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Title: What a Girl Can Make and Do - New Ideas for Work and Play
Author: Beard, Lina, Beard, Adelia B. (Adelia Belle)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_.

The many illustrations are indicated as [Illustration: ]. Where
the illustration appears in mid-paragraph, this will appear within the
paragraph, at its approximate position. Occasionally, numbered full page
illustrations appeared out of order in the original.

The numbered figures 520, 521 and 522 appear in the text out of
sequence, though all references to them are correct. The sequence has
been retained here.

The single footnote has been moved to follow the paragraph in which it
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Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Please
see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding
the handling of any textual issues encountered during its preparation.



                            WHAT A GIRL CAN
                              MAKE AND DO



[Illustration]

                         New Ideas
                             for
                              Work
                               and
                              Play

                                     WHAT
                    A GIRL CAN MAKE AND DO

                                        BY

                                    Lina Beard
                                        and
                                  Adelia B. Beard

                                  _==New York==_
                                 Charles Scribner’s
                                       Sons

                                       1902



                          COPYRIGHT, 1902, BY
                        CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS

                                  ---

                        Published, October, 1902



                             TROW DIRECTORY
                    PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING COMPANY
                                NEW YORK



                                PREFACE


This new century, bringing with it the strong, healthy, independent,
athletic American girl, makes a demand for new opportunities for the
exercise of both mind and body. Resourcefulness and a wish to do things
for one’s self are American traits strongly developed in the girls as
well as in the boys; and, keeping step with their brothers, our girls
are walking steadily onward, with new hopes and new ambitions in work
and play, and are reaping new rewards.

This book is the result of the authors’ earnest desire to be of some
assistance to their young friends by encouraging them in their wish to
do things for themselves, and by pointing out some directions in which
they may gratify this ambition. Within its covers are suggestions for a
wide variety of things, useful, instructive, and entertaining, which a
girl may make and do, with wholesome and genuine pleasure. The ideas
that are worked out are essentially those of the authors, and are not,
as is often the case, derived from other books. The drawings, too, are
all original, as in “The American Girl’s Handy Book,” to which this is a
companion volume.

In conclusion the authors wish to express their sincere thanks to the
_Delineator_ and the _Woman’s Home Companion_, whose prompt and generous
courtesy, in returning such original drawings and material as were used
in their respective magazines, has greatly facilitated the preparation
of this work and added to its interest.

FLUSHING, June 16, 1902.



                                CONTENTS

                               ----------

                          WHAT A GIRL CAN MAKE

                                -------

                           CHAPTER I.                              PAGE

 WHAT A GIRL CAN MAKE WITH HAMMER AND SAW                             3

    The Workshop, 4; Tools, 5; The Carpenter’s Bench, 9; A
      Dressing-table, 11; A Wash-stand, 14; A Portable Corner
      Clothes-press, 15; A Five O’clock Tea Table, 16; A Piazza
      Flower-stand, 17; A Hooded Chair Made of a Packing-box,
      21.

                           CHAPTER II.

 POSSIBILITIES OF AN EASTER EGG                                      26

    A Frog that Will Swim, 26; Spinning Egg, 30; The
      Kaleidoscope, 31; Easter Hare, 32; Hares made of Eggs, 33;
      The Brownie, 34; Fruits, Vegetables, Opera Glasses, and
      Dishes, 36; The Radish, 37; Watermelon, Plum, Acorn, 38; A
      Dainty Vase, A Unique Little Teapot, 39; The Sugar-bowl,
      Egg Dippers, 41.

                          CHAPTER III.

 A PAPER EASTER                                                      45

    An Ostrich, Rabbit, Penguin, and Rooster, 45; Changing an
      Egg into a Rooster, 46; The Butterfly That Will Fly, 51;
      The Easter Lily, 52.


                           CHAPTER IV.

 VACATION WORK WITH NATURE’S MATERIAL                                57

    Cone Hanging-basket, 58; Sweet-grass Mats, 59; Corn-husk
      Basket, 60; Lavender Sticks, 62; Braiding Palm-grasses and
      Corn-husks, 64.

                           CHAPTER V.

 COLLECTIONS                                                         69

    Mounting the Pictures, 70; Splitting the Paper, 72; Hanging
      the Picture, 73; A Portfolio, 74; Sunshine Diary, 75; A
      Guest Book, 78; Calendars, 80; Illustrating Books, 82;
      Colored Pictures and Photographs, 83; A Photograph Book,
      84.

                           CHAPTER VI.

 ORIGINAL VALENTINES                                                 89

    Appropriate Valentines, 90; Four-leaved Clover, 90; Easel
      Holding a Picture, 91; Heart-shaped Valentines, 93; The
      Fire-cracker, 94; Pot of Growing Flowers, 95; Valentine
      for Little Friend, 98.


                          CHAPTER VII.

 VEGETABLE ANIMALS AND FRUIT LANTERNS                               101

    Potato Turkey, 102; A Shoat, 103; To Make a Turtle, Pumpkin
      Lanterns, 105.


                          CHAPTER VIII.

 PASTEBOARD MODELS FOR A HOME DRAWING CLASS                         107

    The Pyramid, 107; Pasteboard Model of a Church, 108; To Make
      a House, 111.


                           CHAPTER IX.

 QUICK INK PICTURES                                                 118

    Ink Landscapes and Marines, 119; An Ink Butterfly, An Odd
      Design, The Fantastic Horses, 122; A Pair of Birds, Ink
      Plant Sketches, 123.


                           CHAPTER X.

 MOVING TOYS                                                        125

    The Merry-go-round, 125; The Flag Dance, 130; Button-mould
      Tops, 132.


                           CHAPTER XI.

 HOME-MADE PYROTECHNICS                                             135

    Three-story Red, White and Blue Pin-wheel, 135; Fence
      Pin-wheel, 137; The Sparkling Calumet, 140; Roman Candle,
      142; Snap-fire, 142; Rushing Comet, 143; The Pistol, 144;
      Sky-rockets, 145.


                          CHAPTER XII.

 MONOTYPES                                                          148

    Materials, 148; How to Paint, 149; To Paint Heads, 149; The
      Printing, 150; Monotone Monotypes, 151; Suitable Papers,
      151.


                          CHAPTER XIII.

 PRISCILLA RUGS                                                     153

    Color Schemes for Rugs, 154; The Fire Rug, 155; The Weight,
      156; How to Cut and Sew the Rags, 157; Cotton and Wool
      Rugs, 158; All-cotton Rugs, 158; Warps and Fringe, 159;
      Dyeing the Cloth, 160; Wool Dyes, 160; Cotton Dyes, 162.


                          CHAPTER XIV.

 A PEANUT NOAH’S ARK                                                163

    How to Make a Pair of Wings, 165; To Make a Spider, 166; To
      Make Rabbits and Camels, 167; To Make a Chick, an
      Elephant, 168; an Owl, 169; Storks, Lobsters, 170; Noah,
      171; To Make the Ark, 172.


                           CHAPTER XV.

 A FLOWER FEAST                                                     175

    To Make the Pineapple, 175; A Fish, 176; Apples and Fruit
      Salad, 177; The Cups and Saucers, 178; Snapping Bonbons,
      179; Baskets of Green Burs, 180; Dandelion Amusements,
      181.


                          CHAPTER XVI.

 BASKET-WEAVING                                                     185

    Materials for Weaving, 185; To Prepare the Reeds, 186;
      Weaving the Basket, 186; Covers and Fastenings, 191; To
      Make a Hinge, 192.


                          CHAPTER XVII.

 AN “ABE” LINCOLN LOG-CABIN                                         194

    Material, 196; The Door, 200; The Chimney, 201; To Make a
      Pond, 204; The Walk, 205; A Well, 206; Acorn Bucket, 207;
      The Trees, 208; The Grass, 209; The Fence, 210; A Little
      Turnstile, 212; Birch-bark Canoe, 212; Wood-pile, 213; A
      Sawbuck, 213.

                         CHAPTER XVIII.

 QUEER THINGS ON PAPER AND BLACKBOARD AND HOW TO PUT THEM THERE     215

    A Funny Little Pig, 215; A Hen, 217; A Rose, 218; A Head,
      220; The Three Blind Mice, A Fish, 221; Turtles, 222; To
      make a Duck, 223; The Tulip, 224; Common Daisy, 225.


                          CHAPTER XIX.

 HOME-MADE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS                                      227

    How to Make a Harp, 228; A Dulcimer, 229; Music from
      Finger-bowls, 230; A Willow Bugle-horn, 231; Bones, 232;
      Crystal Flute, 232; Music from a Comb, 233; Grass-blade,
      Sea-shells, Musical Fountain, 234.


                           CHAPTER XX.

 WHAT TO MAKE OF EMPTY SPOOLS                                       236

    To Build the Parthenon, 236; To Make a Set of Furniture,
      238; The Lamp, 239; A Wagon, 239; A Memorial Arch, 240; To
      Blow Bubbles with a Spool, 241; Cannon, 243.


                          CHAPTER XXI.

 CHRISTMAS DECORATIONS                                              244

    Effective Portière, 246; Star and Shepherd’s Crook, 246; A
      Sconce, 248; Tin-foil Christmas-tree Festoon, 248;
      Tin-foil for Fringe Ruching, 249; Fancy Boxes, 252;
      Cornucopias, Christmas Stockings, Bobbinet Bags, 253;
      Holly-leaved Festoons, 254; Pop-corn Balls, 255; Strings
      of Red Cranberries, Peanuts, 256; Jewelry for the Tree,
      257; Gilded English Walnut, 258.


                          CHAPTER XXII.

 CHRISTMAS DEVICES                                                  260

    An All-day Christmas Pie, 260; The Magic Fireplace, 263;
      Christmas Tray, 265; A Santa Claus House, 266; Serving
      Toast, 267; _Pièce de Résistance_, 268; Jelly, Apples,
      269.


                         CHAPTER XXIII.

 PICTURE WRITING AND SIGN LANGUAGE                                  271

    Symbols, Flower Writing, 273; Indian Powwow, 274; A Letter
      of Colors, 276.


                          CHAPTER XXIV.

 STATUARY TABLEAUX                                                  281

    The Stage, 281; Lights, Pedestals, and Costumes, 282;
      Make-up, 284; The Armless Bust, 285; Portrait Medallion,
      286; An Egyptian Statue, 287; Pygmalion and Galatea, 288.


                          CHAPTER XXV.

 WITCHERY                                                           292

    Feather Tests, 293; Touchstone Charm, 294; Naming the
      Bedposts, 295; Witch Writing, 295; Home or Travel, 297;
      Dreams, 298; Ghost Ideas, 299; Fortune’s Wheel, 300.


                          CHAPTER XXVI.

 LIVING ALPHABET                                                    303

    Directions for Drill, 308; The Shields, 308; The Letters,
      309.


                         CHAPTER XXVII.

 ODD GARDENS                                                        310

    A Country Garden in the City, 310; The Boxes, 313; The
      Flowers, 313; A Water Garden, 314; The Soil, 315; Water
      Plants, 316; Simpler Water Gardens, 317; Plants Grown
      Artificially in Water, 317; The Green Sponge, 318;
      Vegetables, 319; Friendship Garden, 320; Memory Garden,
      321

                         CHAPTER XXVIII.

 ACTIVE GAMES                                                       322

    Weavers and Weft, 322; Hoop Dance, 324; The Figures, 326;
      Hoop Tag, 327; The Circus-hoop Game, 328; Hoop-race Game,
      329; Jumping Rope Conquer Game, 330; Going to Market, 332;
      Passing By, 332; Red, White, and Blue, 333.


                          CHAPTER XXIX.

 EXPENSIVE GAMES WITH LITTLE OR NO EXPENSE                          334

    Ping Pong, 334; The Rules, 337; Scoring, 338; Terms Used in
      Ping Pong, 339; A Make-believe Sewing-machine, 340; A
      Parlor Croquet Set, 341; Rules for Croquet, 343.


                          CHAPTER XXX.

 BASKET BALL                                                        346

    Cost of an Outfit, 346; Baskets, 348; The Ball, 348; Set of
      Players, 349; Referee, 350; Umpire, Scorer, 351;
      Time-keeper, Linesmen, 352; Centres, Forwards, 354; Guard,
      355; Rules, 360; General Fouls, 362; Disqualifying Fouls,
      363; Playing Suit, 364.


                          CHAPTER XXXI.

 SOME OF OUR OUT-DOOR NEIGHBORS AND WHERE TO LOOK FOR THEM          365

    Observation Book, 366; The Squirrel, 367; The Red Squirrel,
      The Chipmunk, 368; The Weasel, 369; Salamander, 370; The
      Cicadas, 371; Insect Music, 373; The Indian Pipe, The
      Moccasin Flower, 374; Engraver Beetle, The ’Coon, 375; The
      Flying Squirrel, Luna Moth, 377; Woodchuck, 380; The
      Sea-shore, 381; The Jelly-fish, Sea-anemones, 382;
      Sea-urchins, 383; Starfish, 384.

                                 PART I
                          WHAT A GIRL CAN MAKE

[Illustration: Fig. 9.—The Girl at the Bench.]



                               CHAPTER I
                    WHAT A GIRL CAN MAKE WITH HAMMER
                                AND SAW


This is an age when girls go to college and engage in athletic sports;
when they have their manual training, as boys do and are learning to use
their hands, as never before, in all sorts of skilful work. The deftness
of their fingers is utilized not alone in embroidery, or what was once
considered girl’s work, but in the manufacture of many useful, artistic,
and beautiful objects once thought beyond their reach. Our girls no
longer resort to the scissors to sharpen a lead-pencil or to their
brother’s chisel to pull out tacks; they are beginning to know and
appreciate the value of tools and are becoming proficient in their use.

If you are one of these modern girls, girls of the twentieth century,
who like to use both brains and hands, a little workshop stocked with a
few good tools and material for carpentry work will give you many hours
of pure enjoyment. The tool-chest, denied to girls of the past
generation, is yours for the asking; the manual training in the public
schools has given to many of you the advantage of learning the use of
saw, plane, and hammer, and your physical culture has produced the
strength and energy for this active work.

                             =The Workshop=

Just a room, any room, that will afford sufficient light for your work,
that is all you need for a beginning. Having the room you have a place
for your first tool, if it is necessary to collect them one at a time,
and it is much better to do that than to buy a cheap tool-chest. When
you have one tool make a place for it and keep it in its place. A
hammer, a saw, a hatchet, a sharp knife, a screw-driver, a gimlet, and a
rule are the first tools you will need. The writer once made a very good
mantel-board, cleated at the ends with rounded corners, which has stood
the heating and drying process of many winters over an open fire,
without warping, and her tools were simply a hatchet, a meat-saw, and a
pocket knife. Of course, the work would have been much easier and more
enjoyable had she possessed the proper tools, but this example serves to
show how few tools are absolutely necessary. A plane, a chisel, and an
auger-bit and brace will be needed later; after that a gouge, a
try-square, and a file. These you may collect by degrees as your work
grows more ambitious and you feel the need of them. Hooks, nails, tacks,
and screws can be bought as required.

Have a hook for your saw and hang it up, lay your plane on its side,
make a rack for your small tools something like Fig. 1, and have a box
for your shavings. A shelf on which to keep your boxes of tacks and
other small articles is indispensable; each of these boxes should be
labelled and kept in its place; in fact, to get the full enjoyment from
your workshop you must keep it in order and the tools just where you may
always expect to find them.

              =What the Tools are for and How to Use Them=

_The Hammer._—A carpenter’s hammer is what you want, not a tack hammer,
and it should be of medium weight. You are to use it in driving nails,
in hammering things into place and in various ways not injurious to the
hammer. The manner in which you hold this tool will make all the
difference in the way you drive a nail. The hammer should be taken by
the end of the handle and the head brought down squarely on the
nail-head, otherwise the nail will slant to one side or perhaps bend.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

_The Saw._—The panel-saw is best suited to ordinary work, one having
about ten teeth to the inch. Finer saws make a smoother cut, and you
will probably find use for several, but one is enough to begin with. The
saw is used for cutting large pieces of wood and for cutting across
grain, and special saws serve for special purposes, such as sawing of
curves and cutting out keyholes. With pencil and rule draw the line you
wish your saw to follow. Stand above your work so that you may see the
pencil line; hold the saw firmly in the right hand and with the left
grasp the board, allowing your thumb to rest on the saw, above the
teeth. This is to help guide the saw and to prevent cutting your hand.
Take light, short strokes at first, then longer ones, using a little
more force, and keep your saw at right angles with the board. If your
material is large and heavy place it across two wooden horses, if light
or small it is best to use a mitre-box.

_The Hatchet._—You will find a good medium-sized hatchet with a sharp
edge very useful, for cutting away or trimming, but it must be used with
care, for to chop too vigorously will frequently split the wood. See
that your hatchet does not follow the grain of the wood unless the grain
runs in the direction you wish your cut to take.

_The Knife._—Not a dainty pearl-handled pocket-knife but a strong,
well-made, sharp-bladed jack-knife, large enough for all kinds of
whittling. The knife is for fine cutting that cannot be done with the
hatchet, and when one learns to whittle out various small articles much
has been accomplished.

_The Screw-driver._—It has been said that the feminine mind cannot grasp
the difference between a screw-driver, a cork-screw, and a gimlet, and
it remains with you to prove the contrary. A poor screw-driver is one of
the most exasperating of poor tools, and a trial to one’s patience and
temper; besides, it is of little use attempting to “make it do,” for it
seldom will do. The edge is usually shaped like Fig. 2, and it slides
and slips out of the groove of the screw until it has turned and worn
down its edges and made the screw useless. Fig. 3 shows the proper shape
for a screw-driver. The use of the tool is, of course, to put in and
take out screws, and it is well to have two sizes, one for large, the
other for small screws. Remember that in putting in a screw you turn it
to the right, and to the left in taking it out.

[Illustration: Fig. 2      Fig. 3.]

_The Gimlet._—A medium-sized gimlet will answer your purpose. Use it for
boring small holes and for starting holes for screws and large nails.

_The Rule._—A rule is indispensable for measuring and laying out your
work. A two-foot steel rule is the most useful, as it can be used both
for measuring and ruling straight lines. A light folding rule is easier
to handle in taking measurements, but you can make the other answer both
purposes.

In taking measurements be as accurate as possible, and go over them
several times to make sure they are correct. In ruling a line use the
bevelled edge of the rule, hold it firmly in place with your left hand,
and with a soft pencil in your right draw a line close to the edge of
the rule. The wide, rather flat carpenter’s pencils are the best to use,
but any soft lead-pencil will answer.

_The Plane._—There are several kinds of planes, but the smoothing-plane
will probably be all you will need, as you will not be likely to attempt
to handle unplaned wood and will need the smoothing-plane only for
finishing and smoothing off.

In using the plane hold it back of the iron (or blade) with your right
hand, place your left on the stock (or wood) at the other end to help
guide it, and push it forward as far as you can conveniently reach,
bring it back, tipping it away from you in so doing, and take another
stroke.

The farther the edge of the iron projects through the stock the deeper
will be the cut and the thicker the shaving. To regulate this, tap on
the stock at the forward end and loosen the iron, then adjust it to suit
your work and fix it in place by driving down the wedge, which holds it,
with a few light taps.

_The Chisel._—This tool has a bevelled edge and is used for paring off
the wood.

Unless you are quite careful there is danger of cutting your left hand
in using the chisel, and it is best not to try to hold the work, but to
fasten it in the vice; your left hand placed on the tool will steady and
control it.

[Illustration: Fig. 4      Fig. 5.]

_Auger-bit and Brace._—For drilling large holes the auger-bit and brace
are necessary. The bit resembles a gimlet in its spiral edge, but is not
wedge-shaped, and the hole it makes is of unvarying size. You may have
several bits for large or smaller holes. The brace is a handle which
fits on the top of the bit, and makes it quite easy to manage.

_The Gouge._—There are several kinds of gouges, the difference being in
the shape of the blade; their curves vary from the shallow curve, Fig.
4, to the deeper one, Fig. 5. One with a moderate curve will prove the
most useful. As the name suggests, the gouge is for gouging out the wood
where it is necessary to make a groove, but be careful not to press too
hard on the tool at first, as one is apt to make too deep a cut, and do
not put your left hand in front of the blade.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

_The Try-square._—The square is a metal strip which forms an exact right
angle and is used to test one’s work and keep it “square”; it is also
used for ruling square corners. Fig. 6 shows its use in squaring off the
end of a board. Figs. 7 and 8 show how the try-square will fit on an
edge that is perfectly square and will not fit an imperfect one.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

_The File._—This tool is not indispensable, but is useful for smoothing
off rounding edges and rough corners. Files for metal and those for wood
differ, and should not be used indiscriminately. Rub the file back and
forth over the surface to be smoothed, but do not press on it too
heavily. If you are to use metal in your work a metal file is necessary.
For wood a slightly curved surface is best.

                        =The Carpenter’s Bench=

When you can attain to a regular carpenter’s bench you will indeed be
happy, but until then use a strong kitchen table that sits firmly on the
floor or, better still, is fastened so that it cannot move. Have a
carpenter add sides (_a_, Fig. 9), and a vice (_b_, Fig. 9). _See page
2._ You can hardly get along without a vice, for it is impossible to
hold some of the work firmly enough without it.

                              =The Horses=

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

These wooden horses are convenient for holding boards when they are to
be sawed, and for lifting work from the floor. You should have two of
them, like Fig. 10, made by the carpenter.

                            =The Mitre-box=

This very useful contrivance is simply three pieces of narrow boards put
together in the form of a box, having two sides and a bottom, but no
ends or top. Eighteen inches is a suitable length, and its height should
be no greater than the width of your saw. The mitre-box is used for
holding the wood and guiding the saw at any angle. In the sides of the
box are slits running from top to bottom, some passing diagonally, some
at right angles through the boards. Any carpenter can make you a
mitre-box; do not attempt one yourself, for to be of use it must be
accurately made in every particular.

                          =Choosing the Wood=

It is well to know a little about what kind of wood to select when you
are buying your material, for if you wish to make a durable article, one
that will last long enough to pay for the making, you should not use
wood that will warp and in a little while spoil your piece of work.

The heart-wood is always the best: this consists of boards cut from the
heart, or centre, of the tree; they are harder, dryer than others, and
less likely to warp or twist. The sap-wood, which is the part nearer the
surface, contains so much sap it is difficult to season and will
generally warp.

Select the boards yourself if possible, and see that they are planed
equally on both sides and have square edges. Do not take a cracked
board, a board with knot-holes or loose knots, or one that seems damp or
musty, and be sure, if you can, that all your wood is well-seasoned.

Soft woods are best for your purpose at first, and while pine is very
good, white-wood is better, and is easily worked.

                             =What to Make=

[Illustration: The Dressing-Table.]

And now that all is ready and the workshop well stocked, what shall we
make? What shall we not make, rather? Suppose we begin with a few simple
pieces of furniture suitable for a summer cottage, a log-camp, or a
play-house. We will use boxes, clothes-horses, or anything of the kind
that will make a good foundation for the article and save extra work.
When you feel that you can construct a piece of furniture without such
helps, do so by all means, but at first do not scorn the humble box and
barrel, they are excellent things to practise on.

We will start with

                           =A Dressing-Table=

Since the writer made one herself for her room in a log-house in the
mountains of Pennsylvania, she is quite sure it can be done with very
little practice in carpentry or cabinet-making.

                                Fig. 11.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

The dressing-table is made of two pine shelves, two cigar-boxes, two
small brackets, and an ordinary mirror. For the large shelf choose a
board about twelve inches wide or wider, if you have one, measure the
space your dressing-table is to occupy, mark the size on the board with
a pencil, using your try-square to make your line at right angles with
the edge of your board, and saw off the board at the ruled line. If the
room is neither plastered nor ceiled and the uprights are left
uncovered, let the large shelf reach across from one upright to the
next, and make the smaller shelf just long and wide enough to fit in
between. Saw out your supporting braces after the pattern given in Fig.
11, with the grain of the wood running up and down, making six in all;
two for the large shelf, two for the small shelf, and two for the little
side-brackets. Draw a line at each end of your shelf where the brace is
to be fastened, and on this line bore two holes entirely through the
board. With screws long enough to reach through the shelf and into the
braces fasten the shelf and braces together, Fig. 12. Bore a hole near
the bottom edge of each brace, as in Fig. 13, and directly over each
brace screw into the top of the shelf, as near the edge as possible, a
screw-eye, Fig. 14. Cover both shelves with pretty cretonne, putting a
ruffle on the large shelf and drawing the material neatly over the edges
of the smaller one.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

On each end of the large shelf tack a cigar-box, which you have
previously painted white. These boxes are for holding brushes and combs.
Screw strong hooks into the uprights at the proper distance from the
floor, then hook your large shelf on by the screw-eyes at the top, and
screw the braces to the uprights through the holes at their lower
corners. The upper shelf, not being so heavy, needs only the hooks and
screw-eyes to support it, and screws at the bottom of the braces are
unnecessary. Hang this only a little way above the other shelf. Make the
small brackets of thinner wood and let them be square, of a size to fit
the uprights. One brace for each bracket is all that is necessary, and
the braces must, of course, be smaller than [Illustration: Fig. 14.]
those used for the shelves. Paint the brackets white like the side
boxes; enamel paint is the best to use, as it gives a hard, smooth
surface. Only the hooks and screw-eyes are required to hold the
brackets. Hang the mirror with its bottom edge resting on the top shelf,
as shown in the illustration.

[Illustration: The Washstand.]

                             =A Wash-stand=

to go with the toilet table is constructed on the same principle; the
shelf used for this, however, must be wider in order to hold the
wash-basin. If cutting a round hole in the shelf, like Fig. 15, is too
difficult, do not attempt it, but leave the surface plain and place your
bowl on top.

Make your braces quite strong and screw them to the wall. Make
side-brackets, as for the dressing-table, and cover them and the shelf
with white enamel cloth. Cut the edge of this in points, turn it over
and tack to the edge of the shelf with white-headed tacks. The
illustration will give you an idea of the appearance of this wash-stand.
For

                            =The Towel-rack=

use two broom-sticks, cut one shorter than the other, and paint them
white. Fasten them together with strong cord, leaving a six-inch space
between, and hang them over the [Illustration: Fig. 15.] wash-stand as
shown in the illustration. Though the top stick is shorter than the
other, both must be long enough to reach across and rest against the two
uprights of the wall. This allows space at the back and gives plenty of
room for the towels.

[Illustration: Portable Corner Clothes-Press]

                   =A Portable Corner Clothes-press=

Use two folds of an ordinary, large-sized clothes-horse for the frame of
your clothes-press. Make two three-cornered shelves with back edges at
perfect right angles and measuring half the length of the cross-pieces
of the frame. These shelves are to rest on the cross-pieces, therefore
you must saw off the corners at the back in order to make it fit, Fig.
16. Across the outer edge of the top shelf nail securely a strip of wood
three inches wide, having its top edge on a level with the top of the
shelf, Fig. 17. Into this strip, as well as into the top cross-pieces,
screw clothes-hooks, placing them about eight inches apart. With short
wire-nails, or screws if you wish your press to be very strong, fasten
the top shelf on the upper cross-pieces and the other shelf on the
middle cross-pieces of the frame. Paint the shelves and the inside of
the frame white, and over the outside tack flowered cretonne or chintz,
remembering to have the right side of the material turned inward. Fasten
a brass or galvanized iron rod to the top of the two front uprights and
from this hang a curtain of the same material. To fit the holders, or
fastenings, for the curtain rod it will be necessary to cut notches in
the inner corners of the uprights, Fig. 18, otherwise they will not be
at the proper angle to hold the rod. To prevent dust from settling upon
the clothing, tack a three-cornered piece of cretonne over the top of
the frame. The shoe-box shown in the illustration is not a part of the
clothes press, but is a convenient addition.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

                       =A Five O’clock Tea-Table=

[Illustration: A Five O’clock Tea-Table.]

Make this of an oblong box with square ends and of a convenient height
when set on end.

Cover the box neatly with matting or burlap, then make four shelves long
enough to reach across the sides of the box and about nine inches wide.
Round off the corners of the shelves as in Fig. 19 and make one brace
for each shelf. To each side of the box at varying heights fasten with
screws two narrow strips of wood or cleats, two inches apart, Fig. 20.
Screw the braces to the shelves and paint all to match the color of the
covering used on the box; then rest the back edge of the shelf on the
cleats prepared for it and screw the brace to the box and the shelf to
the cleats, Fig. 21. Thus securely fastened the shelf becomes immovable
and there is not the slightest danger of its slipping or tipping. The
illustration shows how the shelves are placed. This little tea-table is
especially suited to the piazza, which, from your workshop, you may fit
up for a place to entertain your friends most delightfully.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

                        =A Piazza Flower-stand=

will make a charming feature of your summer parlor, for flowers are
always needed to give the finishing touch in beautifying the inside or
the outside of a home.

[Illustration: Piazza Flower-Stand.]

For the frame of the flower-stand use one fold of the ever-useful
clothes-horse. Make twelve three-cornered braces, cutting them out like
Fig. 22, four measuring seven inches on their edges, four nine inches,
and four twelve inches or as long as the width of the board will allow.
Saw out four shelves which will reach exactly across the frame, two of
them nine inches and two eleven inches wide. Screw the smaller braces to
the narrow shelves, the larger ones to the widest, making sure the back
edges of shelf and brace are on an exact line; fitting them in your
try-square will assure you of that. To give additional strength to the
frame, measure the distance from the bottom edge of the lower
cross-piece, where it joins the upright, diagonally across to the other
upright within one inch of the floor (Fig. 23), then take two narrow
boards, say three inches wide and one inch thick, and saw them the
required length. Lay your frame down flat, place first one diagonal in
position, then the other, and make a pencil line across the upper and
lower corners showing where they must be taken off in order to fit
inside the frame. A mitre-box is very useful here, for by its aid you
can saw your boards [Illustration: Fig. 22.] at the required angle
without difficulty. Lacking that, be careful to have your edges
straight. Place the diagonals in position in the frame and mark the
width of each on the surface of the other where they cross. Between
these two lines, on the edges of the boards, draw a line which will
divide the edge exactly in half. Saw along the oblique lines down to the
line on the edge, then with a chisel pare down to the edge lines, thus
“halving” your boards, Fig. 24.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

Cross your diagonals at the halving and with long wire nails, driven
from the outside of the frame, nail them in place, Fig. 25. Now fit the
largest braces on the front and back of each upright with edges resting
on the floor as in Fig. 26, and screw them on with screws near the top
as shown by C and D, Fig. 26. Have the outside edges of the braces on a
line with the outside [Illustration: Fig. 24.] edges of the uprights;
this will leave a space of about an inch on the inside of the uprights.
The braces will hold the frame in an upright position, but in order to
support any weight it must be further strengthened by adding a platform
to which the braces may be screwed. Make the platform of a size to fit
inside the uprights and reach across from end to end of the braces. Two
[Illustration: Fig. 25.] or more boards will be required to give
sufficient width, and it will be necessary to stay them by putting on
three cleats across the under side, as in Fig. 27. These cleats must be
of equal width and thickness and, as in all cleats, the grain of the
wood must run lengthwise. Cut notches at each end, as shown in the
diagram, to fit the projecting uprights, then fit the platform into the
frame, and screw the braces on to its edges, Fig. 28. You have now a
firm foundation and may add your shelves. The widest shelves are to go
across the frame on either side on a line with the top of the lower
cross-piece, the narrower [Illustration: Fig. 26.] shelves on a line
with the top of the middle cross-piece. Fasten these in place with
screws at the lower end of each brace, and with hooks in the uprights,
and screw-eyes at the top of the shelves, as in the shelves for the
dressing-stand, Fig. 14.

Instead of four you now have two very broad shelves, running directly
[Illustration: Fig. 27.] through the frame. Take measurements of these
shelves and make a shallow box, about seven inches deep, to fit each
shelf. To prevent the boxes springing at the seams from dampness, get a
strip of tin three inches wide, bend it through the middle lengthwise,
and tack it over the seams, as in Fig. 29. Paint the entire frame and
the outside and edges of the boxes dark green, and then varnish them. Of
course the paint must be quite dry before the varnish is applied.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

Put a layer of charcoal in each box, then a layer of sand, and over all
a thicker layer of good soil. Fill your boxes with flowering plants and
hanging vines, and use the lower platform for potted plants. From the
top cross-piece a small hanging basket may be hung, adding its beauty
and sweetness to the rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

The illustration will give an idea of the appearance of the
flower-stand, though much of the beautiful, luxuriant growth of plant
and vine had to be omitted in the drawing so that the construction of
the stand might be distinctly shown.

[Illustration: Hooded Chair Made of Packing-Box.]

                 =A Hooded Chair Made of a Packing-box=

You must select with care the box for this rather unique piece of
furniture, for you will want it to be durable. If you prefer you may
make it altogether of new material after the same pattern, but a box for
the foundation will simplify the work. When standing on end your box
should measure about five feet six inches in height, eighteen inches in
depth, and twenty inches in width. Nail two cleats, each thirteen inches
long, in an upright position on each side and at the back of the box, as
shown by the letters E, F, G, H in Fig. 30, placing the front ones, E,
one inch back from the edge as in diagram. Fig. 30 gives one side and
the back of the box. Across and resting on the top of these upright
cleats nail the cleats I and J. Lay the box on its side and draw a curve
like Fig. 31, starting the line four inches from the top and ending it
two feet from the bottom. The curve at its greatest fulness should take
in half the width of the side. Draw a curve exactly like the first on
the other side of the box; saw carefully along the lines, following them
as closely as possible, and then take off the remaining rough edges with
a chisel. [Illustration: Fig. 30.] Nail a strip of wood four inches wide
across the front at the top to finish the hood, Fig. 32. Box in the
lower front up to the top of the cleats and there make a seat to fit in
the chair and rest on the cleats, Fig. 32. You will notice that in the
seat, near the forward corners, are two holes; these are for the
adjustment of the rest, which gives additional comfort to the chair, and
upon which one may stretch one’s self out luxuriantly. Two boards, three
feet four inches long, will be required for the rest, which should be
just wide enough to fit easily inside the chair, resting on the seat.
Cleat the rest at each end and in the middle, as in Fig. 33, putting the
end cleats on the edges of the boards and the middle one underneath.
Round the corners and smooth them off with knife or chisel.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

Measure the distance from the top of the seat to the floor and make the
end-piece (Fig. 34) for the foot of the rest exactly that height, for
the foot must be on a level with the other end when adjusted. Screw the
end-piece to the rest with screws passing through the top of the boards
into the top edge of the end-piece, and put braces at the corners to
keep it secure, Fig. 35. Bore holes three-quarters of an inch in
diameter at the upper corners of the rest, making them one inch from the
cleat and two inches from the side edges of the boards, Fig. 33. Place
this end of the rest on the seat of the chair, allowing it to lap about
four inches, and through the holes just made mark corresponding places
for the holes in the seat. Make [Illustration: Fig. 34.] or buy wooden
pegs like Fig. 36, and slip them through the holes in rest and seat when
you wish to adjust the rest. The ordinary wooden easel peg is about what
you want for this purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.                Fig. 35.]

Pad the sides and back of the chair with cotton batting, using only
enough tacks to hold it in place, then cover the chair inside and out,
except the seat, with pretty cretonne, making a box-plaited ruffle for
the front, as shown in the illustration. Pad the top of the rest up
nearly to the holes in the end, and cover it with the cretonne. Use an
old feather pillow for the seat cushion, and another (smaller) for an
extra one at the back, and cover them also with cretonne.



                               CHAPTER II
                     POSSIBILITIES OF AN EASTER EGG


Throughout the entire United States Easter eggs are very popular, and
the practice of coloring them is increasing rather than diminishing. The
stores are full of all sorts of novelties in real or simulated eggs;
some valued at very large sums have been manufactured in London, but
Uncle Sam does not raise such costly varieties. The real fun is in
coloring one’s own eggs, and if the eggs can be transformed into
something else, the sport will be doubled. To turn an egg into

                        =A Frog That Will Swim=

in the water is a new idea, and one which will furnish no end of
diversion. Cut stiff paper in the shape of Fig. 37. Make a
[Illustration: Fig. 37.] small hole on one side of an egg (Fig. 38, B)
and a tiny hole at one end (A), remove the contents by shaking the egg
and blowing in at the end A. Then fit the shell on a stand made of a
paper box with a hole cut in it just large enough to hold the egg
firmly, and pour some melted wax in at the hole B, using great care to
keep the egg steady, that the weight may fall exactly in the centre and
make a perfect balance.

Paste paper over each hole and fit the frog (Fig. 37) on the egg,
keeping the side of the egg with the covered opening B for the top,
forming the back of the frog. Remove the paper frog and cover the
slashes cut in the back with melted sealing-wax, while hot adjust it on
the egg, pressing the slashes against the shell [Illustration: Fig. 38.]
before the wax hardens and holding them in place until they adhere. When
perfectly dry paint the frog mottled green on the back and a yellowish
white underneath in oil colors (Fig. 39). Try to recall the coloring of
a real frog and make this one as lifelike as possible. Pour water in a
large basin and stir it around to produce a current. The paint having
dried, place the frog on the top of the water [Illustration: Fig. 39.]
and watch it swim. If you would like to race these queer Easter eggs,
make two or three frogs and start them all swimming at the same time.

Should oil paints not be at hand, use stiff brown paper, preferably
glazed, for Fig. 37. Make a hole at each end of the egg-shell and remove
the contents. Drop some shot in the shell and glue paper over each
opening; then fasten the paper frog, with the hole in its back (Fig.
37), securely on the egg. Wait until it is perfectly dry before placing
the little animal on the water, where it will look very comical and
lifelike, even though it is not green in color.

At break of day on Easter morn the sun dances for joy, says the old
legend, and if you would prove it, arise early and watch the reflection
of the sun as it plays hide-and-seek on the surface of the clear water
which you have placed in a tin basin where it can catch the first rays
from the “King of Day.” A breath of air will cause the water to move,
and with the motion comes the dance, as the sun sparkles and glides here
and there, glittering and laughing in its joyous play. The legend is a
pretty one and its meaning deeper than appears on the surface.

[Illustrations: Figs. 40-43.]

Beside enabling one to see the sun dance, being up early gives time,
before breakfast, to help decorate the table as a pleasant surprise to
the family. One of the most attractive ornaments is the white dove with
its snowy wings spread wide, while it floats and sways in mid-air as if
it were really flying slowly and softly through the room. It is easily
made. Take a pure white egg, and empty the contents; then cut from
writing paper the wing (Fig. 40), head (Fig. 41), and tail (Fig. 42).
Pin each in turn on a fresh, smooth piece of cotton wadding and cut the
raw cotton out along the lines of the pattern. Make two wings of the
cotton wadding, and cut two wing-bones (Fig. 43) from stiff paper; open
each cotton wing along the upper edge about a quarter of an inch in
depth, according to dotted line O O (Fig. 40), insert a paper bone in
each opening and gum it sparingly here and there. Smooth up the edges of
the cotton wings, covering the bones entirely; then gum the wings to the
sides of the egg according to the dotted line on one end. Fasten the
tail in place and, last of all, the head; open the neck a little and
paste each side of the open edge on the egg. Bend the wings out, as if
the bird were flying.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

To float the dove in the air, make a knot in a piece of fine thread and
with a needle run the thread through a small square of white
court-plaster; pull the knot up tight to the plaster, unthread the
needle, and with the court-plaster over the knot, dampen it and gum the
thread down tight on the back of the dove, something as a leather sucker
is stuck on a brick; it will soon dry. In the morning suspend the dove
over the centre of the table (Fig. 44) by tying the end of the thread on
the chandelier. Let it be about ten inches above the dishes. If you can
handle pen and ink very lightly, the bird’s eyes and mouth may be
carefully marked, although this is not absolutely necessary, as the
effect is almost the same without the features being emphasized.

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

One of the minor sports now gladly participated in by the girls, is
top-spinning, and the amount of fun they derive from the whirling
playthings is only equalled by their skill in the game. All kinds of
tops are welcomed and experimented with but the queerest is the

                             =Spinning Egg=

Easter top (Fig. 45) made of a hard-boiled egg colored red, with a disk
of stiff red paper (Fig. 46) fitted and glued on with sealing-wax. When
twirled by the fingers the toy will whiz around almost equal to a peg
top. Try it, and try also

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

                          =The Kaleidoscope,=

for an egg-shell containing a kaleidoscope is a still greater novelty.
In preparing this it is better to blow the egg first, then, by
puncturing holes, as in Fig. 47, each end of the shell can be removed
evenly. Care must be taken to thoroughly rinse and dry the shell, as any
moisture from the egg will dim and blur the glasses, which should be
kept perfectly clear. Fasten with mucilage three strips of glass, two
inches long and one-half inch wide, to a piece of black paper, as in
Fig. 48. The dark paper left between the light strips will allow the two
end-pieces of glass to be brought together, thus forming a triangle,
which is held in place by pasting the paper extending beyond the edge of
the last strip of glass over on the edge of the first piece of glass.
Fasten triangular pieces of glass, like Fig. 49, to the ends, in the
following manner:

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

Cut from paper, not too stiff, a circle one inch in diameter, out of the
centre of which cut a triangle of even proportion, just a trifle smaller
than the glass, see Fig. 50. Paste the triangular glass, Fig. 49, over
the triangular hole in the paper circle, Fig. 50, then fit this
paper-framed glass to one end of the cylindrical triangle, and, folding
the paper down smoothly, fasten with mucilage, to hold it firmly in
place. Put several small pieces of differently colored glass into the
kaleidoscope and close the other end in the same way as the first. When
this part of the work is finished, slide it carefully into the shell,
and over each end paste a piece of bright-colored paper with a
triangular hole in [Illustration: Fig. 52.] the centre, as shown in Fig.
51. A half-yard of colored ribbon of the same shade as the paper, tied
around the egg, forms a loop to hang it up by, and also enhances its
appearance (Fig. 52). In connection with the egg another emblem
frequently found in the shops is the

                             =Easter Hare=

Why this little animal is associated with Easter eggs no one seems to be
able to tell. There are several legends which explain the connection,
each one different from the others. This is the prettiest:

"Scarcely had the Winter King left on his way to Northland when the
young Prince, Spring, passed along, bringing with him delicate flowers
and wild birds. The flowers charmed his senses with their exquisite
perfume, and the birds entertained and delighted him with their sweet
songs; but Spring was lonely and sighed for the children of the earth,
for whom he had brought these fair gifts. Thinking, perchance, they did
not know of his coming, he concluded to send them tidings, when suddenly
a little hare appeared, and immediately the Prince decided that the
swift-footed animal should be his messenger. The little hare, however,
begged hard to be spared, as he stood in terror of the dreadful
shot-gun, which had killed so many of his brothers. But Spring, smiling
said: ‘You shall be the bearer of gifts to the people, then they will
not harm you,’ and the hare, calmed but hardly convinced, consented to
do the will of the Prince.

"Then Spring wove a dainty willow-basket and filled it with pretty
colored eggs, which the birds gave him, and this he handed to the hare
to give to the people, with many sweet messages from Spring.

“Taking the basket in his mouth, the hare trotted off rapidly toward the
nearest village. When he reached there, however, fearing the grown
people, he delivered the messages to the children and gave them all the
pretty eggs.”

A delightful little legend, isn’t it? And Spring must have been well
pleased with the hare for choosing to deliver his messages to the
children, for on this day it is the young people who first know of the
coming of Spring.

                          =Hares Made of Eggs=

The Easter hares shown in Fig. 53 are made of eggs. Goose eggs are the
best to use—they are so much larger than hen’s eggs.

Blow the egg if you desire to keep the little hare; if you wish later to
eat it, boil the egg hard.

Take two little tufts of cotton, roll and pinch them in shape for the
ears, then two more tufts for the forefeet; fasten ears and feet to the
shell with gum arabic, in the position shown in Fig. 53. Remember, the
small end of the egg is the hare’s head; on this end, below the ears,
draw with pen and ink the eyes, nose and mouth, using Fig. 53 as a
guide.

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

If you make two hares, place them together on a fresh, green leaf of
lettuce, and they will look very natural.

Did Palmer Cox have in mind an egg when he drew the picture of one of
his famous Brownies? This queer little character certainly suggested one
so forcibly that it was impossible to resist trying the experiment of
making his likeness from an egg, and

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

                             =The Brownie=

shows the result, see illustration.

Prepare the shell of a goose egg as for the Easter hare, and follow the
directions given for blowing the egg. Fig. 54 is the Brownie’s face.
Trace this on tracing-paper, turn the other side and rub a soft
lead-pencil all over the back until that side of the paper is covered
with lead, taking care not to tear it in doing so. Place the face on the
shell, the printed side out, and holding it steady, go over the lines
with a pencil. This will reproduce the face on the shell, then with pen
and black ink strengthen the drawing. The small end of the shell is the
head and the face must be drawn well up on it.

[Illustration: The Brownie.]

Make the Brownie’s costume, cap and all, of brown material. An old brown
stocking will be just the thing to use. Fig. 55 is the pattern of the
cap; the dotted lines on the edges show where the seam is to be taken,
and the dotted line running from side to side shows where the cap is to
be turned up. Fig. 56 is the back and Fig. 57 half of the front of the
jacket. Fig. 58 is the pattern of half of the trousers, which are made
in two pieces cut exactly alike.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

Make two little rolls of unbleached cotton, two inches long, for the
arms. Fig. 59 shows how the muslin is turned up on one edge and then
rolled. Fig. 60 gives the roll stitched and complete. When the jacket is
made, slip the arms into sleeves and fasten at top of sleeve. Make the
legs just as you did the arms, but use black cloth for them instead of
white. Finish the trousers and sew in the legs at the dotted lines.

When the costume is complete cut a disk of soft muslin like Fig. 61, and
slip through it, at the centre, a needle threaded with strong linen
thread. A long darning needle will be the best. Pass the needle through
the hole in the large end of the shell and up through the hole at the
top. Draw the disk of muslin down to the large knot in the end of the
thread, then bring it up close to the egg as in Fig. 62 and paste the
muslin on the shell.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.]

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

Dress the Brownie in his clothes; first his trousers, then his jacket;
fasten them here and there with glue; run the needle which you have
passed through the shell up through the little cap and out at its point
on top. Slide the cap down on his head and glue in place.

Let the thread be long enough to hold while you dance the Brownie on the
floor.

Eggs can also be turned into

            =Fruits, Vegetables, Opera Glasses, and Dishes=

How would you like great, luscious purple plums, watermelons and fine
radishes for breakfast? We can manage to have them, and at the same time
may be served mammoth acorns—not the kind gathered for cups and saucers,
but quite different. These are as large as eggs and either all brown or
green in color. They taste something like hard-boiled eggs, and, what is
more strange, the plums, watermelons and radishes all have a similar
flavor. To prepare them, color some eggs, make the eggs all of solid
hues,—a few rich purple, several red, others brown or light green, one
or two dark green. When the eggs are boiled hard and of the desired
shade change them into the vegetables and fruits. Begin by making

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

                              =The Radish=

Gum a number of crisp tissue-paper leaves cut from Fig. 63 on the big
end of the red eggs. Fold each leaf lengthwise through the centre,
according to the dotted line (Fig. 63); then slip a hatpin or the back
of the blade of a table-knife tight up in the fold and, holding the leaf
in place with the right hand, gradually push it up together on the blade
with the left hand; this gives the leaf a natural crimped appearance
(Fig. 64). Take a small piece of raw cotton and dip it in the dye, or,
better still, color it with a little crushed red crayon; then pull the
cotton into the form of Fig. 65. Fasten this red point on the small end
of the egg and the egg will be a radish (Fig. 66). Use a dark green egg
to make the baby

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]

                              =Watermelon=

Mark uneven, lengthwise bands around it with a soft lead-pencil and
fasten in the stem with sealing-wax. Bore a hole in the large end of the
melon, making the opening big enough to admit the end of a small curved
twig which must form the stem; put on enough sealing-wax to secure
firmness (Fig. 67). Convert the purple egg into

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

                                =A Plum=

by fastening it on a natural twig in the same way you stuck the melon on
its stem. Gum two green tissue-paper leaves to the branch for foliage
(Fig. 68).

The funny big

                                =Acorn=

must likewise be attached to a stem, and on its small end [Illustration:
Fig. 69.] you should fasten with sealing-wax a leaf bud from a lilac
bush; if that cannot be obtained, make the little point of cotton. Let a
band of colored raw cotton or crumpled tissue-paper be glued on to form
the edge of the acorn cup (Fig. 69). When the fruit is ready for the
table, serve each piece on a separate small plate in which has first
been laid a white doily or a home-made mat cut from white paper.

Fresh flowers always give an added charm to the breakfast table, and in

                            =A Dainty Vase=

their value is doubled. Select three large-sized eggs, bore holes in the
small ends of each, and carefully make the openings large enough to
admit the [Illustration: Fig. 70.] points of a pair of small, sharp
scissors. With these cut the holes to a diameter of nearly one inch,
remove the contents of each and place the shells close together, as in
Fig. 70. Notice where the sides touch and drop hot sealing-wax there to
fasten the three shells together.

Flower vases are collected by people whose aim is to obtain as odd and
as many vases as possible. Other collectors delight in teapots, and you
will find on their shelves all sorts of queer and antique affairs. If
you happen to have a friend with such a hobby, give her

[Illustration: Fig. 71.]

                        =A Unique Little Teapot=

to add to her collection—one from which the tea can actually be poured
out of the saucy, wee spout (Fig. 71). Remember, however, the fragile
little affair cannot be placed on the hot stove. Blow the contents from
an egg and, if desired, color it. Have the sealing-wax of a broken
color, if it is obtainable, such as soft gray, delicate brown or quiet
gray-green. The work will appear better than when more positive colors
are used. With sharp scissors carefully cut a round hole in each end of
the shell and another small one in the side, a short distance from
[Illustration: Fig. 72.] the top, as an opening for the spout. Soaking
the shell in warm water for nearly half an hour will render
[Illustration: Fig. 73.] it less brittle. Make the bottom of the teapot
of a round piece of stiff paper; cover the upper side of the paper all
over with melted sealing-wax, and before the wax hardens set the shell
down on it. For greater security drop melted sealing-wax entirely around
the bottom where it joins the shell. Let the wax splash up on the egg;
it gives a decorative effect. The spout (Fig. 72) should be cut from
stiff paper, also the handle (Fig. 73); fasten both on the egg-shell
with sealing-wax in their respective positions, following the dotted
lines. When finished test the teapot to make sure it is water-proof;
then fill it more than half full with water and have the fun of
[Illustration: Fig. 74.] pouring the water in a tiny stream out of the
spout. If the teapot leaks the least bit, fill the crack with
sealing-wax. Be sure that the little gift is in perfect order before it
leaves your hands.

