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Title: The Art of Theatrical Make-up
Author: Morton, Cavendish
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Containing 8 delicate pencil and tint portraits. Foolscap 8vo, cloth,
gilt top.

Price 2s. net.

(_Post free, price 2s. 3d._)

"Mr. Mortimer Menpes has produced a little book entitled 'Henry
Irving,' which is as dainty and graceful as could be imagined....
It is a gossipy little appreciation of the great actor, enlivened
by some excellent stories, and embellished with twelve portraits in
colour from the brush of the artist-author. Artistically 'got up,'
admirably printed, and unconventionally arranged, it is an addition to
'Irvingana' which none of the admirers of 'the chief' would willingly
have absent from their shelves."--_Standard._




                           64 & 66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

                           205 FLINDERS LANE, MELBOURNE

                           27 RICHMOND STREET WEST, TORONTO

  INDIA                  MACMILLAN & COMPANY, LTD.
                           MACMILLAN BUILDING, BOMBAY
                           309 BOW BAZAAR STREET, CALCUTTA


                   THE ART OF

                THEATRICAL MAKE-UP


                CAVENDISH MORTON








Looking back on the method of production of this book, it seems to
me not to have been so much a matter of toil as a natural growth. It
seems to have produced itself, for my earliest photographs were taken
as records of the different characters that I played. These studies,
as they were published from time to time in the _Sketch_, _Tatler_,
_Playgoer_ and other papers, aroused a certain amount of interest.

Frequent requests from brother actors for me to help them with their
make-ups convinced me that my instruction was desired.

As the material accumulated, I constantly heard the suggestion
reiterated, "Make a book of it."

A profound interest in psychology, physiognomy, or characterisation,
the art of the stage, and photography, has enabled me to study the
subject from different standpoints, and to gain an entirely individual
impression of it.

Many years spent on the stage in, among others, Sir Herbert Beerbohm
Tree's, Mr. Forbes Robertson's, and Sir Charles Wyndham's companies,
the privilege of watching Sir Henry Irving, Sir Herbert, Charles
Warner, Franklin McLeay, and M. de Max making up, and, in some
instances, hearing their methods of work explained, has supplemented
the knowledge gained by my own experience.


  CHAPTER                                                     PAGE

  I. THE ART OF THE STAGE                                        1

  II.  ON DESIGNING THE CHARACTER                                4

  III.  THE ILLUSTRATIONS                                        8

  IV.  THE MATERIAL                                             12

  V. ON APPLYING THE MATERIAL                                   16

  VI.  FORM                                                     19

  VII.  PREPARING TO MAKE UP                                    22

  VIII. ON REMOVING THE MAKE-UP                                 26

  IX. IN CONCLUSION                                             28

  ILLUSTRATIONS (_For list see page_ ix)                        30


  The Author                                        _Frontispiece_


  KING LEAR                                                     35

  KING LEAR (progressive pictures)                              38

  DON QUIXOTE                                                   41

  _Don Quixote_ (progressive pictures)                          44

  FALSTAFF                                                      47

  FALSTAFF (progressive pictures)                               50

  SHYLOCK                                                       53

  SHYLOCK (progressive pictures)                                56

  HAMLET                                                        60

  HAMLET                                                        61

  IAGO                                                          66

  OTHELLO                                                       67

  BOTTOM THE WEAVER                                             77

  PIERROT                                                       80

  ROMEO                                                         83

  THE APOTHECARY IN "ROMEO AND JULIET"                          89

  THE APOTHECARY (head study)                                   92

  THE THREE WITCHES IN "MACBETH"                                95

  UNCLE TOM                                                     98

  ST. DUNSTAN                                                  101

  FLEURY                                                       104

  THE PROFESSOR                                                109

  THE SOUL STRUGGLE                                            112

  SIR THOMAS MORE (Holbein picture)                            118

  SIR THOMAS MORE                                              119

  SIR THOMAS MORE IN HIS GARDEN AT CHELSE                      124

  DAUGHTER                                                     125

  NAPOLEON                                                     129

  FALSE BEARDS (twelve progressive pictures)     132, 133, and 136



How ephemeral is this art of the stage, how evanescent. Words quickened
by the voices of the actors tremble for a moment in the sympathetic
atmosphere of the theatre and are then engulfed in silence. This in its
turn gives way to newly spoken words. Out of the illustrative gestures
and actions of the players are pictures formed which each new phase of
the unfolding of the play destroys. Joy gives place to grief, and grief
to joy, gentleness to rage, and love to hate.

The passions wax and wane. The scenes fade even as the lantern pictures
vanish from the white screen. The curtain rustles down, severing those
bonds of sympathy that the play has forged. Actors and audience turn
away to pick up the links in their own particular chains of destiny.

How ephemeral, how evanescent.

Yet that universal law of compensation yields its recompense: for no
art is more enduring in its influence.

Most men are so profoundly impressed by the drama that the recollection
of a performance will abide for years; indeed some are so sensitive to
its effect that their whole lives are coloured or are even changed by
the sensation created by one fine bit of acting.

That the art of the theatre should be so persuasive is in no way
strange, for it makes a joint appeal through the portals of two senses
simultaneously. The eye and ear alike are charmed.

In this joint appeal lies the very essence of the theatrical. The actor
by the heat of his passions fuses picture and poem.

Dumb poetry and petrified graphic art come to life.

Like an electrode the actor stands collecting the currents of dramatic
beauty that pervade the world, and discharges them into the tense
atmosphere of the theatre.

It is the player's duty not only to lend life to the part that he
plays, he should present the character in such a way that the spirit of
each member of his audience moves in accord with it. If his appeal is
strong it will weld the minds of his individual spectators into a kind
of composite intelligence.

I once saw a concave reflector made of small pieces of flat looking
glass. These tiny mirrors multiplied the light placed in front a

To the actor a well-crowded theatre should seem just such a reflection.
In the mind of each member of his audience, should he, as in a glass,
be mirrored.

This unanimity of emotion is brought about by presenting certain
physical and mental facts relative to character in such a way that
they may be grasped by a number of variously constituted people.

A play is woven of a warp-like plot running from beginning to end
of the composition, constituting its chief strength; and woof-like
characterisations which wend their way in and out through the plot
binding it together and filling in gaps with the subsidiary interest of
nicely contrasted types.

The character as it leaves the playwright's hand is a broadly outlined
drawing. The subtleties of manner and expression and those slight but
significant inflections of voice are the creation of the actor. He
vitalises the lines with his spirit.

I have often thought that the appeal to the brain through the sense of
seeing is stronger than that through the sense of hearing. I have been
brought to this conclusion by the fact that people are deeply moved
by the contemplation of a play in a language that they are totally
ignorant of, or by the dumb show of a pantomime.

Is not half the battle won when one perfectly physically realises the
character to be impersonated?

To assist in this half of the conflict this book was written.



Let us suppose that you have read the play, you know what the plot is
about, and the part has been given to you to study. Perhaps the author
describes the peculiarities of the character, or it is traditional to
make up for the part in a given way. Failing help in either of these
directions you must rely upon your own imagination.

Read the part through, trying to think of the character as distinct
from yourself. Pretend that you are listening to the words spoken by
another. Decide what kind of a man would say such words and behave in
such a manner. What are his moral and mental characteristics?

Visualise him, think of him not as an element of the play but as one
who on his journey through life has been accidentally involved in the
dramatic conflict. Get acquainted with him, try to know something of
his past life, for time and experience will have left their marks upon

This fiction once designed, the next task is to see how it will fit.

Study yourself with a view to finding out what traits you have in
common with the character. Note the qualities that must be accentuated
and those that must be subdued.

Alter the character of your face by changing the expression of your
mouth and eyes.

Always remember that as little paint should be used as possible, for
though it is easy to disguise by a thick mask of pigment, the heavier
the make-up the more difficult it is to convey sensitive emotional
variations by the changing expression of the face.

