Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Graham's Magazine, Vol. XXX, No. 4, April 1847
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Graham's Magazine, Vol. XXX, No. 4, April 1847" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



page images generously made available by the Internet
Archive (https://archive.org)



                           GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE.
                VOL. XXX.      April, 1847.      No. 4.


                           Table of Contents

                    Fiction, Literature and Articles

          The Fields of Stillwater and Saratoga
          Mrs. Bell’s Ball
          The Islets of the Gulf; or Rose Budd
          Thomas Carlyle and His Works
          Mr. Kerr Mudgeon
          Abroad and at Home
          A Coquette Conquered
          Review of New Books

                       Poetry, Music, and Fashion

          The Oriole’s Return
          The Skater’s Song
          Love Unrequited
          Autumn
          Stanzas
          The Portrait
          April
          Pittsburgh
          The Statue in the Snow
          General Taylor’s Gallop
          Lines to a Jews-Harp
          Fanny’s First Smile
          Le Follet

       Transcriber’s Notes can be found at the end of this eBook.

                 *        *        *        *        *

[Illustration: Robert Hinshelwood          Smillie & Hinshelwood

SARATOGA BATTLE GROUND AT STILLWATER.
Engraved expressly for Graham’s Magazine.]

                 *        *        *        *        *

                           GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE.

          VOL. XXX.     PHILADELPHIA, April, 1847.     NO. 4.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                 THE FIELDS OF STILLWATER AND SARATOGA.


                    IN PART FROM ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.


                         BY N. C. BROOKS, A. M.


In the Revolutionary war the plan of operations adopted by the British
Ministry for the close of the year 1777 was as follows. General Howe,
with a portion of the troops, was to occupy New York, and occasionally
act toward the South; while General Burgoyne would descend from Canada
and the lakes, reduce the contiguous country on his way, and by forming
near Albany a junction with a part of the forces from New York, cut off
all communication between the Eastern and Western States. As it was
confidently expected that the several fortresses in the descent of
General Burgoyne would fall into his hands, he was instructed by the
ministry to leave garrisons in them, and thus, by a chain of posts, bind
the entire country, while, from time to time, as occasion required, he
could make excursions for provisions into the Eastern Provinces
adjacent. General Burgoyne himself went over to England for the express
purpose of concerting this plan with the ministry, and every thing
relative to the expedition was arranged upon an extensive and liberal
scale. His troops, exclusive of the artillery, consisted of seven
thousand two hundred regulars, of whom three thousand two hundred were
Germans, and several regiments of Provincials and Canadians, with great
bodies of Indians. Besides these, he had a large number of batteaux-men
and axe-men, to transport and clear the way for the troops, and a
powerful train of battering and field artillery. This was about the
force which General Burgoyne considered necessary, and had stipulated
for, in the plan which he submitted to the British Minister.

The commander himself was a man of great ability and experience, active
in enterprise, and ambitious of military glory; and those appointed to
second his exertions, were officers of distinction. Major General
Phillips, of the artillery, had gained great renown in Germany, as also
Brigadier Frazer. The other Brigadiers, Hamilton and Powell, were
valuable officers. The Brunswickers, Major General Baron Reidesel, and
Brigadiers Specht and Gall, had also seen much service. And lastly, the
Indians were under the directions of Langdall and St. Luc, great
partisans of the French in the late war, the former of whom planned with
the nations he was to lead, the defeat of General Braddock.
Consequently, from the experience and bravery of the commander, and the
generals under him, the number of his troops, his splendid train of
artillery, and the magnitude of the entire appointments of his army, the
most sanguine expectations were entertained of the entire success of the
expedition.

Having detached Colonel St. Leger with a considerable force of regulars,
Continentals, and Indians, by way of Oswego, to make a diversion on the
Mohawk river, in favor of the army, General Burgoyne set out with his
troops from St. John’s on the 16th of June, 1777. Arrived at Crownpoint,
he entertained the Indians with a war-feast, according to the ceremonial
established among them, and addressed them relative to the objects of
his campaign, and the character of their own expected services. At
Ticonderoga, he issued a manifesto, in which it is difficult to say,
whether vanity or ferocity were the more conspicuous. After parading his
multitudinous titles, he recited the many delinquencies of the
Americans, set forth in a vaunting style the force of that power now put
forth, by sea and land, to crush the insurrection of the Colonies, and,
in the most appalling and sanguinary manner, denounced against the
enemies of the mother country, the terrible vengeance of the Indian
scalping-knife and tomahawk.

Carrying terror and ruin as they passed, the invaders steadily advanced.
Harassed and panic-struck, the people fled before them; the American
troops entrusted with the defence of passes and fortifications, were
unable to prevent the progress of so formidable an expedition; and the
fortresses of Ticonderoga, Mount Independence, Fort Anne, and others,
fell successively into the hands of the British. But the troops left to
occupy these works, reduced the forces of General Burgoyne in some
degree, the difficulties of obtaining provisions, became more
perplexing, and events shortly took place which turned the tide of war
against the invaders, and inspirited the Americans, while they carried
dismay to the breasts of their enemies.

General Burgoyne had learned that there was a large deposit of
provisions of every kind at Bennington, and anxious to procure these for
his troops, as well as to obtain carriages for his baggage, and horses
for mounting Reidesel’s dragoons, he dispatched for that purpose Colonel
Baum, with five hundred German troops, one hundred Indians, and two
pieces of artillery; to reinforce which he afterward sent five hundred
troops, under Lieutenant Colonel Breyman, with two additional pieces of
artillery. These forces, without accomplishing any thing, were beaten,
in two separate engagements, by the Massachusetts and New Hampshire
militia, under General Stark, and a body of Continentals, under Colonel
Warner, with the loss of the brave Colonel Baum, and two hundred and
seven others killed, and seven hundred wounded and prisoners, four brass
field-pieces, and a large quantity of small arms. This first reverse of
the invading army took place August 16th, and was followed on the 22d by
another.

Colonel St. Leger, dispatched up the Mohawk river some time before,
after investing Fort Stanwix with his regulars, Sir John Johnson’s
regiment of Tories, and a party of Indians, suffered so severely by the
American militia, under Gen. Herkimer, which came to succor the
garrison, that he himself was dispirited, and his Indian allies, who had
joined him in expectation of but little fighting and much plunder, began
to abandon him. At this conjuncture, opportunely for the garrison, Gen.
Arnold advanced with troops to raise the siege of Fort Stanwix, and by a
well-executed stratagem, so terrified the investing forces, that the
Indians deserted the British, and St. Leger himself, on the 22d, fled
with so much precipitation, that he left his tents standing in the
field; and all his artillery and stores fell into the hands of the
Americans. These two events reversed, in an extraordinary degree, the
spirits of the people, and disposed the militia with alacrity to flock
to the American camp at Stillwater, near Saratoga.

Gen. Burgoyne had hitherto been successful, but he had now reached that
point in the expedition, in which the position of the country, the state
of the troops, and the season of the year, all favored the American
cause, and insured the downfall of the British chieftain. But the brave
Gen. Schuyler, who, with great diligence and ability, had directed the
affairs of the northern department during so many difficulties and
discouragements, was not permitted to enjoy the triumph which his labors
had contributed so much to insure. He was at this time superseded by
Gen. Gates, and compelled to resign the fruits of his labors and the
well-earned fame that was about to crown them. Of him it may be truly
said, “he had labored, and others had entered into his reward.”

Confident of the success of the expedition of Baum, Gen. Burgoyne had
already pushed on with the advance of his troops to Saratoga, on his way
to Stillwater; but learning the loss of the detachment, he suddenly drew
back from his advanced position. At length, by great exertions, having
procured about thirty days’ provision, constructing a bridge of boats
over the Hudson, he crossed over on the 13th and 14th of September with
his array and artillery, and occupied the heights and plain of Saratoga.

Changing his position from near the village of Stillwater for one two or
three miles in front, Gen. Gates took possession of Bemis’ Heights, a
range of hills so called, from the owner of a tavern near the ground,
and threw up breast-works and batteries, under the direction of his
chief engineer, Thaddeus Koszkiusko, the Polish patriot. The position
was a strong one. A range of hills extended on the right bank of the
Hudson, between which and the river were alluvial flats, about half a
mile in width at the centre, and tapering toward the extremities. A spur
of the hills jutting out at the southern extremity of these flats,
formed a narrow defile, through which passed, near Bemis’ tavern, the
public road along the river margin. The encampment, in shape like the
segment of a semicircle, with its convex turned to the north,
threatening the advance of the enemy, extended from the narrow defile by
the river-side to a steep height at the west, about three-quarters of a
mile. In front, at the distance of a quarter of a mile, from right to
left of the centre, which it covered, ran a closely wooded ravine; from
this to the heights, at the western extremity of the encampment, the
ground was level and partially cleared, some of the trees being felled,
others girdled and still standing; north of this, in front of the
extreme left, to the distance of a mile and a half or two miles, were
small fields in imperfect cultivation, obstructed with the stumps and
trunks of trees, with a steep eminence forming the western boundary of
the whole. A line of breast-works formed of felled trees, logs, rails,
and brush, covered with dirt, ran around the encampment, and strong
batteries at the extremities, and in the centre, were planted so as to
sweep the advance of the enemy, and especially the road by the river
side leading through the defile, where the artillery of the enemy would
be compelled to pass. A breast-work also extended across the flats, near
the defile, having a strong battery immediately upon the river, with
another breast-work and battery somewhat in advance, where the road
crossed Mill-creek.

The American troops were disposed within their intrenchments as follows:
the main body, composing the right wing, and consisting of Glover’s,
Nixon’s, and Patterson’s brigades, was under the immediate command of
Gates, the general-in-chief and occupied the defile by the river side
and the adjacent hills; Gen. Learned, with Bailey’s, Weston’s, and
Jackson’s regiments of Massachusetts, and James Livingston’s, of New
York, occupied the plain or centre; and Poor’s brigade, consisting of
Cilly’s, Scammel’s, and Hale’s regiments, of New Hampshire, Van
Courtlandt’s and Henry Livingston’s, of New York, and Latimer’s and
Cook’s, of the Connecticut militia, and Morgan’s riflemen, and
Dearborn’s light infantry, were posted upon the left, and occupied the
heights. The troops of the centre and left, constituted a division, and
were under the command of Gen. Arnold, who had his quarters upon the
extreme left. Thus arranged, the American troops awaited the advance of
the British army.

Leaving Saratoga on the 15th, Burgoyne marched to Coveville, and halting
to repair the bridges and roads, he moved on the 17th to a place called
Sword’s House. Gen. Arnold, who was sent out on this day to gain
intelligence of the enemy, and harass him on his march, after some
ineffectual skirmishing, returned with two or three prisoners, from whom
he learned the intentions of the British. On the 18th, the British
general-in-chief continued his march till he came within a short
distance of the “North Ravine,” which forms Wilber’s Basin, at the
northern extremity of the flats afore-mentioned, and encamped about
three miles from the Americans, his left, consisting mainly of the
artillery and German dragoons, under Majors General Phillips and
Reidesel, resting on the river; the centre, under Burgoyne himself,
extending at right angles to it across the low grounds five or six
hundred yards to a range of lofty hills, which were occupied by his
left, consisting of the grenadiers under Frazer, and the light infantry
of Breyman, who formed the _élite_ of the army.

Determined to force his way through the American lines, the British
general formed his army in order of march, about ten o’clock on the
morning of the 19th of September. While Burgoyne with the centre, and
Frazer with the right wing were to make a circuitous route, concentrate
their forces near the head of Middle Ravine, (so called from being
equidistant from the North Ravine and South Ravine, in the rear of the
American camp,) and having turned the left wing of the Americans fall
upon their rear, Generals Phillips and Reidesel, with the artillery,
which moved slowly, were to advance along the river road, and, when
within half a mile of the American lines, at the time of the junction
between Burgoyne and Frazer, to be announced by two signal guns, make an
attack in front, and force their way through.

Information having been received through Col. Colburn that the enemy
were on their march, Gen. Arnold, anticipating the intentions of the
British commander, and anxious to derange his plan of operations by
checking the progress of his right wing, pressed upon Gen. Gates the
propriety of an attack in advance, and was ordered to detach Col.
Morgan’s rifle corps, and some infantry, to observe the motions of the
enemy, and harass their advance, and to support Morgan himself, if
necessary, with the entire troops of his division. Expecting upon his
right a powerful attack from the British artillery and the troops of
Reidesel, Gen. Gates was unwilling to weaken that wing by any drafts of
troops whatever.

In pursuance of the arrangement of the British commander, Frazer, with
the right wing, making a long circuit, arrived where the road to
Wilber’s Basin and that to Bemis’ Heights intersect each other, and
thence continued south to an eminence about half a mile west of
Freeman’s Cottage. At the same time Burgoyne, with a picket in advance,
and flankers, composed of Canadians, Provincials and Indians, following
the course of the North Ravine about three fourths of a mile, and then
marching in a southwest direction, had arrived a little south of
Freeman’s Cottage.

At this moment the advance of Morgan, under Major Morris, fell in with
the picket of Burgoyne, which had reached the Middle Ravine, and
attacking with that impetuosity for which he was remarkable, drove them
back till reinforced by a strong party under Major Forbes. The British
now advanced with spirit; a sharp conflict commenced, and they were
driven back to their line, which was forming beyond the Cottage. Now
pressing on again with vivacity, they repulsed the Americans in their
turn, and Morgan coming up with the rear, found the van of his command
broken and scattered in every direction. Capt. Van Swearingen, Lieut.
Moore, and twenty privates fell into the hands of the British.

Collecting his riflemen, and reinforced by a battalion of light infantry
under Major Dearborn, the battle was renewed again, about one o’clock,
and was vigorously maintained on both sides for some time, with varied
success. Forming upon the left of Morgan, the regiments of Scammel and
Cilley advanced to his support, and the contest proceeded with redoubled
energy.

There seemed to be a generous emulation between the commanders of these
regiments, in which their gallant troops fully participated. Col.
Scammel is cool and determined, and leads on his men close to the enemy
before he will suffer them to fire; Cilley is all vivacity and
animation, and dashes into the fight with the enthusiasm of a fox-chase:
they are equally brave, and the indomitable obstinacy of the one and
energy of the other alike make a serious impression upon the enemy.

Frazer, who by this time had joined with his command the centre under
Burgoyne, advanced with great resolution and attempted to cut off a
portion of the American troops, when Gen. Arnold, who now appeared upon
the field with the New York regiments and a part of Gen. Learned’s
brigade, rushed impetuously forward and endeavored to break the British
line, by penetrating between the right wing and the centre, and thus to
cut off and surround the troops of Frazer. Arnold exhibited his usual
bravery; his form towered before his troops; his voice, animating them,
resounded along the line like the notes of a trumpet; his men now spring
forward, and the fiery contest is close and bloody; the discharges of
musketry are quick, incessant and deadly; the Americans press on
steadily and close with their adversaries; the enemy resort to their
bayonets, but soon falter and give way till the Americans are drawn
within the shot of some regiments of German light infantry upon the
extreme right. These pour upon the American flank a murderous fire; and
after an obstinate resistance of more than an hour, in which the ground
is disputed inch by inch, the Americans fall back, sullenly firing, and
resume their place in the line.

About three o’clock in the afternoon, the troops were drawn up on each
side for a regular engagement. There was an oblong clearing in front of
Freeman’s Cottage, about sixty rods in length from east to west, and
containing from fifteen to eighteen acres. This field sloped gently down
toward the south and east, and was bounded upon the north by an
eminence, and a thin grove of pines, and on the south by a dense woods.
The British line, with Burgoyne at its head, was formed within the grove
of pines upon the north of the clearing mentioned above; and the
American line under Arnold within the dense woods. The British advanced
to the attack with the most determined bravery, and the action began
with great spirit, and was maintained with animation.

Preferring to receive the enemy with the advantages of their position,
the Americans kept, in a measure, within cover of the wood in which they
were posted, and poured upon the advancing British a destructive fire,
which compelled them to falter. Now pressing upon the enemy, the
Americans advanced in their turn, till they came within the fire of the
British line, and fell back toward their position in the wood. The
engagement waxed hot and obstinate, and a destructive fire was kept up,
principally between Hamilton’s brigade, consisting mainly of the
twentieth, twenty-first, and sixty-second British infantry, and the
brigade of Poor, and Morgan’s corps on the part of the Americans. The
British centre was severely pressed, and began at length to give way,
when General Phillips, who, with infinite labor, had made his way from
the left through the intervening woods, brought up a brigade of
artillery under the brave Captain Jones, and some grenadiers, and
restored the action. The artillery was posted near Freeman’s Cottage,
and gave the enemy a decided advantage, for, owing to the impracticable
nature of the ground, the Americans could not bring up any artillery
during the day to support their fire.

The action now became general. A quick fire ran from right to left along
the whole line of battle; the musketry peeled like the continuous roll
of a thousand drums; the heavy discharges of artillery with the roar of
thunder shook the hills around, and died in sullen echoes down the
valleys; while the battle raged tumultuous, like a stormy sea, over the
plain intervening between the woods. The contest was obstinate and
bloody—a succession of advances and retreats; a scene of daring and
destruction; of blood and carnage. The British rushed forward to the
very woods, but fled before the murderous fire of the Americans from
their covert. The latter in their turn pursued the British to their
line, but fell back from the resistance in front and the hot fire that
assailed them on the flanks. Major Hull, with a bravery that is some
relief to his dark cowardice in the late war, repeatedly charged and
took the enemy’s guns; but as the Americans had no means to bring them
off, or turn them against their owners, they remained at length with the
British.

The action continued without the least intermission, and Arnold in
directing the movements of the troops did every thing that a skillful
and active officer could accomplish. Finding the enemy reinforced by
Gen. Phillips from the left, he ordered out the remaining regiments of
Learned’s brigade, and sent to Gen. Gates for a part of the troops under
his command. But the general either still fearing the advance of the
enemy’s left upon him, and unwilling to weaken his right, or not wishing
to give Arnold any efficient support, merely sent him a single regiment,
Col. Marshall’s, of Patterson’s brigade. Had he promptly supported
Arnold’s division by either of the three brigades under his command,
there is no doubt the action would have been a decisive one.

The arrival of the last reinforcements infused a degree of renewed vigor
into the Americans; the contest deepened, maddened into a final effort,
and raged with destructive fury as the sun set upon the scene of
carnage, and the pall of night came down upon the dead and dying. The
last troops engaged were those of the brave Lieut. Col. Brooks, in
command of Jackson’s regiment, the eighth Massachusetts. He penetrated
as far as the extreme right of the British, and became engaged with a
part of Breyman’s riflemen, who had acted before but occasionally during
the action. Waiting for orders to return, he did not leave the field of
battle till near ten o’clock at night. This was the most obstinate
battle that had yet been fought, in which the Americans, both regulars
and militia, displayed all the bravery of the most hardy veterans.

The American loss fell chiefly upon Morgan’s corps and Poor’s brigade.
The regiment of Colonel Cilley, of New Hampshire, and that of Col. Cook,
of the Connecticut militia, suffered the most severely. Major Hull’s
detachment sustained a loss of nearly one half in killed and wounded.
The twentieth and twenty-first regiments of the enemy encountered severe
loss, and the sixty-second, under the brave Col. Anstruther, was
literally cut to pieces. The colonel himself, and the major, Harnaye,
were both wounded, and, of the six hundred men which the regiment
numbered on leaving Canada, but sixty men and five or six officers
remained fit for duty. The gallant Captain Jones, who commanded the
enemy’s artillery with so much effect, fell at the side of his guns, and
thirty-six of his forty-eight artillerists, and all the officers, except
Lieutenant Hadden, were killed or disabled. His escape was remarkable,
for the cap was shot off his head by a musket ball, while engaged in
spiking the guns.

The Americans had about three thousand men in the engagement, the
British three thousand five hundred. Both parties claimed the victory;
though it is evident all the advantages of the contest were in favor of
the Americans. The British lay upon their arms, with the intention of
renewing the battle next day, but abandoned that design in the morning,
and within cannon-shot of the Americans threw up a line of
intrenchments, with strong redoubts across the plain to the hills; with
an intrenchment also and batteries across the defile at the northern
extremity of the flats. The Americans, in the meantime, made great
exertions to complete their defences, and render them impregnable.

The position of the Americans was the same as before; the British troops
were posted within their intrenchments in the following order: Col.
Breyman with the Hessian rifle corps occupied the extreme right, or
flank defence; the light infantry, under Lord Balcarras, and the _élite_
of Frazer, were encamped around Freeman’s Cottage, and extended toward
the north ravine, flanked by Hamilton’s brigade and the grenadiers;
Phillips and Reidesel, with their respective commands, occupied the
plain and the ground north of Wilber’s Basin; while, for the protection
of the batteaux and hospitals, the Hessians of Hanau, the forty-seventh
regiment and a detachment of loyalists, were encamped upon the flats by
the river-side.

A serious difference now arose between Generals Gates and Arnold, owing
to the jealousy of the former, and the intriguing disposition of his
adjutant, Col. Wilkinson. Although the late action had commenced at the
instance of Arnold, had been fought under his direction, and by the
troops of his division alone, with the exception of a single regiment,
yet in his dispatches to Congress, General Gates simply stated the
action was fought by detachments from the army, without mentioning
either Arnold or his division. In addition to this injustice, Gen.
Gates, at the suggestion of Wilkinson, in his general orders immediately
after the battle, required that Col. Morgan, whose troops had been for
some time a part of Arnold’s command, and by whose assistance, in a
great measure, the late battle was won, should “make returns and reports
to head-quarters only; _from whence alone he is to receive orders_.” A
correspondence and an angry conference took place that resulted in
Gates’ depriving Arnold of the command of his division, which he assumed
himself, assigning to Gen. Lincoln, who arrived on the twenty-ninth, the
command of the right wing. I will more particularly refer to this
misunderstanding, at the close of this article.

The two armies lay encamped within sight of each other from the
nineteenth of September till the seventh of October, without any thing
taking place, except an occasional affair of pickets. In expectation of
a coöperation with Sir Henry Clinton, from New York, and of aid from St.
Leger, the British commander was compelled, by the difficulties of
procuring provisions, to put his troops upon short allowance, which they
bore with a patience and cheerfulness that did them great honor. The
American troops in the meantime, fearful of the expedition from New York
in favor of Burgoyne, were clamorous for action, and Gen. Arnold,
forgetting all the injustice and indignity with which he had been
treated, addressed a letter to General Gates, which any generous mind
would have considered, in the circumstances, as an overture for
reconciliation, made known to him the impatience of the troops for
battle, and suggested the dangers of delay and the necessity of an
immediate attack. General Gates still remained inactive within his
intrenchments, till Gen. Burgoyne, pressed to extremity for provisions,
and despairing of assistance, prepared for a second attempt upon the
American lines, which gave him the advantage of a defensive action.

It had been necessary, for some time, to send out large parties to cover
any provisions destined for the British camp; General Burgoyne
determined, therefore, to select a heavy detachment of his best troops,
for the ostensible purpose of covering a forage, which should move to
the left of the American lines, and, after making a _reconnaissance_,
endeavor to dislodge the Americans, or force a passage through the
intrenchments: in the event of being successful, the whole army was to
follow.

Entrusting the guard of the camp upon the heights near Freeman’s farm to
Brigadiers Hamilton and Specht, and the intrenchments and redoubts upon
the flats to Brigadier Gall, about eleven o’clock on the seventh of
October, Gen. Burgoyne placed himself at the head of fifteen hundred
regulars, the flower of his army, with two twelve-pounders, two
howitzers, and six six-pounders, and moved toward the American left. His
best officers, Majors-General Phillips and Reidesel and Brigadier
Frazer, accompanied the detachment, and seconded the command of the
general-in-chief. Having proceeded within three-fourths of a mile of the
American camp at the northwest, they displayed and sat down in double
ranks, with their arms between their legs. While the foragers of the
party were cutting straw in a wheat-field, several officers from the top
of a cabin were engaged in reconnoitering, with their glasses, the
American left, which was concealed in a great measure from their view by
the intervening woods.

General Gates having received intelligence of the movements and position
of the enemy, and penetrating his intentions, made arrangements for an
immediate attack. In the meantime, a party of Indians, Canadians and
Provincials, scouring the woods on the British flank, fell in with the
American pickets near the Middle Ravine; a sharp conflict ensued, which
drew to the support of the scouting party a strong corps of grenadiers,
when the Americans were driven back to the intrenchments. A brisk action
ensued, without any material advantage on either side, when a corps of
Morgan’s riflemen appeared, whom the Indians and Canadians always held
in great terror, and the British retreated to their line, which was
forming, pursued by the Americans.

Gen. Burgoyne formed his line of battle across an open field; the left
wing consisting of the grenadiers, under Major Ackland, and the
artillery, under Major Williams, resting upon a ridge of ground bordered
with wood, and covered in front by the head of the Middle Ravine; the
centre, under Generals Phillips and Reidesel, was composed of British
and German battalions; the right wing, consisting of the light infantry
under Lord Balcarras, extended toward the southwest to the foot of a
hill densely wooded, and was covered by a worm fence; while, in advance
of the right wing, a strong body of flankers was posted under the brave
General Frazer, to fall upon the American flank and rear, as the other
troops made the attack upon the left.

General Gates ordered Col. Morgan with his corps to commence the action.
That sagacious officer proposed and was permitted with his command to
march by a circuitous route, and under cover of the woods to gain the
hill that ran near the enemy’s right and its advance, and to make an
attack in front and flank upon the advanced party under Frazer, and the
British right, while the brigade of General Poor opened its fire upon
the British left. Allowing time for Morgan to reach his destination,
Gen. Poor led on his brigade to the British left, having ordered his men
to reserve their fire till some time after they began to rise the hill
on and around which the artillery and a part of the grenadiers were
posted. As soon as they came in sight they were saluted by the enemy
with a shower of grape-shot and musket balls, which overshot them,
however, and spent their fury upon the tops of the trees. The Americans
rushed on with a shout, and delivering their fire, in quick succession,
opened to the right and left, that they might gain the cover of the
trees that enclosed the ridge on which the artillery was placed. Here a
close and bloody conflict ensued, with the continual discharge of
artillery and small arms. Nothing could exceed the bravery of the
Americans; they rushed upon the enemy’s guns, which, by repeated
charges, were taken and retaken, till the dead and dying were strewed
all around. One field-piece was taken for the fifth time, when the brave
Cilley in a fit of exultation mounted astraddle of it, and having “sworn
it true to the American cause,” turned it upon the enemy, and galled
them with their own ammunition, which in their precipitancy they had
left behind them. After a long and obstinate contest, in which the
grenadiers and artillerists suffered very severely, Major Ackland, the
commander of the former, was wounded, and Major Williams, the commander
of the latter, was taken prisoner, upon which they broke and fled with
consternation.

Simultaneously with the opening of the fire of Poor’s brigade upon the
British left, the gallant Col. Morgan, like a torrent, rushed down from
the hills that skirted the advance of the British right, and pouring in
a rapid and destructive fire, soon drove it back upon the right wing,
then, wheeling suddenly to the left, he took the British right in flank,
with irresistible impetuosity, and threw their ranks into confusion.
While thus disordered, Major Dearborn led up two regiments of fresh
troops against them, when, assailed both in flank and front, they broke
and fled. The Earl of Balcarras rallied them again, and re-formed them,
but overpowered by superior numbers, the whole right wing vacillated and
gave way.

While the two wings were thus closely engaged, the centre, composed
principally of Hessian troops, had as yet taken no part in the action,
for the British commander feared, as the American front extended beyond
the grenadiers, that, by breaking his centre, he would give an
opportunity to the Americans to cut off and surround a part of his
forces. As the battle was thus going on, and indecisive, Gen. Arnold,
who found it impossible to restrain himself, swore that he would “put an
end to the action,” and galloped off in hot haste to the field, upon a
magnificent coal-black steed. Gen. Gates, fearful lest he might “do some
rash action,” as he expressed himself, sent Major Armstrong after him to
recall him, but the messenger could not reach him to deliver his
summons, so quick and varied were his motions, and so perilous the track
of his onward course. Placing himself at the head of three regiments,
who readily obeyed their former commander, Gen. Arnold advanced with
great vigor and attacked the British centre. The Hessians received the
assailants with becoming spirit, and, at first, made a brave resistance;
but the second charge upon them was furious and irresistible; Arnold
with some daring followers dashed into their thickest ranks, carrying
with them death and dismay, and the Hessians broke and fled with great
precipitancy and consternation.

While the two wings and centre were thus engaged, and the battle was
hotly maintained along the whole line, the bravery and skill of the
gallant Gen. Frazer was everywhere conspicuous. When the troops began to
waver, he encouraged them; when falling back, he rallied them again;
when broken, he re-formed them. On his magnificent iron-grey steed, he
passed along the line continually, and wherever he appeared he restored
order and inspired confidence; the fate of the battle seemed to hang
upon his energy, skill and bravery. The sagacious Col. Morgan saw this,
and, with more prudence than generosity, called a file of his best
marksmen, and said to them, “That gallant officer is General Frazer; I
admire and honor him, but it is necessary that he should die—take your
stations in that cluster of bushes, and when he passes down the line
again, do your duty.” In a few moments the brave and accomplished Frazer
fell mortally wounded, and was carried to the camp, a grenadier on each
side of his horse supporting him. At his fall a panic pervaded the
enemy, and a reinforcement of three thousand New York militia
simultaneously arriving, under Gen. Ten Broeck, the whole line under
Gen. Burgoyne broke and fled to their encampment, covered in their
retreat by Generals Phillips and Reidesel. The Americans pursued them in
hot haste to their very intrenchments, and assaulted the works, though
possessed neither of battering nor field artillery.

Along the whole line of the British encampment there now rages a storm
of grape-shot and musketry; yet the brave Americans, exposed to the
deadly fire, or sheltered in part by trees, stumps, and rocks, or
covered in gullies formed by the rains, continue the fight with great
obstinacy, and many brave men fall on both sides. In this scene of blood
and carnage, Arnold was a conspicuous actor. Incited by wounded pride,
anger, and military enthusiasm, he fought with reckless bravery, exposed
himself with inconsiderate rashness, furiously at times brandished his
sword to the danger of his own men, animated his soldiers by the most
impassioned appeals, and leading them on, snatched laurels from the very
hands of death and danger. With a part of Glover’s and Patterson’s
brigades, he rushed on to the works possessed by the light infantry
under Lord Balcarras, and a portion of the line, and assaulting, a large
abattis which he carried at the point of the bayonet, endeavored to make
an opening into the British camp; but, after a sanguinary contest, he
was forced to fall back. Leaving the troops now engaged at a greater
distance, he dashes furiously on toward the right flank defence,
receiving as he passes the fire of the contending armies unhurt.

Gen. Learned, with his brigade, sheltered by a sudden depression of the
ground, which covered his men breast high, had been engaged at a long
fire with the Germans of the right flank defence, who poured upon them a
continual discharge of grape-shot. He now advanced, for nearer contest,
his brigade in open column, with Col. Jackson’s regiment in front, in
command of Lieut Col. Brooks, to make an assault at an opening between
the light infantry, under Lord Balcarras, and the German right flank
defence. This part of the lines was occupied by Canadians and
Provincials, and was defended by two stockade redoubts. Arnold, in
passing on to the British right, met Learned’s brigade advancing, and
placing himself at the head of the brigade, orders Brooks, with two
platoons, to attack the stockades, while the other troops assault in
front. The engagement is now general and sanguinary, the cannon thunder
along the line, the peals of musketry are continuous, and the sharp
rattle of the rifle is incessant, while the bomb lights up with its red
glare, the atmosphere darkened with the smoke of battle and the shades
of coming eve.

While the battle thus rages, the intrepid Brooks leads his party, as
ordered, against the stockades, which are carried in a moment at the
point of the bayonet; and the rest of the brigade assault the lines,
though manned by twice their number. After an ineffectual resistance,
the enemy are compelled to abandon their position and flee, which lays
open the flank of the right defence, consisting of the Germans under
Col. Breyman. It consists of a breast-work of timbers piled in a
horizontal manner between pickets driven perpendicularly into the earth,
and is covered on the right by a battery of two guns, posted on an
eminence.

Galloping on to the left, Arnold orders Weston’s and Livingston’s
regiments, with Morgan’s corps, to advance and make a general assault,
and then returning, he places himself at the head of the regiment under
Brooks, and leading it on himself, makes a furious attack upon the
German works, which is vigorously resisted. Undismayed, he pushes
forward a platoon, and having found the sallyport, forces his way
through with his men, and rides triumphantly into the encampment of the
enemy. The terrified Germans retreat, yet deliver a fire as they run, by
which the steed of the dauntless general is killed, and himself wounded.
The same leg which was wounded in storming Quebec, is again shattered by
a musket ball. Here Maj. Armstrong, who had been sent by Gen. Gates to
order him back from the field, first comes up with him and delivers his
message. Retiring to their tents the Germans find the assault general,
throw down their arms, or retreat hurriedly to the interior part of the
camp, leaving their commander, Col. Breyman, mortally wounded on the
field, with many privates killed and wounded, and their tents,
artillery, and baggage in possession of the victors. The dislodgement of
the German troops effected an opening into the British lines, which
exposed the entire encampment. Gen. Burgoyne, therefore, immediately
ordered its recovery, but the darkness of the night, and the fatigue of
the troops, prevented this attempt at recovery on the part of the
British, or any effort on the part of the Americans to improve the
advantages it offered. About 12 o’clock at night, Gen. Lincoln, who,
during the action, had remained in camp with his command, marched out to
relieve the troops that had been engaged, and to possess the ground they
had gained. The American loss in this action was about one hundred and
fifty, killed and wounded; that of the enemy was much greater, among
which were some of their best officers. The enemy lost in addition nine
pieces of artillery, and the encampment and equipage of a German
brigade.

As the Americans, with fresh troops prepared for action, held possession
of a part of the British camp, which exposed their entire defences, a
change of position, before the following morning, was rendered necessary
to the British commander. During the night, therefore, he executed a
removal of his army, camp and artillery, to his former position, about a
mile further north, in view of a retreat. To guard against this, Gen.
Gates had detached a party higher up the Hudson to hang upon his rear,
should he attempt to force a passage.

During the 8th of October, the troops were under arms, in expectation of
an attack, and a cannonade was kept up at intervals during the day.
About sunset, according to directions which he had given, the corpse of
the brave Gen. Frazer, attended by his suite, and by the Generals
Phillips, Reidesel, and Burgoyne, was carried to the great redoubt, and
there buried. A cannonade was kept up for some time on the procession,
till the Americans discovered its character, when they ceased, and fired
minute guns in honor of the deceased. The following description of the
melancholy scene is from the pen of Gen. Burgoyne himself.

“The incessant cannonade during the solemnity; the steady attitude, and
unaltered voice with which the clergyman officiated, though frequently
covered with dust, which the shot threw up on all sides of him; the mute
but expressive mixture of sensibility and indignation on every
countenance; these objects will remain to the last of life on the mind
of every man who was present. The growing duskiness, added to the
scenery, and the whole marked a character of this juncture, that would
make one of the finest subjects for the pencil of a master that the
field ever presented. To the canvas and to the page of a more important
historian, gallant friend, I consign thy memory. There may thy talents,
thy manly virtues, their progress and their period, find due
distinction; and long may they survive, long after the frail record of
my pen shall be forgotten.”

