold water and add to the liquid
ingredients. Stir this into the meal and beat vigorously for five
minutes or more; then put into a well buttered brown-bread tin and steam
for five hours; or the batter may be put into three one-pound
baking-powder cans. They will steam in less time than if in the large
loaf. Whatever sort of tin the loaf be steamed in, it must have a cover.
It will do no harm to cook this bread more than five hours, but if in
the large loaf it must not cook less. Graham meal may be substituted for
the rye.


                         Steamed Indian Bread.

            1/2 pint of corn meal.
            1/2 pint of flour.
            1 pint of sour milk or buttermilk.
            3 tablespoonfuls of cold water.
            1 teaspoonful of butter.
            1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
            1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
            2 tablespoonfuls of molasses, generous measure.

Sift the meal and flour into the mixing bowl, and add the salt. Mix the
milk and molasses together. Dissolve the soda in the water and stir into
the milk and molasses. Add this to the flour and meal, and beat well.
Now add the butter, melted, and turn the batter into a well buttered
bread pan. Cover the pan and place in the steamer. Cook for four hours
and a half. Take the pan from the steamer, and cook in a moderate oven
for half an hour longer.

This bread is delicious served hot from the oven, or toasted and
buttered, or toasted and served with hot cream poured over it.


                             Pulled Bread.

Tear the crust from a part of a loaf of baker’s bread. Now tear the
crumb of the loaf into long, thin pieces. Spread the torn bread in a pan
and put in a hot oven to become brown and crisp. It will take about
fifteen minutes. Serve hot with cheese. Pulled bread is also nice with
chocolate or coffee.


                        Rolls from Bread Dough.

It is almost impossible to shape and raise rolls for an early breakfast,
but if one have a cold room or a refrigerator the rolls can be put in
the pan the night before, and they will then be ready to bake for
breakfast. Reserve about a pint and a half of the risen bread dough and
work into it a tablespoonful of butter or lard. Put the dough in a bowl;
cover it with a plate and place the bowl in the refrigerator or in a
cold room. In the evening shape the dough into rolls and rub a little
soft butter over them. Cover the pan closely, but leave ample room for
the rolls to rise; then put in the refrigerator or cold room. Bake in
the morning in a moderately hot oven for half an hour.


                             Sponge Rolls.

                       1 pint of flour.
                       1/2 pint of warm water.
                       1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/8 cupful of yeast.

Sift the flour into a bowl; then add the salt and sugar. Melt the butter
in the warm water (be sure it is not above 100°), and add the yeast. Put
this mixture with the flour, and beat thoroughly with a strong spoon.
Cover the bowl and let the dough rise over night. In the morning butter
a French-roll pan and half fill each compartment with the sponge, being
careful not to break it down unnecessarily. Let the rolls rise for an
hour and bake them in a moderately hot oven for half an hour.


                          Parker House Rolls.

      1-1/2 pints of flour.
      1/2 pint of milk, scant measure.
      1 teaspoonful of sugar.
      1 tablespoonful of butter or lard.
      1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/4 cupful of liquid yeast.

Boil the milk, and let it cool. Sift the flour into the mixing bowl. Mix
the salt and sugar with the flour. Make a hole in the middle of the
flour, by drawing it back to the sides of the pan. Pour the milk very
gently into this place, being careful not to wet the flour above the
point where the milk will come when it is all poured in. Now add the
dissolved yeast, stirring gently at the bottom of the pan. Cover the
bowl and set in a warm place for four hours; then stir the mixture until
a dough is formed. Add the butter or lard, and knead on the board for
twenty minutes. Do not use any flour in kneading. Put the dough back in
the bowl; cover, and set in a warm place to rise to nearly three times
the original size (it will take about three hours for this). Next put
the dough on the board and roll down to the thickness of half an inch.
Cut the dough with an oval cutter. Place a small round stick on the
roll, about one third of the distance from the end. Press with the stick
until the dough is half as thick here as in other parts. Fold the short
end of the dough over, and the roll will be shaped. A little soft butter
may be placed between the folds. Place the rolls in a buttered pan,
having them a little way apart. Cover, and set in rather a cool
place—say seventy degrees—until the rolls are risen to a little more
than double the original size. Bake them in a moderately hot oven for
twenty minutes.

_Caution._ Do not use any flour in kneading the dough, and when it has
risen put no flour on the board when it is to be rolled out. The risen
dough must not be kneaded, merely turned on the board and rolled thin.
If the rolls be required for luncheon begin them at half past seven or
eight o’clock in the morning, and double the amount of yeast. The
raising time will then be only half that given. This dough can be used
for luncheon rolls and pin wheels.


                              Milk Rolls.

                       1 pint of flour.
                       1-1/2 gills of milk.
                       1/8 cupful of yeast.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 teaspoonful of sugar.

Boil the milk, and add the butter, sugar, and salt to it. Let the
mixture stand until it becomes blood-warm; then add the yeast. Pour this
new mixture on the flour, and beat well with a strong spoon; then knead
on the board for twenty minutes. Return the dough to the bowl, and cover
closely,—first with a towel, then with a tin or wooden cover. Set in a
warm place over night. In the morning shape in either long or cleft
rolls, and let these rise in the pans for an hour and a quarter, or
until they have doubled in size. Bake in a moderately hot oven for half
an hour, if the rolls be placed close together; but if they be detached,
as would be the case with cleft rolls, bake for only fifteen or twenty
minutes.


                            Luncheon Rolls.

Make the dough for milk rolls. In the morning work it well in the bowl;
then sprinkle the board lightly with flour, and roll the dough down to
the thickness of a quarter of an inch. Spread this with soft butter and
roll up as for a jelly roll. Cut from this slices about an inch thick,
and set them on end in a buttered baking-pan. Have the rolls a little
way apart and let them rise to double the original size. Bake them in a
moderately hot oven for twenty-five minutes.


                         Baking Powder Biscuit.

               1 pint of flour, measured before sifting.
               1/2 pint of milk, scant measure.
               1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
               1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
               1/2 tablespoonful of butter.
               1/2 tablespoonful of lard.
               1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.

Mix thoroughly in a sieve the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder, and
then rub through the sieve. Rub the butter and lard into this mixture.
Have the oven very hot, the pans buttered, the board, cutter, and
rolling pin ready. Now add the milk to the mixture, stirring quickly and
vigorously with a strong spoon. Sprinkle the board with flour and turn
out the dough upon it. Roll down to the thickness of about half an inch
and cut with a small cutter. Bake in a quick oven. Do not crowd the
biscuit in the pan. If they be cut small, and the oven be very hot, they
will bake in ten or twelve minutes. They should not stand in the oven
after they are done.

It is impossible to give in this receipt the exact quantity of milk to
use, flour varies so much; but the dough should be mixed as soft as it
is possible to handle.


                         Quick Luncheon Rolls.

Follow the rule for baking powder biscuit; then roll the dough thin,
spread it with soft butter and roll up like jelly roll. Cut the roll
into slices about three quarters of an inch thick and set them on end in
a baking-pan, having them a little way apart. Bake them in a quick oven
for about fifteen minutes.


                              Pin Wheels.

Make the dough for milk rolls, and when it has risen, roll it as thin as
possible. Spread it with soft butter and sprinkle over this half a
cupful of sugar and one tablespoonful of cinnamon mixed together. Roll
up like a jelly roll and cut into slices about half an inch thick. Place
these slices in a well buttered pan and let them rise to double the
original size. Bake in a moderately hot oven for twenty-five minutes.

If you prefer, a baking powder biscuit dough may be used and the pin
wheels be baked in a quick oven for fifteen minutes.


                               Crumpets.

                   1 pint of flour, generous measure.
                   1 pint of warm water.
                   1/8 cupful of yeast.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.

Put the flour, salt, and sugar in a bowl. Add the water and yeast, and
beat vigorously for fifteen minutes. Cover the bowl, and set in a warm
place over night. In the morning beat in the melted butter and pour the
batter into buttered muffin pans. Let the crumpets rise for an hour, and
bake them for half an hour in a moderate oven.

If you choose you may add the butter to the mixture at night. In that
case the risen sponge may be taken out by spoonfuls, being careful not
to break it down, and the crumpets will then require only half an hour
to rise.

Crumpets may be baked on a griddle instead of in muffin pans. If they
are baked on a griddle, measure the quart of flour lightly. When ready
to fry them, butter the muffin rings and also a griddle, which should
not be so hot as for common griddle-cakes. Place the buttered rings on
the griddle and put a spoonful of the batter in each one. When the
crumpets get done on one side, turn them, and brown the other side. It
will take about twelve minutes to cook them.


                              Sally Lunn.

      1 pint of flour.
      1/2 pint of milk.
      1 tablespoonful of sugar.
      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
      1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
      1/4 cake of compressed yeast, or 1/4 cupful of liquid yeast.
      1 egg.

Sift the flour and mix with it the sugar and salt. Heat the milk to
about a hundred degrees, and dissolve the butter in it. Dissolve the
compressed yeast in two tablespoonfuls of tepid water, and stir into the
milk and butter. Separate the parts of the egg, and beat the white until
light; then beat the yolk well. Add the milk mixture and the egg to the
flour, and beat well. Pour this batter into a well buttered cake pan.
Cover, and let it rise in a warm place for two hours. Bake for half an
hour in a moderately hot oven, and serve on a hot dish. This is suitable
for luncheon or supper. If any of the cake be left, split, toast, and
butter it.


                            Flour Pop-overs.

                        1 pint of flour.
                        1 pint of milk.
                        3 eggs.
                        1 teaspoonful of salt.
                        1 teaspoonful of sugar.

[Illustration: MUFFIN CUP.]

Pop-overs should always be baked in stone or earthenware cups that come
for the purpose, the former being by far the better. Have a dozen cups
buttered and arranged in an old dripping-pan. Put the sifted flour,
sugar, and salt in a mixing bowl. Beat the eggs until very light; then
add the milk to them. Pour this mixture on the flour, only half of it at
first, and beat until the batter is smooth and light, say for about five
minutes. Pour the batter into the cups and bake in a moderately hot oven
for fifty minutes. They should, when done, have increased to four times
their original size.

If only half a dozen pop-overs be wanted, use half of all the other
materials, and take two small eggs or a very large one.


                             Rye Pop-overs.

                       1/2 pint of wheat flour.
                       3 gills of rye meal.
                       1 pint of milk.
                       3 eggs.
                       1 teaspoonful of salt.
                       2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Make these the same as flour pop-overs, only bake them one hour.


                           Graham Pop-overs.

Made the same as the rye, substituting graham for rye.


                              Wheat Gems.

                        1/2 pint of flour.
                        1/2 pint of milk.
                        1 large egg.
                        1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Beat the egg till it is light, and add the milk to it. Add half of this
mixture to the flour, salt, and sugar. Beat well, and add the remainder
of the milk and eggs; then beat for five minutes longer. Pour the batter
into hot buttered gem-pans and bake in a quick oven for twenty-five
minutes.


                         Raised Wheat Muffins.

              1 generous pint of flour.
              1/2 pint of milk.
              1 tablespoonful of butter.
              1/2 tablespoonful of sugar.
              1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
              1 egg.
              1/8 cupful of yeast, or 1/8 of a yeast cake.

Put the flour, salt, and sugar in a deep earthen bowl. Boil the milk and
add the butter to it. Let this mixture stand until only tepid; then add
the milk, butter, and yeast to the flour, and beat well. Cover the bowl
and let it stand in rather a cool part of the kitchen, unless the
weather be very cold; in which case it will be necessary to keep the
bowl in a warm place. When morning comes, the batter will be found to
have risen to a light sponge. Beat the egg till very light and add it to
this sponge, beating in well. Half fill well buttered muffin pans with
the batter; cover, and let the muffins rise in a warm place for one
hour. Bake for half an hour in a moderately quick oven.

[Illustration: MUFFIN PANS.]

These muffins should not be set to rise before nine o’clock at night.
They are nice for luncheon or tea, but when they are intended for
luncheon put them to rise in the morning and use almost twice as much
yeast as you otherwise would. With the quantity of materials stated
above, a dozen muffins can be made.


                    Sour Milk or Buttermilk Muffins.

                   3 gills of flour.
                   1/2 pint of sour milk.
                   1 egg.
                   1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 tablespoonful of cold water.
                   2 level tablespoonfuls of butter.

Melt the butter in a hot cup. Put the dry ingredients in a mixing bowl.
Beat the egg till it is light. Dissolve the soda in the water and add it
to the milk. Stir well, and add to the dry mixture; then add the egg,
and finally the melted butter. Beat well and pour into hot buttered
gem-pans. Bake for twenty minutes.


                            Graham Muffins.

                 1 gill of cold water.
                 1 gill of sweet milk.
                 1/2 pint of graham.
                 1/2 pint of wheat flour.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                 2 even teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
                 2 tablespoonfuls of molasses.
                 1 egg.

Mix the graham, flour, salt, and baking powder together, and rub through
a sieve. Beat the egg till very light, and add the milk and molasses to
it. Turn this mixture on the dry ingredients, and beat vigorously for
about a minute. Fill a dozen well buttered muffin cups with the batter,
and bake in a moderately hot oven for half an hour.

Sugar may be substituted for the molasses. These muffins, when cold, are
good for luncheon or dinner.


                              Rye Muffins.

Make them the same as graham muffins.


                     Graham Muffins with Sour Milk.

                       1/2 pint of sour milk.
                       1/2 pint of graham.
                       1 gill of flour.
                       2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 tablespoonful of water.
                       1 egg.

Make in the same way flour muffins are made, and bake for half an hour.


                      Rye Muffins with Sour Milk.

Make these the same as graham with sour milk, substituting rye meal for
graham.


                        Cream of Tartar Muffins.

               1 pint of flour, measured before sifting.
               3 scant gills of milk.
               1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
               1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
               1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
               1 teaspoonful of sugar.
               1/2 tablespoonful of butter.
               1/2 tablespoonful of lard.

Mix all the dry ingredients and rub them through a sieve and into a
bowl. Add the milk, and then the butter and lard, melted. Beat quickly,
and put into heated and buttered iron gem-pans. Bake for fifteen minutes
in a quick oven. If more convenient, two scant teaspoonfuls of baking
powder may be substituted for the soda and cream of tartar.

With these ingredients a dozen muffins can be made.


                           Blueberry Muffins.

Make these the same as cream of tartar muffins, using, however, two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and lightly stirring into the batter half a
pint of blueberries.


                       Yellow Corn Meal Muffins.

                   1/2 pint of yellow corn meal.
                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   2-1/2 gills of milk.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                   1 egg.

Mix all the dry ingredients and rub them through a sieve and into a
bowl. Melt the butter in a hot cup. Beat the egg till light. Add the
milk to it and turn this mixture into the bowl containing the dry
ingredients. Add the melted butter, and beat quickly and vigorously.
Pour into buttered muffin pans and bake for half an hour in a moderate
oven.


                        White Corn Meal Muffins.

                  1/2 pint of white corn meal.
                  1/2 pint of sifted flour.
                  1/2 pint of milk, generous measure.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                  4 tablespoonfuls of boiling water.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1 egg.

Put the butter in a hot cup and pour the boiling water over it. Set on
the back part of the stove. Mix all the dry ingredients and rub through
a sieve and into a bowl. Beat the egg till light, and add the milk to
it. Stir this mixture into the dry ingredients. Add the melted butter
and water. Pour into buttered muffin pans and bake for half an hour in a
moderate oven.

With these ingredients a dozen muffins can be made.


                              Corn Bread.

                  1/2 pint of flour.
                  1 gill of corn meal.
                  1/2 pint of milk.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                  1 generous tablespoonful of butter.
                  1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                  1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of boiling water.
                  1 egg.

Mix all the dry ingredients together and rub through a sieve. Beat the
egg till light, and add the milk to it; then pour this mixture on the
dry ingredients, which should be beaten well. Now add the butter, first
melting it in the hot water. Pour the batter into a well buttered pan
and bake for half an hour in a moderately hot oven.


                           Spider Corn Cake.

                       3/4 cupful of corn meal.
                       1/4 cupful of flour.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                       1/3 teaspoonful of soda.
                       1 cupful of sweet milk.
                       1/2 cupful of sour milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1 egg.

[Illustration: FRYING-PAN.]

Have a small short-handled, cast-iron frying-pan heating on the top of
the stove. Put all the dry ingredients, except the soda, in a sieve and
rub through into a bowl. Dissolve the soda in half a cupful of the sweet
milk, and add it to the sour. Stir this mixture and the well beaten egg
into the dry ingredients. Butter the hot frying-pan with the one
tablespoonful of butter, and pour the batter into the pan. Now pour the
other half cupful of milk, slowly and gently, over the mixture in the
pan (it must not be stirred). Put the pan in a moderately hot oven, and
cook the cake for half an hour. Slip out on a hot plate and serve at
once.


                             Corn Dodgers.

         3 gills of corn meal.
         1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
         1 tablespoonful of sugar.
         1 teaspoonful of butter.
         1/2 pint of boiling water, generous.
         Sausage or pork fat, or any good drippings for frying.

Put the meal, salt, sugar, and butter in a bowl and pour the boiling
water on the mixture. Beat the batter vigorously for two or three
minutes; then shape it with the hands into small, flat cakes. Have in
the frying-pan hot fat to the depth of half an inch. When it is smoking
hot, put in the cakes and fry on one side until brown, then turn and
brown on the other side. Serve very hot.


                        Baltimore Hominy Bread.

                    1 gill of fine breakfast hominy.
                    1 gill of milk.
                    1 pint of water.
                    1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    2 eggs.

Wash the hominy, and stir it into the pint of boiling water. Add the
salt, and boil gently for one hour, stirring often; or half an hour will
do, if you can afford no more time. Take the cooked hominy from the fire
and beat the butter into it; then add the milk, and beat for four or
five minutes. Beat the eggs till light, and add them to the other
ingredients. Butter a deep earthen plate and pour the mixture into it.
Bake in rather a hot oven for half an hour. Serve in the dish in which
it is baked.

This bread is nice with any kind of meat, but particularly with broiled
or fried bacon.


                            Buckwheat Cakes.

                    1 pint of buckwheat.
                    1 gill of white corn meal.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of molasses.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                    1 gill of yeast.
                    1 generous pint of warm water.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of cold water.

Put the buckwheat, meal, and salt in a deep pail, and add to the mixture
the water, yeast, and molasses. Beat vigorously for twenty minutes.
Cover the pail and set in a warm place until morning. In the morning rub
the soda through a fine sieve, letting it fall on the batter. Beat well.
Fry on a griddle, serving as soon as cooked. Reserve one pint of the
batter for raising the next batch of cakes. It should be kept in the
refrigerator or the cellar.

Remember that success in making buckwheat cakes depends largely upon a
thorough beating and careful raising.


                        Sour Milk Griddle Cakes.

                    1 pint of sour milk.
                    1 generous pint of sifted flour.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 rounded teaspoonful of soda.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1 tablespoonful of water.
                    1 egg.

Dissolve the soda in the water and stir into the sour milk. Add the
flour, salt, and sugar, and beat well; then add the egg, well beaten,
and the butter, melted. If there be plenty of sour cream, use a gill,
and omit the butter. Put the cream in the measure and then fill up with
the sour milk.


                      Baking Powder Griddle Cakes.

                   1/2 pint of sweet milk.
                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                   1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter.

Mix all the dry ingredients and rub through a sieve. Pour the milk upon
them, and beat well. Add the butter, and beat a minute longer. Fry in
small cakes on a griddle.


                    Sour Milk Indian Griddle Cakes.

Make these the same as flour griddle cakes, using half flour and half
corn meal.


                    Sour Milk Graham Griddle Cakes.

Make these the same as the Indian, substituting an equal quantity of
graham for corn meal.


                         Hominy Griddle Cakes.

                    1 pint of boiling water.
                    1 gill of fine breakfast hominy.
                    1/2 pint of flour.
                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 egg,—two would be better.

Put the hominy and half the salt in the boiling water, and cook for half
an hour, stirring frequently. At the end of that time take from the fire
and add to it the milk, flour, and remainder of the salt, and beat
vigorously for fifteen minutes; then add the eggs, whites and yolks
beaten separately. Fry in very small cakes on a hot griddle.


                  Hominy Griddle Cakes with Sour Milk.

                       1/2 pint of cooked hominy.
                       1/2 pint of sour milk.
                       1/2 pint of flour.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                       1 tablespoonful of water.
                       1 egg.

Have the hominy freshly cooked or warmed over. Dissolve the soda in the
cold water and stir into the sour milk. Add the flour, salt, and hominy,
and beat well; then put in the egg, also well beaten. Fry in small
cakes.


                       Ground Rice Griddle Cakes.

                    1 pint of milk.
                    1-1/2 gills of water.
                    3 gills of wheat flour.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of rice flour.
                    1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of soda.
                    2 eggs.

Put the milk on to heat in the double-boiler. Mix the rice flour with
one gill of the water and stir into the boiling milk. Cook for twenty
minutes, stirring often. Turn the cooked mixture into a large bowl and
stir occasionally while cooling. This is to prevent the forming of a
crust on the batter. When cold, add the salt and sugar, and the soda,
dissolved in half a gill of cold water. Now beat in the flour. Finally
add the eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately. Fry in small cakes on
a hot griddle, and serve immediately.


                        Blueberry Griddle Cakes.

                       1/2 pint of sour milk.
                       1/2 pint of flour.
                       1/2 pint of blueberries.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 tablespoonful of water.

Dissolve the soda in the cold water. Stir this into the sour milk. Now
add the flour and salt, and beat well. Stir the berries in very gently.
Fry the same as any other griddle cakes.


                          Bread Griddle Cakes.

                       1 pint of stale bread.
                       3 gills of milk.
                       1 gill of flour.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1/4 nutmeg, grated.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of soda.
                       2 eggs.
                       2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Soak the bread in the milk for several hours, then rub it through a
colander. Add the seasonings, the soda, dissolved in a tablespoonful of
cold water, and then the flour. Beat well, and add the eggs, well
beaten. Fry on a moderately hot griddle.

These cakes take longer to cook than the ordinary batter cake. If eggs
be dear, use two more tablespoonfuls of flour, and omit one egg.


                         Raised Flannel Cakes.

                       1/2 pint of flour.
                       1 gill of corn meal.
                       2-1/2 gills of milk.
                       1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 tablespoonful of yeast.
                       1 egg.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.

Boil the milk and pour it on the corn meal. Let this stand until it
becomes tepid. Add the yeast, and pour the liquid mixture on the dry
ingredients. Beat well; then cover the bowl and let it stand in a warm
place over night. In the morning add the egg, white and yolk beaten
separately. Fry the cakes on a griddle.


                                Waffles.

                      1/2 pint of milk.
                      1/2 pint of flour.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                      2 eggs.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Warm the milk, and melt the butter in it. Let the mixture cool to about
blood-heat. Beat the yolks of the eggs till light, and add the milk and
butter to them. Pour this mixture on the flour and beat well. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a froth, and stir them into the batter. Add the
salt. Have the waffle-iron hot and well greased, and fry the waffles at
once. Serve them the moment they are taken from the irons.

[Illustration: WAFFLE-IRON.]

If eggs be scarce, use one egg and half a teaspoonful of baking powder.

In cooking waffles it is important to have both halves of the iron
equally hot; and to insure this the iron must be turned frequently, both
before and after the batter is poured in.


                            Hominy Waffles.

                   1/2 pint of hot boiled hominy.
                   1/2 pint of milk.
                   1 pint of flour, generous measure.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   2 eggs.
                   1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Stir the butter and salt into the hot hominy. Gradually beat in the
milk; then let the mixture cool. Mix the baking powder with the flour,
and sift into the hominy mixture. Beat well; then add the eggs, well
beaten, and cook in hot irons. Serve the waffles the instant they come
from the irons.


                         Raised Wheat Waffles.

                      1 pint of flour.
                      3 gills of milk.
                      1/8 cupful of yeast.
                      1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1 egg.

Boil the milk, and, after adding the butter to it, let the mixture stand
until cool. Put the flour, sugar, and salt in a bowl. Add the milk and
yeast, and beat well for fifteen minutes, or even twenty. Let this
batter rise over night. In the morning add the egg, well beaten. Have
the waffle-irons hot and well greased, and cook the cakes quickly. They
should be served the moment they come from the irons. They will be
sufficiently cooked as soon as they are browned on both sides.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XVI.

                                 CAKE.


                           Raised Fruit Cake.

                       3 gills of raised dough.
                       1 gill of butter.
                       1/2 gill of wine.
                       1 gill of flour.
                       2 gills of sugar.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                       3 tablespoonfuls of water.
                       1/2 of a nutmeg, grated.
                       2 eggs.
                       3/4 pound of raisins.

Dissolve the soda in the cold water and work into the dough. Now add the
butter, sugar, nutmeg, wine, and the eggs, well beaten. Mix all
thoroughly, and then beat in the flour. Stir in the raisins, and put
into a deep well buttered bread-pan to rise for one hour. Bake for an
hour and a half in a moderately hot oven.


                              Spice Cake.

                  1/2 cupful of butter.
                  1/2 cupful of sugar.
                  1/2 cupful of molasses.
                  2 cupfuls of flour, scant measure.
                  1/2 cupful of sour milk.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of ginger.
                  1/8 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                  1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.
                  The juice and rind of half a lemon.
                  1 egg.

Beat the butter to a cream. Gradually beat into it the sugar, then the
spice and lemon, and next the molasses. Now dissolve the soda in one
tablespoonful of cold water, and stir it into the sour milk. Add this
and the egg, well beaten, to the other ingredients. Lastly, add the
flour, and beat briskly for half a minute. Pour into a well buttered
pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about fifty minutes.

This cake will keep moist for a week or ten days. If one like fruit,
half a cupful of stoned raisins and half a cupful of currants may be
stirred lightly into the batter just before it is put in the pan.


                          Blackberry Jam Cake.

                1/2 cupful of butter.
                2/3 cupful of sugar.
                1 generous cupful of flour.
                2/3 cupful of stoned raisins.
                2/3 cupful of blackberry jam.
                2 tablespoonfuls of sour cream or milk.
                1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                1/2 of a nutmeg, grated.
                2 eggs.

Beat the butter to a cream, then beat in the sugar. When very light,
beat in the jam and nutmeg. Dissolve the soda in one tablespoonful of
cold water, and add it to the sour cream. Add this and the egg, well
beaten, to the other ingredients. Now add the flour, and beat for half a
minute. Sprinkle a tablespoonful of flour over the raisins, and stir
them in lightly. Pour the batter into a well buttered pan, and bake for
fifty minutes. This makes one small loaf.

This cake may be put away to be used as a pudding when convenient. Steam
it for one hour, and serve with a wine sauce. It is almost as good as a
plum pudding.


                           Rich Sponge Cake.

                           6 large eggs.
                           3 gills of sugar.
                           3 gills of flour.
                           1 lemon.

Grate a little of the lemon rind into a deep saucer. Squeeze the juice
on this. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together until the
mixture is a light, spongy mass. Add the lemon juice and rind, and beat
a little longer. Beat the whites of the eggs with a whisk until a thick
white froth is formed. Cut the flour and whites of eggs into the sugar
and yolks, adding only a little at a time, and doing the work lightly
and gently, so as not to break down the frothy egg. Pour the mixture
into a well buttered pan, and bake in a moderate oven, the time of
baking depending upon the thickness of the loaf. If it be three inches
deep when put in the pan, it will take one hour to bake. It is essential
that the oven should be very slow at first. This will cause the sponge
to rise evenly, making the cake tender, rich, and moist.


                           Plain Sponge Cake.

                   3 eggs.
                   3 gills of sugar.
                   1 pint of flour.
                   1 gill of cold water.
                   1 lemon.
                   1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Beat the eggs together until light. Add the sugar, and beat with a spoon
for ten minutes or longer. The sugar and eggs must be beaten until they
form a light, spongy mass. Add the juice of the lemon, and beat a little
longer. Dissolve the soda in the cold water. Mix the cream of tartar
with the flour. Stir the water and soda into the egg mixture; then add
the flour. Beat well, and pour into the pans and bake.

These materials will make two sheets, or one sheet and a small, round
loaf, or one sheet and one cake, baked in a deep round tin. The round
cake can be used for a cream, Washington, or chocolate pie. A part of
the batter may be baked in a pudding dish, and served with a liquid
sauce; or a part of the batter may be baked in tin muffin cups, putting
a teaspoonful in each cup.

This sponge cake is one of the most useful and satisfactory when made
properly. Great care must be taken to have the sugar and eggs beaten
together thoroughly.


                           Corn Starch Cake.

                  1 gill of butter.
                  1-1/2 gills of sugar.
                  1-1/2 gills of flour.
                  1/2 gill of corn starch.
                  1/2 gill of milk.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of soda.
                  2 eggs.
                  Flavor.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat the sugar into it. Beat
the eggs separately, and stir them into the creamed sugar and butter.
Dissolve the soda in the milk, and add this. Mix together the flour,
corn starch, and cream of tartar, and add to the other ingredients.
Flavor the batter, and beat vigorously for a few seconds; then turn into
a well buttered shallow cake pan. Bake for thirty minutes in a moderate
oven.

A good flavor for this cake is one tablespoonful of lemon juice and a
light grating of the rind of a fresh lemon.


                              Angel Cake.

         5 whites of eggs.
         1 scant gill of pastry flour, measured after sifting.
         1-1/2 gills of powdered sugar.
         1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
         1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Mix the cream of tartar with the flour, and sift four times. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff, dry froth. Sift the powdered sugar on the
eggs, and beat for three minutes. Add the vanilla. Gradually add the
flour, and beat it in quickly. Pour the batter into an ungreased pan,
and put into rather a cool oven. Bake for about forty minutes.

When the cake is baked, take the pan from the oven and invert it,
letting it rest on a sieve or rack, so that there shall be a current of
air under and over the pan while the cake is cooling.

Success in making angel cake depends upon the proper beating of the eggs
and a slow oven.


                             Rich Cup Cake.

                  1/2 pint of sugar.
                  1/3 cupful of butter.
                  3 gills of flour.
                  1/2 gill of milk.
                  2 large eggs.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of soda.
                  Flavor.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat the sugar into it. Beat
the eggs separately, and add to the sugar and butter. Dissolve the soda
in the milk, and stir into the mixture. Now add the flour, in which the
cream of tartar should be mixed. Flavor with any spice or extract you
like, or with the grated yellow rind of a lemon and one tablespoonful of
the juice. Pour the batter into a buttered pan, and bake in a moderate
oven for forty-five minutes, if in a deep loaf; but if in a sheet,
thirty minutes’ time will be enough.


                            Plain Cup Cake.

                   1 gill of sugar.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 gill of milk.
                   3 gills of flour, scant measure.
                   1 large egg.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.
                   Flavor.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat the sugar into it. Add
the egg, unbeaten, and beat the mixture vigorously for three or four
minutes. Add the flavor and milk, and lastly the flour, in which the
soda and cream of tartar should be thoroughly mixed. Pour the batter
into a shallow cake pan, and sift powdered sugar over it. Bake in a
moderate oven for twenty-five minutes.


                            Cold Water Cake.

       1/2 pint of sugar.
       1 gill of cold water.
       1 scant gill of butter.
       2 small eggs.
       3 gills of flour.
       1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
       1/2 pint of citron, currants, and raisins, in equal parts;
           the raisins to be stoned and chopped.
       1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
       1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat into it the sugar. Add
the yolks of the eggs, and beat well. Dissolve the soda in the water,
and add to the mixture. Beat vigorously until the water will not
separate from the other ingredients. Now beat in the spice. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and add them to the mixture. Now
add the flour, and finally stir the fruit in lightly. Bake in one deep
loaf, or in a thick sheet. If in a loaf, cook for one hour; if in a
sheet, about thirty-five minutes.


                              Swiss Cake.

                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   3 gills of sugar.
                   1/2 pint of milk.
                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                   Flavor to taste.

Measure the butter scantily, and make it soft in a warm bowl. Beat the
sugar into it. Have the eggs well beaten, and then beat them with the
sugar and butter for five minutes. Add the flavor, then the milk, and
finally the flour, in which the baking powder should be mixed. Bake for
about twenty-five minutes in a buttered, shallow pan. The cake is to be
eaten fresh.


                               Tea Cake.

                   1 gill of sugar.
                   1 gill of milk.
                   1/2 pint of flour, scant measure.
                   1 tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 egg.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                   1/6 of a nutmeg, grated.

Beat the butter until soft. Beat the sugar into it. Add the unbeaten
egg, and beat vigorously for five minutes. Add the nutmeg and milk, then
the flour, in which the baking powder should be mixed. Beat vigorously
for a few seconds, and pour into a buttered cake-pan. Bake in a
moderately hot oven for twenty minutes, and serve warm.


                            Blueberry Cake.

                1 generous pint of flour.
                1/2 pint of milk.
                1 gill of sugar.
                2 heaped teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
                2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                1 egg.
                1/2 pint of blueberries.

Mix the baking powder, sugar, and salt with the flour, and rub through a
sieve. Rub the butter into this mixture. Beat the egg till light, and
add the milk to it. Add this to the dry ingredients, and beat well. Now
add the berries, stirring as little as possible. Spread the mixture in a
well buttered shallow baking pan, having it about an inch and a half
thick. Bake in a moderately hot oven for about twenty-five minutes.
Serve hot.

The batter may be put in buttered muffin tins, and baked for about
twenty minutes. This will fill twelve muffin cups.


                                Hermits.

             1-1/2 gills (3/4 of a cupful) of maple sugar.
             1 gill of butter.
             1 pint and a gill (2-1/2 cupfuls) of flour.
             1 egg.
             1 tablespoonful of milk.
             1/4 teaspoonful of clove.
             1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
             1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
             1 gill of currants.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat in the sugar and spice.
Dissolve the soda in the milk, and beat this into the sugar and butter.
Add the egg, well beaten, and finally the flour and currants. Roll out
about an inch thick, and cut in squares. Bake in rather a quick oven for
about twelve minutes.

The sugar should be the soft maple. The clove may be omitted. If maple
sugar is not to be had, white sugar may be used.


                        Maple Sugar Gingerbread.