If it is possible to arrange your own hair in a way suitable to the
character so much the better, for though it may in no way seem more
real than a wig it will prove infinitely more comfortable.

I remember before M. de Max played l'Aiglon, he stayed in the house for
weeks while his dark locks were slowly dyed a brilliant red. On the
night following the production he told me disgustedly that people had
criticised his wig.

When you look as much like the part as you possibly can without the aid
of artificial disguise, begin to apply nose paste, paint and powder.
Obliterate one characteristic and accentuate another. Alter the shape
of your nose, paint your eyebrows out and redraw them, altering their
form. Change the colour of the skin. Cover eyelashes and lips with
paint and note the difference. Put shadows round the eyes, sinister
lines running from the nostrils. Wrinkle your face, and where the lines
would naturally come apply the paint. Add a roughly shaped beard or
moustache of crepe hair if the character demands it.

Stand at a distance from the mirror, study the result. This work is
similar to that of the painter when he makes preliminary sketches, it
helps to get one's ideas into a concrete form.

It should be done over and over again until the character is perfectly

If a wig is required, discuss it with the best wig-maker that you
can find. Should you be able to draw supply him with a rough sketch.
Failing this you will probably be able to find an illustration or an
engraving which, though it may not be exactly what you want, will help
you to explain your idea.

I have made a large collection of different engravings of interesting
types, and the work of the old caricaturists I have found very

Visit the wig-maker two or three times before the wig is completed, it
will then be made under your direct supervision and will probably be
more successful in every way.

Remember that the character of a face depends on three elemental
qualities, form, colour and expression. The first two are almost
constant, the third is susceptible to perpetual change.

The grave, the gay, the ascetic, the debauched, the æsthetic, the
philistine, the spiritual and the material, each will have his
distinguishing colour and form. The expression will depend much on the
various moods portrayed during the action of the play.

Make the characterisation as definite as possible, for the size of the
stage demands a certain breadth of treatment. Do not forget the distant
patron of the pit and gallery, for though his monetary contribution is
humble he atones for this by the warmth of his enthusiasm.

If the result of these preliminary efforts seem discouraging, remember
a good wig and suitable costume will help materially.



In making all the pictures in the book studies of my own head I was
actuated by a number of reasons. The first and most important of which
was the possibility of showing what a wide variety of distinctive types
could be realised with the help of make-up by one man.

If the book had been illustrated by a number of pictures of various
actors, the student would have had to make in each instance certain
allowances for the individuality of each performer.

My desire was to present only one face under different disguises.

I was also influenced by the fact that my own face was the one that was
ever nearest to my hand--the one I was most familiar with, and also the
one that I could take the greatest number of liberties with.

Another reason was, that as the photographer who was to produce the
prints, I could always depend upon the attendance of the model. I was
sure that I could always induce myself to patiently pose before my own

The taking of the photographs has been fraught with considerable
difficulty. The playing of the dual _rôle_ of actor and photographer
seems to have cultivated two distinct personalities--personalities
who I am sure felt the liveliest interest one for the other; in fact
nothing ever came between us but the camera.

I am moved less by pride than by a desire for sympathy when I say
that single-handed I did every detail of the work. Sometimes it was
necessary to photograph one character nine times over before a suitable
negative was obtained.

Can you imagine the feelings of Othello or King Lear who, after having
worked up to the most intense moment of the play, paused rigidly before
the camera, that it might do the worst, then on retiring to the dim
ruby light of the dark room, still made up remember, to wrestle with
the difficulties of development, found that when the negative was
finished it was a failure and would have to be done again.

I feel a great debt of gratitude to Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, Mr.
Charles Warner, Mr. R. G. Knowles, Mr. Carton, More-Park, and many
other actors and painters who have unfailingly encouraged me with the
bounty of their interest and their expressions of willingness to assist
me with the work.

I can best express the admiration I feel for the work of my friend M.
Gustav by calling attention to the perfection of the wigs that appear
in the following prints. I believe that he has brought wig-making
to a pitch never realised before. Much of the effectiveness of my
impersonations is in no small measure due to his sympathy and skill.

I selected for my illustrations, in most cases extreme types; sometimes
presented in a more or less exaggerated manner. I felt that thus I
might cover a wide area and make the book the more suggestive.

The student will find but little difficulty in modifying a character,
or if he requires only certain features, in selecting them. Or he may
combine certain peculiarities of one make-up with the peculiarities of
another, and thus produce an additional type.

Many of the characters slightly modified will prove valuable as studies
for modern personalities.

With the exception of those prints where the make-up is shown in
progressive stages I have striven to exhibit the character under the
stress of one of the most emotional moments of the play, illuminated in
a manner that would be desirable to its stage presentation.

I have done this because I felt that a character was essentially a
medium of emotional expression, and that by presenting them in this
way the sensitiveness and flexibility of the characterisation might be
better realised.

Or in other words, that the disguise in no way impaired the ability to
show a great variety of facial expressions.

When I originally contemplated the work I feared that it would be
difficult to get a sufficient number of contrasted types to make the
book interesting, but I found, once under way, there was literally no
end to the quaint creatures that clamoured to be noticed. It became a
hard matter to select, and I have only introduced to the public a few
of the odd personalities I have grown so intimately acquainted with.
Each has been to me a living creature, who was able to let me see the
world from his peculiar standpoint.

I had such an impulse in the work, that at one time I felt that I
should not be able to rest until I had exhausted all human creation.
Aye, perhaps not even then, but would have to wend my way through all
the animal kingdom, till I ended up by trying to make myself look like
inanimate things such as icebergs or lumps of coal.

The undertaking has not been altogether free from pathetic
associations. It was done during the period of my father's last
illness, and the pleasure that he derived from the visit of each new
character cheered, I am sure, his last hours on earth.



When we consider the materials, we realise that the art of make-up is
more or less allied to the art of the painter; although the kinship may
not be of a very intimate character. It resembles in many particulars
coloured statuary, with this great difference, that in the case of the
actor the statue is alive.

If the student were to have a bust of himself accurately modelled by a
sculptor and were to apply the various articles of make-up to it, he
would get almost precisely the same effects that he would get from his
own face, minus, of course, the ability to change its expression.

I have such a bust, and I find that I can do much of my experimenting
upon my dumb counterpart without either its skin or temper ever
resenting the torture. Though I do not think that many will care to
follow my example in this particular I offer the suggestion as being of
some value.

Among the men who paint pictures you rarely find two who use exactly
similar materials, or work in precisely similar ways, in fact methods
of work and the tools used depend largely upon individual differences
of temperament. So in the following pages I trust that it may be felt
that I am suggesting in a more or less stimulating way, and that I am
not dogmatising.

If we again compare it with painting we shall find that we get the most
valuable hints from that branch which is known as the impressionist

The enormous size of the proscenium, which is really only the frame of
our canvas, and the distance which is ever between the spectator and
the stage, demand great breadth of treatment.

I have known an actor to strive for almost the same delicacy of detail
as would be found in a highly finished portrait, and although the
illusion from the front of the house was not positively wrong, much
of his work was never realised; in fact with one quarter the effort
he could have produced a result which would have been infinitely more

Doubtless many who read this book will have had a wide experience in
making up, and will have cultivated preferences for one selection of
materials or another. To them I submit my method and its results. To
the man who comes to the subject with an absolutely unbiassed mind,
I would suggest that he begin his work with a very limited range of
colours, for in this way he will materially simplify the problem.

The following is a list of the grease-paints that may be purchased from
any dealer in make-up:

No. 1, lightest flesh colour; 1-1/2, slightly darker; 2, pale; 2-1/2,
medium; 3, slightly darker; 3-1/2, sunburnt; 4, a ruddy deep flesh
colour; 5, bright yellow; 5-1/2, dark; 6, darker yellow; 7, brown; 8,
Armenian bole; 9, dark sunburn; 10, brown; 11, burnt umber; 12, black;
13, reddish brown; 14, chocolate; 15, brick red; 16, dark brown; 20,
white; carmine 1, 2 and 3.