In relation to the death-wound of Gen. Frazer, it is generally believed
to have been from Timothy Murphy, a celebrated marksman, with a double
rifle, whose aim was unerring as fate. The death of Frazer is said to
have made a deep impression upon Morgan, and to have given him
uneasiness even on his dying-bed. I receive the account coming through
his minister. Gen. Frazer himself said that he saw the rifleman that
shot him, and that he was up in a tree. The range of the wound proved
this to be a fact. Consequently, it could not have been one of the file
Morgan selected, unless we suppose they ascended trees.

A romantic interest is thrown around the incidents of this campaign by
the sufferings of several accomplished and excellent ladies, that
followed the fortunes of their husbands, who were officers in the army.
On the 19th of September, they followed the route of the artillery and
baggage, and when the action began, the Baroness Reidesel, Lady Harriet
Ackland, and the wives of Maj. Harnaye, and Lieut. Reynell, of the
sixty-second regiment, had possession of a small hut which the surgeons
soon occupied. Their sensibility was continually affected by the
pitiable sights that were presented as the wounded were brought in,
while their terrified imaginations looked forward to similar calamities
to their husbands. How afflicting were their circumstances when, during
the day, Maj. Harnaye was brought in severely wounded, and intelligence
came that Lieut. Reynell was killed. The Lady Harriet’s husband was
wounded in the action of the 7th of October, and fell into the hands of
the Americans, when, with the greatest heroism, she solicited permission
from Gen. Burgoyne, and went over to the American army, that she might
wait upon her husband. She accompanied Maj. Ackland to Canada in 1776,
and was called to attend on him, while sick in a miserable hut at
Chamblee. In the march upon Ticonderoga she was left behind and enjoined
not to expose herself to the hazards of the expedition, but joined her
husband immediately after his receiving a wound at the battle of
Hubberdton, and would not leave him afterward, but shared his fortunes
and fatigues. The narrative of the Baroness Reidesel, which gives an
account of the expedition, and their own particular sufferings, is as
interesting as a romance.

Fearing from some movements of the Americans that they would turn his
right and surround him, Gen. Burgoyne, on the 8th, abandoned his
hospital with the sick and wounded, whom he recommended to the humanity
of Gen. Gates, and commenced a night retreat toward Saratoga,
immediately after the burial of Gen. Frazer. In preparation for the
retreat they felt severely the loss of this accomplished officer, who
prided himself upon generalship in this respect. During the war in
Germany, he made good his retreat with 500 chasseurs, in sight of the
French army, and often said that if, in the present expedition the
troops were compelled to retreat, he would insure, with the advanced
corps, to bring them off in safety. About 9 o’clock at night the army
began to move, Gen. Reidesel in command of the van-guard, and Gen.
Phillips in command of the rear-guard. Delayed by the darkness of the
night, the incessant rains, and the bad condition of the roads, liable
at any time to an attack in flank, front, or rear, the royal troops
reached Saratoga late at night on the 9th, so harassed and weary, that
without strength even to cut wood and make fires, the men lay down upon
the cold ground in their wet clothes, and the generals themselves lay
upon their matresses with no other covering than an oil-cloth.

Gen. Burgoyne detached from this place a working party, under a strong
escort, to repair the roads and bridges toward Fort Edward; but on
finding the Americans in force on the heights south of Saratoga creek,
and evincing a disposition to cross over and attack him, the escort was
recalled, and the Provincials, sent to cover the working party, fled at
the first attack. The general-in-chief now resolved to abandon his
artillery, baggage, and encumbrances of every kind, and make a night
march to Fort Edward. The soldiers were to carry their arms and
provisions upon their backs, and force a passage at the fording, either
above or below the fort. But learning from his scouts that the Americans
had a camp in force on the high grounds between Fort Edward and Fort
George, as well as parties along the whole shore, he was compelled to
abandon the design.

Worn down by a series of toils and attacks; abandoned by the Indians,
Provincials, and Canadians; the regulars greatly reduced by the late
heavy losses, and by sickness; disappointed of aid from Sir Henry
Clinton; suffering from want of provisions; invested and almost
surrounded by an army of triple numbers, without the possibility of
retreat; exposed to an incessant cannonade, and receiving in camp even
the musket balls of his enemy, the British general perceiving that
future efforts would be unavailing, convened a council of the generals,
field-officers, and commanders of corps, in which it was unanimously
resolved to send a communication to Gen. Gates, touching a surrender. A
treaty was accordingly opened, and a convention agreed upon on the 16th
of October, embracing the following prominent conditions.

The British were to march out of their encampment with the honors of
war, and ground their arms by order of their own officers. They were not
to be detained as captives, but be permitted to return to England, and
not serve again during the war, unless exchanged. The number of men
received in surrender to the United States was 5791. Besides this, the
United States received an immense park of brass artillery, 7000 stand of
arms, clothing for seven thousand recruits; with tents, and great
quantities of ammunition, and other military stores.

Some few exchanges of officers were effected. An effort was made to
exchange Maj. Ackland for Col. Ethan Allen, then held in rigorous
confinement in New York, but the British commander, Lord Howe, refused
the proposal. Maj. Ackland was then exchanged for Maj. Otho Holland
Williams, of Rawling’s rifle corps, who, after a brave resistance, was
wounded and made prisoner at Fort Washington, in 1776, and had since
suffered severely in his captivity. Some time after the fall of
Charleston, Gen. Phillips was exchanged for Gen. Lincoln. Congress,
fearful that good faith would not be kept relative to the soldiers not
being employed again in the war, did not permit the British soldiers to
embark for England. They were detained till after the close of the war.
When information was received of the surrender of Burgoyne and his army,
Congress passed a vote of thanks to Gen. Gates, and the troops under his
command, and ordered a gold medal to be struck in commemoration of the
event, and presented to him in the name of the United States. I have
some valuable original documents, throwing strong light upon the history
and the men of this eventful period, which I may submit in a second
paper.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                          THE ORIOLE’S RETURN.


    Hast thou come back, loved oriole,
      Thy stay has been so long,
    To flit among the garden flowers,
      And cheer me with thy song.

    Yes, yes, my pretty oriole,
      Thou’st left thy distant bowers,
    And come to make thy dwelling-place,
      In this green land of ours.

    For cheerful spring, my oriole,
      Returns to us again,
    And soon shall summer’s balmy breath
      Spread fragrance o’er the plain.

    The fields that late, dear oriole,
      Were white with fleecy snow,
    Are green, and the refreshing breeze
      Has bid the fountains flow.

    And budding shrubs, sweet oriole,
      Bedeck this blooming scene,
    And the wide-spreading willow
      Is clothed in living green.

    Then with thy mate, my oriole,
      Come sit upon this tree,
    And tune thy gay and lively notes,
      So long unheard by me.

    And there, my gentle oriole,
      From thy long journey rest,
    Then to the drooping branches, love,
      Suspend thy downy nest.

    For all is beauteous, oriole,
      Around, beneath, above,
    And little birds are warbling,
      Far in the waving grove.

    And the soft rill, my oriole,
      Where oft I have seen thee light,
    To drink the waters murmuring by,
      Now sparkles clear and bright.

    And thou hast come, loved oriole,
      To glad me with thy voice,
    And verdant spring again returns,
      To bid our hearts rejoice.
                MISS C. MITCHELL.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                           MRS. BELL’S BALL.


         [A CHAPTER FROM “LEVY LAWRENCE’S ACCOUNT OF HIMSELF.”]


It was about this time, (meaning the time I began to realize that if
silver and gold could do every thing, brass could do much,) and shortly
after my return to P——, I received an invitation to attend a ball, to
be given by the lady of a gallant naval officer, at a public hall, the
only one with which the town of P—— was blessed.

To one who had absented himself from such gayeties for some time, and
who was particularly fond of them, the thought of a ball was exciting,
to say the least—and such a ball! I knew very well what it would be,
given by Mrs. Bell, in a fine large hall. Nothing sham. No—Mrs. Bell
had too much pride, and so had Mr. Bell, to have any thing to do with an
entertainment that was not of the very first order; and Mrs. Bell was
too ambitious, and so was Mr. Bell, not to make some endeavor to go a
little beyond any of their neighbors.

“I will go to this ball,” said I, and immediately confirmed my
determination by writing an acceptance. “I will go, I will rust no
longer. Why should I suffer myself to grow mouldy, and hide my light
under a bushel, when I might illume, perhaps dazzle, the gay world with
my brightness?” I said this, being in a particularly self-satisfied
mood, for that morning I had made one dollar, and had the money, the
hard specie, in my pocket. Any young man, who is beginning to make his
own living, will appreciate my self-satisfaction, for he well knows the
pleasure—how great it is—which is experienced from the first fruits of
his own exertion, however small they may be.

The ball was to take place in a week, and in the interim, wherever I
went, I heard nothing else talked of. Everybody was going—and everybody
was full of it. How glad was I that I had accepted! Everybody seemed
determined on making an impression, for everybody was planning and
arranging, and their lives, for that week, were bound up in the
ball—the ball was the end to which their whole present existence was
directed. Never since my childhood, on the occasion of an annual visit
to the theatre, had I looked forward to any thing with such delightful
anticipations as to this ball. What blessings did I not invoke upon the
united heads of Mrs. and Mr. Bell, as I heard of some new contrivance
for the pleasure of those who were to be their guests on this great
occasion. To think that I was going, was happiness enough. I am afraid I
did not pay so much attention as I ought to my business. I may have
neglected it, but I could not help it.

The week passed. The day of the ball came. The evening—almost the hour.
People were beginning to prepare themselves. Not more than time enough
remained for me to make my toilet. Many a lady was by this time fully
arrayed, and doubtless many a gentleman.

Then it was that I experienced one of those dreadful revulsions of
feeling, which no words can describe, and which only those who possess
an extraordinary share of moral courage can bear up under. If the sun
had gone out at noonday, I should not have been more overwhelmed; if I
had waked some morning, and found myself a husband and a father, I
should not have wondered more.

I had no clothes to wear!

The moment which brought me to the verge of an earthly Elysium, which
was to be introductory to an age of delights, had arrived, and not a
decent coat, not a passable pair of pants, not even a respectable pair
of boots. I might have known it all before. O fool! fool! I should have
wept if I had had any tears to shed; but I had none. My excess of
feeling was beyond tears. I sat down like one dumb and stricken. I had
clean shirts, and though they had often served me in good stead, they
would do me no good now. What could have possessed me, that, on this
occasion, when I needed it so much, I should have neglected to provide
myself with proper attire? I might as well be in Patagonia without any
clothes, as here with my shabby ones.

The clock struck nine. The ball must have begun; and I fancied the gay
music, the bright throng, and the sound of dancing feet, and almost
smiled as I fancied, the fancy was so pleasant. I tried to reason with
myself. Supposing I had not forgotten the clothes, how could I have paid
for a new suit, with but one dollar in my pocket? (I hadn’t earned a
cent since the day I received the invitation.) Oh! approved credit was
as good as money. I had been on tick before now, and might do so again.
It was no comfort to think what I might have done. What could be done
now? Buying was out of the question; all the money in the world could
not in a moment have procured me a new suit. Borrowing? That was out of
the question. Whose coats would fit me, and who was there to borrow
from? Everybody had gone—gone to the ball.

To the melancholy conclusions of my reasoning succeeded what would, in a
child, have been called a temper-fit; and it was no more or less in me.
I swore audibly. I wilfully, intentionally, and maliciously kicked over
a table, thereby doing serious detriment to its contents, for a glass
lamp being broken by the fall, they, together with the carpet, were
covered with a plentiful sprinkling of oil. I nearly put the fire out by
giving it a severe poking, broke a penknife by energetic use, and if
there had been a bell-rope, (I didn’t enjoy the luxury of a bell,) I
should have broken that.

Then came a calm; a calm which proceeded from a resolution I had
suddenly taken—to go, at any rate.

When Cinderella stood by the magnificent equipage which was to take her
to the king’s palace, she reflected upon the inconsistency of her mean
apparel, with the gorgeousness before her, and that she was about to
encounter. “What,” sighed she, “and must I go thither in these dirty,
nasty rags?” Scarcely had she spoken, when her godmother, who was a
fairy, touched her with her wand, and in an instant her rags were
changed into the most beautiful robes ever beheld by mortal woman.

No gilded chariot waited before me. I had no godmother, with one stroke
to put nap upon a thread-bare coat, and make worn-out boots new. There
was no magic to be employed upon me, but that of an unflinching spirit,
a brazen face, and the little that might be effected by brushes and Day
& Martin.

Having dressed with as much care as if I had been putting on regal
robes, I started to walk—no such extravagance as a carriage for
me—laying this flattering unction to my soul, that perhaps the hall
might not be very well lighted, and in the crowd I should escape
critical observation. I fortunately found a drygoods shop open, where I
stopped to purchase gloves. I paid that dollar for a pair of a light
straw color, and felt elegantly dressed when I had encased my left hand
in one; alas! the right hand glove, as right hand gloves often do, tore
when I gave it the final pull. This additional ill-luck did not trouble
me—my mind was steeled.

My hope of a twilight apartment was born, like all other hopes, “but to
fade and die.” When I entered, my eyes were blinded with the glare from
six dozen solar burners.

I will pass over my entree, my compliments to the hostess, to a corner
where I found myself ensconced, back to the wall with P., Mrs. Bell’s
cousin. Mrs. Bell was a charming woman, and her cousin P. was another,
and so was her cousin Mary. Three more charming cousins could not be
found, if you searched that numerous class of relations through. Cousin
P. was the woman I delighted in above all others, she had fascinated me
in my early youth, and I had maintained a sort of attachment, though
time had separated us, married her, and brought me into love with fifty
other cousins. I cannot tell how our conversation in the corner
commenced, but very soon, almost too soon to be natural, it turned upon
_dress_, and gentlemen’s dress in particular. I remarked that I
considered him a fool who said “clothes make the man.” It was no such
thing, the man makes the clothes. I cited instances of great geniuses
who were very slovenly in their dress. P. seemed much amused; perhaps
she thought I wanted to pass myself off for a genius. Heavens! my
attempt to look well dressed was too palpable. Being in rather a jocose
mood, I asked her how she liked my coat; and the smile with which she
replied assured me that she was not insensible to its shabbiness, and
saw all its defects as plainly as myself. So I made a clean breast of
it, and told her the whole story, and described in a graphic manner the
scene I had lately enacted at my room. She was delighted, and thought it
the best joke in the world, at the same time expressing a wish that I
should exhibit myself to the company. A waltz had just commenced, so
what could I do but waltz. P. and I took our places. I knew that the
attention of several people was attracted toward us, and two young
ladies were seen to exchange glances which said louder than words,
“Coat.”

It is astonishing how well navy officers always waltz, also ladies who
have been under their training. I liked to watch their short, quick
steps, taken with a precision and exactness truly enviable. But though I
had been accounted an indifferent waltzer, I now had something new to
teach them. I had a relative in Europe, and they had not, or if they
had, what use was he, since he made them no communications on the
subject of waltzing, my relative had lately sent me valuable advice upon
the subject. “Take very long steps,” wrote he, “and never lift your feet
from the floor. Slide along, but on no account jump.” These hints I had
acted on, though my opportunities for practice had been limited to an
occasional evening with a friend, or a few turns with some brother
companion, in the small circle of my own apartment. Now had my hour
arrived. I communicated my style to P.; and thank fortune she was not
unprepared for it. The three cousins were fresh from a visit to the
metropolis, where this change had already been adopted. Now we would
make a trial, with such brilliant music, and such a glorious smooth
spring-floor, who could fail? Down we swept, the whole length of the
hall, and all round it, not confining ourselves to the more contracted
circle with which the navy, and people in general were satisfied. Down,
up, round again—all eyes upon us, as we rounded our rapid way. My coat
did not look quite so shabby now. All the young ladies were breathless,
the navy stood aghast—they didn’t know what it meant. But how much
wider did their eyes open, and their mouths, too, when I took another
partner, cousin Mary, and repeated the performance. How can I express
their mingled wonder and indignation when I advanced with Mrs. Bell, for
a third waltz. What assurance in shabby-coat! But shabby-coat is not to
be daunted by trifles. Navy, stand back. They did stand back, and we had
the floor all to ourselves; for the few who had commenced to waltz soon
stopped, and fell back among the crowd of lookers-on. Shabby-coat and
Mrs. Bell were by this time half round. It was a tug—a tug, no other
word will express it. Mrs. Bell was more than slightly inclined to
embonpoint; but thanks to my strength of arm, I was able to sustain her.
Just as we passed the orchestra, I heard a young middy give an order to
the leader of the band, “Faster, faster.” Faster played the waltz, and
faster, faster waltzed shabby and Mrs. Bell. I was in good time, and
could not be got out of it. Our course was exciting—it was tremendous.
I look to nature for a comparison, and the great whirlpool on the coast
of Norway, roars with a mighty rushing sound in my ear. Shabby-coat had
done it. Shabby? It was no longer shabby, not even threadbare; a new nap
had extended over its surface, at least it seemed so to the eyes of
envying young ladies. What were my boots? Better than Hobb’s best. Coat,
boots, and all, were forgotten, to think only of the genius that could
achieve such wonders. No more glances of scorn, but glances of desire
from ladies, both married and single. The navy scowled malignantly, and
many a lieutenant, and many a middy thought of pistols and challenges. I
surveyed with a calm smile of satisfaction the revolution I had
accomplished. The navy was down, had become at once old-fashioned, and
several rather advanced belles boldly talked of their “minnikin diddling
steps.”

My triumph was not yet completed. Supper had to be gone through—and
such a supper. When I am bidden to a feast, I go and make the most of
it. So I did here, and found myself one of the lingerers who still have
another glass of champagne, and another glass of sherry to take before
the cravings of their stomachs will be satisfied. I was interrupted in
my discussion of another delicate bit of quail, by the music of a
Strauss waltz. I had engaged P. for the German Quadrille, and it was
soon to begin. I reeled down stairs into the dancing hall, and was
luckily enabled, by immense ocular exertion, to distinguish the tall
figure and blue head-dress of P., amid the blur of sizes and colors
which was before me. Soon was I at her side, and soon the dance began. I
followed my friend’s advice, to keep my heels to the floor and not jump;
but certainly never was so light a pair of heels kept down. It may have
been that the head they carried bore the same proportion to them as
corks do to feathers; sure it is, that winged Mercury never glided over
the earth with a lightness that surpassed mine, as I glided over that
ball-room floor. We waltzed several figures of the German Quadrille,
till we came to that one where a chair is placed in the centre of the
circle, in which each lady in turn sits, and has the opportunity of
refusing or accepting every gentleman in the set as a partner in a
waltz. It was here the crown was put upon my glory of that evening.
Every gentleman was refused but me, and by every lady too. The
unfortunate rejected ones stood in a long row behind the chair, while I,
shabby, was the only favored one. As for the real state of my dress and
appearance, it was as much worse as possible, than when I first entered
the hall and was sniffed at—for I had become very much heated by my
exertions; my hair was flying in every direction, and my dickey, which
in the earlier part of the evening had stood with a dignified erectness,
now hung wet and flabby, as when it dangled the previous Monday morning
from my washerwoman’s line.

Shall I tell of my dreams that night? I had none, for I slept too sound.
But on some future occasion I will relate how I became a great beau, and
how I waltzed with a foreign countess, and more than all about my new
clothes.

                                                                L. L.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                           THE SKATER’S SONG


    Away! on the glist’ning plain we go,
      With our steely feet so bright;
    Away! for the north winds keenly blow
      And winter’s out to-night.

    With the stirring shout of the joyous rout
      To the ice-bound stream we hie;
    On the river’s breast, where snow flakes rest,
      We’ll merrily onward fly!

    Our fires flame high; by their midnight glare
      We will wheel our way along;
    And the white woods dim, and the frosty air,
      Shall ring with the skater’s song.

    With a crew as bold as ever was told
      For the wild and daring deed,
    What can stay our flight by the fire’s red light,
      As we move with lightning speed.

    We heed not the blast who are flying as fast
      As deer o’er the Lapland snow;
    When the cold moon shines on snow-clad pines
      And wintry breezes blow.

    The cheerful hearth, in the hall of mirth,
      We have gladly left behind—
    For a thrilling song is borne along
      On the free and stormy wind.

    Our hearts beating warm—we’ll laugh at the storm
      When it comes in a fearful rage—
    “While with many a wheel on the ringing steel
      A riotous game we will wage.”

    By the starry light of a frosty night
      We trace our onward way;
    While on the ground with a splintering sound
      The frost goes forth at play.

    Then away! to the stream, in the moonlight’s beam,
      For the night it waneth fast,
    And the silent tread of the ghostly dead
      At the midnight hour hath passed.
                                              H. B. T.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                        THE ISLETS OF THE GULF;


                             OR, ROSE BUDD.


           Ay, now I am in Arden; the more fool
           I; when I was at home I was in a better place; but
           Travelers must be content.    AS YOU LIKE IT.

BY THE AUTHOR OF “PILOT,” “RED ROVER,” “TWO ADMIRALS,” “WING-AND-WING,”
                       “MILES WALLINGFORD,” &c.


    [Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by
    J. Fenimore Cooper, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court
    of the United States, for the Northern District of New York.]

                      (_Continued from page 192._)


                                PART VI.

                    At the piping of all hands,
                  When the judgment signal’s spread—
                    When the islands and the land,
                  And the seas give up their dead,
                And the south and the north shall come;
                    When the sinner is dismayed,
                      And the just man is afraid,
                    Then heaven be thy aid,
                        Poor Tom.
                                              BRAINARD.

The people had now a cessation from their toil. Of all the labor known
to sea-faring men, that of pumping is usually thought to be the most
severe. Those who work at it have to be relieved every minute, and it is
only by having gangs to succeed each other, that the duty can be done at
all with any thing like steadiness. In the present instance, it is true,
that the people of the Swash were sustained by the love of gold, but
glad enough were they when Mulford called out to them to “knock off, and
turn in for the night.” It was high time this summons should be made,
for not only were the people excessively wearied, but the customary
hours of labor were so far spent, that the light of the moon had some
time before begun to blend with the little left by the parting sun. Glad
enough were all hands to quit the toil; and two minutes were scarcely
elapsed ere most of the crew had thrown themselves down, and were buried
in deep sleep. Even Spike and Mulford took the rest they needed, the
cook alone being left to look out for the changes in the weather. In a
word, everybody but this idler was exhausted with pumping and bailing,
and even gold had lost its power to charm, until nature was recruited by
rest.

The excitement produced by the scenes through which they had so lately
passed, caused the females to sleep soundly, too. The death-like
stillness which pervaded the vessel contributed to their rest, and Rose
never woke, from the first few minutes after her head was on her pillow,
until near four in the morning. The deep quiet seemed ominous to one who
had so lately witnessed the calm which precedes the tornado, and she
arose. In that low latitude and warm season, few clothes were necessary,
and our heroine was on deck in a very few minutes. Here she found the
same grave-like sleep pervading every thing. There was not a breath of
air, and the ocean seemed to be in one of its profoundest slumbers. The
hard-breathing of Spike could be heard through the open windows of his
state-room, and this was positively the only sound that was audible. The
common men, who lay scattered about the decks, more especially from the
mainmast forward, seemed to be so many logs, and from Mulford no
breathing was heard.

The morning was neither very dark, nor very light, it being easy to
distinguish objects that were near, while those at a distance were
necessarily lost in obscurity. Availing herself of the circumstance,
Rose went as far as the gangway, to ascertain if the cook were at his
post. She saw him lying near his galley, in as profound a sleep as any
of the crew. This she felt to be wrong, and she felt alarmed, though she
knew not why. Perhaps it was the consciousness of being the only person
up and awake at that hour of deepest night, in a vessel so situated as
the Swash, and in a climate in which hurricanes seem to be the natural
offspring of the air. Some one must be aroused, and her tastes,
feelings, and judgment, all pointed to Harry Mulford as the person she
ought to awaken. He slept habitually in his clothes—the lightest summer
dress of the tropics; and the window of his little state-room was always
open for air. Moving lightly to the place, Rose laid her own little,
soft hand on the arm of the young man, when the latter was on his feet
in an instant. A single moment only was necessary to regain his
consciousness, when Mulford left the state-room and joined Rose on the
quarter-deck.

“Why am I called, Rose,” the young man asked, attempering his voice to
the calm that reigned around him; “and why am I called by _you_?”

Rose explained the state of the brig, and the feeling which induced her
to awaken him. With woman’s gentleness she now expressed her regret for
having robbed Harry of his rest; had she reflected a moment, she might
have kept watch herself, and allowed him to obtain the sleep he must
surely so much require.

But Mulford laughed at this; protested he had never been awoke at a more
favorable moment, and would have sworn, had it been proper, that a
minute’s further sleep would have been too much for him. After these
first explanations, Mulford walked round the decks, carefully felt how
much strain there was on the purchases, and rejoined Rose to report that
all was right, and that he did not consider it necessary to call even
the cook. The black was an idler in no sense but that of keeping watch,
and he had toiled the past day as much as any of the men, though it was
not exactly at the pumps.

A long and a semi-confidential conversation now occurred between Harry
and Rose. They talked of Spike, the brig, and her cargo, and of the
delusion of the captain’s widow. It was scarcely possible that powder
should be so much wanted at the Havanna as to render smuggling, at so
much cost, a profitable adventure; and Mulford admitted his convictions
that the pretended flour was originally intended for Mexico. Rose
related the tenor of the conversation she had overheard between the two
parties, Don Juan and Don Esteban, and the mate no longer doubted that
it was Spike’s intention to sell the brig to the enemy. She also alluded
to what had passed between herself and the stranger.

Mulford took this occasion to introduce the subject of Jack Tier’s
intimacy and favor with Rose. He even professed to feel some jealousy on
account of it, little as there might be to alarm most men in the rivalry
of such a competitor. Rose laughed, as girls will laugh when there is
question of their power over the other sex, and she fairly shook her
rich tresses as she declared her determination to continue to smile on
Jack, to the close of the voyage. Then, as if she had said more than she
intended, she added with woman’s generosity and tenderness,—

“After all, Harry, you know how much I promised to you even before we
sailed, and how much more since, and have no just cause to dread even
Jack. There is another reason, however, that ought to set your mind
entirely at ease on his account. Jack is married, and has a partner
living at this very moment, as he does not scruple to avow himself.”

A hissing noise, a bright light, and a slight explosion, interrupted the
half-laughing girl, and Mulford, turning on his heel, quick as thought,
saw that a rocket had shot into the air, from a point close under the
bows of the brig. He was still in the act of moving toward the
forecastle, when, at the distance of several leagues, he saw the
explosion of another rocket high in the air. He knew enough of the
practices of vessels of war, to feel certain that these were a signal
and its answer from some one in the service of government. Not at all
sorry to have the career of the Swash arrested, before she could pass
into hostile hands, or before evil could befall Rose, Mulford reached
the forecastle just in time to answer the inquiry that was immediately
put to him, in the way of a hail. A gig, pulling four oars only, with
two officers in its stern-sheets, was fairly under the vessel’s bows,
and the mate could almost distinguish the countenance of the officer who
questioned him, the instant he showed his head and shoulders above the
bulwarks.

“What vessels are these?” demanded the stranger, speaking in the
authoritative manner of one who acted for the state, but not speaking
much above the usual conversational tone.

“American and Spanish,” was the answer. “This brig is American—the
schooner alongside is a Spaniard, that turned turtle in a tornado, about
six-and-thirty hours since, and on which we have been hard at work
trying to raise her, since the gale which succeeded the tornado has
blown its pipe out.”

“Ay, ay, that’s the story, is it? I did not know what to make of you,
lying cheek by jowl, in this fashion. Was anybody lost on board the
schooner?”

“All hands, including every soul aft and forward, the supercargo
excepted, who happened to be aboard here. We buried seventeen bodies
this afternoon on the smallest of the Keys that you see near at hand,
and two this morning alongside of the light. But what boat is that, and
where are _you_ from, and whom are you signaling?”

“The boat is a gig,” answered the stranger, deliberately, “and she
belongs to a cruiser of Uncle Sam’s, that is off the reef, a short bit
to the eastward, and we signaled our captain. But I’ll come on board
you, sir, if you please.”

Mulford walked aft to meet the stranger at the gangway, and was
relieved, rather than otherwise, at finding that Spike was already on
the quarter-deck. Should the vessel of war seize the brig, he could
rejoice at it, but so strong were his professional ideas of duty to the
craft he sailed in, that he did not find it in his heart to say aught
against her. Were any mishap to befall it, or were justice to be done,
he preferred that it might be done under Spike’s own supervision, rather
than under his.

“Call all hands, Mr. Mulford,” said Spike, as they met. “I see a streak
of day coming yonder in the east—let all hands be called at once. What
strange boat is this we have alongside?”

This question was put to the strangers, Spike standing on his
gangway-ladder to ask it, while the mate was summoning the crew. The
officer saw that a new person was to be dealt with, and in his quiet,
easy way, he answered, while stretching out his hands to take the
man-rope—

“Your servant, sir—we are man-of-war’s men, belonging to one of Uncle
Sam’s craft, outside, and have just come in to pay you a visit of
ceremony. I told one, whom I suppose was your mate, that I would just
step on board of you.”

“Ay, ay—one at a time, if you please. It’s wartime, and I cannot suffer
armed boats’ crews to board me at night, without knowing something about
them. Come up yourself, if you please, but order your people to stay in
the boat. Here, muster about this gangway, half a dozen of you, and keep
an eye on the crew of this strange boat.”

These orders had no effect on the cool and deliberate lieutenant, who
ascended the brig’s side, and immediately stood on her deck. No sooner
had he and Spike confronted each other, than each gave a little start,
like that of recognition, and the lieutenant spoke.

“Ay, ay—I believe I know this vessel now. It is the Molly Swash, of New
York, bound to Key West, and a market; and I have the honor to see Capt.
Stephen Spike again.”

It was Mr. Wallace, the second lieutenant of the sloop-of-war that had
boarded the brig in the Mona Passage, and to avoid whom Spike had gone
to the southward of Jamaica. The meeting was very _mal-à-propos_, but it
would not do to betray that the captain and owner of the vessel thought
as much as this; on the contrary, Wallace was warmly welcomed, and
received, not only as an old acquaintance, but as a very agreeable
visiter. To have seen the two, as they walked aft together, one might
have supposed that the meeting was conducive of nothing but a very
mutual satisfaction, it was so much like that which happens between
those who keep up a hearty acquaintance.

“Well, I’m glad to see you again, Capt. Spike,” cried Wallace, after the
greetings were passed, “if it be only to ask where you flew to, the day
we left you in the Mona Passage? We look’d out for you with all our
eyes, expecting you would be down between San Domingo and Jamaica, but I
hardly think you got by us in the night. Our master thinks you must have
dove, and gone past loon-fashion. Do you ever perform that manœuvre?”

“No, we’ve kept above water the whole time, lieutenant,” answered Spike,
heartily; “and that is more than can be said of the poor fellow
alongside of us. I was so much afraid of the Isle of Pines, that I went
round Jamaica.”

“You might have given the Isle of Pines a berth, and still have passed
to the northward of the Englishmen,” said Wallace, a little drily.
“However, that island is somewhat of a scarecrow, and we have been to
take a look at it ourselves. All’s right there, just now. But you seem
light; what have you done with your flour?”

“Parted with every barrel of it. You may remember I was bound to Key
West, and a market. Well, I found my market here, in American waters.”

“You have been lucky, sir. This ‘emporium’ does not seem to be exactly a
_commercial_ emporium.”

“The fact is, the flour is intended for the Havanna; and I fancy it is
to be shipped for slavers. But I am to know nothing of all that, you’ll
understand, lieutenant. If I sell my flour in American waters, at two
prices, it’s no concern of mine what becomes of it a’terwards.”

“Unless it happen to pass into enemy’s hands, certainly not; and you are
too patriotic to deal with Mexico, just now, I’m sure. Pray, did that
flour go down when the schooner turned turtle?”

“Every barrel of it; but Don Wan, below there, thinks that most of it
may yet be saved, by landing it on one of those Keys to dry. Flour, well
packed, wets in slowly. You see we have some of it on deck.”

“And who may Don Wan be, sir, pray? We are sent here to look after Dons
and Donas, you know.”

“Don Wan is a Cuban merchant, and deals in such articles as he wants. I
fell in with him among the reefs here, where he was rummaging about in
hopes of meeting with a wrack, he tells me, and thinking to purchase
something profitable in that way; but finding I had flour, he agreed to
take it out of me at this anchorage, and send me away in ballast at
once. I have found Don Wan Montefalderon ready pay, and very honorable.”

Wallace then requested an explanation of the disaster, to the details of
which he listened with a sailor’s interest. He asked a great many
questions, all of which bore on the more nautical features of the event,
and day having now fairly appeared, he examined the purchases and
backings of the Swash with professional nicety. The schooner was no
lower in the water than when the men had knocked off work the previous
night; and Spike set the people at the pumps and their bailing again, as
the most effectual method of preventing their making any indiscreet
communications to the man-of-war’s men.

About this time the relict appeared on deck, when Spike gallantly
introduced the lieutenant anew to his passengers. It is true he knew no
name to use, but that was of little moment, as he called the officer
“the lieutenant,” and nothing else.

Mrs. Budd was delighted with this occasion to show-off, and she soon
broke out on the easy, indolent, but waggish Wallace, in a strain to
surprise him, notwithstanding the specimen of the lady’s skill from
which he had formerly escaped.

“Capt. Spike is of opinion, lieutenant, that our cast-anchor here is
excellent, and I know the value of a good cast-anchor place; for my poor
Mr. Budd was a sea-faring man, and taught me almost as much of your
noble profession as he knew himself.”

“And he taught you, ma’am,” said Wallace, fairly opening his eyes, under
the influence of astonishment, “to be very particular about cast-anchor
places!”

“Indeed he did. He used to say, that roads-instead were never as good,
for such purposes, as land that’s locked havens, for the anchors would
return home, as he called it, in roads-instead.”

“Yes, ma’am,” answered Wallace, looking very queer at first, as if
disposed to laugh outright, then catching a glance of Rose, and changing
his mind; “I perceive that Mr. Budd knew what he was about, and
preferred an anchorage, where he was well land-locked, and where there
was no danger of his anchors coming home, as so often happens in your
open roadsteads.”

“Yes, that’s just it! That was just his notion! You cannot feel how
delightful it is, Rose, to converse with one that thoroughly understands
such subjects! My poor Mr. Budd did, indeed, denounce roads-instead, at
all times calling them ‘savage.’”

“Savage, aunt,” put in Rose, hoping to stop the good relict by her own
interposition—“that is a strange word to apply to an anchorage!”

“Not at all, young lady,” said Wallace gravely. “They are often _wild_
berths, and wild berths are not essentially different from wild beasts.
Each is savage, as a matter of course.”

