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Title: Paint & Colour Mixing - A practical handbook for painters, decorators and all - who have to mix colours, containing 72 samples of paint of - various colours, including the principal graining grounds
Author: Jennings, Arthur Seymour
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Paint & Colour Mixing - A practical handbook for painters, decorators and all - who have to mix colours, containing 72 samples of paint of - various colours, including the principal graining grounds" ***

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  Transcriber’s Notes

  Text printed in italics has been transcribed between _underscores_,
  bold face text between =equal signs=. Small capitals have been
  converted to ALL CAPITALS. ^{text} represents superscript text.

  More Transcriber’s Notes may be found at the end of this text.



[Illustration: Gold Medals: Paris, 1878 and 1900.

  WILKINSON HEYWOOD & CLARK LIMITED

  CALEDONIAN RD
  LONDON

Manufacturers of the Celebrated “Non=Poisonous Colours” in rich and
delicate neutral tints, for High=Class Decorations.]


[Illustration:

DON’T SPOIL YOUR WORK BY USING INFERIOR BRUSHES.

  “PAGE’S”
  PAINTING
  BRUSHES

Have stood THE TEST OF A CENTURY, and every brush bearing their name is
acknowledged to be of the BEST QUALITY that can be produced.

S. D. PAGE & SONS, L^{TD.,}

NORWICH.

ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST POST FREE ON APPLICATION.]


  COLOURS.                PURE.          WITH 25      WITH 100
                                       PARTS ZINC.   PARTS ZINC.

  TURKEY UMBER        [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  FRENCH OCHRE        [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  RAW SIENNA          [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  ORANGE CHROME       [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  PRUSSIAN BLUE       [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  MEDIUM CHROME       [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  MIDDLE CHROME GREEN [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]

  MOSS GREEN          [Illustration] [Illustration] [Illustration]



  PAINT & COLOUR
  MIXING

  A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR PAINTERS, DECORATORS AND ALL WHO
  HAVE TO MIX COLOURS, CONTAINING 72 SAMPLES OF PAINT OF
  VARIOUS COLOURS, INCLUDING THE PRINCIPAL GRAINING GROUNDS,
  AND UPWARDS OF 400 DIFFERENT COLOUR MIXTURES, WITH HINTS
  ON COLOUR AND PAINT MIXING GENERALLY, TESTING COLOURS,
  RECIPES FOR SPECIAL PAINTS, ETC., ETC.,

  ARTHUR SEYMOUR JENNINGS.

  London:
  E. & F. N. SPON, LTD., 125, STRAND.

  NEW YORK:
  SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 123, LIBERTY STREET

  1902.



_PREFACE._


The author would for some reasons be inclined to offer an apology for
this work in its present form, because it falls so far short of what
might be expected in a comprehensive treatise on the subject of which it
treats. To understand colour mixing the student should first carefully
study colour theory, and then the properties of pigments. But it will be
observed that there is but little relating to theory in this work, and
the reasons are given distinctly, and are, in brief, that the subject is
too complex a one to render it possible for it to be dealt with in the
limited range of these pages, while another reason is that the subject
is very well covered in several books published in late years by
Professor CHURCH, GEORGE H. HURST, Professor ROOD, and others.

The author, however, has ample justification for the publication of this
little work in the fact that he has during the last fifteen years
received, in his capacity as editor of painters’ publications, enquiries
almost daily for a book giving colour mixtures, with actual samples of
colours, in other words, one which would be useful to the man who wants
to mix paints but who has not made a study of the subject.

A critic might object that it is impossible to give accurate colour
mixtures, because the actual appearance of colour varies according to
the light in which it is viewed, and also because the result obtained by
mixing coloured pigments of different manufacture must vary greatly
according to the quality of those colours. All these objections have
been carefully borne in mind in the preparation of the contents of this
work. It has been assumed that the colour mixtures will be viewed in an
average good light, and it is further assumed that the colours which
have been employed will not necessarily be of the very best quality but
certainly not those which are very inferior. The chapters on colour
testing, etc., have been added not only because these properly form a
part of the subject, but because so many painters are deficient in a
knowledge of them.

It need only be added that every one of the mixtures given in this work
has been carefully made with the actual colours. The preparation of the
list has been no inconsiderable work. The author therefore leaves his
little book in the hands of practical readers in the hope that even if
it falls short of being a complete treatise it may, at least, prove of
some service in everyday work.



_CONTENTS._


  CHAPTER I.

  The Composition of a Paint -- Pigments, Oil, Turpentine, Driers,
  Colours -- Practical Paint Mixing, Mechanical Paint Mixer -- Paint
  Strainer -- The Proportions of Materials for use on Pine and Soft
  Woods -- On Hard Woods generally -- On Iron -- On Stucco -- On
  Plaster, etc.


  CHAPTER II.

  Colours or Stainers -- The appearance in strong and subdued lights --
  The Nomenclature of Colours -- Examples of variation in the names of
  Colours -- Efforts made to establish a Uniform Nomenclature -- The
  Economy of using Good Colours -- Hues, Shades and Tints.


  CHAPTER III.

  Whites -- Recipes for various mixtures of White Pigments -- The
  Advantages and Disadvantages of White Lead, Zinc White, Lithopone,
  etc., etc.


  CHAPTER IV.

  Grays and Greys -- General Remarks -- How to Mix various Greys and
  Grays.


  CHAPTER V.

  Reds, Crimsons and Purples -- General Remarks -- How to Mix these
  Colours.


  CHAPTER VI.

  Blues -- General Remarks -- How to Mix Blue generally.


  CHAPTER VII.

  Yellows -- General Remarks -- How to Mix Yellows generally.


  CHAPTER VIII.

  Greens, how to Mix them -- General Remarks -- Suggestions for
  Experiments.


  CHAPTER IX.

  Browns, and how to Mix them -- General Remarks on Browns.


  CHAPTER X.

  Graining Grounds and how to Mix them.


  CHAPTER XI.

  How to Test the Quality of Colours -- The Characteristics of Good
  Colours -- Greens, Venetian, Tuscan and Indian Reds -- Red Lead --
  Chromes -- Ochres -- Blacks -- Blues -- Umbers and Siennas.


  CHAPTER XII.

  Recipes, Tables, Hints and Notes -- List of Books useful to the
  Painter.


[Illustration]



CHAPTER I.


THE COMPOSITION OF A PAINT.--Clearly the first thing to be done before
studying the subject of paint and colour mixing is to determine what a
paint or what a colour is. Without attempting to give a hard and fast
definition, it may be said that a paint consists of any pigment, such as
white lead, mixed with linseed oil, and thinned by means of turpentine
to render it in such a condition that it may be readily applied to the
surface of wood, iron and other work by means of a brush. Paint serves
the purpose first of preserving the material to which it is applied, and
secondly, but not always, a decorative object where the colour is of
importance.

The principal pigment used in paint mixing is white lead, but there are
many others that are also employed. Many painters look upon paint as
necessarily consisting of white lead to which has been added sufficient
colouring matter to give the desired tint. As a matter of fact, white
lead may be wholly absent from a paint. For example, yellow ochre may be
used by itself; iron oxide in the shape of Indian red, purple brown,
Venetian red, or Tuscan red forms in itself a good paint if the colour
is not objectionable. Again, in the lighter paints we sometimes have
white lead replaced by an admixture of zinc white, barytes and other
materials of the kind.

The oil used in mixing paint is used to combine the particles or pigment
together. That is its chief object, but it is also employed to give a
glossy surface and to bring the material to a proper consistency.
Turpentine could be used for the latter purpose by itself, but the
result would be what is termed a “flat” surface, or an absence of gloss.
The turpentine, too, evaporates to a considerable extent. It is
generally conceded, among those who have given close attention to the
subject, that the durability of a paint depends largely upon the oil
used; indeed, it has been likened to the life-blood of the paint. There
is not much doubt that the best pigments may be replaced with others
somewhat inferior without so much detriment to the quality of the paint
as if linseed oil is replaced by some other oil. It is quite necessary
that pure linseed oil be used in the manufacture of all paints, and
although there are one or two substitutes on the market which may be
employed in very cheap work, no attempt should be made to execute a
really good job unless pure linseed oil is used. The purpose of the oil
in giving a gloss is sometimes assisted by the addition of a small
quantity of oak varnish. This is a growing custom among painters, as the
gloss produced is decidedly improved by the addition of the varnish and
the work shows up well, while the varnish does not in any way detract
from the life of the paint, but rather adds to it. This practice is
employed more on inside than outside work, where the execution of the
painting requires more care than it does inside, owing to the severe
atmospheric conditions, which cause any paint work not properly prepared
to soon decay.

The base, such as white lead, having been selected, colours are mixed in
order to produce the desired hue or tint. Frequently, however, a colour
is made by the mixture of several other colours without any white lead
at all. A careful examination of the list included in this book will
make this clear.

The colour having been determined, oil, turpentine, and driers are then
added. The object of the driers is that of causing the paint material to
dry quickly. There are several kinds of driers on the market, but the
two best known are termed “patent driers,” which is sold in solid form,
and the “liquid driers” or “japanners.” Whichever is used the actual
quantity employed will depend very largely upon the pigment. Some
pigments, say for instance, red lead may be considered in itself a
drier, and the addition of any other is unnecessary. Others, like
Vandyke brown, dry slowly, and much more driers will be necessary than
is the case with white lead. Further on we give some idea of the
proportions of materials to be used, but it will be understood that no
exact information on the subject will be possible, for reasons that will
be explained. It is of the utmost importance to remember that an excess
of driers is most objectionable. It often retards instead of increasing
the drying quality, it causes cracks and blisters, and above all, it
proves very destructive to the paint itself.

The quality of patent driers varies very greatly, some of the cheaper
grades consisting largely of material which possesses no drying
properties whatever.


PAINT MIXING.--The method of mixing paint does not appear, strange as it
may seem, to have received the consideration on the part of practical
painters that it deserves. While the manner of mixing small quantities
of paint is thoroughly practical and sensible, yet some painters, even
when they have larger quantities of the same paint to mix, adopt exactly
the same means without thinking it necessary to take advantage of
special machinery which is made for the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

There are on the market two sorts of mixing machine for paints that
would prove of great service to the painter who has to produce large
quantities of paint. But, as a rule, they are only used by paint
manufacturers. One known as the vertical mixer, is represented in Fig.
1, and is suitable for painters’ use. It consists of a cylinder which
contains the paint, and in this are three bent knives or scissors. The
handle attached, on being operated, turns the cylinder in one direction
and the knives in the opposite direction, these knives in the meantime
revolving around on their own axes. The paint is thus mixed very
quickly, and as the cylinder may be had to hold several gallons, in the
case of bridge work, wall work, or other positions where a very large
quantity of the same paint is required, the purchase, for a few pounds,
of such a machine may mean a saving of a considerable amount of labour.
The mixer illustrated is manufactured by Messrs. TORRANCE & SONS, of
Bittern, Glos. In many shops, where large quantities of stone colour and
other paints have to be turned out, such a machine would soon repay its
cost.

For ordinary quantities of paint, of which white lead forms the base,
the following is the method usually employed. It will be understood that
the paint consists of a base such as white lead, linseed oil, either raw
or boiled, driers--either patent or liquid--and turpentine. A can or
kettle is most usually employed for mixing the white lead in, and this
is first thinned out and mixed with the driers and oil, the colour being
afterwards added to it. A little oil is first placed in the can, which
is twisted around so that the oil covers every part of the inside
surface. This prevents the lead sticking against the tin. A sufficient
quantity of oil and the patent or other driers is then added. The most
convenient implement for actually mixing the paint is a broad piece of
wood shaped like a narrow spade, or a spatula may be employed. The lead
is stirred and beaten against the sides of the tin until the whole is of
the same consistency, and more oil is added until the thickness is not
sufficient to support the stick standing upright. Turpentine may now be
added to further thin the mixture, and then the colour is added. It may
be noted here that the result is not so satisfactory if the turpentine
is added before the oil. The best way of mixing actual colours is to
place them on a stone, thoroughly amalgamating one with the other by
means of a spatula. When the colour is what is required it is added to
the white. To take a simple case of a gray, a little black would be
beaten up on the stone, and when quite thin added to the pot of white.
This would then be stirred up thoroughly and the grey colour observed to
see whether it was sufficiently dark. Then a very little red and blue
might be prepared on the stone and this be added to the pot, the mixture
being again stirred. Two very important rules must be observed at this
point. The first is that the colours ground in oil should be used and
not dry colours. If dry colours are employed oil must be added to them
on the stone and not in the pot. We may repeat, by way of emphasis,
under no circumstances must dry colours be added to the pot of colour.
This is a rule to which there is absolutely no exception. The second
rule, and one which is equally important, is to add only a small
quantity of colour to the pot of white at the time. Taking the case once
more of the grey, a little black being added and the mixture well
stirred it can be seen at a glance whether the desired depth of shade is
obtained. On the other hand, it would be quite impossible to take any of
the black from the mixture, and should it be too dark the only way to
lighten it would be to add more white, and this would probably mean
mixing much more paint than was required for the job.

The paint having been mixed to the exact colour required, all that now
remains is to strain it. A piece of muslin is often used for this
purpose, but a far better method is to use a wire gauze strainer, which
may be purchased for a small sum and will last for a considerable length
of time. The advantage of this in addition to its permanence is that the
hard portions of the paint may be beaten against the gauze, and so the
waste be reduced to a minimum.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

An excellent shape of paint strainer is that shown in Fig. 2, which is
shown in parts in Fig. 3. A, represents the body of the strainer, B, the
clips which hold the compression band C, and D, represents the gauze.
The advantage of this construction is that the gauze after use may be
easily taken out, cleaned and replaced. This strainer or its equivalent
should form part of the equipment of every paint shop, large or small.

A very handy little tool for breaking up oil paint when mixing in a can
instead of using a stick is shown in Fig. 4 (see next page). Its shape
enables it to be used also as a scoop or spoon for lifting the colour
out of the kegs, etc. The patentee and manufacturer is H. SMITH, Hale
Road Bridge, Altrincham, Cheshire. The illustration shows both sides of
the tool. The projection on the left hand of the carved blade is
provided in order to reach beneath the rim of lever-top cans.


THE PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS.--We come to a consideration of the proper
proportions of materials, viz., white lead (or other white), oil,
turpentine and driers--the colour we shall speak about shortly--to be
used on various kinds of work.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

A little consideration will make it quite clear that it is impossible to
give exact proportions of materials that will suit every job. These
proportions are determined by the condition of the work. A new door of
good sound pine will be treated differently to one made of an inferior
wood, which is knotty and somewhat sappy. Again, a door that has been
exposed to the weather for some years, and from which the paint has,
perhaps, almost wholly departed, will require a different mixture to a
front door from which the accumulation of old paint, extending, perhaps,
to over one hundred years, has been burnt off. Precisely in the same way
as patent medicines cannot be safely used for any and every complaint,
so it is impossible to have paints that will suit any and every purpose.
In one case the doctor is consulted and he takes into consideration
every symptom and every condition and acts upon his diagnosis or
scrutiny of symptoms. In like manner the decorator takes note of every
condition of his work, and prepares his paint accordingly. Again, iron
would not be painted with the same mixture as wood. Still if we cannot
give _exact_ proportions, we can, at least, give some information on the
subject, which will form a guide and give some data for the reader to
work upon. These we will give under separate heads.


PRIMING FOR IRON.--The usual plan is to use red lead mixed with linseed
oil, the proportion required being about 14lbs. of linseed oil to every
cwt. of lead. The second coat should be equal proportions of red and
white lead mixed to a proper consistency with linseed oil. Sometimes
oxide of iron paint is used instead of red lead.


PAINTING ON STUCCO.--The priming must contain a considerable quantity of
oil, because of the absorbent nature of the stucco, and it should have
a big proportion also of turpentine. Four galls. of boiled oil to a cwt.
of red lead and three quarts of turpentine will usually answer. The
second coat should be an equal mixture of red and white lead with a
smaller proportion of turpentine and oil.


PRIMING FOR DEAL OR PINE (INSIDE).--With white lead use three-quarter
ounces of driers and the same quantity of red lead to every pound of
lead. Thin with about the same proportion of turps and raw linseed oil.


SECOND COAT (INSIDE).--Use about half-an-ounce of driers and one ounce
of red lead to every pound of white lead.


SECOND COAT (OUTSIDE).--Use about one ounce of patent driers to every
pound of white lead, with the addition of about the same quantity of red
lead.


EGG SHELL GLOSS.--To every pound of white lead add quarter of an ounce
of copal varnish and the same quantity of gold size with half the
quantity of boiled oil. These will serve the purpose of binding the
materials together and causing them to dry. The thinners should consist
of turpentine used in the proportion of about three-quarters of a pint
to every 7 lbs. of white lead.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER II.


COLOURS OR STAINERS.--We have thus far omitted to take into
consideration the colours--or stainers, as most painters call them--that
have to be used in the mixtures given in the last chapter, excepting, of
course, when a white paint is required.

As a rule, one or several colours are added to the base producing a
tint, shade, or hue, as may be required. Sometimes, but not often,
colours are employed as “body colours,” that is, they are employed just
as they are purchased, ground in oil, excepting that they are thinned
down with the requisite quantity of oil and turpentine.

We may now give consideration to actual colour mixture, but must first
make one or two points clear, so that the lists which follow may be
properly understood.

First, then, it should be said that colours vary in appearance according
to the light in which they are viewed. For example, a colour, when
looked at in the light of a sunny day in the open, has a very different
appearance to that when viewed in a dark room. This will be explained at
greater length further on. The mixtures here given refer only to oil
colours, and it must be clearly understood that the same results will
not be obtained with artists’ water colours. In the case of the latter,
tints are obtained by the addition of water just as they are produced in
oil colours by the addition of white lead or other white pigment.

In examining the lists which follow the reader may ask why we do not
give the actual proportions of the different parts. The answer is that
this is impossible for two reasons, the first being that colours vary so
largely in quality that the proportions would be useless unless some
particular make of colours was taken as a standard, while the second is
that the names of the same colour vary also largely. Let us consider
this point at once.


THE NOMENCLATURE OF COLOURS.--If half a dozen practical painters,
experienced in colour mixing, were asked separately to mix a given
colour, say a sea green, it is almost certain that when the six colours
were compared there would not be two alike. Each of the six painters
might have had precisely the same make of colours to work with and yet
the “sea green” would in each case be different. The explanation, of
course, is that opinions differ as to what is a “sea green.”

In giving the samples of colour which are contained in this work the
author was, under the circumstances, somewhat puzzled to know exactly
the right names to give each. His idea as to what was a bronze green,
for example, might differ materially from the opinion of others, indeed,
as it has already been explained, no two practical men would probably be
found to agree as to the exact colour of two or three dozen differently
named colours. Under these circumstances, he hit upon the plan of
following what appeared to be the general rule in the trade. With this
object he obtained the colour cards issued by all the leading paint
manufacturing firms in the country, as well as some from abroad. He then
took out the colours which he thought would be most useful to his
readers, and then very carefully, and with a considerable amount of
labour, compared each colour with similar colours in the different
colour cards, taking note of the different names which different
manufacturers called them. The result was very surprising, because it
was found that in many cases there were as many names as there were
manufacturers’ cards represented. When, however, the same name was used
by several manufacturers, that name was selected for the purpose of this
work. The reader may, therefore, take it that the names employed here
are those which are most general in the trade. As an instance of the
variation in these names we may cite a few examples.

Bronze green was called by different manufacturers’ dark green, olive
green, and sage green. In this case bronze green occurred more
frequently than any other name.

Tea green was called also olive green and Queen Anne green.

Apple green was called very light sea green and Eau de Nil green.

Sage green was called also olive and pale Quaker green.

Venetian green was called also Imperial French green, light green,
shamrock green, bright green, mountain green, middle green, and engine
green.

Light chocolate was called dark maroon, red lake, metallic brown, and in
one case the sample given of burnt sienna was almost identical.

Olive green was called also sage green, deep olive green, and Quaker
green.

Dark green was called also medium green, Brunswick green, middle green,
and deep coach green.

Moss green some manufacturers evidently thought was the same thing as
bronze green.

Pea green was called also sea green and eau de Nil.

Ivy green was called bronze green, sage green, Quaker green, olive
green.

Slate was called also Quaker blue and dark lead.

Pearl gray was called also light gray.

Lilac was called also French gray.

Warm gray was called also deep stone, French gray, and light stone.

Silver gray was called also lavender.

Steel gray was called French gray in several instances, but we prefer to
use the other term, as it appears to be nearer to what is usually known
in this country as a French gray, that is one which has a touch of red
and blue in it.

Another instance of the variation in the names of these colours is shown
by light stone, which one would think was sufficiently well known to
remove any doubt about it, but this was called smoke gray, French gray,
and dove.

Middle stone was called also light drab.

Dark oak was called also dark drab and yellow bronze green.

Light drab was called also middle drab and doe colour.

Sandstone was called also dark stone.

Dove colour was called also deep stone.