                    1 egg.
                    1 cupful of thick maple syrup.
                    2 cupfuls of flour.
                    1/2 cupful of sour milk.
                    1/4 cupful of butter.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of ginger.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                    Rind and juice of half a lemon.

Break up enough maple sugar to fill a half-pint cup. Put this into a
saucepan with a gill of boiling water, and boil until reduced to half a
pint; then cool. Beat the butter to a cream, and beat in the syrup and
flavors. Dissolve the soda in one tablespoonful of cold water, and stir
it into the sour milk. Add this and the egg, well beaten, to the other
ingredients. Now add the flour. Beat well for half a minute and pour
into a well buttered pan. This quantity will make one small loaf or a
thin sheet. If baked in a loaf, cook for fifty minutes; if in a sheet,
about twenty-five.


                       Soft Molasses Gingerbread.

                     1 cupful of molasses.
                     1/2 cupful of sugar.
                     1/2 cupful of sour cream.
                     2 cupfuls of flour.
                     1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                     1 teaspoonful of soda.
                     1 teaspoonful of ginger.
                     1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                     2 teaspoonfuls of cold water.
                     1 egg.

Beat the egg till very light and beat the sugar into it, working
vigorously for three minutes; then add the molasses, spice, and salt,
and beat for two minutes longer. Dissolve the soda in the cold water,
and stir into the sour cream. Add this and the flour to the other
ingredients, and beat vigorously for half a minute. Pour into a well
buttered shallow pan and bake in a moderately hot oven for twenty-five
minutes.

If you cannot get sour cream, use sour milk and two tablespoonfuls of
melted butter.


                   Soft Molasses Gingerbread, No. 2.

                   1/2 pint of molasses.
                   1 gill of sour milk.
                   2 heaped tablespoonfuls butter.
                   1 pint of flour, _scant_ measure.
                   1 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1 teaspoonful of ginger.
                   1 egg.

Put the molasses and butter in a tin pan and set on the stove. When the
mixture boils up, add the soda and ginger, and take from the fire
immediately. Add the milk, the egg well beaten, and the flour, and beat
well. This will fill three round deep plates, or one shallow cake pan
and a plate. Bake in rather a quick oven for twenty minutes.


                   Soft Molasses Gingerbread, No. 3.

                   1/2 pint of molasses.
                   1 pint of flour, scant measure.
                   1 gill of boiling water.
                   1 tablespoonful of lard or butter.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1 teaspoonful of ginger.

Put the molasses, butter, soda, and ginger in a tin pan, and place on
the stove for two minutes; then add the boiling water and the flour.
Beat vigorously for five minutes, and then turn into a buttered shallow
cake pan and a deep tin plate. Bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes.


                           Clinton Doughnuts.

                   1 gill of sugar.
                   1 gill of sour milk.
                   1 pint of flour, scant measure.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1/3 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                   1 egg.
                   1/2 tablespoonful of cold water.

Here is a rule which gives doughnuts that will keep moist and good for
several days:—

In the evening beat the butter to a cream and beat the sugar and spice
into it. Beat the eggs until light, and stir into the mixture of butter
and sugar. Dissolve the soda in half a tablespoonful of cold water. Stir
this mixture into the sour milk and add all to the sugar, butter, and
eggs. Now stir in the flour. Cover the mixture and set it away in a cold
place until morning. In the morning sprinkle the moulding board with
flour and put about one fourth of the dough on it. Roll this down to the
thickness of half an inch and cut into round cakes with a hole in the
centre. If you do not possess a regular doughnut cutter, a biscuit
cutter will do, as a piece can be cut from the centre with a thimble.
Fry in lard for about three minutes.

It is supposed that pastry flour will be used. If, however, the “new
process” flour be taken, omit one eighth of the measure.


                           Dropped Doughnuts.

                 1 gill of milk.
                 1 gill of sugar.
                 3 gills of flour.
                 1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1/3 of a nutmeg, grated.
                 The grated yellow rind of a lemon.
                 1 heaped teaspoonful of baking powder.
                 1 egg.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth and beat the yolk and sugar
with it for three minutes. Add the seasonings, next the milk, and
finally the flour, in which the baking powder should be mixed. Beat
well. Drop a teaspoonful of this mixture into hot fat and cook for about
four minutes, turning the doughnuts frequently. Lift them from the fat
with a wire spoon or a fork. Do not stick the fork into them. When they
are drained, sprinkle them with powdered sugar. Be careful not to have
the fat too hot and to hold the teaspoonful of batter close to the fat,
and the doughnuts will come up in round balls. These are very delicate.


                         Strawberry Short Cake.

_For the Cake._

                 3 gills of flour.
                 1 gill of milk, generous measure.
                 1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of butter.
                 1 heaped teaspoonful of baking powder.

Mix the dry ingredients together and rub twice through a sieve. Rub the
butter through this mixture; then wet with the milk. Butter a large,
deep tin pie plate. Divide the dough into two parts and roll them out
the size of the plate. Lay them in the plate, one on top of the other,
and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. On taking the two cakes
from the oven, tear them apart. Place the under one on a warm plate and
butter well; upon this spread one pint of strawberries, slightly
crushed, and mixed with a generous gill of sugar; put on the top part of
the cake, and serve immediately.

This is the old-fashioned strawberry short cake. Currants, blackberries,
peaches, etc., may be substituted for the strawberries when that fruit
is out of season.


                     Strawberry Short Cake, No. 2.

_For the Cake._

                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   1 gill of sugar.
                   1 heaped tablespoonful of butter.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of milk.
                   1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                   1 egg.

Beat the butter to a cream; then gradually beat in the sugar. Now add
the unbeaten egg, and beat the mixture vigorously for three or four
minutes. Beat in the milk and then the flour, in which the baking powder
should be mixed. Bake this batter in two well buttered deep tin plates.
They will require about twenty minutes’ time in a moderate oven. When
baked, put them on plates to cool.


                               _Filling._

                    1 pint of stemmed strawberries.
                    1-1/2 pints of whipped cream.
                    1 gill of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of gelatine.
                    1/2 gill of water.

Measure the gelatine generously and put it in a cup with the cold water.
Let it soak for an hour or more; then place the cup in a pan of boiling
water and stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Have the whipped cream
in a bowl and set it in a pan of ice water. Stir the sugar and dissolved
gelatine into it. Continue stirring this mixture until it thickens.
Spread half of this cream on one of the cakes, and on this spread about
two thirds of the strawberries. Put the second cake on top of this.
Spread the remainder of the cream and strawberries on this, and serve at
once.

The gelatine may be omitted. In that case, crush the strawberries and
sugar together. Put a layer of strawberries on the cakes, then a layer
of whipped cream.


                                 Icing.

      1 egg white.
      1/2 pint of powdered sugar.
      1 teaspoonful of water.
      1 teaspoonful of lemon juice, or 1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Put the unbeaten white of the egg into a bowl, and gradually beat into
it the powdered sugar. When smooth and light, add the water and sugar.
Spread smoothly on the cake and let it stand in a cool place until it
hardens. If in a hurry to have it harden, omit the water.


                            Chocolate Icing.

Make the white icing. Shave one ounce of plain chocolate and put it into
a small pan with three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and one of
boiling water. Stir over a hot fire until smooth and glossy, and then
stir this into the icing. If it seems too thick, add a few drops of
water.

Do not use the lemon in the white icing when the chocolate is to be
added.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XVII.

                                PASTRY.


                            Delicate Paste.

                   1 pint of sifted flour.
                   1 gill of butter.
                   1/2 gill of lard.
                   1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                   1-1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.

Mix all the dry ingredients together and rub through a sieve into a
bowl. Add the butter and lard, and cut and mix with a knife until the
shortening is in fine bits. Now add the cold water, still stirring with
a knife. Sprinkle the board lightly with flour, and turn the paste out
upon it. Roll down into a square sheet about one fourth of an inch
thick. Fold up and roll down again. Do this four times; then put away to
chill. This paste is suitable for meat and fruit pies, baked dumplings,
tarts, etc.


                              Plain Paste.

                    1 pint of sifted flour.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                    3 tablespoonfuls of lard.
                    2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
                    1 teaspoonful of sugar.
                    2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                    1 generous gill of cold water.

Make this the same as delicate paste, except that it is to be rolled but
twice. This paste answers for meat and fruit pies when one does not wish
to use pastry as rich as the delicate paste.


                              Mince Meat.

                   2-1/2 pounds of the round of beef.
                   2 quarts of chopped apples.
                   1/2 pint of chopped suet.
                   1-1/2 pints of stoned raisins.
                   1 pint of currants.
                   1/4 pound of citron.
                   1 quart of sugar.
                   1/2 pint of molasses.
                   3 pints of cider.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of salt.
                   4 tablespoonfuls of cinnamon.
                   1 tablespoonful of allspice.
                   1 tablespoonful of mace.
                   1 level teaspoonful of clove.
                   4 nutmegs, grated.
                   4 lemons.

Put the beef in a small stewpan and just cover with boiling water. Cook
for three hours, having the water only bubble at one side of the
stewpan. Take from the fire and let the meat cool in the water, with the
cover off the stewpan. When cold, remove all fat and gristle, and chop
the meat rather fine. Put it in a large bowl with all the other
ingredients except the cider, and mix thoroughly. Now add the cider, and
let the mixture stand in a cold place over night. In the morning turn
the mince meat into a porcelain kettle and heat slowly to the boiling
point; then simmer gently for one hour. Put the mixture into stone jars
and set away in a cold place; or it may be put in glass jars and sealed.
It will keep for years in this way. If one wish to add brandy or wine,
it may be done now or at the time that the pies are made. If economy be
necessary, half the amount of currants and raisins given will answer. On
the other hand, if one can afford it, when the pies are being made, one
tumbler of jelly or marmalade to three or four pies will be found a
great improvement.


                           Apple Pie, Sliced.

         3 pints of pared and sliced apples.
         1/6 of a nutmeg, grated, or 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
         1/2 pint of sugar.
         4 tablespoonfuls of cold water.
         Half the rule for delicate paste.

Pare the apples and cut into thick slices. Line a large plate with paste
and then fill with the apples, being careful not to break the paste.
Sprinkle with the sugar and nutmeg, and then with the water. Roll the
remainder of the paste a little larger than the pie plate. Make a slight
opening in the centre. Cover the pie with this, tucking the edges under
the lower crust. Bake in a moderately hot oven for one hour. Reduce the
heat after the first half-hour.


                           Stewed Apple Pie.

                   1 pint of stewed apple.
                   1/2 pint of sugar.
                   1/5 of a nutmeg, grated.
                   Half the rule for delicate paste.

Cover with a thin crust a pie plate of medium size. Roll a piece of the
paste into a narrow strip about one fourth of an inch thick, and long
enough to go around the edge of the plate. Wet the edge of the
undercrust with cold water and lay the narrow strip of paste over it.
Now fill the plate with the seasoned apple. Roll the remainder of the
paste a little larger than the pie plate. Place a larger plate on this,
upside down, and cut around it. Remove the plate, cut a slit in the
centre of the paste, and cover the pie, fulling the crust on a little.
Bake in a moderately hot oven for forty-five minutes. Less sugar may be
used, and any flavor may be substituted for the nutmeg. It must be
remembered, however, that nutmeg, cinnamon, and lemon are the best
flavors for apple.


                              Mince Pies.

Make mince pies in the same way as directed for stewed apple, but bake
them for one hour.


                               Peach Pie.

Make this in the same way as sliced apple, but use only half as much
sugar.


                              Berry Pies.

              1-1/2 pints of blueberries or blackberries.
              2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
              1 tablespoonful of flour.
              2 tablespoonfuls of water.
              Half the rule for delicate paste.

Make this in the same way as sliced apple pie, and bake in a moderate
oven for fifty minutes.

Sour and juicy berries will require more sugar and no water.


                               Lemon Pie.

                    1 tablespoonful of corn starch.
                    2 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar.
                    1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
                    1 lemon.
                    1/2 pint of water.
                    1/2 pint of granulated sugar.
                    2 eggs.
                    1/4 the rule for delicate paste.

Mix the corn starch with one third of the water, and put the remainder
on to boil. Stir the sugar, salt, and corn starch into the boiling
water, and cook for one minute, stirring all the time. Take from the
fire, and add the juice and the grated yellow rind of the lemon. When
cool, add the yolks of the eggs, well beaten. Line a deep plate with the
paste and fill with the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven for half an
hour. Take from the oven and cool for fifteen minutes.

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff dry froth, and then beat the
powdered sugar into them. Spread this meringue over the pie, and place
in the oven. Cook for twelve minutes with the oven door open; then put
away to get icy cold.


                              Squash Pie.

          1 pint of milk.
          1 pint of stewed squash.
          1 level tablespoonful of butter.
          1 level teaspoonful of salt.
          1 gill of sugar.
          1/6 of a nutmeg, grated.
          2 eggs.
          A piece of stick cinnamon about two inches long, or,
          1 teaspoonful of ground cinnamon.

Put the milk and cinnamon on the fire in the double-boiler, and cook for
twenty minutes. Rub the squash through a fine strainer, and add the
salt, sugar, butter, and nutmeg to it. Pour the boiling milk on this
mixture. Remove the cinnamon, and beat well; then set away to cool. When
cool, add the eggs, which should have been thoroughly beaten with a
spoon. Line a deep plate with pastry and pour the squash mixture into
it. Bake for forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.


                           Sweet Potato Pie.

Make these the same as squash pies; using, however, a scant measure of
sugar.


                               Cream Pie.

                1 gill of sugar.
                1/2 pint of sifted flour, scant measure.
                3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                4 tablespoonfuls of milk.
                1 egg.
                1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                Flavor.

Make this the same as cup cake and bake in a deep tin plate, in a
moderate oven, for about twenty minutes. When the cake is cool, split it
with a sharp knife, and fill with a mixture made as follows:—


                               _Filling._

                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                    1 level tablespoonful of flour.
                    1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
                    1 egg.
                    Flavor.

Put the milk in the double-boiler and set on the fire. Mix the flour and
sugar together and add the unbeaten egg to these ingredients. Beat with
a spoon until light; then stir into the boiling milk and cook for
fifteen minutes, stirring often. Now add the salt, and take from the
fire. When cool, add the flavor, which may be anything you choose. If
orange, lemon, or vanilla extract, use half a teaspoonful. Use the same
flavor for the cake.


                            Washington Pie.

Make the cake the same as for cream pie, but bake it in two deep tin
plates for about twelve minutes. Spread one sheet with any kind of jelly
or marmalade. Lay the second sheet on top of this and dredge with
powdered sugar.


                             Chocolate Pie.

Make the same as cream pie, but add to the cream one tablespoonful of
chocolate dissolved with one tablespoonful of sugar in half a
tablespoonful of boiling water. Cover the cake with a chocolate icing.


                              Berry Tart.

                   1-1/2 pints of berries.
                   1 gill of sugar.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of water.
                   Half the rule for delicate paste.

Put the berries in an oval vegetable dish that has a broad rim. Mix the
sugar and flour together and sprinkle over the berries. Pour the water
over the mixture. Roll the paste to the shape of the top of the dish,
but a little larger. Prick with a fork, and cover the top of the dish,
turning in the edges. Bake in a moderate oven for about fifty minutes.
When cold, sprinkle powdered sugar over the crust, and serve.

The sugar is for blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries,
and cherries. Currants and gooseberries will require twice as much
sweetening.

The dish may be filled with apples or peaches, cut in quarters, instead
of the berries. In that case use twice as much water, and flavor with a
little nutmeg.

These tarts are much more healthful than pies, the undercrust of which
is apt to be soggy.


                            Apple Turnovers.

                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   1 gill of milk.
                   1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                   1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 tablespoonful of butter.
                   1 egg.
                   10 tablespoonfuls of apple sauce.

Mix the flour, salt, baking powder, and sugar. Rub this mixture through
a sieve and then rub into it the butter. Now beat the egg till light,
and add to it the milk. Stir this liquid into the dry ingredients.
Sprinkle the moulding board with flour, and roll down the dough to the
thickness of about one fourth of an inch. Cut this dough into cakes the
size of a saucer. It is a good way to lay a saucer upside down on the
dough and cut around it with a jagging-iron or knife.

Put two tablespoonfuls of stewed, sweetened, and seasoned apples on each
piece of dough; fold over, and roll up, pinching the edges together.
Have on the fire a kettle containing hot fat about five or six inches
deep. When the fat begins to smoke, put in a few turnovers and cook for
eight minutes. Drain on brown paper. They are good hot or cold.

The apple used in turnovers may be flavored with either cinnamon or
nutmeg.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XVIII.

                               PUDDINGS.


                         Steamed Apple Pudding.

                1 pint of flour.
                1/2 pint of milk, scant.
                1 heaping teaspoonful of baking powder.
                1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                1/2 cupful of sugar.
                1/2 tablespoonful of butter.
                3 pints of apples.

[Illustration: MELON MOULD.]

[Illustration: STEAMER.]

Pare and core the apples and cut them into eighths. Mix the flour, salt,
baking powder, and half a tablespoonful of sugar together, and rub
through a sieve. Warm a little of the milk, and dissolve the butter in
it. Add the remainder of the milk to this, and pour upon the flour. Stir
into a smooth ball, and, putting it on a board that has been well
sprinkled with flour, roll very thin. Line a buttered melon mould with
it, having the sheet of dough large enough to hang over the sides of the
mould. Now fill the mould with the apples and sprinkle the sugar over
them. Bring the edges of the paste together and put the cover on the
mould. Steam for two hours and a half. At serving time turn out on a
flat dish, and serve with wine or nutmeg sauce.

This makes rather a large pudding for three people, if the first part of
the dinner has been substantial. If one prefer, half the quantity may be
made.


                      Quick Steamed Apple Pudding.

                 3 pints of pared and quartered apples.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.
                 1/2 pint of flour.
                 1 gill of sugar.
                 1/2 pint of water.
                 1 gill of milk.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                 1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.

Put the apples, water, sugar, and nutmeg into a broad porcelain or
granite-ware saucepan, and set on the fire. When the apples begin to
boil, set back where they will cook gently. Now mix the flour, salt, and
baking powder together and rub through a sieve. Rub the butter into this
dry mixture and then wet with the milk, stirring rapidly into a soft
dough. Sprinkle the bread board with flour, and roll the dough into a
round piece about the size of the top of the saucepan. Lay this on the
apples; then put on the cover, and continue the gentle cooking for
thirty minutes. Now lift the crust to a plate for a moment, and turn the
apple into a pudding dish. Place the crust over it, and serve with
nutmeg sauce or creamy sauce.


                         Baked Apple Dumplings.

                   1/2 pint of flour.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   1 tablespoonful of lard.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                   1/2 gill of cold water.
                   5 apples.
                   A little nutmeg.

Make the paste the same as directed for delicate paste. (See Pastry,
page 253.) Pare and core the apples. Cut the paste in five equal parts,
and roll one piece at a time until large enough to cover the apple.
Place an apple in the centre and fill the hole with sugar. Grate a
little nutmeg over it. Now draw the paste over the fruit, pressing the
edges together, and place in a baking pan, the rough side down. Bake in
a moderately hot oven for half an hour. Serve with a hot liquid sauce.


                        Steamed Apple Dumplings.

Make these the same as baked dumplings, using, however, only half as
much shortening; and steam for forty-five minutes.


                         Apple Tapioca Pudding.

         1 gill of tapioca.
         1-1/4 pints of cold water.
         1 gill of sugar.
         1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
         1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
         A heaping quart of pared, cored, and quartered apples.

Wash the tapioca and let it soak over night in the water. In the morning
put the tapioca and water in the double-boiler and cook for one hour.
Now stir into the cooked tapioca the salt, sugar, lemon, and apples.
Pour the mixture into a pudding dish, and bake in a moderate oven for an
hour and a quarter. Let it stand in a warm place for an hour before it
is served. Powdered sugar and cream should be served with it.


                       Apple and Indian Pudding.

                 1 gill of molasses.
                 1 quart of milk.
                 1 gill of Indian meal.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 pint of pared and quartered apples.
                 1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.

Have the milk boiling, and pour it gradually upon the meal, stirring all
the while. Turn into the double-boiler, and cook for an hour, stirring
often. Now add the molasses, butter, salt, and nutmeg, and beat well.
Stir in the apples, turn into a buttered pudding dish, and cook in a
slow oven for two hours and a half. The apples may be sour or sweet, but
sweet are the better. Serve with cream or with hard sauce.


                         Peach Tapioca Pudding.

Make this the same as apple tapioca, but use fresh, canned, or
evaporated peaches. If the last named be used, soak them over night in
water enough to cover them, and in the morning simmer them for ten or
twenty minutes.


                         Sponge Apple Pudding.

                    4 large apples.
                    1/2 pint of flour.
                    1 gill of sugar.
                    1 gill of milk.
                    1 egg.
                    1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Have the apples pared and sliced. Beat the egg until light; then add the
sugar, and beat five minutes longer. Now add the milk, and finally the
flour, with which should be mixed the baking powder. Beat the batter,
and pour it into a well buttered pudding dish that will hold about a
quart. Cover with the apples, and bake in a moderately hot oven for
about forty minutes. Serve with a hot liquid sauce.


                             Prune Pudding.

                        2 dozen prunes.
                        1/3 package of gelatine.
                        1 quart of water.
                        1 lemon.
                        1 gill of sugar.
                        Liquid cochineal.

Soak the gelatine in half a pint of cold water. Wash the prunes
thoroughly, and put them in a stewpan with a pint and a half of water.
Cook them slowly for two hours. Take the prunes from the liquid, and
remove the stones. Measure the liquid, and if there be more than half a
pint, boil it rapidly until reduced to that amount. If, however, there
be less than half a pint, add enough water to make the full measure.
Return the liquid and prunes to the fire. Color with a few drops of
cochineal. Add the lemon juice, soaked gelatine, and sugar. Stir the
mixture until the gelatine is dissolved; then turn it into a mould, and
set away to harden. Serve this pudding with either whipped cream or soft
custard.

If the flavor of wine be liked, the water in which the prunes were
cooked may be reduced to a gill, and a gill of wine be added to the
mixture.


                         Prune Tapioca Pudding.

                    1/2 cupful of tapioca.
                    3 cupfuls of cold water.
                    1 cupful of prunes.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                    1/2 cupful of sugar.

Wash the tapioca and soak it over night in the three cupfuls of cold
water. In the morning put the tapioca and water in the double-boiler and
cook for one hour. Before putting the tapioca on to cook, wash the
prunes, and, putting them in a saucepan with cold water enough to cover
them, place on the fire. Let them simmer gently until they absorb all
the water; then turn out on a plate to cool, and remove the stones.

When the tapioca has been cooking for an hour, stir all the seasonings
into it. Spread a layer of the tapioca in a small pudding dish; then
sprinkle with prunes, next with another layer of tapioca, and finally
with the remainder of the prunes. Cover with the tapioca and bake in a
moderate oven for one hour. Take the pudding from the oven and let it
partially cool; then serve with sugar and cream, or with soft custard.


                       Raspberry Tapioca Pudding.

                   1/2 gill of flaked tapioca.
                   1-1/2 gills of water.
                   1/2 gill of sugar.
                   1 pint of raspberries.
                   1/2 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

After measuring the tapioca, turn it out on the moulding board and crush
it as fine as possible with the rolling pin. Now wash it, and soak it in
the cold water for three hours or longer,—better over night, if there be
time. Put the soaked tapioca in a double-boiler and cook it until it is
perfectly clear. If it has been soaked over night it will cook in half
an hour, but if soaked for only three hours it will require cooking for
an hour and a half. When the tapioca is clear, add the sugar, salt, and
lemon; then take the dish from the fire and stir in the raspberries.
Rinse a bowl with cold water and pour the pudding into it. Set away to
cool. At serving time turn out the pudding on a flat dish and surround
it with whipped cream; or it may be served with plain cream.


                         Little Fruit Puddings.

            1/2 pint of unsifted flour.
            1 gill of sweet milk.
            1 tablespoonful of sugar.
            1 tablespoonful of butter.
            1 teaspoonful of baking powder.
            1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
            18 tablespoonfuls of stewed and sweetened fruit.

Put the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder together. Mix well, and
rub through the sieve. Rub the butter into these ingredients. Pour the
milk on this mixture, and beat well. Have six little earthen cups well
buttered. Put a tablespoonful of the batter in each cup, and draw it to
the sides of the cups, making a well in the batter. Put three
tablespoonfuls of stewed and sweetened fruit in these wells, and cover
with half a tablespoonful of the batter. Bake the puddings in a
moderately hot oven for half an hour. Turn out on a warm dish and serve
with a hot sauce.


                           Blueberry Pudding.

                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                     1/2 cupful of sugar.
                     3/4 cupful of flour.
                     1-1/2 cupfuls of blueberries.
                     1 egg.
                     1/3 of a nutmeg.
                     1/3 teaspoonful of soda.
                     1 tablespoonful of sour milk.
                     1 teaspoonful of cold water.

Beat the butter to a cream, and add the sugar gradually, beating well.
Now add the egg, well beaten, and beat vigorously for three minutes.
Grate in the nutmeg. Dissolve the soda in the teaspoonful of cold water;
add the sour milk to this, and stir all into the butter and sugar
mixture. Now stir in the flour, and lastly add the berries, stirring
lightly. Turn into a well buttered mould and steam for two hours. Serve
with a hot sauce. Foaming sauce is particularly good with this pudding.


                       Blueberry Pudding, No. 2.

                 1/2 a five-cent loaf of baker’s bread.
                 3 gills of milk.
                 2 eggs.
                 1 pint of blueberries.
                 2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.

Cut the bread in thin, slices and spread the butter on it. Line a
pudding dish with the bread, and sprinkle thickly with berries. Put in
another layer of bread, then the remainder of the berries, and finish
with bread. Beat the eggs, sugar, salt, and nutmeg together, and add the
milk to them. Pour this custard over the bread and berries and put away
in a cool place for two or three hours. Steam for one hour and a
quarter, and serve with hot sauce.

The pudding may be covered with a plate and baked in a slow oven for
forty-five minutes, if it be inconvenient to steam it.


                             Berry Pudding.

                1/2 pint of flour, generous measure.
                1 gill of milk.
                1 gill of sugar.
                3 gills blueberries or blackberries.
                1 tablespoonful of butter.
                1 heaping teaspoonful of baking powder.
                1 egg.

Beat the butter and sugar together. Add the egg, well beaten, then the
milk, and finally the flour and baking powder, mixed together. Beat
well, and then stir the berries in lightly. Turn into a buttered pudding
dish, and bake in a moderately hot oven for forty-five minutes. Serve
with a hot sauce.

This pudding may be steamed. It will require two hours’ time for that
mode of cooking.


                          Blackberry Pudding.

Make this in the same manner as the first blueberry pudding,
substituting blackberries for the blueberries.


                         Steamed Black Pudding.

                 1 pint of blueberries or blackberries.
                 1 quart of stale bread.
                 1 gill of sugar.
                 1/2 pint of water.
                 1/8 of a nutmeg, grated.
                 2 tablespoonfuls of butter.

Cut the bread in thin slices and butter them. Simmer the berries, sugar,
water, and nutmeg together for ten minutes. Butter a mould or a large
bowl and spread a layer of the buttered bread in it. Cover this with
berries and juice; then put in another layer of bread. Continue this
until all the materials are used, having the last layer one of fruit.
Let the pudding stand for two hours, and then steam for one hour and
half. At the end of that time turn into a pudding dish and serve with a
hot sauce.

Baker’s bread is the best for this dish.


                            Rhubarb Pudding.

                 1/2 a five-cent loaf of baker’s bread.
                 1/2 pint of rhubarb, generous measure.
                 1-1/2 gills of sugar.
                 3 tablespoonfuls of butter.

Have the butter soft. Cut the bread in thin slices, and spread the
butter on it; then dip it in cold water. Have the rhubarb peeled and cut
in thin slices before measuring. Put a layer of bread in a pudding dish,
then a layer of rhubarb. Sprinkle half the sugar over this; then put in
another layer of bread, rhubarb, and sugar. Finish with a layer of
bread. Cover the dish and steam for one hour; then take the dish from
the steamer, remove the cover, and bake the pudding until it turns a
delicate brown,—about twenty minutes. Serve with a hot sauce.


                              Jam Pudding.

Use the same materials as are given in the first rule for blueberry
pudding; omitting, of course, the berries, and stirring into the butter,
sugar, and egg mixture one gill of any kind of jam.


                        Steamed Batter Pudding.

                        1/2 pint of milk.
                        1 gill of flour.
                        2 eggs.
                        1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Have a covered mould well buttered. Beat the eggs till light, and add
the milk and salt to them. Pour half this mixture on the flour, and beat
well. When the batter is smooth, beat in the remainder of the liquid
mixture and pour the batter into the mould. Cover closely and steam for
one hour. Serve with a hot sauce. This pudding should be turned out of
the mould very carefully, and served on a hot dish.


                            Quiver Pudding.

                      3 gills of stale bread.
                      3 gills of milk.
                      2 eggs.
                      1 gill of stoned raisins.
                      1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                      A slight grating of nutmeg.

Beat together the eggs, sugar, salt, and nutmeg. Use a spoon and beat
very thoroughly. Butter a quart mould. Cut the bread in thin slices and
put a layer in the mould. Sprinkle some of the raisins over this, then
put in another layer of bread. Continue until all the bread and fruit
have been used. Pour the custard on this, one spoonful at a time. Cover,
and stand in a cool place for three or four hours. Steam for one hour,
and turn out on a warm dish. Serve with either vanilla, creamy, or
golden sauce.


                             Plum Pudding.

                  3 gills of boiling milk.
                  1/2 pint of fine cracker crumbs.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                  1 gill of stoned raisins.
                  1 gill of currants.
                  1 tablespoonful of shredded citron.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                  2 eggs.

Pour the milk on the cracker crumbs and spice. Add the butter, and set
away to cool. Beat together the yolks of the eggs and the sugar. Add
this and the fruit to the cooled mixture. Beat the whites of the eggs to
a stiff froth and stir them into the pudding. Turn the batter into a
well buttered mould; then cover closely and steam for five hours. Serve
with a hot sauce.

This rule may be doubled, making two small puddings, one of which can be
kept in a cool place for a couple of weeks. Steam it at least an hour
when it is warmed up.


                            Chester Pudding.

                   1 gill of molasses.
                   1 gill of milk.
                   1 gill of beef suet, chopped fine.
                   3 gills of flour.
                   1 gill of raisins.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                   1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                   1/8 teaspoonful of mace.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   Juice and grated rind of a lemon.

Put into a large bowl the suet, molasses, spice, lemon, and raisins, and
beat together for one minute. Dissolve the soda in the milk, and add the
milk to the ingredients in the bowl. Beat well, and then add the flour.
Beat for three minutes, and turn into a buttered pudding dish. Steam for
five hours, and serve hot with wine sauce or any rich sauce.


                             Wayne Pudding.

                      1/2 pint of flour.
                      1 gill of molasses.
                      1 gill of milk.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                      1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.
                      1 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                      1 gill of stoned raisins.
                      1 gill of stoned currants.
                      1 egg.

Beat the butter to a cream, and beat into it the molasses, spice, and
salt. Dissolve the soda in the milk. Beat the egg till light, and beat
it into the butter and molasses. Now add the milk and soda. Add the
flour next, and finally the fruit, beating the mixture well. Turn into a
buttered mould and steam for three hours. Serve with a hot liquid sauce.


                            Turkish Pudding.

This is made the same as Wayne pudding, substituting prunes, dates, and
figs for the currants and raisins. These fruits must be washed, and cut
into small pieces. Use half a pint of the mixed fruit.


                            Graham Pudding.

                 3 gills of graham.
                 1 gill of sweet milk.
                 1 gill of stoned and chopped raisins.
                 1/2 gill of molasses.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of soda.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Sift the graham into a bowl. Dissolve the soda in one tablespoonful of
the milk. Add to this the remainder of the milk, and the molasses and
salt. Stir well, and pour upon the graham. Beat the butter vigorously
for five minutes; then stir in the raisins. Turn the mixture into a
buttered mould, which should then be covered and placed in the steamer.
Cook for four hours. Serve with golden or creamy sauce.


                        Steamed Indian Pudding.

                   1 cupful of granulated corn meal.
                   1/2 cupful of sour milk.
                   1/2 cupful of chopped suet.
                   1/2 cupful of molasses.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 level teaspoonful of soda.

Mix the suet, molasses, and salt together. Dissolve the soda in a
tablespoonful of cold water. Add to the sour milk, and stir into the
other ingredients. Now add the meal, and beat well. Pour the batter into
a well buttered mould, and steam for four hours. Serve with molasses
sauce.


                     Steamed Indian Berry Pudding.

When blueberries and blackberries are in season add half a pint of
either kind of berries to the batter for steamed Indian pudding, and
steam and serve as directed above.


                   Steamed Indian and Apple Pudding.

Make the batter as directed for steamed Indian pudding, and add to it a
cupful and a half of pared and sliced apples. Steam and serve the same
as the plain Indian pudding.


                         Baked Indian Pudding.

                     3 pints of milk.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of corn meal.
                     1 gill of molasses.
                     1 tablespoonful of butter.
                     1/3 teaspoonful of salt.

Boil one pint of the milk, and pour gradually upon the meal, stirring
all the time. Turn the mixture into the double-boiler and cook for half
an hour, stirring frequently. At the end of that time take from the fire
and add the molasses, butter, salt, and the quart of cold milk. Add the
milk gradually, beating well. Pour the mixture into an earthen pudding
dish that will just hold it, and bake in a very slow oven for four
hours. When it has been cooking for one hour, set the dish in a pan of
hot water and cover with an earthen plate. This would not be essential
in a large pudding, but a small one dries up in the long cooking unless
these precautions be taken. The pudding will be spoiled if the oven be
hot enough to make it bubble.


                          Mock Indian Pudding.

                      1 pint of milk.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of rice.
                      1 gill of molasses.
                      1 tablespoonful of butter.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of cinnamon.
                      1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the rice and mix it with the other ingredients; using, however,
only half the butter. Turn into an earthen dish and bake slowly for two
hours. At the end of the first hour add the second half tablespoonful of
butter, and stir well. Serve with cream.


