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Title: Climate and Health in Hot Countries and the Outlines of Tropical Climatology - A Popular Treatise on Personal Hygiene in the Hotter Parts - of the World, and on the Climates that will be met within - them.
Author: Giles, G. M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  Transcriber’s Notes

  Text printed in bold face in the original work has been transcribed
  between tildes, as in ~text~. Italics text has been transcribed as
  _text_. Small capitals have been replaced by ALL CAPITALS.

  More Transcriber’s Notes may be found at the end of this text.



  CLIMATE AND HEALTH
  IN
  HOT COUNTRIES
  AND
  THE OUTLINES OF TROPICAL CLIMATOLOGY

  _A Popular Treatise on Personal Hygiene in the Hotter Parts
  of the World, and on the Climates that will be
  met with within them_

  BY
  LIEUT.-COL. G. M. GILES, M.B., F.R.C.S.
  _Indian Medical Service (Retd.)_

  AUTHOR OF
  “A HANDBOOK OF THE GNATS OR MOSQUITOES,” “KALA AZAR,” AND
  “BERI-BERI,” &C., &C.

  NEW YORK
  WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY
  MDCCCCV



INTRODUCTION.


A hundred years ago a prolonged residence in the Tropics was regarded
with well-founded horror. The best the white settler in the lands of the
sun dared hope for was “a short life and a merry one,” but too often the
merriment was sadly lacking.

When Clive’s father made interest to get his son a writership under “Old
John Company,” and packed off the troublesome lad to India, he probably
regarded it as a last resource, and felt much as if he had signed the
youth’s doom; but an age that hanged for sheep-stealing, or less, was
like to be stern in its dealings with its children.

We know now that what the father took for vice was but evidence of the
superabundant vitality of a genius, and being one, Clive naturally
possessed the originality to modify his habits to his new surroundings,
and so survived to become an Empire-builder and hero. Nor was the case
exceptional, for looking back on the history of our great Indian
dependency, one cannot fail to be struck with the high average ability
of the few who survived to attain leading positions.

Furlough to Europe was almost impossible, and the hills were unknown,
but in spite of this, many of these seasoned veterans who had learned
their lesson lived, in the land of their adoption, to a green old age.
But the rank and file, who could not or would not learn, died off like
rotten sheep; and to this day it is the young and inexperienced, who
have as yet not learned to adapt and protect themselves, who fall the
readiest victims. At home it is, I believe, generally recognised that at
the age of 26 a man is rather past his best from the athletic point of
view, and it is hardly to be supposed that he is not equally at his
fittest before that age, simply because he has shifted his domicile a
couple of thousand miles to the south; but so fatal is the want of
caution and intolerance of precaution inherent in early manhood, that
most authorities recommend that, if possible, emigration to a hot
climate should be postponed till the age of 25. This obstinate
determination to carry to tropical parts habits of life suitable only to
the more temperate parts of Europe was carried in old times to an almost
incredible extent.

Now and again, in the guest-chamber of some native noble’s house, one
may come across quaint old paintings and engravings which show our great
grandfathers fighting or playing cricket in exactly the same costume as
their contemporaries at home. No alteration whatever was made in the
soldier’s dress, and his officers duelled, drank, and gambled in the
same old Ramillies wigs that led such portentous gravity to those
charming discussions with the enemy as to who should “fire first.” Even
the earlier files of the _Illustrated London News_ show the same things,
and looking at these old pictures, the wonder is not so much that many
succumbed as that any survived. Even in Europe the conditions of
military service were terribly unhealthy, and when transplanted to the
Tropics the mortality was such as to give to India and other hot
countries an evil reputation which they have not yet lived down.

The dire struggle of the Indian Mutiny led to the first attempts to
clothe and treat the soldier in a somewhat more rational fashion, and
since then great improvements have been effected; but a great deal more
remains to be done, especially in the matter of utilising our recently
gained knowledge of the causation of malaria, before our military
statistics can be expected to show how little this evil reputation is
due to the climate itself, and how much has really been caused by human
misdirection. No amount of sanitary improvement can be expected to
render Bombay a comfortable place of residence in the dog days, and
apart from localities at considerable elevations, where the climate is
really temperate, it is hopeless to expect that anything in the way of
actual colonisation can succeed in the climates with which we are
dealing; but with due care and attention to sanitary laws, as modified
by the altered conditions, there is no reason why the rates of sickness
and mortality should be much more formidable than elsewhere.

In the following pages the writer has endeavoured to put into popular
form the principal points of personal hygiene as applied to hot
countries, and as they are intended mainly for the non-professional
reader, all technical terms have been, as far as possible, avoided, and
words in popular use, such as germs, &c., have been substituted for the
more exact nomenclature of science. Should any of his medical colleagues
care to read a merely popular work, they can easily supply for
themselves, in place of these vague, popular words, the more precise
terminology in use amongst ourselves.

The climates of the hotter parts of the world vary even more widely than
those of the temperate zone, so that it is often impossible to offer
suggestions applicable to all of them; and on this account it is
extremely important that the intending resident or visitor to them
should be able to ascertain what is the exact nature of the climatic
conditions with which he will have to cope, so that it is absolutely
essential to include within the scope of a work like the present some
account of the climates of the various countries included in the
enormous area under consideration. On this account the little book has
been divided into two distinct parts, the first of which is devoted to
personal tropical hygiene, while the second, which deals with climate,
is necessarily mainly a dry mass of tabulated information, of which only
the few pages devoted to the country he proposes to visit is likely to
interest the individual reader.

The inclusion of information of the sort is, however, quite essential,
as it is by no means easily accessible, and, as a matter of fact,
scarcely exists, except in the form of the official records of the
various meteorological observatories, so that when collecting data for
the compilation of this second part, or appendix, on tropical climates,
the writer was a good deal surprised to find that he was engaged in the
preparation of what is really a pioneer work on the subject in the
English language.

This being the case, it has been thought well to publish these outlines
of tropical climatology also in a separate form for the use of the
professional reader who may not care to be burdened with a booklet on
health treated from the popular point of view; a step which has further
necessitated that the paging and indexing of the two parts should be
kept separate from each other, a plan which, in view of the moderate
dimensions of the book, might otherwise have appeared rather
superfluous.



LIST OF DRUGS, &c., MENTIONED IN THE TEXT.


  _Bicarbonate of soda._

  _Bismuthi salicyl._, in tabuloids of grains x. each.

  _Book of litmus_ paper.

  _Boracic acid_, in powder.

  _Calomel_, in tabuloids of ¹⁄₂ grain each.

  _Carbolic acid_, with sufficient glycerine added to keep it in a fluid
  condition.

  _Castor oil._

  _Castor oil with resorcin_:--

  ℞ Ol. ricini   ℥viii.
  Resorcin       ʒii.

  Mix, and dissolve the resorcin by standing the bottle in hot water.

  _Citrate of potash._

  _Easton’s syrup_, put up in a bottle marked to its dosage.

  _Ether sulphuric._ This drug is too volatile for storage in the
  ordinary way in the Tropics and so should be put up in glass capsules
  each holding a drachm.

  _“Fever” or diaphoretic mixture_:--

  ℞ Liq. ammon. acetatis fortior, B.P., 1885      ʒss.
    Sp. eth. nitrosi                              ♏xx.
    Potas. nitratis                               gr. i.
    Water                          to ʒii for each dose.

  Dose.--To be put up in a bottle graduated to that dosage containing 8
  oz. of the mixture, and taken diluted with four or five times its
  quantity of water.

  _Goa ointment_:--

  Goa powder        } āā ʒss.
  Acid salicylic    }
  Lanolin             ad ℥i.

  _Gregory’s powder._

  _Hydrochloric acid_, preferably in the dilute form.

  _Opium_, in tabuloids of 1 grain each.

  The “Patna” drug is preferable as a sedative before the administration
  of ipecacuanha.

  _Paint for “Dhobi’s itch”_:--

  Liquor iodi fortior }
  Pure carbolic acid  } _partes æquales ad_ ℥ii.
  Glycerine           }

  _Perchloride of mercury_, in tabuloids:--

  ¹⁄₄₀ grain } for internal administration.
  ¹⁄₆₄ grain }
  2¹⁄₂ grain “soloids” for compounding an antiseptic solution.

  _Permanganate of potash_, put up in packets of 2 oz. each, wrapped in
  waterproof paper, for disinfecting wells.

  _Phenacetin_; tabuloids of grains v. each.

  _Phenyle_, “Little’s soluble.”

  _Pills for hill diarrhœa_ and similar disturbances of the bowel:--

  ℞ Euonymini     }
  Pil. hydrargyri } āā grain i.
  Pulv. ipecac.   }

  _Pulv. hydrargyri cum creta_, popularly known as grey powder.

  _Pulv. ipecacuanhæ_, in tabuloids of 5 grains each.

  _Quinine sulphate_ (or hydrochloride) _in powder_. The cork should be
  fitted with a small wooden cup, to measure 5 grains approximately.

  _Resorcin_, in tabuloids of grains v. each.

  _Thymol_, in tabuloids of grains x. each.

  _Tinct. camphoræ composita_, popularly known as “paregoric elixir.”



INDEX TO PART I., CLIMATE AND HEALTH IN HOT COUNTRIES.

[_For Index to Part II., “Outlines of Tropical Climatology,” see end of
volume._]


  Abdominal chills, danger of, and methods of protection from, 28, 32,
  144-146, 149; infantile, 153
  Aerated waters--
    Cholera, safety of drinking, in outbreak of, 136; manufacture of,
    neglect of necessary precautions in, 45-47; home manufacture of,
    47-48
  Africa, _Bilharzia_ prevalent in, 184
  Africa, South--
    Camping out in, 83
    Clothing in, 25; suitable head-dress, 170
    Sleeping sickness of, 164, 165
    Sunstroke rare in, 166
    mentioned, 113
  Air, disinfecting powers of, 162
  Aladdin’s Palace, 8
  Alcohol, 62, 147
  Allahabad, water supply of, 37
  Alum--
    Drinking water purified by, 43, 137, 138
    Injuriousness of, in baking powder, 59
    Rice, cooking of, used in, 60-61
  America--
    Head-dress in, 29, 171
    North, mosquitoes in, 101
  “American” cotton drill--
    Tent manufacture, for, 85
    Unsuitability of, for hot climates, 26
  “Anglo-Indian gauze,” 23
  Animals infected by plague, 156; sacredness of, in India, 156
  Ankles, protection of, against mosquito bites, 117
  _Anopheles_ mosquitoes--
    Characteristics of, 102-104
    Eggs of, figure of, 95
    Larvæ of, 4, 97-99
    Nets protecting against, 124
  Antipyrin, use of, in malaria, 128
  Ants, white, 6, 14, 18
  Apples, avoidance of, during hot weather, 58
  Assam, 182; plan of houses in, 5; protection against leeches in
  riding, 29
  Asses’ milk for feeding infants, 50, 152-153
  Australia--
    Bladder worm disease in, 184
    Head covering in, 29
    Tape worm parasites in meat in, 55

  Bacon fat, nutritive value of, 79
  Baids, or native doctors, 126
  Baking powders, ingredients of, 59
  Bamboo matting, use of, for building purposes, 5
  Bancroft, Dr., 100
  Barracks in India, advisability of protecting against mosquitoes, 122
  Basel Mission, Cannanore, fabrics manufactured by, 27, 28
  Beef tea, 62
  Bengali, 14, 145
  Benger’s food, 149, 154
  Bhindi, the, 58
  _Bhisti_ (Mahomedan water carriers) unclean methods of, 38-39;
  character of, 39-40
  Bhraman, 138
  Bile, functions of, and relation to dysentery, 143
  _Bilharzia_, 184
  Bismuth, salicylate of, administration of, in infantile diarrhœa, 151
  Blackwater fever, 127
  Bladder worm, 183-184
  Blood-worm disease, 90, 93, 97, 183
  Blue pill, 150
  Boer felt hats, 170-171
  Boils--
    Perchloride of mercury lotion a preventive against, 178
    Prickly heat as sequelæ of, 177
  Bombay, 12
  Bottle feeding of infants, danger of, in the tropics, 151
  Brand’s extract, 142
  Bread, 59
  _British Medical Journal_ cited, 74
  Buffalo milk, butter made from, 52
  Bugs, 115
  Bungalow, Indian, _see under_ India.
  Burglars, precautions against, 68-69
  Burmah, 114; plan of houses in, 5; protection against leeches in
  riding, 29
  Bushire, Subsabad Residency at, 8
  Butter, danger of germs in, 51-52; making at home, 52; buffalo milk
  for, 52; tinned, 52

  Calcutta, 12, 65, 123
  Calomel, administration of, in heatstroke, 176
  Campagna, Italian, 119
  Camps, choice of site for, 87; difficulties as to conservancy, 87-88;
  water supply for, 88
  Canal irrigation--
    Dangers of, 109
    Officials of, Government, protection of houses of, against
    mosquitoes, suggested, 122
  Cancer, 109
  Cannanore, Basel Mission at, fabrics manufactured by, 27, 28
  Cape Colony--
    Sunstroke in, rarity of, 29
    Tape-worm parasites in meat at, 55
    Ticks, protection against, in riding, 28
  Carbonic acid--
    Action of, on cholera germs, 48, 133
    Compressed, supply of, in steel cylinders, 47
  Castor oil, administration of, in malaria, 127-128; in dysentery, 147;
  in infantile diarrhœa, 151, 154
  Castor oil shrub, antipathy of mosquitoes to, 116
  Cawnpore--
    Tent manufacture at, 84
    “Twilled lining” manufactured at, 27
    Water supply of, 37
  “Cawnpore tent club hat,” 30, 169
  Ceilings, lath and plaster, non-employment of, in India, 17
  Ceiling cloths, defects of, 16-17
  Celli, Prof. A., plan of, for wire gauze protection against
  mosquitoes, 118-121
  Centipedes, 22, 115
  Cgaleka campaign, 57
  _Chang_ houses, 5-6
  Charcoal, properties of, as fuel for cooking purposes, 64
  Cheese, 52-53, 79
  Children in the Tropics--
    Clothing of, 33-34, 117
    Feeding of, 76 _et seq._
    Hill stations, advisability of sending to, 79-81
    House accommodation of, 6, 10
    Infants, _see that title_
    Treatment of, 81-82, 171
  China, washing of clothes in, 24
  Chittagong--
    Health of European residents in, 2
    Houses in, 2
  Chloral hydrate, subcutaneous injection of, in cholera cases, 141
  Chlorodyne, danger of, in dysentery, 146
  Cholera--
    Contraction of, through food fouled by flies, 48
    Conveyance of, 35-36
    Discharges in, infection from, 142
    Germ of, destruction of, in wells, 42; prolonged action of CO₂, on,
    48; conditions of development of, 132; killing, by boiling water,
    133
    Infection, risk of, 132, 140, 142
    Melons causing, popular fallacy as to, 58-59
    Nursing of cases, precautions to be taken in, 140
    Preventive measures against, 134-139
    Symptoms of, 140-141
    Treatment, 141-142
  “Cholera belt,” 144, 145
  Chrysanthemum, unopened flowers of, mosquitoes destroyed by burning,
  114
  Clay, beaten, as roofing material, 18
  Clerestory windows, 8
  Climate, influence of, in development of mosquitoes, 99
  Clothing in the Tropics--
    Children, of, 33-34
    European, 25
    Evening dress in India, 28; arranging, to protect against
    mosquitoes, 117-118
    Foot-wear, 31-32
    Head-dress, suitable, 29-30
    Principles of, 22
    Protection against mosquitoes, arranging as, 117-118
    Riding dress, 28-29
    Starched materials, unsuitability of, for hot climates, 26
    Underclothes, 22-23, 27-28
    Washing of, 23-25
    Women’s, 33
  Cod-liver oil, 79
  Cold baths, 67-68
  “Comforters,” baby’s, danger of, 74
  Conservancy--
    Difficulties as to, in camp life, 87-88
    Oriental plans of, 134; round worm disease due to lack of, 182
  Constipation, danger of, in tropical climates, 175
  Consumption, 74, 109
  Cooking, need for, and economy of good cooking, 62-63
  Cork as material for hats in India, 169
  Cornices, 15
  Corsets, inappropriateness of, in hot climates, 33
  Corrugated iron as roofing material, 6, 17-18
  Cows--
    Condition of, in Indian villages, 50
    Milk, drawback of, as infants’ food in India, 153
  Cucumbers, 58, 136
  _Culex_--
    Breathing arrangements of, 96
    Characteristics of, 102-103
    Eggs of, figure of, 95
    Larvæ of, 98
  “Culinary Jottings from Madras” (Wyvern), 54; _quoted_, 55
  Curry as food for children, 76

