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Title: Flat Machine Knitting and Fabrics
Author: Buck, H. D.
Language: English
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                            MACHINE KNITTING

                              AND FABRICS

                             By H. D. BUCK

                        In charge of Knitting in
                           The Textile School
                        of the City of New York

                         Author of articles on
                       Knitting in Textile World

                                New York
                           334 Fourth Avenue


                           COPYRIGHTED, 1921
                             BY H. D. BUCK.


                               TO MY WIFE
                         ELIZABETH WILSON BUCK
                  who has encouraged and assisted me,
                 this book is affectionately dedicated



When the City of New York established a textile school in 1919 I was
asked to take charge of the class in knitting. Although very busy in
manufacturing lines, I decided to give up a part of my time to this
educational work, believing it to be my duty to do my bit toward helping
to fill a long felt want in the industry.

There being no suitable text book available, particularly on the
elementary subjects, I was obliged to prepare my own material for the
instruction of the students. The results of this work are contained in
this volume, which is devoted to the various types of flat latch needle
machines. It is my intention to follow this with other volumes covering
circular latch needle machines, spring needle machines, etc., with their

The various chapters of this work have been published in the knitting
technical section of TEXTILE WORLD but I believe their usefulness will
be increased by this revision and publication in more convenient book

One of the greatest needs for the advancement of the knitting industry
to the position it should occupy in the world of textiles is available
technical information, and it is hoped that this volume with the ones to
follow will supply, in some degree, this need.

                                                             H. D. BUCK.

    Woodhaven, L. I., New York,
        September 1, 1921.



          CHAP.                                           PAGE

             I. Development of the Industry How Cloth is     9
                  Constructed—Study of Loop.

            II. Latch Needle Knitting Making Jersey         16
                  Cloth on the Lamb Type of Machine.

           III. Rib Fabric Group How Stitch is Made for     26
                  Different Cloths.

            IV. The Rack Stitch Making Shaped               35
                  Collars—Opportunities in Designing

             V. The Double Lock Flat Machine How            44
                  Different Stitches Are Formed.

            VI. Fashioned Goods                             51

           VII. Automatic Flat Latch Needle Machines        57
                  Single Lock.

          VIII. Automatic Widening Machine Explanation      78
                  of Mechanism Used.

            IX. Purl Stitch, or Links and Links Machine     86
                  For Hand or Manual Power.

             X. Designs on Plain Purl Stitch Machines       97
                  Automatic Jacquard Type—Details of
                  Jacquard-Designing on Jacquard

            XI. Flat Latch Needle Automatic Narrowing      113

           XII. The Flat Jacquard Machine How It Differs   129
                  From the Purl Stitch Jacquard
                  Machine—Type of Fabric
                  Produced—Methods of Needle
                  Selection—Difference Between Single
                  Jacquard and Double
                  Jacquard—Explanation of Design and
                  Pattern Cards.

                INDEX                                      143



                               CHAPTER I


MACHINE knitting is a much older industry than most people realize, the
first knitting machine having been invented in England about the year
1590. In spite of this early start the knitting industry has not made as
great progress as some other lines of manufacturing. The great obstacle
to its progress, in comparison with that of its rival, the weaving
industry, appears to have been the slow realization by people in
general, and the producers of knitted goods in particular, of the
possibilities of the looped fabric and the diversified uses to which it
is suited.

For 250 years or more after the invention of the knitting machine,
knitted fabrics were in a general way supposed to be fit only for
hosiery. Then some enterprising knitter woke up to the fact that knitted
fabric was the ideal fabric for underclothing to be worn next to the
body, and there was developed a great industry in knitted underwear.

In very recent years, we have begun to realize that this fabric is
suitable for outer garments of various kinds, making up into beautiful,
comfortable and serviceable articles of apparel, and the industry is
surging ahead by leaps and bounds on this line. The principal reasons
for this are: first, the making of knit fabric does not require, in its
present state of development, the technical skill required for the
making of woven fabrics, notwithstanding the fact that many people not
connected with the industry look upon machine knitting as a most
mysterious operation; second, the initial investment for a given
production is not nearly so great as for woven fabrics; third, knitted
fabrics can be produced, yard for yard, or pound for pound, cheaper than
woven fabrics.

                        Knit Fabric Construction

Knitting is the art of constructing fabric or cloth with knitting
needles by an interlocking of loops. The essential element of knitting
is the loop, for the whole fabric is constructed from a succession of

A loop is a very small length of thread, or yarn, taken at some point at
a distance from the end and drawn through, or around, some object,
usually another loop. Obviously this will result in two loops. One of
these coils around the instrument or needle which draws it through and
is called the needle loop, shown by the letter _a_ in Fig. 1. The other
loops around the object or previous loop through which it was drawn, and
is called the sinker loop, indicated by _b_, _b_ in Fig. 1. These two
loops, not two complete loops, but rather one full needle loop and two
halves of the sinker loop, make a stitch, as indicated by the shaded
portion of Fig. 1 from _c_ to _c_.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Sinker Loop, Needle Loop and Stitch.]

A course is any number of loops lying side by side in a line crosswise
of the fabric, as indicated along dotted lines _a_, _a_, Figs. 2 and 3.

A wale is any number of loops in a line succeeding one another
lengthwise of the fabric, as indicated along dotted lines _b_, _b_,
Figs. 2 and 3.

Crosswise of the fabric is the direction in which the yarn feeds while
the fabric is in the process of construction, forming loops adjoining
one another, or the same direction as the course. Lengthwise of the
fabric is the direction in which the fabric is built up by drawing one
loop through another, or the same direction as the wale. Therefore the
width of the fabric is restricted by the number of loops or needles used
as a base, while the length of the fabric has no restrictions other than
the supply of material or the will of the knitter. Rib is an alternative
expression for wale, but is applicable more particularly where the
fabric has a wale on both sides, in which case it is shown as a rib
fabric. Where a cloth has a wale on one side only it is known as a
jersey fabric, and is also sometimes called flat goods. Rib fabrics will
be taken up later for it is my purpose to deal only with jersey or flat
fabrics until the theory of knitting is thoroughly explained.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Wale and Course, Face.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Wale and Course, Back.]

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          A Study of the Loop

A study of the loop is very important to those who wish to acquire a
knowledge of knitting, for the whole construction of the knitted fabric
is from loops. In fact, knitted fabric is commonly referred to as looped

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Formation of Loops.]

Fig. 4 shows the position or form into which the yarn is drawn to form
the loops of a plain jersey or flat fabric. Fig. 5 shows a second course
of loops drawn through the first. Fig. 6 shows a third course. It is
quite evident that in order to draw each of these courses of loops
through the preceding one there must be something to sustain or hold the
preceding course of loops as well as the new loops during the period in
which the new ones are being drawn through. There must also be something
on which to start the first row or course of loops for, as stated
before, a loop cannot be made without something of stability to draw it

It is very important that the reader get firmly fixed in his mind the
curves of the loops and the most simple methods of forming them, as he
can then more readily understand the necessary movements made on a
machine. For this reason I will first take up the most primitive method
of knitting; i.e., hand knitting.

                    Simplest Method of Forming Loops

The needles used for hand knitting are straight rods of steel, wood,
bone or celluloid. Not less than two of these needles must be used as
indicated in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. To start we take the yarn and make a
small slip knot or noose, with which we are all familiar, slip one
needle through the loop thus made and draw the yarn up so that it fits
around the needle loosely.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Forming Loops by Hand, First Step.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Forming Loops by Hand, Second Step.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Forming Loops by Hand, Completed.]

We now have the cornerstone laid. Holding this needle in the left hand
with the fore-finger bearing lightly on the loop, we take the other
needle in the right hand and slip it through the loop as in Fig. 7, next
draw the yarn over the end of the right hand needle as shown, then draw
this needle back to the point where it will pass the left side of the
loop on the right hand needle, but not far enough to allow the yarn that
was placed over the end to drop off. Then we draw this yarn through as
indicated in Fig. 8, and we will have the second loop.

At this point in the building up of the fabric we would slip the
previous loop off the left hand needle and let it hang on the newly
formed loop on the right hand needle, as in Fig. 9, but as we are not as
yet building, but only laying the foundation, we slip this new loop back
on the left hand needle, where we now have two loops. The next step is
to take the right hand needle, slip it through the second loop, and
proceed as with the first, then slip the third loop back on the left
hand needle. This procedure is repeated until there are sufficient loops
to make the fabric the width wanted. We now have our foundation on which
to build.

Figs, 7, 8 and 9 give a very clear illustration of the method of
building up the knit fabric by hand knitting after the first course. It
should be noted, however, that after the right hand needle has completed
the new course, and the last loop has been dropped off the left hand
needle, the right hand needle with its full number of loops is shifted
to the left hand and the empty needle then becomes the working needle in
the right hand.

This first course of stitches, it should be noted, has the needle loop
only, the sinker loop being tied in to form a base or edge from which to
start. Fig. 7 shows the first position to form the loops with two
needles. One full course is on the needle lettered _a_, while needle _b_
is thrust through the first loop of the last course and receiving yarn
to draw through a new loop.

Fig. 8 shows the new loop drawn through, while Fig. 9 shows the old or
preceding loop cast off from needle _a_ and hanging from the new loop on
needle _b_.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Crochet Stitch, Catching Thread.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Crochet Stitch, Drawing Stitch.]

Figs. 10 and 11 show the crochet stitch, which is taken up at this point
to show its similarity to the knitted loop and to explain the points of
difference. The illustrations show very plainly the method of forming
crochet loops and they also show that this stitch is simply a single
chain or wale of loops succeeding one another.

When crochet work is to be made into a fabric, the hooked needle is
pushed through the side of another loop at the point at which it is to
be joined, and the new loop is drawn through this old loop as well as
the one on the needle. There is never more than one loop used at a time
in making this work.

[Illustration: Back - _Fig. 12._ Face - _Fig. 13._ Jersey Fabric.]

In the knitted fabric the loops are laid side by side and there are a
sufficient number of loops being used at all times to make the width of
fabric desired. The wales are bound together by the yarn passing from
one loop to the next adjoining one, thereby forming the sinker loops
which have already been explained.

Figs. 12 and 13 are photographic reproductions of a piece of closely
knitted jersey or flat goods. The stitch formation in this cloth is
exactly the same as shown in the line drawings at Figs. 2 and 3.

It may be well to state here in passing, that all textile fibres have
more or less flexibility or resiliency, and while this characteristic is
infinitely small in any single fibre or hair, it is quite appreciable
when there are hundreds of fibres grouped together and twisted into a
yarn. This is the reason for the elasticity or stretch in knitted

It will be noticed in Fig. 2 that in forming the loops the curvature or
bend of the thread is gradual and uniform. When this yarn is knitted
into fabric and both top or needle loop, and bottom or sinker loop are
attached to or drawn through other and like loops, and we pull or
stretch the fabric, we draw sharp curves or corners in the yarn where it
passes around the preceding and succeeding loops. When we let go or take
the strain off the fabric, the natural tendency of the fibre to
straighten out or take an easier curve brings the fabric back into its
original position.

I would suggest that the reader take any straight piece of yarn, worsted
if available, form a loop, and hold it between the thumb and finger of
one hand, then press the loop together with the thumb and finger of the
other hand and demonstrate for himself this characteristic of textile


                               CHAPTER II


ALTHOUGH what is known as the spring beard needle was a part of the
original invention of the knitting machine, and was in use more than 200
years before the latch needle was invented, I am taking up the latch
needle machine first for two reasons. First, because the latch needle
type of machine is most largely used and is more popular in this country
today than any other type; and second, because I believe it can be more
easily understood by a person who is not familiar with machine knitting.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Latch Needles.]

In machine knitting of every kind there must be a needle for every loop,
and therein lies the fundamental difference between machine and hand
knitting. Latch needles, however, are constructed entirely different
from the straight plain hand needles. Fig. 14 shows the construction of
the latch needle. It will be noted by looking at the latches on the
three needles that they swing freely on a pin or rivet lengthwise of the
needle, but have no movement sidewise.

                         Types of Latch Needle

The hook, latch, rivet, cheek, throat and stem are substantially the
same except in size in all latch needles, but the balance of the needle
may and does vary in shape to a marked degree in the various types and
makes of machines. Fig. 15 shows many of the different types of butts
and shanks made, as well as the variation in the sizes of the hooks and
the thickness of the needles, but it should be understood that the type
of the butt and shank has no bearing on the size of the hook and stem,
as each type is made in the various sizes and is governed only by the
size of the yarn to be used.

Fig. 16 is a very important illustration and the reader should study it
well and mentally digest every position of the needles, for here is
shown a complete cycle of the movements necessary to make the knitted
loop on a latch needle machine of the type in which the needles slide
back and forth, lengthwise of the needle, in what are called tricks, or
more commonly expressed, slots. Probably 95 per cent. or more of the
latch needle machines in use today are of the type in which the needle
slides back and forth in slots in the operation of forming the loops.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Some of the Various Types of Latch Needles.]

                    Explanation of Lamb Type Machine

A study of Fig. 16 should be made in connection with the photographic
reproductions, Figs. 17 and 18. Fig. 18 shows substantially the whole
knitting machine, while Fig. 17 is a close-up view of that part of the
machine which actually does the knitting. Fig. 16 shows the principle
used to operate the needles.

This type of machine was invented in 1863 by Isaac W. Lamb, a clergyman,
and was made possible only by the invention of the latch needle in
England about 1847. It is very simple in construction in the plain
models and is the most versatile of all the knitting machines, it being
possible to make on it a larger variety of stitches and articles of
apparel than on any other machine. It is known as the flat or Lamb type
of machine.

It has two flat or straight horizontal plates or beds about one-half
inch thick by 6 inches wide, the length of which varies from 6 inches or
less to 60 inches or more, according to the width of fabric it is
designed to make. These plates are set in a frame, parallel to each
other lengthwise, and at an angle of about 90 degrees to each other and
45 degrees to the horizontal. See Figs. 16, 17 and 20.

All flat machines of this type have two needle plates, but for our
purpose of knitting jersey fabric we need but one, therefore we will
imagine that there are two in Fig. 16 but the back one having no needles
in it cannot do any knitting. The needles, as will be noted in Fig. 16,
are placed in tricks or slots of which there may be any number from 2½
up to 18 in one inch, according to the size of the yarn to be used. The
needles should fit in the slots close enough so that they will not have
any chance to tip sidewise, yet they must move easily endwise. The gib
_c_, _c_, is for holding the needles in the plate, and of course is
removed by drawing out endwise when a needle is to be put in or taken
out of the plate. The plate is secured in a frame indicated by the
letter _n_ in Fig. 16, and the frame is attached to a stationary stand
or table.

The cams _a_-1, _a_-2 and _a_-3 are attached to the carriage _b_, _b_,
_b_, _b_, Fig, 17, at a point just below _a_-1, _a_-2 and _a_-3 and the
carriage, together with the cams, rests and slides freely back and forth
on the ways _c_, _c_, while the plate and needles remain stationary. The
cams are secured to the carriage in a position so that they come very
close to the needle plates. They should be set as close as possible and
not rub the plate as they are moved back and forth.

It may be well to explain here that a cam in any machine is a piece of
hardened steel of the proper shape and construction to cause some other
part of the machine to make the proper movements to perform its
functions. In this instance they actuate the needles by coming in
contact with the butts.

It will be noted that each one of the needles from _e_ to _e_, Fig. 16,
has a loop in the hook except from the point where they are rising over
the cam _a_-3, and on these the loops rest on the shank. It should be
understood that the fabric back of the needle plate has a weight on it,
thereby giving to each loop a downward pull. The fabric and weights may
be seen in Fig. 18.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Principle Used to Form Loops on a Machine.]

Now bear in mind that the cams _a_-1, _a_-2 and _a_-3, Fig. 16, are
attached to the carriage _b_, _b_, _b_, _b_, Fig. 17, at points
underneath _a_-1, _a_-2 and _a_-3. These cams are moving from right to
left and as the lower left hand corner of _a_-3 is below the line of the
butts of the needles from _e_ to _e_, they, the needles, must of
necessity slide upward in the slots along the edge of this cam. When
they get to the top it will be noted that the latches of the needles are
above and clear of the loops. As the cams move farther along, the cam
_a_-2 comes in contact with the butts and slides them down again. As the
needles move downward the hooks catch the thread _i_ which lies in their
path, and as at _l_ the stitch that is on the needle closes the latch as
the needle slides downward. As the needle moves farther down the hook
draws a new loop through the old one, while the latch closing up the
hook allows the old loop to slip over the end (needle _m_), and the pull
of the fabric draws it down on to the new loop.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Top Side of Carriage, Over Cams.]

The thin portions of the needle plate indicated by the letter _h_ in
Fig. 16, which extend upwards, are called jacks and these hold that part
of the stitch called sinker loops while the needle is drawing through
the new needle loop.

Below each needle is a U-shaped spring, _j_, _j_, and _k_, _k_, Fig. 16,
which holds the needles up in the working position. They extend down to
and around the bottom of the plate and up against the under side of the
plate. The end that is under the plate is a little longer than the end
that slides up in the slot below the needle. These U-springs are made so
that before they are put in their places on the plate, the ends come
together, so when they are spread and pushed on to the plate they act as
a clamp to hold the needles in position. They are not attached to the
needles, but simply clamp the plate with tension enough to hold them up
or down, as the case may be, and the bottom end of the needles rests on
them. This construction leaves the knitter in a position to pull d own
out of working position as many needles as he may wish, therefore he may
make his fabric any desired width by pulling needles down out of the
working line or pushing them up into the working line, thereby adding to
or taking away stitches.

The letter _d_ in Fig. 17 designates the yarn carrier through which the
yarn passes, and which guides the yarn along the path of the hooks of
the needles. After having moved the carriage clear across the working
needles, and finishing a course of loops, the carriage is moved back in
the opposite direction and another course is put on. This is done in
exactly the same way except that the cams must necessarily push or slide
the needles up and down on the opposite sides of the cams: i.e., the
butts slide up on the right hand side of the V-cam or cam _a_-3 in Fig.
16 and down the right hand side of cam _a_-1, or stitch cam. This
operation is continued until the fabric is of the desired length.

Needles are operated at a rate of speed that would make 500 or more
stitches per minute per needle if the machine would keep them in
continuous operation, but in practical work they make from 50 to 200
stitches per minute according to the size of the machine as more time is
consumed as a rule in the movements of the machine between the stitches
than is used in the actual knitting operation. On account of this speed
of operation the latches of the needles must be under control at all
points in the cycle of knitting; that is, from _f_ to _g_ in Fig. 16.

                           Control of Latches

It will be noted that needle _o_ in Fig. 16 has just started to rise and
the stitch that was in the hook has opened the latch and still has it
under control. When this needle gets up to the position of needle _p_ it
has passed the point where the stitch can control the latch, therefore,
other means must be provided or it would be very liable to fly up and
close the hook, in which case it would be impossible for the hook to
catch the yarn for the next stitch. When this happens we have what is
called a drop stitch, and after the yarn had passed there would be no
stitch on the needle.

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Flat Latch Needle Machine.]

To provide against this there is used in this type of machine a long
narrow thin bristle brush set over the needles and at the proper angle
and distance to just clear the latches. This brush is shown in Fig. 19.
The letter a indicates the brush alone, and at _b_ is shown the brush in
the fixture which carries it. The letter _c_ indicates the brush
carrier. Fig. 20 is a view looking down from above the machine and shows
the brushes, _a_ and _b_, set ready to operate in the machine. So as not
to confuse the reader I will say here that all previous illustrations
presenting this part of the machine have shown it with the brushes
removed in order to make clear the operation of the needles.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Latch Brushes. One Mounted in its Holding Clamp,
or Fixture.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Tubular Fabric Made on a Flat Machine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Position of Latch Brushes When on the Machine.]

A fabric made according to the foregoing explanations would be what is
known as a jersey fabric (see Figs. 12 and 13), but it would be a flat
piece of fabric when finished. Perhaps to make it plainer I should say
that if the fabric were laid out on a table it would be a single
thickness, and if it were to be made into a garment it would be
necessary to double it over and sew the edges together to make it
tubular, or in the form of a bag. If we wish to make the fabric tubular
on the machine to save the labor of seaming it, and also prevent the
unsightly seam, it would be necessary to use the needles in both plates,
front and back. The cams would then be set by means provided, which will
be explained later, so that when the carriage is moved in one direction,
say from left to right, the front cams will operate the front needles
and the back cams will be put out of operation; and when the carriage is
moved from right to left, the back cams will operate the back needles
and the front cams will be put out of work.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Jersey Fabric Made on a Machine With 24 Needles
to One Inch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Jersey Fabric Made on a Machine With 2½ Needles
to One Inch.]

By continuing the operation of the machine in this manner of having only
the front cams operate while moving the carriage in one direction, and
only the back cams operate when the carriage is moved in the opposite
direction, there would be produced a tubular fabric as shown in Fig. 21.
The yarn must of a necessity go across from front needles to back ones,
and from back ones to front ones each time the direction of the movement
of the carriage is changed, thereby closing up both sides of the fabric.

                         Range of Jersey Fabric

The jersey type of fabric is very popular with the consuming public and
is used for quite a wide range of garments in many different weights and
materials. Milady may easily be dressed throughout, with the exception
of shoes, in jersey cloth, and still be up to the minute with her
clothes. She may have on silk stockings which are made with the jersey
stitch. Her underwear, most surely is made of silk jersey fabric. Then
she may wear a tricolet waist, which is silk jersey fabric, with a
worsted jersey cloth suit. Also she might easily have her fall and
winter coat made from the heavyweight fulled jersey cloth, and carry a
heavy Shaker sweater, which is also the jersey stitch, on her motor
trips into the country.

It is a far cry from the finest and lightest to the heaviest and
coarsest in jersey cloth. Figs. 22 and 23 show two extremes. Fig. 22 is
a sample of fine fabric and has 32 stitches to one inch; while Fig. 23
is used for what is known as the Shaker sweater and has 3½ stitches to
one inch. Between these come men’s balbriggan underwear and the flat
woolen underwear, the jersey bathing suits, tricolet, and the fulled
jersey cloth for ladies’ suits and coats, etc. This stitch is also the
basic one for medium priced knit neckties, as well as knit mittens and
gloves, except the very lightest and thinnest.


                              CHAPTER III


THERE are numerous conflicting expressions or terms used in the knit
goods industry, and one of the most common of these is the term “flat
goods.” In the older underwear sections, where the circular machine was
used exclusively and the flat machine was practically unknown, the term
flat goods indicated underwear fabric made tubular in the jersey stitch
on circular spring needle machines, as distinguished from tubular rib
fabric made on latch needle machines. At present, in the localities
where mills are using both the circular and flat straight needle bed
machines, it is generally understood that a flat fabric is a fabric of
single thickness made on a flat machine, regardless of the stitch, and
any fabric made on a circular machine is known as a tubular fabric. If
the stitch should be specified it is mentioned separately.