Stone colour was called also ecru and light stone.

Colonial yellow was called also straw, light stone, and deep Naples
yellow.

Buff in one case was called yellow ochre.

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  MEDIUM OAK                  DEEP CREAM

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  LIGHT OAK AND BIRCH         ROSE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  DARK OAK                    SIGNAL RED

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  POLLARD OAK                 DARK SAGE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  PITCH PINE                  SAP GREEN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  ROSEWOOD AND MAHOGANY       LIGHT BLUE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  LIGHT MAHOGANY              AMBER BROWN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  WALNUT                      SKY BLUE

  GRAINING GROUNDS

Cream was called Manilla, light stone and deep deck.

Primrose yellow was called also mustard yellow, canary and straw colour.

Straw was called also Naples yellow and deep Naples yellow.

Deep cream was called also cream and lemon.

Fawn brown was called light drab and light lava.

Smoke colour was called rustic drab and drab.

Deep drab was called also dark stone, light drab, dark drab and fawn;
one sample of raw Turkey umber was almost identical.

Dark drab was given also as dark lava and middle drab.

Dark oak was called also copper brown, light oak, and Imperial brown,
whilst in one case a sample of dark ochre was almost identical.

Snuff brown was called also light brown, sepia, dark ochre, umber brown
and Arabian brown.

Sienna brown was called also teak brown, coffee brown, deep Indian red
and terra cotta.

Amber brown was called also bison brown, sepia, and dark oak.

Autumn leaf was called also leather lake, mast colour, middle oak, old
gold, and light fawn.

Signal red was called also vermilion, geranium red and poppy red.

Moss gray was called also silver gray.

Acorn brown was called also umber, dark oak, dark brown, light brown,
dark Indian brown, chestnut brown, middle chocolate and Portland brown.

With the above instances before him the reader will not, we think, take
any exception to the names we have chosen for our sample colour. The
same is true concerning the instructions for colour admixture. If a
reader makes a mixture according to those instructions and finds the
result disappointing, the reason will probably be that his conception of
the particular colour differs from that of the author. And it should be
mentioned again, here, that every one of the mixtures have been made in
oil colours, checked and checked again.

For many years past efforts have been made by scientists and others to
formulate a permanent nomenclature for colours, tints, shades, and hues,
but it cannot be said that so far any success has been met with. Should
the efforts made prove ultimately successful, there is no doubt it would
be a great boon to decorators, painters, and others; for example, if a
decorator wanted to order from his manufacturer a certain tint of
colour, all he would have to do would be to send in the name. PRANG, of
Boston, in his work, “The Standard of Colour,” endeavoured to
systematise the subject, and he did this in the following manner. He
produced sheets of colour divided up into several thousand squares. On
the first sheet at the top was the spectrum of pure colours divided up,
and beneath this similar squares with similar colours, to which had been
added a small portion of white. The line below this was the same again
with more white added, and so on till the bottom of the sheet was
reached, when the colours were greatly reduced by the while, the tints
being naturally very light ones. The second sheet was exactly the same
as the first, but a small portion of black had been added to all of the
colours and tints. The third sheet was the same thing again, with more
black added, and the fourth sheet more black still, and so on to the end
of the work. The colours were distinguished with letters, and the lines
indicated the amount of white added by numbers. To anyone who possessed
a copy of the work it would be a comparatively easy matter to order any
colour from the book by number and letter, but the reader will readily
perceive that this work falls short of the requirements of practical
decorators, inasmuch as it does not provide for the admixture of
different colours, but only those which are in the spectrum. It is true
enough that all colours are as a matter of fact included in the
spectrum, but it is not so easy a matter to separate them for practical
purposes.


THE ECONOMY OF USING GOOD COLOURS.--It may be taken as a safe rule for
the painter to follow that where a good job is required the best
materials only should be employed, but the reader may answer to this
that the price paid to him for his work will frequently not permit of
his doing this. We may then leave the subject an open one which has
really no place in these pages, except in so far as it relates to
tinting colours, and here we can definitely and positively assert that
it pays the painter best to use the best qualities of colour, quite
irrespective of whether he gets a high price or a low price for his
work. We must now proceed to explain this. Let the reader assume that a
large surface is to be painted a very light Prussian blue. The price
for the work is fixed and the question to be determined is whether it
will pay to use cheap Prussian blue or one of high quality. Assume that
a high quality blue costs 2s. per pound, and that just one pound of it
is sufficient to tint the whole white to the required shade. We are
purposely giving a simple case so as to make the matter clear. Now a
Prussian blue can be bought for, say, 1s. 3d. a pound, but it would
probably consist of at least one half of barytes or some other
adulterant, which is of no value whatever as a tinter. If this colour is
half strength it is obvious that two pounds of it would be required to
tint the white for the work in hand, and this would cost 2s. 6d.,
against 2s. for the better class colour. This homely example should be
taken to heart by every painter. He has only to experiment to find out
that it never pays to use inferior tinting colours. Of course there is
another reason why the best quality should be used, and that is, the
appearance of the inferior colours is always muddy and unsatisfactory.


HUE, TINT AND SHADE.--There is a good deal of confusion among some
painters as to the meaning of the word “hue,” “tint,” and “shade,”
although there is no reason why any confusion should exist. The word
“hue” is employed to mean practically the same thing as a “colour.” It
may consist of any mixture of other colours, or may be a pure colour
itself. Now when white is added to any hue or colour a tint of that
colour is produced. If black is added a shade of that colour is
produced. In the decoration of our rooms we shall see that as an actual
fact we obtain shades of the colour by the omission of light, because
the addition of black as a pigment to a colour acts in the same way as
shutting off light. In mixing colours it is important to remember that
black should not be used to lower the tone of a colour excepting in rare
instances. It only has the effect of producing a muddy appearance. A
yellow that is too bright can be reduced, or made less staring, a
painter might say, by adding a little blue and red. If a blue is too
bright a little red and yellow should be added; or if a red is too
bright it may be toned down by the addition of a very little blue and
yellow. This is a most useful rule to observe, and as long as the
quantity of the colours added is not too great the results will please.



CHAPTER III.

WHITES.


It may be observed that in the colour mixtures which follow in no case
has any white other than white lead and zinc white been used. In actual
practice many manufacturers add barytes or some other cheap white to
both colours and paints in order to lessen the cost. It is not thought
necessary, however, to add these materials in the recipes, it being
understood that their use can be proceeded with if necessary. We give a
few mixtures for whites which will probably be found useful. There are
no particular names applied to the following mixtures.

One part of barytes to six parts of white lead ground in oil makes a
good white for outside use.

A permanent white which is not affected by gases, sulphuretted hydrogen,
etc., is made by mixing two parts of oxide of zinc with one part of
barytes. A warm white is made by mixing a small quantity of oxide of
ochre, say one part to one hundred of white lead. Sometimes a little
ivory black, say one part to three hundred, is added to the white.

White lead being sometimes a little “off” in colour, that is a little
yellow in its cast, some blue is added to counteract this imperfection.
Most of the corroders, however, exclude all the lead which is of a
yellow cast and sell it to glass manufacturers, for whose purpose it is
just as good as pure white.

A very little ultramarine green added to white lead makes a white
sometimes called Japan white.

Equal parts of white lead and oxide of zinc are frequently used as a
white paint, although two parts of lead to one of zinc gives a better
mixture.

Some painters are under the impression that inasmuch as lead and zinc
are both derived from metals they will not mix together to form a good
paint, there being something of the nature of a galvanic action set up
between the two metals. This, however, is an error, for although lead
and zinc cannot properly be mixed together by hand yet if they are
ground by the ordinary paint manufacturers’ machinery the result is a
most durable paint which will last many years; indeed, the writer has
found this paint, with proper thinners, one of the best possible
mixtures which can be used to resist the destructive action set up by
alternate wet and dry days.

White lead is, of course, the staple white and the most important of all
painters’ materials. Various new processes in white lead are in more or
less successful operation. The old Dutch process, however, must be said
to give the greatest satisfaction, generally speaking.


COMMERCIAL WHITE.--Seventeen parts of white lead, three parts of
barytes. This is intended to be mixed in oil, not water.


PERMANENT WHITE.--The best quality barytes or blanc fixe makes a
permanent white when ground in water. In oil it lacks body. For many
purposes a white which will last a considerable length of time is made
by mixing two parts of zinc white with one part of barytes.


VARIOUS WHITES COMPARED.--Space will not permit of the advantages and
disadvantages of the various whites being treated here at length, but
the reader can obtain reliable information on the subject from the books
of HURST, PEARCE and others, as given elsewhere in this book. Briefly,
white lead is valuable because it possesses better “body”--_i.e._, the
property of covering or hiding the surface to which it is applied--than
any other pigment. Its poisonous character is against it, as is also the
fact that it is affected by certain gases. Zinc is an excellent pigment;
it is whiter than white lead, but is somewhat deficient in body.
Lithopone and Charlton white are both excellent substitutes for lead,
and are non-poisonous.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER IV.

GRAYS AND GREYS.


Although the dictionaries usually do not distinguish between the
spelling of “grey” and “gray,” and although many decorators use the two
words indiscriminately, there is a distinct difference which it is both
convenient and advisable to recognise. A “grey” is an admixture of black
and white, and may vary from the smallest quantity of black added to
white to the other extreme, where there is almost as much black as
white. Anything between the two would be termed a “grey.” Examples of
this are found in the list which follows under the heads mentioned
below: Dark lead, dark slate, lead, etc. When a colour is added to the
black and white the admixture is called a “gray,” provided, of course,
that the black and white predominate, for example, a French gray is made
by tinting white with a little ivory or drop black and adding a little
carmine or crimson lake or ultramarine. What may be produced in other
ways is noted below. It will be seen that the addition of the lake in
ultramarine gives it a peculiar warmth which distinguishes French gray,
and changes the spelling from “grey” to “gray.” Gray drabs are those in
which a grey is coloured up to produce a yellowish tinge. Black being
usually a strong tinting colour, care must be taken that it is used in
moderation, and here the importance of adding a small quantity at the
time, as already observed, will impress itself on the operator. After
the shade desired has been obtained the colour should be added until the
desired warmth is arrived at.


ARGENT.--A reddish gray tint, which can be produced by mixing together
nine parts of black, sixteen of white, one of red and just a little
orange.


ASH GRAY.--Lamp black and a little French ochre added to white lead give
this colour. Another mixture is as follows: two parts of burnt sienna,
three parts of light ultramarine blue, sixty parts of zinc white.


BLACK SLATE.--Mix together black and Prussian blue in the proportion of
about thirteen parts of the former to one of the latter and add a little
white.


DARK GRAY.--There is no exact point where this colour is produced by an
admixture of black and white and a little orange or red. Mix eight parts
of black, one of white and a touch of red to produce this shade.


DARK LEAD.--This is a dark grey, being produced simply by adding lamp
black to white lead.


DARK SLATE.--This is simply mineral or other black added to white. The
admixture under “Black Slate” would answer.


DEEP LEAD.--Black, a little bright blue, and Indian red mixed with white
lead produces this colour.


FRENCH GRAY.--This can be made by tinting white with a little ivory or
drop black and adding a little carmine or crimson lake and ultramarine.
This produces a very slight violet tinge. White tinted with a little
ultramarine and Venetian red also gives a good French gray. Celestial
blue or cobalt may be used instead of the ultramarine if desired.


GRANITE.--French ochre and lamp black added to white lead produce this
colour.


GRAYSTONE.--Mix five parts of black with three of white and three of
blue and add a little red.


GRAY DRAB.--Mix five parts of black with four of white and a little deep
chrome yellow.


GREEN SLATE.--Same as lead, but with more black and blue.


IRON GRAY.--Mix eight parts of black with two of white and a little
orange.


JASPER.--This may be described as “a pepper and salt shade.” Mix nine
parts of black with two of white, with a touch of deep chrome.


LEAD.--This is simply a dark gray, and is made by adding lamp black to
white lead with sufficient blue.


LIGHT GREY.--Mix together one part of ultramarine blue, one part of lamp
black, ten parts of white lead. By adding more or less white lead a
darker or a lighter shade may be obtained if required. Another shade is
obtained by mixing seven parts of black, four and one-eighth parts of
white, and eight parts of blue.


MASTIC.--This is a dark gray shade. To produce it mix twelve parts of
black with one of white, rather less than one of yellow and just a touch
of orange.


MOSS GRAY.--Tint white lead with French ochre, a bright green and a
little lamp black.


MOUSE COLOUR.--Eleven parts burnt umber, to which has been added one
part of Prussian blue, mixed with about twenty times the bulk of white
lead, will give this tint. Another shade may be had by mixing sixteen
parts of white, three of black and one of blue. Some painters tint white
with lamp black and add a very little Venetian red and burnt umber.


NEUTRAL TINT.--An artist’s colour is sold under this name.


OLIVE GRAY.--Three parts of lamp black, one part chrome green, with
about forty times the quantity of white lead, will give this colour.


OPAL GRAY.--One part of burnt sienna, two parts of cobalt blue, and
thirty parts of zinc white.


PAYNE’S GRAY.--Is an artist’s colour, which may be described as a gray
having a lilac tinge.


PEARL.--This is the same as French grey, but is much lighter.


PEARL GRAY.--Forty parts white lead, five parts of vermilion and one
part of deep chrome green. Some decorators tint white lead with lamp
black and call that pearl gr_a_y. Strictly speaking, however, it should
be called pearl gr_e_y, there being no colour present. Six parts of
white lead, two parts of Venetian red, and one part of lamp black gives
a somewhat dark pearl gray, but a lighter tint may easily be obtained by
adding more lead. Ivory black answers equally as well as lamp black.


QUAKER DRAB.--This greenish gray shade is produced by mixing two parts
each of yellow and green and five parts of white.


RUSTIC DRAB.--Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black.


SILVER GRAY.--Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black, or
yellow may be employed instead of the ochre if preferred. White lead
tinted with a little lamp black and indigo gives an excellent silver
gray.


SLATE.--See “Dark Slate.”


SMOKE GRAY.--Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black.


STEEL GRAY.--Tint white lead with a mixture of lemon chrome and medium
chrome and lamp black.


STONE GRAY.--Add black and chrome to white lead.


VERDANT GREY.--Two parts of oxide zinc and one part of terra verte.


WARM GRAY.--Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black or sienna
and lamp black.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER V.

REDS.


The reds vary from something just removed from brown up to the bright
crimson and madders. A red that is too bright may be lowered by an
admixture of blue and yellow. Exceedingly bright and pleasing tints of
red may be obtained by using vermilionettes, but as a rule these are not
permanent. For inside use, however, they may be employed, especially
when they are protected by a coat of varnish.


ACACIA.--This may be described as a dark maroon. It is made by mixing
five parts of black, three of Indian red and one of Prussian blue. Less
of the black will give a more pleasing shade.


AMARANTHINE.--This is a crimson which can be made by mixing three parts
of vermilionette with one of Prussian blue.


ANEMONE.--This is a reddish purple, and may be made by mixing two parts
of black, one of white, six of a bright red, and six of Prussian blue.


APRICOT.--Mix middle chrome yellow with a little vermilion and add a
very little lake.


ARMENIAN RED.--Mix one part of yellow ochre with two parts of Venetian
red.


AURORE.--A dull pink shade, which can be produced as follows: Mix
together one part of Indian red, two of orange chrome, a little lemon
chrome, and two of blue, lightening up with white.


BAY.--Mix together five parts of black, three of Venetian red, and a
little orange chrome.


BEGONIA.--A dark red purple, which may be obtained by mixing sixteen
parts of lamp black, five of bright red, and four of blue.


BLACK MAROON.--Take eight parts of black and mix them with one of a
bright red and a little blue.


BLOOD RED.--Any bright red toned down with a little black will produce a
shade sometimes called by this name.


BORDEAUX RED.--Take nine parts of black and with it two parts of orange
chrome and one of Prussian blue.


BRICK.--Use two parts of French ochre to one part of Venetian red and
one part of white lead, adding more ochre if required to lighten the
colour. This gives a good tint, sometimes called “brick red,” and is
suitable for outside work.


BRIGHT SCARLET.--Mix twenty parts of vermilion, seven parts of pale
chrome, and one part of golden ochre. A vermilionette slightly toned
down with yellow answers the same purpose.


BRONZE RED.--This is a red toned down with about a fourth part of black,
a little bright yellow or orange being added.


CAMBRIDGE RED.--Vermilion, to which is added about one twentieth part of
Prussian blue, gives a colour sometimes called “Cambridge red.”


CARMINE.--This is an artist’s colour. Its rich red tint can hardly be
imitated. A light vermilionette of good grade, to which is added a
little bright yellow, may be used.


CARMOISIN.--This is a speciality of Messrs. MANDER BROS. It is a rich
and beautiful colour of vermilionette character, and when used for
finishing coats should be protected with varnish. It is not suitable for
distemper.


CARMINETTE.--This is a colour manufactured under this name which is
registered by Messrs. MANDER BROS. It is a bright strong red, which is
useful when protected with two coats of varnish. It is of no use,
however, for tinting purposes.


CARNATION RED.--Three parts of carmine lake and one part of white lead
give a carnation colour, but a better result is obtained by taking pure
vermilion as a base and adding carmine and zinc white until the desired
rich colour is obtained. This colour is not suitable for use outside.


CHERRY RED.--Mix together crimson lake, burnt sienna and azure blue, or
two parts of vermilion and one part of carmine.


CLARET.--Mix two parts of carmine with one of ultramarine blue. A little
vermilion may be added if desired, and this may render a little yellow
necessary to tone down the colour. A less rich colour may be made by
mixing Venetian red and yellow ochre.


CORAL PINK.--This colour is useful only on inside work. It is made by
mixing five parts of vermilion, two parts of white lead and one part of
chrome yellow. Another recipe for producing shades of coral pink is: one
part of white, three of red, five of orange, and three of blue.


DREGS OF WINE.--This shade is produced by mixing Venetian red with a
little lamp black and white lead.


EGYPTIAN.--A dull yellowish crimson made by using five parts of black,
one and half of white, two of orange, and one of blue, and a very little
red.


FIREFLY.--A dull orange red produced by mixing two parts of black, three
of red, one of orange, and a little yellow.


FLESH COLOUR.--One hundred and twenty parts white lead, two parts yellow
ochre, and one part Venetian red will produce an excellent flesh-colour.
Or mix eight parts of white lead, two parts of orange chrome yellow, and
one part of light Venetian red. An increased proportion of red may be
employed where desired. A mixture of orange and white in the proportion
of one part of the former to three parts of the latter may also be used,
or a mixture of medium chrome yellow, ochre, and Venetian red added to
white.


FRENCH RED.--Use equal parts of Indian red and vermilion, and glaze with
carmine.


GAZELLE.--To obtain this mix Venetian red, lamp black and Indian red,
and add sufficient white lead to produce the desired shade.


GERANIUM.--To produce this colour use nine parts of bright red and one
of blue. Or Indian red may be used, afterwards glazing with madder lake
for good work. Most of the larger colour manufacturers make geranium
red, which is better than one can obtain by mixing.


INDIAN PINK.--Tint white lead with a little Indian red.


INDIAN RED.--This is a good permanent pigment to be bought ready made,
and is most useful in mixing with other colours.


LIGHT PINK.--Tint white lead with a little pure vermilion.


LIGHT SALMON.--Tint white lead with raw Italian sienna, burnt Italian
sienna, and burnt Turkey umber. Or tint white with any bright red,
toning down with sienna.


LILAC.--A great deal of difference of opinion exists as to this tint.
One part of ultramarine to one part of bright carmine, added to eighty
parts white lead, give a very good lilac. A cheaper way is to use Indian
red and lamp black as a tinting colour, or rose pink may be added to the
lead only. Yet another method for producing a lilac is to mix three
parts of bright Indian red, three parts of white lead, and one part of
ultramarine blue, but less white lead is preferred by some painters. A
touch of yellow will help this colour if too raw for the purpose.


MADDER LAKE.--This is principally used by artists, but it is useful to
the house decorator for glazing the best work where a bright red is
required.


MAGENTA.--Carmine and vermilion, with a little ultramarine blue, produce
this colour.


MAROON.--This colour is obtained by mixing carmine and blue black, and
adding a small quantity of medium chrome yellow. It may also be made by
mixing one part of ultramarine blue with three parts of Tuscan red. This
gives a tint that is often considered a little too red, but this defect
may easily be remedied by adding more blue. Some painters add ivory
black and a little chrome yellow to carmine.


MEXICAN RED.--Mix one part of red lead with four parts of Venetian red.


MIKADO.--Three parts of blue and seven of red, mixed with a little
white, give this purplish red shade.


MOORISH RED.--Mix together three parts of vermilion and one part of rose
pink.


MULBERRY.--This is a very dark purple obtained by adding a little blue
and just a tinge of red to black.


OLD ROSE.--Tint white lead with French ochre, Indian red, and lamp
black, or Venetian red and lamp black may be used if desired.


OPAQUE PINK.--Tint white lead with red lead.