  Daniels _cited_, 95
  “Dhobi’s itch,” 24, 178-179
  Diarrhœa--
    Hill, 149-150
    Infantile, 150-155
    Relation to dysentery, 149
    Tomato skin, due to, 58
  Diet in dysentery, 148-149
  Digestion, partial suspension of, in malaria, 127-128
  Dill water, undesirability of administering, to infants, 74-75
  Dog, bladder worm in, 183-184
  Drainage, surface, plan to be followed near houses, 4
  Dress, _see_ Clothing
  Drinking-water, _see_ Water
  “Dungaree” material, 26
  Dysentery--
    Causation of, 33, 143, 141
    Characteristics of, 142-143
    Conveyance of, 35
    Germ of, 142
    Pathology of, 143
    Relation to diarrhœa, 149
    Treatment, 146-149
  Dyspepsia, 35

  Egg albumen--
    Infants, feeding, with, 154
    Meat extracts, in, 61-62 _and notes_
  Eggs, 56
  Egypt--
    _Bilharzia_ prevalent in, 184
    Head covering in, 29
  “Elgin” helmet, 169
  “Equatorial Rowing Club,” 25
  Eucalyptus plant, antipathy of mosquitoes to, 116
  Euonymin, 150
  Europeans in tropical climates, immunity of, from native diseases, 180

  Fainting, 167-168
  Feet, swelling of, in hot countries, 32; footwear in the Tropics,
  31-32
  Felt for hats in India, 169
  “Fever mixture,” 128
  “Field officer’s Kabul” tent, 85
  Filariasis, 93, 183
  Filters, danger of ordinary form of, 135
  Fish as food in hot climates, 56; tinned, 61; killed by mosquitoes, 94
  Fisher. Dr. T., _cited_, 74
  Flannel, wearing, next the skin, 22-23
  Fleas, 94, 115
  Flies--
    Danger of, to food supplies, 48
    Method of freeing tents from, 86-87; of freeing houses, 115
    Ophthalmia introduced through, 34
    Sleeping sickness, concerned in, 164-165
  Flukes, 184
  Foods (for particular foods, _see_ their names, as milk, bread, meat,
    &c.)
    Bad, consequence of, 35
    Changes in, producing infantile diarrhœa, 150, 151
    Cooking of, disease germs destroyed by, 48
    Dealing with, precautions necessary, 48-49; unclean methods of
    natives, 51, 59
    Infants, of, rapid deterioration of, in tropical countries, 150
    Tinned, 61-62
  Forest officials, government protection of houses of, suggested, 122
  Fruit, 58-59; tinned fruits, 61

  Gardens, danger of, in malarious places, 2-3, 109; watering of, in
  India, 109-112
  Gauze, metallic, protection of houses by means of, 68-69, 118-123, 166
  Gauze bags, mosquitoes destroyed in, 113
  _Ghi_, 111
  Gnats, _see_ mosquitoes
  “Gnats or mosquitoes,” 114
  Goa powder, application of, in Dhobi’s itch, 179
  Goat’s milk for feeding infants, 152-153
  Gram, tops of, as a substitute for spinach, 57
  _Graphic_, 170
  Grassi, Prof., 90
  Gregory’s powder, administration of, in infantile diarrhœa, 151, 154
  Guinea worm, 183

  Haffkine’s plague protective emulsion, 160
  Hands, swelling of, in hot climates, 32
  Hankin, 131, 137
  Haqims, or “native doctors,” 126
  Heat stroke, 174-176
  Hill diarrhœa, 149-150
  Hill stations--
    Children, advisability of sending, to, 79-81
    Sickness in, prevalence of, 81
  Himalayas, prevalence of diarrhœa in, 149
  Hindu repugnance for meat, 60
  Hindu _kahar_, reasons for employment of, 38-39
  Honduras, plan of houses in, 5
  Hookworm, 181-182
  Hornets, 115
  Horse sickness, prevention of, Mr. Power’s experiments, 113
  Hospitals, plague, 160
  Houses in tropical countries--
    _Chang_ houses, 5-6
    Cooling, after heat of the day, methods of, 69-70
    Flooring, materials suitable for, 15
    Indian bungalow, ground plan of, showing well placed doors and
    windows, 7; sketch of common type, 10; plan showing adaptation of
    Celli method of wire gauze protection, 121, 122
    Light, question of, 9-10, 60, 69
    Materials appropriate for building, 14-15
    Plan, suggested, for house of moderate dimensions, 20-21
    Plinth, construction of, 3-5
    Principles of building, epitome of, 19-20
    Roofing materials, 15-18
    Rooms, height of, necessary, 11-12
    Site, suitable, choice of, 1-3
    Storeys, number of, desirable, 4-5, 12
    Ventilation of, 6-9, 13, 68-69
    Verandahs, function of and building of, 10-11
    Wire gauze protection of openings, method of, 118-123, 166
  Hutchison, Robert, M.D., on “Patented Food and Patent Medicines,”
  _quoted_, 61-62, _notes_
  Hydrochloric acid, 161

  _Illustrated London News_, 170
  Incense, mosquitoes driven from houses by burning, 114
  India (_see also_ names of places)--
    Animal life in, sacredness of, 156
    Bhistis, the, character of, 39-40
    Bungalows in, ground plan of, showing doors and windows well placed,
    7; sketch of common type of, 10; plan of, showing Celli method of
    wire gauze protection, 121, 122
    Calls, hours for paying, 172
    Children in, reason for frequent feebleness of, 10
    Clothing in (_see also title_ Clothing)--
      Evening dress, 28, 117, 118
      Tussur serge outer garments, 29
    Cotton fabrics manufactured in, 27
    Gardens, method of watering, 109-112
    Head-dress, suitable, in, 29, 169-173
    Houses in, non-employment of lath and plaster ceilings in, 17
    Infants in, 73
    Kitchens in, appliances for and superintendence of, 63-64
    Meat in, tape-worm parasite found in, 55
    “Mutton Clubs,” 54
    Natives, tact required for management of, 158-162
    Outfit for, obtaining, in England, 26
    Plague in, 155 _et seq._
    Prisons, medical officers of, 148
    Sleeping sickness, fly concerned in, found in, 165
    Swimming baths in, disuse of, 67
    Tent life in, 83-88
    Tent making industry in, 84
    Washing of clothes in, 24
    Water supply--
      Carriers, Mahomedan and Hindu, methods of, 38-39
      Precautions to ensure purity, _see under_ Wells
  Infants--
    “Comforters,” dangers of, 74
    Death-rate high in Tropical Climates, 150
    Diarrhœa among, 150-155
    Dill water, danger of, to, 74-75
    Disorders of, treatment of, 74-5
    Feeding of, 75-76, 150-154
    Fresh air, need for, 73-74
    Hot climates for, advantages of, 73
    Milk for, 50; on voyages, 51
  “Infants’ Food,” 74, 75
  Inoculations, protective, against plague, 158, 160
  Insect pests, destruction of, 115
  Internal worms, 179 _et seq._
  Ipecacuanha, administration of, in dysentery, 147-148; in diarrhœa,
  150
  Ismailia, malaria at, 107
  Italy--
    Children of, diet of, 79
    Malaria in, prevention of, 118-119
    Mosquitoes in, survival of larvæ of, during winter months, 100
    Villas in, “ideal models for tropical climates,” 113

  Jæger materials, 23
  Jellies, disease germs cultivated in, 43
  Jungle, avoidance of, in choice of dwelling site, 2

  “Kabul Tent,” 85
  “Kamarband,” 144-145
  Kidneys--
    Function of, suspended in cholera attacks, 141
    Strain on, from excessive meat eating, 60
  Kitchens, Indian, appliances for and superintendence of, 63-64
  Koch, 131

  “La Martinière,” Lucknow, 80
  Lablab bean, 57
  Lahore, tent manufacture at, 84
  Lamb, unsatisfactoriness of, in hot countries, 54
  Larvæ, wintering, breeding of, 101
  Laurence Military Asylum, 80
  Laveran, malaria research work of, 90
  Lentils, 60
  Lettuces, avoidance of, during cholera outbreaks, 135
  Light--
    Disinfecting powers of, 162
    Exclusion of, in tropical houses, 9-10
    Plague germs destroyed by, 156
    Protection against mosquitoes, as, 100-101, 116-117
  Lime, clearing of water supplies by, 43, 137, 138
  Lime not to be used in combination with perchloride of mercury, 162
  _Liquor ammoniæ acetatis_, administration of, in malaria, 128
  Liver functions, disturbance of, in dysentery, 143, 146
  _Lobán_, 114
  London, business hours in, 65
  Lucknow--
    Historical residency ruins at, 14
    “La Martinière,” 80
    Water supply of, 37
  _Lumbrici_, 180

  Macaroni and cheese, children’s dietary, in, 79
  Maclean, Prof., _cited_, 89-90
  Madras, 64
  Mahomedan countries, water carrying in, 38
  Maize cobs, mosquitoes driven out of houses by burning, 114
  Malaria--
    Causation, early theories and research work as to, 89-91
    Cold baths, relapse induced by, 67-68
    Parasite of, life history of, 91-92, 105-106
    Prevention of, 28, 106 _et seq._
    Quinine, value of, in treating, 104, 125-129
    Seasonal prevalence of, 104, 105
    Site of houses in reference to, 1-3
    Spread of, danger of single case in helping, 104-105, 125
    Temperature, influence of, in development of, 92
    Treatment of, 125-129
  Malay, house materials in, 14
  Malay Archipelago, 114
  Manson, Sir Patrick (F.R.S.), research work as to malaria causation,
  90
  _Mashak_, 38-39
  Massage in relief of cholera cramps, 141
  Meat (_see also_ mutton, veal, &c.)
    Cooking, need for thoroughness in, 55-56
    Extracts, nutritive value of, 61, _and note_, 62
    Hanging of, 54
    Indian “mutton clubs,” 53-54
    Preservation of, by sulphur fumes, 55
    Quality of, obtainable in hot countries, 53-4
    Tinned, 61
  Meat juice, feeding infants with, 154
  Melons, 53, 59, 136
  Mercury, perchloride of, administration of, in dysentery, 147, 148;
  in infantile diarrhœa, 151; lotion, application of, in prickly heat,
  178
  Mexican _sombrero_, 171
  “Miasma,” 89
  Midges, mosquitoes distinguished from, 93
  Milk--
    Asses’, for feeding infants, 50, 152-3
    Boiled, digestibility of, 49-50
    Children’s diet, in, 77
    Cholera conveyed by, 132
    Cows’, as food for infants in India, 50, 75, 153; sterilisation of,
    and need for, native ignorance and frauds as to, &c., 49, 51
    Disease transmitted by, 49
    Dysentery, in, 146, 149
    Goats’, as food for infants, 50, 75-76, 152-153
    Puddings of, disease germs cultivated in, 48
    Quality of, testing, 51
    Sterilisation of, 49
  Minced food for children, 77-78
  “Moon-blindness,” 13
  Mosquitoes--
    _Anopheles_, _see that title_
    Biting animals, method of, 94
    Breeding, situations favouring, 101-102
    _Culex_, _see that title_
    Danger of encouraging, near dwellings, 2-3
    Disease carriers, as, 22, 93
    Eggs, depositing of, 94-95; diagram of various forms of, 95
    Food of, distinction between male and female as to, 94
    Geographical distribution of, 101
    Habits of, 93-94
    Larval existence, duration of period of, 98, 99
    Life history of, 94 _et seq._
    Light and heat, tolerance of, 100-101, 116, 117
    Malaria, relation to, 90, 92, 93
    Midges distinguished from, 93
    _Myzorrhynchus sinensis_, figure of larvæ of, 97
    Nets, patterns of, 87, 123-125
    _Panoplites_, figure of eggs of, 95
    Perpetuation of the species, maintenance of, during winter months,
    99-100
    Protection against--
      Breeding places, destruction of, 108-112
      Dress, modifying, as a protection, 117-118
      Gauze bags, by means of, 115
      Houses, precautions to be taken in, 113-115
      Italian method of protecting houses, 118-123
      Light--a protective agent, 100-101, 116-117
      Ointments, &c., by means of, 116
    Rainy season, prevalence during, 102,  104, 125
    _Stegomyia_, _see that title_
    Travelling, incapability of, 100
  Mutton, 54
  _Myzorrhynchus sinensis_, figure of larva of, 97

  Naini Thal, water supply of, 37
  Naphthol β, administration of, in infantile diarrhœa, 151
  Natal, head covering in, 29
  Natives of tropical countries, unclean habits of, 63-64, 181
  _Neem_ tree, leaves of, mosquitoes destroyed by burning, 114
  Negroes, 145
  Nettle-rash, 77
  Nuttall _cited_, 95

  Oatmeal porridge, 79
  Onions, 58
  Ophthalmia, protection of children from, 34
  Opium, administration of, in dysentery, 146, 148