“I knew I was right!” exclaimed the widow. “Savage cast-anchors come of
wild births, as do savage Indians. Oh! the language of the ocean, as my
poor Mr. Budd used to say, is eloquence tempered by common sense!”

Wallace stared again, but his attention was called to other things, just
at that moment. The appearance of Don Juan Montefalderon y Castro on
deck, reminded him of his duty, and approaching that gentleman he
condoled with him on the grave loss he had sustained. After a few civil
expressions on both sides, Wallace made a delicate allusion to the
character of the schooner.

“Under other circumstances,” he said, “it might be my duty to inquire a
little particularly as to the nationality of your vessel, Señor, for we
are at war with the Mexicans, as you doubtless know.”

“Certainly,” answered Don Juan, with an unmoved air and great politeness
of manner, “though it would be out of my power to satisfy you. Every
thing was lost in the schooner, and I have not a paper of any sort to
show you. If it be your pleasure to make a prize of a vessel in this
situation, certainly it is in your power to do it. A few barrels of wet
flour are scarce worth disputing about.”

Wallace now seemed a little ashamed, the _sang froid_ of the other
throwing dust in his eyes, and he was in a hurry to change the subject.
Señor Don Juan was very civilly condoled with again, and he was made to
repeat the incidents of the loss, as if his auditor took a deep interest
in what he said, but no further hint was given touching the nationality
of the vessel. The lieutenant’s tact let him see that Señor
Montefalderon was a person of a very different calibre from Spike, as
well as of different habits, and he did not choose to indulge in the
quiet irony that formed so large an ingredient in his own character,
with this new acquaintance. He spoke Spanish himself with tolerable
fluency, and a conversation now occurred between the two, which was
maintained for some time with spirit and a very manifest courtesy.

This dialogue between Wallace and the Spaniard gave Spike a little
leisure for reflection. As the day advanced the cruiser came more and
more plainly in view, and his first business was to take a good survey
of her. She might have been three leagues distant, but approaching with
a very light breeze, at the rate of something less than two knots in the
hour. Unless there was some one on board her who was acquainted with the
channels of the Dry Tortugas, Spike felt little apprehension of the
ship’s getting very near to him; but he very well understood that, with
the sort of artillery that was in modern use among vessels of war, he
would hardly be safe could the cruiser get within a league. That near
Uncle Sam’s craft might certainly come without encountering the hazards
of the channels, and within that distance she would be likely to get in
the course of the morning, should he have the complaisance to wait for
her. He determined, therefore, not to be guilty of that act of folly.

All this time the business of lightening the schooner proceeded.
Although Mulford earnestly wished that the man-of-war might get an
accurate notion of the true character and objects of the brig, he could
not prevail on himself to become an informer. In order to avoid the
temptation so to do, he exerted himself in keeping the men at their
tasks, and never before had pumping and bailing been carried on with
more spirit. The schooner soon floated of herself, and the purchases
which led to the Swash were removed. Near a hundred more barrels of the
flour had been taken out of the hold of the Spanish craft, and had been
struck on the deck of the brig, or sent to the Key by means of the
boats. This made a material change in the buoyancy of the vessel, and
enabled the bailing to go on with greater facility. The pumps were never
idle, but two small streams of water were running the whole time toward
the scuppers, and through them into the sea.

At length the men were ordered to knock off, and to get their
breakfasts. This appeared to arouse Wallace, who had been chatting,
quite agreeably to himself, with Rose, and seemed reluctant to depart,
but who now became sensible that he was neglecting his duty. He called
away his boat’s crew, and took a civil leave of the passengers; after
which he went over the side. The gig was some little distance from the
Swash, when Wallace rose and asked to see Spike, with whom he had a word
to say at parting.

“I will soon return,” he said, “and bring you forty or fifty fresh men,
who will make light work with your wreck. I am certain our commander
will consent to my doing so, and will gladly send on board you two or
three boats’ crews.”

“If I let him,” muttered Spike between his teeth, “I shall be a poor,
miserable cast-anchor devil, that’s all.”

To Wallace, however, he expressed his hearty acknowledgments; begged him
not to be in a hurry, as the worst was now over, and the row was still a
long one. If he got back toward evening it would be all in good time.
Wallace waved his hand, and the gig glided away. As for Spike, he sat
down on the plank-sheer where he had stood, and remained there
ruminating intently for two or three minutes. When he descended to the
deck his mind was fully made up. His first act was to give some private
orders to the boatswain, after which he withdrew to the cabin, whither
he summoned Tier, without delay.

“Jack,” commenced the captain, using very little circumlocution in
opening his mind, “you and I are old shipmates, and ought to be old
friends, though I think your natur’ has undergone some changes since we
last met. Twenty years ago there was no man in the ship on whom I could
so certainly depend as on Jack Tier; now, you seem given up altogether
to the women. Your mind has changed even more than your body.”

“Time does that for all of us, Capt. Spike,” returned Tier coolly. “I
_am_ not what I used to be, I’ll own, nor are you yourself for that
matter. When I saw you last, noble captain, you were a handsome man of
forty, and could go aloft with any youngster in the brig; but, now,
you’re heavy, and not over active.”

“I!—Not a bit of change has taken place in me for the last thirty
years. I defy any man to show the contrary. But that’s neither here nor
there; you are no young woman, Jack, that I need be boasting of my
health and beauty before you. I want a bit of real sarvice from you, and
want it done in old-time’s fashion; and I mean to pay for it in
old-time’s fashion, too.”

As Spike concluded, he put into Tier’s hand one of the doubloons that he
had received from Señor Montefalderon, in payment for the powder. The
doubloons, for which so much pumping and bailing were then in process,
were still beneath the waters of the gulf.

“Ay, ay, sir,” returned Jack, smiling and pocketing the gold, with a
wink of the eye, and a knowing look; “this does resemble old times
sum’at. I now begin to know Capt. Spike, my old commander again, and see
that he’s more like himself than I had just thought him. What am I to do
for this, sir; speak plain, that I may be sartain to steer the true
course?”

“Oh, just a trifle, Jack—nothing that will break up the ground tier of
your wits, my old shipmate. You see the state of the brig, and know that
she is in no condition for ladies.”

“’Twould have been better all round, sir, had they never come aboard at
all,” answered Jack, looking dark.

Spike was surprised, but he was too much bent on his projects to heed
trifles.

“You know what sort of flour they’re whipping out of the schooner, and
must understand that the brig will soon be in a pretty litter. I do not
intend to let them send a single barrel of it beneath my hatches again,
but the deck and the islands must take it all. Now I wish to relieve my
passengers from the confinement this will occasion, and I have ordered
the boatswain to pitch a tent for them on the largest of these here
Tortugas; and what I want of you, is to muster food and water, and other
woman’s knickknacks, and go ashore with them, and make them as
comfortable as you can for a few days, or until we can get this schooner
loaded and off.”

Jack Tier looked at his commander as if he would penetrate his most
secret thoughts. A short pause succeeded, during which the steward’s
mate was intently musing, then his countenance suddenly brightened; he
gave the doubloon a fillip, and caught it on the palm of his hand as it
descended, and he uttered the customary “Ay, ay, sir,” with apparent
cheerfulness. Nothing more passed between these two worthies, who now
parted, Jack to make his arrangements, and Spike to “tell his yarn,” as
he termed the operation in his own mind, to Mrs. Budd, Rose, and Biddy.
The widow listened complacently, though she seemed half doubting, half
ready to comply. As for Rose, she received the proposal with
delight—the confinement of the vessel having become irksome to her. The
principal obstacle was in overcoming the difficulties made by the aunt,
Biddy appearing to like the notion quite as much as “Miss Rosy.” As for
the light-house, Mrs. Budd had declared nothing would induce her to go
there; for she did not doubt that the place would soon be, if it were
not already, haunted. In this opinion she was sustained by Biddy; and it
was the knowledge of this opinion that induced Spike to propose the
tent.

“Are you sure, Capt. Spike, it is not a desert island?” asked the widow;
“I remember that my poor Mr. Budd always spoke of desert islands as
horrid places, and spots that every one should avoid.”

“What if it is, aunty,” said Rose, eagerly, “while we have the brig
here, close at hand. We shall suffer none of the wants of such a place,
so long as our friends can supply us.”

“And _such_ friends, Miss Rose,” exclaimed Spike, a little sentimentally
for him, “friends that would undergo hunger and thirst themselves,
before you should want for any comforts.”

“Do, now, Madam Budd,” put in Biddy, in her hearty way, “it’s an island,
ye’ll remimber; and sure that’s just what ould Ireland has ever been,
God bless it! Islands make the pleasantest risidences.”

“Well, I’ll venture to oblige you and Biddy, Rosy, dear,” returned the
aunt, still half reluctant to yield; “but you’ll remember, that if I
find it at all a desert island, I’ll not pass the night on it on any
account whatever.”

With this understanding the party was transferred to the shore. The
boatswain had already erected a sort of a tent, on a favorable spot,
using some of the old sails that had covered the flour-barrels, not only
for the walls, but for a carpet of some extent also. This tent was
ingeniously enough contrived. In addition to the little room that was
entirely enclosed, there was a sort of piazza, or open verandah, which
would enable its tenants to enjoy the shade in the open air. Beneath
this verandah, a barrel of fresh water was placed, as well as three or
four ship’s stools, all of which had been sent ashore with the materials
for constructing the tent. The boat had been going and coming for some
time, and the distance being short, the “desert island” was soon a
desert no longer. It is true that the supplies necessary to support
three women for as many days, were no great matter, and were soon
landed, but Jack Tier had made a provision somewhat more ample. A
capital caterer, he had forgotten nothing within the compass of his
means, that could contribute to the comfort of those who had been put
especially under his care. Long before the people “knocked off” for
their dinners, the arrangements were completed, and the boatswain was
ready to take his leave.

“Well, ladies,” said that grum old salt, “I can do no more for you, as I
can see. This here island is now almost as comfortable as a ship that
has been in blue water for a month, and I don’t know how it can be made
more comfortabler.”

This was only according to the boatswain’s notion of comfort; but Rose
thanked him for his care in her winning way, while her aunt admitted
that, “for a place that was almost a desert island, things did look
somewhat promising.” In a few minutes the men were all gone, and the
islet was left to the sole possession of the three females, and their
constant companion, Jack Tier. Rose was pleased with the novelty of her
situation, though the islet certainly did deserve the opprobrium of
being a “desert island.” There was no shade but that of the tent, and
its verandah-like covering, though the last, in particular, was quite
extensive. There was no water, that in the barrel and that of the ocean
excepted. Of herbage there was a very little on this islet, and that was
of the most meagre and coarse character, being a long wiry grass, with
here and there a few stunted bushes. The sand was reasonably firm,
however, more especially round the shore, and the walking was far from
unpleasant. Little did Rose know it, but a week earlier, the spot would
have been next to intolerable to her, on account of the mosquitoes,
gallinippers, and other similar insects of the family of tormentors, but
every thing of the sort had temporarily disappeared in the currents of
the tornado. To do Spike justice, he was aware of this circumstance, or
he might have hesitated about exposing females to the ordinary
annoyances of one of these spots. Not a mosquito, or any thing of the
sort was left, however, all having gone to leeward, in the vortex which
had come so near sweeping off the Mexican schooner.

“This place will do very well, aunty, for a day or two,” cried Rose
cheerfully, as she returned from a short excursion, and threw aside her
hat, one made to shade her face from the sun of a warm climate, leaving
the sea-breeze, that was just beginning to blow, to fan her blooming and
sunny cheeks. “It is better than the brig. The worst piece of land is
better than the brig.”

“Do not say that, Rose—not if it’s a desert island, dear; and this is
desperately like a desert island; I am almost sorry I ventured on it.”

“It will not be deserted by us, aunty, until we shall see occasion to do
so. Why not endeavor to get on board of yonder ship, and return to New
York in _her_; or at least induce her captain to put us ashore somewhere
near this, and go home by land. Your health never seemed better than it
is at this moment; and as for mine, I do assure you, aunty, dear, I am
as perfectly well as I ever was in my life.”

“All from this voyage. I knew it would set you up, and am delighted to
hear you say as much. Biddy and I were talking of you this very morning,
my child, and we both agreed that you _were_ getting to be yourself
again. Oh, ships, and brigs, and schooners, full-jigger or half-jigger,
for pulmonary complaints, say I! My poor Mr. Budd always maintained that
the ocean was the cure for all diseases, and I determined that to sea
you should go, the moment I became alarmed for your health.”

The good widow loved Rose most tenderly, and she was obliged to use her
handkerchief to dry the tears from her eyes as she concluded. Those
tears sprung equally from a past feeling of apprehension, and a present
feeling of gratitude. Rose saw this, and she took a seat at her aunt’s
side, touched herself, as she never failed to be on similar occasions,
with this proof of her relative’s affection. At that moment even Harry
Mulford would have lost a good deal in her kind feelings toward him, had
he so much as smiled at one of the widow’s nautical absurdities. At such
times, Rose seemed to be her aunt’s guardian and protectress, instead of
reversing the relations, and she entirely forgot herself the many
reasons which existed for wishing that she had been placed in childhood,
under the care of one better qualified than the well-meaning relict of
her uncle, for the performance of her duties.

“Thank you, aunty—thank’ee, dear aunty,” said Rose, kissing the widow
affectionately. “I know that you mean the best for me, though you _are_
a little mistaken in supposing me ill. I do assure you, dear,” patting
her aunt’s cheek, as if she herself had been merely a playful child, “I
never was better; and if I _have_ been pulmonary, I am entirely cured,
and am now ready to return home.”

“God be praised for this, Rosy. Under _His_ divine providence, it is all
owing to the sea. If you really feel so much restored, however, I do not
wish to keep you a moment longer on a ship’s board than is necessary. We
owe something to Capt. Spike’s care, and cannot quit him too
unceremoniously; but as soon as he is at liberty to go into a harbor, I
will engage him to do so, and we can return home by land—unless,
indeed, the brig intends to make the home voyage herself.”

“I do not like this brig, aunty, and now we are out of her, I wish we
could keep out of her. Nor do I like your Capt. Spike, who seems to me
any thing but an agreeable gentleman.”

“That’s because you aren’t accustomed to the sea. My poor Mr. Budd had
_his_ ways, like all the rest of them; it takes time to get acquainted
with them. All sailors are so.”

Rose bent her face involuntarily, but so low as to conceal the
increasing brightness of her native bloom, as she answered,

“Harry Mulford is not so, aunty, dear—and he is every inch a sailor.”

“Well, there _is_ a difference, I must acknowledge, though I dare say
Harry will grow every day more and more like all the rest of them. In
the end, he will resemble Capt. Spike.”

“Never,” said Rose, firmly.

“You can’t tell, child. I never saw your uncle when he was Harry’s age,
for I wasn’t born till he was thirty, but often and often has he pointed
out to me some slender, genteel youth, and say, ‘just such a lad was I
at twenty,’ though nothing could be less alike, at the moment he was
speaking, than they two. We all change with our years. Now I was once as
slender, and almost—not quite, Rosy, for few there are that be—but
_almost_ as handsome as you yourself.”

“Yes, aunty, I’ve heard that before,” said Rose, springing up, in order
to change the discourse; “but Harry Mulford will never become like
Stephen Spike. I wish we had never known the man, dearest aunty.”

“It was all your own doings, child. He’s a cousin of your most intimate
friend, and she brought him to the house; and one couldn’t offend Mary
Mulford, by telling her we didn’t like her cousin.”

Rose seemed vexed, and she kept her little foot in motion, patting the
sail that formed the carpet, as girls will pat the ground with their
feet when vexed. This gleam of displeasure was soon over, however, and
her countenance became as placid as the clear, blue sky that formed the
vault of the heavens above her head. As if to atone for the passing
rebellion of her feelings, she threw her arms around her aunt’s neck;
after which she walked away, along the beach, ruminating on her present
situation, and of the best means of extricating their party from the
power of Spike.

It requires great familiarity with vessels and the seas, for one to
think, read, and pursue the customary train of reasoning on board a ship
that one has practiced ashore. Rose had felt this embarrassment during
the past month, for the whole of which time she had scarcely been in a
condition to act up to her true character, suffering her energies, and
in some measure, her faculties to be drawn into the vortex produced by
the bustle, novelties, and scenes of the vessel and the ocean. But, now
she was once more on the land, diminutive and naked as was the islet
that composed her present world, and she found leisure and solitude for
reflection and decision. She was not ignorant of the nature of a vessel
of war, or of the impropriety of unprotected females placing themselves
on board of one; but gentlemen of character, like the officers of the
ship in sight, could hardly be wanting in the feelings of their caste;
and any thing was better than to return voluntarily within the power of
Spike. She determined within her own mind that voluntarily she would
not. We shall leave this young girl, slowly wandering along the beach of
her islet, musing on matters like these, while we return to the vessels
and the mariners.

A good breeze had come in over the reef from the gulf, throwing the
sloop-of-war dead to leeward of the brigantine’s anchorage. This was the
reason that the former had closed so slowly. Still the distance between
the vessels was so small, that a swift cruiser, like the ship of war,
would soon have been alongside of the wreckers, but for the intervening
islets and the intricacies of their channels. She had made sail on the
wind, however, and was evidently disposed to come as near to the danger
as her lead showed would be safe, even if she did not venture among
them.

Spike noted all these movements, and he took his measures accordingly.
The pumping and bailing had been going on since the appearance of light,
and the flour had been quite half removed from the schooner’s hold. That
vessel consequently floated with sufficient buoyancy, and no further
anxiety was felt on account of her sinking. Still a great deal of water
remained in her, the cabin itself being nearly half full. Spike’s object
was to reduce this water sufficiently to enable him to descend into the
state-room which Señor Montefalderon had occupied, and bring away the
doubloons that alone kept him in the vicinity of so ticklish a neighbor
as the Poughkeepsie. Escape was easy enough to one who knew the passages
of the reef and islets; more especially since the wind had so
fortunately brought the cruiser to leeward. Spike most apprehended a
movement upon him in the boats, and he had almost made up his mind,
should such an enterprise be attempted, to try his hand in beating it
off with his guns. A good deal of uncertainty on the subject of
Mulford’s consenting to resist the recognized authorities of the
country, as well as some doubts of a similar nature in reference to two
or three of the best of the foremast hands, alone left him at all in
doubt as to the expediency of such a course. As no boats were lowered
from the cruiser, however, the necessity of resorting to so desperate a
measure did not occur, and the duty of lightening the schooner had
proceeded without interruption. As soon as the boatswain came off from
the islet, he and the men with him were directed to take the hands and
lift the anchors, of which it will be remembered the Swash had several
down. Even Mulford was shortly after set at work on the same duty; and
these expert and ready seamen soon had the brig clear of the ground. As
the schooner was anchored, and floated without assistance, the Swash
rode by her.

Such was the state of things when the men turned to, after having had
their dinners. By this time, the sloop-of-war was within half a league
of the bay, her progress having been materially retarded by the set of
the current, which was directly against her. Spike saw that a collision
of some sort or other must speedily occur, and he determined to take the
boatswain with him, and descend into the cabin of the schooner in quest
of the gold. The boatswain was summoned, and Señor Montefalderon
repeated in this man’s presence, the instructions that he thought it
necessary for the adventurers to follow, in order to secure the prize.
Knowing how little locks would avail on board a vessel, were the men
disposed to rob him, that gentleman had trusted more to secreting his
treasure, than to securing it in the more ordinary way. When the story
had again been told, Spike and his boatswain went on board the schooner,
and, undressing, they prepared to descend into the cabin. The captain
paused a single instant to take a look at the sloop-of-war, and to
examine the state of the weather. It is probable some new impression was
made on him by this inquiry, for, hailing Mulford, he ordered him to
loosen the sails, and to sheet home, and hoist the foretopsail. In a
word, to “see all ready to cast off, and make sail on the brig at the
shortest notice.” With this command he disappeared by the schooner’s
companion-way.

Spike and his companion found the water in the cabin very much deeper
than they had supposed. With a view to comfort, the cabin-floor had been
sunk much lower than is usual on board American vessels, and this
brought the water up nearly to the arm-pits of two men as short as our
captain and his sturdy little boatswain. The former grumbled a good
deal, when he ascertained the fact, and said something about the mate’s
being better fitted to make a search in such a place, but concluding
with the remark, that “the man who wants ticklish duty well done, must
see to it himself.”

The gold-hunters groped their way cautiously about the cabin for some
time, feeling for a drawer, in which they had been told they should find
the key of Señor Montefalderon’s state-room door. In this Spike himself
finally succeeded, he being much better acquainted with cabins and their
fixtures, than the boatswain.

“Here it is, Ben,” said the captain, “now for a dive among the Don’s
val’ables. Should you pick up any thing worth speaking of, you can
condemn it for salvage, as I mean to cast off, and quit the wrack the
moment we’ve made sure of the doubloons.”

“And what will become of all the black flour that is lying about, sir?”
asked the boatswain with a grin.

“It may take care of itself. My agreement will be up as soon as the
doubloons are found. If the Don will come down handsomely with his share
of what will be left, I may be bought to put the kegs we have in the
brig ashore for him somewhere in Mexico; but my wish is to get out of
the neighborhood of that bloody sloop-of-war, as soon as possible.”

“She makes but slow headway ag’in the current, sir; but a body would
think she might send in her boats.”

“The boats might be glad to get back again,” muttered Spike. “Ay, here
is the door unlocked, and we can now fish for the money.”

Some object had rolled against the state-room door, when the vessel was
capsized, and there was a good deal of difficulty in forcing it open.
They succeeded at last, and Spike led the way by wading into the small
apartment. Here they began to feel about beneath the water, and by a
very insufficient light, in quest of the hidden treasure. Spike and his
boatswain differed as to the place which had just been described to
them, as men will differ even in the account of events that pass
directly before their eyes. While thus employed, the report of a heavy
gun came through the doors of the cabin, penetrating to the recess in
which they were thus employed.

“Ay, that’s the beginning of it!” exclaimed Spike. “I wonder that the
fool has put it off so long.”

“That gun was a heavy fellow, Capt. Spike,” returned the boatswain; “and
it sounded in my ears as if ’twas shotted.”

“Ay, ay, I dare say you’re right enough in both opinions. They put such
guns on board their sloops-of-war, now-a-days, as a fellow used to find
in the lower batteries of a two-decker only in old times; and as for
shot, why Uncle Sam pays, and they think it cheaper to fire one out of a
gun, than to take the trouble of drawing it.”

“I believe here’s one of the bags, Capt. Spike,” said the boatswain,
making a dip, and coming up with one-half of the desired treasure in his
fist. “By George, I’ve grabbed him, sir; and the other bag can’t be far
off.”

“Hand that over to me,” said the captain, a little authoritatively, “and
take a dive for the next.”

As the boatswain was obeying this order, a second gun was heard, and
Spike thought that the noise made by the near passage of a large shot
was audible also. He called out to Ben to “bear a hand, as the ship
seems in ’arnest.” But the head of the boatswain being under water at
the time, the admonition was thrown away. The fellow soon came up,
however, puffing like a porpoise that has risen to the surface to blow.

“Hand it over to me at once,” said Spike, stretching out his unoccupied
hand to receive the prize; “we have little time to lose.”

“That’s sooner said than done, sir,” answered the boatswain, “a box has
driven down upon the bag, and there’s a tight jam. I got hold of the
neck of the bag, and pulled like a horse, but it wouldn’t come no how.”

“Show me the place, and let me have a drag at it. There goes another of
his bloody guns!”

Down went Spike, and the length of time he was under water, proved how
much he was in earnest. Up he came at length, and with no better luck
than his companion. He had got hold of the bag, satisfied himself by
feeling its outside that it contained the doubloons, and hauled with all
his strength, but it would not come. The boatswain now proposed to take
a jamming hitch with a rope around the neck of the bag, which was long
enough to admit of such a fastening, and then to apply their united
force. Spike assented, and the boatswain rummaged about for a piece of
small rope to suit his purpose. At this moment Mulford appeared at the
companion-way to announce the movements on the part of the sloop-of-war.
He had been purposely tardy, in order to give the ship as much time as
possible; but he saw by the looks of the men that a longer delay might
excite suspicion.

“Below there,” called out the mate.

“What’s wanting, sir?—what’s wanting, sir?” answered Spike; “let’s know
at once.”

“Have you heard the guns, Capt. Spike?”

“Ay, ay, every grumbler of them. They’ve done no mischief, I trust, Mr.
Mulford?”

“None as yet, sir; though the last shot, and it was a heavy fellow,
passed just above the schooner’s deck. I’ve the topsail sheeted home and
hoisted, and it’s that which has set them at work. If I clewed up again,
I dare say they’d not fire another gun.”

“Clew up nothing, sir, but see all clear for casting off and making sail
through the South Pass. What do you say, Ben, are you ready for a drag?”

“All ready, sir,” answered the boatswain, once more coming up to
breathe. “Now for it, sir; a steady pull, and a pull all together.”

They _did_ pull, but the hitch slipped, and both went down beneath the
water. In a moment they were up again, puffing a little, and swearing a
great deal. Just then another gun, and a clatter above their heads,
brought them to a stand.

“What means that, Mr. Mulford?” demanded Spike, a good deal startled.

“It means that the sloop-of-war has shot away the head of this
schooner’s foremast, sir, and that the shot has chipp’d a small piece
out of the heel of our maintop-mast—that’s all.”

Though excessively provoked at the mate’s cool manner of replying, Spike
saw that he might lose all by being too tenacious about securing the
remainder of the doubloons. Pronouncing in very energetic terms on Uncle
Sam, and all his cruisers, an anathema that we do not care to repeat, he
gave a surly order to Ben to “knock-off,” and abandoned his late design.
In a minute he was on deck and dressed.

“Cast off, lads,” cried the captain, as soon as on the deck of his own
brig again, “and four of you man that boat. We have got half of your
treasure, Señor Wan, but have been driven from the rest of it, as you
see. There is the bag; when at leisure we’ll divide it, and give the
people their share. Mr. Mulford, keep the brig in motion, hauling up
toward the South Pass, while I go ashore for the ladies. I’ll meet you
just in the throat of the passage.”

This said, Spike tumbled into his boat, and was pulled ashore. As for
Mulford, though he cast many an anxious glance toward the islet, he
obeyed his orders, keeping the brig standing off and on, under easy
canvas, but working her up toward the indicated passage.

Spike was met by Jack Tier on the beach of the little island.

“Muster the women at once,” ordered the captain, “we have no time to
lose, for that fellow will soon be firing broadsides, and his shot now
range half a mile beyond us.”

“You’ll no more move the widow and her maid, than you’ll move the
island,” answered Jack, laconically.

“Why should I not move them? Do they wish to stay here and starve?”

“It’s little that they think of _that_. The sloop-of-war no sooner begun
to fire than down went Mrs. Budd on the canvas floor of the tent, and
set up just such a screaming as you may remember she tried her hand at
the night the revenue craft fired into us. Biddy lay down alongside of
her mistress, and at every gun, they just scream as loud as they can, as
if they fancied they might frighten off Uncle Sam’s men from their
duty.”

“Duty!—You little scamp, do you call tormenting honest traders in this
fashion the duty of any man?”

“Well, captain, I’m no ways partic’lar about a word or two. Their
‘ways,’ if you like that better than duty, sir.”

“Where’s Rose? Is she down too, screaming and squalling?”

“No, Capt. Spike, no. Miss Rose is endeavoring, like a handsome young
Christian lady as she is, to pacify and mollify her aunt and Biddy; and
right down sensible talk does she give them.”

“Then she at least can go aboard the brig,” exclaimed Spike, with a
sudden animation, and an expression of countenance that Jack did not at
all like.

“I _ray-y-ther_ think she’ll wish to hold on to the old lady,” observed
the steward’s-mate, a little emphatically.

“You be d—d,” cried Spike, fiercely; “when your opinion is wanted, I’ll
ask for it. If I find you’ve been setting that young woman’s mind ag’in
me, I’ll toss you overboard, as I would the offals of a shark.”

“Young women’s minds, when they are only nineteen, get set ag’in boys of
fifty-six without much assistance.”

“Fifty-six yourself.”

“I’m fifty-three—that I’ll own without making faces at it,” returned
Jack, meekly; “and, Stephen Spike, you logged fifty-six your last
birthday, or a false entry was made.”

This conversation did not take place in the presence of the boat’s crew,
but as the two walked together toward the tent. They were now in the
verandah, as we have called the shaded opening in front, and actually
within sound of the sweet voice of Rose, as she exhorted her aunt, in
tones a little louder than usual for her to use, to manifest more
fortitude. Under such circumstances Spike did not deem it expedient to
utter that which was uppermost in his mind, but, turning short upon
Tier, he directed a tremendous blow directly between his eyes. Jack saw
the danger and dodged, falling backward to avoid a concussion which he
knew would otherwise be fearful, coming as it would from one of the best
forecastle boxers of his time. The full force of the blow _was_ avoided,
though Jack got enough of it to knock him down, and to give him a pair
of black eyes. Spike did not stop to pick the assistant steward up, for
another gun was fired at that very instant, and Mrs. Budd and Biddy
renewed their screams. Instead of pausing to kick the prostrate Tier, as
had just before been his intention, the captain entered the tent.

A scene that was sufficiently absurd met the view of Spike, when he
found himself in the presence of the females. The widow had thrown
herself on the ground, and was grasping the cloth of the sail on which
the tent had been erected with both her hands, and was screaming at the
top of her voice. Biddy’s imitation was not exactly literal, for she had
taken a comfortable seat at the side of her mistress, but in the way of
cries, she rather outdid her principal.

“We must be off,” cried Spike, somewhat unceremoniously. “The man-of-war
is blazing away, as if she was a firin’ minute-guns over our
destruction, and I can wait no longer.”

“I’ll not stir,” answered the widow—“I can’t stir—I shall be shot if I
go out. No, no, no—I’ll not stir an inch.”

“We’ll be kilt!—we’ll be kilt!” echoed Biddy, “and a wicket murther
’twill be in that same man, war or no war.”

The captain perceived the uselessness of remonstrance at such a moment,
and perhaps he was secretly rejoiced thereat; but it is certain that he
whipped Rose up under his arm, and walked away with her, as if she had
been a child of two or three years of age. Rose did not scream, but she
struggled and protested vehemently. It was in vain. Already the captain
had carried her half the distance between the tent and the boat, in the
last of which, a minute more would have deposited his victim, when a
severe blow on the back of his head caused Spike to stumble, and he
permitted Rose to escape from his grasp, in the effort to save himself
from a fall. Turning fiercely toward his assailant, whom he suspected to
be one of his boat’s crew, he saw Tier standing within a few yards,
leveling a pistol at him.

“Advance a step, and you’re a dead man, villain!” screamed Jack, his
voice almost cracked with rage, and the effort he made to menace.

Spike muttered an oath too revolting for our pages; but it was such a
curse as none but an old salt could give vent to, and that in the
bitterness of his fiercest wrath. At that critical moment, while Rose
was swelling with indignation and wounded maiden pride, almost within
reach of his arms, looking more lovely than ever, as the flush of anger
deepened the color in her cheeks, a fresh and deep report from one of
the guns of the sloop-of-war drew all eyes in her direction. The
belching of that gun seemed to be of double the power of those which had
preceded it, and jets of water, that were twenty feet in height, marked
the course of the formidable missile that was projected from the piece.
The ship had, indeed, discharged one of those monster-cannons that bear
the name of a distinguished French engineer, but which should more
properly be called by the name of the ingenious officer who is at the
head of our own ordnance, as they came originally from his inventive
faculties, though somewhat improved by their European adopter. Spike
suspected the truth, for he had heard of these “Pazans,” as he called
them, and he watched the booming, leaping progress of the eight-inch
shell that this gun threw, with the apprehension that unknown danger is
apt to excite. As jet succeeded jet, each rising nearer and nearer to
his brig, the interval of time between them seeming fearfully to
diminish, he muttered oath upon oath. The last leap that the shell made
on the water was at about a quarter of a mile’s distance of the islet on
which his people had deposited at least a hundred and fifty barrels of
his spurious flour, thence it flew, as it might be without an effort,
with a grand and stately bound into the very centre of the barrels,
exploding at the moment it struck. All saw the scattering of flour,
which was instantly succeeded by the heavy though slightly straggling
explosion of all the powder on the island. A hundred kegs were lighted,
as it might be, in a common flash, and a cloud of white smoke poured out
and concealed the whole islet, and all near it.

Rose stood confounded, nor was Jack Tier in a much better state of mind,
though he still kept the pistol leveled, and menaced Spike. But the last
was no longer dangerous to any there. He recollected that piles of the
barrels encumbered the decks of his vessel, and he rushed to the boat,
nearly frantic with haste, ordering the men to pull for their lives. In
less than five minutes he was alongside, and on the deck of the
Swash—his first order being to—“Tumble every barrel of this bloody
powder into the sea, men. Over with it, Mr. Mulford, clear away the
midship ports, and launch as much as you can through them.”

Remonstrance on the part of Señor Montefalderon would have been useless,
had he been disposed to make it; but, sooth to say, he was as ready to
get rid of the powder as any there, after the specimen he had just
witnessed of the power of a Paixhan gun.

Thus it is ever with men. Had two or three of those shells been first
thrown without effect, as might very well have happened under the
circumstances, none there would have cared for the risk they were
running; but the chance explosion which had occurred, presented so vivid
a picture of the danger, dormant and remote as it really was, as to
throw the entire crew of the Swash into a frenzy of exertion.

Nor was the vessel at all free from danger. On the contrary, she ran
very serious risk of being destroyed, and in some degree, in the very
manner apprehended. Perceiving that Spike was luffing up through one of
the passages nearest the reef, which would carry him clear of the group,
a long distance to windward of the point where he could only effect the
same object, the commander of the sloop-of-war opened his fire in good
earnest, hoping to shoot away something material on board the Swash,
before she could get beyond the reach of his shot. The courses steered
by the two vessels, just at that moment, favored such an attempt, though
they made it necessarily very short lived. While the Swash was near the
wind, the sloop-of-war was obliged to run off to avoid islets ahead of
her, a circumstance which, while it brought the brig square with the
ship’s broadside, compelled the latter to steer on a diverging line to
the course of her chase. It was in consequence of these facts, that the
sloop-of-war now opened in earnest and was soon canopied in the smoke of
her own fire.

Great and important changes, as has been already mentioned, have been
made in the armaments of all the smaller cruisers within the last few
years. Half a generation since, a ship of the rate—we do not say of the
_size_—of the vessel which was in chase of Spike and his craft, would
not have had it in her power to molest an enemy at the distance these
two vessels were now apart. But recent improvements have made ships of
this nominal force formidable at nearly a league’s distance; more
especially by means of their Paixhans and their shells.