Of these the colours that prove most valuable in my hands are 2-1/2, 3,
10-13, yellow, white and black, and the following lining sticks; light
blue, dark blue, yellow, lake brown, and carmine 2.

I never use any one of these colours in its crude state, but by
blending produce the exact shade that I deem desirable.

The palm of the left hand proves an admirable palette; its heat readily
melting the paint.

A draughtsman's stub may be used for putting in the wrinkles and
softening the shadows, but I have found the most suitable instrument
for this work is a small modelling tool such as is used for modelling
in wax. It has one end slightly curved and then brought to a knife-like
edge. It is not only valuable for applying colours, but enables one to
deftly finish the shaping of nose-paste.

A small quantity of nose-paste, or, what I have found work better,
toupee paste, will be required. A bottle of spirit gum for applying
false beards and moustaches. Crepe hair of various colours. Powders I
mix for myself that I may get a tint to match any given make-up. The
foundation of this is of a light pink to which I add a little Armenian
bole and yellow. Powders, however, of various hues may be bought
which will save the trouble of mixing. A good powder puff, a box of
dry rouge, a hare's-foot, a pair of scissors and a comb. Vaseline,
cold-cream, cocoa butter, or my preference, olive oil, for removing the
make-up will complete the outfit.

Various elaborate make-up boxes of tin are on the market, but any small
box will answer. The one that always accompanies me on my travels is
an antique case of oak, and was no doubt used for generations as a
receptacle for jewels. It has but one tray, which has sufficient space
for the reception of the various paints. The lower part is reserved for
crepe hair, powder and the other requisites.



The actual work of making up must fall under the two headings of Form
and Colour. We will consider first


The colour of a man's skin, or his complexion, may be indicative of his
nationality or race. For example, consider the distinctive colourings
of the English, Italians, Japanese, Indians, or Africans. It may
suggest his age. For youth has its own peculiar freshness; the healthy
meridian of life is florid, while pallor comes with old age. We may
also vividly realise temperament from the tint of the skin. The sad,
the morbid, and the mean are usually sallow; the happy and generous,
brilliantly hued. Trades and professions also dye their followers to
their liking. The monk is bleached in the cloister, the soldier or
sailor is browned by the sun and wind.

Having decided on the complexion that will be characteristic of a
given part, we mix and apply the paint. Are we to present an English
soldier back from a foreign campaign No. 3 grease-paint, mixed with a
little 13, will yield exactly the sunburnt hue that we desire. We must
remember though that the upper part of the forehead has been protected
from the sun's rays by his helmet, and so a distinct line of light
flesh will remain. No. 2-1/2 will do for this.

A mixture of 2-1/2, yellow and a little brown will provide suitable
pallidness. Such as we might imagine would be characteristic of the

We cover the face with No. 3, and then deepening the hue of some more
No. 3 on our palm with a little lake and carmine, and working this over
the face in fleck-like blotches, we shall obtain the floridness of the
man who drinks, or perhaps even eats too much.

I give these few examples to show the importance of first deciding what
the actual complexion of the character shall be. This paint, which is
spread all over the face is called the groundwork.

By a suitable application of colour, in the way of shadows and of high
lights, we can give the illusion of a different form of feature or of

Let it always be remembered that the shadow is almost invariably of a
similar colour to the rest of the face, only darker. This darkening may
be done with brown, lake, or blue. For example, if the prevailing tone
of the skin is 2-1/2 mixed with yellow and a brown, the same mixture
with considerably more brown added to it will give us exactly the
pigment we require for the shadows and wrinkles, remembering always
that the depth of the wrinkles will be darkest. The same mixture,
lightened with additional yellow and white until it is very pale
indeed, will give the high lights.

The shadows round the eyes of the sickly and in their sunken cheeks
will be bluish. A little lake and blue mixed with the groundwork will
do for this.

Always strive to keep the colouring as light and brilliant as possible;
only thus may a dirty appearance be avoided.

Finish up the make-up with plenty of powder of a colour that suits that
of the groundwork.



The variation of form that may be suggested by painted high lights
and shadows is effective enough when the full face is observed. For
instance an almost white line on the bridge of the nose seems to give
this feature additional prominence when the actor looks directly toward
you, but on getting a view of his profile this illusion disappears, in
fact the true shape of the nose is realised.

If it is desirable to really alter the shape of a feature, a face, or
even the entire head, another method must be used.

The simplest and most popular is the application of nose paste, or
what I personally prefer toupee paste. A sufficient quantity of this
material is taken and kneaded into a soft mass. To do this it is
sometimes necessary to warm it slightly. It is formed roughly into the
shape desired and then stuck to the skin. Some make its adhesion more
certain by applying a small quantity of spirit gum to the skin first.
I have found it better to melt the surface of the paste in the heat of
a candle before placing it into position. When the paste has adhered
to the skin a little grease applied to it with the fingers will
facilitate the subsequent shaping. The modelling should be carefully
finished with the fingers and a modelling tool until no juncture is
observable. In fact it should seem to be part of the face. Plenty of
groundwork spread all over the actual flesh and the parts that have
been built out brings the whole face into accord.

The nose paste can be used for altering the shape of the nose either by
making the bridge more prominent, the end longer, and this increase in
its length may be made in any direction either up or down. The nostrils
fuller, in fact, the whole nose may be covered, and its shape and size
entirely changed.

In a similar way the prominence of the forehead and of the cheek bones
may be built out and additions may also be made to the chin.

It is well to remember that all such distinctive features are due to
the shape of the underlying bony structure of the skull, and when we
desire to alter the shape we must do it in such a way that all the laws
of anatomy are not ignored.

The paste may also be used for imitating unpleasant growths such as
warts and moles.

The entire outline of the head may be altered by the shape of the wig.
On deciding what this alteration shall be it is simplest to think of it
as having roughly a geometrical form. A head may be round, square, or
oblong, and this distinctive form is noticeable when either the full
face or profile is observed.

When ordering the wig even a very rough sketch will prove of great
assistance to the wig-maker.

The beard is also a great help in changing the shape of the face. The
chin may be strengthened or modified by a suitable arrangement of the

A great double chin of padded silk is sometimes worn round the neck,
but this is only convincing when the chin is slightly bearded.

The foregoing alterations have almost all been in the shape of
additions to the features. We will now consider how modifications may
be made.

The first time that I played the part of a negro I found that I should
not be able to imitate the flattened nose of the race unless I used
some method to depress my own very prominent organ. I found that by
holding the tip of my nose down with my finger I very nearly got the
illusion I required. I next took a piece of strong sewing silk, and
first protecting the skin of my nose with a piece of kid, passed the
silk over this, and tying this at the back of my head got exactly what
I required. Then building the nostrils out with nose paste and covering
it all with dark grease paint I look sufficiently negroid to deceive a

The nose may be given a very decided upward tilt by passing a similar
thread under the end of it. This thread is then joined to the upper
part of the wig.

At a short distance these threads are not noticeable.



In adopting the following method in preparing to make-up, I have been
actuated by a desire to preserve the health of my body, and as far as
possible the wholesomeness of my skin.

Acting is sometimes such violent physical exercise that precautions
should be taken against catching cold. Therefore on entering my
dressing-room I change my underclothing.

I next put on tights or any lower garment that part demands. To free
the face from any dust that might be rubbed into the pores by the
process of making-up I wash with pure Castile soap and warm water. Then
thoroughly dry the skin with a soft towel.

While making-up I wear a cotton dressing-gown.

My dressing-table has a large mirror flanked by two electric lights. On
this table the grease paints, wig and other materials that I require
for a given make-up are arranged.

First a little oil is thoroughly rubbed into the skin filling the pores
and keeping them from being clogged with the paint.

I next build up with nose-paste any features that require additional
relief. Then the face, neck and ears are covered with a thin layer of
2-1/2 grease paint. This is done that all inequalities of colour may
be eliminated, and enables one to subsequently get a smooth, clean
groundwork, no matter what colour is desired.