                             Bread Pudding.

                       1/2 pint of stale bread.
                       1 pint of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                       1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                       1 egg.

Break the bread into small bits and measure it lightly. Let it soak in
the milk, in a cool place, for two or three hours; then mash it with a
spoon. Beat the sugar, salt, and egg together, and stir into the bread
and milk. Pour into a small pudding dish and place the dish in a larger
tin dish in which there is warm water enough to come within one inch of
the top of the pudding dish. Place in a moderate oven and bake for about
thirty-five minutes. Serve with vanilla or creamy sauce.


                             Cake Pudding.

Put any kind of stale cake on a plate and in the steamer, and steam for
half an hour. Serve with a hot liquid sauce.


                            Sponge Pudding.

                 1 egg.
                 1 gill of sugar.
                 1 generous gill of flour.
                 3 tablespoonfuls of water.
                 1 heaped teaspoonful of baking powder.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.

Beat the egg till light; add the sugar, and beat for five minutes; then
add the water, salt, and flavor, and finally the flour, with which the
baking powder should be mixed. Turn into a well buttered pudding dish
and bake in a moderate oven for about twenty-five minutes.

Serve with a hot liquid sauce.

The lemon juice may be omitted.


                            Cottage Pudding.

                 1/2 pint of sifted flour.
                 1 gill of milk.
                 1 gill of sugar.
                 1 tablespoonful of butter.
                 1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1 heaped teaspoonful of baking powder.
                 1 egg.

Beat the butter to a cream; then beat the sugar into it. Next add the
unbeaten egg and beat vigorously for three or four minutes. Add the salt
and milk, and then the flour, with which should be mixed the baking
powder. Beat for a few seconds, and, turning the batter into a small,
well buttered pudding dish, bake for about twenty-five minutes in a
moderate oven. Serve with a hot liquid sauce.

The measure of flour is for pastry flour.

If the new-process flour be used, measure a very scant half-pint.


                             Lemon Pudding.

             2 rounded tablespoonfuls of granulated sugar.
             1 tablespoonful of powdered sugar.
             3 rounded teaspoonfuls of corn starch.
             1 saltspoonful of salt.
             1 tablespoonful of butter.
             2 tablespoonfuls of milk.
             1 gill of water.
             The juice and grated rind of half a lemon.
             1 egg.

Mix the corn starch with three tablespoonfuls of water. Put the
remainder of the water in a saucepan and set on to boil. Stir the mixed
corn starch into this and cook for five minutes. Take from the fire and
add the salt and the lemon; reserving half a teaspoonful, however. Beat
the butter to a cream, and gradually beat into it the granulated sugar,
then the yolk of the egg, and finally the milk. Stir this mixture into
the cooked ingredients, and, pouring all into a pudding dish that will
hold about a pint, bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. Let it
cool for ten minutes.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff dry froth, and beat into it the
tablespoonful of powdered sugar, and the reserved half teaspoonful of
lemon juice. Spread this meringue on the pudding and bake for fifteen
minutes with the oven door open. Serve this pudding very cold.


                             Cream Pudding.

      1 pint of milk.
      2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
      3 tablespoonfuls of fruit juice, or 1 tablespoonful of wine.
      1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
      1 gill of granulated sugar.
      2 eggs.

[Illustration: DOUBLE-BOILER.]

Reserve half a gill of milk and put the remainder on the fire, in the
double-boiler. Mix the flour and salt to a smooth paste, with the cold
milk. Add to this mixture the eggs, well beaten, and stir into the
boiling milk. Cook for eight minutes, stirring three times. Turn the hot
mixture into the pudding dish and spread the sugar over it. Wet the
sugar with the wine or fruit juice, and set away to cool. The sugar and
fruit juice make the sauce.


                           Chocolate Pudding.

            1 egg.
            1 pint of milk.
            2 tablespoonfuls of corn starch.
            1 tablespoonful of boiling water.
            3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
            1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
            1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
            1 ounce of shaved chocolate (one of the squares
              in a half-pound cake of chocolate).

Reserve half a gill of milk and put the remainder on the fire, in the
double-boiler. Mix the cold milk with the corn starch and salt. Beat the
egg well and add to the corn starch mixture. Stir this into the boiling
milk, and beat well. Put the shaved chocolate, sugar, and boiling water
in a small frying-pan and set over a hot fire. Stir until the mixture is
smooth and glossy; then beat this into the pudding, and cook for two
minutes longer. Take from the fire and add the vanilla. Dip a mould in
cold water and turn the pudding into it. Set away to cool. At serving
time turn out on a flat dish and surround with whipped cream; or serve
with plain cream and sugar. A soft custard, flavored with vanilla, makes
a good sauce for this pudding.


                       Chocolate Pudding, No. 2.

                  1 pint of milk.
                  1 tablespoonful of corn starch.
                  1 gill of granulated sugar.
                  1 ounce of chocolate.
                  2 eggs.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
                  1 tablespoonful of boiling water.
                  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Reserve one gill of the milk and put the remainder on the fire, in the
double-boiler. Beat the yolks of the eggs well, and add to them the
sugar and salt. Mix the milk with the corn starch and add this to the
sugar and yolks of eggs. Shave the chocolate and put it in a pan with
two tablespoonfuls of sugar and one of boiling water. Stir over a hot
fire until smooth and glossy, and stir this mixture into the hot milk.
Now add the corn starch mixture and stir well. Cook for eight minutes,
stirring often. Add half the vanilla, and turn into a pudding dish. Let
it stand in a cool place for ten minutes.

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff dry froth, and then gradually
beat into them the powdered sugar and the remainder of the vanilla.
Cover the pudding with this meringue and place in the oven. Cook for
twelve minutes with the oven door open. Serve cold.


                            Caramel Pudding.

                      1/2 pint of brown sugar.
                      1/2 pint of water.
                      1/4 of a box of gelatine.
                      4 egg whites.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Soak the gelatine in one gill of cold water for two hours. Put the sugar
and the other gill of water in a small saucepan and set on the fire.
Boil until the mixture becomes a thick syrup. Now add the gelatine and
vanilla, and heat again to boiling point.

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff, dry froth. Pour the hot syrup
slowly on the eggs, beating briskly all the time. Turn the mixture into
a mould, and set away to cool. When firm, turn out on a flat dish, and
serve with a custard sauce.


                            _Custard Sauce._

                      3 gills of milk.
                      4 egg yolks.
                      3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                      1/8 teaspoonful of salt.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Make this sauce as directed for soft custard. (See Sweets, page 289.)
Serve it cold.


                          Corn Starch Pudding.

                2 heaped tablespoonfuls of corn starch.
                1 pint of milk.
                1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Reserve one gill of milk and put the remainder on the fire, in the
double-boiler. Mix the milk with the corn starch and salt, and stir into
the milk when it boils. Beat well, and cook for ten minutes, stirring
often; then turn into a pudding dish, and let it stand for ten minutes.
Serve with sugar and cream, or with an egg or fruit sauce.


                            Custard Pudding.

                       1-1/2 pints of milk.
                       3 eggs.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                       3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                       1/6 of a nutmeg, grated.

Break the eggs into a bowl and add the sugar and salt. Beat well with a
spoon,—never with an egg beater, as they must not be light. Add the milk
to them and turn into a small pudding dish. Place the dish in a pan of
warm water and set in a very moderate oven. Bake the pudding until firm
in the centre. It should take not less than half an hour; better longer,
as the slower the custard cooks the smoother and richer it will be. The
oven must not be hot enough to have the water boil. Test the custard by
running a knife down the centre. If it comes out clean the custard is
done; but if a milky substance clings to it, cook the pudding a little
longer. The flavor may be cinnamon, lemon, or anything else one chooses.


                           Cocoanut Pudding.

                  1/2 pint of milk.
                  1/2 pint of stale sponge cake.
                  1 gill of grated cocoanut.
                  1 gill of sugar.
                  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                  2 eggs.
                  Grated yellow rind of half a lemon.

Soak the cake in the milk for one hour. Beat the whites of the eggs to a
stiff froth, and beat into them the sugar and yolks of eggs. Stir this
mixture into the cake and milk. Add the salt, lemon rind, and cocoanut.
Turn the mixture into a buttered pudding dish, and bake slowly for about
thirty-five minutes. Serve cold.


                            Tapioca Pudding.

                   1 gill of flake or pearl tapioca.
                   1-1/2 pints of milk.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the tapioca and let it soak over night in one pint of cold water.
In the morning pour off the water and add the milk. Cook for one hour in
the double-boiler. Stir in the salt, and cook for half an hour longer.
Serve with sugar and cream, or with preserved fruit.

The hot pudding may be turned into a mould which has been dipped in cold
water. Let it stand in a cool place for several hours; then turn out on
a flat dish, and pour preserved fruit around it.


                            Oatmeal Pudding.

                        1 gill of oatmeal.
                        1/2 gill of raisins.
                        3 gills of water.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the water and raisins in a stewpan; cover, and simmer for half an
hour. At the end of that time stir in the salt and oatmeal. Boil rapidly
for one minute; then set the stewpan back where the contents will only
simmer for one hour. Rinse a mould or bowl in cold water and turn the
pudding into it. Set away to cool. Serve with sugar and cream.


                          Boiled Rice Pudding.

                        1 gill of rice.
                        1 pint of milk.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the rice in three waters, rubbing it well between the hands. Put it
on the fire in one pint of cold water, and let it cook for ten minutes.
Drain off the water and add the salt and milk; then cook in the
double-boiler for two hours. Do not stir it while it is cooking. Serve
hot with sugar and cream.

If raisins be liked mix a gill of them with the rice when the milk is
added.


                              Rice Balls.

Cook the rice the same as for boiled rice pudding. Wet small custard
cups or after-dinner coffee cups in cold water and fill them with the
hot pudding. Let them stand where they will keep warm until serving
time; then turn them out on a flat dish and put a bit of bright jelly on
top of each ball. Serve with soft custard.

The rice ball must be hot and the custard cold.


                           Cold Rice Pudding.

                 3 tablespoonfuls of rice.
                 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                 1 level tablespoonful of corn starch.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                 1-1/2 pints of milk.
                 Flavor to taste.

Wash the rice and soak it in cold water for an hour. Pour off this water
and put the rice on the fire in a pint of cold water. When this boils,
drain off the water and add a pint of milk. Cook in the double-boiler
for an hour. Mix the corn starch with a gill of cold milk and add to the
rice mixture. Let this cook ten minutes longer; then add the sugar,
salt, the remainder of the cold milk, and the flavor, which may be the
grated yellow rind of an orange or lemon, a slight grating of nutmeg, or
a teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon extract. If cinnamon be liked, a piece
about four inches long may be cooked with the rice and milk, and be
removed when the sugar and salt are added. Stir the mixture well, and
turn into a pudding dish. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour, and
put away to cool. This pudding does not require a sauce.


                         English Rice Pudding.

                      1 gill of chopped suet.
                      1 gill of stoned raisins.
                      1 heaped gill of rice.
                      1 level teaspoonful of salt.
                      1 gill of sugar.
                      1 quart of milk.

Wash the rice, and mix it with the suet, sugar, raisins, and salt. Add
one pint of the milk; then place in a very moderate oven and cook for
half an hour. At the end of that time stir in the second pint of milk,
and continue cooking slowly for two hours. Serve hot.


                          Baked Rice Pudding.

                      1 gill of rice.
                      1 quart of milk.
                      1 gill of raisins.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                      3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                      1 tablespoonful of cinnamon.

Wash the rice and put it in a pudding dish with the sugar, salt,
cinnamon, raisins, and a pint of the milk. Bake in a slow oven for one
hour, stirring it twice in that time. Add the second pint of milk and
cook an hour and a half longer. Serve hot. This pudding does not require
a sauce.


                          Hot Farina Pudding.

                   1 pint of milk.
                   3 level tablespoonfuls of farina.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the milk in the double-boiler. Measure the farina into a cup. When
the milk boils, add the salt, and, with a tablespoon, stir the milk
rapidly. When it is well in motion begin to sprinkle in the farina,
stirring all the while. Beat the mixture well, and cook for thirty
minutes. Serve with sugar and cream.


                          Cold Farina Pudding.

                   1 pint of milk.
                   2 level tablespoonfuls of farina.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
                   1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Put the milk in the double-boiler and set on the fire. When it boils,
stir rapidly until all parts are in motion. Continue the stirring, and
sprinkle in the farina. Now add the salt, and cook for forty minutes;
then beat in the sugar and flavor. Dip a mould in cold water and turn
the hot mixture into it. Set away to cool. Serve with sugar and cream,
or any kind of preserved fruit.


                         Farina Fruit Pudding.

Make the pudding the same as for cold farina, omitting the sugar and
flavor. When it is cooked, add to it one gill of preserved jelly or
marmalade. Turn into the mould and set away to cool. Serve with plain or
whipped cream and sugar, or with soft custard.


                             Rose Pudding.

            1/4 package of pink gelatine, generous measure.
            1 gill of sherry.
            1 gill of boiling water.
            1 gill of cold water, scant.
            1 gill of sugar.
            1 lemon.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours; then pour the boiling
water on it, keeping it in the same bowl in which it has been soaked.
Add the sugar, and stir until the sugar and gelatine are dissolved. Now
put in the wine and lemon juice. Strain the liquid into a large bowl and
let it stand until cold; then place the bowl in a pan and surround it
with water and ice. As soon as the liquid begins to thicken, beat it
with a beater or a whisk until it is light and spongy. It will then be
of a rose-pink color. Rinse a mould in cold water and pour the pudding
into it. Set in a cold place for an hour or more. At serving time dip
the mould in tepid water, to loosen the pudding. Wipe the outside of the
mould and see to it that the pudding comes away from the sides. Turn out
on a flat dish and serve with a custard sauce in a separate dish; or,
this pudding may be served with whipped cream heaped around it; in which
case the custard is, of course, omitted.

Uncolored gelatine may be used, if more convenient, and the pudding be
colored with liquid cochineal.


                             Snow Pudding.

                   1/4 box of gelatine.
                   1/8 gill of cold water.
                   1/2 pint (scant) of boiling water.
                   Juice of one lemon.
                   1/2 pint of sugar.
                   Whites of two eggs.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours. Pour upon this the
boiling water, and stir until the gelatine is dissolved; then add the
sugar and lemon juice, stirring until the sugar is dissolved. Set the
bowl in a pan of cold water to cool; ice water is the best. Stir
frequently; and when it begins to congeal, add the unbeaten whites of
the eggs, and beat constantly until the mixture becomes a thick, white
sponge that will just pour. Immediately pour it into a mould that has
been dipped in cold water, and set away to become firm.

At serving time dip the mould in tepid water and turn the pudding out on
a flat dish. Pour the sauce around it, or serve in a separate dish. Make
the sauce by the rule for custard sauce for snow blancmange.


                          Snow Pudding, No. 2.

                    1/2 pint of boiling water.
                    1/2 gill of cold water.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of corn starch.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of lemon juice.
                    Whites of two eggs.

Put the sugar, lemon juice, and boiling water in a small saucepan,—not
tin,—and set on the fire. Mix the cold water with the corn starch and
stir into the boiling liquid. Put the saucepan in another pan of boiling
water, and, after covering, cook the mixture for ten minutes. Beat the
whites of the eggs to a stiff, dry froth, and stir them into the cooked
corn starch. Wet a mould in cold water and turn the mixture into it. Set
away to cool. Serve with a custard sauce made the same as for snow
blancmange.


                          Orange Snow Pudding.

                      1/4 box of gelatine.
                      1/2 gill of cold water.
                      1 gill of boiling water.
                      1-1/2 gills of orange juice.
                      Whites of two eggs.

Make this pudding the same as snow pudding No. 1, and serve with the
same kind of sauce.


                            Snow Blancmange.

       1 pint of milk.
       2 rounded tablespoonfuls of corn starch.
       2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
       1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
       Whites of two eggs.
       2/3 teaspoonful of vanilla, or 1/4 teaspoonful of almond.

Reserve one gill of the milk, and, putting the remainder in the
double-boiler, set it on the fire. Mix the cold milk with the
corn-starch. When the milk boils, stir in the corn starch and cold milk.
Add the sugar and salt, and beat well. Replace the cover of the boiler
and cook the pudding for ten minutes.

Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff dry froth. Add the flavor and the
whites of the eggs to the pudding, stirring gently, but mixing well. Dip
a mould in cold water and turn the pudding into it. Set away to cool.
Serve with custard sauce or with sugar and cream.


                            _Custard Sauce._

                  1 pint of milk.
                  1 whole egg and two yolks.
                  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
                  Flavor the same as used for pudding.

Beat the eggs, sugar, and salt together. Add the milk, and, putting the
sauce in the double-boiler, set it on the fire. Stir all the time until
the custard thickens. It will take about five minutes if the water in
the lower boiler was boiling when the upper boiler with its contents was
put on the fire. Cool, and add the flavor.



                            PUDDING SAUCES.


                              Wine Sauce.

                     1 gill of powdered sugar.
                     2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                     3 tablespoonfuls of wine.
                     3 tablespoonfuls of hot milk.

Beat the butter to a cream and gradually beat into it the powdered
sugar. When this mixture becomes light and frothy, beat in the wine, a
tablespoonful at a time. When all the wine has been beaten in, place the
bowl in a pan of boiling water. Add the hot milk slowly, beating all the
time. Take the bowl from the hot water immediately, and the sauce will
be ready to use.


                             Foaming Sauce.

                      2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                      1 gill of powdered sugar.
                      White of one egg.
                      3 tablespoonfuls of sherry.

Beat the butter to a cream. Gradually beat into it the powdered sugar.
Now add the well beaten white of the egg, and beat for two minutes
longer. Add the wine, a spoonful at a time, and continue beating until
the mixture is perfectly smooth. Place the bowl in a pan of boiling
water and stir for three minutes. Serve in a hot bowl.


                             Creamy Sauce.

                   1 gill of powdered sugar.
                   2 heaped tablespoonfuls of butter.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of wine.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of milk.

Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat in the powdered sugar.
Now beat in the wine, a little at a time. Next add the milk, half a
spoonful at a time, beating until perfectly smooth. Place the bowl in a
pan of boiling water, and stir the sauce for about two minutes.

Half a teaspoonful of vanilla may be substituted for the wine.


                              Fruit Sauce.

                     1 gill of jelly or preserves.
                     White of one egg.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff dry froth, and gradually beat into
it the jelly or fruit.


                               Egg Sauce.

        1 gill of powdered sugar.
        1 egg.
        2 tablespoonfuls of milk.
        1/2 a teaspoonful of vanilla, lemon, or orange extract.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff dry froth, and gradually beat into
it the powdered sugar. Now add the yolk of the egg, the flavor, and the
milk. Serve at once.


                             Vinegar Sauce.

                    1 cupful of sugar.
                    1 level tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 cupful of boiling water.
                    1 tablespoonful of butter.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
                    1/4 nutmeg, grated.

Mix the flour and sugar together, and pour the boiling water upon the
mixture. Add the salt, butter, nutmeg, and vinegar, and simmer for ten
minutes.


                            Molasses Sauce.

    1 gill of molasses.
    1 gill of sugar.
    1 gill of water.
    1 teaspoonful of flour.
    1 tablespoonful of butter.
    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice, or 1/2 tablespoonful of vinegar.

Mix the flour and sugar together. Pour the boiling water upon it. Add
the molasses, and place on the range. Simmer for ten minutes; then add
the other ingredients, boil up once and serve.


                              Clear Sauce.

                            1 gill of water.
                            1 gill of sugar.
                            Flavor.

Put the water and sugar in a small saucepan and set on the fire. Simmer
for twelve minutes, and add any flavor you wish. If wine, three
tablespoonfuls.


                           Clear Lemon Sauce.

Put into a saucepan one gill of sugar, a gill and a half of water, a
thin slice of the yellow rind of lemon, and a slight grating of nutmeg.
Cook gently for ten minutes; then add two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice,
and serve.


                            Cinnamon Sauce.

           1 level tablespoonful of flour.
           1/2 tablespoonful of butter.
           1/8 teaspoonful of salt.
           1/2 cupful of sugar.
           1 cupful of boiling water.
           A piece of stick cinnamon about three inches long.

Mix the sugar and flour together and pour the boiling water upon the
mixture, stirring all the while. Add the cinnamon, and place the
saucepan on the fire. Simmer for ten minutes; then add the other
ingredients and cook for two minutes longer. Strain and serve.


                             Nutmeg Sauce.

                       1 gill of sugar.
                       1 gill of boiling water.
                       1 teaspoonful of flour.
                       1/4 of a nutmeg, grated.
                       1 tablespoonful of butter.
                       1 saltspoonful of salt.

Mix the flour, sugar, and nutmeg together, and pour the boiling water on
them. Place on the fire, and stir until the mixture begins to boil.
Simmer for ten minutes; then add the salt and butter. Boil up once and
serve. Any flavor may be substituted for the nutmeg.

This is one of the simplest and most useful pudding sauces made.


                             Italian Sauce.

            1 gill of sugar.
            1 gill of water.
            A slight grating of the yellow rind of a lemon.
            1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
            A slight grating of nutmeg.
            1 teaspoonful of butter.
            Whites of two eggs.

Boil the sugar, water, nutmeg, and the rind of lemon for fifteen
minutes. When this mixture has been boiling for ten minutes, begin to
beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff dry froth. Add the butter and
lemon juice to the boiling syrup; then, when all boils up, pour the
syrup in a thin stream on the whites of the egg, beating constantly.
Beat for two minutes and the sauce will be ready to serve. It is
particularly good for any kind of moist, steamed, or baked pudding.


                             Golden Sauce.

                  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
                  1 gill of powdered sugar.
                  1 egg.
                  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla extract.

Beat the butter to a cream. Gradually beat into it the powdered sugar.
Next add the yolk of the egg, and beat well. Beat the white of the egg
to a stiff froth and stir into the sauce. Add the flavor. Place the bowl
in a pan of boiling water and cook for four minutes, stirring all the
time.

Three tablespoonfuls of wine may be substituted for the vanilla.


                            Hot Cream Sauce.

                   1 egg.
                   1/2 cupful of powdered sugar.
                   1 teaspoonful of corn starch.
                   1 teaspoonful of butter.
                   1 teaspoonful of vanilla extract.
                   1 cupful of boiling milk or cream.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff, dry froth; then gradually beat
into it the powdered sugar and corn starch. Next add the yolk of the egg
and beat well. Pour upon this the cupful of boiling milk, and place on
the fire. Stir until it boils, then add the butter and vanilla, and
serve. Any other flavor may be substituted for the vanilla.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XIX.

                                SWEETS.


                             Soft Custard.

                    1 pint of milk.
                    2 large tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                    3 eggs.
                    1/8 teaspoonful of salt.
                    Flavor.

Beat the eggs and sugar together for six minutes, and add a gill of cold
milk to them. Put the remainder of the milk in the double-boiler and set
on the fire. When this milk comes to the boiling point, pour it over the
ingredients in the bowl, and stir well. Turn the mixture into the
double-boiler, and, placing it on the fire, cook, stirring all the
while, until the custard will coat the spoon. It will take about five
minutes. Take from the fire, and instantly turn into the cold bowl. Stir
constantly until it begins to cool. Should it grow thin as it cools, you
may know that it has not cooked enough; in which case it should be
returned to the double-boiler and cooked a little longer. If, on the
other hand, it begins to look slightly curdled on taking it from the
fire, it has cooked too much. In that case, pour it back and forth from
one bowl to another, holding the bowl from which it is poured quite
high, and the custard will become smooth again, unless it be very much
overdone.

Soft custard is one of the easiest dishes for dessert that one can make,
and one of the most useful; but only experience will enable one to
detect the changes in the cooking mixture. It is impossible to give
exact time. When eggs are cheap allow four; for this dish is improved by
the use of a generous number.

The yolks of the eggs make a richer custard than when the whole egg is
used. If the whites be required for any other purpose, you may use even
half a dozen yolks.


                          Baked Cup Custards.

Make these the same as the custard pudding, and pour into four custard
cups. Place the cups in a pan of warm water and bake in a moderate oven
until firm in the centre.


                         Steamed Cup Custards.

Make the same as the baked custards, but steam over boiling water until
firm in the centre.


                            Tapioca Custard.

                    2 tablespoonfuls of tapioca.
                    1 cupful of cold water.
                    1 pint of milk.
                    1 large egg.
                    1 gill of sugar.
                    1/2 teaspoonful vanilla extract.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the tapioca in cold water; then put it in a bowl with the cupful of
cold water and soak it over night. In the morning put the milk in a
double-boiler and set on the fire. Beat together the sugar, eggs, and
salt. Drain off any water the tapioca may not have absorbed. Add the
tapioca to the eggs and sugar, and, as soon as the milk boils, stir in
this mixture. Cook for five minutes, stirring all the time. Take from
the fire and add the vanilla extract. Pour into a bowl and set away to
cool. At serving time pour the pudding into a glass dish. It should be
icy cold.


                            Rennet Custard.

               1 pint of sweet milk.
               2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
               1/8 of a nutmeg.
               1 tablespoonful of rennet wine, or
                 1/2 tablespoonful of essence of rennet.

Make the milk blood-warm, and then add the sugar and rennet wine,
stirring only enough to mix the ingredients. Pour this into glass
custard cups, and grate the nutmeg over the custards. Let them stand in
a warm room until the mixture becomes firm; then set in a cold place
until serving time.

The prepared rennet, which can be bought in small bottles, may be
substituted for the rennet wine.


                                 Slip.

                    1 pint of milk.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of rennet wine.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of sherry.

Have the milk blood-warm,—about one hundred degrees. Flavor it, and pour
it into the dish in which it is to be served. Now add the rennet wine,
and stir gently, to mix it. Let the dish stand in the warm room until
the mixture has stiffened; then place it in the refrigerator, or in a
cold room, until the time to serve. The slip must not be disturbed until
you are ready to serve it on the table, as it may separate into curds
and whey when once broken.


                       Strawberry Bavarian Cream.

                  1 pint of strawberries.
                  1 gill of sugar.
                  1/2 gill of boiling water.
                  1 gill of cold water, scant measure.
                  1/4 package of gelatine.
                  1 quart of whipped cream.

Pick over the strawberries, put them in a bowl with the sugar, and crush
well. Let them stand for two hours. Soak the gelatine in the cold water
for two hours. Next whip the cream. Rub the strawberries and sugar
through a strainer into a large bowl. Pour the boiling water on the
gelatine, and when this is dissolved, add it to the strained
strawberries. Place the bowl in a pan of ice-water and let it stand,
stirring all the time, until it begins to thicken. Immediately add the
whipped cream, stirring it in gently. Pour the cream into a mould, which
has been dipped in cold water, and set away to harden. At serving time
dip the mould in tepid water, turn out the cream on a large flat dish,
and heap whipped cream around it. One pint and a half of cream will give
enough whipped cream to make the dish and to serve with it.


                      Sea Moss Farina Blancmange.

                 1 pint of milk.
                 1 even teaspoonful of sea moss farina.
                 1 saltspoonful of salt.
                 1 tablespoonful of sugar.
                 1/2 teaspoonful of flavor.

Put the farina in a bowl, and gradually pour the milk over it, stirring
until smooth. Turn into the double-boiler and cook, stirring frequently,
until the mass looks white; then add the sugar, salt, and flavor. Rinse
a mould in cold water, and turn the blancmange into it. Set away in a
cool place to harden. It should have three or four hours for this. Serve
with powdered sugar and cream.


                         Chocolate Blancmange.

Make as directed for the sea moss farina. While it is cooking put into a
small pan two tablespoonfuls of shaved chocolate, two tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and one of hot water. Stir over a hot fire until smooth and
glossy; then stir into the hot blancmange. Pour into moulds and set away
to harden.


                            Moss Blancmange.

               1 gill of Irish moss.
               1 quart of milk.
               2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
               1 saltspoonful of salt.
               1 teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon extract.

Measure the moss loosely. Wash it and pick out all the pebbles and
seaweed. Continue washing it until every particle of sand is removed.
Put it in the double-boiler with the cold milk, and place on the fire.
Cook for twenty minutes, stirring frequently; then add the salt, and
strain into a bowl. Now add the sugar and flavor. Rinse a bowl in cold
water, and, after turning the blancmange into it, set it away to harden.
Serve with powdered sugar and cream.


                              Wine Jelly.

                        1/2 package of gelatine.
                        1/2 pint of wine.
                        1 pint of water.
                        2 lemons.
                        1/2 pint of sugar.

Soak the gelatine in a gill of cold water for two hours. Heat the
remainder of the water to the boiling point, and pour it upon the soaked
gelatine. Add the sugar, lemon juice, and wine. Place the bowl in a pan
of boiling water and stir until the liquid is clear. Strain through a
napkin and pour into moulds. Set away to harden.


                              Cider Jelly.

                1/2 package of gelatine, scant measure.
                1/2 pint of sugar.
                1-1/2 pints of cider.

Soak the gelatine in half a pint of the cider for two hours. Heat the
rest of the cider to the boiling point and pour it on the soaked
gelatine. Add the sugar, and place the bowl in a pan of boiling water.
Stir until the liquid is clear; then strain, pour into a mould, and set
away to harden.


                              Lemon Jelly.

            1/2 package of gelatine.
            1 gill of cold water.
            1 gill of lemon juice.
            1 pint of boiling water.
            1/2 pint of sugar.
            A few strips of the thin yellow rind of a lemon.

Soak the gelatine for two hours in the cold water. Pour the pint of
boiling water on the lemon rind and let it stand for two hours. At the
end of that time place on the fire; and when it boils pour it over the
soaked gelatine. Now add the sugar, and, placing the bowl in a pan of
boiling water, stir until the liquid is clear. Strain through a coarse
napkin, and, turning into a mould, set away to harden.

In hot weather be generous in the measure of gelatine.


                             Orange Jelly.

               1/2 a package of gelatine.
               Enough oranges to yield 1/2 pint of juice.
               1/2 pint of boiling water.
               1/2 pint of sugar.
               The juice of one lemon.
               1 gill of cold water.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours. Squeeze the oranges,
grating the thin yellow rind from one into the juice; but be careful not
to grate off any of the white skin. Add the lemon juice. Pour the
boiling water on the soaked gelatine. Add the sugar, and place the bowl
in a pan of boiling water. Now add the fruit juice, and stir until the
liquid is clear. Strain through a napkin and pour into moulds. Set away
to harden.

Whipped cream is a desirable addition to this jelly when it is served.


                           Strawberry Jelly.

Make in the same way as the orange jelly, using half a pint of
strawberry juice.


                            Raspberry Jelly.

Make in the same way as orange jelly, using raspberry juice.


                           Blackberry Jelly.

Use a pint of blackberry juice and half a pint of water, and proceed as
for orange jelly.


                             Coffee Jelly.

                    1/2 package of gelatine.
                    1 gill of cold water.
                    1 gill of boiling water.
                    1 pint of hot coffee.
                    1/2 pint of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for two hours or more. Pour the
boiling water and hot coffee on this. Add the sugar and lemon juice. Set
the bowl in a pan of boiling water and stir until all the sugar is
dissolved; then strain through a coarse napkin and turn into a mould.
Set away in a cold place for six or more hours. Serve with whipped
cream, or with plain cream and sugar.



                        DIRECTIONS FOR FREEZING.

[Illustration: MALLET AND ICE-BAG.]

The mixture to be frozen should be icy cold. Put it in the freezing can,
and place this in position in the wooden tub. See that every part of the
freezer is properly fastened, and that the can and beater work with ease
when the crank is turned. Pound the ice in a bag until it is almost as
fine as snow. Put a layer of ice in the freezer, having it come about
one third the height of the tin can. Now add a layer of salt, and, with
a wooden paddle or a flat stick, pack the salt and ice as solid as
possible. Continue this until the salt and ice come to the top of the
tin can. Work the freezer occasionally, that the mixture may be more
firmly packed. Now begin to turn the crank slowly for ten minutes; then
turn rapidly for ten minutes longer, at the end of which time the
mixture should be frozen into a light, thick mass. Take off the
cross-piece; next wipe the top of the tin can; take out the beater,
scrape off all the frozen mixture, and return it to the freezer. Work a
strong iron spoon up and down in the cream until the mass becomes
compact and light. Place a piece of white or brown paper over the can,
and then put on the cover and replace the cross-piece. Put a piece of
woollen carpet over the tub and set away in a cold place.

In warm weather it will be necessary to repack the cream. To do this,
place the freezer on the edge of the sink and take the stopper from the
lower part of the tub. This will allow the water to pass off. Now put
back the stopper and pack with enough salt and ice to come over the
cover of the tin can.

For a two-quart freezer allow for the first packing one pint and a half
of salt and enough ice to pack _hard_ to the top of the wooden tub. Snow
may be used in winter. If the snow should be very dry, sprinkle a little
water over each layer before it is packed down. Never let the water off
while freezing, unless there be danger of its coming up to the cover of
the tin can. In that case take out the stopper and let off only enough
water to be assured that the rest cannot get into the tin can. The water
is essential to the freezing of the cream.

When the frozen mixture has been used, and the ice has melted, pour the
water into a strainer, and save the salt to use when freezing again.


                           Vanilla Ice Cream.

                   3 gills of milk.
                   1 pint of cream, generous measure.
                   1/2 pint of sugar.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1 egg.
                   1 tablespoonful of vanilla.

Set the milk on the fire, in the double-boiler. Put the flour, half the
sugar, and the unbeaten egg in a bowl, and beat until light. Stir this
into the boiling milk, and cook for fifteen minutes, beating frequently.
On taking from the fire, add the remainder of the sugar and the cream.
Beat well, and set away to cool. When cold, add the flavor, and freeze.

Any other flavor may be substituted for vanilla. For coffee ice cream
use three tablespoonfuls of the extract of coffee; for lemon, three
fourths of a tablespoonful of lemon extract.


                          Chocolate Ice Cream.