This latter custom appears to me to be the more logical; therefore, when
these terms are used hereafter in this work it should be understood that
flat fabric means cloth of a single thickness made on a flat machine, or
a tubular fabric cut open so it will lie out flat. The “flat goods” of
the old time knitters will be called jersey cloth or fabric.

We will now leave the jersey fabrics for a time, as the making of the
tuck stitch and plated work in the jersey stitch are more or less
complicated and had better be left until we take up fancy stitches and
designs on circular latch needle machines. The tuck stitch is never used
in the jersey fabrics on flat machines.

                              Rib Fabrics

A rib fabric is one which has a rib or wale on both sides of the cloth.
It has much more stretch or elasticity than cloth of the jersey group;
about twice as much, generally speaking. The elasticity of either one,
however, may be varied to a marked degree by changing the length of loop

Rib fabric is peculiarly adapted for such garments or parts of garments
as should be close fitting, such as ladies’ undergarments, cuffs for all
kinds of knitted garments, tops of half hose, etc. Fig. 24 shows very
clearly the course the yarn takes to form this stitch. It would be well
to study this drawing in connection with Figs. 2 and 3 and note
carefully the different course the yarn takes in order to form a wale on
both sides of the fabric. A photographic reproduction of a plain rib
fabric showing both sides is given at _a_, _a_, in Fig. 25.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Construction of a Plain Rib Fabric.]

A properly constructed plain 1 and 1 rib fabric, such as is shown in
Fig. 24, should be alike on both sides. Very often this is not the case.
A little carelessness on the part of the adjuster in not drawing the
stitch the same length on both sides will make a difference on the flat
machines, while it is impossible to make them the same on an ordinary
circular machine on account of the principles of construction of this

Fig. 26 is a view of a flat machine making the rib stitch, looking down
from above. It almost fully explains the method of making this stitch to
those who have carefully read and understand the principles of making
the jersey stitch. In this illustration the carriage is moving from
right to left, and both front and back cams are in operation, therefore
both front and back needles are working.

It should be noted that the back plate is set so that the needles of
that plate come up at a point in the middle of the spaces between the
needles of the front plate. The cams, front and back, being made exactly
alike and set exactly opposite one another, must push the needles of
both plates up at the same time and draw them down at the same time.
When we feed the yarn, indicated by the letter _a_ in Fig. 26, down
through the guide, _b_, it is drawn into loops from both sides
alternately, as shown at _c_, by the opposite sets of needles, thereby
making stitches, or ribs, or wales, on both sides of the fabric. This is
the plain 1 and 1 rib stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Face and Back of Fabric; a, a, Plain Rib; b, c,
Half Cardigan; d, d, Full Cardigan.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Flat Knitting Machine Making the Rib Stitch.]

                            Varieties of Rib

This stitch, by distortion, or by manipulation of the yarns or needles,
or by a combination of two or all three of these things, can produce a
number of fabrics different both in appearance and feel. To enumerate
the principal ones, there are the half cardigan or tuck stitch, also
sometimes called royal rib; the full cardigan, and the rack stitch with
the rack on one side of the fabric and the double rack which shows the
rack on both sides of the fabric. Then there is the zig-zag stitch,
which is quite simple to make but is quite a puzzle to those not
familiar with it. There is also the cotton back, which is a well known
and popular fabric in the sweater trade.

Then there are many varieties of ribs made either in plain or in
combination with one or more of the above by taking needles out of the
machine at predetermined places, or by the Jacquard system of selecting
needles. There is also the system of making designs by the cut pressers
and pattern wheels, which is used on circular machines only.

                      Half Cardigan or Tuck Stitch

The half cardigan or tuck stitch is used more than any other of the
ribbed group, though it is generally used in combination with the plain
rib. The body and sleeves of the ordinary rib sweater, and much of the
rib underwear produced, are made in this stitch while the cuffs are
plain rib. The reason for this is that the half cardigan rib will knit
up considerably wider, with the same number of needles, than the plain
rib, therefore it is possible to make a shaped garment without cutting
and sewing up again. Also the plain rib comes out lighter and thinner so
makes a more desirable cuff for sweaters and underwear. It also has more
life or spring to it, which is another desirable feature.

The half cardigan or tuck stitch is the one that is almost invariably
used in making the well known cotton back sweaters. It is believed by
many people who are familiar with this fabric that the back stitch of
cotton does not come through on the face, but in this they are mistaken.
The face stitch does not go through on the back, but the back yarn does
go through on the face.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Construction of a Half Cardigan Rib Fabric.]

Fig. 27 is a line drawing showing the course the yarn takes in making
this stitch and a careful examination of it will demonstrate to the
reader that this is the case. The dotted line _e_, _e_, indicates the
wale on the face and _f_, _f_, shows the wale on the back. It will be
noted that the back stitches of yarn come through to the face of the
fabric and connect the preceding and succeeding stitches, _c_, _c_, the
same as in the plain rib, but there is this difference, in the plain rib
these face stitches are, or should be, just the same length, while in
the half cardigan, on account of the back stitch of this course holding
over for one course, it necessarily draws a longer stitch in the back
and the yarn for this long stitch must come from the face stitch,
thereby making this face stitch very short.

In the drawing the stitches are not proportioned just as they lie in the
actual fabric, for if they were it would be very difficult to trace
their course. In the fabric the stitches _b_, _b_ are so short that they
are almost completely covered by the large, full, round stitches, _c_,
_c_, _c_. These stitches are full and large from the fact that where
they go through to the back they do not form a loop but simply cross
over the back loop as at _d_, without being drawn through. These are
completely covered by the loops _a_, _a_, in the back wale.

              How the Half Cardigan or Tuck Stitch Is Made

The diagram at Fig. 28 shows the method used to make the half cardigan
or tuck stitch on a flat machine. The cams shown are what are known as
the Lamb system and are called the automatic cardigan or drop locks. The
word “locks,” as applied to the flat knitting machine, means a full set
of cams attached to the cam plates ready to affix to the carriage. There
are a number of different systems of constructing these locks, but the
one selected is the most simple of all and for this reason is used for
illustration first. The others will be taken up at the proper place.

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Automatic Locks for Making Half or Full Cardigan

In Fig. 28 only a part of the needle plates are shown. They are attached
to a frame at an angle of 90° to each other and 45° to the horizontal as
explained before. The cams are shown in working position with the
carriage (to which they are attached when in use) removed. As indicated
by the thread _h_, they are being moved toward the far end.

It should be noted that the automatic drop V-cams _a_, _a_, are in
different positions. These cams are made so that they swing freely on
the pivots _b_, _b_, and the swing is inside of the limits of the
positions of the two cams in the drawing. It is controlled by pins on
the top side of the swinging ends, the pins coming through a slot of the
proper length in the cam plate to stop them at the right place.

When starting to move these locks from the near end toward the far end,
the cam _a_, on the left, might be in any position within the limits of
the before mentioned slot in the cam plate, but the instant it comes in
contact with the butts of the needles it is automatically forced to the
position shown.

In making the half cardigan stitch the right hand cam is held up to the
top, as shown, at all times by means provided. This position forces the
needles high enough so that the latches are above and clear of the loop
that is on the needle, therefore when the needles are drawn down again
by the cam _f_, they draw new loops and cast the old ones off over the
latch and hook, and they drop down on the new loop, just as explained in
describing how to make the plain rib. This refers only to the needles in
the right plate.

The cam _a_, on the left side, however, having been swung down to its
lowest position by contact with the needle butts, raises the needles
only about one-half of the normal distance. Or to put it differently,
the needles raise high enough to open the latches and catch the yarn
when being drawn down again, but not high enough to permit the loop that
is on the needle to slide down below the latch. Therefore, after the
completion of the course we have the right side with the new loop drawn
through the old one as in plain rib, but the left side still retains the
old or previous loop and also the new one as at _j_. This leaves two
loops on every needle on the left side and one on the right when the
course is completed.

On the return course, from the far end to the near end, when the point
_i_ of the left cam, _a_, comes in contact with the first needle it must
swing up in the same position as the right cam, _a_, therefore all the
needles will draw the new loop through the two preceding ones and clear
themselves, leaving only one loop on each needle as in the plain rib.

On the next course, from the near end to the far end, the left hand
needles again hold the old loop and take on a new one as just explained,
while the right hand needles cast off the old ones and hold only the new

To condense the operation into a few words let us say that the left hand
needles always must hold the two stitches while moving in one direction,
and clear them off and hold only one on the return course; while the
right hand needles always cast off the old stitch and hold the new ones
only. The right hand needles would make the face side of the fabric.

The writer has made a special effort to explain the formation of this
particular stitch, and the reader should make the same effort to get
this formation clear in his mind, for this stitch is the base of almost
all of the fancy stitches or design work which will be taken up later.
The system used in design work is of course entirely different from the
one just described, being what might be called a selective system, that
is, a method whereby the designer may select the proper needles at the
proper time and place to make the tuck stitches block out the design

Fig. 25, at band _c_, shows the tuck or half cardigan stitch; _b_ is the
face and _c_ is the back. If studied carefully the reader will notice
that the face side, _b_, has a full round stitch, while _c_, or the back
of the fabric, has a small narrow stitch.

                        The Full Cardigan Stitch

The full cardigan stitch is not nearly so generally used as the half
cardigan and plain rib stitches. It is seldom if ever used in making
underwear or any fine fabrics. When it is made it is usually used for
sweater fabrics or other novelty wearing apparel of this character.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Construction of a Full Cardigan Fabric.]

A line drawing of the full cardigan stitch is shown in Fig. 29. This
stitch, as its name would indicate, is made in the same way as the half
cardigan only the stitches are held alternately on both rows of needles
on alternate courses. Referring again to Fig. 28, in making the full
cardigan stitch the cams would operate exactly the same while moving
toward the far end as shown and explained for the half cardigan. But the
means provided to hold the right hand cam, _a_, at the top position
would have been removed, so that on the return from the far to the near
end this cam would be thrown down to the same position as the left hand
cam, _a_, is shown, while this left hand cam would be forced up into the
position in which the right hand cam is now shown. In other words, the
stitch would be the same with the carriage or cams moving in either
direction, only it would alternate on each course from one row of
needles to the other.

We will refer back to Fig. 25, which shows both sides of a piece of
fabric with the three stitches we have just discussed in one piece. This
shows quite plainly the individual characteristics of each. All have the
same number of needles or wales, the same yarn was used, on the same
machine; yet how different the results!

The most marked difference is in the width. There is proportionately the
same difference in the thickness, but this cannot very well be shown. It
should be observed that the stitch or loops of the plain rib _a_, _a_,
and the full cardigan _d_, _d_, are the same on both sides of the
fabric, while the stitches in the half cardigan, _b_ and _c_, are not.
It will be noted also that the stitch of the plain rib is much smaller
than that of the two cardigans, also that the wales or ribs hug very
close together in the plain rib, while they are separated more or less
in the cardigans.


                               CHAPTER IV


THE rack stitch is used on many sweaters for a border on the bottom,
also for a narrow strip on both sides of the shoulder seam, and a strip
at the place the stitch changes from half cardigan to plain for the
cuff. Many sweaters have the collar and the border down the front made
separately in the rack stitch and sewed on. Most of the designs in the
knitted neckties made on flat machines are based on the rack stitch.
Another very important use for this stitch is in making a smooth sightly
edge on the bottom of sweaters, the ends of cuffs, etc.

The rack stitch is always made on one of the cardigans. From this
statement the reader will realize that this stitch is not made in place
of the half or full cardigan, or any other stitch but is an addition to,
or a further development of these stitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Half Cardigan Stitch Ready to Rack.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Stitch After Plate Has Been Racked Over One

Fig. 30 shows a half cardigan stitch ready to rack, as it is customary
to make the one needle rack on this stitch. It should be noticed that
the racking is done on the course that holds, or does not cast the
previous stitch off on one side. Fig. 31 shows the stitch after the
plate has been racked over one needle. This illustration practically
explains the whole principle of the rack stitch. The rack will show on
the side that casts the stitches off the needles. It is customary to
hold the stitch or tuck on the back plate, therefore the rack shows on
the front side of the fabric, or the side toward the operator of the

                          Operation of Racking

It is understood, of course, that on a flat machine there must always be
an end needle on one plate or the other. Usually the knitter sets up his
machine with one plate carrying the end needle on one side of the work
and the other plate carrying the other end needle. Which end of the
respective plates carries this needle depends on the position of the
racking cam. In the illustration, Fig. 30, the front plate has the end
needle on the right and back plate has the end needle on the left. After
racking as in Fig. 31, these positions are reversed. It will be noted
that the front plate has been racked or moved over one needle so the
front needles will come up through and operate between the next two
needles to the left of their previous positions.

Or to explain it in a different way, in Fig. 30, before racking, the
front plate has the end needle on the right and operates outside of the
last needle in the back plate, but after racking, as in Fig. 31, this
end needle on the front plate has been shifted over so it comes up
inside the last needle in the back plate.

After racking over one needle there must be one full round or two
courses put on before racking again; that is while racking on the half
cardigan stitch, and then the plate is racked back to the first
position. This operation of racking first one way and then the other
with a round between each rack is continued until the necessary number
of racks are finished and then the operator proceeds with the plain half

This procedure would make a plain rack on one side of the fabric only.
We have assumed in this explanation that the back is stationary and the
front plate is the one that moves, but I wish to have it understood here
that it makes no difference which plate is stationary and which one
racks or is movable; the results are the same.

Some writers use the words shog or shogged in place of rack or racked,
but the writer of this work has avoided the use of these words as they
are seldom or never used by the practical knitter, at least not in this

                         The Racking Mechanism

In most of the modern flat machines the plate that racks has enough end
clearance to rack over at least two needles, and some of them as many as
four, though racking two needles is sufficient for all ordinary work.
Fig. 32 shows the method of racking or moving the plate to make the rack
stitch, or at least this is the principle used as a rule on the imported
machines, with some modifications by some makers. This also applies to
the method shown of attaching the plates to the frame.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. The Racking Cam, Ratchet and Studs.]

There is a large flat bottom hole, _c_, bored about half way through the
plate; through the bottom of this hole there is made an elongated hole,
_b_, through which the plate is attached to the frame by the shouldered
screw, _a_, the head of which is flush with the top of the plate. It
will readily be seen that with this method the plate cannot be moved in
any direction except lengthwise of the plate, or crosswise of the
needles. To secure this movement at will there is a steel strap, _d_,
attached to the under side of the plate by the screws _j_ and _k_, and
through the outside end of this strap there are two elongated holes
through which are attached two shouldered studs with nuts _e_ and _f_.
These studs extend down on both sides of the steps of the racking cam,
_g_, and together with the plate are moved back and forth by the steps
on the racking cam. The cam is moved by the handle, _i_, in the hand
machines, or by the ratchet, _h_, being operated by pawls or dogs in
power machines.

The letter _h_ shows a front elevation of the ratchet, while _i_ is a
side view. It will be noted that there are only three teeth on each
side, and these two groups are opposed one to the other. If the reader
will examine the racking cam, _g_, with due thought the reason for this
will be obvious. There are three steps on the cam and the cam must have
an oscillating movement and not a rotary one. The ratchet, _h_, and the
racking cam, _g_, are both attached securely to one hub, therefore must
move together on a stud which projects from the end of the frame.

The plate as illustrated in Fig. 32, sets at the limit of its movement
to the left, consequently any racking that is to be done must move the
plate to the right, therefore the pawl at the top of the ratchet would
engage the uppermost tooth, _q_, and turning the ratchet one tooth would
move the racking cam one step, thus moving the plate over one needle
through its contact with the studs, _e_ and _f_. There are two pawls,
upper and lower, arranged to engage the teeth on the ratchet either at
the top or the bottom as required. If we wanted a one-needle rack only,
after putting on one round of stitches we would have the lower pawl
engage the tooth, _n_, of the ratchet and move the racking cam back to
its first position. If, however, we wanted a two-needle rack, the upper
pawl would engage the second tooth, _o_, of the ratchet. For three racks
it would then engage the next tooth, _m_, after which it would be
necessary to start on the return to the first position, remembering to
put on one course or one round, as the case may be, of stitches between
each rack. If racking on the half cardigan stitch there should be one
full round between the racks, but if on the full cardigan the racking
may be done every half round or every course, as will be explained

Fig. 33 is a photographic reproduction of a piece of fabric, face and
back, of a one-needle rack which shows on one side of the fabric only. A
fabric with the two-needle rack which would show on both sides of the
fabric is not illustrated, for it would be the same on both sides as the
face side of Fig. 33. A line drawing of the rack stitch is shown at Fig.
34. This is drawn out of proportion and is very loose and not like the
fabric, but by making it this way the direction the yarn takes may be
easily located.

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Face and Back of One-Needle Rack.]

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Position of Stitch After Racking.]

                           The Zig-Zag Stitch

Fig. 35 is an example of a fabric that may be made with a one-needle
rack. It is called the zig-zag stitch. To make this the machine should
be set to make the full cardigan stitch. After setting up the machine
and putting on one round, the needle plate is racked over one needle,
put on a course or half round and rack back one needle. Continue this
racking back and forth on each course for five rounds, then skip one
rack or put on one full round without racking and continue as before.
Repeat this operation of racking every course for five rounds and then
skip one rack and we have a zig-zag stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Zig-Zag Stitch.]

The points come where the rack is skipped, or in other words the
direction of the diagonal stitch will continue in the same direction as
long as the needle plate is racked every course without skipping, but
immediately one rack is missed the stitch starts diagonally in the other
direction. It is obvious from the foregoing explanation that the knitter
is not obliged to use any set number of courses between the change, but
may use any number at his discretion to get the distance desired between
the points.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       Shaped Collar for Sweaters

The peculiar characteristic of this stitch is utilized in making a
shaped collar for sweaters, as shown in Figs. 38 and 39. First let the
reader remember that the direction the diagonal stitch takes all depends
on which end of the machine the carriage is at when the racking
operation begins. It should be understood that the collars are made in a
long string and the three parts, as shown in Fig. 38, are duplicated one
after another. On either end, where this piece has been cut off, there
was a duplicate of the plain racked piece shown at the middle, and at
the end of these there was another diagonal piece, and so on from the
beginning to the end.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Shaped Collar for Sweaters as Knit.]

It should be clear to the reader that if the piece shown (Fig. 38) were
cut through on the broken lines we would have one complete collar and we
would have left the diagonal stitch that belongs on one end of each of
the two adjoining center pieces, therefore by cutting all the collars
apart at the point indicated by the line we would have our collars
shaped without any waste and would have a selvage or finished edge on
the outside.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Shaped Collar Folded.]

The collar is stitched or sewed on the neck opening of the sweater along
the cut edge and across the bottom of the racked center piece, and after
it is finished and the sweater coat buttoned up it folds over and looks
as shown in Fig. 39. As stated before this collar can be made on a
machine that racks over only one needle, but in that case the center
piece would be racked on one side only, therefore it is customary to
make these collars on a two needle rack machine with the middle portion
racked on both sides as will be noted in Fig. 39.

Making a rack on both sides of the fabric is very much like making the
diagonal stitch in the operation of the machine, even though the
resultant fabric is so radically different. It should be made with a
full cardigan stitch same as the zig-zag or diagonal, and the needle
plate must be racked every course or half round, but with this
difference: When making the diagonal stitch the needle plate is racked
over one needle and back again, while to rack both sides of the fabric
the needle plate is racked over two needles. This does not mean that the
knitter should rack over two needles at once, for this should never be
done, but rack over one needle, let us say to the right, then put on one
course and rack over the second needle to the right, put on one course
and rack one needle to the left, put on one course and rack the second
needle to the left. Or in other words, rack alternately two needles to
the right and left and put on one course or half round each time the
needle plate is racked one needle.

There is one other point that should be remembered in making this collar
and that is the manner of starting the diagonal stitch in the proper
direction after finishing in the middle portion. Each time this part is
finished the diagonal stitch should go in the opposite way from the
previous time, therefore when the one needle half round rack starts to
make this stitch the first rack should be made with the carriage on the
opposite side of the machine from which the previous one was started.

                    Opportunity for Varying Designs

Fig. 37 is an interesting example of what may be done with the
two-needle rack. Designs of this character require the removal or
pulling down out of operation of every other needle, therefore a machine
of any given cut, or needles per inch, would be in reality only half as
fine as cut and would necessitate the use of a heavier or larger yarn.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Basket Weave Design Made With the Rack.]

To make the fabric shown in Fig. 37 pull down or remove every other
needle in the front plate. Then pull down or remove every other needle
in the back plate for five needles, then leave two needles together and
remove every other needle for five more, leave two needles together and
continue as before until the full width of needles in working position
are as follows: Every other needle down out of working position in the
front plate, and every other one down in groups of five with two needles
together between these groups in the back plate.

We will find by this arrangement that when we rack the plate over one
needle, every second group of five needles in the back plate will rack
across a needle of the front plate, but the other groups will simply
move between the needles in the front plate, therefore will make a plain
half cardigan stitch only, while the other groups will make a rack
stitch. If this operation were continued in this way, racking one needle
only back and forth, we would get a fabric with vertical stripes of
alternating plain half cardigan and rack stitch. But if we rack back and
forth one needle each round for ten rounds, then rack over the second
needle and rack back and forth one needle in this position, we will find
that the groups of five needles that were racking in the first instance
are now making the plain half cardigan stitch, and the groups that were
at first making the plain are now racking.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Designs Made with Rack Stitch.]

An ingenious knitter can make an almost unlimited number of designs of
this character by different arrangements of his needles and a variation
of the timing of his racks. One thing which should be remembered is that
all racking should be done on the course that tucks or holds two
stitches when racking on the half cardigan. On the full cardigan both
courses are tucked, therefore it does not matter which one is racked,
only the side of the fabric on which the rack shows is dependent upon
which course the plate is racked.

The design shown in Fig. 36 at _a_ is simply a zig-zag stitch with three
needles taken out of the back plate at short intervals, giving these
places a piping effect. The fabric at _b_ is a plain one-needle rack
with the piping made in the same manner.


                               CHAPTER V


Our study of flat machines up to this point has dealt entirely with the
class known as the single lock machines, or those that have but one set
or pair of locks to do the knitting. There is another very popular type,
commonly known as the double-lock machine, which is, it might be said,
in a class by itself. This machine, as the name would indicate, has two
sets or pairs of locks mounted on the same carriage, and set as closely
together as they can be and work properly.

The double-lock machine has many advantages over the single-lock type,
the most important being that there can be made upon it a two-faced
fabric, that is, a fabric with each side faced with a different yarn,
either in color, quality or both. The popular “cotton back” sweater is
in this class. In making this class of fabric it is essential that the
two different yarns, to show out on the two faces of the fabric, go into
the fabric in alternate courses. Therefore, it is obvious that it would
not be practical to make this fabric on a single lock machine, for when
a course was finished the second yarn would be on the opposite end of
the machine from the locks and yarn carrier, and it would be necessary
to put on a full round, or two courses, in order to get back to that end
to exchange yarn carriers.