  “Pandemic waves,” 131
  _Panoplites_, diagram of eggs of, 95
  Paraffin, use of, in destroying mosquitoes, 108, 110-112
  Paregoric, administration of, in infantile diarrhœa, 151
  “Patent Foods and Patent Medicines,” Robert Hutchison, M.D., _quoted_,
  61-62, _notes_
  Persia--
    Ankle boots in, 31
    Houses, system of ventilation of, 8-9; ground plan of European
    Bungalow, 9; double verandahs for, 11
  Persian Gulf, clothing in, 25
  Phenacetin, use of, in malaria, 128
  Phenyl for disinfecting against plague, 161
  Pith, suitability of, for Indian sun hats, 29
  Plague--
    Animals affected by, 156, 157
    Conditions favouring spread of, 155-156
    Evacuation of infected sites, 159-160
    Infection from, 157, 163
    Low civilisation, a disease of, 155
    Prophylaxis against, personal, 156-157; public, 157 _et seq._
  _Pomfret_, Bombay, 56
  Pork, ptomaine poisoning due to, in hot countries, 54
  Potassium, permanganate of, water supplies purified by, 42, 137, 138,
  139
  Poultry, fattening of, in hot countries, 54
  Power, Mr., 113
  Prickly heat, 23, 34, 66, 177-179
  Protective cordons, value of, in plague outbreak, 161
  Ptomaine poisoning from eating pork, 54
  Pugaree, 30
  Pulses, food value of, 59-60
  Pumpkins, 58
  Punjab--
    Houses in, plan of building, 9; sketch of common type of bungalow,
    10; materials of native dwellings, 14
    Northern, clothing in, 25
    mentioned, 6
  Punkahs--
    Combining use of, with that of mosquito net, 123-124
    Height of rooms giving adequate swing for, 11-12
    Protection against mosquitoes afforded by, 123
    Pulling, art of, 71
  “Puttialla” breeches, 28-29
  Pyjamas--danger of short coat, 28

  Quarantine, value of, in plague outbreaks, 161
  Quicklime, drinking water purified by, 137, 138
  Quinine--
    Disinfectant action of, 125-126
    Malaria, in treatment of, 101, 125-129

  Rain water, bathing in, for prickly heat, 177-178
  Rainy seasons, prevalence of mosquitoes during, 102, 104, 125
  Rajputana, 6
  Rats attacked by plague, 156, 157; destruction of, as a protective
  measure in plague outbreaks, 160-161
  Resorcin, administration of, in infantile “wind” attacks, 75; in
  diarrhœa, 151; in dysentery, 147
  Rheumatism, 109
  Rice, cooking of, 60-61
  Rodents, _see_ Rats
  Rome--
    Business hours in, 65
    University of, 118
  Roofs--
    Materials suitable for, 15-18
    Sleeping places, as, 12-13
  Ross, Major Ronald, F.R.S., research work on malaria causation, 90
  Round worms, 180, 181

  Salads, danger of, 58
  Sambon _cited_, 95
  Sand dunes as sites of houses, 2
  Santonin, round worms expelled by, 181
  Scandinavia, mosquitoes in, 101
  _Science Siftings_ quoted, 74
  Scorpions, 22, 115
  Scurvy--
    Infantile, due to sterilised milk, 49
    Vegetable food, prevented by, 57
  Sea water bathing for prickly heat, 177
  Silk as wearing material in the tropics, 23
  Singapore, 25
  Sleeping arrangements in the tropics, 32; outdoor, 124
  Sleeping sickness, 93, 164-166
  Small-pox, 163-164
  Smoke, mosquito destruction by means of, 113-115
  Snakes, poisonous, 22
  Solah hats, 29-30, 169-170
  “Soothing Syrups,” 74
  Soups--
    Disease germs cultivated in, 48
    Tinned, 61
  Soy bean, 57
  Spinach, 57
  Spine, protection of, from sun’s rays, 30-31
  Sprue, 150
  Stagnant water, danger of, in malarial countries, 101, 102
  Starched materials, unsuitability of, for hot climates, 26
  Steel girders--
    _Chang_ houses, for, 6
    Substituting for wooden beams, advisability of, 15
  _Stegomyia_--
    Characteristics of, 102
    Eggs of, figure of, 95
    Family of, 97
  Stimulants, use of, in malaria, 128-129
  Straw, damp, mosquitoes driven out of houses by burning of, 114
  Subterranean chambers in extreme heat, 13-14
  Sugar in children’s diet, 77
  Sulphur fumes--
    Meat preserved by, 55
    Mosquitoes destroyed by, 114-115
    Plague, disinfection against, by, 161
  Sulphuric acid, effect of, on the cholera germ, 137
  Sun-dried bricks, properties of, as building material, 14-15
  Sunshades, 33
  Sunstroke, 29, 166-174
  Swimming baths, disuse of, in India, 67
  “Swiss Cottage Tent,” 85
  Symes, Dr. J. O., _cited_, 74
  Symmonds, Mr., of Rosa, 124

  _Taikhana_, 13-14
  Tape-worms--
    Danger of, from uncooked meat, 55
    Life history of, 183
  “Tatties,” description and use of, 70
  Tea for cleansing teeth, 45
  Temperature limits within which malaria can be developed, 92
  Tents--
    Construction of, principles to be followed in, 84-86
    English and Indian makes, 83-84, 86
  Terraced roofs, suitability of, in tropical climates, 18
  Thatch as roofing material, 15-16
  Theobald, Mr., _cited_, 95
  Thermantidote, description and use of, 70-71
  Thread worms, 180-181
  Thur dal, 60
  Thymol as vermifuge, 182
  Ticks, 94
  Tiles as roofing material, 17
  Timber, drawback to use of, in tropical buildings, 5-6, 15
  Tinned provisions, 61-62
  Tobacco, mosquitoes destroyed by fumes of, 114
  Tomatoes, 58, 136
  Total abstinence and health, 62
  Train inspections, value of? in plague outbreaks, 161
  Trees, avoidance of, in choice of dwelling sites, 2
  Trousers, arranging, to protect against mosquitoes, 117, 118
  _Trypanosomes_, 164, 165
  Turban, the, 30
  Tussur serge for outer garments, 29
  “Twilled Lining” suitable for underwear in tropical climates, 27-28
  Typhoid fever--
    Contraction of, through fly-fouled food, 48
    Conveyance of, 35
    Hill stations, endemic in, 80

  Vaccination, importance of revaccination, 163-164
  Veal, unsatisfactoriness of, in hot countries, 54
  Vegetables, 3, 56-57, 61
  Ventilation--
    Hats, of, 30
    Persian Houses, in, 8-9
    Tents, of, 85-86
    Thatched roofs favouring, 15
    Tropical houses, in, 6-8, 13, 68-69
  Verandahs, roofing materials for, 17
  Vermin, building materials harbouring, 15, 16
  Voyage to the East, clothing for, 26

  Water--
    Aerated waters, _see that title_
    Boiling of, for drinking purposes, need for, and for personal
    superintendance of, 44-45, 133, 135
    Contaminated, consequences of drinking--need for personal
    supervision of supply, 35-37, 131, 132
    Filtering, danger of, 44, 135
    Hill diarrhœa due to mineral matter in, 149
    Indian towns, supply to, 37-38
    Sources of supply--
      Rivers, 43
      Springs, 43
      Wells, _see that title_
  Washing of clothes, 23-25
  Wells--
    Methods of becoming infected in India, 134
    Purification of, methods of, 42, 43, 88, 134, 136-139
    Reliability of, 40-41
  Wet-nursing in the tropics, advisability of, 151-152
  Women in hot climates, 71-72; suitable head-dress for, 171-178
  Wood, _see_ Timber
  Woollen materials, washing of, 23
  Working hours in the tropics, 65-66
  Worms, internal, prevention of diseases caused by, 179 _et seq._
  Wyvern, “Culinary Jottings from Madras,” _quoted_, 54-55; _cited_, 64

  Yellow fever, 93, 95, 97, 102



  PART I.

  CLIMATE AND HEALTH IN HOT
  COUNTRIES.


CLIMATE AND HEALTH IN HOT COUNTRIES.


_PART I._


CHAPTER I.

On Housing and Domestic Architecture.

In hot climates, as elsewhere, people are rarely in a position to
exercise much choice in their selection of a habitation, as its site
must usually depend on considerations of business, and in the majority
of cases, the number of available dwellings is limited. Oftener still,
it is a matter of “Hobson’s choice,” and one must needs occupy the house
that has served one’s predecessors in the work in which one may happen
to be engaged. On this account it will be superfluous to do more than
generally indicate the general principles on which it is desirable, that
houses designed to afford shelter in hot climates, should be placed and
constructed.

In the matter of choice of site, the same general considerations as to
soil and configuration of the ground that determine our choice in
temperate climates, as a rule, hold good. A gravelly or sandy soil, and
gradients favourable to natural drainage, are even greater desiderata in
the Tropics than in Europe, and this is especially the case in climates
characterised by a heavy rainfall; but ideal sites are rare in all
countries, and as a rule, one must be content to make the best of less
favourably placed spots. In the countries which we are at present
considering, the especial danger against which we have to guard is
always that of malaria, and hence, in choosing the site for a house or
station, the great point is to select one, which is, as far as possible,
free from natural or artificial collections of water, within a radius of
a quarter of a mile; or at any rate, including such only as can be
easily filled in, drained, or otherwise dealt with. The site should also
be sufficiently raised above the level of some natural watercourse to
afford an adequate outfall for its surface drainage.

For a single house, no better position can be selected than the summit
of a mound, whether natural or artificial; and such situations are
generally to be preferred to the slope of a hill, even where the latter
affords a considerably greater elevation. On the sea coast, and not
unfrequently in the neighbourhood of some of the great rivers, sand
dunes, where sufficiently clad with vegetation to afford a sufficiently
stable foundation, form excellent sites for single houses, good examples
of which are to be found in Chittagong, where nearly every European
residence has its own little hill, on which it is perched by itself; and
it is doubtless to this circumstance that the comparative healthiness of
the European population of the town, under otherwise unfavourable
surroundings, is mainly due. The neighbourhood of jungle, and even of
trees, should be as far as possible avoided, for trees undoubtedly
harbour mosquitoes, and their presence is generally equivalent to that
of malaria: moreover, the appearance of coolness, associated with trees,
is deceptive rather than real. As a rule, even when numerous and thickly
set, they throw no actual shade on the walls of the house, which hence
receives as fully the power of the sun as it would in an open plain, and
added to this they obstruct the breeze and generally impede ventilation;
so that a house placed in the midst of a glaring, treeless space is
often really far cooler than one surrounded with fine timber. Even a
garden is by no means too desirable an adjunct to a tropical residence,
for unless there is abundant labour to keep it in a condition of perfect
neatness, and constant intelligent supervision to ensure that the
cultivation of flowers and vegetables be not associated with the
breeding of mosquitoes, it is only too likely to originate fever of a
luxuriance at least equalling that of its roses and salads.

It must not of course be forgotten, that the provision of a free supply
of good vegetables is everywhere an essential to health, and is in many
localities obtainable in no other way than by the maintenance of a
garden, and that under such circumstances, it is probably safest to keep
their cultivation under personal supervision; but where such an
accessory is indispensable, its attendant dangers should always be
carefully borne in mind, and care should be taken that the garden should
be so worked as to avoid its becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes. A
house for example, such as that shown in the subjoined sketch, makes,
doubtless, a very inviting picture, but when lived in, it would be found
that the fine trees almost completely cut off the breeze, that the
beautiful creepers render the verandahs and the rooms behind them
“stuffy,” and that the wealth of vegetation, combined with the
arrangements for irrigation, render it a veritable paradise of
mosquitoes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--A Regular Mosquito-trap Bungalow.]

Coming now to questions of general plan, one of the first essentials is
that the floor level should be well raised above that of the surrounding
ground. In most localities this object is attained by simply forming a
platform of earth dug from some situation hard by, so as to form a
plinth; and too often, the excavations for the purpose are made
absolutely without plan or method, and result in the production of a
number of irregular depressions, close by the habitation; which during
rainy weather are always full of water, and form ideal breeding places
for mosquitoes, besides too often serving as depositories for refuse.
The earth for forming the plinth should, however, never be allowed to be
obtained in this way, but previously to laying out the plan of the house
or station, a careful survey of the levels and contours of the site
should be made, and the alignment of a series of deep cuttings, so
designed as to form an efficient system of surface drains extending from
the site to the nearest natural effluent, should be laid out, so that
the spoil wherewith to form plinths should be taken in a systematic
manner in the digging of these cuttings, and from no other situations.
The cuttings should be made as deep and narrow as they can be without
expensive revetting of the sides, as experience has shown that the larvæ
of the really dangerous species of mosquitoes, the _Anopheletes_, avoid
collections of water shielded from the sun and light. As the station
develops, it may perhaps become possible to pave these channels with
some permanent material, such as brick or concrete, but as a rule the
expense of such a proceeding is prohibitory. When, however, a certain
amount of money is available for this purpose, it should be devoted to
paving the smaller shallow surface drains close to the dwelling, and the
deeper distant cuttings close to the effluent left to the last. No house
should ever be allowed to be constructed with a plinth of less than one
foot, and provided the material be obtainable without making undesirable
excavations, it cannot well be too high, a fact well understood by the
earlier European residents in India, whose fine old houses, however
wanting their work may be in the matter of finish, form an admirable
contrast, in this and many others of the essentials of a healthy
residence, to the cramped, low-lying heat traps of admirably pointed
brickwork in which the occupant of a “sealed pattern” government quarter
is now doomed to live.

The writer is personally strongly of opinion that all tropical
residences should be at least two storied, so that the sleeping
apartments should be raised at least some 12 or 15 feet above the
ground, and of course, where this is the case, the provision of a high
plinth is less essential, but in any case, the minimum of at least a
foot should be insisted upon.

In regions such as Assam and Burmah, where the rains are so heavy as to
reduce the entire country to a chronic condition of flooding, any
adequate plinth would be so costly that both natives and settlers build
their houses perched up on poles, and the numerous sanitary advantages
of the plan are undeniable; which is also, I understand, adopted in
Honduras.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--In the above sketch of an ordinary Anglo-Burman
bungalow, it will be noticed that the large projecting porch is raised
higher than the rest of the house so as to admit of a carriage being
driven beneath it to the foot of the steps to the platform of the house.
These porches form a sort of open-air sitting room, and are more usually
on the same level as the rest of the house. They form a most attractive
feature of most Burmese bungalows, but it would be very difficult to
protect them against mosquitoes by means of wire gauze.]

The general characteristics of these “_chang_” houses may be gathered
from the above sketch. In the cottages of the peasantry the “_chang_,”
or platform, is rarely raised more than 4 or 5 feet above the ground,
but 10, or even 15 feet is no uncommon height in the case of the houses
of people of means and position. Even in the case of houses occupied by
planters and officials, the walls are largely composed of bamboo
matting, while in those of the populace, the floor itself is formed of a
stouter variety of the same material; and on account of the growing cost
of timber of a class that will resist white ants, I have little doubt
that ere long steel girders will replace the wooden framework and
corrugated iron will take the place of the picturesque thatched roof, at
any rate in the coast towns. A _chang_ of concrete carried on stout
corrugated iron, 8-inch walls of the “Elizabethan” pattern, and a double
corrugated iron roof, with a large intervening air space, would form a
most comfortable, if not very beautiful, residence, for the combination
of heat and moisture with the evils of which the _chang_ house is
intended to cope; but walls of such flimsy materials would be of little
avail to withstand the furnace-heated air of hot dry climates, such as
are met with in the Punjab and the deserts of Rajputana.

One of the great sanitary advantages of the _chang_ house is the
circulation of air beneath the floors, and the comparative immunity from
vermin secured by its isolation on the top of high posts, and though
there is no objection to the storing beneath it of carriages and other
articles frequently moved, because in daily request, the covered space
beneath the house should on no account be allowed to degenerate into a
lumber room, as not only will lumber attract dangerous vermin, but with
the inevitable numerous native dependants, the lumber room will soon
develop into a refuse heap, or worse. Although there is no need to
construct a regular plinth, the ground below the _chang_ should always
be slightly raised by laying down a layer of gravel, as any collection
of water would be obviously unhealthy; besides which, if kept in proper
order, the large shady space forms an excellent playground for children,
where such charming encumbrances form part of the household.