Make the foundation the same as for vanilla cream. Shave one ounce of
plain chocolate and put it in a small pan with two tablespoonfuls of
sugar and one tablespoonful of boiling water. Stir this over a hot fire
until smooth and glossy; then stir it into the cooking mixture. Finish
with the cream and sugar, the same as when making the vanilla cream, and
freeze.


                          Pistachio Ice Cream.

Make the cream the same as for vanilla ice cream, but flavor with a
teaspoonful of pistachio extract and half a teaspoonful of almond. Color
with one eighth of a teaspoonful of the green coloring that can be
bought of first-class grocers. This is a delicious cream.

Be sure to get the flavor and coloring of a reputable manufacturer.


                            Peach Ice Cream.

                   1-1/2 pints of cream.
                   1 pint of fresh, ripe peaches.
                   3 gills of sugar.
                   1/5 teaspoonful of almond extract.

After paring and stoning the peaches, mash them in a bowl with the sugar
and let them stand for an hour or more; then rub them through a fine
strainer, and add the cream and almond to them. Freeze. A little liquid
cochineal may be added to the cream to give it color.


                         Strawberry Ice Cream.

                        1 quart of strawberries.
                        3 gills of sugar.
                        1-1/2 pints of cream.

Hull the strawberries and mash them in a bowl with the sugar. Let them
stand for two or more hours; then rub through a strainer fine enough to
keep back the seeds. Add the cream, and freeze.


                             Lemon Sherbet.

                         3 gills of sugar.
                         1-1/2 pints of water.
                         5 lemons.

Boil the sugar and water together for twenty minutes. Cool the syrup,
add the lemon juice, and freeze.


                            Orange Sherbet.

                         3 gills of sugar.
                         10 oranges.
                         1 lemon.
                         1-1/2 pints of water.

Grate the thin yellow rind of three oranges into a bowl. Squeeze the
juice of two oranges on this and let the mixture stand for an hour or
more. Boil the sugar and water together for thirty minutes. Add the
orange and lemon juice to this. Strain the juice in which the rind has
been soaking, and add to the mixture. Freeze.

In grating the orange rind great care must be taken not to go beyond the
thin yellow surface. If the grating be deep, the sherbet will be bitter.

The juices of any acid fruit may be made very sweet, diluted with water,
and frozen.


                             Milk Sherbet.

                  1 pint of milk.
                  1/2 gill of boiling water.
                  3 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
                  2 lemons.
                  1 gill granulated sugar.
                  1/2 tablespoonful of corn starch.

Cut the thin yellow rind from the lemon and put it in a bowl. Pour the
water on the rind. Cover the bowl and set it on the back part of the
range for half an hour. Mix the lemon juice and powdered sugar together.
When the rind has steeped for half an hour, strain the water on the
lemon juice and sugar.

Mix the corn starch with three tablespoonfuls of milk. Put the remainder
of the milk on to boil in the double-boiler. Stir the corn starch
mixture into the boiling milk, and, after adding the sugar, cook for ten
minutes. Cool this mixture, and then freeze for ten minutes. Take the
cover from the freezer and stir the lemon mixture into the cream. Put on
the cover and finish freezing.


                               Peach Ice.

                    1 quart of sliced ripe peaches.
                    1-1/2 gills of sugar.
                    1-1/2 pints of water.

Boil the sugar and water until the syrup is reduced to one pint. Mash
the peaches fine, and rub through a strainer. Add the syrup to the
strained fruit, and freeze.


                              Apricot Ice.

                          1/2 can of apricots.
                          1/2 pint of water.
                          1/2 pint of sugar.

Rub the apricots through a sieve. Add the water and sugar to the
strained fruit, and freeze.

The sugar and water may be boiled together for fifteen minutes, and,
when cold, added to the strained apricot. This will give a smoother and
richer ice.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XX.

                               BEVERAGES.


                                  Tea.

THE making of a good cup of tea is one of the simplest things in the
world. Use an earthenware or china teapot. Fill it with boiling water
and let stand for four or five minutes; then pour out the water, leaving
not a drop in the pot. Put the dry tea into the warm pot and after
putting on the cover, set back where it will keep warm for a few
minutes; then pour the boiling water on the tea and send to the table.
This is for all the light kinds of tea, such as Oolong or black tea.
English breakfast tea should steep on the fire for a few minutes, to
suit most tastes. If made without this steeping, it has a much brighter
and fresher flavor, but it lacks the body so much prized by lovers of
this beverage.

The proportions of tea and water vary with the taste of the family or
individual. The old rule of a teaspoonful for each person and a
teaspoonful for the pot, makes rather strong tea, if three gills of
water be allowed for each person.

The water must be boiling when it is poured on the dry tea. Many people
seem to think that, if it has boiled some time in the past, it will
suffice simply to have it hot when the tea is made. But if water boil a
long time all the gases will be driven off, and the water become flat
and flavorless. Such water is unfit for the making of tea and coffee.

Keep the teakettle clean, by washing it out every day, and always fill
the kettle with fresh water when preparing to make tea or coffee.

The Oolong and all light teas deteriorate with age, whereas English
breakfast tea improves.


                                Coffee.

[Illustration: COFFEE-MILL.]

Much of the quality of a cup of coffee depends upon the berry, and the
process of making. There are two classes of berries: the strong and the
mild. To the strong belong the Rio and Santas; to the mild, the Java,
Mocha, Maracaibo, and others. The last named kinds are usually the
highest priced.

Coffee should not be roasted a long time before it is ground. Few
housekeepers roast their own coffee. Only a small amount of the roasted
article should be bought at a time. It should be kept in an air-tight
jar and in a dry place. Do not buy the coffee already ground, for it
loses its fine flavor more rapidly when in the ground form than when
whole. Have a small mill, that can be regulated to grind coarse or fine.

A mixture of two or more kinds of coffee gives the most satisfactory
results. Two thirds Java or Maracaibo with one third Mocha will give a
rich, smooth coffee. If the flavor be desired strong, one part Java, one
part Mocha, and one part Rio may be used. If economy must be practised,
all Rio may be taken. If the roasted coffee be thoroughly heated just
before or after it has been ground, and if, after being taken from the
fire, but while still hot, a little butter be stirred into it, the
beverage will be much richer and smoother; or the entire purchase may be
thoroughly heated at one time, and the butter be stirred into it then.
Allow a generous tablespoonful of butter to a pound of coffee.

There are many methods of making coffee. Two of the best are given
below.


                             Boiled Coffee.

              2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely ground coffee.
              1 pint of boiling water.
              2 tablespoonfuls of cold water.
              1/8 saltspoonful of salt.

Scald the coffee-pot with boiling water. Put the dry coffee into it and
pour the boiling water upon it. Place on the fire, and, when it begins
to boil, draw the pot back where the coffee will just bubble for five
minutes. At the end of that time add the salt and cold water. Set the
pot back where the coffee cannot boil, and let it stand for two or three
minutes; then serve.

There is a coffee settler in the market which can be used instead of the
salt and water.

An egg makes the coffee richer in flavor, and clears it perfectly. One
small egg will answer for six or eight tablespoonfuls of coffee. The
egg, shell and all, should be broken into a cup and beaten. After using
what is required, cover the cup and put it in a cold place. This will
keep for two or three days.

When an egg is used for clearing the coffee it should be stirred into
the dry grounds, and be cooked with the coffee.

If one wish the beverage stronger or weaker, increase or diminish the
amount of the ground berry.


                            Filtered Coffee.

[Illustration: COFFEE BIGGIN.]

Coffee biggins come expressly for making filtered, or “drip” coffee.
There are two compartments to this pot. In the upper one there is a
double strainer, on which is placed the coffee. Above the coffee there
is placed another rather coarse strainer. This upper compartment is
placed on the lower one; boiling water is poured through the upper
strainer and it falls like rain upon the coffee below. The points to
remember when making coffee in this way are to have the pot hot, the
coffee ground to a fine powder, the water poured on gradually while
boiling, and not to have the beverage boil.

Use two tablespoonfuls of finely ground coffee to one pint of boiling
water. After putting the coffee in the pot, and fitting every part into
its proper place, set the coffee-pot in a pan of hot water and on the
range. Pour half a gill of boiling water into the upper strainer, and
put on the cover. Let this stand for three or four minutes, that the
powder may become wet and swell. Now add half the remaining boiling
water; and after two or three minutes add the remainder. At the end of
five minutes all the water will have filtered through, and the coffee be
ready to serve.

A small quantity of coffee cannot be made in a large pot, because the
water will pass through the thin layer of powder before it has had time
to extract the strength of the berry. If all the water were poured on
the powder at once, it would dislodge the dry grains and pass through
without extracting the flavor from the coffee.

A flannel bag is often hung in a coffee-pot, the fine powder being put
in it and the boiling water poured directly on the dry coffee. There are
many inventions in the line of coffee-pots which are very satisfactory,
but the housekeeper should investigate and test them for herself.

Coffee-pots must be kept absolutely clean, if you would have a
satisfactory cup of coffee. A few old grounds, lodged in a groove in the
pot, may spoil the flavor of the finest berry.

If you cannot have cream for your cup of coffee, at least have hot milk.


                                 Cocoa.

Several preparations are made from the cocoa bean. We find the product
in the market in the form of chocolate, plain, and also sweetened and
flavored. This is the roasted bean ground to a smooth, fine substance,
which retains the oily substance known as cocoa butter. This makes a
rich beverage which few people can use daily. The chocolate is valuable
in the preparation of various kinds of food and confections, and to use
occasionally as a beverage. In its sweetened form it can be taken in the
pocket when going on long tramps; an ounce of it will allay the feeling
of faintness and hunger which comes with long fasting.

Breakfast cocoa is made by pressing nearly all the cocoa butter from the
roasted and finely ground bean. This gives a delicate dry powder, which
makes a digestible, nutritious, and pleasant drink. Because it in part
takes the place of animal food, it is very economical.

The cocoa shells and nibs, when prepared as a beverage, are not very
valuable as a food, because only a small part of the cocoa is extracted
in the boiling. The process of preparing the cocoa bean for the market
is almost wholly mechanical, so that when you get your cocoa and
chocolate from a trustworthy manufacturer you may be sure that you are
using a perfectly pure article and one absolutely clean.


                               Chocolate.

                     1 pint of milk.
                     1 ounce of good chocolate.
                     1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                     1 tablespoonful of hot water.

Put the milk on the fire, in the double-boiler. Shave the chocolate,
and, putting it into a small pan with the sugar and water, stir over a
hot fire until smooth and glossy. Stir this into the boiling milk; then
beat the chocolate with a whisk, to make it froth. Pour into a hot pot,
and serve at once.

Long cooking separates the oil from the chocolate and spoils the
beverage.


                            Breakfast Cocoa.

                1 pint of milk.
                2 level teaspoonfuls of breakfast cocoa.
                3 tablespoonfuls of water.

Put the milk in the double-boiler and set on the fire. Mix the cocoa to
a smooth paste, with the cold water. When the milk boils, add the cocoa,
and boil for one minute. Serve hot.

The flavor of this cocoa is always finer when the milk actually bubbles
up after the cocoa is added. If water or part water be used, measure the
cocoa more generously.

Nothing is much more delicious than a good cup of cocoa, and nothing is
more disappointing than the slops one so often gets under this name,
because many people prepare it by pouring hot water on the powder and
then adding sugar and milk. This will do when it is impossible to boil
it, but it is only a makeshift. It should be remembered that the cocoa
bean contains a considerable amount of starch, and this starch will be
improved by boiling.


                                 Broma.

Broma is prepared the same as cocoa, but requires a few minutes’ longer
cooking, because of the addition of a starchy substance to the powder.


                         Cocoa Shells and Nibs.

The thin shells that are removed from the roasted cocoa bean, and a part
of the nut in a roughly broken state, are used for a beverage. The
shells are sometimes used alone, but this makes rather a poor drink. The
shells and nibs are put into a cocoa pot with boiling water and simmered
for four hours or more. Use a gill of the shells, one tablespoonful of
the nibs, and a quart of water. This will give a generous pint of the
beverage. Serve it with hot milk and sugar.


                               Lemonade.

                       1 lemon.
                       1/2 pint of water.
                       2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Squeeze the lemon and strain the juice. Add the sugar and water to it
and use at once. It should be very cold or very hot. Add ice in warm
weather.

When the water is not good, or in case of sickness, boiling water may be
poured on the sugar and fruit juice; then cool the lemonade.

When making a lemonade for a company of people, it may be mixed in a
large handsome bowl. Add to it all or any one of the following named
fruits:—

For one gallon of lemonade use four quarts of water, twenty lemons, one
quart of sugar, one banana, half a pineapple, six oranges, one pint of
strawberries.

Use the juice of the lemons and oranges; have the pineapple and banana
cut in thin slices; the strawberries should be whole. Raspberries, as
well as strawberries, may be used.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XXI.

                         PRESERVES AND PICKLES.


                         Quality of the Fruit.

IT is a waste of time and strength to preserve unripe, over-ripe or
inferior fruits. One should select sound, ripe, well flavored fruits for
this purpose.


                      What to do with Fruit Pulp.

When making jellies with crab apples, quinces, peaches, etc., there is
always a great deal of pulp left. The thrifty housekeeper does not like
to throw this away, although all the fine flavor of the fruit has been
extracted with the juice. If fruit be plentiful and cheap, it will be
economy to throw this impoverished pulp away; if, on the other hand,
fruit be high and scarce, add some fresh fruit, sugar, and water to the
cooked pulp, and boil until a smooth marmalade is formed.

Cooked quince may be combined with fresh tart apples, sugar, and a
little water. While the mixture is hot, can it, and it will be found
good for pies and other uses when the fresh fruit is scarce.


                           Preserved Peaches.

The peaches should be sound and ripe. Weigh the fruit, and for every
nine pounds make a syrup with three pounds of sugar and one pint of
water; skimming the syrup as soon as it boils up.

Have ready a kettle of boiling water and a bowl of cold water. Fill a
wire basket with peaches and plunge into the boiling water for two
minutes. Lift the basket from the water and turn the peaches into a
bowl. Pare them, and drop them into the cold water. This is to preserve
the color.

Drop the peaches, a few at a time, into the boiling syrup. Cook them
until they are heated through, and are tender; then put in a hot jar as
many as will go in without crowding, and fill up with syrup. Cover the
jar at once.

If many peaches are to be preserved it is best to make the syrup in
several lots, as otherwise the long cooking, together with the fruit
juice, will make it dark.


                            Preserved Pears.

Make a syrup like that for the peaches, allowing one quart of water to
three pounds of sugar and nine pounds of pears.

Pare the pears with a silver knife and drop them in a bowl of cold water
to preserve the color. On taking them from the water drop them into the
boiling syrup. Cook them gently until they can be easily pierced with a
silver fork. The time depends upon the ripeness of the fruit. The pears
may be preserved whole or in halves. Put the cooked fruit into hot jars,
and, after filling up with boiling syrup, seal.


                              Crab Apples.

Make the syrup as for peaches; allowing, however, half a pound of sugar
to a pound of fruit. Clean the blossom end of the apples by rubbing, and
drop them into water. Wash and drain them. Drop them, a few at a time,
into the hot syrup, and cook until they can be pierced with a silver
fork. Fill the jars with the fruit, and, after filling up with hot
syrup, seal the jars.

The stems are left on crab apples.


                            Preserved Plums.

Make the syrup for the large white plums the same as for crab apples.
Peel the plums by plunging in boiling water, like peaches. Cook and
finish the same as crab apples.


                        Preserved Damson Plums.

These are preserved the same as the white plums, except that they are
not peeled. They will cook in about three minutes.


                            Grape Preserve.

This preserve should be made with a tender-skinned grape. The Concord
grape is too tough-skinned to make a satisfactory preserve.

Squeeze the pulp out of the skin, and, after putting it in the
preserving kettle, set on the fire. Stir frequently, and cook until the
pulp will break up readily. This will require only a few minutes’
boiling. Rub the pulp through a sieve, rejecting the seeds. Measure the
skins and pulp, and put them in the preserving kettle. For every quart
of the fruit add one pint and a half of sugar, and one gill of water.
Cook for twenty minutes after the preserve begins to boil; then put in
jars and seal. If you choose, use less sugar; or, if you prefer to have
the preserve sweeter, allow a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit.


                           Preserved Quinces.

Have a kettle of boiling water on the fire. Pare the fruit and remove
the cores; then weigh it. Drop the pared fruit into the boiling water,
and cook gently until so tender that it can be pierced with a straw.
Take it from the water and drain it. Make a syrup the same as for
peaches, and put the cooked fruit into it. Simmer for about half an
hour; then put up in jars. This amount of sugar—one pound to three
pounds of fruit—makes a fairly rich preserve. Less may be used if one
prefer to have the quinces less rich.


                          Preserved Pineapple.

Pare the pineapple, remove the eyes, and cut the fruit into thin slices,
cutting down the sides until the heart is reached. Weigh the sliced
fruit and put it in a bowl, with half a pound of granulated sugar to
every pound of fruit. Mix the fruit and sugar well, and put it in a cold
place over night. In the morning put the fruit and sugar in the
preserving kettle, and place on the range. When the syrup begins to
boil, skim carefully; then fill the hot jars with the preserve and seal
them.

The pineapple may be shredded with a silver fork, instead of being
sliced. Be careful to keep out all the woody fibres of the heart of the
fruit.


                     Preserved Uncooked Pineapple.

Pare the pineapple and take out all the eyes. With a sharp knife, cut
the fruit in thin slices, cutting down the sides until the heart is
reached (this is to be discarded). Weigh the sliced pineapple and put it
in an earthen dish. Add to it as many pounds of granulated sugar as
there are pounds of fruit. Stir this gently; then pack the fruit and
sugar in pint jars, leaving space for two tablespoonfuls of Jamaica rum
in each jar. Add the liquor; then put on the covers and tighten them.
Set away in a cool, dark place.

Wine or brandy may be substituted for the rum; or, the jars may be
packed solidly to the top, and sealed, without using any spirit. This
fruit will keep well, and is so tender that it will melt in the mouth.
It is, of course, very rich.


                        Sun Cooked Strawberries.

Pick over the berries and weigh them; then put them in the preserving
kettle. Add to them as many pounds of granulated sugar as there are of
strawberries. Do not have the fruit and sugar more than three or four
inches deep in the preserving kettle. Place on the fire and heat slowly
to the boiling point. Let the preserve cook for just ten minutes from
the time it begins to boil, skimming well. Take up and pour into meat
platters, having the preserve not much more than an inch and a half
deep. Set the platters on tables at sunny windows. They should stand in
the sun for twenty-four full hours. If the sun does not shine one day,
let the fruit remain until it does. Put up cold in preserve jars. This
preserve is perfect.



                            CANNING FRUITS.

The destruction of germs and the exclusion of air are the principles
upon which canning is based. The article to be preserved is cooked for a
short time, and then put in jars from which the air has been expelled by
heating them to the boiling point. They are then sealed, and when cold
are set in a cool, dark place. If all the conditions be right, the fruit
will keep for an unlimited number of years, and when opened will be
found to have nearly all the freshness and aroma of newly gathered
fruit.

Now this is true of the majority of fruits, but not of all. The
strawberry subjected to this process will come out a pale, spongy,
insipid thing, whereas the raspberry seems to have its color, flavor,
and odor intensified. If, however, a generous amount of sugar be added
to the strawberry in the cooking, the fruit will retain its shape,
color, and flavor. It is an error to attempt to can this berry without
sugar, or with only a small amount.


                           Filling the Jars.

To fill the jars, have on the stove two pans partially filled with
water. Let the water in one be boiling, but in the other not so hot that
the hand cannot be held in it with comfort. Put a few jars and covers in
the cooler water, turning them now and then until all parts become warm;
then put them in the boiling water. This does away with all danger of
breaking. When the jars have been heated in boiling water, drain, fill,
and seal them one at a time.

In filling the jars be sure that they stand level, that the syrup has
filled all the interstices between the fruit, and that it also runs over
the top of the jars. Even with this overflowing of the syrup it will be
found that, after cooling, the can is not quite full; but if the work
has been properly done, the fruit will keep all right.


               Different Fruits Need Different Treatment.

Now, as to the different modes of treating various kinds of fruit. We
know that, when the germs are killed and the air is excluded, sugar is
not necessary for the preservation of the fruit. But there are few kinds
of fruit that are not improved by some sugar, because it fixes the color
and flavor, and gives much finer results. Some kinds of fruit require
but little sugar for this purpose, while others are poor indeed without
a generous amount. One has only to contrast the flavor and quality of
the canned peaches that are put up with and without sugar to realize the
great superiority of those with which saccharine matter has been used.
Where fruits are too dry to give out enough juice to cover them
generously, a light syrup should be used. But with juicy fruits, avoid
water if possible. A good rule in the case of small berries is to allow
one third of a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit.

For fruit like peaches, pears, plums, etc., make a light syrup. Quinces
must first be cooked in clear water until tender.

In paring fruit use silver-plated knives, and drop each piece as soon as
pared into a bowl of cold water, which has been made acid by the
addition of lemon juice. This prevents the fruit from turning dark. Use
earthen bowls, and wooden or silver-plated spoons. Avoid any delay while
doing this work.


                          To Can Small Fruits.

Any fruit, if boiled long enough to have all the germs killed and the
air expelled, will keep indefinitely if sealed while boiling hot. Sugar
helps to preserve the fruit, but it is not absolutely essential to its
preservation. Sugar, however, preserves the fine flavor and color of the
fruit. Some fruits are not good when canned, unless a great deal of
sugar be used, whereas just the contrary is true of other kinds. Tastes
differ as to the amount of sugar to be employed; each housekeeper must
study her own tastes and those of her family. Blueberries need no sugar,
but are richer if a little be used. Blackberries and raspberries are
better for some sugar,—say a pound of sugar to four or six pounds of
fruit. More may be used, if liked. Strawberries require a great deal to
preserve the color and texture. All small fruits are richer if preserved
in their own juice.

Here is a rule for preserving raspberries, and the same general
principles apply to other fruits:—Take twelve quarts of raspberries and
two of sugar. Heat and crush three quarts of the fruit; then turn it,
together with the juice, into a piece of cheese-cloth which has been
placed over a bowl. Squeeze as much juice as possible from the hot
fruit. Put the juice and sugar in the preserving kettle, and set on the
fire. When the mixture begins to boil, skim well, and add the whole
berries. Simmer for fifteen minutes, skimming well. Put the hot fruit in
heated jars, and seal.

If the combined flavor of raspberry and currant be liked, use a quart of
currant juice for the syrup. In that case use an extra pint of sugar.
The twelve quarts of raspberries are then preserved whole.


                            Canned Rhubarb.

Get tender rhubarb. Pare it, and cut in pieces about two inches long.
Wash, and then pack it in glass jars. Fill the jars with cold water, and
let them stand for ten or fifteen minutes. Pour off the water and fill
the jars to overflowing with fresh cold water. Seal the jars and put
them in a cool, dark place. This will keep for a year or more, and
should be treated the same as fresh uncooked rhubarb when required for
use.


                            Blackberry Jam.

After picking over the berries, put them in the preserving kettle and
set on the range. Stir the fruit frequently. Let it boil for twenty
minutes, counting from the time it begins to bubble. Take it from the
fire and rub it through a sieve fine enough to keep back the seeds.
Measure the strained mixture and put it back in the preserving kettle
with a pint and a half of granulated sugar for every quart of strained
fruit. Heat the preserve slowly and stir frequently. Let it simmer for
forty-five minutes; then put up the jelly in tumblers.

If the fruit be of the large, soft kind that has few seeds, it need not
be strained.


                             Raspberry Jam.

                       12 quarts of raspberries.
                       3 quarts of sugar.

Pick the fruit free from leaves, stems, and imperfect berries. Put it in
a preserving kettle and set on the fire. Stir frequently. Simmer for
half an hour after it begins to boil; then add the sugar, and simmer for
one hour longer. Put the jam in hot jars, and seal while hot.


                        Currant and Raisin Jam.

                       3 pounds of sugar.
                       1 pound of raisins.
                       3-1/2 pounds of currants.
                       1 orange.
                       1 pint of water.

Cut the raisins in two and seed them; then cook them for one hour or
more in the pint of water. Pick over the currants and put them on to
cook in the preserving kettle. Add the orange juice, and cook for
fifteen minutes after the fruit begins to boil.

Remove the seeds from the orange, and, after chopping the pulp and peel
very fine, rub through the sugar. When the currants have been boiling
for fifteen minutes, add the other ingredients to them, and cook for
fifteen minutes longer. Put into jelly glasses, and when cold cover.
This quantity will fill twelve glasses.


                            Pear Marmalade.

                   8 pounds of sugar.
                   8 pounds of Seckel pears.
                   1/2 pound of crystallized ginger.
                   4 small lemons.

Boil the lemons in clear water until the peel can be pierced with a
broom splint; then cut it into small pieces. Peel and chip the pears,
and cut the ginger in thin slices. Put all the ingredients into the
preserving kettle and simmer for two hours. Pour the marmalade into
jelly glasses. This quantity will fill eighteen.

The water in which the lemons are cooked is to be thrown away.


                                Jellies.

In no department of preserving does the housekeeper feel less sure of
the results than in jelly making, so much depends upon the condition of
the fruit. This is more pronounced in the case of small fruits than with
the larger kinds.

When currants are over-ripe, or have been picked after a rain, the
result of using them will be uncertain. Perhaps we notice it more with
this fruit than with any other, because it is so generally used for
jelly. An understanding of the properties of fruit which forms the basis
of jellies may help the housekeepers to a better knowledge of the
conditions and methods essential to success.

Pectin, which forms the basis of vegetable jellies, is a substance
which, in its composition, resembles starch and gum. It gives to the
juices of fruits the property of gelatinizing. This property is at its
best when the fruit is just ripe; better a little under-ripe than
over-ripe. When boiled for a long time fruit loses its gelatinous
property and becomes of a gummy nature.

These facts show the importance of using fruit that is but just ripe and
freshly picked, as well as the need of care not to overcook the juice.


                           Covering Jellies.

There are several methods of covering jellies. Pasting paper over the
top of the glass is one of the oldest. Thin sheets of cotton batting,
tied over the top, make a good covering. A piece of white tissue paper
cut to fit into the glass, and simply laid on top of the jelly, is all
that some people use. It is stated that the jelly will not mould or
shrink so much when covered in this way as when the paper is pasted over
the glass.


                             Currant Jelly.

After freeing the currants from leaves and stems, put them in the
preserving kettle and set on the range. Crush the fruit with a wooden
vegetable masher, and stir frequently until heated to the boiling point.
Have a large square of cheese-cloth in a strainer which is set over a
bowl. Turn the crushed fruit and juice into this and let it stand long
enough to drain thoroughly. Do not use any pressure to extract the
juice. Have a flannel bag suspended over a bowl, and pour the strained
juice into this. Now measure the liquid, and put it into a clean
preserving kettle. When it boils up, add a scant quart of sugar for
every generous quart of fruit juice. Stir until the sugar is all
dissolved and the liquid begins to bubble; then strain through a clean
piece of cheese-cloth into a bowl. Immediately fill the tumblers, which
must be dry and warm. Let them stand uncovered until the jelly is set,
then cover with a round of paper, and over this tie a thin sheet of
cotton batting; or paper may be pasted over the glasses. If you use the
glasses that come with covers, nothing else will be required except the
first sheet of paper. Many housekeepers prefer to use even less sugar
than the amount given, allowing only a pint and a half of sugar to each
quart of fruit juice.


                         Currant Jelly, No. 2.

Pick the currants free from stems and leaves, and put them, a few quarts
at a time, in a large earthen or granite-ware dish, and crush them with
a vegetable masher. Put the crushed fruit into a square of cheese-cloth,
and press out the juice. Put the strained juice into the preserving
kettle and set on the fire. When it boils, skim it well; then turn it
into a flannel bag and let it drain into an earthen bowl. Do not press
the juice through the bag. Measure this strained juice, and put it on
the fire in a clean preserving kettle. Let it boil for five minutes. Now
add a pint of granulated sugar for every pint of currant juice. Stir the
mixture until it begins to boil. Boil for just one minute; then fill the
glasses, which must be warm, and set them in a sunny window until the
jelly is firm. It may require only a few hours’ time for this, and it
may take even a day or two; all depends upon the condition of the
currants.

A much clearer and handsomer jelly is made by putting the currant juice,
when it has been strained the second time, into the clean kettle, and
adding, when it comes to the boiling point, the sugar; then stirring
until the sugar is dissolved, and filling the glasses immediately. Set
in the sun until the jelly becomes firm. It will take two or three days.
This is called sun-cooked jelly. The currants must be in perfect
condition for this kind of jelly; just ripe, and freshly picked.


                           Crab Apple Jelly.

Wash the fruit and put it in a preserving kettle with just enough water
to cover it. Let it simmer for one hour. Have a piece of cheese-cloth in
a strainer that is set over a bowl, and turn the cooked fruit and liquid
into it. Let this drain well; then strain the liquid through a clean
flannel bag. Measure it, and place on the fire, in the preserving
kettle. Boil for ten minutes, counting from the time it begins to boil;
then add the sugar, using a pint and a half for every quart of juice.
When this boils up, strain through clean cheese-cloth, and fill warm
tumblers. Cover when the jelly is set.

Peach, apple, and quince jellies may be made in this way.


                             Other Jellies.

Jelly can be made from any of the small juicy fruits in the same manner
as currant jelly.


                           Cucumber Pickles.

                 100 small green cucumbers.
                 2 quarts of small silver-skin onions.
                 Six small green peppers.
                 1 gallon of vinegar.
                 1 pint of rock salt.
                 1/4 ounce of alum.
                 1 tablespoonful of mustard seed.
                 1 tablespoonful of whole clove.
                 1 tablespoonful of allspice.

Have a part of the stems left on the cucumbers. Wash the cucumbers in
cold water; then lay them in a tub or jar, sprinkle the salt over them,
and cover with ice water. Lay a large piece of ice on top of the
cucumbers, and set away in a cold place for thirty-six hours. At the end
of that time take the cucumbers from the salt and water, and place in a
stone jar, mixing the onions and peppers among them.

Tie the whole spice in a thin muslin bag and after putting it, with the
vinegar and alum, in a porcelain or granite-ware saucepan, set the pan
on the fire. When the vinegar boils, pour it on the pickles, putting the
spice on top. When the contents of the jar are cold, set away in a cool,
dark place. The pickles will be ready for use in twenty-four hours.


                        Sweet Cucumber Pickles.

                100 small green cucumbers.
                1 gallon of vinegar.
                1 pint of coarse salt.
                1 pint of sugar.
                1 stick of cinnamon.
                1/2 tablespoonful of white mustard seed.
                1/2 tablespoonful of black mustard seed.
                1/4 teaspoonful of celery seed.
                1/2 tablespoonful of allspice.
                1/2 of a nutmeg.
                A small piece of mace.
                1 small green pepper.
                1 gill of grated horseradish.
                1 ounce of green ginger.
                1 ounce of alum.

Have the cucumbers picked with a part of the stems on. Wash them, and
put in a tub or stone jar. Make a brine with the salt and six quarts of
water. Pour this on the cucumbers while boiling hot. On the second and
third days pour off the brine. Boil and skim it, and then pour it, while
boiling hot, on the cucumbers. On the fourth day take the pickles from
the brine. Put the alum in six quarts of boiling water and boil until
the alum is dissolved. Pour this on the pickles and let them stand until
the next day; then pour off the liquid, and, after scalding and skimming
it, pour it on the pickles again.

Repeat this the sixth day. Should the cucumbers be not green enough on
the sixth day, add a little more alum to the water. On the seventh day
pour off the alum water and cover the pickles with clear boiling water.
Let them stand in this water for twenty-four hours. At the end of this
time take them from the water and place in the jars in which they are to
be kept. Sprinkle the white mustard seed among the cucumbers.

Put the vinegar in a porcelain-lined or granite-ware kettle and set on
the fire. Add the cinnamon, broken small, the nutmeg, grated, and the
other spice, as well as the sugar. Boil this for five minutes; then take
from the fire and partially cool. Pour this on the cucumbers. Now add to
the contents of the jars the horseradish, ginger root, and the green
pepper, cut in pieces. Store the pickles in a cool, dark place. They
will keep perfectly for two years if carefully made.

The quantities of sugar and spice may be varied to suit one’s taste.


                             Tomato Pickle.

                    12 large ripe tomatoes.
                    3 onions of medium size.
                    4 red peppers of medium size.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of brown sugar.
                    2 tablespoonfuls of salt.
                    1/2 pint of vinegar.

Peel and slice the tomatoes. Chop the onions and peppers fine. Put all
the ingredients in the preserving kettle and cook slowly for an hour and
a half; then bottle and seal.


                        Canadian Tomato Pickle.

                  1 peck of green tomatoes.
                  6 large onions.
                  1/2 pint of salt.
                  3 quarts of vinegar.
                  1 quart of water.
                  1 pound of brown sugar.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of curry-powder.
                  2 tablespoonfuls of turmeric.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground cinnamon.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground clove.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground allspice.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground mustard.

Slice the tomatoes and onions and sprinkle the salt over them. Let them
stand over night. In the morning drain off the liquid and put the
vegetables in the preserving kettle with one quart each of water and
vinegar. Let the mixture boil for five minutes, then drain well. To the
drained mixture add the spice, sugar, and two quarts of vinegar. Put on
the fire and boil for fifteen minutes, counting from the time it begins
to bubble. Put into jars and seal.


                           Governor’s Sauce.

       1 peck of green tomatoes.
       6 red or green peppers.
       1/2 pint of grated horseradish.
       1/2 pint of salt.
       4 large onions.
       1/2 pint of brown sugar.
       1 tablespoonful of ground clove.
       1 tablespoonful of ground allspice.
       1 teaspoonful of white pepper.
       Vinegar enough to cover the ingredients,—about two quarts.

Slice the tomatoes and sprinkle the salt over them. Let them stand over
night. In the morning drain off the liquor and put the tomatoes in the
preserving kettle. Add the seasonings and the peppers and onions,
chopped fine. Pour over these ingredients enough vinegar to cover them
well. Simmer the sauce for one hour and a half; then put up in jars and
seal.


                             Tomato Catsup.