I put on my wig, taking care that the join is invisibly blended. The
face, neck and ears are then covered with a suitable groundwork that I
mix on the palm of my hand. The broad shadows are next introduced, such
as sunken cheeks, temples, and shadows round the eyes.

The accentuation, with smaller shadows, of the mouth and eyes is the
next work. Wrinkles are added, care being taken that they are placed
at places that nature would select. This may be discovered by actually
wrinkling the face and observing where the lines fall. High lights are
then applied.

If a beard or moustache is to be worn, carefully remove the paint with
a clean towel from the part that will be covered by the false hair and
apply a little spirit gum to the clean skin. Adjust the beard and hold
it until it adheres thoroughly. Always blend the beard with the cheeks
with loosely-combed crepe hair as this will help the naturalness of the
appearance. Powder the face. The eyelashes are darkened by drawing a
thin line along the edges of the lids. This I do with an orange stick
dipped in melted paint. The eyebrows are then drawn in. The make-up is
finished by colouring the lips.

I occasionally walk back from the mirror that I may get an impression
such as a distant spectator might receive.

The hands and arms are made up if the character demands it.

The dressing is completed and I step in front of a full-length mirror
for a final inspection prior to going upon the stage.

What the precise impression is that I make upon my audience I cannot
say, I only know that in many character parts I have been unable to
recognise myself.

The time that it takes to make-up must of course vary with the
complexity of the characterisation. At dress-rehearsals when I make-up
for character for the first time I allow myself one hour and a half,
but this when I get more experienced with the part is sometimes reduced
to half an hour. The hurry that this necessitates is nerve-racking
both for actor and dresser and becomes a race with the call-boy. "Half
an hour please," he shouts, his voice echoing up the stairs. Then you
begin to work furiously. When what seems only a few minutes gone by,
his second warning, "A quarter of an hour, please," is heard. Then you
increase your speed. When the boy calls "Overture," if you are not
almost dressed you tell your dresser with more decision than taste
that you know that you will be off. "First-act beginners" means a
bad-tempered rush for the stage, and the struggle with final buttons on
your way. Once upon the stage you almost invariably find that you have
a few minutes in which to regain your breath. Then, warmed by the glare
of the footlights, you forget that you have ever hurried in your life.
In fact, if you are a good actor you forget everything but the part you



At the conclusion of the play you retire to your dressing-room,
flushed, I hope, with success. To resume your real self is a matter of
little difficulty, and yet it may be helpful to have a method suggested.

Begin by removing parts of the clothing, as it unquestionably would be
soiled in the dirty process of removing the make-up.

First take off the wig, next the moustache, then the beard; carefully
remove the false nose, or any other modelling in relief, for if they
are preserved with care they may be used repeatedly. Next, with a small
quantity of oil, or any other grease that may be preferred, soften the
grease-paint slightly and remove it with a towel. This first cleansing
will only remove part of the colour, in fact, the treatment with oil
must be repeated two or three times before every trace of paint has
disappeared. When this has been achieved, wash thoroughly with warm
water and pure Castile soap; dry the face, taking care that every
vestige of paint has been removed.

If the weather is cold, a little cold cream rubbed into the skin, which
is then slightly powdered, will protect it.



Perhaps no other calling is as fascinating as that of the stage. Are
we not happiest when we are least mindful of ourselves, and does not
absolute self-forgetfulness come with a complete realisation of a
personality that is foreign to us? Plus this is the pleasure to be
derived from the knowledge of the strength possessed which enables the
swaying of multitudes by sympathy.

To the born actor his art is a delightful pastime. All his observations
of art and life augment his knowledge of character and his ability to
portray emotion.

The less gifted should study perpetually. The world is full of odd
volumes in strange and interesting bindings. To the student of make-up
the binding is of no less interest than the matter within.

Try to store vivid recollections of the distinctive types; collect
caricatures and prints; they will be most suggestive and helpful.

If you possess even only a slight talent for drawing, cultivate it
assiduously, for it is obvious that the actor who can draw will be
able to make-up better than the one who cannot.

Visit picture galleries and turn them into museums of types. I know of
no other gallery that interests me so much as the National Portrait
Gallery. When I am in London I try to visit it at least once a week.
There I realise what each one of a legion of distinguished men looked

If a play revives some period of history, try to see some of the
pictures of the greatest painters of that day, or at least get
reproductions of their work. Perhaps the very man that you require is
standing in some dim canvas only waiting for you to make him live again.

Remember that each period of history had its distinctive types. Think
of the people of Gainsborough, of Velasquez, the portraits of Holbein
and of Dürer.

If you are to present a man of an alien race, try and give him his
national peculiarities without offering his country the insult of
burlesquing them. I think it is a sign of decadence of our stage that
we strive to heap ridicule on almost every type that is not a product
of our own land.

If any of the dark races are to be presented, such as Africans, Red
Indians, or Japanese, trustworthy photographs may be bought which will
prove an admirable guide.

If you are to portray a well-known historical character, read
everything you can about the man. Perhaps you will have the fortune to
come across a detailed description by one of his intimate friends.

If the man you represent follows any particular trade or calling, try
to get acquainted with some such men. Take, for example, a foundry
hand. Get permission to visit a foundry; go there several times, till
the significance of the work is borne home to you. You will eventually
realise not only what the men look like, but the way they feel, and
will be able to suggest the way in which they toil. Tinker, tailor,
soldier, sailor, rich man, poor man, beggarman, thief. What a drama of
characterisation the line conveys; each is stamped with his trade or

Go again and again to life; let your body and brain reflect it. Make
your types actual.

A Parliament, a Court, a ward of a hospital, with its quiet doctor
going from bed to bed. The deck of the steamer, the interior of a
bus--they each become a school where valuable lessons may be learnt.

Unless you suffer from very definite physical or vocal limitations,
strive not to get grooved in your work. Do not repeat yourself over and
over again in each new part that you play.

Remember that the number of types in the world is infinite; that
the playwright is always striving to present to the public some new

Ever add to your knowledge, and recollect that work is life's great
recompense. Thank God your toil is endless.



    Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow!
    You cataracts, and hurricanoes, spout
    Till you have drench'd our steeples, drown'd the cocks!
    You sulphurous and thought-executing fires,
    Vaunt couriers to oak-cleaving thunder-bolts,
    Singe my white head! And thou, all shaking thunder,
    Strike flat the thick rotundity o' the world!
    Crack nature's moulds, all germes spill at once
    That make ingrateful man!




This old man torn to rags by a tempest of emotion, on the ultimate
boundary of life, is obviously difficult to portray; tenderness and
rage, madness and dignity, must all be shown. He is pent, baffled, and
buffeted by things physical and mental for a while. Then there is the
hurried decay of body and of brain.

In Fig. 1 observe that the nose has been slightly built up. This is
done to give added dignity to the face. For the great weight of beard
and hair would tend to make the nose look smaller than it really is.
After the nose has been built up the wig is put on that the position
of the join may be indicated, also what parts of the natural hair must
be treated with white paint. The groundwork is laid on: this should be
of 2-1/2 yellow and a little brown. The shadows round the eyes are of
groundwork mixed with blue. The wrinkles are of groundwork mixed with
additional brown and lake. The temples should be shadowed with this

Find out where the wrinkles would come by pursing up the face. Use as
many as possible to suggest extreme old age, being always mindful that
the intentions of nature are not ignored. Be careful that the lines
on the face are not drawn in too decisive a manner, as at a distance
they seem much stronger than they really are. The modelling tool is
most suitable for the drawing and the subsequent modification of the
wrinkles. It may be also used for applying the more delicate high
lights. Each wrinkle should be accentuated with a light just above it.
Fig. 2 shows the make-up at a stage when it is ready for the addition
of the moustache and beard. Observe the whitened hair just above the
temples. This is done with white grease paint.