Having completed the teapot, it will be easy work to make

                            =The Sugar Bowl=

Use two strips of paper for the handles; fasten them on with
sealing-wax, and set the round bottom of the half egg-shell in the soft
sealing-wax which you have dropped on a circular bit of paper. The paper
being flat will give the sugar bowl a level stand, enabling it to remain
erect and firm (Fig. 74).

In old-fashioned Southern country-houses there is usually a pail of
clear, cold spring water conveniently near, with a gourd dipper from
which to drink in place of a common glass. The gourds are interesting,
odd-looking drinking vessels, but cannot compare in quaintness with the
little

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

                             =Egg Dippers=

fashioned from egg-shells. A large half of an egg-shell forms the bowl
and a slender stick the handle (Fig. 75). Bore a hole in one side of the
dipper and slide the end of any kind of a slender stick through. Fasten
this securely in place with hot sealing-wax both outside and inside at
the juncture of the bowl and handle, and in less time than it takes to
tell it the dipper will be made. Place all the Easter gifts you have
manufactured on a table where you may enjoy them, and in order that you
shall get the full benefit of their beauty, look at them through a pair
of opera-glasses; but first you must make the glasses. Cut Fig. 76 from
card-board; then bore holes in each end of two eggs, remove the contents
and cut the openings large enough to see through (Fig. 77). The egg
after the holes are made is shown in Fig. 78. Attach the large ends of
the shells to Fig. 76 by means of melted sealing-wax; glue them on
tightly, and the opera-glasses will be ready for use (Fig. 79).

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

[Illustration: Fig. 77.]

[Illustration: Fig. 78.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79.]

[Illustration: Paper Butterflies that Fly, and Egg Frogs that Swim.]



                              CHAPTER III
                             A PAPER EASTER


Even play eggs manufactured of paper have many possibilities. Of course,
all girls would rather make these for themselves than to buy them, be
the trifles ever so beautiful; for, after all, the purchased eggs can
only be looked at and then put away. You cannot have any real sport with
them; cannot take them apart and put them together again any more than
“all the king’s horses and all the king’s men” could restore “Humpty
Dumpty” after his fall; nor can you change these designs from one thing
to another, each complete in itself. Only the home-made Easter egg
admits of such manipulation. It is an Enchanted Egg and from it can be
made

[Illustration: Fig. 80.]

[Illustration: Fig. 81.]

[Illustration: Fig. 82.]

               =An Ostrich, Rabbit, Penguin, and Rooster=

To make the egg, cut from medium-weight water-color paper two egg-shaped
designs, Fig. 80; in one of these cut two slits exactly like Fig. 81;
lay this over the second paper egg, being very careful to have the two
perfectly fitted, and with a pin-prick mark the ends of the slits of the
top egg into the under one; stick the pin entirely through, first at one
end and then at the other of each slit; remove the top egg and draw a
straight line from pin-point to pin-point of the upper and then of the
lower slit; these lines are guides and render it easy to cut the slits
to correspond with those in the first egg. The two eggs must be exactly
alike, as they are in reality the two sides of one egg. Trace the
markings of Fig. 82 on one egg and spread strong paste sparingly over
the darkened portion, not allowing it to extend in the least across the
boundary lines, for the white spaces must be left free, that they may
form openings or pockets. Again fit the two sides together (the paste
will cause them to adhere), and place the egg under a few books, or some
other weight, to dry, and in a little while it will be ready for
transformation.

                    =Changing an Egg Into a Rooster=

[Illustration: Fig. 83.]

[Illustration: Fig. 85.]

[Illustration: Fig. 86.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84.]

Trace the rooster’s head (Fig. 83), his tail (Fig. 84), his wings (Fig.
85), and his foot (Fig. 86), on the water-color paper. Make two feet and
two wings; either paint the natural markings or indicate them with ink
on the different parts, then slide the head in the large end of the egg
at D, Fig. 82, fitting it in between the two sides according to the line
drawn above [Illustration: Fig. 87.] the letter D on neck of rooster. In
the same way place the tail in the egg at the small end, A, Fig. 82; fit
the wings in, one on each side, at the slit E; notice that each wing is
cut on both sides of the extension E, to bring the top edges of the
wings up higher, when they are in position, than their central top
portions. Slide the feet in the slit F, one on each side, slightly
bending them out from each other; the rooster (Fig. 87) will then stand
alone when it is placed on a level surface.

                        =A Rabbit from the Egg=

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.]

[Illustration: Fig. 89.       Fig. 90.        Fig. 91]

After the rooster has served its day remove the different parts and
leave the egg as it was at first. We are now ready to construct a
rabbit. Make the head (Fig. 88), the tail (Fig. 89), one fore foot (Fig.
90), and two hind legs (Fig. 91), of the same water-color paper.
Carefully slip the head in the small end of the egg, Fig. 82, A, and
place the tail down low in the large end of D; the piece which
represents the fore feet—it should be painted to look like two, one
slightly back of the other—is placed at the opening B, and the hind legs
are fastened on each side of the egg in the upper slits E. Bend the hind
legs out a trifle and stand the little rabbit on its feet (Fig. 92). If
you wish you can copy the markings on this one and make your rabbit look
as natural as possible. All the animals that you make should be white,
except the penguin, as the white egg forms the body of each one.

[Illustration: Fig. 98.]

                   =The Egg Develops Into an Ostrich=

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.]

In order to hatch the ostrich change the rabbit back again to an egg.
Cut from light-weight card-board the head (Fig. 93), and the two legs
(Figs. 94 and 95); these must be stiff and strong: you will notice that
the legs are not bent alike. Use water-color paper for the two wings
(Fig. 96) and a tail (Fig. 97). The wings and tail should look as much
like ostrich-plumes as you are able to make them. Slide the extension of
the neck, Fig. 93, D, into the upper part of the large end of the egg,
D, Fig. 82, and the extension of the tail into the small end, A, fitting
it in according to the line on the tail drawn around A; slip a wing into
each side of the egg at the slits E, and finally fasten the legs, one on
each side, in the slits F. Slightly bend the legs outward and adjust
them so they will balance the body perfectly; the ostrich is now able to
stand alone and will even appear to be walking (Fig. 98).

                   =To Hatch a Penguin from the Egg=

[Illustration: Fig. 103.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.]

[Illustration: Fig. 99.]

[Illustration: Fig. 101.]

[Illustration: Fig. 102.]

Make the head like Fig. 99. A is the portion which must be placed in the
small end of the egg, A, Fig. 82, allowing the lower curve of the head,
K, to extend down over the egg. Cut from very stiff writing-paper a like
curve, and paste it in position on the other side of the head, where it
should hang free: only the top edge of the piece being fastened on the
head in order that the curve may easily slip down over the other side of
the egg. This will make both sides of the bird appear alike. Fold a
piece of writing-paper, and from it cut Fig. 100; the straight fold
extends from O to U. Carefully fasten together the open edges of the
back from T to O and from U to P; gluing them on the extreme edges, that
the pocket thus formed may be as large as possible. Take stiff paper for
Figs. 101 and 102, which are the feet and tail of the bird, the
extension X of Fig. 102 forming the tail. Leave the eyes and mouth
white, and paint the remainder of the head black; also blacken the wings
and back, Fig. 100, and the feet and tail. Place the head in the small
end of the egg, A, with the curves K down over the white egg on each
side; then put on the little fellow’s overcoat, or back, Fig. 100,
fitting it over the sides, F, Fig. 81, of the egg; push the egg or body
of the penguin in the pocket formed in the back of the overcoat, and
shove the feet into the large end of the egg, D, Fig. 82. Hold the lower
edges of the egg firmly together while you bend out the feet
sufficiently to enable the penguin to stand alone, Fig. 103.

These little creatures should be made so carefully that either side will
be presentable. It is always distressing to know that “the other side”
does not look real, and it is a great satisfaction to be able to show
both sides of our work to our friends and know there is no “wrong side”
in what we do. If you can manage to paint the designs in water-colors
they will look best, but even when marked with black ink the little
animals are charming; no adequate idea can be gained of this fascinating
Easter egg until all the different parts have been made and the egg
changed from one to another of the various life-like little creatures.
The egg has been so planned that the wings come down and cover the tops
of the legs of both rooster and ostrich; the penguin and rabbit need no
such cover, as the rabbit’s legs fit in naturally, and those of the
penguin merely slide up in the egg. A little practice will enable you to
perform the work skilfully.

Butterflies are also emblems used for Easter. The beautiful fairy-like
creature changing in its close, gloomy chrysalis from an insignificant
little worm to the radiant winged creature of the air, fitly typifies
the Resurrection. Did you ever find a chrysalis and after examining it
lay it carefully aside, to await the development of the life within, and
some bright morning discover the shell broken and empty, while in the
room fluttered a brightly colored butterfly? If so, you will enjoy all
the more

                     =The Butterfly That Will Fly=

and which we will manufacture of tissue-paper.

[Illustration: Fig. 104.]

Take four pieces of tissue-paper—yellow, red, blue, and white—and cut
each according to Fig. 104. The shape is not exactly that of a real
butterfly, but when made of paper it proves more satisfactory, because
such butterflies fly far better when cut in this way. Fasten a fine
black thread through the back of each butterfly (Fig. 105); bend the
wings up a little and tie, or fasten with bits of court-plaster, the
loose ends of the threads on a round stick, placing them at a distance
of about four inches apart. Let the threads vary in length from six to
thirteen inches; this will bring the butterflies at different distances
from the stick. When all is ready stand about forty-five inches from and
in direct line with a register built in the side wall next to the floor;
[Illustration: Fig. 105.] hold the stick, with the butterflies attached,
up and out horizontally fifty or more inches from the floor. The gentle
heat will cause the brilliant little things to flutter up and down, this
way and that, in a most natural manner; the fine black threads being
practically invisible, the butterflies appear as if floating in the air
without aid from any source.

You might try the experiment of taking them out-of-doors; if the breeze
is not too strong, the butterflies will behave in the most approved
manner, which you know all about, having so often watched the graceful
movements of the beautiful live insects during the long summer days.

Perhaps the most charming of all Easter offerings is

                           =The Easter Lily=

Everyone strives to have a lily on Easter day. If you are unable to
obtain one of the beautiful, fresh flowers, do the next best thing; make
a lily—a stately, graceful white blossom on a long, dark-green stalk.
The flower is lovely even when manufactured of tissue-paper, and can be
made to look so natural that one almost expects to find the sweet,
delicate perfume of the real blossom. The paper plant has one advantage
at least over the natural one: it lasts much longer and needs no care to
keep it fresh. From a new, smooth sheet of white tissue-paper cut six
petals (Fig. 106); fold each lengthwise through its centre and bend or
curl the top into a slight curve to take away the stiffness (Fig. 107);
then cut Fig. 108 of unruled white writing-paper. Paint both sides of
the stigma or top a greenish yellow and the style or stem-like portion a
pale Nile-green. Bend the style up flat against the scalloped stigma
according to the dotted line in Fig. 108. Allow an eighth of an inch and
bend the style back again, which will make a little tuck in the style,
bringing it exactly in the centre of the scalloped stigma when it is
straightened out (Fig. 109). Fold each of the three scallops of the
stigma through its centre and bend them down (Fig. 109); this finishes
the pistil.

[Illustration: Fig. 106.]

[Illustration: Fig. 107.]

[Illustration: Fig. 108.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110.]

[Illustration: Fig. 112.]

[Illustration: Fig. 109.]

[Illustration: Fig. 111.]

Make six stamens according to the pattern (Fig. 110); paint the anthers
or tops orange color on both sides, and the supports or stems a very
light green—as you remember those in the natural flower. Bend the
supports in the same way as you did the style of the pistil, and
slightly curve the orange-colored anthers. These should seemingly
balance directly on the tip-top of the supports (Fig. 111). With strong
paste fasten the pistils and stamens on the end of a stick which has
previously been covered with dark olive-green tissue-paper (Fig. 112);
then paste on three of the white petals (Fig. 113). Use paste sparingly,
and be careful to arrange the petals evenly before adding the remaining
three (Fig. 114), which should be placed one over each space between the
first three petals. Fig. 115 will make the idea plainer. The petals
numbered 1, 2, 3 represent the first three; the other three alternate
with these, coming back of and between them as in the corolla (Fig.
115). Should the last petals incline to droop, attach them to the inner
ones about midway up with a very little paste.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.]

[Illustration: Fig. 114.]

Take a strip of olive-green paper and cut it according to the dotted
lines in Fig. 116; slightly curve each leaf in the hollow of your hand
by rolling the round head of a hat-pin down its centre; when finished
wind the strips of foliage around the lily stalk (Fig. 114). Have the
stalk quite long, [Illustration: Fig. 115.] [Illustration: Fig. 116.] a
short one does not look well. If you desire buds as well as blossoms,
cut squares of white tissue-paper (Fig. 117); roll each paper (Fig.
118), fold down the top ends a trifle and pinch up both ends; then pull
the bud into proper shape (Fig. 119). Paste the pinched tops together
and fasten the lower end of the bud on a green-covered wire (Fig. 120).

You can make smaller buds for the top and have the larger, which
represent buds ready to open and blossom, bent as in Fig. 120. To make a
stalk bearing buds and several blossoms, instead of building the flowers
on the end of a stick, fasten each blossom and each [Illustration: Fig.
117.] bud on a separate wire which has first been covered with green
tissue-paper; then bind the small buds on the top of the long green
stalk with thread or fine wire. Next fasten on the larger buds,
afterwards the blossoms, and when all are arranged satisfactorily wind
the green foliage around the stalk (Fig. 114), and it will all look very
beautiful and natural. The lilies may be placed in a tall glass vase or
the end of the stalk pushed into the earth in a real flower-pot, and at
a short distance it will have the appearance of a growing plant.

[Illustration: Fig. 118.]

[Illustration: Fig. 119.]

[Illustration: Fig. 120.]



                               CHAPTER IV
                      VACATION WORK WITH NATURE’S
                                MATERIAL


Here is a piece of advice for you, girls; possibly it may not be
appreciated, but it is good advice, nevertheless: While you are away for
your summer holidays, keep out of sight the fancy work you do at home.

When we drop the work or study that has employed us during the long
winter and spring months and go off in the summer to be refreshed and
invigorated, do we not say we go for recreation? If you will stop to
think about it you will see that recreation means literally re-creating,
being created anew; it means the laying aside of our ordinary habits and
thoughts and adopting entire new ones, for the time being at least. It
is this refreshing change of thought and occupation as well as change of
air that proves so beneficial; therefore, don’t keep the one little
portion of your brain which you devote to fancy work busy all summer
long in the old routine, but let it have recreation as well as the rest
of your mind and body.

By this I do not mean that the faculty ordinarily exercised in the
interest of fancy work should not be used in any way, or that the hands
which take so kindly to needle and thread should be always idle. Not at
all; but there are other forms of work for quiet hours, distinctively
summer work, which with their entire or comparative novelty refresh the
mind and give added deftness to the hands.

[Illustration: Cone Hanging-basket.]

The rainy day comes occasionally and you cannot be out of doors; then is
the time to look over the store of treasures which you have gathered in
your walks through wood and field and try to devise some means of
preserving them or making them of use. To begin with, there are your
pine cones, and no doubt you have gathered a great number of them;
everyone does. Sort the cones and select several of the largest, most
open ones to use as hanging-baskets in your window next winter, and if
you have an open fire devote the remaining cones to creating a cheery
blaze, to help disperse the gloom that a northeast storm in summer is
apt to throw over one.

If you are impatient to try the experiment of making a

                         =Cone Hanging-basket,=

you need not wait until winter, for, being in the country, your
materials are all close at hand, and there is no reason why you should
not start one immediately. Having selected your cone, shake out the
seeds, if any remain in it, and tie a cord around at about the middle,
leaving a loop on the top by which to hang it, as in the illustration.
Fill the interstices with lightly sifted earth, scatter a handful of
wheat or oats over it, and thoroughly dampen the whole. Hang the cone in
your window, keep it damp, and shortly the grain will sprout and the
cone will become a mass of vivid green.

Of course the beauty of the cone hanging-basket does not last a great
while, but a new one can be so quickly and easily prepared that, with a
store of half a dozen cones, you may have one fresh and green in your
window all winter. Almost any kind of small cereal will sprout if
treated in this way, and each time you can plant different seeds.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.]

If you happen to have sweet grass in your collection, make it into

                           =Sweet-grass Mats=

to put in the linen closet or bureau-drawers. These mats, placed between
sheets or clothing, impart such a sweet, country perfume you will be
surprised and delighted with the result. Take seven or eight stalks of
the sweet grass, cut off the flower-heads, bunch the stalks together,
and with a long, strong blade of the grass, wrap tightly into a rope, as
in Fig. 121. Make several of these ropes before beginning your mat. Then
coil one in an oblong, and sew it together, as shown in the diagram,
Fig. 122. [Illustration: Fig. 122.] When the first rope is nearly used
up, wrap the free end securely to the end of another rope and continue
to coil as before. When finished, the longest diameter of the mat should
measure about seven inches. You will notice in [Illustration: Fig. 123.]
Fig. 123, which shows the sweet-grass mat completed, that the last end
is tucked in neatly under the coil next to it, where it is fastened
tightly with needle and thread.

With all the other treasures, I hardly think it has occurred to you to
collect corn-husks, and yet many pretty things can be made of them. For
instance, there is the

                          =Corn-husk Basket,=

strong, durable, and useful. For making one of these baskets select the
fine, inner husks, and wrap them in a [Illustration: Fig. 124.] damp
cloth, let them remain two hours, and then cut into strips about one
inch wide. Take six of these strips and tie them together at one end
with a strong thread; separate the strips into three strands, two strips
to a [Illustration: Fig. 125.] strand, and braid as in Fig. 124. In the
beginning do not choose strips all of the same length, as they will have
to be pieced out to make the braid the required length, and the piecing
should not be all done at the same place. When you have nearly reached
the end of your shortest strip, open it out flat, lay the end of a new
strip over it as in Fig. 125, and fold together as in Fig. 126. In this
way the piecing goes on as the braid grows in length. When you have
about a yard of the braid, dampen and begin to coil it as in Fig. 127,
fastening the edges together with needle and strong, waxed thread. It
will require the whole yard of braid for the bottom of the basket, which
should measure about five inches in diameter. Before you have coiled
quite all of it, piece the strips again and make a yard or so more of
braid. Dampen the new part and begin to coil once more, this time
turning the braid up on its edge, and running it around horizontally to
form the sides of the basket, widening the sides a little with each row.
Four inches is a good depth for a basket of this kind. Finish the top of
the basket by sewing another row of braid around the outer edge. For the
handle make a braid twelve inches long, then divide the strands and at
the end of the large braid make two small ones six inches long. Fasten
the ends of the small braids and cut off neatly close to the wrapping.
Remove the thread which holds the other end of the large braid together
and separate the strips far enough up to make two small braids at that
end the length of those you have just finished. Sew the handle on the
outside of the basket in the position shown in the illustration, tucking
the ends between the bottom and next to the bottom row of braids, and
fastening them neatly on the inside.

[Illustration: Fig. 126.]

[Illustration: Fig. 127.]

[Illustration: Corn-husk Basket.]

Like the sweet-grass mats the

                           =Lavender Sticks=

are for perfuming clothing and household linen. They are pretty little
trifles, and make most acceptable birthday and Christmas gifts.

[Illustration: The Lavender Stick.]

Gather your lavender stalks (each one having a blossomed top) while they
are fresh and green, and use them as soon as possible after cutting, as
they grow brittle when dry. It will take about twenty-five stalks for a
large lavender stick, less for a small one, but in both cases there must
be an uneven number. You will need, also, some narrow lavender ribbon.
It is best to buy the ribbon by the piece, or roll, as it is not easy to
calculate the exact amount required for the sticks. Bunch your lavender
stalks together, with the heads at the top, and tie securely just below
the blossoms (Fig. 128) with linen thread. Bend the stems over
carefully, bringing them down over the blossoms (Fig. 129). A little raw
cotton may be used to fill out the bulb or, if you have them, extra
lavender blossoms. Pin one end of your ribbon at the top of the bulb,
where the stalks are tied together, pushing the pin through the ribbon
down into the bulb, then begin to weave it under and over the stalks as
in Fig. 129. Weave about two inches, widening all the time, then draw
the ribbon a little tighter, bring the stalks closer together, and
narrow the bulb gradually. When the stalks are bunched again, stop
weaving and begin to wrap, lapping the edges of the ribbon as in the
illustration. Have the wrapping tight and firm and, when about an inch
or two from the ends of the stalks, fasten with needle and thread, then
tie the ribbon in a bow of many loops. Finish the top with a bow also,
making it quite full.

[Illustration: Fig. 128.]

[Illustration: Fig. 129.]

                 =Braiding Palm-grasses and Corn-husks=

Away down in Florida, where the palms and palmettos are as common as are
the most ordinary trees and shrubs in the North, most of the children
wear hats made of the strong and durable leaves of these beautiful
trees; and all the children know how to braid the palm in a number of
ways. Indeed, it was a little girl not more than eight years old who
taught me just what I am going to try to teach you. She was “keeping
house” with a number of other children on one of the fine, shady streets
of Daytona, Fla., and, stopping to watch them at their play, we were
made welcome in their “house,” and one little hostess gave me the lesson
I asked for then and there.

You all know how a palm-leaf grows, tall and straight, and closed
tightly like a fan until it is time for it to open, [Illustration: Fig.
130.] when it slowly separates and spreads its fingers wide. It was the
unopened leaf of the cabbage-palm which was chosen for the braid, and
very pretty the tender leaf is; white, soft, and pliable, and edged with
light green. It is beautifully adapted to braiding, and the fingers of
my little teacher flew deftly, as the braid lengthened in her hands, and
my mind sped along almost as swiftly, as I tried to adapt the process to
materials to be found in the North, so that Northern, as well as
Southern, girls might share with me this little piece of handicraft.

I am sure wide, flat grasses can be braided in this way, and corn-husks
and—well, a number of other things which you will find if you keep your
eyes open; but I must return to the palm and tell you just how I was
taught to braid that.

[Illustration: Fig. 131.]

[Illustration: Fig. 132.]

[Illustration: Fig. 133.]

First I tore the leaf into strips about one-quarter of an inch wide,
then taking two strips, I folded one end of each as in Fig. 130, and
lapped the folded ends as in Fig. 131. Bending the right-hand strip (A),
I pushed it through the loop formed by the other (B) as in Fig. 132, and
pulled B down tightly (Fig. 133). Bending B, I pushed that through the
loop A had formed, and drawing A tightly, left a loop of B at the top
(Fig. 134). Each time a loop was formed I pushed another loop through it
and drew the first down snugly, and so braided a strip like Fig. 135.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136.]

My little teacher forgot to show me how to piece the strips, and I was
obliged to work out the problem for myself and for you. When one of the
strips had dwindled down and grown too narrow, I cut it off, leaving a
little over an inch below the loop. I then inserted another strip over
B, pushing it under A, as in Fig. 136, bringing it over the B loop and
again under A on the other side, pulling it down until the two short
ends were even. After that I continued to braid as before, the first two
B loops being double, of course.

It is not well to have the piecing of both strips come together,
therefore one should be longer than the other at the start, and the
strips should be always of the same width in order to make the braid
uniform and even.

This is regular hat braid you have learned to make, and perhaps having
done so much you will feel inspired to continue the work and make a hat,
if not a large one, at least one for your own or your younger sister’s
doll. Or you can make it into a basket by sewing the braid together,
lapping one edge over the other.

The braid should be back-stitched for both hats and baskets.

Most materials require damping before they are braided, for even when
soft and pliable they are apt to separate when dry, unless they have
first been soaked for a while in water.

[Illustration: Fig. 144.—A Girl’s Collection of Pictures.]



                               CHAPTER V
                              COLLECTIONS


Every girl can have her own gallery of famous artists’ pictures, and the
searching for and finding of treasures to form a home art collection are
a constant source of interest. When once the supply is started it grows
rapidly, for the fascination increases as the work progresses, and the
nucleus of a fine assortment is soon gathered. Daily papers furnish
valuable material in this line through their reproductions of paintings,
and the market is flooded with beautifully illustrated magazines giving
the art of our own land and that of foreign countries; then there are
unmounted photographs of masterpieces which may be purchased for a very
small sum; many can be bought at a penny each.

If new magazines are not to be had, old ones can be found at bookstalls
for low prices, which contain reproductions of paintings and excellent
accounts of them. Carefully take the magazines apart, removing the wire
fastenings by straightening and drawing them out before attempting to
separate the leaves; then cut out the chosen pictures, allowing as wide
a white margin as possible. Only those prints which represent the work
of eminent artists should be selected.

Decide upon some definite line of art, for the field is a large and
varied one. Better results can be obtained if you devote your efforts to
the paintings of only one nation, such as American, English, French, or
Flemish art. Again, the collection might embrace the works of but one
artist or school of painting, or be restricted to famous caricaturists
or mural decorators. Having made your choice and collected two or three
designs, buy low-priced medium-weight card-board for

                        =Mounting the Pictures=

[Illustration: Fig. 137.]

Select a kind not brittle or liable to tear; get either a soft gray tone
or white, the former often harmonizing best with black and white
pictures. Your material being ready, turn the pictures on the wrong side
and mark the centres. The easiest way of doing this is by laying a ruler
diagonally across the back of picture, Fig. 137, and drawing a line on
the [Illustration: Fig. 138.] paper along the edge of the ruler. Be sure
to have the ruler precisely at the corners; if placed either to one side
or the other, the centre will not be found. Fig. 138 shows the first
line drawn; cross this line by another running from the remaining two
corners which will give Fig. 139; the point where the lines intersect is
the exact centre of the picture. Cut the mounting board in portions
large enough to allow a surrounding margin of four or five inches
[Illustration: Fig. 139.] on each picture; then mark the centres on the
right, not wrong, side of the mounting board. It will be unnecessary to
extend the line from corner to corner of the mounting board; lay the
ruler across and mark it merely at the centre, Fig. 140. Take the print
[Illustration: Fig. 140.] you intend to mount first and carefully place
it upon the blank piece of paper so that the centre of the picture will
be exactly over the centre of the blank paper; lightly mark a line in
lead-pencil around two corners of the picture, remove the print and the
blank paper resembles Fig. 141. The last markings are a guide in pasting
the picture on the sheet of paper. First dampen the wrong side of the
print with a wet sponge. Have ready some strong paste and spread it
lightly on the wrong side. Be careful not to get too much paste lest it
smear the mounting-paper. Lay [Illustration: Fig. 141.] the
mounting-sheet upon a perfectly clean, level surface and place the print
on it according to the guiding marks. Have the picture absolutely
smooth, without a suspicion of a wrinkle or blister, and with a clean
cloth again smooth it gently, pressing it down here [Illustration: Fig.
142.] and there as seems necessary to make it adhere firmly (Fig. 142).
Then place a weight upon the mounted picture and leave it to dry. After
having been successful with one picture no difficulty will be found in
mounting the others.

It often happens that it is impossible to separate a picture from the
article treating of it, for the reason that one side of the page gives
the print and the other side the description. This difficulty is
remedied by

                         =Splitting the Paper,=

which will give two layers of uniform thickness, and if there are
pictures on each side of the paper they may both be preserved. Cut two
pieces of perfectly smooth muslin a little larger all around than the
sheet of paper to be split. Dampen one of the pieces of muslin and lay
it out smooth on an even, flat surface; cover one side of the paper to
be split with a thin layer of very strong paste or glue and carefully
place the paper, paste-side down, on the muslin; lay it out flat and be
sure it does not wrinkle; then cover the other side of the paper with
paste and place the second dampened piece of muslin over it. Be certain
that the muslin adheres over the entire surface of both sides of the
paper. Should it fail in places, the spots of paper not clinging to the
muslin will tear out during the splitting. See that the paste extends to
the outermost edges of the paper, and do not forget that muslin, paper,
and paste must all be smooth. Use a rolling-pin to secure uniform
adhesion. When the pasting is done, let it dry, and after it has dried
perfectly, separate the two pieces of muslin at one corner, and the
paper will begin to split if the work has been properly done. Continue
opening the edges until all four sides are partially separated, and the
fission of the paper just beginning; then a firm pull will entirely
separate the two pieces of muslin and, at the same time, split the
paper. If you experiment on a small piece of paper before attempting the
picture you will better understand the process. To remove the muslin
from the paper, soak it in hot water; place the water in a basin large
enough to admit of the muslin lying out flat. Let the paper side be
underneath, so that the muslin may be easily removed when it detaches
itself from the paper. Should any bits of paste remain on the paper,
soak them off; move the paper gently in the water back and forward,
until the paste is washed away; then lift the paper from the water by
placing a thin stick of wood under one edge and carefully drawing the
wet picture out; it will hang like a curtain from the stick. Let the
water drip off; then lay the paper down flat and smooth on a piece of
blotting-paper, picture-side up. When nearly dry, place the picture
between two sheets of pasteboard, and leave it under a weight until
quite dry. Mount split pictures on white card-board; gray will show
through the thin paper. On the back of each mounting-board fasten two
small brass rings by which

[Illustration: Fig. 143.]

                         =To Hang the Picture=

Slide a ring on a short piece of tape and glue the ends of the tape at
one side on the back and near the top of the picture to form a hook
(Fig. 143, H). Do the same with a second ring and tape. When both tapes
are securely fastened on the mounting-board, paste over each a strip of
tough paper or muslin (Fig. 143, P). If a wire be fastened on the rings,
the pictures may hang from the picture-moulding around the room, or the
collection can depend upon nails for support. If desirable, the rings
may fit over tacks driven in the wall.

Fig. 144 at the beginning of the chapter gives a girl’s collection of
reproductions from famous paintings. The pictures can be kept in

                             =A Portfolio=

made expressly for the purpose, should there be no wall-space on which
to hang them. Make the portfolio of two strong, stiff pieces of
pasteboard, cut large enough to extend one inch beyond each of the four
sides of the mounted designs so as to preclude all possibility of damage
to the edges of the work. Sew a length of brown tape at each corner of
the two sides of the portfolio, making in all eight pieces of tape, four
on each pasteboard; then lay each cover down on a piece of denim and
mark four spots on the cloth, corresponding to the places where the
tapes are fastened on the pasteboard.

Remove the denim and punch holes through the cloth at the four places
designated on each piece; button-hole stitch the openings, and run the
tapes through, drawing the cloth down tight and flat upon the
pasteboard; smooth the brown covering out evenly and turn the four sides
neatly over the edges where they can be securely fastened by long
stitches of strong thread taken from edge to edge of the cloth. Cover
the wrong side of each piece with heavy, rough, brown paper; paste it on
carefully and put them under weights to dry; the paper forms the inside
and the cloth the outside of the portfolio. In such covers any number of
mounted pictures can be kept secure from harm.

It is only necessary to pile them up evenly on one cover, lay the other
cover on top, and tie the two together over the pictures by means of the
tapes at the four corners. The portfolio is not intended to stand on
edge; it must be laid flat.

Another and different collection is very precious, though the best part
is not visible. It is a collection that is sure to be always a comfort,
and one with which the more familiar you grow the better you will feel.
Such a collection is called the

[Illustration: Fig. 145.]

                            =Sunshine Diary=

The book may be one of the usual styles of diaries sold in the stores,
or an ordinary blank-book; better still, a home-made book. The latter
requires forty-six sheets of writing-paper (Fig. 145), and for a cover
stiff brown paper or card-board—the kind used for making passe-partouts
and which comes in all colors—will be excellent. Cut the cover a trifle
longer and broader than the writing-paper, so that it may extend beyond
the leaves of the book on the sides, protecting the edges (Fig. 146).
Fasten all together by means of a strong brown or yellow cord laced
through holes made in the cover and book (Fig. 147). [Illustration: Fig.
146.] Should you be unable to cut the holes as neatly as you desire,
send the book to a shoe store or a harness-maker’s to have the holes
made.

Decorate the cover in gilt. Make a circle for the sun and use a ruler in
marking the rays. Draw the top and bottom rays first. Begin at the top
of the centre ray and run the lead-pencil down along the edge of the
ruler as far as you wish the ray to extend; then raise the pencil, but
[Illustration: Fig. 147.] not the ruler. Hold that down firmly with the
left hand, while you again place the pencil down below the circle and
draw the lower ray. Make the two horizontal rays in the same way (Fig.
148). After this it will be easy to draw the remaining rays by laying
the ruler diagonally between the top and bottom and the side rays.
Beneath the sun mark the title in plain lettering (Fig. 149). If you
cannot make the letters even and straight, do the best you can, and they
will look very well—better, in a way, than if another had made them for
you, because that will be your own [Illustration: Fig. 148.] work. When
the design is finished in pencil go over it with liquid gilt, painting
the sun a solid gold disk, the rays mere lines of gold, and the
lettering slightly heavier. On the first page of the diary write in ink
your age and full name and under this the year and day of the month.
Then turn over the leaf and on the right-hand page rule a line exactly
across the centre with red ink. At the top of the page write in red ink
the day of the week and month and under the red line write the next day
of the week and month (Fig. 150). Put down all dates and divisions in
red ink. The book is now ready for the record of January 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 149.]

Before making any entry try to think of the kindest and pleasantest
things said to you and done for you during New Year’s Day, and with
black ink write these, and these alone, for each day must reflect only
beautiful thoughts and acts—nothing else is allowed in the “Sunshine
Diary.” On the second day of the month make a similar record on the
lower half of the page; the third day turn over the leaf and carefully
rule the next two pages as you did the first, which will make four equal
divisions for [Illustration: Fig. 150.] four more days. Date each half
of the page correctly and proceed with the journal. Continue in the same
way until the end of the year and you will have a treasure well worth
keeping all the days of your life. The very act of carrying out the
“sunshine” idea will tend to strengthen all kindly feelings and cause
you to be on the watch for happy items to jot down in your book.

                             =A Guest Book=

[Illustration: Fig. 151.]

Another work is the “Guest Book”—one in which each friend who calls to
see you can write his name, with the date and a few remarks. One boy
might draw a simple little pencil sketch under his name; another could
write a joke in reference to some mutual experience. From one of the
girls might come an apt quotation; from another an original rhyme—in
fact, anything that would be interesting. Let the grown people also have
the privilege of leaving their autographs with a few remarks in the
“Guest Book,” for they, too, are your friends. The book itself should be
at least seven inches long and five broad; larger would be better. The
common blank-book of good paper will answer the purpose; it can be
covered with stiff linen, which is sold for dress lining and may be
found in the shops. Cut the cover to extend beyond the book two or three
inches (Fig. 151). The dotted line indicates the book. Adjust the cover
evenly and crease it slightly along the edges of the book in order to
know exactly how it will fit. Still holding the book in the left hand,
carefully cut two flaps, in the extension at the top and bottom of the
back. Remove and unfold (Fig. 152, A and B); turn down the flaps as in
Fig. 152, and again place the linen on the book. Fold over the linen at
the top and bottom of one side of the book binding (Fig. 155); do the
same with the other side, then turn in the outer edge (Fig. 154). Again
remove the cover and, after creasing the folds, cut the four corners
out, as in Fig. 155, C, D, E, F. Keep the flaps (Fig. 152, A and B)
folded in, and place the cover on the book (Fig. 156). Paste the corners
G and H firmly to the underlying piece of linen, do the same with the
other side and the cover will be finished.

[Illustration: Fig. 153.]

[Illustration: Fig. 154.]

[Illustration: Fig. 155.]

[Illustration: Fig. 156.]

Letter the outside in deep, rich red, using paint and brush. If you
cannot print the letters, write the title “Guest Book” in a bold hand
with the brush.

[Illustration: Fig. 157.]

                              =Calendars=

Calendars are always welcome and appropriate on New Year. Make yours of
twelve pieces of heavy unruled, tinted writing-paper. Decide upon twelve
persons whom you would like to think of often and cut twelve slips of
white writing-paper of exactly the same size. Send one to each chosen
individual and ask that the friend’s name and some sentiment be written
on the [Illustration: Fig. 158.] [Illustration: Fig. 159.] paper and
that it be returned to you. Having received all the slips, paste one
near the top of each sheet of writing-paper (Fig. 157); below paste one
leaf of a printed calendar representing one month (Fig. 158). Use a
Christmas card for an outside cover and through the two top corners of
the calendar make round holes large enough to allow a silken cord,
matching in color the tint of the paper, to pass through. Then fasten
all the pieces of the calendar together in order, January being the
first and December the last (Fig. 159). As each month passes by slide
that leaf back on the cords, bringing after January, for instance,
February to view. Hold the two loops of cord together at the top and
hang the calendar where it may be readily seen.

You can also

                       =Begin Illustrating Books=

Do not be surprised! No knowledge of drawing and painting is necessary
in order to illustrate in the new, easy fashion. Decide upon some short
story you wish to embellish; then look among your scraps for appropriate
pictures. Should you not find exactly what you want, make the pictures
over to suit.

If the story introduces a jolly little maiden full of fun, and describes
her as feeding her pet dog and laughing at his antics, and there is no
such maiden in your collections, look for one with the style of face you
think the girl in the story ought to have. When this is found and the
body is not satisfactory, cut off the head and hunt up an appropriate
body to fit it; that obtained, paste the pretty head on the new body and
cut out the entire figure. Find a dog, in the correct position, in some
old magazine or newspaper, cut out the animal, and before pasting the
group in place try the effect of both on a blank piece of white paper.
Slide the figures together and apart until you have them where they look
best; then paste the girl and dog neatly in position on the white paper,
and the full-page illustration is ready for insertion in the book.

[Illustration: Fig. 160.]

Always leave a wide white margin on all illustrations; never crowd the
picture up to the very edge of the page if you desire it to look well,
and be sure to dampen the wrong side of each picture before attempting
to paste it in your book, that it may be smooth and not wrinkle. The new
leaf for the picture should be cut wide enough to allow a quarter-inch
projection or more over on the opposite page, as in Fig. 160, OO, where
it can be pasted down on the inner margin of the other leaf. The dotted
line indicates the centre of the book.

Bound books will not admit of many extra leaves being inserted, so you
can select only a few of the incidents in the narrative for
illustration. Use care that the picture shall express your idea of the
event or place you desire to represent. Sometimes it may happen, by lack
of suitable material, that you cannot finish certain pictures for days
or weeks after they are begun. In such a case bide your time until the
wished-for designs appear, and in the meantime go on with the other
illustrations.

If the book is paper-covered, you can take it all apart, insert as many
pictures as you desire and fasten it together again. When obtainable use

                   =Colored Pictures and Photographs=

as illustrations. You may chance to find appropriate colored
reproductions from water-color sketches, that will serve the purpose
without alteration. Such would give a fine appearance to your book.
Unmounted photographs can also be employed, but, if possible, avoid
different styles of pictures in the same work. Keep the colored designs
for one book, the prints for another, and the photographs for a third.
Bear in mind that, whatever the nature of the illustrations, you are to
use only such as appeal to you and express your ideas; the scheme will
lose individuality—that is, it will not represent your choice—if you
select what others may deem best in preference to that which you would
have chosen if left unmolested. It is the individuality which gives
value to the work.

Never attempt to illustrate a valuable book in this new way, though it
would not injure the volume if you found a good unmounted picture of the
author and pasted it on one of the fly-leaves in the front of the book.
The portrait would add to the value and interest of the volume, as would
also items of information on the subject of which the book treats, if
pasted on an extra loose leaf and left in the back of the book.

When you have a collection of snap-shots that you wish to preserve, make

[Illustration: Fig. 161.]

                          =A Photograph Book=

in which to keep them. Cut two pieces of stiff pasteboard, each 6¼
inches wide and 5¾ inches high. Use strong paste to fasten these on one
side of a strip of heavy linen of a soft green color, 14¼ inches long by
6¾ inches wide. Leave a space of uncovered linen three-fourths of an
inch wide in the centre, Fig. 161. This will give the foundation for the
cover of your book. Draw the linen tightly over the edge of the
card-board at the top and bottom, paste it down smooth and even; then
paste the two end-pieces over, thus binding the four edges of the book.
Cut sixteen leaves from heavy [Illustration: Fig. 162.] dull-surfaced
paper, matching the green linen in color, make each leaf 6¾ inches wide
and 5½ inches high. Two of the leaves serve as lining for the cover,
leaving fourteen leaves or twenty-eight pages for the unmounted
photographs. Paste the first leaf on the left-hand side of the cover,
let it fit over the turned-in border of linen and extend across the
centre onto the edge of the other card-board, LL to KK, [Illustration:
Fig. 163.] Fig. 162; the dotted lines indicate the turned-over linen
underneath the paper leaf which is used as a lining. Take a second leaf
and turn down the left hand edge to a depth of ¾ of an inch, leaving the
leaf 6 inches wide. Cover the ¾ of an inch extension with paste, then
lap it over on the left-hand side of the centre and paste securely. The
place where the side of the leaf should be fastened down to the lining
of the cover is represented by MM in Fig. 162. Fig. 163 shows the space
MM covered by the side of the leaf, the diagram giving two leaves
properly glued together, the dotted line indicates the centre of the
book. As each leaf is fastened in, turn it over and paste the next one
on it as in Fig. 163. Continue adding leaves, always allowing the
right-hand leaf to [Illustration: Fig. 164.] overlap the left
three-quarters of an inch. When the last leaf is fastened in place,
paste it down tight on the right-hand side of the inside of the cover,
where it will form a lining concealing the raw edges of the linen and
the blank pasteboard as the first leaf covered the left-hand side of the
inside of the cover. This system of fastening the leaves together will
cause them to fold in the back where there will be no raw edges. Fig.
164 gives four leaves, showing the back where they are folded over after
each is joined to the preceding leaf. When the book is finished the back
hinge part of the cover is free from the leaves, leaving an opening from
top to bottom large enough to run a slender pencil through when the book
is opened. If desired the cover can be decorated with the title
“Snap-Shots.”

[Illustration: Making Valentines.]



                               CHAPTER VI
                          ORIGINAL VALENTINES


Always alert, chubby little Cupid works hard on St. Valentine’s Day; his
duties are many, and his pretty bow sends the arrows flying in all
directions. He is a merry little fellow, full of queer pranks and a
great favorite. The venerable St. Valentine seems to have merely loaned
his name to the fourteenth of February, leaving all the duties to Cupid,
who appears to be well pleased with the arrangement. For hundreds of
years past the young people have been as anxious to send and receive
valentines as at the present time

                           =In Former Days,=

before valentines were dropped in the mail-box, girls and boys had a
great deal of fun sending them to each other. Generally the young folks
waited until twilight; then each would sally forth in his neighborhood,
lightly step up to the front door of the house where the valentine was
to be left, and without the least noise slip the paper under the door,
ring the bell and scamper away as fast as possible, to avoid being seen.
Valentines to-day bring the same thrill of pleasure, and when the
whistle of the postman announces the arrival of the mail on the eventful
day, eager fingers are impatient to open the envelope and discover the
treasure within. Then the question follows, “Who could have sent such a
lovely valentine to me?”

Before making original valentines try to think of some particular study
or pursuit in which each friend is interested to whom you desire to send
a token on February 14. One may have a talent for painting, another for
music; a third may delight in flowers, and so on throughout a long list
of subjects which will furnish you with many suggestions for

                    =The Most Appropriate Valentine=

to be sent to each. As a little practice before using ideas entirely
your own, try making the valentines here described. The mystic
four-leaved clover (Fig. 165) would be just the thing for a companion
who delights in hunting that symbol of good luck. This valentine is very
simple and can be made in a short time.

[Illustration: Fig. 165.]

[Illustration: Fig. 166.]

Cut a sheet of unruled heavy writing-paper in halves and on one piece
trace

                        =The Four-leaved Clover=

(Fig. 166). Paint it green; an even flat tint will look well if you
cannot manage shadows, but be careful to do the work to the best of your
ability. In plain lettering mark the words,

                   “Good Luck to You, my Valentine;”

then slide the missive into an envelope large enough to contain an
unfolded half-sheet of paper. In case you happen [Illustration: Fig.
167.] to have a natural four-leaved clover which has been pressed, use
it instead of the painted one, and take a whole sheet of paper so that
the brittle leaf may not be exposed, but can be secured inside the sheet
on the third page by means of a little paste. With the pressed clover
the lettering should be made on the outside of the sheet of paper before
the leaf is placed within.

Another easy valentine to make is

                     =The Easel Holding a Picture=

Cut this from stiff paper or light-weight card-board (Fig. 167). First
trace the design on the card-board; then [Illustration: Fig. 168.] cut
it out and paint the easel golden-brown on both sides, except the part
which forms the canvas for the picture and the cross-piece for the
lettering. Leave these white; draw a line at the bottom of the canvas
and letter the strip,

                           “To my Valentine.”

[Illustration: Fig. 169.]

Paste any pretty colored floral design you may possess on the blank
space or canvas left for the purpose. Bend down the supporting strip (A)
projecting from the top (Fig. 167), and the miniature picture and easel
will stand alone and be ready to send to some friend who is studying
drawing or is interested in art (Fig. 168).

[Illustration: Fig. 170.]

To an attractive friend who has no special fancy for any particular
avocation, send the valentine shown at Fig. 169. Make it of

                       =Two Heart-shaped Pieces=

of stiff white paper and a small piece of broken mirror. Cut the heart
according to the size of the glass (Fig. 170); then with strong paste
fasten the mirror on the heart (Fig. 170). Cut another heart exactly
like the first, and and in its centre make a heart-shaped opening as
large as possible, while leaving it small enough to cover well the edges
of the glass. If you do not know how to make a heart-shaped design trace
Fig. 169. Decorate the top part with a painted pink ribbon, and on one
side write,

                     “Look into this Mirror Clear,”

and on the other,

                    “And My True Love will Appear.”

At the bottom point of the valentine paste a Cupid; then using strong
paste fasten the heart-shaped frame over the glass and lay the valentine
under several books until the paste is dry, taking the precaution to put
a clean piece of paper underneath, and another over the top of the
valentine to keep it perfectly fresh and clean. Any other style of
decoration may take the place of the ribbon and Cupid. Small colored
embossed paper forget-me-nots could be used.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.]

Should one of your friends delight in fireworks displays give her

                           =The Firecracker=

shown at Fig. 171. Roll together a piece of stiff paper two inches wide
and three inches long (Fig. 172); let the two sides overlap each other
slightly and join them securely with strong paste, forming a hollow
tube. Have the paper the peculiar red of genuine firecrackers, if you
can obtain such. For the inside take a piece of white paper four inches
long and a trifle less than three inches wide and [Illustration: Fig.
172.] write on it these words:

                      “Your eyes are so bright
                        That if they were mine,
                      I would soon have a light
                        For this queer valentine.”

In the turned-over edge at the bottom of the paper paste a waxed string,
as in Fig. 173. Then roll the paper and insert it in the red tube (Fig.
171).

[Illustration: Fig. 173.]

One of the prettiest customs of St. Valentine’s Day was instituted by
the daughter of Henry IV. of France, Madam Royal, who built a palace and
named it the Valentine. She then gave a grand party in honor of St.
Valentine where each lady received a beautiful bouquet of flowers from
one who was chosen as her valentine. The same gallantry was repeated
ever after on like occasions. The idea of the valentine flowers is very
pleasing, and we will use it in a modified form, but instead of cut
blossoms in a bouquet we will have

[Illustration: Fig. 174.]

                       =A Pot of Growing Flowers=

(Fig. 174). Trace on reddish-brown card-board (Fig. 175), and cut it
out, also cut the point B and the slits C and E. Bring the two sides
together, sliding the end D over, not under, through the slit C, at the
same time pushing the point B into the small slit E; and bend back the
extension D on the wrong side to hold the sides together and keep the
flower-pot upright. Cut out the bottom (Fig. 176) and let it drop down
through the top of the flower-pot until it lodges. Straighten and fit it
in evenly; then cut out the top (Fig. 177) of dark card-board, as it
represents the earth. Of course, one cannot dig holes in paper earth to
plant paper flowers, so slits must be made according to Fig. 177. On
white card-board trace Figs. 178, 179, and 180; paint them to resemble
as nearly as possible natural pinks, and plant them [Illustration: Fig.
175.] [Illustration: Fig. 176.] [Illustration: Fig. 177.] in the paper
earth in this way: slip the rounded extension of Fig. 178 through the
slit F (Fig. 177). Bend back the angular part K and slide its extension
L through the small slit T. Turn the paper earth over on the wrong side,
holding the flowers in position the while, and bend up the roots of the
two projecting pieces against the under side of the disk or earth; paste
them in place. Next plant Fig. 179 in the same manner, sliding its
rounded extension through slit G, and its smaller one through slit O.
Plant the last flower (Fig. 180) through [Illustration: Fig. 178.] slit
H; adjust the earth or top disk, and the finished work will be a little
round flower-pot filled with growing pinks standing up separately from
each other and looking very bright and natural (Fig. 174). On a dainty
piece of paper write this message:

[Illustration: Fig. 179.]

                          “Go, Little Flowers,
                          Salute My Valentine,
                          Who Can, Who May,
                          Who Must Be Mine.”

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Fig. 181.]

Place the note inside the flower-pot. Pretty colored printed flowers or
embossed ones for scrap-books, which may be bought in almost any
toy-store, can be substituted for the pinks. Fasten them in position by
making three tracings of Fig. 181 and pasting a group of flowers and
foliage on each one; these extra pieces will furnish the flowers with
proper paper roots, which can be planted and fitted in the paper earth
in the same manner as the pinks.

[Illustration: Fig. 182.]

                        =A Gentle Little Friend=

should receive the valentine which is shown at Fig. 182. Cut from white
card-board the circular disk (Fig. 183); around its edge write:

                  “Lift the Loop and You Shall See
                  That Which Makes Me Think of Thee.”

From fancy gold paper cut a circular band (Fig. 184) smaller in
circumference than the card-board; fold it through the centre (Fig.
185), bring the [Illustration: Fig. 183.] [Illustration: Fig. 185.]
[Illustration: Fig. 184.] [Illustration: Fig. 186.] folded ends together
and again fold (Fig. 186). Once more fold (Fig. 187) and from this cut
the outline seen in Fig. 188, being careful not to cut the folded ends P
and Q. Unfold the paper and you will have Fig. 189. Place this
ornamental golden band on the white cardboard. It should fit just inside
the writing. Stick it down slightly here and there with a very little
paste; then make Fig. 190 of fancy white paper. Insert the scissors at
the beginning (S) and cut the spiral around and around in one unbroken
strip until the centre is reached. In the centre make a short slit and
push the two ends of a narrow white ribbon through the slit; then turn
the spiral over and paste each end of the ribbon flat against the paper,
as in Fig. 191. Have ready a white paper dove and fasten it in the
centre of Fig. 183, which has previously been decorated with the
gold-paper design. Slide the end S of the spiral under the edge of the
gold band, placing the spiral so that it will lie flat and even inside
the golden paper and will cover the centre of the valentine. Lift the
cover by the loop and you will have a glimpse of the white dove, which
means peace and gentleness.