                      10 quarts of tomatoes.
                      1 quart of cider vinegar.
                      1 pound of brown sugar.
                      1/4 pound of salt.
                      1 ounce of pepper corns.
                      1 ounce of whole allspice.
                      1/2 ounce of whole cloves.
                      1/2 ounce of whole ginger.
                      8 ounces of ground mustard.
                      3 small red peppers.
                      3 cloves of garlic.

Cut the tomatoes up and put them on the fire, in the preserving kettle.
Add the garlic, and cook until the tomatoes are tender,—about forty-five
minutes after they begin to boil. Rub them through a sieve fine enough
to keep back the seeds. Put the strained mixture on the fire, in the
preserving kettle. Add the sugar, salt, and pepper. Tie the whole spice
and red peppers in a piece of muslin, and put them with the other
ingredients. Mix the mustard smoothly with cold water, and stir into the
mixture. Simmer the catsup for an hour and a half; then put up in
bottles.

The catsup must be stirred often to prevent burning.


                            Canned Tomatoes.

Put ripe tomatoes in a large pan and cover them with boiling water. Let
them stand for four or five minutes; then pour off the water and pare
the tomatoes. Another way to reach the same result is to have a large
kettle of boiling water on the fire, and put the tomatoes in a wire
basket and plunge them into the boiling water for a minute or two.

After paring the tomatoes, cut them in small pieces. Put the sliced
vegetable in the preserving kettle and heat slowly, stirring frequently.
Let them boil for half an hour, or longer, after they begin to boil.
Fill heated jars, and seal them. When cold, put in a cool, dark place.


                            Spiced Currants.

                     3 generous quarts of currants.
                     1 quart of sugar.
                     1/2 pint of vinegar.
                     1 tablespoonful of cloves.
                     1 tablespoonful of cinnamon.

Measure the currants after they have been picked. Put all the
ingredients into the preserving kettle and place on the stove. Stir the
mixture frequently, and when it begins to boil skim carefully. Cook for
half an hour, counting from the time it begins to boil. Put it up in
small jars or tumblers. This is to be served with meat.


                           Spiced Crab Apple.

                      3 pounds of crab apple.
                      1-3/4 pounds of brown sugar.
                      1 teaspoonful of clove.
                      1 teaspoonful of pepper.
                      1 teaspoonful of salt.

Cover the crab apples with boiling water and cook them until tender;
then rub them through a sieve, pressing all the liquid through also. Put
the strained fruit into a preserving kettle, and add the sugar and
seasoning. Cook gently for an hour and a half; then put in tumblers.
When cold, cover with paper, the same as jelly. This is to be served
with cold meat.


                              Piccalilli.

                  1 peck of green tomatoes.
                  2 red peppers.
                  12 onions.
                  1/2 pint of salt.
                  1/2 pint of grated horseradish.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground clove.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground allspice.
                  1 tablespoonful of ground cinnamon.
                  3 quarts of vinegar.

Slice the tomatoes, peppers, and onions. Add the salt to the sliced
vegetables, and mix well. Let this mixture stand over night. In the
morning drain off the liquid; then add the other ingredients, and,
putting the mixture in a preserving kettle, cook for four hours,
stirring often. Put the piccalilli in glass jars while hot, and it will
keep for a year or more.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XXII.

                      FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON FARMS.


LIFE on a farm has its bright and dark sides, as does life elsewhere. If
all other things were equal, the pure air, abundance of sunshine,
plentiful supply of good milk, butter, eggs, vegetables, and fruit
should make the farmer’s family the healthiest and happiest of any class
in the land. But to counterbalance all these advantages there are the
monotony of life and food, and often unwholesome water, where one would
expect to find only the purest. The farmer’s wife or daughter need not
feel that she is buried; that she is nobody; that she has no mission in
life; that she is largely a drudge. Every honest man or woman, unless we
exclude some of the very rich, must do some work. Now, this work,
whether it be in the kitchen, shop, on the farm, in the counting-room,
store, or any of the professions, may become drudgery or may be made in
some degree a pleasure. Everything depends upon the home life. The
mission of the farmer’s wife and daughter is one of great
responsibility. It means the physical, mental, and moral health of the
entire family. I know of no class of women whose mission means more to
humanity.

Have the home sweet and healthful. Remember that pure air and sunshine
in the house are the greatest purifiers. Do not exclude them. Impure
water carries poison through the system more effectually than if it were
in solid food. Water may look clear and sparkling, yet be filled with
the germs of disease. A well never should be placed where the sewage
from the house or barn can filter into it. If the well be near the
house, do not allow slops, suds, etc., to be thrown on the ground near
it. If there be a drain to carry off the household slops and suds it
should be laid as far as possible from the well and so constructed that
there shall be no leakage. Whatever else you may lack, be firm in your
efforts to have pure water, and pure air and sunshine in plenty in the
house.

Try to get as much variety in your food as possible, especially in the
matter of the more substantial things, such as vegetables, meats, fish,
soups, and breads. Try to educate your family and yourself up to the
point where pies, cake, doughnuts, etc. need not be a daily dish on your
table. Instead of these, have plenty of fresh stewed fruits when in
season, and canned fruits at other periods. These fruits, with good
bread, rolls, rusk, buns, etc., are healthful, and so simple that one
does not tire of them.

Learn to make simple puddings and other desserts for the noonday meal.
If you follow these suggestions you will reap a rich reward in a
healthy, clear-headed family. You must think for yourself, too. Keep up,
as much as possible, with the outside world. Take a part of a day at
least once a week to meet other people, and manage to get in a visit to
town now and then. Read some bright new books. Do not devote all your
spare moments to fancy work or the trimming of underclothing for
yourself and your children; you would be wasting your energies and
making extra work for ironing day. Keep yourself, as much as is in your
power, a bright, happy, thinking woman, and you will be an inspiration
and tower of strength to your family and neighborhood. This, perhaps,
seems a little like a sermon, but I mean every word of it.


                      To Prepare Meat for Corning.

All meats should be kept until free from animal heat before being put
into brine. This will take at least forty-eight hours. Have the meat cut
into suitable pieces and sprinkled lightly with fine salt and saltpetre
in the proportion of one tablespoonful of saltpetre to four of salt. Lay
the meat on a board that is slightly inclined, so that the surface blood
which is drawn from the meat can run off. At the end of forty-eight or
more hours put it in the brine.

All meats should be completely covered with brine. If there be any
tendency to float, lay pieces of board on the meat and put weights on
these. Large stones will answer.


                      Pickle for any Kind of Meat.

                  12 gallons of water.
                  3 gallons of salt.
                  3/4 pound of saltpetre.
                  3 pounds of brown sugar.
                  2 ounces of potash or washing soda.

Put all the ingredients in a large kettle and set on the fire. Stir
frequently, and skim until clear; then pour into a large tub, being
careful not to turn in the sediment. Any kind of meat may be put into
this pickle when cold. Beef should remain in the pickle from one to four
or five weeks, as one may desire it slightly or thoroughly salted.


                          Pickle for Tongues.

                      6 gallons of water.
                      9 quarts of salt.
                      2 quarts of brown sugar.
                      3/4 of a pound of saltpetre.
                      2 ounces of washing soda.

Prepare this pickle the same as directed for meat pickle. It will
require ten or twelve days’ time to pickle the tongues. If the flavor of
juniper berries be liked, simmer half a pound in one quart of water for
one hour; then strain the liquid into the brine.


                       Corned Shoulder of Mutton.

Rub two tablespoonfuls of salt into a shoulder of mutton and let it
stand for one day; then put it into a pickle for five or six days.


                             To Cure Hams.

                       8 hams of good size.
                       8 quarts of fine salt.
                       4 quarts of brown sugar.
                       4 ounces of saltpetre.
                       1 ounce of washing soda.
                       1/2 ounce of ground mace.
                       1/2 ounce of ground clove.

Mix all the ingredients together and rub thoroughly into the hams. Pack
the meat in a cask or tub having the skin side down. After three weeks
change the top layer to the bottom. Let the hams lie in pickle for six
or seven weeks; then wash them, and wipe them dry, and finally hang them
up to smoke. It will take from one to two weeks to smoke them. They are
often smoked three months.

Hams may be pickled in a brine such as is prepared for tongues. They
should remain in it from four to six weeks, if they are to be kept
through the year.

If you have no smoke-house, six or eight hams can be smoked in a
hogshead. Fasten a strong piece of board or joist across the top of the
hogshead and suspend the hams from this. Have an old tin or iron pan in
which to make the fire. For fuel use corn cobs, green hickory, or oak
chips. About twenty corn cobs are enough to use at a time. Have some
ashes in the bottom of the pan. Put some live wood coals on this, and
then pile on the corn cobs or chips, and place all under the hogshead.
Cover the hogshead with several thicknesses of old quilts and carpets.
This is to keep in the smoke and also to check the fire, which should
just smoulder, making a great deal of smoke and little heat. The fire
must be renewed every day. You must be careful not to get so much fire
that the meat will be heated.

When thoroughly cured, sew each ham in a thick cotton bag and hang all
in a cool dry place, or pack them.


                        To Cure Breakfast Bacon.

Select the flank pieces and the thin end of the ribs of the pork, and
treat the same as the hams. It is not necessary to pickle or smoke these
thin pieces quite so long a time as the thick hams.


                             Sausage Meat.

                       15 pounds of pork.
                       2 ounces of white pepper.
                       4 ounces of salt.
                       1 ounce of sage.
                       1/2 an ounce of coriander.

Have the pork about one third fat and two thirds lean. Chop it fine, and
free from all bits of gristle. Mix the seasoning thoroughly with it.
Fill cases with this, or pack in stone jars and keep in a cool, dry
place.


                         English Sausage Meat.

                       16 pounds of pork.
                       2 ounces of white pepper.
                       6 ounces of salt.
                       1 ounce of sage.
                       1 ounce of summer savory.
                       1/2 ounce of thyme.
                       1 nutmeg.

Prepare the sausage meat as directed in the preceding rule.


                        To Cure Jowl and Chines.

When a hog is being cut up, take out the backbone and remove the greater
part of the fat; then cut the chine in pieces about a foot long.

Split open the head and take out the brains. Next cut off the snout. Cut
the head in two, and cut off the upper bone to give the cheeks a good
shape. Mix three teaspoonfuls of saltpetre and one cupful of salt. Rub
this over the jowl and chines. Now pack them closely in a small
butter-tub, and place a piece of board and a heavy weight on top of
them. Put two quarts of coarse salt in a large kettle, and, after
setting the kettle on the stove, put in seven quarts of hot water. When
this begins to boil, skim it carefully, and set it away to cool. When
this brine is cold, pour it over the meat. Keep in a cold place. The
jowl and chines will be ready for use in about three weeks; they will
keep for a year.

When all the meat has been used, the brine may be scalded, skimmed, and
cooled, and used again for the same purpose.


                             To Cook Jowl.

Wash the jowl, put it in a stewpan and set on the fire. Cover it with
cold water and heat it slowly to the boiling point. Skim, and set back
where it will simmer for three hours. The water should not more than
bubble. Serve with sliced and boiled turnips and boiled potatoes.

Spinach or cabbage boiled in salted water, then drained and chopped, and
seasoned with salt and butter, should be served with the jowl when
possible. Later in the season substitute beet and other greens for the
spinach and cabbage. In families where economy has to be practised it is
customary to cook the cabbage or greens and the turnips with the jowl.
No butter is then required for seasoning.


                             Chine Pillau.

                   3 gills of boiling water.
                   1/2 pint of rice, scant measure.
                   3 pounds of chine, fresh or salt.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of powdered sage.
                   1 tablespoonful chopped onions.
                   1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
                   1 teaspoonful of salt.

This is a cheap and savory dish. Wash and wipe the pieces of chine
carefully, and lay them in a small dripping pan. Sprinkle the powdered
sage over them and then cook for an hour in a moderate oven, being
careful not to let the gravy burn. It is a good plan to set the pan on
the grate, to prevent the bottom from becoming very hot. At the end of
the hour take the meat from the oven and place it in a large stewpan.
Into the pan in which the meat was cooked put the chopped onion. Set the
pan on top of the stove and stir the contents until the onion begins to
turn a golden brown; then add the flour, and stir the mixture until it
froths. Gradually add the boiling water, stirring all the time. Season
with salt and pepper. Let this simmer for five minutes.

Wash the rice in three waters, and put it in the stewpan with the chine.
Strain the gravy over this. Cover the stewpan closely, and set it back
where its contents will hardly simmer for an hour and a half. Serve very
hot.

Should the chine be very salt, be scant in the measurement of salt, but
if it be fresh, heap the teaspoon as full as it will hold, and also rub
two scant teaspoonfuls of salt into the chine when it is put in the
oven. The onion may be omitted.


                          How to Render Lard.

The best lard is that made from the fat which lies around the kidneys,
and is termed leaf lard. Remove all the skin, and cut the lard in small
pieces. Put it in an iron pot, and heat slowly, stirring it frequently.
Cook it in this manner until the pieces of fat look shrivelled and
straw-colored. On no account let it get so hot that it will smoke. Draw
the pot back where the lard will partially cool; then strain it through
a piece of cheese-cloth. Tin pails are satisfactory vessels in which to
keep lard. Do not put on the covers until the lard is cold. Keep in a
cool, dry place.


                           Hogs’ Head Cheese.

Have the head split, scraped, and thoroughly cleaned. Put it in a
stewpan, with enough boiling water to cover it generously, and simmer
for five hours, skimming the liquid several times during the first hour.
Place the head on a platter and remove the bones. When the meat is cold,
chop it fine, and season each solid quart with two tablespoonfuls of
salt, a level teaspoonful of pepper, and a teaspoonful of powdered and
sifted sage. Add to this mixture half a pint of the water in which the
head was boiled. Cook the mixture slowly for half an hour, and then turn
into deep earthen dishes. Place a plate with a weight on top of each
dish, and put away in a cool place. This cheese will cut in smooth
slices.

If spice and other kinds of herbs be liked, they may be added with the
other seasonings.

Should a part of the cheese be kept so long that there is danger of its
spoiling, heat it slowly to the boiling point; then let it simmer for
half an hour, and cool as before.


                               Scrapple.

                1/2 of a pig’s head.
                2 quarts of water.
                1/2 pint of corn meal, generous measure.
                2 teaspoonfuls of salt.
                1/3 teaspoonful of pepper.
                2 leaves of sage.

Clean the pig’s head and put it in a stewpan with the hot water. Let it
simmer for three hours; then take it from the fire and cool it. When
cold, remove the bones and chop the meat fine. Add this and the
seasonings to the liquor in which it was boiled, and return to the fire.
When the contents of the stewpan begin to boil, sprinkle in the meal,
stirring all the time. Cook for two hours, stirring frequently. Rinse a
deep bread pan in cold water, and pour the hot mixture into it. Set away
in a cold place.

When the scrapple is perfectly cold, cut it into slices about half an
inch thick, and after rolling these in flour, or breading them, fry
until brown.


                                 Tripe.

Lay the tripe on a table and scrape it with a broad-bladed knife; then
wash it thoroughly in several waters. Soak it for five or six days in
salt and water, changing the water every other day, and using a quart of
salt to three gallons of water. At the end of this time boil it gently
for ten hours, turning it frequently, that it may not stick to the
bottom of the boiler and burn. When the tripe has been boiling for eight
hours, add half a pint of salt.

The boiled tripe may be used plain, with a butter sauce, or it may be
broiled, fried in batter, soused, etc. When soused it will keep for
several weeks.


                             Soused Tripe.

                       8 pounds of boiled tripe.
                       3 pints of vinegar.
                       1 stick of cinnamon.
                       6 whole cloves.
                       1 small blade of mace.

Cut the tripe in pieces and place it in a stone pot. Heat the vinegar
and spice to the boiling point and pour over the tripe. Set away in a
cool place and it will keep for several weeks. It will be ready for use
in twelve hours, and it may be broiled or fried.


                              Pigs’ Feet.

Pigs’ feet should be treated in every particular the same as tripe.
After being boiled they may, when cold, be broiled, or be fried in
batter or crumbs. They may be soused, and then be broiled or fried.


                          To Preserve Rennet.

Rennet is the lining membrane of one of the stomachs of the calf. Select
the stomach of a healthy calf, and empty it. Remove the outer skin and
the fat. Wipe the rennet, and then salt it well, using about half a pint
of salt, and putting the greater part of it in the sack. Let the rennet
lie on a dish for five or six hours, then stretch it on a forked stick.
Cover it with netting, to protect it from flies, and hang it up in a
cool, dry place. When the rennet is dry (which will be in about a week)
put it in a paper bag or a glass jar, and keep it in a cool, dry place.
This rennet may be used in making cheese or rennet wine.


                              Rennet Wine.

Wash the rennet, and cut it into small pieces. Put this in a
wide-mouthed bottle, with one quart of sherry. This will be ready for
use in four or five days. Rennet wine is used with fresh milk to make
delicate desserts, such as slip, rennet custard, etc.

When the quart of wine has been used, a second quart may be poured on
the rennet in the bottle.

If salted rennet be used, soak it for several hours in cold water to
remove the salt.


                           Essence of Rennet.

Clean a rennet and cut it into small bits. Put these in a glass jar with
three ounces of salt. Work the salt into the rennet with a spoon. Now
cover the jar, and put in a cool place for six weeks. At the end of this
time add a gill of rum and a pint of water. Let this stand for two days;
then filter through paper, and bottle for use. This essence may be
employed the same as rennet wine, using with it any flavor one wishes.



                               THE DAIRY.

The suggestions given for the work in the dairy are for the guidance of
the woman who has only the simplest appliances to work with, and only a
small amount of milk or cream to handle. In the large dairies, with such
modern apparatus as the separator, and other fine machinery, the process
of making butter differs from that outlined in this chapter. The
essentials are always the same, whether it be in the smallest and most
primitive dairy, or in the largest and most modern. There must be
perfect cleanliness and freedom from odors. Wood floors and racks on
shelves and in refrigerators must be watched carefully; for wood absorbs
the moisture from milk and water, and will taint milk, butter, and
cheese very quickly. The greatest care is therefore needed, that all the
woodwork shall be washed clean, and dried thoroughly. Guard against
letting any of the wood about the dairy become milk- or water-soaked.


                        Care of Milk and Cream.

Milk and all the products of milk require the most careful attention.
Thorough cleanliness and good ventilation are absolutely necessary.
Milk, butter, and cream quickly absorb any odors that there may be near
by. If possible, one room or pantry should be kept exclusively for the
dairy products. If this be impossible keep one side of the room—that
nearest the window—for this purpose. Never put strong-odored or warm
food in this room. Keep the room scrupulously clean and _dry_. Every
utensil that is used about milk in any form must be first washed in cold
water, then in hot suds, and finally scalded in clear, boiling water.
Wipe perfectly dry with towels that are kept for this purpose, and that
are washed and scalded every day. Now put the utensils out in the sun.
If the day be wet, put them by an open window to air. The milk, cream,
butter, etc., that come from such a dairy cannot fail to be of a
superior quality.

When the milk is brought in, pour it through a fine strainer into the
pans, and then set the pans in place. If at any time it be necessary to
mix the night and morning milk, cool the fresh milk before it is added
to the older milk. Adding warm milk to cold milk will cause the whole
mass to spoil quickly.

When the cream is being collected for butter making, it must not be kept
so long that it becomes very sour, or in winter until it becomes bitter.
Have a stone jar in which the cream can be kept. In summer keep it in
the coldest place you have, but in winter it must be kept where it will
become slightly sour, without becoming bitter. Old butter-makers advise
skimming the cream as free as possible from milk. Every time a batch of
cream is added to that in the jar, stir the contents of the jar, in
order to mix thoroughly the new and old cream.

The cream should not be allowed to remain on the milk until sour. Skim
it while both milk and cream are sweet.


                             Butter Making.

The quality of the butter will depend largely upon the care of the milk
and cream. It will help the butter-maker to use a thermometer. One
suitable for dairy work can be purchased for twenty-five cents at any
store where they keep such goods, or where they keep dairy supplies. The
cream should be slightly sour, and when put into the churn the
temperature should be from 58° to 60°. In cold weather place the cream
jar in a pan of hot water, and stir frequently until the cream is raised
to the desired temperature; in hot weather use ice water, if necessary.

In churning it is important that the stroke shall be slow and steady.
Rapid churning causes the cream to froth, and spoils the texture of the
butter. It should take at least from thirty to forty minutes’ churning
to bring the butter.

As soon as the butter begins to form into small masses, draw off the
buttermilk and pour cold water into the churn. After a few strokes of
the dasher, draw off the water and pour in fresh cold water, adding a
teaspoonful of salt to every quart of water. Work the butter for a few
minutes, then draw off the water. Put the butter in a wooden bowl and
salt it, allowing one ounce of salt to each pound of butter. Many
butter-makers allow four extra ounces of salt to every ten pounds of
butter. If the butter is to be packed for future use, this is necessary.

Let the salted butter stand in the bowl over night. In the morning work
all the buttermilk and water out of the butter, and then shape into any
form you please. Wet pieces of thin cotton in salt and water, and wrap
the rolls in them.

The less milk there is in the cream, the sooner the butter will come.
The amount of butter to a quart of cream will depend upon the quality of
the cream. A quart of thick cream will give a pound of butter, whereas
it may take more than two quarts of thin cream to produce the same
amount.

If only one cow be kept for family use, a small stone churn will be
found valuable for churning the small quantities of cream which one will
have. Of course, a patent churn is better for large quantities, as the
work can be done more easily with it.

Too much working makes the butter tough and waxy. Work it only enough to
free it from water and buttermilk. Never have the hands touch the
butter; use wooden paddles for the work.

If the cream be very cold it will froth, and the butter will be a long
time in coming. When it does come, it will be light and spongy, instead
of being smooth and firm. Most winter butter lacks color. If you wish to
impart a yellow tinge to it, grate the dark orange part of the carrot,
and simmer it in sweet milk for twenty minutes. Strain the milk, and,
when cool, add to the cream in the churn. Use half a pint of grated
carrot and a pint of milk for every eight quarts of cream.


                            Cottage Cheese.

Put a pan of thick sour milk over a stewpan of hot water, and heat
almost to the boiling point. When the pan has been over the water for
about six minutes, turn the thick milk gently with a large spoon,
getting the hot part on top. When the whey becomes so hot that it cannot
be touched by the finger, turn the mass into a strainer and let the whey
drain off. When the curd is free from whey, season it with salt and
butter, allowing one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of butter
to every four quarts of sour milk. A gill of thick, sweet cream, also,
may be stirred into the curd. Press the cheese into a bowl, or shape it
into balls. This cheese is good only while it is fresh.

Be careful not to have the milk too sour, or to get the curd too hot.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XXIII.

                           CARE OF THE SICK.


IN every household the time comes when a knowledge of the proper care of
the sick is desirable. One should not wait for the necessity to arise
before acquiring this knowledge. The physician will do his part, but the
care and food are as important as are his medicines. In a book of this
kind there is not space completely to cover the subject of preparation
of food for the sick, much less the care of the sick. It is hoped,
however, that the simple instructions given in this chapter may help the
inexperienced to bring comfort and health to their suffering ones. In
the body of the book there will be found directions for preparing many
kinds of simple dishes that are suitable for the invalid, such as simple
soups, broiled meat, fish, and birds, vegetables, toasts, jellies, and
simple desserts.

All the food prepared for the sick should be of the best quality, and
cooked in the simplest and most careful manner. The service should be
the daintiest the house affords. Let the tray be covered with a clean,
well-ironed napkin, and the china, glass, and silver be clean and
bright. Tea, coffee, or chocolate should be taken to the sick-room in a
small pot and poured in the presence of the patient. Have the cream and
sugar in a small pitcher and bowl. Serve broth or soup in a dainty
bouillon cup or a pretty little bowl. Put cream or milk toast in a small
dish and serve small portions on a pretty plate. Serve dry toast in a
fresh napkin, and butter portions as the patient requires. Broiled meat
or fish should be put on a warm plate, and another warm plate be placed
over this to keep the food hot while it is being carried to the
patient’s room.

A patient should not have to wait for food beyond the regular time. No
one, unless he has been ill, can understand the terrible sinking feeling
that comes to a weak patient if the time for his taking food is
forgotten.

In caring for the sick an infinite amount of patience, sympathy, and
cheerfulness is required. If one be harsh or neglectful, even once, it
may mean a whole life of regret.


                      Cleanliness and Ventilation.

The bedding, the clothes of the patient, and the rooms must be kept
absolutely sweet and clean. If it be impossible to sweep the room, all
dust may be wiped from the floor with a dry cloth. If the room be
carpeted,—which is a pity when one is sick,—brush it with a soft hair
brush, and then wipe the carpet with a cloth wrung out of warm water. If
possible, ventilate the room two or three times a day by having the wind
sweep through it. Protect the patient by extra blankets, and then spread
a sheet or blanket over the head board, letting it come down over the
head and shoulders of the patient. One cannot realize what a restful
tonic this pure air is for the patient.


                                Bathing.

Few things are more refreshing to a sick person than a sponge bath. It
should be given morning and night. A little alcohol in the water is
invigorating, and prevents the patient from taking cold. Have but little
water in the sponge, and begin with the face and neck. Keep the body
covered, and wash only a small part at one time. Wipe with a soft towel.
At night the patient may be rubbed with alcohol, using the hand. This
rubbing often insures a good night’s rest. Rubbing is beneficial at
almost any time.


                        Turpentine Applications.

Refined turpentine is often very valuable in the sick-room. In cases of
inflammation of the bowels, kidneys, or bladder, and of congestion of
the lungs, a turpentine application often will relieve the most intense
pain. Indeed, this remedy is good and safe for almost any pain that can
be reached by external applications.

There are two ways of using the applications. When the turpentine is to
remain on the patient for a long time, mix it with lard, and spread the
mixture on flannel. Lay this on the seat of pain. It may be kept on for
several hours. Use a tablespoonful of spirits of turpentine to half a
pint of lard. If the pain be intense, two or three tablespoonfuls of
turpentine may be used.

Another method is to wring flannel out of hot water, sprinkle the
turpentine on this, and lay the flannel on the seat of pain. Cover with
a dry flannel, and upon this lay a soft towel. Use a teaspoonful of
turpentine for a surface about a foot square. In case of great pain even
more turpentine may be required. Few patients can endure this hot
application more than twenty minutes or half an hour. When the flannel
is removed cover the inflamed part with a piece of soft linen.

If the pain come from gas in the stomach or bowels, put eight or ten
drops of spirits of turpentine on a lump of sugar and let the patient
eat this. Turpentine is very good to give in this way whenever there is
bloating of the bowels from an accumulation of gas.


                         To Relieve Neuralgia.

When one is suffering from neuralgia in the head, put him in a warm bed.
Make a brick very hot and cover it with several thicknesses of flannel.
Fold a coarse, thick cloth and place it on the pillow. Lay the brick on
this and wet thoroughly with rum. Rest the most painful part of the head
or face on the brick, and throw a blanket over the patient, covering the
head. Keep covered in this way until the pain ceases. When the blanket
is removed, wipe the moisture from the head, face, and neck; then bathe
in alcohol or rum, to prevent taking cold.

Another remedy is to make salt very hot by stirring it over the fire in
a frying-pan; then pour it into a bag, which should be securely tied.
Have the patient lie down, and cover him well. Place the bag of hot salt
on that part of the head or face where the pain is located. The salt
will retain the heat a long time. This method is much easier than the
first, but it will not relieve one so quickly nor so thoroughly.


                          To Keep Cracked Ice.

It often happens that a patient is obliged to take a great deal of
cracked ice. In such a case make a bag of rather thin flannel, and cut a
small hole in the bottom. Have a long tape run in the hem at the top.
Hang this bag in a large pitcher, fastening it at the top with the tape.
Fill the bag with cracked ice, and cover the pitcher with several
thicknesses of flannel.


                      To Break Ice in a Sick Room.

Place the piece of ice on a napkin and press a large pin or needle
firmly into it. It will break off smoothly at this point. If ice be
scarce, it is best to put it in the flannel bag in one large piece and
chip it off as required.


                             Mutton Broth.

           1 pound of the scraggy end of the neck of mutton.
           1-1/2 pints of cold water.
           1 tablespoonful of barley.
           1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

See that the meat is perfectly sweet. Cut off all the fat; then cut the
lean meat in pieces and put it in a stewpan with the bones and cold
water. Place the stewpan on the stove; and when the broth begins to
boil, skim it and set back where it will just bubble. Put the barley in
another stewpan with a pint of cold water, and place on the fire. Cook
for one hour; then pour off the water, and, after putting the barley
with the broth, cook for three hours longer. Add the salt, and strain
the broth; or, if the patient can bear it, remove the bones and serve
the meat and barley in the broth.


                             Chicken Broth.

                        1/2 of a fowl.
                        1 quart of water.
                        1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Free the fowl from fat and skin, and cut in small pieces, breaking the
bones. Wash the meat, and, putting it in a stewpan with the cold water,
place it on the fire. When the broth begins to boil, skim it carefully.
Draw the stewpan back to a cooler part of the range, where the broth
will only bubble for three hours. Add the salt, and strain.

A tablespoonful of rice, tapioca, or sago may be cooked in this broth,
if it be thought best for the patient.


                              Clam Broth.

Get a dozen clams in the shell, and wash them in several waters; then
soak them for an hour in a pan of cold water. On taking them from the
water, put them in a stewpan and set on the fire. Add a gill of water,
and, covering the stewpan, cook for fifteen minutes. Pour the liquor
through a fine strainer. Taste to see if salt enough. It may be too
salt; in which case add a little boiling water to the broth.


                            Mutton Custard.

                   1 quart of milk.
                   2 ounces of mutton suet.
                   Stick of cinnamon, 5 inches long.
                   1 tablespoonful of flour.
                   1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

The suet must be from the kidneys; sweet, and free from all tough
membrane. Shred it very fine, and put it in the double-boiler with the
cinnamon and milk; reserving, however, one gill of the milk. Cook for
one hour, then strain. Return the strained liquid to the double-boiler,
and place on the fire. Mix the flour and cold milk to a smooth paste,
and stir into the hot mixture. Add the salt, and cook for ten minutes.
Give the patient as much of this as he will willingly take; say, half a
pint every four or five hours. Keep the patient warm and quiet. This is
a particularly good remedy in severe cases of bowel and stomach trouble,
being nourishing and soothing.


                     Oysters Roasted in the Shell.

Get ten or a dozen good oysters in the shell. Wash the shells, and place
them in an old baking-pan. Put the pan into a hot oven, keeping it there
until the shells begin to open. Remove the upper shells and place the
under ones, containing the oysters, on a large plate. Serve at once. The
oysters should be seasoned with butter, salt, and pepper.


                            Steamed Oysters.

Put eight or ten large oysters in a little fancy dish or saucer, and
place in the steamer. Cook for about five minutes. Season with salt,
pepper, and butter, and serve at once with hot toast.


                             Oyster Roast.

Have a slice of crisp toast in a little dish. Put half a pint of oysters
in a saucepan, and set on the fire. When they boil, skim them, and
season with salt, pepper, and butter. Pour the oysters and liquor on the
toast and serve at once.


                               Beef Tea.

Put in a large-mouthed bottle one pound of beef, free of fat, and
chopped fine. Add to it half a pint of cold water, and let the mixture
stand for an hour. At the end of that time place the bottle in a
saucepan of cold water. Place the pan on the fire, and heat the water
slowly almost to the boiling point, without letting it boil. Cook the
beef for two hours; then strain, and season with salt.

The thick sediment which falls to the bottom when the tea has stood
awhile is the most nutritious part, yet many people serve only the clear
and poorer part to the patient. It is to keep this sediment (the
albuminoids) in a soft, digestible condition, that care is taken not to
let the water which surrounds the bottle boil. Great heat hardens the
albuminoids.

If a patient take a great deal of beef tea, the flavor may be changed
occasionally by putting a piece of stick cinnamon about an inch square
into the bottle with the meat and water.


                            Beef Tea, No. 2.

Put into a bowl a pound of beef, free of fat, and chopped fine. Add half
a pint of cold water, and stir well. Place the bowl in the refrigerator
for four hours. When the tea is to be given to the patient, strain into
a saucepan the quantity required. Season it with salt, and place the
saucepan on the fire. Stir constantly until the tea becomes hot, but do
not let it boil.

This tea has a peculiarly bright flavor, and affords a pleasant change
from that made by long steeping in hot water.


                              Beef Juice.

Use a piece of round or flank steak about an inch thick. Broil it for
eight minutes; then put it on a warm plate and, after cutting it in
small pieces, press in the lemon squeezer. Season with a little salt.
This may be fed to the patient; or a little bread may be soaked in it;
or add a little hot water, and you have beef tea.


                              Round Steak.

When you cannot get a tender, juicy steak, or when the patient’s power
of mastication is not good, a nutritious and digestible steak can be
prepared from the round of beef. Lay a thin slice of round steak on a
board. Scrape one surface with a sharp knife until there is nothing left
on that side but the tough fibres; then turn the meat over, and scrape
the other side in like manner. When the tender meat is scraped off, put
it in a small dish. Press this into a square, having it about half an
inch thick. Rub the bars of a double-broiler with a little butter, and
lay the steak between them. Broil over clear coals for five minutes;
then place on a warm dish, spread a little butter on the steak, season
with salt, and serve at once.


                          Raw Beef Sandwiches.

Scrape some beef in the manner described for preparing round steak.
Season it generously with salt. After cutting four slices of stale bread
as thin as a wafer, spread the beef on two of the slices, and lay the
other slices on top, pressing them down carefully. Cut them into pieces
about an inch square. Arrange these tastefully on a fringed napkin or in
a pretty little dish.


                              Flour Gruel.

                       1 pint of milk.
                       1 tablespoonful of flour.
                       1/3 teaspoonful of salt.

After reserving half a gill of the milk, put the remainder in the
double-boiler and set on the fire. Mix the flour with the cold milk, and
stir into the boiling milk. Cook for half an hour. Add the salt; then
strain and serve.


                             Oatmeal Gruel.