OPERA PINK.--Tint white lead with a mixture of five parts of vermilion
and one part of medium chrome green.


ORIENTAL RED.--Mix one part of red lead with two parts of Indian red.


ORANGE SCARLET.--This colour may be obtained by adding two parts of
orange lead to one part of white lead.


ORANGE VERMILION.--Orange lead comes nearest to this colour. The tone
may be made by adding chrome to vermilion.


PEACH BLOOM.--This is a mixture of white lead and Venetian red. Or it
may be produced by adding sufficient Indian red to white lead to give a
warm tint and mixing it with equal proportions of white lead, lemon
chrome yellow, ultramarine blue and light Indian red. Or a mixture of
three parts of Indian red with seventeen parts of white is sometimes
used.


PINK.--White lead tinted with orange lead gives a bright pink.


PLUM.--Mix with equal parts of white lead, Indian red and ultramarine
blue in the proportion of two parts of lead to one of each of other
colours. This makes a dark plum that is only suitable for inside work.
If a light tint is desired add more white lead. A very rich plum may be
obtained by mixing together ultramarine blue and carmine, and adding a
little white and a little yellow.


POMPEIAN RED.--Small quantities of red and orange are mixed with black
to produce this shade.


POPPY. Blue and vermilion mixed in the proportion of one of the former
to twenty-four of the latter give this shade.


PURPLE.--Light Indian red, four parts; white lead, three parts;
ultramarine blue, two parts; or a purple may be obtained by mixing
Indian red and white. A mixture preferred by some painters is made by
mixing ultramarine and vermilion with a little white. A little crimson
lake gives richness to the colour.


RED OCHRE.--This earth colour is cheap, and can be readily bought in
most places. It can be imitated by mixing India red and chrome and
adding a little vermilion.


RED TERRA-COTTA.--Use equal proportions of burnt sienna and white lead.
The tone may be varied by the addition of either of the umbers and the
chromes. A good bright terra-cotta is also made by using Venetian red as
a base and colouring up with ochre and a touch of lake.


REGAL PURPLE.--Mix together four parts of white lead, two parts of
cobalt blue and one part of carmine lake.


ROAN.--Mix black with half its quantity of red and add a very small
proportion of blue and white.


ROSE.--Five parts of white lead mixed with two parts of carmine give a
rose colour that is suitable for inside work only. An admirable rose
colour may be obtained by using zinc white instead of white lead, as the
zinc is a much purer white than the lead, and hence gives a purer tint.


ROSE CARNATION.--Mix together one part of rose madder and eight parts of
oxide of zinc. This is a beautiful colour, but the madder is too
expensive for use except by artists.


ROSE WOOD.--To produce this colour, red is mixed with about twelve times
the quantity of black and a very little green. The shade given is a very
dark red.


ROYAL PINK.--Mix together two parts of zinc white and carmine lake. This
will only do for inside work.


ROYAL PURPLE.--Mix one part of vegetable black, one and half of rich
red, and seven of Prussian blue. Some manufacturers make this colour
ready for use.


SALMON.--Six parts of white lead, one part of vermilion, and a little
lemon chrome yellow. This mixture produces a colour somewhat bright.
Another salmon colour is made by a mixture of raw sienna, burnt sienna,
and burnt umber. A tint preferred by some is produced by adding to the
white, Venetian red, burnt umber and French ochre. Another method is to
add vermilion and golden ochre to white, which gives a nice bright
colour. Venetian red and chrome, added to white, gives a duller colour.
Still another mixture is Venetian red, vermilion, yellow ochre and
white.


SCARLET LAKE.--This colour can be purchased ready made. A colour very
similar may be obtained in one of the many vermilionettes on the market.
It will be convenient to remember that all vermilions are lightened by
the use of pale chrome instead of white lead. Lead takes down the
brilliancy of the colour, producing a pink.


SCARLET RED.--This is bought ready made. It is the name given to the
brightest of the oxide paints.


SHELL PINK.--This colour is sometimes made by adding a little good
Indian red to white, but some decorators prefer to use vermilion with a
little chrome yellow and burnt sienna.


SHRIMP PINK.--Mix Venetian red, burnt sienna and white lead, and add a
little vermilion.


SCARLET MADDER LAKE.--This is a speciality of Messrs. MANDER BROS., a
deeper shade being termed Carmoisin madder lake. Both are perfectly fast
to light, even when used for tinting purposes, and are admirably adapted
for the use of the decorator.


SIGNAL RED.--This is usually made by mixing orange lead, vermilionette
and Paris white, or orange lead by itself may be tinted with
vermilionette. “Signal Red” is a well known speciality.


TERRA-COTTA.--Mix together two parts of white lead and one part of burnt
sienna. See also under “Red Terra-Cotta.”


TURKISH CRESCENT RED.--Mix equal proportions of Indian red,
vermilionette and rose pink.


TUSCAN RED.--This can be bought ready made, and may be imitated by
mixing ten parts of Indian red with one part English rose pink. Indian
red is very similar in colour but somewhat darker.


VENETIAN PINK.--Tint white lead with a little Venetian red.


VENETIAN RED.--This colour is one of the most useful that the house
painter has, being cheap, and having good covering power and body. It is
not very good for tinting purposes. It would not, of course, be often
imitated, but Indian red--a very similar pigment--could be tinted with
red. Or it may be imitated by mixing vermilion, yellow ochre, madder
carmine, and a little Cappagh brown, which is an artist’s colour and is
rarely used by house painters.


VERMILION.--This bright red cannot be imitated by an admixture of
ordinary pigments, but there are many excellent substitutes on the
market, most of them being vermilionettes.


WINE COLOUR.--Add a little ivory black to a mixture of carmine and
vermilion.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VI.

BLUES.


But few general remarks are necessary concerning the mixture of blues.
Indigo is used far less, of course, than Prussian blue, which is the
most useful blue employed by the house painter. When burnt sienna and
white are added the brilliance is toned down.


ANTWERP BLUE.--This colour should always be bought ready made. If
necessary to imitate it, mix one part of bright green with two parts of
ultramarine; add a very little zinc or other white, but not lead.
Brunswick blue is frequently used in the place of Antwerp blue.


AZURE BLUE.--One part of ultramarine blue and forty parts of zinc white.
Another shade may be obtained by mixing forty-four parts of white,
twenty-nine of green, and twenty-seven of blue. Or celestial blue and a
little red on a base of white will give an azure shade.


BERLIN BLUE.--This is only another name for Prussian blue.


BLUE GRASS TINT.--One part Prussian blue, three parts of emerald green,
seven parts of white lead.


BREMEN BLUE.--This is a colour to be bought only ready made. It is not
now much used, and is not suitable for an oil colour.


BRONZE BLUE.--A dark blue colour, which may be made by mixing three
parts of black with one of Prussian blue.


BRUNSWICK BLUE.--This is bought ready made, and can be imitated by
adding white lead to Prussian blue in sufficient quantity to obtain the
desired tint.


COERULEUM.--This is an artist’s colour of a light and somewhat greenish
blue tone. An imitation may be made from ultramarine and white, with a
little yellow, although the colour is a difficult one to imitate
successfully.


CELESTIAL BLUE.--About equal parts of Prussian blue, chrome green and
white lead will give this colour, but there should be most white, and
the tint should be more blue than green.


CHINESE BLUE.--Another name for Prussian blue, which see.


COBALT.--This colour is one of the best artists’ colours, and cannot be
successfully imitated. It is a beautiful and most useful colour, but
unfortunately it is expensive, and it is, therefore, only used in the
finest work.


DARK BLUE.--Obviously this is no very definite colour. Manufacturers
often use one part of white, two of chrome green, and seven of Prussian
blue. But ultramarine, or indeed any blue, may be used, and this may be
first lightened with white and black added as may be desired.


FOG BLUE.--Equal parts of burnt sienna and Prussian blue, lightened up
with about twenty parts of white lead.


FRENCH BLUE.--Mix four parts of white, one of green, and four of
ultramarine blue. The name is also applied to the best quality of
artificial ultramarine.


GOBELIN BLUE.--Mix together four parts of ivory black, two of white, one
of chrome green, and three of Prussian blue.


GRANITE (BLUE.)--To produce this shade mix two parts of black with six
of white and one of ultramarine blue.


HELIOTROPE.--This colour is obtained by using two parts of zinc white,
three of bright red, and four of ultramarine blue.


IMPLEMENT BLUE.--This is made simply by mixing ultramarine with white.
Barytes and zinc mixed are frequently used for the white, as lead cannot
be employed in the presence of ultramarine.


INDIGO.--This dark blue is, of course, a natural vegetable pigment. An
imitation may be produced by using nine parts of black and four of
Prussian blue, but this will not look like the real thing. Indigo should
not be mixed with lead or lead chromates.


LAVENDER.--Three parts of ultramarine blue and one part of carmine,
added to zinc as a base, give a very good lavender tint for inside work.
Ivory black mixed with a little carmine and ultramarine and added to
white lead may be employed for outside work.


LIGHT BLUE.--This is simply an ultramarine blue tint produced by the
addition of zinc. Or the colour may be obtained by tinting white lead
with Prussian blue.


LIME BLUE.--This is a colour much used formerly for mixing distemper,
but artificial ultramarine has to a great extent supplanted it. It must
not be used in oil. What is now usually sold for lime blue is a variety
of ultramarine.


MARINE BLUE.--A very dark blue, which is obtained by mixing one part of
ultramarine blue with nine of ivory black.


MASCOT.--This is a very dark blue shade, which is got by mixing black
and blue in the proportion of seven parts of the former to one of the
latter with a very little green.


MAUVE.--Four parts of cobalt blue, twelve parts of oxide of zinc, and
one part of carmine lake give an excellent mauve, or the colour may be
obtained by mixing yellow ochre, blue black, and Venetian red with a
little white lead. Another shade is obtained with blue, red and white
mixed in the following proportions: blue, three parts; white, two parts;
red, one part. Or white may be tinted with ivory black, carmine and
ultramarine.


METHYL BLUE.--Mix green with twelve times its quantity of blue and a
touch of red.


MOUNTAIN BLUE.--One part of ivory black, two parts of rose madder, three
parts of cobalt blue, and four parts of white lead. This colour is only
intended for artists’ use.


NAVY BLUE.--Ivory or drop black mixed with one-fourth the quantity of
blue will give this shade.


NEUTRAL BLUE.--A series of neutral blues may be made by tinting white
lead with Prussian blue and adding burnt umber, the quantity of blue and
umber being varied according to the tint required.


NILE BLUE.--Mix a little white with Prussian blue and chrome green,
using rather less of the latter than the former. The result is a pale
greenish blue.


NORMANDY BLUE.--To get this greenish blue shade mix green and blue in
about equal proportions with white.


ORIENTAL BLUE.--One part of lemon chrome yellow, two parts of Prussian
blue and twenty parts of white lead.


PEACOCK BLUE.--This colour is one upon which opinion varies
considerably. A splendid colour is made by taking cobalt as a base and
adding a little white and a little Chinese blue.


PERFECT BLUE.--Some manufacturers produce this beautifully rich colour.
It is very like cobalt, but slightly darker.


POMPEIAN BLUE.--This is made by tinting white with ultramarine and
adding a little vermilion and Italian ochre.


PORCELAIN BLUE.--To get this shade mix one part of zinc white and chrome
green with four parts of ultramarine blue and a touch of black.


PRUSSIAN BLUE.--This colour is certainly the most important blue the
house painter has. It cannot be imitated. It works well in both water
and oil, and is transparent.


QUAKER BLUE.--Add a little black to Prussian blue, and lighten up with
white.


ROBIN’S EGG BLUE.--Use white for base, tint with ultramarine until a
fairly strong blue is obtained, and then tinge with a little lemon
chrome green.


ROYAL BLUE.--This is made by adding a little white to Prussian blue with
a touch of crimson lake. Some manufacturers make a very rich blue, which
they sell under the name of Royal blue.


SAPPHIRE BLUE.--One part of Chinese blue mixed with double the quantity
of oxide of zinc. This should not be used for outside work.


SEA BLUE.--Two parts of Prussian blue, three parts of raw sienna, thirty
parts white.


SKY BLUE.--One part of Prussian blue added to one hundred and twenty
parts of white lead give a sky blue, but some prefer cobalt, and this is
for many purposes doubtless the best. Still another method of obtaining
sky blue is to tint white lead with a little lime blue, adding a very
little middle chrome, but the latter is more suitable for a distemper
colour than it is an oil paint, as lime blue is not very lasting in oil.


STEEL BLUE.--Zinc white tinted with lime blue gives this colour for
distemper.


STONE BLUE.--One part of raw umber, twice the quantity of Prussian blue,
on a base of white lead will give this colour.


TRANSPARENT VIOLET.--Mix together four parts of ultramarine blue and
one part of crimson lake. This is suitable only for artists’ use.


TURQUOISE BLUE.--Two parts of cobalt blue, one part of emerald green,
twelve parts of white lead.


ULTRAMARINE (ARTIFICIAL).--This is one of the chief blues used by the
painters, and must be bought ready made. It cannot be imitated, but it
can be bought in many different qualities. It must not be mixed with
chromes or white lead, as it contains sulphur, and there would on that
account be a likelihood of discolouration. Natural ultramarine is very
expensive.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VII.

YELLOWS.


A great variety of yellows may be obtained by using the different shades
of yellow chrome, etc., on the market, adding a little red occasionally.
It may be taken as a general rule that blacks should not be added to
yellow unless a greenish tint is desired. If a yellow is too bright it
may be lowered by adding a small quantity of blue and red. Instructions
for obtaining the various grades of yellow are given explicitly below.


ALABASTER.--This is yellowish white in colour. Mix four parts of white
with one of middle chrome yellow.


AMBER.--An imitation of amber can be produced by mixing equal portions
of burnt sienna, burnt umber, blue black and orange chrome yellow, and
adding a quantity of white lead until the desired tint is obtained.


ANTIQUE BRONZE.--Add ivory black to orange chrome yellow in the
proportion of about five parts of black and one part of orange.


ASIATIC BRONZE.--One part medium chrome yellow, two parts raw umber, and
lighten with white lead.


BRASS YELLOW.--This may be obtained by mixing forty parts of white lead,
twelve parts of light chrome yellow, one part raw umber, and one part
burnt umber. Or a mixture of French ochre and medium chrome yellow,
added to a little umber, with a touch of blue, may be used to tint white
as a base.


BRONZE.--Take fourteen parts of black and add one part of yellow and two
of green.


BRONZE YELLOW.--Mix together five parts of medium chrome yellow, three
parts of white lead, and one part of raw umber. A mixture preferred by
some painters is obtained from chrome yellow, French ochre and a little
burnt umber.


BUFF.--Two parts of white lead and one part of yellow ochre produces a
good buff, or white lead may be tinted with French ochre alone. Other
shades are obtained with mixtures of two parts of black, four of white,
one of red, and one and one-eighth of yellow.


BUTTERCUP.--White lead tinted with lemon chrome gives a nice buttercup
yellow.


CADMIUM ORANGE.--This is an artist’s colour of considerable value, but
is, generally speaking, too expensive for house painters. It should not
be mixed with chrome yellow or emerald green. It is made in three
shades: pale, medium and deep, and it cannot be successfully imitated.


CANARY.--This is practically another name for straw tint, and it may be
mixed in the same way. The proportions for an ordinary shade of canary
are three parts of lemon chrome yellow to one part of white lead, but
less yellow is often preferred. Another shade is obtained by mixing two
parts of white, six of yellow and two of green. Some manufacturers make
an extra light chrome yellow which they call by this name.


CHAMOIS.--A dull yellow made by mixing four parts of white, five of
yellow ochre and one of green.


CHAMOLINE.--Mix together five parts of white lead, three parts of raw
sienna and one part of lemon yellow.


CITRINE.--Although this is a tertiary colour, and theoretically can be
made from green and orange, opinions as to the exact shade somewhat
differs. It may be made by mixing four parts of medium chrome yellow and
one part of raw umber; or five parts of lemon chrome yellow and two
parts of raw umber.


CITRON.--To produce this colour use Venetian red as a base and add one
part of Prussian blue, two of chrome yellow and two of white.


COLONIAL YELLOW.--Medium chrome yellow mixed with white lead and a
little dark orange chrome yellow gives this tint.


CREAM.--A good shade is obtained by mixing eight parts of white lead,
two parts of French yellow ochre and a touch of Venetian red. French
ochre and lead alone are often employed. There are many other methods of
obtaining this tint. _Note._--Light buff, medium buff, and dark buff may
all be obtained in the same way by adding more or less of the French
ochre or white.


DAFFODIL.--Lemon chrome mixed with a little Venetian red will give this
colour.


DEEP CREAM.--This colour is made by tinting white lead with yellow ochre
and a little Venetian red. (See Cream.)


ECRU.--Tint white lead with French ochre and medium chrome yellow. A
tint which is sometimes called stone colour is produced in the same way.
Another shade of ecru may be obtained by mixing three parts of black,
eight parts of white, three of medium chrome yellow, and one of
Brunswick green.


GAMBOGE.--This is an artist’s colour. It is a gum resin, is somewhat
fugitive, and is useless for the purpose of the house painter.


GOLD.--To obtain the colour known as “gold” white lead may be tinted
with five parts of golden or yellow ochre, and one part of vermilion, or
a mixture of light chrome yellow, French ochre and vermilion may be used
instead to tint the white lead. The quantity of yellow used should be
considerably more than the ochre.


HAY COLOUR.--French ochre, medium chrome yellow, and lamp black used as
tinting colour for white lead will give a hay colour, or raw Italian
sienna and lamp black may be employed if desired.


IVORY.--The addition of a very little medium chrome yellow to white lead
produces this tint, or a very little golden ochre may be used.


JONQUIL YELLOW.--Tint white lead with medium chrome yellow to which has
been added a very little vermilion red. One of the favourite methods is
to employ sixteen parts white lead, one part of indigo and two parts of
light red, adding as much chrome yellow as may be desired. Another way
of making jonquil yellow is by simply mixing with a little green about
forty times the quantity of yellow.


LEGHORN.--This is a pale yellow shade, which is obtained by mixing white
and medium chrome yellow in about equal proportions.


LEMON.--For this colour lemon chrome yellow is used alone, but the tint
may be made by using white lead for a base and adding medium chrome
yellow until the desired tint is obtained. The tint that is usually
preferred is obtained by mixing five parts of chrome to two parts of
white lead, and adding a little green. However, lemon chrome yellow
purchased ready made is the best.


LIGHT BUFF.--A little yellow ochre added to white lead gives a good buff
colour, the tint varying with the quantity of ochre.


LIGHT DECK.--This colour may be produced by mixing medium and lemon
chrome yellow with white.


LIGHT STONE.--Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black.


LEMON YELLOW.--This is also called lemon chrome, and is the palest shade
of lemon chrome yellow. It is very useful for preparing the lighter
shades of yellow, and may be imitated by adding cadmium yellow to zinc
white.


MAIZE.--Mix yellow and white in the proportion of about three parts of
the former to one of the latter to get this light yellow shade.


MANDER’S YELLOW.--This is intended to be used as a substitute for old
Oxford ochre, but is claimed to be superior. It is based on ochre and is
of great strength and body.


MANILLA.--This colour is sometimes called “deep deck.” It is made by
tinting white lead with French ochre and chrome yellow. Or a mixture of
white with four times the quantity of yellow will produce a shade of
manila.


MARIGOLD.--This is obtained by mixing a very little bright yellow with
orange chrome.


MELON.--Mix equal quantities of black and white; add twice the bulk of
orange chrome and a quantity of medium chrome equal to the mixture of
black and white.


MUSHROOM.--A dull yellow shade, which may be obtained by adding one part
of orange and two of yellow to ten parts of black.


MIDDLE STONE.--Mix as described under “Stone,” but use more umber and
ochre.


NAPLES YELLOW.--This yellow is not now much used, chrome yellow having
to a large extent taken its place. It may be imitated by tinting zinc
white with cadmium yellow and a very little yellow ochre.


NAPLES YELLOW.--This is obtained by mixing orange with twice as much
yellow and three times as much white. It is also the name given to an
artist’s colour.


OCHRE YELLOW.--Mix orange and yellow in about equal proportions with a
rather larger quantity of black.


OLD GOLD.--Use middle chrome with a little vermilion and burnt sienna,
and add a very little cobalt. A cheaper colour may be made by mixing
ochre and burnt sienna. One part of green and three of bright yellow
mixed with a little white will give an old gold shade. Or it may be
obtained in the same way as GOLD, which see, but a little burnt umber
may be added. Some painters prefer to tint white lead with a mixture of
chrome, raw sienna and vermilion.


OLIVE YELLOW.--This colour is sometimes called olive brown. It is made
by mixing three parts of burnt umber with one part of lemon chrome
yellow, a larger quantity of yellow being added if a lighter shade is
required. Another method is to mix ten parts of black, one of orange,
twelve of yellow, and five of green.