[Illustration: Fig. 189.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187.]

[Illustration: Fig. 188.]

[Illustration: Fig. 191.]

[Illustration: Fig. 190.]



                              CHAPTER VII
                  VEGETABLE ANIMALS AND FRUIT LANTERNS


Do you know that with the aid of a little enchantment equal to magic
employed by the fairy folks of old, you can make a tiny fowl, one small
enough to stand on the palm of your hand? A certain process which you
shall learn will cause a common raw potato to change into a wee turkey
of which anyone might well be proud.

The wands you will use for the work differ in nature and appearance and
are far superior to the fairy wands; the latter are merely stiff sticks
said to be endowed with magical powers, while yours are of most
wonderful workmanship and adapted to any use to which you care to put
them. More than that, you have complete control over the wands; at your
command they do your bidding, making all kinds of useful and beautiful
things, from the most delicate and fragile articles to the largest and
heaviest creations. One of your wands is known as the right, the other
as the left hand. Look at these pliable and exquisitely fashioned wands,
think of all they have accomplished and may do for you, then set them
both to work on your

                            =Potato Turkey=

Select a small potato (Fig. 192)[Illustration: Fig. 192.], break off the
ends of three burnt matches and force the longer portions into the
potato, two to serve as legs, and one as a support (Fig. 193
[Illustration: Fig. 193.]). Trace Fig. 194 [Illustration: Fig. 194.] on
stiff brown pasteboard, an old box-lid will be the best thing to use,
its surface being dull and almost the same in color as the potato. Cut
out the tracing and mark eyes, mouth, and tuft on it with ink (Fig. 195
[Illustration: Fig. 195.]). If you wish to have your turkey look extra
fine, make wattles of red paper or cloth (Fig. 196 [Illustration: Fig.
196.]); fold as in Fig. 197 [Illustration: Fig. 197.], and paste the
band-like upper portion over each side of the turkey’s neck, allowing
the lower flaps to hang free (Fig. 198 [Illustration: Fig. 198.]). Cut a
slit in the potato (Fig. 192, A-A) and insert the head, pushing in the
extension as far as the dotted line, or until it fits (Fig. 199). Make a
small opening on each side of the turkey (Fig. 199, C) and stick in two
curved feathers for wings. If you have only stiff feathers, choose two
small ones, and with your forefinger and thumb bend the ribs (Fig. 200)
until they are rounded enough to cling to the sides of the turkey. Use
stiff feathers for the tail, first making holes in the turkey in which
to insert them (Fig. 199). Push the feathers in securely, and should
they stand up unevenly at varying heights, trim them carefully with
scissors and the turkey will be finished (Fig. 201).

[Illustration: Fig. 199.]

[Illustration: Fig. 200.]

[Illustration: Fig. 201.]

In the South a young pig, called

                               =A Shoat,=

is considered as desirable as a turkey and is eaten with much relish. Of
course, each person is served with only a portion [Illustration: Fig.
202.] and cannot have a whole one, as is your privilege; for your shoat,
like the turkey, will be very small, no larger than a lemon, and of the
same color-in fact, it is a lemon to begin with (Fig. 202). Four sticks
furnish the legs (Fig. 203). The ears are [Illustration: Fig. 203.]
formed by cutting the skin in the shape of a V on each side of the
pointed end of the lemon (Fig. 204, B) and bending up the points (Fig.
205). A slender stick bent at short intervals (Fig. 206) until it
simulates a twist or curl is used for a tail (Fig. 207).

[Illustration: Fig. 204.]

[Illustration: Fig. 205.]

In cutting the ears be cautious not to pierce entirely through the skin;
allow the point of the knife to enter only deep enough into the rind to
cut a piece of sufficient thickness to turn up without [Illustration:
Fig. 206.] [Illustration: Fig. 207.] breaking, and have the slender
sticks used for legs and tail sharpened at one end so they may readily
be pushed into the lemon. Ordinary wooden toothpicks will answer the
purpose, but they must first be broken into shorter lengths for the
legs. The eyes are two black-headed pins.

[Illustration: Fig. 208.]

[Illustration: Fig. 209.]

                             =Turtle Soup=

is thought a great delicacy by some families, who deem a holiday dinner
incomplete without the dish. While we do not care for the soup, we would
like a small turtle, one that will not snap at us but be content to
remain quiet and look natural.

[Illustration: Fig. 210.]

[Illustration: Fig. 211.]

Ask for a large raisin (Fig. 208) and six cloves, five without and one
with the round seed; work in the four cloves with claw-like ends to
serve as feet (Fig. 209). Use the reverse end of a clove for the tail
(Fig. 210) and the round seed clove for a head (Fig. 211). Bend the head
and tail up and the feet down (Fig. 212). Beautiful golden pumpkins hold
a prominent place in the minds of Americans. Beside the delicious pies
made of the yellow fruit, there are the

[Illustration: Fig. 212.]

                            =Funny Lanterns=

fashioned by cutting a semblance of a face in the pumpkin, shaking out
the inside fibre and seeds, and, in the evening, placing a lighted
candle in the queer head, causing the light to shine through eyes, nose,
and mouth in a manner startling to those unaccustomed to the sight.

[Illustration: Fig. 213.]

[Illustration: Fig. 214.]

[Illustration: Fig. 215.]

The real pumpkin is large and heavy to handle, but you can have

                             =A Substitute=

in the form of an apple. Choose one that is deep red in color, in order
to have the greatest possible contrast between the features and the head
proper. It will not be [Illustration: Fig. 216.] [Illustration: Fig.
217.] necessary nor desirable to light up the face, the apple head is
comical enough with the face merely cut in its surface and the work is
very easy. Cut out from the apple (Fig. 213) two triangles near the top
for eyes (Fig. 214); directly below the eyes but in the central part cut
the triangular nose (Fig. 215); under the nose make the mouth in the
shape of a slender crescent (Fig. 216), and tie a ribbon on the stem as
an ornamental headdress (Fig. 217). There! you have fairly made the
apple laugh. Only see how it is stretching its mouth in a broad grin!



                              CHAPTER VIII
                  PASTEBOARD MODELS FOR A HOME DRAWING
                                 CLASS


Study drawing at home and make your own models; form a class of several
girls and work together; criticise one another’s drawings, and get a
criticism from an artist whenever you can. Much may be accomplished in
this way if you have the enthusiasm, perseverance, and will to carry it
through. Starting with one object, complete in itself, a variety of
forms may be evolved, and combinations can be made until an entirely new
model is produced. Such, for instance, is the church shown in the
illustration. First there is the house, then the house with a chimney,
the house with chimney and one wing, the house with chimney and two
wings; then the church, which is made by adding turret and steeple, the
church without wings, and the church with wings. A number of times this
model may be used, changing the position and adding to or taking from
it, and a different picture will be the result of each drawing.

Simpler models like

                             =The Pyramid=

can also be made, and it is well to try your hand on this before
attempting the more complicated forms.

[Illustration: Pasteboard Model of Church.]

Lay a sheet of heavy card-board flat on your work-table and draw
carefully four triangles like Fig. 218. These are for the four sides of
the pyramid. Use a rule to keep your lines straight, and make each side
according to the dimensions given on the diagram. You will see that the
measurement from apex to base is ten inches, and the width at the bottom
is six and one-half inches. With a sharp knife, or large shears, cut out
each part, taking pains to keep your edges true to the lines. Besides
the card-board you will need a roll of passe-partout paper. This comes
in one-inch widths, ready gummed, for making passe-partout frames. It is
strong, easily handled, and altogether more convenient for joining the
parts of the models than ordinary strips of paper. Should the
passe-partout paper be out of reach use new cotton cloth [Illustration:
Fig. 218.] [Illustration: Fig. 219.] cut in even one-inch strips. Of
course the cloth or paper must be white. Cut off a strip of your gummed
paper a little longer than the long edge of the triangle. With a pin at
each end, pin it to the table, the gummed side up, and draw a line
lengthwise through the middle, dividing it exactly in half. Have ready a
glass of clear water and a paint brush, dip the brush in the water, and
with it moisten one half of the paper. Over the wet half lay one of the
[Illustration: Fig. 220.] triangles so that its long edge almost touches
the central line, then gently press it until the paper holds fast to the
card-board (Fig. 219). Remove the pins and turn the triangle over to
make sure the paper is quite smooth on the right side; then lay it down
again, moisten the other half of the gummed surface and [Illustration:
Fig. 221.] press another triangle over that part, keeping the edges of
the two triangles perfectly parallel, but not touching. The space
between the edges must be left to give room for the bending of the
corners (Fig. 220). Pin a second strip of [Illustration: Fig. 222.]
paper to the table, moisten one half, and press still another triangle
in place; continue doing this until all four sides of the pyramid are
joined as in Fig. 221; then bring the last two edges together, while
holding it in your hand, and press the moistened paper down, smoothing
out any wrinkles that may appear. Lastly, trim off the ends of the paper
at the bottom, and stand your pyramid up, holding it so that its base
will form a perfect square (Fig. 222). Do not allow it to flatten and
form a diamond. The top edges of the paper should be trimmed off as the
sides are put together.

There are six parts to

[Illustration: Fig. 223.]

                              =The House,=

two sides, two ends, and two halves of the roof. Draw these on your
heavy card-board, like Fig. 223, the roof; Fig. 224, the side, and Fig.
225, the end, making them according to the dimensions given on each
diagram. Put the house together, as you did the pyramid, with the
passe-partout paper. When you have joined the sides and ends of the
house and have fastened the two halves of the roof together, paste
strips of the passe-partout paper along the upper edges of the sides of
the house, as in Fig. 226. These strips must be on the

[Illustration: Fig. 224.]

[Illustration: Fig. 225.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 226.] [Illustration: Fig. 227.] inside, and half of
the paper must extend above the edges of the sides. Moisten this part
and, fitting the roof to the house, put your hand inside and press the
paper up against the roof; this will hold it securely in place. In
fitting the roof on, be sure it extends exactly the same distance over
each end of the house (Fig. 227).

[Illustration: Fig. 228.]

[Illustration: Fig. 229.]

[Illustration: Fig. 230.]

                             =The Chimney=

is adjustable and is not fastened to the house. Make four sides; two
like Fig. 228, two like Fig. 229. The dimensions of each side are given
on the diagrams. In putting the chimney together, paste your strips of
paper only as far up as the dotted line at the top, the part beyond this
line is to be turned over as in Fig. 230, which shows the completed
chimney. Make

                              =The Wings=

with slanting roofs like the ones shown in the illustration of the
[Illustration: Fig. 231.] church. Fig. 231 is the highest side, which
goes next the house when the wing is added; [Illustration: Fig. 232.]
Fig. 232 is the lower side; Fig. 233 is for the two ends, which are
exactly alike, and Fig. 234 is the roof. The dimensions are given on the
diagrams.

[Illustration: Fig. 233.]

[Illustration: Fig. 234.]

[Illustration: Fig. 235.]

[Illustration: Fig. 236.]

[Illustration: Fig. 237.]

                        =The Tower and Steeple=

which transform the house into a church are shown in the illustration.
Cut two sides for the tower like Fig. 235, and two like Fig. 236, and
put them together like Fig. 237. The notches in the lower part of the
tower and of the chimney allow them to sit astride the roof, which
position holds them in place without making them permanent. Fig. 238 and
Fig. 239 are for the cornice of the tower, which is something like a box
with a square opening at the bottom and a round hole at the top. Cut
Fig. 238 according to the dimensions given and bend at the dotted lines,
first the lengthwise lines, then the cross ones. Allow the laps with the
trimmed corners to come on top of the others. Put the two end edges
together with the gummed paper to form a square, then with a drop of
glue or paste at each corner fasten the laps in position, as shown in
Fig. 240. In the centre of a perfect square, made according to the
dimensions on the diagram, Fig. 239, cut a circular hole; [Illustration:
Fig. 238.] paste strips of paper along the four edges of the square,
Fig. 241, bend down the free edges of the paper and paste the square on
top of the cornice. Fig. 240 is the cornice with top down to show its
construction. Cut the steeple from rather heavy drawing-paper, like Fig.
242, keeping to the dimensions on the diagram. Turn in the lower laps
and paste the side lap over the corresponding edge to form a cone (Fig.
243). Drop a little glue on each of the lower laps, place the cone
directly over the circular hole in the top of the cornice, and, slipping
your fingers through the hole, press the laps down until they are firmly
fixed. Fit the cornice on the tower, but do not attempt to glue it, for
it will hold its place quite well without.

[Illustration: Fig. 239.]

[Illustration: Fig. 240.]

[Illustration: Fig. 241.]

[Illustration: Fig. 242.]

[Illustration: Fig. 243.]

Your own ingenuity will suggest other models to be made in this way; any
angular object is easily constructed, and curved ones are not
impossible.

[Illustration: The Tower and Steeple which Transform the House into a
Church.]



                               CHAPTER IX
                           QUICK INK PICTURES


When you happen to drop ink on paper you may be using, do not look
disconsolate and feel uncomfortable. Make a joke of the accident by
turning the blot into something funny. Fold the paper over the ink-spot,
press the two sides together; then open the fold, and you will find the
dull, round blot transformed into a queer, comical-looking object the
like of which was never seen on land or sea. The strange thing about
these oddities is that try as you may you cannot coax any two ink-drops
to change themselves into the same shape; they utterly refuse to do so.
Experiment with them and you will soon realize that each has its own
independent idea regarding the figure it will assume, insisting, when
you press it, upon taking the matter into its own hidden hands and
turning into whatever it pleases. The various results are generally
decorative and might often be used with good effect for book-plates.

                         =If You Have a Group=

of three or four ink-drops, they may be controlled to a certain extent.
Hold the paper so that the wet ink will trickle downward, and you can
join the blots together, elongating the design; then, when the paper is
folded lightly, if you press the ink with short, gentle strokes out
sidewise the tiny splashes tend in that direction, and an upward
movement will cause the ink to spread upward—sometimes in little
streaks, again in a bulging way, giving an uneven, undulating boundary.
Should the paper be folded across the ink the result would be a single
figure, while an allowance of an eighth or quarter of an inch space
before creasing the paper gives two designs, one a duplicate because a
print of the other. A similar method of making ink-impressions is to
splash the fluid on the paper with a paint-brush and then to fold and
press it; or, group drops of ink with the splash of a brush and press
the two sides of the paper together.

[Illustration: Ink Marine. Fig. 244.]

The ink-impressions may be made to take the form of

                        =Landscapes and Marines=

Often very pretty effects can be produced in this simple manner. Fig.
244 is a suggestion showing a stretch of sky with mountains as a
background and points of land jutting [Illustration: Ink Marine. Fig.
245.] out into the sea for the middle distance, while the foreground is
entirely of water, which reflects the distant purple hills. The picture
is readily made, but the work must be rapid to insure success, as delays
cause the ink to dry in spots, which ruin the design. Fold through the
centre a piece of blank, unruled paper from a large-sized writing pad;
open it and on the upper portion mark the sections according to diagram
Fig. 245. The dotted line indicates the crease through the centre of the
paper and gives the distance at which the first sections should be
placed above the fold. With a lead-pencil lightly trace the divisions:
have ready a bottle of ink, a common water-color brush, a glass of water
and a clean dinner-plate. Dip the brush in the ink and dab it on the
plate several times; then do the same with the water, mixing ink and
water together. Try the strength of this mixture on a scrap of paper; if
it corresponds to the tone of the second point of land in Fig. 244 (or A
in the diagram) it is ready for use. B and D (Fig. 245) require a degree
lighter than A, so mix more water than ink on a clean place in the
plate. C (Fig. 245) is the faintest mountain and needs the most water
mixed with ink. Use ink as it comes from the bottle for E (Fig. 245),
the nearest point of land, as that is the darkest portion. Test the
three tones and keep changing them, adding more water as needed, until
you are satisfied that each one is of the required strength; then wash
the brush clean and be sure everything is ready for the work. Having
once commenced, you cannot stop an instant until the sketch is finished;
understand exactly what you intend to do and how you are to do it before
beginning, as there will be

[Illustration: Fig. 246.]

[Illustration: Fig. 247.]

[Illustration: Fig. 248.]

                      =No Time for Deliberation,=

and you must work as fast as possible. Dip the brush in the lightest
tone of diluted ink, have it well charged with the fluid, and in swift
strokes paint C. Without stopping, take up the next lightest tone on the
brush and sweep in B and D, then the darker, A, and finish with E in
pure ink. Fold the paper immediately, and, holding it down flat on the
table with the left hand, press with the right; rub the paper all over
again and again, being sure to cover the entire surface in order to
print the mountains on the lower portion of the paper. The study will
then be finished with the exception of the sailing-vessel, which may be
indicated with a few strokes. Bring the brush to a fine point and trace
in ink the lines of Fig. 246. First make the central vertical line, then
the slanting line on the right-hand side which joins the mast a short
distance from the top, from the same point extend two lines down on the
left. Fig. 247 is the hull of the vessel, and the straight line crossing
it a short distance from the top denotes the narrow space to be left
white. Fig. 248 shows the complete outline of the craft, intentionally
made as simple as possible, to enable any girl to introduce the boat
into the sketch without difficulty. As is seen in Fig. [Illustration:
Fig. 249.] 244, the boat is filled in with black and duplicates itself
in the shadow reflected on the water, but the shadow must be made with
the brush; it cannot be printed from the boat. The chrysalis of the

                            =Ink Butterfly=

(Fig. 249) was made of two or three ink-blots and a splash of ink from a
paint-brush. This chrysalis did [Illustration: Fig. 250.] not in the
least resemble a real one, but when the paper was folded along the edge
of the ink a butterfly appeared.

On soft-finish paper write any word you choose; then, while the ink is
wet, fold the paper, and upon opening it you will find

[Illustration: Fig. 251.]

                            =An Odd Design=

Figs. 250 and 251 were made in this way; both from written words which
represent most desirable states of mind. When you can gain Fig. 250 you
will surely have Fig. 251.

                         =The Fantastic Horses=

(Fig. 252) gave no hint of what might be expected when they were first
seen in the form of a group of shiny black spots, and it was only after
opening the folded paper that they revealed their true character as
extravaganza animals with legs different in length and extraordinary
eyes.

[Illustration: Fig. 252.]

You can make creatures wilder in appearance than these, and in this way
form a collection of pictures of the animals you have never known.

Fig. 253 represents

                           =A Pair of Birds=

of a peculiar kind, found nowhere but inside ink-bottles. Others may
come from the same source, but none will be precisely like these. Try
the experiment of ink-drops on pieces of muslin; work rapidly and you
will be delighted with the results.

[Illustration: Fig. 253.]

If you are fond of

                             =Nature Study=

and happen to have vines or any other kind of house plants, you can make
valuable ink sketches from them. Break off a few pieces of the main
growth. Take one at a time, and with the left hand hold the spray either
in the bright sunlight or lamplight in such a way as to cast a distinct
clean shadow upon the paper pad that is placed beneath it. With a brush
dipped into the ink, paint over the shadow; be careful to follow every
turn and twist of leaf and stem, that the sketch may be true in every
detail. You will find the work to be quick and easy and the results
satisfactory. In no other [Illustration: Fig. 254.] way can better
characteristic growth of the various specimens be obtained. Notice
carefully Fig. 254, [Illustration: Fig. 255.] and it will give a true
idea of the plant; and Fig. 255, how naturally and gracefully the vine
turns in curving lines. Fig. 256 gives sprigs from four different
plants. Can you name them? All the studies are decorative and furnish
original designs for embroidery, [Illustration: Fig. 256.] or
wood-carving, but, best of all, you can make and use this kind of
ink-pictures as illustrations for the book in which you write down your
notes on Nature study, and so be able, after describing a plant, to give
an original, realistic picture of it.

Small specimens can be painted with ink, root and all forming one
picture, but larger plants must be separated at the centres and a study
made of each part, the two halves being placed side by side on the same
piece of paper.



                               CHAPTER X
                              MOVING TOYS


How would you like a merry-go-round with all the animals prancing one
after another, each with a girl or a boy on its back, riding along
regardless of the speed of the steed, like the real ones you have tried
in the parks and at the seashore?

                          =The Merry-go-round=

Fig. 257, is easily made, the work consisting mostly of stringing
different things on a hat-pin and sticking the pin through a box.
Procure a long hat-pin (Fig. 258), a large, empty spool (Fig. 259),
three small corks (Fig. 260) and, for a foundation, a round flat box if
you can obtain or make it, if not, a common note-paper box must answer
the purpose. A piece of string about a yard long and two shank buttons
will help out the simple machinery (Fig. 259). The canopy is of paper or
card-board (Fig. 261) and the support for the animals of card-board
(Fig. 262).

[Illustration: Fig. 257.]

[Illustration: Fig. 258.]

Lay a piece of card-board flat and place over it an ordinary tea-plate;
hold the plate steady and draw a circle on the card-board by running the
lead-pencil around the edge of the plate. This will give a circle of
about the desired size. Then draw bands across the circle, as in Fig.
262; to do this draw lines dividing the circle into quarters and at the
left of each of the four lines draw a line a little more than half an
inch away from it, making four bands (Fig. 262). Cut out the circle,
then the four wedge-shaped pieces between the bands, and bend up the end
of each band five-eighths of an inch (Fig. 262).

[Illustration: Fig. 259.]

[Illustration: Fig. 260.]

On these ends paste any stiff paper animals you may happen to have,
(Fig. 263), selecting those which will balance each other, as the
merry-go-round must revolve evenly. Colored scrap-book animals look well
and are stiff enough to hold themselves firmly in place. Should you not
happen to possess these, animals from old pamphlets, advertisements or
newspapers may be used. They should be stiffened by being pasted flat on
thin card-board or stiff paper. When fastening the animals on the
merry-go-round paste the body of the animal to the turned-up end of the
card-board band (Fig. 263).

[Illustration: Fig. 261.]

                         =In Making the Canopy=

use a small saucer or bowl as a guide to draw the circle on paper or
card-board. Cut out the circle, point it around the edge (Fig. 261),
turn the points down and the canopy is [Illustration: Fig. 262.] ready
to go on the hat-pin. If you do not have the correct-sized plate,
saucer, or bowl, the circles may be drawn with the aid of a home-made
compass. To make the compass, take a pair of scissors and a piece of
card-board (Fig. 264), punch two holes about two inches apart in the
card-board and through them pass the points of the scissors until they
extend through on the other side an inch or a trifle more; secured in
this way the scissors make a very good compass. Adjust the scissors so
that the distance between the two points is four inches, then firmly
[Illustration: Fig. 263.] stick the sharper point in a piece of
cardboard and, keeping that steady, slowly move the other point around
in a circle, pressing it down only hard enough to scratch the surface
(Fig. 264). Make the circle for the canopy in the same way, but have the
distance between the scissor points [Illustration: Fig. 264.] much
less—not more than two and one-fourth inches—in order to preserve the
correct proportions.

Now watch the almost

                =Magical Forming of the Merry-go-round=

Pass the long hat-pin (Fig. 258) through the exact centre of the canopy
(Fig. 261) then put on one of the corks (Fig. 260); work this up tight
to the canopy that it may hold the latter in place. Twist the cork
around and around on the pin, as it will be apt to go on crooked if the
pin be forced carelessly through the cork. String on another cork,
working it up the pin midway, then slide on the bands, with the animals
attached, pushing the pin through the exact centre of the pasteboard;
next put on the large spool.

                     =The Box Must Have Some Holes=

made in it before using; puncture two one inch from the front edge and
four inches apart in the lid; then make two more holes through both lid
and box on the front side half an inch from the top and five inches
apart, as seen in the illustration. Fig. 257.

Stick the loaded pin through the centre of the box-lid, bringing it well
down, and cover the extreme point of the pin with the last cork in order
to prevent the pin from coming through and pricking. This cork must lie
firmly on the bottom of the inside of the box.

The merry-go-round is now ready for the machinery to set it in motion.
Pass the string around the spool and cross the two ends in front (Fig.
259) keeping the ends crossed; thread one of the ends through the two
holes on its own side of the box, bringing the end out from the front of
the box, do the same with the other end of the string as shown in the
illustration. To prevent the string from accidentally slipping back
through the holes, tie a shank button on each of the ends.

Now, holding the box with one hand, gently

                      =Pull One End of the String=

with the other hand and see the animals go dancing around, just like the
big wooden griffins, zebras, and giraffes on real carousels.

Of course, the merry-go-round needs boys and girls to ride the animals
and enjoy the sport. Look them up in the advertisements of old
magazines, newspapers, or wherever you can find paper young people. Cut
them out neatly and let them take turns riding on the different animals.
When cutting out the legs of the paper children, merely cut up a deep
slit to divide the legs in order to make the riders cling firmly to the
various animals.

The brighter the colors used in the merry-go-round the gayer and more
attractive its appearance. There is

                      =Something Very Fascinating=

in the toy; even grown people are interested and amused as they watch it
whiz around with its burden of happy little paper children. Another
lively game for paper children is the

                             =Flag Dance,=

(Fig. 265), where each doll actually waves its own little paper flag as
she dances to and fro.

Make four small flags of different colored tissue-paper, each 1½ inch
wide and 3 inches long, which allows for fastening to the staff.

Four little paper girls can be cut from Fig. 266. Take four half-sheets
of stiff, unruled white writing-paper, fold each lengthwise through the
centre; then trace Fig. 266 and cut it out of an extra piece of paper.
Lay this half figure with its straight edge on the fold of one of the
papers and with a lead-pencil draw a line around it. Cut out and open
(Fig. 267). Make four dolls. Cut the flag-staff off the right hand of
two and off the left hand of the other two, that the hands on the
outside of the group, when the dolls [Illustration: Fig. 265.] are in
place, may hold the flags (Fig. 268). Draw or paint a face and dress on
each of the little girls, being sure to use the inside of the bend or
fold for the front of the doll, as this slight inclination to fold
forward after the doll is cut out and straightened out flat is of great
assistance in bracing the figure when it is in position. Cut a slit up
between the feet, but no further. Let the legs be of one piece, to
insure greater strength to the standing doll (Fig. 267). Fold the
flag-staff lengthwise, also the hand holding it, and give to each of the
paper children one of the home-made tissue-paper flags by pasting a flag
on every flag-staff (Fig. 268). When the dolls are ready, obtain a very
flexible, slender, cloth-covered, long steel from a dress-waist or
stays, and tie a strong black thread from end to end, making a stretch
of nine or ten inches. On the centre of this thread tie another about a
yard long (Fig. 265), and on the steel foundation fasten the four dolls.
They should stand erect, one on each end, and two midway between centre
and ends.

Fig. 268 shows the method of pasting the feet of the figures on the
steel; slide the steel up between the feet; then bend them forward and
glue one foot on each side of the steel, flat against it. Fasten a flag,
about four and a half inches long, on the end of a long, strong hat-pin;
then stick the pin firmly in a small pastry-board and slip the steel
with its pretty children over it, resting the centre of the steel flat
against the pin, which is now a flag-pole (Fig. 265).

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Take hold of the loose end of the thread and step-back from the table on
which the dolls are placed. When a sufficient distance away to cause the
thread to stretch out straight give it a number of gentle jerks in quick
succession. This will cause all the paper children to rush back and
forth, waving their bright flags in triumph.

They can enter more heartily into the play if there is music, and it
gives life to the “flag dance.” Ask your companion to strike up the
“Star-Spangled Banner” on a comb while you make the little paper
children dance in time to the music, which you can do by jerking the
thread to the musical rhythm.

Find three large-sized button-moulds and some burnt matches for your

                          =Button-mould Tops=

Select round matches, as they will fit the holes in the button-moulds.
Place one mould flat down on a piece of orange-colored paper and draw a
line on the paper around its edge. Cut out the circular paper and paste
it on the flat side of the button-mould; then pierce a hole through its
surface, exactly over the hole in the mould, slide a match, unburnt end
first, through the mould, until it extends about one-third
[Illustration: Fig. 268.] beyond the bottom of the mould. If the match
does not seem firm, fasten it in place with a little mucilage. When this
top is finished, make two more of the same size, one covered with red
and the other with green paper. No string is necessary for spinning
these tops; merely give each one a twist with the thumb and second
finger of the right hand and around it goes.

                               =The Game=

consists in spinning the three tops, one immediately after the other,
the red top first, then the orange one, and last the green, allowing
them all to whirl around together and not disturbing them in any way
until the last one to cease spinning falls. The top which keeps up for
the longest time scores the first point. When the first round is
finished set the tops twirling again, commencing with the orange one and
taking the red one last. Mark down the score of the winning top and give
them all a third and last trial, leading with the green top and bringing
in the orange last. The top which gains the greatest number of point
wins the game. Should each top gain a point, the game would be a “tie,”
and necessitate the playing of it all over again.

In case two friends would like to join in the sport, the game may be
changed. Let each, with closed eyes, select a top, leaving one for the
hostess. At a given signal have all the tops spin at once. The top which
stands up longest wins the first point, and the greatest number of
points the game. Allow two rounds, making six points to each
three-handed game.



                               CHAPTER XI
                         HOME-MADE PYROTECHNICS


If you would like some bright, lively fireworks, the kind you can
manufacture at home, make them the day before the celebration, and there
will be no necessity of waiting all the long hours until dark before
seeing the sparks fly. Begin the fun early the next morning, and fire
off these queer fireworks the entire day. The

[Illustration: Fig. 269.]

[Illustration: Fig. 270.]

[Illustration: Fig. 271.]

              =Three-story Red, White, and Blue Pin-wheel=

is very satisfactory, affording three times the enjoyment of a simple
one-story affair. Fold a three-inch square of stiff red paper diagonally
across from corner to corner, making two folds, which cross at the
centre of the paper. Unfold and cut the square along the folds almost to
the centre (Fig. 269); then pierce the alternating corner flaps with a
long, stiff hat-pin, allowing each point threaded on the pin to remain
there; run the pin through the centre of the paper (Fig. 270) and shove
the red pin-wheel up close to the large round head of the hat-pin. Push
a small cork on also, to prevent the pin-wheel from slipping. Work up
another cork on the pin, about an inch or so below the first one; then
make a larger pin-wheel of white paper and slide it on the same hat-pin,
holding it in place with a third cork. Cut the last pin-wheel still
larger and make it of blue paper. Shove up a fourth cork on the pin, and
below, against it, thread on the blue pin-wheel. No cork will be
required under the last pin-wheel; the hat-pin being now pushed firmly
into the end of a stick, the blue pin-wheel cannot slide out of place
(Fig. 271).

When ready, run with the toy, or whirl rapidly around, holding it in
your hand, and see how beautifully the three parts spin, the whole
appearing like a whirling red, white, and blue pyramid.

Another

                       =Pin-wheel in Your Hands=

has a button as a foundation. Take a large cup and trace two circles on
yellow paper measuring three and a half inches in diameter; make two
smaller circles of red paper, two still smaller of green paper, two
others—decreasing in size—of yellow paper, and the two smallest circles
of blue paper (Fig. 272). Separate the disks into two groups exactly
[Illustration: Fig. 272.] [Illustration: Fig. 273.] alike; then fasten
each of the two sets of disks together by placing one over another; they
will form two vari-colored disks, each a duplication of the other.
Select a large button and place it between two vari-colored disks. Be
sure to have it in the centre; then with a large pin or needle punch two
holes through the disks, covering the corresponding opposite holes in
the button. Thread a string through the two holes and tie the ends
together (Fig. 273); join the edges of the two disks and the pin-wheel
will be ready for action. Place the first two fingers of the right hand
in one loop, and of the left hand in the other; give the string a twirl
and pull the hands apart. The motion causes the string to twist,
allowing the hands to come nearer together; another outward motion of
the hands and the pin-wheel will revolve rapidly in another direction.
By alternately bringing the hands together and pulling them apart, the
pin-wheel can be kept spinning as long as you like. In making the
pin-wheel, the paper may be either pasted or sewed; it is firmer when
pasted.

                       =Pin-wheels on the Fence=

are fiery, sparkling, and larger than the hand pin-wheels Find a
large-sized empty spool (Fig. 274) for a foundation; then cut a circular
pasteboard disk four inches in diameter for the back of the pin-wheel
(Fig. 275). Make blue fire of strips of fringed-out bright-blue paper
(Fig. 276) and paste them across each other on the disk (Fig. 277). Cut
a square [Illustration: Fig. 274.] [Illustration: Fig. 275.] of yellow
paper fringed around the edges for the yellow fire and fasten it over
the blue fire. Make red fire of a circle of fringed red paper (Fig. 278)
a trifle smaller than the yellow, that the yellow fire may be seen
surrounding the red and the blue stand out beyond the yellow. Each
succeeding layer of fire must be smaller, though not necessarily of the
same shape as the last. The uneven, straggling ends add to the effect
when the pin-wheel is in motion. Let the last two [Illustration: 175]
papers be white and green and on the top fasten irregular lengths of the
thread-like tinsel left from your Christmas-tree decorations. Do not
bunch it too much; have the tinsel string out [Illustration: Fig. 278.]
long in various directions, so it will look like dropping flying sparks
when you fire off the pin-wheel. If you have no tinsel, finely cut
stands of gold-paper may take its place. Paste the back of the pin-wheel
securely on one end of the empty spool. When finished it should resemble
Fig. 279. Select a strong wire nail and push it through a small disk of
inked pasteboard (Fig. 280); bring the pasteboard up close to the head
of the nail, then pierce the pin-wheel in the centre and run the nail
through both wheel and spool. The little black card-board prevents
[Illustration: Fig. 279.] the pin-wheel from slipping off the nail.
After the paste or glue has dried, hammer the nail which is in the
pin-wheel upon the fence and set the firework off by means of a strong
string placed over the spool with the ends crossed (Fig. 281). By
holding the two ends of the [Illustration: Fig. 280.] [Illustration:
Fig. 281.] string, one in each hand, and rapidly pulling first one, then
the other, the pin-wheel will revolve so fast that it might be mistaken
for one of actual fire, but unlike the real one there is no likelihood
of the paper wheel turning black and falling to the ground. Yours will
spin as long and as often as you like, losing none of its brilliancy
(Fig. 282).

[Illustration: Fig. 282.]

                        =The Sparkling Calumet=

is fascinating. Its bright sparks fly up and out in every direction all
over your head, hair, and clothing, but they do [Illustration: Fig.
283.] no harm. Take a strip of stiff paper three and a half inches wide
and eleven inches long; cut a hole in one end (Fig. [Illustration: Fig.
284.] 283) and paste the two lengthwise edges together, forming a hollow
tube; then pin up the open end nearest the hole (Fig. 284). Cut Fig.
285, making it about four inches across at the widest [Illustration:
Fig. 288.] point; slash the lower edge and pin this pipe-bowl in funnel
shape by bringing [Illustration: Fig. 285.] [Illustration: Fig. 286.]
the two sides together (Fig. 286); fasten it on the tube over the hole
in the top by gluing the flaps down on the pipe-stem (Fig. 287).
Half-fill the pipe-bowl with brilliantly colored bits of paper,
including [Illustration: Fig. 287.] scraps of gold and silver tinsel cut
very small. In this way pieces too little for anything else can be
utilized. Make a good supply so that you may fire off the calumet many
times. Place the open end of the tube to your lips and blow (Fig. 288).

It will not take more than five minutes to make the

                             =Roman Candle=

Cut a piece of paper about ten inches long and seven inches wide, roll
it up and slip a small elastic over the roll [Illustration: Fig. 289.]
to hold the Roman candle in shape; carefully fold in one end of the roll
(Fig. 289); then collect all of the scraps of bright-colored paper
[Illustration: Fig. 290.] and bits of tinsel for sparks (Fig. 290). When
the sparks are ready load the candle by filling it with them. Hold the
candle in one hand and gayly swing it around like a real Roman candle.
In what a dazzling circle the bright paper sparks fly! No matter if they
do scatter all around, they may be gathered up and used again.

If you can find a side-steel taken from a dress-stay, use it for a

                              =Snap-fire=

Bend the ends together [Illustration: Fig. 291.] [Illustration: Fig.
292.] until it breaks at the centre (Fig. 291). On the broken end of one
piece paste two gay tissue-paper streamers (Fig. 292). To fire it, hold
the firework in an upright position, streamers downward, the papered end
between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand and [Illustration:
Fig. 293.] the upper end held with the thumb and forefinger of the right
hand. Bend the snap-fire as in Fig. 293. Let go suddenly with the right
hand, then an instant later with the left, and see the firework spring
up high in the air, carrying its gay trimmings with it.

Just wait until you make the

                            =Rushing Comet=

and send it flying through the air, with its long tail sweeping
[Illustration: Fig. 294.] out behind. How heartily you will laugh when
it strikes its round head against some object which drives it flying
backward.

A rubber ball about three inches in diameter will make a good comet’s
head (Fig. 294).

[Illustration: Fig. 295.]

[Illustration: Fig. 296.]

[Illustration: Fig. 297.]

[Illustration: Fig. 298.]

Cut two strips of bright red tissue-paper, each four inches wide, the
entire length of the sheet, and paste the two pieces together, forming a
long paper ribbon (Fig. 295); fold this once near the centre (Fig. 296);
fold again, bringing the lower folded end up to the first end (Fig.
297), then cut the paper in a fringe, making the strands half an inch
wide; begin at the folded end and cut through all the layers up to the
single layer of paper (Fig. 298). Unfold and you will have Fig. 299.
[Illustration: Fig. 299.] Fasten this tail on the ball with strong paste
(Fig. 300). In the same manner cut another long fringe of bright-blue
tissue-paper; fasten it on the ball partly beyond and partly
[Illustration: Fig. 300.] overlapping the red paper. Make a third fringe
of orange-colored tissue-paper, and glue that also on the comet’s head.
[Illustration: Fig. 301.] Gather up the tail carefully so it will not
tangle and set the ball aside until it is perfectly dry; then run out in
the sunshine with the comet in your arms and throw it up as far as you
can toward the blue sky. The comet will look gorgeous sailing through
the air. When it comes down, take the ball up again and throw it as far
in front of you as possible. Away it will speed with a flutter and a
dash, a long, brilliant streak of color (Fig. 301). The tail of the
comet can be made longer by using three instead of two lengths of the
paper.

Now we will make

                              =The Pistol=

of any firm, strong, hollow cylinder. A slender pasteboard mailing tube,
or a stick of bamboo, or a section of some shrub from which you can push
the pith, leaving a hollow case, will answer the purpose. Have the
hollow stick about eight inches long, and for a ramrod cut a smooth,
round stick an inch or two longer. Be sure that the ramrod slides easily
through the tube while fitting snugly. [Illustration: Fig. 302.] Fig.
302 shows the ramrod in the pistol. Get a large raw potato and cut off
several thick slices to use for bullets. Punch a slice with one end of
the pistol, [Illustration: Fig. 303.] then with the other, leaving the
potato bullets in it exactly as they came from the slice. When you are
ready to fire, place the ramrod against the bullet in one end of the
pistol and suddenly push the ramrod with force through the tube, sending
the first bullet flying, and as it leaves the pistol a loud report will
follow. Fig. 303 shows the potato slice and the bullets which have been
used. Should you be able to find corks which exactly fit the pistol you
could use them instead of potato. Fasten each cork to the end of a
string and tie the string firmly around the centre of [Illustration:
Fig. 304.] [Illustration: Fig. 305.] the pistol. Remember that the
success of the pistol depends upon keeping the air bottled up tight in
the tube by having the bullets fit tight. If the air is allowed to
escape, no report will be heard; the bullets will not pop. But never
fear; you will be able to make the pistol; have confidence, patience,
and care, and your work will turn out well.

                             =Sky-rockets=

are one of the best kind of fireworks and furnish lots of fun. We will
make some and send them flying through the air. Cut strips of paper
eighteen inches long and two inches wide, fringing them seven inches on
one side (Fig. 304). Commence at the unfringed end, B, and roll them
like lamplighters (Fig. 305), folding each over at top end to keep it in
place (Fig. 306, C). These are the sky-rockets, and are best made of
stiff, bright-colored paper, but may be of any kind except very limber
paper. Make a number of sky-rockets and “fire them off” by the aid of a
large, empty spool with a piece of elastic adjusted loosely over one
end, but tied securely (Fig. 307). Place one sky-rocket at a time
through the hole in the spool, fringed end out, and, grasping the tip
end in the elastic (Fig. 308), pull the sky-rocket toward [Illustration:
Fig. 306.] you and let it fly back as you would send an arrow from a
bow. There is another paper sky-rocket which rivals a real one in
brilliancy, and is much easier to fire. Make the rocket of a hollow
stick—a bamboo handle from a Japanese fan or parasol, or an old dried
sunflower stalk will do—and [Illustration: Fig. 307.] cut the stick
about seven inches long. Near one end tie on firmly a stout rubber band
(Fig. 309). The stick of the sky-rocket should be strong and slender and
about twelve inches in length. Have it small enough in diameter to slide
easily through the sunflower stalk. Fasten many gay-colored streamers of
tissue-paper on one end, making them fully a yard in length. When all is
ready, place the stick with streamers uppermost in the tube, draw back
the rubber band with the stick (Fig. 310), and fire (Fig. 311). The
sky-rocket goes swiftly through the air, carrying a stream of paper fire
in its wake. As with the real fireworks you must be careful not to aim
any of these in a direction where they will strike anyone.

[Illustration: Fig. 308.]

[Illustration: Fig. 309.]

[Illustration: Fig. 310.]

[Illustration: Fig. 311.]



                              CHAPTER XII
                               MONOTYPES


They are charming, these monotypes; charming in effect when finished,
delightful in their accidental results, and wholly fascinating in the
method, or lack of method, used in their production. Painted with a
bristle brush, a camel’s-hair brush, a sponge, a rag or your thumb, as
the case may require; painted on glass and then printed on paper, with a
clothes-wringer for a printing-press; can anything be more enchantingly
unconventional? Yet the finished monotypes are truly artistic and
beautiful. If you can paint at all, be it ever so little, you can make
some kind of a monotype, and you will always have the feeling that you
can do better next time. The

                              =Materials=

for your work are a piece of glass about six inches square, a tube of
lamp-black oil-paint, some sewing-machine oil, and a pad of unruled
writing-paper.

See that your glass is perfectly clean and free from dust, squeeze out
some of the black paint in a saucer and mix it with a few drops of the
machine oil. You will soon learn the consistency required, for if you
make the paint too thin it will run and blot, and if there is not enough
oil it will go on too thickly and smudge in printing.

                             =The Painting=

Choose a photograph or print for your copy which is simple in
effect—that is, one which shows a good deal of sky and broad stretches
of light and shade. It may be either landscape or marine, but, until you
have had some experience with the work, avoid figure pieces, and
architecture. When you have learned the process be as original as you
like, but keep to your copy at first; you will never make an exact
reproduction. Use whatever kind of a paint-brush seems best fitted, and
work rapidly that the paint may not dry. A fine soft sponge will give
excellent foliage effects; this should be dipped in the paint and simply
dabbed on the glass. A clean cotton rag will take off extra paint and is
especially useful where water is represented in the picture. By dragging
the rag or sponge over a surface too thickly painted you can loosen it
and give the appearance of grass and shrubbery, or of a roadway. Soft
clouds can be made by putting the cloth over the end of your finger and
rubbing on the glass with a circular movement, using but little paint;
for an ordinary sky make horizontal strokes with the rag, keeping the
tint as flat as possible. If you place a piece of white paper under the
glass the work will be easier, for you will appear to be painting on a
white surface and the transparency of the glass will not trouble you.

[Illustration:

  Soft Clouds.
  _Can be made with a cloth on the end of your finger._
]

[Illustration:

  Foliage Effect.
  _Made with a sponge._
]

[Illustration:

  The Distant City.
  _Printed on Unruled Writing-paper._
]

If you have ever painted

                                =Heads,=

sooner or later you will long to try one with this process. A woman’s
head with flowing, wind-blown hair seems especially adapted to the work.
A bristle brush and the ever-useful rag will spin the hair out, and toss
it about in decorative masses. For the face you will need a small pad
made of soft silk, or muslin, and raw cotton—indeed, several pads will
be found useful. Cut the silk into a four-inch square, place in the
centre a wad of raw cotton about the size of a hickory nut, and, drawing
the silk smoothly over the cotton at the bottom, bring it together at
the top; wrap with thread close to the cotton and tie securely.

Draw the outlines of the face lightly with a fine camel’s-hair brush,
and lay in the shadows broadly with a large brush; then take your pad
and go over the shadows, stippling them with little dabs until they are
smooth and free from brush strokes. When it is necessary to deepen a
shadow add more paint with the pad.

Do not put in the features with hard lines, let the face be modelled
with light and shade, making deeper accents where more sharpness is
required. The definite strokes about the eyes, the nostrils, and the
line between the lips can be made with a brush without hardness. Hard
lines never look well in a monotype; they stand out harshly from the
general softness of the effect, and appear unpleasantly out of place.

                             =The Printing=

When your painting is finished, slightly dampen a piece of paper by
passing a wet sponge across one side, lay the dampened side carefully on
the glass next to the paint, and then pass both through the
clothes-wringer. Remember to hold the glass as it comes through that it
may not fall and break. Lift your paper off lightly and quickly, without
dragging, and you have the completed monotype, like, and yet unlike, the
picture you painted. In the first place, the design is reversed, and
then there are often beautiful effects which your brush could never have
produced. If the painting on the glass still holds, try another print,
and even a third; the first are not always the best.

[Illustration:

  The Turbulent Sea.
  _Printed on Imported Blotting-paper._
]

[Illustration:

  Study of a Head.
  _Printed on Imported Blotting-paper._
]

[Illustration:

  Study of a Head.
  _Printed on Imported Blotting-paper._
]

When no more impressions can be taken, wipe the paint from the glass
with a cloth and begin another picture.

                          =Monotone Monotypes=

A very pretty experiment is to use color instead of black and make a
monotone of your monotype. Sepia will give the picture in soft brown,
Indian red in bright red, while Antwerp blue produces the tone of blue
found in a blueprint photograph. Of course oil colors alone must be
used, water colors will not print.

                     =Another Field for Experiment=

lies in using several colors in one picture. For instance, you might
make your mountains blue, your trees green, and your foreground red and
yellow.

Then again mixing the colors and using them as if painting on canvas
will prove interesting. The deepest pleasure in all work of this kind is
to experiment and discover methods for ourselves, then to work out and
perfect these methods and make them all our own.

There are various

                                =Papers=

suitable for monotype painting. Rice-paper is especially pleasing; it is
soft of texture, light of weight, and has a warm, creamy tone. The
monotypes printed upon it are delicate, clear, and distinct. Imported
blotting-paper also produces satisfactory results, though the print is
not quite as soft in effect; it has a smooth, rather hard surface, but
takes the paint well. Both of these papers are used dry.

Some professionals use a Japan paper and a Holland paper. The Japan
paper is very thin, and the Holland paper has a surface like water-color
paper, but is heavier than the ordinary kind.

For first efforts the unruled, ten-cent writing pad is the best. Very
good prints can be made on this, and one feels free to experiment as
much as heart desires with such inexpensive material. The monotypes
given here were painted on writing-paper and imported blotting-paper.

[Illustration:

  Early Spring.
  _Printed on Unruled Writing-paper._
]

[Illustration:

  Florida Coast.
  _Printed on Imported Blotting-paper._
]



                              CHAPTER XIII
                             PRISCILLA RUGS


As there is no limit to the beautiful effects which may be produced by
the well-chosen color combination in the Priscilla rag rugs, and anyone
who has an eye for color (which, by the way, may be cultivated) is sure
of success.

There are many new inventions in hand-looms, yet the old cumbersome loom
of our grandmother’s day is still to be found in the outlying districts
of most towns and cities, and the weaving done on this is fully as
satisfactory as that on the new looms. Almost every village has its
rag-carpet weaver, and on his old-fashioned machine can be woven all
that we want in this line.

First, there are the all-wool rugs for general use in the house, then
mixed wool and cotton rugs for the piazza, all cotton for bedroom and
bathroom, mixed cotton and silk and entire silk for portières and
couch-covers, and for covers for sofa-pillows.

There are also rugs of heavy cotton, such as denim in its dull reds,
blues, yellows, greens, and browns.

The size of a rug for general use is usually one yard wide by two yards
long, the yard width being the limit of the ordinary loom. Smaller rugs
are woven in different proportions: a runner for the hall is
three-quarters of a yard wide and of any required length, and door-mats
half a yard wide by one yard long. Squares for the centre of the room
can be made by having two breadths woven exactly alike and then sewing
them together.

You who possess a loom of even the clumsiest design have a field open
before you full of interest, for freedom to experiment in pattern and
manner of weaving will lead to continually new results and there will be
increasing originality and beauty in your productions.

                        =Color Schemes for Rugs=

Collect all your available material, plan your combination of colors,
and then decide whether it will be necessary to put some of the rags
into the dye-pot. If you have a handsome vase in your room it is a
pretty idea to take that for your keynote and reproduce its color in
your rugs.

Solid colors are the best unless you wish to have part of your rug what
is called “hit or miss.” For “hit or miss” any short pieces may be used
and sewed together indiscriminately; then again, if you have a good deal
of checked, plaid, or mingled material, it may be used by itself for
centre or border. It is upon the solid colors, however, that you must
principally rely, as there is less of the element of chance in their
use, and your calculation as to the result of your color combination
will be surer.

[Illustration: Making a Priscilla Rug.]

A favorite design is a “hit or miss,” or a solid-colored centre with
striped ends. A more unconventional effect is produced by making the rug
in stripes of unequal width and in daring color combinations; some of
these latter are startlingly barbaric and artistic in appearance and are
well adapted to studio use. Again, more harmonious effects are produced
by using various tints and shades of one color. Very narrow stripes of
black and of white often separate wide stripes of different colors,
sometimes singly, sometimes together, and when used with discretion they
give a certain decision and finish to the whole. You will naturally want
to exercise your own taste and originality in designing your rugs, so a
description of one all-wool rug will be amply sufficient as a guide.