The double-lock machine overcomes this difficulty by taking both yarn
carriers across, one following the other, each on a pair of locks, each
time the carriage moves across the machine. It is evident from this that
every time the carriage is moved across the machine there are two
courses put on the fabric, instead of one as with the single-lock

                          Speed and Production

This point leads up to another advantage of the double-lock machine,
that is, increased production on account of putting on two courses with
each movement of the carriage across, as against one course with the
single-lock machine. The production would not be twice as much, as might
be supposed at first thought, for comparing two machines of the same
size, the single lock could be operated at a greater speed than the
double lock, but not approaching twice the speed. The reason for this is
that the locks of the double-lock machine must, of course, be
practically twice the length of the locks of the single-lock machine,
and inasmuch as the locks must move far enough at each end to be clear
of or past the needles, it is quite obvious that the double-lock
carriage must have a longer travel. Therefore, it takes longer to
complete one round of the carriage than the single-lock machine, to
maintain the same needle speed.

This brings us to another point that may as well be disposed of here,
and that is the speed of latch needle machines. Generally speaking, the
maximum speed of a latch needle machine, either flat or circular, is
governed by the needle speed; that is, the speed at which the cams raise
and lower the needles, and the thread velocity, which is of course
dependent on the needle speed.

                         Speed of Flat Machines

As a general rule, where the machine is in good condition and the yarn
of fairly good quality, a flat machine with a crank drive should be
operated at from 100 to 125 lineal feet per minute, and a chain drive
may be operated at from 125 to 150 lineal feet per minute. The reason
for this difference between the chain drive and the crank drive is that
with the crank drive the movement of the carriage across the machine is
not uniform throughout, its movement being faster in the center than at
either end, therefore we must regulate our speed so it will not be too
high at this point. On the other hand, the chain drive carries uniformly
throughout the movement of the carriage except for two or three inches
at the ends.

To explain what is meant by lineal feet per minute, let us assume that
we have a 20-inch machine, that is, there are 20 inches of needles. In
this case the carriage would have to travel about 30 inches on account
of the locks having to clear the needles at both ends, therefore a
movement of the carriage across and back, or one complete round, would
cover twice 30 inches or 60 inches, or 5 feet. Now if we intend to run
this machine at a speed of 120 lineal feet per minute, we would divide
120 feet by 5 feet, which would give us 24 rounds per minute, the speed
the machine should run.

I do not wish to be understood as giving this as a hard and fast rule
for the speed of machines, for there are many factors which enter into
the operation of knitting machinery which might make it desirable to
vary this speed. Some of these factors are the condition of the machine,
the experience of the operator, the character of the yarn, the class of
fabric, and sometimes the skill of the mechanic in charge of the

Going back to the two-faced fabric, this must be made on one of the two
cardigans. The “cotton backs” are usually made on the half cardigan,
while the fabrics with two different colored faces are made on the full
cardigan as a rule.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Dubied System of Double Locks.]

Fig. 40 shows a type of double lock used in a Dubied machine made in
Switzerland. The reader will understand from what has gone before that
this illustration shows the locks turned upside down, that is, if they
were in operation on a machine they would be turned over with the cams
close to the needle plates. It will be noted that the fundamentals are
the same as in the Lamb system previously described, but the method used
to change from the plain rib to the full or half cardigan, or vice
versa, is different.

In making a plain rib fabric the needle butts would follow the camway as
in the Lamb system, that is, if the carriage were being moved from left
to right the needle butts would follow the course up with cams 1_a_,
1_b_ and 1_c_ below, and 1, 1_s_, 8_s_ and 8 above. This explanation
would of course apply to all four sets of cams. The cams 1_b_, 2_b_,
3_b_ and 4_b_ have studs which project through the cam plate and there
are means provided to draw any one or all of these cams back through the
cam plate by these studs far enough so that the faces of the cams are
flush with the cam plate, and entirely out of operation.

The cams 1_c_, 2_c_, 3_c_ and 4_c_ are made to swing on the pivots,
_aa_, and are held down on cams, 1_a_ to 4_a_, in the position shown, by
springs. It should be particularly noticed that the cams just mentioned,
1_b_ to 4_b_, and 1_c_ to 4_c_, are exactly alike in the four sets of
locks, but their positions are reversed in the sets opposite. They are
placed in this way in order to facilitate the making of the cardigan

                      Making Half Cardigan Stitch

In the study of what follows it should be remembered that the
illustration at Fig. 40 shows the locks bottom up, therefore in actual
operation the lower set in the illustrations would be the back ones, and
the upper set the front ones.

In making the half cardigan stitch it is customary to have the tuck or
holdover stitch on the back plate; on the double-lock machine, where we
have two feeds, it is on the back feed, and the plain course is on the
locks that are leading. Therefore, to make a half cardigan stitch with
these locks we would simply raise cams 2_b_ and 3_b_ up through the cam
plate out of working position.

Now remembering that the cams 2_c_ and 3_c_ are free to swing up and
down on the pivots, _aa_, and are held down in their present position by
a small spring, it should be readily understood that in moving the
carriage from, let us say, left to right, the butts of the needles would
follow up the right side of cam 2_a_, and on up over 2_c_, therefore
would knit out on this course. But when these butts came to the second
set of locks they would move up the right side of cam 3_a_ until they
came to the upper right hand corner of this cam, and at this point, on
account of cam 3_b_ being up out of operation, they would move across
and raise up cam 3_c_ and pass under it. Cam 3_a_ not being high enough
to raise the needles to the point where the stitch would drop off the
latches, obviously the needles must hold the two stitches on this side
of these locks.

On the return of the carriage from right to left the operation of the
needles would be reversed, that is, they would pass up over cam 3_c_ and
knit out on the locks in the lead and pass under cam 2_c_.

To sum up the whole operation in a few words, to make a half cardigan
stitch we must alternate with the plain rib course and a course that
tucks or holds the previous stitch, as well as the new one on one side.
This half cardigan is the stitch used in making what is known as the
“cotton back” sweater and other such fabrics.

By having one yarn carrier threaded with cotton and one threaded with
wool or worsted, as the case may be, and changing these carriers at the
end of every course so as to keep the cotton always knitting at the cams
that are leading or making the plain stitch, the cotton alone will draw
through on the back of the fabric while the worsted or wool will
practically cover the face stitch of the cotton. This exchange of the
yarn carriers at the end of each course is done automatically by the
machine, therefore requires no attention by the operator.

                          Full Cardigan Stitch

To make the full cardigan stitch the procedure would be practically the
same as explained on the single-lock machine, as both pairs of these
locks would be tucking or holding on one side (opposite sides) on one
course, and each would reverse itself on the return course. The cams
1_b_, 2_b_, 3_b_ and 4_b_ would be lifted up out of operation. When this
is done the cams 1_c_, 2_c_, 3_c_ and 4_c_ would operate automatically
to give us this result. This is the stitch used as a rule to make the
two-faced fabrics, that is, to make the two sides of different colors.

In connection with this explanation the question may arise as to why the
half cardigan stitch is used in making a fabric with one side cotton and
the other side wool or worsted, and the full cardigan stitch used when
making the two sides of different colors. The answer to this is that the
half cardigan stitch makes the better fabric of the two for most
purposes on account of the face stitch being full and round, thereby
filling up the space between the wales. Inasmuch as the cotton stitch on
the face is very short, and the wool or worsted quite long, and both are
the same color, the cotton will show but very little, if any. On the
other hand, if two widely divergent colors were used, the face would not
show a solid color but would have more of a salt and pepper effect.

To go back to Fig. 40 it will be noted, as stated before, that while the
principle of these locks is the same as the Lamb system previously
explained, the construction is somewhat different. The stitch cams, 1,
8, 7, 6, 3 and 4 are shaped along the lines of a parallelogram, while
all the stitch cams in the Lamb system were triangular. Cams 3 and 4 are
made this shape to allow placing the triangular cam, 1_d_, in position
to act as a guard cam to prevent the butts of the needles from flying up
between after dropping off the ends of the stitch cams 3 and 4. Yet it
allows these stitch cams to be moved freely up and down through the
angular slot in the cam plate, which shows at the ends, in order to make
the stitch longer or shorter as the need may be. Cams 1 and 6 are made
this shape to allow placing back of them the triangular cams 9 and 10,
but these are for another purpose.

It sometimes happens that it is desirable to make a fabric with the
stitch so short that it would not cast the old stitch off over the end
of the needles with all the cams set high enough to make this short
stitch. When this is the case, cams 1 and 6 only would be moved up to a
point where they would not draw the new stitch through the previous one
on their respective courses, therefore would not use any yarn, while the
opposite cams 2 and 5 would draw a full stitch.

After the needles had passed these cams (2 and 5) the cams 9 and 10 on
their respective courses, having been set down to the proper position,
would draw the needles in this plate down to the point where the old
stitch would cast off, thereby completing that stitch without undue
strain on the yarn on account of the needles on the opposite side being
free to raise far enough to prevent it. Cam 11 acts as a guard cam for 7
and 8 and also is used on a short stitch to cast off for these two cams,
the same as 9 and 10 cast off for 1 and 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Plating Yarn Carrier.]

                        Yarn Carrier for Plating

Fig. 41 shows a yarn carrier used for plating on a flat machine. By
plating is meant where two threads of different quality, say worsted and
cotton, are used in the same course, and the worsted is laid in the
fabric so as to show on the outside and the cotton is in the middle. To
do this the worsted yarn, _d_, _d_, would pass through the center hole,
_b_, and the yarn _c_, _c_, passing through the crescent-shaped hole,
_a_, would be the cotton. It will be noted that the angular draw of the
yarn from the bottom of the guide into the needles will always keep the
yarns in the positions shown. When the end of the course is reached, and
the movement of the carriage is reversed, the cotton yarn _c_, _c_, will
swing around to the opposite end of the crescent-shaped hole, _a_, and
in this way will always be in the same relative position to the worsted
yarn _d_.


                               CHAPTER VI

                            FASHIONED GOODS

FASHIONED goods are garments which, while being knit on the machine, are
made the proper shape to fit the wearer.

If the garment to be fashioned is a sweater, the fashioning or shaping
to be done is the sleeve, the neck opening, the collar, and at times in
the better class of sweaters, the arm holes are narrowed back from the
lower part to the shoulder in order to shorten the shoulder length,
thereby insuring a better fit. When making underwear not only the
sleeves have to be shaped but the legs of the drawers are shaped also.
In the ladies’ high class fashioned underwear and tights the bust and
hips are shaped. Much of this class of work, with the exception of
hosiery, is made on the hand machines and involves much more labor, time
and skill, than where the work is knit in a straight piece and made the
proper shape by other means after being taken off the machine.

There are three advantages in fashioning the garments in the knitting
operation. First, there is a saving in material as there is no material
cut off in order to get the shape. This saving, however, would pay but a
small part of the extra labor involved. Second, fashioned goods make up
into better looking and as a rule better fitting garments than cut
goods. Third, on account of the edges being selvage, not cut and raw, it
is possible to join two edges so the place of joining will look much
like a wale in the fabric, thereby avoiding the unsightly seams of the
cut garment.

In fashioning of this character it is customary to set the machine up
and start at the widest part of the garment, if possible, so that in
getting the required shape the fabric will be made narrower instead of
wider, though this is not essential, as it is practical to widen the
fabric as well as to make it narrower.

                           The Narrowing Comb

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Narrowing Comb or Decker and Work Hook.]

The letter _a_ in Fig. 42 shows the instrument used for narrowing by
hand. It is called a decker or narrowing comb. It will be noted that it
consists of long slim points clamped in a handle, with an eye in the
free end of each point. There may be any desired number of points
clamped in the handle, the limit being only the width of the clamp, but
the usual number for this work is from three to five. These points must
be set at a distance from one another to correspond to the cut of the
machine on which they are to be used; that is, if the needle plates are
cut for six needles to one inch the spacing of the decker points must be
the same. I might add that these deckers are sometimes made by stamping
the whole decker, points and all, out of sheet steel, and sometimes by
soldering the round points on to a handle.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Set Up Comb.]

Perhaps the best way to explain the use of this decker is to give
directions for making a sleeve. First we must have a set up comb, shown
in Fig. 43, the use of which will be understood as we proceed. Then we
must have weights with which to hold the work down on the needles, for,
as stated before, in the operation of knitting there must always be
means provided to pull the fabric onto and away from the needles. These
weights are simply a stand made from a short iron rod about
three-sixteenths inch in diameter and about seven to eight inches long,
with a hook turned on one end, a small round iron disc attached to the
other, and a number of round iron weights slotted to the center to allow
the operator to slip them on or off the stand to secure the desired
pull. In fact, the stand and weights are a duplicate of the stand and
weights we see hanging on the end of the beam of a common platform

To make the sleeve we would put up the required number of needles for
the full width of the sleeve, let us say 100, and set the locks for half
cardigan stitch. We would then draw the yarn through the yarn guide and
down through the throat between the needle plates. Then we would move
the carriage across the machine to the opposite side, and we should find
that each needle had caught the yarn and drawn it back and forth across
the throat. We would now take our set up comb, illustrated in Fig. 43,
and push the points which project at the top up through the throat, from
underneath, until the upper ends are above the yarn, which has been
drawn back and forth across the throat, after which we push the wire,
shown just above the comb, through the eyes in the end of the points, as
indicated by the dotted line. Now we can pull the comb down on to the
yarn and the wire will rest on it. We then hang a weight in the center
hole at the bottom and are ready to proceed with the knitting.

                         Operation of Narrowing

The first thing we would do after hanging on our weights would be to
rack over one needle to give that end of the sleeve a smooth selvage
finish. We would now put on five rounds, after which we would begin to
narrow. Stopping the carriage on the left side of the machine, we would
take the decker and place the hooks of the three end needles, in the
back plate on the right, in the eyes of the three points of the decker,
draw the needles up until the stitch dropped down below the latch, then
push them down to their first position. We find that the stitches have
dropped off over the end and free of the needle on to our decker. We now
carry the stitches in toward the center one needle, hook on to these
three needles and pull them up through the stitches, being careful not
to pull them up so far that the stitches will drop down below the
latches. After this has been done we have the end needle without a
stitch and therefore pull it down where it is out of operation.

We go through this same performance on the front needle plate, right
side, then move the carriage over to the right and do the same with the
left side. It is obvious that when we have finished we shall have put
four needles out of operation, or what would count as two in the width
of the garment. We would repeat this after every five rounds for
twenty-five rounds, so at this point our sleeve would be ten needles
narrower than when we started, although we would have put out of
operation twenty needles in narrowing. It is customary to reckon only
with the needles of one plate, as the wales of one side only are counted
in the width of a rib fabric.

Shaping a garment in this manner leaves a selvage edge for joining,
consequently when the garment is finished the seams, when properly put
together, are small with an appearance much like a wale in the fabric.
They also have the same stretch or elasticity as the fabric.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Outline of Fashioned Sleeve.]

Fig. 44 is an outline of approximately the shape the sleeve should be
when finished and shows the direction of the wales and the places where
the ones doubled up terminate. This is shown on one side and edge only,
although the other side and edge would be the same.

It is understood, of course, that the sleeve is shown opened up flat,
and in being put on a garment would be doubled over and the edges joined
on the underside of the arm. To reduce the size from the forearm to the
wrist or cuff it is usual, in sweaters, to depend on the change to the
plain rib stitch, for as explained previously the plain rib will come
out much narrower than the half or full cardigan with the same number of
needles and the same yarn. In underwear and theatrical tights it is
customary to fashion down the forearm to the cuff.

Many knitters consider it good practice to reverse this formula in
fashioning; that is, to start at the cuff in order to have the rack
stitch on the end of the cuff to save the hand finishing. In this event
the narrowing operation as described would be reversed, or a widening

This is done by pulling up the three end needles and pushing them down
until the stitches drop off on to the decker, as in narrowing, but
instead of setting these stitches in towards the center we would push up
another needle and set them out one. This would leave the fourth needle
without a stitch, so we would pick up the previous stitch, which had
been cast off of what is now the fifth needle and raise it up and hook
it over the fourth. This is done with one point of the decker. After
having done this on both plates and on both sides of the sleeve, while
we would have pushed four needles up into operation, we would have
widened only two.

Where it is not considered an advantage to have the widening stitches
show, this operation may be expedited quite a little by using the hook
shown at _b_ in Fig. 42, which is a convenient size to handle, about
one-eighth inch in diameter by 6 inches long. By this method we push up
into operation the new needle and simply catch with the hook the
previous stitch cast off of the end needle and hook it on to the new
needle on the four corners as before described. It is best to do this
one needle at a time with a course between, taking the one on the plate
that contains the inside needle.


                              CHAPTER VII


THE term “automatic” as applied to this class of machine means that all
the changes are made automatically, as from plain stitch to half
cardigan or full cardigan, or vice versa, changing colors to make
striped work, making the rack stitch and back to plain rib, changing
from rib to tubular or jersey stitch, making the French rack, etc. All
these changes may be made at any predetermined place in the work without
any attention from the operator. The machines discussed up to this point
may be presumed to have been hand machines, that is, operated by manual
power. Therefore, all changes of the stitch, yarn, racking, etc., may be
done to advantage at the proper time and place by the operator as the
machine requires his whole attention anyway.

A prerequisite of an automatic machine is the operating of the machine
by other than manual power, therefore automatic machines are first of
all what are called power machines. This does not imply by any means
that all power machines are automatic, but rather that all automatic
machines are power machines.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Dubied Automatic Single Lock Machine.]

Fig. 45 shows an automatic single-lock machine built by Dubied & Co. in
Switzerland, designated as Type VD, which is a very good example of the
automatic machine. It is operated by the belt _A_, Fig. 46, which runs
it by a pulley of the clutch type which is located back of the machine.
The proper movement is conveyed to the carriage through a pair of
sprockets and chain as shown in Fig. 46, at _m_. The carriage is
connected to the driving chain at point _m_, by the connection rod _n_,
which obviously must follow the chain back and forth around the
sprockets. This arrangement gives the carriage a uniform movement during
the time it is operating the needles and is generally conceded as
superior to the crank system of driving.

The letter _G_, Fig. 45, indicates the lever for throwing in the clutch
to start the machine, and _F_ is the crank for turning the machine by
hand. This crank does not turn when the machine is run by power but
hangs in the position shown. The letter _S_ shows the main or
controlling chain and 1 and 2 indicate the racking chains. These will be
taken up in more detail later. Letter _B_ indicates an ingenious counter
arrangement for counting the rounds, which permits the use of very short
chains and will be explained in due course. _H_ and _K_ are yarn
carriers, of which there are five altogether. The others are on the back
and cannot be seen plainly. _T_ is the yoke or bridge which holds the
two sides of the carriage together. There is no physical connection
between the two sides of the carriage at the point where the locks are
attached, but the connection is made through extensions which can be
seen, and through this yoke.

On these machines the fabric is not held down by weights, hanging
thereon, as in the hand machines, but by what is called a take-up roller
which has means provided for adjustment to keep the desired strain on
the fabric at all times. The weights which are in plain view are to hold
the fabric up to and in close contact with the take-up roller through a
frame with a small roller on the fabric side of the frame and the
weights on the outside, which work on the lever and fulcrum principle.

An automatic machine must have a pattern chain of some kind or character
to operate its automatic functions. Means provided which will be
explained in what follows cause the desired change to be made at the
proper time and place. The machine under discussion has a main or
controlling chain made up from wire links which may be taken out or
added to at will, each link measuring about 6 inches crosswise of the
chain and about one-half inch lengthwise of the chain. This chain is
carried by a sprocket roller at the top and is held down on this roller
by its own weight, though there are guards over each end to keep it from
jumping off in case of emergency. This sprocket roller is turned the
distance of one full link by the carriage depressing the lever _J_, and
through this medium acting on the rocker shaft _I_ (Fig. 45) which
extends the length of the machine to the sprocket roller. The latter is
in turn moved the distance of one link by a pawl and ratchet.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Automatic Mechanism, Dubied Machine.]

In Fig. 46 we have a view of this main chain at _S_, with the levers on
which it acts shown at _a_ to _h_. These levers swing on a small shaft,
at the point where they appear to end, near the center of the machine.
Instead of ending there, each has an extension on the other side of this
shaft which extends at an angle and reaches quite close to the chain.
These levers, though only about three-eighths of an inch wide, are
arranged so the angular extensions underneath come in line laterally
with each other and crosswise of the chain, or lengthwise of the
machine, and they, together with the space between, cover practically
the whole width of the chain. These levers swing freely crosswise of the
machine, but are fixed lengthwise, therefore the positions of the upper
ends can be very easily moved toward the front or back of the machine,
but are stationary in the direction in which the carriage moves.

Keeping this in our mind, we will now refer to the main chain shown in
Fig. 46 at _S_. It will be noted that there are a number of studs
affixed to the chain which project up above the chain proper. These
studs may be put on at any desired spot and taken off at will. It is
quite obvious that if we fix a stud on this chain at a spot in line with
one of the levers, let us say at lever _a_, when the chain has moved
forward to the point where this stud comes under the angular extension
of the lever the position of the top of the lever would be changed. And
this new position would be fixed until the carriage has been moved to
the other end of the machine and turned the chain one more link. Then
the lower end of the lever will drop off the stud and be returned to its
former position by a spring.

It is essential that the reader get these explanations of the different
parts and their functions well fixed in his mind in order to understand
intelligently the relation of one to the other.

Fig. 47 is a drawing of the cams and cam plates, and Fig. 48 shows the
top of the carriage with the cams or locks mounted underneath. In the
Dubied machine this part of the carriage on which the locks are fixed is
detachable, and either side may be taken off separately, which
arrangement is very convenient at times. At the left of Fig. 48 will be
seen several slides, designated by small letters, which extend through
the locks at different points between the cam plate and the carriage
proper, and some on the top of the carriage. These are the essence of
the automatic control of the stitch forming mechanism. This principle is
followed in all automatic machines of this type, although the different
builders vary in the details of construction and in the methods of
moving these slides, as well as the manner of operating on the cams and
yarn carriers.

[Illustration: Fig. 47. Cam Arrangement of Dubied Single Lock Machine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Top Side of Carriage Directly Over Locks or
Cams, Dubied Single Lock Machine.]

These slides make the proper cam or yarn guide changes by being pushed
in or pulled out, as the case may be, and this is done by the levers
indicated by the letters _a_ to _i_, Fig. 46. Each slide is provided
with a flat spot or shoulder, as indicated at _m_ and _o_, Fig. 48,
which pushes them in upon coming in contact with the proper lever as the
carriage reaches the extreme left end and is clear of the needles. In
order to have these slides moved in just the proper distance there are
projections from the carriage underneath the slides with beveled ends,
part of which may be seen in Fig. 48 at _k_ and _i_, which push the
levers off the before-mentioned shoulders and release the slides at just
the proper time. To explain the drawing out of these slides, it will be
noted that each slide has an enlarged part or head and all have at least
one right angled shoulder on the inside of the head; some have two.