For some little time the range carried the shot directly over the islet
of the tent, Jack Tier and Rose, both of whom were watching all that
passed with intense interest, standing in the open air the whole time,
seemingly with no concern for themselves, so absorbed was each,
notwithstanding all that had passed, in the safety of the brig. As for
Rose, she thought only of Harry Mulford, and of the danger he was in by
those fearful explosions of the shells. Her quick intellect comprehended
the peculiar nature of the risk that was incurred by having the
flour-barrels on deck, and she could not but see the manner in which
Spike and his men were tumbling them into the water, as the quickest
manner of getting rid of them. After what had just passed between Jack
Tier and his commander, it might not be so easy to account for his
manifest, nay, intense interest in the escape of the Swash. This was
apparent by his troubled countenance, by his exclamations, and
occasionally by his openly expressed wishes for her safety. Perhaps it
was no more than the interest the seaman is so apt to feel in the craft
in which he has long sailed, and which to him has been a home, and of
which Mulford exhibited so much, in his struggles between feeling and
conscience—between a true and a false duty.

As for Spike and his people, we have already mentioned their efforts to
get rid of the powder. Shell after shell exploded, though none very near
the brig, the ship working her guns as if in action. At length the
officers of the sloop-of-war detected a source of error in their aim,
that is of very common occurrence in sea-gunnery. Their shot had been
thrown to _ricochet_, quartering a low, but very regular succession of
little waves. Each shot striking the water at an acute angle to its
agitated surface, was deflected from a straight line, and described a
regular curve toward the end of its career; or, it might be truer to
say, an _irregular_ curvature, for the deflection increased as the
momentum of the missile diminished.

No sooner did the commanding officer of the sloop-of-war discover this
fact, and it was easy to trace the course of the shots by the jets of
water they cast into the air, and to see as well as to hear the
explosions of the shells, than he ordered the guns pointed more to
windward, as a means of counteracting the departure from the straight
lines. This expedient succeeded in part, the solid shot falling much
nearer to the brig the moment the practice was resorted to. No shell was
fired for some little time after the new order was issued, and Spike and
his people began to hope these terrific missiles had ceased their
annoyance. The men cheered, finding their voices for the first time
since the danger had seemed so imminent, and Spike was heard animating
them to their duty. As for Mulford, he was on the coach-house deck,
working the brig, the captain having confided to him that delicate duty,
the highest proof he could furnish of confidence in his seamanship. The
handsome young mate had just made a half-board, in the neatest manner,
shoving the brig by its means through a most difficult part of the
passage, and had got her handsomely filled again on the same tack,
looking right out into open water, by a channel through which she could
now stand on a very easy bowline. Every thing seemed propitious, and the
sloop-of-war’s solid shot began to drop into the water, a hundred yards
short of the brig. In this state of things one of the Paixhans belched
forth its angry flame and sullen roar again. There was no mistaking the
gun. Then came its mass of iron, a globe that would have weighed just
sixty-eight pounds, had not sufficient metal been left out of its
interior to leave a cavity to contain a single pound of powder. Its
course, as usual, was to be marked by its path along the sea, as it
bounded half a mile at a time, from wave to wave. Spike saw by its
undeviating course that this shell was booming terrifically toward his
brig, and a cry to “look out for the shell,” caused the work to be
suspended. That shell struck the water for the last time, within two
hundred yards of the brig, rose dark and menacing in its furious leap,
but exploded at the next instant. The fragments of the iron were
scattered on each side, and ahead. Of the last, three or four fell into
the water so near the vessel as to cast their spray on her decks.

“Overboard with the rest of the powder!” shouted Spike. “Keep the brig
off a little, Mr. Mulford—keep her off, sir; you luff too much, sir.”

“Ay, ay, sir,” answered the mate. “Keep her off, it is.”

“There comes the other shell!” cried Ben, but the men did not quit their
toil to gaze this time. Each seaman worked as if life and death depended
on his single exertions. Spike alone watched the course of the missile.
On it came, booming and hurtling through the air, tossing high the jets,
at each leap it made from the surface, striking the water for its last
bound, seemingly in a line with the shell that had just preceded it.
From that spot it made its final leap. Every hand in the brig was stayed
and every eye was raised as the rushing tempest was heard advancing. The
mass went muttering directly between the masts of the Swash. It had
scarcely seemed to go by when the fierce flash of fire and the sharp
explosion followed. Happily for those in the brig, the projectile force
given by the gun carried the fragments from them, as in the other
instance it had brought them forward; else would few have escaped
mutilation, or death, among their crew.

The flashing of fire so near the barrels of powder that still remained
on their deck, caused the frantic efforts to be renewed, and barrel
after barrel was tumbled overboard, amid the shouts that were now raised
to animate the people to their duty.

“Luff, Mr. Mulford—luff you may, sir,” cried Spike.

No answer was given.

“D’ye hear there, Mr. Mulford?—it is luff you may, sir.”

“Mr. Mulford is not aft, sir,” called out the man at the helm—“but luff
it is, sir.”

“Mr. Mulford not aft! Where’s the mate, man? Tell him he is wanted.”

No Mulford was to be found! A call passed round the decks, was sent
below, and echoed through the entire brig, but no sign or tidings could
be had of the handsome mate. At that exciting moment the sloop-of-war
seemed to cease her firing, and appeared to be securing her guns.

                                                  [_To be continued._

                 *        *        *        *        *



                            LOVE UNREQUITED.


                            BY ALICE G. LEE.


                       A sister’s quiet love
                         Stirs my heart for thee,
                       Ask me for none other,
                         For it paineth me.
                              SCHILLER’S BALLADS.

    I can but listen to thy words in sorrow—
      Words that are poured from a full, bursting heart.
    Thou couldst not thus the form of passion borrow;
      I know thou dost not act a studied part.
    For even now thine eyes, so true and earnest,
      Are seeking mine with such a pleading look;
    And as that searching gaze on me thou turnest,
      I know that falsehood thou couldst never brook.

    Yet I could almost wish deceit were dwelling
      Within the soul laid bare before me now,
    That false, false words within thy breast were swelling,
      That I might read it on thy pallid brow.
    Or rather, that thou deemedst true and stainless
      The vows that have just trembled to mine ear;
    If then thy love could pass away all painless,
      And leave thee much of hope for gloomy fear.

    I did not dream that love so high and holy
      Was nursed so long in silence; and for me!
    My heart is far too humble, far too lowly,
      To think that such a passion e’er could be.
    I read within thine eyes the calm affection
      A brother feels for one who, wild and weak,
    Looks up to a strong arm for kind protection;
      No other language did they seem to speak.

    And when my hand was warmly grasped at meeting,
      An answering pressure to thine own it gave.
    I did not mark thy pulse was wildly beating;
      _How could I_ think from hopeless love to save?
    And till I met this eve thy look so thrilling,
      My spirit had not been by sorrow stirred;
    But now with tears my heavy eyes are filling,
      Tears, for the hopes which I this hour have heard.

    For all the dreams thy soul so long hath cherished,
      ’Tis mine to bid them vanish at a sound,
    —Would, rather, that my own high hopes had perished!
      The spell of love not yet my heart has bound,
    And ’twould be sin to claim thy high devotion,
      When I could not return one half its worth;
    For calmest friendship is the sole emotion
      That for thee, brother! in that heart hath birth.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                                AUTUMN.


[PRIZE POEM—for which the Premium of $150 was awarded by the Committee.]


                            BY JESSE E. DOW.


             ————————For him the hand
             Of Autumn tinges every fertile branch
             With blooming gold and blushes like the morn.
                                                 AKENSIDE.

  Season of fading glory! Oh how sad,
  When through the woodland moans thy fitful gale,
  Shaking the ripen’d nuts from loftiest bough,
  And down the forest side and sylvan road
  Whirling the yellow leaves with rustling sound.

  Mountain and vale, and mead, and pasture wild,
  Have quickly changed their robes of deepest green;
  The summer flowers are withered, save a few
  Pale tremblers by the sunny cottage door,
  That linger, relics of the roseate band,
  Till icy winter, wandering from the pole,
  Sings their sad death-song on the snowy hills.
  Though not a cloud appears to fleck the sky,
  The sun at evening shines with tempered heat,
  The solitary flicker bores the tree—
  The carpenter of birds; and in the path,
  The deadly rattlesnake, with flattened head,
  And tongue of crimson darting from his mouth,
  Watches the idle bird that marks his form,
  Till the charmed victim, with affrighted cries,
  Drops on his fangs, the vile seducer’s prey.

  The hunter takes his way amid the woods,
  Or by the ocean side, when far away
  The wave that roll’d upon the beach has gone,
  To lave a thousand isles of beauty ere
  It breaks again in thunder on that shore.
  The well-trained setter through the covert seeks
  The bird the sportsman’s fancy prizes o’er
  The feathered songsters of the woodland wild;
  The covey starts, and soon the murd’rous aim
  Brings down the plover, or the woodcock dun,
  Or mottled pheasant, that puts trust in man,
  And finds, as all have found, the trust abused.
  On the brown stump the sprightly squirrel sits,
  Filling his striped pouch with ripened grain,
  While in the thicket near the rabbit glides,
  And as his foot falls on the withered leaves,
  A rustling sound in the dim woods is heard,
  Rousing the chewitt and the piping jay,
  And startling from the dead pines naked top,
  With hoarsest cry, the reconnoitering crow.

  The meadow-lark, with yellow breast, alights
  On the old field, and sings her favorite strain—
  A clear harmonious song. The Hunter Boy—
  A little urchin stealing by his side,
  With freckled face, lit up with roguish smiles,
  And eyes that twinkled perfect gems of fun—
  Armed with an ancient musket, that did speak
  The voice of death on wars victorious fields,
  Creeps down the garden wall and nears her seat,
  Then, casting down his flopping hat of straw,
  Rests fearless o’er his trembling playmate’s back,
  Takes deadly aim, and shuts both eyes, and fires!
  Loud ring the hills, and vales, and plains around,
  The border grove is filled with sulphurous smoke,
  The cat-bird cries “for shame!” and darts away
  Before her leafy resting-place is seen;
  And when the cloud of death has floated on,
  The victim bird is found a gory thing,
  While the proud hero of this manly sport,
  Struts down the lane like Cæsar entering Rome.
  The patient Angler threads the winding brook,
  Tempting the dainty trout with gilded bait;
  And ever and anon, as fleecy clouds
  Pass o’er the sun, the fish voracious darts
  From the cool shadows of some mossy bank,
  Swallows the bait with one convulsive act,
  And learns too late that death was at the feast;
  While the glad sportsman feels the sudden jerk,
  And plays his victim with extended line,
  Swiftly he darts, and through the glittering rings
  The silken line is drawn with ringing sound,
  Till wearied out with struggling that but serves
  To drive the barbed weapon deeper still,
  He seeks his quiet shelter ’neath the bank,
  And thence in triumph to the shore is borne,
  A prize that well rewards a day of toil.

  Along the hills the school-boy flies his kite,
  Shoots the smooth marble o’er the studded ring,
  Or o’er the commons with a bound and shout,
  Beats the soft ball for one well skilled to catch.
  Health crowns the joyful exercise, and night
  Finds its tired votaries trained for quiet sleep.

  Bearing his hazel wand of curious form,
  The searcher after earth’s deep spring goes forth,
  Handling his mystic prongs as Merlin taught,
  Or later follower of the magic school.
  Now over hill-tops, stony as the mounds
  The Indian warriors raise above their slain,
  Then down in valleys, where the sun ne’er shines,
  Fringed round with sylvan borders dense and rank,
  He trudges, looking wiser than the one
  Who passes o’er the busy brain his hand,
  And wraps the senses in a sleep profound.
  At length, above a vale where willows bend,
  And grass grows greenest in the waning year,
  His curious tell-tale turns toward the earth;
  He stops, and with a shout of joy proclaims
  The long sought spot where living water runs,
  And where the well may sink, nor sink in vain.

  The forest now awakes, while stroke on stroke
  Falls on the hoary monarch of the wood,
  Now shaking ’mid the scions that have towered
  Beneath its shade for years. At length it falls,
  And with terrific crash, bears down to earth
  Each minor object that obstructs its way—
  Down on the verdant carpet that has spread
  Beneath its branches in the summer heat,
  Behold it lying like a warrior stern,
  Who, having grappled in the deadly fray,
  Has sank amid his fellows in his pride—
  But not to die, tho’ robbed of all its green,
  Still shall it in the lofty steeple live,
  Or in the battle-ship, whose thunder speaks
  The voice of freedom on her ocean way.
  The sail that wafts the admiral in his pride,
  By it is held to catch the willing gale,
  And on its giant breast the fabric rests,
  That bears the sturdy warriors of the deep,
  And floats them on in sunshine and in storm.
  Its branches to the cottage-hearth are given,
  And by the fire that feeds and grows on them
  The chilly air is changed to breath of spring.
  Food, shelter, comfort, from its fall proceed,
  And thousands bless the hand that laid thee low.

  Above the purple peaks that fringe the west
  The swollen clouds obey the tempest’s call,
  And rear their domes and battlements of mist,
  With turrets, barbicans, and spires of gold;
  Now changing into shapes of demon form,
  With wreaths of lightning twining round their brows,
  And now, like waves of darkness from old night,
  Scowling and breaking on the misty hills.

  A drowsy stillness steals along the plain,
  The leaves are motionless on every tree,
  The twitt’ring swallow glides along the ground,
  While the more cautious pigeon seeks the eaves.
  The geese that o’er the green so stately stalked,
  Take flight toward the west with heavy wing,
  And scream a welcome to the coming rain.
  The cattle from the hills come early home,
  And from the fallow ground the lab’rer turns,
  Long ere the hour of sunset, with an eye
  That reads the secrets of the heavens as well
  As though it opened first in Chaldea’s land.
  Along the road the mimic whirlwind runs,
  And with its unseen fingers lifts the dust;
  The town-returning wagon faster moves,
  And down the hill, and o’er the sandy plain,
  The village Jehu makes the coach-wheel spin;
  And while the plover whistles on the moor,
  The stage-horn breaks upon the startled ear.

  But, hark! the storm-drum beats the tempest charge;
  The groaning forest feels its rushing breath,
  And bends its yellow head to let it pass;
  The vivid lightning takes its errant way,
  While echoing, ’mid the sparkling balls of hail,
  Is heard the sound of its descending feet
  In thunder. The hail drops fearfully around,
  Strips the stout trees, and beats to earth the grain,
  Wounds man and beast amid the open fields,
  And strikes with deadly blow the wild fowl down.

  Flash after flash lights up the dreaded scene,
  And answering thunder speaks from every cloud;
  While the deep caverns of the ocean swell
  Their mystic voices in the chorus grand.
  Men sit in silence now with anxious looks,
  While timid mothers seek their downy beds,
  And press their wailing infants to their breasts.

  From her low lattice by the cottage-door,
  The bolder housewife marks the pelting storm;
  Sees the adventurous traveler onward go,
  Seeking his distant hamlet, ere the night
  Adds tenfold horrors to the dismal scene.
  Swiftly the steed bounds o’er the woodland plain,
  While hope beams brightly from the rider’s eye,
  When lo! a crimson flash, with peal sublime,
  Instant as thought, and terrible as death,
  Around her bursts. Blinded, she starts, then seeing,
  Looks again. The horse and his bold rider lie
  Hushed in the marble-sleep that lasts through time.
  And while the wind howls mournfully around,
  The forest owns the baptism of fire.

  The onset o’er, in mingled fire and hail,
  Behold the rain in sweet profusion falls.
  The warm shower melts the crystal drops that hide
  The earth’s brown bosom; and the foaming brooks
  Go singing down the hills, and through the vales,
  Like happy children when their task is done.
  A few bright flashes, and hoarse, rattling peals,
  And then, amid the broad and crimson glow,
  O’er western hills, a golden spot appears,
  That spreads and brightens as the tempest wanes,
  Like Heaven’s first smile upon the dying’s face.
  ’Tis gone, the rumbling of its chariot wheels
  Dies in the ocean vales where echo sleeps;
  While waves that roll’d in music on the shore,
  Lashed into angry surges, foam and break
  In notes of terror on the rocky lee.
  ’Tis gone, and on its bosom dark and wild
  The bow of God is hung, in colors bright
  And beautiful as morning’s blushing tints,
  When the ark rested on the mountain top,
  And the small remnant of a deluged world,
  Looked out upon the wilderness, and wept.
                   —
  Gently the Sabbath breaks upon the hills,
  As when the first blest Sabbath marked the course
  Of time. The golden sunbeam sleeps upon
  The woods. No cloud casts o’er the scene a shade.
  The six days’ labor ended, man and beast
  Enjoy the season of appointed rest.
  The fields are lonely, and the drowsy dells
  Scarce catch the whisper of the gentle air;
  And now is heard, for over hill and dale,
  Up laughing valley, and through whisp’ring glen,
  Gladdening the solitary place, and sadder heart,
  The sweet-toned Sabbath-bell. Oh, joyful sound!
  When from the Indian Isle the storm-tossed bark,
  Furls its white pinion by its cradled shore,
  And the tir’d sailor, on the giddy yard,
  Cent’ring the thoughts of years in one short hour,
  Looks to the land, and hears thy melting peal.
  At such an hour the grateful heart pours out
  Its praise, that upward soars like the blue smoke
  Rising from its bright cottage-hearth to heaven;
  And from the deep empyrian the ear
  Of holy faith an answering note receives,
  To still the mourning soul, and dry its tears.
  Sweet is the Sabbath to a world of care,
  When spring comes blushing with her buds and flowers;
  When summer scents the rose, and fills the grain;
  When autumn crowns her horn, and binds her sheaves,
  And winter keeps his cold watch on the hills.

  The wakeful cock from distant farm-yard crows
  The passing hour—the miller stops his wheel
  To gather headway for the coming task—
  And by the turnpike-gate the loaded team,
  With bending necks, stand panting, while beneath
  The rustic shade the careless teamster waits—
  With long-lashed whip, and frock of linsey-wool,
  And hat of undyed felt cocked o’er his eye—
  There draining to the dregs his foaming gourd,
  Stands in his brogans every inch a King.
  Approach him, sage professor, as you list,
  With question subtil on a point abstruse:
  Or with a query as to simple things—
  Physics or metaphysics, old or new,
  Law, written or unwritten, good or bad,
  Logic, domestic or of foreign growth,
  Knowledge, too deep to know and never known,
  Or sluggish faith, that takes a teeming age
  Of miracles, to make one soul believe;
  Questions political, that sage to sage
  Have past for centuries on, as truants wild
  Toss prickly burs, for their unthinking mates
  To catch, by moonlight, in the autumnal woods;
  Talk of creation, or the Chinese wall,
  Wander o’er Athen’s hill or sumac knoll,
  Drink at Castalia’s fount or Jasper’s Spring,
  And he is there to answer and confound.
  Nature’s philosopher! untaught by schools,
  Who knows, and can explain in one short hour,
  More than the wide world knew in Plato’s day.
                   —
  And there the blacksmith by his anvil stands—
  Well may you mark his tall and robust form,
  His forehead full, where intellect may dwell,
  And eye that glances like the flying sparks
  When the red bar comes dazzling from the forge.
  All day his hammer works his iron will,
  The reaper’s sickle and the crooked scythe
  The ponderous tire that binds the wagon-wheel,
  And the small rivet of the schoolboy’s toy,
  Come at his bidding from the metal crude. The patient ox
  Waits for his iron shoes beside his door,
  And the gay steed that bounds along the course
  Neighs merrier when he plates his hoofs with steel;
  The temple door on his stout hinges turns,
  And in the vault of Mammon rests secure
  The treasure guarded by his master-key.
  Day after day he toils, as seldom toil
  The slaves that drag their lazy length along—
  Sleeping at noon that they may dance at night—
  In the plantations of the sunny South;
  Yet he unmurmuring bears the laborer’s curse,
  To share his joys and roam the golden fields,
  Erect in form and intellect—a man!
  But when the evening comes with cooling breath,
  Bringing the hour for labor’s sweet repose,
  He clears his brow from every mark of toil,
  And seeks his cottage by the village green;
  There, having ate in peace his frugal meal,
  He turns his mind, insatiate, to his books:
  And, by the aid of Learning’s golden key,
  Holds sweet communion with the ages past.
  Behold! the scholar now in honest pride!
  Around him sleep the mystic tomes of years,
  Books that the western world ne’er saw before—
  The manuscripts of monks, ere printing gave
  The world a channel to a sea of thought,
  Where all might sail, and drink in raptures in
  The spirit-waters, sparkling from their founts.
  His tongue can speak more languages than fell
  From human lips at Babel’s overthrow;
  Nor secret thing, to mortal spirit known,
  Is hidden from his penetrating eye.
  Versed in the deepest mysteries of the schools,
  With memory stored with all the mind e’er grasped,
  With talents rarely willed by Heaven to one,
  And sympathetic heart that beats for all,
  Nor knows an outcast at its feast of love,
  Burritt now lives, the wonder of mankind.
  Rabbis and sage professors call him learned,
  And to his humble gateway come in crowds,
  To hear the page of ancient lore rehearsed,
  And catch the jewel-thoughts that fall from him
  Who sits amid the learned a self-taught man.
                   —
  In the dun forest, far away from noise
  Of traveled road, beneath the giant trees,
  Whose branches form a lofty canopy
  O’er a great circle cleared by willing hands,
  Where the gray ash obstructs the serpent’s path,
  The happy Christians pitch their tents of prayer.

  There naught is heard but soothing woodland sounds,
  The tempered roar of distant waterfall,
  The fox’s sharp bark, the heathcock’s cheerful crow.
  The wildcat’s growl amid the deepest shade,
  And the shrill scream of hunger-driven hawk,
  As through the openings he pursues his prey.

  Amid the tents upon the highest spot,
  The preachers’ stand in humble form appears,
  And by its side the horn with mellow note,
  To give the signal meet for praise and prayer.
  There all conditions come with hearts of love,
  Married and single, sons and daughters fair,
  The emigrants from every templed land;
  The Saxon, in his pride of high descent,
  The Gaul, with spirit-harp of finer strings,
  The Pict, ne’er weaned from his romantic hills,
  Where o’er the heather rolls the Highland tongue,
  The Swiss, whose home is where his cottage smiles,
  The light Italian, gayest of the gay,
  And the coarse Hollander, who loves the marsh,
  Nor deems a heaven a home without a ditch—
  The river seaman of the mighty west,
  Rude in their speech, but honest as they’re rude,
  The man of cities, and the pioneer,
  Whose axe first let the sunlight to the woods,
  When nature in her lonely beauty slept
  On the wide prairie and the sylvan hill—
  The beaver-trapper, from the far-off stream;
  The bison-hunter, from the saline lick;
  And the wild Indian, in his forest dress,
  All gather from their journeyings to keep,
  In humble guise, a week of holier time.

  And now the horn has echoed wide and shrill,
  And the great congregation waits for prayer.
  One takes the stand—a man not taught by schools—
  In habit plain, with hands embrown’d by toil;
  Blunt in his speech, yet reverent withall.
  Now, scarcely understood, he lifts his voice
  In praise to God. Then as his feelings catch
  The inspiration of that hallowed hour,
  Soars to a pitch of eloquence sublime,
  While the deep woods are vocal with his prayer.
  His words, like rain upon the thirsty ground,
  Fall on the ear of that great multitude.
  Now he describes a Savior’s matchless love—
  His high estate, his exile from the throne,
  His mocking trial, and his felon death;
  The noonday sun in darkness veils its face,
  And earthquake voices fill the trembling air,
  While the old dead in shrouds, through Salem’s streets,
  Go forth a ghostly company again,
  Singing the song of Moses and the Lamb,
  And making the proud Temple’s arches ring,
  With the glad praises of Redeeming Love.
  ’Tis done! the mighty plan is carried out—
  The last great Sacrifice for sin is o’er;
  Then from the tomb he rolls the stone away,
  And shows a risen Savior and a God!
  The different hearers testify his power
  In different ways. The truth, like a sharp sword,
  Has cleaved its path. The flinty heart is crushed;
  And the great deep of sin is broken up.
  The old transgressors tremble by the stand—
  The young in sin repent to sin no more.
  A thousand voices join in one wild prayer,
  And shrieks, and groans, and shouts of joy arise,
  And Heaven keeps Sabbath o’er the autumn woods.

  The painted savage, who amid the crowd
  Has stood unmoved for days, awakes to life;
  His giant breast in wild commotion heaves,
  His heart would speak, nor wait to reach his lips;
  He stands and vainly calls to his relief
  His savage nature; but, alas! ’tis gone.
  Then falling on his face amid the woods
  That often echoed to his war-whoop fell,
  He casts his weapons at his Savior’s feet,
  And lays aside his garments stained with blood.
  His voice in accents of his soul now speaks,
  His eyes with tears of deep contrition stream,
  And from a trembling tongue in transport breaks,
  Sweet Alleluia to the King of Kings!
  The angel hovering o’er that forest scene,
  Bears up the tidings on exulting wing,
  And soon from the high pinnacles of bliss,
  The Seraph harps in sweetness make response,
  Alleluia!
  The thrilling song in gentle murmuring falls
  Upon the anxious ear, like music heard
  On the calm ocean at the midnight hour;
  Speaks to the broken heart in whispers sweet,
  An dies away amid the forest hum,
  Alleluia!
  The night has come, and one by one the lights
  Go out amid the trees, and the vast multitude
  Is hushed in sleep.
                   —
  The harvest moon sails up its cloudless way,
  Full round and red—the farmer’s evening friend,
  Lengthening the hours of labor, when the hand
  Finds more than it can do within the day.
  How gently falls its light upon the plains,
  The quiet lake, and music-breathing woods;
  The wakened bird mistakes it for the dawn,
  And in the bush begins her matin song.
  A moment rings the solitary strain,
  And then no sound is wafted to the ear,
  Save the wild whisper of the dying wind,
  Or distant foot-fall of some prowling beast.

  Sweet voyager of night! whose fairy bark
  Sails silently around the dusky earth,
  Whose silver lamp in chastened splendor burns,
  Trimmed by the hand that fashioned thee so fair,
  And sent thee forth on thy eternal way,
  The nearest and the brightest to our eyes
  Of Heavens innumerable host—sail on
  Thy joyous way, in beauty ’mid the stars,
  And catch the song of those bright sentinels,
  Who watch the outposts on the bounds of time,
  Sending in vain their rays to pierce the gloom
  Of drear immensity. The lover’s eye—
  Whether he grasps the wreck amid the waves,
  Or treads in pride the well appointed deck
  Of richly freighted galleon; or is doom’d,
  Like Selkirk, in his lonely isle, to dwell
  More desolate because his ear had heard,
  In Scottish valley, the sweet Sabbath bell;
  Or chases, with the seamen of the north,
  The monster-whale, by Greenland’s sounding shore,
  Where crystal icebergs lift their glittering peaks,
  And bathe with rainbow hues the snowy vales;
  Or robs the otter of his glossy coat,
  Where the Oregon sings her endless hymn
  To the Pacific’s waters; or gathers
  Birds’ nests ’mid the endless summer isles,
  Where waves the cocoa-nut and lofty palm
  O’er crystal billows, ’mid whose coral groves
  The fish of brightest tints in beauty swim—
  In health or sickness, joy or sorrow, turns
  Inquiringly to thee, and speaks of love—
  Love that endures when strength and reason fails.
  So the poor idiot on the moonlit hill,
  Patting his dog, his last and truest friend,
  Looks up with eye of more than usual fire,
  And, ’mid his idle chattering, speaks the name
  Of one who loved him best in boyhood’s dream.

  Thompson, sweet village! throned upon thy hills,
  With happy homes, and spires that gleam above
  Thy sacred altars, where the fathers taught,
  And generations learned the way to God—
  How pleasant, with remembrance’s eye, to view
  The varied landscape changing autumn spreads
  O’er sunny vales that slumber at thy feet;
  Where roll the babbling brook and deeper stream,
  Winding, like threads of silver tissue, wrought
  By Moorish maidens on their robes of green.
  Around thee rise a host of smiling towns,
  Bearing the names of mightier ones abroad.
  There Dudley, glittering on the northern sky,
  Stands on her lofty height supremely fair,
  While westward, Woodstock with her groves is seen,
  In rural beauty blest; and at her feet,
  Wrapt in a silver cloud, sweet Pomfret vale,
  Spreads its gay bosom, dear to childhood’s hour.
  The iron-horse now darts with lightning speed
  Through the green valleys that my boyhood knew,
  And at each turn the lovely river makes,
  At the mere plashing of the wild swan’s wing,
  A babbling village rises from the flood;
  And there the halls of labor lift their domes
  At Mammon’s call, and countless spindles twirl
  The snowy thread, that soon is changed to gold;
  While far around is heard the dash of wheels,
  And the unceasing roar of swollen dams.
  The dead leaves dance upon the river’s breast,
  With tufts of cotton-waste, and here and there
  A golden apple, dropped by careless boy,
  Floating along toward the ocean’s flood.

  On the grey oak the fisher-bird awaits
  The speckled trout, or chaffin, tinged with gold;
  While ’neath the rock the swimmer leaves his clothes,
  And ’mid the cooling wave in gladness sports
  His ivory limbs, nor heeds the near approach
  Of roaming bard, or red-cheeked factory girl,
  Who climbs the rustic bridge, nor casts an eye
  Toward her Leander, naked in the flood.
  On such fair maidens no Duennas wait,
  To scare young love from answering love away;
  No convent-gates are closed to bar her will,
  Nor Hotspur brothers, armed with deadly steel,
  In secret wait to guard that honor safe,
  Which, but for such restraint, had long since fled.

  Beyond the swampy meadow, fringed with flags,
  The ancient forest waves its gaudy head,
  O’er which the eagle takes his lonely way—
  The mighty hunter of the upper air.
  There, in the mossy dells, where all is still,
  Save when uncertain murmurs come and go
  Along the solemn arches of the wood—
  Like whispers in a lonely lane at dark,
  Or soothing hum of home-returning bee—
  The boy, delighted, sets his secret snares,
  Clearing broad paths amid the yellow leaves,
  Where the cock-partridge may strut in pride
  At earliest dawn, and find the fatal noose;
  There, when the sun is peeping o’er the hills,
  Tinging the woodland sea with gorgeous hues,
  He goes, with eager step and anxious eye,
  Beholds the path obscured, the sapling sprung,
  And, ’mid the maple boughs, his mottled prey.
                   —
  The Reaper pauses in the ample field,
  Where a rich harvest smiles to bless his toil,
  And rests beside the oak, beneath whose shade,
  In ages past, the wandering Red Man slept;
  There, while the sun poured down his fervent ray,
  The happy laborer seeks to quench his thirst,
  With crystal water from the lime-stone spring,
  Or milk, from prudent housewife’s ample store—
  Pure as it came from Nature’s healthy fount;
  And while he sits the idle hours away,
  He muses o’er his country and her fame,
  And dares to claim her empire as his own.

  And there, amid the grass, the children play
  Around the sun-burnt maidens, as they twine
  The bands to bind the golden armfuls tight,
  And leave the bristling sheafs, with plenty crowned,
  Standing in beauty on the fresh-reap’d hill.
  The groaning wagon gathers up the grain
  From auburn fields. The yellow sheafs are piled
  In ponderous heaps, while one well skilled builds up
  The toppling load, and when ’tis finished, sits
  On its sere top, crowned with the ripened grain—
  The Autumn’s King! And as the reaper’s hale
  And rosy children shout for joy, he sings,
  With mellow voice, the song of Harvest Home.
  The sickle gleams no more amid the fields;
  The cradled hills are open to the feet
  Of Want’s poor gleaners and the hunter band;
  And there the quail walks with her piping brood
  Amid the stubble, teaching them to fly.

  Amid the orchard, bending ’neath the load
  That fair Pomona from her lap has strewn,
  The busy husbandmen commence their tasks.
  The red-cheeked apple, and the greening pale,
  The golden-pippin, and the blue pearmain,
  Baldwin and russet, all are toppled down,
  And to the air a balmy fragrance give.
  And there, the urchins playing all the while,
  Select the choicest fruit for future use,
  When the long winter night creeps o’er the hill,
  And autumn’s golden brow is wrapped in gloom.

  The cider-press, beneath the farm-house shade,
  Now creaks, as round old Dobbin takes his way,
  While from the massive vat the liquid pours,
  And in abundant casks ferments and foams.
  Hail, generous drink! fair Newark’s honest boast,
  The laborer’s beverage in a northern clime,
  Where freedom first, in deadly strife was born,
  And where her last scarred-follower shall die—
  If death to such e’er come.
  Oft have I sighed for thee in spicy clime,
  Where hung the clustering grape from every bough,
  And where the nectar of the gods was free
  As Croton-water in old Gotham’s Park.

  Untainted with the liquid sin that flows
  From the destroyer’s still, thy spirit lifts
  The thirsty soul from earth—but not too high,
  Nor leaves at morn a flush upon the brow.
  An apple caused the first of earth to sin;
  But thou, well made, and freed from earthly taint,
  Raisest the weary spirit to its tone,
  And givest to labor’s cheek the glow of health.

  Now, in the rosy morn, the spotted hounds
  Before the mounted Huntsmen hie away.
  O’er fields and meadows, onward see them go,
  Scaling the walls, and trampling down the corn.
  And now they penetrate the forest shade,
  And from the sylvan dell, and wood-capt hill,
  The deep-mouthed bay with wild halloo is heard,
  Swelling in cadence to the hunter’s horn.
  In her retreat, amid the deepest shade,
  Where the long grass is tender, and ne’er fails,
  The red-deer hears, and starts, and lists again,
  Till louder still the chase’s wild music sounds,
  Then down the hill-side to the lake that spreads
  Its broad unruffled bosom to the morn,
  She takes her course; while on her haunches come
  The bellowing pack, like gaunt and hungry wolves.
  Now she has gained the stunted alder’s shade,
  That line the margin of the waters clear,
  And turning quickly round the wave-worn hill,
  That towers abruptly o’er the narrow beach,
  Dips her light hoofs in the unconscious wave,
  And seeks the mountain-pass with lightning speed.
  Hid from their sight, the scent in water lost,
  The eager pack plunge headlong in the flood;
  But soon recalled to duty, ’long the shore
  They scour, till one more practiced than the rest,
  Stops where the chase her sylvan pathway took,
  And bellowing wildly, follows in her track,
  With the whole party thundering at his heels.
  The wily deer too long has got the start,
  And now from distant hill-side sees the foe
  Come panting up the dell with weary limb.
  A moment only does she look, then turns
  And glides in silence down the other side;
  And when the Huntsmen gain the lofty height,
  The deer is far away—the chase is o’er.