In actually desert climates, a plinth is less essential, but there are
comparatively few countries in which heavy rain does not occur at some
time of the year, and any dampness of the soil immediately underlying a
house is always unhealthy.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Ground plan of an existing “up-country” Indian
Bungalow, in which the doors and windows are well placed. (The dotted
lines represent wire gauze screens.) Scale, 18′ = 1″]

The second great desideratum of a tropical house is free ventilation, to
secure which at least one, and preferably two, sides of each room should
be in free communication with the outer air by means of doors or
windows, and some at least of these should extend to the floor level or
near it. Many Indian houses are spoilt by want of attention to this
point, especially those of long standing; for though the original plan
may have been fairly sound, the desire for additional accommodation
generally, in course of time, leads to additions, and especially to the
enclosure of verandahs, whereby rooms, originally light and airy, are
quite cut off from all exterior ventilation. Many of these enclosed
rooms have small dormer or clerestory windows, close up to the roof; but
openings of this sort are no real substitute for proper windows and
doors in the usual position, and where choice can be exercised, a house
with inner rooms should be rejected in favour of one affording freer
ventilation.

The subjoined plan is a good example of an existing, well-planned
bungalow of one floor, in which every room has external doors and
windows, and several have them on two sides. It should be added that
every room has one or more clerestory windows to give exit to the heated
air that always finds its way to the top of any enclosed space.

In the best class of houses in Persia this principle of free external
ventilation is often carried to the extent of all four sides of the
rooms being provided with several openings--the different rooms being
separated from each other by open passages, running right across the
building from verandah to verandah.

As there are often several doors on each side, one easily realises that
Aladdin’s hundred-doored palace may have been no mere creation of the
fancy, but was probably based on some actual palace--indeed, as a matter
of fact, the Subsabad Residency at Bushire has, I believe, a good deal
over the allowance of doors assigned to Aladdin’s palace, and I know
that the room I occupied there had no less than nine doors, though two
of them gave access respectively to a dressing-room and bath-room.

The outline (fig. 4) will give some idea of the way in which the rooms
are arranged; but it is needless to say that the plan is a very
expensive one. It will be noticed that the southern verandahs are
double. Practically speaking, indeed, a Persian house is little else
than a series of colonnades, with the spaces between certain of the
pillars filled in with door frames, so that it would be an expensive
business to fortify one against the invasion of mosquitoes.

Houses of this type are well suited to climates usually blessed with a
good breeze, and in which the heat during the day does not reach such a
degree as to necessitate shutting it out, and are specially adapted to
places where, from scarcity of labour, there is a difficulty about the
pulling of punkahs. When, however, the midday heat reaches into the
nineties, such a plan of building becomes unsuitable, and it is
necessary to adopt the thick-walled type of house, with comparatively
few floor level openings; the object being to keep imprisoned the cooler
night air, so that the interior may never approach the maximum shade
temperature of the day. It is obvious that the adoption of this
principle quite precludes all proper ventilation, and that unless the
rooms are exceptionally large and lofty it must be positively unhealthy.
At the same time, heat beyond a certain degree induces such severe
nervous and physical prostration that the adoption of this course is
almost unavoidable during the worst hours of the day in such climates as
the Punjab; but the shorter the period the better, and as the same
reasons that render the house cooler than the outer air in the day, make
it hotter at night; it is always well to compensate for the lack of
ventilation during the day by sleeping absolutely in the open at night.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Rough ground plan of an European Bungalow in
Persia.]

Too often, not only the air, but the light is shut out, a course of
action which is as pernicious as it is futile, for unless the sun be
shining directly into the room its temperature will be in no way raised
by admitting an ample amount of light.

There can be no doubt that this baneful practice of keeping children
shut up in darkened rooms is one of the principal causes of the blanched
and enfeebled little ones so often met with in India; for they suffer
promptly from deprivation of light, though they are wonderfully tolerant
of heat, and if unchecked by their anxious mothers, will follow their
own wholesome instincts, and be found romping and tumbling about with
the servants and orderlies in the verandah, at temperatures that make
their parents devote anxious consideration to the question of crossing a
room.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Sketch of bungalow with terraced roof, of a type
very common in the Punjab and United Provinces in India. Speaking
generally, this bungalow is well planned. Its faults are that the
verandah is too low-pitched, leaving a needlessly large proportion of
the external walls exposed to the full power of the sun. The dormer or
ventilating windows also are too low down, as they leave several feet of
confined “dead” air at the top of the rooms. They should have been
placed close up to the cornice.]

The third important consideration in planning a good tropical house is
that the outer walls should, as far as possible, be shielded from the
direct rays of the sun by ample verandahs. Objects exposed to the full
glare of the sun soon become so hot that it is difficult to handle them,
reaching a temperature 40° or 50° F. higher than that of the air, and
though building materials conduct heat but slowly, they do so very
surely, so that the air within any building with extensive unshielded
sunward walls cannot fail to be considerably hotter than that of one so
planned that as small an area of wall as possible is directly exposed.
Within the true Tropics, the sun must necessarily come to the northward
of any localities for a longer or shorter portion of the year, and in
such low latitudes it is desirable that the verandah should extend all
round the house; but outside the equatorial zone the side looking away
from the noon-day sun may be left unprotected as far as the coolness of
the house is concerned; though a northern verandah is still desirable,
as affording the most eligible position for an open air lounge during
the day. Within practicable limits, a verandah can hardly be too wide,
and as one of its main functions is to shield the main wall, it is also
important that it should be high pitched, but this point is too often
lost sight of, although the additional cost of constructing a
higher-pitched verandah is very small, as the supports of these
structures cost but little, in comparison with the roof. Of course the
oblique rays of the sun will search into a high verandah for a longer
time than they can in a low one, but this defect is easily obviated by
closing the upper part of the colonade with wooden jalousies or with
mats, but in this case openings should be provided in the roof to give
exit to what must be almost dead air. Verandahs of less than six feet
width are of comparatively little use, and 10 feet may be considered to
be a fair average standard, but 15 feet is by no means excessive, if it
can be afforded, and as shown in the diagram on page 9, double
verandahs, consisting of two colonnades, each about 12 feet wide, are by
no means uncommon in Persia.

To attain an equivalent standard of comfort, the rooms of a tropical
house require to be much higher pitched than is needful in temperate
climates, but it is quite possible to carry this to excess, as over a
certain height, the pendulum swing of the punkah is too slow; and it is
well known to students of ventilation that spaces of dead air,
unsearched by the currents normally circulating through the room, are
very apt to be found in too lofty apartments. From 16 to 18 feet is a
good average standard, and if the height be carried many feet above the
higher figure, it is desirable that a strong beam should be carried
across the room, at about that level, to carry the punkah. As far as
ventilation is concerned, there is probably little advantage in any
height of ceiling above 13 feet, but this does not give an adequate
swing for a punkah.

As already incidentally mentioned, the writer holds a strong preference
for houses of two or more floors. While residents of Calcutta or Bombay
will never, if they can avoid it, live on the ground floor, there is a
general but quite unfounded idea, amongst up-country residents in India,
that upper floors are necessarily hotter.

It is needless to say that the reverse is actually the case, and that
other things being equal, upper storey rooms are necessarily cooler and
more healthy, on account of their better exposure to the breeze and
their being to a great extent raised above dust and other more subtle
emanations from the soil. The reason for this misapprehension is that,
outside the Presidency towns, upper rooms are almost universally
makeshift additions, with no proper verandah protection, and often
flimsy roofs. Now it is obvious that to gain the full advantage of an
upper storey, all verandahs should be carried right up, so that except
in being elevated above the soil, the upper rooms are exact
reproductions of those below them. I cannot recall, however, a single
instance of a properly planned two-storied house “up-country,” and it is
absurd to expect that a room with thin brick walls, exposed directly to
the sun’s rays, can be as comfortable as one with massive walls and
broad verandahs. It may be admitted that during the day, when the doors
are shut to keep out the heat, the upper rooms of a two-storied house
will be hotter than the lower ones, because one has but a single roof
overhead in place of two, but they will be cooler than the lower ones
would be, assuming the upper story to be removed.

It is also extremely desirable that the plan of the house should include
a stair giving access to the roof, as during the hot dry season, there
can be no doubt that it is by far the healthiest plan to sleep there.

A small area of thatched roof supported on four pillars should be
erected on the roof to protect the sleeper from dew, and to prevent his
being worried by the glare of the moon, which to say the least of it
makes it very difficult to sleep. Whether there is any truth in the
belief that exposure to the moon’s rays may cause blindness or not, I
cannot say, but I certainly have met with a number of cases of temporary
blindness for which it was, to say the least of it, extremely difficult
to find any plausible explanation other than the popular one. Moreover,
as we are quite in the dark as to the _modus operandi_ of true
sunstroke, it seems unscientific to deny that over-stimulation of the
retina by the moon’s rays can be capable of producing the symptoms in
question, and at any rate it is preferable to act on the assumption that
“moon-blindness” may be a possible contingency.

It is, further, a matter of great importance that the upper limits of
the air-space included within a room should be ventilated by means of
openings placed close up to the ceiling, as otherwise a stratum of
impure, heated air will lodge there, which can only be removed by the
slow action of diffusion. In one-storied houses this is usually effected
by means of small windows, and in order to admit of a sufficient number
of these being provided, it is a common expedient to carry the walls of
rooms situated in the interior of the house above those of the lateral
rooms, as shown in fig. 4. There should, however, be no necessity for
doing this, as no room should be ever built with no external wall; and
though upper openings on more sides than one may be desirable, this is
not so essential as to warrant the large increase of cost involved in
building in this way. Where a house has an upper storey, the top
ventilation of the lower rooms is usually effected by openings into the
verandahs; but this is by no means a satisfactory outlet, and it would
be far preferable to effect the purpose by means of shafts carried up in
the thickness of the walls to the roof, the long column of air within
which would favour the production of a good current.

In certain parts of the East, subterranean chambers (_taikhana_) are
used as a refuge during periods of extreme heat, and are occasionally
to be met with in very old European bungalows, though I have never seen
one in actual use. Good examples are to be seen in the ruins of the
historical Residency at Lucknow; and it was within them that many of the
women and children were sheltered during the memorable siege. They can,
of course, be ventilated only from above; but there can be no doubt that
they are cooler than rooms above ground, and it is possible that the
principle might be adopted with advantage under certain extreme climatic
conditions.

The materials appropriate for house-building necessarily vary according
to the character of the climate, but it is desirable to consider briefly
the advantages and disadvantages of those in most common use. Taking
first the structure of the walls, it may be noted that in rainy climates
near the coast, where very high temperatures are seldom registered, the
materials can hardly be too flimsy and permeable; but as one recedes
from the coast and meets with the extreme climates characteristic of the
interior of continents, it will be found that the buildings become
progressively more massive; so that while the Bengali or Malay inhabits
a shanty formed of thatch and matting, the peasant of the Punjab
shelters himself within mud halls some two feet thick. These differences
in domestic architecture are the necessary outcome of differing
environment, and to be comfortable, European houses must be built of
very much the same materials as those of the natives around them.

In dry climates, sun-dried bricks make an excellent wall, which resists
heat even better than one of burnt brick, and provided it be protected
from rain, it is wonderfully permanent and much stronger than would be
expected; so that heavy, terraced roofs are easily carried by a two-feet
thickness of this material, and they are even quite adequate to sustain
a second story of lighter materials. The great drawback of the material
is that it forms a favourite haunt for white ants, which tunnel it in
all directions; but this can easily be obviated by introducing, just at
the floor level, a single course of some damp and insect-proof
material, such as burnt brick, laid on cement and tarred. Owing to its
extreme cheapness a large house can be built for the same expenditure as
a small one of burned brick, and as air space is of the greatest
importance in hot climates, it is unfortunate that this material is not
more utilised in Government buildings.


_Flooring._--The most suitable material is stone flagging, marble, of
course, being preferable. After these come hard tiles, brick on edge,
and cement, in order of desirability. Besides these there are, of
course, various special modern inventions, but they hardly come into
practical consideration, outside large seaports. Wooden floors should be
generally avoided, as owing to decay and the attacks of insects, they
are apt to become dangerous, and may give way unexpectedly at any time.
For upper floors, by far the most suitable material is the narrow brick
arch supported on steel girders, which are now so generally obtainable
and cheap, that they can be economically substituted for wooden beams in
any locality tolerably accessible from a railway.

One great advantage of this form of construction of flooring and
terraced roofs, is the entire absence of nooks and crannies which can
harbour vermin, for even the equally massive roofs of concrete, laid on
flat tiles supported by a system of beams and battens, afford most
dangerous refuges for disagreeable intruders, and I well remember an
inmate of my house being put to intense suffering on two successive
nights by vermin that fell from such a roof; the first disturber of our
rest being an enormous centipede, and the second a hornet. For the same
reason, all cornices and similar architectural adornments are distinctly
to be deprecated.

The roofing materials generally employed in tropical countries are
thatch, tiling, terraced constructions, and corrugated iron. Thatch is,
from many points of view, an excellent material, as while it favours
ventilation by being extremely pervious to air, it gives excellent
shelter from rain, and is quite unequalled as a protection against the
sun; in addition to which it does not, to any appreciable extent, throw
out into the house during the night the heat absorbed during the day.

With all this, it has great and, it is to be feared, preponderating
disadvantages, the principal of which is that it forms a perfectly ideal
refuge for vermin of all sorts, vertebrate and invertebrate. As a rule,
owing to the high pitch necessary in this form of roofing, the lower
edge of the roof is rarely more than a few feet from the ground, and
owing to the usual existence of creepers, trellises and similar
facilities, is usually easily accessible to any animal endowed with the
most moderate powers of climbing. Owing to this, such roofs are usually
honeycombed with the nests of squirrels, rats, civet cats, and half wild
domestic cats, to say nothing of snakes, and birds and other flying
things. The large empty space between the ceilings and the rafters is
usually alive with bats, and as all this extensive population is quite
without any system of conservancy, an old thatched roof is simply
permeated with guano; and the emanations from this necessarily find
their way into the house, and indeed are always plainly perceptible in a
thatched house that, for any reason, has been shut up for any length of
time.

Besides this, the substance of the thatching is always slowly
decomposing under the slow action of mildew, and this adds further musty
exhalations to the bouquet. Hence, if used at all, the thatch should be
completely renewed at frequent intervals, and its employment should be
confined to situations which cannot be scaled by large vertebrate
vermin.

Where it is used, the interior of the rooms should be completely cut off
from the cavity of the roof by some fairly impervious ceiling, such as
one formed of match-boarding, and not, as is commonly the case, by a
“ceiling cloth” of ill-stretched canvas.

These “ceiling cloths” are utter abominations, and, even when their
untidy appearance is ameliorated by subdividing the cloth into a number
of small panels, the improvement is purely one of appearance, and in no
way diminishes their sanitary defects, so that no effort should be
spared to induce landlords to replace them with match-boarding or any
material that will shut out the emanations from the thatch and its
inhabitants.