It will also be noted that each one has under it a guard or extension
from the carriage, which is fixed to the carriage and is stationary, as
_e_ and _p_. This extension also has an enlarged part or head on the
outer end, but it is different from the heads on the levers in one
respect, this head has sloping shoulders on both ends instead of the
right angled shoulders that are on the inside head of the slides. Where
a fixed guard or extension has a sloping shoulder on both sides (not
ends) they will be found to be at different distances from the carriage.

The right angled shouldered heads on the slides are made in this way so
that when the proper lever (Fig. 46) is placed in its path, which is
done by the studs attached to the main chain _S_, it will slide over the
head and drop in back of the shoulder as the carriage moves to the left,
and when the carriage moves to the right the lever catches on the
shoulder and draws it out until the lever is released by being pushed
out by the sloping shoulder of the extension underneath. When the fixed
extension has a sloping shoulder on both sides at different distances
from the carriage proper it will be found that the slide also has a
right angled shoulder on both sides. This indicates that this slide may
be moved to any one of three different positions, therefore has a choice
of three different functions it may perform in the automatic changes.

                            Changing Stitch

To make the changes from plain rib to half or full cardigan, or to plain
jersey, etc., the slides have inclined planes under the cam plates and
these engage notches or pins on studs extending through from the cams
and by this means raise the cams up into the cam plate out of action, or
let them down into action as the case may be. The illustration, Fig. 47,
shows them all down in the proper position to make the plain rib or cuff

To change to half cardigan stitch it would be necessary to raise cam
3_b_ up out of operation, which is done by slide _n_. Fig. 48, which in
turn is moved to the proper position to accomplish this by the lever
_h_, Fig. 46. This slide has three different positions, therefore three
different functions to perform in the automatic changes, which are
accomplished as follows: To make a half cardigan stitch a low stud
(there are three heights, low, medium and high) should be placed so it
will come under lever _h_. When this takes place the top end of this
lever is moved to the position where it would engage the upper shoulder
of slide _n_, and on the return of the carriage it would draw this slide
out to its farthest point, or until it is pushed off the shoulder by the
taper on that side of the guard or extension _p_. When the slide is
moved to this position it raises up and holds out of operation cam 3_b_,
thus causing the machine to make the half cardigan stitch. This should
be readily understood from what has gone before.

To change to plain rib stitch place a medium stud under the same lever
(_h_) and its top position will be changed to where it will push the
slide clear in as the carriage moves to the left. On the return movement
the lever will engage the shoulder on the opposite side and draw it out
until released by the guard as before. This releases cam 3_b_, which
drops down into working position. The fact that the sloping shoulders on
each side of the stationary guards are at different distances from the
carriage causes this slide, _n_, to be left in different positions
according to which side the lever _h_ engages it.

In the third change, which makes the French rack or false knop stitches,
it is necessary to raise up out of operation the cams 3_b_ and 3_c_. To
do this a high stud should be placed to come under the same lever (_h_),
which would then be moved to a position where it would come in contact
with the shoulder _v_ (which is a part of the slide _n_) and would push
the slide in until disengaged by another sloping guard which cannot be
seen. When the lever drops back on to the chain without any studs under
it it is clear of all slides; therefore will make no changes. The other
slides are moved in the same way as the one just explained, but each one
has the part, which make? the changes, constructed in such a manner that
it will operate that particular member of the locks for which it is

                       Changing the Yarn Carriers

There is one other change that is made by these levers and slides
besides the changes in the stitch, and that is changing the yarn
carriers to make stripes of different colors. This is done, not by
changing the yarn in the yarn carriers as one might imagine, but by
providing a carrier for each yarn needed and then changing the carriers.
These carriers are shown at letter _k_, in Fig. 46. They are not fixed
to the carriage but are attached to a block which slides back and forth
on ways or gibs which are shown at 1, 2, 3 and 4, and reach the length
of the machine. The gibs are undercut on a bevel on both edges and the
block is undercut in the same way, so they dovetail together to keep the
block from lifting off, yet are free to slide back and forth on the gib.
These blocks have a depression or are cut out on the upper edge with a
square shoulder at each end of the cut out, and the carrier is moved
back and forth by a plunger which is attached to the carriage and
engages these shoulders.

In Fig. 47, at letter _x_, are shown the plungers, and Fig. 48, letter
_x_, shows them placed in the block and attached to the carriage. These
plungers are set to pick up the desired yarn carrier by the slide, _i_,
on the front, and slide, _z_, on the back. (Fig. 48.)

                             Racking Chains

We will leave the slides and levers for the present and give our
attention to the two racking chains shown in Fig. 49 at figures 1 and 2.
Inasmuch as the rack stitch is made by a part of the machine entirely
separate and distinct from the locks and carriage, that is, the needle
plate, obviously it is necessary to arrange means other than the levers
and slides on the top of the machine to do this automatically. The
mechanism used to do the actual racking is illustrated in Fig. 32. The
illustration is accompanied by an explanation of the required movements.
This racking cam may be seen in Fig. 49 at letter _R_. Having in mind
the former explanation it is evident that to control the racking it is
necessary to control the pawls only which actuate the ratchet. This is
done by the racking chains shown in Fig. 49. They of themselves do no
actual racking, but simply put the pawls into action or out of action,
as the case may be, at the proper time. These chains hang on a sprocket
roller and are moved two links at each round of the machine by the same
means as the main chain, and are started and stopped automatically by
studs on the main chain at any predetermined time. There are also two
levers over the top of each, and it is by means of these levers that
they control the pawls which actuate the racking cam ratchet through
small rocker shafts.

[Illustration: Fig. 49. Racking Chains and Cam, Dubied Automatic Single
Lock Machine.]

It will be noted that the chains have studs attached, similar to the
main chain, which are staggered or attached alternately near both sides
of the chain. As these studs pass under and raise a lever at the top of
the chain they cause a pawl to act on the racking cam ratchet, thereby
making one rack.

When the carriage makes the next round the chain would have moved
forward so the lever just mentioned would have dropped off its stud and
the stud on the other side of the chain would move up to and under the
second lever, which would cause the other pawl to act in the opposite
way and therefore would rack the plate back to its starting point. If
two or more racks in the same direction are desired, it would only be
necessary to put two or more studs in line on the same side, but
remembering that where this is done it is imperative that later the same
number be placed on the other side so as to return the racking plate to
its original position.

Both of these chains do the same work and in the same manner, and either
one may be selected to do the racking at any time or place, but both
should not and cannot be operated at the same time for there is a very
ingenious arrangement which will stop the one automatically, if working,
immediately when the other one starts.

The reason for providing two chains instead of one is to enable the
operator to make two different kinds of rack in one garment by setting
the studs on one chain for let us say a one-needle rack, and on the
other for a two-needle rack. This arrangement permits the use of very
short chains, as the racked pattern may repeat itself on the chain any
number of times, where if a single chain were used it would be necessary
to have a chain long enough to have a stud for each time the plate
racked, when two patterns are required, and this would necessitate the
use of a very long chain at times.

Some few years ago, when automatic machines were first brought out, all
automatic functions were operated from a single chain. This meant the
use of very long and unwieldy chains many times, as it was necessary to
have a link in the chain for each round. It was soon realized that by
stopping the chain during the time the machine was making one kind of
fabric without a change, which on most work is by far the greater part,
and operating it only when needed, not only much time and material in
making up the chain would be saved, but also much annoyance and trouble
in providing means to keep the chain from getting twisted or out of
place while running would be eliminated.

                      Control of Automatic Changes

Most of the builders have devised means to do this and one of the best
methods is the cylinder or drum idea devised by Dubied & Co., which is
shown in Fig. 50. To more easily master the explanation of how this
cylinder operates, it should be understood that its only function is to
count the rounds and start the main chain at the proper point, the chain
stopping itself after having caused the automatic changes necessary at
that point.

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Counting Drum for Short Chain Arrangement,
Dubied Machines.]

The device consists of a cylinder about 10 to 12 inches long by about 6
inches in diameter, around which are cut two spiral grooves, the larger
of which is used to attach stops and the smaller to act as a guide for
the fingers _i_ and _j_, which extend down into and run in the narrow
groove and carry the whole block, including the forks _k_ and _l_,
forward or backward on the rods _g_ and _h_, according to which way the
cylinder is turning.

The cylinder is divided in its circumference by the lines into 1,000
divisions, and is turned the distance of one division each round of the
machine by means of the roller on the lug _o_, which raises the lever
_a_, which in its turn raises the pawl _c_, and its duplicate on the
back, which cannot be seen. It can very easily be noted how the pawl _c_
engages the outside ratchet and on being raised it would obviously turn
the drum one tooth of the ratchet wheel. The back pawl operates on the
center ratchet wheel and inasmuch as this ratchet wheel is cut the
opposite way from the outside one, and the pawl is on the opposite side,
it is plain that when the back pawl is in operation the cylinder will
turn backward.

Both pawls raise each time the lever is raised, but only one at a time
can engage the ratchets and the one which engages is governed by the
stops _A_ or _E_ on the cylinder. This is done by two guards, one of
which may be seen at _d_, while the other would be between the back pawl
and its ratchet, therefore this back pawl could not operate.

These guards are mounted on a triangular or three-cornered frame which
is pivoted at the center on the cylinder shaft with the guards mounted
on the two lower corners, while the third corner is engaged by the lever
_n_, which in turn is secured to the rod _h_. Now it is plain that if
the bottom or base of this triangle is moved forward or toward the
machine, the front guard would move under and disengage the front pawl
while the back guard would move down and free the back pawl and allow it
to operate on its ratchet wheel.

Keeping this triangular arrangement in mind we will turn our attention
to the block, of which the fingers _i_ and _j_, and the forks _k_ and
_l_, form a part. As noted before there are three fingers extending down
to the cylinder from the block, two of which (_i_ and _j_) reach down to
but do not touch the cylinder, while the third one, which is between
these two, engages in the smaller of the two grooves.

The block is constructed so it must move lengthwise of the rod as one
piece, but each part is free to move laterally independent of another.
The block is not fixed in any manner to the top rod and the only
positive connection it has with the lower rod _h_ is with a key in the
center finger which engages in a keyway which is cut the full length of
the rod. It should now be clear to the reader that so long as there is
no obstruction placed in the path of the center finger it will simply
follow the small groove and gradually move over toward the right (if the
front pawl is operating and the top of the cylinder is turning away from
you) until it comes to the Stop, _E_, which it will be noted lies across
its path.

On account of the key in this center finger engaging the keyway in the
rod _h_, it naturally follows that when the finger comes up to the stop
_E_, the next movement of the cylinder will swing it away from you and
this turn of the rod _h_, will swing the lever _n_, and through this
will swing the triangle on which the guards _d_, are mounted, bringing
the front guard _d_ up under the front pawl and at the same time will
free the back pawl on the center ratchet, thereby reversing the movement
of the cylinder.

Upon the return of the block to its starting point at the left end of
the cylinder, its direction of movement is again reversed in the same
way by the stop _A_. Stop _A_ is set at division _O_ and is never moved,
but stop _E_ may be placed at any number of the divisions corresponding
to the number of rounds in the garment. This point will be taken up
again further along.

Now to give our attention to the side fingers _i_ and _j_. These are
constructed so that the left one, or _i_, will swing freely toward you
but an attempt to swing it away from you will engage the fork _k_, which
by contact would swing the rod _g_, which through the connection _f_
would raise the lever _e_, and this by a pull on the cord _m_ would
start the main chain in motion. The right finger _j_ works in precisely
the same manner, only that it swings freely when moved away from you and
starts the main chain in motion when moved toward you, by contact of the
fork _l_ with rod _g_.

With the foregoing in mind it should hardly be necessary to explain that
the stops _C_ and _D_ are for the purpose of putting the main chain in
motion by coming in contact with the fingers _i_ or _j_; _C_ to operate
when the cylinder is turning the top away from you by tripping finger
_i_, and _D_ when it turns toward you by tripping finger _j_. It will be
noted that the stops _A_ and _E_ have short extensions which extend
forward along the side of the small groove. These cause the side
fingers, _i_ or _j_, to start the main chain at the same time that the
direction of the movement of the cylinder changes. If for any reason
this is not desired, a stop like _B_ may be used instead of these, and
then the cylinder will reverse without starting the main chain.

Going back to the setting of stop _E_, where the garment to be made has
less than 1,000 rounds, it is customary to set this stop as well as the
intermediate stops, like _C_ and _D_, to make a complete garment on its
forward movement and a second one on its return. But if the garment
should have more than 1,000 rounds, let us say 1,500, then stop _E_
would be set on division 750 and the small stops like _C_, which are for
tripping the finger _i_, would be placed at the proper place to start
the main chain for the automatic changes in the first half of the
garment. The stops like _D_, which are for tripping the finger _j_,
would do the same for the last half of the garment.

If there is no change to be made in the middle of the garment the
knitter may avoid it by either one of two means; either by using a stop
like _B_, which will reverse the movement of the cylinder without
starting the main chain, or by using a stop like _E_, which starts the
main chain at the same time it reverses the movement of the cylinder,
but in this event he must put in the main chain two extra links with a
stud attached for stopping the chain immediately after starting without
acting upon any of its automatic mechanism.

If the fabric being made does not require the use of the cylinder all
that it is necessary to do to stop it is to raise up the lever _a_, and
draw the roller _b_ out against the head of its stud.

                            Control of Yarn

Up to this point the yarn guides and carriers have been mentioned only
incidentally so we will now take them up in more detail. Where there is
only one thread and guide on a machine it is a very simple matter to
control it but in the modern full automatic machines, where there are
several threads and guides, and they must be arranged so that any one on
a single lock machine, or any two on a double lock, may be selected at
will, it becomes more of a problem. There is another point that must be
taken into consideration in connection with this. That is, in the
automatic machines the carriage must travel the full length of the
machine but much of the fabric made on these machines does not take the
whole width. Therefore if the yarn carrier was carried the full length
with the locks there would be at the end of each course a considerable
length of yarn, reaching from the edge of the fabric to the yarn
carrier, which it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to draw
back through the yarn guide. There must be no slack yarn between the
edge of the fabric and the yarn guide when starting to knit across on a

To obviate these difficulties the yarn carriers are attached to blocks
which in turn are mounted on ways or bars which reach the full length of
the machine and may be seen in Fig. 46, and are indicated by the figures
1, 2, 3 and 4 in white. This has been explained in part before, together
with the manner of operating the carriers with plungers, but I wish to
call the reader’s attention to it again as it has a direct connection
with what follows.

To prevent the yarn carrier from following the locks to the end of their
travel, and thereby accumulating yarn between the guide and the edge of
the fabric, there is a stop placed at each end of the fabric to stop the
carrier at the proper point. One of these stops may be seen in Fig. 49,
at _Q_. This may be placed in any desired spot and is held in place by a
pin which engages in one of the holes in the way or bar, which holes may
be plainly seen.

This stop consists of a base or block which slides on to the way on the
dovetail principle. On the top edge of this base there is a thin strip
about 4 inches long by about one-half inch wide, which is beveled down
from the top to the bottom edge on both ends. When the carriage with the
yarn carrier approaches this stop the carrier comes just under this top
strip and the point of the strip comes just under the end of the plunger
_X_, Fig. 48, also Fig. 52, which as explained before moves the yarn
carrier. As the carriage moves farther along, the plunger slides up the
incline or bevel of the strip and is raised out of engagement with the
shoulder on the yarn carrier block, and the carrier stops while the
carriage completes the length of its travel.

Upon the return of the carriage the plunger will slide over the strip on
the stop, drop into the opening of the yarn carrier block, and engage
the opposite shoulder and take the yarn carrier back with it on the
return course, where it will be released on the other side in the same
manner as just explained.

                          Yarn Take-Up Spring

No matter how close to the edge of the fabric the yarn guide may be
stopped, unless the yarn is kept taut the selvage will not be perfect,
therefore a very insignificant appearing but quite important adjunct
called the yarn take-up spring is provided to do this. There is one
provided for each yarn guide and their position in relation to the
machine may be seen at the top of the yarn stand in Fig. 45, while one
is shown in detail in Fig. 51. The spring is a coil spring turned around
the stud, _f_, and attached at the inner end. The outer end is a part of
this spring straightened out as at _b_, with an eye turned in the end at

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Yarn Stand and Take Up Spring.]

By turning the top of the stud _f_ away from you it will put more pull
or tension on the spring, and by turning toward you less. The yarn is
drawn from the bobbin, _e_, through an eye directly over the bobbin,
then through a hole in the tension stud at _a_, then through an eye of
the spring, then down through another eye in the stand at _g_, and
directly to the yarn guide of the machine. The tension _a_ prevents the
spring from drawing any yarn from the bobbin, therefore it will always
draw the slack yarn from the yarn guide and keep it taut at all times.
There must be a take-up spring for each thread in use and that means
that there are sometimes as many as eight or ten on one stand.

We have had a drawing of the double lock in Fig. 40, showing the cam
side with an explanation of how it works and its advantages, so now we
will show only the top carriage side in Fig. 52, with its appurtenances
for the automatic changes. Bear in mind that when slides or plungers are
mentioned in the following explanation reference is made to Fig. 52, and
when cams are mentioned reference is had to Fig. 40.

                             Stitch Changes

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Top Side of Carriage Directly Over Locks, Dubied
Automatic Double Lock Machine.]

Slide _a_ operates on cams 1_b_ and 4_b_ to change from plain to
cardigan, or vice versa, and is used in making the full cardigan stitch.
Slide _b_ and _g_, working in conjunction with _d_ and _e_, are for
changing the length of stitch, which will be explained more fully later.
Slides _c_ and _f_ are for changing the yarn carriers to change colors.
The exchange of carriers at the end of each course in order to keep the
cotton carrier feeding into the cams that are leading (where cotton and
worsted or wool is used) is another matter and should not be confused
with this. Slide _h_ operates on cams 2_b_ and 3_b_ to change from plain
to half cardigan, or vice versa, also on these cams together with cams
2_c_ and 3_c_ to make the French rack or false knop. Slides _i_ and _j_
operate cams 1_a_, 2_a_, 3_a_ and 4_a_ to make tubular work, or to be
more explicit, they raise one pair of these cams up out of operation
while the other pair knit only on one side alternately and in this way
knit jersey fabric in tubular form.

To go back to slides _b_ and _g_, in order to understand this
explanation it will be necessary to return again to Fig. 40. What are
called the stitch cams, or cams 1 to 10, are attached to the cam plates
through elongated slots, the ends of which may be seen at the top and
bottom of the cams. The cams, though attached to the plate, may be
easily moved lengthwise of these slots. On the under side of the plate
is a coil spring with one end attached to a stud in the cams, while the
other end is attached to the bottom edge of the plate. These springs
will always draw the cams to the lowest end of the slots if nothing is
placed in the way. Bear in mind that the bottom of the lower plate is
the lower edge and the bottom of the top plate is the top edge, in the

To change the length of the stitch it is necessary to raise or lower
these cams. To draw a longer stitch they would be moved toward the
bottom of the plate and for a shorter one toward the top. Now it is
clear that in order to change the length of the stitch automatically it
is only necessary to provide stops of the proper height for them to rest
on when pulled down by the before-mentioned springs. The cam studs to
which the springs are attached are long enough to reach up through the
carriage proper and may be seen resting on the end of the pins II, Fig.

The reader of a mechanical turn of mind should be able to grasp the
modus operandi of the automatic changing of the length of the stitch
from the explanation up to this point, but to continue we will refer
again to the pins indicated by the Roman numerals I, II, and III, Fig.

It will be noted that there are a set of three of these pins for each
stitch or draw cam, therefore the knitter may change to any one of three
different lengths of stitch at his option by raising or lowering these
pins. The pins must of course be set individually at the proper height,
each one for its own length of stitch, before starting the machine.

Inasmuch as all the pins on the front side are attached to one slide,
and the pins on the back are attached to another, all that it is
necessary to do to change the length of the stitch is to change the pins
on which the before-mentioned cam studs rest, they being held down on
the pins by the coil spring between the carriage proper and the cam
plate. This is done with slides _b_ and _g_, in conjunction with slides
_e_ and _d_, which raise the cams and studs up so they will not catch
between the pins while the change is being made. In the meantime slides
_b_ and _g_ move the desired pins to the position where the studs can
drop on them when the slides _e_ and _d_ are returned to their running
position, which position allows studs to drop on their respective pins,
with the exception of the pair of cams at the extreme right, which are
held up for one course.

This is another ingenious and practical arrangement which deserves an
explanation, but this leads us to another point which should be gone
into first. That is, when the cams are changed to make a short stitch
after having made a long one, the holding up of the right pair of stitch
cams for one course is of no benefit. But in changing from a short
stitch to a long one, inasmuch as the right pair of stitch cams pass
over the needle butts before the new course is made, if they were
allowed, preparatory to drawing a longer stitch in the next course, to
drop down to a point below where the previous stitch was drawn, they
would ride on the butts of the needles and cause undue strain on the
stitches of that course and would be very liable to break them, thereby
making holes in the fabric. This is prevented by holding up these two
cams one course. This is done by providing two catches to receive and
hold them when they are raised at the left of the machine, but when the
carriage is moved to the extreme right of the machine the two small
levers, _l_ and _k_, come in contact with two studs and release the
catches, and allow the two cams to drop down on their respective pins.

It has been explained that in making what are known as cotton backs and
like fabrics the cotton yarn, or yarn that must show on one side only,
must at all times be fed in the locks that are in the lead, on a double
lock machine, while the worsted or wool yarn which shows on the other
side must feed into the following pair. To do this the yarn carriers
must be exchanged at the end of each course. To explain how this is done
we will refer to Fig. 52, where the plungers that engage the yarn
carrier blocks and moves them back and forth with the locks, are shown
at _x_ and _y_.

These plungers never take more than two carriers at one time. In these
machines there may be four or more bars or ways for yarn carriers, and
in the preceding explanation of how the yarn carriers are stopped we
assumed that the carriers in question were being operated on the lower
ways by the outside end of the plungers _x_. For this present
explanation we will assume that we are using the carriers on the top bar
or way, and they would be operated by the end of the plungers towards
the center of the carriage.

It will be recalled that when the yarn carrier block comes to the stop
at the edge of the fabric, the plunger is raised out of engagement with
its shoulder, and the block stops while the plunger passes on. When the
carrier block that is being moved across by the plunger in the lead
stops, the one that follows will also pass over the block without moving
it, as the outside end of the block is beveled off to compel this.

It will be noticed that the inside ends of the back plungers at _y_ are
flattened, and the flat sides are at right angles to the travel of the
carriage. Now we will assume the carriage is traveling from right to
left, and the cotton carrier is being moved along by the plunger in the
lead, or _y_ on the left. When this carrier comes to the stop on the
left this plunger leaves it there and passes on, also the plunger on the
right will pass on over the carrier block. But upon the return of the
carriage moving toward the right the first plunger coming in contact
with the yarn carrier block, which would be _y_ on the right and which
would now be in the lead, would engage the shoulder of the block and
take it across.