ORANGE.--Mix white, yellow and orange in the following proportions: one
part each of yellow and white and eighteen parts of orange. Or another
shade is got with seventeen parts of orange, six of yellow and two of
white. Orange chrome yellow can be easily purchased, however, and gives
this colour without any admixture being necessary.


PERSIAN ORANGE.--Mix fourteen parts of orange chrome, five parts of
yellow ochre and one of white.


POMPEIAN YELLOW.--Tint white with Italian ochre and add a very little
ultramarine and vermilion.


PORTLAND STONE.--Mix equal parts of yellow ochre and raw umber and
lighten up with white until the desired tint is obtained.


PRIMROSE YELLOW.--Lemon chrome used by itself answers admirably.


PRIMROSE.--Ten parts of white, three parts of green and four parts of
yellow will give this light greenish yellow. Another shade is got by
mixing one part of orange, two parts of green and five parts of yellow.


SPRUCE YELLOW.--Add a little Venetian red to a mixture of French ochre
and white lead.


STONE.--This colour, so much used in London, is usually made by mixing
together five parts of white lead, two parts of French yellow ochre and
one part of burnt umber. By adding a little raw umber, the tint may be
varied as desired. This colour is suitable for outside work. Another
method for obtaining the shade is to tint white with medium chrome
yellow and burnt umber.


STRAW COLOUR.--Lemon chrome mixed with raw umber.


STRAW.--White lead tinted with a little chrome yellow produces an
excellent straw tint, but some prefer to add a little French ochre. Or
medium chrome yellow may be used as a base, and a mixture added of
white, French ochre and Venetian red.


YELLOW LAKE.--This is a somewhat fugitive colour which has but little
body, but is useful for glazing. To imitate it use equal parts of burnt
umber and white lead and tint with chrome yellow and lake. Or, mix umber
and white in equal proportions and add Naples yellow and scarlet lake.
To obtain this colour in its full richness it is quite necessary to
glaze either admixture with yellow lake.


YELLOW OCHRE.--The ochres are natural mineral pigments, which are among
the cheapest and most useful at the command of house painters. They can
be used in any vehicle and are quite permanent, while they do not affect
any other colour with which they may be used. Oxford ochre is generally
accepted to be the brightest of the series, while it is distinguished
also for the depth of its covering power.


ZINC YELLOW.--This is a chromate of zinc which is quite fast in light,
and possesses the advantage of permanence even in the presence of impure
sulphuretted hydrogen, etc. It may be mixed with other colours without
adversely affecting them.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VIII.

GREENS.


There is, of course, an immense range of greens, and the list below
includes only those which are more or less frequently called for. To
obtain a green, one can mix with yellow either blue or black. This forms
a very good example of the difference which is obtained by mixing rays
of light and pigments. The painter who wishes to make a systematic study
of the subject of colour mixing is advised to experiment. He may first
mix, say, medium chrome yellow with Prussian blue, then with cobalt and
then with ultramarine or indigo, noting carefully the difference in the
hue obtained. It is well to keep the quantity of chrome about the same
in each case, so that the difference obtained by the use of the
respective blues may be the better appreciated. He should then change
his yellow, mixing the same proportions as nearly as possible with lemon
chrome and then with deep chrome, again noticing the difference in the
colours obtained. Having done this he can go back to middle chrome and
mix black with it in varying proportions. In this way he will obtain a
good deal of practical knowledge in a short time concerning the
different shades of green obtainable from these simple mixtures, and he
will at the same time not forget the relative costs of the different
materials, so that he may learn to obtain desirable mixtures of colour
from the least expensive of the pigments. Sometimes a green is obtained
simply by lightening up, with white, a stock commercial green, for
example, pea green may easily be obtained by lightening pale Brunswick
green. In some cases greens are produced by an admixture of two or more
colours, such, for instance, as Willow Green, which is made from ochre
and indigo, and Olive Green from ochre and French ultramarine. Others
have the addition of white, such as Grass Green, which is white ochre
and cobalt, and Spring Green, which is white, middle chrome and black.

Having performed the foregoing experiments, the reader should next take
up the study of lights and shades. In other words, he should add to the
various mixtures obtained in the manner described, different quantities
of first white and then black, and notice the effect obtained.

Some colours are very much stronger for tinting purposes than others.
For example, a Prussian blue will go a long way and a very little is
sufficient to colour a considerable quantity of white lead. In the
plates we show pure Turkey umber, French ochre, raw Italian sienna,
orange chrome yellow, Prussian blue, medium chrome yellow, etc. Each of
these is also shown when mixed with twenty-five parts of zinc and one
hundred parts of zinc respectively. The object of using the zinc instead
of white lead is to obtain a purer tint, the white being much whiter
than white lead. A careful examination of this tint will give some
useful information concerning the tinting strength of different colours.
Observe, for example, Prussian blue, which is quite a decided blue even
when only one part in one hundred of the colour is used. The next thing
to be done is to add a little black to these colours and to note the
result. We must urge the reader not to use black in reducing his colours
as a rule. If it is desired to reduce or lower a yellow in tone use blue
and red, if a blue is too vivid add a little red and yellow, and if a
red is too bright add a little blue and yellow--in other words, taking
the three primaries, add to any one a very little of the other two.


ALOES.--A pale sage green shade. To obtain it mix six parts of black,
three of white, one of chrome yellow, and three of Brunswick green.


APPLE GREEN.--The simplest way to obtain this is to mix medium chrome
green with about thirty times the quantity of white lead, but other
greens may be employed with the addition of a little Prussian blue when
necessary. Or a little orange chrome yellow may be added to the medium
chrome green and white lead. A very good shade can be produced by mixing
one part of white with four of yellow and nine of green.


AUTUMN GREEN.--Mix one part of chrome yellow with seven of black and two
of emerald green.


BLUE GREEN.--Equal proportions of deep chrome green and cobalt, or three
parts of chrome green and one of Prussian blue, added to white lead in
the proportion of about four times the quantity of lead to the mixture
of green and blue, will give a tint which is sometimes called “blue
green.”


BOTTLE GREEN.--Mix together five parts of medium chrome green and one
part of blue black. A similar colour may be obtained by adding Prussian
blue to blue black and lemon chrome. Another shade is made by using four
parts of black and one of green.


BRONZE GREEN.--The usual method is to mix black with chrome yellow
(deep), but indigo may be used instead if desired. A much brighter
colour is obtained from a mixture of medium chrome yellow, Prussian blue
and burnt sienna. Or the following recipe may be used: Medium chrome
green, five parts; blue black, one part; burnt umber, one part. A light
bronze colour may be obtained by adding more green or by using light
instead of medium green. Other shades of bronze green may be got by
adding a little lamp black to dark chrome green, or by taking medium
chrome green and adding lamp black and a little raw umber.


BRUNSWICK GREEN.--This colour is sold in three shades. It may be
imitated by a mixture of Prussian blue and chrome yellow, but chrome
green, toned down with black, is sometimes used.


CHARTREUSE.--This is a light yellowish green colour. Mix four of chrome
yellow and five of chrome green, lightening up with white.


CHROME GREEN.--This colour is bought ready made. To produce it by
admixture, add Prussian blue to lemon chrome yellow in the proportion of
about one part of blue to eight parts of yellow.


EAU DE NIL.--Tint white lead with medium chrome yellow, emerald green
and a touch of Prussian blue.


EGYPTIAN GREEN.--Add two parts of raw umber and one part of lemon chrome
yellow to white lead. Give the green tone to it by means of a little
Prussian blue.


ELEPHANT GREEN.--A dark green, obtained by adding a little emerald green
to black.


EMERALD GREEN.--This beautiful, bright green cannot be successfully
imitated. It must not be mixed with ultramarine. The pigment is a great
favourite with some painters, while others never use it. In America,
the pigment is known as “Paris green,” but it is not there used to any
extent by painters, although it is used as an insecticide. In the
absence of the real thing, a more or less presentable imitation may be
obtained by mixing eight parts of white lead and one part of medium
chrome green, or a light shade of chrome green may be used without lead.


FOLIAGE GREEN.--One part of blue black may be mixed with four parts of
lemon chrome. Use medium chrome yellow if a darker shade is required.


FRENCH GREEN.--This is a bright yellowish green, which may be obtained
by adding to emerald or deep chrome green about one-tenth part chrome
yellow. Yellow ochre is sometimes used instead.


GAGE GREEN.--This is a variety of sage green. It may be made in the same
way as pea green, and when that is reached a little black should be
added to bring it to the required sage colour.


GENUINE GREEN.--This is usually to be had ready mixed, but it varies
considerably in name as well as in the exact tint. It comes very near to
what some manufacturers call deep royal green, while it is not far
removed from an olive.


GRASS GREEN.--The colour sold as “extra light chrome green” makes a
splendid grass green without any addition, but if it is not available
lighten up medium or dark chrome green with chrome yellow.


GREEN SLATE.--Tint white lead with a bright green toned down with ochre
and lamp black.


GREEN STONE.--Twelve parts white lead tinted with one part medium chrome
green and one part of raw umber give this tint, or the tinting colours
may be French ochre and emerald green with a little lamp black.


GREY GREEN.--Use ultramarine blue, lemon chrome yellow, blue black and
white lead.


INVISIBLE GREEN.--A dark green made by mixing nine parts of black and
one of bright green.


IVY GREEN.--This is produced by a mixture of French ochre, lamp black
and Prussian blue.


LEAF BUD.--This colour is suitable for inside work. It is made by mixing
orange chrome yellow, light chrome green and white lead in equal
proportions.


LIGHT GREEN.--Equal quantities of white and blue and rather more than
twice the amount of green give a very good shade.


LIME GREEN.--This is bought ready for use, and is only suitable for
distemper, etc. It cannot be used with oil.


MANSE GREEN.--This is produced from a mixture of a bright green, medium
chrome yellow and French ochre.


MARINE GREEN.--Mix one part of middle chrome green with four of black.


MEDIUM.--A green of this name may be purchased ready made. It is very
similar to middle Brunswick green.


MIGNONETTE.--This is a dark green shade, obtained by mixing one part of
chrome yellow and one of Prussian blue with three parts of chrome green
and fifteen parts of black.


MOSCOVITE.--This is a dark sage-yellow greenish shade. It may be
obtained by mixing six parts of Prussian blue, thirteen of chrome green,
three of orange chrome, eight of white, and twenty of black.


MOSS GREEN.--Tint white lead with French ochre, a bright green and a
little lamp black.


MOSS ROSE.--This pale greenish shade is obtained by mixing chrome or
Brunswick green, bright yellow and white in the proportions of one part
green, four of yellow and three of white.


MOUNTAIN GREEN.--Add to medium chrome yellow sufficient cobalt to
produce the desired hue, adding a little white if necessary.


MYRTLE.--Three parts of dark chrome green, one part of ultramarine blue,
and a little white lead will give an excellent myrtle colour.


NIGHT GREEN.--Seven parts of chrome green and three parts of yellow
ochre will give this shade.


NILE GREEN.--Five parts of white, nine of emerald green and six of
Prussian blue will give this shade.


OLIVE.--Mix together ten parts of lemon chrome yellow, one part of
ultramarine blue and one part of light Indian red. Another method is to
use eight parts of lemon chrome yellow, one part of blue black and one
part of Prussian blue. Or the following proportions give very good
shades: three parts black, four parts white, four parts red, two parts
yellow, and eleven parts green; or, fifteen parts of white, twenty of
red, twelve of yellow, and fifty-three of green. Some painters add equal
portions of Prussian blue and lamp black to lemon chrome yellow for a
base, or the base may be ochre instead of chrome, and a little of the
yellow be added.

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  BUFF                        SEERED GREEN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  DOE COLOUR                  MOSS GREEN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  SANDSTONE                   LIGHT CHOCOLATE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  LIGHT DRAB                  VENETIAN GREEN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  STONE GREY                  SAGE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  STEEL GREY                  BRONZE BROWN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  SLATE                       TEA GREEN

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  PEA GREEN                   BRONZE GREEN

ORIENTAL GREEN.--Is made by mixing equal proportions of raw umber and
lemon chrome yellow.


PALE ROYAL GREEN.--This colour is bought ready made.


PEACOCK GREEN.--A mixture of seven parts of white, fifty parts of
emerald green and forty-three of Prussian blue will give this shade. A
little yellow is sometimes added.


PEA GREEN.--Forty-eight parts of white lead and one part of chrome green
will give this colour, or emerald green may be used if desired. Some
makers mix medium chrome green and white lead in the proportion of five
parts of the latter to one part of the former to obtain a pea green, but
the proportions may be varied considerably according to the exact shade
required.


PERSIAN GREEN.--This is only another name for emerald green, the vivid
and somewhat staring hue being sometimes employed in Oriental decoration
and being then termed “Persian Green.”


PISTACHE.--This is a yellowish green shade. It may be got by mixing
seven parts of black, one of yellow ochre and one and half of chrome
green. Or chrome yellow may, if desired, be substituted for the ochre.


PRUSSIAN GREEN.--To produce this mix five parts black, three parts
chrome yellow and twelve parts emerald or medium chrome green.


QUAKER GREEN.--Mix equal proportions of Venetian red and medium chrome
yellow and add blue black. Add to this mixture a quantity of chrome
green equal in bulk to the three. This will give an excellent quaker
green.


REED GREEN.--Mix white, chrome yellow and chrome green in about equal
quantities to produce this shade. The name, however, has no special
significance, and an admixture of almost any yellow and green, lightened
up with white, might be used instead.


SAGE GREEN.--This may be produced by tinting white lead with four parts
of light chrome green and one part of ivory black, or the white lead may
be tinted with a mixture of French ochre, lamp black, and Prussian blue.
Another recipe is as follows: Add raw umber and chrome green in the
proportion of about one part of the former to two parts of the latter
added to white lead until the desired shade is obtained.


SAP GREEN.--Mix with white lead medium chrome yellow and a very little
lamp black.


SEA FOAM.--Tint white lead with medium chrome yellow and emerald green,
or if too bright use medium chrome green instead of the emerald.


SEA GREEN.--This colour is obtained by adding deep chrome to white lead.
Another sea green, and a very good one, is obtained by mixing light
Brunswick green, raw sienna or ochre and white.


SEERED GREEN.--Tint white lead with French ochre, medium chrome yellow
and a little bright green.


STARLING’S EGG GREEN.--A mixture of light chrome and Prussian blue,
lightened up with white, will produce this colour.


TEA GREEN.--Medium royal green, chrome yellow, and lamp black, added to
white lead, will give this colour.


VELVET GREEN.--Mix three parts of burnt sienna, five parts of light
chrome green and eight parts white lead.


VENETIAN GREEN.--Lighten up dark chrome green with white lead.


WATER GREEN.--Raw sienna mixed with a little deep chrome green and added
to white lead gives a water green tint.


WILLOW GREEN.--Tint white lead with medium chrome green and add a little
burnt umber or ivory black.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER IX.

BROWNS, AND HOW TO MIX THEM.


ACORN BROWN.--This is very similar to a rich chocolate, and may be made
in the same way.


ALDERNEY.--This is an orange brown in hue, and may be made by mixing
fourteen parts of black, one of white, two of orange and three of
yellow.


ARABIAN BROWN.--This is a dark terra-cotta, and may be made by adding
white and black to Indian red.


ARGUS BROWN.--This is a very dark brown, and may be made by mixing
twelve parts of black with two parts of orange and one part of yellow.


AUBURN TAN.--Mix together one part of burnt umber, three parts of golden
ochre and twenty parts of white lead.


AUTUMN LEAF.--This is also called “leather lake.” It may be made by
mixing on a base of white lead French ochre, orange chrome yellow and
Venetian red.


BISMARK.--A shade of this name may be produced by using two parts of
black, one of red and one of orange, which mixed together form an orange
brown.


BISMARK BROWN.--This colour is obtained by mixing with six parts of
black, one part of orange and one of yellow.


BISTRE.--This colour is principally used by artists. It must not be
mixed with oil, and it is not always reliable for its permanency. It may
be imitated by mixing together ten parts of black with two of red and a
little green.


BRONZE BROWN.--Black coloured with a little orange chrome and bright
green.


BROWN.--The methods of obtaining different browns will be found under
the headings of the respective names, such as “Chesnut,” etc. A good
average brown may be obtained by mixing together three of Indian red,
two parts of lamp black and one part of yellow ochre. A lighter colour
is obtained by using more ochre and less black, in fact, a large variety
of brown tints may be produced by varying the proportions of ochre and
black.


BURNT ROSE.--This is a dark red brown shade. To produce it use eight
parts of black, one and half parts of red, two parts of orange, and one
of blue.


BURNT SIENNA.--This is a sienna calcined, the effect being to produce a
darker shade.


BURNT UMBER.--This is a rich dark greenish brown, but the shade varies
considerably in different qualities. Turkey umber is the richest. Umbers
should always be purchased ground ready for use.


CAFE AU LAIT.--To produce this shade mix five parts of black, three of
white, one of yellow and a little orange. A little red may also be added
if desired.


CAPPAGH BROWN.--This is an artist’s colour of a reddish brown colour,
being very like umber.


CHESNUT.--This rich brown may be obtained by mixing four parts of medium
chrome yellow and two parts of Venetian red. One part of yellow ochre
may be added if desired.


CHOCOLATE.--Five parts of burnt sienna and one part of carmine or lake
give a rich chocolate. A less expensive colour is obtained by mixing
Indian red and lamp black with a little yellow ochre. A touch of
vermilion will clear and brighten this mixture. Another way to produce
chocolate is to mix twenty parts of black with three parts of red, but
this gives a more or less muddy shade.


CINNAMON.--Six parts white lead, two parts burnt sienna, and one part of
golden ochre makes a good cinnamon; or French ochre, English Indian red
and a little lamp black will produce the same colour. Another way is to
mix Italian sienna and burnt umber.


CLAY DRAB.--Mix equal parts of white lead, raw umber and raw sienna, and
add a little chrome if desired. Some painters prefer to add a little
medium chrome yellow.


COCOANUT BROWN.--This shade may be obtained by mixing one part of white
lead with double the quantity of burnt umber.


COFFEE.--To produce this colour mix together five parts of burnt umber,
two parts of yellow ochre and one part of burnt sienna.


COPPER.--Tint zinc white with French ochre, Italian sienna and lamp
black to obtain the shade shown in the sample. A very good copper shade
is obtained by mixing two parts of medium chrome yellow, one part of
Venetian red, and one part of drop black or two parts of lamp black,
three parts of medium chrome yellow and six parts of Venetian red.


CORK COLOUR.--Tint white lead with French ochre, Indian red and a little
lamp black, or with raw Italian sienna and burnt umber.


DARK DRAB.--French grey, Indian red and lamp black added to white lead
give this colour.


DARK LAVA.--Mix French ochre, Indian red and lamp black, and lighten
with white lead.


DARK OAK.--Add French ochre and Venetian red to white lead as a base.


DOE COLOUR.--This may be produced by mixing raw Italian sienna and burnt
umber with white lead, or French ochre and mineral brown with a little
lamp black.


DOVE COLOUR.--White lead, with a little Prussian blue and a touch of
ivory black will produce an excellent dove colour; but French ochre,
Indian red, and lamp black may be employed, or a mixture of raw and
burnt Turkey umber and Italian sienna.


DRAB.--A good drab is made by using burnt umber and white lead in the
proportion of one of the former to ten of the latter, but raw umber and
a little Venetian red may be used instead.


FAWN.--This might also be called deep drab. It is produced by tinting
white lead with a mixture of French ochre, Indian red, and lamp black or
raw Italian sienna and raw Turkey umber. Another shade of fawn is
obtained by using eight parts of white lead, one part of chrome yellow,
one part of Indian red, and one part of burnt umber; or eight parts of
white lead, two parts of medium chrome yellow, one part Venetian red,
and one part of burnt umber.


FOLIAGE BROWN.--Mix burnt umber with raw and burnt sienna and lighten
with white as may be necessary.


FRENCH OCHRE.--This colour, of course, is bought ready made, and it must
be observed that, in addition to the fineness, the particular tone of
this colour is very important, especially to grainers.


GOLDEN BROWN.--Sixteen parts of white lead are mixed with one of burnt
sienna and three parts of yellow ochre.


INDIAN BROWN.--Mix equal parts of Indian red, lamp black and yellow
ochre.


LAVA.--An orange brown lava shade can be got by mixing fifteen parts of
black, five parts of orange, four of yellow and a very little white.


LEATHER BROWN.--Four parts of yellow ochre, three parts of Venetian red,
two parts of white lead, and one part of blue black give a rich leather
brown. If a lighter tint is required less black should be used. Or the
following recipe may be used: Mix white with three times the quantity of
red and the same amount of yellow. Some painters use French ochre for a
base and tint with burnt umber or Venetian red.


LIGHT LAVA.--A mixture of raw umber and raw sienna added to white will
give this colour.


LIME CHOCOLATE.--This is a speciality of Messrs. MANDER BROS. It is
suitable for mixing in water or oil and is very useful for all purposes
of the decorative artist.


LIGHT OAK.--Add French ochre and Venetian red to white as a base.