This rug is one yard wide by two yards long. The centre is exactly one
yard square and is of solid dark cardinal red. The two ends are
precisely the same and the stripes of the border follow each other in
this order: Next the centre comes a very narrow stripe of old gold, then
one of the same width of white. These are made by putting the strips of
color only once through the loom, or once across. After these comes a
five-inch stripe of old blue, again the narrow yellow and white stripes
followed by a two-inch stripe of moss green, a three-inch stripe of dull
light blue, a five-inch stripe of light brown, a two-inch stripe of old
blue, and next the fringe a one-inch stripe of dark cardinal red. The
fringe is simply the warp allowed to extend beyond the rug about a
quarter of a yard at each end.

Gray is a useful color in all-wool rugs and makes an effective centre
for a bright-colored border.

                             =The Fire Rug=

is a beautiful blending of reds and yellows giving a flame color. The
ends are dark red, and, by degrees, the red runs into orange, which, in
turn, melts into dark yellow, growing gradually lighter until the centre
of the rug is a pale, soft yellow.

[Illustration: Tack on a Piece of Paper Samples of the Rags Used.]

Pale tones of yellows and greens are sometimes combined, also yellows
and browns.

Before taking your rug to the loom tack on a piece of paper samples of
the rags used in the order in which you wish them woven, and write
opposite each sample the width the stripe is to be made, as shown in
diagram. Give this to the weaver that no mistakes may be made by him in
the placing of the colors.

                              =The Weight=

To calculate how much you will need of each color, remember that it
requires about two pounds of woollen rags to the yard; therefore, if you
want half a yard of one color, one pound will be required; for a quarter
of a yard, one-half pound. Do not make your calculations too closely,
with a little over-weight in each case no harm is done and it is better
than falling short of the required amount. The narrow, or once-across,
stripes require an inch or two over the yard for each stripe.

                     =How to Cut and Sew the Rags=

[Illustration:

  Sew the pieces together
  in this way.
]

Cut your rags in strips one-half an inch wide unless the material is
very thin or loosely woven, in which case make them wider; very heavy
cloth should be even narrower than the half-inch. Cotton rags should be
one inch wide. As the rag’s are pinched together when woven it is the
thickness that counts, and the object is to keep them of an even bulk so
that the rug may not have an uneven, lumpy surface. Perhaps you will be
told by the weaver not to sew your rags too securely, for they cannot be
jerked apart readily when it is necessary to break off one color to
begin weaving the next; but do not act on such advice. You must sew the
strips together with care so that the ends may not stand out and give a
ragged look to the finished rug. The accompanying diagram shows the best
manner of joining the pieces. You see that one piece is laid over the
end of the other, then both are folded lengthwise and sewed securely in
the fold. This gives smooth joints and an even surface.

Wind your different colors into balls, having, as a rule, one pound in
each, and put them in a bag to send to the loom.

                         =Cotton and Wool Rugs=

For piazza rugs, or for summer cottage use, cotton may be mixed with the
wool; indeed, some hold that it is unnecessary to have all-wool for any
purpose, though the writer thinks differently. The temptation is great,
however, to use the pretty bits of gingham and lawn left from summer
gowns, and they do give a certain, if not lasting, brilliancy to the
rug. That much of the cotton is apt to fade and grow shiny with use is
of little consequence when the rugs are not subjected to hard and
constant use. Rugs of this class should be as bright and gay as
possible; the combination of even the crudest colors looks well on a
vine-shaded piazza and in the gayly decked summer cottage.

                           =All-cotton Rugs=

For bedroom and bathroom all-cotton rugs are exceedingly pretty and
appropriate, and when they are made of fast-colored material they may be
washed with ease and kept always fresh and clean.

[Illustration: The Centre may have Dashes of Color through it.]

White should predominate in these washable rugs, and the best as well as
the simplest effect is produced by combining it with but one other
color. Indigo blue and turkey red are safe and useful colors; brown and
green gingham also look well with the white. Of cotton rags allow one
and one-half pounds to the yard. When you are in doubt as to the
permanency of your colors soak the rug, before washing, in a strong
solution of salt and water; this will “set” almost any color. These
cotton rugs may be woven in alternate strips of color and white, or the
white be used for the centre and the colors for the border, or the
centre may have dashes of color through it as shown in diagram.

[Illustration: In Stripes of Unequal Width.]

Bathroom rugs can be entirely of white or, towel-fashion, have a narrow
colored strip at each end. Any white cotton may be used in these
bathroom rugs, old being better for this purpose than new, as it is much
softer.

                           =Warps and Fringe=

Gray linen is undoubtedly the best-wearing warp and harmonizes with all
colors, therefore for all-wool rugs it is the best. It gives, of course,
a gray fringe, but that is not undesirable. When a colored fringe is
wanted the cotton warp will have to be used. This comes in red, blue,
purple, yellow, and white. Use cotton warp for cotton rugs, and where
the filling is largely white the warp should be white also. When red
warp is used with white filling a pink tone is the result, while blue
and purple with white filling produce a gray effect.

At each end of the rug the warp should be woven with self-filling to the
depth of one inch. This makes a heading for the fringe and prevents the
rag filling from ravelling. It is, in fact, a selvage. You may knot the
fringe, using six strands to a knot, or plat it and then knot as in
diagram, or it may be stitched at the top and left to flow freely.

                           =Dyeing the Cloth=

Those who make a business of manufacturing rag rugs scorn to use the
dyes that come ready prepared and think it well worth the extra trouble
to make their dyes themselves. So it is, perhaps, when one has plenty of
time to devote to the work, but a girl’s life is so full of interests
and occupation she generally chooses quick methods, though the results
may not always be as lasting.

[Illustration: You may Knot the Fringe or Plat it and Knot it.]

In case your heart yearns toward the old-fashioned process and you want
to go into the work thoroughly, read the recipes given here and follow
them carefully. They are taken from an old manuscript recipe-book,
yellow with age and worn by use, which has descended to the writer from
an ancestress famous for her good housekeeping and housewifely arts. The
dye appears to have been prepared in large quantities, usually enough
for sixteen pounds of wool, but you can easily regulate the proportion
of the ingredients and make as much or as little as you want.

                              =Wool Dyes=

_Navy Blue._—"Boil in a sufficient quantity of water twelve ounces of
copperas, three ounces of alum, one and one-half ounces of verdigris,
one and one-half ounces of cream-tartar. Run[A] your cloth in it for
four hours, then air. Empty out that liquor and fill up with clear
water; add four and one-half pounds of logwood, boil it for one hour and
a half, then add six ounces of madder and boil for half an hour, then
run your cloth for half an hour. Air it (the cloth), then add six ounces
of blue vitriol and three ounces of pearl-ash. Mix it well and run your
cloth in it for twenty minutes, then air and rinse it.

Footnote A:

  To “run” means to leave the cloth in the dye, moving and stirring it
  about occasionally that the dye may be evenly distributed.

_Silver Gray._—"On one pound of woollen: Take two ounces of sumac and
three ounces of logwood and boil for one hour in four gallons of water,
then add one-half ounce of cream-tartar. Put in your woollen for one
hour, then take out and air. Refresh your dye with water and add
one-half ounce of copperas, bring it to a boil and run your woollen for
half an hour, then air, rinse, and dry it.

_Yellow._—"On woollen for one pound: Dissolve in four gallons of boiling
water three ounces of alum and one ounce of cream-tartar, then run your
cloth for one hour and a half at boiling heat. Take out, cool, and
rinse, then boil one pound of fustic chips for five hours, run your
cloth, while boiling, for one hour, then cool, rinse, and dry it.

_Madder Red._—"On one pound of woollen: Boil five gallons of water in a
kettle, add three ounces of powdered alum and one ounce of cream-tartar,
then run your woollen in it for two hours, rinse and air it. Put five
gallons of fresh water in a kettle, add eight ounces of madder, mix it
well and bring it to the boil, then run your woollen for one hour, but
it must boil only five minutes. Take it out, air and rinse it. Add to
the dye one-half pint of clear lime-water, then run your woollen for ten
minutes, then take it out and rinse it immediately.

                             =Cotton Dyes=

_Brown._—"On cotton for five pounds: Bring eight gallons of water to the
boil and add four ounces of pearl-ash, dip your yarn (or cloth) for half
an hour and then wring out. Take twenty gallons of water and one bushel
of maple or white-oak bark, boil it two hours, then take out the bark
and strain the liquor and add one pound of copperas; stir it until it is
dissolved and let your liquor cool to lukewarm. Dip your yarn for five
minutes, wring and air it; dip again for fifteen minutes, wring and dip
again until you have it dark enough.

_Purple._—“On cotton for two pounds: Boil four ounces of sumac in four
gallons of water, then dip your yarn for half an hour; wring, air, and
put it in again over night, then take out and wring. Boil in seven
gallons of water one pound four ounces of logwood for one hour; take
three gallons of the logwood liquor and dip your yarn in it for twenty
minutes, then add three quarts of the logwood liquor and dip for twenty
minutes, then put in the remainder and dip for twenty minutes, then
wring out and dry your yarn.”

The wringing process given in the last two recipes is for cotton yarn;
cotton cloth or woollen cloth should never be wrung out; simply lift it
from the dye with two sticks, immerse it in clear cold water, if you are
to rinse it, then hang it up and let it drip. All material must be
perfectly clean and thoroughly soaked before being put in the dye.

_Note._—“In boiling, all drugs and barks that will not dissolve ought to
be put in a thin, coarse bag and taken out before you dip, and the
liquor should be settled. Dip only in clear liquor.”



                              CHAPTER XIV
                          A PEANUT NOAH'S ARK


Changing one thing into another is always interesting, and the most
charming part of a Peanut Noah’s Ark is that you can transform these
ground-nuts into any and every kind of wild creature. At your command
they will come trooping from all parts of the tangled jungle, the
elephants leading and tigers, lions, bears, wolves, kangaroos, giraffes,
and others following. Ever so many insects, too-the curious peanut
spider, actually as large as one of those mammoth Southern tarantulas
which often travel North on bunches of bananas, and the enormous
hard-shelled hornet, whose sting will not hurt half as badly as its
smaller cousins who are alive and whose nests are large and round, dark
gray in color and appear as if made of paper. In addition to these you
can have beetles of different kinds, grasshoppers, and various sorts of
moths.

With the help of bits of paper and some wooden toothpicks the
ground-nuts may be transformed into

                  =Denizens of Earth, Air, and Water.=

First we will catch the terrible hornet, but to get him you must select
a peanut as near like Fig. 312 as you can find. This is for the thorax
or chest; choose a longer nut, resembling Fig. 313, for the abdomen or
body. Take six common wooden toothpicks for the legs (Fig. 314), and
bend each stick until it fractures near the centre without breaking
(Fig. 315). For the waist use a short piece of toothpick (Fig. 316). For
the sting take a pin (Fig. 317). To insert the sting in the body make a
small hole on the lower side and thrust in the pin so that the point
will project from the tail; push the head of the pin into the nut until
it is out of sight, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 317, 2A. This
diagram gives the point of the pin as it stands out from the nut. Join
the chest and body by thrusting one end of Fig. 316 into Fig. 312 and
the other end into Fig. 313, leaving a small length of Fig. 316 exposed
to represent the slender waist of the hornet, as shown in Fig. 318. This
done, put three legs on each side of the insect by forcing the
toothpicks into the thorax or chest peanut (Fig. 318).

[Illustration:

  DETAILS
  OF THE
  TERRIBLE
  “PEA-NUT”-HORNET

  Fig. 312-322.
]

Now we have a huge ant, and as ants are practically wingless hornets,
some of them even having stings like the bee tribe, it is only necessary
to add a pair of wings to complete the terrible peanut hornet. If you
have any tracing-paper or the waxed paper from a candy-box, the
semi-transparent material will form wonderfully natural wings; but any
kind of paper will make

                        =A Pair of Good Wings.=

With a pencil draw the pattern (Fig. 319) upon a bit of paper, fold at
the dotted line and you will have Fig. 320. With the scissors cut around
the outline through both leaves of the folded paper; the result will be
Fig. 321, the two wings joined together. Paste them on the back of the
thorax, and you will have Fig. 322. To make it look still more lifelike,
ink stripes across its back and head, and stick in the front of the head
two fine, small black pins for the antennæ. To prove that this is a live
hornet, let anyone who doubts the fact press the end of his finger on
the point of the sting and he will be satisfied. Should he still claim
that the thing is not alive, dip your finger in a glass of water and
allow a drop of the fluid to fall on each joint of the legs where the
wood is fractured; the swelling of the wet wood will cause the legs to
move in a manner sufficiently lifelike to satisfy the most critical.

It is not commonly known that

                       =Spiders Are Good to Eat,=

but the newly discovered specimen known as the _Peanuticus spiderencus_
is one which the most dainty little girl may eat without feeling at all
nervous as to consequences. Spiders differ in many respects from true
insects, but we need only observe the most obvious points of divergence.

Fig. 323.

Fig. 324.

[Illustration: Fig. 325.]

First, they have no waist; that is, their body is jammed upon their
thorax (Fig. 323). Next, their heads are driven into their shoulders, so
to speak, so that they not only have no neck, but there is not even a
line to indicate where the head ends and the thorax or chest begins.

From the quart of peanuts select one which looks most like Fig. 323.
Spiders have more legs than beetles or wasps. Garden spiders have eight
well-defined legs, and our _Peanuticus_ belongs to the garden spider
family. Therefore, take eight toothpicks and, bending them as before
described, make eight legs. Push two legs into each side of the large
part of the nut—the abdomen—inclining them backward, and two more into
each side of the small part of the nut—the thorax—slanting them forward,
as in Fig. 324. Make the antennæ of two black pins, bent according to
Fig. 325; push the pins well into the head of the spider (Fig. 324). If
you thread a fine piece of black elastic through the spider’s back,
allowing a length of about a half yard, and weight the body by fastening
a little flattened piece of lead or a small stone on the under part with
melted sealing-wax, the _Peanuticus_ can be made to dance up and down in
the air like a natural spider running on its web. The black elastic will
not be noticeable. Tie the end of the elastic on a stick; then you can
hold it out from you and have a better view of the curious creature.

Pick up another peanut and see what it suggests. Imagine it with long
ears. What would it look like?

                         =A Rabbit, of Course.=

Cut two ears from white paper and a tail from the same paper; paste one
ear on each side of Bunny’s head and fasten the little stumpy tail in
place. Then stick two short pieces of toothpicks in the nut for the
front legs; bend the back legs at the centre and push the upright part
into position so that the lower horizontal portion will be bent forward
and rest on the ground. Ink round spots for eyes and a line partially
across the front for the mouth.

                                =Camels=

are curious creatures, always carrying a little mountain on their backs,
and chewing as if they had an inexhaustible supply of chewing-gum tucked
away in some invisible pocket. Think of the mountain’s back when
selecting a [Illustration: Fig. 326.] [Illustration: Fig. 327.] peanut
for this animal and find one with a high hump. Cut the head and neck
(Fig. 326) of stiff paper or card-board; ink the eyes and mouth, and
slide the head into a slit cut in the nut. Make the tail of heavy black
thread or darning-cotton and fasten it on by simply sewing the thread in
the nut. Tassel out the end. For the two hind and one of the front legs
use three stiff, straight toothpicks; bend the other toothpick for the
front left leg so that the camel will appear to be walking. The little
animal will stand on three legs, holding the fourth up, as in Fig. 327.

Find a nut shaped something like

                          =A Little Chicken,=

with part of it inclining upward for the head. Stick two short, bent
toothpicks in for feet; if properly adjusted the chick rests on them.
Cut paper wings and paste one on each side of the chicken. Make the beak
also of paper and insert it in the front of the head. The eyes can be
marked with ink.

When among the jungle folks, off in the tangled wild woods,

                             =The Elephant=

grows to an immense size, but things are very different in Peanut Land.
There the big-eared creature is a wee thing not much larger than the
chicken you have just made. [Illustration: Fig. 328.    Fig. 329.]
[Illustration: Fig. 330.    Fig. 331.] It is a veritable midget of an
elephant and not at all dangerous. Look over all your nuts and choose
the one most closely resembling the body and head of an elephant; then
make two pasteboard front legs like Fig. 328, and two more like Fig.
[Illustration: Fig. 332.] 329 for the hind legs. Cut two ears (Fig. 330)
and a trunk (Fig. 331). The tail should be comparatively slender and a
trifle bushy at the end. Paste ears, tail, and trunk in their proper
places and cut four slits in the lower part of the nut for the four
legs, which you may then slide into place (Fig. 332). The tusks are two
toothpicks stuck into the lower part of the head. By the diagrams it may
be plainly seen just how the work is done.

[Illustration: Fig. 333.]

                               =The Owl=

is fashioned from a nut without the joint-like extension. Ink the eyes,
beak, and wings, and with heavy thread or darning-cotton sew the wise
bird to a twig or toothpick. Divide the stitches forming each foot into
two portions or two toes, as a real owl shows only two when in the same
position (Fig. 333).

In the queer Peanut Land

                                =Storks=

hold an important position. They are very proud and carry their heads
high as they stand perched upon their long stilt-like legs. Their
Holland relatives delight in [Illustration: Fig. 334.] [Illustration:
Fig. 335.]

building nests on the tops of chimneys, and it is always considered a
sign of good luck for the occupants of the house when Mr. and Mrs. Stork
favor them with their presence. Your stork will not have to remain on
the outside of the house, because, not being as large as the others of
his family, you can find room for him in almost any place. Make the
bird’s body of the most common-shaped peanut, his legs of two stiff
wooden toothpicks, and his head (Fig. 334) of stiff paper. Mark eyes on
the head and put the different parts of the bird together. He will stand
up straight if you punch his feet into a piece of patented paper used in
packing bottles (Fig. 335). If you have no such paper, use anything you
can find that will answer the purpose.

                               =Lobsters=

which will not pinch also live in Peanut Land. They have eight bent
toothpick legs, a tail of paper (Fig. 336), and [Illustration: Fig.
336.] [Illustration: Fig. 337.] paper claws (Fig. 337). The antennæ are
toothpicks. Real lobsters have one front claw larger than the other, but
on peanut lobsters these are of the same size. When you have made the
lobster (Fig. 338) you might boil him by dipping the funny little thing
in red ink, for lobsters are always red after being boiled.

 [Illustration: Fig. 338.]

All these animals need a

                                 =Noah=

to keep them in order in the Ark. Make Noah entirely of peanuts; a small
one for the head, a large one for the body, two for the arms, two for
each leg, and two small nuts for the feet. String the nuts together with
strong, coarse thread. Make the hair of a number of strands of black
thread tied together in the centre. Pin this wig on the peanut head,
part the hair and spread it out to meet in the back and gum it in place.
Mark the face with ink and dress the doll with loose trousers and loose
sack coat. Cut the hat of common wrapping-paper. First make the brim of
a circular piece of paper, with a round hole in the middle; then the
crown of a strip of paper slashed on each side. Fasten the ends of this
together, turn out the slashes on one side and slide the brim over the
crown down on the turned-out slashed portion. Paste it on tight. Next
turn in the slashes on the top edge of the crown, fit a disk of paper
over them as you would put a lid on a pan, and gum the top of the crown
in place. You will find Mr. Noah rather loose-jointed, but that does not
matter; he is better so, for he is not too stiff to run about and attend
to his collection of animals. Make Mrs. Noah of peanuts as you did Noah,
and dress her in bright colors with a gay little hat fastened firmly on
her head.

[Illustration: Fig. 341.]

[Illustration: Fig. 339.]

[Illustration: Fig. 340.]

                               =The Ark=

may be an ordinary pasteboard box, with a gabled roof pasted on the lid.
Take a box like that shown in Fig. 339, bend a piece of stiff paper
(Fig. 340), paste the sides of Fig. 340 on the lid (Fig. 341), and over
the two open ends gum triangular paper cut as in Fig. 342. Paint windows
and a door on the sides of the Ark; then paste the Ark on a piece of
another larger box-lid cut like Fig. 343. Put Noah and his wife in the
box with all the animals, and tie a string through a hole pierced in the
front of the stand of the Ark, so that the Ark with its entire cargo of
peanut animals may be dragged from one place to another (Fig. 344).

[Illustration]

 [Illustration: Fig. 342.]

Noah’s Ark and all its animals has ever had a great attraction for young
folks, and it is not an uncommon sight to see baby grab Noah, Mrs. Noah,
or some of the gorgeously painted animals, and put the [Illustration:
Fig. 343.] toy in its mouth. Many of the colors used in painting the
shop toys contain poison, but the present Mr. and Mrs. Noah and all the
zoölogical collection described in this article are healthy, wholesome
food. So when you tire of playing with them you may eat them, with no
danger of ill consequences. [Illustration: Fig. 344.] Just think!
Elephant and camel for first course, stork and lobster second, and
dessert of spiders, wasps, and small birds. What a novel bill of fare!
One little girl may eat a couple of elephants, several giraffes, a
rhinoceros or two, and still have a good appetite for her regular
dinner.

Should you think of some favorite animal not here described, which would
be an addition to your collection, put your wits to work and hunt up a
peanut suitable for the purpose; then find a photograph or printed
picture of the animal, that you may be sure to have it as perfect as the
materials will allow. In this way almost

               =Any Animal, Fish, or Insect Can be Made,=

for after working out the given examples you will have gained sufficient
knowledge of the governing principles of the work and enough skill to
enable you to continue the manufacturing of peanut toys alone or with
the help of other girls and boys.

                      =Different Lines of Objects=

can also be formed from the nut. Break open one with only a slight
indenture at the centre and make the two halves into fairylike little
sailing vessels by the addition of a sail and mast cut all in one from
white writing-paper, and gummed to the bottom of the boat near the large
end. It requires but a moment to make these tiny crafts, and they will
sail across a basin of water as if they were in reality large affairs on
the salt sea, their white wings gleaming out in the most charming
manner. Stir the water slightly with a stick and see how the boats
dance; blow gently on the sails and off the two will race for the
opposite side of the basin. If you are near any small stream or pond you
may launch your tiny boat and watch it bravely breast the little
ripples.



                               CHAPTER XV
                             A FLOWER FEAST

This dinner party will be great fun, especially as there need be no
worry about cooking, for the sun, with the assistance of the rain and
air, has attended to that part of the preparation.

We shall have to provide some sort of a dining-table. An ordinary
letter-paper box about eight inches long and five inches wide will
answer the purpose. Spread over the table a fresh, white table-cloth of
paper, and for a centre-piece choose

                             =A Pineapple=

made of a cone one and one-half [Illustration: Fig. 349.] or two inches
high (Fig. 345), cutting it off flat at the stem (Fig. 346) so that it
will stand firmly on the table (Fig. 347). On the top of the fruit pin a
small bunch of coarse grass tips tied together with thread (Figs. 348
and 349) and use the petals of a bright-colored flower, [Illustration:
200] which will lie flat when the lower portion is cut off, as an
ornamental mat to place under the pineapple; a nasturtium blossom (Fig.
350) will look well.

Almost everyone is fond of

                          =A Fine, Fresh Fish=

for dinner, so we will select one which is sound and perfect. Carefully
open a large-size milk-weed pod in the seam which you will find on the
rounded side (Fig. 351) and take out the beautiful white fish composed
of the seeds clinging to their downy wings, the seeds forming the fish’s
scales (Fig. 352) and the down its body. Cut out a piece of white paper
(Fig. 353) and with a drop of paste fasten it on the fish to form the
tail (Fig. 354); also gum a small, round piece of inked paper in
position for the eye; place the fish on a dish made from a long, green
leaf (Fig. [Illustration: 250] 355). Hollyhock seeds, which are
[Illustration: Fig. 353.] packed together in rounded forms, must furnish
cheeses, the resemblance [Illustration: Fig. 355.] being very marked
(Fig. 356). Two will be required and should be placed on the opposite
sides of the table.

[Illustration: Fig. 356.      Fig. 357.]

                       =The Rosy-cheeked Apples=

(Fig. 357) which come from the rose-bush are the seed-vessel of the
flowers, and so closely do they imitate little apples, when detached
from the bush they might easily be mistaken for such. Select a leaf
plate, fill it with the apples and place them on the table between the
pineapple and the salad. They give a bright note of color, which helps
the decoration.

The

[Illustration: Fig. 358.  Fig. 359.  Fig. 360.]

                             =Fruit Salad=

shall be dainty enough for a fairy queen. We will mix shredded orange
from the petals of a full, fresh young dandelion blossom (Fig. 358 shows
one of the petals magnified) with shredded strawberries produced from
the common red-clover blossom (Fig. 359 represents an enlarged petal),
and shredded cocoanut made from the ordinary white-clover petals (Fig.
360 also magnified). When these are well mixed serve them on a pretty,
green leaf plate, and the dish will give another bit of mingled color
with its pink, white, green, and yellow.

                         =The Cups and Saucers=

are furnished by the oak-tree and made of acorns. The lower part (Fig.
361) forms the saucer; the upper (Fig. 362) [Illustration: 75] the cup.
Cut off the top, then remove the kernel and the cup is ready for use
(Fig. 363). It is better to select a large-sized acorn for the saucer
and a smaller one for the cup, in order that the [Illustration: 200] cup
may have more space in the saucer and not fit too closely (Fig. 364).
Miniature dippers can be fashioned of acorn cups by piercing a hole in
one side near the top and pushing a slender stick through until it rests
against the opposite side (Fig. 365).

[Illustration: Fig. 367.]

Odd little baskets are also made of acorns (Fig. 366) by cutting away
all of the top of the acorn except a band through its centre; this forms
the handle. The acorn is [Illustration: Fig. 368.] left in its rough
saucer, which gives the outer surface of the basket, the inner surface
being the interior of the acorn proper. Make several cups and saucers,
and the feast will be ready for others to see (Fig. 367). Of course, it
is only intended to give pleasure in this way and not really to serve as
food.

Rose petals make an excellent substitute for the common

                          =Snapping Bonbons,=

such as are usually served at parties with the refreshments. Choose
[Illustration: Fig. 369.] [Illustration: Fig. 370.] the largest and best
petals (Fig. 368) and gather up the edge of one all the way around,
holding the folds securely; a little, bag-like object is thus formed
(Fig. 369), which, when held firmly with the thumb and forefinger of one
hand and struck against the out-stretched palm of the other, snaps with
a loud noise. If any opening is allowed when gathering up the edges of
the petal, the air will not be confined and consequently the bag will
not snap, and you must try another.

Of the thorns covering the stems of the roses you can make chains by
sticking the point of one thorn into the base of another and continuing
in this manner until the chain is as long as you desire (Fig. 370).

The party being over we will make some

                        =Baskets of Green Burs.=

They are pretty and rustic and can be shaped into almost any style; each
bur is provided with little hooked fingers (Fig. 371) that lock when the
two burs are pressed against each other, enabling them to stick fast
together—not so tight, however, that they cannot be separated when
desired. Be sure the burs are young and fresh; they will then be free
from all dryness and perfectly safe to work with; if too old they will
be difficult to handle and apt to drop the small, thorny particles.
Before commencing the work spread a newspaper out in front of you, then,
placing your burs on that, take one bur and with several others form a
circular row around it; another row around completes the bottom of the
basket (Fig. 372). Build up the sides on the top of this last row and
form the handle with a row of burs long enough to reach easily from side
to side [Illustration: 500] of the basket (Fig. 373). You can experiment
and make all sorts of things—vases, bowls, plates, chairs, tables, and
houses—of burs, and the work is very interesting and easy.

Beside contributing to the salad, the dandelion furnishes

                       =A Variety of Amusement.=

You have only to hold its golden head up under your chin to learn if you
are fond of butter. With one hand hold the flower (Fig. 374), with the
other hand a mirror. If you see a yellow reflection cast upon your chin
by the blossom underneath, you enjoy using plenty of butter on your
bread. Take the grandfather dandelion with his round, white head (Fig.
375) and blow once, then again and again, three times in all; the number
of downy seeds left on the head denotes the time of day. For instance,
should all be blown away except three (Fig. 376), it would mean that it
was three o’clock; if two are left it would say two o’clock, and so on.

[Illustration: Fig. 374.]

Select another nice

                      =Old Grandfather Dandelion=

and he will tell you when you are fortunate enough to obtain a certain
wish. First make a wish, then say aloud “yes” and give a single blow;
next say “no” and blow again. Proceed in this way, repeating the two
words alternately, giving one blow at each, until all the seeds are
detached from the head. If the word “yes” comes at the last blow your
wish will be granted; if “no” comes last it [Illustration: 300] will be
denied. With stems of this same flower, which, you know, are hollow and
much smaller at the top than at the bottom, you can make pretty green
rings by pushing the smaller into the larger end of the stem (Fig. 377).
To make a chain, join a number of rings together by first passing one
end of the second stem through the first ring before the two ends of the
second stem are fastened together, doing likewise with the third,
fourth, and fifth stems (Fig. 378).

[Illustration: Fig. 378.]

[Illustration: Fig. 380.]

To make an odd little ornament, split the dandelion stem about two
inches down lengthwise through the centre (Fig. 379) and draw one side
strip through your lips several times—it is perfectly harmless—until it
curls [Illustration: Fig. 379.] up (Fig. 380). Treat the other side in
the same way and it will also curl (Fig. 381).

                          =The Morning-glory=

gives us some of the most fragile flowers of which we have knowledge;
they are so delicate and fine of texture not many artists are able to
render perfectly the peculiar charm of the blossom. [Illustration: Fig.
381.] Beautiful in their varied colors, they blossom until killed by
frost, and growing as they do almost anywhere, even along the dusty
roadside, their cheerful faces sing out a bright “Good-morning” if one
is there in time to find them open. Usually they begin to close early in
the day, and when they close they change into twisted elongated affairs
which are eagerly sought by children bent on having a little sport. If
you will gather a few of these floral cornucopiæ you can make them pop
so loud they will rival the torpedo. Hold tight the opening end of the
closed blossom with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand and fill
it with air by gently blowing in the wee stem end; grasp this securely
with the left hand; then suddenly push the two ends together, and snap!
will go the flower.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Home-made Baskets.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XVI
                             BASKET-WEAVING


In and out, in and out; under and over, under and over; around and
around, again and yet again; widening and narrowing, and, lo! a basket
is woven. A child of eight can learn it, a woman will find the work a
charming pastime; so this is written for girls of all ages.

Dye your reeds, put all the bright colors you like into your baskets,
and see if they are not much prettier and more substantial than the
so-called “Indian work.” Red, blue, green, yellow, black, purple—a
butterfly’s wing need not be gayer nor an old-time work-basket more
useful. Large, small, medium-sized, deep or shallow—only one’s desire
need determine the question.

                        =Materials for Weaving=

A variety of materials are adapted to basket-weaving, but the most
substantial baskets are made of reeds. When the principle is mastered
you may use anything you choose which will lend itself to the work.

The basket-reeds can be purchased from any reed and rattan manufacturer,
and come in various sizes. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are the ones to use, and as
No. 4 is quite heavy you will need that only for large baskets, such as
waste-paper baskets, flower-pot cases, etc., and even for such purposes
No. 3 will answer. No. 2 is the finest, and of that you will use the
most. The prices range from twenty-three cents to thirty-five cents a
pound, No. 2 being the most expensive. Beside the reeds you will need a
twist of raffia; this is a soft material used by the florist for tying
up plants, and may be obtained from him at little cost, probably
eighteen or twenty cents a hank.

                         =To Prepare the Reeds=

The reeds come in bunches of five pounds each; separate these, and
taking each reed wrap it loosely around your hand to form a coil,
twisting the ends in and out to hold them in place. This puts your
material into a convenient form, and you need unwrap the reeds only as
you have use for them, one at a time. Have ready a pan or pail full of
water, for the reeds must be soaked awhile before they are used to make
them more pliable and to keep them from breaking.

Try a small basket at first—let us say a rather flat, shallow one—and
for this one coil of No. 3 and several of No. 2 reeds will be enough.
When they have soaked for about five minutes take out the No. 3 reed,
unwrap it, and cut six pieces twelve inches long and one piece eight
inches long; then untwist your raffia and cut off one strip.

                          =Weaving the Basket=

The reeds you have just cut are for the ribs of your basket. Lay the
short rib to one side within easy reach, then take three of the ribs in
your left hand and cross them with the other three, as in Fig. 382. Be
sure the reeds lie flat and side by side; do not bunch them. Hold the
ribs where they are crossed between the thumb and first finger
[Illustration: Fig. 382.] of your left hand, the vertical ones on top,
as shown in Fig. 382, and with your right hand place one end of the
raffia on top of the reeds, under your left thumb, leaving the free end
to fall to the left, as in Fig. 382. Hold the ribs securely now, and
bring the raffia up under those on the left-hand side close to the
crossing, then over the upper ribs (Fig. 383), under the right-hand ribs
and over the lower ones, going [Illustration: Fig. 383.] around twice
and catching down the end of the raffia in the process; then trim off
the remaining short end of the raffia. Do not loosen your hold with your
left hand, but with your right separate the ribs as well as you can and
begin to weave the raffia, starting at the left-hand rib of the upper
group, as shown by letter A, Fig. 384. Bring the raffia over
[Illustration: Fig. 384.] this rib and draw it down close to the centre,
then under the next, over the third, under the fourth, and so on until
you have been once around, when you will find another rib necessary to
make the weave come out properly. Here is the place for the short rib;
place one end of this rib across the centre of the others, as shown by
letter B, Fig. 385, and hold in place with your left thumb. Bring the
raffia over the new rib, and continue [Illustration: Fig. 385.] weaving
as in the first round; when you reach the short end of the rib bind it
down with the raffia as you carry it over one of the other ribs, as
shown by letter C, Fig. 386. Weave steadily with the raffia now, and
keep your mind on separating the ribs until they are of an equal
distance apart; also remember to draw the raffia down firmly each time
you pass it in and out between the ribs, first on one side, then on the
other. Of all parts it is most essential that the centre [Illustration:
Fig. 386.] of the basket should be firmly and strongly woven. Be careful
not to weave under or over two ribs at one time. Under one, over the
next, is the rule; and when you find, as you will occasionally, that
something is wrong, and alternate weaving has become impossible, look
back over your work and you will discover that you have somewhere
crossed [Illustration: Fig. 387.] two ribs at once. In such a case pull
out the work and correct the mistake.

Weave the raffia until the centre is about two inches in diameter, or
until you have used up the raffia, then take from the water a coil of
the No. 2 reeds, unwind it, and placing one end across the end of the
raffia, hold it with the thumb of your left hand, and proceed to weave
with the reed just as you did with the raffia (Fig. 387). In all cases
the joining must be done on the inside of the basket.

[Illustration: 'Weaving Baskets.']

[Illustration:

  Begin to shape the sides
  By bending the ribs upward
  Fig. 388.
]

                           =Weave Your Reed=

as closely as possible, and when you have a disk about four inches in
diameter begin to shape the sides by bending the ribs upward toward you
(Fig. 388) and drawing your reed tighter. If this slips up in the
process, push it back in place and hold it down by passing the fingers
of your left hand between the ribs from the inside. Indeed, this is a
good way to hold your basket as soon as the ribs are sufficiently
separated. Your left hand follows your right always in [Illustration:
Fig. 389.] basket-weaving, holding in place what the right hand commits
to its care.

                    =When the First Reed is Used Up=

take another, cross the ends, and continue as you did when beginning
with the first reed. As your weaving progresses do not forget to keep
the distances between all of the ribs equal, and try to avoid the
tendency they have to curve spirally. When your basket has slanting
sides you will find it will almost shape itself after you have given the
ribs a sharp bend at the first and started them in the right direction.
By bending the ribs too much you will make straight sides to the basket
or have them slant in instead of out. Two inches is a good depth for a
small basket, and when you have woven that much, cut off the ribs,
allowing them to extend about two inches beyond the edge, as in Fig.
389, and trim the ends slantingly, as shown in the same diagram. Bend
the end of one rib down, and push it into the basket on the farthest
side of the next rib (Fig. 389). Do this with the second rib, and so
continue around until the edge is “bound off.” When the ends of the ribs
do not slide in easily, pry open the space with a pair of closed
scissors, turning them slightly.

All the baskets shown in

                        =The Photographed Group=

are woven in exactly this manner from start to finish; the shaping is
done by bending the ribs this way or that, and by [Illustration: Fig.
390] tightening the weave when narrowing and loosening it when widening.
There is a difference, of course, in the length of the ribs, the larger
baskets requiring longer ribs and more of them, but there must always be
an even number to start with, the odd rib being added after the first
round of raffia-weaving.

It is difficult to handle more than ten ribs at the start, but where the
basket is large or a close weave is desirable you may double the number
when the disk for the bottom is almost complete. To do this, cut a
number of the ribs one-half the length of the ones you have started
with, and after trimming the ends as in Fig. 389, insert one at the
right of each of the original ribs, as shown in Fig. 390, pushing each
well down toward the centre. This will give you an even number once
more, so a third rib must be added to one of the groups, and should be
inserted at the left, the original rib being between the two new ones
(Fig. 390). Separate these ribs as you weave until all are of an equal
distance apart, and continue the shaping of the basket.

                              =The Covers=

are pretty and useful additions to some baskets; they are woven in the
same manner and are shaped according to fancy. The saucer shape is the
most common style and requires no sudden bend in the ribs, but rather
tight weaving and an indulgence of the natural inclination to curve from
the centre.

It is only in adding the rings for the

                              =Fastenings=

that you need make any change in the weave, and that is but a slight
one. When your cover is almost large enough, [Illustration: Fig. 391]
bring your reed up to form a small ring on the outside, crossing one of
the ribs, as shown in Fig. 391; push the end of the reed through the
ring several times, making a twist as in Fig. 391, and continue weaving
as before. This ring should be about one-fourth of an inch from the edge
of the cover. The corresponding ring in the basket is made in the same
manner, and should be placed one-half inch from the edge; it must be a
trifle smaller than the one on the cover, that it may be slipped
through, and so form a fastening.

                             =Make a Hinge=

by threading a strip of raffia through the basket near the edge, and
tying it on the inside, then through the lid, making a stitch across the
reeds, back to the under side of the cover, bringing it around the loop
of raffia to form a twist, and finally into the [Illustration: Fig. 392]
basket, and once more tie on the inside (Fig. 392).

You may revel in

                                =Color=

if you like, in the pretty work of basket-making. The soft broken
colors, brightened at times by touches of more brilliant tones, are
really beautiful, while even those which, alone, seem crude and glaring,
by some happy accident of combination often produce charming effects. A
fine line of black is sometimes effective and looks well next to the
whitest of the natural-colored reeds.

It is

                         =A Law in Decoration=

that bands of color should be so placed as to give the idea of
additional strength to the object decorated—that is, on the most exposed
parts, such as the fullest swell of a curve and the base and edge. You
will find that this rule is observed in most decorated pottery, and it
is a good one to follow in basket-weaving; the nearer one comes to
embodying it in the work, the more satisfactory are the results.

Another style of decoration is to start with a dark color at the base of
the basket and gradually work in the different shades up to the lightest
color at the edge. One color need not be used in this, such as red
running up to pink, but gradual blending of one color into another.



                              CHAPTER XVII
                       AN “ABE” LINCOLN LOG-CABIN


A bright, gray-eyed little Kentucky boy, of whom all have heard and
whose memory is honored by the entire nation, lived years ago in a
quaint log-cabin so small that it would now seem to be about the right
size for a large play-house. There was but one room, and that contained
only a few pieces of rough home-made furniture. The boy, with his
musical laugh, was busy and healthy, making the best of everything and
sleeping soundly on the dried leaves piled in one corner of the loft
over the room. There were no stairs for the little fellow to ascend, so
he climbed to his primitive couch by means of wooden pegs driven in the
side of the wall. He never complained of any hardship, but always tried
to better things; and after he grew up to manhood he tried to better his
country, and succeeded.

Imagine this brave boy dressed in the every-day costume of the place and
times, wearing a 'coon-skin cap which partially covered his thick dark
hair, a homespun shirt, trousers of roughly tanned deerskin, and on his
feet, not shoes, but home-made moccasins. Thus attired, he daily trudged
by the side of his sister Nancy, walking several miles to a
school-house, which was also built of logs, so arranged that they stuck
out and formed little recesses in which the children played
hide-and-seek. There were no windows in the building; the day crept
through the open space where a log had been removed to admit light to
enable the girls and boys to see to study. The school floor was the bare
brown earth, not even boards; yet from such modest surroundings came one
of the greatest of Americans. Could you have been at the World’s Fair in
1893 you might have seen a log-cabin which was the home of this boy
after the family had moved to Illinois. The house was on exhibition at
the Fair, having been purchased for the purpose by a special
association.

[Illustration: An “Abe” Lincoln Log-cabin.]

Probably not many Northern girls have ever seen a genuine log-cabin,
though some may have spent part of their Summer vacation in recently
built log-houses in the mountains, but these buildings are usually too
luxurious and spacious to bear any resemblance to the pioneer structure
of logs. The rare human life which has passed through some of these old
log-cabins and left its influence upon the world, will cause the cabins
to be remembered long after the more pretentious mansions have been
forgotten. It is noble lives which are of real worth, not inanimate
things.

Naturally you would be glad to see the funny little Kentucky log-cabin
where Nancy’s brother first lived, but long ago the cabin was torn down;
however, the logs were saved, and in 1895 the old house was rebuilt on
the original site. The surest way of seeing a log-cabin like the one in
which our little friend and his sister lived is for you to erect such a
house. Then you will know exactly what little “Abe’s” home was like—for
you must have guessed before this that Nancy’s brother was the martyred
President, Abraham Lincoln.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Making an “Abe” Lincoln Log-cabin.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Of course, you cannot build a log-cabin large enough for grown people to
live in. Yours will be

                   =A Miniature “Abe” Lincoln Cabin,=

and the longest and heaviest logs should be about as large around as a
lead-pencil and measure not more than eight [Illustration: Fig. 393.]
inches in length, the short side logs being five and a quarter inches in
length. Notch each log at both ends and on both sides (Fig. 393), except
the four foundation logs, which [Illustration: Fig. 394.] require
notches at each end, but only on the upper side (Fig. 394). When
erecting the house fit the cross logs together at the notches (Fig.
395), in order to make the walls [Illustration: Fig. 395.] firm and to
avoid wide spaces between the logs. Let the elevation or height of the
house be four inches (Fig. 396). In building the roof use end logs
graduated in length (Fig. 397). These gabled ends should raise the house
two inches through the centre. Before [Illustration: Fig. 396.] adding
the roof, slide in two extra side logs, each half an inch or so longer
than the side logs proper; place one at each end of the top of the house
along the inside of the last logs on top of the side walls (Fig. 398, F
E). The longer logs are used to extend the roof back and front beyond
the building, causing it to project as do [Illustration: Fig. 397.] the
roofs on real houses. To produce a like result on the sides, have the
front and back logs of the roof longer than those built in the front and
back of the house, the difference being the same increase in measurement
as in the sides of the roof (Fig. 396, A B and C D).

Cut a piece of paper two and one-quarter inches long and one and
one-quarter inches wide to indicate the door; fasten it by the four
corners to the centre of the front of the house immediately above the
foundation log. Cut another piece of paper the size of the window—one
inch long and three-quarters of an inch wide—and [Illustration: Fig.
398.] paste it also on the front of the house midway between the door
and the end of the house, allowing it to come a little lower than the
top of the door (Fig. 396). With paint-brush and white paint mark the
logs along the edge of the paper door and window; then carefully take
down the house, placing the logs in eight different piles: the front of
the roof in one place, back of roof in another, first end of roof in the
third pile, and second end in the fourth. Tie each group of logs
separately and label. Proceed in like manner with the four sides of the
house proper, first removing the pieces of paper. Cut the logs marked
with the white paint on the inside of the lines to make openings for the
door and window, then rub off the remaining paint from the logs.

Now your material is

                          =Ready for Building=

and you must find some land upon which to erect the house. Fortunately
log-cabins need no cellars, so digging will be unnecessary, and the
ground need not be deep. A piece of bookbinder’s stiff pasteboard or a
light-weight wooden board seventeen by twenty-three inches or
thereabouts will prove the best kind of a ground plot and, after space
is reserved for the house, will allow for a large yard. Mark the
location for the house a little to one side of the centre and near the
back of the lot, as shown in illustration of An “Abe” Lincoln Log-cabin.

[Illustration: Fig. 399.]

Have ready some strong glue and begin the building of the cabin. Glue
down the four foundation logs to the board, being cautious to lay them
straight and even; then proceed as when first erecting the building,
only this time glue each log to the lower ones at the notched ends,
using putty in place of mortar between the lengths of the logs. Now, do
not say you have no putty. If you cannot get it, use plaster-of-paris;
if you have no plaster-of-paris, use clay; and if there is no clay use
mud. The ends of the logs bordering the window and doorway must be held
level and kept from falling together by chips glued in between them
(Fig. 399).

Be sure to have the four sides of the building plumb. Do not let the
walls lean one way or another. This item must be borne in mind
constantly while building.

                        =When the House is Up,=

with the exception of the roof, measure the two sides of the door and
window and cut a thin, flat piece of wood—an old [Illustration: Fig.
400.] cigar-box will do—in the desired width and length for jambs. Glue
the pieces in place. Fig. 400 shows the first jamb on one side of the
doorway. When all the jambs are fastened on measure the space of the
doorway and cut a door of the thin wood according to the measurements.
Be sure it fits, and see that it moves easily back and forth. The door
cannot have a knob, because during those early times there were no
door-knobs in this country—people used door-latches, mostly of wood,
with a string hanging down on the outside for friends to pull and
thereby lift the inside latch, causing the door to open. [Illustration:
Fig. 401.] [Illustration: Fig. 402.] If the household did not wish
visitors the string was pulled inside the room; then no one outside
could open the door, as there would not be anything to catch hold of.
This explains the old saying, “The latch-string hangs on the outside of
the door.” Bore a hole through the little cabin door with the red-hot
end of a hair-pin, for the latch-string; move the hair-pin around and
around in order to burn the hole large enough to admit the threading
through of a string. Dampen one end of a short string, twist it to a
point and pass it through the hole to the other side, turn the door over
and make a knot in the end of the string large enough to prevent it
[Illustration: Fig. 403.] coming through when the string is pulled from
the outside. Fig. 401 shows the inside knot and Fig. 402 the outside
string.

                            =Hang the Door=

by means of a cloth hinge; glue a half inch wide strip of muslin
lengthwise along one edge of the inside of the door (Fig. 403), leaving
the other half of the muslin to be glued on the inside of the doorjamb
that the door sill may be on the outside (Fig. 404). After the door has
been satisfactorily secured in its proper place build on the roof. As a
substitute [Illustration: Fig. 404.] for clapboards or shingles glue
birch-bark over the rafters to serve as a covering, first bending the
bark through the centre to fit the roof, as a sheet of writing-paper is
folded. When the roof is on, fasten over it [Illustration: Fig. 405.]
lengthwise slender poles at wide intervals, that the roof may resemble
the original clapboard style. In real houses these poles were laid
across to hold the rough clapboards in position and have them “break
joints,” which means that the clapboards, which resemble very long,
large shingles, are placed in rows in such a way that the centres of the
solid bottom edges of those in the upper rows overlap and cross the
spaces between the clapboards in the lower rows, just as ordinary
shingles are put on houses to-day.

                             =The Chimney=

must be at one end and on the outside of the house. Begin at the ground,
and in log-cabin fashion build the lower part up about an inch and a
half of logs. This portion in a real log-cabin opens on the inside of
the room and constitutes part of the framework of the fireplace, but in
this tiny house it will not be necessary to carry out the interior in
detail. Having securely glued the lower part of the chimney and
plastered it between the logs, get some burnt matches or split a number
of sticks into very slender lengths for the remainder of the chimney.
These are not to be notched. Use them to graduate the chimney up a short
distance until the opening is small enough for the chimney proper. Make
the rest uniform in size and extend it up an inch and a quarter higher
than the top of the house (Fig. 405). If the chimney was a real one it
would have to be plastered thick inside with mud, and between the logs
and sticks, but as it will not be used for fire or smoke, glue will
answer at the corners and putty or some other substitute for the cracks,
as in the illustration of A Fac-simile Miniature “Abe” Lincoln
Log-cabin.

[Illustration: A Fac-simile Miniature “Abe” Lincoln Log-cabin.]

The different materials needed for the cabin and grounds can be readily
obtained. Almost any kind of fairly smooth twigs will make line logs,
but try to have them uniform in size.

                     =You Can Find Plenty of Moss=

for foliage in the woods or swamps, on old stumps of trees and
weather-beaten fences, and a few varieties are to be had in the open
fields; that growing in pine woods or rocky places is generally
satisfactory. Gather the moss wherever you can find it and obtain as
many varieties as possible. Look also for the beautiful lichens, varying
in color and form; detach them carefully and bring the curious little
plants home in a box separate from the moss. The dainty lichens do not
need preparation for use, but the moss does. Place it top down on paper
near the fire and dry quickly without scorching. After it is dry shake
off all impurities, such as dead leaves, grass, sand, and rotten wood.
Moss that grows in swamps should be carefully washed soon after being
obtained, as the roots are difficult to clean when they become dry. As
soon as the moss has been thoroughly dried, put it away in a dark place
until you are ready to use it.

To obtain

                     =The Bark for Roof and Canoe,=

hunt up a birch-tree—one that has been dead a short time is best—and
with a sharp knife peel off the pieces needed. The bark should be of a
rich dark reddish-brown on the inside. Cut it with an old pair of
scissors into the desired shape and size; then place the pieces between
two smooth boards to dry. Put weights or stones of convenient size upon
the upper board, and very soon the bark will be flattened out and ready
for use.

The trees are small, branching twigs. Search for those which resemble
most closely little trees. Examine carefully the structure of real
trees, stand under the branches and gaze up into the foliage; in most
varieties, you can see exactly how the tree grows. Try to remember its
appearance; where and how the limbs stand out and the manner in which
they branch off; then select your twigs accordingly.

Little “Abe” was obliged to take a long walk to the spring for drinking
water, but since the size of our lot does not permit placing a spring at
sufficient distance from the cabin to copy exactly the environment of
the Lincoln homestead, we will introduce

                     =A Pretty Little Lake or Pond=

and an old-fashioned country well-sweep as water supplies. Hunt up a
piece of broken looking-glass. This will make [Illustration: Fig. 406.]
an excellent substitute for a miniature lake of real water, reflecting
the beautiful green shore, the overhanging trees, and the graceful
little craft which we will moor to its shore. If the mirror is the
requisite size, its shape does not matter. Place the glass near the
front of the board at the left-hand side. Move it further back, then
forward, a little to this side and that, until you find the precise spot
best suited for the lake. Experimenting in this way, you will gain
unconsciously a slight insight into the art of landscape gardening, and
when you have an opportunity you will find yourself studying the
arrangement and beauty of grounds laid out by professional landscape
gardeners. You will notice in what direction the water lies from the
house, the arrangement of the trees, if they are many or few, in groups
or scattered, the surface of the land, and various other details that
appeal to the close observer.