It will be noted that the two front plungers are also flattened at _x_,
but are different from the back ones in this respect; the inside flat is
at right angles to the travel of the carriage while the outside flats
are at an angle of about 45 degrees. The yarn carrier operated on this
side is stopped at the edge of the fabric with the plungers passing over
and beyond it the same as the back one. But upon the return of the
carriage the first plunger cannot pick up the carrier block as the side
of the plunger coming in contact with the shoulder of the block is
beveled off and cannot catch, but when the second plunger comes along
with its flat side at right angles to its movement, it will engage the
shoulder of the carrier block and take it along.

It may have been noticed in Fig. 45 that the machine illustrated has two
separate fabrics on it. This is done very often when a knitter has a
large machine and has no wide work to make. He simply utilizes the
greater part of the machine by making two narrow fabrics.

When this is done both fabrics must be the same vertically or lengthwise
of the fabric, but they may be of different widths and of different
colors. This is made possible by the system of carriers and blocks
mounted on ways together with the stops, as just described.

There are two carriers mounted on each way or bar, instead of one as
previously explained, and stops are placed at each side of both fabrics
so the plungers, either _y_ or _x_ or both, according to how many
carriers are in use, will drop one carrier at the edge of one of the
fabrics and pick up the other carrier to knit the course on the second


                              CHAPTER VIII


WE have explained what fashioned work is and how it is done by hand.
Fig. 53 shows a machine built by Dubied & Co., which does this work by
widening the fabric automatically in the knitting operation. It is
called an automatic widening machine, and is particularly adapted to
making sleeves. It overcomes the principal objection knitters have to
making shaped work—that is, the extra labor involved, and has the
advantages before-mentioned—namely, no material to be cut away to get
the shape, a selvedge edge which means a small neat seam, and the proper
shape for a proper fit.

[Illustration: Fig. 53. Automatic Widening Machine, Dubied.]

                          The Widening Device

To the casual observer, the widening machine would look to be a very
complicated piece of mechanism, but as a matter of fact the widening
device is surprising in its simplicity.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Widening Mechanism, Dubied Automatic Widening

Fig. 54 shows the principle of the method used. The drawing does not by
any means reproduce the parts as made, but only shows the principle
employed to secure these results, with all superfluous parts eliminated.

The machine proper is a full automatic machine, practically the same as
we have just finished with in the last article, with the exception of
the needle plates and the needles that are used, and the addition of the
widening mechanism. The needle plates are made almost twice as wide as
the regular plates, with a gib running through the middle of the lower
part as shown. The needles used for the narrowest part of the fabric,
and which are never used in the widening operation, are shown by the
letter _a_ in Fig. 56, and have one butt only as indicated at _b_. The
needles used in widening have one butt at the same distance from the
hook as the regular needles, as at _c_, and in addition to this they
have a second butt at the lower end of the shank extension which reaches
down under the narrow gib to the lower half of the plate, as indicated
at _d_.

The slot in the needle plate, at the lower edge, is cut all the way
through the plate up to a point which would about equal the distance
between the needles up in working position and the needles down. There
are needle springs, shown at _n_ in Fig. 54, below each needle which,
when the needles are down, project just below the bottom edge of the
plate, and when pushed up to hold the needles in working position would
have their lower ends about where the lower butts of the widening
needles are when down, as shown. The needle spring is shown in Fig. 56,
at _e_, in its position relative to the needle, the upper portion at _e_
fitting in the needle slot below the needle, while the lower part acts
as a clamp on the under side of the plate.

The lever shown at _f_ in Fig. 54, together with the slide _g_ and the
stop _h_, is enclosed in a cast block and they, together with the yarn
carrier stop _i_, move freely lengthwise of the small shaft _e_. There
is attached to this block a cord _q_, which runs over the small pulley
_o_ with a weight attached as at _p_.

It naturally follows that this weight would pull the block, lever,
carrier stop and all, over to the extreme right if there were nothing in
the way to stop it. The stop _h_ is for this purpose. It is stationary
in the block and extends up to the plate, while the slide _g_ is cut
back far enough to clear the lower ends of the springs _n_ which are
below the needles.

                  Pushing Needle Into Working Position

Inasmuch as these springs extend a trifle below the plate when the long
needles are down and the stop _h_ comes up in close proximity to the
bottom edge of the plate, this stop will engage the left side of the
spring and prevent the block, together with the lever _f_ and slide _g_,
from moving toward the right. Now in order to widen the fabric one
stitch or wale it is simply necessary to push the needle _r_ up into
working position. This is done by moving the cam block, _a_,
longitudinally, which would necessarily raise the lever _d_, which,
through the rocker shaft _e_ and lever _f_, would push the slide _g_,
together with the spring _n_ and needle _r_, up high enough to put this
needle into working position.

It should be understood that there are four of these widening mechanisms
as shown in Fig. 54, one on each end of both front and back needle
plates, but as they are all operated in the same manner it will be
necessary to describe and explain but one.

Now to explain how this is done automatically we will refer to Fig. 55,
which shows the cam side of the carriage of the automatic widening
machine. It will be noted that on the ends of the four fixed extensions
_b_1, _b_2, _b_3 and _b_4, there are rollers _a_1 to _a_4, attached with
shouldered screws whose heads are flush with the end of the rollers. As
we are dealing with only one we will select _a_1, which is the one that
would operate on the block _a_, Fig. 54, when turned over and placed on
the machine.

This roller is in the proper position to engage the cam _b_ (Fig. 54)
when the carriage is at the right end of the machine, and when the
carriage is at the end of its travel the roller would be at about the
point _B_.

It naturally follows that inasmuch as cam _b_ is attached to the block
_a_ on an inclined plane, and the block _a_ is attached to the frame of
the machine in such a manner that it cannot move lengthwise of the
machine, but may be moved freely in an up-and-down direction, when the
roller moves through the camway between cam _b_ and cam _c_ the block
must move upward, thereby pushing up one needle. Upon the return of the
carriage the roller coming in contact with cam _c_ will return the block
to its first position.

When the block _a_ is moved down by the roller, after pushing up the
needle, it must necessarily draw the slide _g_ back to the position
shown, and inasmuch as the lever _f_ slides freely lengthwise on the
shaft _e_, and there is nothing to prevent, the weight _p_ will draw all
of this part of the mechanism over one needle or until the stop _h_
comes in contact with the next needle spring _n_.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. Under or Cam Side of Carriage, Dubied Automatic
Widening Machine.]

Now, it should be understood that, as a rule, a fabric is not widened a
needle each round, therefore the block _a_ (Fig. 54) is arranged so it
will drop below the plane of travel of the roller _a_1 (Fig. 55) when
widening is not desired. Perhaps it would be more correct to say that
the normal position of block a is below the plane of travel of the
roller _a_1, therefore out of operation and is raised up in the path of
this roller by a stud on the widening chain _A_, Fig. 53, at the proper
time to push the needle up into operation. Upon the return of the
carriage it drops down to its normal position until another needle is to
be added to the fabric. The position of the block _a_ in Fig. 54, in
relation to the rest of the machine, may be seen at _B_ in Fig. 53.

                         Returning the Needles

As stated before, a fabric to be shaped on this machine must be started
at its narrowest part, therefore when the garment or part of a garment
is finished, these needles which have been pushed up to widen it must be
returned to their lowest position where they are out of operation, in
order to start a new piece. This is where the second and lower butts of
the needles come into use. They are operated on by the cams _c_1 to
_c_4, and _d_1 to _d_4, Fig. 55.

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Needles and Needle Springs Used in Automatic
Widening Machine.]

These cams are arranged so that normally they are raised up in the cam
plate and pass over the lower butts of the needles, but they may be
lowered to operate the needles and raised again, all automatically, at
the proper time and place by slides and levers similar to those
described in a previous article on the automatic machine. The manner of
returning the widening needles to their lowest position so they will be
out of operation should be obvious to the reader after the foregoing
explanations and a study of the illustrations.

When the time comes to cast off these added stitches in order to start a
new sleeve or fabric, the plate on which cams _c_1 and _d_1 are attached
is automatically lowered when the carriage is over to the extreme right.
Then upon its return the lower needle butts of the widening needles will
come in contact with the left side of cam _d_1, and moving up over the
top of this will, of course, raise the needles to a point where the
latches are above the stitches. As the carriage moves farther along, and
the butts come in contact with the left side of cam _c_1, they will
slide down and cast the stitches off over the latch and hook, and at the
same time be drawn down to a point so low that the knitting or upper
cams cannot operate on the upper butts.

At the same time that the cams _c_1 and _d_1 are lowered to cast off and
draw out of operation the widening needles, a plunger, which is attached
to the carriage, drops down and engages a recess on the under side of
the yarn carrier stop _i_, Fig. 54, and through the lug _j_ moves the
lever _f_, together with the slide _g_ and stop _h_, back to its first
position where the plunger is disengaged by an inclined stop. The stop
_h_ will hold this part of the mechanism in this place by contact with
the first needle spring as explained before.

It should be understood that while this explanation covers only one of
the four corners that must have the needles pushed up to widen the
fabric, the method applies to all of them. Also in the manner of casting
off the widening needles and returning them to their lowest positions
preparatory to starting a new fabric, we have confined ourselves to the
right end of the front plate only in order to present the matter in the
simplest possible manner. In actual practice the pair of cams on the
left, indicated by _c_3 and _d_3, together with _c_4 and _d_4, are put
into operation first by a medium stud on the widening chain while the
carriage is at the extreme left end. Upon the return movement of the
carriage these cams would cast off and return the widening needles to
their lowest point on the left end of both front and back plates.
Immediately this is done the cams are released by means provided, and
they again rise up into the plate out of the working position, thus
passing over the right side widening needles without effect.

After putting on one full round the cams _d_1 and _c_1, together with
cams _d_2 and _c_2, are put into operation at the extreme right end of
the machine by a high stud on the widening chain, and these cast off and
draw down out of operation the front and back widening needles on the
right in the same manner as heretofore explained.

                           Yarn Carrier Stop

The reader will realize from what has gone before that when there are
needles added to or taken from the edge of a fabric, while in the
process of knitting on a machine, it would be necessary to arrange to
change the stopping position of the yarn carrier in order to prevent it
from stopping too far away from or too close in to the fabric as the
widening operation progresses. This is done by the simple expedient of
having the yarn carrier stop mounted on its bar or way so it will slide
freely, and providing the lugs _j_ and _k_, Fig. 54, on both sides of
the lever _f_, so that it, with the lever _f_, and slide _g_, with stop
_h_, will at all times move together. Therefore the needle on the edge
of the fabric and the yarn carrier stops are always in the same relative

If the reader has stopped to ponder on the working of this machine, with
the resultant fabric, he may realize that there should be more pull or
tension on the fabric during the last part of it than when it is
started. As there have been needles added it is wider. This has been
provided for so that by placing high studs on the main chain at the
proper point they will increase the tension on the take-up rollers where
and as much as needed. When the widening needles are cast off, and the
width of the fabric is reduced to its narrowest portion, this extra
tension may be automatically released and the pull reduced to the proper
strain for the narrower fabric.

These machines are made only in the double lock type, but there are
means provided through the before described levers and slides to change
automatically to single lock by raising one pair of the locks up out of
operation. This is quite an advantage where one wishes to make some
style of garment with a rack showing on both sides of the fabric such as
the turned-up cuff on ladies’ sweaters, etc.


                               CHAPTER IX


THE purl stitch or links and links machine is a type which may be termed
unique in the class of machinery built to make knitted fabrics. It is
entirely a European development; in fact, to my knowledge there had been
none of these machines built in this country until some time after the
war started, when it was impossible to import them.

The chief individual characteristic of purl stitch machines lies in the
fact that they have two needle plates, but only one set of needles, and
the cams do not act directly on the needles, but act indirectly through
what are called jacks. First we will try to get a thorough knowledge of
the fabric this machine was primarily designed to make, and the stitch
formation required to produce this fabric; then the mechanism and
movements of the different parts of the machine will be more readily
understood as we proceed with the explanation.

                          Character of Fabric

Fig. 57 shows a photographic reproduction of the fabric with the top
turned over to show both sides, which it will be noted are exactly the
same. Fig. 58 is a line drawing showing the formation of the stitch; the
course that the yarn takes may easily be followed. This is called the
purl stitch and is very popular with milady when making hand knit
sweaters, children’s suits, etc.

If the reader will refer back to Fig. 12, he may be surprised to note
how near this fabric is like the back of the jersey fabric, while the
face of the jersey fabric is so different. I do not think that I should
go very far wrong if I put this in the same class as the jersey fabric,
the same as the half and full cardigan are classed as rib fabrics. It is
made the same as the jersey on one set of needles, but with this
difference: In making the jersey fabric the loop is always drawn through
the previous loop in the same direction. That is, we will suppose we
were making this jersey fabric on an ordinary flat machine, on the front
plate only. In this case the loops would always be drawn toward you
through the previous loops. Now if we should reverse every course the
direction in which we draw these loops, or in other words, if we should
draw them towards you when moving the carriage from right to left, and
away from you when moving the carriage from left to right, and continued
this reversal, we would make a purl stitch fabric.

But, you say, how are we going to do this? The solution is the purl
stitch or links and links machine, with its double ended needle, or a
needle with a hook and latch on both ends to permit the whole needle to
be pushed through the loop every course, thereby casting the previous
loops off one end on one course, and off the opposite end on the next
course. This system of knitting is such that there can be no obstruction
to the free movement of the stitch over any part of the needle,
therefore this fact precludes the use of a butt projecting up from any
part for the cams to operate on, even if there were no other reason,
which there is as the reader will understand after a study of the

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Plain Purl Stitch Fabric.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Construction of the Plain Purl Stitch Fabric.]

This machine is constructed somewhat along the lines of the ordinary
flat machine, which we have been studying. Its points of similarity are
that the table or stand is the same, it has two straight, flat needle
plates, it has a carriage which is moved backward and forward over the
needle plates to operate the needles, and the cams or locks are
practically the same as in the ordinary single lock flat machine. The
main points of difference are that on the purl stitch machine the needle
plates are set so that they are flat, or both are on a horizontal plane,
and the needle slots of both plates are directly in alignment with one
another so a needle may move freely from the front to the back plate, or
vice versa. The ordinary flat machine has the needle plates set at an
angle of about 90 degrees to one another, and 45 degrees to the
horizontal, and they are set lengthwise so the needle slots of one plate
are opposite the space between the needle slots of the opposite plate,
or in a position so the needles of one plate will come up between the
needles of the opposite plate.

Another point of difference is that the purl stitch machine has one set
of needles for both plates, with a hook and latch on both ends of each
needle and no butts to operate them, while the ordinary machine has a
set of needles for each plate with a hook and latch on one end only with
a butt on the other end to operate it. It naturally follows that
inasmuch as the needle plates are set flat, instead of at an angle to
one another, and the needles are operated indirectly through what are
called jacks instead of directly on butts on the needles, the
construction of the purl stitch machine must be somewhat different from
the ordinary flat machine.

                  Construction of Purl Stitch Machine

Fig. 59 shows a general view of a purl stitch machine built by Dubied &
Co. The letter _a_ indicates the carriage, _b_ the handle used to
operate the carriage, and _c_ is an auxiliary handle which some knitters
like and use, while others take it off, preferring the use of handle _b_
only. The letter _i_ indicates the connection rod for the auxiliary
handle; _d_ is the racking handle for racking the back plate, which
plate is made to rack over usually about 12 needles. The letter _e_ is a
sector of a circle attached to the frame of the machine and acts as a
guide and a stop for the racking handle. This may be studied to better
advantage in Fig. 60, at _e_. It has V-shaped notches cut at the proper
intervals to correspond to the needle spacing with a V-shaped plunger
attached to the handle so that when this plunger springs into one of the
notches it brings the needle slots of the back plate into alignment with
the needle slots of the front plate.

The secondary handle _d_-1 is for releasing this plunger to permit the
handle to be moved. It will be noted that there are holes in this
sector, one back of each notch in the edge, and in two of these holes
there are pins. These pins may be placed in any desired hole and act as
stops for the racking handle and in this way save the operator the
trouble of stopping to count the number of notches every time he racks,
as on this class of work racking over anywhere from two to twelve
needles at one time is common practice.

[Illustration: Fig. 59. Dubied Purl Stitch or Links and Links Machine.
Hand Power.]

To go back to Fig. 59, letter _f_ is a counter for counting the rounds,
_g_ indicates two yarn carrier stops, one on each side of the bar or
gib, while _h_ and _h_ are the yarn take-up frames and springs. Letter
_j_ indicates the two gibs or ways on which the carriage slides, and _k_
is the bar for carrying the yarn carriers.

Now to get an insight into the principle of the method of making this
purl stitch we will first give our attention to Fig. 63, which is a line
drawing of a needle and the two jacks which are required for each needle
in their proper relative positions.

                        How Needles Are Operated

As will be surmised after looking at the drawing, the jacks are moved
forward and backward by cams operating on the butts _a_ and _a_, which
project above the surface of the needle plate in the same manner as the
cams operate on the needle butts in the ordinary flat machine. The jacks
operate the needles by catching the hook of the needles in the clutches
_b_ and _b_ of the jacks. These needles are simply passed, so to speak,
back and forth across the throat, between the needle plates, from one
jack to the opposite one on each course, and in that way they reverse
the direction of the draw of the loop on each course.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Looking Down at Top of Purl Stitch Machine.]

We will now give our attention to Fig. 62, which shows the under or cam
side of the carriage. It is understood, of course, that lengthwise of
the carriage, or the direction of movement, would be what is crosswise
or right and left in the illustration. It will be noted that the locks
or stitch cam arrangement are, on the whole, practically the same as in
the ordinary flat machine. This would apply to the cams and locks
including _a_, _h_, _k_ and _g_, also _b_, _i_, _l_ and _j_. The bridges
_c_ and _d_ are for another purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Top of Carriage. Dubied Purl Stitch Machine.]

It will be noted that while the stitch cams _h_ and _i_, also _g_ and
_j_, are exactly opposite one another, the cams _a_ and _b_ are not. The
bridges _c_ and _d_ have perfectly flat smooth surfaces except at points
_e_ and _f_, and here they have a concave portion about one-eighth of an
inch deep. The space between bridge _c_ and cam _k_, also between bridge
_d_ and cam 1, is filled by the needle gib 1, Fig. 60, and its mate on
the back, which cannot be seen, when the carriage is on the machine. The
reader should carefully study the points just gone over, that is, the
location of the cams _a_ and _b_ in relation to each other, and the
bridges _c_ and _d_ with their concave spots _e_ and _f_, in order to
fully grasp their relation to the jacks and needles in the operation of
the machine.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Under Side of Carriage With Cam System. Dubied
Purl Stitch Machine.]

We will now give our attention to Fig. 60, where it will be noted that
the front gib 1 is abnormally wide. The back gib is the same, and
inasmuch as it cannot be seen we will assume that it is also marked 1
and hereafter call it back gib 1. Just below the center, laterally, of
the front needle plate we see a row of jack butts which are in working
position. In the back plate we see jack butts in every slot but they
alternate with three up in working position, and three down out of
working position. It should be understood clearly that any jacks that
are moved to the outer edge of either plate will not operate as they are
out of range of the cam system, the same as in the ordinary flat

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Jacks and Needles Used in the Dubied Purl Stitch

Let us now bring together the needles and jacks in Fig. 63, and the
needle plates in Fig. 60. The butts of the jacks _a_ (Fig. 63) are what
we see projecting above the needle plates in Fig. 60. The hump _c_ (Fig.
63) lies under the gib 1 (Fig. 60). The reason for having this gib extra
wide is to cover this hump during most of the knitting operation in
order to keep the needle captive. The depth of the needle slot is just
sufficient to allow this part of the jack to slide under the gib freely
without any up and down play, therefore it follows that when the hook of
a needle is caught in the clutch _b_, as in jack number 1 in Fig. 63,
that needle must move backward and forward with the jack. When the jacks
are moved forward to the point where the butts would be near or against
the gib 1 (Fig. 60) the hump _c_ (Fig. 63) would be inside and clear of
the gib 1, toward the center of the machine, therefore the shank of the
jack being narrower than at the hump, a slight draw on the needle would
free it from the jack as the clutch _d_, which holds the needle, is
beveled off for this purpose. This being the case it follows that when
the jacks are in this position the hooks of the needles may be easily
pushed under and into the clutch _b_ of the jacks. This is how the
machine is filled with needles to begin with, or imperfect ones replaced
with new.

It will now be necessary to study Fig. 62 in connection with Figs. 60
and 63. Referring to Fig. 62, the space between the cam _k_ and bridge
_c_, also cam 1 and bridge _d_, as noted before, is occupied by the two
gibs 1 (Fig. 60) when the carriage is on the machine. The bridges _c_
and _d_ (Fig. 62) come down to the needle plates and the surface we see
is on the same plane as the under side of the gibs 1, Fig. 60. We have
just had the statement that when the butts of the jacks _a_ (Fig. 63)
were moved up to the outside and close to the gibs 1 (Fig. 60), the hump
_c_ of the jacks would be just inside and clear of the gibs 1, therefore
could be raised sufficiently to slip the hook of a needle in or out of
the clutch _b_ of the jack. This is true only at a time when the
carriage is not over and operating the jacks.

When these are moved up to this point by the cams the hump _c_ of the
jacks would come under the bridges _c_ and _d_ (Fig. 62), therefore
could not raise up to release the needles except at the narrow concaves
marked _e_ and _f_ in the bridges. These concaves, it should be noted
again, are not opposite one another. The distance between the top or
narrow part of cam _a_ and cam _b_ is such that when the butts of the
jacks have moved up to this point the clutch _b_ of both of the opposed
jacks cover a hook of the needle. In looking at Fig. 62, the top half of
the carriage would be the part covering the front needle plate and
operating upon the front jacks, and the bottom half would do likewise on
the back plate. When the carriage is at the left end of the machine,
when making the purl stitch the needles should be in the front plate,
and when the carriage is at the right end of the machine the needles
would be in the back plate. This relative position is always the same
when making the purl stitch.

I have assumed that the reader understands that a jack and a needle
together would, when in a normal position as shown by the butts in the
front needle plate in Fig. 60, reach just to the throat between the
needle plates. Having the different parts and their relative positions
in our mind we will now proceed with the modus operandi. We will assume
that the carriage is at the left end of the machine, therefore the
needles would be in the front needle plate and under the control of the
front jacks, as the hooks would be in the clutch _b_ (Fig. 63) of these
jacks, while the hump _c_ being under the gib of the needle plate will
not allow the needles to escape. To obviate some of the difficulties the
reader may have in understanding this explanation we will assume that
the carriage as shown in Fig. 62 is stationary, and the plates with
their jacks and needles are the parts that are moved.

The outline of the camway may be easily traced as it is practically the
same as the ordinary flat machine with which the reader should be
familiar and the action on the needles, through the jacks, is the same
until they reach the first inside corner of the cam _b_. If the reader
will take a straight edge and lay it on the illustration, he will find
that this corner of cam _b_ is just in line with the concave _e_ in the
bridge _c_, and also with the center of the flat portion of the cam _a_.
This being the case, it follows that the center of the flat portion of
the cam _b_ must be in line with the left inside corner of cam _a_ and
the concave _f_ in the bridge _d_.