LIZARD BRONZE.--Fifteen parts of black, one of orange, five of yellow,
and four of green will produce this dark greenish yellow shade.


MADDER GREEN.--A reddish brown madder shade is produced with one part
blue, three parts each of orange and red, and six parts black.


MAHOGANY.--Mix orange and yellow in equal proportions with five times
the quantity of black.


MAST-COLOURED PAINT.--The following recipe gives good results. Mix
twelve parts of genuine dry white lead with two parts of French ochre,
two parts of grey barytes, and one part of genuine oxide of iron.


NUT BROWN.--Equal quantities of red and yellow mixed with ten times as
much black will give this shade.


OLD WOOD.--To get this shade mix one part of blue and red, two of orange
and five of black.


OLIVE BROWN may be made by mixing three parts of burnt umber and one
part of lemon chrome yellow; or another shade is given by mixing equal
quantities of orange and green with about twelve times as much black.
Some painters add lemon chrome yellow to raw umber for a base.


ORANGE BROWN.--Two parts of orange chrome yellow mixed with three parts
sienna.


POMEGRANATE.--A golden brown shade sometimes called by this name is
given by mixing three parts of red, six of orange, four of yellow with
twenty parts of black.


PURPLE BROWN.--Mix four parts of dark Indian red with one part of
ultramarine blue and of lamp black. The addition of white lead will
usually make a more satisfactory tint; if the shade is too purple, a
similar quantity of blue should be added; if too red, more black may be
used, or a little yellow added, but purple brown pigment is cheap.


RAW SIENNA.--Siennas are valuable earth colours most useful for staining
or tinting, but practically useless as body colours. The degree of
transparency determines to some extent the quality.


RAW UMBER.--A valuable earth colour.


RUSSET BROWN.--Indian red lightened with white produces a tint sometimes
called by this name.


RUSSET.--A very good russet shade is got by mixing twenty parts of
black, twelve parts of red, ten of orange, three of yellow, and five of
green. Or medium chrome green, raw umber, and a little orange chrome
yellow added to white as a base will give an excellent russet.


SANDSTONE.--A tinting colour made by mixing raw and burnt umber will
produce this colour.


SEAL BROWN.--Four parts burnt umber, one part golden ochre.


SEPIA.--This is a natural colour used chiefly by artists. It cannot be
imitated and it must not be used in oil.


SIENNA BROWN.--This colour is variously called “sienna brown,” “teak
brown,” and by other names. It is made by mixing burnt Italian sienna
and French ochre with pure zinc.


SNUFF BROWN.--French ochre and Indian red added to zinc white will
produce this colour. Another way to produce a snuff colour is to mix
four parts of medium yellow and two parts of Vandyke brown, or burnt
umber may be substituted for the Vandyke brown if desired. Another
snuff colour may be obtained by mixing burnt umber and yellow ochre,
tinging with a little Venetian red.


TAN.--Mix ten parts of burnt sienna and four parts of medium chrome
yellow with three parts of raw umber. White lead and burnt sienna, to
which has been added a very little lamp black, will also produce a tan
colour.


THRUSH BROWN.--One part yellow ochre, three parts burnt umber, twelve
parts white lead.


TURKEY UMBER.--The richest variety of the many umbers on the market.


VANDYKE BROWN.--This is an important brown to the house painter. It
cannot be imitated, although a little red added to umber produces a
colour somewhat similar to it.


VIENNA SMOKE.--The best burnt umber should be tinted with lemon chrome
yellow and a little Venetian red.


WALLFLOWER BROWN.--This beautiful brown may be made by a mixture of
medium chrome yellow and brown lake. Or crimson lake and burnt sienna
may be mixed with medium chrome.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER X.

GROUND COLOURS FOR GRAINING.


A considerable difference of opinions exists among grainers as to the
best method of obtaining their grounds, indeed the most experienced men
are by no means agreed as to precisely what colour a ground should be.
The following mixtures will produce good grounds provided that really
first-class colours are employed.


MAPLE.--White lead tinted with a very little vermilion and about an
equal quantity of lemon chrome. Some prefer yellow ochre only, others
ochre and raw umber in the proportion of four ounces ochre and one ounce
umber to thirty pounds of lead.


MEDIUM OAK.--Add French ochre to white lead in the proportions of about
one hundred and twenty of lead to five of ochre. Add a little burnt
umber.


LIGHT OAK AND BIRCH.--Eighty parts of white lead to one of yellow ochre
produces a good ground, but sixty pounds of white lead, half a pound of
French ochre, and one ounce of lemon chrome is sometimes preferred.


DARK OAK.--Sixty parts of white lead and one part of golden ochre may be
used, or the following mixture if preferred. Six pounds of white lead,
one pound of French ochre, two ounces medium Venetian red and two ounces
of burnt umber.


SATINWOOD.--Mix six ounces of lemon chrome to fifteen pounds of pure
white lead and add a little deep English vermilion.


POLLARD OAK.--Tint one hundred pounds of white lead with twenty-seven
pounds of French ochre, four pounds of burnt umber, and three and
three-quarter pounds medium Venetian red.


PITCH PINE.--Tint sixty pounds of white lead with half pound medium
Venetian red, and quarter pound of French ochre.


ITALIAN WALNUT.--One pound of French ochre mixed with ten pounds of
pure white lead and four ounces of burnt umber and four ounces medium
Venetian red give this ground.


KNOTTED OAK.--Sixty pounds of white lead, nine pounds of French ochre,
and three and half pounds burnt umber.


ROSEWOOD AND DARK MAHOGANY.--Four pounds of medium Venetian red, one
pound of orange chrome yellow, and one pound of burnt umber, or a little
less burnt umber may be used according to the strength.


MAHOGANY, DARK.--Four pounds of medium Venetian red, one pound of orange
chrome yellow, and one pound of burnt umber, or a little less burnt
umber may be used according to the strength.


MAHOGANY, LIGHT.--Mix six pounds of pure white lead with one pound
medium Venetian red and five ounces of burnt umber.


AMERICAN WALNUT.--Thirty pounds pure white lead tinted with nine pounds
of French ochre, four pounds burnt umber, and one pound medium Venetian
red.


ANTIQUE OAK.--Thirty pounds pure white lead tinted with nine pounds of
French ochre, four pounds burnt umber, and one pound medium Venetian
red.


OAK, ANTIQUE.--Thirty pounds pure white lead tinted with nine pounds of
French ochre, four pounds burnt umber, and one pound medium Venetian
red.


ASH.--White lead tinted with a very little vermilion and about an equal
quantity of lemon chrome. Some prefer yellow ochre only, others ochre
and raw umber in the proportion of four ounces ochre and one ounce umber
to thirty pounds of lead.


BIRCH.--Eighty parts of white lead to one of yellow ochre produces a
good ground, but sixty pounds of white lead, one-eighth of a pound of
French ochre and one ounce of lemon chrome is sometimes preferred.

Our examples of graining grounds with their mixtures must be taken as an
average arrived at from comparison of the methods employed by different
painters in various parts of the country. No doubt some readers will not
agree with them and will think that the colour should be lighter or
darker as the case may be. As we have explained, the mixtures given are
those which may be considered an average, and a variation of them may be
made according to individual taste and judgment.


GRAINING COLOURS.

Having given the ground colours, we now proceed to give those which are
used for graining. It will be understood that the method of obtaining a
graining colour varies just as much as it does in the case of the ground
colour, according to the opinion of the painter. The following are given
as what may be safely followed to get an average good result.


LIGHT OAK.--Mix one-third burnt umber with two-thirds raw sienna, and
add a very little drop black.


ASH.--Same as Light Oak.


CHESNUT.--Mix raw sienna, vandykes and raw umber with a very little
burnt sienna.


BIRD’S EYE MAPLE.--Mix raw umber and raw sienna with a little vandyke
brown or ivory black.


POLLARD OAK.--Mix burnt umber, vandyke, raw and burnt siennas, and add a
little black or ultramarine.


CHERRY.--Use raw and burnt siennas and raw umber.


AMERICAN WALNUT.--Burnt umber to which is added a little vandyke brown
will give a good graining colour for walnut.


MAHOGANY.--Burnt umber, burnt sienna and vandyke brown, with the
addition of a little crimson lake for over graining, will answer well
for mahogany.


ROSEWOOD.--Vandyke brown, with the addition of a little black, should be
used, and rose pink may be added if desired.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER XI.

HOW TO TEST THE QUALITY OF COLOURS


Although to accurately test the quality of a colour requires somewhat
elaborate experiments, both chemical and practical, yet there is no
reason why the painter should not determine with a sufficient degree of
accuracy for his purpose the quality of the colour he uses. Indeed, if
this were done more generally, much of the adulterated trash or “muck,”
as it has been called, would be driven from the market, and none would
rejoice more at such a result than the colour manufacturers themselves.
The writer has no connection with, or interest in, these manufacturers,
but it is only fair to assert that they are as desirous that the trade
should use pure colours as the painters can possibly be. Even the
biggest houses produce cheap grades of colours, and this they do, as a
rule, almost under a protest and simply because they are compelled by
painters demanding colours for certain low prices, far below that which
it would be possible to produce the pure article. Our advice, then, to
painters is, make a careful comparison between the pure colour and the
one you are using. At the same time, compare the prices and then see
which is cheaper to use. If even they come out at the same price,
remember that by using a pure colour you will have all the benefit of
that purity of tone so necessary for the execution of good work.

The first thing to be done in testing any paint material is to have a
standard. There must be no doubt about this. Unless we have in each case
something with which to compare the particular sample of colour that is
being examined, we shall have no useful information concerning it. Take,
therefore, good decorators’ colours of well known make. If necessary
purchase small tubes of the best colours, such as are put up for
artists. This will be rather a severe trial but still it will afford a
standard. Having such samples and going through the tests we are about
to describe, the painter can, after some amount of trouble, arrive at
results which are almost as accurate as those which could be deduced by
a chemist. An expert on this question some years ago summarised the
characteristics of colours which should be considered in making the
examination, under the following heads:--

1. Purity of the material.

2. Purity of the tone; brilliancy; richness, which indicate the amount
of care in selection.

3. Fineness of grinding or preparation; this means the degree of the
division of the particles and upon the completeness of such division
will depend.

4. Its spreading capacity.

5. Its body. This applies, of course, only to opaque or semi-opaque
colours. Body is opacity, and means capacity to conceal the surface to
which the paint is applied, and must not be confused with spreading. It
is an inherent quality.

6. Its staining power or tinting strength with white or colours.

7. The quality of purity of the tint with white.

8. If a paste colour, the consistency of the paste.

9. Transparency of transparent colours and the quality of the
transparency.

10. The permanency of the colour.

It will be observed that all of these tests will not necessarily be
applied to every colour. For instance, a transparent colour would be
tested for its transparency but clearly not for its body. The one
condition is the converse of the other.

We will now consider the above-named qualities separately.


PURITY OF THE MATERIAL.--This is sometimes of considerable importance,
as in the case of white lead, whilst in others--for example the earth
colours--it can hardly be said that there is a standard of purity. As a
rule a knowledge of practical chemistry is necessary in order to
determine whether a sample of paint or colour is pure or not.

The purity of white lead, however, can readily be ascertained by the
painter who possesses no chemical knowledge, viz., by aid of the
blow-pipe. Take a piece of flat charcoal and cut out a hollow space from
it into which place a small piece of white lead to be tested, about the
size of a pea. Now direct the flame of a blow-pipe upon it, using an
ordinary paraffin candle or a Bunsen burner, taking care that the blue
portion of the flame bears upon the lead. Keep up a steady blow for a
few minutes and the white lead will be converted into metallic lead,
which will show in the form of a bright silver-like button. If the lead
is adulterated the blowing will only have the result of making it appear
like a cinder. To conduct this experiment successfully requires a little
practice with the blow-pipe in order to obtain a steady flame.

Another method of testing is to place a little white lead in a crucible
and place this on a hot fire, when, if genuine, it will be converted
into metallic lead.

A form of blow-pipe that may be purchased at most ironmongers’ shops
consists of a wooden handle with a mouth piece filled with cotton soaked
in benzine. To this is attached a rubber tube with a mouth piece. This
blow-pipe is very easily used, and may be successfully employed in
testing the purity of white lead in the manner indicated.


PURITY OF TONE.--Some remarks on this subject will be given under the
heads of the various groups of colours. Speaking generally, the richness
of brilliancy of tone is easily discernible by placing the sample to be
tested side by side with another of well known excellence. In siennas,
ochres and umbers the selection of crude material by which the richness
of tone is assured is of great importance.

FINENESS OF GRINDING.--The method of testing the fineness of a pigment
usually employed by the painter is to rub a little on the finger nail;
but this is a crude and unreliable method. If the pigment is dry and it
is desired to compare it for fineness with a similar pigment or white
lead, the following is as good a plan as any:--

Take two tall vertical glass jars, place in them an equal quantity of
turpentine, and then take a small quantity of the white lead to be
tested. Place it in one jar, and an equal quantity of the pigment with
which it is to be compared, in the other; thoroughly stir up both and
then note the time it takes the samples to settle. If graduated marks
are made on the two jars the observations will be taken more readily.

Another test is to weigh out equal quantities of the two leads, and then
to take a very small quantity of the same colour, say black, and add to
each sample, thoroughly mixing. The lead that is the lightest in colour
will be the finest. The explanation of this is somewhat interesting.
Suppose that we have a number of cubes of white lead each measuring one
inch side. This will give us six superficial inches to be coloured. Now
suppose that we break up these inch cubes into half inch cubes, which
will give eight half inch cubes to each inch cube. Now as each half inch
cube has six faces measuring half an inch by half an inch, it has a
superficial surface of three square inches; and as there are eight of
the half inch cubes, there are twenty-four superficial inches to be
coloured against six in the inch cubes. It will be seen, therefore, that
by increasing the fineness of a pigment a greater surface is presented
to be coloured, and hence more colour is required.

Another test for fineness is to paint different samples thinned in
turpentine on plate glass; when dry the two specimens may be compared
and the difference of fineness between them will soon be apparent.

Still another test, and one frequently used by painters, is to place a
quantity of the colour ground in oil that is to be tested upon a level
surface such as a piece of glass, and to run the blade of a spatula or
palette knife over it and then over another sample with which it is to
be compared, noticing carefully the difference in appearance of the two
samples. By these means the presence of grit is discovered.


SPREADING CAPACITY OR COVERING POWER.--The spreading capacity of
pigments and their “body” are very nearly related, although of two equal
in body one may possess greater covering power or spreading capacity
than the other. A practical method of testing covering power is to mix a
small quantity of a standard paint and an exactly similar quantity of
the pigment to be tested, taking care to use precisely the same amount
of oil and thinners in each case. Then, taking a clean brush for each of
the paints, paint a door, or other surface that has been primed, on two
panels side by side, continuing to paint till all the pigment has been
in each case used up. The one that goes farthest has the greater
covering power. In comparing the two it will be well to notice whether
the body is equal in both cases, as one may go farther but not cover so
well.


BODY.--The word “body” as applied to pigments is almost synonymous with
opaqueness. It is the most important property of a pigment, and it is
because white lead possesses the quality in an eminent degree that it is
so much valued.

Body is sometimes called “covering power,” but this term is a little
misleading, as some may suppose it to relate to the spreading capacity
of the pigment.

If two different white leads ground in oil to an equal consistency are
applied to different panels of a door, primed in the same manner, the
one of the two leads that possesses the better body will be shown by it
hiding the grain of the wood better. Some white leads, especially those
that are manufactured by the new processes, lack this important quality
of body, and three coats will only cover the work as well as about two
of old process white lead.

There are number of methods of practically testing the “body” of
pigments, among the simplest being the following.

Prime and paint a board with alternate black and white squares, like a
chess or draught board. Take a sample of a pigment, similar to that to
be tested, of which the body is known to be good, and paint a wide strip
across the chess board; then paint a smaller strip of the pigment to be
tested. When both strips are dry, by comparing them one can tell almost
at a glance which has the better body, the superior pigment covering or
hiding the black squares better than the other. A second coat may
afterward be applied to each over a portion of the strip, if desired.

It is important to notice that in all cases of practically testing
paints the results are obtained by comparisons being made, and hence it
is necessary in every case to have a standard with which to compare the
sample to be tested.

The test of painting over squares of black and white may be varied by
using stripes instead. The test answers equally well for white lead,
zinc, lithopone, or any colour of which the quality of body is of
importance. In some colours it is of little moment.


TINTING OR STAINING STRENGTH.--We have already explained at length how
greatly the tinting strength of different colours or stains varies. Any
painter can test the tinting strength of any colour himself in a very
simple manner. All that is necessary is to have a pair of apothecaries’
scales, some blotting paper, a palette knife, some pieces of glass or a
flat piece of marble and some pieces of waxed paper. First weigh out say
eighty grains of dry white lead or dry zinc. Any other white will answer
equally well. Place these eighty grains on one side of the glass and the
second eighty grains on the other. Now take the dry colour and weigh one
grain and add that to one of the little piles of white, then weigh a
grain of the standard colour and add that to the other pile. Now add to
each pile a few drops of oil, taking care that the number of drops is
the same in each case. With the palette knife thoroughly mix until no
streaks can be seen and the mixture is perfectly uniform. Then by
comparing the two the difference in tinting strength will at once be
apparent. The same result would have been produced had ordinary white
lead ground in oil been used instead of dry lead or zinc. If the colour
is ground in oil a little difference in the method must be observed, the
reason being that one colour might be ground much thicker than the
other, in other words, might contain much more oil than the other, and
hence if equal weights of each were compared the result would be
misleading. Take then each colour in oil--that is the standard and the
colour with which it is to be compared--place on a small quantity of
blotting paper and allow it to remain a few minutes so that the oil may
be extracted. If it is thought necessary the sample can be washed with
benzine, but for painters’ purposes the extraction of the oil by means
of blotting paper is sufficient for the purpose. The two samples having
remained on the blotting paper for a short time one grain of each is
weighed out separately on little pieces of wax paper, this being used so
that the colour shall not stick to the scale. Then each grain is mixed
separately with the white and the result compared as before. It is not
too much to say that every painter should be prepared to make this test
because it informs him not only as to the tinting strength of the colour
but also gives valuable information as to the tone, etc. Of course the
quantities may be varied if necessary, and a larger amount used instead
of the single grains. It need hardly be pointed out that scrupulous
cleanliness is necessary for successfully carrying out this test. The
palette knife must be wiped between each operation and every care taken
to do justice to both samples.

If the reader will turn to the samples of colour issued in this work he
will see a number of colours given in their full strength, and also when
reduced with certain parts of white, as marked upon the sheets. The
colours used in the preparation of this sheet were of average quality,
and it will prove interesting no doubt to the student to mix the colour
he has been in the habit of using in the same proportion with white and
to note whether the results come out above or below those shown by our
samples.


THE PERMANENCE OF COLOURS.--It must be admitted that it is very
disappointing to a painter to find, after taking pains to produce the
exact colour required, that it flies or fades after a little exposure to
the weather. The tests for the permanence of a colour when exposed to
light are simple enough and are to mix a little of the colours to be
tested in oil and to spread them on different slips of paper, cut the
paper in half, number each half with corresponding figures or letters,
expose one half to a strong light for as long as may be deemed desirable
and put the other half away into a safe place where the light does not
penetrate. Waxed paper is the best, as it will not absorb the thinners
or, better still, glass may be used, this being cut across with a
diamond after the paint has been applied. It need hardly be said that
the permanence of water colours is entirely different from that of oil
colours. Some very useful experiments were made several years ago by
Capt. ABNEY on the permanence of water colours, and these were published
in the form of a blue book. As far as pigments are concerned, we
consider that yellow ochres, siennas, umber, Vandyke brown, and the
earth colours generally are permanent, as are Venetian red, Indian red,
chrome yellow, and lemon yellow. Ultramarine, Prussian blue and
vermilion are also permanent or nearly so.

We may now take each colour separately following the order taken by the
late Mr. W. C. WILSON, who arranged the above quoted table in
conjunction with the author.


GREENS.


CHROME GREEN.--This colour is often made by the addition of a base such
as barytes, but the presence of this material is not at all necessary,
although the presence of the earth for some reason assists in producing
the mixture of Prussian blue and chrome yellow which is used to produce
chrome green. A number of different shades of chrome green are sold,
usually designated pale, mid (middle or medium) and deep. The tinting
strength should be tested by mixing one part of green to, say, a hundred
parts of white lead or zinc, as explained elsewhere, or twenty-five
parts of lead may be used to one part of green. If it is desired to find
out the relative strength for tinting purposes of the green, it can be
done very simply in the following manner, but the painter must have a
pair of apothecaries’ scales, in order to weigh the different
quantities. Take first the same quantity of the green which is being
tested as that of the standard. If the colour is not so deep add more
green each time, and more and more until the two samples are exactly the
same tint. By comparing the weights the experimenter will have
accurately the relative value of the two greens for colouring purposes.
The test for body of the green is performed in almost exactly the same
way as that already described for white lead. Prime a board thoroughly
so that there may be no absorption, paint across the centre of it a
stripe of white and by its side a stripe of black. When this is
thoroughly dry take the two greens; that is, the standard and the one
being tested. Then mix both with exactly the same amount of oil and
turpentine. Take a clean brush for each and paint over the black and
white stripes. The one which has the greatest body will, of course, hide
the stripes better than the other one. The experiment is simple, and is
very useful as a body tint.