                      1 quart of water.
                      2 tablespoonfuls of oatmeal.
                      1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Have the water boiling in a stewpan. Stir rapidly, and sprinkle the
oatmeal into it, stirring all the while. Cover, and set back where it
will cook gently for two hours. At the end of that time add the salt,
and serve. This gruel may be strained or not, as may be best for the
patient. A part of the gruel may be poured into a cup and a few
spoonfuls of milk or cream be added to it.

If the gruel be liked thick, use four tablespoonfuls of oatmeal.


                           Indian Meal Gruel.

                    1 quart of boiling water.
                    3 tablespoonfuls of Indian meal.
                    1 tablespoonful of flour.
                    1 gill of cold water.
                    1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the boiling water in a saucepan and set on the fire. Mix the flour
and meal with the cold water, and stir into the boiling water. Boil
gently for two hours. Add the salt, and strain; then serve. A little
cream may be added to the gruel when it is served.


                            Arrowroot Gruel.

                      1/2 pint of milk.
                      1 teaspoonful of arrowroot.
                      1/3 saltspoonful of salt.

Reserve four tablespoonfuls of milk and put the remainder on to boil.
Mix the arrowroot with the cold milk, and stir into the boiling milk.
Add the salt, and cook for ten minutes.


                             Cracker Gruel.

                    2 tablespoonfuls cracker crumbs.
                    1 gill of milk.
                    1 gill of boiling water.
                    1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the cracker crumbs in a saucepan and pour the boiling water upon
them, stirring all the time. Place the saucepan on the fire and stir the
mixture until it boils. Add the milk and salt, and continue stirring
until the gruel boils again. Serve at once.

For some tastes half a teaspoonful of butter is an agreeable addition.


                              Milk Punch.

                    1/2 pint of milk.
                    1 heaped tablespoonful of sugar.
                    1 tablespoonful of rum.

Mix these ingredients and serve at once; or give the punch a froth by
pouring the mixture from one bowl to another, holding the bowl high as
the liquid is poured from it.


                                Egg Tea.

                   1 gill of hot water or milk.
                   1 tablespoonful of powdered sugar.
                   1 egg.

Beat the white of the egg to a stiff dry froth, and beat the sugar into
it. Next add the yolk of the egg, and beat well. Pour the hot milk or
water on this, and serve. If you choose, a little nutmeg or wine may be
added to the mixture.


                                Eggnog.

Eggnog is made the same as egg tea, using cold milk and a tablespoonful
of brandy, wine, or rum.


                              Rice Water.

                       1/2 gill of rice.
                       1-1/2 pints of cold water.
                       1/2 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the rice and put with the water in a saucepan. Place on the fire
and cook for thirty-five minutes. Strain the liquid, and season with the
salt.

Half water and half milk may be used in this drink, if you prefer.


                              Apple Water.

Bake three tart apples in rather a quick oven until they are tender.
Sprinkle one tablespoonful of sugar over them, and return to the oven
until the sugar becomes browned. Crush the apples, and pour a pint of
boiling water upon them. Let them stand for fifty minutes; then strain
and cool the water.


                             Barley Water.

                        1/2 gill of barley.
                        1-1/2 pints of water.
                        1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

Wash the barley, and put it on the fire in a stewpan, with one pint of
cold water. Cook for one hour. Pour off the water and rinse the barley.
Add the pint and a half of cold water, and cook for two hours longer.
Season with the salt, and strain. If lemon be good for the patient, add
a tablespoonful of juice to the strained liquid, and sweeten with two
lumps of sugar.


                             Crust Coffee.

Dry some crusts of bread in the oven; then toast them until dark brown.
Break up these crusts, and measure out half a pint. Put these in a bowl,
and pour a pint and a half of boiling water upon them. Cover the bowl
for ten minutes, then strain the coffee. This may be served hot or cold.


                               Wine Whey.

Put half a pint of sweet milk into a double-boiler, and when it boils
add a gill of sherry. Stir well, and let it cook until the curd and whey
separate. If the wine be quite sour, the milk will separate at once;
sometimes it is so sweet that an extra quantity is required to curdle
the milk. If there be any objection to the use of more wine in a case
like this, add a teaspoonful of vinegar. Pour the liquid through a fine
strainer.


                             Moss Lemonade.

                  1 tablespoonful of sea-moss farina.
                  1 quart of boiling water.
                  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
                  3 lemons.
                  1/10 teaspoonful of salt.

Put the farina in a bowl or pitcher, and pour the boiling water on it.
Stir well, and steep for an hour. Add the salt, sugar, and lemon, and
strain. This is an excellent drink when a cold has settled on the lungs.
Serve hot or cold.

Should there be any reason why the patient cannot take lemon, use some
other flavor.


                           Restorative Jelly.

               1/2 box of gelatine.
               1 tablespoonful of granulated gum arabic.
               3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
               2 tablespoonfuls of lemon juice.
               2 cloves.
               1/2 pint of port.

Put all the ingredients in a bowl for two hours. At the end of that time
place the bowl in a saucepan of boiling water, and cook, stirring
frequently, until all the ingredients are dissolved. Strain, and set
away to harden. The bowl must be kept covered all the time the jelly is
soaking and cooking.

This jelly is to be used when the patient finds it difficult to swallow
either liquid or solid food. A small piece of it, placed in the mouth,
melts slowly, and is swallowed unconsciously. The sugar may be omitted,
and a gill of port and a gill of beef juice be used; the beef juice to
be added when the jelly is taken from the fire. Other stimulants may be
substituted for port.


                             Senna Prunes.

                   24 prunes.
                   2 tablespoonfuls of senna leaves.
                   1 pint of boiling water.

Steep the senna in the water, where it will keep hot for two hours; then
strain the water. Wash the stewpan, and put into it the senna water and
the prunes, well washed. Cover, and place the stewpan on a part of the
range where the contents will just simmer. Cook until the prunes have
absorbed all the water; then put them in a jar, and use as required.
This is a mild and pleasant remedy for constipation. The prunes are
delicious, and will keep for months. They are convenient to take when
travelling.


                      A Gargle for a Sore Throat.

Put into a goblet of cold water one teaspoonful of tincture of muriate
of iron, and one heaped teaspoonful of chlorate of potash. Gargle the
throat with this. It will do no harm if a small quantity of the liquid
be unintentionally swallowed.


                            Camphorated Oil.

Put into a large bottle four ounces of olive oil and four of spirits of
camphor, and shake well. When there is pain in the chest or lungs rub
with the camphorated oil. This is excellent to use in case of sprains or
bruises.


                        For a Cold in the Head.

Mix together in a large bottle four ounces of ammonia and four of
camphor. A cologne bottle with a glass stopper is the best for this
preparation. When there are symptoms of a cold in the head inhale this
mixture frequently.


                              Lime Water.

Put about four ounces of quicklime in a bowl, and pour upon it two
quarts of cold water. Stir the mixture well, and cover. Let this stand
for four or live hours. At the end of that time pour off the clear
liquid and bottle it. Throw away the sediment.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XXIV.

                          WHEN CLEANING HOUSE.


THE season of house-cleaning is greeted with different degrees of
welcome, or horror, by the several members of the family. Some people
appear to think there is no good reason for this annual thorough
cleaning of the house; others, however, are really glad when the time
comes round again, because it furnishes an opportunity to take account
of stock, as it were, discarding the worthless, and renewing wherever it
is necessary. When the cleaning is finished, pride and content come with
the feeling that rest and comfort can be taken with a clear conscience
in a house that one knows is in good condition from top to bottom.


                      System Absolutely Necessary.

Every house certainly should have a thorough cleaning every year, that
there may be a check put upon the accumulation of dust or dirt which
might breed disease, even if no other reason influenced the housekeeper.
This yearly cleaning need not be a season of discomfort to the family.
If possible, a little extra help should be engaged; but even if this be
out of the question, the work can be done in such a way that every one
shall not be worn out by the time the cleaning is finished. Too much
should not be attempted at once. If one room be taken at a time, and be
finished before work is begun in another, the whole house can be cleaned
without any great difficulty. It is always wise, if possible, to wait
until the necessity for furnace or stove fires is past. If the house be
heated by stoves, and there be some rooms in which a fire is needed only
in the coldest weather, such rooms may be cleaned first, the stoves in
the other rooms being removed later. There should be a perfect system in
doing this work. Housekeepers differ in regard to the part of the house
where the cleaning should begin, some starting with the attic and others
with the cellar. Since the furnace must be cleaned some time, and dust
may escape through the pipes into the various rooms above, it seems to
me that the proper place to begin is down-stairs.


                          Cleaning the Cellar.

In no part of the house is it so important that the cleaning be
thoroughly done as in the cellar. Not a corner should be slighted. Begin
with the furnace. Have the registers closed in every room. Remove all
the cinders and ashes, and clean out all the flues and pipes. Many
housekeepers have the pipes removed, but the smoke-pipe is really the
only one that it is necessary to take down. This pipe is liable to rust,
because of the moisture it gathers from the chimney; nevertheless, if
there be no way of heating and drying the house during a cold, damp
period in summer except by building a fire in the furnace, it would be
cheaper to renew this smoke-pipe every few years than run the risk of
having the family made ill from receiving a chill. While the men are in
the house to clean the furnace, it would be economy to have them clean
the flues in the range, and also the chimneys. Open the cellar windows
to bring everything into the light. Have the coal bins cleaned. Brush
everything free from dust. Now sweep the ceiling and walls as well as
the floor. Brush the walls once more. Wash the windows and any closets,
shelves, or tables there may be in the cellar.


                       Do not Omit Whitewashing.

Now have the walls whitewashed. Before the various articles stored in
the cellar are put back in place, brush them again. Sweep the floor once
more. Paint with black enamel varnish the iron parts of the furnace, and
also any iron pipes that may be exposed to moisture. An excellent
whitewash may be made by putting eight quarts of unslaked lime into a
large tub, and pouring over it enough boiling water to make a paste.
Stir well, and cover until cold, stirring occasionally, that the wash
may be smooth. Dissolve one quart of salt in two quarts of hot water.
Dissolve also half an ounce of indigo in about a pint of hot water. Add
these substances to the slaked and cooled lime. Now beat well, and add
enough cold water to make the mixture the consistency of thin cream. The
wash will then be ready to use.

A tub of charcoal and another of lime are excellent things to keep in
the cellar. They make it sweeter and dryer, and the charcoal is, of
course, very convenient to have on hand for fuel. The unslaked lime
should be put in a tub or barrel, with space for it to expand to twice
its bulk. It slakes in the air and expands rapidly during the process.


                         From Cellar to Attic.

After the cellar is cleaned, the next move is to begin at the top of the
house and work down. It is not safe in these days, when houses are kept
almost as warm in winter as they become in summer, to take it for
granted that anything is perfectly free from carpet-bugs, moths, and
other insects. Every article in the storeroom should be examined,
brushed, and shaken. All the boxes, drawers, and closets should be
brushed, wiped, and lined with new paper. As a measure of safety all
receptacles should be saturated with naphtha just before their contents
are replaced. Woollen goods, furs, and feathers should be wet with
naphtha and folded in old cotton or linen sheets. They will be perfectly
safe for a year or more, provided they have been thoroughly shaken and
brushed, so that no insects’ eggs remain in them. Pieces of carpets and
other large articles should be hung out of doors, on lines, before being
put away.

Having taken care of the closets, drawers, boxes, and stored goods, the
next thing will be to clean the room. Brush the articles of furniture
and set them outside the room. Brush the walls, ceiling, and windows.
After sweeping the floor wash the windows and woodwork, and also the
floor, wiping very dry. Let the room air for an hour or more; then
return all the articles to their places.


                    Taking up and Cleaning Carpets.

Have two strong sheets made of unbleached cotton. Remove the carpet
tacks with a tack-lifter, being careful to put every one of them in a
box or bowl. It is not only extremely painful, but also dangerous, to
step on a rusty tack, and the housekeeper should make it a matter of
conscience to see to it that none are left lying about. When all the
tacks have been removed fold the carpet carefully, lengthwise; then roll
it up and put it in one of the sheets, tying this. Put the linings in
the other sheet. Take both sheets into the yard or some field near by,
and after spreading the linings, sweep them on both sides, pile them up,
and cover with the sheet. Spread the carpet and beat with a rattan or
long switch. Sweep it, and then turn it over and beat again. Let it lie
on the grass, wrong side up, until the room is ready.

The small yards in city houses are not the proper places for cleaning
carpets, as the dust rises and enters all the surrounding houses. There
is in some cities a law against beating carpets in such narrow quarters.


                         Sweeping and Dusting.

When the carpet and linings have been removed from the room, sprinkle
the floor with either moistened sawdust, fine sand, or bits of damp
paper; then sweep up the dust. Go over the floor a second time. Brush
the ceiling and walls of the room and closets, being careful to get
every crack free from dust. Clean, with a small brush, the tops of the
doors and windows, the window sashes, the ledges and blinds, and all the
grooves in the woodwork. For the walls and ceiling use a broom covered
with Canton flannel, or any old flannel. Let the strokes on the walls be
straight downward. If there be a fireplace in the room spread thick
papers on the hearth and clean both the grate and fireplace. Take the
bedstead apart and lay each piece on the floor, grooved side up. Be
careful that there is not a particle of dust left in it. Pour naphtha
into every groove. Be generous, for it is not expensive and will hurt
nothing. Have near by a bowl of naphtha, into which dip the ends of the
slats. If there have been any indications of insect life in the bed or
room, spray all the cracks in the floor, walls, and woodwork. Now sweep
the floor for the third time and wash it with hot diluted lime water,
which is made by pouring four quarts of boiling water upon one quart of
quicklime, and letting the mixture stand covered for several hours; then
pouring into another pail the clear water. Put one quart of this water
to two gallons of hot. The boards will be made whiter and sweeter by the
use of the lime water.


                       Washing Painted Surfaces.

Next wash the paint. If it be white do not use ordinary soap. Wring a
flannel cloth out of hot water and dip it lightly in whiting. Rub with
this, and then wash off all the whiting; next wipe with the cloth wrung
out of hot water, and finally rub with a dry flannel until the surface
is perfectly dry. Have a pointed stick for all the grooves and corners.
If the woodwork be grooved a great deal, as is now the fashion, a small
scrubbing brush, such as is sold for cleaning kitchen boards, will be
found helpful, as a few strokes the length of a long grooved panel will
clean it perfectly. If soap be preferred to whiting, use the white
castile, as this will not turn the paint yellow, nor will it soften it,
as is apt to be the case with soaps in which the alkali is strong. Now
wash the blinds, then the window casings and ledges, and finally the
glass of the windows.

When cleaning paint it is well not to have the cloth so wet that the
water will run on the paint, as it will leave streaks. Wash only a small
place at a time. Wash the blinds with clear water. When you come to the
window ledges do not use so much water that it will run down on the
outside of the house, marring the appearance of the walls. Always rub
with the grain of the wood.

Take the covers from the furniture, and dust again, washing the mirror
in the dressing-case. Clean and polish the furniture.


                           Laying the Carpet.

Lay the carpet linings on the floor, putting a small tack here and there
to keep them in place. Put the carpet on the floor, unrolling it in the
direction in which it is to be laid. Begin to tack it at the end of the
room which is the most irregular. If there be a fireplace or bay-window
in the room, fit the carpet around these places first. Use large tacks
to hold the carpet temporarily in place; they can be withdrawn when the
work is finished. When the carpet is fitted to a place, use small tacks
to keep it down. Tack one end of the carpet, stretching it well; then a
side, then the other end, and finally the other side. Be careful to keep
the lines straight, and to have the carpet fit tightly; for if it be
loose, it will not only look bad, but will not wear well.

When the carpet is laid, pour a little naphtha on any soiled places, and
rub with a piece of flannel until the spots disappear. Always have a
window open at such times, to allow the gas to escape. Put about six
quarts of warm water in a pail and add four tablespoonfuls of household
ammonia. Wring a woollen cloth out of this, and wipe the carpet.

Put the furniture and other articles in place. When all the chambers are
finished, clean the hall and stairs. All the chambers and upper halls
are to be cleaned in the same manner, one room at a time. If the stairs
be carpeted, take up the carpets and have them cleaned and put away
until all the front part of the house has been cleaned.


                       Rooms on the First Floor.

The rooms on this floor nowadays are generally shut off by portières,
over and under which the dust sifts into the adjoining rooms when one of
the series is being cleaned, unless the housekeeper provide the proper
screens. Have for this purpose sheets of strong, unbleached cotton, a
yard longer and wider than the height and width of the openings. If you
take down your portières and tack these sheets on the top and at the
bottom of the casings, the other rooms will be well protected. Now dust
and remove the small ornaments. Beat and brush the upholstered
furniture. Remove from the room as much of the furniture as possible.
Take down the window draperies and shake the dust from them in the yard.
Have the dining-room table made its full length, and lay an old sheet
over it. Spread the draperies on this, one at a time, and wipe them with
a clean piece of cheese-cloth; then fold them carefully, if they are not
to be hung again until fall, and, pinning them in clean sheets, put them
away in boxes or drawers. Next take down the shades, and after wiping
them with a clean cloth roll them up and put them aside until the room
is cleaned. Cover the large pieces of furniture, and if there be carpets
to be taken up proceed in these rooms as directed for the bedrooms. If
there be brasses, take them to the laundry or kitchen to be cleaned.
Take down the shades of the chandeliers and wash them. If the carpets
are to be taken up, they should be removed at once, and if they are not,
brush the ceiling, walls, woodwork, windows, blinds, and ledges, and
then sweep the carpet. When the dust settles sweep a second time; be
careful to brush the corners and edges thoroughly with a small broom.
After the carpet is thoroughly swept, saturate the edges and corners
with naphtha, leaving the doors and windows open, of course. Now clean
the paint and windows. When the room is clean put three tablespoonfuls
of household ammonia in about six quarts of water, and, wringing a clean
cloth out of this, wipe the carpet. Change the water as soon as it
becomes dark. Replace the furnishings. Of course, if the floors be of
polished hard wood, half the burden of house-cleaning is removed.


                     Kitchen, Pantry, and Closets.

Last, but not least, on the programme comes the back part of the house.
Beginning with the china closet, remove and wipe all the dishes. Brush
the walls, ceiling, and shelves. Take the drawers to the kitchen and
wash and wipe them, afterward drying them in the sun or before the fire.
Wash all the woodwork and the floors before replacing the dishes. Clean
the kitchen closets and pantry in the same manner. Wash and scour all
the wooden, tin, and iron utensils, getting them perfectly dry and sweet
in the sunlight, if possible. Line the shelves and floor of the pot
closet with thick brown paper, and put the utensils in place. Take down
the kitchen shades and wipe them with a clean cloth. Brush the ceiling
and walls. If the walls be painted, wash them in warm ammonia
water,—four tablespoonfuls of ammonia to six quarts of water. Have ready
a second pail of clear hot water and a clean cloth. Go over the washed
space with the clean cloth and water; then wipe dry. If the woodwork be
hard or grained, wash it in the same manner; using, however, only half
as much ammonia. Wash the windows, scour the tables and sink, clean the
pipes and faucets, black the stove, and wash the floor. When all this is
done go over the woodwork with a flannel dampened with linseed oil and
turpentine,—half of each; then rub with a dry flannel. The laundry and
back halls should receive the same attention. Then the piazza and yard
should be put in order.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XXV.

                     ODD BITS OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.


            Points of Difference in Various Brands of Flour.

MUCH trouble in cooking arises from the difference in various brands of
flour. There are often, indeed, variations in the same brand. All are
caused by the different modes of making the flour, and changes in the
kind of wheat used.

When flour is made by the roller process, two cupfuls will make a much
stiffer batter than flour made by the old process of grinding between
stones, or produced by first crushing by rollers and then grinding
between stones. Millers all over the country are always looking for, and
frequently making, improvements in the processes which they are
accustomed to follow. This necessarily results in changes in the texture
and quality of their products. Then, too, it makes a difference whether
the wheat used is spring or winter wheat. In the Eastern States, where
mills are few, the flour comes largely from Minnesota and other Western
States. This flour has in the last fifteen or twenty years been made
almost wholly by the roller process, and chiefly of spring wheat. The
distinguishing quality of this flour is this: if rubbed between the
fingers it feels rough and granular, and if pressed in the hand it will
not hold its shape, but fall apart as granulated sugar would. When using
this flour by measure, allow one eighth more wetting than for flour made
by grinding between stones.

Recently a number of millers have modified the new process by using the
rollers for cleansing, separating, and grinding until the last stages of
the work, when the flour is put between stones and ground smooth and
fine. When this is done the distinguishing features between the old and
new processes are lost. This flour is smooth to the touch, will keep its
shape if pressed in the hand, and will not absorb as much moisture as
the more granular kind. It can be used equally well for bread, cake, and
pastry. Some of the mills in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan
make this flour in perfection.

Flour that is made of new spring wheat will not give so good bread when
first made as it will after it has been kept for a month or more. A
great deal of the trouble with bread comes from this condition of the
flour. A barrel of flour that will not make good bread to-day, simply
because the wheat was too new when ground, will, if kept for two months,
make perfect bread, if the yeast be good; for, after all, the yeast is
more frequently than the flour the cause of failure to make satisfactory
bread.

When one buys flour in small quantities there will always be an
uncertainty as to how it will work until after the first time it is
used. Even in small families it is better to get flour by the barrel, as
it improves with age. Another thing for the housekeeper to remember is
that the whitest flour is not the most nutritious. What is called
first-quality flour does not contain nearly so large a quantity of the
best elements of the wheat as the second quality, which is much darker,
but gives a sweeter and more nutritious loaf.

It is wonderful to see the various processes through which the wheat
goes before it comes out of the mill. There is no question that flour
which is made by the roller process in the first stages and finally
ground between the stones will give the most satisfaction. The wheat is
more thoroughly cleaned than when the flour is made wholly by the old
process, and the separation of the hard substance and the dust from the
wheat is more thorough than by the old mode, and therefore when the
flour comes from the millstones it is free from undesirable substances.


             When and Why Soda, Cream of Tartar, and Baking

Powders are Used.

Soda may be used in all kinds of bread, cake, pudding, and griddle cakes
where an acid also is used. The acid may be cream of tartar, vinegar,
lemon juice, sour milk or cream, molasses, or something else. If two
teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar be used, there must be one teaspoonful
of soda, save in cases where the cream of tartar is used only to give
tone and firmness of texture to a pudding or cake in which only the
whites of the eggs are employed,—such as many of the meringue puddings,
and angel cake.

In puddings and cakes where molasses, lemon juice, or vinegar is used,
soda should be used instead of baking powder, because the baking powder
is a combination of an acid and alkali, and the proportions are so
carefully adjusted that the two ingredients neutralize each other.

Sometimes a rule for cake or gingerbread calls for one teaspoonful of
soda and one of cream of tartar. In such cases allowance is made for the
acid in the molasses, or in the sour milk or cream that is used. Again,
in making cake in which a good many eggs and wine or brandy are used, a
small quantity of soda, but no cream of tartar, is called for. This is
because there is enough acid in the wine and butter to neutralize the
small quantity of soda and produce the required amount of carbonic acid
gas.

It will be seen, by these statements, that the housekeeper who uses
baking powder can do without cream of tartar, but she must be provided
with soda when using molasses and sour milk and cream.

Soda should never be dissolved in hot water, because some of the gases
would be liberated and wasted, and a greater amount of soda would be
needed to make good this waste than if the soda were dissolved in cold
water.

Housekeepers should remember, when making biscuit and dumplings with
baking powder, that three teaspoonfuls of the powder will be required to
make one quart of flour light. The manufacturers’ directions often call
for only two, and the result is unsatisfactory.


                         About Whipping Cream.

[Illustration: WHIP-CHURN.]

Have the cream very cold. Put it in a bowl or pail, and set this dish in
a pan of cold water,—ice water if possible. Have a large bowl or pan set
in another pan of ice water. Place the whip-churn in the cream, tipping
a little to one side, that the air and cream may be forced through the
holes in the bottom of the churn. Draw the dasher up about one third the
length of the cylinder; then press down. Let the upward stroke be light,
and the downward stroke hard. If you will count time in this way: _one_,
two; _one_, two,—it will insure a regular stroke, which is important.

When the bowl is full of froth, skim it off into the larger bowl, being
careful not to skim too near the liquid cream. A little of the froth
will become liquid, but this can be poured back into the bowl and
whipped again.

The cream must be neither too thick nor too thin. If too thick, thin it
with milk. When cream is too thick for whipping, the bubbles will be
very small and the cream will hardly double in volume. This kind of
cream makes most desserts too rich. When the cream is too thin, the
bubbles will be large and clear, and will break when touched. Such cream
as is sold at creameries as thick or heavy cream, and costs from fifty
to eighty cents a quart,—depending on the locality,—will require a pint
of milk to a pint of cream. The thin cream sold at the creameries is
often too poor to be whipped.

The whip-churn is a tin cylinder, perforated on the bottom and sides, in
which a dasher of tin, also perforated, can be easily moved up and down.
When this churn is placed in a bowl of cream and the dasher is worked,
air is forced through the cream, causing it to froth.

Good cream may be frothed with a whisk, or with an egg-beater, but the
whip-churn described above is, to my mind, the most satisfactory for
this work.


                      How to Prepare Bread Crumbs.

There are two methods of preparing bread crumbs. Such as are to be used
for escaloped dishes or dishes prepared _au gratin_, etc., should always
be grated. That means, of course, that stale bread—not dried
bread—should be used. This gives light, fluffy crumbs.

For breading, pieces of bread should be dried in a slow oven until not a
particle of moisture is left. The dried bread should then be put in a
bag and pounded fine with a wooden mallet. Now rub the crumbs through a
common flour sieve, and put them away in glass jars. There should always
be kept on hand a good supply of these dry crumbs.


                     Breading Articles for Frying.

The albumen of the egg hardens so quickly when exposed to a high
temperature that it is used as a protection for articles of food that
lack albuminous matter enough on the surface instantly to form a hard
coating. The egg does not take a fine, brown color; therefore, bread or
cracker crumbs are used with it to give the food crispness and a rich
color. Covering an article of food with egg and bread crumbs is called
breading. Put the egg in a deep plate, and beat it thoroughly with a
spoon, but not enough to make it light. Have the crumbs in another
plate, or they may be spread in a thick bed on a board. Have the article
that is to be breaded seasoned well with salt, and slightly with pepper,
if the latter be used at all. Put the article in the egg, and with a
tablespoon dip up and pour the egg over every part of it. Not a spot
should escape the coating. With a broad-bladed knife lift the article
from the egg, and roll it in the dried crumbs, being careful that every
part is covered. Lay the breaded food on a flat dish or on the board
until dry.

Never place one breaded article on another when drying or frying. When
ready to fry, shake off the loose crumbs. Place in the wire basket,
being careful not to crowd. Fish, meat, croquettes, etc., when dry after
breading, may be placed in the refrigerator until the time for frying.
They will keep for twelve hours or longer.

Sometimes a very thick crust is desired on some kinds of food. In that
case bread all the articles, and when they are dry, give them a second
coat of egg and crumbs.


                        Ways to Get Onion Juice.

Pare a fresh onion and bruise the side by striking with the dull edge of
a knife; then press the flat side of the blade of the knife against the
bruised place. The juice will fall in drops. If a large quantity be
required, cut the onion fine, put it in a piece of cheese-cloth, and
press in a lemon squeezer kept solely for this purpose.


                   Getting Rid of the Odor of Onions.

If the hands and the utensils which were used in preparing raw onions be
thoroughly washed in cold water before soap or hot water touches them,
the odor of the vegetable will disappear.


                   Stoning Raisins in an Easy Manner.

Stem the raisins, and, putting them in a bowl, cover with boiling water.
Immediately pour off the water. This softens the skins and makes the
raisins puff up so that the stones are removed with ease.


                       To Freshen Bread and Cake.

If you wish to freshen a stale loaf of bread or cake, put it in a deep
pan, cover it closely and set it in rather a cool oven for about twenty
minutes. The loaf will be almost as fresh as when first baked, but it
must be used the same day, as it dries quickly when reheated in this
manner.


                    Making a Bouquet of Sweet Herbs.

Tie together one spray of parsley, one sprig each of thyme and summer
savory, one small leaf of sage, and one large bay leaf. This bouquet
will flavor a gallon of soup. It must not cook in it for more than an
hour. When only a small amount of soup or sauce is to be flavored, the
bouquet should be cooked in the liquid but a short time,—perhaps from
ten to twenty minutes.


                  Preventing a Meringue from Falling.

The means of preventing a meringue from falling when it is taken from
the oven are simple. Usually the trouble arises from baking the meringue
in too high a temperature. If you beat the whites of the eggs to a
stiff, dry froth, then gradually beat in the powdered sugar (a generous
tablespoonful for each white of an egg), put the meringue on the pie or
pudding when partially cooled, and bake in a moderate oven, with the
door open, for eighteen to twenty minutes, the annoyance may be avoided.


                    To Temper Iron and Earthen Ware.

Heat the iron slowly and then cool slowly. It is best, when it can be
done, to grease the inside of the iron utensil and fill it with cold
water; then heat the water gradually to the boiling point, and cool
slowly. Earthenware is to be put in a kettle of cold water, which is
then to be heated slowly to the boiling point, and cooled slowly. If
convenient, put a little bran in the water.


                              Flour Paste.

Mix one heaped tablespoonful of flour with five of cold water. Pour on
this a scant gill of boiling water, stirring all the time. Stir the
mixture on the fire until it boils up, then strain.


                What to do When Burning Accidents Occur.

There are many simple remedies which, in case of burning accidents, can
be applied before the physician comes. So much immediate and future
suffering can be averted by the prompt use of some remedy, that
everybody should have fixed in mind some of the proper things to do.
Slight burns, such as one often gets in the kitchen or laundry, can be
relieved, and blistering be prevented, by coating the burned part with
oil, lard, or butter, then covering with baking soda, and finally with a
piece of linen. In a short time the pain will cease, and, unless the
burn be very deep or the remedies be applied too late, there will be no
blister. Lime water also is good for burns.

Children are often scalded by falling into hot water left within their
reach, or by overturning some hot liquid upon themselves. In a case of
scalding it must be remembered that the clothes clinging to the body are
saturated with the hot liquid, and that as long as they are allowed to
remain in this condition the heat will be kept in, and the burn become
deeper. The first thing to do in a case of this kind is to pour cold
water over the sufferer. This at once cools the clothing, which should
afterward be taken off as gently but quickly as possible. Next pour
sweet oil over the burns and cover them with soda, if you have it; if
not, cover with soft linen cloths, and then wet with lime water. If
there be no oil at hand, lard will do. The things at which to aim are,
to cover the burn at once with some pure oily substance and then with
soda or lime water, to take out the fire; to have the place covered with
linen, which will not stick to the wound; and, finally, to cover closely
from the air. Nothing is better for this purpose than a thin roll of
cotton batting spread over the linen. Sometimes the cotton batting is
saturated with oil and laid directly on the wound; but it is apt to
cling to the flesh, and cause much trouble and suffering. A fine quality
of cotton batting may be obtained at any druggist’s.

In every house there should be a closet or drawer on the first floor
where a few simple remedies are kept. Here is a list for burns: a roll
of old linen, such as handkerchiefs, napkins, pieces of table-cloths,
sheets, and pillow-cases; a roll of cotton batting, a bottle of sweet
oil, with the stopple drawn and gently put back, so that it can be
quickly removed; a bottle of lime water; a box of powdered baking soda;
a ball of soft darning cotton; and a needle, thread, thimble, and
scissors. One may have no use for these things in many years; but the
trouble of keeping them is trifling, and should there be need of them
the advantage of having them ready for use is beyond estimation.

To make lime water, put about half a pound of unslaked lime in an
earthen bowl, and pour over it three pints of boiling water. Stir with a
stick, and put away in a cool place for eight or ten hours. At the end
of that time pour off the clear lime water, letting the sediment remain
in the bowl. Bottle the water, and put the stopple in, but not so far
that it cannot be easily drawn.


                    Use of Naphtha in the Household.

Naphtha has come to be a power in cleaning establishments, and to some
extent in the household. Before giving any directions for its use, I
want to state that this fluid is extremely dangerous unless ample
precautions be taken; but with proper care there is not the slightest
danger. Naphtha is very volatile, giving off a highly inflammable gas.
It is dangerous even to have an uncorked bottle of it in a room where
there is a light or fire. If, however, when naphtha is being used, the
windows in the room be open and there be neither light nor fire, there
will not be a particle of danger.

Soiled carpets and garments may be cleaned by sponging with naphtha.
Buffalo bugs and moths can be destroyed with it. For stuffed furniture
use naphtha freely. Put the article on the piazza and pour the fluid
into it, being sure that every part is saturated. After a day or two,
repeat the process, and I think you will find that both worms and eggs
are destroyed. Still, it will be necessary to keep a close watch; for it
is more difficult to destroy the eggs than the worms, and they may be
hatched out after days, or even weeks, have passed. I know that if the
naphtha be used again at this time the trouble will be at an end. Furs
and woollen garments should be well beaten, and then saturated with
naphtha. There is no danger in this generous use of the fluid out of
doors; but in the house great care must be exercised. Windows should be
opened, and there should be no light or fire in the room for several
days, if naphtha has been used in large quantities.

When rugs or carpets are attacked, have two hot flat-irons ready. Wet
with hot water the parts that are affected. Place several thicknesses of
wet cloth over this, and apply the hot iron, which should stand there
for at least ten minutes, that the steam may penetrate every part. When
all is done, pour on naphtha; also, pour it about the edges of the
carpet. Remember that wiping with naphtha has no effect; it must be a
generous bath. Let me say again, that the danger from the fluid comes
from the gas, and that the windows are to be opened, and no fire or
light allowed in the room during the work, or for a few hours after it
is done.

Bedbugs can be banished from a room with two or three applications of
naphtha. Take the bed apart and dust it. Let the parts lie flat on the
floor with the grooved sides up. Saturate the bed with naphtha, filling
the grooves. Pour the fluid into the pillows and mattresses, wetting the
seams and tuftings thoroughly. Spray any cracks there may be in the
walls. If there be a carpet on the floor it will be well to give it a
naphtha bath, to clean and brighten it. When all this is done, close the
room, leaving the windows open. It should stand in this way for at least
eight hours, that the gas may pass off. Should any bugs appear after
this, repeat the operation. The second time will not fail.