It should be understood that as the needles are moving across the throat
between the needle plates, the stitch or loop opens the latches, and
guards are provided to keep them open until the needles are ready to
draw the new loop through the previous one.

Now to return to where we left the needles and jacks at the right inside
corner of cam _b_. The jacks of the back plate have reached their
innermost position, and the heads or humps _c_ (Fig. 63) lie under the
bridge _c_ (Fig. 62). At the point where the front jacks opposite are
reaching their innermost position, the heads or humps _c_ of the back
jacks come under the concave _e_, which allows the hook of the needles,
just coming forward from the opposite plate, to raise up the head and
enter the clutch _b_ of the jack. As they move farther to the left, the
heads of these back jacks are under the plane surface of the bridge _c_,
which secures the needles to these jacks. As the jacks start to move
back toward their outermost position, the heads of the jacks of the
front plate are under the concave _f_ of bridge _d_. This allows the
needle hooks of this end to draw out and release themselves from the
jacks of this side, and be drawn through the loop to the back plate, and
by this means to cast the previous loop off from the back plate toward
the front one.

Upon the return from left to right, the needles are exchanged from the
back plate to the front one in the same manner, only of course, the
action is just opposite to that just explained. Therefore, the needles
would pass through the loop from the back to the front plate, and cast
off the previous loop from the front plate toward the back one. This
would make the purl stitch.

While the machine was designed primarily to make this purl stitch, there
can be made on it a larger variety of stitches than on any other
machine, but in general practice the stitches made are limited as a rule
to the purl, jersey and plain rib, 1 and 1, 2 and 2, etc. The term 1 and
1 rib means one needle in each plate alternately. The term 2 and 2 rib
means two needles together alternating in each plate without a needle
working between the two from the opposite plate. It is also possible to
make the half or full cardigan stitch.

The jersey stitch may be made by one of two methods. First, when the
needles are all in one plate move the jacks in the other plate to their
outermost position, where the cams of that side cannot operate on them
and the needles will stay on one side as there are no jacks operating on
the other side to take them across. Second, by moving the handle _b_,
Fig. 61, to the left. By doing this we would draw the cams _a_ and _b_
(Fig. 62) up into the cam plate out of working position, therefore the
jacks would not move to their innermost position so the needles would
not move far enough forward to meet the opposite jacks and could not be
taken over into the opposite plate. This system of being able to operate
any number of selected needles, or all of them, on either the purl or
jersey stitch, either alone or in combination with the rack, is the base
or principle used to make practically all the designed or pattern work
produced on the ordinary purl stitch machine.

Fig. 61 shows the top side of the carriage. The letter _a_ indicates the
handle for operating the carriage; _b_ is the lever for changing the
stitch from purl to jersey, or vice versa, by raising out or putting
into operation the cams _a_ and _b_, Fig. 62. The letter _c_ shows the
lever for changing yarn carriers while _d_1 and _d_2 are the slides for
changing the length of stitch. This change is made the same as has been
explained for the ordinary flat machine; that is, by shifting the stops,
of which there are three for each stitch cam or six on each of the
slides _d_1 and _d_2.


                               CHAPTER X


FIGURES 64, 65 and 66 show some of the design effects which may be made
on the links and links system of knitting. Fig. 64 is a basket weave
design. To make this we will assume that the machine is set up, that is,
has work on it, with the carriage at the left end of the machine. Then
all the needles would be in the front plate. The back plate should be
racked to its last position to the right. The last working jack in the
back plate, left end, should be opposite the last needle in the front
plate, but in the right end of the back plate there should be 8 jacks
more than needles in the front plate. Now starting at the right, count
eight jacks, which leave in operating position; then draw five back out
of operating position; leave eleven in operation, and drawn five out.
Alternate in this way with eleven in work and five out for the length of
the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Basket Weave Design Made on Purl Stitch Hand

After doing this the position of the jacks would be similar to those
shown in the back plate in Fig. 60, except that that illustration showed
three in and three out, while we would have eleven in work and five out
in the present instance. The three rules marked _m_, shown in Fig. 60,
are used for this purpose. They save the time of counting the jacks and
drawing them back one or two at a time. By the use of one of these
rules, properly cut, all of the jacks to be put out of operation may be
moved back in one sweep.

To go back to our design, set the pin shown in the arc _e_, Fig. 60, to
stop the racking handle at eight needles, put on six courses or three
rounds, stopping with the carriage on the left, which will leave all the
needles in the front plate, and rack the back plate to eight needles to
the left. Put on three more rounds and rack the eight needles to the
right, and continue doing this.

It should be understood that the back plate should never be racked over
more than two needles except when all the needles are in the front
plate. I have previously explained that when the cams are set for purl
stitch, if the jacks are in the operating position in both plates we
would make the purl stitch, but in any place where the jacks were drawn
back out of operating position in one plate, in that place the needles
would at all times stay in the opposite plate and knit the plain jersey

Now in this basket design we have in the back plate, disregarding the
first eight jacks, five jacks that are not operating alternating with
eleven that are. Therefore, the first three rounds would make purl
stitch on eleven needles alternating with five making plain jersey

When we rack the plate over eight needles we find that the five slots
with the non-working jacks of the back plate are just opposite the
middle five needles of the eleven that have been making purl stitch, and
are, of course, at the time of racking in the front plate. We also find
that the five needles that have been making the jersey stitch in
consequence of having been opposite the five non-working jacks in the
back plate, are now opposite the middle five of the eleven working jacks
of the back plate. Therefore it is plain that these five needles would
make purl stitch for the next three rounds, while the middle five
needles of the eleven that were making purl stitch would make jersey in
the next three rounds. There are always three needles on each side of
the five that are racked over that purl stitch all the time.

                            Two and Two Rib

Fig. 65 shows two designs the lower one being very simple. With the
carriage on the left end of the machine arrange the jacks in the back
plate two and two, or two in working position and two out. Then move the
carriage across to the right end of the machine and we will find that
the needles have arranged themselves to conform to the arrangement of
the back jacks, alternating two and two in both needle plates. Now move
the handle _b_, Fig. 61, to the left and this will raise cams _a_ and
_b_, Fig. 62, up into the cam plate out of operation, thus preventing
the jacks from moving to their innermost position. Therefore, they
cannot exchange needles and so would make a two and two rib fabric,
knitting this continuously without any further change.

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Diagonal Diamond Design and Two and Two Rib Made
on Hand Purl Stitch Machine.]

The upper half of Fig. 65 is made by arranging the jacks in the back
needle plate so that five will be in working position, alternating with
five out. With this arrangement of the jacks, and without any further
manipulation, the machine would knit a straight vertical stripe of five
needles purl stitch and five needles plain jersey stitch. If, however,
we rack the back needle over one needle every round when the carriage is
at the left end of the machine, and all the needles are in the front
plate, for five rounds we would have these stripes running diagonally
instead of vertically, and the distance they would run to the right or
left, depending on which way we racked, would depend on how many times
we racked in one direction. In this instance it would be for seven
rounds, or rather we would rack over in the one direction every round
for six rounds, and on the seventh we would rack the plate back the five
needles at once. Then start over racking the other way one needle each
round as before to make the second row of diagonal blocks. This racking
back of five needles at one time would of course bring the non-working
jacks to the position where the working jacks were, and the working
jacks to the position where the non-working jacks were. Therefore, the
needles that were knitting the purl stitch would begin making plain
jersey, while the needles that were making plain jersey would now make
purl stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Two and Two Rib Racked, Made on Purl Stitch

Fig. 66 is simply a two and two rib stitch racked over two needles every
four rounds. This racking over two needles with needles in both plates
may be done successfully if the stitch is drawn fairly long.

              Automatic Jacquard Power Purl Stitch Machine

The automatic links and links or purl stitch machine is what the name
would imply; that is, a machine which makes the changes in the stitch
and yarn carriers automatically. The word jacquard added to this would
convey to the mind of a person familiar with textile processes the fact
that the machine automatically makes designs or patterns in the process
of knitting.

Fig. 67 shows a Dubied machine of this type which in general appearance
resembles their automatic power flat machine. It has the same drum
device for counting the rounds, indicated at _d_, with a chain drive
somewhat similar to the flat machine, though with this difference: The
carriage is connected directly to the chain through a cross head which
slides on two rods, instead of through a connection rod. We have the
main chain, at _e_, on this machine as on the flat machine, but it is
placed on the right end instead of the left. The racking chains which
are on the flat machine are not needed on this machine, therefore are
dispensed with.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Dubied Power Automatic Jacquard Purl Stitch or
Links and Links Machine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Cross Section of Pair Purl Stitch Machine Plates
With Card Cylinder and Their Relative Positions.]

On the ordinary purl stitch machine a large part of the designing is
done by a combination of selected jacks in conjunction with the rack;
therefore it is desirable to have such a machine built to rack over
quite a number of needles. With this machine the designs are made on the
jacquard system, therefore this extreme racking is not required and the
machine is built to rack but two needles. At _a_ and _b_ in Fig. 67 will
be noted two cylinders with grooves cut on a long spiral. They are
mounted on a small shaft which acts as a bearing upon which they turn.
These operate the jacquard system and should be kept well in mind as
they will be referred to later. The letter _c_ indicates the carriage,
which is shown, top and bottom, in detail in Figs. 69 and 70.

Fig. 69, it will be noted, is the same in the general layout of the cam
system as shown for the hand machines in Fig. 62, in the last article.
The upper locks would operate on the front plate and the lower ones on
the back one. There are two main points of difference: The cam _x_,
which must be used in connection with the cards of the jacquard system
and which will be taken up in detail in due course, and the levers _s_
and _t_ which raise the stitch cams that are in the lead and lower the
ones that follow and form the stitch at the end of each course. This is
done to take all undue strain off the stitch.

It will be noted in the illustration that the left stitch cams are
raised and the right ones lowered preparatory to putting on a course by
moving the carriage from right to left. At the left end of the machine
the position of these cams is reversed for the return course. This is
done by a pin set at both ends of the two plates which act on the levers
_s_ and _t_. Then we have the extensions of the slides. Numbers 1 and 3
are for changing the length of the stitch. Slides 2 and 5 are for
raising and lowering cams _a_ and _b_ to change from purl to plain
jersey stitch, or vice versa. The manner of doing this and the action of
these cams on the needles and jacks have been explained.

Slide 4 puts the plunger _y_ into and out of operation. This plunger
operates the jacquard system by entering the spiral grooves of and
turning the cylinders _a_ and _b_, Fig. 67. The four slides marked 6,
Figs. 69 and 70, are for changing the yarn carriers, of which there are
four. The four small parts indicated by the letter _m_, Fig. 69, are
latch openers, which are essential as the machine cannot be operated
when the latches are closed. We would be unable to move the carriage
across the machine when there was no fabric on the needles to open the
latches, without these latch openers.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Under Side of Carriage of Automatic Jacquard
Purl Stitch Machine.]

The small slide indicated at 7 is for changing the position of the cam
_x_, swinging on a pivot screw at _z_, which may be moved to any one of
three positions. These are the position shown, or horizontal with the
lower edge of, and on a line with the lower edge of cams _w_ and _r_, or
it may be swung down to a point where the end will be at the lower edge
of the cam plate at _v_. The three positions of this cam should be
firmly fixed in mind, as they have an important part to play in the
jacquard work.

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Top Side of Carriage of Automatic Jacquard Purl
Stitch Machine.]

We will now give our attention to Fig. 68, which represents a cross
section of the needle plates, showing a pair of jacks and a needle in
their respective slots or tricks. Letter _a_ indicates the back plate
and _b_ the front one. The back jack _c_ is shown in its outermost
position, therefore would be out of operation, while the dotted lines at
_h_ show its innermost position ready to receive the needle from the
opposite jack. Letters _e_ and _f_ indicate the gibs which cover and
hold down the heads of the jacks at all times except when they are at
their innermost position; when they are in this position they are under
and held down by the bridges or winkles _c_ and _d_, Fig. 69, and are
permitted to rise only at the concaves _e_ and _f_ where the exchange of
needles takes place. Letter _g_, Fig. 68, indicates the needle, and _i_
is a vertical projection, called teeth, which are between the needles
and act as sinkers for the needles to draw the loops over.

                         The Jacquard Mechanism

The jacquard system of designing is simply a method of providing means
to select and put into operation any desired needle or needles at any
predetermined place in the fabric. The mechanism to do this is shown in
Fig. 68. The letter _l_ indicates a four cornered star shaped bar called
the card cylinder, which is the length of the needle plate. The letter
_j_ indicates what are called cards and are also the same length as the
needle plate and as wide as one side of the card cylinder. These are
made from either thin sheets of steel or from stiff strong paper board,
and are attached to one another by rings or other means so as to form a
continuous band around the card cylinder. The illustration shows ten of
these cards, but the number used depends on the design being made, for
there is one card for each round in the design.

To return to the card cylinder _l_, this is mounted on a shaft which is
supported by two uprights or arms, one at each end, shown by the broken
lines at _n_, which in turn are attached securely to the rocker shaft
_m_. This arrangement permits the card cylinder to be swung forward to
the needle plate and back to the position shown at any predetermined
time or place. As noted before, the back jack _c_ is out of working
position, therefore as long as it stays in this position the needle
would operate in the front plate only and make a plain jersey fabric.

If, when the carriage is at the left end of the machine, we should swing
the card cylinder with the blank card _j_, No. 1 (which is a card
without any openings in it) up to the needle plate, it would push these
back jacks up into working position and on the next course the needles
would cross over into the back plate and make the purl stitch. Now bear
in mind that the basic principle of designing of this character is in
making the design of one stitch and the ground of the other. It is quite
obvious that if we provide means to sweep all the back jacks to their
outermost positions and out of operation every time the carriage is
moved from the right to the left end of the machine after having passed
the needles across to the front plate, then swing a card with holes cut
through at certain intervals up to the needle plate, those jacks that
come into contact with that part of the card that is intact would be
pushed into working position, while those that were in front of the
openings or holes would pass through and not be affected. Therefore, on
the next round the needles opposite these would make the jersey stitch,
while all the others would make purl stitch. On the last course of the
round from right to left the jacks would be swept back out of operation,
the card cylinder _l_ would be turned a quarter turn, bringing another
card opposite the needle plate, and another and perhaps different lot of
jacks selected for the next round.

The card cylinder is turned the quarter turn when the carriage is
approaching the right end of the machine by the plunger _y_, Fig. 70,
engaging the spiral in the cylinder _b_, Fig. 67, and the cards are
moved up to the needle plate when the carriage approaches the left end
of the machine by this same plunger engaging the spiral in cylinder _a_.

At _k_ in Fig. 68, is shown the face of a portion of a card as it might
be cut. Beginning at the opening at the left, the heels of three jacks
would pass through this. The space next to the right, being intact,
would push six jacks into operation; and so on throughout the length of
the fragment of the card shown as indicated by the figures. This drawing
was made to represent a card to be used on a needle plate cut eight
needles to one inch, and while the scale is cut down somewhat in the
reproduction the proportions would remain the same.

Now as to the means provided to make the changes shown as necessary we
will refer again to Fig. 69, and to the cam marked _x_. As stated
before, this cam may be swung on the pivot screw _z_, automatically, to
any one of three positions. When it is in alignment with cams _w_ and
_r_ it has no effect, as when the jacks are in their normal knitting
position the butts will pass just above and when they are out of working
position they will pass just under these three cams. Now it will be
noted that cam _x_ is placed at the extreme right end of this lock or
set of cams, in consequence of which it must always be put into
operation when the carriage is at the right end of the machine, and it
performs its functions as the carriage is moved to the left and after
the stitch formation of this course is completed.

The cam is moved into the desired position by the slide 7, which comes
in contact with movable stops at either end of the machine. When the
jacquard system is in operation this cam would be moved to the position
shown in the illustration while the carriage was on the right,
consequently as the carriage is moved to the left end of the machine the
needles in the back plate would be passed to the front plate and
immediately after this the back jacks would be swept out of the
operating position by this cam.

When the carriage reached the left end of the machine this cam would be
moved down in alignment with cams _w_ and _r_, so would be in the
position that would not make any change in the position of the jacks.

In making some kinds of work it is desirable to put all the back jacks
in and out of operation at certain times. We have just explained about
putting them out of operation. To put all of them in the working
position without using the jacquard the before mentioned movable stop
comes in contact with another slide just under slide 7, when the
carriage is moved to the right end of the machine, and this slide will
swing the point of cam _x_ to its lowest position at _v_, and in this
position, as the carriage is moved to the left, it will sweep all the
back jacks into working position ready for the next course. As the
carriage finishes its travel to the left, the stop at that end would of
course move this cam to its neutral point.

I assume that the reader understands that the stops and levers that
cause all these automatic changes are controlled by studs attached in
their proper places on the chain _e_, Fig. 67, which in turn is
controlled by the drum _d_.

We will now take up in more detail the action of the cards and the
mechanism provided to actuate them. As stated before, when making a
design by this system the card cylinder, together with the cards, is
moved up to the edge of the needle plate each round. Referring to Fig.
67, at _a_-1 there is an eccentric attached to the movable cylinder _a_,
and there is a connection rod from this eccentric to the small shaft
_o_, Fig. 68. Therefore, when the plunger _y_, Fig. 70, enters the
spiral groove and moves the length of the cylinder _a_, Fig. 67, the
cylinder turns about half way round, which of course turns the eccentric
_a_-1, and this moves the card _j_, No. 1, Fig. 68, up to the needle
plate. As noted before, any part of this card that has holes in it could
not push those, jacks opposite into working position, while that part of
the card which remained intact would put the jacks opposed to it in
work. Upon the return of the carriage it turns the cylinder _a_, Fig.
67, back to its first position, which movement would of course move the
cards away from the needle plate again. The cylinder _b_ is actuated in
the same manner as cylinder _a_ as the carriage reaches the right end of
the machine, but its function is to turn the card cylinder a quarter
turn each time in order to bring a new card into position for the next
round and make that part of the design.

                         How Designing Is Done

Having explained the theory of making designs on the jacquard system we
will now show in detail how it is done in actual practice. With the
jacquard system there is no limit or end to the designs that may be
made, as there is with the other systems used on knitting machines.

Fig. 71 is a photographic reproduction of a design made on this machine.
The reader who has studied well and thoroughly digested what has gone
before will realize that this design could not be made in any other way,
on a machine of this type, without an expenditure of time and labor
which would be far beyond the bounds of practicability.

The designer will first sketch out his design on a piece of plain paper,
then take a piece of cross section paper and lay it down as illustrated
in Fig. 72. This is the layout of the design shown in Fig. 71. Each of
the crosswise rows of squares represents one round or two courses, and
each of the vertical rows represents a wale or needle. In other words
each one of the squares in a crosswise row represents a needle or the
loops in one round, and each one of the succeeding squares represents
that same needle in the succeeding rounds.

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Design Made on Automatic Jacquard Purl Stitch

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Layout of Design Shown in Fig. 71.]

Now to cut the cards we would start with No. 1 and cut them
consecutively. Referring to Fig. 72, the blank squares, or the spaces in
the cards these represent, should be cut out, and the squares marked
with an _x_ would remain intact. Starting at the right side, one needle
space is not cut out; then sufficient space to cover three needles or
jacks is cut out; then the space of eleven jacks is left intact, then
three cut out. This is the full width of the first round of the design,
therefore this cutting would be repeated until it covers the desired
width of fabric. Card No. 2 would be cut as follows: One space cut, one
left intact, three cut out, nine left intact, three cut out, and one
left intact. This should be repeated as with No. 1 card. Each card
thereafter should be cut according to the marking of the cross section
paper, and numbered as cut, so as to avoid trouble in assembling them in
their proper order when finished.

It should be understood that the part of this layout from the right side
to the dotted line is the complete design, and all to the left as well
as above and below, would be a duplicate of this.

After these cards are put on the card cylinder, attached like an endless
belt, and the machine is in operation, when card No. 18 has finished the
last part of the design, card No. 1 will start immediately in the next
round on its part of the design. When it comes to card No. 6, that
square will have been completed, and a new square in the center section
will have been started.

The two-tone color effect is made by using two different colored yarns
and using a plating yarn carrier. This throws one color on the face in
the jersey stitch and the other color on the face in the purl stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Claes and Flentje Automatic Narrowing Machine.]


                               CHAPTER XI


THE flat latch needle automatic narrowing machine as built by Messrs.
Claes & Flentje is shown in Fig. 73, and a piece of fabric from this
machine narrowed down fourteen needles is shown in Fig. 74. This machine
is quite complicated when compared with any that have been taken up
before, but those who have studied what has gone before carefully,
especially that part treating on fashioned garments and how they are
made by hand, should have no trouble in understanding the principles and
movements necessary to do this work automatically.

[Illustration: Fig. 74. Fabric Narrowed Down on Automatic Narrowing

The machine shown is really four separate and complete units mounted
upon one frame or stand and driven by one belt, with the automatic
movements operated from one control. It is evident from this that the
garments or parts of garments made on each one of these four units must
be the same, or rather they must have the same number of rounds with the
same number of needles narrowed down, but they may be made from
different yarns both in kind and color.

There are four points that should be understood to begin with: First,
the machine is operated by power. Second, the power is transmitted to
the driving pulley on the machine at all times when the machine is being
operated. Third, the knitting mechanism must be stopped while the
narrowing mechanism is in operation. Fourth, the narrowing mechanism
must be at rest during the time the knitting mechanism is in operation.

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Changing Mechanism on Right End of Automatic
Narrowing Machine.]

We will first show how it is arranged to automatically stop one part of
the machine, say the knitting operation, and put the narrowing mechanism
in work, and after this part has performed its functions or narrowed
down one needle on each needle plate, front and back, how it is stopped
until time to narrow again, and the knitting parts set in operation.

Fig. 75 is a view of the right end of the machine, and it is here that
the driving mechanism is located, also the automatic controls. The
number 1 indicates the belt and pulley which drive the machine. The
pulley is mounted loose upon the shaft and operates the machine through
a clutch which is thrown in or out, as the case may be, by the handles
marked _x_ in Fig. 73. The number 13 (Fig. 75) indicates a plain balance
wheel on the outside end of the shaft.

When the clutch is in, the driving wheel on which the belt 1 runs will
of course turn the shaft 2, on the other end of which there is a small
spur gear which drives the large gear 3. This large gear is
automatically connected with, and disconnected from the crank wheel 5,
which wheel drives the knitting mechanism through the connecting rod 6
and lever _y_, Fig. 73, whose fulcrum is at _s_, and is connected to an
extension of the carriage at _r_. The lever _y_ comes up between two
ways or slides, on which is mounted a crosshead at the end of this
extension, and where the lever connects at _r_, to keep the extension in
alignment with the carriages.

Referring to Fig. 75, when the machine is being operated the following
parts are always in motion: The driving wheel 1 with the shaft 2,
together with the small spur gear on the end of the shaft 2, which
cannot be seen but drives the large gear 3, also the large gear 3 with
the shaft upon which it is mounted, which may be seen running behind the
vertical connecting straps toward the right of the illustration and
terminates back of the large bevel gear 4. Upon this end of the shaft
there is mounted a small bevel or pinion gear to drive the large bevel
gear 4.