For some reason, the lath-and-plaster ceilings and partitions, so
commonly used in Europe, are never employed in Indian house-building. It
is difficult to understand why this is so, as the natives are skilful
plasterers, and there would be no difficulty whatever in teaching them
this particular application of their trade, which would be a valuable
and inexpensive expedient in this and a number of other cases.

Tiles of the old-fashioned sort present few of the advantages of thatch,
and most of its disadvantages, besides numerous special objections of
their own, but these remarks do not apply to roofs formed of large tiles
of European patterns laid on a properly graded framework of squared
battens. To these latter the only objection is that they let in too much
heat unless they are supplemented with a tolerably substantial ceiling;
and the same remarks apply even more to corrugated iron, but both these
materials, and especially tiles, are excellent materials for verandahs,
especially those of upper stories, where weight is a consideration.

Corrugated iron, however, is scarcely tolerable in extreme climates
unless it is actually doubled, and the most scientific way of doing this
is to form a ceiling of corrugated iron of a thin gauge screwed _up_ to
light joists and painted white below. On the upper surface, should be
spread about an inch of dry sand, to retain which it is necessary that
any ventilation openings should be protected with a wooden edging. The
outer roof should be of stouter gauge, and must of course be pitched at
an appropriate slope, and it is of the first importance that the space
between the two roofs should be freely ventilated by large openings
placed at the apices of the gables, but these openings should be secured
against the entry of birds and cats by means of wire netting, and all
other openings by which they can enter should be carefully closed with
plaster. The coolness of a roof so planned depends largely on the
thickness of the layer of dry sand, and, provided the joists that carry
the sheets are fairly strong, there is no difficulty in raising this to
even a couple of inches. The preceding materials all have the
disadvantage that they must be pitched at a considerable slope, and
hence cannot be used as a platform for sleeping on.

All considered, however, a terraced roof, formed of brick arches
supported on steel girders, covered with concrete, is by far the best
for most tropical climates. It forms an excellent protection against sun
and rain, and the smooth finish of both its upper and lower surfaces
offers absolutely no hiding place for even insects; besides which it
forms an excellent elevated platform on which to sleep during periods of
intense dry heat. Its one disadvantage is that a great deal of the heat
absorbed during the day is radiated into the rooms at night, and that it
generally is inferior as a non-conductor either to thatch, or to double
roofs of any description.

Another form of terraced roof commonly found in dry climates consists of
a considerable thickness of beaten clay, spread on mats supported on a
system of beams and battens.

Owing to their great thickness and the fact that the clay conducts heat
much less easily than burnt bricks, such roofs are very cool, and they
form a good sleeping platform; but they give endless trouble during
periods of rain, as they _always_ leak at the beginning of one, and
vermin are apt to harbour amongst the matting and battens that carry the
mud. Owing to their immense weight, too, they are not free from danger,
especially as they are usually found in combination with walls of
unburnt brick, which offer no obstacle whatever to the tunnelling of
white ants, which thus can readily reach the beams, the interior of
which may be entirely eaten away by these mischievous insects without
any sign of the mischief appearing externally.

All the above considerations appear at first sight tolerably obvious and
would, one would think, be adopted wherever not rendered impracticable
by consideration of cost, and yet it is perfectly wonderful to notice
how frequently every consideration of common-sense sanitation and
comfort is ignored in buildings, on which neither space nor expense have
been stinted.

Quite recently the writer halted in a large hotel which illustrated this
point in a most pitiable manner. The masonry was admirable, being worthy
almost of an Egyptian monument, and speaking generally, it was obvious
that expense had been almost disregarded by the enterprising
proprietors. The management showed every desire to secure the comfort of
their guests, and the cuisine was excellent. In spite of this the bulk
of the rooms were scarcely habitable, as they seemed contrived to give a
tropical sun the best possible chance to make itself felt. Save for a
verandah of paltry width to the magnificent dining-room, these
indispensable adjuncts of a tropical residence were absolutely wanting.

Moreover, this omission was clearly not due to any desire or necessity
for economising space, for the area absolutely wasted in the form of
corridors was astonishing, and could not have fallen short of half the
space occupied by the sleeping rooms, though these were exceptionally
spacious. Facing south-east, the full glare of the sun and the dazzling
reflection from the sea glared directly into the windows of the most
desirably placed rooms, without even the protection of an ordinary
“jalousie,” while the magnificent view was shut out by windows of
granulated greenish glass, the sashes being pivoted in such a way as to
make it difficult to enjoy either the breeze or the prospect, even when
they were opened. Apart from these latter details, the building would be
admirably adapted for the accommodation of winter visitors in Italy,
where the sun is made to do duty for artificial heat, and the whole is a
striking example of the way in which the most lavish expenditure may be
rendered futile by a want of due appreciation of the principles that
should govern tropical domestic architecture. I give this instance
mainly to show that, however self-evident the principles described above
may appear, they are far from being generally appreciated.

These principles may be briefly epitomised as follows:--

(1) Through ventilation of all rooms.

(2) The elevation of all rooms, and especially of sleeping chambers, to
as great a height as practicable above the ground.

(3) The selection of appropriate building materials which cannot harbour
vermin.

(4) The shielding of outer walls from becoming heated by the direct rays
of the sun by the provision of adequate verandahs.

(5) The application of the same principle to the construction of roofs
by planning them so as to secure a well-ventilated air space between the
actual roof and a fairly substantial ceiling, or by constructing them of
massive materials, if single.

(6) The admission of sufficient light.

In the case of a house of moderate dimensions, these principles might be
carried out as follows:--

Basement of brick arches ten feet high, including a low plinth and
thickness of floor. These arches would be utilised for the accommodation
of the kitchen, cook room, pantry, lamp room, store room, coach house,
and well house, the well being placed beneath the house, and so well
protected from any neighbouring fouling of the soil. The platform of the
house supported on these arches would be pierced only by a concealed
staircase for the use of the sweeper, but this would not be in
communication with the other offices, though a hand lift might
advantageously be arranged between kitchen and dining room. First floor
18 feet high-dining room, drawing room, office, and one or more bedrooms
with dressing and bathrooms communicating with them, if large
accommodation is required. Verandah all round not less than 10 feet
wide. Second floor, 17 feet in height--principal bedrooms with dressing
and bathrooms, some of the central rooms provided with terraced roof;
the rest, together with the verandahs, with tiles of good pattern, the
rooms having substantial ceilings. On terraced roof-large iron
water-tank, with windmill to work force pump from well; small sleeping
shelter, and protected with corrugated iron roof, supported on pillars.

It would be well to have the southern verandahs (in the northern
hemispheres) of greater width than the others, and to place in them the
stairs giving access to the second storey and to the roof.

The first floor would be reached by means of a flight of steps leading
from the carriage drive, which might, if desired, be protected by a
sloping porch. Such a house would, of course, be somewhat costly, but
not much more so than one of equal accommodation constructed on the
ordinary plan, and would undoubtedly be far more healthy than those of
the usual type.

It is needless to remark that this imaginary residence would be
completely protected against mosquitoes by means of metallic gauze, but
the point is not dealt with here, as it is fully considered in the
chapter on the prevention of malaria.


CHAPTER II.

On Clothing.

The principles that should guide us in the contrivance of tropical
costume may be epitomised in a single sentence. Keep the head cool and
the abdomen warm:--and most of the costumes of the more civilised
tropical races usually meet these requirements.

It is of course generally true that it is well in matters of costume to
take as a general guide the habits of the inhabitants of the country we
are visiting; but the recommendation cannot be taken too literally, as,
apart from questions of cut and fashion, a too slavish imitation might
be as hazardous to health as it would be fatal to decency, as there are
places where the Paris fashions consist only of a hoop of cane or a
liberal smearing of clay. Nor can the question be lightly solved by
simply adopting lighter materials, as, in addition to adaptation to
altered meteorological conditions, our dress should be so contrived as
to afford protection against certain other dangers which are only
indirectly the outcome of climatic conditions, notably against the
attacks of mosquitoes, which are now known to be no mere irritating
annoyances, but to undoubtedly serve as the carriers of several of the
most deadly of tropical diseases.

Moreover, although very pleasant, it is by no means safe to knock about
the house bare-footed in countries where scorpions and centipedes, to
say nothing of poisonous snakes, are every-day vermin.

The “flannel next the skin” doctrine, too, is applicable only to those
blessed with hides sufficiently phlegmatic to tolerate the material; and
enthusiasts in its favour are apt to forget that our powers of
resistance to extreme heat depend entirely on the healthy action of the
skin, so that, if that important portion of our anatomy be kept in a
condition of chronic inflammation by “prickly heat,” it must necessarily
be more or less incapacitated from performing its proper functions.

The substratum of truth that underlies most doctrines, good, bad and
indifferent, depends in this case on the fact that in hot climates it is
especially important that clothing should be absorbent and porous; but,
provided this be secured by the plan of manufacture, the nature of the
fibre used is of little moment.

It must be admitted that the well-known Jaeger materials are in all
respects admirable for all but the higher grades of atmospheric
temperature, but when the thermometer gets up in the nineties,
unadulterated wool becomes too irritating for the majority, and an
admixture of silk, as in the so-called “Anglo-Indian gauze,” is
preferable. Pure silk gets too easily sodden with perspiration, and in
that state is too good a conductor of heat to form by itself a desirable
material, but the combination of the two fibres forms an ideal material
for wear during periods of excessive heat.

This material is necessarily rather costly, though it is surprisingly
strong in proportion to its weight, and with ordinary care in washing
lasts a long time, whereas the cheaper material of mixed cotton and wool
is apt to shrink, and hence requires to be frequently replaced.

All materials into the composition of which wool enters, require great
care in washing if they are to retain the properties which render them,
in one form or another, so valuable in all climates. It need hardly be
pointed out that they are at once hopelessly spoiled by a short
immersion in boiling, or even very hot water. For the frequently changed
garments of European residents of the Tropics little else is required
than immersion and rinsing about in luke-warm or cold soap and water,
and there is rarely need to guard against their being spoiled by heat,
as neither soap nor hot water are much used by persons following the
trade of washing in semi-civilised lands; but the severe beating and
manipulation to which they subject everything that comes into their
hands is almost as effectual in felting and spoiling woollen goods as
great heat. It is pretty well impossible to induce a native to so alter
his methods as to wash such articles in the orthodox European fashion,
unless, indeed, one were disposed to occupy one’s time in personally
superintending the process; but by cautioning against rough and
excessive manipulation, and steadily refusing to pay for articles
spoiled, it is generally possible to minimise the evil.

While touching on the subject of the washing of clothes, it may be well
to remark, that although personal superintendence of the process may be
out of the question, it is certainly important to find out and inspect
the place where the washing is done, which in such countries as India
and China, and doubtless elsewhere, will too often be found to be some
filthy stagnant pool, redolent with the accumulated dirt of all classes
of the population. But for the powerful germ-killing powers of the
tropical sun to which the articles are subjected in the process of
drying, there can be no doubt that disease would be spread in this way
much more frequently than is actually the case, but it will not do to
trust this natural disinfection too far, and without counting suspected
instances of the transmission of really serious diseases, there can be
no doubt that the troublesome skin disease known as “dhobie’s itch,” is
often contracted by Europeans in this way. The policy of sparing the
imagination by shutting the eyes is, in this case again, a fallacy which
may lead to considerable personal inconvenience and perhaps to danger.

If, as is not unfrequently the case, all the public washing places are
undesirable, it is well worth while providing the simple arrangements
required by natives following this calling within one’s own enclosure.

All that is required is a masonry platform about 6 feet square,
connected by a channel with the well and enclosed with walls about a
foot high, the whole being lined with cement. A short length of metal
pipe, capable of being closed with a wooden plug, must be built into the
wall at the lowest edge of the platform, so as to admit of the dirty
water being drained off. A piece of smoothly-worked plank, about 4 feet
by 2 feet, with rounded corrugations athwart it, formed like those of
corrugated iron roofing on a smaller scale, is all the additional
apparatus required, and I feel sure that these simple appliances would
be found much more frequently within our compounds than they are, if
Anglo-Indians in general had any idea of the filthy conditions under
which their clothing is commonly washed. Of course, such a matter as the
cleanliness of public washing places ought to be a matter of
superintendence and regulation by the authorities, but as yet everything
is usually left to individual initiative, and those who wish to protect
themselves must take their own precautions.

A not uncommon mistake of persons making their first sally into these
warm climates is to leave behind them all their everyday European
apparel, under which circumstances the one or two old suits that were
taken to see them through the chops of the Channel and “Bay” become most
treasured possessions, for there are very few parts of the world where,
at some season or another, our ordinary English outfit will not be found
convenient and suitable. Even the “Equatorial Rowing Club” probably find
it well to put on their sweaters on returning to Singapore, after a
spurt along “the line.”

Within intertropical limits no doubt, the occasions on which the garb of
temperate climates is required are rare, but everywhere outside them
there are ample opportunities of comfortably wearing out clothing
adapted to life in Europe. In the Northern Punjab one’s heaviest English
clothing is required for two or three months in the year, while in South
Africa the diurnal range of temperature is so great that a light
overcoat is required after sunfall in the hottest time of the year, and
even in the Persian Gulf stout woollen clothing is required from
December to early March. A glance at the meteorological data furnished
in the second part of the book devoted to climate, will give the best
idea of what will be required, as it may be taken as certain that in any
case where the mean monthly temperature approximates at any season to
that of our native island, clothing appropriate to the corresponding
season of the year will be desirable.

In choosing a costume for really hot weather it must be remembered that
any material requiring to be starched is about as suitable for the
purpose as mackintosh sheeting, because linen and cotton fabrics,
starched and ironed, are, as long as they retain their appearance, quite
as impervious to transpiration. After they have lost their stiffness
their appearance is most objectionable and disgusting, and it is a
fortunate circumstance that they become so soon sodden, as there can be
no doubt, that but for this, their use would be clung to by the
conservative Briton, far more than he is able to do.

For this reason the loss of popularity of late years of the
old-fashioned white “American drill” clothing, once universally adopted,
is hardly to be regretted. Without a considerable amount of starching
they never looked fresh after an hour or two’s wear, and with it the
material ceased to be suitable. It is, indeed, a mistake to provide
oneself with clothing of this sort in England, as even “American drill”
of the right sort, cannot be obtained, and the light cotton tweeds and
checks which are now in use in India do not appear to be found in the
home market. It is, of course, necessary to obtain two or three suits
for use on the outward voyage, but to obtain more than this, is only to
burden oneself with what will, as likely as not, prove to be useless,
and perhaps noticeably out of the fashion of the country.

A few shirts of soft cotton “twilled lining,” made with turned down
collars, like a cricketing shirt, perhaps three pairs of white drill
trousers (the material used by merchant seamen and known as “Dungaree”
is the most suitable) and an alpaca coat and waistcoat will suffice.
Unless one belongs to the clerical profession, the alpaca should be
fawn-coloured, or, at any rate, not black, as in this colour the
material is a sort of badge of missionary enterprise, and it is
embarrassing to be asked to conduct service on the main deck, under
false pretences. For the sub-tropical portion of the voyage, light
flannel suits, made with as little lining as possible, are most
suitable, and will prove useful, in any warm climate, at certain seasons
of the year.