BRONZE GREEN.--This colour is usually mixed by the painter and not
bought ready made, although all manufacturers make bronze greens. Quaker
green is practically the same thing. The mixture usually employed is
ochre, lamp black and a little yellow. The chrome should be either
yellow or orange, but not lemon. Bronze greens may be made in a large
variety by varying the quantities of the colours mixed and by
introducing sienna, umber or Indian red in small quantities as may be
required. The colour is very rich, and many cheap bronze greens consist
of a considerable quantity of adulteration.


EMERALD GREEN.--This is most entirely without body, but is the most
brilliant green known. It is therefore sometimes used where brightness
is required. When ground in oil the test for purity is to dissolve it
with benzine and when the dry powder is obtained to treat it with
strong ammonia. It will thus entirely dissolve if pure, giving a deep
blue colour.


VENETIAN, INDIAN AND TUSCAN REDS, ETC.

These colours may be classed as the iron colours, consisting largely of
oxide of iron. It should be remembered that ochres and umbers also
receive their colouring from iron. Analysis gives but little information
concerning the value of this group of colours. They form economical
paints, especially as they spread well. The proportion of oxide of iron
contained is often considered to be an indication of quality, but this
refers particularly to cases where paint is to be used on iron. The
tests of value to the painter are body and fineness of grinding, which
may be tested in the usual way. Oxide paints are usually sold as such in
three shades. A Venetian red is lighter than an Indian red, which, in
comparison, should have a purplish tint. It must be remembered in this
class of colours that a comparison of the same shades must be made if
any useful result is to be obtained.


TUSCAN RED is a mixture of Indian red with some sort of lake colour in
order to secure brilliancy. This brilliancy forms an important feature
of the test; body should also be ascertained, and fineness of grinding
is also important. Tuscan red, which is coarse, may lose its richness
when ground fine.


VERMILION AND VERMILIONETTES.--Many of the imitation vermilions consist
of orange red, that is, a superior red lead coloured with eosine, which
is the name of one of the coal tar colours. Speaking generally, the
scarlet colours are more permanent than those having a crimson tinge. It
is important to know that the tinting strength for many vermilionettes
is no indication of their quality or rather, perhaps it should be said
that within reasonable limits the better stainers they are, the worse
colours they will prove to be. This is because barytes or some other
mineral may be substituted for the orange red and then the eosine will
go farther in staining.


RED LEAD.--Every painter knows that the great objection to the use of
red lead is that it will harden quickly. We recommend that on large jobs
arrangements should be made with a manufacturer to supply a sufficient
quantity for two or three days. It should be well ground to a thin paste
in the proportion of, say, about one pound of oil to five pounds of red
lead. The usual manner of painting iron, etc., in red lead is to first
give a priming coat of pure lead and then a second coat of any colour
desired. An excellent second coat is formed of equal parts by weight of
red lead and good iron oxide. Any finishing coat may be applied.


INDIAN RED.--This is shown by analysis to consist almost wholly of oxide
of iron. The paler Indian red is, the greater is its tinting strength
and the rosier is the tint obtained from it by mixing it with white.
Indian red should be always tested for fineness and tint.


CHROMES.

There are many shades of chrome yellows sold, the most usual being
lemon, medium and orange chromes, sometimes called 1, 2, and 3. The
other shades are sold under various names, depending upon the
manufacturer. It is advisable that the painter should always have on
hand the lighter shades, as although it might appear at first sight that
on mixing the deeper shades with white he would get the same result, as
a matter of fact there is a considerable difference. As noted elsewhere,
chromes must not be mixed with ultramarine. The pale chromes change
colour quicker than the darker shades. Pale chrome should never be used
on fresh plaster, although orange chromes may. In the deeper shades of
chrome orange red is sometimes used as an admixture or adulterant, but
this is not a good stainer. The test for a chrome is tinting strength,
taking care to make a comparison with the same grade of colours, that
is, light, medium or orange chrome. Fineness is another important test.
Placing a small quantity on glass and passing a palette knife over it
and pressing firmly will detect grit if present. In the lighter chromes
it is well to look for the greyness of tone which is objectionable.
Chromes mix well with white lead and are strong in body.


OCHRES.--Analysis is of no value in determining the value of an ochre.
Sometimes chrome yellow is used to tone it up. The colour is an
important feature, as is also the fineness.


BLACKS.

There are a number of blacks on the market, drop black, ivory black,
blue black, vegetable black, carbon black, etc. The subject of their
tests is a somewhat intricate one, but its tinting strength can be
readily ascertained by mixing with white lead or zinc in the manner
already described. They are frequently adulterated with barytes.


BLUES.

Prussian blue is one of the most important used by the painter. It is
very strong and a little goes a long way. It must be very finely ground
or it is likely to settle out. A pure Prussian blue has a rich bronze
appearance when looked at from certain points of view. The tint made by
mixing with white should be clear and free from any leaden or gray
appearance. Some Prussian blues have a certain red or purplish cast
which cannot be removed. These should be avoided, as if a purple is
required it is a simple matter to add a little red to the blue to
produce the desired colour. As shown in our samples of paint, one part
in a hundred of good Prussian blue gives a distinct sky blue.


ULTRAMARINE.--As explained elsewhere, this colour cannot be mixed with
white lead. Where it is necessary to make a tint, zinc white should be
employed in preference.


UMBERS AND SIENNAS.

The colour should be a rich brown rather than a red cast. In siennas
prepared for grainers’ use, it is important that they be transparent
rather than opaque. Richness and quality of tint should be considered
rather than the body.


NOTES.

Speaking roughly, about one-third of the value of a common painting job
will be for labour and the rest for material.

       *       *       *       *       *

A good priming coat for wood may be composed of ten pounds white lead,
two ounces red lead, two ounces driers, and four pints of linseed oil.
The following coats having about two pints of turpentine instead of an
equal quantity of linseed oil and the red lead being omitted.

A mixture for removing old paint is made by taking one pound soda and
quarter pound quicklime and mixing to the consistency of cream. This is
applied to the paint work with an old brush and left for about an hour
when it will be found to have softened the paint which will readily wash
off. The work may then be washed down with weak vinegar and water.

       *       *       *       *       *

One gallon of oil varnish may, for the purposes of calculation, be taken
to cover sixty-four square yards.

       *       *       *       *       *

Seven pounds of ordinary white lead paint may be taken to cover rather
more than thirty square yards for the first coat and forty-five yards
afterwards.

       *       *       *       *       *

Seven pounds of oxide of iron paint will, if good, cover about eighty
square yards on iron, but the quality of oxide varies considerably.

       *       *       *       *       *

To prevent plaster of Paris from setting quickly mix with glue water
instead of ordinary pure water. This will retard the setting
considerably.


A GOOD SIZE FOR PLASTERED WALLS.--Make two solutions, the first to
consist of one and one-quarter pounds of glue, dissolved in four gallons
of water; the second to consist of one ounce of borax, five ounces of
washing soda and twenty ounces of powdered rosin added to five quarts of
boiling water, and to be kept boiling and stirred until all is
dissolved. To thirty parts by measure of the first solution add one part
of the second and boil them together for about one-quarter of an hour;
take from the fire and strain; when it is ready for use. This size is an
excellent one for the purpose.

       *       *       *       *       *

WALNUT STAIN.--Mix in a quart of hot water a quarter of a pound of
Turkey umber and add two tablespoons of turpentine.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIGHT OAK STAIN.--Grind fine in water half a pound of raw Turkey umber
and half a pound of Dutch pink. Dilute with one gallon of water and add
half a pint of vinegar.

When vermilion is used in distemper it is necessary to stir it up now
and again as the colour sinks to the bottom.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cleanliness should be the first and foremost rule for every painter. It
has been said that if it were not for the flies and the smoke the
principal part of the painters’ occupation would be gone. It may be
taken as a safe rule that all old work should be thoroughly washed down
with clean water before repainting. This pays even with stucco or
outside cement work.

       *       *       *       *       *

A good priming coat for work that is to be finished in vermilion is made
by mixing bright Venetian red and white lead with boiled linseed oil.


WINDOW GLASS.

RULES AS TO FRACTIONAL PARTS OF AN INCH.


BRITISH PLATE.--Pilkington’s “Glass Cutter’s Assistant” gives the
following: Polished, Silvered, and Rough Cast. All fractional parts of
inches will be charged as full inches, e.g., 105¹⁄₈ × 57¹⁄₄ be reckoned
as 106 × 58.


  ROLLED PLATE GLASS.--Every fraction above ¹⁄₆ of an inch is
  charged as an inch, e.g., 47¹⁄₆ × 20¹⁄₈ is reckoned 47 × 20
                            58¹⁄₄ × 32¹⁄₄       „     59 × 33


ALL OTHER KINDS OF WINDOW GLASS.--

  ¹⁄₄   inch and under, as ¹⁄₄; e.g., 14¹⁄₈  × 10¹⁄₈
                                            is reckoned as 14¹⁄₄ × 10¹⁄₄
  ⁵⁄₁₆  to ¹⁄₂ inch,    as ¹⁄₂;   „   14³⁄₈  × 10⁵⁄₁₆
                                                   „       14¹⁄₂ × 10¹⁄₂
  ⁹⁄₁₆  to ³⁄₄ inch,    as ³⁄₄;   „   14⁹⁄₁₆ × 10⁵⁄₈
                                                   „       14³⁄₄ × 10³⁄₄
  ¹³⁄₁₆ to 1 inch,      as  1;    „   14⁷⁄₈  × 10¹³⁄₁₆
                                                   „       15    × 11


SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

One of the best tests for linseed oil is its weight or specific gravity.
The latter term is not so well understood among painters as it might be.
A few words of explanation may therefore be given. One hundred gallons
of pure water when weighed when the temperature is at 60 deg. F. weigh
exactly 1,000lbs. This is taken as the standard of specific gravity for
all liquids, and a scale or hydrometer is based upon it. One hundred
gallons of boiled linseed oil at 60 degs. F. weigh only 940lbs., and
the specific gravity of linseed oil is therefore said to be ·940. As it
would be practically impossible to weigh as much as 100 galls. of the
liquid which it was desired to test for specific gravity, an instrument
called the hydrometer is used for the purpose. This floats in the liquid
and bears a scale so that a portion of it stands out of such liquid.
When put in pure water, the indicator would show, of course, at 1,000,
and in boiled linseed oil ·940, and in raw linseed oil it would show
about ·922, which is the specific gravity of raw oil. Cotton seed oil
raw is the same as raw linseed oil, namely ·922; colza oil is ·915. In
actual practice the specific gravity of oil is taken by means of a
bottle or flask which is weighed when full of oil and then compared with
the weight of the same bottle full of water.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER XII.

RECIPES, TABLES, HINTS AND NOTES


The author trusts that he has made it clear to the reader that the
subject of paint and colour mixing is far more comprehensive than might
at first sight appear. Yet it is of such great importance that every
house painter worthy of the name should make himself acquainted with it,
and, unless he be colour blind, he can do so without difficulty if he
will only take the trouble to make a number of tests and experiments.

In “putting on,” _i.e._, engaging the services of journeyman, the master
painter will find, as a rule, that only about one in twenty has any
knowledge of colour mixing, yet these men could, if they would only do
so, easily make themselves at least fairly proficient in the subject by
devoting their spare time to making various mixtures and using a box of
ordinary artists’ oil colours for the purpose. A very good box can be
purchased for about ten shillings.

Having given some practical tests for colours, we may now add one or two
for turpentine.


TO TEST THE PURITY OF TURPENTINE.--It is of considerable importance that
turpentine used for painting should be quite pure. To test the purity in
a practical way pour a few drops on a sheet of white writing paper; if
it is pure the mark will evaporate in a few minutes, leaving the paper
quite clean. If, however, paraffin oil has been added to the turpentine
it will leave a greasy mark on the paper, which will not disappear for
several hours or even days. Turpentine is sometimes adulterated with
benzine. The test above will not detect this, as the benzine will not
leave a greasy mark. The evaporation, however, will be more rapid than
when the turpentine is pure. When turpentine is very old, it becomes
“gummy” or thick, and is unsuitable for mixing with paint. This
condition is indicated by a greasy mark left on writing paper when a few
drops are poured upon it.

Another very simple test for the purity of turpentine is to place a
sample in a small white bottle and shake vigorously, carefully observing
the time that it takes the bubbles that arise from the agitation to
disappear. If the turpentine is adulterated with paraffin oil the
bubbles will hold longer than when it is pure. The best plan is to have
a bottle containing pure turpentine and another containing the suspected
sample, and to shake up both together, comparing the rapidity with which
the bubbles disappear.

Paraffin oil is also sometimes detected by smell: pour a couple of drops
on the palm of the hand, rub the two hands briskly together, when the
characteristic smell of paraffin will be easily detected if any
considerable amount be present. Turpentine is sometimes adulterated with
rosin spirit, and this can only be detected by means of analysis.


LINSEED OIL.--To ascertain with absolute certainty whether a sample of
linseed oil is pure or not is by no means easy, and can only be done by
aid of chemistry. There are various methods by which the adulteration
can be ascertained, but we hesitate to print them here, because they may
prove misleading to the uninitiated. The experienced painter has two
tests of his own, viz., smell and the working of the oil, and if these
lead him to suppose it is adulterated his only safe plan is to obtain
the services of a competent chemist.

We next reach a consideration of the different qualities of the
principal pigments, and can best show these by means of tables.


PIGMENTS.

SOME USEFUL TABLES.

  PIGMENTS LIABLE TO CHANGE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SULPHURETTED
  HYDROGEN, AIR, AND MOISTURE:

  _Yellow._--Turner’s yellow, chrome yellow, mineral yellow, Naples
  yellow.

  _White._--Cremintz white, flake white, pearl white.

  _Red._--Red lead, purple red, iodine scarlet.

  _Green._--Verdigris, Scheele’s green, emerald green, mountain green.

  _Blue._--Prussian blue, Antwerp blue.

  _Orange._--Orange chrome.


  PIGMENTS LITTLE LIABLE TO CHANGE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SULPHURETTED
  HYDROGEN, AIR AND MIXTURE:

  _White._--Zinc white, constant white, tin white.

  _Red._--Vermilion, red ochre, Indian red, madder lakes.

  _Yellow._--Yellow ochre, barium chromate, zinc chromate, aureolin, raw
  sienna.

  _Green._--Chrome green, cobalt green.

  _Blue._--Ultramarine, smalt, Thenard’s blue.

  _Brown._--Vandyke brown, raw umber, burnt umber, manganese brown,
  sepia.

  _Black._--Ivory black, lamp black, Indian ink, graphite.

  _Orange._--Orange vermilion, burnt sienna.


  PIGMENT LIABLE TO DETERIORATION WHEN IN CONTACT WITH WHITE LEAD,
  CHROME OR OTHER LEAD PIGMENT:

  _Yellow._--Yellow orpiment, king’s yellow, Indian yellow, gamboge.

  _Red._--Iodine scarlet, cochineal, carmine.

  _Orange._--Golden antimony sulphide, orange orpiment.

  _Green._--Sap green.

  _Blue._--Ultramarine.


  PIGMENTS WHICH ARE LITTLE AFFECTED BY HEAT, AND WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED
  WHEN THE MATERIAL HAS TO STAND FIRE:

  _White._--Tin white, barium white, zinc white.

  _Red._--Red ochre, Venetian red, Indian red.

  _Yellow._--Naples yellow, antimony yellow.

  _Blue._--Smalt and royal blue, ultramarine.

  _Green._--Chrome green, cobalt green.

  _Orange._--Burnt sienna, burnt ochre.

  _Brown._--Burnt umber, manganese brown.

  _Black._--Graphite, mineral black.


  COLOURS THAT MAY BE USED WITH LIME:

  _White._--Permanent white, _i.e._, baryta white, gypsum, zinc white.

  _Red._--The vermilions, light red, Venetian red, Indian red, madder
  lakes.

  _Orange._--Cadmium, orange chrome, Mars orange, burnt sienna, burnt
  Roman ochre, light red.

  _Yellow._--Aureolin, cadmium yellow, lemon yellow, Naples yellow, Mars
  yellow, raw sienna, yellow ochre, Roman ochre, transparent gold ochre,
  brown ochre, Indian yellow, Oxford ochre.

  _Green._--Oxide of chromium, transparent oxide of chromium, viridian,
  emerald green, malachite green, verdigris, terre verte, cobalt green,
  chrome green.

  _Blue._--Genuine ultramarine, artificial ultramarine, new blue,
  permanent blue, cobalt blue, cerulean blue, smalt.

  _Purple._--Purple madder, Mars violet.

  _Brown._--Bone brown, bistre, Prussian brown, burnt umber, Vienna
  brown, Vandyke brown, Cologne earth, asphaltum, Cassel earth,
  manganese brown.

  _Citrine._--Raw umber, Mars brown.

  _Blacks._--Ivory black, lamp black, blue black, charcoal black, Cork
  black, Indian ink, black lead, drop black, plumbago.


BRUSHES.

We think it well to include here some information concerning brushes,
but may first give a brief description of the way in which they are
made, taking the firm of G. B. Kent & Sons, Ltd., as an example, as the
author had the pleasure of going over their factory some time since. The
following is his account written for “The Decorators’ Magazine”:--

A superficial observer may be inclined to think there is no particular
advantage to the painter and decorator in possessing a knowledge as to
how the tools he uses are made. Yet such a knowledge may help him
considerably in judging as to the quality of those tools, and it will be
at once acknowledged that an ability to discriminate in this respect is
of considerable value. For brushes vary greatly in quality, far more
so, perhaps, than our readers may imagine possible. Everyone knows that
there are good brushes that cost more than a trifle, and rubbishy goods,
chiefly of foreign make, that can be bought for, perhaps, half the
amount. Probably there is not a reader who does not fully understand
that it is far better in the end to buy the best quality brushes, that
is, that it is cheaper to pay a higher price, because the work with such
brushes can be done quicker and better than it can by the inferior ones,
and also because the superior quality lasts much longer. Those things
are well understood among most painters, and even if some of them _will_
use cheap stainers and lose money in consequence, they have, at least,
learned the lesson of the necessity of using only best quality tools.

But it is not a comparison between high grade and low grade brushes that
we now want to make, it is rather to direct attention to the difference
that exists in the actual quality of so-called first-class tools of
different makes. It is this difference than can best be understood after
inspecting the process of brush making, and it must be acknowledged that
adulteration can be carried on in the manufacture of brushes to a
considerable extent. Take a common ground brush as an example. The
actual brush part should consist wholly of hog’s bristles, for there is
nothing yet discovered that gives better results. Yet there are on the
market many brushes marked “pure bristle” which really contain more or
less a large proportion of horsehair or other material which makes a
poor substitute, but which cannot be easily detected, in fact, it is the
difficulty of detection which has probably given rise to the
objectionable adulteration referred to.

The objection to horsehair in a painter’s brush is that it is flabby and
without spring, but its presence in adulterating brushes can be
understood when it is said that approximately the price of horsehair is
1s. 9d. to 2s. 2d., and bristles 8s. to 9s. per pound. It certainly
requires an expert to state positively whether horsehair is included or
not, but there are certain signs that, with care, will determine the
matter, at least to a certain extent. The real bristle has its end
split--called a “flag” end--the root end is considerably larger and
cannot be mistaken. The spring or elasticity is another indication of
the bristle. The horsehair, on the other hand, is the same size both
ends, and has no flag end; if the suspected bristles be viewed under a
strong reading glass the difference can be told without a great deal of
difficulty.

At the works of Messrs. G. B. Kent & Sons, Ltd., the author was shown
how suspected brushes sent out had been dissected and the various parts
divided up, and it was surprising to see how much horsehair could be
included in a brush without giving it any out-of-the-way appearance.
There were little piles of horsehair of different lengths, while the
bristles were all sorted into other piles, each of different lengths.
Photographs of the brushes that have been dissected in this way have
been distributed through the trade, and they have no doubt proved of use
in showing painters that adulteration in brushes is carried on to almost
as great an extent as it is in paint materials. No adulteration whatever
in painting brushes is permitted in the factory of G. B. Kent & Sons.

Certainly the brush department in any brush manufactory, which is of the
most importance is the bristle room, and it was to this that the author
was first taken. There were bristles of many different kinds, most of
them tied up into neat bundles ready to be afterwards dealt with. For
instance, Siberian Okatka, and perhaps most important to my readers
because they make the best paint brushes, having an excellent spring and
being stiff. They are very costly and are rarely used by themselves, nor
is it necessary, because other varieties of bristles may be mixed in,
and it is this mixing or blending that constitutes so important a part
in the brush manufacturer’s art. Indeed, the purchase and blending takes
years of careful study to learn. One class of bristle is introduced into
the mixing to give strength, another straightness, another solidity,
another colour, and it is the judicious blending, the knowledge of which
is acquired only by much experience, which makes a first-class brush for
first-class work, and having the requisite spring and durability and the
band of which will not burst.