When putting away furs, flannels, rugs, etc., have the articles well
beaten. Put them in sheets, and wet with naphtha; then pin the sheets
and put the articles away in boxes or drawers.


                        A Word Regarding Stains.

Stains of all kinds are constantly getting on all sorts of articles and
fabrics. Great care must be used in removing them, as the treatment that
is good for one kind will produce the most disastrous results with
another. A few simple remedies are given for the most common stains that
trouble the housekeeper.


                        To Remove Grease Spots.

Where soap and hot water can be used, wash the spots in very hot water,
using plenty of soap; then rinse well. French chalk or fuller’s earth
may be powdered and mixed with cold water, to make a thick paste. Spread
this on the grease spot and let it remain for several days; then brush
off. If the stain has not fully disappeared, apply the mixture a second
time.

Oxgall may be used on dark colors; if purified, it may be used on any
color. It can sometimes be bought at a druggist’s in a purified state.
Chemists also combine oxgall with turpentine and other cleaning agents.
This preparation is effective and safe in removing grease.

In the case of delicate fabrics that can be washed, the spots may be
rubbed with yolk of egg before the washing. Naphtha is usually effective
in removing grease.

Here is still another way. Put a piece of blotting paper under the
grease spot and another over it. Place a warm iron on the upper one.
After a while remove the iron and paper, and, if the grease has not
entirely disappeared, repeat the process with fresh paper.

If a large amount of oil or grease be spilled on a flat surface,
immediately cover the place thickly with whiting, wheat flour, or meal
of any kind. This will absorb some of the oily substance, and prevent it
from spreading. After an hour or two brush off this substance and apply
the usual remedies.

Grease spots on carpets may be taken out by covering the spots with
fuller’s earth, wet with spirits of turpentine. Let it stand until the
earth is a fine dry powder.

Delicate fabrics, like silk, crêpe, ribbons, scarfs, etc., may be spread
on a clean cloth and then be covered with powdered French chalk or
fuller’s earth. Roll up the article and put away for a few weeks and it
will become clean.


                  To Take Grease from Wood and Stone.

Put one gill of washing soda and one quart of boiling water in a stewpan
and place on the fire. When the soda is dissolved, pour the boiling
liquid on the grease spot. Rub with an old broom. An hour or two later
rub with a mop. Rinse out the mop; then wash with clean hot water. Be
careful not to get the soda water on your hands, clothing, or boots.


                      Removing Stains from Marble.

If the stains were made by grease, spread wet whiting or chloride of
lime on them and let it remain for several hours; then wash off. Washing
soda, dissolved in hot water, mixed with enough whiting to form a thick
paste, and kept on the stains for several hours, will remove grease
spots.

Sometimes the marble has a discolored appearance from scratches. If it
be rubbed hard with wet whiting and then washed and wiped dry, the mark
will disappear. Ink and iron rust are usually removed with an acid, but
if that be employed on marble, it will dissolve the stone. The remedies
given for grease spots can, however, be used. Should an acid be used on
marble, pour ammonia water on the spot and it will neutralize the acid,
thus saving the marble.


                       Treatment of Fruit Stains.

One of the simplest methods is to place the stained part of the cloth
over a bowl and continue pouring boiling water through until the stain
disappears. If this be done soon after the article is stained, there
will be no trouble in most cases.

Oxalic acid will remove fruit stains. As it is useful for many purposes,
it is well to keep a bottle of it in some safe place. Put three ounces
of the crystals in a bottle with half a pint of water. Mark the bottle
plainly.

When stains are to be removed have a large pail of water and a bottle of
household ammonia at hand. Wet the stained parts with the acid and then
rub. When the stains have disappeared, put the article in the water.
Wash thoroughly in several waters, and then wet the parts with the
ammonia, that all trace of the acid may be removed. Finally, rinse
again.


              Coffee, Tea, and Wine Stains on Table Linen.

If treated at once such stains seldom give much trouble. Place the
stained part over a large bowl and pour boiling water upon it until the
stain disappears. If, however, the stains be of long standing, and have
been washed with soap, it will be difficult to get rid of them. Javelle
water (which can be made at home or bought of a druggist) will do it.
Put about half a pint of Javelle water and a quart of clear water into
an earthen bowl; let the stained article soak in this for several hours;
then rinse thoroughly in three waters. It is only white goods that can
be treated in this manner, as the Javelle water bleaches out the color.
Another way to do is to put a little of the Javelle water in a saucer or
small bowl, and soak the spot in this until it disappears. Rinse
thoroughly.


                      When Cloths become Mildewed.

Put about a tablespoonful of chloride of lime in a wooden pail, or
earthen bowl, and add four quarts of cold water. Stir until all the lime
is dissolved, using a wooden spoon or paddle. Now put the mildewed
article into the water and work it about, using the spoon or paddle. Let
the article stay in the water until all the mildew has disappeared; then
throw it into a tub of cold water. Wash well in this, and then rinse in
a second tub of cold water; finally, wring out and dry. If the rinsing
be thorough the fabric will be uninjured. It is only white goods that
can be treated in this way, because chloride of lime removes colors as
well as mildew.


                   The Best Way to remove Iron Rust.

Buy four ounces of muriatic acid at a druggist’s. It is useful for
various purposes. Have it marked plainly. It should, moreover, be
labelled as poisonous.

Fill a large bowl with boiling water. Have another bowl or pan full of
hot water. A bottle of household ammonia also is necessary. Place the
spotted part of the garment over the bowl of hot water. Wet a cork in
the muriatic acid and touch the iron rust with it. Immediately the spot
will turn a bright yellow. Dip at once in the hot water, and the stain
will disappear. When all the spots have been removed, rinse the article
thoroughly in several clear waters, then in ammonia water (a
tablespoonful of household ammonia to a quart of water), and finally in
clear water. The acid is very powerful, and will destroy the fabric if
allowed to remain upon it. Ammonia neutralizes it. If the directions be
followed carefully, the most delicate fabric can be successfully treated
in this way.

As muriatic acid is very destructive of tin, do not keep the bottle in
the same closet with articles made of that metal.


                         Removing Blood Stains.

Wash the stain in blood-warm water until the greater part has been
removed; then rub on some soap, and wash until the stain disappears.
When the stain is on white cotton or linen goods, scald the article
after it has been washed. Never use hot water until the stain is nearly
removed.


                  Removing Sewing-machine Oil Stains.

Rub the stain with sweet oil or lard, and let it stand for several
hours; then wash in soap and cold water.


                        To Remove Pitch and Tar.

Rub lard on the stain and let it stand for a few hours; then sponge with
spirits of turpentine until the stain is removed. If the color of the
fabric be affected, sponge it with chloroform and the color will be
restored.


                       Alcohol for Grass Stains.

Rub the stain with alcohol; then wash in clean water.


                 Muriatic Acid for Stains on Porcelain.

When there is a great deal of iron in the water, the porcelain or china
bowls in the bath-room become badly stained. Rub a little muriatic acid
on the stained parts, and rinse thoroughly with cold water, adding a
little ammonia to the rinsing water toward the end.


                            To Remove Paint.

Wet the paint with turpentine and rub with a woollen cloth. If the paint
spot can be kept wet with the turpentine for a little while, it will not
require so much rubbing.


                          Removing Ink Stains.

Tear blotting paper in pieces and hold the rough edges on the ink when
it is freshly spilled. If you have no blotting paper at hand, cover the
spot with Indian meal; or, the liquid ink may be absorbed by cotton
batting. The first care should be to prevent the ink from spreading. If
ink be spilled upon a carpet, cut a lemon in two, remove a part of the
rind, and rub the lemon on the stain. As the lemon becomes stained with
the ink, slice it off, and rub with the clean part. Continue this until
the stain is removed.

If the stained article be washed immediately in several waters and then
in milk, letting it soak in the milk for several hours, the stain will
disappear.

Washing the article immediately in vinegar and water, and then in soap
and water, will remove all ordinary ink stains.

Washing at once in water and then in liquid citric acid or oxalic acid
is another mode. Oxalic acid is very corrosive and should be removed
from the article by a thorough washing in water. If, after the washing,
the article be wet with household ammonia, any acid remaining will be
neutralized.

No matter what substance be used to remove ink, the stain must be rubbed
well. If the article stained be a carpet on the floor, use a brush. As
the acids often affect the colors in a fabric, it is wise to try the
water and milk or the water and vinegar method before resorting to the
acids. Chemicals should always be the last resort, unless one be rather
familiar with their action.

My own experience is that it is a most difficult matter to remove the
stains of some kinds of black ink if they have stood for a few hours;
whereas, other kinds, notably stylographic ink spots, can be removed
easily with soap and water.


                        When Acids are Spilled.

A bottle of household ammonia should be kept where it can be reached
conveniently at any time; then, when an acid is accidentally spilled,
pour ammonia over the spot at once.


                           Restoring Colors.

When an acid has been spilled on a fabric its effect may be neutralized
by sponging with ammonia. If an alkali, such as ammonia, soda, potash,
etc., be spilled on a garment, its effect may be neutralized by sponging
with weak vinegar.

If the color be not fully restored, sponge with chloroform.


                         To make Javelle Water.

Into a large saucepan, porcelain-lined if possible, put four pounds of
bicarbonate of soda and four quarts of hot water. Stir frequently with a
wooden stick until the soda is dissolved; then add one pound of chloride
of lime, and stir occasionally until nearly all the solids are
dissolved. Let the liquid cool in the kettle; then strain the clear part
through a piece of cheese-cloth into wide-mouthed bottles. Put in the
stoppers and set away for use. The part that is not clear can be put
into separate bottles and used for cleaning white floors and tables;
also for cleaning the sink.

In making this preparation be careful not to spatter it on your clothing
or on the paint. Half a pint of this water can be put into a tub with
about a dozen pails of warm suds, and the soiled white clothes be soaked
in them. Much of the dirt can be removed by this method. The French
laundresses use this preparation for white clothes.


                         A Good Cleaning Fluid.

Put into a large saucepan two quarts of water, half an ounce of borax,
and four ounces of white castile soap shaved fine, and stir frequently
until the soap and borax are dissolved; then take from the fire and add
two quarts of cold water. When the mixture is cold, add one ounce of
glycerine, one of ether, and four of ammonia crystals. Bottle and put
away for use; it will keep for years.

To clean an article, first brush thoroughly, and then spread on a table.
Sponge with the cleaning fluid and rub hard until the stains disappear.
Then press if necessary.

This fluid will remove grease spots and stains of various kinds. It can
be used on silks, cottons, and woollens. It is almost invaluable for
cleaning men’s clothing, dresses, carpets, etc. When a colored garment
is to be sponged, try the fluid on a small piece of the goods, as it
affects some colors.


                Treatment of Grease Spots on Wall Paper.

If you find grease spots on wall paper, put powdered French chalk, wet
with cold water, over the places, and let it remain for twelve hours or
more. When you brush off the chalk, if the grease spots have not
disappeared, put on more chalk, place a piece of coarse brown paper or
blotting paper on this, and press for a few minutes with a warm
flat-iron.


                 Stale Bread for Cleaning Soiled Paper.

Wipe the paper with a clean cloth. Cut a loaf of stale bread in two,
lengthwise, and rub the bread over the paper, making long strokes
straight up and down. When the bread becomes soiled, cut off a thin
slice, and continue the work with the clean surface. A large room may
require the use of two or three loaves.

Edges of books, margins of pictures, and other things may be cleaned in
the same way.


                     Two Ways to Repair Wall Paper.

Have a set of children’s paints, selecting those that have creams,
browns, yellows, and perhaps green, blue, and red. Mix the colors until
you get the shade of the foundation color of the paper, then lightly
touch up the broken places. If the breaks be small this will be all that
is necessary; but if large, it will be well when the first color is dry
to touch up the place with the other colors. This is a much easier and
more satisfactory method than patching the paper. If, however, the
broken place be too large to be repaired with the paint, match the paper
if you can and stick it on with flour paste. Never use mucilage, as it
discolors the paper.


                     Brightening Leather Furniture.

Housekeepers often wonder if it is possible to restore the color to
leather furniture which has become rusty in appearance. Furniture
dealers say that real leather should not fade as long as it holds
together. However, it does fade; so try this method of brightening it.
Wash the leather with a sponge that has been wrung out of hot soap suds;
then rub as dry as possible. Now place the furniture in the sun and
wind, that it may get thoroughly dry as quickly as possible. Next, rub
hard with a cloth that has been wet with kerosene. Let the furniture
stand in the air until the odor of the oil has passed off.


               Preventing Silks and Woollens from Turning

Yellow.

Whenever you have occasion to pack away silk or woollen goods which you
are afraid may turn yellow, break up a few cakes of white beeswax and
fold the pieces loosely in old handkerchiefs that are worn thin. Place
these among the goods. If possible, pin the silks or woollens in some
old white linen sheets or garments. If it be inconvenient to use linen,
take cotton sheets. Of course, it is important that the clothing shall
be perfectly clean when put away.


                   Cleaning Dress Silks and Ribbons.

There are several methods of cleaning silks. They may be spread on a
clean table and sponged with naphtha, alcohol, soap and water, etc.; or
the silk may be washed in soap suds, gasoline or naphtha. As the
gasoline or naphtha does not affect the colors, it is more desirable for
colored silks.

If the silks be washed in suds, use the best white castile soap. Wash
the silk in the suds; then rinse in clear water and hang on a
clothes-horse in the shade. Do not wring it. When the silk is nearly dry
lay it on a soft ironing cloth, and, after spreading either coarse brown
paper or a newspaper over it, press with rather a cool iron. If naphtha
or gasoline be used, have the liquid in a large bowl near an open
window, and in a room where there is neither fire nor light. Wash the
silk in this and hang in the air. It will dry quickly.

Black silk may be washed in ammonia water and rinsed in clear water to
which has been added strong bluing and dissolved gelatine,—one quarter
of an ounce of gelatine to one gallon of water.

Never iron silk unless it is absolutely necessary.


                        Cleaning Chamois Skins.

Chamois skins that have been used for cleaning silver, brass, etc., can
be made as soft and clean as new by following these directions. Put six
tablespoonfuls of household ammonia into a bowl with a quart of tepid
water. Let the chamois skin soak in this water for an hour. Work it
about with a spoon, pressing out as much of the dirt as possible; then
lift it into a large basin of tepid water, and rub well with the hands.
Rinse in fresh waters until clean, then dry in the shade. When dry, rub
between the hands. Chamois jackets can be washed in the same manner,
except that there should be two quarts of water to the six
tablespoonfuls of ammonia. Pull into shape before drying.


                           To Clean Brushes.

Put enough warm water in a flat bowl or pan to cover the bristles, but
not to come over the back of the brush. To each quart of water put three
tablespoonfuls of household ammonia. Lay the brushes in this for about
five minutes, then work them gently in the water. Rinse thoroughly in
cold water, and rest them on the edge where a current of air will strike
them.


                         Care of Straw Matting.

This floor covering should not be washed often. Boil together for one
hour two quarts of bran and four of water. Strain this, pressing all
moisture out of the bran. Add two quarts of cold water and two
tablespoonfuls of salt to the strained mixture. Wash the matting with
this and rub dry with a clean cloth.


                   To Clean Woods in Natural Finish.

To clean woodwork in your halls and rooms do not wash it. Soap destroys
the looks of woodwork that is finished in natural colors. Wring a
flannel cloth out of hot water and wipe off the dust. When all the
woodwork has been dusted in this manner go over it with a woollen cloth
made damp with cotton-seed or sweet oil and alcohol or turpentine; two
parts oil and one alcohol or turpentine. Rub hard, and with the grain of
the wood; then rub with clean flannel. It will revive the color and
gloss. Light woods must be wiped with a damp flannel and polished with a
dry piece of flannel. Do not use oil on light woods.

To clean the railing of banisters, wash off all the dirt with soap and
water, and when dry rub with two parts of linseed oil and one of
turpentine.

All dark woods that have become soiled and dingy may be washed with soap
and water, using, if possible, a piece of flannel. Dry with a soft
cloth. Mix together two parts of linseed oil and one of turpentine.
Moisten an old piece of flannel in this and rub the furniture with it.
Finish by rubbing hard, and with the grain, with a dry old piece of
flannel. If there be any white stains rub them with kerosene, using a
good deal of oil and much pressure.

The soiled wood may be cleaned with turpentine instead of soap and
water.


                 To Remove White Stains from Furniture.

Wet a woollen cloth with kerosene and rub the spot until the stain
disappears. It may take a good deal of hard rubbing if the stain be deep
or of long standing, but perseverance will accomplish the object.


                            Cleaning Brass.

There are many good preparations which come for cleaning brass. The most
of them do the work quickly, leaving a brilliant polish, but the metal
does not keep clean so long as when cleaned by the old method. Pound
fine and then sift half a pint of rotten-stone. Add to this half a gill
of turpentine and enough sweet oil to make a thick paste. Wash the
brasses in soap and water, wipe dry, and then rub with the paste. Rub
with a soft clean rag, and polish with a piece of chamois skin.


                      Conveniences when Sweeping.

If one have proper covers for the pictures and heavy pieces of furniture
in the room, a great amount of trouble can be saved on the sweeping day.
Buy cheap print cloth for the furniture. Have three breadths in the
cover, and have it three yards and a half long. It should be hemmed, and
the work can be done quickly on a sewing-machine. I find six cloths a
convenient number, although we do not always need so many. Get cheap
unbleached cotton, and cut it into lengths suitable for covering
pictures, heavy ornaments, clocks, etc. These need not be hemmed. Always
remove any coverings gently; then take them out of doors to be shaken.
Fold them and put them away. They will last a long time, and pay for
themselves in a year, because they save so much extra dusting, and the
moving of heavy articles.


                       Mending Breaks in Plaster.

Mix together half a pint of powdered lime, one gill of plaster of Paris,
and cold water enough to make a thick paste. Fill the holes with this
and smooth the surface with a knife. Work quickly. If there be many
breaks mix only as much plaster as can be used in ten minutes, as it
hardens quickly.

Another method is to fill the breaks with putty. When the plaster or
putty is dry, the places can be touched with water colors to correspond
with the rest of the wall.


                    Cement for Stoves and Iron Ware.

Mix together enough water glass and iron filings to make a thick paste.
Apply this to the cracks or holes, and heat gradually almost to a red
heat. This substance will bear a white heat, although of course one
would rarely have occasion to test it to this degree. The water glass
and iron filings can be bought at a druggist’s.


                           Cement for China.

Dissolve one ounce of powdered gum-arabic in a gill of boiling water.
Stir enough plaster of Paris into the liquid to make it the consistency
of thick cream. Use immediately.

                  *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER RULE.—Powder quicklime and stir it into the white of an egg,
making rather a thick paste. Coat the broken edges lightly with this,
and tie the pieces together.


               How to Fasten Handles of Knives and Forks.

Mix together two ounces of powdered rosin, one ounce of powdered
sulphur, and one ounce of iron filings. Keep these in a box, and, when a
knife or fork becomes loosened from the handle, fill the opening in the
handle with the powdered mixture. Heat the tang of the instrument and
press it into the handle. Should it not go in to the hilt, heat again,
and the second attempt will be successful.

Do not pack the powder into the opening. Should the powder blaze up when
the heated metal is inserted, blow out the flame. Be careful to turn the
fork-tines or knife-blade around until in the right position, before the
filling becomes hard.


                        Value of a Drop of Oil.

Every housekeeper knows how annoying it is to have the hinges of the
doors squeak, and the locks and bolts refuse to move unless great force
be used. Many do not realize that a few drops of oil will, as a rule,
remedy these annoyances. First spread a newspaper on that part of the
floor over which the hinges swing. Now, with the sewing-machine oil can,
oil the hinges thoroughly, and then swing the door back and forth until
it moves without noise. Wipe the hinges, but let the paper remain for a
few hours, to guard against the possible dripping of oil. For locks and
bolts, protect the floor in the same manner. Oil them thoroughly,
working them until they will move with ease. The egg-beater and the
ice-cream freezer should be oiled frequently in the same manner.


                  What to do when the Chimney is Cold.

When lighting a fire where the chimney has not been used for some time,
start the current of air upward by burning a paper in the stove pipe, or
by holding it in the chimney, if it be a grate fire.

If the heat has been turned off from a room for some time it
occasionally happens that the heated air will not come through the pipe
when it is turned on again. In that case close for a few minutes nearly
all the registers which serve as outlets for the other pipes, and the
heat will be forced into the cold pipe. After this it will go that way
naturally.


                     To Prevent Kid from Cracking.

When kid boots require a dressing, rub a little castor oil into the kid
before the dressing is put on. This will keep the leather soft.


                   Testing the Oven Heat with Paper.

Have white paper for testing the heat of the oven. Put a piece on the
bottom of the oven and close the door. For pastry, the oven should be
hot enough to turn the paper dark brown in five minutes; for bread, the
heat should turn it in six minutes. All kinds of muffins can be baked at
this heat. Cup cakes should be put into an oven that will turn a piece
of white paper dark yellow in five minutes. Sponge and pound cakes
require heat that will turn white paper light yellow in five minutes.
Bread requires great heat at first; later, the heat is to be reduced.
Cake should have rather a cool oven. The heat can be increased later.


                           Oven Thermometers.

Many efforts have been made to produce a thermometer which will indicate
the temperature of the oven, but, so far as I know, none made with
mercury have been satisfactory. There is made in this country, however,
an “oven clock,” which can be set into the door of the oven. This is
based on the principle of the contraction and expansion of the metals.
To get the greatest benefit from these clocks the housekeeper must make
her tests herself; that is, she must learn that when the hand points to
a certain number the oven is right for roasting; when at another point,
that the heat is right for baking bread, cake, etc. After she has
established these facts, she may write out a table which will serve as a
safe guide in the future.


                    Ridding the House of Water Bugs.

Strew powdered borax about the pipes and in any cracks in the walls or
woodwork where water bugs appear. If this be persisted in, and
everything be kept perfectly clean, you can rid the house of the
insects.


                    Keeping Flies from Chandeliers.

Wipe the chandeliers with a soft cloth that has been wet in kerosene
oil. This should be done several times during the summer. Fly specks can
be wiped off in the same manner, even when on gilt picture frames; but
the cloth must be only slightly moistened in the latter case, and used
lightly, else the gilt itself may come off.


                           Driving away Ants.

Put green walnuts around the places where the ants come and they will
disappear; or, strew fresh pennyroyal around. If it is impossible to get
the fresh herb, use the oil. Tar mixed with hot water, and placed in
bowls or jars in the room or closet, will often drive away these pests.


                           Care of the Hands.

Doing housework is apt to make the hands become rough. Have thick gloves
to wear when making fires and cleaning stoves and grates. Wear, when
sweeping and dusting, old gloves that fit loosely. As much as possible
use one kind of soap; changes of soap and water irritate the hands. Have
soft hand-towels in the kitchen, and always wipe the hands perfectly
dry. When the work is done rub the hands with bran and vinegar diluted
with water. Rinse them in tepid water and wipe perfectly dry. Rub a
little cold cream into the hands at night, and also, if convenient,
after the coarse work has been done for the day.


                              Cold Cream.

                     2 ounces of cocoa butter.
                     2 ounces of spermaceti.
                     2 ounces of white wax.
                     2 ounces of rose water.
                     4 ounces of sweet almond oil.

Break up the wax, spermaceti, and cocoa butter. Put all the ingredients
into a bowl, and place this in a pan of boiling water. Stir the mixture
until it becomes a soft, smooth mass; then put it in little jars, and
keep in a cool dry place. This is excellent for the hands and face. In
winter use only one ounce of spermaceti.


                    Cupfuls, Half-pints, and Grills.

[Illustration: QUART MEASURE.]

The ordinary kitchen cup is supposed to hold half a pint, and nearly all
writers of cook-books base their measurements on this understanding.
Nearly all first-class kitchen furnishing stores keep what are known as
measuring cups. They are made of tin, and hold half a pint, old measure.
One cup is divided into four parts, and one into three. A set of these
cups will be found of the greatest value in the kitchen, as they insure
accurate measurements.

Here is a table which will be helpful to those who do not have such cups
to work with:—

                           1 cupful = 1/2 pint.
                         1/2 cupful = 1 gill.
                         1/4 cupful = 1/2 gill.


                   Equivalents of Measures in Weight.

    New-process flour, 1 quart less 1 gill                1 pound.
    Pastry flour, 1 quart, sifted                         1   “
    Granulated sugar, 1 heaped pint                       1   “
    Butter, 1 pint                                        1   “
    Powdered sugar, 5 gills                               1   “
    Chopped meat, 1 pint, packed solid                    1   “
    Liquids, 1 pint                                       1   “
    Eggs, 10 of average size                              1   “
    Corn meal, 1/2 pint                                   6 ounces.
    Rice, 1/2 pint                                        8   “
    Raisins, stemmed, 1/2 pint                            6   “
    English currants, cleaned, 1/2 pint                   6   “
    Bread crumbs, grated, 1 pint                          4   “
    Granulated sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful              1   “
    Powdered sugar, 1 slightly rounded tablespoonful      1/2 “
    Butter, 1 rounded tablespoonful                       1   “
    Flour, 1 rounded tablespoonful                        1/2 “
    Baking powder, 1 heaped teaspoonful                   1/4 “
    Soda, 1 slightly rounded teaspoonful                  1/4 “
    Cream of tartar, 2 slightly rounded teaspoonfuls      1/4 “
    Ginger, 1 heaped teaspoonful                          1/4 “
    Cinnamon, 1 heaped teaspoonful                        1/4 “
    Allspice, 1 generously heaped teaspoonful             1/4 “
    Clove, 1 slightly heaped teaspoonful                  1/4 “
    Mace, 1 heaped teaspoonful                            1/4 “
    Pepper, 1 heaped teaspoonful                          1/4 “
    Salt, 1 teaspoonful                                   1/4 “
    Mustard, 1 rounded teaspoonful                        1/4 “
    Nutmegs, 5                                            1   “
    Tea, 3 scant teaspoonfuls                             1/4 “
    Coffee, roasted berry, 1 tablespoonful                1/2 “
    Liquids, 2 tablespoonfuls                             1   “

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 INDEX

                              ―――――◀▶―――――


                   A WORD WITH THE YOUNG HOUSEWIFE.
                                                              Page
     Difference between mere housekeeping and home-making        1
     Folly of “keeping up appearances”                           3
     My idea of good housekeeping                                2
     Some things a good housekeeper will do                      2

                      ABOUT FURNISHING THE HOUSE.
     INTRODUCTION                                                4
     Carpets and rugs, selecting                                 6
     Chambers, what to buy for the                               5
     Cutlery, fashions in                                        9
     Dainty things for the table                                 9
     Dining-room furniture                                       5
     Dinner and tea set, choosing a                              7
     KITCHEN, WHAT IS NEEDED IN THE                             11
       List of articles most in use                             12
       Range, the                                               11
     LINEN CLOSET, FURNISHING                                   13
       Bed spreads and blankets                                 18
       Doilies                                                  16
       Linen, imported                                          14
       Napkins, size and quality of                             16
       Sheets and pillow cases                                  18
       Table-cloths and napkins                                 14
       Tea, carving, and tray cloths                            17
       Towels, bath and bedroom                                 20
       Towels, kitchen and pantry                               21
     Sitting-room, comfort in the                                6

                    DIVISION OF THE HOUSEHOLD WORK.
     INTRODUCTION                                               22
     Cleaning a room by system                                  26
     Day of rest, a                                             28
     Every-day duties                                           23
     Last half of the week, duties in the                       27
     Morning, what to do in the                                 23
     Servant, where one is kept                                 26
     Servants, two or more in the family                        29
     Special work for special days                              24

                   SOME THINGS TO BE LEARNED EARLY.
     Bath-room, about the                                       36
     Fires, proper management of                                31
     Furnace fire, points about the                             32
     Garbage barrel, do not neglect the                         37
     Lamps, getting the greatest good out of                    34
     Plumbing, taking care of                                   35
     Refrigerator, the, keeping sweet                           33
     WASHING DISHES                                             38
       Cautions, some special                                   40
       China, tins, and iron-ware                               39
       Glassware, proper care of                                38
       Knife blades, do not slight the                          41
       Rust and other annoyances                                42
       Silver, care of                                          40

                         WORK ON WASHING DAY.
     INTRODUCTION                                               44
     Curtains, lace, cleaning                                   47
     Curtains, washable, how to launder                         47
     Flannels, how to wash                                      45
     Ironing                                                    48
     Satines, ginghams, and prints                              44
     Silk undergarments, the right way to wash                  46
     Soap, borax                                                50
     Soap, hard, rule for                                       49
     Soap, soft                                                 50
     Starching                                                  48

                          IN THE DINING-ROOM.
     INTRODUCTION                                               52
     Breakfast table, at the                                    54
     Dinner table, how to set the                               55
     Duties of the waitress                                     57
     Luncheon and tea table                                     56
     Refinement not exclusively for the rich                    53
     Serving meals without a servant                            58
     Table, setting the                                         52
     Waitress, duties of the                                    57

                    BUYING FOOD AND CARING FOR IT.
     Beef, fore quarter of                                      64
     Beef, hind quarter of                                      62
     Beef, loin of                                              70
     Beef, rump of                                              71
     Beef, sirloin, second cut                                  66
     Butter                                                     73
     Buying for a small family                                  70
     Chops, rib                                                 69
     Chuck ribs                                                 61
     Clarifying fat                                             76
     Eggs                                                       73
     First five ribs                                            61
     Food, care of                                              75
     Fore quarter of beef                                       64
     Going to market                                            60
     Groceries                                                  74
     Hind quarter of beef                                       62
     Leg of mutton                                              72
     Loin of beef                                               70
     Market, going to                                           60
     Milk                                                       73
     Mutton, carcass of                                         67
     Mutton, leg of                                             72
     Odds and ends, care of                                     77
     Rib chops                                                  69
     Ribs, chuck                                                61
     Ribs, first five                                           61
     Rump of beef                                               71
     Sirloin of beef, second cut                                66
     Sirloin roast                                              68
     Small family, buying for a                                 70

                                SOUPS.
     Bean                                                       92
     Bean, cream of                                             92
     Bean, Lima                                                 90
     Beef                                                       82
     Bisque, mock                                               87
     Chicken                                                    86
     Chowder, clam                                              73
     Chowder, fish                                              94
     Chowder, salt codfish                                      95
     Clam chowder                                               93
     Clam                                                       93
     Codfish chowder, salt                                      95
     Corn                                                       89
     Cream of bean                                              92
     Cream of dried peas                                        91
     Cream of rice                                              86
     Dried pea                                                  91
     Dried pea, cream of                                        91
     Fish chowder                                               94
     Hub                                                        90
     Lima bean                                                  90
     Macaroni                                                   82
     Macaroni and tomato                                        88
     Mock bisque                                                87
     Oxtail                                                     83
     Oyster                                                     92
     Pea, dried                                                 91
     Plain stock                                                80
     Potato                                                     89
     Rice                                                       82
     Rice, cream of                                             86
     Salt codfish chowder                                       95
     Scotch broth                                               84
     Stock, a good plain                                        80
     Stock, second                                              81
     Tomato                                                     87
     Tomato, No. 2                                              88
     Tomato and macaroni                                        88
     Veal broth                                                 84
     Vegetable soup                                             85

                                 FISH.
     INTRODUCTION                                               96
     Baked fish                                                 98
     Baked salt mackerel                                        99
     Boiling fish                                               97
     Breaded fish                                              101
     Breaded lobster                                           109
     Broiling fish                                              99
     Broiled halibut                                           100
     Clams, roast                                              111
     Clams, steamed                                            111
     Clams, stewed                                             110
     Codfish, salt, in cream                                   102
     Crabs, escaloped                                          110
     Creamed oysters                                           107
     Curry of lobster                                          108
     Escaloped crabs                                           110
     Escaloped fish                                            101
     Escaloped lobster                                         109
     Escaloped oysters                                         106
     Escaloped shrimp                                          110
     Fish balls                                                103
     Fish cakes                                                103
     Fish cakes, fresh                                         104
     Fricassee of lobster                                      109
     Fried fish                                                100
     Fried oysters                                             107
     Fried scallops                                            105
     Halibut, broiled                                          100
     How fish should be broiled                                 99
     How to boil fish                                           97
     Lobster                                                   108
     Lobster, breaded                                          109
     Lobster, curry of                                         108
     Lobster, escaloped                                        109
     Lobster, fricassee of                                     109
     Mackerel, baked salt                                       99
     Oysters au gratin                                         106
     Oysters, creamed                                          107
     Oysters, escaloped                                        106
     Oysters, fried                                            107
     Oysters on toast                                          105
     Oyster stew                                               105
     Roast clams                                               111
     Salt codfish in cream                                     102
     Scallops, fried                                           105
     Shrimp, escaloped                                         110
     Steamed clams                                             111
     Stewed clams                                              110
     Stewed oysters                                            105