In really hot weather, however, if thin enough to be cool, flannel
becomes too flimsy to serve for outer garments, and one is practically
restricted to cotton fabrics. Of late years a variety of cotton
materials have been made in India in imitation of the woollen tweeds in
general use in Europe, and have the great advantage that the little
deception is all the better maintained if they are kept unstarched.

Without desiring to furnish a gratuitous advertisement to any individual
enterprise, missionary or otherwise, I see no harm in mentioning that I
have met with no fabrics so suitable for tropical wear as those
manufactured by the admirable Basel Mission at Cannanore, and though
their energies are presumably mostly confined to the Indian market, I
have little doubt they would export parcels if asked to do so.

They have shown great ingenuity in contriving light porous materials,
almost indistinguishable at a short distance from those to which we are
accustomed at home, and there can be no doubt that the short-fibred
Indian cotton possesses certain properties that cause materials
manufactured from it to be softer and more absorbent than those made
from the harder and longer American fibre. At any rate I can account in
no other way for the marked difference that exists between the fabric
known as “twilled lining,” manufactured in Cawnpore, and what appears to
the eye the same article obtained in England, though the latter is by no
means to be despised.

It is but ten or twelve years since some bold innovator made the
discovery that the cheap and despised “twilled lining” formed an
admirable underwear for hot climates, and whoever he may have been, he
was certainly a great benefactor to the Anglo-tropical community, for
none of the numerous expensive patent materials that have from time to
time been brought out, combine the same good qualities to anything like
the same degree. It absorbs moisture quite as well as flannel of the
same substance, and can be comfortably tolerated by the most irritable
skin, while I doubt if it exposes one to greater danger of chilling than
any other material of like weight. It can be safely worn next the skin
without the intervention of a vest, which is indispensable with the
ordinary starched linen shirt, and is, all considered, the best material
for shirts, and for pyjamas for night wear, as various striped patterns
are made specially suitable for the latter purpose. While speaking of
night clothes, it may be well to remark that the ordinary pattern of
short coat, commonly worn with pyjamas, is a distinctly dangerous
garment, as it is very liable to ruck up during sleep, and so leave
exposed the abdominal organs, which are of all parts of the body the
most vulnerable to chill. To leave any portion of the abdomen exposed
for even a short time while at rest is an extremely hazardous matter, so
that in place of the usual coat it is far better to wear a shirt which
can be safely tucked into the pyjamas.

I was glad to hear, during a recent visit to India, that the rational
and cleanly custom of adopting white for evening dress was again coming
into vogue, for even the lightest cloth clothing is undesirably hot, and
the idea of wearing, night after night, garments which cannot be washed,
in a climate so productive of perspiration, is, to say the least of it,
somewhat repulsive.

It is, I understand, now the custom to have them cut after the pattern
of the now almost universal “dress jacket,” but it is probably better to
have them made by an English tailor of white drill, when fitting out, as
the cut of the native workman is hardly to be relied on, though he may
be trusted fairly well for nether garments. A broad silk sash or
kamarband is usually substituted for the waistcoat; and to protect the
ankles from the attacks of mosquitoes, which bite easily through a thin
sock, it is a good anti-malarial precaution to have the trousers fitted
with straps.

For riding, either stout khaki drill or the admirable cotton cords made
at Cannanore are most suitable, and they are best cut after the pattern
of the very handy “Puttialla” breeches, in which the breeches are
prolonged below the knee into a closely fitting extension formed like a
gaiter, as this does away with the necessity of wearing the very hot and
unsanitary long boot. These garments would also be very useful, either
at the Cape on account of ticks, or in parts of Burmah and Assam as a
protection against leeches, as in both these, and no doubt in many other
localities, these pests swarm so amongst the herbage that it is
impossible to go abroad in ordinary trousers unless they be tucked into
the socks. It is true that knickerbockers and long stockings will serve
the same purpose, but few can bear the irritation caused by stockings
thick enough to be worn in this way, in climates of this sort.

Another very suitable class of material for outer garments is to be
found in the coarse wild silk that is met with and manufactured in parts
of India, under the name of Tussur serge, and I have no doubt that many
other parts of the world produce materials equally adaptable to our
needs.

The matter of head covering requires special consideration, as there is
a quite unaccountable difference as to the risk of sunstroke in climates
which, as judged by the thermometer and the brilliancy of the sunlight,
appear quite similar.

Accidents of this sort are almost unknown at the Cape of Good Hope; even
as far north as Natal, and throughout our colonies there, and I believe
also in America and Australia, a broad-leaved felt hat appears to afford
quite adequate protection, always provided that it be not looped up in
the idiotic “smartness” of an Imperial yeoman’s headgear. It is
wonderful, too, how European officers contrive to go about in Egypt in
the singularly unpractical “fez,” which, save as a protection for the
bald within the house, appears about the most ill-contrived headgear yet
contrived.

To wear one in June in most parts of India, would be certain death to
the majority of Europeans, and few could venture to wear it at any time
of the year.

For India, however, and other climates where sunstroke is common, a good
sun-hat is indispensable, and there is undoubtedly no material that at
all equals pith or _solah_ for the purpose; and the bigger, the thicker,
and uglier, the better it is for the purpose. Thick stiffened felt also
answers very well, but is not reliable under extreme conditions, unless
made double with an intervening air space throughout. Whatever the
material, it is essential that the interior should be well ventilated,
and this is most efficiently secured by the hat itself being attached to
a comparatively narrow band that encircles the head, by the means of a
few widely separated pieces of cork; no lining or other material being
allowed to obstruct the passage of air.

The ordinary brass bound eyelet holes and squat top ventilator, so often
seen in home-made “helmets,” are generally, for all practical purposes,
absolutely useless.

Of the various shapes of solah hat in use, I am inclined to think the
“Cawnpore tent club hat” is the best. This is made with the brim almost
horizontal in front so as not to interfere with vision, and well sloped
elsewhere, and is quite comfortable to ride, shoot, or work in. It has
been adopted for the troops for tropical field service, but is I notice,
already commencing to undergo evolution in the direction of smart
inefficiency so dear to the heart of the military milliner.

Constructed as they are of strips of pith glued together, solah hats
naturally go to pieces in rainy weather, but this can be obviated by
covering with some waterproof material instead of the alpaca, or brown
holland, usually used. The padded and quilted coverings to solah hats
sometimes seen are absurd, as quilted cotton is far inferior as a
non-conductor of heat to a similar thickness of pith, and the padding
greatly increases the weight of the head gear.

In case of emergency, the oriental pugaree or turban is a very fair
protection, though it requires a good deal of practice to tie it
properly. Five or six yards of coarse muslin can, however, be got even
in small native towns, and such accidents as one’s hat blowing out of a
railway carriage, or off the head into a river, may occur to any one, so
that the expedient may obviate one’s either incurring considerable risk,
or submitting to the alternative of returning with one’s errand
unperformed.

Many persons are well nigh as sensitive to insolation of the spine as of
the brain, and suffer at once from the exposure of the back to the sun’s
rays. I have never personally experienced inconvenience on this score,
but know that many find that the sun playing on this part of the person
causes a dull, heavy aching:--an oppression rather than pain. Persons
subject to such symptoms should wear a broad pad of the same material as
the coat, thickly padded with cotton wool. The pad should not form part
of the coat, but be made separately to button on, as it is cooler worn
thus. Turning to the opposite extremity of the body, it must be admitted
that, owing to the entire want of ventilation, our European foot gear is
very unsuited for use in hot climates. Every one knows the discomfort
that is caused by boots that “draw” the feet, and these symptoms are
entirely caused by the comparative imperviousness of leather, as is
clearly shown by the greater discomfort caused by patent leather, which
is practically air-proof. On this account, shoes are more generally
useful than boots, though the latter are required for shooting, or work
in the jungle; as shoes do not sufficiently protect the ankle from
thorns, or the possible attacks of a snake. During the hot weather, the
most comfortable form of foot-gear is a canvas shoe, but as made by the
ordinary English shoemaker with leather lining and elaborate leather
toe-caps and cross straps, they present no real advantages over an
ordinary leather shoe. They should be made of stout but open woven
canvas, with no lining except over the stiffener at the heel, and quite
without toe-caps or other ornamentation; though the sole should be as
stout as that of an ordinary walking shoe, and it is better to choose a
brown canvas, as the “blanco” used for giving a clean appearance to
white canvas, soon fills up the pores of the fabric and makes it almost
as impervious as leather. The Persians wear a sort of ankle boot, the
upper of which is formed of knitted twine, and these “málikis,” made up
on an European last, form ideal “uppers” for hot climates, for they are
admirably porous, though so strong that they will outlast half-a-dozen
leather “uppers.” Can not our European manufacturers devise something
similar? In hot wet weather, it is a mistake to try to keep the water
out, as the sock, if enclosed in a water-tight boot, will very soon
become so saturated with perspiration that one has simply subjected
oneself to heat and discomfort to no purpose. Whether for rainy weather,
or for wading after snipe, or when fishing, the only desideratum is
that the water should be able to ran out as easily as it gets in.
Provided that clothing is changed as soon as one gets into shelter, no
harm need be feared from getting either clothing or the feet wet, as
long as one is on the move, in the climates with which we have to do.
For the same reason the advantages of a waterproof are very doubtful,
the fact being that, with a combination of heat and rain, one is bound
to get wet anyhow, and whether the moisture comes from the outside or
the inside of our garments is a matter of little moment. One other point
in connection with foot-gear remains to be noticed, and that is that as
one’s feet and hands become a full size larger under tropical
conditions, it is necessary that those included in our outfit should be
full large; for a shoe so loose as to be almost slipshod in England,
will be found to be quite tight when tried on in India. The best way is
not to confuse your shoemaker with directions, but to put on a couple of
pairs of thick woollen socks and get measured over them.

At night, the main object is to have as little in contact with the skin
as possible, so that mattresses of all sorts are best put aside during
the hot months and a smooth mat substituted. Most tropical races
actually prefer to sleep on a hard surface, such as the floor, during
periods of heat, and though few Europeans can habituate themselves to so
hard a couch, the majority prefer a cot formed of tightly strained
cordage or webbing to the more modern spring bed of woven wire, the
yielding character of which causes the surface laid upon to follow too
closely the curves of the body. Personally, I prefer the woven wire,
covered only with a loosely-made reed mat. Costing only a few pence,
such mats may be frequently renewed, and they are far cooler than the
fine and closely-woven “China” mats, which are rather costly, and in the
finest quality almost impervious to air.

Assuming that one is properly protected against mosquitoes, the feet and
chest may be left bare, but a light blanket or rug, folded to about 2
feet wide, should be thrown across the abdomen, as nothing is more
dangerous than chill to this portion of the body.

Ladies’ costume lends itself more readily to coolness than that of the
sterner sex, though its advantages are usually thrown away, by their
obstinate adherence to the corset, a garment which is even more
pernicious in hot climates than elsewhere. Apart from this, their most
common mistake is to err on the side of over-coolness, and medical men
who practise in the Tropics are constantly meeting with serious and
obstinate cases arising from inadequate protection to the abdominal and
pelvic organs.

Ladies too often expose the head to the sun in a most foolhardy way. It
may be admitted that a safe sun-hat is not particularly becoming to
either sex, but in the presence of the girl graduate, often surpassing
her male competitors, no one can doubt that a substratum of brains
underlies the golden hair, and this being admitted, it is clearly
morally incumbent on ladies not only to make themselves attractive, but
to take proper care of thinking organs of such high quality. Besides, a
woman with a headache is seldom charming, and a very genuine one--no
mere boredom--is too often contracted by the conscientious performance
of the quasi-religious duty of paying calls at noon in a picture hat.

Even where a covered conveyance is available--and many of us do not run
to anything more ambitious than a dog-cart in the East--it is quite
possible to contract a headache in crossing a pavement, and when a lady
drives herself, it is almost impossible for her groom to so hold an
umbrella over her as to afford protection, without obstructing her view.
On this account, it is better that on such expeditions she should submit
to be driven, so that she may have her hands free to carry an umbrella
or sunshade; and it is well to remember that a fairly large sunshade
with a padded cover is really more efficient than the largest single
umbrella, or even one provided with the customary thin outer white
cover.

Mothers have a general tendency to overclothe their children. Provided
that the abdomen be properly protected by a flannel “binder,” the less
they are hampered during the day the better. A child’s extremities
rapidly become clammy if it be inadequately clothed, and as long as
these feel comfortably warm, nothing but harm can result from stifling
them with coverings which cause prickly heat, with attendant loss of
rest and all the evils that result from chronic nervous irritation.
Above all things, the face should never be covered, even with a
handkerchief, in the case of the youngest of infants; as this pernicious
fad of nurses and mothers necessarily leads to the rebreathing of air
already rendered impure by passing through the lungs, than which few
things are more destructive to health, even in adults, let alone in an
infant, where the rapid chemical changes involved in growth and
development demand a supply of oxygen proportionately far in excess of
that required by a grown-up person.

In children much troubled with prickly heat, who have reached the age of
intelligence, a pair of silk drawers should be worn under the binder;
and during the day, and at night under the mosquito net, nothing more
than this is really required. At dusk, when they go out for their
airing, and at any time when mosquitoes are in evidence, their costume
should be contrived so as to protect them from the attacks of the
insects as far as possible.

In countries where ophthalmia is common, protection from flies during
the day is almost as essential as against mosquitoes at night, and if
the child falls asleep it should at once be placed under a mosquito net,
as the eyes of children seem to have a peculiar attraction for flies,
and there can be no doubt that these insects are often instrumental in
carrying infectious matter from the eyes of the diseased to those of the
healthy.


CHAPTER III.

On Water and Food.

The importance of attention to personal hygiene in the matter of what to
eat, drink and avoid, may be judged by the fact that three of the
greatest scourges of tropical life--cholera, dysentery, and typhoid
fever--are conveyed exclusively by the agency of germs that find their
way into the body along with ordinary articles of diet; and even putting
aside diseases of so dramatically striking a character, bad food,
careless cooking, and impure water may set up such minor troubles as
dyspepsia, with all its prolonged attendant miseries of body and mind.
Those who do not die from an attack of cholera or typhoid usually
recover fairly completely, but he who has once suffered from a bad
attack of dysentery is as truly lamed for life as if he had suffered
mutilation of a limb.

Accidents will, of course, occur, whereby the most careful precautions
are frustrated, but putting aside such contingencies, it is quite
possible to guard oneself against either of the above diseases by proper
care and attention; and those who know how to take care of themselves
may carry on their duty, with but little apprehension, while encamped in
the midst of a cholera epidemic, which makes it no uncommon occurrence
to find in the morning several pilgrims dead of the disease within a few
yards of one’s tent. On one occasion, my camp arriving after dusk, I
found in the morning that my tent had actually been pitched over a
new-made grave; but cholera cannot be caught by proximity to either the
dead or dying, but only by the fouling of what enters the mouth, so that
I was more disgusted than alarmed at the gruesome discovery; whereas I
should have been decidedly uneasy for the next day or so, had I
discovered that I had unwittingly swallowed either water or food that
had not been rendered harmless by cooking. There is one point, moreover,
about the necessary precautions, and that is that they must be carried
out, or at least superintended, personally; for neither natives nor even
the lower class of Europeans can be trusted to carry them out, because,
not understanding the reason of them, they are too apt to scamp the
business; and, as a matter of fact, neglect that would discredit a
native dairyman has more than once, to the writer’s knowledge, occurred
in regimental dairies, where every operation was supposed to be either
conducted or superintended by European soldiers.