  Oh! who can sing the glories of the woods,
  When Indian Summer, like a death-smile, rests
  On autumn’s sallow cheek too soon to fade.
  In ages past, when thou didst gently come,
  “With nights of frost, and noons of sultry heat,
  When skies were blue as highly tempered steel,
  And rivers clear as crystal, and the mist
  Upon the mountains hung its silver veil;
  When o’er the grass a fairy net-work spread,
  And naught was green except the mountain pine,
  The willow, and the bullrush by the brook”—
  Our fathers feared—for then amid the wilds,
  Called by the wampum-belt of varied hue,
  The Indian warriors built their council-fire,
  And in the war-dance joined with hellish rite,
  Till morning broke upon the dusky woods.
  Then, at the hour when mortals soundest slept,
  And nature was at rest, they sallied forth,
  Armed with the hatchet and the scalping-knife,
  And trusty rifle, whose report was death.
  The sleeping father woke to hear the cry
  Of butchered wife, and infant rudely torn
  From her clasped arms, to feel the war-club’s power.
  One look he gave, and on his silvery head
  The hatchet fell, and loosed the flood of life,
  Then sinking down in death’s cold senseless sleep,
  Added fresh fuel to the crackling flames
  That spread around his lonely sylvan cot,
  And lit, with hateful glare, the moaning woods.
  Next morn the wandering hunter marked the waste,
  And found amid the ashes, human bones,
  An axe, a child’s steel rattle, and a lock
  Of woman’s golden hair, still wet with blood.
                   —
  The sun in mellow light sleeps on the hills,
  The lazy river rolls in silence on,
  The woods keep Sabbath, till the deep-mouthed bay
  Of wandering fox-hound breaks upon the ear;
  Or from the top of an old chestnut falls,
  The tempting nut the startled squirrel drops,
  Parting the fading leaves with pattering sound;
  Or on the rotten log beside the stile,
  The busy partridge beats her woodland drum.
  The frost has tipt the trees with lovelier tints
  Than pencil ever gave to forest scene;
  There, green and gold in various hues combine,
  Spotted with crimson where the maple stands,
  And when the sun upon the hoar-frost shines,
  The foliage sparkles, as though crystals hung
  On every leaf, and trembled in the air.
  The eye now penetrates the half-clad trees,
  And spies the squirrel in his leafy house,
  Or marks upon the limb the wish-ton-wish,
  Who rests by day, that he may sweeter sing
  His song at night, beside the cottage gate.
  The thistle-seed, with wing of silver down,
  Floats in the air, and flashes in the sun.
  The dusky worm that feasted on the leaf
  In the green spring-time, weaves his curious shroud,
  And fastening it by thread of minute size,
  To the tall poplar swings himself to sleep.
  Type of the resurrection! lo, he hangs
  Between the mortal and the spirit-land,
  Till called by God, through Nature’s changeless laws,
  He starts a winged creature clad in light,
  With tints of morning blushing on his wings.

  The fisher’s boat along the river glides,
  Nor leaves a ripple in its shallow wake.
  The wild swan sports in Anicosta’s wave,
  And deems his shadow his departed mate;
  The patient heron, on the wave-washed rock
  For hours stands, watching his suspecting prey;
  The wild-goose raises heavily to join
  The gabbling cohort that is hastening on,
  High in the air, to the bright summer-land,
  Where the superb magnolia lifts its head.
  And scents the gale—a wilderness of flowers.
  The hardy ivy climbs the giant tree,
  To place green garlands on its withered head;
  The wild grape from the lofty walnut hangs
  Its purple clusters tempting to the sight;
  And by the swampy brook, the sunflower turns
  Its golden eye in meekness toward its God;
  The deer, from sylvan dell comes out to drink;
  The buzzard on the dead tree patient waits,
  For the returning tide to line the shore
  With food well-suited to his groveling taste;
  And o’er the bosom of the widening stream,
  The lazy fish-hawk flaps his heavy wing.
                   —
  Old age and childhood mark, with curious eye,
  The lonely scene, and pass, with cautious tread,
  Down the still pathway of the dying woods.
  Now, round the mighty piles of corn they sit,
  The aged ones, the young men, and the lads,
  With here and there a son of Afric’s clime,
  With eye that rolls in undiminished joy,
  And mouth that ready waits to swell the laugh,
  Or join the merry huskers’ drinking song.
  And thus the labor of a week is done,
  While wives and daughters, ’neath the farmer’s roof,
  Spread out the festive board with viands rich,
  And tempting to the eye of one who bears
  The sweat of labor on his swarthy brow.
  Now, from its yellow shuck, the ripened corn,
  In well-filled ears, is drawn—a pleasant sight;
  And while the village maidens pass along,
  Stopping, where’er their fancy wills, to husk,
  Red ears are placed within their anxious palms,
  By roguish ones, who hid them for this hour;
  And as they draw the crimson emblems forth,
  Full many a kiss is printed on the cheek
  Of rosy innocence, by lips that ne’er
  Such liberty had dared to take before.
  The clock strikes twelve, and from his cozy perch
  Beside the fattest pullet, lo, the cock
  Proclaims the approaching morn with shrillest crow!
  The corn is husked, and now they gather round
  The board, while lovely maidens wait to serve
  With ready hand, the laborers of the eve.
  Now from the lips of village sire ascends
  The prayer for Heaven’s rich blessing on their food;
  Thanks for the pouring out of plenty’s horn,
  And gratitude for life and health—nay, more,
  For liberty, without which all things else
  Were vain. And while he stands with streaming eye,
  And hand that palsy oft has clasped in vain,
  His trembling accents fall upon the ear,
  Like distant music at the close of day.
  The service o’er, the merry feast begins,
  Then joy runs riot round the sacred chair,
  And dignified propriety is gay
  As gipsy maiden, with her silver bells
  Tinkling around her heels. At length the dawn
  Recalls the joyous throng to other scenes;
  And soon the last gay visiter has bade
  His warm good-by—and the old house is still.
  Left all alone, in calm security,
  Straight in his oaken-chair of antique form,
  Within his hall, the farmer sits and sleeps,
  While the fierce house-dog watches at his feet.
  Sweet hour of plenteous ease, when care puts off
  His wrinkled brow, and charity and love,
  The fairest sisters of the heavenly train,
  Go hand in hand along the faded walks,
  And sit at evening by the cottage door.
  There the old soldier, covered o’er with scars,
  Limping along unnoticed by the crowd,
  Whose liberties were purchased with his blood,
  Finds ’neath the whispering elms before the door
  A welcome seat; and there the little ones,
  Called from their play by watchful Towser’s growl.
  And the patched dress that glory gives her sons,
  Gather round their sire with mute surprise,
  And list to tales of other days, when war,
  With iron feet, swept thundering o’er the glade,
  And reared his bloody altars on the hills.
  And while they listen, lo! the soldier’s face
  Grows less terrific, and his tatter’d dress
  No longer seems to hide a vagrant’s form.
  With stealthy look and silent step, they seek
  The festive board, and silently return;
  Then, while he wipes from his dim eye a tear,
  They fill the old man’s pack with generous food,
  Proffer the goblet full to his parched lips,
  And play at “hide and seek” around his chair.
  The heart of power may coldly beat when they
  Who fought for freedom in her darkest hour,
  In age and penury, appear to claim
  The boon a monarch never yet refused;
  But by the hearth-stones of his native land,
  Where liberal thoughts and generous feelings dwell,
  The valiant soldier ne’er shall find a churl
  To bid him trudge, a rude unwelcome guest.

  On Salem’s hill the Hebrews’ reign is o’er,
  The silver trump of jubilee is still.
  Timbrel and harp and soft-toned dulcimer
  Have ceased their strains in Sharon’s rosy vale;
  The scattered tribes in earth’s remotest bounds
  Wander like sheep upon the mountain-side,
  And Israel mourns her empire and her God.

  The fisher, solitary, dries his net
  On the green rock, amid the silver wave,
  Where, robed in purple, sat imperial Tyre,
  And through the autumn day beholds no sail,
  To catch the scented breeze from Cypress Isle.
  The hills of Judah, crowned with ruins gray,
  Lift their brown summits to the deep blue air,
  And cast their cooling shadows on the sea.
  Hushed is the shepherd’s lute, the reaper’s shout,
  The bleat of flocks, and patriarch’s song of praise,
  The Harvester of years has o’er them past,
  And hung his reaping-hook in Joseph’s tomb.

  But though the trump of jubilee is still,
  And Israel’s host in triumph meet no more
  By Jacob’s well, or Siloa’s sacred brook;
  Yet in the western world, where Freedom rears
  Her banner o’er the altar of her God,
  And all religions meet in peaceful mood,
  At autumn’s close, the wanderers returned
  To distant homes, to keep Thanksgiving Day.
  Such was the custom of the Pilgrim band,
  When first they trod that wild and wintry shore,
  And such th’ observance of their sterling sons,
  Who, scattered o’er the freeman’s heritage,
  Remember their bold ancestry with pride,
  And where they tread, make new New England’s bloom.
                   —
  The days grow shorter, and the nights with frost
  Creep shivering o’er the landscape’s fading green.
  The village stage comes in at later hour,
  From city, town, and distant boarding-school
  Bringing a host of merry hearts, who seek
  The joys of childhood by their native hearths;
  And as it pauses at the welcome door
  The inmates rush, uncovered, to the stile,
  And there, ’mid kisses long and loud, is heard
  The mother’s anxious inquiry for health,
  The boisterous brother’s rude though hearty hail,
  And happy father’s well-timed welcome home.
  What joys, what transports centre in the hour
  While the old mansion rings with childlike mirth.
                   —
  For days the very atmosphere has teemed
  With savory odor from the kitchen flue.
  And now the day of praise begins, clear, cold and still.
  While yet the sun sails up its morning path
  The merry peal from village spire is heard,
  And straightway pours the tide of life along,
  Gathering fresh numbers from each ivied door,
  Changing their greetings warm on every hand,
  With those by Mammon or by glory called,
  Whose wandering feet have homeward turned again:
  And many a speaking eye reveals the tale
  Of love long felt, but ne’er before expressed.

  The church is still, and maiden modesty
  Has smoothed her dress and re-arranged her curl,
  Then from the choir the pealing anthem swells
  With chorus grand—and voices long unused
  To holy song join in the symphony
  Of praise.
  Prayer long and deep and eloquent ensues,
  In which the earth, the nation, and the church,
  The righteous and the wicked, rich and poor,
  Remembrance find. And then a meet discourse,
  Recounting changes of the variant year,
  Paying a tribute just to absent worth,
  And hanging garlands green on glory’s tomb.
  The heart is touched—the mourner’s eye grows dim—
  The proud are humbled, and the poor rejoice.
  And when the speaker closes, with a charge
  To pay due homage to the Mighty One
  Who guides Arcturus and his boisterous sons,
  Binds the sweet influence of the Pleiades,
  And breaks Orion’s broad and sparkling bonds,
  All hearts, with one accord, in reverence bow,
  And pure thanksgiving peals from every tongue.

  The service done, they seek their cheerful hearths
  To spend the hallowed day in feasts of love.
  The feast is set—and joy’s wild burst is o’er—
  The mother’s eye has marked the vacant chair—
  The father’s ear has missed his first-born’s step—
  And where the church-yard sleeps, so still, they look
  With hearts of grief, and eyes suffused with tears.

  Evening with smiles and tales has come, and round
  The social circle blind-man’s buff is played.
  Wisdom and years are straightway laid aside,
  And manhood lives its childhood o’er again,
  Seeking the golden shadows of the days
  Long passed away.
  And now the youngest having sought repose,
  Friend after friend drops in with cheerful heart;
  The merry dance succeeds the merry game,
  And the light foot with lighter heart keeps time.
  Music is also there, with gentle tone,
  Singing the favorite tunes of other days.
  Age with its wrinkle, childhood with its smile,
  Youth with its hope, and manhood with its care,
  Joy blends with high esteem, and admiration
  Kindles into love.

  The old clock ticks the drowsy hours along—
  The midnight comes—the joyous throng disperse—
  Full many a head on sleepless pillow lies,
  Till wearied out, with thinking o’er the past,
  The mind surrenders to the body’s guide
  And dreams of fancy dance before the eye.

  Blest labor! thou dost fringe the poor man’s lids
  With gold: and drive remembrance of his wrongs
  Away—hang o’er his drowsy visions scenes
  Of pleasantness, where round a cheerful cot
  Wind paths of peace. Oh, Night! to him what are
  The ills of day, if thou but shelter him
  With brooding wing.—
  Earth without labor—what a dreary waste!
  Sadder to view than Asia’s barren plains
  Or Afric’s sea of sand. He that would strike
  Thy arm of sinews down, would make the field
  A solitude, and crowded mart a den
  Of thieves.—
  When the moist sickle rests upon its hook,
  And the rich stores of earth are gathered in,
  The fair is held—a feast of fruits and flowers—
  Of art’s fine workmanship and labor’s yield.
  From the dark pines that fringe Aroostook’s wave
  To the wild chapparal that rudely turns
  The martial foot from Rio Bravo’s bank,
  From the Atlantic’s many-peopled shore
  To the Columbia’s vales of living green,
  The joyful mandate rings, and man pours forth
  His richest treasures to the gaze of day.
  The nation sits in judgment on her arts,
  Her choice productions and her fruitful glebes,
  And cheers the laborer’s toil with voice of praise.
  Thus man is dignified by honest toil,
  And the dread curse pronounced in Time’s young spring
  Becomes a blessing in its autumn day.
  So may the laborer stand amid his race—
  Taught that true knowledge elevates the soul,
  That the poor carpenter of Galilee
  Once worked his task—then in the temple taught—
  Then gave redemption to a guilty world—
  And then resumed his station by his God!

  Now from the well-filled barn, in gusty day,
  The flail’s loud beat is heard—a pleasing sound—
  And from the chaff the full unspotted grain
  Is winnowed by the stripling’s feeble hand.
  And while the dust is flying far and wide
  The wheat is gathered in, a precious store,
  Tempting the factor’s mercenary eye,
  And bidding famine with her sickly form
  Wander afar from Freedom’s hallowed soil;
  The timid quail, with well-fledged brood, draws near,
  Her tithe to claim from man’s productive toil,
  And barn-yard fowls their rich thanksgivings spend,
  Nor dream of days of want in time to come,
  When winter o’er the frozen earth shall claim
  Her sovereignty with cutting blast and snow.

  Autumn departs, and soon on hills of brown,
  In storms will break the dark solstitial morn.
  The grove has lost its verdure and its song,
  And withered leaves, in heaps, are mouldering round.
  Keen northern blasts, from Greenland’s gelid wastes,
  Wake the dark woods of stormy Labrador,
  And o’er Canadian wilds and ocean-lakes,
  Down Mississippi’s vales in fury howl.
  By Huron’s flood the savage wrapped in furs
  Gathers his tent of skins beneath the snow,
  And ’mid the smoke, for days, securely waits
  For the encrusting rain to plate the drift
  With glittering ice, that cracks not at his tread,
  Where he may chase the moose, whose hoofs break thro’
  And leave upon the trail a track of blood.
  The miner on Superior’s pictured cliffs,
  Where sings the thunder its eternal hymn,
  Waits in his cabin rude for hours of spring,
  Giving up pleasure, and e’en health itself,
  That he may climb to fortune’s fickle height
  Through veins of copper, and up shafts of gold.
  The pilgrim’s son, in freedom, builds his cot,
  And hails a shadowy old world from the new,
  On the Pacific’s main, where blooming hills
  Hang o’er the flood, and catch the dying strain
  Borne on the waves from India’s coral strand.
  The farmer’s boy, long since amid the woods,
  Has plucked the hazel and the chestnut brown,
  And sharp-ribbed walnut, for his winter store,
  Leaving the staining butternut untouched,
  For the hoar-frost to peel its ragged shell.
  The sheep go wandering o’er the barren plains
  In search of welcome food, and where the scythe
  Between the pointed stones has passed along,
  Crop closer than the crooked blade of man
  The sallow loiterers of the autumn field.
  The red-breasts, gathered into flocks, no longer pipe
  Their sweetest songs beside the cottage door:
  And the vast family of sea-birds screech
  Their notes of sadness o’er the sounding sea.
  The rivers lift their voices, as the rain
  From chilly clouds falls on the dreary scene,
  And high above their banks in torrents swell,
  Sweeping the cottage and the well-filled barn,
  The dam, the bridge, and the old ivied mill,
  With stacks of grain and implements of man,
  In wild confusion onward to the sea.
  Sad are the notes of nature—doubly sad,
  Where leaping o’er her brown and dizzy height,
  With robe of silver and a rainbow crown,
  Niagara sings her thunder-hymn to earth’s
  Remotest waters—where oft the poet’s eye
  Beholds, amid the shades of autumn eve,
  The Tuscarora in his phantom bark,
  Singing his death-song on the cataract’s brow.
  Or where, amid Virginia’s fertile vale,
  The Rockbridge in its grandeur towers above
  The little stream that runs so far beneath,
  That human ear ne’er caught its hoarsest brawl.
  There where the Deluge pierced the mountain chain
  And sent its wild pent river to the sea,
  The storm, with sternest music, calls its clouds,
  And through the giant arch remorseless sweeps
  Causing dread whirlpools of the misty air.

  Autumn departs, and earth in sadness mourns,
  And all around is desolate and chill.
  Empires have had their autumns, and are lost
  Beneath the dead and rustling leaves of time.
  Egypt, majestic in her ruin, sleeps
  Upon the Nile—the pyramids her history
  And her tomb. Idumea, ’mid her cliffs,
  Yawns in her gloom, an empty sepulchre.
  Tadmor is hid amid the desert sand;
  Balbec’s tremendous wall upon the waste,
  Shelters the spotted lizard and the owl;
  And Babylon, the mighty, is a heap
  By the Euphrates. Tyre has been swallowed
  By the tideless sea; Greece sits in darkness
  On her classic hills, ’mid templed groves,
  Her king a Saxon, and her children slaves.
  The Muscovite has found a shorter way
  To old Byzantium; and the lazy Turk
  That loiters there, is but a Turk in name.
  Dark Ethiopia knows her bounds no more;
  Carthage is but a pasture wild for goats;
  Persia now roams the waste in broken hordes;
  Imperial Rome, once mistress of the world,
  Is but a province, where a mitred priest
  Sits in the Cæsar’s chair without his crown;
  And the furr’d Russ directs the haughty race
  Of Ghengis Khan and fiery Tamerlane.
  Ages and kingdoms feel the sickle click,
  And bend their heads before the reaper’s tread.
  The Earth shall have her autumn, with the stars
  That sang in beauty at the birth of Time;
  And Death shall have his autumn, for he too
  Must die. The Heavens shall have their autumn,
  And be rolled back to their ancient nothingness.
  And all shall fade, and fall around, and die,
  But God, and the vast Hierarchy of souls.
                   —
  Oh, death! when thou dost come with trembling limbs,
  Down the brown hills, where waves the ripened grain,
  And bear the aged exile home to God,
  While autumn’s wailing wind sings Harvest Home.
  When health’s bright roses slowly fade away,
  As flowers of spring-time breathed on by the frost;
  When dire consumption saps the roots of life,
  And slow but sure its victims steal along
  The shaded path that winds around the tomb;
  Or when by burning fever racked and parched,
  The prostrate form with joy awaits the call;
  Or when forsaken by the loved and false,
  The broken spirit sits beside the grave,
  And weaves strange garlands from the withered flowers,
  To crown the head-stone of departed hopes,
  Thou art a welcome guest.
  But when in youth and health, without a sign,
  Thou comest in thy most appalling form,
  Swift as the sunbeam streaming from on high,
  Then thou dost rudely snap hope’s brightest buds,
  And form dread sepulchres in every heart—
  Chasms that never close with rolling years—
  Wounds that forever festering, never heal,
  Till deeper sorrows settle on the soul.

  Autumn departs, and with it ends the song
  Of the rude bard, who first essayed to sing
  In high scholastic verse, its scenes of gold;
  A pleasant pastime for an idle month,
  When the hot sun pour’d down its sickly rays.
  And pestilence at noonday walked abroad.

  Autumn departs, and on its cheerless gale,
  Sighing o’er barren moor and russet grove,
  The feeble lay goes forth, with deep distrust,
  And much of hope, entwined with more of fear.
  If it shall fail—and stranger things have been,
  And with the leaves around, whirl through the glen,
  And up the forest’s melancholy path,
  Lifeless and useless, as its withered band.
  ’Tis an old truth, by bard of sweetness told,
  “Leaves have their time to fall, and stars to set.”

  But if perchance some generous soul shall take
  The half-fledged warbler to a pleasant home,
  Where bright-eyed children gather in their joy—
  Type of the host that throng the homes of Heaven—
  Glean from its varied notes one sound to please,
  One truth to charm and elevate the soul,
  And bid young genius in her wild-wood sing,
  The scenes and glories of her native land—
  Then shall the bard in his retreat rejoice,
  And sing again, when spring, with sunny brow,
  Shall speak the resurrection of the flowers.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                                STANZAS.


                         BY THOMAS FITZGERALD.


    Ah! weary days have passed since last we met,
      But not with time has distance longer grown!
    My heart, well-tutored, never can forget
      Its love for thee, my beautiful, my own!

    I would that I were near thee, gentle one,
      To see thee gladly smile, and hear thee speak,
    And list the sweetness of thy silver tone,
      And mark the changes on thy blushing cheek!

    I see the pathway where our ramble led—
      Where brightest flowers in rarest fragrance vied—
    The fairy nook, whence sunlight trembling fled,
      And laughing water-fall in music died!

    But not for me the pensive walk of eve—
      Life’s sterner duties claim my footsteps now;
    Yet does the yearning heart full often grieve
      For those dear haunts where first we breathed love’s vow.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                             THE PORTRAIT.


                           BY KATE DASHWOOD.


    A fair, young, thoughtful face—and very pale
      Is the soft dimpled cheek, and o’er her brow
    Lingereth a strange, wild beauty; many a tale
      Thy bright ideal weaveth for her now.
    Those breathing lips!—they speak not, but you feel
      Love’s thrilling kiss, hath mingled with his sigh,
    The dreamy depths of those dark eyes reveal
      The soul of Sappho’s song—_to love or die_!
    Yet on that fair, young brow is set the seal
      Of woman’s firm resolve, and o’er-mastering high.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                     THOMAS CARLYLE AND HIS WORKS.


                          BY HENRY D. THOREAU.


                      (_Concluded from page 152._)

But he is wilfully and pertinaciously unjust, even scurrilous, impolite,
ungentlemanly; calls us “Imbeciles,” “Dilettants,” “Philistines,”
implying sometimes what would not sound well expressed. If he would
adopt the newspaper style, and take back these hard names—but where is
the reader who does not derive some benefit from these epithets,
applying them to himself? Think not that with each repetition of them
there is a fresh overflowing of bile; oh no! Perhaps none at all after
the first time, only a faithfulness, the right name being found, to
apply it—“They are the same ones we meant before”—and ofttimes with a
genuine sympathy and encouragement expressed. Indeed, there appears in
all his writings a hearty and manly sympathy with all misfortune and
wretchedness, and not a weak and sniveling one. They who suspect a
Mephistophiles, or sneering, satirical devil, under all, have not
learned the secret of true humor, which sympathizes with the gods
themselves, in view of their grotesque, half-finished creatures.

He is, in fact, the best tempered, and not the least impartial of
reviewers. He goes out of his way to do justice to profligates and
quacks. There is somewhat even Christian, in the rarest and most
peculiar sense, in his universal brotherliness, his simple, child-like
endurance, and earnest, honest endeavor, with sympathy for the like. And
this fact is not insignificant, that he is almost the only writer of
biography, of the lives of men, in modern times. So kind and generous a
tribute to the genius of Burns cannot be expected again, and is not
needed. We honor him for his noble reverence for Luther, and his
patient, almost reverent study of Goethe’s genius, anxious that no
shadow of his author’s meaning escape him for want of trustful
attention. There is nowhere else, surely, such determined and generous
love of whatever is manly in history. His just appreciation of any, even
inferior talent, especially of all sincerity, under whatever guise, and
all true men of endeavor, must have impressed every reader. Witness the
chapters on Werner, Heyne, even Cagliostro, and others. He is not likely
to underrate his man. We are surprised to meet with such a discriminator
of kingly qualities in these republican and democratic days, such
genuine loyalty all thrown away upon the world.

Carlyle, to adopt his own classification, is himself the hero, as
literary man. There is no more notable working-man in England, in
Manchester or Birmingham, or the mines round about. We know not how many
hours a-day he toils, nor for what wages, exactly, we only know the
results for us. We hear through the London fog and smoke the steady
systole, diastole, and vibratory hum, from “Somebody’s Works” there; the
“Print Works,” say some; the “Chemicals,” say others; where something,
at any rate, is manufactured which we remember to have seen in the
market. This is the place, then. Literature has come to mean, to the
ears of laboring men, something idle, something cunning and pretty
merely, because the nine hundred and ninety-nine really write for fame
or for amusement. But as the laborer works, and soberly by the sweat of
his brow earns bread for his body, so this man _works_ anxiously and
_sadly_, to get bread of life, and dispense it. We cannot do better than
quote his own estimate of labor from Sartor Resartus.

“Two men I honor, and no third. First; the toil-worn craftsman that with
earth-made implement laboriously conquers the earth, and makes her
man’s. Venerable to me is the hard hand; crooked, coarse, wherein,
notwithstanding, lies a cunning virtue, indefeasibly royal, as of the
sceptre of this planet. Venerable, too, is the rugged face, all
weather-tanned, besoiled, with its rude intelligence; for it is the face
of a man living manlike. Oh, but the more venerable for thy rudeness,
and even because we must pity as well as love thee. Hardly-entreated
brother! For us was thy back so bent, for us were thy straight limbs and
fingers so deformed; thou wert our conscript, on whom the lot fell, and
fighting our battles wert so marred. For in thee, too, lay a god-created
form, but it was not to be unfolded; encrusted must it stand with the
thick adhesions and defacements of labor; and thy body, like thy soul,
was not to know freedom. Yet toil on, toil on; _thou_ art in thy duty,
be out of it who may; thou toilest for the altogether indispensable, for
daily bread.”

“A second man I honor, and still more highly; him who is seen toiling
for the spiritually indispensable; not daily bread, but the bread of
life. Is not he, too, in his duty, endeavoring toward inward harmony,
revealing this, by act or by word, through all his outward endeavors, be
they high or low? Highest of all, when his outward and his inward
endeavor are one; when we can name him Artist; not earthly craftsman
only, but inspired thinker, that with heaven-made implement conquers
heaven for us. If the poor and humble toil that we have food, must not
the high and glorious toil for him in return, that he have light, have
guidance, freedom, immortality? These two in all their degrees, I honor;
all else is chaff and dust, which let the wind blow whither it listeth.”

“Unspeakably touching is it, however, when I find both dignities united;
and he that must toil outwardly for the lowest of man’s wants, is also
toiling inwardly for the highest. Sublimer in this world know I nothing
than a peasant saint, could such now anywhere be met with. Such a one
will take thee back to Nazareth itself; thou wilt see the splendor of
heaven spring forth from the humblest depths of earth, like a light
shining in great darkness.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

Notwithstanding the very genuine, admirable, and loyal tributes to
Burns, Schiller, Goethe, and others, Carlyle is not a critic of poetry.
In the book of heroes, Shakspeare, the hero, as poet, comes off rather
slimly. His sympathy, as we said, is with the men of endeavor; not using
the life got, but still bravely getting their life. “In fact,” as he
says of Cromwell, “every where we have to notice the decisive, practical
_eye_ of this man; how he drives toward the practical and practicable;
has a genuine insight into what _is_ fact.” You must have very stout
legs to get noticed at all by him. He is thoroughly English in his love
of practical men, and dislike for cant, and ardent enthusiastic heads
that are not supported by any legs. He would kindly knock them down that
they may regain some vigor by touching their mother earth. We have often
wondered how he ever found out Burns, and must still refer a good share
of his delight in him to neighborhood and early association. The Lycidas
and Comus appearing in Blackwood’s Magazine, would probably go unread by
him, nor lead him to expect a Paradise Lost. The condition of England
question is a practical one. The condition of England demands a hero,
not a poet. Other things demand a poet; the poet answers other demands.
Carlyle in London, with this question pressing on him so urgently, sees
no occasion for minstrels and rhapsodists there. Kings may have their
bards when there are any kings. Homer would _certainly_ go a begging
there. He lives in Chelsea, not on the plains of Hindostan, nor on the
prairies of the West, where settlers are scarce, and a man must at least
go _whistling_ to himself.

What he says of poetry is rapidly uttered, and suggestive of a thought,
rather than the deliberate development of any. He answers your question,
What is poetry? by writing a special poem, as that Norse one, for
instance, in the Book of Heroes, altogether wild and original;—answers
your question, What is light? by kindling a blaze which dazzles you, and
pales sun and moon, and not as a peasant might, by opening a shutter.
And, certainly, you would say that this question never could be answered
but by the grandest of poems; yet he has not dull breath and stupidity
enough, perhaps, to give the most deliberate and universal answer, such
as the fates wring from illiterate and unthinking men. He answers like
Thor, with a stroke of his hammer, whose dint makes a valley in the
earth’s surface.

Carlyle is not a _seer_, but a brave looker-on and _reviewer_; not the
most free and catholic observer of men and events, for they are likely
to find him preoccupied, but unexpectedly free and catholic when they
fall within the focus of his lens. He does not live in the present hour,
and read men and books as they occur for his theme, but having chosen
this, he directs his studies to this end.

But if he supplies us with arguments and illustrations against himself,
we will remember that we may perhaps be convicted of error from the same
source—stalking on these lofty reviewer’s stilts so far from the green
pasturage around. If we look again at his page, we are apt to retract
somewhat that we have said. Often a genuine poetic feeling dawns through
it, like the texture of the earth seen through the dead grass and leaves
in the spring. There is indeed more poetry in this author than criticism
on poetry. He often reminds us of the ancient Scald, inspired by the
grimmer features of life, dwelling longer on Dante than on Shakspeare.
We have not recently met with a more solid and unquestionable piece of
poetic work than that episode of “The Ancient Monk,” in Past and
Present, at once idyllic, narrative, heroic; a beautiful restoration of
a past age. There is nothing like it elsewhere that we know of. The
History of the French Revolution is a poem, at length got translated
into prose; an Iliad, indeed, as he himself has it—“The destructive
wrath of Sansculotism: this is what we speak, having unhappily no voice
for singing.”

One improvement we could suggest in this last, as indeed in most epics,
that he should let in the sun oftener upon his picture. It does not
often enough appear, but it is all revolution, the old way of human life
turned simply bottom upward, so that when at length we are inadvertently
reminded of the “Brest Shipping,” a St. Domingo colony, and that anybody
thinks of owning plantations, and simply turning up the soil there, and
that now at length, after some years of this revolution, there is a
falling off in the importation of sugar, we feel a queer surprise. Had
they not sweetened their water with Revolution then? It would be well if
there were several chapters headed “Work for the Mouth”—Revolution-work
inclusive, of course—“Altitude of the Sun,” “State of the Crops and
Markets,” “Meteorological Observations,” “Attractive Industry,” “Day
Labor,” &c., just to remind the reader that the French peasantry did
something beside go without breeches, burn châteaus, get ready knotted
cords, and embrace and throttle one another by turns. These things are
sometimes hinted at, but they deserve a notice more in proportion to
their importance. We want not only a background to the picture, but a
ground under the feet also. We remark, too, occasionally, an
unphilosophical habit, common enough elsewhere, in Alison’s History of
Modern Europe, for instance, of saying, undoubtedly with effect, that if
a straw had not fallen this way or that, why then—but, of course, it is
as easy in philosophy to make kingdoms rise and fall as straws. The old
adage is as true for our purpose, which says that a miss is as good as a
mile. Who shall say how near the man came to being killed who was not
killed? If an apple had not fallen then we had never heard of Newton and
the law of gravitation; as if they could not have contrived to let fall
a pear as well.

The poet is blithe and cheery ever, and as well as nature. Carlyle has
not the simple Homeric health of Wordsworth, nor the deliberate
philosophic turn of Coleridge, nor the scholastic taste of Landor, but,
though sick and under restraint, the constitutional vigor of one of his
old Norse heroes, struggling in a lurid light, with Iötuns still,
striving to throw the old woman, and “she was Time”—striving to lift
the big cat—and that was “The Great World-Serpent, which, tail in
mouth, girds and keeps up the whole created world.” The smith, though so
brawny and tough, I should not call the healthiest man. There is too
much shop-work, too great extremes of heat and cold, and incessant
ten-pound-ten and thrashing of the anvil, in his life. But the
haymaker’s is a true sunny perspiration, produced by the extreme of
summer heat only, and conversant with the blast of the zephyr, not of
the forge-bellows. We know very well the nature of this man’s sadness,
but we do not know the nature of his gladness. There sits Bull in the
court all the year round, with his hoarse bark and discontented
growl—not a cross dog, only a canine habit, verging to madness some
think—now separated from the shuddering travelers only by the paling,
now heard afar in the horizon, even melodious there; baying the moon o’
nights, _baying the sun by day_, with his mastiff mouth. He never goes
after the cows, nor stretches in the sun, nor plays with the children.
Pray give him a longer rope, ye gods, or let him go at large, and never
taste raw meat more.

The poet will maintain serenity in spite of all disappointments. He is
expected to preserve an unconcerned and healthy outlook over the world
while he lives. _Philosophia practica est eruditionis meta_, philosophy
practiced is the good of learning; and for that other, _Oratoris est
celare artem_, we might read, _Herois est celare pugnam_, the hero will
conceal his struggles. Poetry is the only life got, the only work done,
the only pure product and free labor of man, performed only when he has
put all the world under his feet, and conquered the last of his foes.

Carlyle speaks of Nature with a certain unconscious pathos for the most
part. She is to him a receded but ever memorable splendor, casting still
a reflected light over all his scenery. As we read his books here in New
England, where there are potatoes enough, and every man can get his
living peacefully and sportively as the birds and bees, and need think
no more of that, it seems to us as if by the world he often meant
London, at the head of the tide upon the Thames, the sorest place on the
face of the earth, the very citadel of conservatism. Possibly a South
African village might have furnished a more hopeful, and more exacting
audience, or in the silence of the wilderness and the desert, he might
have addressed himself more entirely to his true audience posterity.

In his writings, we should say that he, as conspicuously as any, though
with little enough expressed or even conscious sympathy, represents the
Reformer class, and all the better for not being the acknowledged leader
of any. In him the universal plaint is most settled, unappeasable and
serious. Until a thousand named and nameless grievances are righted,
there will be no repose for him in the lap of nature, or the seclusion
of science and literature. By foreseeing it he hastens the crisis in the
affairs of England, and is as good as many years added to her history.

As we said, we have no adequate word from him concerning poets—Homer,
Shakspeare; nor more, we might add, of Saints—Jesus; nor
philosophers—Socrates, Plato; nor mystics—Swedenborg. He has no
articulate sympathy at least with such as these as yet. Odin, Mahomet,
Cromwell, will have justice at his hands, and we would leave him to
write the Eulogies of all the giants of the will, but the kings of men,
whose kingdoms are wholly in the hearts of their subjects, strictly
transcendent and moral greatness, what is highest and worthiest in
character, he is not inclined to dwell upon or point to. To do himself
justice, and set some of his readers right, he should give us some
transcendent hero at length, to rule his demigods and Titans; develop,
perhaps, his reserved and dumb reverence for Christ, not speaking to a
London or Church of England audience merely. Let _not_ “sacred silence
meditate that sacred matter” forever, but let us have sacred speech and
sacred scripture thereon. True reverence is not necessarily dumb, but
ofttimes prattling and hilarious as children in the spring.