The process of dividing the bristles into uniform lengths is termed
“dragging,” a very interesting process which requires considerable
expertness on the part of the operator. A handful of bristles, after
being mixed, is placed against a gauge, and the operator, grasping
firmly those bristles which project beyond a mark which indicates the
required length, withdraws them with his thumb and finger and places
them aside. The whole bundle having been gone over in this way, a second
dragging to the next mark is made, and so on until the bristles are
arranged in little piles of uniform lengths.

The operation of “mixing” is also interesting. This is done in order to
obtain an uniform colour and quality in the bristles. First, all the
bristles of different colours are piled on the top of one another,
varying considerably in colour in the different layers from top to
bottom. Perhaps there will be one layer nearly white and another nearly
black. If these were all mixed up indiscriminately to make a brush, the
result would be a very patchy appearance that would not be liked. The
object, therefore, is to have an equal admixture of black and white
throughout. A workman takes in his hand a portion of the bristles from
top to bottom, cutting through all at once. These he holds in his two
hands and ‘jabs’--for the want of a better word--through a steel comb
which is fixed upright before him. This mixes the different coloured
bristles, and at the same time pulls out inferior or woolly parts that
may have been left in. As each handful of bristles is dressed in this
way it is laid aside, and when the whole is completed the second
dressing is gone through in the same way as the first, the result being
that the admixture is perfect, and the appearance of any one part of the
pile is exactly the same as that of the other. It is essential also that
all the bristles should lie the same way, and, as in the rough an
uncertain small proportion of the bristles arrive with their heads the
wrong way, to extract them another small comb, termed an ‘engine,’ with
teeth very close together, is used; the ‘flag’ end of the handful is
combed over this, and the roots of the ‘turned’ hairs catch in the comb.


  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  OLD ROSE                    MOSS GREY

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  IVY GREEN                   WARM GREY

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  GREEN SLATE                 LEAD

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  SEA FOAM                    SILVER GREY

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  APPLE GREEN                 STONE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  SLATE                       MIDDLE STONE

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  GRANITE                     DARK OAK

  [Illustration]              [Illustration]
  ASH GREY                    IVORY

It will be unnecessary to describe in detail how every brush is made,
but an ordinary ground brush will serve as an example. The actual
manufacture is not difficult. First the bristles are carefully weighed
out so that every brush of the same grade has exactly the same quantity
of bristle in it as a corresponding brush; great care being taken not to
disturb the way in which the bristles lie. They must all point one way,
and naturally they have a certain bend. The outside of the brush is
usually made of white bristles, while the inside is grey and yellow.
This is almost a universal rule, for although the inside bristles are of
equal spring to those outside, still trade demands white bristles
outside and has them. The reader will understand that the bristles that
are to form the ground brush about to be made are lying on the scale,
these having been weighed they are taken off, the white bristles being
underneath, so as to form the outside of the brush. The workman takes
all the bristles carefully, but firmly, in both hands, and turns the
bristle round his thumb in such a way that the bend of the bristles all
turn inward towards the centre, and the white bristles or ‘cappings’ lie
in an even rim round the rest, and the ‘knot’ is then tied round with
string. The knots are then dipped in hot cement and kept warm standing
upon a hot plate.

The next process is ‘driving,’ which consists in forcing the handle
through the bristles, which has been previously inserted in its binding,
and this tightens the brush by compression.

Varnish brushes, as a rule, are shaped in a manner somewhat similar to
the method of making artists’ pencils, that is to say, the wedge shape
is produced by placing the bristles into a small circular box, the
bottom of which is concave. Hence, it will be seen that the bristles, if
even they are all of the same length, have the necessary chisel-edge for
a varnish brush. Pegged brushes are made under a patent of Messrs. G. B.
Kent & Sons. Speaking roughly, it consists of driving pegs into the back
woodwork of the brush so as to throw the parts into greater compression
and to hold the bristles tighter. After the brush is made, the bristles
are thoroughly scoured on a stone with soap and water. After the brush
is finished, the bleaching chambers are reached where, by means of
sulphurous fumes, the bristles are bleached to the required degree of
whiteness.


THE CARE OF BRUSHES.--However good a brush may be it will soon be ruined
unless it is properly treated when out of use. The following hints will
suffice as a guide in this respect:--

_Writing Pencils, etc._--Wash in turpentine until quite clean, and if
they are not to be used for some time dip in olive oil and smooth from
heel to point.

[Illustration: RED SABLE.]

_Stipplers._--Wash thoroughly in pure soap and hot water rinsing with
cold water. Place point downwards to dry.

[Illustration: STIPPLER, WITH BRIDGE HANDLE.]

_Varnish Brushes._--The best method of keeping varnish brushes, in the
opinion of the author, is to suspend them in the same description of
varnish as that they are used for. As this is not always possible boiled
oil may be used instead.

[Illustration: VARNISH BRUSH--GALVD. WIRE BOUND.]

_Paint Brushes._--Mr. ERNEST N. KENT gives the following instructions in
“Specifications”:--

[Illustration: SASH TOOL.]

[Illustration: FLAT OVAL GROUND BRUSH.]

_Brushes made for Use in Colour_ should first be soaked well in water
to swell the bristle in the binding. This applies also to whitewash
brushes which are bound either by wire or leather.

_A Brush after Use_ should be thoroughly cleansed out in turps or soap
and water. If left in water any length of time they are liable to twist,
and the bristles lose their elasticity.

_A Brush made for Paint_ should not be used in varnish, the spirit of
which dissolves the cement with which it is set, and loosens the
bristles. When a ground brush has been well worn down in colour, it may,
however, be used in varnish.

_A Brush made for Varnish_ must on no account be put into water as the
water destroys the cement.

_Varnish Brushes_ when not in use should be suspended in either varnish
or oil, the brush not resting on the bristles. No brushes should on any
account be kept in turpentine.

_Stippling Brushes_ should be well cleaned and dried after use, the
bristle being carefully kept from crushing; a box in which they can be
slid, allowing the bristle to hang downwards is recommended.

_Should a Brush become quite hard with Paint_ it should be soaked for
twenty-four hours in raw linseed oil, after which time in hot
turpentine.


SOME USEFUL RECIPES.


A RECIPE FOR TEREBINE.--Take 2lbs. of ground litharge, 2lbs. of red
lead, 1lb. of sulphate of manganese, ¹⁄₂lb. of sugar of lead. Mix these
to a paste with light coach japan, put the paste into a gallon jar and
add half a gallon of pure turpentine. Let this stand for three days,
stirring occasionally, then pour off the resultant liquid which forms
first-class terebine. You can afterwards pour in another half gallon of
turps, well stir and pour off as before. This can be done a third time
when the chemicals will have become exhausted.


SPECIAL PAINTS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES.


IRON CEMENT.--A cement suitable for filling up defects in cast iron is
made by mixing one part of bone black, one part of powdered gum arabic,
one part iron dust or very fine iron filings, and two parts of plaster
of Paris. This powder is made up into a stiff body with water, but only
sufficient for immediate use should be made, as it sets very rapidly. In
time it becomes as hard as iron.


BUFF PAINT.--The following mixture will produce an excellent buff paint
for ordinary purposes. Grind in raw linseed oil 3cwt. of white lead,
4cwt. of grey barytes, 8lbs. of genuine red oxide, 100lbs. of J.F.L.S.
ochre, and 8lbs. burnt Turkey umber.


TORBAY PAINT, IMITATION.--Grind together 5cwt. of grey barytes, 1cwt.
Paris white, 4cwt. of French ochre, and 4lbs. of genuine red oxide of
iron.


DRUM PAINT.--Dissolve rosin in an equal bulk of naphtha and colour with
lamp black for black, celestial blue for blue, Venetian red for red, and
so on. A little oil added will be of assistance.


BRONZE PAINT TINS, DIPPING SOLUTION FOR.--Dissolve asphaltum in spirits
of turpentine and thin down to the required consistency.


FLOOR PAINTS.

This class of paint is much used in America, and they are made in a
variety of colours. The necessary qualities are great durability under
wear. Three coats are usually given, but it is very necessary that
sufficient time be allowed to elapse between the application of each
coat to enable a thorough drying to be effected. The thinners for each
recipe will be the same, namely, gloss oil twenty gallons, linseed oil
eight gallons, turpentine japan six gallons, benzine japan two gallons,
turpentine four gallons, benzine three gallons, making together 52
gallons. The pigments will be as follows:


BUFF.--Yellow ochre, 175lbs.; whiting, 25lbs.; zinc, 25lbs.; Portland
cement, 3lbs.


DUST COLOUR.--Zinc white, 175lbs.; white lead, 25lbs.; whiting, 50lbs.;
lamp black, 1lb.; yellow ochre, 8lbs.


LEAD COLOUR.--The same as dust colour, excepting that 5lbs. of lamp
black should be used and 3lbs. of yellow ochre.


TERRA-COTTA.--Yellow ochre, 100lbs.; Venetian red, 17lbs.; zinc, 25lbs.;
whiting, 70lbs.


MAROON OR INDIAN RED.--Indian red, 100lbs.; Venetian red, 50lbs.; zinc,
25lbs.; whiting, 25lbs.


LIGHT BROWN.--Yellow ochre, 100lbs.; whiting, 70lbs.; mineral brown,
15lbs.; zinc, 25lbs.; Venetian red, 6lbs.


DIPPING PAINTS.

This class of paints is much used in the United States, the article that
is to be painted being dipped into the paint so as to save the labour of
applying it with a brush in the ordinary manner.


BLACK DIPPING PAINT.--In this case two separate dippings are required,
first with the following mixture which acts as a primer. Take 100lbs. of
dry ground slate, 100lbs. of whiting, 50lbs. of zinc white, 2 gallons of
linseed oil, 20 gallons of gloss oil, and 5 gallons of benzine. These
being properly mixed form a priming coat which dries fairly quickly.
When dry dip the article into a paint made of the following mixture:
25lbs. of drop black, 3¹⁄₂ gallons of grinding japan, half gallon of
turpentine, 7¹⁄₂ gallons gloss oil, and one gallon of turpentine.


YELLOW DIPPING PAINT.--A primer is made by grinding together 14lbs. of
golden ochre, 1¹⁄₂ gallons of grinding japan, 2 gallons of gloss oil,
and half gallon of turpentine. The paint is made of 30lbs. of medium
chrome yellow, 2 gallons of grinding japan, 1¹⁄₂ gallons of turpentine,
and 7 gallons of gloss oil. This makes 12 gallons of paint.


RED DIPPING PAINT.--Grind together 80lbs. of bright scarlet or Turkey
red, 80lbs. best Paris white, 38 gallons gloss oil, 4 gallons of
benzine, 2 gallons of linseed oil, and 2 gallons of benzine japan. This
makes 50 gallons of paint.


MACHINERY DIPPING PAINT.--Grind together 100lbs. of dry ground slate,
25lbs. zinc white, 1 gallon of linseed oil, 2 gallons of gloss oil, and
1 gallon of japan drier.


DIPPING WHITE.--Grind 100lbs. of zinc white with 90lbs. of Paris white
in 2 gallons of linseed oil, 32 gallons of gloss oil, and 11 gallons of
benzine. This makes 50 gallons of paint.

The above recipes for dipping paints have been modified from recipes
which originally appeared in “Drugs, Oils and Paints,” of Philadelphia.


PAINT FOR IRON.

There has been a very considerable amount of difference of opinion as to
the best paint for iron. An elaborate course of experiments were made
and the results reported in the columns of the “Engineer” some time
since. The results of these experiments showed that no rust whatever
resulted from either of the following mixtures, which may therefore be
recommended as good paints for iron.


RED LEAD PAINT.--Red lead, 88 parts; raw linseed oil, 12 parts.


CHEAPER RED LEAD PAINT.--Cheaper red lead, 45 parts; barytes, 45 parts;
raw linseed oil, 10 parts.


RED LEAD PAINT, CHEAPER STILL.--Very cheap red lead, 22 parts; barytes,
66 parts; raw linseed oil, 12 parts.


VERMILIONETTE PAINT.--Barytes, 33 parts; deep vermilionette, 44 parts;
pale vermilionette, 14 parts; raw linseed oil, 7 parts.


PERMANENT RED PAINT.--Permanent red, 88 parts; raw linseed oil, 7 parts.


PUTTY RECIPES.

Although an ordinary putty is made of dry whiting with raw linseed oil,
a modification of this mixture is often necessary and desirable.


SOFT PUTTY.--One pound of white lead mixed with 10lbs. of whiting and
ground with the necessary quantity of boiled linseed oil makes an
excellent putty. About half a gill of best olive oil or cotton seed oil
added, prevents the white lead from hardening and preserves the putty in
a state sufficiently soft to adhere at all times.


EXPORT PUTTY.--The above recipe answers for putty that is to be sent
abroad, the cotton oil preventing it from going hard. Sometimes the
white lead is omitted.


PUTTY FOR EXPOSED POSITIONS.--A very strong putty is made of boiled oil
and whiting and is suitable for exposed positions, such as skylights. It
is not adapted for keeping, as it gets too hard. Putty for inside work
that is ground in raw linseed oil may be made by adding a little white
lead.


HARD PUTTY.--Mix dry red lead with boiled oil and turpentine varnish.
This may be used immediately, as it soon gets hard.


FRENCH PUTTY.--Boil 7 parts of linseed oil with four parts of brown
umber for two hours. Then add 5¹⁄₂ parts of whiting and 11 parts of
white lead and mix the whole. This putty is very durable and adheres
well to wood.


IMPERISHABLE PUTTY.--Various recipes for a so-called imperishable putty
have been given. The one published above, named French putty, is very
durable, but it may be varied by boiling together for two hours 3¹⁄₂lbs.
of linseed oil and 2lbs. of brown umber. Stir in one ounce of beeswax,
take off the fire, and mix 2³⁄₄lbs. of whiting and 5¹⁄₂lbs. of white
lead.


WOOD AND GLUE PUTTY.--Dissolve glue in water and add as much very fine
sawdust as may be required.

       *       *       *       *       *


BLACKBOARD PAINT.--Mix 5 oz. of lamp black and 3 oz. of superfine flour
of emery in half a gallon of shellac varnish or patent knotting. This
gives a fine slating. Shellac varnish may be made by dissolving 1lb. of
orange shellac in half a gallon of methylated spirits. Another recipe
is: Dissolve 1lb. shellac in one gallon of methylated spirits. When
dissolved add 1lb. best ivory black, 5 oz. of best flour of emery. Mix
and put in a stoppered bottle, shake well before using. In applying this
it must be done rapidly, and only a little of the paint should be poured
out at a time, as the spirit rapidly evaporates. In applying it to old
blackboards one coat is usually sufficient.


WHITEWASH FOR POULTRY HOUSES.--In order to prevent the breeding of
vermin the whitewash used for poultry houses should be mixed with a
little gas tar--not coal tar. It may be obtained at any gas works, and
should be used in the proportion of about a quarter of a pint to the
pailful of ash. To bind the whitewash, flour made into a paste with hot
water may be used, and is better than glue size as it does not decay and
will not injure the fowls.


SOME USEFUL HINTS ON PAINTS AND PAINTING.

An excess of driers in paint often gives rise to blistering.

       *       *       *       *       *

Boiled oil, if of good quality, will, when applied to glass, dry in 24
hours.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tar should always be applied hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dark boiled oil may be pure, but it will not produce good work.

       *       *       *       *       *

A little varnish added to paint, often improves both its appearance and
durability.

       *       *       *       *       *

In painting over bad stains, tar, etc., a coat of shellac varnish will
usually give a good surface on which the paint will dry.

       *       *       *       *       *

Ochre makes a good and cheap priming coat, if it is very fine.

       *       *       *       *       *

To test patent driers, mix it with raw linseed oil, in the proportion of
one to three, and apply to glass. If still tacky at the end of 24 hours,
the driers may be looked upon as being of inferior quality.

       *       *       *       *       *

Varnish brushes are best kept, when not in use, by being suspended in
the same kind of varnish in which they are ordinary used.

       *       *       *       *       *

For thinning gold size, use a little boiled oil, not turpentine.

       *       *       *       *       *

The practical painter should have an “educated” nose--that is, one that
can at once detect adulteration in oil and turpentine.

       *       *       *       *       *

To mix varnishes is sometimes necessary, when the particular kind
required is not at hand. But it is always a bad plan, and is never
desirable. When it must be done, do not use the varnish for a few days.

       *       *       *       *       *

An even temperature is of the greatest importance in obtaining good
results from varnish. Coach painters’ shops are usually kept exactly at
the same heat, while dust and draughts of cold air are rigidly excluded.
This is one of the reasons why coach painters are able to turn out such
fine work.

       *       *       *       *       *

Success in repainting ironwork largely depends in removing all rust,
scale, etc. For this purpose, wire brushes should be used, as they
greatly facilitate the operation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Luminous paint which, if exposed to the light during the day, will give
off sufficient light at night time to enable one to see the time by a
watch, may be had to last several years, if protected by a piece of
glass from the weather, and it is extremely useful for certain positions
where it is not desired to burn a light.

       *       *       *       *       *

Fineness of grinding is a most important quality of all tinting colours,
but in none more so than in the umbers and siennas prepared for
grainer’s use. It is of equal importance that the tone and colour be
pure. Sometimes this class of colours are toned up with chrome, but this
is objectionable, and the right tone of sienna can only be expected when
the correct quality of crude earth is selected.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tube colours are now becoming so popular among the highest class
painters and decorators that the use of dry colours will soon be
considered obsolete. When the colours are put in tubes, waste is almost
wholly prevented, while their use keeps the colours moist for a
considerable time.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two coats of patent knotting or shellac varnish may be given to cover
stains, damp spots, or other work which will not take the paint. Even
tar spots thus treated may be neutralized.

       *       *       *       *       *

Grained work should never be varnished until after 6 or 7 days from the
time it is finished. This delay will render the surface much more
durable than it would be if varnished immediately.

       *       *       *       *       *

Spring and summer are not the best for painting, as many suppose. The
autumn is better, as the work is then, as a rule, thoroughly dry and in
the best condition to take the paint.

       *       *       *       *       *

To obscure window glass, the best plan is to apply a coat of matting
varnish, which is specially made for the purpose. It looks very neat,
and effectively obscures the glass, although it shuts out very little of
the light.

       *       *       *       *       *

A rough way of testing a brush is to pluck a few bristles and to burn
them by applying a match. If they are true bristles they will give off
an unmistakable odour, will frizzle up while burning, but will not leave
an ash. Fibre, on the other hand, burns without smell, and leaves an
ash.

       *       *       *       *       *

Embossing on glass is usually done by means of hydrofluoric acid. The
design is pounced or sketched on with French chalk. Then every part that
is not to be embossed is painted over with a special Brunswick black. A
little wall of tallow is then built all around the pane of glass laid
flat, and the acid is gently poured on. In about half an hour it has
eaten into the glass sufficiently to form a well-defined pattern. The
acid is poured off into a guttapercha bottle, the tallow removed, and
the surface washed with clean water. The black is softened with
turpentine and removed by means of an old chisel.

       *       *       *       *       *

A priming coat can never prove satisfactory unless it is composed of
very fine materials. White lead, red lead, or white lead and ochre are
among the best primers.

       *       *       *       *       *

The best tests of linseed oil for the practical man are the senses of
smell and taste. The analysis of linseed oil is a very difficult
process, and every oil dealer should educate his senses by constant
practice and recognise the pure oil immediately when he smells or tastes
it. Adulteration in boiled oil is more difficult to detect than it is in
raw oil.

       *       *       *       *       *

Never mix two different kinds of driers in a paint; they may re-act upon
one another and actually retard the drying of the paint.

       *       *       *       *       *

Too much driers in paint will destroy its durability and may affect the
gloss.

       *       *       *       *       *

Messrs. WILKINSON, HEYWOOD & CLARK, LTD., 7, Caledonian Road, London,
N., have favoured the author with samples of their colours, which he
finds, after examination, to be of a high order of excellence. Their
white oil varnish is also highly recommended, being almost colourless
and not turning yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

In preparing plaster figures for showing samples of gold paint it is
necessary first to give a heavy coat of shellac to prevent absorption.

       *       *       *       *       *

Perhaps not one painter in a thousand knows that water glass (silicate
of soda) makes an excellent size for wall paper. It will not wash up the
pattern, and it forms a foundation for the paper varnish that makes it
stand out admirably.

       *       *       *       *       *

The priming coat for new pine may be made by mixing a stone of white
lead in oil with an equal quantity of patent driers. About one pound of
turpentine and a pound and a half of raw linseed oil will be required.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE HARMONY OF COLOUR.--As already stated we cannot spare room to deal
with this important subject, but may give one or two notes on the
subject. The following is a useful list taken from “Colour,” by GEORGE
H. HURST. A somewhat similar list will be found in “Colour” by PROFESSOR
A. H. CHURCH. The names and addresses of the publishers of these two
books are given on another page.