Now then let us understand that the crank wheel 5 operates the knitting
mechanism of the machine, and the bevel gear 4, through a shaft which
runs the entire length of the machine with a series of cams mounted on
it, operates the narrowing mechanism. We have seen that the driving
parts from the driving pulley 1 on the back of the machine, over to and
including the large gear 3, and back to and including the small bevel
gear which drives the large bevel gear 4 are in motion at all times
while the machine is in operation. The gear 4 is engaged with the small
gear only at the time the narrowing is done; while the crank wheel is
connected with the large spur gear 3 and turning only while the knitting
parts are in operation. The connection between the crank wheel 5 and the
gear 3 is simply a key-like lever which may be disconnected by lifting
out of place and connected again by dropping back, though there is only
one place on the circumference of the wheel where it can connect the two

                    Control of Fashioning Mechanism

[Illustration: Fig. 76. Needles and Decker Points Used on the Automatic
Narrowing Machine.]

The method of starting and stopping the narrowing or fashioning
mechanism is quite a novel and ingenious arrangement. To explain it we
will refer to Fig. 81. The number 4 indicates the bevel gear shown at 4
in Fig. 75, and 4-_a_ is the small pinion a part of which may be seen in
Fig. 75. The larger bevel gear 4 has a small space (three or four teeth)
cut away so it acts somewhat on the principle of an intermittent gear.
When the small pinion 4-_a_ comes to this spot the large gear 4 will of
course stop. This gear is mounted on the shaft 9, which may be seen
under the same designation in Figs. 79 and 80, which is a continuation
of this shaft. It (the gear 4) is shown in Fig. 81 in the position where
it would be at rest as the small pinion 4-_a_ would be turning free and
clear on account of the teeth of the large gear being cut away at this

It will be noted that there is a pin extending from one side of the hub
of the small pinion gear 4-_a_. On the back of gear 4 there is attached
a box-like arrangement with the lever 4-_b_ passing through it, which is
pivoted at _p_ and is held out in the position shown by a spring.
Outside and near the outer end of this lever 4-_b_ is another L-shaped
lever 4-_d_, which is pivoted at _m_ to the frame of the machine.

It is plain that when the lever 4-_b_ is moved in the path of the pin
4-_c_, which is turning at all times with the pinion 4-_a_, by the
right-angled lever 4-_d_, the gear 4 will be moved forward far enough
for the teeth of the pinion to engage with the teeth of the large gear.
Consequently, the gear 4 would turn one complete revolution, or until
the place which has the teeth cut out is again adjacent to the pinion,
and it would stop at this point. This one revolution of the gear 4
completes the execution of one narrowing operation or the narrowing down
of one needle on each needle plate.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. Top of Automatic Narrowing Machine.]

Referring to Fig. 75, number 11 indicates the lever or slide which is
the means provided to make the shift from fashioning to knitting, and
vice versa. When this slide is at its furthermost position toward the
back of the machine it is held there by a catch, and the knitting
mechanism would be in operation while the fashioning mechanism would be
at rest. But immediately the slide is released from the catch, which is
done by a stud on the chain 12, a spring brings it forward and a release
bar, by means of an inclined plane, is set to disconnect the large gear
3 (Fig. 75) from the crank wheel 5, when it gets to the point where the
carriages are at the extreme right end of the needle plates as shown in
Figs. 77 and 78. At the same time it raises up the right-angled lever
4-_d_ (Fig. 81) which throws in the lever 4-_b_, and this of course
starts the fashioning mechanism to work. Just as the gear 4 with the cam
shaft 9 completes its one revolution the slide is set back again, which
permits the gear 3 to connect with the crank shaft and the gear 4 stops
as the cut out teeth come opposite the small pinion.

The several vertical straps which may be seen at or near the center of
Fig. 75 are the mediums through which the automatic changes are made by
studs coming under and raising them. These studs are attached in their
several positions on the chain 12. We will not go into these further,
for while the construction is somewhat different from what we have had,
the principle is the same. As the studs on the chain come under the
straps, they raise them up and this moves a stop in the path of the
different slides which changes the locks, yarn carriers, etc.

                     The Actual Narrowing Operation

It will be remembered that in narrowing by hand there were three lines
of movement of the decker or narrowing comb. But lines of movement
should not be confused with direction of movement. An object may be
moved in one line, but if moved back and forth on that line it would
move in two directions.

The three lines of movement are as follows: First, it is moved in a line
parallel with an extension of the line of a needle lengthwise, or same
as the arrows 1 and 2 in Fig. 82. We would move it on this line, and in
the direction of arrow 1 to bring the openings in the point of the
decker directly over or above the hooks of the needles. Second, it would
be moved up and down at right angles to its first movement, and in the
direction indicated by arrow 4 to place the openings in the decker
points on the hooks of the needles. With the hooks of the needles caught
in these openings the decker would move again on its first line, and in
the direction indicated by arrow 2 to the point where the latches are
above the loops. Then the deckers push the needles down on the same
line, but in the direction indicated by arrow 1 to the point where the
loops on the needles will close the latches and drop over the hooks on
to the decker points. Then the points raise up with the loops on them,
on the second line again, but in the direction indicated by arrow 3, to
clear the needle hooks.

Now we have the third line of movement, which is in toward the other end
of the needle plate, as indicated by arrow 5, the distance of one needle
space carrying the loops on the decker points. Then they move down on
the second line in the direction indicated by arrow 4, catch the needle
hooks in the openings of the decker points, draw back on first line,
direction of arrow 2 to the point where the loops will slip off the
decker points on to the needles again. The decker then raises up and
retires to its point of rest. This will leave one empty needle at the
end, which is drawn down out of working position by means which will be
explained later.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Front of Automatic Narrowing Machine.]

The knitting mechanism is now started in operation, and after putting on
the proper number of rounds it stops and the narrowing proceeds as
before. If this explanation of the movements of the decker has been
followed carefully by the reader, he will see that there are but three
lines of movement in the whole narrowing operation proper, though on two
of these lines the movement is in opposite directions at different
times. To do this automatically only three sources must be provided for
the several movements, as the opposite direction of movements on the
same lines come as a matter of course, otherwise there could be but one
movement in any direction on one line.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Back of Automatic Narrowing Machine Showing
Shaft Carrying Cams for Automatic Movements. View from Right End of

The source of all of these movements is the shaft upon which the bevel
gear (Figs. 75 and 81) is mounted and is designated by the number 9 in
Figs. 75, 79 and 80. It may be plainly seen in the illustrations with
its irregular surfaced cams which perform this work.

Figs. 79 and 80 are views of the back of the machine, both showing the
same parts, but Fig. 79 is a view looking from the right end, or end
upon which the driving mechanism is mounted, while Fig. 80 is a view
from the other or left end looking toward the driving wheel.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. Showing the Same Cam Shaft as Shown in Fig. 79
but from Left End of the Machine.]

                        Mounting of the Deckers

We will take up the manner of mounting the deckers and the auxiliary
parts through the medium of which the narrowing is done. Referring to
Fig. 77, the decker points may be seen at _a_, _a_, mounted in a clamp
in much the same manner as the hand deckers were mounted. The decker
points, however, are somewhat different from those used in the hand
decker, these latter being solid, either flat or round, while those on
the automatic machine are half-round or U-shaped, as shown in Fig. 76,
to facilitate placing them on the hooks of the needles.

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Gear Arrangement for Starting and Stopping the
Narrowing Mechanism.]

Before proceeding any further, it should be understood that the
narrowing is done on both sets of needles, front and back, by two
separate deckers, therefore most of the parts connected with this
operation that are shown and described, except the cam shaft 9 and its
appurtenances, are in duplicate on front and back of the machine. The
decker point clamp is a part of a yoke which is clamped on the two rods
_b_ and _c_ (Fig. 77) tight enough to permit no play, yet not so tight
but that it will slide freely endwise on the two rods. There are four of
these on each side, front and back, or two for each independent pair of
plates and locks. The rods _b_ and _c_ run the whole length of the
machine and have no end movement, but _b_ is free to move up and down
vertically, while _c_ acts simply as a rocker shaft or pivot upon which
to swing the rod _b_, together with the clamp and decker _a_. The rod
_c_ is mounted through and near the end of the arm _d_, which in its
turn is mounted or pivoted on the rocker shaft 13, Fig. 78, where the
whole arm may be noted. In Fig. 73 the whole five arms that are on the
front of the machine may be seen. These arms are connected with a lever
beneath the needle plates and frame by two flexible straps shown at _f_,
Fig. 77. The lever to which the other end of these straps are attached
may be seen at 1, Fig. 80, also the extension of the arm _d_, at _d_-1.
The spring which is attached to this extension with the other end
attached to a like extension on the opposite arm _d_, is shown at _d_-2.
This spring provides the energy to return the arms to, and hold them in
the position shown in Fig. 77, after the narrowing operation is

To get the endwise movement of the decker, or the movement we have
designated as 1 and 2 in Fig. 82, we will refer again to Fig. 80 and the
lever 1. This lever is pivoted on the shaft 12 and passes under the
shaft 9. At the point where it passes under to one side of the irregular
cam _d_-3 there is a stud with a roller projecting from one side which
comes under and in contact with the cam _d_-3. We have seen that there
is always an upward pull on this lever 1 through the springs _d_-2, and
the extension _d_-1, the arm proper _d_, and the straps _f_ (Fig. 77),
back down through the center of the machine to the inner end of lever 1,
Fig. 80.

Now it follows, that if the periphery of this cam _d_-3 is irregular,
and the spring _d_-2 always holds the pin with the roller on the side of
lever 1, in close contact with the outside of this cam, then by having
the periphery vary, or at different distances from the center at
different points, the deckers may be moved to any point or held at any
point in a line lengthwise with the decker points by making the
irregularities at the proper place and at the proper distance from the

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Lines of Movement Necessary for Narrowing.]

The explanation of this movement applies to all of the automatic
movements for narrowing or fashioning on this machine. Inasmuch as all
these irregular cams for the different movements are mounted on this
same shaft 9, after once being set right they must always be in
synchronism unless the setting is disturbed by accident. We have seen
how the first movement is secured to bring the openings in the decker
points down to a point directly over the needle hooks. We have assumed
that they were in a line sidewise to begin with. Now we will see how the
second movement, or bringing the deckers down on to the hooks of the
needles after being moved directly over them, and lifting them off
again, is accomplished.

                       Second and Third Movements

Referring to Fig. 77, it has been explained how the decker points with
their clamp _a_ and yoke are mounted on the rods _b_ and _c_ in such a
manner that they will swing freely with the rod _c_ acting as a pivot.
Referring to Fig. 78, we find that the rods _c_ and _b_ have another
yoke at _i_, which is attached securely to these rods, with a short
extension toward the outside of the machine on which to attach the
connection rod _h_.

If we now turn to Fig. 79, we will find that the connection rod _h_
comes down and is attached at the other end to a lever at _j_. While, as
the reader may surmise, the connection rod _h_, Fig. 78, is on the front
of the machine, and the rod _h_, Fig. 79, is on the back, the
connections and manner of moving are the same. The lever to which this
connection rod _h_ (Fig. 79) is attached at _j_ is mounted on the shaft
13, so as to swing up and down freely, and has an extension on the other
side of the shaft from which there is another rod connecting it with the
inside end of lever 2.

This lever has the proper movements imparted to it through the pin and
roller, which may be plainly seen, resting on the periphery of an
irregular cam, just the same as has been explained for lever 1 for the
first movement, except that the pin and roller rest on the top of the
cam in this instance, while in the former case the pin and roller were
held firmly up against the bottom of the cam by a coil spring.

The third movement to carry the loops in toward the center one needle,
designated in Fig. 82 as 5, is a straight line movement and always in
one direction. But the movement as to distance must be more exact than
either of the others, therefore while the source of the movement is the
same as the others, an irregular cam on the cam shaft 9, the
transmission of it to the deckers is accomplished in an entirely
different manner.

                       Fine Adjustment Necessary

We will refer again to Fig. 77, where we will find two long flat steel
straps, one on each side of the machine, marked _e_ and _e_. It will be
noted that these straps are attached securely to the yokes that carry
the deckers, as well as to the crossheads or bridges marked _l_ and _m_.
Reaching across from one to the other and attached to these bridges is a
yoke the two arms of which are indicated by _k_ and _k_. These two arms
come together at the center in a hub through which runs the worm or
screw indicated by _g_.

On the outer end of this worm is a small spur gear which meshes into the
gear _h_. Back of the gear _h_ is a ratchet gear, and both are rigidly
attached to the small shaft and turn together. Now it is quite evident
that if the ratchet and gear marked _h_ are turned in the right
direction, which would be the top toward the right, this would turn the
worm, which would move the yoke _k_ and _k_, together with the bridges
_l_ and _m_, also the straps _e_ and _e_, and they, of course, would
move the deckers. The principle of the worm or screw used to make this
movement permits an almost micrometer adjustment of the distance moved.

To find the method used to turn the ratchet gear and spur gear _h_, we
will refer again to Fig. 75, where the ratchet gear is marked _y_ and
its pawl _n_. This will hardly need an explanation, as the method of
working may be plainly seen by following out the pawl lever to the
connection rod _x_, and down to the lever 8, which is raised the proper
distance at just the proper time by the cam directly under it, and in
this manner turns the ratchet.

In narrowing, when it comes to the point where the decker is to be
placed on the needle hooks, it is imperative that the latches of those
needles on which the transferring is to be done are all open, otherwise
the decker will not catch the hook. Also after narrowing down one
needle, the empty needle must be drawn down out of the operating
position. The manner of doing this is as follows: The needles used in
this machine have an extension of the shank, and on the lower end of
this there is another butt as shown at _b_, Fig. 76. This extra butt is
there solely for the manipulation of the needles for this purpose. Just
before the decker is ready to drop on to the needle hooks, the needles
are pushed up part way to meet it by the hoe-shaped part designated by
the letter _o_ in Fig. 78. This hoe is attached to the block _p_, which
in its turn is attached to the long steel strap 17, then the whole is
mounted on a slide directly beneath the strap upon which it may slide
lengthwise of the machine.

The slide is attached to the connecting strap 19, the other end of which
is attached to the lever 20, therefore the hoe _o_ and the block _p_ may
be moved lengthwise of the machine by the strap 17, and the whole,
including the slide beneath and the connecting strap 19, may be moved up
and down on a line with the movement of the needles by swinging the
lever 20, which is pivoted on the rod 18. As the deckers make their
first movement down to align the openings over the needle hooks, the hoe
_o_ is moved upward by the lever 20, and, inasmuch as it is directly
under and contiguous to the lower butts of the needles, it will push
those needles up ahead of it to the point where the loops will open and
lie across the latches, thus leaving the needle hooks free to receive
the deckers. The hoe then retires while the deckers push the needles
down, but is used a number of times in the same manner to assist the
deckers in the manipulation of the needles during the narrowing
operation. In the meantime it is moved over toward the center of the
machine at the same time the deckers are, as it also is connected with
the yoke _k_ and _k_, Fig. 77.

As the deckers are finishing their part of the work, the hoe is moved
upward again and a hooked finger, which lies just at the right and is
almost wholly concealed by the hoe, hooks over the empty needle butt and
draws the needle down out of the operating position as the hoe retires
to the position shown.

The fabric photograph shown in Fig. 74 is part of a storm collar made
for a Shaker sweater. The wide part is that part of the collar that
covers from the top of the shoulder down to where the narrowing stops at
the center of the breast. The narrow strip is a part of the border on
the front opening upon which is placed the buttons and button-holes. It
is narrowed down five needles, with four rounds between in the first
part, while the last part has nine narrowings with one round between.

On this machine, while the narrowing is all automatic, after each
garment or part is finished it is necessary to reset the machine by
hand, that is, push up those needles that have been narrowed down, move
the deckers and hoe back to the starting point by turning the crank _i_,
Fig. 77, then move the carriages across and put in either a comb, or a
hook made specially for this purpose, to hold down the stitches on the
needles just pushed up into working position. Letter _j_ indicates the
yarn leading into the yarn carrier. The numbers 15 in Figs. 79 and 80
indicate the board or stand upon which the yarn is placed for use in the


                              CHAPTER XII

                             PATTERN CARDS

SO far as the knitting mechanism is concerned, the flat jacquard machine
is designed and constructed along the same lines as the ordinary flat
machine, with the card cylinder for cards and the other necessary
appurtenances added. Fig. 83 is a general view of a Dubied jacquard
machine, which is semi-automatic but operated by hand. This illustration
and the other photographs for this chapter were secured through the
courtesy of D. Nusbaum & Co.

The card cylinder and cards are practically the same as used on the purl
stitch machine and explained in a former chapter, but obviously the
application must be somewhat different owing to the different
construction and manner of operating the needles in this machine.
Inasmuch as there are two sets of needles opposed one to the other, and
each set forms the stitches which show on their respective sides of the
fabric, it is possible and customary to make the designs in solid
colors, differing in this respect from the links and links or purl
stitch machine.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Dubied Automatic Jacquard Flat Bed Machine.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84. Back of Flat Jacquard Machine Showing a Set of
Cards, Mounted.]

The jacquard designed fabrics are usually made in what would, on an
ordinary machine, be the one and one rib or plain stitch. The tuck or
cardigan stitch is not resorted to to bring out the design as in some
other systems. Strictly speaking, however, the stitch is not what could
properly be called a rib stitch, but is a combination of a plain rib and
jersey stitch when made on the single jacquard, and is almost wholly of
the jersey stitch construction when made on the double jacquard where
the design is brought out on both sides of the fabric. The single
jacquard is so called when the jacquard arrangement is on one plate
only, usually the back one. The double jacquard machine is one which has
the jacquard attachment on both the front and back plates. With the
single jacquard the design can be brought out on one side of the fabric
only, while with the double jacquard the design may be brought out on
both sides of the fabric, but the colors would be reversed.

                        Type of Fabric Produced

Before going into the mechanical construction of the attachment we will
to some extent analyze the fabric to find out what must be done to
produce it. Referring to Fig. 87, which is a photographic reproduction
of a fabric made on the machine under discussion, it will be noted that
both the design and the ground are in solid colors. The rectangular
figures which might be called the design are in solid black, while the
squares, both the large ones and the small ones, which would be the
ground, are solid white. It should be understood that there are two yarn
carriers used in making this fabric, one for the white yarn and one for
the black, and that these carriers are changed every round; that is, one
round of white, and one round of black, alternating throughout the

Now inasmuch as we know that the fabric is made in the plain stitch, it
is quite obvious that in order to make this design means must be
provided to permit only those needles to knit which are making the white
ground on any course in which the carrier with the white yarn is being
used. Similarly only those needles making the black design must be
permitted to knit on the course in which the carrier with the black yarn
is used. The needles or wales, of course, run vertically in the fabric,
while the rectangular design is diagonal, therefore it is plain that the
number of needles or their relative positions must be changed each

In this fabric the design is brought out on one side only, the back
plate, and the needles on the opposite side or front plate are knitting
each time the carriage is moved across the machine as explained in
detail later. This may be plainly seen in Fig. 87, where the corner is
turned over to show the back of the fabric.

[Illustration: Fig. 85. Back and End of Jacquard Machine Showing Details
of Necessary Movements.]

Now to find the method of selecting the proper needles at the proper
time we will refer first to Fig. 86, which is a photographic
reproduction of the cam system used in this machine; also to Fig. 90,
which is a drawing of a cross section of the needle plates. It will be
noted in Fig. 90 that there are two separate needle plates. The top one
is for the needles proper, while the lower one is for the auxiliary

These two plates are in perfect alignment, both as to the surface and
the needle tricks or slots. In the double jacquard the front plate would
be in two parts and a duplicate of the back plate, but in the single
jacquard the front side would have what is the upper plate on the back
side only, and would use the short needles as shown at _b_, Fig. 89.

[Illustration: Fig. 86. Construction and Arrangement of Cams and Locks
in Dubied Jacquard Machine.]

                             The Cam System

Referring now to the cam system shown in Fig. 86, it will be noted that
while in general appearance the upper and lower set of locks are
similar, the wing or stitch cam _l_ and _m_ are not only different in
shape from the lower wing cams _f_ and _g_, but they are set differently
in their relation to the V or rise cams _a_ and _c_.

The cams as shown are set in the proper position to make jacquard or
design work. The upper rise cams _c_, _d_ and _e_ are drawn up into the
plate out of working position, therefore those needles selected to
operate on any course must be raised by the lower rise cams _a_ and _b_.
The upper lock operates on the butts of the needles proper shown at _b_,
Fig. 90, while the lower lock operates upon the auxiliary needles shown
at _a_ in the same illustration. Now, then it is plain that the needles
proper will not be raised up, therefore cannot draw new loops or knit
unless they are raised by the auxiliary needles _a_, Fig. 90, which in
their turn are raised by the cams _a_ and _b_, Fig. 86. But it should be
noted that the auxiliary needles are drawn down below the point of the
rise cams _a_ on each course, as the wing cams _f_ and _g_ extend below
these corners, therefore, on every course, unless one of the wing cams
_f_ or _g_ is drawn up into the cam plate out of working position, all
of the auxiliary needles are drawn down out of working position and will
not operate on the next succeeding course unless put into working
position by other means.

These wing cams _f_ and _g_ are chamfered off on the outside, so that
any auxiliary needles pushed up above the lower end and into operating
position will slide under and raise them up into the cam plate. The
inner edge is a square corner consequently will, upon coming in contact
with the needle butts, draw them down out of the working position. The
auxiliary needles being a separate unit have no effect on the needles
proper on their downward movement, but must, of course, raise them on
the upward movement by coming in contact with the lower ends.

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Fabric Design Made on a Jacquard Machine.]

Those of the needles proper that are moved up into work are brought down
again and form new loops by the stitch cams _l_ and _m_, Fig. 86. The
small triangular cams _j_ and _k_ are for clearing the needles when a
very short stitch is being drawn by the stitch cams _l_ and _m_.

                        How Needles Are Selected

Now to show how the needles are selected we will first refer to Fig. 89,
which shows the needle proper at _b_ and the auxiliary needle at _a_.
The auxiliary needle has a joint in it as shown at _h_ to permit the
lower end _e_ to swing to the position shown by the dotted line _i_.

Fig. 90 shows the auxiliary needles in position with the card cylinder
and cards in place ready to push them up into operation. Those needles
which it is desired not to operate at all, such as the needles at the
end of the plate that may not be needed, are drawn down and the ends are
turned down to the point where they are at right angles to the plate, as
shown by the dotted line at _i_. When they are in this position the
cards cannot of course push them up into operating position. The short
nib that looks like a part of a needle, indicated at _f_, and the card
cylinder shown at _g_ are not a part of the mechanism under
consideration, but are another method of needle selection which will be
explained later.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. o-Black; x-White. Designs Shown in Fig. 87 Layed
Out on Cross Section Paper for Cutting Cards.]