                           HOW TO COOK MEAT.
     Baked hash                                                147
     Beef, braised                                             131
     Beef, shin, stewed                                        129
     Beefsteak and onions                                      124
     Beefsteak roll                                            132
     Beef stew from cold roast                                 134
     Beef olives                                               133
     Blanquette of cold meat                                   138
     Boiling                                                   112
     Boiled corned beef                                        113
     Boiled fowl                                               154
     Boiled ham                                                115
     Boiled leg of mutton                                      112
     Boiled tongue                                             115
     Braised beef                                              131
     Breaded chicken                                           157
     Breaded chops                                             127
     Breaded sausages                                          129
     Breaded veal cutlets                                      128
     Breading croquettes                                       151
     Broiling                                                  122
     Broiling in a frying-pan                                  123
     Broiled chops with bacon                                  123
     Broiled kidneys                                           142
     Broiled small birds                                       162
     Broiled tripe                                             144
     Broiled venison                                           163
     Calf’s liver sauté                                        143
     Chicken, breaded                                          157
     Chicken, creamed                                          158
     Chicken dressing                                          157
     Chicken, fried                                            158
     Chicken gravy                                             156
     Chicken livers en brochette                               144
     Chicken pie                                               160
     Chicken, roast                                            155
     Chicken, stewed                                           159
     Chicken, white fricassee                                  160
     Chops, breaded                                            127
     Chops, broiled, with bacon                                123
     Chops, pork                                               139
     Cold lamb stew                                            135
     Cold meat, blanquette of                                  138
     Cold mutton stew                                          135
     Cold roast, beef stew from                                134
     Corned beef, boiled                                       113
     Corned beef hash                                          146
     Corned beef, spiced                                       114
     Creamed chicken                                           158
     Creamed dried beef                                        135
     Creamed turkey                                            159
     Croquettes, breading                                      151
     Croquettes, meat and potato                               152
     Croquettes, mutton                                        150
     Curried rabbit                                            163
     Cutlets, mutton, sauté                                    128
     Cutlets, veal, breaded                                    128
     Dried beef, creamed                                       135
     Duck, roast                                               160
     Fat, how to keep                                          126
     Fat, the kind to use                                      126
     Fresh meat hash                                           146
     Fresh tongue                                              115
     Fricassee of rabbit                                       162
     Fricassee of veal                                         137
     Fried chicken                                             158
     Fried liver and bacon                                     143
     Fried salt pork                                           139
     Fried tripe                                               145
     Frizzled smoked beef                                      135
     Frying                                                    124
     Frying basket, the way to lower it                        127
     Frying-pan, to broil in                                   123
     Gravy, chicken                                            156
     Grouse, roast                                             161
     Ham, boiled                                               115
     Ham, roast                                                121
     Hamburg steaks                                            133
     Hash, baked                                               147
     Hash, corned beef                                         146
     Hash of fresh meat                                        146
     How to clean and truss poultry                            153
     How to keep fat                                           126
     How to roast meat in the oven                             117
     Kidneys, broiled                                          142
     Kidneys sauté                                             141
     Kidneys, stewed                                           141
     Lamb, roast                                               119
     Leg of mutton, boiled                                     112
     Liver, fried, with bacon                                  143
     Livers, chicken, en brochette                             144
     Meat and potato croquettes                                152
     Meat cakes                                                148
     Meat, how to roast in the oven                            117
     Meat, minced, on toast                                    148
     Minced meat on toast                                      148
     Miscellaneous modes                                       129
     Mutton, boiled leg of                                     112
     Mutton croquettes                                         150
     Mutton cutlets sauté                                      128
     Mutton, ragout of                                         137
     Mutton, roast                                             120
     Mutton, steamed                                           113
     Mutton, stuffed                                           120
     Olives, beef                                              133
     Partridge, roast                                          161
     Pickled tongue                                            115
     Pie, chicken                                              160
     Pork chops                                                139
     Pork, roast                                               121
     Pot roast                                                 130
     Poultry, to clean and truss                               153
     Ptarmigan, roast                                          161
     Rabbit, curried                                           163
     Rabbit, fricassee of                                      162
     Ragout of mutton                                          137
     Rib of beef, roast                                        118
     Roast chicken                                             155
     Roast duck                                                160
     Roast grouse                                              161
     Roast ham                                                 121
     Roasting meat, science in                                 116
     Roast lamb                                                119
     Roast mutton                                              120
     Roast partridge                                           161
     Roast pork                                                121
     Roast ptarmigan                                           161
     Roast rib of beef                                         118
     Roast turkey                                              156
     Roast veal                                                120
     Salt pork, fried                                          139
     Salt pork in batter                                       140
     Sanders                                                   149
     Sausages, breaded                                         129
     Sausage cakes                                             140
     Sausage hash                                              147
     Science in roasting meat                                  116
     Sheep’s hearts, stewed                                    142
     Shin of beef, stewed                                      129
     Small birds, broiled                                      162
     Small timbales                                            149
     Smoked beef, frizzled                                     135
     Smoked tongue                                             115
     Spiced corned beef                                        114
     Steak, Hamburg                                            133
     Steamed mutton                                            113
     Stew from cold lamb or mutton                             135
     Stewed chicken                                            159
     Stewed kidneys                                            141
     Stewed sheep’s hearts                                     142
     Stewed shin of beef                                       129
     Stuffed mutton                                            120
     Tongue, boiled                                            115
     Tongue, pickled                                           115
     Tongue, smoked                                            115
     Tongue toast                                              148
     Tripe, broiled                                            144
     Tripe, fried                                              145
     Tripe fried in batter                                     145
     Turkey, creamed                                           159
     Turkey or chicken dressing                                157
     Turkey, roast                                             156
     Veal cutlets, breaded                                     128
     Veal cutlets, sauté                                       136
     Veal, fricassee of                                        137
     Veal olives                                               136
     Veal, roast                                               120
     Venison, broiled                                          163
     Venison steak sauté                                       163
     White fricassee of chicken                                160

                       SAUCES FOR MEAT AND FISH.
     Béchamel                                                  165
     Bisque                                                    168
     Bread                                                     171
     Brown                                                     164
     Brown, No. 2                                              164
     Butter                                                    167
     Butter, maître d’hôtel                                    170
     Caper                                                     167
     Cream                                                     166
     Currant jelly                                             170
     Curry                                                     167
     Egg                                                       167
     Hollandaise                                               168
     Maître d’hôtel butter                                     170
     Mint                                                      170
     Mushroom                                                  165
     Mustard                                                   166
     Parsley                                                   166
     Tartar                                                    169
     Tomato                                                    169
     White                                                     165

                                SALADS.
     INTRODUCTION                                              172
     Beet                                                      175
     Chicken                                                   174
     Cooked salad dressing                                     173
     Fish                                                      174
     French dressing                                           173
     Lettuce and tomato                                        175
     Lobster                                                   174
     Mayonnaise dressing                                       172
     Potato                                                    176
     Potato, No. 2                                             176
     Salad dressing, cooked                                    173
     Tomato and lettuce                                        175
     Vegetable                                                 175

                              VEGETABLES.
     INTRODUCTION                                              177
     Asparagus on toast                                        192
     Asparagus with cream sauce                                192
     Baked beans                                               190
     Baked cabbage                                             195
     Baked hominy                                              197
     Baked rice                                                198
     Baked sweet potatoes                                      182
     Beans, baked                                              190
     Beans, butter                                             189
     Beans, shelled kidney                                     190
     Beets                                                     185
     Boiled carrots                                            186
     Boiled cauliflower                                        187
     Boiled macaroni                                           196
     Boiled onions                                             183
     Boiled potatoes                                           178
     Boiled rice                                               197
     Boiled sweet potatoes                                     182
     Boiled turnips                                            185
     Browned sweet potatoes                                    183
     Cabbage, baked                                            195
     Cabbage, creamed                                          194
     Cabbage, fried                                            195
     Cabbage, hashed                                           194
     Canned corn                                               188
     Canned peas                                               191
     Carrots, boiled                                           186
     Cauliflower au gratin                                     187
     Cauliflower, boiled                                       187
     Celery                                                    199
     Corn, canned                                              188
     Corn, green                                               188
     Corn oysters                                              188
     Creamed cabbage                                           194
     Creamed onions                                            184
     Croquettes, potato                                        182
     Croquettes, rice                                          198
     Dried Lima beans                                          189
     Dried Lima beans, No. 2                                   189
     Egg plant, fried                                          196
     Fresh Lima beans                                          189
     Fried cabbage                                             195
     Fried egg plant                                           196
     Green corn                                                188
     Green peas                                                191
     Greens                                                    193
     Hash, vegetable                                           198
     Hashed cabbage                                            194
     Hashed potatoes                                           180
     Hominy, baked                                             197
     Lettuce, how to keep crisp                                199
     Lima beans, dried                                         189
     Lima beans, dried, No. 2                                  189
     Lima beans, fresh                                         189
     Lyonnaise potatoes                                        181
     Macaroni, boiled                                          196
     Macaroni with cheese                                      197
     Mashed turnips                                            186
     Nichewaug potatoes                                        181
     Onions au gratin                                          184
     Onions, boiled                                            183
     Onions, creamed                                           184
     Parsnips                                                  186
     Peas, canned                                              191
     Peas, green                                               191
     Potato cakes                                              182
     Potato croquettes                                         182
     Potatoes au gratin                                        180
     Potatoes, boiled                                          178
     Potatoes, hashed                                          180
     Potatoes, stewed                                          179
     Potatoes, stewed, No. 2                                   179
     Potatoes, sweet, baked                                    182
     Potatoes, sweet, boiled                                   182
     Potatoes, sweet, browned                                  183
     Potatoes, sweet, warming over                             183
     Rice, baked                                               198
     Rice, boiled                                              197
     Rice croquettes                                           198
     Salsify                                                   187
     Shelled kidney beans                                      190
     Sliced tomatoes                                           184
     Spinach                                                   193
     Squash                                                    195
     Squash, summer                                            196
     Stewed potatoes                                           179
     Stewed potatoes, No. 2                                    179
     Stewed tomatoes                                           184
     String beans                                              188
     Succotash of dried Lima beans and canned corn             190
     Summer squash                                             196
     Tomatoes au gratin                                        185
     Tomatoes, sliced                                          184
     Tomatoes, stewed                                          184
     Turnips, boiled                                           185
     Turnips, mashed                                           186
     Vegetable hash                                            198
     Warming over sweet potatoes                               188

                         MISCELLANEOUS DISHES.
     Apple fritters                                            207
     Apple sauce, evaporated                                   213
     Apple sauce, green                                        213
     Apples, broiled                                           213
     Apples, fried                                             213
     Apricots, evaporated                                      214
     Baked eggs                                                202
     Baked omelet                                              205
     Baked pears                                               214
     Baked sweet apples                                        212
     Baked toast                                               208
     Batter for fruit fritters                                 207
     Boiled eggs                                               200
     Boiled hominy                                             211
     Bread, fried                                              206
     Bread omelet                                              205
     Breaded eggs                                              202
     Broiled apples                                            213
     Corn meal mush                                            210
     Cracker cream toast                                       209
     Cranberry jelly                                           213
     Cranberry sauce                                           215
     Creamed eggs                                              202
     Dumplings                                                 215
     Eggs au gratin                                            201
     Eggs, baked                                               202
     Eggs, boiled                                              200
     Eggs, breaded                                             202
     Eggs, creamed                                             202
     Egg cutlets                                               203
     Eggs, fried                                               201
     Eggs, poached                                             200
     Eggs scrambled                                            201
     Evaporated apple sauce                                    213
     Evaporated apricots                                       214
     Evaporated peaches                                        214
     Fried apples                                              213
     Fried bread                                               206
     Fried eggs                                                201
     Fried hominy                                              211
     Fried mush                                                210
     Fritters, apple                                           207
     Fruit fritters, batter for                                207
     Fruit sauces                                              212
     Green apple sauce                                         213
     Hominy, boiled                                            211
     Hominy cakes                                              211
     Hominy, fried                                             211
     Maple syrup from sugar                                    207
     Milk toast                                                208
     Mush                                                      209
     Mush, corn meal                                           210
     Mush, fried                                               210
     Oatmeal mush                                              210
     Omelet, baked                                             205
     Omelet, plain                                             203
     Oyster crackers, roasted                                  206
     Peaches, evaporated                                       214
     Pears, baked                                              214
     Plain omelet                                              203
     Poached eggs                                              200
     Prunes, stewed                                            214
     Rarebit, Welsh                                            206
     Rhubarb sauce                                             215
     Roasted oyster crackers                                   206
     Scrambled eggs                                            201
     Soft butter toast                                         208
     Stewed prunes                                             214
     Sweet apples, baked                                       212
     Syrup, maple, from sugar                                  207
     Toast, baked                                              208
     Toast, cracker cream                                      209
     Toast, milk                                               208
     Toast, soft butter                                        208
     Welsh rarebit                                             206

                        BREAD IN VARIOUS FORMS.
     INTRODUCTION                                              217
     Baking powder biscuit                                     226
     Baking powder griddle cakes                               236
     Baltimore hominy bread                                    234
     Biscuit, baking powder                                    226
     Blueberry griddle cakes                                   237
     Blueberry muffins                                         232
     Boston brown bread                                        222
     Bread, Baltimore hominy                                   234
     Bread, corn                                               233
     Bread dough, rolls from                                   223
     Bread, entire-wheat                                       221
     Bread, graham                                             221
     Bread griddle cakes                                       238
     Bread made with dry yeast                                 219
     Bread, pulled                                             223
     Bread, rye                                                222
     Bread, steamed Indian                                     223
     Bread, water                                              220
     Buckwheat cakes                                           235
     Buttermilk or sour milk muffins                           230
     Cakes, baking powder griddle                              236
     Cakes, blueberry griddle                                  237
     Cakes, bread griddle                                      236
     Cakes, buckwheat                                          235
     Cakes, sour milk graham griddle                           236
     Cakes, ground rice griddle                                237
     Cakes, hominy griddle                                     236
     Cakes, hominy, with sour milk, griddle                    237
     Cakes, raised flannel                                     238
     Cakes, sour milk griddle                                  235
     Cakes, sour milk Indian griddle                           236
     Corn bread                                                233
     Corn cake, spider                                         233
     Corn dodgers                                              234
     Cream of tartar muffins                                   232
     Crumpets                                                  227
     Dry yeast, bread made with                                219
     Entire-wheat bread                                        221
     Flour pop-overs                                           228
     Gems, wheat                                               229
     Graham bread                                              221
     Graham muffins                                            231
     Graham muffins with sour milk                             231
     Graham pop-overs                                          229
     Griddle cakes, bread                                      238
     Griddle cakes, baking powder                              236
     Griddle cakes, blueberry                                  237
     Griddle cakes, ground rice                                237
     Griddle cakes, hominy                                     236
     Griddle cakes, hominy, with sour milk                     237
     Griddle cakes, sour milk                                  235
     Griddle cakes, sour milk graham                           236
     Griddle cakes, sour milk Indian                           236
     Ground rice griddle cakes                                 237
     Hominy griddle cakes                                      236
     Hominy griddle cakes with sour milk                       237
     Hominy waffles                                            240
     Hop yeast                                                 218
     Luncheon rolls                                            226
     Milk rolls                                                225
     Muffins, blueberry                                        232
     Muffins, buttermilk or sour milk                          230
     Muffins, cream of tartar                                  232
     Muffins, graham                                           231
     Muffins, graham with sour milk                            231
     Muffins, raised wheat                                     230
     Muffins, rye                                              231
     Muffins, rye, with sour milk                              231
     Muffins, white corn meal                                  233
     Muffins, yellow corn meal                                 232
     Parker House rolls                                        224
     Pin wheels                                                227
     Pop-overs, flour                                          228
     Pop-overs, graham                                         229
     Pulled bread                                              223
     Quick luncheon rolls                                      227
     Raised flannel cakes                                      238
     Raised wheat muffins                                      230
     Raised wheat waffles                                      240
     Rolls from bread dough                                    223
     Rolls, luncheon                                           226
     Rolls, quick luncheon                                     227
     Rolls, milk                                               225
     Rolls, Parker House                                       224
     Rolls, sponge                                             224
     Rye bread                                                 222
     Rye muffins                                               231
     Rye muffins, with sour milk                               231
     Rye pop-overs                                             229
     Sally Lunn                                                228
     Sour milk graham griddle cakes                            236
     Sour milk griddle cakes                                   255
     Sour milk Indian griddle cakes                            236
     Sour milk or buttermilk muffins                           230
     Spider corn cake                                          233
     Sponge rolls                                              224
     Steamed Indian bread                                      223
     Waffles                                                   238
     Waffles, hominy                                           240
     Waffles, raised wheat                                     240
     Water bread                                               220
     Wheat gems                                                229
     White corn meal muffins                                   233
     Yeast, hop                                                218
     Yellow corn meal muffins                                  232

                                 CAKE.
     Angel                                                     244
     Blackberry jam                                            242
     Blueberry                                                 247
     Chocolate icing                                           252
     Clinton doughnuts                                         249
     Cold water                                                245
     Corn starch                                               244
     Dropped doughnuts                                         250
     Gingerbread, maple sugar                                  248
     Gingerbread, soft molasses                                248
     Gingerbread, soft molasses, No. 2                         249
     Gingerbread, soft molasses, No. 3                         249
     Hermits                                                   247
     Icing                                                     252
     Maple sugar gingerbread                                   248
     Plain cup                                                 245
     Plain sponge                                              243
     Raised fruit                                              241
     Rich cup                                                  245
     Rich sponge                                               242
     Soft molasses gingerbread                                 248
     Spice                                                     241
     Strawberry shortcake                                      251
     Strawberry shortcake, No. 2                               251
     Swiss                                                     246
     Tea                                                       246

                                PASTRY.
     Apple pie, sliced                                         254
     Apple pie, stewed                                         255
     Apple turnovers                                           259
     Berry pies                                                256
     Berry tarts                                               258
     Chocolate pie                                             258
     Cream pie                                                 257
     Delicate paste                                            253
     Lemon pie                                                 256
     Mince meat                                                254
     Mince pies                                                255
     Peach pie                                                 255
     Plain paste                                               253
     Sliced apple pie                                          254
     Squash pie                                                256
     Stewed apple pie                                          255
     Sweet potato pie                                          257
     Washington pie                                            258

                               PUDDINGS.
     Apple and Indian                                          262
     Apple sponge                                              263
     Apple tapioca                                             262
     Baked apple                                               261
     Baked apple dumplings                                     261
     Baked Indian                                              271
     Baked rice                                                280
     Berry                                                     266
     Blackberry                                                267
     Blueberry                                                 265
     Blueberry, No. 2                                          266
     Boiled rice                                               278
     Bread                                                     272
     Caramel                                                   276
     Chester                                                   269
     Chocolate                                                 275
     Chocolate, No. 2                                          275
     Cocoanut                                                  277
     Cold farina                                               280
     Cold rice                                                 279
     Corn starch                                               276
     Cottage                                                   273
     Cream                                                     274
     Custard                                                   277
     Dumplings, baked apple                                    262
     Dumplings, steamed apple                                  262
     English rice                                              280
     Farina, cold                                              280
     Farina fruit                                              281
     Farina, hot                                               280
     Graham                                                    270
     Hot farina                                                280
     Indian and apple                                          262
     Jam                                                       268
     Lemon                                                     273
     Little fruit                                              265
     Mock Indian                                               272
     Oatmeal                                                   278
     Orange snow                                               283
     Peach tapioca                                             263
     Plum                                                      269
     Prune                                                     263
     Prune tapioca                                             264
     Quick steamed apple                                       261
     Quiver                                                    268
     Raspberry tapioca                                         264
     Rhubarb                                                   267
     Rice balls                                                279
     Rose                                                      281
     Snow                                                      282
     Snow, No. 2                                               282
     Snow blancmange                                           283
     Sponge                                                    273
     Sponge apple                                              263
     Steamed apple                                             260
     Steamed apple dumplings                                   262
     Steamed batter                                            268
     Steamed black                                             267
     Steamed Indian                                            271
     Steamed Indian and apple                                  271
     Steamed Indian berry                                      271
     Tapioca                                                   278
     Tapioca prune                                             264
     Tapioca raspberry                                         264
     Turkish                                                   270
     Wayne                                                     270

                            PUDDING SAUCES.
     Cinnamon                                                  286
     Clear                                                     286
     Clear lemon                                               286
     Creamy                                                    284
     Egg                                                       285
     Foaming                                                   284
     Fruit                                                     285
     Golden                                                    287
     Hot cream                                                 288
     Italian                                                   287
     Molasses                                                  285
     Nutmeg                                                    286
     Vinegar                                                   285
     Wine                                                      284

                                SWEETS.
     Apricot ice                                               299
     Baked cup custards                                        290
     Blackberry jelly                                          294
     Blancmange, chocolate                                     292
     Blancmange, moss                                          292
     Blancmange, sea moss farina                               292
     Chocolate ice cream                                       297
     Cider jelly                                               293
     Coffee jelly                                              294
     Cup custards, baked                                       290
     Cup custards, steamed                                     290
     Custard, soft                                             289
     Directions for freezing                                   295
     Lemon jelly                                               293
     Lemon sherbet                                             298
     Milk sherbet                                              298
     Moss blancmange                                           292
     Orange jelly                                              294
     Orange sherbet                                            298
     Peach ice                                                 299
     Peach ice cream                                           297
     Pistachio ice cream                                       297
     Raspberry jelly                                           294
     Rennet custard                                            290
     Sea moss farina blancmange                                292
     Slip                                                      291
     Soft custard                                              289
     Steamed cup custards                                      290
     Strawberry Bavarian cream                                 291
     Strawberry ice cream                                      297
     Strawberry jelly                                          294
     Tapioca custard                                           290
     Vanilla ice cream                                         296
     Wine jelly                                                293

                              BEVERAGES.
     Boiled coffee                                             302
     Breakfast cocoa                                           304
     Broma                                                     304
     Chocolate                                                 304
     Cocoa                                                     304
     Cocoa shells and nibs                                     306
     Coffee                                                    301
     Filtered coffee                                           302
     Lemonade                                                  306
     Tea                                                       300

                        PRESERVES AND PICKLES.
     Blackberry jam                                            314
     Canadian tomato pickle                                    320
     Canned rhubarb                                            314
     Canned tomatoes                                           322
     Canning fruits                                            311
     Catsup, tomato                                            321
     Covering jellies                                          316
     Crab apples                                               308
     Crab apple jelly                                          318
     Crab apple, spiced                                        323
     Cucumber pickles                                          318
     Currant and raisin jam                                    315
     Currant jelly                                             316
     Currant jelly, No. 2                                      317
     Currants, spiced                                          322
     Different fruits need different treatment                 312
     Filling the jars                                          312
     Governor’s sauce                                          321
     Grape preserve                                            309
     Jam, blackberry                                           314
     Jam, raisin and currant                                   315
     Jam, raspberry                                            314
     Jellies                                                   315
     Jelly, currant                                            316
     Other jellies                                             318
     Peaches, preserved                                        307
     Pear marmalade                                            315
     Pears, preserved                                          308
     Piccalilli                                                323
     Pickle, tomato                                            320
     Pickles, cucumber                                         318
     Pineapple, preserved                                      310
     Pineapple, uncooked, preserved                            310
     Preserved peaches                                         307
     Preserved pears                                           308
     Preserved pineapple                                       310
     Preserved uncooked pineapple                              310
     Preserved plums                                           309
     Preserved quinces                                         309
     Pulp of fruit, what to do with it                         307
     Quality of the fruit                                      307
     Raspberry jam                                             314
     Rhubarb, canned                                           314
     Small fruits, how to can                                  313
     Spiced crab apple                                         323
     Spiced currants                                           322
     Sun cooked strawberries                                   311
     Sweet cucumber pickles                                    319
     Tomatoes, canned                                          322
     Tomato catsup                                             321
     Tomato pickle                                             320
     What to do with fruit pulp                                307

                     FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON FARMS.
     INTRODUCTION                                              324
     Bacon, to cure breakfast                                  328
     Butter making                                             335
     Cheese, cottage                                           335
     Cheese, hogs’ head                                        330
     Chine and jowl, to cure                                   328
     Chine pillau                                              329
     Corned shoulder of mutton                                 326
     Corning, how to prepare meat for                          325
     Cottage cheese                                            335
     Cream, care of                                            334
     Dairy, the                                                334
     English sausage meat                                      328
     Essence of rennet                                         333
     Hams, to cure                                             327
     Hogs’ head cheese                                         330
     Jowl and chine, to cure                                   328
     Jowl, to cook                                             329
     Lard, how to render                                       320
     Milk, care of                                             334
     Mutton, corned shoulder of                                326
     Pickle for any kind of meat                               326
     Pickle for tongues                                        326
     Pigs’ feet                                                332
     Pillau, chine                                             329
     Rennet, essence of                                        333
     Rennet, to preserve                                       332
     Rennet wine                                               333
     Sausage meat                                              328
     Sausage meat, English                                     328
     Scrapple                                                  331
     Soused tripe                                              332
     Tongues, pickle for                                       326
     Tripe                                                     332
     Wine, rennet                                              333

                           CARE OF THE SICK.
     INTRODUCTION                                              338
     Apple water                                               348
     Arrowroot gruel                                           347
     Barley water                                              348
     Bathing                                                   339
     Beef juice                                                345
     Beef tea                                                  344
     Broth, mutton                                             341
     Camphorated oil                                           351
     Cleanliness and ventilation                               329
     Cold in the head, remedy for                              351
     Cracked ice, to keep                                      341
     Cracker gruel                                             347
     Crust coffee                                              349
     Custard, mutton                                           343
     Eggnog                                                    348
     Egg tea                                                   349
     Flour gruel                                               346
     For a cold in the head                                    351
     Gargle for a sore throat                                  351
     Gruel, arrowroot                                          347
     Gruel, cracker                                            347
     Gruel, flour                                              346
     Gruel, Indian meal                                        346
     Gruel, oatmeal                                            346
     Ice, cracked, to keep                                     341
     Ice, to break in a sick room                              341
     Indian meal gruel                                         346
     Jelly, restorative                                        350
     Lemonade, moss                                            349
     Lime water                                                351
     Milk punch                                                347
     Moss lemonade                                             349
     Mutton broth                                              341
     Mutton custard                                            343
     Neuralgia, to relieve                                     340
     Oatmeal gruel                                             346
     Oyster roast                                              343
     Oysters roasted in the shell                              343
     Oysters, steamed                                          343
     Prunes, senna                                             350
     Punch, milk                                               347
     Raw beef sandwiches                                       345
     Restorative jelly                                         350
     Rice water                                                348
     Roast oysters                                             343
     Roasted oysters, in the shell                             343
     Round steak                                               345
     Sandwiches, raw beef                                      345
     Senna prunes                                              350
     Sore throat, a gargle for                                 351
     Steak, round                                              345
     Steamed oysters                                           343
     Tea, beef                                                 344
     Tea, egg                                                  349
     Turpentine applications                                   340
     Ventilation and cleanliness                               339
     Wine whey                                                 349

                         WHEN CLEANING HOUSE.
     INTRODUCTION                                              352
     Carpets, laying the                                       357
     Carpets, taking up and cleaning                           355
     Cleaning the cellar                                       353
     Dusting                                                   356
     From cellar to attic                                      354
     Kitchen, pantry, and closets                              359
     Rooms on the first floor                                  358
     Sweeping                                                  356
     System absolutely necessary                               352
     Washing painted surfaces                                  356
     Whitewashing, importance of                               354

                     ODD BITS OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.
     A word regarding stains                                   371
     About whipping cream                                      364
     Acids, what to do if they are spilled                     377
     Alcohol for grass stains                                  376
     Ants, how to drive away                                   387
     Bouquet of sweet herbs, how to make                       367
     Brass, how to clean                                       383
     Bread, to freshen                                         367
     Bread crumbs, how to prepare                              365
     Breading articles for frying                              365
     Brightening leather furniture                             379
     Brushes, to clean                                         381
     Burning accidents, what to do in case of                  368
     Cake, to freshen                                          367
     Care of straw matting                                     381
     Care of the hands                                         387
     Cement for china                                          384
     Chandeliers, keeping flies from                           387
     Chimney, what to do when it is cold                       385
     Cleaning brass                                            383
     Cleaning chamois skins                                    381
     Cleaning dress silks and ribbons                          380
     Cleaning fluid, a good                                    378
     Coffee, tea, or wine stains on linen                      374
     Cold cream                                                388
     Colors, restoring                                         377
     Conveniences when sweeping                                383
     Cream, about whipping                                     364
     Crumbs, how to prepare                                    365
     Cupfuls, half-pints, and gills                            388
     Driving away ants                                         387
     Equivalents of measures in weight                         389
     Flies, to keep away from chandeliers                      387
     Flour, difference in various brands                       361
     Flour paste                                               368
     Fruit stains, treatment of                                373
     Frying, breading articles for                             365
     Furniture, to remove stains from                          382
     Getting rid of the odor of onions                         366
     Grass stains, alcohol for                                 376
     Grease spots on wall paper, treatment of                  378
     Grease spots, to remove                                   371
     Grease, to take from wood and stone                       372
     Handles of knives and forks, how to fasten                384
     Hands, the care of                                        387
     Heat of the oven, how to test                             386
     Herbs, sweet, making a bouquet of                         367
     How to prepare bread crumbs                               365
     Iron and earthen ware, to temper                          367
     Iron rust, the best way to remove                         374
     Javelle water, how to make                                377
     Kid, to prevent from cracking                             385
     Leather furniture, to brighten                            379
     Marble, removing stains from                              373
     Matting, care of                                          381
     Measures, equivalents of, in weight                       389
     Mending breaks in plaster                                 383
     Meringue, to prevent from falling                         367
     Mildewed clothes, treatment of                            374
     Muriatic acid for stains on porcelain                     376
     Naphtha, use of, in the household                         369
     Oil, value of a drop of                                   385
     Onions, getting rid of the odor of                        366
     Onion juice, ways to get                                  366
     Oven heat, testing with paper                             386
     Oven thermometers                                         386
     Paint, to remove                                          376
     Paper, soiled, how to clean                          378, 379
     Paste, flour                                              368
     Pitch and tar, to remove                                  375
     Plaster, mending breaks in                                383
     Points of difference in various brands of flour           361
     Porcelain, stains on, how to remove                       376
     Preventing a meringue from falling                        367
     Preventing silks and woollens from turning yellow         380
     Raisins, how to stone                                     366
     Removing blood stains                                     375
     Removing ink stains                                       376
     Removing iron rust                                        374
     Removing sewing-machine oil stains                        375
     Removing stains from marble                               373
     Restoring colors                                          377
     Ridding the house of water bugs                           386
     Silk goods, to keep from turning yellow                   380
     Soiled paper, stale bread for cleaning                    379
     Stains, a word regarding                                  371
     Stains, fruit, treatment of                               373
     Stains on linen,—coffee, tea, or wine                     374
     Stains on porcelain, muriatic acid for                    376
     Stains, removing ink                                      376
     Stale bread for cleaning soiled paper                     379
     Stoning raisins in an easy manner                         366
     Straw matting, care of                                    381
     Sweeping, conveniences to use when                        383
     Sweet herbs, making a bouquet of                          367
     Tar, how to remove                                        375
     Testing the oven heat with paper                          386
     Thermometers, oven                                        386
     To clean brushes                                          381
     To clean woods in natural finish                          382
     To freshen bread and cake                                 367
     To make Javelle water                                     377
     To prevent kid from cracking                              385
     To remove grease spots                                    371
     To remove paint                                           376
     To remove pitch and tar                                   375
     To remove white stains from furniture                     382
     To take grease from wood and stone                        372
     To temper iron and earthen ware                           367
     Use of naphtha in the household                           369
     Value of a drop of oil                                    385
     Various brands of flour, points of difference in          361
     Wall paper, treatment of grease spots on                  378
     Wall paper, two ways to repair                            379
     Water bugs, ridding the house of                          386
     Ways to get onion juice                                   366
     What to do when burning accidents occur                   368
     What to do when the chimney is cold                       385
     When and why soda, cream of tartar, and baking
       powders are used                                        363
     When acids are spilled                                    377
     When clothes become mildewed                              374
     Woollen goods, to keep from turning yellow                380

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          Transcriber’s note:

All instances of ‘Bechamel’ and ‘Bechémal’ changed to ‘Béchamel’

Page 12, full stop inserted after ‘handled,’ “Dipper, long-handled.”

Page 12, ‘Dishcloths’ changed to ‘Dish-cloths,’ “Dish-cloths, two,—one
being of”

Page 66, ‘lamb’s’ changed to ‘lambs’,’ “and lambs’ livers are delicious”

Page 86, em-dash changed to space after ‘salt,’ “1 teaspoonful of salt,
generous.”

Page 96, ‘white-fish’ changed to ‘whitefish,’ “bluefish. Whitefish, like
cod”

Page 134, ‘stew-pan’ changed to ‘stewpan,’ “the bones in a stewpan and”

Page 149, ‘Syrinkle’ changed to ‘Sprinkle,’ “the little dishes. Sprinkle
the crumbs”

Page 168, ‘strawcolor’ changed to ‘straw-color,’ “turn a light
straw-color.”

Page 206, both instances of ‘rare-bit’ changed to ‘rarebit,’ “Welsh
Rarebit,” “The rarebit can be made”

Page 213, ‘tablepoonful’ changed to ‘tablespoonful,’ “1 tablespoonful of
sugar.”

Page 220, em-dash changed to space after ‘water,’ “1/2 pint of water,
generous measure.”

Page 230, ‘muf’ changed to ‘muffins,’ “above, a dozen muffins can be
made”

Page 234, em-dash changed to space after ‘water,’ “1/2 pint of boiling
water, generous.”

Page 241, full stop inserted after ‘egg,’ “1 egg.”

Page 251, em-dash changed to comma and space after ‘milk,’ “1 gill of
milk, generous measure.”

Page 258, ‘tablepoonful’ changed to ‘tablespoonful,’ “half a
tablespoonful of boiling water”

Page 275, ‘teasponnful’ changed to ‘teaspoonful,’ “1/2 teaspoonful of
salt.”

Page 279, ‘teaspoonfnl’ changed to ‘teaspoonful of,’ “1/2 teaspoonful of
salt.”

Page 288, ‘sta ch’ changed to ‘starch,’ “the powdered sugar and corn
starch”

Page 290, ‘not’ inserted after ‘may,’ “the tapioca may not have
absorbed”

Page 314, full stop inserted after ‘sugar,’ “3 quarts of sugar.”

Page 320, ‘horse-radish’ changed to ‘horseradish,’ “the jars the
horseradish, ginger”

Page 320, ‘tumeric’ changed to ‘turmeric,’ “2 tablespoonfuls of
turmeric”

Page 331, em-dash changed to space after ‘meal,’ “1/2 pint of corn meal,
generous measure.”

Page 346, full stop inserted after ‘milk,’ “1 pint of milk.”

Page 358, full stop inserted after ‘it,’ “old sheet over it. Spread the”

Page 384, ‘quick-lime’ changed to ‘quicklime,’ “Powder quicklime and
stir it”





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About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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