Every man will include in his list of worthies those whom he himself
best represents. Carlyle, and our countryman Emerson, whose place and
influence must ere long obtain a more distinct recognition, are, to a
certain extent, the complement of each other. The age could not do with
one of them, it cannot do with both. To make a broad and rude
distinction, to suit our present purpose, the former, as critic, deals
with the men of action—Mahomet, Luther, Cromwell; the latter with the
thinkers—Plato, Shakspeare, Goethe, for though both have written upon
Goethe, they do not meet in him. The one has more sympathy with the
heroes, or practical reformers, the other with the observers, or
philosophers. Put these worthies together, and you will have a pretty
fair representation of mankind; yet with one or more memorable
exceptions. To say nothing of Christ, who yet awaits a just appreciation
from literature, the peacefully practical hero, whom Columbus may
represent, is obviously slighted; but above and after all, the Man of
the Age, come to be called working-man, it is obvious that none yet
speaks to his condition, for the speaker is not yet in his condition.
There is poetry and prophecy to cheer him, and advice of the head and
heart to the hands; but no very memorable coöperation, it must be
confessed, since the Christian era, or rather since Prometheus tried it.
It is even a note-worthy fact, that a man addresses effectually in
another only himself still, and what he himself does and is, alone can
he prompt the other to do and to become. Like speaks to like only; labor
to labor, philosophy to philosophy, criticism to criticism, poetry to
poetry, &c. Literature speaks how much still to the past, how little to
the future, how much to the east, how little to the west—

        In the East fames are won,
        In the West deeds are done.

                 *        *        *        *        *

One more merit in Carlyle, let the subject be what it may, is the
freedom of prospect he allows, the entire absence of cant and dogma. He
removes many cart-loads of rubbish, and leaves open a broad highway. His
writings are all enfenced on the side of the future and the possible. He
does not place himself across the passage out of his books, so that none
may go freely out, but rather by the entrance, inviting all to come in
and go through. No gins, no net-work, no pickets here, to restrain the
free thinking reader. In many books called philosophical, we find
ourselves running hither and thither, under and through, and sometimes
quite unconsciously straddling some imaginary fence-work, which in our
clairvoyance we had not noticed, but fortunately, not with such fatal
consequences as happen to those birds which fly against a white-washed
wall, mistaking it for fluid air. As we proceed the wreck of this
dogmatic tissue collects about the organs of our perception, like
cobwebs about the muzzles of hunting dogs in dewy mornings. If we look
up with such eyes as these authors furnish, we see no heavens, but a low
pent-roof of straw or tiles, as if we stood under a shed, with no
sky-light through which to glimpse the blue.

Carlyle, though he does but inadvertently direct our eyes to the open
heavens, nevertheless, lets us wander broadly underneath, and shows them
to us reflected in innumerable pools and lakes. We have from him,
occasionally, some hints of a possible science of astronomy even, and
revelation of heavenly arcana, but nothing definite hitherto.

                 *        *        *        *        *

These volumes contain not the highest, but a very practicable wisdom,
which startles and provokes, rather than informs us. Carlyle does not
oblige us to think; we have thought enough for him already, but he
compels us to act. We accompany him rapidly through an endless gallery
of pictures, and glorious reminiscences of experiences unimproved. “Have
you not had Moses and the prophets? Neither will ye be persuaded if one
should rise from the dead.” There is no calm philosophy of life here,
such as you might put at the end of the Almanac, to hang over the
farmer’s hearth, how men shall live in these winter, in these summer
days. No philosophy, properly speaking, of love, or friendship, or
religion, or politics, or education, or nature, or spirit; perhaps a
nearer approach to a philosophy of kingship, and of the place of the
literary man, than of any thing else. A rare preacher, with prayer, and
psalm, and sermon, and benediction, but no contemplation of man’s life
from serene oriental ground, nor yet from the stirring occidental. No
thanksgiving sermon for the holydays, or the Easter vacations, when all
men submit to float on the full currents of life. When we see with what
spirits, though with little heroism enough, wood-choppers, drovers, and
apprentices, take and spend life, playing all day long, sunning
themselves, shading themselves, eating, drinking, sleeping, we think
that the philosophy of their life written would be such a level natural
history as the Gardener’s Calendar, and the works of the early
botanists, inconceivably slow to come to practical conclusions; its
premises away off before the first morning light, ere the heather was
introduced into the British isles, and no inferences to be drawn during
this noon of the day, not till after the remote evening shadows have
begun to fall around.

There is no philosophy here for philosophers, only as every man is said
to have his philosophy. No system but such as is the man himself; and,
indeed, he stands compactly enough. No progress beyond the first
assertion and challenge, as it were, with trumpet blast. One thing is
certain, that we had best be doing something in good earnest, henceforth
forever; that’s an indispensable philosophy. The before impossible
precept, “_know thyself_,” he translates into the partially possible
one, “_know what thou canst work at_.” Sartor Resartus is, perhaps, the
sunniest and most philosophical, as it is the most autobiographical of
his works, in which he drew most largely on the experience of his youth.
But we miss everywhere a calm depth, like a lake, even stagnant, and
must submit to rapidity and whirl, as on skates, with all kinds of
skillful and antic motions, sculling, sliding, cutting punch-bowls and
rings, forward and backward. The talent is very nearly equal to the
genius. Sometimes it would be preferable to wade slowly through a
Serbonian bog, and feel the juices of the meadow. We should say that he
had not speculated far, but faithfully, living up to it. He lays all the
stress still on the most elementary and initiatory maxims, introductory
to philosophy. It is the experience of the religionist. He pauses at
such a quotation as, “It is only with renunciation that life, properly
speaking, can be said to begin;” or, “Doubt of any sort cannot be
removed except by action;” or, “Do the duty which lies nearest thee.”
The chapters entitled, “The Everlasting No,” and “The Everlasting Yea,”
contain what you might call the religious experience of his hero. In the
latter, he assigns to him these words, brief, but as significant as any
we remember in this author:—“One BIBLE I know, of whose plenary
inspiration doubt is not so much as possible; nay, with my own eyes I
saw the God’s-hand writing it: thereof all other Bibles are but leaves.”
This belongs to “The Everlasting Yea;” yet he lingers unaccountably in
“The Everlasting No,” under the negative pole. “Truth!” he still cries
with Teüfelsdrock, “though the heavens crush me for following her: no
falsehood! though a whole celestial Lubberland were the price of
apostacy.” Again, “Living without God in the world, of God’s light I was
not utterly bereft; if my as yet sealed eyes, with their unspeakable
longing, could nowhere see Him, nevertheless, in my heart He was
present, and His heaven-written law still stood legible and sacred
there.” Again, “Ever from that time, [_the era of his Protest_,] the
temper of my misery was changed: not fear or whining sorrow was it, but
indignation and grim, fire-eyed defiance.” And in the “Centre of
Indifference,” as editor, he observes, that “it was no longer a quite
hopeless unrest,” and then proceeds, not in his best style, “For the
fire-baptized soul, long so scathed and thunder-riven, here feels its
own freedom, which feeling is its Baphometic Baptism: the citadel of its
whole kingdom it has thus gained by assault, and will keep inexpungable;
outward from which the remaining dominions, not, indeed, without hard
battling, will doubtless by degrees be conquered and pacificated.”

Beside some philosophers of larger vision, Carlyle stands like an
honest, half-despairing boy, grasping at some details only of their
world systems. Philosophy, certainly, is some account of truths, the
fragments and very insignificant parts of which man will practice in
this work-shop; truths infinite and in harmony with infinity; in respect
to which the very objects and ends of the so-called practical
philosopher, will be mere propositions, like the rest. It would be no
reproach to a philosopher, that he knew the future better than the past,
or even than the present. It is better worth knowing. He will prophecy,
tell what is to be, or in other words, what alone is, under appearances,
laying little stress on the boiling of the pot, or the Condition of
England question. He has no more to do with the condition of England
than with her national debt, which a vigorous generation would not
inherit. The philosopher’s conception of things will, above all, be
truer than other men’s, and his philosophy will subordinate all the
circumstances of life. To live like a philosopher, is to live, not
foolishly, like other men, but wisely, and according to universal laws.
In this, which was the ancient sense, we think there has been no
philosopher in modern times. The wisest and most practical men of recent
history, to whom this epithet has been hastily applied, have lived
comparatively meagre lives, of conformity and tradition, such as their
fathers transmitted to them. But a man may live in what style he can.
Between earth and heaven, there is room for all kinds. If he take
counsel of fear and prudence, he has already failed. One who believed,
by his very constitution, some truth which a few words express, would
make a revolution never to be forgotten in this world; for it needs but
a fraction of truth to found houses and empires on.

However, such distinctions as poet and philosopher, do not much assist
our final estimate of a man; we do not lay much stress on them. “A man’s
a man for a’ that.” If Carlyle does not take two steps in philosophy,
are there any who take three? Philosophy having crept clinging to the
rocks, so far, puts out its feelers many ways in vain. It would be hard
to surprise him by the relation of any important human experience, but
in some nook or corner of his works, you will find that this, too, was
sometimes dreamed of in his philosophy.

To sum up our most serious objections, in a few words, we should say
that Carlyle indicates a depth,—and we mean not impliedly, but
distinctly,—which he neglects to fathom. We want to know more about
that which he wants to know as well. If any luminous star, or
undissolvable nebula, is visible from his station, which is not visible
from ours, the interests of science require that the fact be
communicated to us. The universe expects every man to do his duty in his
parallel of latitude. We want to hear more of his inmost life; his hymn
and prayer, more; his elegy and eulogy, less; that he should speak more
from his character, and less from his talent; communicate centrally with
his readers, and not by a side; that he should say what he believes,
without suspecting that men disbelieve it, out of his
never-misunderstood nature. Homer and Shakspeare speak directly and
confidently to us. The confidence implied in the unsuspicious tone of
the world’s worthies, is a great and encouraging fact. Dig up some of
the earth you stand on, and show that. If he gave us religiously the
meagre results of his experience, his style would be less picturesque
and diversified, but more attractive and impressive. His genius can
cover all the land with gorgeous palaces, but the reader does not abide
in them, but pitches his tent rather in the desert and on the mountain
peak.

When we look about for something to quote, as the fairest specimen of
the man, we confess that we labor under an unusual difficulty; for his
philosophy is so little of the proverbial or sentential kind, and opens
so gradually, rising insensibly from the reviewer’s level, and
developing its thought completely and in detail, that we look in vain
for the brilliant passages, for point and antithesis, and must end by
quoting his works entire. What in a writer of less breadth would have
been the proposition which would have bounded his discourse, his column
of victory, his Pillar of Hercules, and _ne plus ultra_, is in Carlyle
frequently the same thought unfolded; no Pillar of Hercules, but a
considerable prospect, north and south, along the Atlantic coast. There
are other pillars of Hercules, like beacons and light-houses, still
further in the horizon, toward Atlantis, set up by a few ancient and
modern travelers; but, so far as this traveler goes, he clears and
colonizes, and all the surplus population of London is bound thither at
once. What we would quote is, in fact, his vivacity, and not any
particular wisdom or sense, which last is ever synonymous with sentence,
[_sententia_,] as in his cotemporaries, Coleridge, Landor and
Wordsworth.

We have not attempted to discriminate between his works, but have rather
regarded them all as one work, as is the man himself. We have not
examined so much as remembered them. To do otherwise, would have
required a more indifferent, and perhaps even less just review, than the
present. The several chapters were thankfully received, as they came
out, and now we find it impossible to say which was best; perhaps each
was best in its turn. They do not require to be remembered by
chapters—that is a merit—but are rather remembered as a well-known
strain, reviving from time to time, when it had nearly died away, and
always inspiring us to worthier and more persistent endeavors.

In his last work, “The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell,” Carlyle
has added a chapter to the history of England; has actually written a
chapter of her history, and, in comparison with this, there seems to be
no other,—this, and the thirty thousand or three hundred thousand
pamphlets in the British Museum, and that is all. This book is a
practical comment on Universal History. What if there were a British
Museum in Athens and Babylon, and nameless cities! It throws light on
the history of the Iliad and the labors of Pisistratus. History is,
then, an account of memorable events that have sometime transpired, and
not an incredible and confused fable, quarters for scholars merely, or a
gymnasium for poets and orators. We may say that he has dug up a hero,
who was buried alive in his battle-field, hauled him out of his cairn,
on which every passer had cast a pamphlet. We had heard of their digging
up Arthurs before to be sure they were there; and, to be sure they were
there, their bones, seven feet of them; but they had to bury them again.
Others have helped to make known Shakspeare, Milton, Herbert, to give a
name to such treasures as we all possessed; but, in this instance, not
only a lost character has been restored to our imaginations, but
palpably a living body, as it were, to our senses, to wear and sustain
the former. His Cromwell’s restoration, if England will read it
faithfully, and addressed to New England too. Every reader will make his
own application.

To speak deliberately, we think that in this instance, vague rumor and a
vague history have for the first time been subjected to a rigid
scrutiny, and the wheat, with at least novel fidelity, sifted from the
chaff; so that there remain for result,—First, Letters and Speeches of
Oliver Cromwell, now for the first time read or readable, and well nigh
as complete as the fates will permit; secondly, Deeds, making an
imperfect and fragmentary life, which may, with probability, be fathered
upon him; thirdly, this wreck of an ancient picture, the present editor
has, to the best of his ability, restored, sedulously scraping away the
daubings of successive bunglers, and endeavoring to catch the spirit of
the artist himself. Not the worst, nor a barely possible, but for once
the most favorable construction has been put upon this evidence of the
life of a man, and the result is a picture of the ideal Cromwell, the
perfection of the painter’s art. Possibly this was the actual man. At
any rate, this only can contain the actual hero. We confess that when we
read these Letters and Speeches, unquestionably Cromwell’s, with open
and confident mind, we get glimpses occasionally of a grandeur and
heroism, which even this editor has not proclaimed. His “Speeches” make
us forget modern orators, and might go right into the next edition of
the Old Testament, without alteration. Cromwell _was_ another sort of
man than _we_ had taken him to be. These Letters and Speeches have
supplied the lost key to his character. Verily another soldier than
Bonaparte; rejoicing in the triumph of a psalm; to whom psalms were for
Magna Charta and Heralds’ Book, and whose victories were “crowning
mercies.” For stern, antique, and practical religion, a man
unparalleled, since the Jewish dispensation, in the line of kings. An
old Hebrew warrior, indeed, and last right-hand man of the Lord of
Hosts, that has blown his ram’s horn about Jericho. Yet, with a
remarkable common sense and unexpected liberality, there was joined in
him, too, such a divine madness, though with large and sublime features,
as that of those dibblers of beans on St George’s Hill, whom Carlyle
tells of. He still listened to ancient and decaying oracles. If his
actions were not always what Christianity or the truest philosophy
teaches, still they never fail to impress us as noble, and however
violent, will always be pardoned to the great purpose and sincerity of
the man. His unquestionable hardness, not to say willfulness, not
prevailing by absolute truth and greatness of character, but honestly
striving to bend things to his will, is yet grateful to consider in this
or any age. As John Maidstone said, “He was a strong man in the dark
perils of war; in the high places of the field, hope shone in him like a
pillar of fire, when it had gone out in the others.” And as Milton sang,
whose least testimony cannot be spared—

                          “Our chief of men,
        Guided by faith and matchless fortitude.”

None ever spake to Cromwell before, sending a word of cheer across the
centuries—not the “hear!” “hear!” of modern parliaments, but the
congratulation and sympathy of a brother soul. The Letters and Speeches
owe not a little to the “Intercalations” and “Annotations” of the
“latest of the Commentators.” The reader will not soon forget how like a
happy merchant in the crowd, listening to his favorite speaker, he is
all on the alert, and sympathetic, nudging his neighbors from time to
time, and throwing in his responsive or interrogatory word. All is good,
both that which he didn’t hear, and that which he did. He not only makes
him speak audibly, but he makes all parties listen to him, all England
sitting round, and give in their comments, “groans,” or “blushes,” or
“assent;” indulging sometimes in triumphant malicious applications to
the present day, when there is a palpable hit; supplying the look and
attitude of the speaker, and the tone of his voice, and even rescuing
his unutterable, wrecked and submerged thought,—for this orator begins
speaking anywhere within sight of the beginning, and leaves off when the
conclusion is visible. Our merchant listens, restless, meanwhile,
encouraging his fellow-auditors, when the speech grows dim and involved,
and pleasantly congratulating them, when it runs smoothly; or, in
touching soliloquy, he exclaims, “Poor Oliver, noble Oliver”—“Courage,
my brave one!”

And all along, between the Letters and Speeches, as readers well
remember, he has ready such a fresh top-of-the-morning salutation as
conjures up the spirits of those days, and men go marching over English
sward, not wired skeletons, but with firm, elastic muscles, and clang of
armor on their thighs, if they wore swords, or the twang of psalms and
canticles on their lips. His blunt, “Who are you?” put to the shadowy
ghosts of history, they vanish into deeper obscurity than ever. Vivid
phantasmagorian pictures of what is transpiring in England in the
meanwhile, there are, not a few, better than if you had been there to
see.

All of Carlyle’s works might well enough be embraced under the title of
one of them, a good specimen brick, “On Heroes, Hero-worship, and the
Heroic in History.” Of this department, he is the Chief Professor in the
World’s University, and even leaves Plutarch behind. Such intimate and
living, such loyal and generous sympathy with the heroes of history, not
one in one age only, but forty in forty ages, such an unparalleled
reviewing and greeting of all past worth, with exceptions, to be
sure,—but exceptions were the rule, before,—it was, indeed, to make
this the age of review writing, as if now one period of the human story
were completing itself; and getting its accounts settled. This soldier
has told the stories with new emphasis, and will be a memorable
hander-down of fame to posterity. And with what wise discrimination he
has selected his men, with reference both to his own genius and to
theirs:
Mahomet,—Dante,—Cromwell,—Voltaire,—Johnson,—Burns,—Goethe,—Richter,—Schiller,—Mirabeau;
could any of these have been spared? These we wanted to hear about. We
have not as commonly the cold and refined judgment of the scholar and
critic merely, but something more human and affecting. These eulogies
have the glow and warmth of friendship. There is sympathy not with mere
fames, and formless, incredible things, but with kindred men,—not
transiently, but life-long he has walked with them.

The attitude of some, in relation to Carlyle’s love of heroes, and men
of the sword, reminds us of the procedure at the anti-slavery meetings,
when some member, being warmed, begins to speak with more latitude than
usual of the Bible or the Church, for a few prudent and devout ones to
spring a prayer upon him, as the saying is; that is, propose suddenly to
unite in prayer, and so solemnize the minds of the audience, or dismiss
them at once; which may oftener be to interrupt a true prayer by most
gratuitous profanity. But the spring of this trap, we are glad to learn,
has grown somewhat rusty, and is not so sure of late.

No doubt, some of Carlyle’s worthies, should they ever return to earth,
would find themselves unpleasantly put upon their good behavior, to
sustain their characters; but if he can return a man’s life more perfect
to our hands, than it was left at his death, following out the design of
its author, we shall have no great cause to complain. We do not want a
Daguerreotype likeness. All biography is the life of Adam,—a
much-experienced man,—and time withdraws something partial from the
story of every individual, that the historian may supply something
general. If these virtues were not in this man, perhaps they are in his
biographer,—no fatal mistake. Really, in any other sense, we never do,
nor desire to, come at the historical man,—unless we rob his grave,
that is the nearest approach. Why did he die, then? _He_ is with his
bones, surely.

No doubt, Carlyle has a propensity to _exaggerate_ the heroic in
history, that is, he creates you an ideal hero rather than another
thing, he has most of that material. This we allow in all its senses,
and in one narrower sense it is not so convenient. Yet what were history
if he did not exaggerate it? How comes it that history never has to wait
for facts, but for a man to write it? The ages may go on forgetting the
facts never so long, he can remember two for every one forgotten. The
musty records of history, like the catacombs, contain the perishable
remains, but only in the breast of genius are embalmed the souls of
heroes. There is very little of what is called criticism here; it is
love and reverence, rather, which deal with qualities not relatively,
but absolutely great; for whatever is admirable in a man is something
infinite, to which we cannot set bounds. These sentiments allow the
mortal to die, the immortal and divine to survive. There is something
antique, even in his style of treating his subject, reminding us that
Heroes and Demi-gods, Fates and Furies, still exist, the common man is
nothing to him, but after death the hero is apotheosized and has a place
in heaven, as in the religion of the Greeks.

Exaggeration! was ever any virtue attributed to a man without
exaggeration? was ever any vice, without infinite exaggeration? Do we
not exaggerate ourselves to ourselves, or do we recognize ourselves for
the actual men we are? Are we not all great men? Yet what are we
actually to speak of? We live by exaggeration, what else is it to
anticipate more than we enjoy? The lightning is an exaggeration of the
light. Exaggerated history is poetry, and truth referred to a new
standard. To a small man every greater is an exaggeration. He who cannot
exaggerate is not qualified to utter truth. No truth we think was ever
expressed but with this sort of emphasis, so that for the time there
seemed to be no other. Moreover, you must speak loud to those who are
hard of hearing, and so you acquire a habit of shouting to those who are
not. By an immense exaggeration we appreciate our Greek poetry and
philosophy, and Egyptian ruins; our Shakspeares and Miltons, our liberty
and Christianity. We give importance to this hour over all other hours.
We do not live by justice, but by grace. As the sort of justice which
concerns us in our daily intercourse is not that administered by the
judge, so the historical justice which we prize is not arrived at by
nicely balancing the evidence. In order to appreciate any, even the
humblest man, you must first, by some good fortune, have acquired a
sentiment of admiration, even of reverence, for him, and there never
were such exaggerators as these. Simple admiration for a hero renders a
juster verdict than the wisest criticism, which necessarily degrades
what is high to its own level. There is no danger in short of saying too
much in praise of one man, provided you can say more in praise of a
better man. If by exaggeration a man can create for us a hero, where
there was nothing but dry bones before, we will thank him, and let
Dryasdust administer historical justice. This is where a true history
properly begins, when some genius arises, who can turn the dry and musty
records into poetry. As we say, looking to the future, that what is best
is truest, so, in one sense, we may say looking into the past, for the
only past that we are to look at, must also be future to us. The great
danger is not of excessive partiality or sympathy with one, but of a
shallow justice to many, in which, after all, none gets his deserts. Who
has not experienced that praise is truer than naked justice? As if man
were to be the judge of his fellows, and should repress his rising
sympathy with the prisoner at the bar, considering the many honest men
abroad, whom he had never countenanced.

To try him by the German rule of referring an author to his own
standard, we will quote the following from Carlyle’s remarks on history,
and leave the reader to consider how far his practice has been
consistent with his theory. “Truly, if History is Philosophy teaching by
experience, the writer fitted to compose history, is hitherto an unknown
man. The experience itself would require all knowledge to record it,
were the All-wisdom needful for such Philosophy as would interpret it,
to be had for asking. Better were it that mere earthly historians should
lower such pretensions, more suitable for omniscience than for human
science; and aiming only at some picture of the things acted, which
picture itself, will at best be a poor approximation, leave the
inscrutable purport of them an acknowledged secret; or, at most, in
reverent Faith, far different from that teaching of Philosophy, pause
over the mysterious vestiges of Him, whose path is in the great deep of
Time, whom history indeed reveals, but only all History and in Eternity,
will clearly reveal.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

Who lives in London to tell this generation who have been the great men
of our race? We have read that on some exposed place in the city of
Geneva, they have fixed a brazen indicator for the use of travelers,
with the names of the mountain summits in the horizon marked upon it,
“so that by taking sight across the index you can distinguish them at
once. You will not mistake Mont Blanc, if you see him, but until you get
accustomed to the panorama, you may easily mistake one of his court for
the king.” It stands there a piece of mute brass, that seems
nevertheless to know in what vicinity it is: and there perchance it will
stand, when the nation that placed it there has passed away, still in
sympathy with the mountains, forever discriminating in the desert.

So, we may say, stands this man, pointing as long as he lives, in
obedience to some spiritual magnetism, to the summits in the historical
horizon, for the guidance of his fellows.

Truly, our greatest blessings are very cheap. To have our sunlight
without paying for it, without any duty levied,—to have our poet there
in England, to furnish us entertainment, and what is better provocation,
from year to year, all our lives long, to make the world seem richer for
us, the age more respectable, and life better worth the living,—all
without expense of acknowledgment even, but silently accepted out of the
east, like morning light as a matter of course.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                                 APRIL.


    Now fitful clouds scud o’er the skies,
      And fairy showers patter by,
    And in the wood the low wind sighs,
      And shadows o’er the brown fields fly!
    Low fades the sun, then blazes out,
      Glinting on grass, and twig, and tree—
    Ah! April, boyish out and out,
      Now tears, and now all jollity!

                 *        *        *        *        *



                           MR. KERR MUDGEON.


                        OR “YOU WONT, WONT YOU?”


                           BY JOSEPH C. NEAL.


[Illustration]

There; now!

You see—do you not?—Nay, you may almost hear it, if you listen
attentively. Mr. Kerr Mudgeon—great many of the Kerr Mudgeons about, in
various places—but this Mr. Kerr Mudgeon—going to a party as he
was—desirous too, as people generally are on such occasions, of looking
particularly well—and all ready, to his own infinite satisfaction—all
ready except the final operation of putting on his bettermost coat—has
torn that important article of gentlemanly costume—one may work without
a coat, you know, and work all the easier for the relief; but it is not
altogether polite to leave it at home on a peg when you go to a party.
Torn his coat—not through his own fault, as Mr. Kerr Mudgeon would tell
you explicitly enough—he never is, never was, never can be in
fault—but because of that coat’s ill timed and provoking resistance to
the operation of being donned. The coat might have known—who is ever
thus to be trifled with in the process of dressing? Yes, the coat must
have known. Ah, coats and the makers of coats have much to answer for.
Kerr Mudgeon is ruffled, ruffles of this sort, causing a man to look
none the handsomer or the more amiable for the ruffle. Such ruffles are
not becoming.

“Ho! ho! wont go on, hey?” cried Mr. Kerr Mudgeon, and Mr. Kerr Mudgeon
panted and Mr. Kerr Mudgeon blew, on the high pressure principle, until
the steam of his wrath had reached its highest point.

It is a fearful moment with the Kerr Mudgeons, when it is manifest that
something must break—a blood vessel or the furniture, or the peace of
the commonwealth. Why will things animate and inanimate conspire to
bring about such a crisis? Kerr Mudgeons would be sweet tempered if you
would only permit them.

The coat positively refused to go on any further—the contumacious
raiment. What could Kerr Mudgeon do in such a strait of perverse broad
cloth?

“Tell me you wont go on,” muttered Kerr Mudgeon, setting his teeth, as a
rifleman sets his trigger; “I’ll make you go on, I will,” shouted he.—

There’s no such word as fail with Mr. Kerr Mudgeon. Something is sure to
be done when he is once fairly roused to the work. It is a rule of his
to combat like with like; and so—and so—stamping his foot
determinedly, and gathering all his forces for a grand demonstration
against the obstinacy of tight sleeves, he carried his point as he
proposed to carry it, by a rushing _coup de main_, to the material
detriment of the fabric.—But what of that? Was it not a victory for
Kerr Mudgeon? The coat had yielded to the force of his will; and if the
victory had been gained at cost, is it not always so with
victories?—Glory—is that to be had for nothing?—No—depreciate the
cost of glory, and pray tell me what becomes of glory?—It is glory no
longer. A luxury, to be a luxury, must be beyond the general reach—too
expensive for the millions—too costly for the masses.

“And now—ha! ha!—ho! ho!—he! he!—come off!” shrieked Mr. Kerr
Mudgeon; “Now you’ve done all the mischief you could, come off.” Kerr
Mudgeon divested himself of the fractured, but now humbled, penitent and
discomfitted coat, and following up his first success, like an able
tactician, he danced in a transport of joy upon its mangled fragments
and its melancholy remains. Ghastly moment of triumph o’er a foe. Alas,
Kerr Mudgeon be merciful to the vanquished when incapacitated for the
war.

But no—coolness comes not on the instant—not to the Kerr Mudgeons.
They have no relationship to the Kew Cumbers. They disdain the alliance;
and Mr. Kerr Mudgeon’s coat had been conquered only—not punished.

“That’s what you get by being obstinate,” added he, as he kicked the
expiring coat about the room, knocking down a lamp, upsetting an
inkstand, and doing sundry other minor pieces of mischief all of which,
of course, he charged to the account of the coat, as aforesaid—It was
coat’s fault altogether. Mr. Kerr Mudgeon is not naturally in a passion.
He would not have been in a passion had it not been for the coat—not
he—the coat was the incendiary cause; and we trust that every coat,
frock or body—sack-coat or any other of the infinite variety of coats
now in existence, with all other coats that are to be, may take timely
example and salutary warning from the doleful fate of Mr. Kerr Mudgeon’s
coat, that there may be no sewing of tares, and an exemption from rent.
A coat is never improved by participation in battle.

And this unhappy coat, which has thus fallen a victim to its incapacity
to adapt itself to the form and pressure of circumstances, is by no
means a singular case in the experience of Mr. Kerr Mudgeon. We mention
it rather as a symbol and as an emblem of the trials and vexations that
ambuscade his way through life, to vex him at unguarded moments and
shake him from his propriety. Boots, it will appear, have served him
just so, particularly on a warm morning when unusual effort fevers one
for the day. Did you ever see Kerr Mudgeon in a contest with his boots,
when the leather, like a sturdy sentinel, refused ingress to Kerr
Mudgeon’s heel and declared that there “was no admission” to the
premises, in despite of coaxings, of soap, and of the pulverizations of
soap-stone? If you never saw that sight, you ought to see it, before you
shuffle off this mortal coil—indeed you ought, as Kerr Mudgeon toils
and pants at the reluctant boots, in the vain effort “to grapple them to
his sole, with hooks of steel.” Then it is most especially that a Kerr
Mudgeon is “lovelily dreadful,” like ocean in a storm. Whether Salt
Petre will explode or not, just set the Kerr Mudgeons at a tight boot,
and you shall hear such explosions of tempestous wrath as were never
heard under other circumstances. The Gun Cotton is like lambs-wool in
the comparison, as Kerr Mudgeon hops about in a state of betweenity, the
boot half on, half off, declining either to go forward or to retreat. We
pity that boot should Kerr Mudgeon find a failure to his deep intent. It
has sufferings in store—a species of storage which is never agreeable.

Corks, too—did you ever dwell upon a Kerr Mudgeon endeavoring to
extract a cork, without the mechanical appliances of a screw? The
getting out of corks with one’s fingers is always more or less of a
trial. There is donkeyism in corks; and those that will yield a little,
are generally sure to break. Concession, conciliation, and compromise
demand under these circumstances, that if the cork will not come out, it
should be made to go in, to employ the ingenuity of future ages in
fishing it up with slip-knots and nooses. But Kerr Mudgeon with a
cork—he never, “Mr. Brown,” can be prevailed upon to “give it up so;”
not even if you find the cork-screw for him. Rather would he hurt his
hand, loosen his teeth, break his penknife or twist a fork into an
invalid condition, than allow himself to be ingloriously baffled by the
contemptible oppugnation and hostility of a cork and a bottle, thirsty
and impatient as he may be for the imbibation of the contents thereof.
If all else fail—Kerr Mudgeon enraged, and the bystanders in an agony
of nervousness at the scene—“smack” goes the bottle’s neck against a
table or “whack” over the back of a chair—“you wont, wont you!”—or in
the more protracted and aggravating case, “smash!” goes the whole bottle
to the wall, for the embellishment of paper hangings and the improvement
of carpeting—Victoria!

Something is always the matter, too, with the bureau when he would open
or shut a drawer.—Either it will not come out or it wont go in. That
drawer must take the consequences; and doors—lucky are they to escape a
fractured panel, if doors prove refractory, as doors sometimes
will.—Nobody can open a door so featly as a Kerr Mudgeon.

“You wont, wont you?” and so he appeals to the _ultima ratio regum_—the
last reasoning of Kings—which means as many of thumps, cuffs and kicks
as may be requisite to the purpose. It is a knock-down argument.

Pooh! pooh!—how you talk of the efficacy of the soft answer in the
turning away of wrath.—Nonsense, Mr. George Combe, that wrath to the
wrathful is only fuel to the flame. Mr. Kerr Mudgeon has no faith in
passive resistance and in other doctrines of that sort. Smite his cheek,
and then see what will come of the smitation. Go to him if you want “as
good as you give,” and you will be sure to obtain measure, exact, yea,
and running over.

And so Mr. Kerr Mudgeon has always a large stock of quarrel on hand,
unsettled and neat as imported—feuds everywhere, to keep him warm in
the winter season. A good hater is Mr. Kerr Mudgeon—a bramble bush to
scratch withal.

“Try to impose on me,” says Kerr Mudgeon, “I’d like to see ’em at it.
They’ll soon find I’m not afraid of anybody;” and he therefore seeks to
impress that fact with distinctness on everybody’s mind; and, in
consequence, if anybody has unexpended choler about him—a pet rage or
so, pent up, or a latent exasperation—make him acquainted with Kerr
Mudgeon, and observe the effect of the contact of such a spark as
Mudgeon with an inflammable magazine. Should you find yourself peevish
generally, and a little crusty or so, to those around you—primed, as it
were, for contention, should it be fairly offered, stop as you go to
business, at Kerr Mudgeon’s. He will accommodate you, and you will feel
much better afterward, you will—“calm as a summer morning,” as the
politicians have it.

Kerr Mudgeon rides; and his horse must abide a liberal application of
whip and spur, sometimes inducing it as a corollary—is a tumble to be
regarded as a corollary from the saddle?—inducing it as a corollary,
that Kerr Mudgeon must abide in the mire, with a fractured tibia or
fibia, as the case may be. “You wont, wont you?”— and there are horses
who don’t, when not able clearly to understand what is to be done. Now,
the horse swerves, and Kerr Mudgeon takes the lateral slide. Again the
steed bows—with politeness enough—and Kerr Mudgeon is a flying
phenomenon over his head—gracefully, like a spread-eagle in a fit of
enthusiasm. When he is _down_ he says he never gives _up_ to a horse.

Kerr Mudgeon delights also to quicken the paces of your lounging dog, by
such abrupt and sharp appeal to the feelings of the animal as occasion
may suggest; and often there is an interchange of compliment, biped and
quadrupedal, thus elicited, returning bites for blows, to square
accounts between human attack and canine indignation. Some dogs do not
appreciate graceful attentions and captivating endearments. “Dogs are so
revengeful,” says Kerr Mudgeon. His dogs always run away; “dogs are so
ungrateful, too,” quoth he.

Unfortunate Kerr Mudgeon!—What is to become of him until the world is
rendered more complaisant and acquiescent, prepared in all respects to
go his way?

In the street, he takes the straightest line from place to place, having
learnt from his schoolboy mathematics, that this is decidedly the
shortest method of going from place to place. And yet, how people jostle
him, first on the right hand and then on the left? Why do they not clear
the track for Kerr Mudgeon?

Then at the Post Office, in the hour of delivery.

Kerr Mudgeon wants his letters. What is more natural than that a man
should want his letters?

“Quit scrouging!” says somebody, as he knocks Mr. Kerr Mudgeon in the
ribs with his elbow.

“Wait for your turn!” cries somebody else, jostling Mr. Kerr Mudgeon on
the opposite ribs.