Having located the place for the lake, lay the broken mirror on it and
glue a strip of paper, half of it to the edge of the glass and half to
the board. Fig. 406 shows the method, the dotted line giving the extreme
edge of the glass under the paper. Cover the paper with a light coat of
glue and sprinkle clean, fine, dry sand over it while the glue is wet
that the sand may stick fast and conceal the paper. With a lead-pencil
draw two parallel lines as a boundary for

                               =The Walk=

from the house to the front edge of the board and, recollecting the old
saying, “A curved line for beauty, a straight line for duty,” make the
path curve in some such way as seen in Fig. 407. Extend the walk almost
diagonally across to the right hand of the board. If the first lines do
not give a satisfactory path, try again and again until you have the
walk to suit; then, if possible, obtain sand of a yellowish color and
with the aid of glue make a sandy walk.

[Illustration: Fig. 407.]

[Illustration: Fig. 408.]

[Illustration: Fig. 409.]

The best place for

                                =A Well=

is toward the right hand of the land beyond the house, between it and
the front edge of the board. Decide upon the exact location and over
this draw a square measuring one and three-quarters inches each way as a
guide in building the wall. You will need some small stones for the
well, but real stones are not necessary and you may use instead
irregular broken pieces of cork. These can be made to resemble
[Illustration: Fig. 410.] hard stones by being first coated all over
with glue, then covered with sand of a dark reddish hue.

Build the square according to and immediately outside the lines in order
to keep the inside space of the well large enough to allow the free
lowering of the bucket. Make the walls even and straight, gluing the
foundation stones securely to the ground. When the first layer of stones
is in place fit in others for a second row on top of the first, breaking
joints; cement the two rows together with putty. Keep on building until
the walls are an inch and a half high, reserving the flattest stones for
the top (Fig. 408).

[Illustration: Fig. 411.]

Cut a forked stick five inches long and push the end in a button-mould
(Fig. 409); glue the button-mould down tight to the board at the
right-hand side six inches from the well; then make a straight, slender
pole five inches long from a twig, and a well-sweep from a heavier twig.
The well-sweep should be fourteen inches long and much heavier at one
end than at the other. On the light end of the sweep attach the slender
pole, which has previously had a hole burned through the lower end with
the red-hot end of a hairpin. Glue a small strip of brown muslin from
one stick to the other, not allowing the ends of the stick to meet (Fig.
410). Wrap and glue the sides of the cloth around the two poles, forming
in this way a hinge, which will allow the slender pole to hang straight
down from the sweep (Fig. 411).

Tie an

                             =Acorn Bucket=

 [Illustration: Fig. 412.] (Fig. 412) on the end of the pole, pass a
string under the handle of the bucket and through the hole in the poles
then fasten securely. Pierce one of the forked ends of the stick (Fig.
409), with a pin, measure seven and a half inches from the smaller,
light end of the sweep, and insert the pole sweep at this point between
the forked ends shown in Fig. 413. Push the pin entirely through the
sweep and the second fork of the support, where it will act as a hinge.
Try moving the sweep up and down to see if it works all right.

Should the bucket drop into the well and remain there when your hand is
removed from the pole, it shows that the heavy end of the sweep is too
light. Remedy this by increasing the weight. Tack and glue a small box
on the end (Fig. 414), resting the pole exactly on the centre of the
inside bottom of the box. Fill the box with small stones until the
weight is sufficient to keep that end on the ground, glue the stones in
tight (Fig. 413). Now try the sweep again; pull the pendant pole down,
bringing the bucket into the well just as the real ones are worked. You
can pretend that the well is very deep, containing the clearest and
coldest of drinking water, and that the acorn bucket is in reality the
original “Old Oaken Bucket.” That famous bucket actually hung from just
such a sweep as you have made, only, of course, a very much larger and
stronger one.

[Illustration: Fig. 413.]

Let some of

                              =The Trees=

be nearly as tall again as the cabin; others may be smaller.
[Illustration: Fig. 414.] Select your twigs and push the end of each
into a large-sized button-mould. If the hole in the mould is too small,
enlarge it. Have a few very small twigs for shrubs; stand the trees and
shrubs around the grounds as you think they will look best. Try placing
them in different parts of the grounds—perhaps a large tree partially
back of the house would look well. When all are satisfactorily arranged
mark the different spots, then take each tree and bush separately and
cause the bare branches to burst forth into beautiful green foliage. To
do this, bring out your box of moss and carefully select the variety
which most nearly resembles foliage. Use different kinds of moss for
different trees, if you have a variety. Pick the dainty moss apart fibre
by fibre and glue the pieces one at a time on the branches, making the
foliage thicker in some places than in others; place the
lightest-colored moss on the outside limbs of the trees, leaving the
darker for the inner branches. Fig. 415 shows a bare tree and Fig. 416
the same in full leaf. When the trees and shrubs are ready glue them by
their button-mould stands to the board.

[Illustration: Fig. 415.]

Next the

                       =Grass-seed Must be Sown=

or the sod planted that the ground may be clothed in emerald green.
Select a quantity of fine short moss and glue it down all over the
entire bare land; then step back a short distance and view the work. You
will be surprised at the realistic effect produced. Bring the grass well
down, but unevenly, around the shores of the lake and scatter stones of
various size here and there near its edge. Take a few pieces of the
vine-like moss and trail it up the side of the cabin, running the vine
high under the eaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 416.]

                              =The Fence=

must be one of the picturesque zigzag rail enclosures sometimes called
“Old Virginia” fences and again “snake” fences. [Illustration: Fig.
417.] They are peculiar to America and are made of split logs. When
Lincoln was a boy he excelled in splitting rails and made more and cut
them faster than any of the other boys. The rails you require, however,
are so small that a girl as well as a boy can easily make them. Cut the
logs four and one-half inches long and split each one lengthwise (Fig.
417). Make enough rails to lay a fence around three sides of the
grounds. The back edge of the land can be hedged in with bushes and
trees. Build the fence by first placing stones—one or more, according to
the size—in two rows, those in each being about four inches apart. The
circles in Fig. 418 give the position of the stones, and the dotted line
that of the rails. Begin the fence by laying the first rail on two of
the stones, the next rail across to the third stone, and so on. Make the
fence several rails high; then cross two upright rails at each corner
and build on the top rails (Fig. 419). Glue the stones to the ground and
the rails one on top of the other as you build.

[Illustration: Fig. 418.]

[Illustration: Fig. 419.]

Leave an open space at the path for a gateway, but instead of an
ordinary gate you can make

                          =A Little Turnstile=

which will twist around just like a real one. Choose a thick short log
and shave it off level on the top; then take two thin flat sticks about
two and one-half inches long; round off the corners and, crossing them
at the centres, glue the two together (Fig. 420). When dry work a pin
through [Illustration: Fig. 420.] [Illustration: Fig. 421.] both at the
centre and push the pin down, not too tight, in the top of the log (Fig.
421). Enlarge the hole in a good-sized button-mould and fasten in the
turnstile. Scrape away enough sand at the centre of the gateway to allow
the button-mould to be glued to the bare board; then brush a little glue
over the mould and around its edges and sprinkle with sand.

The bright-colored lichens come in well as flowers to give the

                          =Finishing Touches.=

Little tufts can be glued at the base of the cabin and chimney. The
variety with the coral-red tops might be planted here and there along
the edge of the walk, and other kinds could be fastened sparingly on a
few rocks at the base of the well-sweep and wherever they would add to
the beauty and effect of the whole. But be careful about using too many
simply because you happen to have them. Study the effect of the entire
scene and do not overcrowd it.

                        =The Birch-bark Canoe.=

Cut the boat from the pattern (Fig. 422); sew up the two ends and, if
necessary, bend out the sides until the canoe is of the desired shape
(Fig. 423). Moor the craft to the edge of the shore with the aid of a
little glue. [Illustration: Fig. 422.] Or you might put the canoe out on
the water; glue it in place and seat two little jointed dolls in the
boat, one dressed as a girl and the other as a boy. The boy should have
glued to his hands a little wooden paddle whittled from a piece of thin,
flat wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 423.]

When people lived in log-cabins they burned wood in the great fireplaces
and always kept a generous

                              =Wood-pile=

near at hand. A tiny one at the side toward the back of the grounds
will, therefore, be in keeping with the cabin. Burn two holes through
each end of a short flat piece of wood and stick a slender pole in each
hole, fasten them in tight with glue, then burn two holes in another
piece of wood for two similar poles. Place the two pairs of stakes about
three inches apart, and cut your wood and pile it up evenly between
them. The stakes are to hold the wood in place (Fig. 424).

                              =A Sawbuck=

can be made of four flat pieces of wood and one round piece. Shut your
eyes, think hard, and you will remember how a real sawbuck looks; how
the cross-piece is nearer the top than the bottom and how each
side-piece forms an awkward-looking X, the cross of the letter being
above the centre. You can make it without diagrams. Look at the sawbuck
near the wood-pile in Fig. 424 and try.

[Illustration: Fig. 424.]

Find a tiny doll, dress it like a child and glue it in an upright
position on the walk. Have another doll (neither of these should be
jointed) dressed in a way to represent the little one’s mother, standing
by the well drawing water, and your charming old-fashioned log-cabin
home will be finished. See illustration of An “Abe” Lincoln Log-cabin.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: You might be drawing the simple designs.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             CHAPTER XVIII
                  QUEER THINGS ON PAPER AND BLACKBOARD
                       AND HOW TO PUT THEM THERE


Look at a piece of blank paper or, better still, stand before an
unmarked blackboard and try to imagine pictured on its surface whatever
you would like to see there. It might be a comical little turtle, a
rose, or perhaps a graceful swan. If you knew exactly the true shape and
proportion of the objects you could draw them, but as soon as you
attempt the sketch you realize that you cannot remember just how these
creatures are formed, and consequently you are unable to depict them. Do
not be discouraged, for there is a way in which you may do the work
easily and that is by reducing the realistic drawing to a few leading
lines, and the girls who are able to sketch even a small number of
simple objects in this way have resources within themselves both for
diversion and development, worth much more than they are apt to
understand.

If you would like to put on paper or board

                          =A Funny Little Pig=

as it stands with its ears bent forward and nose in air, draw a
horizontal line (Fig. 425). On the right-hand end of this extend down a
short vertical line (Fig. 426); on the left draw another vertical line
parallel to but longer than the first (Fig. 427). Draw a bottom
horizontal line not quite as long as the top one (Fig. 428); then
connect the two loose ends by a slanting line (Fig. 429). Make the
letter V inverted and slightly tipped for the ear (Fig. 430); put a dash
in front of the ear parallel with the top line for the eye, and a little
loop at the back for a tail (Fig. 431). Add two short straight lines to
serve as legs on the far side of the pig, making them touch but not pass
the bottom line (Fig. 432). Next put in the other two legs on the near
side of the animal, extending them up a trifle beyond the bottom line
and down a little lower than those on the far side (Fig. 433).

[Illustration: Fig. 425.]

[Illustration: Fig. 427.]

[Illustration: Fig. 429.]

[Illustration: Fig. 426.]

[Illustration: Fig. 428.]

[Illustration: Fig. 430.]

[Illustration: Fig. 431.]

There! the pig is all attention, listening to the welcome sound of the
children’s call and ready to start for his dinner! Now make the little
animal as he appears when satisfied and trotting off contentedly. Draw
the body as for the first pig, but turn it upside down (Fig. 434), then
add the eye, ear, tail, and legs. Slant the eye with the head line and
point the ear downward toward the left (Fig. 435). In [Illustration:
Fig. 432.] these lines forming the two animals you have produced
expressions; in the first, expectation; in the second, contentment, and
you have also suggested character, by giving the principal distinctive
lines of the pig.

When you see a picture of a pig, or the live creature, try to find the
lines which you have drawn. To do this, first [Illustration: Fig. 433.]
get an idea of the general line forming the back, omitting all the
little ups and downs and curves—in other words, all detail. Then proceed
in the same way with lines forming the rest of the animal. Do not allow
yourself to be confused by the amount of detail; keep to the principal
parts and you will gain some idea of the form of the object.

[Illustration: Fig. 434.]

[Illustration: Fig. 435.]

In the same way look at the governing lines of

                                =A Hen=

and you will discover that if a triangle be drawn with the straight
line, or base, uppermost and the point down at the bottom, it will give
the characteristic outline of the hen by adding simple outlines of head,
tail, and feet. But the leading lines are not necessarily straight and
angular; they are often entirely of curves—the kind of curves boys and
girls delight to cut in the ice while skating, and which Old Ocean marks
upon the sand in summer, using brushes [Illustration: Fig. 436.]
[Illustration: Fig. 437.] made of waves.

[Illustration: Fig. 438.       Fig. 439.       Fig. 440.       Fig.
441.       Fig. 442.]

Did you ever notice how many beautiful curves exist in

                   =The Queen of Flowers, the Rose,=

the national flower of England? Examine the blossom and endeavor to take
in its beauty. A question often asked in one of the games of children is
this: “Which would you rather have, a gold rose or a gold lily?” and the
bewildered young prisoner scarce can choose, so impressed is she with
the desirability of possessing, if only in imagination, both rose and
lily, little dreaming that once a year a rose of the purest gold is
actually made and given by the Pope to an Empress, Queen or royal
princess belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. The rose you can make
will not be of the precious metal, but of chalk or lead from a pencil,
and you need not wait to present it to a royal personage, but may give
it to whom you please. Begin with a circle (Fig. 436). Draw it as
perfect as possible, and within its border place one curved petal (Fig.
437), another (Fig. 438), a third (Fig. 439), a fourth (Fig. 440), and
two more (Fig. 441). Fill the circle up with petals as in Fig. 442, then
on the outside of the circle make six more (Fig. 443); to these add four
on the outer edge (Fig. 444). Now you may go over all the lines, making
them somewhat irregular, as in Fig. 444. Draw a stem to [Illustration:
Fig. 444] the rose, add a few thorns and on the right-hand side of the
stem attach a branch of green [Illustration: Fig. 443.] leaves according
to the copy. The easiest way to sketch in the leaves is to first draw
the mid rib or central line which reaches from the point of the topmost
leaf to its juncture with the stem of the rose. When that line is made
draw two more, branching out on each side of it. These lines form the
skeleton of the leaves, and all one has to do to finish them is to
commence at the tip of each line and draw a curve to its base, first on
one side, then on the other, to form the leaf.

Is not that easy? Should the work be incorrect the first time, do it
over again and again. Only little animals are born with a knowledge of
all they are required to know; people must learn everything, even how to
walk. Remember that the women and men who seem so skilled and wise had
to learn by repeated trials, just as you are doing now.

[Illustration: Fig. 445.]

[Illustration: Fig. 447.]

[Illustration: Fig. 449.]

[Illustration: Fig. 446.]

[Illustration: Fig. 448.]

[Illustration: Fig. 450.]

Rub the marks off the blackboard or get a fresh piece of paper and we
will put a face on it—one that, after you have once drawn it, you can
almost sketch with your eyes shut, so simple is the work. Possibly you
do not know that the general outline of

                                =A Head=

is egg-shaped. Make an egg-shaped outline, using the large part for the
top like a balloon (Fig. 445). Draw two curves on the egg for the
eyebrows just above the centre of the face (Fig. 446); make two smaller
curves under the eyebrows and exactly in the centre of the face for eyes
(Fig. 447); another curve midway down between the eyes and the bottom of
the chin for the nose (Fig. 448), and a last one below the nose to form
the mouth. See how supplicating the face looks! You know how he
feels—the boy wants to go to the circus (Fig. 449).

Reverse the order of the lines and the expression will be entirely
different. Turn the curves which form the features the other way by
bending them downward instead of upward (Fig. 450). The boy is now
thinking of the lesson he did not learn.

[Illustration: Fig. 451.]

[Illustration: Fig. 452.]

[Illustration: Fig. 453.]

[Illustration: Fig. 454.]

[Illustration: Fig. 455.]

[Illustration: Fig. 456.]

                         =The Three Blind Mice=

who ran so fast when the butcher’s wife went after them can also be
drawn in a simple manner. Make a curve (Fig. 451) and draw a straight
line from end to end (Fig. 452); add ears (Fig. 453), eye and whiskers
(Fig. 454), a tail (Fig. 455), and the legs and feet (Fig. 456). Draw
three mice all alike in a row. Again, make Fig. 452 to form the body of

                               =A Fish.=

Sketch in the gills (Fig. 457), the eye and pectoral fin (Fig. 458), the
dorsal fin (Fig. 459), and tail (Fig. 460); then make the scales by
first drawing parallel curved slanting lines over the body of the fish
(Fig. 461) and crossing them with others (Fig. 462). Indicate the water
with a few short lines (Fig. 462).

[Illustration: Fig. 457.]

[Illustration: Fig. 458.]

[Illustration: Fig. 459.]

[Illustration: Fig. 460.]

[Illustration: Fig. 461.]

[Illustration: Fig. 462.]

                               =Turtles=

are slow creatures, but they are interesting travelling about with their
houses on their backs. Did you ever have one for a pet? They are very
quiet, not at all troublesome, and make fine pets for girls. It may be
that you have never seen a geographic turtle. We will draw one, and that
will impress it on your mind. Take the same Fig. 452 to form its back,
mark as in Fig. 463, then give the turtle a head, in form something like
that of a snake. Draw the eyes and mouth distinctly and add the feet and
tail (Fig. 464).

[Illustration: Fig. 463.]

[Illustration: Fig. 464.]

Here is something easier to draw than any of the other objects.

                             =Make a Duck=

without raising the pencil from the paper. Commence at the left-hand
starting-point and draw a line sidewise, running [Illustration: Fig.
465.] [Illustration: Fig. 466.] it slightly downward (Fig. 465). Turn
the line up and cross it over, making a loop at the right-hand end (Fig.
466). Continue the line to the other side and turn it up into another
loop under the starting-point (Fig. 467). Keep on crossing from side to
side, looping the line each time [Illustration: Fig. 467.]
[Illustration: Fig. 468.] until you have made Fig. 468; then draw the
line up and around the loops as in Fig. 469 to form the wing. Next make
similar loops, according to Fig. 470, for the tail. At the last loop
draw the line across under the duck’s wing, stretching it up in front
(Fig. 471). This [Illustration: Fig. 469.] [Illustration: Fig. 470.]
gives the lower portion of the head and beak. Continue the line to make
the upper part of the head (Fig. 472). One more trial and you will
probably be able to draw the bird rapidly without once raising the
pencil or chalk from the surface of the paper or blackboard. Let the
duck swim in the water by drawing a few swirling lines around it as in
Fig. 473.

Young people often have an intense enthusiasm at different seasons for
different sports. At one time it may be hoop rolling, when every girl
must have a hoop, even if it [Illustration: Fig. 471.] [Illustration:
Fig. 472.] be one from a barrel. Again, pin-wheels claim attention, and
the stores are besieged for bright-hued paper and all the girls and boys
work hard over the pretty whirling toys, talking of the many colors,
sizes, and number of their [Illustration: Fig. 473.] =special designs.
Somewhat after this fashion the grown people in Holland had at one time
a craze, not for a toy but a flower—the brilliantly colored tulip—and
these older girls and boys often spent many dollars for one plant, vying
with each other in their endeavors to obtain rare varieties.

Though often gorgeous in color

                              =The Tulip=

is very simple in outline. In one stroke draw Fig. 474, make a
corresponding curve on the other side (Fig. 475), [Illustration: Fig.
474.] [Illustration: Fig. 475.] forming an oval standing on end; this is
one petal. At the right-hand side, from near the top of the petal, run a
short, slanting curved line upward and outward (Fig. 476) and connect
the end of this line with the bottom of the oval by a reverse curve,
making the petal point outward at the top (Fig. 477). Duplicate the
petal on the left-hand side, making three visible petals (Fig. 478),
most of the other three being hidden on the far side of the flower. Form
the tops of the back petals by drawing three [Illustration: Fig. 476.]
[Illustration: Fig. 477.] little tent-like points, one on each side and
one back of the central petal (Fig. 479, A, B, C). Add the stem by
drawing two straight lines down from the bottom of the oval (Fig. 480).
A short distance from the flower add two long, pointed leaves on the
stem, curving them somewhat after the manner of the side petals (Fig.
481).

[Illustration: Fig. 478.]

[Illustration: Fig. 479.]

[Illustration: Fig. 480.]

[Illustration: Fig. 481.]

There are other flowers whose outlines may be drawn in this simple
manner. Try the

                       =Common White Field Daisy=

with its golden centre. First draw a small circle to represent the
centre, and as the texture of its surface is slightly rough or velvety,
differing in this respect from the surface of the white petals, indicate
the difference by covering the centre with tiny dots. From the edge of
the centre sketch in the petals of the flower by drawing, for the sides
of each one, two long, curved lines which start from the round dotted
centre and end by meeting at the outermost tips. Make a number of petals
extending entirely around the circumference of the centre. Let them
radiate out in all directions as the spokes stand out from the hub of a
wheel, being careful to have the petals about the same length, that the
daisy may be circular in form and not uneven.

Always make the designs large in size, drawing the lines in with free,
easy sweeps of the wrist and arm. Never allow your work to become
cramped; move the pencil or chalk deliberately and think what you are
going to do before starting. Satisfy yourself as to where you are to
begin and where you are going to stop; then do your best.

The duck of fancy loops (Fig. 473) does not portray the characteristic
lines of the bird. Such was not the intention; it is merely given for
the fun of twisting the lines into the form of a duck, so that you may
be able to say, “I can draw a duck without taking the pencil from the
paper. Watch me!” Then you draw it for the benefit of your friends.

If you can get a blackboard or a piece of blackboard cloth and tack it
over layers of paper on the wall, you might give

                    =A Little Parlor Entertainment=

by drawing the simple designs you have learned, and perhaps others you
can work out for yourself as you stand before your friends. There is a
certain fascination in watching anyone sketch and seeing lines which
appear to be without meaning develop into familiar objects. Try the idea
with a few friends or the members of your family. As you sketch the
objects tell in an easy, natural manner anything and everything you know
about them. And before you are aware of the fact you will be giving
others a delightful half-hour, besides enjoying it yourself.



                              CHAPTER XIX
                     HOME-MADE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS


Girls, do you know that music lies hidden all around you, needing only
the right touch to bring it forth? That everything is said to have its
keynote, from a big bridge to a little wooden bench, and that when the
keynote is struck the object will vibrate perceptibly? A

                         =Blank Piece of Paper=

does not suggest music in any form, and yet [Illustration: Fig. 482.]
you can draw many and various notes from it. Cut a strip of
writing-paper like Fig. 482 and whittle two pieces of wood according to
[Illustration: Fig. 483.] [Illustration: Fig. 484.] Figs. 483 and 484;
make the wood a trifle wider than the paper. Place the paper between the
bits of wood (Fig. 485) and, holding the instrument tight between your
teeth, blow through it; keep on [Illustration: Fig. 485.] blowing until
it whistles like the wind.

Of course you should have a number of different instruments in the
orchestra you intend to organize, so that each girl may play on her own
special instrument. For the next one, try

                               =A Harp.=

Harps were valued highly in ancient Egypt, and later in other countries,
some of which still retain them. Modern [Illustration: Fig. 486.]
musicians, like Meyerbeer, Gounod, Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner,
understanding the worth of the harp, introduced it in their music. Our
instrument may not be as graceful in form, but you can have more real
fun with it than you could with any of the big, costly affairs. Get some
elastic bands and a deep, empty cigar-box; drive slender nails at
intervals along the front and back edges of the box; then take ordinary
elastic bands (Fig. 486), and stretch them across the box by slipping
each one over two back and two front nails. The elastics must be of
various widths; place the heaviest at one end of the box and graduate up
to the lightest at the other (Fig. 487). With a quill (Fig. 488) test
the instrument. You can tighten the elastics by looping them around and
around one or more of the four pins; in this way the strings may to a
great extent be keyed as you wish. Practise on the musical box with the
quill toothpick until you can make the elastics sing a tune, then put
the harp carefully aside where it will not be broken, and hunt up a
piece of wood for a modern

[Illustration: Fig. 287.]

[Illustration: Fig. 288.]

                              =Dulcimer.=

Have the wood about an inch thick: on the top of it, lengthwise through
the centre, draw a straight line as a guide. Along the line drive common
white pins graduated [Illustration: Fig. 489.] in size, placing the
largest at one end and the smallest at the other (Fig. 489). If you can
only get pins of one size, graduate their height by sinking some deeper
in the wood than others. To do so without danger of bending the pins,
first make shallow holes with a large strong pin by screwing it into the
wood; a hat-pin will answer the purpose. Should you happen to have heavy
nippers, the pins may be all of the same height, and you can pinch off
their tops, causing the row to slant down from one end to the other. All
being ready, touch the pins lightly with the quill toothpick, running
the scale first up, then down, the entire length of the pin row. After a
few trials you will be able to play some simple airs on the pin keys.

Doubtless most of you have seen bells of glass which may be rung like
those of metal, but probably you have have never tried bringing

[Illustration: Fig. 489.]

               =Music From Every-day Glass Finger-bowls=

and drinking-glasses. Try it. Collect as many different kinds of glasses
as you can find, the thinner the better. Place them on a wooden table
(Fig. 490) and with a wooden hammer made by pushing an empty spool on
one end of a lead-pencil (Fig. 491) gently strike first one glass then
another to find the different tones. Having ascertained these, make the
glasses give forth the simplest chimes of [Illustration: Fig. 491.] the
church bells. But do not stop here; experiment until you are able, with
various taps, to bring out more music than you at first imagined
possible. Let the glasses, like Tennyson’s happy bells, “ring out the
false, ring in the true.” The same poet in “Locksley Hall” has the
speaker ask his comrades to “sound upon the bugle-horn” when they want
him. Few girls will ever try their powers on a real

[Illustration: Fig. 492.]

[Illustration: Fig. 493.]

                             =Bugle-horn,=

but all can readily make a twig sound an alarm. Get a piece of ordinary
willow-tree (Fig. 492). Be sure it is flawless and perfect; with a sharp
knife slice off a slanting piece at one end (Fig. 493), then cut a notch
in top (Fig. 494). [Illustration: Fig. 494.] Gently tap the bark all
over with one end of a penknife in order to loosen it from the
[Illustration: Fig. 496.] wood. After carefully removing the bark
without breaking it, cut the wood according to the dotted lines in Fig.
495, which will give Fig. 496. The wood is now ready to slip back into
the bark, but before doing so place a pea in the hollow part (Fig. 495);
then slide the bark back in place (Fig. 497). Now blow the twig and
sound the alarm.

[Illustration: Fig. 496.]

[Illustration: Fig. 497.]

A roast of beef hardly seems promising in a musical way, and yet the
roast, though it looks so sober and quiet, can help you with the
orchestra. Save the smallest two of the long, flat

                                =Bones=

(Fig. 498) and, after cleaning and drying them, hold both in your right
hand, one bone between the first and second [Illustration: Fig. 498.]
finger, the other between the second and third, so that the convex or
outward curved sides lie next each other and the top ends of the bones
extend slightly beyond the knuckles. Then double up your hand, holding
the first bone securely, the other loosely, and in this position give
your hand a quick twist and jerking motion, causing the loose ends of
the bones to come together with a click, click, clickity, click. The
bones should not be cooked, as too much heat will crack them.

Another home-made instrument of music is the

                            =Crystal Flute,=

fashioned of small bottles. Any kind of bottle which sounds well when
you blow into it will answer the purpose. Use coarse darning-cotton to
sew the bottles in a row on a strip of pasteboard, commencing with the
deepest toned and leading up to the highest toned (Fig. 499). Place the
flute against your lower lip and blow into the open mouth of the bottle.
Continue blowing as you move the instrument along, sounding each bottle
in turn. After a few trials you can manage the crystal flute well enough
to have all the bottles join in the grand chorus of the musical jubilee
you intend to give with the home-made instruments.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: The Dance of the Dolls.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Fig. 499.]

A little ingenuity will enable you to made a fine fiddle, strings and
all, of a common field cornstalk, and a good flute may be manufactured
from a section of an ordinary pumpkin vine. Naturally you must think a
little over the matter before you will be able to solve the problem.

Take some hollow door-keys of different sizes and use them to play on;
they are well worth trying, because a hollow door-key, when blown into,
will give much the same sound as a bottle. You might add the keys to
your collection of instruments.

Even an

                            =Ordinary Comb=

can do duty as a musical instrument. Over one side of the comb lay a
piece of common white tissue-paper; then hold this queer instrument to
your lips, allowing the paper to come between the comb and your mouth;
blow against the paper with lips gently parted somewhat as one blows on
a horn or rather on a harmonica. Should the comb not respond at once,
try again; when the secret is once learned, there is no limit to the
tunes which may be played.

For giving a queer whistling noise there is scarcely anything better
than an ordinary broad

                            =Blade of Grass=

laid lengthwise between the entire length of the two thumbs, one end of
the grass extending beyond the tops of the thumbs and the other below at
the wrist line.

Certain tribes of people are experts in forming

                              =Sea-shells=

into musical instruments, but for you the shell need not be altered.
Take it as it is, and holding the pretty thing to your ear, listen while
the shell tells of the far-away blue [Illustration: Fig. 500.] sea,
which, singing gently, imparts to her children, the shells, power to
transmit the sound of murmuring waves to those who will listen to the
voice.

                         =The Musical Fountain=

is one of the prettiest and most interesting experiments and is a very
simple one. Remember, you must use a goblet for the purpose, not a
tumbler, as the latter will not work well. Choose a goblet of very thin
glass, fill it almost full of water, dip the end of your finger in water
and rub the edge of the glass quickly around and around until it rings
with a humming sound. You will soon find the surface of the water
shivering and wrinkling up its face in tiny waves, then it will become
greatly agitated, sending up wee streams and drops of water. Wet your
finger again and keep on with the circular motion until a little
fountain of fine spray shoots up into the air, accompanied by the
musical sound from the glass (Fig. 500).



                               CHAPTER XX
                         WHAT TO MAKE OF EMPTY
                                 SPOOLS


Gather up all the spools you can find, big, little, thick and thin; no
matter how many, you can use them all. There is no end of fun to be had
with these always-on-hand, easily found toys; they may be made into
almost everything. Tell your mother that you can build

                            =The Parthenon=

if she will give you enough spools, and see her smile at the very idea.
But say you are in earnest and ask her not to look until you call
“Ready.” Then go to work and surprise her with a miniature
representation of one of the most beautiful temples ever built. Begin by
standing four spools in a row for the first side of the building,
allowing about the width of a spool between each two. Place eight in a
row for the second, four for the third, and eight for the fourth side.
Have the spools all of the same size, that the walls may be alike and
perfectly even, because, as you know, the walls are to be formed of
columns, not as many as in the original, but enough to give an idea of
the Greek temple. Build up the spools three deep into pillars; then lay
a piece of pasteboard on the top of the columns for a ceiling. Bend
another piece of pasteboard lengthwise through the centre for the roof,
and stand it tent-like on top of the ceiling. [Illustration: Fig. 501.]
You can measure the correct size of the ceiling by laying a piece of
pasteboard down flat on the floor along the eight-columned side of the
Parthenon to obtain the length, and placing it flat on the floor across
the four-columned side to mark the width. Make the roof the same length
and a little wider than the ceiling to allow for the height of the bend
through the centre.

Now let your mother see

                       =The Little Greek Temple=

(Fig. 501) and tell her that she must imagine a space immediately
beneath the roof filled in with the most beautiful statuary she can
think of, that the spools are white marble columns and she should see,
in fancy, another row of stately columns inside the ones you have built.
Your mother will be greatly interested and can tell you all about the
real Parthenon, and probably will hunt up a picture of the temple that
you may see just how near you came to making the little model look like
the wonderful Parthenon, on the Acropolis, in Athens.

After admiring the building for a while, pretend that a left-over spool

                         =Is a Venetian Shell=

shot from a cannon, and toss it gently against the roof at one end of
the temple; then see the columns totter and fall, [Illustration: Fig.
502.] leaving only a portion of the Parthenon standing, in the same way
that the real marble columns fell when the original structure was
shattered and practically destroyed by the soldiers.

Take all the spools from the ruins, put away the ceiling and roof for
future use, and make the spools into

                         =A Set of Furniture.=

Use four for the legs of a bedstead, place them in position and lay a
piece of stiff white paper, bent up at one end, on [Illustration: Fig.
503.] top of the spools. The bed will then be ready for the doll (Fig.
502).

A table can be made in a moment’s time. Choose a large spool (Fig. 503)
and place a round [Illustration: Fig. 504.] piece of paper (Fig. 504) on
the top (Fig. 505). For chairs use [Illustration: Fig. 505.] spools with
bent pieces of paper for seat and back. Make the bureau of six spools
close together in two rows of three spools each and cut the top of a
piece of paper with a high extension in the centre which you must bend
upright for a mirror. The wash-stand can be four spools quite close
together covered with a piece of paper. A piano is easily made, but you
must think it out for yourself. Use a small spool for the piano stool.

                               =The Lamp=

(Fig. 506) is a spool with a little roil of white paper shoved into the
hole and a circular piece of paper crimped [Illustration: Fig. 506.]
around the edge for a shade. Unless you need the spools to use again in
other ways you might paste the paper on tight and make a lamp which will
not come apart, and you could also glue the top on the table and the
seats on the chairs. This is not necessary, however, for if you are
careful and do not knock against the furniture, it will remain secure.

When enough furniture has been manufactured [Illustration: Fig. 507.]
for the patient little dolls who have been waiting all this time, give
them a present of

                               =A Wagon=

in which they can enjoy the fresh air. Cut Fig. 507 from heavy paper or
card-board that will fold without breaking. Bend all the dotted lines
and cut all the heavy lines in the pattern. Push a burnt match, or a
wooden toothpick, through one hub, then through an empty spool and the
second hub. The spool forms the wheels. Screw a small pin cautiously
through each of the two projecting ends [Illustration: Fig. 508.] of the
match, piercing the wood and leaving the head and point of the pin
standing out (Fig. 508). Tie a knot in the end of a string to prevent
its sliding out and thread it through the hole in the dash-board (Fig.
508). Help the dolls into the vehicle and take them for a ride.

Next build

                           =A Memorial Arch=

(Fig. 509) something like the one which was erected in New York City.
Commence with two groups of spools a short [Illustration: Fig. 509.]
distance apart; have three in each group, two in the back and one in the
front. Build up columns four spools high; then lay a strip of pasteboard
across from one to the other. On top of the pasteboard place two more
groups of smaller spools a little nearer together than the first groups.
Make these columns two spools high and crown each with a single spool
decorated with a bright-colored paper flag fastened on a slender stick
pushed down in the spool. At the base of the arch add three more spools
on each side (O and O, Fig. 509), and the famous structure will be
completed. This is not exactly like the original, but for a spool arch
it is fine, and a spool procession will feel honored to march through
it.

You might make bridge piers of spools and use a strip of pasteboard to
form the several spans; then the procession [Illustration: Fig. 510.]
could cross the river safely and march on the other side.

Did you ever

                      =Blow Bubbles with a Spool=

—beautiful bubbles, which float and glide in the air with all the charm
of clay-pipe bubbles? Mix strong soapsuds, dip one end of a large spool
in the water; wet the spool, then blow. If the bubble refuses to appear,
dip the spool in the water again, put your head down to the spool and
blow a few bubbles while the spool is in the water, then quickly raise
it and try again. Nine times out of ten you will succeed, and a bubble
will swell out from the spool as in Fig. 510. These wooden
bubble-blowers last a long time, with no danger of breaking when
accidentally dropped on the floor, and you may always find enough to
provide each of your playmates with one when you meet for a trial of
skill in bubble-blowing.

After you tire of this sport try the

                       =Pretty Winged Creatures.=

Cut a butterfly (Fig. 511) from bright-colored tissue-paper or thin
writing-paper, bend at dotted line and paste [Illustration: Fig. 511.]
on the large end of a very small cork. Fit the small end of the cork in
top of the hole [Illustration: Fig. 512.] of an empty spool (Fig. 512).
Then blow through the spool and see the butterfly ascend rapidly to the
ceiling and float down again. If you could make several different
colored butterflies, you might invite some young friends to help you
fill the room with the pretty winged creatures.

[Illustration: Fig. 513.]

Take another empty spool and stick a common wire hairpin partially into
the hole, bend the hairpin slightly down against the edge of the hole,
do the same with three more hair-pins, and you will have a spool with a
funnel-like opening of hair-pins at the top (Fig. 513). In the funnel
place a small, light-weight ball made of a crushed bit of bright paper
wound around with thread. Raise the spool to your lips and blow gently
(Fig. 514). The ball will rise and fall in mid-air, in the same way that
you have seen one of rubber dance at the top of a small fountain or jet
of water.

[Illustration: Fig. 514.]

Spools may do duty as

                               =Cannon,=

and from them sticks be made to fly quite a distance. Select a
large-sized spool, cut the rim off one end, cut two dents, one on each
side of the shaved end of the spool, and then tie over this end a piece
of black cotton elastic. On each side tack a large button-mould; these
serve for wheels and also cover the fastening of the elastic. Paint the
cannon black, and it is ready for use. Insert a stick, pull it back with
the elastic, and fire; the stick will shoot swiftly through the air.

There are many other toys, besides useful articles, which can be made of
empty spools. Find out by experimenting what they are, so you may have
the triumph of originality, of making things which differ from articles
made by others.

The empty spools do not cost money, nor does the pasteboard from old
pasteboard boxes, yet they may furnish more genuine enjoyment than could
be derived from the most expensive toys.



                              CHAPTER XXI
                         CHRISTMAS DECORATIONS


When the air is cold and frosty, and people move quickly through the
streets, stopping to loiter only in front of the shop windows; when
groups of merry girls hurry along on their way to school, their cheeks,
glowing rosy under the brisk greetings of a northwest wind; when the
evergreens displayed for sale upon the sidewalks send forth a spicy odor
which ascends like incense and the very atmosphere seems pulsating with
pleasurable excitement, there is no need of a calendar to tell us that
the holidays are close at hand. As surely as a cloudless sky betokens a
fine day, so surely do these signs indicate that Christmas will soon be
with us.

Purse-strings, even if kept tightly drawn the rest of the year, are
loosened now, and money is spent freely and ungrudgingly, not only for
gifts, but also for Christmas greens with which to decorate and beautify
the home.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Some of the Portieres are Woven in this Style.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: Fig. 515.]

Stars, wreaths, and ropes of evergreen and holly will soon adorn the
interior of almost every house. There are always plenty of willing hands
ready and eager to help, but there should be a head to devise a plan of
decoration and to direct and superintend the carrying out of the idea;
for there is no necessity for festooning a room and hanging up stars and
wreaths in the same way year after year. A great variety of new designs
may be made.

For instance, Fig. 515 shows a beautiful and

                          =Effective Portière=

composed simply of ropes of evergreen fastened to the curtain pole by
looping one end of a rope over the pole, bringing it down and tying it
securely to the same rope just under the pole. Each piece is fastened on
separately and hangs loosely down.

[Illustration: Fig. 520.]

[Illustration: Fig. 522.]

Fig. 520 is a

                      =Star and Shepherd´s Crook=

grouped to form a pretty wall decoration, the design symbolizing the
star of Bethlehem and the shepherds who, watching their flocks by night,
heard the angel chorus “Peace on earth, good-will toward men.”

Make the star of five flat sticks (laths will do), two and a half feet
long, and put them together as shown in Fig. 521; then cover the frame
with holly so that [Illustration: Fig. 521.] none of the wood is
visible. Make the crook of a broomstick, to which fasten with strong
twine, or flexible wire, a piece of rather stiff wire bent in the shape
of Fig. 522. Wrap evergreen closely around the wire and stick until
every bit is covered and it looks like one piece. Then place the crook
behind the star and wire or tie it in place.

                               Fig. 518.

[Illustration: Fig 516.]

Fig. 516 is

                            =A Silver Star=

on a background of evergreen, the rays being made of strips of tinsel
which is sold for decorating Christmas-trees. The frame for the
background is made like Fig. 517, and should be about two feet square.
Over this frame stretch ropes of evergreen, close together, and fasten
with tacks at each end. Cut the [Illustration: Fig. 517.] star from
card-board, cover it with crumpled tin-foil and fasten to the centre of
the frame with a small nail. Sew tinsel threads on the points of the
star before it is secured to the background; then when the star is in
place spread out the tinsel in straight rays and fasten it to the frame
as shown in illustration (Fig. 516).

Fig. 518 is a design for

                               =A Sconce=

upon which one or more candles may be placed. The tin which forms the
back of the sconce reflects the light and produces quite a brilliant
effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 519.]

Nail a block of wood one and one-half inches square to a piece of tin
seven inches wide and fourteen inches long (Fig. 519). Silver or gild a
number of pine cones and hang them from the lower edge of the block;
then tack evergreen around the three sides as shown in illustration
(Fig. 518). Fasten the sconce to the wall with small nails driven
through each corner of the tin and place on the bracket a candlestick
containing a lighted candle.

[Illustration: Home-made Christmas Tree Decorations.]

[Illustration: Fig.523.]

One of the most quickly made

                    =Festoons for a Christmas Tree,=

and one which has never been thought of until now, is of tin-foil, the
common kind of foil to be found at the florist’s. It also comes around
cakes of chocolate, rolls of cream-cheese, and large packages of tea.
You can make the trimming any length desired by pasting strips o f the
tin-foil together, but, before joining the pieces, fold one at a time
and cut slashes on each side nearly across to the opposite edge as in
Fig. 523. Unfolded, the strip resembles Fig. 524; pulled at each end it
opens and lengthens out into Fig. 525.

This decoration catches the light and glistens beautifully, but it must
be handled [Illustration: Fig. 525.] carefully and not laid down after
it is stretched open. As soon as ready hang the strips upon the tree,
where they will be [Illustration: Fig. 524.] safe. The best plan is to
make these loopings after the other decorations are finished and on the
tree. When the pieces are cut they are more easily handled if but a few
are put together at a time before they are pulled open; then the
decoration will appear in perfect shape and look like polished shining
silver hanging in delicate, graceful festoons.

[Illustration: Fig. 526.]

Another effective trimming made of tin-foil is in the form of

                           =Fringe Ruching.=

Fig. 526 shows fringe partially cut; use three layers of the foil and
cut them into fringe; then take a strong, coarse string and twist the
tin-foil fringe around and around it, forming a rope of silvery fringe
(Fig. 527).

An ornament that delights children, the idea of which comes from
Germany, is a jolly little black

[Illustration: Fig. 527.]

                            =Chimney Sweep,=

with his funny broom held high in air. He wears a peaked white hat and
carries a bag filled with goodies. He is made entirely of prunes (Fig.
528)—one for the head, two for the body, one for each arm, one for each
hand, two for each leg and one for each foot. The prunes are
[Illustration: Fig. 528.] strung together with a coarse needle and
thread. If he is too limber, give him a backbone by running a slender
stick through the back of the head and body. Make him a paper hat shaped
like a wide-mouthed horn, and cut out a paper face and paste it on the
little man’s head; then tie the sheer white bag across his shoulders,
fasten it at the side with a pin and fill the bag with sweets; the broom
can be fashioned of a wooden toothpick with a bunch of broom-straws
bound upon one end. The happy child who receives the chimney sweep from
the tree may devour the prunes when tired of the toy.

Home-made

                             =Fancy Cakes=

cut in odd shapes make fine decorations and will be eaten with delight
by the young people. Select a simple recipe, roll the dough out flat and
cut into the shapes of men, women, animals, and birds. When baked,
ornament the cakes with icing put on in thin, slender lines; in most
instances outline the figures in white sugar.

Yellow is a color which stands out well in the midst of the dark green
foliage of the fir, and

                               =Oranges=

may be used to supply it. A few can be hung to the tree by means of
ribbons; others may be made into pretty little [Illustration: Fig. 529.]
baskets and filled with the candied sections of orange. Tie a piece of
tape or any kind of band around an orange as a guide for cutting the
rind evenly; stick two pins on each side to designate the location and
width of the handles; then, with the small blade of a knife carefully
cut [Illustration: Fig. 530.] the handle, keeping it the same width all
the way from side to side. Next cut the rind along the edge of the tape
(Fig. 529). Remove the skin, in bits if necessary, to avoid tearing the
handle or edge of the basket. Work the inside juicy fruit free from the
remaining rind and take it out of the basket (Fig. 530). If there is
difficulty in doing this, cut the fruit out in pieces. Pass a narrow
ribbon under the basket and up over the handle, tie the ends; then bind
them around under and over [Illustration: Fig. 531.] the middle of the
handle, finishing with a bow-knot on top. The ribbon strengthens the
handle, without it the weight of the basket when hung on the tree would
cause it to break from the handle and fall.

Fill the orange basket, with sections of the fruit, which have received
a brittle coating by being dipped in clear, hot, home-made sugar candy
(Fig. 531).

Make a number of pretty,

                             =Fancy Boxes=

of pasteboard cut in different shapes and covered with various colored
paper. One in imitation of a large stick of peppermint candy may be made
of a strip of stiff white paper ten or twelve inches long and three and
one-half inches wide; unruled writing-paper will do. Paste the two
lengthwise edges together, forming a cylinder. Around this paste a long,
narrow strip of bright-red paper, wrapping it spirally around the white
tube. Slash two circular pieces of paper around the edges so that the
disks may fit into the ends of the roll when the slashed portions are
bent forward. Fix one of the round pieces in the bottom of the box with
mucilage. When dry fill the box with small bits of candy or kernels of
nuts; then glue a loop of narrow ribbon or one of red worsted at the
top, fasten in the round cover, and hang the box on the tree.

Be sure to save some of the prettiest paper for

                             =Cornucopias=

Cut them according to the dark portion of Fig. 532, and make the
white-paper lining extend higher than the outside. [Illustration: Fig.
532.] [Illustration: Fig. 533.] Glue the two papers together, inserting
a narrow ribbon for a handle between outside and inside papers. Let the
colored paper project a quarter of an inch beyond one side of the lining
in order that the edge A may fit neatly over the lining B (Fig. 532),
avoiding unnecessary bulkiness where the two sides join. Ornament the
cornucopias in different ways, according to fancy and the material you
happen to have for the purpose. Fig. 533 shows a gold-paper cornucopia
decorated with white beading on a scarlet ground and a fancy picture in
a red and white embossed frame. You can also make little bright-colored
cheese-cloth

                         =Christmas Stockings=

by cutting them out and sewing the edges together with far apart
button-hole stitches of gay worsted. When finished fill them with
sugar-plums or small cakes.

                            =Bobbinet Bags=

made small and button-holed in the same way, with drawstrings of
worsted, look well on the tree when filled with nuts or pop-corn, and
little bird’s-nests of egg-shells covered with moss and filled with eggs
of sugar are charming.

                        =Holly-leaved Festoons=

of gold paper with scarlet-paper berries will make the tree very gay.
Cut the gilt paper into a number of squares [Illustration: Fig. 534.]
(Fig. 534), fold each piece through the centre (Fig. 535), and fold
again, forming a small square (Fig. 536). Crease this diagonally through
the centre and [Illustration: Fig. 535.] cut according to the dotted
lines of Fig. 537, clipping off the point C to make a hole in the centre
of the design. Open out the paper, and it will be a conventionalized
group of Christmas holly leaves (Fig. 538). Fold smaller squares of red
paper in the same manner and cut the design shown by [Illustration: 75]
[Illustration: 150] the dotted lines of Fig. 539, unfold and the paper
will be a formal pattern of red berries (Fig. 540). Now lay the berries
(Fig. 540) out flat on the leaves (Fig. 538), adjust the two together;
then lift the berries, put a little glue on the edge of the hole and
fasten the berries on the leaves, pasting them together at the centres
only. Fasten another layer of leaves on the other side of the berries,
also at the centre, putting the berries between the leaves. To the tips
of the large leaves on the last group (D, E, F, and G—Fig. 538) fasten
the tips of corresponding [Illustration: Fig. 539.] leaves on another
bunch; at the centre of these glue more berries, then leaves, with their
four tips pasted to four [Illustration: Fig. 541.] other leaf tips, and
so on, following, in order, leaves, berries, leaves with points pasted
to points of other leaves, then berries again (Fig. 541), making the
rope of golden holly as long as needed. Tie a strong string to a small
circle of gilded card-board and run it through the holes in the festoon.
You can close the holly and berry garland up flat against the card-board
ring by shoving the leaves and berries together down the string, as an
accordion shuts flat when one side is pushed toward the other. In this
way the trimming may be kept in good order and packed safely to serve
again next year.

                            =Pop-corn Balls=

look tempting on a Christmas tree. They are easy to make, and taste very
good indeed. Have the fire clear and hot, with no flames, and put in the
popper at one time only enough corn to cover the bottom a single kernel
deep; shake the popper constantly while the corn is over the fire until
it has all popped. Then boil one-quarter of [Illustration: Fig. 542.] a
cupful of molasses with a little sugar until it hardens in water, remove
from the fire before it turns brittle and pour it over two quarts of
corn. Mix well with your hands, make into balls about the size of
lemons, suspend the sweet, white ornaments from the twigs, and use the
remaining corn for a different decoration. String a lot of the
flower-like kernels with a large needle and strong thread, loop the
strands from branch to branch, and the snowy ropes will lighten up the
foliage beautifully (Fig. 542).

                      =Strings of Red Cranberries=

with knots of narrow red satin ribbon tied here and there on the
strands, make a fine [Illustration: Fig. 543.] decoration.

                               =Peanuts=

wrapped in yellow, red, white, light blue, and pale-green fringed
tissue-paper (Fig. 543) and tied on pendent lengths of string, three or
four to each (Fig. 544), and attached at varying lengths to the limbs of
the tree are a [Illustration: Fig. 544.] splendid decoration, for these
peanut kisses give quite a gala appearance to the tree.

Do not forget to have some form of

                         =Jewelry for the Tree=

bracelets or necklaces—not of gleaming precious stones nor yet of gold
or silver, but of toothsome nut kernels and delicious, dark rich
raisins. With needle and strong thread string first a peanut, then a
raisin, a peanut, a raisin, an almond, a raisin, a filbert,
[Illustration: Fig. 545.] a raisin, and so on, using as many kinds of
nuts as you deem best (Fig. 545). The girl or boy receiving this
necklace will be charmed and later may devour the queer beads one by one
as they are pulled from the string.

A simple decoration is made of

                         =Colored Paper Chains=

the first link being formed of a narrow strip of paper pasted together
into a ring; the next link is a piece of paper passed through the first
ring before the two ends are joined. Each succeeding link of the chain
is made in a similar manner. Rosy apples are acceptable as ornaments and
are always to be found on the tree in Germany, the land that first
introduced the Christmas tree to other countries.