Fig. 3 shows the beard in position. A tape goes over the head to
partly support its weight, and it is secured with spirit gum. Note the
blending of the left cheek and beard with crepe hair, also how half the
chin is covered, observe how the character of the face is altered by
the bushy eyebrow. Fig. 4 shows the make-up almost complete and ready
for the wig to be put on. Put the wig on, carefully blending the join.
Accentuate wrinkles and shadows here and there. Powder and treat the
eyelashes with white paint.


Fantastic to the point of madness, of romantic daring. Simple and kind;
and above all a nobleman of great dignity.

I have chosen this extreme make-up as a foil to the Falstaff.

Falstaff is a creature of utter coarseness. Quixote as a singularly
imaginative man is one of extraordinary sensitiveness.

The chief effort was to make the face as long and as thin as possible.

First compare the four progressive prints. See how much longer the
head is in Fig. 4 than in Fig. 1. As the four photographs are taken
to exactly the same scale it is possible to accurately measure with a
draughtsman's compass the additions that have been made to the chin
and forehead. It will be found that the head has been increased by one

First the nose is built up with paste. By giving it a very pronounced
hook it is decidedly lengthened and thus made to accord better with the
new proportions of the face.

The prominences of the forehead and cheek bones are next accentuated
with nose-paste (Fig. 1).

The wig is placed in position and the forehead made up with a ground
work of 2-1/2, yellow, and 13, a flesh colour that should suggest
parchment. The wig is then removed until the make-up is almost
finished. This keeps it from becoming soiled.

Covering the face with groundwork is the next step. A sunken appearance
is given to the eyes by painting round them with brown. Shadows are
worked into the cheeks. Lines are drawn from the inner corners of the
eyes down on to the cheeks. Similar lines are indicated at either side
of the nose. A broad perpendicular stripe from the nose to the top of
the forehead, and the temples are darkened.



Yellowish high lights are placed on the forehead at either side of the
central shadow and round the temples in such a way that their depth is

High lights on the cheek bones and above the various wrinkles make the
face more vigorous.

The false eyebrows, the moustache and beard are gummed in position.
The beard is blended with loosely combed crepe hair which is afterward

The wig is again put on the shadows and high lights carried up with the
false forehead.

Yellowish powder is next dusted all over the face. Colour similar to
the wig and beard is applied to the eyelashes. The lips are painted
with a colour that should not be too dark.


If I were sawed into quantities, I should make four dozen of such
bearded hermit's staves as Master Shallow. It is a wonderful thing
to see the semblable coherence of his men's spirits and his. They,
by observing of him, do bear themselves like foolish justices; he,
by conversing with them, is turned into a justice-like serving-man.
Their spirits are so married in conjunction with the participation of
society, that they flock together in consent, like so many wild geese.
If I had a suit to Master Shallow, I would humour his men, with the
imputation of being near their master; if to his men, I would curry
with Master Shallow that no man could better command his servants. It
is certain that either wise bearing or ignorant carriage is caught,
as men take diseases, one of another; therefore, let men take heed of
their company. I will devise matter enough out of this Shallow, to keep
Prince Harry in continual laughter the wearing-out of six fashions,
which is four terms, or two actions, and he shall laugh without
intervallums. O, it is much, that a lie, with a slight oath, and a
jest, with a sad brow, will do with a fellow that never had the ache in
his shoulders! O, you shall see him laugh, till his face be like a wet
cloak ill laid up.




A volcano of carnality capped by a head that seems red hot with fleshly

Of all the examples in the book this is the most exaggerated.

In exaggerating to a point of almost buffoonery it has been my wish to
show to what extremes make-up could be carried--extremes that should
usually be avoided.

The chief intention was to give great additional breadth to the head
and face, as opposed to the Don Quixote, in which case the head has
been lengthened as much as possible.

What this additional breadth amounts to may be realised by referring to
Fig. 1 of the progressive prints.

In Fig. 2 the wig is shown with the silk joined to it from which the
cheeks and double chin are to be formed. With spirit gum the edges of
the silk are joined round the eyes, mouth and nose. Next the cheeks and
chin are padded, and the drawstring at the lower edge of the silk is
tightened (see Fig. 3).

A large nose of nose-paste is formed (Fig. 4).

Pouches of nose paste are placed beneath the eyes and these are blended
with the false cheeks, effectually covering the joins.

A groundwork of No. 3 grease paint made deeper with yellow, carmine,
and a little lake is applied evenly all over the face, or perhaps it
would be better to call it a mask. This will bring its various elements
into accord.

Blotches of carmine mixed with a little yellow are dabbed on the nose
and cheeks. High lights of white mixed with a little yellow are placed
on the forehead, on the pouches under the eyes, and on the cheeks.
Blend these with the groundwork carefully.

The beard and moustache are so placed that the actual outlines of the
cheeks are lost. The beard is blended into the cheeks with crepe hair.

The eyelashes are coloured with reddish yellow making them seem


       Shylock. I am bid forth to supper, Jessica:
    There are my keys. But wherefore should I go?
    I am not bid for love; they flatter me:
    But yet I'll go in hate, to feed upon
    The Prodigal Christian. Jessica, my girl,
    Look to my house. I am right loth to go:
    There is some ill a-brewing towards my rest,
    For I did dream of money-bags to-night.




A dignified figure really, but under the lash of persecution disclosing
the evil qualities of revengefulness and craft. Strong, cruel, and

The nose is built with nose-paste and carefully modelled after it is
joined. In the progressive prints, Figs. 1 and 2, two views are given
of it.

The groundwork is of No. 3 yellow, a little lake, brown, and 13. Before
this is applied to the face, the wig is put on; but after the spreading
of the groundwork it is again removed, that it may not be soiled during
the subsequent stages of the make-up.

The colour for the shadows and wrinkles is formed of the groundwork
with brown and lake added. The cavities of the eyes should be
strengthened with this. Deep grooves are painted from the corners of
the nose, a sunken appearance given to the temples, and crows' feet
drawn from the eyes.

The high lights come above the wrinkles; and are placed on the most
prominent parts of the forehead.

The beard, which is of a mixture of black, deep red, and grey hair, is
next gummed into position, taking care that no grease paint is on any
part of the face to which the gum is to be applied. (See Fig. 3.)

In Fig. 4 the blending of the beard with the cheek is shown, also the
placing of half the moustache and a false eyebrow. Observe the small
piece of crepe hair that is placed just under the lower lip.

The wig is again put on and carefully blended with the forehead.

A rather deep reddish powder is suitable for the make-up. The lips are
coloured with carmine and lake mixed.


A mirror of emotions. The mouthpiece of protesting souls. A creature of
sensitiveness absolute. His face must express almost the entire range
of the passions. Very pale, studious, of great mental strength and

Groundwork 2-1/2, a little yellow and a very small quantity of brown.

Flesh colour that should vaguely suggest ivory. A little white rubbed
on to the most prominent parts of the forehead adds intellectuality to
the head.

The shadows which should be of the groundwork deepened with brown are
so arranged that they intensify the sensitiveness of the face. They are
used under the brows to give soulfulness to the eyes and to make the
forehead seem more prominent. A line is drawn round the upper part of
the nostrils to give delicacy to the drawing of the nose. The darkening
of the division of the upper lip and of the cleft chin makes the face
seem thinner. The shadows on the temples and on the cheeks also help
this illusion.

Cream-coloured powder is applied to the face and neck.

The eyebrows are carefully drawn with brown in a wide clear arch and
are afterward lightly combed.

The eyelashes are strengthened by drawing a black line along the edges
and this line is carried a little way out at the outer corner of the
eyes. A tiny spot of carmine at the inner corner by the tear-bag lends
lustre to the eye.

The lips nobly drawn in carmine give passion to the mouth.

The hair is of crisp clean curls which suggests vigour and alertness.

Hamlet when impersonated by fair men has usually been played in a
fair make-up, and this example is worth following. The subtle natural
peculiarities of a fair face make a dark make-up unsuitable to it and
_vice versâ_.