Still Kerr Mudgeon struggles through the press, resolved upon obtaining
his letters before other people obtain their letters, having his feet
trampled almost to a mummy, his garments disarranged, if not torn, and
in addition to bruises, perhaps losing his fifty dollar breast-pin, to
complete the harmony of the picture; but still obtaining his letters in
advance of his competitors—five minutes saved or thereabouts—what
triumph! what a victory! To be sure, after such a struggle, Mr. Kerr
Mudgeon consumes much more than the five minutes, in putting himself to
rights, and finds himself in a towering passion for an hour or two,
besides groaning for a considerable length of time over his bruises and
his losses, all of which might have been escaped by a few moments of
patience. But then the victory—“you wont, wont you?” Was Kerr Mudgeon
ever baffled by any species of resistance? Not he.

“People are such brutes,” says he; “no more manners than so many
pigs—try not to let me get my letters as soon as any of them, will
they? I’ll teach ’em that a Kerr Mudgeon is not to be trifled with—just
as good a right to be first as anybody; and I will be first, wherever I
go, cost what it may.”

We do not know that Kerr Mudgeon ever entered into a calculation as to
the profit and loss of the operation of the rule that governed his life
in intercourse with society. Indeed, we rather think not. But it is
probable that in the long run, it costs as much as it comes to, if it
does not cost a great deal more, thus to persist in having one’s own way
in every thing. In crossing the street now, when the black and fluent
mire is particularly abundant, Mr. Kerr Mudgeon insists upon the
flag-stones—“as good a right as anybody,” and thus pushes others into a
predicament unpleasant to their boots and detrimental to their blacking,
so that their understandings become clouded, as they lose all their
polish. In general, such a course as this does very well—but it will
sometimes happen, as it has happened, that two Kerr Mudgeons meet—the
hardest fend off—and thus our Kerr Mudgeon is toppled full length into
a bed much more soft than is altogether desirable, which vexes him.

Did you, of a rainy day, ever see Kerr Mudgeon incline his umbrella to
allow another umbrella to pass? We are sure you never did. Kerr
Mudgeon’s umbrella is as good as anybody’s umbrella, and will maintain
its dignity against all comers, though it has been torn to fragments by
the sharp points of other umbrellas, which thought themselves quite as
good as it could pretend to be—and so, Kerr Mudgeon got himself now and
then into a fray, to say nothing of suits for assault and battery,
gracefully and agreeably interspersed. Ho! ho! umbrellas!—“you wont,
wont you?”

Kerr Mudgeon walks with a cane—carries it horizontally under his arm,
muddy at the ferule perchance; and canes thus disposed, come awkwardly
in contact with the crossing currents of persons and costumes. But what
does he care for the soiled garments of the ladies or the angry
countenances of offended gentlemen? Is not Kerr Mudgeon with his cane,
as good as anybody else and his cane? Horizontally—he will wear it so.
That’s his way.

“The world don’t improve at all,” cries Kerr Mudgeon. “They may make
speeches about it, and pass resolutions by the bushel; but it is my
candid opinion that it grows obstinater and obstinater every day. It
never yields an inch, and a man has to push, and to scramble, and to
fight forever to make any headway for himself—black and blue more than
half the time. Every day shoots up all over rumpuses and rowses. But,
never mind—the world needn’t flatter itself that it’s a going to
conquer Kerr Mudgeon and to put him down too, as it does other people.
Kerr Mudgeon knows his rights—Kerr Mudgeon is as good as anybody else.
Kerr Mudgeon will fight till he dies. He was never made to yield, and he
never intends to yield, so long as his name is Kerr Mudgeon. It’s a good
name—never disgraced by movements of the knuckle-down character, and
I’m determined to carry on the war just as all the Mudgeons did that
went before me. If a horse kicks me, I’ll kick him back; and I wouldn’t
get out of the way, like Mr. Daniel Tucker in the song, if a thirty-two
pound shot was coming up the street, or a locomotive was a whizzin’ down
the road. Stand up straight—that’s my motto. Give ’em as good as they
can bring; that’s the doctrine; and while a single bit of Kerr Mudgeon
remains—while any of his bones hang together, that’s him squaring off
right in the centre of the track, ready for you, with his coat buttoned
up and a fist in each of his hands.”

Kerr Mudgeon’s face is settled grimly into the aspect of habitual
defiance. His brows are forever knitting, not socks or mittens, but
frowns, and his mouth is knotted like a rope. When he looks around, it
seems to be an inquiry, as to whether any gentleman present is disposed
to pugilistic encounter,—if so, he can be accommodated; and the whole
disposition of his garments indicates contention—war to the knife.

Kerr Mudgeon complains that he has no friends, and is beginning to stand
solitary and alone, with but a dreary prospect before him, in a world
that grows “obstinater and obstinater every day;” and he has yet to
learn, if such learning should ever penetrate through the armor of
hostility wherewith he is begirt, that perhaps, if we desire to have a
smooth and easy time of it, we must ourselves begin by being smooth and
easy. The belligerent ever meets with belligerents. There’s no
difficulty about that. There is a sufficiency of war in every
atmosphere, if you are disposed to condense it upon yourself; and no one
eager to enjoy the pleasure, need wander far in search of quarrels. Kerr
Mudgeon finds them everywhere—“rumpuses and rowses”—But it is a shrewd
doubt whether one’s general comfort is greatly promoted by the
aggravation of rudeness and roughness. It is easier to bend a little to
inclement blasts, than to be snapped off by perpendicular
resistance—easier to go round an obstacle than to destroy your temper
and your clothing, in the exhausting effort to clamber over it; and it
may be said of every quarrel in which Kerr Mudgeonism is engaged, that
probably both parties are in fault, though Kerr Mudgeonism is in all
likelihood, the responsible party.

Yet, “you wont, wont you?” is a great temptation to combativeness and
destructiveness. Is it not, all ye people of the Kerr Mudgeon
temperament?

                 *        *        *        *        *

[Illustration: Painted by Frankenstein       Engraved by A. W. Graham

PITTSBURG
Engraved expressly for Graham’s Magazine]

                 *        *        *        *        *



                              PITTSBURGH.


                            BY E. M. SIDNEY.


    As some vast heart that high in health
      Beats in its mighty breast,
    So, to and fro, thy living wealth
      Throbs through the boundless West.
    Thy keels the broad Ohio plow,
      Or seek the Atlantic main;
    Thy fabrics find the Arctic snow,
      Or reach Zahara’s plain!

    Toil on, huge Cyclop as thou art,
      Though grimed with dust and smoke,
    And breathing with convulsive start—
      There’s music in each stroke!
    What if the stranger smirch and soil
      Upon thy forehead sees?
    Better the wealth of honest toil
      Than of ignoble ease!

    And yet thou’rt beautiful—a queen
      Throned on her royal seat!
    All glorious in emerald sheen,
      Where thy fair waters meet.
    And when the night comes softly down,
      And the moon lights the stream,
    In the mild ray appears the town,
      The city of a dream!

                 *        *        *        *        *



                          ABROAD AND AT HOME.


      BY F. E. F., AUTHOR OF “AARON’S ROD,” “PRIZE STORIES,” ETC.


    _Ros._ Farewell, Monsieur traveler: Look you, lisp, and wear
    strange suits; disable all the benefits of your own country; be
    out of love with your nativity, and almost chide God for making
    you that countenance you are; or I will scarce think you have
    swam in a gondola.     AS YOU LIKE IT.

“I did not see you at the opera, last night, Mrs. Fielding,” said Miss
Collingwood.

“No,” replied the other, “I was not there. How were you pleased?”

“Oh, delighted!” returned the young lady, with animation. “It is an
excellent company. The _tenore_ has a superb voice, and the _prima
donna_ is charming. And everybody was there. You mean to go to-morrow, I
suppose?”

“No,” said Mrs. Fielding; “the last time I heard that opera was in
Paris. Lablache, Tamburini and Persiani sang; and I cannot bear to
destroy the illusion by seeing it here. When one has been abroad, and
heard music in such perfection, it spoils one for all one can get in
this country.”

This was said in such a tone of superiority, that Miss Collingwood was a
little dashed; but she replied,

“Oh, we cannot expect Lablache and Persiani; but still, this is an
excellent company.”

“I’m told they are very tolerable,” replied Mrs. Fielding, in the same
languid, supercilious manner. “But music, I think, should know no
mediocrity. Now, in Paris, you have every thing in such perfection!
There was nothing I enjoyed so much while I was abroad, as the opera.
Persiani is an exquisite creature! And Lablache—what a voice! And
Tamburini!” And Mrs. Fielding rolled up her eyes in an ecstasy, quite
breathless and overcome by her recollections. “I don’t think,” she
continued “I could bear hearing the same music sung by second-rate, or
probably third or fourth-rate _artistes_, which I presume these people
are. They are from Havana, I believe?”

“Yes,” answered Miss Collingwood, now quite ashamed of the enthusiasm
with which she had first spoken of them, and almost thankful she had not
mentioned the “season tickets,” she had been before on the point of
announcing with such pride and delight. “We had a very full house,” she
continued, however, too full of the subject to desist from it
altogether, though not daring to dwell upon the music any longer.
“Everybody, you know, was there; and I am told every seat in the house
is engaged for to-morrow.”

“Is it possible!” exclaimed Mrs. Fielding. “How these people do succeed
here! Poor wretches, that can scarce get an engagement at one of the
third or fourth-rate theatres abroad, have nothing to do but to come to
this country to make their fortunes.”

“But Mr. Livingston told me that he had heard Signora D. in Paris, at
the Grand Italian Opera,” replied Miss Collingwood, plucking up a little
courage.

“He never heard her in the world, at the Grand Italian Opera,” replied
Mrs. Fielding, as decidedly as if she had kept the run of all the operas
and prima donnas from the beginning. “She sang some ten or fifteen years
ago, at the French opera, the Opera _Comique_, which is quite a
different affair; but that, as I say, was ten or fifteen years ago—and
fifteen years is the life of an opera singer. She is quite _passée_ now,
and could not, at the present time, get an engagement at even one of the
minor theatres in Paris.”

“She has a beautiful voice,” persisted Miss Collingwood, “and sings with
exquisite taste and execution.”

“Oh,” replied Mrs. Fielding, raising her shoulders with what was meant
for a French shrug, “she is the _debris_ of a good singer, I admit. Her
style must be correct ever to have sung even at the Opera _Comique_. All
of course we can expect in this country, are those whose best days are
gone abroad.”

“Did you see much of the Falconers, when you were abroad, Mrs.
Fielding?” resumed Miss Collingwood, glad to turn the conversation from
music, which she was all but told she had no opportunity or possibility
of understanding.

“I merely met them,” replied Mrs. Fielding, in a somewhat slighting
manner. “They were in no society, you know,” she continued, as if the
inferior circle in which they moved was such as to prevent their coming
in contact with herself, who was of course in a very different
atmosphere.

“Indeed!” said Miss Collingwood, with much interest and curiosity in her
manner; “we heard here that they were in a good deal of society. Mrs.
Falconer told me they were at a concert at Prince B.’s, where they saw
the countess G. and Lady A. and all the great people; and they were
presented at court—and—I don’t know where they were not.”

“Oh, my dear!” ejaculated Mrs. Fielding, as if too much amused by their
assurance to utter more on the instant.

“But was it not so?” pursued Miss Collingwood.

“They may have been at a charity concert at the Prince B.’s,” replied
Mrs. Fielding; “I think it very probable—for these poor nobles are very
glad to sell tickets on such occasions to any one who can afford to buy
them; and, indeed, they prefer Americans, as people they never can come
in contact with again. But in no other way, I assure you, could they
ever have been at the Prince B.’s. As to being presented at court,
anybody can—that is, I mean, who takes letters to our Ambassador. Poor
Mr. L., I used to pity him, for the people he was obliged to present! I
do assure you, one often blushes for one’s countrymen abroad!” continued
Mrs. Fielding. “Such looking, such dressed creatures as they are! And
talking so loud, too! And it is so difficult to make foreigners
understand that these vulgarians are not first class Americans. I have
often tried to explain it; but I seldom found Europeans, even of the
highest rank, who understood our society.”

“But that would not apply to the Falconers,” persisted Miss Collingwood.
“They had as much right to good society abroad as anybody.”

“Perhaps so,” replied Mrs. Fielding; “I did not mean them, particularly.
But, my dear Miss Collingwood, it amuses me to hear these people talk of
the society they were in abroad. Now, they were in no society at all.
It’s not the easy matter to get in society in Europe, that it is in this
country. People do not throw their doors open to Americans, I assure
you, unless, indeed, under very extraordinary circumstances.”

“But I understood the Falconers had excellent letters,” continued Miss
Collingwood; “and, then, their fortune would give them every facility,
you know, that could be desired.”

“Letters!” repeated Mrs. Fielding, contemptuously. “It does amuse me to
hear you Americans talk of letters. I should like to know who has a
right to give them! They might as well have taken so much waste paper
abroad! And, as to their fortune! What is an American fortune in
Europe!” continued Mrs. Fielding, warmly, (for her husband’s means were
quite limited;) just enough to make them conspicuous without being
sufficient to give them consequence! “Of all the people one meets
traveling, there are none so ridiculed or ridiculous as our
millionaires, who think their money must carry them through every thing.
They are cheated and fleeced, and laughed at by the very people who are
cheating them. No, my dear Miss Collingwood, I don’t deny that it is a
very pleasant thing to have money abroad, as well as at home; but don’t
suppose that it is going to give you any _consequence_ there. In a
polished society like that, education, accomplishments, personal
qualifications, are all an American can hope to rest any claim upon at
all. Now, I don’t mean to say that we had any superior claims of any
kind; but, owing to some circumstances, we saw society that few
Americans are ever admitted in. My mother’s English relatives treated us
with the utmost kindness, and through Sir Frederick T., we really had
opportunities that were very gratifying, of seeing every thing that was
desirable. We could not have traveled under more delightful auspices.”

This was said with an air of careless modesty, as if announcing a fact
about which there was no dispute.

“How charming it must have been!” exclaimed Miss Collingwood. “And did
you really find the higher classes so superior to ours, Mrs. Fielding?”

“Oh, my dear!” ejaculated Mrs. Fielding, “unfortunately there’s no
question about it! I sometimes almost regret our visit to Europe, on
that account. It does spoil one so for home.”

While she was still speaking, the Falconers entered. They and Mrs.
Fielding had not met (being residents of different cities) since their
return from Europe. They greeted each other with great cordiality, and
were, during the first few minutes of their interview, so occupied with
what really seemed the pleasure of seeing each other, that Miss
Collingwood, the lady on whom they were calling, seemed in a fair way of
being forgotten. After having, however, inquired and taken the address
of the Falconers, Mrs. Fielding took her leave of the party. After a few
minutes’ general conversation, Miss Collingwood said,

“I observed you at the opera, last night, Miss Falconer; how were you
pleased?”

“Very well,” replied the young lady. “It is not a first-rate company, of
course—but very fair.”

“I am glad to hear you say so,” replied Miss Collingwood, eagerly, “for
it struck me as such; but Mrs. Fielding spoke of its being so very
inferior, that I supposed I must be mistaken. Indeed, I take it for
granted, that hearing such music as she has heard at the opera, in
Paris, must make one fastidious.”

Miss Falconer smiled as she replied,

“I don’t think Mrs. Fielding heard music enough at the Italian Opera, in
Paris, to spoil her for any she may hear in this country.”

“Why,” returned Miss Collingwood, with the sudden expression of one who
has caught a new light, “she tells me she has heard Lablache, Tamburini,
Persiani, &c.”

“Of course,” replied Miss Falconer. “Everybody hears them once or twice.
But what is it to hear an opera once?”

“But why only once or twice?” inquired Miss Collingwood.

“It’s so expensive,” replied Miss Falconer. “I forget what our box cost
us—but something enormous. I know papa said it was one of our principal
expenses in Paris. And the Fieldings, you know, are in very moderate
circumstances. I doubt whether Mrs. Fielding was ever a second time at
the Grand Opera. The minor French theatres are cheap enough; but to hear
these great singers repeatedly, really costs a young fortune. Indeed,
Mrs. Fielding,” she continued, laughing, “may go and hear this company
with profit, if not pleasure; for she knows nothing of music. It was the
_spectacle_, I do believe, she enjoyed, more than the music, when she
was there.”

“She seems to have enjoyed her visit to Europe excessively,” returned
Miss Collingwood.

“Yes, so she says,” replied the other; “and I am surprised at it, too.”

“Indeed! Why so?”

“Oh, they traveled with no advantages; and I should not think there was
much pleasure in seeing merely the outside of places.”

“But I understood they had peculiar advantages,” persisted Miss
Collingwood; “particularly with regard to society. Their cousin, Sir
Frederick T., was very kind to them.”

“I know—they are forever talking of Sir Frederick T. But, after all,
who is Sir Frederick T.? A mere country baronet! The idea of his
introducing American cousins, is amusing!”

Miss Collingwood laughed.

“You throw quite a new light on the subject, Miss Falconer. Here Mrs.
Fielding has been quite dazzling poor simple me, who took it all for
gospel. She really made me feel as if I knew nothing of either music,
men or manners. I was ignorant enough to suppose that Sir Frederick T.
or sir anybody could introduce whoever they pleased.”

“It’s just as much as those people, the poorer branches of the nobility,
I mean, can do to keep their own footing,” replied Miss Falconer, “let
alone bringing in American relations. On the Continent, if you have
money, the thing is easier. Democracy and poverty have made greater
strides there. The golden key is a _passée partout_ in Paris. Without
it, to be sure, there is little to be enjoyed; with it, much, indeed.”

“Did you see much of the Fieldings, abroad?” inquired Miss Collingwood,
amused, and curious to hear what version Miss Falconer would give of the
acquaintance with her country people in Europe.

“No,” she replied. “It was such a journey to get up to their rooms in
Paris, that I only called a few times. Climbing those Parisian stairs is
no small exertion, I assure you, without you are really interested in
the people you are visiting.”

“I was asking Mrs. Fielding if it was not a fatiguing way of living, but
she said, ‘No—that you become so accustomed to it, that you never think
of it, and that, though her apartments were _au troisième_, she lived in
such a state of excitement she was not conscious of undergoing more
fatigue than when at home.’”

“Her apartments _au troisième_!” exclaimed Miss Falconer, laughing
heartily. “Now, Miss Collingwood, did Mrs. Fielding really speak of
being _au troisième_—are you sure?”

“Yes, certain. Why—were they not? I thought everybody lived somewhere
between heaven and earth, in Paris,” said Miss Collingwood.

“To be sure they do,” replied Miss Falconer; “and the Fieldings were
considerably nearer heaven than earth. Why, _we_ were _au troisième_.
The Fieldings were _au hautième_, just under the roof; the very attics,
I believe, for I am sure there could not possibly have been another
story above. I know I never climbed so high in my life, except when I
went up Mount Vesuvius, as I did when I called to see the Fieldings. I
should think they must be glad to be home, to some of the comforts of
life, again.”

“But I thought Paris was such a cheap place,” continued Miss
Collingwood.

“Cheap! Yes, so it is, if you are willing to live as Parisians
live—that is, with no luxuries, and scarce any comforts. I suppose you
can live cheap here, if you take attic rooms, with hardly any furniture,
and eat in all sorts of odd places. That is the way half the French
people live, and Americans can do it too, if they please, abroad—which
they cannot do at home. Pleasures are cheap, to be sure; that is, of the
inferior sort. But I should say there was scarce enough to compensate
people accustomed to a different style of living, in French vaudevilles
and street amusements, for such sacrifices.”

“Hardly,” replied Miss Collingwood; “but how is it, then, that you are
so delighted with Europe?”

“Why, in the first place, we don’t _all_ live exactly in the way I have
described. You can have luxuries and comforts too, beside exquisite
pleasures, if you please to pay for them. But then the expense is
enormous.” And so Miss Falconer continued to let Miss Collingwood know
that what she had been saying only applied to other Americans, not to
themselves at all. “And, moreover,” she continued, “there is much of
excitement and novelty abroad, that carries one through a great deal.
And perhaps most of us think it was pleasanter in looking back than it
was in the reality. I dare say Mrs. Fielding actually believes she
enjoyed herself excessively. But I should say the pleasantest part of
her trip was the getting home,” she added, smiling.

“Then you do not think she need be spoilt for America, by all she has
seen abroad?” pursued Miss Collingwood.

“She spoilt! No, indeed!” replied Miss Falconer. “I don’t deny that
there is a great deal to be enjoyed there, that can’t be enjoyed at
home. But I think Mrs. Fielding may enjoy a great deal at home, she
certainly never enjoyed abroad.” And so saying, Miss Falconer rose and
bid Miss Collingwood good morning.

“It’s very strange,” observed Miss Collingwood, afterward, to her
sister, “that so few Americans give the same story of themselves and
each other abroad. They all tell you that they only were in society, and
that others were not. It is really amusing to hear them. I wonder, now,
who tells the truth, the Fieldings or the Falconers?”

“Both, and—neither,” replied her sister, laughing.

“How so?”

“They tell truth of each other, but not of themselves. I mean,”
continued the younger Miss Collingwood.

“That may be it!” exclaimed Miss Collingwood. “_That_ never occurred to
me before. And then, how they all talk of being ‘spoilt for this
country,’ by their travels.”

“So they are,” rejoined the younger sister—“truly spoilt. How few of
them you find return really improved! They are spoilt, though not from
excess of fastidious refinement, but from absurd airs. Of all things, I
dread hearing, ‘When I was abroad.’ I am always sure some absurd
impertinence is coming. Then the fine acquaintances they all have; when,
depend upon it, they know nobody who is anybody. There’s Mrs. Ashland,
who wont let you admire even a beauty she don’t happen to fancy; but
she’ll tell you, ‘It is such an American taste;’ or, ‘In this country
you don’t understand this, that and the other.’ Ah! that ‘In this
country,’ is the worst of all. Just as if ‘_this_ country’ was not their
country! And then, if they have only been in Paris a fortnight, they are
omnipotent on fashions for the rest of their days.”

“But, surely,” resumed the elder sister, “there must be a great deal
that is improving and delightful in foreign travel.”

“I have no doubt,” replied the other, “that there is a great deal to be
enjoyed, as Miss Falconer says; and a great deal to be suffered, too,”
she added, laughing, “if the whole truth were known. Much to be learnt,
too. Intelligent, well-educated people, find pleasure everywhere—a
great deal, no doubt, abroad—and, as Miss Falconer says, more in
getting home. One thing, I am sure of, however. I never found anybody
who _had improved abroad, who was spoilt for home_.”

                 *        *        *        *        *



                        THE STATUE IN THE SNOW.


                          BY J. BAYARD TAYLOR.


    Numb and chill the Savoyard wandered
      By the banks of frozen Seine,
    Oft, to cheer his sinking spirit,
      Singing low some mountain strain.

    But, beside the wintry river,
      Rose the songs of green Savoy,
    Sadder than ’mid Alpine valleys,
      Sung by many a shepherd boy!

    From the bleak and distant Vosges
      Swept the snowy whirlwind down,
    Flinging wide its shifting mantle
      Over slope and meadow brown.

    Like a corpse, the silent landscape
      Lay all stark and icy there,
    And a chill and ghostly terror
      Seemed to load the leaden air.

    Still that shivering boy went forward,
      Though his heart within him died,
    When the dreary night was closing
      Dull around the desert wide.

    Sobbing wild in lonely sorrow,
      On his numb cheek froze the tear;
    And his footstep, faint and weary,
      Heeded not the gathering fear!

    Through the desolate northern twilight,
      To his home-sick pining, rose
    Visions of the flashing glaciers,
      Lifted in sublime repose.

    Horns of Alp-herds rang in welcome,
      And his mother kissed her boy!—
    Back his bounding heart was hurried
      From the vales of dear Savoy!

    For, amid the sinking darkness,
      Colder, chillier, blew the snows,
    Till but faint and moaning whispers
      From his stiffening lips arose.

    Then beside the pathway kneeling,
      Folded he his freezing hands,
    While the blinding snows were drifted
      Like the desert’s lifted sands.

    As in many an old cathedral,
      Curtained round with solemn gloom,
    One may see a marble cherub
      Kneeling on a marble tomb!

    With his face to heaven upturning,
      For the dead he seems to pray,
    While the organ o’er him thunders,
      And the incense curls away!

    Thus he knelt, all pale and icy,
      When the storm at midnight passed,
    And the silver lamps of heaven
      Burned above the pausing blast.

    In that starry-roofed cathedral
      Knelt the cherub form in prayer,
    While the smoke from snowy censers
      Drifted upward through the air.

    Though no organ’s grand vibration
      Shook the winds that lingered near,
    Think ye not the hymns of angels
      Trembled on his dying ear?

                 *        *        *        *        *



                         A COQUETTE CONQUERED.


                   OR THE TRIALS OF A HEART OF PRIDE.


                          BY JAMES S. WALLACE.


                               CHAPTER I.

                     “——I know he doth deserve
             As much as may be yielded to a man:
             But nature never framed a woman’s heart
             Of prouder stuff than that of Beatrice;
             Disdain and scorn hide sparkling in her eyes,
             Misprising what they look on: she cannot love,
             Nor take no shape, nor project of affection,
             She is so self-endeared.”
                                               —SHAKSPEARE.

“There was a sound of revelry by night”—music and the dance—the
twin-born daughters of fashionable enjoyment presided o’er the scene.
Amy Laverty shone like a blaze of beauty; it was almost impossible for a
casual observer to decide in what particular grace or elegance she so
excelled her compeers as to queen it over all. One admired the glossy
ringlets, which fell in profusion over a brow and neck which would have
defied the pencils of Inman or Sully, or the chisel of Powers; another,
the intellectuality which beamed from her full eye, “soft as when the
blue sky trembles through a cloud of purest white.” Each beauty of
feature and of form had its admirer, and though all differed as to her
style of charms, still opinion was unanimous as to her transcendant
perfection.

Rich in all these profuse gifts of nature’s bestowing, the world had
likewise been bountiful in its distribution of favors. Her parents were
wealthy, and her life flowed on in one unbroken stream of careless,
ceaseless pleasure. Scene after scene in the drama of life passed before
her, heightened in its fairy, dream-like influence, by the continual
good-humor and complacency of both the actors and auditors. The gilding
and tinsel, which irised every view, and which that skillful artist,
Fashion, presented with ever-varying hue, concealed the misshapen mass
on which the coloring was laid. Art caused the plain canvas of life to
glow with gaudy tints, and luxury, with unsparing hand, laid on her
rainbow pigments.

All was gay and joyous in the mansion of Mr. Laverty, on the night when
Amy entered her eighteenth year. A splendid ball, unrivaled in
brilliancy even in that _recherché_ circle, had brought together the
young and beautiful. The glare had attracted the fluttering insect and
the ephemera of fashion, as well as those whose positions in society
gave them the entrée where “exclusiveness” set her potent seal. Amid the
wreath of loveliness which graced the apartments, the fairest flower was
Amy; to the stately grandeur of the dahlia she added the softest
delicacy of the rose—the air seemed redolent of gaiety where’er she
moved, and the beaming joyousness of her smile won hearts in adoration.

And yet, was this bright, this gifted girl entirely happy? The world
called her so, in its hollow acceptation of the term; she thought
herself so. But there was a canker beneath all this brightness. An
overbearing pride—a dependence on wealth and flattery for happiness,
was all-essential to her existence. She was surrounded by all that
fortune and its attendant luxuries could give, and yet something was
wanting—it was a heart to love or contract a friendship—it was that
sacred mellowing of our natures, which experience of salutary chastening
alone can impart. The sunbeam of the world does not produce this
ripeness of heart, clouds and gloom will best mature it; like the
perfumed shrub, which is scentless until crushed, so from the soul most
deeply wrung by wo, rises the incense most grateful to divinity. Though
Amy dwelt in a paradise of the world’s planting—amid it a demon was
stalking—an insatiate fiend, whose presence was death to true
happiness—the same which tempted our first parents to transgress, and
this was—pride!

“He really looks well to-night—a more manly form I never saw,”
whispered a fair young friend to Amy.

“Yes, he is passable,” was her reply, “but, then, _who is he_?
Nobody—his father I am told is a small farmer in the interior of
Lancaster county, and a certain proportion of the yearly proceeds of the
dairy and the stock is exclusively set apart, I suppose, to enable my
young gentleman to pursue his studies at the University here.”

“Really—quite a pity!” was all the “exclusive” young lady could drawl
out in reply.

“And would you believe it,” continued Amy, “he has had the assurance to
interpret a little past politeness of mine into something more tender,
and has actually dared to tell me that he loved me!”

“Really—how sentimental! He is quite romantic for a clodpole,” was
again drawled out in response.

The hands of both the ladies were now claimed for quadrilles, and the
conversation was interrupted. In the mean time the object of their
remarks was leaning against the folding-door of the apartment, and
contemplating with an abstracted air, the gay group around him. And yet
Henry Stanton was not of a disposition to allow pleasure to fleet away
without claiming his allotted share. But now thought was burning within
him, and he felt that a decisive moment had arrived in his destiny. He
loved Amy Laverty deeply and purely. Unaccustomed to the frivolities of
the world of fashion, and judging only from his own ardent impulses, he
fancied that he had discovered an answering chord in Amy’s heart which
vibrated to the tone of his own. He knew not the difference between the
conventional politeness of the ball-room, and those purer feelings which
can be nurtured only by the fire-side. Stanton was skilled in the lore
of books, but not in the inexplicable mysteries of the human heart.
Being, however, of a decided disposition, and having resolved to woo, he
determined without delay to make a more explicit declaration of his
attachment to Amy.

He accordingly embraced the first opportunity which transpired, during
the evening, to draw the fair girl into a favorable train of
conversation, and reiterated his love in that style of mingled deference
and fervor, which always gushes to the lips from the promptings of a
manly heart. Amy listened in silence, and as he ceased, her clear,
silvery laugh rang in his startled ear, as she exclaimed:—

“Really, Mr. Stanton, the repetition of this honor is so unexpected,
that I am at a loss how to reply, or how to thank you. What jointure,
besides a green-vegetable stall in High Street Market, to retail your
papa’s cabbages, and your mamma’s cream-cheeses, am I to expect with
your hand and heart?”

Stanton, for a moment, felt a death-like chill curdle his blood; but
reassuring himself, he replied calmly, and with the impressiveness of
deep feeling: “I could bring you nothing, Miss Laverty, but an honest
name; talents, which friends are partial enough to say I possess, and
the ardent aspirations, which are the heritage of young manhood’s
resolution to win its way to honorable distinction in a profession,
which has been adorned by the proudest names in the world’s annals.”

“Well, sir,” said the proud beauty, with a toss of the head, “you offer
lavishly of your abundance! In works of charity, I grant you, fair sir,
your mite would be recorded with the millionaire’s ostentatious
subscription, but Amy Laverty’s heart is not a ‘poor-box,’ to receive
with equal gratitude either which may be offered. No, I prefer equipage,
and an establishment which shall be the envy of all, in actual
possession, to your slow accumulation of legal fees in abeyance—and so,
Mr. Attorney, you are answered à la Blackstone! But don’t despond, Mr.
Stanton, nor revolve over any of the dozen schemes of suicide which the
alternate flush and pallor of your cheeks tell me you are meditating. I
can be a generous friend, if not your devoted affianced, and my waist is
yours for the next waltz, although I see one approaching to ask the
favor, who thinks his money can buy a claim to it, as his father did
military bounty-lands during the last war.”

They joined the whirl of dancers. Amy waltzed like a sylph. It does not
require heart to waltz well. Stanton admired her graceful postures, and
twined with her the mazes of the voluptuous dance; but the spell of the
enchantress was broken—he was heart-whole and free. He could, as a
young and ardent lover, have forgiven any personal slight; but the cold
sneer upon the quiet and unostentatious occupation of his parents,
wounded him to the quick. When they separated for the night he had taken
his first lesson—read the first leaf in the mysterious volume of
woman’s heart, and he gleaned wisdom from its perusal. The midnight
lamps may assist lovers as well as law-students in the prosecution of
their respective occult sciences. The chandelier irradiates the volume
of human nature, as does the taper the intricacies of Coke upon
Littleton.


                              CHAPTER II.

                      Yes,—maidens, fair or brown,
                        Lofty or lowly.
                      Light as the thistle down,
                        As cypress holy—
                      When poets whisper near,
                        Go join the dancers;
                      And turn a stony ear
                        To all romancers.
                                     —JAMES SMITH.

              Why should I toil in such a fruitless cause,
              To serve a flirt, who only heeds the laws
                That folly and caprice suggest?
                                                  —BERNAL.

Four years had flown by. All Washington had assembled at the grand gala
ball, which celebrated the re-election of Gen. Jackson to the
Presidential chair. From every part of the Union, wealth, beauty and
talent seemed to meet in this common centre of attraction; and the
family of Mr. Laverty, the rich Philadelphia merchant, formed one of the
most important integers of the great unit, Fashion.

Amy was lovelier far, than when we saw her last. Every petal of the bud
had unfolded—she was radiant as the very impersonation of beauty’s
self—her mien was queen-like—her arched brow and forehead had been
sung as the ebon bow of Cupid reposing on a tablet of alabaster. Amid
the gay revel, every eye was turned upon her. Ladies pronounced her
stiff and formal, while the gentlemen protested that “Venus, when she
rose, fresh from the soft creation of the wave, was not more beautiful!”

Amy must have possessed charms of no common order, or this unanimity of
the female censure would have been destroyed. Panegyric, on the part of
gentlemen, is not so certain a criterion, for we have known Sheridan
Knowles drawn upon for a comparison, as above, when Shakspeare’s
“starved executors, the greedy crows,” would have been more apposite,
and have heard Moore quoted—

        Why doth azure deck the sky
        But to be like thine eye of blue,

and applied to the veriest green gooseberry optics ever saw! Such
comparisons, if not “odorous,” as Mrs. Malaprop would have them, are
nevertheless generally picked from the most forced hot-beds in the
garden of compliment, and loom large, like the sunflower, with a special
care always to face about to the rising beams of the sun of riches or
fashion.

“I believe, Miss Laverty, I have engaged the pleasure of your hand for
the next set?” said the gay, noble and fine-looking Frank Pennant,
coming up to the belle of the ball-room.

“Certainly, sir, with all my heart,” was the reply, as she rose.

“Fortunate dog that I am—then I have both your hand and your heart,”
laughed Frank.

A slight sigh escaped Amy. Why? Was she in love? Was the place where her
heart ought to have been, touched? “Nous verrons,” as the politicians
quote from the venerable father of the trans-Mason and Dixon line press.

“Others might sigh, my dear Miss Laverty,” continued Frank, as he was
leading Amy to their place in a cotillion, “for such a confession as you
made just now! He will indeed be a happy man, who asks your hand for the
grand promenade of life, and receives it with all your heart!”

“Do _you_ think so, Mr. Pennant?” archly asked Amy, with a glance from
her eye, which might have made Diogenes turn his tub bottom upward, to
hide himself under—“why, when you ask it, it would be almost heresy to
refuse.”