There is one style of ornamental gift which in Germany must hang on the
tree until New Year’s Day—the

                        =Gilded English Walnut=

(Fig. 546). The preparation of these can be made a delightful frolic if
there are several young persons in the secret. [Illustration: 125]
[Illustration: Fig. 547.] Crack open the nuts so there will be two
perfect half shells to each (Fig. 547). Inside the empty nut place a
motto or device which will tell the fortune, or part of it, of the
recipient of the gift. Ideas will come to you as the work goes on. For a
hint to help a little at the [Illustration: Fig. 549.] start, cut two
hearts of red paper and fasten them together with a dart made of a pin
and piece of white paper (Fig. 548). This denotes that the girl or boy
who gets it will be the first to marry. Fig. 549, the water-color brush,
means that the happy lad or lassie to whose lot it falls will be an
artist. Fig. 550 signifies ability to appreciate music. Fig. 551 ensures
[Illustration: Fig. 550.] plenty of worldly goods. One suggestion gives
rise to another, and you will think of more than enough for all the
empty nutshells. After the “fortune” is placed within the nut, glue the
halves firmly together. When dry, work a tack in the end where the stem
grew, twisting it slowly that the shell may not split or break. When the
tack seems firmly in place, gild the entire nut, including the tack; tie
a strong string on this and hang the “fortune” on the tree. As
[Illustration: Fig. 551.] all the nuts look exactly alike, no one can
tell which is which—not even those who made them will know who receives
the different “fortunes” until the nuts are opened and the secrets
revealed.

Most of the ideas given are for a daytime Christmas tree where lights
are not used. If candles are employed, no paper festoons can be placed
on the tree. Lights are always dangerous, and the tree may be quite
brilliant without them.

Toys and useful little articles, such as you can make as presents for
all the members of the family, big and little, and for friends, will
surely add to the interest and appearance of the tree.



                              CHAPTER XXII
                           CHRISTMAS DEVICES


“Christmas gift! Christmas gift! Ah, I've caught you! Hand over my
present!” With a gay laugh the children exchange this salutation,
without a thought of the request ever being granted, but simply for the
fun of being the first to call out the Christmas greeting. Sometimes the
forfeit is paid, usually with a handful of nuts or candy, a pretty
trifle or anything the captive happens to have convenient at the moment.
The giver enjoys the fun fully as much as the recipient, and with a hop,
skip, and jump departs in hopes of likewise finding a fellow-playmate or
some member of the family off guard, that she may, in turn, be the first
to wish a “Merry Christmas” and claim a gift.

                       =An All-day Christmas Pie=

is a charming device for delivering gifts intended for one person, and
the fun and expectancy last the entire day.

Cover the outside of a new tin pan with plaited white tissue-paper, and
paste the paper along the top and over the bottom edges. Decide on the
number of gifts you intend the pie to contain, and cut a corresponding
number of slits in the circular piece of white tissue-paper which is to
form the top crust (Fig. 552). Wrap each present in a bright-colored
piece of tissue-paper, and tie with a narrow ribbon [Illustration: Fig.
552.] of like hue (Fig. 553); be sure to fasten the knot on top of the
package securely, so there will be no possibility of its slipping from
the parcel when it is jerked out of its bed of bran. Fill the pan with
bran or sawdust, arrange the gifts on top in the order you wish, then
put more bran over the parcels, heaping it in the centre; thread each
ribbon through its respective slit in the cover and bring the cover
[Illustration: Fig. 553.] cautiously down over the pudding without
tearing. Gather the edge a little at a time with your fingers, and paste
it down over the sides (Fig. 554).

Paste a double-edged fringe of white tissue-paper around the top edge of
the pie. To do this, fold several [Illustration: Fig. 554.] slips of
paper, as in Fig. 555; fold again through the centre and cut in a fringe
(Fig. 556). Open the fringe, gather it in the centre with thread and
needle, and at short distances sew on tiny bells; then fasten the fringe
in place (Fig. 557). Puncture a hole with a large needle in the centre
of the top of the pie, and insert a twig of holly.

Cut as many small squares of writing-paper as you have ribbons, label
each with the hour when the present [Illustration: Fig. 555.]
[Illustration: Fig. 556.] is to be drawn, slip them on the ribbons near
the ends, and below each tie a little silver bell, as shown in
illustration (Fig. 557).

If there are to be only three packages, let one be drawn in the morning,
another at noon, and the last in the evening. If more, distribute the
gifts as evenly as possible through the day.

[Illustration: Fig. 557.]

                         =The Magic Fireplace=

is another means of delivering the Christmas gifts, and the delight of
the children when they see their presents come tumbling down the chimney
in a way they have only dreamed of, will repay the thought expended in
preparing the surprise.

[Illustration]

The Magic Christmas Fireplace.

Two wooden packing boxes, one about four feet square and a foot and a
half deep, the other somewhat smaller but of nearly the same depth, form
the framework of the fireplace. Stand the large box on its side—the
longest side if the box is not exactly square—and the smaller box within
it as shown by Fig. 558. Remove the top pieces of both boxes (A B, Fig.
558), and over the top of the small box tack a piece of doubled
light-weight wrapping paper. At each end of this false cover fasten
securely a piece of strong twine, then puncture two small holes near the
centre of the paper and pass the ends of the twine through them, drawing
it down as shown by letters C D, Fig. 559. Saw the board, which was
taken from the top of the small box, into two pieces, and place them in
a slanting position reaching from the top edge of the small box to the
upper corners of the large one (letters E F, Fig. 560). The
[Illustration: Fig. 558.] boards are kept from slipping by small nails
driven half way into the edge of the small box. Cover the spaces at the
sides and top, between the two boxes, with heavy brown wrapping paper,
tacking it smoothly down along the edges. This paper should be marked to
represent bricks. Pile a few sticks of charred wood on the inside hearth
[Illustration: Fig. 559.] and, to make it appear that they are still
smouldering, tack red tinsel paper upon them here and there.

Into the receptacle at the top of the mantel (letter G, Fig. 560) place
all the presents, resting them upon the paper top of the small box.
Things [Illustration: Fig. 560.] that are easily broken should be
covered with soft wrappings, for in the grand climax, when the toys roll
pell-mell down into the fireplace, the fragile articles might come to
grief.

When the last package has been stowed away, replace the top of the large
box. Decorate the completed fireplace with evergreen, and bring the two
strings, C and D, which hang down upon the hearth, outside, looping them
back over tacks at either side of the fireplace, as shown in Fig. 560.

At the appointed time the group of eager children will stand and gaze
with awe at the wonderful and mysterious fireplace, which, like a fairy
house, has shot up in a night.

Two persons, one on either side, must grasp the strings tightly, and
simultaneously give a pull. With a ripping, tearing sound the paper
gives way and whiz! bump! bang! the toys come tumbling down, rolling and
bounding out on the floor.

Because it is Christmas we find ourselves longing to render little
services, to make others happy and cause their eyes to brighten and
sparkle with pleasure, for this is the season of giving as well as
receiving, and the privilege belongs to all.

If there is a little convalescent in your family or among your
acquaintances, one who will not be allowed to share the Christmas
dinner, prepare for her a

                            =Christmas Tray=

You can make it very attractive.

Have a Christmas tree for a centre-piece (Fig. 561), a very modest yet
charming little affair—only a wee tree fashioned from a branch of
boxwood, beautified with homemade toys and decorations cut from gilt and
bright-colored papers. Use a large-sized button-mould for the tree
stand; push the end of the stem into the hole in the centre of the
mould, and the tree will stand alone. Should you have no boxwood, take
any green twig and turn it into a miniature Christmas tree by trimming
off the ends of the branches until the little tree somewhat resembles a
cone in shape. It will require only a few moments to [Illustration: Fig.
561.] make the tree, and the sick child will exclaim with pleasure at
the sight of it.

A house with

                             =Santa Claus=

climbing down the chimney (Fig. 562) is, in reality, a piece of prosaic
bread and butter transformed. After spreading the bread with butter, cut
out the door with a sharp, small-bladed knife; then the two windows, and
the chimney. Procure a jolly little paper Santa Claus and fasten him in
place by making an incision in the top of the chimney and inserting one
leg of the figure; serve this on as pretty a plate as you can find,
preferably a decorated one.

A Christmas pie is another form of bread and butter. Cut the shape out
with a large-sized tin biscuit-cutter, and after buttering the bread
mark it into wedge-shaped pieces. Cut a slice or two (Fig. 563), leaving
the rest to be cut by the child. If permissible, a little white sugar
sprinkled over the top of the pie will enhance its appearance. Layer
[Illustration: Fig. 562.] jelly cake is made of two round pieces of
bread and butter, spread lightly, with a [Illustration: Fig. 563.] layer
of chicken jelly placed between and over the top of the cake. Odd
designs are always attractive to children and may be introduced in

                            =Serving Toast=

Make the toast very carefully, allowing the bread to turn only a light
brown on both sides, and keep it hot between two hot plates. Toast
should be eaten immediately after it comes from the fire; it loses its
delicacy [Illustration: Fig. 564.] [Illustration: 150] by being scorched
or served warm or stale instead of fresh and hot. After the rest of the
meal is ready on the tray and the two plates are heated, set several tin
cake-cutters in the oven to heat; then make the toast with a fork, not a
toaster, one piece at a time, and as each is done, cut it while hot into
queer forms with the warm cake-cutters. Arrange the pieces on one of the
hot plates and cover them with the other. The child will be entertained
by the fanciful shapes (Figs. 564, 565, 566), and eat them with a
relish.

In place of the family roast, a lamb chop will probably have to do duty
as the

                         =Pièce De Résistance=

Select the best cut and broil the chop skilfully over a clear fire. Let
it be well done but not burned; sprinkle with a [Illustration: Fig.
567.] little salt and pepper. Have ready some fringed tissue-paper and
wind it around the end of the chop; decorate with a pretty sprig of
Christmas green tied with a narrow ribbon (Fig. 567). Eggs of
blanc-mange (Fig. 568) [Illustration: Fig. 568.] are made by using empty
eggshells as moulds. The shells must be wet on the inside when the
blanc-mange is poured into them to harden. If it is best for the patient
to have only a little blanc-mange, mould in small shells and serve one
or two.

[Illustration]

                                =Jelly=

is acceptable and can be given in most cases of illness. Instead of
using a regular mould pour the liquid jelly into a wineglass, and if the
white of an egg has previously been beaten up with the jelly, it will
rise in a white foam at the top of the glass; after the jelly has
hardened the resemblance will be so close it will be difficult to
believe the glass does not contain wine (Fig. 569). The child will enjoy
this little make-believe. If fresh

                                =Apples=

[Illustration: Fig. 570.]

are allowed, cut them as Southern people cut their watermelons (Fig.
570). Slide the knife-blade in the side of the [Illustration: Fig. 571.]
apple, and cut downward, making a slanting outward incision about an
inch and a half long; draw out the knife, insert it again at the top of
the first cut and make another slit in the opposite direction, the two
slits forming the letter A without its cross piece. Again take out the
knife and, commencing at the bottom of the second cut, bring the knife
upward and outward, as in the right side of the letter V; continue
cutting these points until the last one meets the first, being careful
to push the knife to the centre of the fruit at each cut. When finished
pull the two halves of the apple apart.

Plum pudding the child cannot have, but a fine baked apple will answer
the purpose and may be made almost as attractive. Select a baking apple
free from all flaws, wash it well and “bake to a turn”; serve steaming
hot, with a sprig of holly in the top (Fig. 571).



                             CHAPTER XXIII
                          PICTURE WRITING AND
                             SIGN LANGUAGE


The next best thing to seeing one’s friends is hearing from them, and
the more interesting the letter the greater the enjoyment, particularly
when the communication is intended to be passed around the entire home
circle. There is a delightful way in which to express yourself
differently from ordinary writing, a method used by the early Egyptians,
called picture writing. The Egyptian pictures were not at all like those
made by modern artists; their representations were crude and unfinished,
yet they answered very well for the people and the times. You have
advantages over those ancient people inasmuch as you need not even
attempt to draw the designs. All that is necessary for you to do is
merely to look over the newspaper and magazine advertisements, select
the prints needed, and after cutting out and pasting them on a sheet of
paper, with a few connecting words between, you will have produced an
odd, interesting letter, and the work will be pure fun.

[Illustration: Fig. 572.]

Fig. 572 gives an idea of such a letter, supposed to have been written
on Thanksgiving. Try to read it. For fear you might not quite catch the
meaning, here it is interpreted for you:

  "Dear Grandmother, Aunts, Uncles, and Cousins: I send you greetings. I
  know there will be a cooking of tarts, turkey, puddings, and lots of
  good things. I like sweetmeats and fruit best. Please use the camera
  and send me a picture of the family while at dinner, and of my cousins
  standing in a row. Wishing you a jolly time,

                                               “As ever, your
                                                      ”HOPEFUL ONE."

This is intended only as a suggestion; if you can write your letter
entirely with pictures, without the aid of words, it will be much
better.

There is another method you might employ; take the well-known

                               =Symbols=

and compose your missive of these. Such as the dove, meaning peace,
gentleness; anchor, hope; ark, refuge; key, explanation; chain, bondage;
star, promise; lamb, innocence; scales, justice; horn of plenty,
prosperity; heart, love; shepherd’s crook, protection, and hour-glass,
time. The list is much longer, but enough has been given to explain the
scheme; other designs may be added as needed, but use only those whose
significance is well established and commonly understood.

                            =Flower Writing=

makes a charming letter, the blossoms being placed in rows according to
their meaning as given in the language of flowers. Compose a sentence of
white clover, oats, and balm, and it will read:

“I promise (white clover) music (oats) and social intercourse (balm).”

This might form part of an invitation to your house-party.

[Illustration: Come]

[Illustration: to dinner]

[Illustration: go out in a boat]

[Illustration: and return.]

[Illustration: to my house]

[Illustration: we will make footsteps]

[Illustration: and fish]

                               Fig. 573.

[Illustration: to-day]

[Illustration: for the water]

[Illustration: then have a swim]

For a regular

                            =Indian Powwow=

letter you must do as the red man does and write in Indian signs, which
are usually rudely drawn figures meaning much to our copper-colored
brother, but often requiring ingenuity on the part of the white man to
translate. Some of the best examples are to be seen on sandstone in
Dakota County,

[Illustration: Fig. 574.] Neb., where there are hundreds of sketches.
One of the most distinguished of Indian artists or historians is said to
have been Lone Dog, of Yankton, Dak., who made most of his pictures on
skins. Neither stones nor skins will answer your purpose; ordinary paper
is more convenient and will be as fully appreciated if you use thought
and care in drawing and composing your message. Make simple, rude
pictures of different objects, borrowing the Indian’s idea but adapting
it to your needs. Fig. 573 gives an example of a girl’s powwow letter.
You may invent as many designs as you choose, that will be part of the
fun of Indian writing. Fig. 574 shows some of the signs needed.

                          =A Letter of Colors=

is something entirely new; it should be composed of thoughts embodied in
colors, without alphabet, words, or pictures—nothing but brush strokes
of delicate pinks, tender greens, soft grays, deep orange, rich purples,
and all the many and varied tones, tints, shades, and hues known to man.
The following example, being fully interpreted, will initiate you in
color meanings and composition:

   Light Scarlet.
  My Dear Friend:

   Light tone of        Drab.            Blue.          Red brown.
      yellow.      you have thought    the truth      My interest in
     I am glad           out

    Scarlet red.    Myrtle green.       Orange.      Different tones
   and friendship       Nature         is gaining       of yellow.
        for                            strength.      I travel miles

  Variety of color flecks in rows.
  for the flowers.

                                      Yellow pink.
                                          Your
                                      enthusiastic

                                            Scarlet.
                                             Friend.

The name signed at the close of the letter need be the only writing. A
list is given of the meaning of some of the colors, but you will
probably need more; work out the extra combinations for yourself. The
system being once understood it will not be a difficult task.

Rich red—Love or loved one.

Red brown—Interest in or for.

Orange—Strength, force.

Indigo—Wisdom.

Blue—Truth.

Green—Life, freshness, youth.

Yellow pink—Enthusiasm.

Blue pink—Politeness.

Gray—Doubts, fears.

White—Intelligence, light, innocence.

Black—Ignorance, darkness, night.

Bright yellow—Joy, gladness, sunlight, day.

Drab—Thought.

Scarlet—Friendship.

Myrtle green—Nature.

Different tones of yellow grouped together—Travel, motion.

Brown in solid squares—Rocks.

Blue and green in horizontal lines—Water.

Brown and green in horizontal lines—Summer.

Brown and black in horizontal lines—Winter.

Color dashes in wedge shape, variety denoted by colors used—Birds.

Pink—Acquaintance.

Mingled flecks in a row of any color or colors with green denotes one or
more variety of flowers.

Green in long perpendicular dashes—Trees.

Tints may include the personal pronouns I, my, me, or mine.

Shades may include the pronoun you or your.



                                PART II
                           WHAT A GIRL CAN DO

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: GALATEA]

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                              CHAPTER XXIV
                           STATUARY TABLEAUX


In the first place the statues must be white—not nearly white, but very
white—flesh, hair, and costume; then the background must be black, a
dead, lustreless black. Given these two requisites any figure, or group
of figures, will look like statuary; and when care and pains are taken
in the posing and draping and the proper light is thrown on them, the
living, breathing, warm flesh and blood so closely resembles the cold,
lifeless marble, it is difficult to realize one is not looking at
statues carved by the hand of man.

                              =The Stage=

Arrange the background on the stage in the form of a three-fold screen,
with sides slanting outward to the front. When possible, the top of this
space should also be covered with the black material, slanting up to the
front; in this way the statues are entirely boxed in, the only opening
being the front of the stage. That is, the only apparent opening, for
between the back and side panels a space about one foot wide must be
left for side-lights, and on this account the back should extend at
least one foot beyond each side-panel.

                              =The Lights=

A strong calcium light directly in front of the stage, though some
distance from it, is best for amateur tableaux, and the side-lights at
the back need be used only when it is imperative that no shadows shall
be cast on the background, as in the case of the armless statues. With
the cross-lights thrown behind the statue, the black-covered arms melt
into the black background with no shadows to betray their presence. Tall
piano lamps are best for this purpose.

Again, the front light may be placed nearer one side of the
audience-room, and a pleasing effect of light and shade on the statuary
itself be produced.

                              =Pedestals=

Place a platform about one foot high, and of a size to hold the largest
group, in the centre of the stage, and leave it there as a base for all
other pedestals. Packing boxes of various sizes, chosen to suit the
statues, make excellent pedestals, and these, as well as the platform,
must be smoothly covered with white cotton cloth.

[Illustration: The costume for almost any statue]

                              =Costumes.=

Pure white Canton flannel is the best material to use, as it drapes most
beautifully and takes the true sculptor’s folds. It should not, however,
be too heavy in weight, else it will be stiff and unmanageable.

The Greek or classical costume is almost the only kind you will need,
and it is made simply of two breadths of the canton flannel sewed
together and fastened at the shoulders; the slits for the arms being
left open nearly to the waist. Under this is worn a sleeveless waist of
the same material. A cord tied around and just under the bust, and the
dress pulled up to bag over gives one style of costume; tied around the
waist and bagging down far below it, gives another, and both under the
bust and around the waist, still another. The dress should be long
enough to allow of all this pulling up, and if too long when the statue
is mounted on her pedestal, it can be turned up underneath; no hem is
necessary on these garments. An extra piece of drapery is almost always
a part of the costume, and is used for wrapping around the figure to
give the narrow effect at [Illustration: Fig. 575.] the feet; this
should be about two yards long and of two breadths of the material sewed
together.

[Illustration: Fig. 576.]

Make the sandals of white insoles or two pieces of heavy card-board, cut
to fit the bottom of the foot, extending half an inch beyond all around.

Cover the card-board with white material (Fig. 575), and sew together as
in Fig. 576. Fig. 577 shows a simple and modified form of sandal. Cut
the side and back pieces from the white material like Fig. 578, and sew
them to the soles as in the Fig. [Illustration: Fig. 577.] 577. Also sew
white tape to the points of toe and heel pieces, as shown in the
diagram, leaving free the two ends at the ankle for tying.

[Illustration: Fig. 578.]

Mop-rope, the loosely twisted rope used for floor-mops, is the material
from which to fashion imitation

                            =Marble Locks.=

Make a tightly fitting white cap to entirely cover the hair, as a
foundation for the wig.

In order to have the parting of the hair directly in the middle of the
head, put the cap on and, with a lead-pencil, mark the desired line. The
rope must be then untwined and the middle of each strand laid across the
top and stitched down along the pencil line, half the length falling on
one side, half on the other. After this the wig can be donned, the hair
arranged and pinned in place according to taste or the fashion selected,
and then stitched securely to the cap.

When the hair is done up high and a side or back view is shown, it is
necessary to sew the ends of the rope along the bottom edge of the cap
at the sides and back, as the locks are drawn up from there. A narrow
border of raw cotton sewed entirely around the edge of the cap so that
it will extend a trifle over the forehead and neck, does away with the
dark edge of hair which it is, otherwise, almost impossible to hide.
When only a front view is desired, the back of the cap need not be
covered with the rope. Men’s and children’s wigs are made on the same
principle, be their hair long or short.

The face, arms, neck, and hands must be as white as it is possible to
make them. Face powder applied in the ordinary way will not give the
required whiteness, and it is easily rubbed off.

Here is a professional actor’s recipe which is perfectly harmless and
will make the

                          =Flesh Like Marble:=

Take one ounce of white-zinc powder and three ounces of glycerine and
rose-water—two-thirds glycerine, one-third rose-water. Shake the
glycerine and rose-water together, mixing them well, then add the ounce
of white-zinc powder and shake again until thoroughly mixed. Apply with
a sponge and let it dry, then smooth it with your hand and powder with
any pure face powder.

                              =To Remove=

First wash with warm water, then rub with cold-cream. Wipe the cream off
with a soft linen cloth, after which powder the skin to prevent
chapping. Always allow plenty of time for making the flesh absolutely
white, as this can not be done in a hurry.

                        =Subjects for Tableaux=

It is a wise plan to choose a subject already presented by some sculptor
and copy his work as closely as possible, for the artist has given much
thought and study to the posing of his figures and the lines of his
drapery, and one can be sure the artistic effect will be good; or a
subject may be found in some painting which will be suitable for
statuary, and this also will have the advantage of having been designed
by an artist. Most of the tableaux should be selected in this way, but a
few variations, where a surprise for the audience is prepared, or
seemingly impossible effects are produced, gives piquancy and charm to
the entertainment.

                           =The Armless Bust=

The effect of armless or mutilated statues which, to the audience,
appear almost miraculous, may be produced by simply covering the parts
of the body, supposed to be missing, with dull black cloth. Everyone
knows that by covering one of the front teeth with a piece of black
sticking-plaster the perfect effect of a lost tooth is given, and it is
on the same principle that limbs are cut off or figures decapitated in
statuary tableaux.

The illustration of the armless bust shows how the arms are made to
disappear by drawing over them a pair of black [Illustration: Fig. 579.]
[Illustration: IN THIS MANNER MAKE THE ARMLESS BUST.] stockings, or
long, narrow bags. In this tableau the side-lights must be used to
prevent any shadow from being cast upon the background; the lights must
shine behind the statue, not on it.

The pedestal is made of a packing box, with the top cut out to admit the
figure, as shown in the diagram (Fig. 579). A fine color effect is
produced when this pedestal is covered with dark red material, upon
which rests, to all appearances, the pure white marble bust. In covering
the top of the pedestal cut the cloth to extend around over the opening
at the back, and it can be fastened down after the bust is
[Illustration: Fig. 580.] in place. For this statue the front light must
not be too strong and its full force should be concentrated on the head
and bust, leaving the arms in shadow.

Another quite wonderful effect is that of the

                          =Portrait Medallion=

To produce this set a frame up near the front of the stage, over which
is tightly stretched the black material of the background. In the centre
sew a piece of white cloth cut in an elliptical shape, about two and a
half feet long by two feet wide (Fig. 580). Make a laurel wreath of
white paper leaves fastened on wire stems and tie at the bottom a bow of
white ribbon. Sew or pin the wreath upon the black [Illustration:
Portrait Medallion.] background, near enough to allow its inner leaves
to lap over the white. Cut in the medallion, and through the background,
a hole the shape of, but smaller than, the head and bust. This should be
experimented with on other material before the medallion is cut, so that
no mistake be made.

The medallion must be placed at a height easily reached by the standing
figure of the person posing for the portrait. The head is thrust through
the hole, then turned to present a profile view, while the shoulder is
held back that it may not protrude too far through the opening. The
illustration shows the effect of this tableau.

                          =An Egyptian Statue=

is an innovation in statuary tableaux which will receive a warm welcome,
but, like the others, it must be well carried out to be a success. The
figure and everything pertaining to it must be of one color, not white
this time, but gray, all gray, to represent stone.

Study the pictures of old Egyptian statues; notice the costumes, and
copy one carefully in gray canton flannel. Gray stockings must be worn
and gray sandals, or the sandals may be omitted. Paint the face, arms,
and neck with gray pastel, rubbing it on lavishly; this has been used
without any harmful effect and is easily washed off with warm water and
pure soap. Cover the hair with the typical Egyptian headdress (Fig.
581), made of a square of the gray material. Make [Illustration: Fig.
281.—Side View.] [Illustration: Fig. 281.—Front View.] a seat for the
statue of a box which should be only wide enough to be comfortable and
of a height to allow of a footstool under the feet. Nail a board the
width of the box to the back to form a back for the seat and let it be
high enough to extend a few inches above the statue’s head when she is
seated. Cover the chair and footstool with the gray canton flannel.

The Egyptian statue must be stiff and formal, seated on her chair as in
Fig. 581, with hands on knees and feet together. The entire absence of
graceful curves of body or drapery makes a charming contrast to the
other statues. In statuary tableaux the eyes must be kept closed, except
in the tableau of Galatea, and the eyelids should be as white as the
rest of the face. The eyelids of the Egyptian statue must, of course, be
gray.

                        =Pygmalion and Galatea=

This tableau includes the sculptor as well as the statue, and requires a
little acting on the part of the statue—herein lies the surprise.

The tableau illustrates the old story of the Greek sculptor Pygmalion,
who fell in love with the statue he had made, and prayed to the gods to
endow it with life. His [Illustration: First Position.] [Illustration:
Second Position.] prayer is granted and the statue, Galatea, gradually
awakens.

When the curtain is drawn aside, Pygmalion, dressed in Greek costume of
brilliant colors (to contrast with the white statue), is seen kneeling
with arms extended at the feet of Galatea, who stands in the pose shown
in “first position” of the illustration.

Pygmalion maintains his position without moving while Galatea awakens.

Standing, as in “first position,” with bent head, closed eyes and
clasped hands, the right foot a little in advance of the other, the
weight of the body resting principally upon the left, Galatea slowly,
very slowly, unclasps her hands and gradually separates them. The left
hand moves out from her side while the right hand, at the same time, is
lifted outward and upward to her throat, “second position.” Keeping the
left arm extended a little from her side, the hand slightly raised and
fingers bent, she continues to raise her right hand until it covers her
eyes, at the same time swinging her body around, bearing the weight
heavily on the left foot, until the “third position” is assumed. Holding
[Illustration: Third Position.] [Illustration: Fourth Position.] this
pose for an instant, she turns slowly back again, lifting her hand until
it shades her eyes; she then raises her chin and bends slightly forward
as she opens her eyes and beholds Pygmalion. This is the “fourth
position.”

Again she pauses for an instant, then by slow degrees the left arm is
raised while the right one is lowered and the hands are held out in
welcome, as in the “fifth and last position.”

At no time must the arms form parallel lines; even at the last the
extended arms should be bent very slightly outward at the elbows. The
two sharp angles, formed by bending the elbows in the same direction at
the same moment, should be especially avoided. At all times during the
awakening Galatea must be so posed that her movements might, at any
moment, be stopped and she would [Illustration: Fifth Position.] be
found standing in a graceful and charming position. Success in this can
only be obtained, and little awkwardnesses avoided, by practice before a
large mirror, where every movement and every curve of the body may be
seen.

No quick or sudden motion must mar the beautifully slow awakening; all
should be as gradual as the unfolding of the petals of a rose until the
climax is reached, where Galatea extends her arms to the waiting and
expectant Pygmalion and the curtain is dropped.

There is no doubt of the success of the tableau when this little bit of
silent acting is well done, and it makes an excellent winding-up piece
to an evening’s entertainment.



                              CHAPTER XXV
                                WITCHERY


Assured of their welcome, laughter, jollity, and mystery all attend the
Halloween frolics which are given up to sports with kale, apples, nuts,
mirror, etc. These ordinarily commonplace articles are claimed, on this
eventful eve, to be touched with magic, endowed with the power of
prophecy and enabled to tell of wonderful adventure or fortune which
will befall any one who puts their virtues to the test. And it is
Halloween, of all the nights in the year, that is best loved by the
sprightly little fairies, gnomes, and elves, who delight in sallying
forth from their homes under stones and in old hollow trees to play
pranks on us poor mortals. The witches also are out, flying through the
air to their annual dance, on their queer steeds, either cats or
broomsticks.

James Hogg’s poem, “The Witch of Fife,” gives a comical description of
the witch who flew out of the lum (chimney) and left her husband, who
soon followed with his coat “waflling in the wynde.” The witches’ rides
would not be apt to injure old broomsticks, but should you happen to see
any cats the morning after Halloween, notice how tired the poor
creatures look after carrying the witches all night! That is why the
Scotch lads and lassies pity the pussies.

Of course, there are really no fairies, genii, or witches; they are all
only “make-believe.” Nor are we to put any faith in

                         =Halloween Fortunes,=

for these are merely tried to furnish sport for the time and to make us
merry; a hearty laugh of itself is good fortune. Often it is the best
kind of medicine.

[Illustration: Fig. 582.]

Whether you will be

                             =Rich or Poor=

can be ascertained with three saucers. Fill one with salt, which, being
white, stands for silver; another with cornmeal, signifying gold, its
color being yellow; while the third remains empty (Fig. 582). If you dip
your left hand into the cornmeal, you will be very wealthy; if into the
salt, you will be comfortable, but lack the luxuries of life; if into
the empty saucer, you will be obliged to work hard for a living.

                            =Feather Tests=

To foretell the complexion of your future mate, select three of the
softest and fluffiest feathers you can obtain. If none is handy, take a
pillow and rip open the end seam about an inch or so, making the hole
scarcely large enough to admit of your pulling out a few feathers with
the thumb and forefinger. The little opening can be sewed up again in a
moment’s time. On the bottom end of each downy messenger fasten a small
piece of paper; a drop of paste or mucilage will be sufficient to gum
all three in place. Write the word “Blond” on one paper; on another,
“Brunette,” and on the last, “Medium.” Label the papers before gluing
them on the feathers (Fig. 583). With your right hand daintily hold up
one feather, by its top, in front of you, and gently send it flying with
a puff of breath. Do the same with the next, and also with the last one;
the feather landing nearest to you denotes the complexion of your true
love. To make the test sure, try the charm three times, but be careful
not to use too much force when blowing the feathers.

[Illustration: Fig. 583.]

For the

                           =Touchstone Charm=

seven small, clean stones are required—six of the common grayish color,
the seventh white.

[Illustration: Fig. 584.]

All should be as nearly as possible the same in shape and size (Fig.
584). After being blindfolded and having the position of the stones
changed on the platter, describe a circle in the air three times with
your left hand, at the last bringing the forefinger down on one of the
stones. Try the charm three times. Should you touch the white one twice
your life will be full of light and happiness; if the gray twice falls
to your share there will be shadows with the light.

                             =New Friends=

Old friends are treasures and cannot be too highly valued, but new ones
also frequently prove to be added joys in our lives. To determine how
many new friends you will find in the ensuing year, count the number of
buttons on the dress or coat of the first person the fairies send to you
after twelve o’clock at noon on October 31st. Should someone enter whose
clothing shows no buttons, you will be obliged to rest contented with
the friends you now possess, as no more will be added to the list until
the expiration of a year.

                         =Naming the Bedposts=

Before going to sleep on the last night of October name each of the four
bedposts, the first being “Art”; the second, “Science”; the third,
“Literature”; and the fourth, “Business.” The post you see first upon
awakening will denote the pursuit in which you will delight. Should your
eyes first rest upon the post called “Art,” many beautiful things are in
store for you. If the “Science” post is first seen, you will rejoice in
deep learning, etc. Be sure not to get the posts confused; remember the
order in which they have been named.

                            =Witch Writing=

Should you wish to know how any one of your friends may feel toward
you, here is the test. Write your name out in full (Fig. 585—we will
suppose the name to be yours). Under your name write that of a friend
(Fig. 586), then carefully cancel all letters in the coupled names
which are [Illustration: Fig. 585.] the same (Fig. 587). Let us go
over the first two names that we may thoroughly understand how it is
done. Take the first letter in the first name—K; [Illustration: Fig.
585.                 Fig. 586.] you will not find the same letter in
either Mary or Hallon. Take the next letter—a; there it is in Mary and
in Hallon. We will cross out all the a’s. There are no t’s in the
lower name, so we go on to the next letter—h—which is an initial in
Hallon and again occurs in Smith. Cancel them all. There are no e’s,
but we find r and n in the other name. Mark them both. I is not
repeated in the lower name, and in [Illustration: Fig. 588.] Smith we
find only m (h being previously cancelled), which is the first letter
in Mary. Cross them out, then repeat aloud these potent words:

                  “Friendship—Love—Indifference—Hate,”

giving each cancelled letter one word in the magic order (Fig. 588). In
this way you find that the girls love each other. Try your name with a
number of others. The results constantly vary. Couple two friends’ names
together and put them to the test.

                            =Home or Travel=

Apple-seeds, too, will act as charms. Stick one on each eyelid and name
one “Home” and the other “Travel.” If the seed named “Travel” stays on
longer than the other, you will go on a journey before the year expires.
If “Home” clings better, you will remain at home. Again, take all the
apple-seeds, place them on the back of your outspread left hand and with
your loosely clenched right hand strike the palm of the left. This will
cause some, if not all, of the seeds to fall. Those left on your hand
show the number of

                               =Letters=

you will receive in the coming fortnight. Should all the seeds drop, you
must wait patiently for your mail.

                              =Your Fate=

Gather up all the seeds and make them do duty again. There must be
twelve of the little brown charms. Put them carefully to one side while
you cut twelve slips of blank paper exactly alike and on one side of
each write the name of a friend. Turn them all over with the blanks
uppermost and mix them so you will not know which is which; then holding
the seeds in your left hand repeat this verse:

                   “One I love,
                   Two I love,
                     Three I love, I say;
                   Four I love with all my heart and
                     Five I cast away.
                   Six he loves,
                   Seven she loves,
                   Eight they both love;
                     Nine he comes,
                   Ten he tarries,
                     Eleven he courts and
                   Twelve he marries.”

Stop at each line to place a seed on one of the papers, and then turn
the slip over to discover the name of the one you love or cast away, as
it happens. Continue matching each apple-seed with a piece of named
paper, as you count, until all twelve seeds and papers are used. It is
both surprising and interesting to have one’s fate forecast in this way.

“Bobby” Burns’s well-known poem “Halloween” tells of many charms and
spells to be tried on “Witch Night.”

                                =Dreams=

mean much on Halloween, but certain ceremonies must be carefully
followed in order to insure the spell. Before going to sleep for the
night have someone bring you a small piece of dry bread. No word should
be spoken after this; silence must invariably prevail. Eat the bread
slowly, at the same time making a wish and thinking of the pleasantest
things imaginable. Then smilingly drop off to sleep, and your dreams in
the land of Morpheus will be sweet and peaceful, and your wish will come
true if the charm works in the way it should.

Here is an old verse on

                            =Shooting Stars=

which has been handed down for generations:

               “If I a shooting star can see
               And before it falls count one, two, three,
               I'll find my love in the nearest tree,
               For I hunt him and he hunts me.”

Watch for the star and when it comes, if your courage does not fail,
look up a tree. Though you may possibly not find the desired sweetheart,
you can make a wish on the shooting star, at the same time repeating
these lines:

                    “Star, star, bright star light,
                    First star I have seen to-night,
                    I wish I may, I wish I might,
                    Have the wish I wish to-night.”

An entertainment suitable for any season of the year is called the

                             =Ghost Ideas=

It is intended only for the older girls, not being adapted to little
ones. The ghosts are jolly, bright, realistic beings, full of fun, who,
being invited to your house, enter heartily into the frolic, each doing
her best to make the entertainment a success. All the prominent past
century ghosts must be included in the party. Artistic, dramatic,
historic, literary, and political ghosts should be present, also the
spirit of customs, ideas, events, and things belonging to the past
century. Summon your fellow-ghosts to haunt your house three hours
before midnight, appearing in costumes appropriate to their earthly
existence.

Tell them that not a word must be spoken until the company is relieved
from the spell of silence and state in your invitation that all ghosts
are expected to promptly signify their acceptance in writing, otherwise
they will not be admitted to the haunt.

When the ghosts have assembled each character should be announced as she
enters the reception-room, where the hostess and one or two other
spirits of the occasion await the arrivals. The announcement must be
made in clear, well-enunciated tones, and always be prefaced by the
words “The Ghost.” Guests after their introduction are allowed to speak
and they should talk and act as nearly as possible like the spirits they
represent. The event will then be a success if carefully planned, and
you will have given to your friends a novel and delightful treat.

                           =Fortune’s Wheel=

is a midsummer game for little folks. Such a beautiful, long day for a
holiday, and no one remembers to keep it now, although many, many years
ago Midsummer Day, the longest day in the year, was looked forward to
with as much pleasure as we find in the anticipation of Christmas.

The people had strange beliefs in those days, and they thought a being
called Fortune would send them gifts on this holiday if they went
through certain performances to gain her good-will.

Now suppose we make believe, for a time, there is such a person as
Fortune, and one of you shall play her part, and we will have a game of
“Fortune’s Wheel,” which will be very appropriate and interesting for
June 21st. At one end of the lawn we will mark off as many spaces, six
feet square, as there are players, not counting Fortune.

[Illustration: FORTUNE’S WHEEL]

Rope or twine tied to the fence at the back, and to stakes driven into
the ground in front, as seen in the illustration, will mark the
boundaries nicely, and we will tie some small flags or bright-colored
streamers to the tops of the stakes to make them look pretty. These
spaces we will call stalls. About ten yards from the stalls, and
directly in front of them, we must stretch a rope, tying it to stakes or
trees, so that Fortune shall be kept within bounds.

Now bring your rolling-hoop, and we will turn it into Fortune’s wheel by
tacking two tapes across it, as shown in the diagram. In the centre,
where the tapes cross, we will tie a little bag, which is to hold a
gift.

Simple little toys, bonbons, and cake, only one at a time, however, are
the gifts Fortune’s wheel will carry.

Come, little girl, whoever is to be Fortune, whip out your handkerchief
and tie up your eyes, for Fortune must be always blindfolded; then stand
by the rope, which will keep you from going too far away.

The rest of you scamper off and take your places, each one in a stall.

Now, Fortune, walk up and down a little that you may not know exactly
where you are; then, standing so that you can reach the rope with your
hand, take your wheel and strike it hard, sending it down toward the
other players.

Whoever catches Fortune’s wheel may have the gift it carries, but no one
must go beyond his stall to reach it. The wheel must enter a stall
before it can be caught by the player in that stall, and when it enters
a stall and falls to the ground before being caught, the player whose
stall it is in must change places with Fortune, become Fortune, and roll
the wheel. When the wheel stops before reaching the stalls and does not
enter any of them it must be carried back to Fortune, who will roll it
again.

Each time before the wheel is started the players in the stalls must
change places.

When one gift has been won and taken from the bag put another in its
place and Fortune will roll the wheel until all the gifts are gone and
the game ended.



                              CHAPTER XXVI
                            LIVING ALPHABET

CHARACTERS: _All the letters of the alphabet, half girls, half boys;
teacher._

COSTUMES: _Girls dressed entirely in red, boys in white. Teacher wears a
pretty Dolly Varden costume, and carries a white switch tied with red
ribbon._

_The back of the stage is decorated with palms and other greens. The
overture is played, which glides into a march as the curtain rises._

_Enter the teacher and letters from the right. The letters march in
single file in the order of the alphabet (alternately a girl and boy)
headed by the teacher, who keeps time with her switch. After crossing
the stage the teacher leaves the procession and stands at the left. The
letters turn, march back to the right behind the advancing line, turn
again, forming a reversed S, march to the left, then around the front of
the stage to the right, marching in a circle until a half circle is
formed at the back of the stage, where they halt and remain standing.
Fig. 589 shows the order of march. As the letters enter they carry their
shields on their left arms; as they turn to the right they shift them
onto their right arms, always keeping the face of the shield toward the
audience. When standing the shield is held with both hands directly in
front so that the letters may be plainly visible._

TEACHER. Attention! Present a greeting to our friends!

The letters A E L S T U step to the front of the stage and stand in
line.

TEACHER. Well, what do you say?

The letters change places and form the word SALUTE.

TEACHER. Very good. Retire to your places.

The letters step back in line of the alphabet.

TEACHER. We all know the alphabet is made up of two families. The name
of one family is Vowel, and the name of the other is Consonant. The
vowels will please step forward.

[Illustration: Fig. 589.]

The letters A E I O U advance to the front.

TEACHER. There are two step-sisters which we sometimes call Vowels.
Where are they?

The letters W and Y join the others.

TEACHER. That will do.

The vowels return to their places.

TEACHER. Consonants come forward!

All of the letters except A E I O U W and Y advance then W and Y join
the consonants.

TEACHER. Very well.

The letters return to their places.

TEACHER. We will now have our spelling-class, and be careful that you
spell correctly. The letters for “Cat” step forward.

[Illustration]

The letters ACT run to the front and stand spelling ACT.

TEACHER. You are not spelling “Cat.” Try again.

The letters shift their position to form TAC.

TEACHER. Dear me!

You haven’t got it right yet. I'm surprised!

The letters change, forming the word CAT.

TEACHER. Right at last. Now spell something that cats love.

The letters NIP join CAT, spelling CATNIP.

TEACHER. Can you spell another word?

C turns her back, while the others change places to spell PAINT.

TEACHER. Another.

P turns his back, and the rest spell ANTIC.

TEACHER. Spell one more word.

P remains with his back to the audience, I turns away, and the others
spell CANT, and then return to their places in the alphabet line.

[Illustration]

TEACHER. Are you ready for your grammar?

The letters YES run to the front, spell YES, and then retire.

TEACHER. Well, then, we will try verbs. Verbs signify action. Give me a
word that denotes action.

The letters remain quiet.

TEACHER. I will illustrate. Your sister _runs_. What does that signify?

The letters A M O U S E run out, spell A MOUSE, and return.

TEACHER. We will try conjugating the verb “to be.” It begins: I am, you
are—well?

The letters TIRED walk slowly forward, spell TIRED, and return to their
places.

TEACHER. So am I; we might sit. What do we stand for?

_Here, for the first time, the letters speak. A steps forward two steps,
answers immediately, and steps backward to her place. Then B does the
same, followed by each letter of the alphabet in turn._

    A. A stands for Action, and that means to run.
    B. B stands for Baker and also for Bun.
    C. C stands for Catnip, the best of all tea.
    D. D stands for Darling, and that stands for me.
    E. E stands for Emerald, a most precious stone.
    F. F stands for Fun and my own Funny-bone.
    G. G stands for Gold, which is yellow and bright.
    H. H stands for Hope, Heaven, Holy and Height.
    I. I stands for Ink, which is not a good toy.
    J. J stands for Jelly and Jumping and Joy.
    K. K stands for Kitchen with a dear little stove.
    L. L stands for Laddie and Labor and Love.
    M. M stands for Maiden and Merry and May.
    N. N stands for Nonsense and Noddle and Neigh.
    O. O stands for Omelet and Only and Off.
    P. P stands for Painter and Palace and Puff.
    Q. Q stands for Quaker and Quiet and Queer.
    R. R stands for Rabbit and Racing and Rear.
    S. S stands for Sampler and Sewing and Shears.
    T. T stands for Taffy and Tar-drops and Tears.
    U. U stands for Upper and Under and Urn.
    V. V stands for Vane, which the winds always turn.
    W. W stands for Winter, snowy and white.
    X. X stands for Xylite, I think I am right.
    Y. Y stands for Yes, but never for no.
    Z. Z stands for Zero, and now we must go.

_Music. Here the march music strikes up, the pianist playing “Marching
Through Georgia.”_

_The teacher leads the procession, and the letters follow, singing to
the air “Marching Through Georgia” these words_:

           We are going now, Alphabet at play,
           Holding in our hands all that’s grave or gay;
           See how we are marching all the letters in array,
               Marching onward to Dreamland

           CHORUS.

           Speak low, speak low, we sing a lullaby;
           Speak low, speak low, pray children do not cry,
           Though we now must leave you and say a sweet—

_Here the letters G O Q D B Y leave the ranks and stand at the front of
the stage. D places his hand over the quirk of the letter Q, making it
an O, and they form the word GOOD-BY._

_The march has carried the rest of the letters to the back, where they
stand in a semicircle. The music accommodates itself to the movement, so
that the GOOD-BY comes in at the right time, then all take up the song
again with the words_:

While we are marching to Dreamland.

                               _Curtain._

                              =After-word=

The endeavor throughout this little play has been to keep it as simple
as possible and quite within the capacity of the children taking part.
The girls and boys should be well drilled in the marches, that they may
keep step and perfect time, also in the song; and they should know to a
certainty what places they are to take in spelling the words. Then if,
when speaking, they enunciate clearly and speak slowly the success of
the play is assured. Very slowly and clearly each word must be spoken,
otherwise the meaning and point will be lost.

The character of the teacher should be taken by a young girl old enough
to lead and direct children. The marches may be as elaborate as the
manager chooses, but they should not be too long or intricate.

The shields are made of heavy white card-board after the pattern shown
in Fig. 590, and the handles are strips of tin fastened in the middle of
the shield. To secure the handle in place, with a sharp knife cut two
horizontal slits about one inch long in the shield near the centre.
These must be about five inches apart, and one directly over the other.
Then make two more slits of the same size, one two inches above the top
slit, the other two inches below the bottom slit. Pass one end of the
tin through the [Illustration: Fig. 590.] lower top slit, working from
the inside of the shield, and bend the end up, slipping it back through
the upper top slit as if taking a stitch; then fasten the end by bending
it up close to the inner surface of the shield. Care must be taken not
to tear the card-board during this process. Now reverse the order of
work, and passing the other end of this tin through the two lower slits
in the shield, fasten it by bending the end down. The loop of the handle
must be sufficiently large to allow a child’s hand to slide in and grasp
it easily. When the tin is well wrapped in strips of cotton cloth there
is no danger of a cut from the sharp edges.

Large black letters are either painted on the shields or cut from black
paper or cloth and pasted on. These letters must be simple and plain in
design, that they may be instantly recognized. All the shields should be
of one size, and as a rule should reach from the shoulder almost to the
knee of the bearer. The children, also, should be as nearly of one
height as possible.



                             CHAPTER XXVII
                              ODD GARDENS


Summer is coming! Don’t you see it? Don’t you feel it? Even while the
trees are still leafless and the grass-plots still brown we know spring
is here, almost as the plants themselves know it, by the surging up of
new life in our veins.

We open wide our windows to let the sweet sunshine in and make ready to
welcome the blessed summer so near at hand.

What if you cannot leave the city, as some do, to enjoy the delights of
a summer in the country; what if you have not even a foot of ground, you
may still have some of the sweets with which summer is so lavish; you
may, nevertheless, have your flower-garden. Summer will help you grow
your plants. The sun is knocking now on your window, bidding you prepare
the ground for summer to make fruitful.

                     =A Country Garden in the City=

A real hanging garden, with creeping vines and fragrant flowers, will
prove a delight, and it may be yours though your window is your only
garden plot.

[Illustration: A Country Garden in the City.]

[Illustration: Fig. 591.]

[Illustration: Fig. 592.]

Take your tape-measure and find the width of your window. It is about
three feet wide, isn’t it? Well, it doesn’t matter. Whatever the width,
add two feet more and you have the length for your garden. Thus, for a
three-foot window you will have a five-foot garden. Go to the
planing-mill and select a wide board of that length. See that it is
without flaws, and do not be afraid of having it thick, for it must bear
a heavy weight. Buy a pair of strong iron brackets, or very likely at
the mill they will give you two three-cornered pieces of board like Fig.
591, which will answer the purpose as well. With screws fasten these
brackets to the board, about half a foot from each end, as in Fig. 592.
Near the back edge of the board, directly above the two brackets, screw
in good-sized screw-eyes, as shown by A, B, Fig. 592. Measure the
distance from the bottom edge of your board to the top of the screw-eye,
as designated by the dotted line C in Fig. 593, and fasten strong hooks
in the outer wall on either side of your window at the same distance
above the window-sill. Be careful about your measurements and have your
hooks just as far apart as the screw-eyes. Go to a hardware store and
get a piece of wire netting, such as is used for fences, long enough to
go around the front and [Illustration: Fig. 594.] [Illustration: Fig.
593.] side edges of your board. Have three strips cut from it, one
eighteen inches wide for your garden fence, the other two each twelve
inches wide and about three feet long for trellises for your vines. Fit
the fence around the board, bending it sharply at the corners, and tack
in place along the edge of the board, using double tacks, called staple
tacks, for the purpose. Paint the board and wire netting dark green,
and, when dry, lift it out of the window, and, resting the board on the
outside window-sill, slip the screw-eyes on the hooks in the wall, as in
Fig. 592. With two staple tacks fasten the ends of the fence to the
wall.

Now you are

                         =Ready for Your Boxes=

Get two strong wooden ones from your grocer, about eight inches deep and
of a size to fit the board at either side of your window, and another to
fit between the two end ones. Bore several holes in the bottom of each
box, bind the edges where they meet with strips of tin, as shown by the
dark strips in Fig. 594. Have the tinsmith cut the tin the required
lengths and also bend it to fit your boxes. It will then be easy work to
tack it on yourself.

Binding the boxes in this way makes them strong and prevents their
bursting apart, as they are very apt to do with nothing to stay them.
Paint the boxes dark green, like the board, and on the bottom of each
place a layer of charcoal, next a layer of sand and then fill with
earth, enriched with fertilizer obtained at the drug-store. Weave two
straight sticks, about four feet long, in and out through each piece of
wire netting for your trellises. Stand a trellis upright in either end
box by pushing the end of the sticks deep into the soil.