For a fair make-up the same advice should be followed, leaving all the
brown and nearly all the yellow out of the groundwork, and finishing
with rouge. The make-up should be much brighter and the wig of flaxen.




    The time is out of joint; O cursed spite,
    That ever I was born to set it right!

       *       *       *       *       *


POLONIUS. * * *. What do you read, my lord?

HAMLET. Words, words, words!

POLONIUS. What is the matter, my lord?

HAMLET. Between who?

POLONIUS. I mean, the matter that you read, my lord.

HAMLET. Slanders sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men
have grey beards; that their faces are wrinkled; their eyes purging
thick amber, and plum-tree gum; and that they have a plentiful lack of
wit, together with most weak hams: all of which, sir, though I most
powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have it
thus set down; for yourself, sir, shall be as old as I am, if, like a
crab, you could go backward.


The personification of cunningness, craft and deceit. A brilliant mind
and an utterly corrupted spirit. One that enjoys to contemplate and to
study mental suffering.

Pale skin, dark brown hair, and a reddish beard.

Observe the building of the nose. Its bridge runs in an uninterrupted
line up to the forehead.

Note the deep shadow of the temples and the manner of colouring the

The drooping moustache gives the face a singularly sinister expression.

The beard is of crepe hair and is so arranged that it gives the skin a
goatlike appearance.

See instruction for the making of beards.




Of great natural dignity, simple and loyal. Driven to irresistibly
follow an impulse when it has once seized his mind. Tortured to
distraction by Iago. All the primitive savagery of his race is

The nose is first depressed by crossing it near the tip with a silk
thread which is tied at the back of the head. A small piece of kid is
placed under the thread, thus keeping from coming into contact with
the skin. The nostrils are built out until the nose has a Moorish

The face is first covered with 2-1/2 and subsequently with a mixture of
Nos. 10 and 13.

The colouring is made much stronger round the eyes.

High lights are faintly suggested on the forehead and on the cheek

The beard, which had better be of crepe hair, should be so applied that
the flesh shows through.

Reddish brown powder is used, and the make-up is finished by painting
strong black lines on the edges of the eyelids. The eyebrows are also
of black. The lips are No. 13 with a little carmine added.

Ear-rings and a turban help the make-up.


  IAGO. I will in Cassio's lodging lose this napkin,
  And let him find it. Trifles, light as air,
  Are to the jealous, confirmations strong
  As proofs of holy writ. This may do something.
  The Moor already changes with my poison:
  Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons,
  Which, at the first, are scarce found to distaste;
  But, with a little act upon the blood,
  Burn like the mines of sulphur.--I did say so:--

      _Enter_ OTHELLO.

  Look, where he comes! Not poppy, nor mandragora,
  Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
  Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep,
  Which thou ow'dst yesterday.

  OTHELLO. Ha! ha! false to me? To me?

  IAGO. Why, how now, general? no more of that.

  OTHELLO. Avaunt! be gone! thou hast set me on the rack--
  I swear, 'tis better to be much abus'd,
  Than but to know't a little.

  IAGO.                        How now, my lord?

  OTHELLO. What sense had I of her stolen hours of lust?
  I saw't not, thought it not, it harm'd not me:
  I slept the next night well, was free and merry;
  I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips:
  He that is robb'd, not wanting what is stolen,
  Let him not know't, and he's not robb'd at all.

  IAGO. I am sorry to hear this.

  OTHELLO. I had been happy, if the general camp,
  Pioneers and all, had tasted her sweet body,
  So I had nothing known: O now, for ever,
  Farewell, the tranquil mind: farewell content!
  Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
  That make ambition virtue! O, farewell!
  Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
  The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
  The royal banner; and all quality,
  Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!
  And O, you mortal engines, whose rude throats
  The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit,
  Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!

  IAGO. Is't possible, my lord?

  OTHELLO. Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore:
  Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof;

  [_Taking him by the throat._

  Or, by the worth of mine eternal soul,
  Thou had'st been better have been born a dog,
  Than answer my wak'd wrath.

  IAGO.                       Is't come to this?

  OTHELLO. Make me to see't, or, at the least, so prove it,
  That the probation bear no hinge nor loop,
  To hang a doubt on; or woe upon thy life!

  IAGO. My noble lord,--

  OTHELLO. If thou dost slander her, and torture me,
  Never pray more; abandon all remorse:
  On horror's head, horrors accumulate:
  Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amaz'd,
  For nothing canst thou to damnation add,
  Greater than that.

  IAGO.              O grace! O heaven forgive me!

  Are you a man? have you a soul or sense?
  God be wi' you; take mine office. O wretched fool,
  That liv'st to make thine honesty a vice!
  O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O world!
  To be direct and honest is not safe.
  I thank you for this profit; and, from hence,
  I'll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence.

  OTHELLO. Nay, stay:--Thou should'st be honest.

  IAGO. I should be wise; for honesty's a fool,
  And loses that it works for.

  OTHELLO.                     By the world,
  I think my wife be honest, and think, she is not.
  I think that thou art just and think thou art not.
  I'll have some proof: Her name, that was as fresh
  As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black
  As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
  Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,
  I'll not endure it. Would I were satisfied!

  IAGO. I see, sir, you are eaten up with passion;
  I do repent me, that I put it to you.
  You would be satisfied?

  OTHELLO.                Would! nay, I will.

  IAGO. And may: But, how? how satisfied, my lord?
  Would you, the supervisor grossly gape on?
  Behold her tupp'd?

  OTHELLO.           Death and damnation! O!

  IAGO. It were a tedious difficulty, I think,
  To bring them to that prospect: Damn them then,
  If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster,
  More than their own! What then? how then?
  What shall I say? Where's satisfaction?
  It is impossible you should see this,
  Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
  As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross
  As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,
  If imputation, and strong circumstances,
  Which lead directly to the door of truth,
  Will give you satisfaction, you may have it.

  OTHELLO. Give me a living reason she's disloyal.

  IAGO. I do not like the office:
  But, sith I am enter'd in this cause so far,--
  Prick'd to it by foolish honesty and love,--
  I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
  And being troubled with a raging tooth,
  I could not sleep.
  There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
  That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs,
  One of this kind is Cassio.
  In sleep I heard him say,--"Sweet Desdemona,
  Let us be wary, let us hide our loves!"
  And then, sir, would he gripe and wring my hand,
  Cry, "O sweet creature!" and then kiss me hard,
  As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots,
  That grew upon my lips: then laid his leg
  Over my thigh, and sigh'd, and kissed; and then,
  Cry'd, "Cursed fate! that gave thee to the Moor!"

  OTHELLO. O monstrous! monstrous!

  IAGO. Nay, this was but his dream.

  OTHELLO. But this denoted a foregone conclusion;
  'Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream.

  IAGO. And this may help to thicken other proofs,
  That do demonstrate thinly.

  OTHELLO.                    I'll tear her all to pieces.

  IAGO. Nay, but be wise; yet we see nothing done;
  She may be honest yet. Tell me but this,--
  Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief,
  Spotted with strawberries in your wife's hand?

  OTHELLO. I gave her such a one; 'twas my first gift.

  IAGO. I know not that: but such a handkerchief,
  I am sure it was your wife's, did I to-day
  See Cassio wipe his beard with.

  OTHELLO.                        If it be that,--

  IAGO. If it be that, or any that was hers,
  It speaks against her with the other proofs.

  OTHELLO. O, that the slave had forty thousand lives;
  One is too poor, too weak for my revenge!
  Now do I see 'tis true.--Look here, Iago;
  All my fond love thus--I do blow to heaven:
  'Tis gone.--
  Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow hell!
  Yield up, O love, thy crown and hearted throne
  To tyrannous hate! Swell, bosom, with thy fraught,
  For 'tis of aspics' tongues!

  IAGO. Yet, be content.

  OTHELLO.               O, blood, blood, blood!

  IAGO. Patience, I say; your mind, perhaps, may change.