HARMONY OF TWO COLOUR COMBINATIONS.--

  Crimson and orange                   Bad.
     „     „  yellow                   Inferior.
     „     „  green                    Strong, but harsh.
     „     „  blue                     Good.
     „     „  violet                   Bad.
     „     „  gold-yellow              Good.
  Scarlet and yellow                   Bad.
     „     „  green                    Inferior.
     „     „  greenish-blue            Good.
  Scarlet and  blue                    Good.
     „     „   violet                  Bad.
  Orange  and  yellow                  Poor.
     „     „   yellow-green            Fair.
     „     „   green                   Strong-poor.
     „     „   green-blue              Fair.
     „     „   blue                    Good.
     „     „   violet                  Strong-good.
  Orange-yellow and crimson            Poor.
     „           „  scarlet            Poor.
     „           „  green              Bad.
     „           „  blue-green         Bad.
     „           „  green-blue         Fairly good.
     „           „  blue               Excellent.
     „           „  violet             Good.
  Yellow and crimson                   Poor.
     „    „  green                     Bad.
     „    „  blue-green                Very bad.
     „    „  blue                      Only fair.
     „    „  violet                    Very good.
  Green and blue                       Very poor.
    „    „  violet                     Moderate.
    „    „  red                        Good.


LIST OF USEFUL BOOKS.

The author has thought it might be of service to his readers to include
a list of books which would probably be useful to the purchaser of this
work. The list below includes the most modern and up-to-date works,
together with their prices and publishers. A very brief description is
appended.

PAINTING & DECORATING, by Walter J. Pearce, second edition, 1902. Price,
12s. 6d. Published by Chas. Griffin & Co., Ltd., London. This is a book
of 312 pages and several coloured plates. The first edition was
published in 1898, and it contains information on every branch of house
painting and decorating. It is the work of a practical painter, who is
also an artist, and who has lectured on the subject at the Manchester
Technical School for several years past. The book is highly recommended.

PAINTERS’ COLOURS, OILS & VARNISHES, a Practical Manual by George H.
Hurst, F.C.S. This work contains over 500 pages. The third edition was
published in 1901 by Chas. Griffin & Co., Ltd., Exeter Street, Strand,
E.C. The book contains detailed information of the most practical and
thorough character concerning all pigments, colours, colour and paint
machinery, paint vehicles, such as paint oils, turpentine, etc., driers
and varnishes. As a manual treating of painters’ materials it will be
found most useful to painters who desire to know the properties of the
materials they use.

PRANG’S “STANDARD OF COLOUR.” This work is very useful to colour mixers.
It consists of seven plates, each plate consisting of 168 colours, tints
or hues. (Arthur Ackerman, Regent Street, S.W.)

“HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING AND SIGN WRITING,” by Ellis A.
Davidson. This book comprises 9 coloured plates of wood and marbles, 150
wood engravings and a full treatise on the process of house painting,
sign writing, etc. (Crosby, Lockwood & Son.)

“CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS AND PAINTING,” by Professor A. H. Church, published
by Seeley & Co., Gt. Russell Street, W.C. This is a reliable and
exhaustive treatise on pigments, oils, varnishes and other materials
used by artists.

“PIGMENTS, PAINT AND PAINTING,” by George Terry, published by Messrs. E.
& F. N. Spon, Ltd., London, 7s. 6d.

“MANUFACTURE OF PAINTS,” by J. Cruickshank Smith, B.S.A., published by
Scott, Greenwood & Co., London, 7s. 6d.

“COLOUR.” A handbook of the theory of colour by George H. Hurst, F.C.S.,
with 10 coloured plates and 22 illustrations. Published by Scott,
Greenwood & Co., London, 7s. 6d.

“COLOUR.” A text book of modern chromatics, with application to art and
industry, by Professor Ogden Rood, 3rd edition, 5s.

“COLOUR.” An elementary manual for students, with 6 coloured plates, by
Professor A. H. Church. Published by Cassell & Co.

“THE MODERN WOOD FINISHER,” by F. Maire. This is a thoroughly practical
little work on Wood Finishing in all its branches. Price 2s. Published
by “The Western Painter,” Journal Building, Chicago, Ill., U.S.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Author regrets that in the text the address of_ MESSRS. TORRANCE &
SONS, LTD., _is given incorrectly. It should be Bitton, near Bristol,
Glos._

[Illustration]



INDEX.


  Acorn Brown, 17
  Amber Brown, 17
  American Walnut, Graining Colour, 59
  American Walnut, Ground for, 58
  Antique Oak, Ground for, 58
  Apple Green, 15
  Ash Graining Colour, 59
  Ash, Ground for, 58
  Autumn Leaf, 17

  Birch, Ground for, 58
  Bird’s Eye Maple, Graining Colour, 59
  Blacks, 70
  Blackboard Paint, 87
  Blues, 33-70
  Body, 64
  Books, Useful, 92
  Bronze for Paint Tins, 84
  Bronze Green, 15-66
  Brunswick Green, 44
  Brushes, 77
  Buff, 16

  Care of Brushes, 81
  Characteristics of Good Colours, 61
  Charlton White, 22
  Cherry Graining Colour, 59
  Chestnut Graining Colour, 59
  Chrome Green, 66
  Chromes, 69
  Colonial Yellow, 16
  Colours, Dry, 11
  Colours, Economy of Using Good, 18
  Colours, Nomenclature of, 15
  Colours or Stainers, 14
  Colours, Permanence of, 66
  Colours that may be used with Lime, 77
  Commercial White, 21
  Composition of a Paint, 7
  Covering Power, 63
  Cream, 17

  Dark Drab, 17
  Dark Green, 16
  Dark Oak, 16-17
  Deal, Priming for, 13
  Deep Cream, 17
  Deep Drab, 17
  Dipping Paints, 84
  Doe Colour, 16
  Dutch Process, White Lead, 21
  Driers, 8
  Drum Paint, 83
  Dry Colours, 11

  Economy of Using Good Colours, 18
  Embossing on Glass, 90
  Emerald Green, 66
  Export Putty, 86

  Fawn Brown, 17
  Fineness of Grinding, 62
  Floor Paints, 84
  French Putty, 86

  Good Colours, Economy of Using, 18-60
  Graining Colours, 59
  Grays and Greys, 22
  Greens, 44-66
  Ground Colours for Graining, 57
  Harmony of Colours, 91
  Hard Putty, 86
  Hue, 19

  Imperishable Putty, 87
  Indian Red, 7-68
  Indigo, 33
  Inside second coat, 13
  Iron, Priming for, 12
  Iron Cement, 83
  Iron, Paint for, 86
  Italian Walnut, Ground for, 7
  Ivy Green, 16

  Japan White, 20
  Japanners, 8

  Knotted Oak, Ground for, 58

  Lead and Zinc, Mixing, 20
  Light Chocolate, 16
  Light Drab, 16
  Light Oak, Ground for, 57
  Light Oak Stain, 71
  Light Stone, 16
  Lilac, 16
  Linseed Oil, 8
  Liquid Driers, 8
  Lithopone, 21
  Luminous Paint, 89

  Mahogany Graining Colour, 59
  Mahogany, Ground for, 58
  Maple Graining Colour, 59
  Maple, Ground for, 57
  Materials, Proportions of, 12
  Medium Oak, Ground for, 57
  Middle Stone, 16
  Mixing Greens, 44
  Mixing Machine, 9
  Mixing of Paint, 9-10
  Mixing Zinc and Lead, 20
  Moss Gray, 17
  Moss Green, 15

  Nomenclature of Colours, 15

  Oak, Ground for, 57
  Ochres, 69
  Olive Green, 16

  Paint, Composition of, 7
  Paint for Iron, 85
  Paint Mixing, 10
  Paint Mixing Machine, 7
  Paint Remover, 71
  Paint Strainer, 11
  Painting on Stucco, 12
  Paints, and how to mix them, 51
  Patent Driers, 8
  Pea Green, 16
  Pearl Gray, 16
  Permanence of Colours, 66
  Permanent Pigments, 67
  Permanent White, 20-21
  Pigments liable to change, 74
  Pine, Priming for, 13
  Pitch Pine, Ground for, 57
  Pollard Oak Graining Colour, 59
  Pollard Oak, Ground for, 57
  Prang’s “Standard of Colour”, 18
  Priming Coat, 70
  Priming for Deal, 13
  Priming for Iron, 12
  Proportions of Materials, 12
  Prussian Blue, 33, 36, 45, 70
  Purity of Colours, 61
  Purity of Tone, 62
  Purple Brown, 7
  Putty Recipes, 86

  Red Lead, 68
  Reds, 26
  Rosewood Graining Colour, 59
  Rosewood, Ground for, 58

  Sage Green, 15
  Sandstone, 16
  Satinwood, Ground for, 57
  Sea Green, 15
  Second Coat, 13
  Shade, 19
  Sienna, 70
  Sienna Brown, 17
  Signal Red, 17
  Size for Plastered Walls, 71
  Slate, 16
  Smoke Colour, 17
  Snuff Brown, 17
  Soft Putty, 86
  Special Paints, 83
  Specific Gravity, 72
  Spreading Capacity, 63
  Stainers or Colours, 14
  Standard in Graining Colours, 60
  Steel Gray, 16
  Stainers for Paint, 11
  Stipplers, 82
  Straining Paint, 11
  Straw Yellow, 17
  Strength of Colours, 45
  Stucco, Painting on, 12

  Terebine, 83
  Testing Colours, 60-65
  Testing Turpentine, 74
  Tint, 19
  Tinting Strength, 64
  Tool for Paint Mixing, 11
  Turpentine, 7
  Turpentine, testing, 74
  Tuscan Red, 68

  Ultramarine, 37-70
  Umber, 70
  Useful Recipes, 83

  Varnish Brushes, 82
  Varnishing Paint, 8
  Venetian Red, 7-68
  Vermilion, 68
  Vermilionette, 68

  Walnut Stain, 71
  Warm Gray, 16
  White Lead, 7-21
  White Lead and Ultramarine, 45
  White Lead, Testing, 62
  Whites, 20
  Whites Compared, 21
  Whitewash for Poultry Houses, 87
  Window Glass Measurement, 72
  Wire Paint Strainer, 11
  Wood and Glue Putty, 87

  Yellow Ochre, 7
  Yellows, 38

  Zinc and Lead, Mixing, 20

[Illustration]


M. WALLER & SON, PRINTERS, 15, CHAPAL LANE, HULL.



_ADVERTISEMENTS_


  “ECLIPSE”

  PAINT REMOVER.

  Saving of 50 per Cent. in Time and Labour. No Lime or Potash.

  _To Railway and Gas Companies, Shipowners, Builders, Decorators,
  Coachbuilders, Painters, Ship and Yacht Builders, etc._

  No 1. The “Eclipse” Paint Remover.

  This Powerful Paste is invaluable for Removing Old Hard Paint (any
  thickness), Enamel, Varnish, and Wall Paper from Wood, Stone, or Iron.
  It is a Disinfectant, and will not injure the Surface nor the Paint or
  Varnish afterwards applied, and is pronounced by first-class Firms to
  be the Cheapest and most Effectual in the Market. It is much liked for
  taking paint from Baths for repainting, and is invaluable as applied
  to old wood carvings and all fine-art work. Will thoroughly clean and
  renew Marble, etc.

  ☛ Send for Circular and Testimonials to

  JOHN M. GIBSON,

  21, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.


  [IN PRESS.]

  WALL PAPER AND PAPERHANGING.

  By ARTHUR S. JENNINGS.

  A Handbook on Decoration in paper and other materials, with practical
  instructions on Hanging them.

  Illustrated by many half-tone and other engravings, showing the latest
  designs in Wall Hangings.

  Price 5s. Post free, 5s. 3d.

  May be had of the Author, A. S. JENNINGS, 62, Barry Road, East
  Dulwich, London, S.E.


  THE RIPON & CLARO VARNISH CO.

  Works: RIPON.

  Manufacturers of High-class Varnishes, Japans, Paints, Colours, etc.,

  FOR EVERY PURPOSE.

  Specialities: QUICK DRYING READY BOUND COLOURS IN TURPS.,

  REQUIRE NO GOLD SIZE OR MIXING.

  Drop Ivory Black, Chromes, Greens, Blues, Reds, etc. Command an
  Enormous Sale.


  SMITH’S PATENT.

  A New Tool for Painters, Paint Manufacturers, and others for Cleaning
  Out Paint Cans, Drums, Kegs, and the like. Will last for years, and is
  a useful addition to a Painter’s Outfit. A Good Mixer. Handy for
  Cleaning Gutters, Scraping Ironwork, Burning Off, and lots of other
  purposes.

  POST FREE, 1s. 9d.

  H. SMITH,

  HALE ROAD BRIDGE, ALTRINCHAM, CHESHIRE.


  THE “LITTLE GIANT”

  PAINT MIXER.

  The wood-cut on page 9 of this work shows a useful Paint Mixer for
  hand power, called the “Little Giant.” The advantage of this Machine
  is that it can be taken to the spot where the Paint is required, and
  any quantity up to five gallons mixed in a few minutes. The drum can
  be removed for distributing the Paint by pulling down the lever. The
  size of the container is 15-in. × 10-in., and is interchangeable. The
  weight of the “Little Giant” is 3¹⁄₂-cwts. when complete. The machine
  should be of great use to those having to mix Paint where work is
  being done, and should appeal specially to Builders, Shipbuilders, and
  Engineers.

  TORRANCE & SONS, LIMITED,

  BITTON, NEAR BRISTOL.


  The Illustrated Carpenter & Builder

  THE BEST JOURNAL FOR

  ARCHITECTS, DECORATORS, PAINTERS, PLUMBERS, JOINERS, GASFITTERS, AND
  MECHANICS IN ALL TRADES.

  ☛ Indispensable to Every Workman, and Interesting to Every Amateur.

  One Penny Weekly. Monthly Parts, 6d.


  THE CARPENTER AND BUILDER

  TECHNICAL..
  .... SERIES.

  Now Ready:

  BRICKLAYING,
  SCAFFOLDING,
  SLATING,
  HOME HANDICRAFTS,
  PAINTING AND VARNISHING,
  MASONRY,
  PLASTERING,
  CARPENTRY.

  In Preparation:

  ARTIFICIAL STONE,
  TERRA COTTA, &c.,
  CONCRETE,
  JOINERY,
  DECORATING,
  PLUMBING.

  Edited by JOHN BLACK, Editor of the I. C. and B.

  PRICE SIXPENCE.

  Each Volume Well Printed and Profusely Illustrated. Off all
  Newsagents, Stationers, Booksellers, and Bookstalls, and (7¹⁄₂d. Post
  Free)

  JOHN DICKS, 313, STRAND, LONDON, E.C.


  Telegraphic Address:

  “JAPANNING, MITCHAM.”

  Chas. H. Blume,

  Western Road,
  Mitcham,         HIGH-CLASS
  Surrey.          VARNISHES, JAPANS
  ENAMELS and COLOURS.

  [Illustration]

  SPECIALITIES:

  Blume’s Secoline Driers.

  Less acute than Terebine; the use of Secoline in Paints warrants their
  absolute hardening in as short a time as possible without injury to
  the elasticity and wear of the paint.

  ‘Ambra’ Oil Varnish Stain.

  Durability incomparably greater than that of Spirit Varnish Stain.

  The ‘Aristo’ White African Copal Varnish.

  Paler than French Oil. The whitest, choicest Copal Oil Varnish made.
  Warranted free from Damar, yet water white in colour. For inside and
  outside use. Price 30/- per gall. Special quotations for quantities.

  Blume’s Special Liquid Woodfiller,

  _Write for Catalogue, Price List and Samples._


  ☛ YOU SHOULD TRY

  BALL’S

  Instantaneous Varnish and Paint Remover

  (By Royal Letters Patent).

  IT SAVES TIME! IT SAVES MONEY!

  For first-class work it gives =best results=, and for cheap work it is
  really a =money-saver=. It does its work in a manner that no other
  material known to painters can do. Work done with =Ball’s I.V.R.= is
  ready for re-coating at once, with a beautiful smooth surface.

  No Washing Down with Water Required.

  This material is SOLD under the ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE that it will LEAVE
  NO BAD AFTER-EFFECTS, nor--MOST IMPORTANT POINT OF ALL--will it ever
  work through any of the succeeding coats.

  To Decorators, Coach Painters and Hardwood workers this material is
  simply indispensable.

  Send for Circular to PATENTEE and MANUFACTURER,

  WM. MITCHELL,

  39, Nairn Street, KIRKCALDY, N.B.

  Sample Gallon, 12/- Carriage Paid.


  ELLAM, JONES & CO., L^{TD.,}

  Varnish, Paint and Colour Manufacturers,

  _MARKEATON MILLS, DERBY_.

  ESTABLISHED NEARLY A CENTURY.

  SPECIALITIES:

  MARKEATON RED.

  A perfect substitute for Vermilion, used exclusively by the Midland,
  Great Central, Hull and Barnsley Railway Companies for their signal
  arms, and by nearly all the Corporations in the United Kingdom for
  their Fire Appliances.

  In Washington Bags of 30lbs. at 1/6 per lb. The most reliable
  Permanent Red on the market.

  “ELLAMITE.”

  _A PAINT ABSOLUTELY UNIQUE._

  It is of the appearance of silver, may be applied to the roughest iron
  or to any surface--covers splendidly--goes far. It is =quite durable
  both inside and OUTSIDE, and costs only 20/- a gallon nett.=, in ¹⁄₂
  gallon tins, free; and also in =1/-= and =2/- tins=, subject.

  This preparation is made by a process of electrolysis.

  Railings, iron gates, &c., look splendid when painted with it.

  Painters and decorators all over the country are taking it up.
  Specified for many important works, including Great Yarmouth New
  Britannia Pier, Yarmouth Aquarium, &c.

  CHROMATE OF ZINC, STEEL BLUE, etc.

  ORIGINAL MANUFACTURERS OF OXIDE OF IRON.

  SAMPLES ON APPLICATION TO

  ELLAM, JONES & CO., Ltd.,

  Paint, Colour and Varnish Manufacturers,

  MARKEATON MILLS, DERBY.


  ZINGESSOL,

  Orr’s New Washable Distemper.

  _Fast Colours_,     SUPERSEDING
  _Artistic_,         ALL OTHERS.
  _Economical_.
  WARRANTED FREE
  FROM LIME.

  Durable as Oil Paint for Inside or Outside Work, and much less
  expensive.

  It is a happy combination of the old Italian Gesso ground with a zinc
  preparation, and not only non-poisonous, but a valuable Sanitary
  Agent.

  A well-chosen Wall Decoration in Zingessol is an art education to
  those accustomed only to coloured washes or tawdry papers.

  ☛ Price List, Patterns of Stock Colours, &c., will be sent on
  application to the Manufacturers:

  ORR’S ZINC WHITE ^{LTD.}

  _Widnes, Lancashire._

  OR TO THEIR AGENTS.

  Telegrams: “ORR, WIDNES.”


  [Illustration: G·B·KENT·&·SONS

  BEST·BRITISH·BRUSHES]


  [Illustration: ESTABLISHED IN 1760.

  LEWIS BERGER AND SONS LIMITED

  _Manufacturers of_

  PAINTS, COLOURS, AND VARNISHES.

  Specially Prepared Lines for DECORATORS SIGN·WRITERS &c write for
  samples & particulars

  _Homerton, London, N.E._]



  Transcriber’s Notes


  Inconsistent spelling (including that of proper names), punctuation,
  lay-out and formatting have been retained, unless mentioned below.

  The differences in wording between the table of contents and the text
  have not been standardised; except as mentioned under Changes below,
  chapter and (sub-)section headings in the text are based on the text
  rather than on the table of contents.

  Because of the difficulty to calibrate the named (mixed) colours, the
  colour samples provided have been copied straight from the scans,
  without any colour correction or contrast or brightness adjustments.
  See also the section on The Nomenclature of Colours.

  The inconsistencies in the Index have not been corrected.

  Depending on the hard- and software used and their settings, not all
  elements may display as intended.

  Page 41: Naples yellow is mentioned twice, possibly one mention is
  erroneous.


  Changes made

  Some obvious punctuation and typographical errors have been corrected
  silently.

  Page  7: Venetian read changed to Venetian red
  Page 37: Torquoise Blue changed to Turquoise Blue
  Page 60: Chapter title HOW TO TEST THE QUALITY OF COLOURS inserted cf.
           table of contents.
  Page 74: Chapter title RECIPES, TABLES, HINTS AND NOTES inserted cf.
           table of contents.
  Page 86: Putty for inside wook changed to Putty for inside work
  Page 88: In printing over bad stains changed to In painting over bad
           stains
  Page  i: Birdseye changed to Bird’s Eye as in text.





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