It is a country, not a city, garden you want, is it not? Then don’t be
persuaded into buying geraniums, fuchsias, verbenas, etc. They are very
lovely, but you can have them all winter long, if you wish. What you are
trying for now is

                         =A Real Summer Garden=

—one where you plant the seeds and have the excitement of seeing them
come up, then watching them grow, and finally of discovering the first
buds which so soon are to blossom and reward you with their beauty and
fragrance for all the care bestowed upon them.

Have you ever seen the hop-vine? It is very pretty, with its soft
festoons of feathery tassels. The hop-vine, running up the trellis on
one side of the window; the red bean, with its scarlet blossoms, on the
other, will bring a bit of the country to you as little else can.

Around the front and side edges of the end boxes plant nasturtium seeds,
and midsummer will find a wealth of tangled vines and fragrant flowers
which will clamber over, under, and through your fence in wild abandon.

In the middle box plant bachelor’s-buttons (corn-flowers), which blossom
from July to late autumn with white, blue, and pink flowers. Plant also
mignonette for its sweetness, and, to complete the country effect, add
lady-slippers.

All these flowers are raised from the seed, except the hop-vine. For
this you will have to get the “sets,” which are the underground stems of
the old vines cut into pieces. Three or four “sets” planted together
will give you a nice vine.

One of the oddest of odd gardens is

                            =A Water Garden=

This, too, may be just outside your window if you are so fortunate as to
have a balcony large enough to hold a good-sized tub; or one corner of
your backyard may perhaps be spared for a place in which to rear your
water-babies.

Half of a good, strong hogshead barrel makes a fine bed for a miniature
pond; a molasses barrel will answer or any kind of tank that will hold
water and is at least two feet deep can be used for the purpose.

Do not choose too shady a spot for your water garden. There are very few
plants that are not the better for a little sunshine. An unsheltered
corner which must endure the burning heat of the afternoon sun is also
undesirable, but a place which only the morning sun can reach will be
suited to almost any water plant. You will need

                                 =Soil=

as well as water for this aquatic garden, and if you are living in the
city it will be a good idea to take a trip to the suburbs, where you can
fill a tin pail with the muddy, freshwater swamp soil. Failing that, you
may procure from a florist some turfy loam and enrich it with a good
fertilizer.

[Illustration: Water Garden.]

Fill the bottom of your tank with the soil to the depth of one foot and
plant your roots before adding the water. It is a good thing to anchor
the plants with stones to prevent them from floating out of place when
the water is poured in.

For most of your

                             =Water Plants=

you will probably have to visit the country, as there appears to be no
way of getting the simpler kinds but by going directly to Mother Nature
and transplanting them from her garden to yours.

Before starting on your search make inquiries and learn what you may
expect to find in the various localities.

Water lilies are not found on all ponds, but they are well worth any
amount of travelling, and secure some you must, even if several trips
have to be taken before they are discovered.

There is a water garden in our neighborhood which is a source of great
pleasure to its owner. Floating on the surface of the water in two great
stone tanks are pond lilies of several varieties. As the great buds grow
and unfold they are watched closely and with intense interest until they
are suddenly found full-blown, fair and pure, a floating mass of
loveliness.

Any and every plant which grows in the ponds and swamps may be made to
grow in an artificial pond or swamp in your own house or yard. The water
arum or arrow-leaf; the pickerel-weed, with its spikes of pale-blue
flowers; the sagittaria, whose flowers are white, and the water hyacinth
are all pretty in the water garden.

There are vines that grow readily in water which you can put around the
edges of the tank, allowing them to hang over and partially hide the
outside. The Wandering Jew is one which is very hardy and will droop in
graceful festoons of green. It is not a water plant, but will thrive in
water and should not be planted in the soil at the bottom, but allowed
to send out its roots into the water near the surface.

Aquatic plants are the simplest of all kinds to transplant, because the
sun does not wilt them when their roots are kept wet. Transfer the
plants in baskets filled with wet moss, or make them in packages covered
on all sides with several wrappings of wet paper. They can be preserved
an indefinite length of time _if kept wet_.

Cat-tail seeds will grow in mud; so will other swamp plants, and a swamp
garden, kept always wet, may be an accessory to your water garden.

From time to time you must add fresh water to supply the loss by
evaporation in the tanks, but as the growing things keep the water pure
it does not need changing.

You may arrange smaller and

                        =Simpler Water Gardens=

for the window in glass dishes or bowls, or even glass jars, and grow
there the small and delicate water plants. Only a layer of clean sand is
needed for soil, and some plants do not even require that. The
water-milfoil is an ornamental little plant; the eel-grass which,
growing at the bottom, sends up its long spiral stems to lift its
blossoms above the water, is interesting, and the horn-wort and
water-purslane do well in narrow quarters. The duck-weed is a surface
plant which drops its slender roots into the water without touching
soil. Besides these there are

                  =Plants Grown Artificially in Water=

A friend of mine tells the story of a morning-glory vine which, growing
in water, draped her window luxuriantly and even blossomed in a timid
way. This plant was taken from the garden when its stem was several
inches long and placed in a bottle of water, where it sent out more
roots and grew rapidly.

It is possible, too, and is a very pretty experiment, to start the seeds
without soil. Among the plants in my studio window, a short time ago,
was a green glass finger-bowl filled nearly to the brim with water. On
the surface of the water rested two layers of raw cotton cut to fit the
bowl, and on top of the cotton were scattered a number of morning-glory
seeds. They lay quietly on their soft, floating bed for a few days, then
the seeds began to send out white worm-like shoots, and shortly there
appeared on each a pair of small heart-shaped leaves tightly clasped
together at the top by the now empty seed-shell. Soon down into the
water, piercing the cotton, little thread-like roots made their way,
growing thicker in mass and stronger as the young plants shot up in a
wonderful growth. We watched them from their birth until they were three
or four inches high, when an accident brought their existence to a close
and our experiment to an untimely end.

Almost any seeds will sprout when treated in this manner, and in order
to keep the water pure during the waiting period it is well to drop into
it several small pieces of charcoal. Charcoal is a great purifier and
its use is advisable in all water gardens.

                           =The Green Sponge=

appears quite marvellous to one who sees it for the first time. Take a
large, rather coarse sponge, put it in a glass bowl, sprinkle it with
sand and give it as much water as it will hold, then scatter all over it
flaxseed or mustard seed, clover seed or buckwheat and place in your
window. It will not be long before you have a sponge of living green,
the secret of whose beauty lies in its being kept always wet.

                              =Vegetables=

of the tuber variety will grow, not in the water, but with water in
them. The sweet potato, which puts forth a pretty vine, the white potato
and the turnip have all proved successful experiments in my window, and
it is said [Illustration: Fig. 595.] that the carrot and parsnip can be
made to grow in the same way; their tendency, however, is to split at
the sides, which allows the water to escape and causes them to dry up. I
am told that another way to grow them is to immerse each half way in a
bottle of water, keeping the vegetable suspended by means of a
darning-needle thrust through it and resting on the edge of the bottle.
In selecting potatoes choose those which have a number of well-developed
“eyes,” and avoid the sweet potatoes which look temptingly clean and
smooth. In nearly every case these are kiln-dried, or dried by
artificial means, and no amount of coaxing will induce them to sprout.

Take a large potato which will hold considerable water when hollowed
out, cut off one end and clean out the inside to the depth of several
inches. Puncture holes on opposite sides about half an inch from the
edge, pass one end of a string through each hole and tie, leaving a loop
at the top (Fig. 595), then fill with water and hang at the side of your
window, where it will not touch the glass nor get the direct rays of the
sun.

In preparing the turnip remember to turn it upside down, as it is the
root end you are to cut off; this is pointed and generally ends in a
string-like root; the leaves sprout from the other end and form a pretty
foliage. The turnip will not only send out its own leaves, but vines may
be planted inside which will grow down to meet the upward growing leaves
of the vegetable.

English ivy grows well in water, and you all know that the Japanese lily
requires only a layer of pebbles in a dish of water to grow and blossom
most beautifully. Hyacinths in their own peculiar glasses are also
raised entirely in water.

Of other odd gardens which are full of interest there is one called a

                          =Friendship Garden=

This is composed entirely of plants given by various friends of the
owner, and each plant is called by the name of the giver. Devote one
flower-bed, large or small as the case requires, to your friendship
collection, and set out all your plants there. They will probably form a
strange medley; but so much the better, it will only make the queer
garden the more interesting. Roses, geraniums, lilies, fuchsias,
heliotrope, sweet violets—sheltered from too great heat by the larger
plants—verbenas and mignonette may all grow in this odd companionship.
Endeavor not to crowd them too closely and study the habits of each
plant, that it may be kept from encroaching upon the rights of its
neighbor, if aggressive, or be crowded out of existence if of a retiring
and yielding nature. Give all equal care, and your love for each plant
and its giver will also grow and blossom in a way most sweet and
marvellous.

                          =The Memory Garden=

is in reality a collection of souvenir plants brought from various
places one has visited.

You may have your memory garden in your window if you like, for your
plants will probably not be large and very likely will do best each in
its separate flower-pot with soil adapted to its needs.

From various parts of the United States, from foreign countries, from
places of historical and geographical interest you can bring mementoes
for your garden that will be beautiful reminders of the pleasant scenes
and incidents of your travels.



                             CHAPTER XXVIII
                              ACTIVE GAMES


                           =Weavers and Weft=

In this game there are two sides, so that only an equal number can take
part. Each player is provided with a new, shallow tin pan, the parties
then separate, and stand in two lines, facing each other, about eight or
ten feet apart.

The starter at the head of one of the lines fastens one end of a ball of
yarn to a door-knob or chair just behind her and, putting the ball on
her pan, tosses it to the player directly opposite, who endeavors to
catch it on his pan, and toss it to the person on the other side, who
stands next to the starter.

The third player in turn sends it back to the one standing second on the
opposite side (Fig. 596).

In this order, going back and forth, the ball travels down the ranks.

When it reaches the end of the line, it is started back again, and kept
going until the yarn is all unwound.

In no case may the ball be touched with the hands. When it falls to the
floor, it must be lifted up with the pan by the player who drops or
fails to catch it, and when the yarn fastens itself to the clothing, or
becomes entwined around the body of a player, it must not be touched, no
matter how much it may inconvenience the movements.

[Illustration: Fig. 596.—Weavers and Weft.]

Great care should be taken not to break the thread, anyone doing so is
counted out of the game, she cannot leave her place, however, for moving
may disturb the yarn attached to others. The ends of the broken yarn
must be tied together before the game is resumed.

When the yarn is all unwound it is the object of each player to loosen
himself from the tangle without breaking the thread.

The time must be noted and five minutes only be allowed for the
disentanglement.

At the end of this time the side which has the greatest number of
members free from the meshes of yarn wins the game.

The flashing of the bright tin pans, the struggles of the players to
catch the ball and elude the loose thread, the comically careful
movements of those who have become entangled in the yarn, all tend to
make the game a very merry one, to the lookers-on as well as the
participants.

                              =Hoop Dance=

Some of the games played with wooden hoops are full of fun, and the
constant changing of position of the players forms a very pretty moving
picture for the spectator.

[Illustration: The Hoop Dance.]

Four boys and four girls make up the set for the “Hoop Dance,” and
chance allots the partners, in this way: A stick is placed on the ground
and the group, standing about twelve feet away, take turns in tossing
small stones as near to it as possible. The girl and boy throwing
nearest the goal take first position; the girl and boy throwing second
nearest take the second position, and so on. The four couples stand
quite a distance apart, at least six yards being allowed between those
facing each other, as in Fig. 597. (Crosses represent boys and circles
girls.) One of the players is chosen leader, and it is his duty to call
out the different figures of the “Hoop Dance.” At “Attention!” all take
position and stand ready, hoop in hand, to respond to the first call.
The leader then prompts, “First and second couples cross over right and
left.” Immediately the two boys, B and F, move to the left, as in Fig.
598, in order to give space for E to roll her hoop between A and B, and
A to pass between E and F. As the leader prompts the two couples roll
their hoops to the opposite sides. Then the leader calls, “Third and
fourth couples right and left.” They follow the example of the first
couple, the boys H and D moving to the left to give space for C to pass
between G and H, and G to cross between C and D. The leader next calls,
“First couples right and left back to places,” and this movement is
repeated by the last couples.

                         =In the Second Figure=

of the dance the girls of the first couples change places, as in Fig.
599, where A and E roll their hoops diagonally across the intervening
space according to the dotted lines. This brings A in E's place and E in
A's. Next the girls change places on the sides; C and G cross over to
opposite sides. Then the leader cries out, “Girls of first couples
return to places,” and E and A roll their hoops back to first position.
“The sides do the same.” In like manner the boys change, first B and F,
then D and H, and return to places, taking great care not to allow their
hoops to fall or get beyond their control.

                           =The Third Figure=

is “Hoops all around.” At “Attention!” from the leader each player
turns, facing the back of the next player. Arrows point the direction
players are to take (Fig. 600). A turns toward B; B faces C; C looks at
D, and so on. Then, with hoops in position, at the word “Hoops all
around” each player follows the companion directly ahead, rolling his
hoop as he goes around the circle, stopping only when his original place
is reached.

                          =The Fourth Figure=

Again the leader calls, “Attention.” This time each player faces his
partner, stepping a little to one side to allow the partner to pass
(Fig. 597), which brings all the girls A, C, E, and G, facing the left
and outside the ring, while B, D, F, and H, the boys, face the right and
are inside the ring. At the call from the leader, “Grand right and
left,” each player carefully rolls his hoop first to one side, then to
the other of those whom he meets on his way around the circle, beginning
with his partner (Fig. 597). The girl A passes to the right of her
partner B, left of D, right of F and left of H. All the other players
weave in and out in the same way, as in the ordinary quadrille, the only
difference being that instead of the hands being grasped in passing the
hoops are rolled to right and left. This figure concludes the “Hoop
Dance.” Should the players be all girls, let four of them tie
handkerchiefs on their left arms to show that, for the time being, they
represent the sterner sex.

The Game of Tag never loses its charm. Who can resist rushing after a
companion at the words “last tag.” No girl with any daring or enterprise
can rest content until the compliment be returned. Somewhat differing
from the original tag, but none the less attractive, is the game of the
same name played with wooden hoops.

                               =Hoop Tag=

keeps one constantly on the alert. Any number may join in this game, and
all, except one, must be provided with hoops and sticks. Decide who
shall be “It” by some counting-out rhyme—such as

                       High peg, low peg,
                       Mary and Ann,
                       Tom, Dick and Harry,
                       Jim and Dan,
                       Roly Poly, cod and trout,
                       Stingelium, Stangelium,
                         You are out!—

This important person has a stick, but no hoop. From some particular
starting-point determine the distance the players may roll their hoops
before “It” is permitted to follow. The distance is optional—eight yards
or so would do, the place being designated by a house, tree or fence, as
the case may be, and made plain to all by “It” saying, “I'll stand here
and give you all a chance to reach that tree”—or whatever the object may
be—“before I follow.” At the signal, “Are you ready? Go!” from “It,” all
except “It” start rolling their hoops in the same direction. As soon as
the first player reaches the tree “It” calls out, “Coming!” and
immediately follows. The other players hearing the word “coming” scatter
in all directions while “It” endeavors to strike someone’s hoop with her
stick. When she succeeds the captive surrenders the hoop to “It,” who
scampers away with her prize to join the others. The loser, instantly
becoming “It,” starts in pursuit of the nearest hoop. She cannot,
however, strike the hoop she has just lost until the player has had time
to run several yards beyond her reach. The game continues until each
player has been “It.”

When at the circus, has not everyone seen the clown and other members of
the sawdust ring jump boldly through a hoop held in the air? They
perform the feat with such skill that it looks very simple, but it is
less easy than it appears.

                         =The Circus-hoop Game=

though, is not difficult, for a wooden hoop takes the part of the clown.
The game calls for one extra hoop large enough to allow the remaining
hoops to pass through it (Fig. 601.) Count out to determine who shall be
“It” and when that is decided let the other players take their places at
a given distance—about fifty feet—from the large hoop, which is held
perfectly still in position by “It.”

The object of the game is that each player, in turn, shall roll her hoop
through the large one without allowing the [Illustration: Fig. 601.]
rolling hoop to fall on its way to the other side of the large hoop. The
first player to miss changes places with “It” and holds the big hoop,
giving her smaller hoop to the first “It”; and the latter joins the
ranks of the players, taking the last place in the row. The second to
fail surrenders her hoop and in turn becomes “It.” The game proceeds in
this way until only one player remains who has not been obliged, through
failure, to take the part of “It.” Such a one is victorious and the
winner of the game. No player is allowed to be “It” a second time in the
same game. The second miss debarring her from any more trials, she drops
from the line to await a new game, when she will be entitled to the same
chance of winning as the others.

Racing always has its charm, and wherever there is a group of young
girls, sooner or later there will be a race of some kind. There is no
fixed number of players for the

                            =Hoop Race Game=

Still it is better not to have more than eight. In determining the
couples who shall race together, eight slender sticks or broom-straws
are used, making four pairs of straws, each pair of a different length.
A player holds the straws in her hand, showing one end of each. They are
placed evenly, all projecting out the same distance from the closed hand
(Fig. 602). When each player has drawn a straw and found her partner,
who has its mate, the two holding the longest straws roll their hoops
from the given starting-point to the goal previously determined. The
distance [Illustration: Fig. 602.] should not be more than three or four
hundred feet. The two players having the next two longest straws take
second turn. Third place belongs to the two holding the next longest
straws, leaving those with the shortest straws last. All who fail to win
the first or trial race fall out of the game, and the four victors again
draw straws for places as in the first trial. The two couples race, and
then comes the final test between the last two victors, the other two
having dropped out. The last trial is watched eagerly by the six who are
out of the game and stand as spectators on each side of the course,
cheering the players as they race after their hoops. The first to reach
the goal in this run is hailed as the champion.

When you learn to jump rope you acquire unconsciously at the same time a
delightful sense of rhythm in addition to the exercise the sport
affords. In the lively

                      =Jumping Rope Conquer Game=

the players choose a leader and use a long rope which is turned at each
end by two of the players. The others, in turn, follow the leader, doing
everything she does, even to the turn of the head and the movement of
the hands. When all is ready, the rope turning evenly and steadily
toward the leader, she runs in and through to the opposite side without
jumping, calling out “Follow me”; the other players do likewise. Then
with the rope turning away from her she runs back in, jumps once and
runs out on the opposite side. The others follow. Next the leader runs
in, jumps once, then stoops and picks up a small stone or pebble, which
has previously been placed near the rope, regaining her position in time
to jump over the rope when it next comes to her feet. Again she stoops,
lays the pebble back in place, jumps once and runs out. The others
repeat this. The leader runs in, jumps first on one foot, on the other,
then on both, and runs out. The others do likewise. The leader runs in,
calling to one of the followers to join her. They face, grasp each
other’s hands and jump. Still holding hands they raise them over their
heads and jump. The others, in couples, follow in like fashion.

[Illustration: Jumping Rope Conquer Game.]

Should the leader at any time fail, she must take an end of the rope,
and the one next in line becomes leader, while the player relieved from
turning goes to the bottom of the line, her turn coming last. At the
first miss of the second leader the player directly following takes the
leadership; each follower becomes leader in turn. When one of the
followers misses she takes an end of the rope, and the player released
goes to the bottom of the line to await her turn. The game continues
until each player has enjoyed the distinction of being leader.

                           =Going to Market=

is a jumping-rope game played by three or more. Two turn the rope, each
taking an end; they walk along, turning as they go. The other players
run in at the start and jump forward at each turn of the rope, keeping
pace with the rope-turners. As soon as one trips she changes places with
the player at the end of the rope. The point of the game is that the
entire group shall keep constantly moving forward, each player being
obliged to take an end of the rope when she fails.

In the game of

                              =Passing By=

a long rope is necessary and at least four players, two to turn and two
to jump. If more join the game, they must divide into couples and take
turns jumping, as the sport requires two to enter and jump the rope
together. The places are taken as in Fig. 603. One player is stationed
as near as possible to one end of the rope, and the other player close
to the other end on the opposite side. As the rope turns the players A
and B (Fig. 603) advance, jumping toward each other. They meet, pass and
continue on their way toward the opposite end of the rope until they
have changed positions, A being in B's place and B in A's. They return
to their first positions and run out, leaving the rope free for the next
two to have their turn.

[Illustration: Fig. 603.]

One of the liveliest rope games is

                         =Red, White and Blue=

A long rope is turned by two of the players; another runs in and jumps
once; they all sing in chorus “Red, white and blue,” slowly keeping time
with the rope, which is turned three times high in air above the head of
the jumper. The first turn is for red, the second for white, and the
third for blue. As the turners lower the rope to the ground, without
once stopping in the turning, the player jumps once, and again the rope
goes up and is turned three times in the air while the chorus is
repeated. Then, after another jump, all chant the words, “Salt,
_pepper_, MUSTARD, VINEGAR,” the rope turns very slowly for salt, faster
for pepper, still faster for mustard and at lightning speed as vinegar
is pronounced; the jumper increasing her speed at each turn of the rope.



                              CHAPTER XXIX
                     EXPENSIVE GAMES WITH LITTLE OR
                               NO EXPENSE


Everybody plays

                              =Ping Pong=

Young and old alike enjoy the game whose object is merely to strike a
small ball backward and forward over a net stretched across a table. If
you have never played the game it will seem very simple, but upon first
trial you will probably realize that keeping the ball in motion is not
as easy as it appears, for, instead of returning over the net in an
orderly manner, the ball shows an uncontrollable inclination to jump
down on the floor and hide in some obscure corner, thereby causing the
player to enter reluctantly into a game of hide-and-seek with the
tantalizing little object. However, it requires only slight practice to
gain control of the ball, and the game is then very fascinating.

Any girl may have a set of Ping Pong, for she can make it at the cost of

                             =Three Cents=

The only thing in the game necessary to purchase is a celluloid
[Illustration: 175] ball, the price of which is three cents. Other
implements needed are two rackets, a net, and the frame or stakes
supporting the net. The racket can be manufactured from a piece of
wooden box, or possibly a shingle [Illustration: Fig. 606.] which is
sound and free from knots. Wood about a quarter of an inch thick, or
more, is best for the purpose. Cut a paper pattern first as a guide for
the shape of the racket. Take a piece of paper twelve and a quarter
inches long and six wide; fold lengthwise through the centre and cut
according to dotted lines in Fig. 604. Open the paper pattern and place
it over the wood; with a lead-pencil draw a line completely around it,
then carefully saw or cut out the racket, and smooth down the rough
edges with sand-paper; make [Illustration: Fig 607.] [Illustration: Fig
608.] the second racket in the same manner. The head of the racket
should be seven inches long and six wide, the handle five and a quarter
inches long and a trifle over one inch wide (Fig. 605). Saw the stakes
from the handle of an ordinary hearth-broom, or from any strong, slender
round stick. Make each stake eight inches long and notch it at the top
(Fig. 606). As a support for the stakes use a strip of board three
inches wide, not more than one inch thick, and about four feet long. If
you have no auger to make two holes in the board for the stakes, burn
them through the centre of the ends with the red-hot point of a round
poker (Fig. 607). Be careful not to make the holes too large, have them
rather small, that the stakes when fitted in may be tight and firm. A
strip of almost any kind of cloth six inches wide, hemmed top and bottom
and cut long enough to stretch taut entirely across and above the board,
when tied from stake to stake, may serve as a net. Mosquito netting or
turkey-red cotton cloth make satisfactory strips; use whatever material
is most convenient. Fig. 608 shows the net with two narrow tapes sewed
at the four corners for tying it to top and bottom of the stakes.
Stretch the net across the centre of a table, preferably a dining-room
table, bring forth your rackets and ball, and practise playing Ping Pong
with some friend, each standing at one end of the table (Fig. 609).

[Illustration: Fig. 609.]

[Illustration: Fig. 610.]

A retriever is sometimes used for picking up the ball when it falls to
the floor, and, though not necessary, will be found very useful,
especially for beginners. Get a strong, slender stick about a yard long
and fasten a small hoop of metal or wood on one end by binding the
turned-up ends [Illustration: Fig. 611.] of the hoop securely to the
stick (Fig. 610). Test the fastening and be sure that it is firm and
strong, and that the hoop does not wobble. Then sew a little cloth bag
on the hoop (Fig. 611) and the next time the ball falls to the floor
scoop it up with the retriever.

                              =The Rules=

are similar to lawn tennis, but there is no second service, as in lawn
tennis.

The game of Ping Pong is generally for two, though four players may take
part. The double game will afford great amusement if but two rackets are
used, as the player must lay her racket down each time for her partner
to use.

The player who first strikes the ball across the net is called the
server and the other player is called the opponent. The idea of the game
is to serve the ball so as to strike the table on the opposite side of
the net. The ball is then in play. If it drops into the net, or does not
strike the table, it counts in favor of the opponent.

The opponent to whom the ball is served must endeavor to return the ball
over the net so that it will strike upon the table. The ball is thus
sent back and forth until one player or the other fails to get it over
the net so that it will bounce upon the opposite side of the table.

The ball is in play so long as it strikes the table-top and can be taken
on the first bounce. Striking before the ball bounces is not allowed.

When the game is finished the server becomes opponent and the opponent
server, and so on, alternately.

If the ball in play strikes any object above or round the table before
it bounces on the table-top itself (net or post excepted) it counts
against the player.

The server wins a stroke if the opponent fails to return the ball or
returns the ball in play off the table.

The opponent wins a stroke if the server serve a fault, or fails to
return the ball in play, or returns the ball in play so that it falls
off the table.

No volleying is allowed; but as long as the ball touches the table-top
it is in play and can be taken at half-volley. The opponent loses a
point if he takes the ball on the volley.

The player who first wins six games wins a set.

The service must be strictly underhand and delivered from behind the end
of the table.

                               =Scoring=

Your opponent scores—If you do not return the ball; if you strike the
ball before it touches the table; if the ball bounces twice.

You score—If your opponent strike the ball out of play or bounces the
ball his side of the net.

On either player winning his first stroke, the score is called 15 for
that player; on either player winning his second stroke, the score is
called 30 for that player; on either player winning his third stroke,
the score is called 40 for that player, and the fourth stroke won by
either player is scored game for that player, except when both players
have won three strokes (40 all); the score is then called deuce, and the
next stroke won by either player is scored advantage to that player. If
the same player wins the next stroke, he wins the game; if he loses the
next stroke, the score is again called deuce, and so on, until either
player wins the two strokes immediately following the score of deuce,
when the game is scored for that player. In naming the score the server
is always mentioned first, for convenience, as 30-15, signifying 30 for
server and 15 for opponent.

                       =Terms Used in Ping Pong=

_Let_ means that the ball, while being served, touches the net in
passing over, and the server has the privilege of serving again. If the
opponent makes a let stroke it counts, the same as if the ball had
cleared the net.

_Volleying_ means striking the ball before it bounces.

_Half-volleying_ means striking the ball just as it bounces.

_Underhand stroke_ means striking the ball with the head of the racket
pointed downward.

_Overhand stroke_ means striking the ball with the head of the racket
pointed upward.

_All_ means same score for both players—as 30 all, meaning 30 for server
and 30 for opponent.

_Deuce_ means a tie.

                               =The Game=

Begin by taking plenty of time and serving slowly. Remember to strike
the ball lightly; too much force will send it flying to the other end of
the room, which is to be avoided. Keep cool and think what you are
doing.

Your mind must be centred entirely upon the game. Grasp your racket
close to the head, and when serving keep your racket down; the ball must
not be held above the waistline and must be served beyond the end of the
table.

The writer once knew,

              =A Little Girl who was Very Fond of Playing=

out of doors, and when confined to the house by inclement weather, a bad
cold, or some other disagreeable thing, was very apt to grow restless
and fretful, complaining always that she did not know what to do. She
had any quantity of beautiful toys, but, as she said, she was tired of
them all.

Then it was that the family would induce her to try to make something
for herself, and when once she became interested in her work, and found
that by her own ingenuity she could manufacture, from odds and ends,
many interesting little toys, her restlessness vanished, and she was
once more cheerful, happy, and contented.

At one time she had a book presented to her which gave the patterns and
directions for making a few little articles—a very few it seemed to her,
for she speedily did all the work laid out there, and was again thrown
on her own resources for new ideas.

A Make-believe Sewing-machine

When she was quite a small child, too young to be allowed to sew on a
real sewing-machine, she constructed a machine which, with the aid of
her imagination, did very good work. Of course she could not really sew
on it, but neither could she have done so had it been a “sure-enough”
sewing-machine, and there was sufficient reality about it to make her
play very absorbing.

The small wheels on top went round with a whiz and a whirr that filled
her soul with delight. There were two wheels, because they were the
remnants of a mechanical toy, a horse and sulky, which was once driven
by a handsome tin jockey. The horse and jockey were gone, but the wheels
and machinery remained. The key to the clock-like works was likewise
missing, but it was very easy to wind up the spring by turning one of
the wheels round and round a number of times. Once wound up, the wheels
were bound to go until the machinery ran down again, and it was while
going at full speed that the pretended sewing was done.

No, these two wheels were not all of the sewing-machine by any means.
There was the arm made of pasteboard, with needle attached, which,
shaken by the vibration of the turning wheels, moved up and down quite
naturally. All this was on top of a small table, underneath was the
treadle made of the back of an old geography laid across a piece of
kindling wood. The treadle would sometimes slip out of place with the
rapid movement of the little girl’s feet, but that was of no
consequence, since it was only the work of a moment to replace it. The
fact that there was no large wheel mattered nothing either, for the
little seamstress felt her feet moving up and down, saw the wheels
whirling on top, and was satisfied without a wheel that could not be
seen anyway.

The sewing-machine was such an ambitious idea that it required some
imagination to carry it out successfully, but there were other things
this little girl made which were quite complete in themselves, such as
toy houses, furniture, and dolls.

Knowing how thankfully this same little maid received any suggestions
which would assist her in the manufacture of her home-made toys, I take
it for granted there are other children who will be just as grateful for
new ideas and who are just as happy in carrying them out. If you happen
to be such a little girl, you will be glad to learn about this impromptu
game of croquet which you can make for yourself in half an hour and
enjoy the use of for many a long day.

                     =To Make a Parlor Croquet Set=

Diagram No. 612 shows the arches, of which there must be nine, all made
of wire bent in the shape you see, with each of the ends thrust into a
button-mould. To prevent the wire from slipping out, fill the holes with
beeswax, and then push the wire in; this will make the arches quite
strong and steady.

[Illustration: Fig. 612.]

The mallets, as shown, are made of empty spools, with long wire nails
driven in for handles. The stakes are made of wire nails stuck in
button-moulds, like the one seen at the bottom of diagram No. 612. You
will need two stakes and four mallets. Marbles, all of the same kind,
but with different markings, take the places of croquet balls.

Not an expensive set of croquet, surely. The spools, wire,
button-moulds, and nails you will probably find in the house, and the
marbles also, if you happen to have a small brother; if not, you can buy
them seven for one cent.

                       =How to Arrange the Game=

The parlor croquet should be played on a good-sized table covered with a
woollen cloth. Place the stakes and arches in the position shown in
diagram No. 613. Let the stakes stand forty inches apart. Place arch No.
1 four inches from the starting stake, arch No. 2 four inches from No.
1, arch No. 3 eight inches to the right and one inch in advance of No.
2, arch No. 4 twelve inches in advance of and on a line with No. 2.
Begin at the other stake and place the arches at the same relative
distances.

[Illustration: Fig. 613.]

                          =Rules for Playing=

First—The object of the game is for each player to send her ball through
each arch in turn, beginning at No. 1 and using her mallet for striking
her ball. When a ball has passed through arches Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
and 7, according to their numbers, it must strike the stake just beyond
No. 7, then returning through arches 7 and 6, it must move on through
No. 8, through No. 4 again in the direction opposite to the one taken in
its first passage; then through arches Nos. 9, 2 and 1, striking the
stake to “go out,” and the first player to do this wins the game.

Second—To decide who shall open the game, or be the first to play, each
player in turn shall place her ball (marble) directly under the first
arch and play for the stake. The one whose ball, after playing, stands
nearest the stake has the privilege of the first turn, the next nearest
the second turn, and so on.

Third—The first play with each ball shall be made after placing it half
way between the starting stake and arch No. 1, and the player may aim
for the arch or any ball which has entered the game, or may send her
ball in any direction she may choose.

Fourth—A ball failing to make its first arch must remain where it rests
until next turn; passing through its arch gives the player another play.

Fifth—When a ball strikes another the player may croquet or roquet the
ball in any direction she wishes, and then have another play. No ball
may croquet or roquet another more than once in one turn unless it
passes through an arch or strikes the stake between the croquets.

To croquet a ball the player places her ball touching the one it has
just struck; then, resting her finger on her own ball to hold it steady,
she strikes her ball with her mallet, sending the other in any desired
direction. To roquet a ball the player places her ball touching the one
just struck and strikes her ball, moving them both at the same time.

Sixth—A ball rolling off the table must be replaced at the point where
it went off two inches from the edge.

Seventh—When a ball has passed through all of the arches it becomes a
“rover,” and need not strike the starting stake and go out until the
player wishes. A rover has the privilege of croqueting or roqueting any
or all of the other balls in each turn, but may play on each ball only
once during one turn.

Eighth—The game may be played with partners, or each may play for
herself. When there are partners each side takes a turn alternately.

[Illustration: A Dash for the Goal.]



                              CHAPTER XXX
                              BASKET BALL


With the opening of the basket-ball season the girls are all wide-awake,
interested, and eager to enter the teams; there is an exciting dash and
life about the game which renders it very fascinating.

If you can organize a set of ten players and divide the

                          =Cost of an Outfit=

among the girls, each contributing an equal portion, the individual
expense need not be exorbitant.

The price of a good basket ball is four dollars, and a pair of goal
baskets the same amount, making in all eight dollars, just eighty cents
each, a small amount when compared with the fun, health, and general
benefit to be derived from the sport. The expense will be even less if
shared by the officials.

It is optional whether you play indoors or out of doors; the game is
suited to either place. The size of a

                            =Playing Ground=

varies in different localities, being regulated according to available
space, but it must not exceed 3,500 square feet.

[Illustration: Fig. 614.]

Mark out your field, making the width less than the length, according to
Fig. 614. If indoors, use black paint for marking the inch and a half
wide boundary lines; if out in the open air have the lines white, of the
same width as the black, and made with either whitewash, chalk, paint,
or plaster-of-paris.

You must have the side boundaries of the field at least three feet from
the wall or fence, and the end boundaries directly below the pole or
wall surface against which the basket goals are placed. The inclosed
field is divided into three portions (Fig. 614). Two more inclosures are
necessary, called foul limits; make them inside the two end divisions,
Figs. 614. The boundary line of the curved end must be equally six feet
distant all around from station line indicated by a short straight line
in the centre of the inner end of foul limits in both divisions; the
station line must be fifteen feet from the goal or outer edge of basket;
the space across from the straight lines of the foul limits must measure
six feet.

Mark centre of field with a circle of a foot and half radius (Fig. 614),
or two lines one and a half feet apart. If marked by circle the girls
playing centres must stand within it; if two lines are used they must
toe the lines. Hang your

                               =Baskets=

ten feet above the ground on the centre of each extreme end boundary
line (Fig. 614, C and C). Be perfectly sure that the basket goals are
firmly fastened in place and rigidly supported either on a strong
upright pole, or on a wall [Illustration: Fig. 615.] surface. If on
poles it is better to have a screen six feet wide and four high as a
background, though this is not absolutely necessary. During practice and
ordinary games leave the netting open at the bottom of the basket, that
the ball may fall through the basket to the floor or ground beneath, it
being difficult for girls to get the ball out of the basket when it is
closed at the bottom. Using a pole to push the ball out is not always
attended with satisfactory results, and the effort consumes valuable
time and strength.

[Illustration: Fig. 626.]

The baskets are called the goals; usually they are hammock nets of cord,
sometimes metal chain links; they are always suspended from metal rings
eighteen inches in diameter (inside). The back part of the metal ring is
fastened to an iron bar which extends six inches from the pole or wall
to which it is attached (Fig. 615). The

                                 =Ball=

is round and hollow, composed of two layers, an inside rubber bladder
and an outside cover of leather. The rubber is tightly inflated and the
cover so laced that it cannot be caught or held by the lacing. The ball
measures from thirty to thirty-two inches in circumference and weighs
from eighteen to twenty ounces (Fig. 616).

The usual

                            =Set of Players=

is ten, making five on each side, though the game is occasionally played
with more. The set sometimes numbers as many as twenty members, ten on
each side; but such teams are rare, and generally undesirable. Large
teams crowd the field to such a degree that very little skill is
required to reach the goal, and action to a great extent is rendered
almost impossible.

Each side chooses its own

                               =Captain=

who must be one of the five girls constituting the side. There are
always two captains in a game, and they should be selected with care, as
much depends upon their proper qualifications for holding the office. In
addition to other duties, the captains toss for the choice of goals, are
active players in the game, represent their respective sides, and are
entitled to call the attention of the officials to any violation of the
rules which they may think has occurred; it is their further duty to
furnish the scorer with lists of their sides, giving the positions of
the players. The captain appoints the forwards, guards, and centre.

The game calls for nine more girls; these do not take active part in the
play, but hold positions as officials. The officials with a set of ten
players necessitate nineteen girls for the usual game. The nine

                              =Officials=

are one referee, two umpires, a scorer, a time-keeper, and four
linesmen. Always choose your

                               =Referee=

at least four days before the game. She must be absolutely neutral and
perfectly impartial; to her belongs the honor of holding the most
important office in the game. It is the referee’s duty to see that the
regulations respecting the ball, goal, and grounds are adhered to.

By mutual agreement of the captains, the referee may allow alterations
in the rules regarding time and grounds, but not as regards goal, ball,
or team. Before the commencement of the game she must ascertain the time
for beginning, or any other arrangements that have been made by the
captains.

The referee must watch the ball constantly, following it wherever it
goes. She must know at all times the whereabouts of the ball, as her
office constitutes her judge of it, and she must decide when the ball is
in play, to whom it belongs, and when a goal has been made. Every time
the ball is put in play the referee tosses it up, she alone having the
right to do so. The referee calls time, when necessary, by blowing a
whistle, and she must always call a foul when any player addresses an
officer. No player is allowed to talk to the officials, though anyone
may speak to the captain and the captain can address the officers; in
that way only are the players able to communicate with the officers.

The referee decides all questions not definitely falling to the umpires
and linesmen, scorer and time-keeper, but is powerless to alter a
decision of the umpire or linesmen regarding matters under their
jurisdiction.

The referee instructs the team when to play, and either side refusing to
begin the game within three minutes after the whistle sounds forfeits
the game.

The referee’s term of office expires at the conclusion of the game, and
her decision awarding the game must be given then, as she no longer has
power to act as referee. The referee must disqualify members when they
are guilty of shouldering, tripping, striking, kicking, hacking, or of
intentional or unnecessary roughness of any kind. These constitute
fouls, and the referee overlooks the first offence, but not the second.
When a player is disqualified she must drop from the game and a
substitute take her place. A foul is a violation of the rules, whether
committed unintentionally, ignorantly, or otherwise; the only guide an
officer has is the cold fact that a foul has been made.

Each team chooses its own

                                =Umpire=

who must be a thoroughly competent and impartial girl. The umpires call
all fouls except cases coming under the authority of the referee; when
the fouls are made by players crossing the field lines, linesmen judge
them.

Each umpire makes her own decision independently of the other, but a
foul called by one umpire cannot be questioned by the other. The umpire
calls time by blowing a whistle when stating a foul and indicating the
offender; she reports to the scorer the player at fault and the nature
of the foul. The referee appoints the

                                =Scorer=

who must keep the score. She must be perfectly neutral. It is the
scorer’s duty to notify the referee when a player should be disqualified
for any kind of roughness. The referee appoints the

                             =Time-keeper=

who must be exact about the time, noting when the game starts, and
blowing her whistle at the expiration of the actual playing time in each
half previously agreed upon by captains and referee. The time-keeper
must take out time when called upon to do so by the referee. The captain
is privileged to ask the referee to call time for an injured player or
when a difference has occurred between the captain and an official. The
half game is generally fifteen minutes, making the entire game thirty
minutes, not counting the intermission. The playing time may be
shortened to ten minutes for each half or lengthened to twenty for each
half. The referee only may order time deducted for necessary stoppages,
should any occur during the game. The four

                               =Linesmen=

are appointed by the referee; two for each side. These four girls
usually stand at the four corners of the centre division, and it is
their duty to report if any of the players step on or cross over the
dividing lines. Such offences are counted fouls. When the ball happens
to be thrown outside the field boundary lines the players are allowed to
rush after it, but are not allowed to go beyond the dividing lines when
in the field.

All the girls should be in their

                         =Places on the Field=

ready to begin the game at the appointed signal. Fig. 617 will assist
you in gaining a clear understanding of the different positions occupied
by the various members of the team when in position to commence play.
The object of the game is to _throw the ball into the opponent’s
basket_, and this is best accomplished by the girls being coupled with
opponents and stationed at various places all over the field. In
[Illustration: Fig. 617.] Fig. 617 the girls on one side are represented
by circles, those on the other side by crosses. We will suppose that the
two captains have tossed for goals, and that to the circles has fallen
the goal G and to the crosses the goal H. In the centre of the field are
grouped three girls, one player from each side, and the referee, who is
here indicated by a triangle.

The referee stands with the ball in her hands, facing the other two
girls, having her back turned toward the side of the field (Fig. 617).

It is optional on which side of the centres the referee is stationed.

The two players stand facing each other with their sides turned toward
the referee, and each has her back toward her own goal (Fig. 618). These
two players, circle and cross, are known as

                               =Centres=

There are always two centres in a game, and it is their duty to jump
quickly for the ball as it leaves the hands of the referee, who opens
the game by tossing the ball vertically in the air immediately between
and not more than two feet [Illustration: Circle Centre. Triangle
Referee. Cross Centre.—Fig. 618.] from the centres. Fig. 618 shows the
referee ready to toss the ball. Each centre endeavors to catch the ball
and pass it to one of the forwards on her own side, with the hope that
it may, sooner or later, land in her opponent’s basket; at the same time
she tries to prevent the ball from being passed by the opponent’s guards
across the centre of the field toward her basket.

The centres must confine their play within the central space; they
cannot step across the dividing lines running from side to side of the
central division of the field. In each of the end divisions are
stationed two girls called forwards and two others known as guards;
their duties are implied by their titles. The forwards endeavor to
forward the ball to their opponents’ basket, and the guards guard their
own goals, striving to prevent the opponent forwards throwing the ball
into their basket. In Fig. 617 the circle

                               =Forwards=

are in the end near their opponents’ basket H, that they may have a
better opportunity of sending the ball into it, and the cross forwards
are on the other end of the field near the circle’s basket trying to
engineer the ball into that goal. You will notice that the guards on
each end protect their own basket. Standing by each cross forward is a
circle

                                =Guard=

who endeavors to prevent an opponent from succeeding in her efforts for
the goal, and on the cross end of the field the two cross guards are
trying to protect their basket from the circle forwards.

The stars in Fig. 617 stand for the four linesmen, who must be
continually on the _qui vive_ and report if a girl steps over the
dividing lines.

Each umpire watches both sides; generally one umpire walks about just
outside the field boundary line on one side of the field, and the other
walks just outside the boundary on the other side of the field. It is
optional which side they take, but they should not both be stationed on
the same side. Fig. 617 shows the circle umpire on the right hand, and
the cross umpire on the left hand of the field. The umpires are
designated by circle and cross, with rays extending all around them.

The time-keeper stands outside of the field, that she may not interfere
with the action of the players; other than that restriction, she may
move as she pleases. In Fig. 617 the time-keeper is denoted by a round
black spot.

The scorer must also keep out of the field proper and have her mind on
her portion of the work. In Fig. 617 the scorer is designated by a
square.

When all stand ready the

                                 =Game=

begins. The referee tosses up the ball, and every one of the players on
the field eagerly watches the two centres as they strive to catch the
ball. The centre, gaining the advantage, endeavors to toss it to a girl
on her own side, while the other centre does all in her power to prevent
the ball from reaching its destination, often running in front of the
victorious centre, blocking the way and still further interfering by
throwing up her arms. If the first centre succeeds in tossing the ball
to one of the forwards on her side, that forward immediately strives to
get the ball in the opponent’s basket, but is constantly followed and
opposed by the opponent guard, who endeavors to frustrate the play.
Should the forward decide that the chances for gaining the goal are
better if she throws the ball to another girl on her side, she does so
with the hope that the other forward will succeed in caging the ball.
If, however, the last forward be baffled, she tosses the ball either to
her own centre, back to the first forward, or over across the field to
one of her own guards, anywhere the rule permits in order to keep the
ball from the hands of the opponents.

If one of the opponent forwards succeeds in capturing the ball she tries
either indirectly, with the aid of others on her side, or directly, by
her own exertions, to cage the ball in the basket of the opposite side.

The centre catching the ball from the referee is privileged to throw it
to any player on her own side, either forwards or guards, at one end or
the other of the field, her action depending upon circumstances.
Sometimes it is more advantageous to toss the ball in one direction,
again it is better to throw it in another. Therein lies the secret of
good playing, the ability to see opportunities in time to profit by them
and quickness and accuracy in measuring distances, so that the ball may
land where the player intends to send it, not falling short or getting
too far. The opponent centre constantly follows the centre having the
ball, and is ever at her side trying to obtain the ball or prevent it
from reaching its destination.

The forward catching the ball after it has been advanced to her by her
own centre or by guards from the other end of the field, or obtaining it
from an opponent, generally throws for the basket, and she must be able
to make the goal under many difficulties and from various positions.
Should the ball miss the basket the forward will have no time for
regrets, it being necessary for her to turn her immediate attention to
regaining possession of the ball or to preventing it from falling into
the hands of the opposing guard.

The forward must have a cool head, must be calm, and able to decide and
judge quickly; she must take the situation in at a glance and make the
most of any, even the slightest, opportunity of forwarding the interest
of her side.

The guard’s principal duty is to prevent opponents from getting the ball
into the basket belonging to the guard’s team, and when possible to
obtain the ball and throw it to the centre on her side, or across to her
own forwards.

The guard’s position requires that she be very skilful and constantly on
the watch to defend her goal.

The players are on the field in couples, but the two standing together
are always opponents; a player is never stationed by one of her own
side. The game is thus in part played in couples, that is, the two
placed together pay especial attention to each other and are, for the
time being, each the particular opponent of the other, trying to foil
all efforts of the other to gain any advantages in the game, at the same
time endeavoring to assist the players on her own side.

The inner divisions for fouls, Fig. 614, are ignored except when a foul
has been made; then the side opposed to the one committing the foul has
a free throw for the basket and the foul court is in use. The player
having the free throw stands on the line in the centre of the circle of
the foul division (Fig. 614), and must be allowed to take time to aim
well and throw for the basket. No other player is permitted to stand in
or pass through the limits of this court while the player with the ball
is trying for the goal. The object in marking the inclosure is to
prevent any other girl approaching nearer than six feet to the player
throwing for the basket. The foul court must be absolutely free from all
obstruction during a free throw, nor shall the player having a free
throw step from the station line until the ball has entered or missed
the goal.

When a player is given the privilege of a free throw, the ball cannot be
tossed to any other player; it must be thrown for the basket. Should
this rule be violated, the goal will not count if made, and the referee
takes the ball and tosses it up in the centre as at the beginning of the
game. If by chance the free player is interfered with in any way, and
she fails to make the goal, she can try again, and then, in case the
ball does not land in the basket, the ball is in play and the game
continues.

The ball may be thrown or batted with the flat part of the hand in any
direction, either with one or both hands.

While in the field a girl cannot carry the ball nor hold it longer than
three seconds; she must play it from the spot where she catches it,
unless she happens to be running. If while running she catches the ball,
she must stop as soon as possible; should she fail to do so, in the
opinion of the umpire, the umpire may call a foul. When the player
captures the ball she either throws it at once or stops running as soon
as possible. Allowance is made in such cases, but the player cannot
consume time by turning around without making progress in the game.

A player cannot bound the ball on the floor more than three times, and
never lower than the height of the knee; however, this does not
interfere with her throwing for a goal twice or more in succession.

The player who has the ball is the only one in the field who may be
intentionally blocked in her way; all other players must be free from
intentional interference.

The foul which disqualifies a player counts against her side.

The ball is

                            =Out of Bounds=

when it completely crosses the boundary line of the field. Should it
bounce or roll back again the game continues, except if the whistle of
the referee is blown; then the ball is put in play as if it had not
returned to the field.

The time allowed for a game is always divided; when the first part has
been played, time is called for a rest by the whistle of the
time-keeper. Generally the intermission lasts ten minutes, sometimes
longer, the game being resumed after the recess. While resting the
players wrap themselves up to keep from taking cold, and are not
permitted to drink cold water.

After each goal the referee puts the ball in play in the centre of the
field; this she must also do at the commencement of the game and at the
beginning of the second half of the game. At the end of the first half
the sides change goals, except in case of a tie, when the game continues
without changing goals until either side has made two additional points.
These points may be made either from field or from fouls. The game is
won by the side scoring the greater number of points during the entire
game.

If the goal (in case of uprights) is moved by an opponent when the ball
is on its edge, one point is scored by the side throwing the ball.

The game is decided by the winning of the most points in the actual
playing time. When there are two fouls at once on opposite sides, each
side has a free throw for the basket; afterward the ball is put in play
from the centre by the referee. Whenever it becomes necessary for the
referee to call “time,” because of illness or accident to a player, play
must be resumed in five minutes. If the injured player is unable to
resume play

                             =A Substitute=

may take her place, or the game may start at once without her. If a
substitute takes her place she cannot play again during that game.

                                =Rules=

A goal made from the field counts two points; made from a foul, one
point. If a player by mistake should throw the ball in her own basket,
it counts for the opponents.

After time has been called the referee puts the ball in play by tossing
it up in such a manner that it will drop near the spot where it was when
time was called, unless it was held out of bounds. In this case play is
resumed at the whistle of the referee as if time has not been called.

The two opponents nearest this spot when time was called vie with each
other to obtain the ball after play is resumed. They are indicated by
the umpire.

When the ball is held by two or more players for any length of time the
referee blows her whistle, stops the play and throws the ball up from
where it was held.

Whenever the ball is put in play the players who are to first touch the
ball must not stand further than two feet from the spot where the ball
is to fall.