  OTHELLO. Never, Iago. Like to the Pontic sea,
  Whose icy current and compulsive course
  Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on
  To the Propontic, and the Hellespont;
  Even so my bloody thoughts, with violent pace,
  Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love,
  Till that a capable and wide revenge
  Swallow them up.--Now, by yond marble heaven,
  In the due reverence of a sacred vow      [_Kneels._]
  I here engage my words.

  IAGO.                   Do not rise yet.      [_Kneels._]
  Witness, you ever-burning lights above!
  You elements that clip us round about!
  Witness, that here Iago doth give up
  The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
  To wrong'd Othello's service! Let him command,
  And to obey shall be in me remorse,
  What bloody business soever.      [_They rise._

  OTHELLO.  I greet thy love,
  Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous,--
  And will upon the instant put thee to't:
  Within these three days let me hear thee say,
  That Cassio's not alive.

  IAGO. My friend is dead; 'tis done at your request:
  But let her live.

  OTHELLO.          Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her!
  Come, go with me apart: I will withdraw,
  To furnish me with some swift means of death
  For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant.

  IAGO. I am your own for ever.      [_Exeunt._


A bucolic egoist, vain, dense, and narrow.

The groundwork for this is No. 3 with a little 13 added. White is
rubbed into the cheeks in the shape of high lights to broaden the
appearance of the face. A triangular shadow painted on the under part
of the nose makes this feature seem to tilt upward. The eyebrows are
almost entirely obliterated with thick grease paint, as also are the
eyelashes. The small perpendicular lines at the ends of the eyes seem
to reduce their size. The corners of the mouth are extended with paint,
and the tight-fitting wig drawn well over the forehead seems, while it
diminishes the size of the head, to make the face appear larger.

Much of the stupidity of countenance is due to expression.


Bottom _awakes_. When my cue comes, call me, and I will answer: my
next is, "Most fair Pyramus." Hey, ho! Peter Quince! Flute, the
bellows-mender! Snout, the tinker! Starveling! God's, my life! stolen
hence, and left me asleep. I have had a most rare vision. I have had
a dream,--past the wit of man to say what dream it was. Man is but an
ass, if he go about to expound this dream. Methought I was,--there is
no man can tell what. Methought I was, and methought I had,--but man
is but a patched fool if he will offer to say what methought I had.
The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen, man's
hand is not able to taste, his tongue to conceive, nor his heart to
report, what my dream was. I will get Peter Quince to write a ballad
of this dream; it shall be called Bottom's Dream, because it hath no
bottom; and I will sing it in the latter end of a play, before the
duke: peradventure, to make it the more gracious, I shall sing it at
her death.




The symbol of all things theatrical. The utterly impersonal medium for
dramatic expression.

The mask of white destroys the distinctions of colour, race, or
station. He may be emotionally, all things to all men.

Most professional clowns cover their faces with a mixture of pure oxide
of zinc and lard, and then powder thickly with dry oxide of zinc. This
is the method that I adopt. Some may prefer to first paint the face
with white grease paint and then powder with the zinc.

The lips are painted with carmine. The eyes are outlined with black,
and the eyebrows are definitely drawn. A spot of carmine is placed at
the inner corner of each eye.


The most romantic of the Shakespeare heroes, and physically the most

As he is a beautified edition of Hamlet, the instruction for making-up
is similar. Only no effort should be made to arrive at the intellectual
type of face that is striven for in the case of the more serious part.

The groundwork should be No. 2-1/2 with 3, a little 13, and yellow
added to give it Italian warmth.

After powdering, the cheeks may be dusted with dry rouge, and this
should be carried up to the temples; a little on the end of the chin is
also helpful.

In juvenile make-ups it is always advisable to make the forehead
lighter than the rest of the face, as it gives a feeling of animation
to the countenance.



ROMEO. He jests at scars, that never felt a wound.

      [_Juliet appears above, at a window._

  But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks?
  It is the east, and Juliet is the sun!
  Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
  Who is already sick and pale with grief,
  That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she
  Be not her maid, since she is envious;
  Her vestal livery is but sick and green,
  And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.
  It is my lady; O! it is my love.
  O! that she knew she were!
  She speaks, yet she says nothing; what of that?
  Her eye discourses, I will answer it.
  I am too bold, 'tis not to me she speaks:
  Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven,
  Having some business, do entreat her eyes
  To twinkle in their spheres till they return.
  What if her eyes were there, they in her head?
  The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars,
  As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven
  Would through the airy region stream so bright,
  That birds would sing, and think it were not night.
  See! how she leans her cheek upon her hand!
  O! that I were a glove upon that hand,
  That I might touch that cheek.


This grim compounder of death-dealing drugs was for me a most
interesting part to play; I made him up from head to foot.

From the costumier I got the oldest garments that I could procure. At
the elbows, knees, and heels, I destroyed them with acid, so that when
I had them on the joints protruded. The coat and cloak, if I did not
carefully bind them round me, disclosed my ribs.

Wherever flesh showed I painted it in such a way that it suggested
emaciation, and though in reality I am well favoured with flesh I was
told that on the stage I looked like a skeleton done up in a bundle of



  APOTHECARY. Who calls so loud?

  ROMEO. Come hither, man. I see that thou art poor;
  Hold, there is forty ducats: let me have
  A dram of poison; such soon-speeding gear
  As will dispense itself through all the veins,
  That the life-weary taker may fall dead,
  And that the trunk may be discharged of breath
  As violently, as hasty powder fired
  Doth hurry from the fatal cannon's womb.

  APOTHECARY. Such mortal drugs I have; but Mantua's law
  Is death to any he that utters them.

  ROMEO. Art thou so bare, and full of wretchedness,
  And fear'st to die? famine is in thy cheeks;
  Need and oppression starveth in thy eyes;
  Contempt and beggary, hang upon thy back,
  The world is not thy friend, nor the world's law
  The world affords no law to make thee rich;
  Then be not poor, but break it, and take this.

  APOTHECARY. My poverty, but not my will, consents.

  ROMEO. I pay thy poverty, and not thy will.

  APOTHECARY. Put this in any liquid thing you will,
  And drink it off: and, if you had the strength
  Of twenty men, it would despatch you straight.




These sub-human creatures, weird, mysterious women that seem akin to
cats and bats and toads.

The first was made up by binding the nose down as is described in the
instruction for Othello.

The groundwork was of No. 2-1/2 with a great deal of yellow and a
little brown. The cheeks were deeply shadowed, as were also the
cavities of the eyes. The lines running from the nostrils to the
corners of the mouth were strongly defined. The form of the lips was
completely obliterated. Strong shadows were painted round the mouth.

The illustration shows how definitely yellow and white were used for
high lights.

For the second witch I carried my nose upward by putting a silk thread
under it, which I attached to the wig. Similar groundwork was used, and
the same type of shadow was placed on the cheeks and round the eyes.
The teeth were partly painted out with cobblers' wax. Finely cut crepe
hair was dusted on the chin.

The third witch had a nut-cracker type of nose and chin built of
nose-paste. The cheeks were built out as in the case of Don Quixote.

Moles and warts were freely scattered about the lower part of the face,
some of them being armed with bristles.

The colour for the groundwork and shadows was similar to that used for
the first and second witches.

As I have been so frequently asked how I managed to get three
photographs of myself in one print, I may explain that separate
negatives were taken, which were subsequently combined in a composite


  1ST WITCH. Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd.

  2ND WITCH. Thrice and once the hedge-pig whin'd.

  3RD WITCH. Harpier cries:--'Tis time, 'tis time.

  1ST WITCH. Round about the cauldron go;
  In the poison'd entrails throw.
  Toad, that under cold stone,
  Days and nights hast thirty-one
  Swelter'd venom sleeping got,
  Boil thou first i' the charmed pot!

  ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
  Fire, burn; and, cauldron, bubble.

  2ND WITCH. Fillet of a fenny snake,
  In the cauldron boil and bake;
  Eye of newt, and toe of frog,
  Wool of bat, and tongue of dog,
  Adder's fork, and blind-worm's sting,
  Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing,
  For a charm of powerful trouble,
  Like a hell-broth, boil and bubble.

  ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
  Fire, burn; and, cauldron, bubble.

  2ND WITCH. Cool it with a baboon's blood,
  Then the charm is firm and good.




This kind-hearted negro, the idol of children, devout and forbearing,
has ever made a profound appeal to me.

The make-up is in many respects similar to that of Othello. In fact
exactly the same instructions may be followed for shaping the nose.

The wig, beard and moustache, eyebrows and the colour of the face, give
it of course an entirely different character.

The ground is of brown, with a little 13 added to give it warmth. Great
care should be taken to get this colour well to the edges of the eyes
or you will look more like the minstrel type of negro than that variety
which was found on the plantations of Kentucky.

The hands and arms, neck and ears, should all be carefully made up.

[Illustration: ST. DUNSTAN

English Church Pageant, 1909.]




Gay, debauched, and lascivious.

An extreme type of French bohemian.

Notice how the moustache is brushed back from the mouth; the insolent
droop of the eyelids, and the elevation of the eyebrows.

The nose runs directly up into the forehead as in the case of Iago. The
hair is long and curls in bushy masses.

Full instructions for making the beard will be found in the description
accompanying the progressive stages of the false beard.

A large black-rimmed eyeglass helps the characterisation.


_Liné._ Drink?

FLEURY. Absinthe.

LINÉ. Do you--do you--excuse me--paint? [_Fleury shakes his head and
drinks._] You are a poet?

FLEURY. Yes, my friend, I am [_drinks_]. I sing an answer to the
siren's song. It is a ballad of such enchanting lewdness, they hold
their breath to listen, and silenced they are lost. Many a dainty
female thing, drunk with voluptuous ecstasy, has crept into my nets.

LINÉ. On what seas do you roam?

FLEURY. Seas! He that mentions water in my hearing, even if he
dignifies it with the name of sea, insults me gravely. The only
liquid of my life is that which but a moment since made virile this
poor glass, that now alas is dead. [_Fleury's glass is filled, and he
drinks, smacking his lips._] An ocean was not too much. Nay, all the
fluid systems of the world I'd gulp within. An ocean here [_putting
his hand upon his stomach_], a lake upon my tongue. Through every vein
a burning river run, and to my brain great clouds would rise through
which pale opalescent rainbows would never cease to play.

      _From a Play by_ CAVENDISH MORTON.


Men who study assiduously a certain branch of the animal kingdom
sometimes grow to look more or less like the things they contemplate.

This etymologist has cultivated a family resemblance to the insects
that he studies.

The inquisitive eyes and the impertinent nose might well become a

The nose is elongated with nose-paste.

The groundwork of No. 3 is used. The shadows and wrinkles are of
lake mixed with a little blue. The high lights are of pale yellow.
The eyebrows are of grey made by mixing black and white paint. The
eyelashes are thickly coated with white.

The face is treated with very light powder.

The spectacles, unkempt hair and velvet cap, all give characteristic

Particular attention is called to the hands. They are shadowed at all
spaces that occur between the bones with a mixture of lake and brown.
Veins are outlined in blue and high lights on the bones and veins are
accentuated with pale yellow.


I caught it myself. I could dance for joy. It bit me on the wrist. I
watched it suck my blood. I let it quietly feed, then I put a little
glass over it and held it down until it was dead.

See I have a ring upon my arm. I'll show you its sting under a




In this, physical expression is given to the profound spiritual
conflict that takes place within a man of definitely dual personality.

He alternately comes under good and evil influences, each transition
coming suddenly. As the changes occur while the character is in view
of the audience, the whole effect has to be produced by the altered
expression of face and of form.

When working this character up I studied the effect in a full-length
mirror, striving constantly to make one character more and more
dignified, while the other was persistently degraded, till, ultimately,
I attained the most distinctive contrast of character that it was
possible to achieve without the aid of artificial make-up.


This print is included that it may be compared with the actual Holbein
print. It shows how important accuracy of detail in the costuming of a
part is.

When I impersonated this character in the Chelsea Pageant, every London
paper commented on the success of the make-up, the _Times_ saying, if
the Chancellor were to rise from the grave even he could hardly tell
the difference between us; the _Standard_, that I realised Holbein's
portrait with startling fidelity, and the _Daily News_, that I looked
as if I had stepped directly out of Holbein's well-known canvas; while
the _Sketch_ and _Referee_ called me a living Holbein.





The additional pictures of Sir Thomas More are reproduced to show how
well the illusion of character was maintained under the most trying
conditions possible.

Make-up usually seems more real when seen by artificial light, but as
at the Chelsea Pageant, 1908, I had no such aid, the achievement of
absolute reality was all the more difficult.




An example of how historical accuracy should be striven for. The
success of this presentation depends on the actor more or less
definitely resembling the first Emperor of the French.

In my own case the only change I had to make in my appearance was to
have my hair suitably cut.

I went to infinite pains however to have each part of the costume an
exact copy of that he wore.

As very few prints are seen of Napoleon in Coronation robes, perhaps
the illusion will not be so striking as it would have been had I chosen
to represent him wearing his well-known hat. I preferred however to
represent a less hackneyed picture.


DIDEROT. I have seen him on his throne.

BARBEILLON. Was it wonderful?

DIDEROT. Wonderful! He looks like a baby swaddled in glory, sitting on
his high chair.


DIDEROT. It was wonderfully pitiful and pitifully wonderful. So
terribly final. There he sat like a bad boy who had stolen the toyshop.
He knows that no new thing may be created, so he sifts the old, and
selecting the best puts them together as children build with blocks.

He assembles with a perfection which sickens. Triumphant arch or
wedding trousseau is arranged with equal facility.

BARBEILLON. How was he dressed?

DIDEROT. The dandy of eternity, he had been to the clothing bazaar of
time; taken what he fancied--Cæsar's hat, Queen Elizabeth's collar,
Louis' cloak.

BARBEILLON. Extraordinary!

DIDEROT. I know; but it was all so right. Round his neck a chain, an
aviary of linked golden eagles. On his breast a mighty cross of five
points as if it were built to crucify the senses of the world upon. In
its centre a great N, the symbol of negation to humanity. No! no! no!
it said to all mankind. But I felt from the look in his eyes that it
had burnt through to his own heart. He is not blazing satisfaction,
only smouldering discontent.

I wonder if he'll smoulder out.

      _From a Play by_ CAVENDISH MORTON.





False beards may be procured ready made on gauze, or may be made upon
the face.

When a very large growth of hair is desired the wigmaker's production
is most suitable, but a small beard will have a much more natural
appearance if it is made up directly upon the face.

The twelve prints illustrating the method of work, practically explain
themselves, but a few descriptive words may be helpful.

Crepe hair is in far too curly a condition when procured from the
wigmaker, to be used with much success.

I moisten and comb out a large quantity of it, then allow it to dry.

Fig. 1 of the progressive prints shows the hair being combed out, Fig.
2 being roughly cut into shape. In Fig. 3 this piece has been gummed
into position. In Fig. 4 a circular bunch has been gummed to the chin.
Fig. 5 the piece under the lower lip. Fig. 6 the covering of the cheek
from ear to chin. Fig. 7 a small piece that runs from the corner of the
mouth into the beard. Fig. 8 a blending of the beard with the cheek.
Fig. 9 the placing of half the moustache. Fig. 10 the trimming of the
beard. Fig. 11 illustrates how the moustache may be arranged; and Fig.
12 that the beard may be pulled into any form.

The hair should not be pulled out in thick masses, and when it is in
position may be brushed and combed even as a real beard might. It may
be trimmed into any shape with an absolute certainty of its being

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes: Italic text is denoted by _underscores_. Obvious
printer's errors corrected. Every effort has been made to replicate
this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant
spellings, non-standard punctuation, inconsistently hyphenated words,
and other inconsistencies.

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