“Upon my word, Miss Laverty!—are you sharp-shooting, or do you mean to
canonize me? Heresy to refuse me! Why, my catalogue of rejections rivals
in length that of an old operatic friend, Don Juan’s conquests! Through
all the grades in the navy, up to my present rank, I have been tossed to
and fro by bright eyes and obdurate hearts, like a nautical shuttlecock,
by the battledores of the fair sex! One has disliked my long
voyages—the other my short pay; one has had a soul above a middy, and
passed me with a cut direct, just as I was entered ‘passed’ by the
commissioners—another left me, it being a losing game to love a simple
lieutenant; while another—ah! she would have eloped with me to the
world’s end, at the risk of the rope’s end, if I had but been a poor
cabin boy, with a touch of the romantic in my disposition; whereas,
unfortunately, that very day the President had promoted me, by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate! So you see fate, professional
promotion, the President and Congress, have all been against me, and I
have been declined as often as any common noun in the entire language!”

“But now, Mr. Pennant,” interrupted Amy, “as you have attached yourself
to me—”

“Attached myself! My dear Miss Laverty, how could I help it? Are we
not,—we poor devils, all and singular, the captives that swell your
triumph? Look, now, at Walton, how he eyes me, half cannibalish, half
wolfish, because I have unconsciously retained your hand after the last
balancez! Excuse me!”

“Come, Mr. Pert, don’t interrupt me. I was about to say—as you have
attached yourself to our party for the last three weeks, and have been
trying to make yourself exceedingly agreeable in my eyes, I shall demand
that you report to me in future, and I will prevent you from being
entangled in any of the labyrinths of our sex’s wiles or whims!”

“Will you, indeed! What a sweet Ariadne!”

“I can give you the clue to escape the monsters!”

“And entangle me yourself, at last,—to weave a web and detain me for
your own amusement, I trust!”

“Nay, Frank!—pray excuse me, Mr. Pennant; I did not mean—do you really
wish that I may entangle you in any web I may have the skill to weave?”

“Well, my dear Miss Laverty,” replied Pennant, “three weeks have glided
away very delightfully in your meshes, and I am free to confess the
silken bondage pleases me. I love a flirtation, where no heart can be
broken! I like to tilt against breasts of adamant, and shiver the spears
of repartee against the solid barrier!”

“And judge you, I have a heart of adamant, Mr. Pennant?”

“I have been told so, Miss Laverty.”

“And pray, by whom?”

“My old friend and class-fellow, Harry Stanton.”

“Henry Stanton!”

“Yes, you remember him? the son of one of our Lancaster county farmers,
who has made such a sensation the past winter, as a member of your
Pennsylvania Legislature, at Harrisburg.”

“Oh, yes! Cabbages and cream cheeses, I remember!”

“Madam!”

“He made love to me four years ago, and I was compelled to reject him.”

“I know it, Miss Laverty. He told me you were without a heart, and
therefore I have been under no restraint in our little innocent
flirtations, as no life-chord can be cracked.”

“Henry Stanton is a friend of yours, then?”

“Yes, Miss—almost a brother. I shall marry his sister Kate, next May.”

“You, Mr. Pennant!”

“Yes—she came, saw and conquered, the past fall, as I returned from my
last cruise. A sweet girl she is, Miss Laverty.”

“Mr. Pennant, will you step and find my father, and ask him to order the
carriage? I have danced enough, to-night, and will retire.”

Frank withdrew, and Amy sighed again! That night tears wet her pillow.
Tears around the couch of youth, and wealth and beauty! Ah! gold may
purchase the gorgeous bouquet, to adorn the opera box, even in
mid-winter; but all the wealth of India cannot buy one single shoot of
heart’s ease! It is a fairy plant, and blossoms loveliest in the humble
shades of life!

And Amy slept at last; but she slept uneasily, amid confused dreams that
Kate and Henry Stanton were attempting to poison her! About the same
time, Queen Mab was with Frank Pennant, too, and he laughed happily in
his sleep, as he dreamed that Kate was pelting him, in mimic play, with
rose-buds and myrtle leaves, while his dear friend Harry looked on
smilingly. If dreams are an index to our waking thoughts, it needs no
somnosophist to interpret what was passing in the dark chambers of their
thoughts!


                              CHAPTER III.

                   Though each young flower had died,
           There was the root—strong, living not the less
           That all it yielded now was bitterness;
           Yet still such love as quits not misery’s side,
           Nor drops from guilt its ivy-like embrace,
           Nor turns away from death’s, its pale heroic face.
                                                —MRS. HEMANS.

Another four years passed away! The whirlwind which wrecked many a tall
commercial house, and strangled many a long accumulated fortune, had
passed over Philadelphia, carrying dismay, desolation and anguish. The
firm of which Mr. Laverty was the head, bent, but did not break.
Confidence in him was not impaired, for he was an unexceptionable
business man; but it was well known that he had sacrificed more than
half his fortune to secure the remainder.

And who that visited, during the summer of 1837, the various fashionable
watering-places, does not remember that pale girl, who, attended by a
doating father, sought a restoration of impaired health. Amy was lovely
still; true, the sunny smile was gone—but, in the place of that garish
splendor of radiance, which was wont “to burn like the mines of
sulphur,” there remained the calm and dreamy beauty of the moonlighted
sky. The rose had fled her cheek, but the lily, in all its purity, shone
from her Parian brow. She had felt, at last, that she possessed a heart.
She was no longer “a lump of ice in the clear, cold morn.” But her heart
was an unwritten scroll, upon which none of late dared attempt to
inscribe the word “love.” Many admired, some adored,—but her name had
gone forth, as of a heartless coquette. To win her love, would have been
ineffably sweet; but, like the French gallant, no one thought it
reasonable to thrust his head into a hive in search of the honey!

“Amy Laverty looks better, to-night, and begins to beam radiantly again,
Walton,” said a gay lounger, to his friend.

“Yes,” was the reply, “chaste as the icicle, and every whit as cold!
Like the henchman of Harold the Dauntless, she has, or had, the faculty
of chilling all who ventured within her influence!”

“Oh! you speak feelingly,” laughed Withers, “for I remember, now, that
she had you ‘within her influence,’ some years since, when you held a
clerk-ship at Washington; and then she placed her icy fingers on you! A
frozen child dreads the frost, I perceive, as much as a burned child
does the fire!”

“Rail away, Tom! With honest Grumio, ‘I confess the cupe!’” replied our
old friend Stanton, who, at the Jackson Inaugural Ball, had been the
subject of Pennant’s remarks to Amy, during the flirtations of the
dance. “The undeniable fact is, I was jilted.” In those few words are
embodied the history of Amy’s life. “Van Buren never had so many
applications for office, since he was inaugurated, in March last, as she
has had proposals, and the disappointed applicants have been about as
numerous under one administration as the other. I was deeply,
desperately, madly in love with her, but she cured me—chilled me off!”

“Has she a heart, think you, Stanton?” continued Withers, with mock
solemnity. “I have read of a French surgeon, who dissected a man, and
found him without that organ. Do you not think that ‘the Laverty’ might
be coupled with him, in this Noah’s ark of a world, as the two of a
kind?”

“Nay, hardly as bad as that! Amy has been thoughtless, ambitious, and
possessed of the pride of Lucifer—like him, she is a fallen angel;
fallen from the effects of that pride, but I sincerely believe she has
been humbled in a measure—that she has a heart, and that it has been
touched. I have seen much of her; for my dismissal as her lover, never
interrupted our friendly relations; and she has been an altered woman
ever since Frank Pennant married Kate Stanton;—but the change came too
late, and she now stands a fair chance to “lead apes,” for I know not
the man who would venture to address her! The days of your Petrucios and
Duke Aranzas are past, and live but in the drama. And so she attained
the reputation of a coquette, and therefore—”

“Yes, I understand,” interrupted Withers; “but see, yonder goes Mr.
Stanton, another of her discarded ones. I am told she passed some bitter
slight on him.”

“Yes, she made no secret of her scorn at the humble lot of his parents.
But she little knew the brilliant career which destiny and perseverance
had marked out for him. Henry Stanton goes to Congress this winter; and
no man of his age was ever elected under such brilliant auguries of
success. He has never married, and I have reason to believe that her
conduct has had a marked influence upon his whole past life.”

“How so?”

“Shortly after his rejection by her his father died. A frugal life had
done as much as all the stock speculations at the Exchange could have
effected, and he was found to be extremely rich—a round hundred
thousand at the least. Stanton could have lived in ease and
independence; but his honorable pride was stung, and he seemed
determined to win his way to eminence, that the proud beauty might see
that mind, not money, was the true standard of nature’s nobility.”

“And do they ever meet now?”

“Oh, yes—as cold friends. I have sometimes thought—and were it any
other man than Henry Stanton, I should be certain—that he loves her
still. I have watched him gaze upon her, when he thought himself
unobserved, and having known myself what it was to feel an unrequited
passion, have been almost convinced that the old flame was only
smothered or concealed, but not burned out.”

This conversation details what “the world” thought upon the persons in
whose fate our story is interested. And how was it with Amy Laverty? Was
the proud, imperious beauty brought to feel the nothingness of pride
when it would shut out from the heart the pleadings of youth, talent,
and high chivalric honor? Had a miracle been wrought? It had, indeed;
she would now have exchanged the world’s wealth for the love of Henry
Stanton. She had watched his brilliant career, at first with
indifference, but at length the thought would intrude itself, that he,
upon whose eloquence admiring listeners hung enraptured; whose fame was
ringing through the land, and whose smile was courted by all, might have
been hers. At such times the monitor within would say, what a noble
pride it would have been to call such a man all her own. By almost
imperceptible degrees the imperious girl was changed to an humbled and
deep-loving woman.

This change of feeling, from one extreme to the other most opposite, is
a curious constitution of human nature. It is only in the mysterious
workings of Providence, and its various applications for the benefit of
mankind, that we can trace the solution of this apparent paradox, that
actions or feelings frequently produce effects the very reverse of those
which we would have expected. Thus joyous sensations often leave a tinge
of pain, and sorrows bring a cordial balm to the afflicted heart. Tell
the mother, who weeps the ruin of her hopes and joys over the grave of a
darling child, that her offspring is now reaping the fruits of an
innocent life in a world of never-ending bliss, and her rising sobs will
show that these consoling reflections strongly augment her grief. The
angry man is more deeply incensed at every mark of favor, and the
conduct of the lover assures us, that “fears and sorrows fan the fire of
joy.”

The influence of this converted passion, if the term may be allowed, is
co-existent with all our thoughts and actions, and occurs when the mind
is occupied by some powerful feeling, whose commanding influence seems
to subdue every inferior emotion. The patriot forgets individual wrongs
in his love of country; the soldier knows not fear, anxiety, or hope,
when the “big war” makes “ambition virtue.” Even religion itself is not
uninfluenced by this principle. The apostles, we are told, when confined
in the prisons of Thyatira, sang praises unto God at midnight; as if the
darkness and gloom of their dungeon, and the aggravating circumstances
of their confinement, heightened the triumph of their devotion, and
enabled them, notwithstanding the fearful earthquake which shook the
foundations of their prison, to conduct with moderation and fortitude.
The flames of persecution, while consuming the bodies of suffering
martyrs, seem to have given new energy to the pious emotions of their
minds, and enabled the fervency of their devotions to rise superior to
every external object. The design of such a constitution of our nature
is easily seen; it is thus the powers of the human mind are made to
correspond with the occasion on which they are excited. It is a
principle salutary in its effects upon ourselves, and illustrative of
His character who has established all things in benevolence and wisdom.

Thus we may see how the chastening hand can convert the proudest scorn
to the timidity of love, feeling itself hopelessly unrequited; and by
tracing the arcana of the heart’s mysteries, discover how natural was
the process, or rather the retribution, which turned the pride of Amy,
and made her recoil from the contemplation of her former self.


                              CHAPTER IV.

           I vowed that I would dedicate my powers
             To thee and thine: have I not kept the vow?
             With beating heart and streaming eyes, even now
           I call the phantoms of a thousand hours,
           Each from the voiceless grave.
                              —
                       ——The lady’s heart beat fast,
           As half in joy, and half aghast,
           On those high domes her look she cast.
                                                   —SHELLEY.

Again turn we to Washington—that mighty capital, that great political
heart of our Union, from whose pulsations are supplied the entire
arteries of our body politic. It was the memorable session of 1840, when
the halls of legislation were turned into a hustings, and Whig and
Democrat broke their lances in defence of Harrison or Van Buren, as
their political predilections dictated; that session, when grave
legislators took an inventory of the furniture of the presidential
mansion, from the “gold spoons” down to the napkins of the pantry; when
the horrors of a standing army were so vividly displayed, and guns,
bayonets, and boarding-pikes bristled out from every line of Mr.
Secretary Poinsett’s annual report from the War Department; when the
conqueror of Proctor, and the victor at Tippecanoe was proved a “granny”
and a “coward,” by men who had never smelt gunpowder in their lives,
save in the homœopathic compounds of their boyish squibs and India
crackers; when both parties succeeded, by most overwhelming arguments,
in convincing their friends that the country would “go to the bow wows,”
if their antagonists succeeded; when the halls of legislation were
stripped of every leaf, branch and limb, of their original design, and
the hickory and the buckeye were formed in fantastic garlands around
“the stump” which alone remained; when blood-hounds and
conscience-keepers, tabourets and petticoats, British gold and bank
bribes, were household and familiar words; when every man, woman, and
child, was possessed of the devil of partisan malignity, and we staid
United Staters, sang songs, drank hard cider, held conventions, got up
torch-light processions, and shouted for our candidates as if Bedlam had
been keeping holyday, with its inmates all out electioneering.

One morning, in early spring, the galleries of the House of
Representatives were thronged to suffocation, long before the mallet of
the Speaker called the members to _Order_, by a quasi “_lucus a non
lucendo_” process! Time never seemed to lag so tardily, as did the hands
of the clock, opposite R. M. T. Hunter’s chair—it appeared as if they
would never point zenith-ward to the hour of high noon! Had it been the
last night of a session when those hands have a prescriptive right to
“hasten slowly” to the witching church-yard hour, lest in the hurry of
the closing scene, something might be omitted, which the law makers had
no time to think of during the seven or eight preceding months—had it
been the close of a session, we affirm that those “tardy paced hands”
would have acquitted themselves to admiration—but now, never did Juliet
when she had “bought the mansion of a love but not possess’d it” wish
the “fiery footed steeds” to “gallop apace” with more intensity of
expectation, than did the attending crowd long for the hour of twelve.
At last it came—the humdrum voice of an assistant clerk was heard
reading “yesterday’s minutes” as monotonously as the sounds of a
“woodpecker tapping the hollow beech tree!” When Corwin of Ohio rose and
moved that the further reading of the minutes be dispensed with, bright
eyes in the gallery voted him thanks, and when the “morning hour” was
over and the Speaker called the “orders of the day”—then, “mute
expectation spread its anxious hush” over the entire auditory!

“When the House adjourned with this bill under consideration, the
gentleman from Pennsylvania was entitled to the floor,” said the
Speaker.

And Henry Stanton rose to the question. He who but a few years before
had “no jointure but a green vegetable stall in the market” to offer the
rich and proud Amy Laverty in exchange for her love! Calm, dignified and
self possessed he rose, though a thousand eyes were bent fixedly upon
him. This was the calmness of confident mastery of his subject—the
dignity of conscious intellectual greatness. Slowly, emphatically and
unostentatiously he pronounced his exordium—then with consummate skill,
he combatted all the arguments of his opponents and fortified his own
position. Warmed with his subject “rapt, inspired,” he commenced his
peroration. Brilliant as the lightning flash; glowing as the lava flow;
bold, dashing, impetuous as the mighty mountain torrent was the
character of his eloquence! Scarcely could the listening crowd restrain
themselves from open applause and many rising indications of an almost
irrepressible movement, were silenced by the Speaker’s hammer.

Edward Stanton surpassed even all his former brilliant efforts! Was it
caused by the excitement of the subject, the intellectual intoxication
of success? No:—his hour of triumph had arrived, the goal he had
struggled for years to attain was won!—for in the Ladies’ Gallery,
immediately over the Speaker’s chair, and directly in front of the
orator, sat Amy Laverty; she who, in early youth, had so cruelly scorned
him; she who had withered the freshness of his heart, and dried up the
gushing fountains of love in his soul! He saw not the crowd around
him—he heard not the murmurs of applause—he heeded not the triumphant
glance of political friends nor the gloomy looks of discomfited
opponents—his soul was on his tongue, and as the jewels of rhetoric,
the brilliant gems of oratory, and the diamond shafts of satire fell
from his lips—he poured them all,—prodigally, and with a feeling of
supernatural power, as an offering before the shrine of his young,
blighted and cruelly crushed love!

At length he closed amid the plaudits of the privileged few on the floor
of the House, and the waving of snowy ’kerchief from the gallery. In the
midst a stifled sob was heard, then a piercing shriek! “A lady in the
gallery had fainted—from the heat!”

Strange, inexplicable mystery of the human heart! Two wells of passion,
long sealed up and apparently dried, had burst their confines!

Oh fame! oh popular applause! how little knew any in that Hall, why the
young orator was so transcendently brilliant that day!—How little
divined the companions of Amy what was the cause of that sudden fainting
fit!

The hospitable mansion of Secretary Woodbury was thrown open that
evening. Gay forms crowded every room and silvery voices resounded
through every hall. In a remote corner of one apartment, within the
recess of a window, stood Henry Stanton and Amy Laverty. Their hands
were intertwined; his eyes beamed with pride and hers with happiness. We
have but a few words of their conversation to chronicle.

“Why—why, ask me if I love you?” said Amy.

“Why?” responded Stanton in that deep voice and choking utterance which
are only assumed when the heart speaks audibly; “why? that I may feel
that my day dreams are now reality: that I may know that time has worn
away those faults of early education, which clouded the brightness of
your native excellence; that I may be assured that we have both come out
purified from the crucible of suffering, the fuel to which has been
supplied from our very hearts! I would know that you love me, that I may
be supremely happy.”

“Be happy then, as far as the knowledge of my love can make you so,”
frankly replied Amy—“but oh Henry, in our after life, I fear me, I
shall often have occasion to resist the tempter against which you have
this day warned me, and to whose power over me, time, more than your
words, had opened my eyes! I feel that while I have life I must have
pride!”

“Amy!”

“Yes Harry:—pride in thee!”

                 *        *        *        *        *



                        GENERAL TAYLOR’S GALLOP.


                  COMPOSED AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

                            TO THE LADIES OF

                   MISS CARPENTER’S DANCING ASSEMBLY.

                          BY A. J. R. CONNER.

        PRESENTED BY J. G. OSBOURN, NO. 112 SOUTH THIRD STREET.

                          [Copyright secured.]

[Illustration: music score]
[Illustration: music score]

                 *        *        *        *        *



                         LINES TO A JEWS-HARP.


                              BY L. B. M.


    Wee burlesque on the minstrel’s line!
    Unsung by bard in lay divine,
    Unconsecrate to fane or shrine.
        In theme most lowly;
    Thou tiny, uncouth, jingling thing!
    Scarce big enough for Elfin king,
    Thou joy of childhood’s sunny spring,
        And treasure holy.

    How oft, in sooth, I’ve wonder’d who
    He could have been, that famous Jew
    Who gave thee birth and name, and threw
        No doubt around thee,
    Of the soul’s wealth, all that he had,
    And then, perchance, went music-mad,
    And died at last of joy; so glad
        That he had found thee.

    Was he some Smithy, grim and old,
    Whose anvil iron changed to gold,
    And, forging thee, turned _he to mould_,
        O’erpowered with glory?
    Alas! such fate doth quick befall
    Spirits too ripe for earthly thrall;
    Fame, of her children, great and small,
        Tells oft such story.

    Or was he one in youth’s glad prime,
    When Hope trips arm in arm with time,
    Who hit upon thy frame sublime,
        And when he placed thee
    First to his lips, with urchin pride,
    And heard thy tinkling murmurs glide,
    “Eureka!” in his spirit cried,
        Is’t true I’ve traced thee?

    Then thanks from all his countless tribe
    (Henceforth their joy to him ascribe,)
    When in their pockets sly they bribe,
        ’Neath school-dame’s glances,
    With bits of string, wi’ top, and ball,
    Thy cannie self, thou Harp so small,
    Watching the sun creep on the wall,
        Till noon advances.

    Ah! relic of that guileless day!
    As _now_ I list thy humble lay
    Beneath my windows, far away
        In thought I’m winging;
    And, lo! I see a brighter land,
    I meet the clasp of many a hand,
    And seem to listen as I stand,
        To voices singing.

    And, oh! thou gleesome harper, still
    Thy little strain my heart must fill,
    When thou, o’er mead and distant hill,
        Art gayly hieing,
    Oh! that its note had power to fling
    Far from the soul its sorrowing,
    And wake it to a _second_ spring,
        Nor leave it sighing.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                          FANNY’S FIRST SMILE.


                         BY FRANCES S. OSGOOD.


    It came to my heart—like the first gleam of morning,
      To one who has watched through a long, dreary night—
    It flew to my heart—without prelude or warning—
      And wakened at once there a wordless delight.

    That sweet pleading mouth, and those eyes of deep azure,
      That gazed into mine so imploringly sad,
    How faint o’er them floated the light of that pleasure,
      Like sunshine o’er flowers, that the night-mist has clad!

    Until that golden moment, her soft, fairy features
      Had seemed like a suffering seraph’s to me—
    A stray child of Heaven’s, amid earth’s coarser creatures,
      Looking back for her lost home, that still she could see!

    But now, in that first smile, resigning the vision,
      The soul of my loved one replies to mine own:
    Thank God for that moment of sweet recognition,
      That over my heart like the Morning light shone!

                 *        *        *        *        *



                          REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.


    _The Prose Writers of America. With a Survey of the History,
    Condition, and Prospects of American Literature. By Rufus Wilmot
    Griswold. Illustrated with Portraits from Original Pictures.
    Phila.: Carey & Hart. 1 vol. 8vo._

This is more able than any of Mr. Griswold’s preceding books. It
contains biographical and critical notices of seventy American prose
writers, with judiciously selected extracts from their various writings.
These notices display an unusually extensive acquaintance with American
literature, conscientiousness in forming opinions, and boldness in
stating them—and they are written in a flowing and vigorous style. A
large portion of the information they convey, respecting our literary
men, can be found in no other place. The most carefully written of the
biographies are those of Edwards, Franklin, Hamilton, Webster, Irving,
Cooper, Prescott, Wayland, Brownson, Hooker, Emerson, Willis, and Dana.
The defect in the book, as regards American writers, is the omission of
some ten or twelve who could present good claims to admittance. Toward
the end the editor seems to have been cut short in his selections by the
growing size of his work. In his critical estimates Mr. Griswold is
independent and decided. We have noticed but one or two cases where his
personal feelings have at all intruded to exalt the objects of his
criticism. There is no doubt that the book is honest—and this is saying
a great deal, when we reflect how many inducements the editor of such a
work has to gratify his amiabilities or resentments.

Mr. Griswold has prefaced his book with fifty pages of disquisition on
the intellectual history, condition, and prospects of the country. In
this he takes a comprehensive view of American literature, and discusses
the aids and obstacles to its advancement. Some of the obstacles
commonly urged as barriers to its improvement, he considers as aids.
These are the form of our government, the nature of our institutions,
and the restless and turbulent movements of the democracy. Literature,
indeed, has flourished best in those countries where the people have
been most alive, and engaged in the tumults which attend life. The
fierce democracy of Athens presented no obstacles to the genius of
Æschylus, Sophocles, or Plato. The author of the “Divine Comedy” passed
his life amid the shock of contending factions. The Reformation gave an
impetus to the literature of every country in which it was felt. It
would be useless to multiply examples. Another obstacle to intellectual
progress is found by some in the absence of a wealthy and privileged
class, who have leisure for literary pursuits. Now, without adopting Mr.
Griswold’s remark, that “the privileged classes of all nations have been
drones,” it is still evident that the greatest works in philosophy,
literature, and art, which adorn the world, have not proceeded from
them. As far as regards English literature, indeed, authors have been
poor men writing for a subsistence. Provision for physical necessities
has ever been the strongest spur to intellectual action. But the value
of a wealthy class, of persons who have leisure to read if not to write,
is, that they are the natural patrons of authors. Hundreds of books are
yearly published in England, which could not find sufficient readers
here to pay for the paper.

The chief difficulty in the way of American literature, according to Mr.
Griswold, is a want of patriotism, or an “intelligent and earnest effort
to foster the good we possess and acquire the good we need;” and he
thinks the defect mainly proceeds from the absence of a just law of
copyright. In other words, there is no absence of intelligence in the
United States, but the intelligence sufficient to write a good book can
find a better remuneration by being devoted to other pursuits. Mr.
Griswold expresses himself in very plain language regarding copyright.
All arguments against copyright, he contends, “as universal and
perpetual as the life of the book, are but insults to common sense.” He
thinks that literary property is that to which a man’s right is most
unquestionable and exclusive. “The feudal chief by rapine, or the
speculator by cunning, wins an estate, and the law secures him and his
heirs in its possession while there are days and nights. An author
_creates_ a book, which, beside diffusing a general benefit, yields a
revenue as great, perhaps, as that from the estate which has been
acquired by force or fraud, and the law, without alleging any fault,
seizes it, and bestows it on the mob.” The remarks, also, on the effect
of our present law of copyright, in flooding the country with the
monstrosities and immoralities of the French mind, are worthy of
attention from every practical statesman. Indeed, it is for the interest
of every person who has any stake in a country, that its literature
should be high and pure. Demoralize the mind of a nation by bad books,
and you undermine its social and political institutions. It is of some
importance to know what Mr. Prettyman peruses in the parlor, but of more
importance what Dick cons over at the plough, or what Sally reads in the
kitchen.

We have not space to follow Mr. Griswold in his rapid and interesting
view of what has been done so far in the United States in the
establishment of a sound national literature. He proves that in the face
of all discouragements, we have done as much in “the fields of
Investigation, Imagination, Reflection, and Taste, in the present
century, as any other twelve million of people—about our average number
for this period—in the world.” He supports the assertion by a long
array of names and works in all departments of literature, and the
aggregate impression which his catalogue leaves on the mind, is one of
pride and hope. We commend Mr. Griswold’s book to everybody who wishes
to think well of his country, in that which is the noblest boost of a
nation—its literature.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _Songs of the Sea, and other Poems. By Epes Sargent. Boston:
    James Monroe & Co. 1 vol. 12mo._

Mr. Sargent’s poems have such peculiar and original merits, that we are
glad to see them in their present elegant form. As a writer of songs, he
is full of vigor and life, pouring out the emotion he desires to express
in free flowing verse, and touching with a sure sagacity the very point
in the reader’s mind at which he aims. His lyrics, especially “A Life on
the Ocean Wave,” have consequently been extensively popular. As a
descriptive writer, he possesses even superior claims to consideration.
The scene he attempts to portray is reflected in his verse with
exquisite artistical skill. The object is painted distinctly to the eye
as it is in nature, with an imaginative atmosphere superadded. “Like a
green field reflected in a calm and perfectly transparent lake, the
image is distinguished from the reality only by its greater softness and
lustre.” His poems relating to the sea are full of descriptions, which
have the effect of fine paintings; and they awaken feelings similar to
those which the real scene would rouse in the mind. All his poems,
whether relating to emotion, description, or action, are distinguished
by a sweetness and genial beauty of sentiment, which evidence a healthy
mind, in which grace and strength, elegance and elevation, harmoniously
dwell together. His writings borrow no interest from any morbid moods of
his own mind, and are “sicklied o’er” by no egotism or whining whimsies.
We could instance many beautiful poems in the volume, illustrating our
remarks, but it would be needless. The book will commend itself and its
author to the best sympathies of the reading public.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _The Battle of Life. By Charles Dickens. New York: Wiley &
    Putnam._

The cheapest and most popular method of acquiring reputation as a
critic, is to declare that the last work of a popular writer is his
worst. A large number of such reputations have been made since the
appearance of Dickens’ “Battle of Life.” It has been received with an
almost universal sneer. The truth is, that, though certain portions of
the story are unnatural, and the whole book rather carelessly written,
yet it contains more wit, humor and pathos, more subtil
characterization, and finer felicities of style and description, than
any other novelist of the day could have produced. We trust that Dickens
will write a great many books as good. He can do better.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _The Countess of Rudolstadt. (Sequel to Consuelo.) By George
    Sand. Translated by F. G. Shaw. Boston: Wm. D. Ticknor & Co. 2
    vols. 12mo._

Consuelo is undoubtedly the best and purest book of its distinguished
authoress. In the present work the long story of the heroine is
concluded. It has great merits as a delineation of life and character,
and evidences a wider sweep of mind than belongs to any other woman of
the time; but it is deformed by the writer’s peculiar philosophical,
ethical, and social system, and toward the end rather fades away into a
dramatic statement of opinions. Perhaps, however, it is the best
expression yet given of the whole mind of the authoress, and it might be
profitably studied as an expression of the opinions and objects of the
extreme radical party of Europe—the party which aims to supplant not
merely political but social institutions—the party which would take the
world upon its knee, as a Yankee does a stick, and whittle it into a new
shape. George Sand, of course, with all her masculine habits of thought
and action, is still rather ignorant of many of the topics she
confidently discusses, and not unfrequently suggests that portion of the
old song, which expresses pity that charming women should talk about
what they do not understand; but she grapples with a large number of
debatable subjects as well as most male reformers. Mr. Shaw’s
translation is very well done.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _Cyclopædia of English Literature. Edited by Robert Chambers.
    Boston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln._

This work is now in the course of publication in semi-monthly parts, to
be concluded in sixteen numbers at twenty-five cents each. It contains a
history of English literature from the earliest period to the present
day, and a biography and criticism of each author, together with
extracts from his writings. It thus gives a view of the whole broad
field of English literature, through five centuries of time, and in
every department of thought in which the genius and talent of the nation
have been exercised. The American edition is printed, we believe, from
the English plates, and contains an immense number of portraits and
illustrative pictures. It is one of the cheapest books ever printed, and
one, too, calculated to afford instruction and delight to every order of
mind. We trust that it will have a large circulation in the United
States. It will be a good guide to the reading public in the choice of
books, and enable them to see at a glance the relative value of English
authors. It is both a library in itself, and a friendly adviser in the
selection of a library. About a thousand authors are referred to in the
work, and from most of them the editor has made extracts.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _Travels in Peru. By Dr. J. J. Von Tschudi. Translated from the
    German, by Thomasini Ross. New York: Wiley & Putnam. 2 parts.
    12mo._

To that large portion of the reading public who delight in narratives of
travel and descriptions of foreign scenery and manners, this work will
be very acceptable. It is the production of an honest and learned German
scholar, and relates to a country whose population and natural
characteristics are full of materials to interest the general reader,
the student, and the man of science. The author is not a brilliant
writer, and his narrative presents none of those flashing imaginations
which delight the reader of Lamartine and Kinglake, but he is uniformly
solid, judicious, and pleasing. He contrives to convey a clear
impression of every thing which came under his notice, during a long
residence in Peru, and gives the results of the most extensive
researches and careful observations.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _Ballads and other Poems. By Mary Howitt. New York: Wiley &
    Putnam. 1 vol. 12mo._

Mary Howitt well characterised her own works when she declared that the
ruling sentiment of her soul was the love of Christ, of the poor, and of
little children. The mingled simplicity and intensity of her nature
makes her a good writer of ballads—a species of composition which
peculiarly demands unsophisticated feeling and simple expression. There
is a certain quaintness, purity and youthfulness—a command of those
words which picture incident, emotion, and character, immediately to the
eye and heart—and on overflowing affectionateness of nature, in most of
the ballads composing this volume, which will recommend them directly to
the best feelings of her readers.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _The Dog. By William Youatt. With Illustrations. Edited By E. S.
    Lewis, M. D., &c. 1 Vol. Crown 8vo._

This beautiful little volume will fill a vacancy long acknowledged and
deplored by the lover of dogs in this country. It is strange that no
treatise on this subject should have before appeared here, to satisfy
the desires of the innumerable owners and fanciers of dogs. Knowing, as
we do, but little of these matters, we will not pretend to pronounce
authoritatively on its value. We can answer, however, for the interest
of its style and manner, while it seems to us to bear the impress of one
who is thoroughly master of his subject. Youatt, indeed, is the highest
authority in all veterinary matters among those who know most, and Dr.
Lewis has well seconded him. The volume, indeed, seems to contain every
thing of interest or importance relating to the natural history of the
Dog, his numerous varieties and uses—his breeding, breaking, and
training; as much of his anatomy as is necessary to be known by those
who would properly understand him; a full description of the numerous
diseases and accidents to which he is liable, with the means to palliate
or cure.

                 *        *        *        *        *

[Illustration:

LE FOLLET
Boulevart S^{t.} Martin, 61.
_Etoffes des Magasins du Passage Choiseul, r. N^{ve}. des Petits-Champs,
  32;_
_Robes de M^{me}._ Mercier, _r. Neuve des Petits-Champs, 82—Chapeaux de
  M^{me}._ Baudry, _r. Richelieu, 87;_
_Fleurs de_ Cartier, _r. Louis-le-Grand, 30—Toilettes de M^{me}_ Victorine
  Leclerc & Ducelles, _boul. des Capucines, 7._
_Lingerie de_ Vafflard, _r. Ménars, 5—Chaussures de_ Hoffmann, _r. du
  Dauphin, 9_.
Graham’s Magazine.]

                 *        *        *        *        *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Table of Contents has been added for reader convenience. Archaic
spellings and hyphenation have been retained. Punctuation has been
corrected without note. Other errors have been corrected as noted below.
For illustrations, some caption text may be missing or incomplete due to
condition of the originals available for preparation of the eBook.

page 205, the 16th of June, 1777 ==> some modern references indicate June
  14th
page 208, down the vallies; ==> down the valleys;
page 209, making a _reconnaisance_, ==> making a _reconnaissance_,
page 210, after they begun to ==> after they began to
page 220, three boat’s crews. ==> three boats’ crews.
page 222, Not a musquito, ==> Not a mosquito,
page 227, it it might not be ==> it might not be
page 227, powder. It course, ==> powder. Its course,
page 228, moment the sloop of war ==> moment the sloop-of-war
page 228, added [_To be continued._
page 231, the sportman’s fancy ==> the sportsman’s fancy
page 232, freighted gallion; or ==> freighted galleon; or
page 236, carpenter of Gallilee ==> carpenter of Galilee
page 239, we will rememember that ==> we will remember that
page 245, a brazen indicater ==> a brazen indicator
page 249, find the Artic snow, ==> find the Arctic snow,
page 254, even in that _recherch_ ==> even in that _recherché_
page 255, with the millionare’s ==> with the millionaire’s
page 255, a la Blackstone! But ==> à la Blackstone! But
page 257, many tall a commercial ==> many a tall commercial
page 258, look she cast.—SHELLY. ==> look she cast.—SHELLEY.
page 264, appearance of Dicken’s ==> appearance of Dickens’
page 264, number of debateable ==> number of debatable

[End of Graham's Magazine, Vol. XXX, No. 4, April 1847]





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Graham's Magazine, Vol. XXX, No. 4, April 1847" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home