When the ball goes out of bounds and remains there, it must be returned
by the player first _touching_ it. There can be no interference with her
returning it; that is, no portion of the person of an opponent may be
outside of the field of play. The ball cannot be touched by an opponent
until it has crossed the line. If either of these rules is violated, the
ball is to be returned to the player who had it and the ball again put
in play at the original place.

The player holding the ball may throw it in any direction into the field
of play from any spot (outside of bounds) on a line drawn at right
angles to the boundary line at the point where the ball crossed it. The
ball must be _thrown_ into the field of play. When either of these rules
is violated the ball goes to the opponents at the same spot. The ball
must be thrown to some player and disposed of before the player who
passed it can again play it.

When a player obtains possession of the ball outside the limits of the
field she is allowed five seconds to hold it; if the ball is held longer
it goes to the opponents. In case of doubt in the mind of the referee as
to which player first touched the ball, she tosses it up into the field
of play at the spot where it went out.

When the ball is _batted_, _rolled_ or _passed_ from the field of play,
in order _to claim exemption_ from interference it must be given to the
opponents at the point where it left the field of play. When it is
passed to a player out of bounds the ball is given to the other side.
_Carrying_ the ball from the field of play is a foul. When the centres
are jumping for the ball and one of them bats it to out of bounds, it is
in play and goes to the other side.

A goal scored by a player while any part of her person touches the
ground out of bounds shall not count. In such a case the ball is put in
play in the centre of the field.

If a player throws for the goal and the whistle of the referee, umpire,
or time-keeper sounds while the ball is in the air, and the throw
results in a goal, it is a count.

When the umpire’s whistle sounds simultaneously with either the
referee’s or time-keeper’s, the umpire’s takes precedence.

A goal scored before the whistle can be blown for a foul made by the
side scoring, does not count; but if a player while throwing for the
goal is fouled by an opponent and succeeds in scoring, both count.

Two hands on a ball are necessary to secure it. In case of doubt in the
mind of the referee as to which player first put her two hands on the
ball, she shall toss it up at the spot where it was held by the players.
In no case may a player remove the ball from the hands of an opposing
player, either by _snatching_ or _batting_.

The ball may not be held longer than three seconds.

The ball may not be “juggled”; _i.e._, tossed into the air and caught
again to evade holding.

Crossing field lines with any part of the body constitutes a foul.

No player may lean over or reach over another player.

No player may hand the ball to another player. The ball must be _thrown_
to another player.

                            =General Fouls=

Players addressing officers.

Kicking or striking ball.

Carrying ball.

Bounding ball more than three times, lower than the knee.

Holding longer than three seconds.

Delaying game.

Tackling, holding, pushing opponents.

Snatching or batting ball from hands of opponent.

Juggling.

Crossing or stepping on the field lines.

Leaning or reaching over another player.

             =Fouls for Which Players May be Disqualified.=

Roughness.

Striking.

Kicking.

Shouldering.

Tripping.

Hacking.

Unnecessarily rough play.

Should any question come up not covered by these rules the officers may
decide the matter in accordance with the spirit of the game.

These official rules are intended especially for girls' basket ball as
played in most of the well-known colleges, Vassar, Bryn Mawr, Smith,
Wellesley, etc., and by the majority of schools except in and around New
York, in which section both girls and boys play the boys’ game. This
differs from the girls’ in having greater freedom and consequently more
action, players being allowed to run to any part where they think they
can be of most use within the extreme limits of the field. The dividing
lines from side to side of the field are omitted, and the girls must be
equal to greater exertion and more violent action for the boys' game.

The girls’ game is considered the safest and best for them, being
adapted for girls; yet some champion players prophesy that ere long the
boys’ game will be the one generally played by both girls and boys. If
girls enter into the boys’ game they must keep in training that their
strength may equal the demands. They must not shed one tear when
occasionally hurt, though such accidents need not occur if all rudeness
is avoided. Should one girl unintentionally run against another during
the game, precious moments cannot be wasted in apologies, there being no
time for either excuses or tears. While the sport is going on the
player’s mind should be all earnestness and determination, too intent
upon the game to allow thoughts for other things. Girls will soon
acquire greater moral and physical courage by playing basket ball, and
sufficient nerve to keep back the tears. Their self-control will be
vastly improved and their endurance, strength, quickness of action, and
judgment rapidly strengthened. All these qualities are essential, not
only in basket ball, but in helping one to understand the art of living.

Players should wear tennis

                               =Slippers=

in order to avoid slipping, sliding, and injuring one another with heavy
heels, should one player accidentally step on the toes of another. The

                            =Gymnasium Suit=

of short, full, divided skirt, gathered zouave fashion at the knee, and
a loose woollen blouse or sweater, forms a comfortable, sensible uniform
for basket ball. If desired at knee-length skirt of stout material may
take the place of the divided skirt, but never attempt to play in a long
dress or tight clothing.



                              CHAPTER XXXI
                   SOME OF OUR OUT-DOOR NEIGHBORS AND
                         WHERE TO LOOK FOR THEM


The word grows broader and is more and more filled with meaning as we
begin to understand that “neighbor” may embrace in its kindliness not
alone the whole human race, but all the animal creation with which we
come in contact.

These denizens of the woods and fields are indeed our neighbors, and so
also are the queer folk whose lives are partly or wholly spent in the
water. When we learn to look for them we will find life full of the
beauty, the music, and the good-will of our little friends and
neighbors.

Few of these out-door acquaintances force themselves upon us; they are
not at all sure of their welcome, so we must keep our eyes and ears open
that we may learn their haunts and meet them at least half way. While
strolling in the country it is pleasant to walk along laughing and
singing as we go, but we must refrain if we really wish to come near any
of the bright-eyed, suspicious little creatures. They can only be
approached very quietly, for wild things understand an unusual noise
only as a danger signal, and will start in alarm at the least sound or
sudden motion, and be up and off before we are conscious of their
presence.

A little book for

                          =Observation Notes=

divided off into spaces, each space having a heading, as in Fig. 619,
will be of great value in identifying the animals, [Illustration: Fig.
619.] birds, and insects you may meet, and in keeping such records, your
interest will deepen and your love for Nature and all her children
greatly increase.

Carry the book with you, and make the notes on the spot. Do not wait
until you reach home, depending upon your memory; it may sometimes play
you false. Write nothing under the heading of “Identification” until you
are quite sure you recognize the creature you are studying; for this one
entry it will be best to wait until you can consult a reliable book on
the subject, and then carefully compare your notes with what the
naturalist gives as facts.

If your stroll leads you through the woods listen for the chatter of

                             =The Squirrel=

This saucy rodent belongs to a large family, with many branches and
ramifications, and squirrels of some kind are to be found in almost any
wooded spot.

The scolding remonstrance to your invasion of his domain will probably
reach you before you catch a glimpse of him; but sit down and wait
quietly, Mr. Squirrel will soon appear, and very likely his little wife
will follow him. Cautious, alert, yet really unafraid, they will
approach nearer and nearer, until they are quite close enough for you to
mark their peculiarities and decide to which branch of their family they
belong. You may even pass the compliments of the day with your little
host if you speak gently and softly. They are not timid animals, and
will quickly make friends with anyone who treats them kindly. In
Daytona, Fla., where they are absolutely undisturbed, the squirrels are
very numerous, filling the great moss-laden trees, scampering over the
lawns and fences and even eating from the hands of those who will
regularly feed them, all the while living in entire freedom, without
restraint of any kind.

Wherever you may find the squirrels, their nest is probably close by,
hidden in a hole in one of the trees. Be careful how you thrust your
hand into such an opening, however, for squirrels have sharp teeth and
may resent such undue familiarity. About the first of April the nest
will be filled with a promising family of little ones from four to six
in number, and if you can take such a family under your supervision and
“grow up with them,” as it were, you will be amply repaid by the
amusement the merry little creatures will afford and by the opportunity
to observe, with the privilege of an intimate friend, their
house-keeping and manner of life.

You will know

                           =The Red Squirrel=

by his color, during the summer it is a red-brown with a white vest
bordered on the sides with a dark line. He changes his coat twice a
year, and his winter garment is duller and not nearly so red, while the
vest is gray without the dark border.

When you find a squirrel’s nest in the crotch of a tree instead of in a
hole you may be pretty sure it belongs to the gray squirrel, which is
said to be the most easily tamed of all its family.

Do not mistake

                             =The Chipmunk=

for a squirrel, although he does resemble one and his lively chatter
seems to be in the same language. He is, in fact, sometimes called a
ground squirrel, but in reality he is only a distant cousin.

You will not be so apt to find him in the interior of the woods as in
more open places; his favorite promenade is the top of a stone wall or
rail fence. He is a little fellow with a flat, bushy tail and
well-developed cheek pouches, which he fills with seeds and nuts until
his cheeks are puffed out equal to a boy’s when he eats an apple.

The tawny little chipmunk of the Eastern States has two white stripes
and five narrow black ones down its back. In the West there are other
varieties, the little black and white striped fellow of the Rocky
Mountains being the prettiest and tamest.

The chipmunk is an engaging little creature, tamer even than the
squirrel, and he will often come close to the house and sometimes enter
it in search of food, it is the dogs that generally drive him away, for
no dog, however well behaved, can resist chasing a chipmunk. He is easy
game, for he seldom climbs a tree, and unless he can find refuge in his
hole or under the wood-pile his life is soon the forfeit.

Do not look in a tree for the chipmunk’s nest, you will not find it
there, but perhaps at the foot of the very pine under which you are
standing, or beneath the large rock which lies in your path there is a
small hole opening into a little hollow, and in this underground chamber
is the soft, warm nest and the store of food which the chipmunk has
providently laid by. Here it sleeps through the cold winter months,
waking only to eat a few nuts, seeds, or grains of corn, soon to drowse
again, and remain asleep until spring has come once more.

When you see a small, brown, long-bodied animal, not much larger than a
rat, running swiftly along the ground, you may be pretty sure it is our
neighbor

                              =The Weasel=

His home is probably near the river or the borders of the meadow, but he
hunts his game with such intelligence and persistence it is possible to
meet him almost anywhere. We frequently hear this little animal spoken
of, not always with praise, and it is strange he so seldom crosses our
path, for he does not stand in much fear of his human neighbors. The
weasel is very quick and active, and also quite inquisitive; it lives on
frogs, birds, eggs, and mice, and the farmers complain that it seeks
larger game in their poultry yards.

Mr. Dan Beard tells an interesting story of a walk in the woods where he
found a weasel asleep in a deserted crow’s nest at the top of a tall
tree. It is possible the little brown intruder might have been able to
explain just why the nest was empty of all save himself.

The sharpness and cunning of the weasel’s character is shown in its
face. A low forehead, pointed nose, eyes small and penetrating plainly
denote these qualities, yet it is a most interesting little animal and
well worth all the study and observation you can give it.

A very small neighbor to be found on the borders of the woods or a shady
road is the pretty, harmless

                              =Salamander=

Seldom more than two and one-half inches long, this little creature is
slender and daintily made, with a tail quite the length of its head and
body. Its skin is smooth, not scaled like the lizard’s, and is generally
brilliant in color. One variety is bright red, darker on the back, where
it has spots of a brighter red encircled with dark rings. I have found
many of them in Pike County, Pa., and always in damp places, though
never in the water. There is another kind that lives in the water, but
my little red friends, while loving dampness, remain always on land. You
will generally find them under stones or logs, and after a shower they
are also to be met in the open, though they do not travel far from their
haunts. Take one up in your hand and examine the delicate forefeet, so
much like fairy hands. They will cling to your finger in the most
winning fashion and you may examine the little animal at leisure, for it
is clean and harmless. If you wish to keep the salamander for further
study, place it in a perforated box with damp moss or even damp
blotting-paper, and remember to keep it moist, otherwise it will simply
dry up. I know whereof I speak, for a friend who was with me in the
mountains, wishing to carry two of the salamanders home with her, placed
them in a box without moisture of any kind and when we lifted the lid
the next morning the poor little creatures were dead and as dry as two
sticks.

The salamander feeds on small insects, but I have never seen them eat in
captivity. That they may be safely transported and established in new
homes has been proved, for a gentleman from Seattle, Wash., who was
visiting at our Pike County, Pa., camp, became so deeply interested in
these creatures he took a pail of them across the continent, and at last
accounts they were living in his garden, to all appearances quite as
comfortably as in their native woods.

On the trunks of some of the great trees you are passing you may
possibly see a number of queer, semi-transparent shells. These are the
cast-off armor of

                             =The Cicadas=

Locusts you will probably call them, but that name rightly belongs to
quite another insect. Perfect in every detail, even to the great bulging
eyes, the cicada’s little coat of mail clings to the tree with its six
pairs of claws like a live creature, and only a split down its back
shows its emptiness and tells how the cicada crept from the old into a
newer and fuller life.

The shells one usually finds belong to quite a large black and green
insect, one of the more common species of cicada. This is called the
dog-day harvest fly, and requires but two years to develop, while the
smaller red and black variety is known as the “seventeen year locust,”
because it spends seventeen years of its life underground before it
reaches maturity. All this while it bears the name of nymph. A pretty
name for the young insect, isn’t it?

The nymph began life as an egg which its mother deposited, with a number
of others, in a slit she made in a twig of a tree. For six weeks it lay
snugly in its narrow bed, then came forth a tiny white creature, with
little legs which carried it about in a lively manner. Its mouth was
simply a hollow tube which would change into jaws later on. For a while
the nymph was happy in its new-found life, then [Illustration: Cicada
and Shell.] suddenly a longing for quiet seemed to come over it and it
dropped to the ground, there to bury itself in the earth, which was to
be its home for many years.

Down in the mysterious darkness, in that busy world where so much we do
not understand is going on, the little nymph grew very slowly for a
year, nourished by the juices of the roots he found near him and which
he sucked up through his tube-like mouth. Then he shed his first skin
for another, which gave him greater freedom for further growth. After a
time this skin was also discarded, another and another, until, we are
told, six times his garment was changed while yet he was deep in the
earth, with no one to see and admire his new attire. Then when seventeen
long years were passed and his days of preparation were accomplished, he
dug his way up into a new world at the dictate of a new impulse, and one
evening he emerged to find himself in a goodly company of his kind, all
intent upon reaching a still greater height. The tree under which he had
lived so long was his goal, and up this he made his way for some
distance, then, forcing his little claws into the bark, he clung to his
place awaiting his final transformation.

Presently his nymph-skin opened down the back and the cicada, a nymph no
longer, crawled slowly out. White again as when he first saw the light,
except for two black spots on his back, soft and helpless he clung anew
to the bark. At first his wings were so much a part of his body you
would have thought he had none, but almost immediately they began to
unfold and grow, becoming transparent and firm as he waved them slowly
back and forth. During the night his color was marvellously changed from
white to black and red, and the next morning came his season of
rejoicing. With all faculties fully alive, he joined the chorus of the
other cicadas and the woods were made to resound with their high,
rasping notes.

By the way, do you know

                        =How the Insects Sing?=

Or, rather, they do not sing, the noise they make is instrumental, not
vocal, and their instruments are usually carried under their wings, a
part of themselves to be played upon at will, when and where they
choose.

The cicada’s instrument is a kind of drum, and, as if one would not be
sufficiently noisy, he carries two, one behind each of his hind wings.
He has no drum-sticks, but vibrates his drums until the natural buzzing
sound rises almost to a shriek. Other insects play on other instruments,
but, however the sound is made, each species has a note of its own, not
to be mistaken for that of any other.

Deep in the forests where the dead leaves and pine-needles cover the
ground you will be likely to find the well-known

                             =Indian Pipe=

the delight of all children and an object of interest to everyone. This
wonderful little ghost flower, so purely, white and so quickly blighted
by exposure to sunlight appears to live for its beauty alone. As far as
we know it is of absolutely no use, and does not even provide for
itself, as do other plants. It is a root parasite and draws its
nourishment from the roots of the pine upon which it has fastened
itself. The stem as well as the blossom is silvery white, it has no
foliage, and the flower at the end of the stalk bends its head as though
ashamed of its idle life, but it continues to live on the vital juices
of the roots and we call it the Indian Pipe because it somewhat
resembles the long-stemmed Indian calumet, or pipe of peace. The
botanists, however, know it as the _Monotropa Uniflora_.

Another beautiful inhabitant of the deep woods is the

                           =Moccasin Flower=

which arrays itself every summer in its spotted pink or yellow dress,
and stands as proudly erect on its slender stalk as though troops of
admirers were to pass its way, when, in fact, it is rarely seen save by
those who seek it. As its name suggests, it resembles an Indian moccasin
in shape, the hanging pouch forming the toe, while the heel is clasped
by five pointed and twisted petals. Over the opening of the pouch there
is a little flap, which has much to do with the fertilization of the
flowers. The botanical name of this little orchid is the _Cypripedium_,
and some call it lady-slipper, though it looks not at all like your
slipper or mine.

As you walk on under the interlacing branches of the close-growing
trees, look about for evidences of the

                           =Engraver Beetle=

Pull the bark from a dead trunk or limb and you will probably find its
trade-mark. Fig. 620 is one pattern, but there are various others, among
them a spiral [Illustration: Fig. 620] design cut as smoothly as though
done with an engraver’s chisel.

These little workers in wood are but babies, being the larvæ of the
engraver beetle, which, deposited as eggs under the bark of a dead tree,
turn into worm-like creatures and eat their way along the surface of the
sap-wood, tracing the cabalistic designs in their progress. When fully
developed the beetle is still a wee thing, the largest being not over a
quarter of an inch in length. Some are brown in color and some black.

Drop your eyes now and look for

                              =Footprints=

in the soft earth. You will frequently find them around ponds and the
margin of brooks. They make a most interesting study, and will soon
enable you to learn which of your forest neighbors has visited the spot
before you.

A small, delicate impression, much like that of a dainty little hand,
will show that

                              =The ’Coon=

has been along, and this is all you are likely to see of him unless you
take a moonlight stroll, for Master 'Coon shuns daylight, and is about
only at night. Being a pretty and an intelligent little animal, he is
sometimes tamed and even allowed the freedom of the house, like a dog or
cat, but 'coons are as mischievous as monkeys, and very frequently the
little hands are used to work disaster among the household gods. When
that occurs a chain is used to keep Master 'Coon out of further trouble
and consequent punishment.

The 'coon’s fur is long, thick, and of a pepper-and-salt gray. Its tail
is decorated with rings, and its broad white face is marked with three
radiating black lines across the forehead and black settings to its
eyes.

Though all you find is the footprint of this nocturnal little fellow you
may rest assured that somewhere, just above your head perhaps, he is
snugly curled up in the hollow of a dead limb awaiting the darkness,
when he will sally forth to seek his supper.

In the softly creeping twilight, when the woods become more mysterious,
and one’s nerves are almost like the wild things in their quick response
to sudden noises, the night prowlers begin to awake and stir about.
Before darkness quite settles down is the time to make the acquaintance
of the night birds, nocturnal insects, and some of the small animals
which avoid the garish light of day.

Though they love darkness better than light these little creatures are
just as harmless as the ones you have seen in the genial sunshine. Do
not be startled, then, if a small dark body suddenly sails through the
air near you, but watch it in its flight, see how it courses downward,
always downward, on a gradual incline until, with a short upward curve,
it alights on a low branch or trunk of a tree. From the summit of a tall
pine its flight has been, perhaps, fifty yards, yet it has no wings and
in the dim light you will see before you only a big-eyed, satin-coated
little squirrel, and you will have met, it may for the first time, your
neighbor

                         =The Flying Squirrel=

Look closely and notice that he wears a suit of brownish gray, white
underneath, bordered with black, which fits him so loosely about the
legs and sides that when he stretches out [Illustration: Flying
Squirrel.] and flattens himself he may almost be said to be web-legged,
and can sail through the air like a parachute.

The natural home of the flying squirrel is a hole in a tree, where he
makes a soft nest, deep enough to burrow into until completely hidden.
But a hole anywhere, except in the ground, attracts him. Whole families
will take up their quarters in an unoccupied house if they can squeeze
themselves through some crack or crevice, and will frequently refuse to
vacate when the rightful owner appears and claims the premises.

I have several times made pets of the young flying squirrels, and they
are the prettiest, most friendly and entertaining little things
imaginable, as tame as kittens and as harmless. They are nocturnal in
their habits, sleeping all day in their woolly nests and scampering
about all night, full of mischief and merry play.

If you wake one of the baby squirrels from its nap and take the drowsy
little thing in your hands you will love it immediately; it is so soft,
so babyish, so unresisting.

A rare but most beautiful dweller in the woods is the

                              =Luna Moth=

named for the moon and sometimes called the “queen of night.” One
evening just at dusk it was my good fortune to find a luna moth clinging
to a forest tree by the roadside. It had but recently emerged from its
chrysalis and was slowly moving its delicate wings back and forth,
drying them in the warm night air and strengthening them for flight.

The _Tropœa luna_, as the scientists call it, is one of the giant
silk-worm moths. It has the large, fuzzy body of the moth, with the
feather-like antennæ; but its wings are unusual in shape. Nearest the
tail they are extended to form long appendages, which curve gracefully
outward. The color is a delicate light green, the edges of the
fore-wings are bordered with a band of purplish brown, and they are
further ornamented with four large eyes.

[Illustration: Luna Moth.]

Look on the ground under the walnut, hickory, or other hard-wood trees
for the cocoon, as it is on these trees the larva feeds.

When daylight comes again seek the path which leads through

                          =Orchard and Field=

and once more you are among the little folk who love the warm, bright
sunshine.

The birds leave the shade to sit on the old rail fence and sing
joyously. You will see the busy little wren here, tripping about
importantly, and the song-sparrow, too, which loves to perch on the top
rail and sing its heart away. Hidden deep in the tangled grass or
nestled amid the clover you may find the nest of the bobolink. Do you
know the lines which occur in one of Saxe Holm’s stories:

                   “I wonder what the clover thinks?
                   Intimate friend of the bobolinks.”

When you remember these you will remember to look for the bobolink where
you see the red clover.

There is a concert going on at this very minute; do you hear it? The
high soprano is taking the lead, the soft, gurgling notes of the
contralto are coming in, and now the whole chorus has burst into song
and one of the sweetest of Nature’s anthems is being given. You must
hear it, some of you, for no matter what the season, in this great land
of ours, somewhere the warm summer sun is shining, somewhere, without
money and without price, these beautiful songsters are pouring out their
souls in exquisite melody.

Stop and think what the birds are doing for you; think of what life
would be without them and how near akin they are to all that is joyous
and bright within you; read “The Birds of Killingworth” in Longfellow’s
“Tales of a Wayside Inn” and then wear the dead bodies of your little
friends on your hats if you can.

As you cross the pasture be on the lookout for the

                           =Woodchuck’s Hole=

It is generally on the side of a hill or knoll, and in front of it is a
small pile of earth which the woodchuck has taken out in his
excavations. The hole is large enough for a small dog to enter, and
leads to several tunnels, some of them twenty or twenty-five feet long.
If you remain quietly near for awhile perhaps you will be rewarded by
seeing the woodchuck, or ground-hog, as he is sometimes called, peep
cautiously out of his front door and then come boldly forth to look
about and see what is going on in the outer world. Make a sudden noise
and he will sit up on his haunches with hanging forefeet, like a begging
dog, and then dart into his hole to remain in hiding until it seems safe
for him to venture out again.

[Illustration: Woodchuck and His Hole.]

The woodchuck is a snub-nosed little animal, a trifle larger than a
good-sized rabbit. Its tail is short and bushy and its hair long,
coarse, and of a brownish color, ears low and inconspicuous, and eyes
round and bright. At the approach of winter he retires to his nest,
which is in a chamber at the farthest end of his longest tunnel, there
to sleep or hibernate until spring. A popular legend has it that on the
second day of February the ground-hog—he is always a ground-hog in this
connection—is sure to be up and out to see how high the sun is and
investigate the general progress of things.

You know the rest of the story; how he prophesies an early or late
spring by his actions on this important day. If he stays out we will
have an early spring; if he goes back we will have winter weather for
six weeks longer; and his going and staying are determined by the sun.
This is because the ground-hog is supposed to be absurdly afraid of his
shadow, which he has not seen for so long, and if the bright sunshine
reveals it to him he is said to return ignominiously to his hole, where
he will remain for another six weeks. If, on the other hand, the day
proves cloudy, and there are no shadows to alarm him, he concludes that
he has slept quite long enough, that there will be no more winter, and
that it is high time to be up and about his business.

The farmers hunt the woodchuck because of its voracious appetite for
green things. They say it takes more than its share of the farm
products, and they make forcible objections.

June is the time to find the baby woodchucks, which in this month play
like puppies around the entrance to their home.

And now these few remaining pages must be devoted to our small neighbors
of

                            =The Sea-shore=

To some of them at least; a volume would not give space for all.

It is on rocky coasts or the shores of bays and inlets that you will
find most of the creatures which make their home on the borders of the
vast and mighty ocean. Along a rugged shore like that of Maine, where
the storms and great breakers carry the water high upon the rocks,
little pools are formed, and in one of these natural aquariums there is
enough life for a summer’s study.

Undisturbed by the rising and falling tide, the water is transparently
clear, and you can see distinctly all the inhabitants of this little
water-world. Clinging to the rocky sides are what appear to be silvery
pink moss and brilliant aquatic flowers. Lying at the bottom or amid the
jagged stones are round, prickly looking balls which resemble chestnut
burs, some of them no larger than a tiny pearl button. So much like
vegetables do all these things appear, it seems hardly possible they are
animals; yet the moss is sometimes called the

                       =Nurse of the Jelly-fish=

and some of the small bubble-like bags clinging to its stems, which give
it the silvery appearance, are full of eggs that will hatch into minute
jelly bodies. After various transformations and subdivisions these
bodies develop into the wonderfully beautiful and fairy-like jelly-fish
which you find swimming in the deep waters of the bay, some of them
trailing long, filmy, lace-like skirts or veils as they move.

The delicate red, green, yellow, pink, and lavender blossoms, which add
so much to the beauty of the pool, are

                             =Sea-anemones=

Animals, too, every one, living only on animal food, which they find and
absorb in a peculiar manner. The fringed petals are in reality tentacles
that reach out and draw food into the mouth at the centre, from which it
is taken into the stomach just below.

How the baby sea-anemones are born, how they are cared for by their
mother, how they are at first “foot loose” and afterward become fixtures
on the rocks, you must study out for yourselves; the description here is
but an introduction at best and must be necessarily brief.

The queer-looking green burs, which you will see moving about if you
watch them closely, are the

                             =Sea Urchins=

You have, perhaps, found some of their beautiful shells on the beach,
empty of all life and bleached quite white by [Illustration: Shell of
Sea Urchin.] the sun. Where the green spines grew are regular rows of
bead-like projections, looking like strings of pearls; but, lovely and
pure as the shells are, they cannot possibly be as interesting as the
real creatures, full of life, crawling about at the bottom of the
crystal pool on [Illustration: Sea Urchin.] the tips of their prickly
looking spines.

I have never found a live sea-urchin except in these quiet pools,
probably because they do not like to subject themselves to the buffeting
waves, and when in deep water hide in the crevices of the rocks or bury
themselves in the seaweed.

Unlike the sea-anemone, they are vegetarians and seldom indulge in
animal food. The mouth is underneath the little animal, where you find
the round hole in the shell.

                               =Starfish=

too you will probably see crawling over the rocks at the bottom of the
pool. Although called by that name, these strange, five-fingered
creatures are no more fish than the sea-urchins, and their life is not
so much of the water as of the ground below. The starfish may swim, but
it greatly prefers gliding about over the slippery stones and sandy
bottom, searching for the small shellfish which form its food. If you
will place a starfish in a small fish globe filled with salt water, or
in any clear glass vessel that is large enough, you can see its
numberless feet, which are little tubes projecting from the under side
of the five rays. This wonderful waving mass of tube feet is quite
concealed when we look at the animal from above, and until we have
discovered them its rapid movements seem very marvellous.

There are barnacles looking like a part of the rock to which they are
firmly attached, tiny crabs darting hither and thither, various species
of small mollusks and numerous other forms of salt-water life to be
found in Nature’s beautiful rock aquariums, but we must leave you to
make their acquaintance alone, while wishing you much joy and happiness
in your intercourse with these and all of your little neighbors.



                                 INDEX


                                   A

 “Abe” Lincoln log-cabin, how to build, 194

 Acorn bucket, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 207

 Acorn made from egg, 38

 Active games, 322

 All-cotton rugs, 158

 Alphabet, living, 303

 Animals, to make a Noah’s ark, 164

 Animals, vegetable, 101

 Apples, Christmas, 269

 Apples, to make flower feast, 177

 Apple-seed charms, 297

 Arch, to make spool memorial, 240

 Ark, peanut Noah’s, 163

 Ark, to make the, 172

 Armless bust, 285

 Auger-bit, 8

                                   B

 Ball, basket, 348

 Bamboo pistol, 144

 Bark, for “Abe” Lincoln cabin roof, 203

 Basket ball playing-ground, 346

 Basket-ball rules, 360

 Basket, corn-husk, 60

 Basket-weaving, 185

 Baskets of green burs, 180, 181

 Bedposts, naming the, 295

 Birch-bark canoe, 212

 Blackboard drawing, 215

 Blotting-paper, for painting monotypes, 151

 Bobbinet bags, 253

 Bonbons, snapping, 179

 Bones, 232

 Books, to illustrate, 82

 Boxes, to make fancy Christmas, 252

 Brace, 48

 Braiding palm grasses and corn-husks, 64

 Brownie, to make from egg, 34

 Bubbles, spool, 241

 Bucket, acorn, 207

 Bugle-horn, 231

 Burs, baskets made of, 180, 181

 Bust, armless, 285

 Butterfly ink, 122

 Butterfly paper, 51

 Button-mould tops, 132

                                   C

 Calendar, to make a, 80

 Calumet, sparkling, 140

 Camels, to make Noah’s ark, 167

 Cannon, spool, 243

 Canoe, birch-bark, 212

 Canoe, birch-bark for, 203

 Canopy, merry-go-round, to make, 127

 Captain, basket ball, 349

 Centres, basket ball, 354

 Chair, hooded, made from packing-box, 21

 Charms, apple-seed, 297

 Chicken, to make Noah’s ark, 168

 Chimney, “Abe” Lincoln log-cabin, 201

 Chimney, pasteboard, 112

 Chipmunk, 368

 Chisel, 4, 8

 Christmas decoration, to make, 244

 Christmas devices, 260

 Christmas pie, an all-day, 260

 Christmas stockings, 253

 Christmas tray, 265

 Church, pasteboard, 107, 108

 Cicadas, 371

 Circus, the hoop game, 328

 Clothes-press, portable corner, 15

 Collections, 69

 Color basket, 192

 Color letter, 276

 Color schemes for rugs, 154

 Colored pictures, 83

 Comb, musical, 233

 Comet, rushing, 143

 Cone hanging basket, 58

 'Coon, 375

 Country garden in city, 310

 Corn-husk basket, 60

 Corn-husks, braiding, 64

 Cornucopias, 253

 Costume, statuary tableaux, 282

 Cotton dyes, 162

 Cotton rugs, 158

 Covers, basket, 191

 Cranberries, strings of red, 256

 Crook, sheep and shepherd’s, to make, 246

 Croquet, parlor, 341; rules, 343

 Crystal flute, 232

 Cups, to make flower feast, 178

                                   D

 Daisy, to draw a, 225

 Dance, flag, 130

 Dandelion games, 181

 Dishes made from eggs, 36

 Doors, from “Abe” Lincoln log-cabin, 199;
   how to hang, 200

 Dove, to make from an egg, 28

 Drawing-class, home, 107

 Dreams, Halloween, 298

 Dressing-table, to make a, 11

 Duck, to draw a, 223

 Dulcimer, to make a, 229

 Dyes, rug, 160, 162

                                   E

 Easel, valentine, 91

 Easter hare, 32

 Easter lily, 52

 Easter, paper, 45

 Egg changed into rooster, 46

 Egg, possibilities of an Easter, 26

 Egg, slippers made from egg, 41

 Egg, spinning, 30

 Egg, to make brownies from, 34

 Eggs, hares made from, 33;
   fruits, vegetables, opera-glasses, and dishes made from, 36;
   radish, 37;
   watermelon, plum, acorn, 38;
   a dainty vase, a teapot, 39;
   sugar-bowl, egg dippers, 41

 Eggs, paper, 45

 Egyptian statue, 287

 Elephant, to make Noah’s ark, 168

 Engraver beetle, 375

                                   F

 Fastenings, basket, 191

 Feather tests, 293

 Fence, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 210

 Fence, pin-wheel, 137

 Festoons, Christmas-tree, 248

 Festoons, holly-leaved, 254

 File, 4, 9

 Finger-bowls, musical, 230

 Fire-cracker, valentine, 95

 Fireplace, magic, 263

 Fire rug, 155

 Fish, to draw, 221

 Fish, to make flower feast, 176

 Flag dance, 130

 Flower feast, 175

 Flower pad valentine, 95

 Flower-stand, to make a piazza, 17

 Flower writing, 273

 Flying squirrel, 377

 Fortune wheel, 300

 Forwards, basket ball, 354

 Fouls, basket ball, 363

 Four-leaved clover valentine, 90

 Friendship garden, 320

 Fringe, ruching, 249

 Fringe, rug, 159

 Frog, swimming, made from an egg, 26

 Fruit lanterns, 101

 Fruit salad, to make flower feast, 177

 Fruits made from eggs, 36

 Furniture, set of spool, to make, 238

                                   G

 Galatea, 288

 Games, active, 322

 Games, expensive, with little or no expense, 334

 Garden, friendship, 320;
   memory, 321

 Garden, real summer, 313;
   water garden, 314;
   soil for, 315

 Gardens, odd, 310

 Ghost ideas, 299

 Gimlet, 7

 Going to market, 332

 Gouge, 4, 8

 Grass-blade, musical, 234

 Greek temple, to make spool, 237

 Guard, basket ball, 355

 Guest book, to make a, 78

                                   H

 Halloween fortunes, 293

 Hammer, 3, 5

 Hand pin-wheel, 136

 Hare, Easter, 32

 Hares made from eggs, 33

 Harp, to make a, 228

 Hatchet, 6

 Head, to draw a, 220

 Heads, to paint, 149

 Heart-shaped valentine, 94

 Hen, to draw, 217

 Hinges, basket, 192

 Home drawing-class, pasteboard models for, 107

 Home-made pyrotechnics, 135

 Hoop dance, 324

 Hoop-race game, 329

 Hoop tag, 327

 Horses, fantastic ink, 122

 House, pasteboard, 111

 Houses, 10

                                   I

 Illustrating, books, 82

 Indian pipe, 374

 Indian powwow, 274

 Ink, landscapes, marines, 119;
   butterfly, fantastic horses, 122;
   pair of birds, 123

 Ink pictures, 118

                                   J

 Jelly, 269

 Jelly-fish, 382

 Jewelry, Christmas-tree, 257

 Jumping-rope conquer game, 330

                                   K

 Kaleidoscope in an egg, 31

                                   L

 Lake, to make a, 204

 Lamp, to make spool, 239

 Landscapes, ink, 119

 Lantern, pumpkin, 105, 106

 Lanterns, fruit, 101

 Lavender sticks, 62

 Letter of color, 276

 Lights for statuary tableaux, 282

 Lily, paper Easter, 52

 Linesmen, basket ball, 352

 Living alphabet, 303

 Lobsters, to make Noah’s ark, 170

 Log-cabin, “Abe” Lincoln, how to build, 194

 Luna moth, 377

                                   M

 Magic fireplace, 263

 Marble flesh, to make, 284

 Marble locks, to make, 284

 Marines, ink, 119

 Mats, sweet-grass, 59

 Memorial arch, to make spool, 240

 Memory garden, 321

 Merry-go-round, 125

 Mitre-box, 10

 Moccasin flower, 374

 Models, pasteboard, 107

 Monotone monotypes, 151

 Monotypes, 148;
   monotone, 151;
   papers for painting, 152

 Morning-glory, 183

 Mounting pictures, 70

 Moving toys, 125

 Musical instruments, home-made, 227

                                   N

 Naming the bedposts, 295

 Net, ping pong, 336

 Noah, to make, 171

 Noah’s ark, a peanut, 163

                                   O

 Observation notes, 366

 Odd gardens, 310

 Officials, basket ball, 350

 Opera-glasses made from eggs, 36

 Original valentines, 89

 Ostrich, paper, 45

 Owl, to make Noah’s ark, 169

                                   P

 Palm-grasses, braiding, 64

 Paper chains, colored Christmas, 257

 Paper Easter, 45

 Paper, musical, 227

 Paper, to prepare for picture mounting, 72

 Parthenon, to make spool, 236

 Passing by, 332

 Pasteboard church, 107;
   house, 111;
   tower, 113;
   steeple, 113;
   chimney, 112;
   pyramid, 107

 Pasteboard models for home drawing-class, 107

 Pasteboard pistol, 144

 Peanut, Noah’s ark, 163

 Peanuts, Christmas, 256

 Pedestals, statuary tableaux, 282

 Penguin, paper, 45

 Photograph book, 84

 Photographs, 83

 Picture hanging, 73

 Picture writing, 271

 Pictures, mounting, 69

 Pictures, quick ink, 118

 Pie, an all-day Christmas, 260

 _Pièce de résistance_, 268

 Pig, blackboard, 215

 Pineapple, to make flower feast, 175

 Ping pong, 334

 Pin-wheel, three-story, red, white, and blue, 135;
   in your hands, 136;
   on the fence, 137

 Pistol, pasteboard or bonbon, 144

 Plane, 4, 7

 Plants, ink sketches from, 123

 Plants, water, 316

 Players, set, in basket ball, 349

 Plum, made from egg, 38

 Pop-corn balls, 255

 Portfolio, to make a, 74

 Portière, to make effective, 246

 Portrait medallion, 286

 Potato turkey, 102

 Printing, monotypes, 150

 Prints, to make a collection of, 69

 Priscilla rugs, 153

 Pumpkin lantern, 105, 106

 Pygmalion, 288

 Pyramid, pasteboard, 107

 Pyrotechnics, home-made, 135

                                   Q

 Quick ink pictures, 118

                                   R

 Rabbit, paper, 45

 Rabbit, to make a Noah’s ark, 167

 Raccoon, 375

 Racquets, ping pong, 335

 Radish made from eggs, 37

 Rags, how to cut and sew, 157

 Raisin turtle, 105

 Red, white, and blue, 333

 Reeds for basket-weaving, 186

 Referee, basket ball, 350

 Rice-paper, for printing monotypes, 151

 Roman candle, 142

 Roof, “Abe” Lincoln log-cabin, 201

 Rooster, made from egg, 46

 Rooster, paper, 45

 Rose, to draw a, 218

 Rugs, Priscilla, 153;
   color schemes for, 154;
   fire, 155;
   weight of rags for, 156;
   cotton and wool, all-cotton, 158

 Rule, 7

 Rules, basket ball, 360

 Rules, ping pong, 337

 Rushing comet, 143

                                   S

 Salamander, 370

 Santa Claus, to make, 266

 Saucers, to make flower feast, 178

 Saw, 3, 4, 6

 Sawbuck, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 213

 Sconce, 248

 Scorer, basket ball, 351

 Scoring, ping pong, 338

 Screw-driver, 6

 Sea-anemones, 382

 Sea-shells, musical, 234

 Sea-urchins, 383

 Sewing-machine, a make-believe, 340

 Shepherd’s crook, to make, 246

 Shields, living alphabet, 309

 Shoat, lemon, 103

 Sign language, 271

 Sky-rockets, 146

 Snap-fire, 142

 Soil for water garden, 315

 Sparkling calumet, 140

 Spiders, to make Noah’s ark, 166

 Sponge, green, 318

 Spool bubbles, 241

 Spool cannon, 243

 Spools, what to make of empty, 236

 Spring, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 204

 Squirrel, 367; red, 368

 Squirrel, flying, 377

 Starfish, 384

 Statuary tableaux, 281

 Steeple, pasteboard, 113

 Storks, to make Noah’s ark, 170

 Sugar-bowl, made from egg, 41

 Suit, basket ball, 364

 Sunshine diary, to make, 75

 Sweet-grass mats, 59

 Symbols, 273

                                   T

 Tableaux subjects, 285

 Teapot, made from egg, 39

 Tea-table, to make a five o’clock, 16

 Temple, to make spool, 237

 Terms, ping pong, 339

 Time-keeper, basket ball, 352

 Toast, to serve, 267

 Tool-chest, 4

 Tool-rack, 5

 Tools, 4

 Tools, how to use, 5

 Touchstone charm, 294

 Towel-rack, to make, 14

 Tower, pasteboard, 113

 Toys, 125

 Toys, button-mould, 132

 Tray, Christmas, 265

 Trees, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 208

 Try-square, 4, 9

 Tulip, to draw a, 224

 Turkey, potato, 102

 Turtle, made from raisin, 105

 Turtles, to draw, 222

                                   U

 Umpire, basket ball, 351

                                   V

 Vacation work with Nature’s materials, 57

 Valentines, original, 89;
   four-leaved clover, 90;
   easel, 91;
   heart-shaped, 93;
   fire-cracker, 94;
   pot of flowers, 95;
   little friend, 98

 Vase, a dainty, made from egg, 39

 Vegetable animals, 101

 Vegetables, growing in water, 319

 Vegetables, made from eggs, 36

 Vines, ink sketches from, 123

                                   W

 Wagon, to make spool, 239

 Walk, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 205

 Walnuts, gilded English, 258

 Warps, rag, 159

 Wash-stand, to make a, 14

 Water garden, 314

 Watermelon, made from egg, 38

 Water plants, to procure, 316

 Weasel, 369

 Weavers and weft, 322

 Weaving materials, 185

 Well, “Abe” Lincoln cabin, 206

 Wings, pasteboard, 113

 Wings, to make hornet, 165

 Witch writing, 295

 Witchery, 292

 Wood, choosing the, 10

 Woodchuck, 380

 Wood-pile, “Abe” Lincoln, 213

 Wool dyes, 160

 Wool rugs, 158

 Workshop, 4

------------------------------------------------------------------------

_THE BEARD BOOKS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE_

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     THE AMERICAN GIRL'S HANDY BOOK

                    HOW TO AMUSE YOURSELF AND OTHERS

                      By LINA and ADELIA B. BEARD

              With nearly 500 Illustrations by the Authors

                     One volume, square 8vo, $2.00

                                -------

Eight new chapters have been added to the forty-two which have carried
this famous book to the hearts of all the young people since its first
appearance, and everything that the girls of to-day want to know about
their sports, games, and winter afternoon and evening work, is told
clearly and simply in this helpful and entertaining volume. The volume
is fully and handsomely illustrated from drawings by the authors, whose
designs are in the best sense illustrative of the text.

[Illustration]

                          SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

First of April—Wild Flowers and Their Preservation—The Walking
Club—Easter-Egg Games—How to Make a Lawn Tennis Net—May-Day
Sports—Midsummer-Eve Games and Sports—Sea-side Cottage Decoration—A
Girl’s Fourth of July—An Impression Album—Picnics, Burgoos, and
Corn-Roasts—Botany as Applied to Art—Quiet Games for Hot Weather—How to
Make a Hammock—Corn-Husk and Flower Dolls—How to Make Fans—All Hallow
Eve—Nature’s Fall Decorations and How to Use Them—Nutting Parties—How to
Draw, Paint in Oil-colors, and Model in Clay and Wax—China
Painting—Christmas Festivities, and Home-made Christmas Gifts—Amusements
and Games for the Holidays—Golf—Bicycling—Swimming—Physical
Culture—Girls' Clubs—A New Seashore Game—Apple Target Shooting—Water
Fairies.

LOUISA M. ALCOTT wrote: “I have put it in my list of good and useful
books for young people, as I have many requests for advice from my
little friends and their anxious mothers. I am most happy to commend
your very ingenious and entertaining book.”

GRACE GREENWOOD wrote: “It is a treasure which, once possessed, no
practical girl would willingly part with. It is an invaluable aid in
making a home attractive, comfortable, artistic, and refined. The book
preaches the gospel of cheerfulness, industry, economy, and comfort.”

                         The Outdoor Handy Book

                    FOR PLAYGROUND, FIELD AND FOREST

                           By DANIEL C. BEARD

   With more than 300 Illustrations by the Author. Square 8vo, $2.00

“It tells how to play all sorts of games with marbles, how to make and
spin more kinds of tops than most boys ever heard of, how to make the
latest things in plain and fancy kites, where to dig bait and how to
fish, all about boats and sailing, and a host of other things which can
be done outdoors. The volume is profusely illustrated and will be an
unmixed delight to any boy.”—New York _Tribune_.

[Illustration]

                          SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

Marbles—Tops—Latest Things in Kites—Aerial Fish and Dragons—Hoops and
Wheels—How to Make the Sucker—Up in the Air on Stilts—Bait, Live and
Dead—Fishing—Aquatic Sports—Rigs of All Kinds for Small Boats—Shells and
Canoes—Hints for Collectors—Honey-Bee Messengers—A “Zoo”—Choosing Up and
“It”—Counting Out Rhymes—Swimming—Games of Tag—I Spy—Leap Frog—Various
Sports for Hot Days—Tip Cat—Games of Ball—Mumbly Peg, Hop-Scotch, and
Jack Stones—Hints for Bicyclists—Camping Out—Boy’s Ballista—“Tally-ho!”
and Other Cries—Indian Games for Boys—Football—Golf, Hockey, and
Shinny—Turtle Hunting—Skating—Stunning Muskrats and Fish—Snowball Battle
and Snow Tag—Sleds.

From CHARLES DANA GIBSON: “It makes a man of a boy and a boy of a man.”

“This book is praiseworthy from end to end, and will find favor even
with those who have long since passed to man’s estate.”—_The Nation._

“It is one of the completest things of the kind ever written, and with
it one can hardly conceive how a boy could be without pleasant and
profitable amusement at any time. It treats of directions for every
season of the year, in and out of doors, and on land and water. One of
the best things about it is that it furnishes employment for a boy’s
ingenuity and mechanical skill. It seems as if this book must be
destined to an immense popularity.”—_The Advance._

                     THE AMERICAN BOY'S HANDY BOOK

                    Or, What To Do and How To Do It

                           By DANIEL C. BEARD

        One volume, 8vo, fully Illustrated by the Author, $2.00

Mr. Beard’s book tells the active, inventive, and practical American boy
the things he really wants to know; the thousand things he wants to do,
and the ten thousand ways in which he can do them, with the helps and
ingenious contrivances which every boy can either procure or make. The
author divides the book among the sports of the four seasons; and he has
made an almost exhaustive collection of the cleverest modern devices,
besides himself inventing an immense number of capital and practical
ideas.

[Illustration]

                          SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

Kite Time—War Kites—Novel Modes of Fishing—Home-made Fishing Tackle—How
to Stock, Make, and Keep a Fresh-water Aquarium—How to Stock and Keep a
Marine Aquarium—Knots, Bends, and Hitches—Dredge, Tangle, and Trawl
Fishing—Home-made Boats—How to Rig and Sail Small Boats—How to Camp Out
Without a Tent—How to Rear Wild Birds—Home-made Hunting Apparatus—Traps
and Trapping—Dogs—Practical Taxidermy for Boys—Snow Houses and
Statuary—Winged Skaters—Winter Fishing—Indoor Amusements—How to Make a
Magic Lantern—Puppet Shows—Home-made Masquerade and Theatrical
Costumes—With many other subjects of a kindred nature.

“It is an excellent publication, and is heartily recommended to
parents.”—_The Brooklyn Eagle._

“The book has this great advantage over its predecessors, that most of
the games, tricks, and other amusements described in it are new. It
treats of sports adapted to all seasons of the year; it is practical,
and it is well illustrated.”—_The New York Tribune._

“It tells boys how to make all kinds of things—boats, traps, toys,
puzzles, aquariums, fishing tackle; how to tie knots, splice ropes, to
make bird calls, sleds, blow guns, balloons; how to rear wild birds, to
train dogs, and do the thousand and one things that boys take delight
in. The book is illustrated in such a way that no mistake can be made;
and the boy who gets a copy of this book will consider himself set up in
business.”—_The Indianapolis Journal._

                         The Jack of All Trades

                    OR, NEW IDEAS FOR AMERICAN BOYS

                           By DANIEL C. BEARD

                Profusely Illustrated. Square 8vo, $2.00

                                -------

“Every boy who is handy with tools of any sort will enjoy this book.”

                                                   —_Youth’s Companion._

“This book is a capital one to give any boy for a present at Christmas,
on a birthday, or indeed at any time.”

                                                         —_The Outlook._

“Full of new ideas for active boys who like to use tools and see
interesting things growing under their hands.”

                                                       —_N. Y. Tribune._

“A perfect treasure-house of things that delight the soul of a boy and
keep him happy and busy.”

                                                        —_The Interior._

[Illustration]

                                CONTENTS

                       Part I. Fair Weather Ideas

Tree-Top Club-Houses—How to Capture and Trap Small Live Animals—The
Back-Yard Zoo—A Back-Yard Fish-Pond—Pigeon and Bantam Coops—How to Make
a Back-Yard Aviary—A Boy’s Back-Yard Workshop—How to Build an
Underground Club-House—A Boys’ Club-House on the Water—How to Have Fun
on a Picnic—How to Build and How to Furnish a Daniel Boone Cabin—Flat
Boatman’s House—The American Boy’s House Boat—Back-Yard Switchback—How
to Build a Toboggan Slide in the Back-Yard.

                      Part II. Rainy Weather Ideas

A Home-Made Circus—Good Games with Toothpicks and Matches—Fun with
Scissors and Pasteboard and Paper—How to Prepare and Give a Boys' Chalk
Talk—A Christmas Novelty for Boys—How to Make Two Boys into One Santa
Claus—A Circus in the Attic—A Boys’ Stag Party—A Wild West Show in the
House—How to Have a Panorama Show.

                                -------

                  CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, Publishers

                     153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           Transcriber’s Note

Errors deemed most likely to be the printer’s have been corrected, and
are noted here. The references are to the page and line in the original.

  38.5     Wate[r]melon                                   Inserted.

  129.30   on real carous[a/e]ls.                         Replaced.

  154.14   there will be increasing orig[i]nality         Inserted.

  154.23   what is called “hit or miss[.]>”               Added.

  201.31   and constitutes [p]art of the framework        Restored.

  210.2    You will be su[r]prised                        Inserted.

  258.30   plenty of wor[l]dly goods.                     Inserted.

  273.30   and social intercourse (balm).[”]              Added.

  336.28   The writer once knew[./,]                      Replaced.

  377.1    and you will have met, [it may for] the first  _sic._
           time





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