One of these little incidents, due to sheer laziness and direct neglect
of duty, cost nearly fifty lives, for it more than decimated the wing of
the corps in which it occurred. The method in which this terrible
catastrophe was brought about is worthy of record, as an instance of the
way in which lives are sacrificed by a lack of attention to such
details.

The water supply of the station was excellent and all water used in the
dairy was supposed to be drawn from a standpost. Unfortunately, there
was a well on the dairy premises, and the soldiers in charge were too
lazy to prevent its being used. One of the native dairymen lived in a
village which was attacked with cholera, and like all Hindoos, had a
special vessel for drinking water. This vessel he used, of course, at
home, and also during the day, to get himself a drink from the well in
the dairy. He remained himself free from disease, but the germs of
cholera were carried, adhering to his lotah, or drinking cup, from the
infected village well, to the dairy well, and this, in its turn,
infected the milk stored in vessels which had been washed in the well
water, with the terrible results already described.

The remote fault, of course, in this case lay with the authorities, who
should have seen that no alternative, and more easily obtained, water
supply was available; for no one who knew much about either the native,
or Tommy Atkins would have any doubt of the less laborious source of
water supply being used the moment the eye of authority was off them. As
a matter of fact, the quality of the well water was usually excellent,
and its only fault, that it was not guarded against contamination, so
that not understanding the subtle mechanism of infection, both soldier
and native naturally regarded the journey to the more distant standpost
as a mere unreasonable infliction.

The piped water supply ought, of course, to have been brought into every
room of the dairy, but “spoiling the ship for a pennorth of paint” is a
very common cause of failure in attempts at sanitary reform in India.

I have given this incident at some length, because it affords a good
example of the way in which lives are sacrificed by a want of attention
to the details of sanitary management, and because, although it occurred
in a public institution, and the fatality was on a correspondingly large
scale, it is an equally good illustration of the way in which infection
finds its way into private households.

Let us now proceed to the consideration of the various articles of
supply, commencing with water.

As a rule, in our dependencies and settlements, water supply is of a
private character, as only a few of the larger towns enjoy the
advantages of public waterworks. Even where this is the case too, it is
not always safe to trust entirely to its purity, as in many places the
arrangements are not such as to ensure safety, and it is only in towns
where the waterworks are large modern instalments, with proper
filter-beds, under the constant supervision of an adequate European
staff, that it is safe to forego the systematic sterilising of the
water. In India, for instance, while the supply of Allahabad, Cawnpore,
Lucknow, and most of the other large towns is probably a great deal
above the European average, the mere fact of the supply being laid on in
pipes is by no means a guarantee of purity. In Naini Thal, a
considerable hill station, for example, the supply is pumped directly
from a lake without filtering, close to the spot at which the drainage
of a filthy native bazaar is allowed to flow into it. When living, then,
in a place where there is a piped water supply, it is well to ascertain
if filtration is properly carried out, and if not, to treat the water
with the same suspicion as that derived from any other doubtful source.

Where water of undeniable purity is laid on, all that has to be attended
to is the method of transport from the nearest standpost to the house,
for it is as yet extremely exceptional for pipes to be carried right
into buildings as is the practice in Europe, so that a special servant
as a water-carrier is still a necessity in India, even in large towns.
In this case, and indeed whatever may be the source of supply, it is of
the greatest importance that nothing but metal vessels, so constructed
as to be easily cleaned, should on any account be used. In all Mahomedan
countries, water is conveyed in a goat or calf skin, stripped from the
animal entire, with the legs tied up, and filled from the neck, which is
secured with a thong for transport; and it is a most unfortunate
circumstance that it has become traditional for Europeans to employ the
Mahomedan _bhisti_ with his _mashak_ instead of the more cleanly Hindu
kahar with his easily cleansed iron water vessel, for the Mahomedan
water-skin or _mashak_ is an abomination that cannot be too strongly
condemned. Few will, it is thought, deny that if a piece of half-tanned
hide were found lying in water intended for domestic uses, they would at
once reject it; and apart from the objectionable character of the
material of the _mashak_, it must be remembered that from its
construction it is absolutely impossible to clean the interior; and this
must necessarily become foul in the course of a few days’ use, even if
it were constructed of silver instead of half-dressed hide. Added to
this, it has been ascertained, by actual experiment, that disease germs,
deposited on the outside of a water-skin, are capable of growing into
and working through it, and so continuously contaminating the contained
water. Anyone who knows the ways of the _bhisti_ must be familiar with
the careless way in which his _mashak_ is laid down on the ground
anywhere that may come handy, so that it cannot fail to get frequently
fouled with germs of all sorts, which, owing to the vessel being
composed of organic material, find themselves at once placed on a
“culture medium” as congenial to their growth as if prepared in a
laboratory.

The above reasons, it is thought, should suffice to show that no leather
vessel should on any account be tolerated in connection with our water
supply, and it may be added that there is no difficulty whatever in
substituting cleanly metal buckets for the abominable filth trap that
has just been described.

While the Hindu holds the wholesome belief that contact with leather
means utter defilement to water, and would very probably die at the
stake rather than drink from a _mashak_; the use of the latter by the
Mahomedan is purely a matter of custom, in no way connected with
religious sanction, so that in hospitals too small to afford a double
establishment, a Hindu water-man alone is entertained, because no
Mahomedan can object on the score of religion to taking water from any
cleanly vessel or from any one’s hands, so that though a bhisti can
serve the Mahomedan alone, a _kahar_ can serve both castes.

For many years before leaving India the writer insisted on the use of
metal buckets for carrying his household water, a pair being carried
slung from the ends of a bamboo balanced on the shoulder; and it never
became necessary to dismiss the Mahomedan water-carrier, as he always
proved ready to adopt the change, as soon as he discovered one was in
earnest in the matter, and that any infraction of the rules meant
instant dismissal.

There are no more hard-working and better servants in India than the
_bhistis_, who are deservedly, as a body, great favourites with the
European community, ever ready to put their hand to anything. One who
once served me for several years used often to act as factotum on short
expeditions, cooking my food and waiting at table, and finally, as no
groom was available at the last moment, marched one of my horses from
one end of the Punjab to the other by himself, and brought it in in good
condition. With willing and obliging men of this sort, it is naturally
easy, by a little insistence, to ensure the adoption of any plan that
does not actually clash with their religious beliefs--and I can assure
my Anglo-Indian readers that they, too, will meet with no difficulty in
introducing this important reform, provided they show clearly from the
first that they mean to be obeyed. It is rarely even necessary to
threaten to entertain a Hindoo _paniwalla_ in the _bhisti’s_ place, for
as a race they are of the most amenable.

Putting aside public water supplies, the usual sources are wells, rivers
and springs. Of these, the first are, in most parts of the world, the
most common form of private water supply, and, speaking generally, they
are by far the most reliable, for save in most exceptional cases, the
pollution of a well always takes place from above. It is, of course,
most desirable that the upper part of the well tube should be lined with
impervious cement, but provided a reasonable amount of care be taken to
prevent the surface of the ground near the well becoming fouled, little
danger is to be apprehended from dirty surface water gaining admission
to the well, for there are few better filters than a few feet of
ordinary soil. The ordinary filter, employed in large waterworks,
consists of nothing more than a few feet of sand, and it is well known
that, when in good working order, such filters rival even the Pasteur
biscuit porcelain filter in their power of excluding germs.

Now to reach the interior of a well by any other route than through its
mouth, water must needs pass through a much greater thickness of soil
than is ever used for the filtration of water on a large scale, and
hence, provided the mouth of a well be protected, its water may be used
with the greatest confidence.

At first sight, it appears that nothing should be easier than to provide
the well with a water-tight cover of some sort, and draw all water by
means of a pump; and wherever the water lies sufficiently near the
surface, and the means of keeping a pump in repair are at hand, there
can be no doubt that there can be no better plan. Very often, however,
wells are so deep as to necessitate the use of a force pump, in which
case, unless long connecting rods are used, which are very apt to get
out of order, the pumper has to work half-way down the well, a necessity
which introduces new difficulties and dangers.

In places where pumps cannot be readily repaired, it is useless to
attempt the adoption of this method of raising water, and one must trust
to other means of protecting the supply. The mouth of the well should be
raised a foot or two above the level of the ground by building a masonry
drum, wide enough for the person drawing water to stand on, and well
sloped, so that slopped water runs off, and not back into the well.

It is further highly important to protect the well from drifting leaves
and dust, and also from being used by strangers and passers-by. This is
most easily effected by building a well-house over the mouth of the
well, provided with a door, for even if this is not kept always locked,
it at least serves as an intimation to outsiders that the well is not
public property, which will probably be generally respected. As the
well-house may be of the simplest material and construction, the cost of
one need be no bar to the adoption of the plan; for the shelter will
always be of small dimensions, and can be built with walls of sun-dried
brick and a thatched roof, or even of grass screens throughout.

A single metal vessel and rope should be provided, which should never be
removed from the well-house, and no other vessel should be permitted to
be lowered into the well on any pretence; for the practice of each
person carrying about his own drinking vessel and string provides the
mechanism whereby cholera is carried from one place to another in the
majority of outbreaks of that disease in India. If possible, only a
single servant should be employed to draw water, and he should be
provided with a padlock and instructed to keep the door locked. Very
probably the door will often be left open, but it is something gained if
it be locked for some hours in the day, as the fact of finding the door
even sometimes locked will serve to show outsiders that the use of the
well by them is regarded as a trespass.

Provided that the entry of leaves and other even more objectionable
matters be prevented in this way, a well should require but little
attention, though it may be useful to occasionally purify it, especially
if it has been out of use for some time, by treatment with permanganate
of potash in manner described below.

Where a well is persistently foul, it may be taken as certain that this
is due to prolonged neglect and insufficient cleansing; for when, as is
usually the case, no attempt is made to guard a well, so much dust and
rubbish of all sorts gain admission that it requires to be emptied and
thoroughly cleaned out, down to the soil in which it is excavated, at
least once a year, and the expense of doing this will be found to be at
least as great as the construction of a well-house of inexpensive
materials. When the water of a well has been obviously offensive, the
actual soil at the bottom of the well should be dug out for two or three
feet, and fresh, clean river sand substituted. After the well has
refilled, it should be treated once or twice with permanganate, and the
water will then usually be found to be restored to good condition.

To purify a well by means of permanganate of potassium, take from 2 to 4
ounces of the chemical, according to the size of the well, the larger
quantity being required only in the case of the enormous wells 10 to 12
feet wide that are occasionally met with; draw a bucketful of water and
dissolve the permanganate in its contents by stirring with a stick.
Lower the solution into the well, and flounce the bucket about in the
water till the permanganate is thoroughly mixed. Permanganate attacks
the organic matter present in the water, on which the disease germs and
other micro-organisms feed, and so kills them by starvation, besides
which the brown precipitate which is formed carries down with it much
suspended matter. This process is of especial value in destroying the
cholera microbe, and when moving about in camp, it is an excellent
precaution to send on a man two days in advance to disinfect in this way
the wells that will be used in each camp. If the amount of permanganate
used be sufficient, the water should still retain a faint pink tinge
after twenty-hours, and should have another day’s rest to settle before
being again taken into use. The purer the water, the longer will the
pink tinge persist, while on the other hand, the rapid disappearance of
the colour is an indication of great foulness, and of the necessity for
the application of a further supply of permanganate.

The water of large rivers is usually fairly reliable, provided the water
be got from the full current and not from a backwater, but is often very
turbid from fine sand and other mineral matter. In such cases, the water
may be cleared by stirring it round with a crystal of alum; after which
the suspended mineral matter will sink to the bottom in the course of an
hour or so. The manner in which the alum acts is not clearly understood,
as the amount dissolved is so small as to be insufficient to affect the
taste of the water or to do any harm, even if it be consumed for a long
period. The action of the alum, too, is far more efficient than that of
any ordinary filter, completely clearing glacier-fed water turbid with
particles of such extreme fineness that they will pass anything except
the biscuit-porcelain, or Pasteur, filter. Alum may also be used for
disinfecting wells when permanganate is not obtainable, about twice the
weight of alum being used, but it is not as reliable; and in case of
need, lime may be used, 40 or 50 lbs. of well-slaked lime being thrown
into the well, and thoroughly mixed with the water by keeping it
disturbed for some time.

The water of small pools and marshes should be avoided, and even springs
should be regarded with suspicion, unless some idea can be formed as to
the origin of the water. If this be from a deep source, it may of
course, be safely used, but care must be taken not to mistake surface
drainage that has oozed a short distance under ground for a true deep
spring. Caution in this matter is especially necessary in hill country;
and in doubtful cases it is well to get water analysed by an expert
before adopting it as a permanent supply, for it is noteworthy that some
springs of the highest reputation have been shown to be extremely
impure, the sparkle of their waters being really due to their being
charged with the gases of decomposition.

Not unfrequently, however, the tropical sojourner has no choice as to
his water supply, and must make the best of perhaps a very bad source.
Under such circumstances, all water used for drinking, or in the
preparation of food, must be specially treated so as to remove or
destroy any of the germs of disease which it may contain. It is
desirable, though very difficult, to treat water used for bathing in
the same way, but as a rule, one has to be content with taking every
precaution against such water entering the mouth.

Ordinary filters, it must be clearly understood, are not only useless,
but even worse; for the moist filtering agent, clogged as it is with the
coarse organic and inorganic _débris_ that it has strained out of the
water, is quite capable of acting as a cultivating medium for microbes,
on which they can multiply so enormously that however clear the water
may appear to the eye when it issues, its really dangerous impurity, so
far from being diminished, has been enormously increased. There is only
one form of filter that can be trusted to remove the minute organisms
that are the active agents in the propagation of disease, and that is
that in which the water has to pass through a piece of biscuit
porcelain, the pores of which are so excessively minute that even the
smallest of the bacteria are excluded. The employment of such filters on
a domestic scale is, however, extremely difficult, for they naturally
act so slowly that a very large appliance must be used to secure an
adequate supply. Added to this, their efficiency depends on the
perfection of a number of rubber connections, a material which
deteriorates very rapidly in hot climates, and except by the increased
rapidity of flow, it is not very easy to detect the fault. In any case,
they should never be used except under constant personal care, and one
way and another, they require a good deal of attention; besides which
they are heavy, and quite unsuitable for camp or travelling. On the
other hand, boiling for a few minutes gives a security quite sufficient
for practical purposes, and requires no more formidable appliances than
an ordinary kettle or saucepan, which are available everywhere. I am
perfectly aware that certain spores will sometimes survive the treatment
recommended, but the objection is rather academical than real, and so
far as I know, in the actual practice of daily life no instance of the
conveyance of disease has ever been traced to the use of boiled water,
so that I have always been accustomed to recommend the adoption of this
plan in preference to all others, in all cases where the water supply is
not absolutely above suspicion.