Fig. 84 is a general view of the back of the machine showing a set of
cards on the card cylinder ready for work. Fig. 85 shows the mechanism
used to bring the cylinder with the cards into action. The cards and
cylinder need no distinguishing mark as they should be easily recognized
from what has gone before. The same thing applies to the auxiliary
needles just above, part of which are turned down to the point where
they cannot be put into operation.

Letter _j_ indicates the end of the shaft upon which the card cylinder
is mounted, and _c_ is the elongated opening in which it moves up and
down. This opening is on the same diagonal plane as the needle plates
and has its duplicate at the other end which carries the other end of
the card cylinder. The rocker shaft _d_ is mounted just under the card
cylinder and has two levers securely attached, the other ends of which
are connected to the card cylinder shaft, one at either end. On the
outer end of the rocker shaft _d_ is another lever indicated by the
letter _e_. This is connected to the camway _h_ through the extension
_k_. This camway is mounted in such a manner that it can be moved only
in one direction, and that direction is up and down diagonally or on the
same plane as the back needle plates.

As the carriage reaches the extreme end of its travel the pin _g_, which
is attached to the carriage, enters and follows the camway. Inasmuch as
the cams are set on an incline this pin or plunger must raise the camway
together with the end of the lever _e_. Through the rocker shaft _d_ and
the two levers before mentioned as connecting the rocker shaft with the
card cylinder, this will bring the card cylinder up to the lower edge of
the auxiliary needle plate. This action will of course push all those
needles into action that come in contact with the particular card that
may be on that side of the card cylinder at the time. Where the openings
are cut in this card the needles will pass through and have no contact,
therefore will not be pushed up into working position.

As the card cylinder returns to its lowest position it is turned a
quarter turn by the stationary hooked dog _a_, which catches a tooth, of
which there are four, of a ratchet wheel which is also securely attached
to the card cylinder shaft. In this way the card cylinder is turned a
quarter turn each time it is moved up to the auxiliary plate, which
brings a new card into position to make another selection of needles for
the next course.

Letter _f_ indicates a counterweight which, as will be noted, is
attached to the rocker shaft _d_ to assist in returning the card
cylinder to its lowest position and hold it there after its return.
Letter _i_ indicates an ordinary pattern chain on which the proper studs
are attached to change the yarn carriers automatically.

                       Three Units May Be Racked

In this type of jacquard machine there are three separate and distinct
units which may be racked or moved at right angles to the movement of
the needles. They are, first, the needle plate proper which racks the
same as the ordinary flat machine; second, the auxiliary needle plate;
and third, the card cylinder together with the cards. The racking of the
needle plate proper is necessary to make those designs in which a rack
in the fabric is required, but the other two are chiefly a matter of
convenience to save making up cards. There are many designs that may be
made with one or four cards, or even without any cards, by manipulation
of these racking movements, where otherwise quite a string of cards
would be required.

[Illustration: Fig. 89. Needles Proper and Auxiliary Needles Used in
Jacquard Machine.]

We will take for example any design consisting of a small block or check
within the limits of the needles the auxiliary plate will rack over.
Such a design may be made without cards in this way. Say we wish to make
a black and white check four needles wide and four courses high. We
would put up into operating position four auxiliary needles and draw
four down, alternating in this way with four up and four down for the
width of the fabric. Then, referring to Fig. 86, we would draw up out of
operating position as shown the rise cams _c_, _d_ and _e_, also the
wing cams _f_ and _g_. This would permit the alternating four auxiliary
needles we have left in operating position to always stay in this
position. Now, after putting on one round or two courses of, let us say,
white we would rack the auxiliary plate over four needles and then put
on a round of black; rack back the four needles and put on a round of
white, rack the other way four needles and put on a round of black. If
we could see the fabric made thus far we would find that we had a row of
blocks or checks four needles wide and four courses high. For although
we have put on four courses each of the black and white, which makes
eight courses in all, each color has been put on its own group of four
needles; therefore the whole will build up the fabric but four courses.
If we continued to operate the machine in the same manner we would get
alternate black and white stripes, each four needles wide.

To break them up into checks or squares we would at this point have to
either skip racking once while continuing the change of carriers each
round, or miss changing carriers once while continuing the rack of four
needles each round. This change must of course be made every four rounds
throughout the length of the fabric, or as long as it is desired to make
the check. It should be remembered that it is the auxiliary plate that
is racked in this case, and not the needles proper; therefore the rack
does not show in the fabric. But the shifting of these alternate sets of
four auxiliary needles each round causes alternate groups of four of the
needles proper to knit, the set which knits depending on which way the
auxiliary plate is racked.

This same check design may be made with one card properly cut by
preventing the card cylinder from turning and racking, or moving the
card cylinder back and forth four needles in the same manner as the
auxiliary plate was moved. Or it may be made with four cards without
moving either the plate or card cylinder. In this case it would be
necessary to use all the auxiliary needles and lower the wing cams _f_
and _g_, Fig. 86, into action.

[Illustration: Fig. 90. Cross Section of Needle Plates and Card

In making a fabric on a double jacquard machine which shows the design
on one side only, it is good practice to put four cards on the front
cylinder properly cut to put alternate needles into operation on
alternate courses, in order to prevent putting more courses on the front
plate than on the back. Or to explain it in another way, the needle in
the back plate that makes the white part of the design knit only on the
rounds on which the white thread carrier is used, and the needles that
make the black parts operate only when the carrier with the black yarn
is in use.

Now it is plain that if all the needles in the front plate are permitted
to knit each round we would have approximately twice as many courses on
the front as on the back. This is obviated, as stated before, by using
cards on the front card cylinder to push up into operation every
alternate needle when moving the carriage say from left to right, and
permitting these to remain idle and pushing those not operated on this
course into operation on the return course from right to left. While
this is desirable it is not essential, for it cannot be done on a single
jacquard, though there are many nice designs and fabrics made on this

                         Explanation of Pattern

Fig. 87 shows a fabric made on a double jacquard machine with both card
cylinders in operation. Before going any further it should be understood
that both the front and back card cylinders can be operated and make a
new selection of needles at the end of each course, or when the carriage
is at the end of its travel at both ends of the machine. This design is
made by operating the card cylinders in this way. Fig. 88 is a layout of
the design shown in Fig. 87. It is one complete repeat of the design as
shown by the square box in Fig. 87. All the rest of the fabric is simply
a repetition of this, but when grouped together on a large piece of
fabric they appear entirely different.

As may be seen in Fig. 88, it would take 36 cards to make this design.
In cutting the cards for this we would cut out the places shown blank
and leave the card whole to push the needles into operation in the
places marked by an _x_ or an _o_. This cutting would of course have to
be repeated the width of the fabric, or the length of each card.

The principle as explained is used on all makes of flat jacquard
knitting machines, but the method used to put the needles into operation
by the cards differs with the different builders. For example, one
popular method is shown in Fig. 90, where the card cylinder is placed
directly below the under surface of the auxiliary plate as shown at _g_,
and acts on a short nib with the butt turned downward and extending
through the plate as shown at _f_. With this method it is customary to
use a long needle with two butts as shown in Fig. 89 at _f_, instead of
the short one with an auxiliary needle. Also with this method the needle
plate would be a single wide plate with the tricks or needle slots cut
gradually deeper as they reached the lower edge, so that at the point
where the lower butts of the needles come the trick is deep enough so
that the needle may be depressed to bring the top of the lower butts
flush, or just below, the top surface of the needle plate. When
operating the machine these butts always remain in this position,
therefore will not knit unless raised up and put into operation by the

If we should cut a set of cards just the reverse of the set laid out in
Fig. 88, that is, cut out where these are not, and leave uncut where
these are cut, and put this set on the front card cylinder and operate
them in conjunction with and opposite to the back set, we would have the
same design on both sides of the fabric, but the colors would be




 Automatic Control, 60, 67

 Automatic Drop Locks, 30

 Automatic Drop V Cams, 31

 Automatic Jacquard, Purl Stitch Machine, 100

 Automatic Narrowing or Fashioning Machine, 113

 Automatic Single Lock Machine, 57

 Automatic Widening Machine, 78


 Bridge, 59

 Bridges, 91, 126


 Cams, 18, 31, 115

 Cams, Difference Between Dubied and Lamb System, 49

 Cam, Explanation of, 18

 Cams, Guard, 49

 Cam Plate, 32

 Cams, Purl Stitch Machine, 90, 103

 Cam, Racking, 38

 Cams, Stitch, 74

 Cam System, Jacquard, 134

 Cams, V, 31

 Cams, Widening Machine, 81

 Cams, Wing, 135

 Carriage, 18

 Carriage, Purl Stitch Machine, 90, 96

 Cardigan, Half, 29

 Cardigan, Full, 29

 Cardigan, Half, How Made, 30, 47

 Cardigan, Full, How Made, 33, 48

 Cards, 106, 129, 136

 Card Cylinder, 106, 129, 136

 Cards, to Cut, 110, 140

 Changing the Stitch, 63, 74, 96, 103

 Changing Yarn Carriers, 64, 73, 75, 96

 Claes & Flentje Machine, 113

 Counter, 59, 89

 Counting Cylinder, 67

 Counting Cylinder Stops, 69

 Cotton-back, 29, 46, 75

 Cotton-back Sweater, 44, 48

 Collar, Shaped, 40

 Comb, Narrowing, 51

 Comb, Set up, 52

 Chain Drive, 45, 57, 100

 Chain, Controlling, 57, 59

 Chain, Racking, 59, 64

 Chain, Pattern, 59

 Control of Yarn, 70

 Course, 10

 Crank, 57

 Crank Drive, 45

 Crochet Stitch, 13

 Crosswise of the Fabric, 10

 Crochet Fabric, 13

 Cut Pressers, 29

 Cylinder or Drum, Counting, 67, 100

 Cylinder Divisions, 68

 Cylinder Stops, 69

 Cylinder, to Stop, 70

 Cylinder for Jacquard System, 103

 Cylinder, Card, 106, 136


 Decker, 51, 122

 Design Work, 33, 35

 Designs, Racked, 42

 Designs, Purl Stitch Machine, 96, 97, 100

 Designs, Basket Weave, 97

 Designs, Diagonal Diamond, 99

 Designing, Jacquard System, 106, 109

 Designs, Jacquard Rib, 129

 Designs, Laying Out, 109

 Designs Without Cards, 138

 Designed Fabric, 140

 Diagonal Stitch, 40

 Double Lock, 46, 73

 Double Lock Machine, 44, 46

 Double Jacquard, 132, 140

 Drive, Chain, 45

 Drive, Crank, 45

 Drop Locks, 30

 Drop Stitch, 22

 Drum, See Cylinder

 Dubied Machine, 46, 57, 78, 88


 Elasticity in Knit Fabrics, 15

 Elasticity of Rib Fabrics, 26


 Fabric, Rib, 10

 Fabric, Jersey, 10

 Fabric, Flat, 10

 Fabric, Crochet, 13

 Fabric, Tubular, 24

 Fabric, Face, 33

 Fabric, Two-Faced, 44, 46

 Fabric, Tension, 85

 Fabric, Jacquard, 132

 Fabric, Designed, See Designs

 False Knop, 63, 74

 Fancy Stitches, See Designs

 Fashioned Goods, 51

 Fashioning a Sleeve, 53, 78

 Fashioning Machine, Automatic, 78, 113

 Fibers, Resiliency of, 15

 Fingers, 69, 127

 Flat Fabrics, 23

 Flat Goods, 10, 26

 Frame, 31

 French Rack, 63, 74

 Full Cardigan, 29

 Full Cardigan, How Made, 33, 48


 Gib, 18

 Guards, 95


 Hand Knitting, 12

 Half Cardigan, 29

 Half Cardigan, How Made, 30, 32, 47

 Hoe, 127


 Invention of Knitting Machine, 9, 16, 17


 Jacks, 20, 86, 105

 Jacks, Hump or Head, 93

 Jacks, Clutch, 94

 Jacquard, 29

 Jacquard Purl Stitch Machine, 100

 Jacquard System, 106

 Jacquard Machine, Flat, 129

 Jacquard, Rib Designs, 129

 Jacquard, Single, 129, 140

 Jacquard, Double, 132, 140

 Jacquard Fabric, 132

 Jersey Fabric, 10, 23, 74

 Jersey Fabric, Range of, 25

 Jersey Stitch, Purl Stitch Machine, 96


 Knitting Machine, Invention of, 9, 16, 17

 Knitted Fabric, 13

 Knitted Fabric, Construction of, 9

 Knitting, Hand, 12


 Latch Needles, 16

 Latch Needles, Invention of, 17

 Latch Brush, 22

 Latch Guards, 95

 Latch Openers, 103

 Lamb System, 30, 47

 Lengthwise of the Fabric, 10

 Length of Fabric, Limits, 10

 Levers, Changing, 59

 Lineal Feet per Minute, 45

 Links and Links Machine, See Purl Stitch Machine

 Loop, 10

 Loop, Study of, 11

 Locks, 30


 Machine, Knitting, Invention of, 9, 16, 17

 Machine Knitting, Difference from Hand, 16

 Machine Speed, 21, 45

 Machine, Double Lock, 44, 46

 Machine, Single Lock, 44, 57

 Machine, Automatic Widening, 78

 Machine, Automatic Narrowing, 113

 Machine, Purl Stitch, 86

 Machine, Jacquard, 100, 129


 Narrowing Comb, 51, 122

 Narrowing, How Done, 53

 Narrowing Machine, Automatic, 113

 Narrowing, Lines of Movement, 118

 Needles, Hand, 12

 Needles, Latch, Machine, 16, 56, 83

 Needles, Auxiliary, 135

 Needle Speed, 21

 Needles, Purl Stitch, 87

 Needles, Automatic Narrowing Machine, 126

 Needles, Automatic Widening Machine, 80, 83

 Needle Selection, Jacquard System, 132, 136

 Needle Springs, 20, 80, 83

 Needle Plates, 18, 31, 80, 86, 88, 105

 Needle Plates, Jacquard, 134


 Pattern Wheels, 29

 Pattern Chain, 59

 Pawls, Racking, 65

 Piping, 43

 Plating, 50

 Plating Yarn Carrier, 50, 111

 Production, 44

 Purl Stitch Machine, 86, 88

 Purl Stitch Fabric, 87

 Purl Stitch Machine, Jacquard, 100


 Rack Stitch, 29, 35

 Rack Stitch, How Made, 36

 Rack, French, 63, 74

 Rack, Both Sides of Fabric, 41

 Racked Collar, 40

 Racking Chain, 59, 64

 Racking Cam, 38, 65

 Racking Mechanism, 65

 Racking Pawls, 65

 Racking Cam Ratchet, 66

 Racking, Purl Stitch Machine, 89

 Rib Fabric, 10, 26, 27

 Rib Fabric, Elasticity of, 26

 Rib Fabric, Varieties of, 29

 Rib Stitch, 1 and 1, 2 and 2, etc., 96

 Rib, 2 and 2, Purl Stitch Machine, 98, 100

 Rules, 97


 Seams on Fashioned Work, 54

 Selective System, 33

 Selvedge Edge, 41, 54, 72

 Set Up Comb, 52

 Shaped Collar, 40

 Shog or Shogged, 36

 Speed, 21, 45

 Springs, U-shaped Needle, 20, 80

 Springs, Yarn Take-up, 72

 Sprocket Roller, 59, 65

 Sinker Loop, 10

 Single Lock Machine, 44, 57

 Single Jacquard, 129, 140

 Sleeve, Fashioning, 53

 Slots, 17, 18

 Stops, Counting Cylinder, 69

 Stops, Yarn Carrier, 71, 84

 Stitch, 10

 Stitch Cams, 74, 91, 103

 Stitch, Drop, 22

 Stitch Pins, 74

 Stitch, Rack, 29, 35, 36, 41

 Stitch, Changing, 63, 73, 74, 103

 Stitches on Purl Stitch Machine, 96

 Striping, 64

 Studs, Chain, 60, 65

 Studs, Heights, 63

 Studs, Tension, 72


 Take-up Roller, 59

 Textile Fibers, Resiliency of, 15

 Tension Stud, 72

 Tension on Fabric, 85

 Tension for Yarn Take-up Spring, 72

 Tricks, 17, 18, 105

 Tripping Finger, 69

 Tubular Fabric, 24, 26, 74

 Tubular Rib Fabric, 26

 Tuck Stitch, 29

 Tuck Stitch, How Made, 30

 Two-faced Fabric, 44, 46


 V Cams, 31


 Wale, 10, 30

 Weights, 18, 52, 59, 80

 Widening Operation, 55

 Widening Machine, 78

 Width of Fabric, Needles Counted, 54

 Width of Fabric, Limitation, 10

 Work Hook, 52, 55


 Yarn Carrier, 21, 59, 70

 Yarn Carrier, Plating, 50, 111

 Yarn Carrier, Changing, 64, 73, 75, 96

 Yarn Carrier Stops, 71, 84

 Yarn Control, 70

 Yarn Take-up Spring, 72

 Yoke, 59, 126


 Zig-Zag Stitch, 29

 Zig-Zag Stitch, How Made, 39



                        Flat Knitting Machines,
                       Links and Links Machines,

                     Hand and Full Automatic Power

                      Built by Edward Dubied & Co.
                         Neuchatel, Switzerland


                         Acknowledged by Users
                         Experts and Judges as

                               “THE BEST”

                        Dubied Machinery Company
                             E. O. SPINDLER

          139 Franklin St. Corner West Broadway New York City

                  SOLE AGENTS FOR U. S. A. AND CANADA


                            FOR QUALITY USE

                             Latch Needles

                 and eliminate serious needle troubles

                          No Gauge Too Coarse

                            MADE IN U. S. A.
                             THE CAW BRAND
                           BY AMERICAN LABOR

                           No Gauge Too Fine

           The materials used are the best obtainable, while
              the workmanship is all that can be desired.

                   We supply more sweater mills than
                      any other manufacturer—Why?

                    (It will pay you to investigate)

                    Standard styles carried in stock
                      Send for samples and prices


                          CHAUNCEY A. WILLIAMS

                      Manchester    New Hampshire

                          Maker of “CAW” Brand

    Philadelphia Office: 40 South Seventh Street, Rooms 304 and 305


                  Textile Machine Works, Reading, Pa.

   The European War has proved conclusively that the United States no
                             longer depends
    on Europe for Full Fashioned Hosiery and Full Fashioned Knitting


These machines are the most productive and durable made, and are
successfully operated by nearly all the Full Fashioned Hosiery
Manufacturers in the United States




               This is one of the many types of machines
               used in the art of knitting. Other special
              machines have been designed and developed in
                          the Grosser Plants.

               Should any problem of knitting puzzle you,

                    The Grosser Knitting Machine Co.

                      260 West Broadway, New York

                            WE SPECIALIZE IN

          Flat Knitting Machines—For Hand and Power Operation

         Full Fashioned Hosiery Machines—For Ladies’ Hose, etc.

        Warp Knitting Machines—Raschel, Chain and Milanese Type

           Finishing Machines—Such as Loopers, Seamers, etc.

             Needles and Supplies—For All Machines Handled



                            ESTABLISHED 1838

                               Makers of

                         The Merrow High Speed
                        Overseaming, Overedging,
                            and Shell Stitch


                          For Seaming, Hemming
                               and Edging


                         All Kinds Knitted and
                             Woven Fabrics

                             For Efficiency

                                It Means
                           Maximum Production
                            Minimum Expense
                       Unexcelled Quality of Work

                         The Merrow Machine Co.

                7 Laurel Street—Hartford, Conn.—U. S. A.


                           Three Departments


                        Specializing for Service

                  *       *       *       *       *

                    Textile Wet Finishing Machinery


                             Fulling Mills

                           (Patented Type M)

                          More Fulling in less
                        “Nips” or “Trap Tears.”

                            Booklet No. 1220



             Equipment adapted to individual requirements.
                         Interchangeable parts.

                            Booklet No. 221


                              Pusher Mills

                             Felts and Knit
                           Goods in garment.

                              Circular 121


                              Reel Machine

                           Bleaching, Dyeing,
                           Tinting or Washing
                          without tangling or
                           straining fabrics.

                            Booklet No. 1119

                  *       *       *       *       *


                        “Rodney Hunt” Wood Rolls

                         Superior Quality Rolls
                    “Registered” for Maximum Service

                     Send for Standard Order Sheets

                  *       *       *       *       *

                         Water Power Equipment


                    Vertical and Horizontal Turbines

                      For Large and Small Streams.
                     High returns from varying flow
                               of water.

                      Water Controlling Apparatus

                   “Standardized” designs. Penstocks,
                     Flumes, Gates and Gate Hoists,
                    Screens, Valves and accessories.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        RODNEY HUNT MACHINE CO.

               99 Mill Street      Orange, Massachusetts


                             Eastman Cutter


                  Will enable you to save from thirty
                to forty per cent in your cutting costs.
                     We can prove this to you by a
                          free demonstration.

                          Eastman Machine Co.

                             Buffalo, N. Y.

                            Branch Offices:

                                NEW YORK
                              816 Broadway

                        315 W. Van Buren Street

                            87 Summer Street

                          604 Elwood Building

                          110 N. Sixth Street

                        417 W. Baltimore Street

                        162 W. Jefferson Avenue

                      1234 Superior Avenue, N. E.

                               ST. LOUIS
                           1420 Olive Street

                              NEW ORLEANS
                         210 Godehaux Building

                             SAN FRANCISCO
                            86 Third Street


                              F-A Quality

                        “The Standard for over a
                         Quarter of a Century”

                               and NARROW
                              LOOM FABRICS

                       Friedberger-Aaron Mfg. Co.

                       MILLS AND GENERAL OFFICES:

               18th and Courtland Streets :: Philadelphia


                             Textile World
                     the world’s textile authority


            Every manufacturer meets problems in
            the operation of a mill which are difficult
            of solution. The chances are 99 in 100 that
            the same problem has been encountered
            and overcome by others, and here is where
            TEXTILE WORLD, through its Questions
            and Answers Department, saves hours of
            time and dollars of waste for mill men.

            Each year over 3,000 such practical
            problems are answered by TEXTILE
            WORLD’S technical staff. This service is
            free to subscribers. Answers in every case
            are by personal correspondence. A number
            of the best ones are published each week
            but the inquirer’s name is always confidential.

            TEXTILE WORLD is the technical and
            market authority of the industry—knit
            goods markets, yarn and raw material
            quotations. Published every Saturday.

                             $4.00 per year

           Canada, $1.00 extra postage; Foreign, $3.00 extra

             Also American Directory of the Knitting Trade


                       BRAGDON, LORD & NAGLE CO.
                    334 Fourth Avenue      New York


                By the time this publication is read we
                expect to have ready for the market a
                New Coning Machine. The product
                of this machine has several novel
                features which we believe will prove
                of particular interest to you

                Universal Winding Company

                Boston      Massachusetts


 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was corrected.
    ○ Unbalanced quotation marks were left as the author intended.
    ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
    ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
      when a predominant form was found in this book.
    ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_);
      text that was bold by “equal” signs (=bold=).

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