One caution, however, is necessary: always personally to see that the
water boils; for, apart from absolute deception, servants often really
do not know when water has actually reached the boil, as most housewives
know from experience of the spoiling of their “dish of tea.”

There is no need to stand over the man and watch the process however. A
portable stove should be brought into the verandah, and the servant
should be instructed to let one know when it is boiling, so that a
moment’s inspection suffices to satisfy one of the fact, which, after
all, is not a very formidable addition to the day’s work.

The water should be covered so as to protect it from dust and insects,
and put aside to cool. If a _sorhai_, or porous water bottle, be used
for cooling, it should be frequently washed out with strong permanganate
solution and occasionally boiled, as it is difficult to keep the
interior of these vessels clean, on account of their rough surface, and
impossible to see whether they are so or not. It should be remembered,
too, that it is as essential to have pure water on the toilet table for
cleaning the teeth, as it is for drinking purposes, as the quantity of
poison introduced into the system is of comparatively little importance,
in the case of the virus of infective diseases, which have the power of
multiplying within the system.

When travelling, it is a good plan to have an ample supply of tea
brought for the early morning meal, usually taken before dressing; and
to use what is left for cleansing the mouth instead of water. After
standing as it thus has, the tea contains a good deal of tannin, and so
forms an excellent mild astringent mouth wash, which makes it in some
respects an improvement on plain water.

By far the greater proportion of the water consumed by Europeans in hot
countries is, however, drunk in the form of aerated waters, and very
frequently little or no care is taken in their manufacture, even when it
is carried out by European firms in a large way of business. There can
be no doubt that where the business is conducted on a large commercial
scale, the water used should have been passed through suitable
bacteria-proof filters; but in one of the few instances I have met with
where this was even professed to be done, the filtering plant was
obviously absurdly inadequate to filter more than a small percentage of
the supply turned out by the firm. If such is the case with large and
responsible European concerns, the character of the article turned out
by the small native factories can easily be imagined. It would be
hopeless to expect much improvement from the latter, but if consumers
insisted on a guarantee that the water had been sterilised, in the case
of the European factories, there can be little doubt that, before long,
a safe supply would be put on the market to meet the demand.

Of late years the practice of aerated waters being manufactured by clubs
and regimental institutions has enormously increased, but it must be
remembered that, except as regards the avoidance of the coarser grades
of filth, there is little or no advantage in this, unless the water
supply of the factory be religiously guarded against pollution. As in
the case of small institutions the amount of European supervision that
can be given is but small, it may be doubted if much is likely to be
gained by any attempts to sterilise the water either by filtration
through biscuit porcelain or by boiling. The difficulty of cooling the
water is an insuperable obstacle to the adoption of the latter expedient
on even as large a scale as is required for a small club, for to make
good aerated beverages the water must be as cool as possible. Quite
recently the writer went over a station factory to try and ascertain why
the “soda” was so feeble. Installed in a corner was a bath warmer
capable of warming some forty or fifty gallons of water sufficiently for
bathing purposes, but quite incapable of boiling so large a quantity
under any circumstances, and indeed, not constructed with the view of
doing so. This appliance had been installed by some previous zealous
reformer, with the view of sterilising the drinks of the station, but he
had never been at the pains of ascertaining if it was really capable of
bringing its contents to the boiling point.

The murder was out:--the club soda had been systematically made of
luke-warm fluid, tainted with the indescribable flavour of half cooked
water. At the well a number of _bhistis_ were chattering with a
wandering _faqir_; and if his _lotah_ had not been let down, the last
time it was used, into a cholera-infected well, it was no fault of the
arrangements. As the health of the entire European community depends on
the purity of this well it should surely be worth while to make some
attempt to secure its purity. It is quite true that the building of a
well-house with a locked door might not ensure the absolute exclusion of
unauthorised intruders, but an occasional surprise visit would go far to
ensure a very general, if not complete, obedience to orders; especially
after detection of neglect on some occasion had been followed by prompt
dismissal of the responsible servant, and after the prompt destruction
of any unauthorised water skins found in the well house. It is no more
difficult to secure the locking up of a well, than it is to check
peculations of club stores, provided that equal attention be devoted to
the matter. No one expects absolute success in either task, but there
can be no doubt that ill-gotten gains are successfully reduced to a
minimum in most well-managed institutions; and surely our lives are as
important as the curtailing of our club bills to the extent of a few
shillings per mensem. Besides, to put it on a mere commercial basis, an
attack of typhoid is a most expensive luxury, even apart from its
dangers. After all, a doctor and two trained nurses for a month,
followed up by an unostentatious funeral, cost something, and a very
small proportion of the energy that is devoted by zealous honorary
secretaries to thwarting the efforts of the club “bearer” to appropriate
kerosine would go far to keep a well free from pollution. In places
where no reliable aerated water is obtainable, there is no longer any
necessity of drinking the more than doubtful fluids bottled in some
dirty corner of the bazaar, as there is no longer any necessity for any
complicated plant for the purpose.

At the present day, carbonic acid, compressed in steel cylinders, can be
obtained at all large centres, and the attachment for filling bottles
costs so little, and the method of using it is so simple that there is
no difficulty whatever in making aerated waters at home, no skill
whatever being required in the process.

The germs of certain diseases, such as cholera, are killed by the
prolonged action of carbonic acid under pressure, and on this account,
it is a good plan to keep a stock of aerated waters for a week before
using them, but it must be understood that this is no protection against
many other diseases, the majority of their germs being unaffected by
carbonic acid.

In the matter of food supply, the main points that require attention are
that it should be not only well, but also thoroughly, cooked, as only in
this way can the destruction of disease germs be secured. Further,
cooked food put aside for subsequent consumption should always be
carefully protected from the access of insects. No one who has noticed
how flies are attracted by filth of all sorts, and their omnivorous
liking for food of every kind, can doubt that they must necessarily
occasionally befoul food with the filth on which they have been
battening but a few moments before; and in all probability both cholera
and typhoid fever are not unfrequently conveyed in this way. Many
articles of food, such as soups, jellies, and milk puddings, form ideal
“cultivating media” for disease germs, as their composition is
practically the same as the materials that are artificially prepared for
the purpose in the bacteriological laboratories; so that if food of this
sort be accidentally inoculated by an insect fresh from feeding on some
dangerous form of filth, it may, in a few hours, become a teeming mass
of microbes of the most virulent character. On this account a liberal
supply of wire gauze dish covers should always be provided by the
careful housekeeper in the tropics, and no cold food should ever be put
aside without being covered in this way, unless it be placed in a large
safe constructed of the same material, of which one or two should form a
part of the furnishing of every tropical house. For camp use,
receptacles formed of strong, closely-meshed, hand-made cotton netting,
kept extended by means of hoops of cane, are very useful, as they
collapse and occupy little or no space on the march. It is almost
needless to remark that a cool airy spot should be selected for the
larder, and that all safes, covers, &c., should be scrubbed out at
frequent intervals with soap and water, to which a little boracic acid
may advantageously be added.

After these preliminary remarks it will be preferable to consider
separately the selection and treatment of the principal articles of
food.


_Milk._--Owing to the fact that, apart from the question of deliberate
adulteration, a certain amount of the water used for cleansing and
rinsing vessels, &c., generally gains access to milk, it is always open
to contamination in the same way as the water supply; and as milk forms
an excellent cultivating medium for many sorts of bacteria, their
multiplication to a dangerous extent is a very easy matter, so that
there is probably no article of food which is so often concerned in the
transmission of disease.

The conditions under which cattle are stalled and the milk collected, in
the more or less imperfectly civilised countries with which we are
concerned, are usually filthy to a degree; and hence it may be laid down
as an universal rule that unless one’s dairy is under one’s own personal
supervision milk should always be either boiled or systematically
“sterilised” before using. There are a number of excellent appliances in
the market for sterilising milk, and as directions for their employment
always accompany them, it is unnecessary to occupy space with any
instructions as to their use.

Unfortunately it is by no means certain that boiled or sterilised milk
is as wholesome and digestible as the natural untreated article, and
that there is a distinct, and slightly disagreeable, alteration of taste
cannot be denied. It has been asserted that infants fed exclusively on
sterilised milk are liable to be attacked by a form of scurvy, though it
does not appear quite established that the possible sophistication of
the milk in other ways has been excluded in the instances that have been
reported, and it is undeniable that large numbers of infants thrive
excellently on milk so treated. In any case, the risks of harm accruing
to either infants or adults from the use of sterilised milk are
absurdly small in comparison with those with which they are threatened
by the consumption of milk, produced under conditions over which no
supervision can be exercised.

Apart, moreover, from the dangers of filth and infection, the milk
supplied by native cow-keepers is nearly always of poor quality owing to
niggardliness and ignorance in the feeding of the animals, which are
either kept stalled under foully unsanitary conditions, or, on the other
hand, may be left to wander about and pick up a living as best they can.
When pressed by hunger, there is no fouler feeder than a cow, and it is
a dismal fact that, in the polity of an Indian village, the cattle rival
the pigs in their efficiency as scavengers, so that from the mere point
of nicety it is well, whenever possible, to keep one’s own milch cattle.
Cattle kept for milking should always be as carefully groomed and bedded
down as one’s most valued horses, and before milking the udders and the
hands of the milker should be carefully washed. When it is impossible to
keep cows, there is often no difficulty in keeping goats, one or two of
which will easily supply sufficient milk for use with tea, in which
alone the altered flavour of boiled milk becomes disagreeably
perceptible. Goats are extremely hardy, and being naturally clean
feeders, require far less attention than cows, while the flavour of
their milk in tea is preferred by many to that of cow’s milk. They stand
marching well too, and are therefore better suited for use in camp; and
as their favourite food is the leaves of bushes they may be trusted to
find their living to a great extent as they trot along on their way from
camp to camp. Usually their milk agrees excellently with infants, but
there can be little doubt that asses’ milk is superior for this purpose.

It is quite a mistake to imagine that it is a sufficient precaution to
have a cow brought to the house and milked in one’s presence. Various
expedients are known to all cowkeepers whereby the richest part of the
milk can be reserved for butter making, and apart from the knowledge of
physiological facts which enables this to be done, the native cowkeeper
is capable of performing certain small feats of legerdemain by which the
milk may be pretty freely diluted under the very eyes of his European
customer.

Well aware of the “sahibs’” absurd fad for cleanliness, a native
cowkeeper I met with utilised our weakness in that respect to perform a
very clever trick. He always brought with him a bowl of clean water,
with which he ostentatiously washed the udders of the cow, and while
milking, on the pretext that a cool hand was necessary for the process,
he occasionally dipped his really well washed hands into the bowl.
Hidden in the palm, however, was a piece of sponge, which was squeezed
against the udder in the action of milking, so that its contents mingled
with the milk as it jetted into the can, and by frequently repeating the
cooling process, he was able to dilute the milk to a very profitable
extent. It is well, therefore, to occasionally test the quality of milk,
and this is better done by noting the depth of cream that rises in a
given long, narrow glass, than by any of the so-called lactometers, as
they really only test the specific gravity of the milk, as they afford
no sure index of the amount of fatty matter present, and it is on this
that the main nutritive properties of milk depends.

For the use of infants on voyages, unconcentrated sterilised milk should
always be used, as it is much less altered by the process than is the
case with the “condensed” article, even when the latter is honestly and
carefully prepared. This, however, is far from being even generally the
case, as very often the milk has been skimmed before concentration, and
large numbers of cases of malnutrition among infants are due to this
cause, as the material lends itself easily to the perpetration of
despicable frauds of this sort, which appear to be sometimes practised
even by large and much advertised concerns. In the case of
unconcentrated sterilised milk on the other hand, the substitution of
skim milk can be detected at a glance.


_Butter._--Containing as it does a considerable proportion of unaltered
milk and whey, butter is open to the same dangers as the milk from which
it is prepared, and it is therefore equally risky to obtain it from
uncertain sources, so that, where these are doubtful, it is better to
have it made in the house.

Butter can be easily made on a small scale, by shaking cream in a
wide-mouthed bottle, or by beating it with a fork, and as it tastes none
the worse for being made from boiled milk, and the poorness or otherwise
of the latter only affects the yield of butter, there is no need of any
great caution as to the source of supply for this purpose. It should be
needless to remark that all vessels used for setting the cream and for
other purposes in the process should be kept scrupulously clean, and be
frequently scalded, as success is impossible without minute precautions
in this respect.

Buffalo milk is nearly twice as rich as the milk of even the best humped
cattle, and is therefore to be preferred for the purpose of making
butter. There is a silly prejudice against the use of buffalo milk among
Europeans in India, but it is really far superior to that supplied by
the local breeds of cattle, even when well fed and carefully kept, and
the only objection that can be fairly raised to butter made from it, is
its absolute whiteness, which, however, is easily modified by the
addition of a little harmless colouring matter. I have often been much
amused at guests remarking on the excellence of the butter they were
eating, who were convinced they could detect the least taste of “that
nasty buffalo butter,” which in reality they were consuming with the
greatest gusto all the while. In spite of her uncouth appearance, the
buffalo cow is a nicer feeder than are the Indian humped cattle, and it
is well known that the flavour of milk is greatly affected by the
character of the animal’s food.

Tinned butter is generally quite wholesome, but is, strictly speaking,
not butter at all, but _ghi_, as the material is necessarily melted in
the process of tinning.


_Cheese._--I cannot recall any instance of cheese being incriminated as
a carrier of disease. This product is really the result of the action of
certain special microbes on milk; and it is probable that any
micro-organisms of a dangerous character that may chance to be present
in the milk employed in its manufacture, are crowded out and destroyed
during the vegetative changes that determine the production of cheese.
Tinned cheese, though often of inferior flavour, is usually quite
wholesome, and is quite good enough for made dishes. Used as cheese is
by the Italian housewife as a flavouring agent rather than a food, it
may be used in the concoction of a great variety of dishes having
macaroni, rice, or vegetables as their basis, and is invaluable used in
this way to impart a variety to the rather scanty menu available during
the hotter months, when eatable meat is often almost unobtainable; and
from considerations of health, it is desirable to reduce the amount of
this form of nourishment.


_Meat._--The meat obtainable in hot countries is usually greatly
inferior to what we are accustomed to in England, although it may be
doubted if it be any worse than the average supplies of most parts of
Europe.

The animals are much smaller, a cleaned carcase of mutton weighing often
no more than 30 lbs. in the East; and the same remark applies, in a
smaller degree, to beef. Prime meat, such as alone satisfies the English
market, can only be produced by careful stall feeding, which is an
expensive process in any part of the world; and it is a mistake to
suppose that such meat can be produced very much more cheaply in one
part of the world than in another, as its cost depends on that of grain,
which in these days of rapid communication, has a tendency to equalise
itself throughout the world. The meat supply, available in the local
markets, is usually simply grass-fed, and none too well nourished at
that, so that it is usually stringy and of poor flavour, though very
cheap as compared with European prices; and people are apt to grumble at
the much higher price demanded for specially grain-fed meat; but the
better article is well worth the extra cost from the health point of
view, so that when local enterprise fails, it is very desirable that
European residents should combine to supply themselves.

In India co-operations of this sort are usual in the smaller stations,
and are known as “Mutton Clubs.” To get the animals into anything like
good condition, they must be grain-fed for at least four or five
months, so that the club must start with at least forty to fifty sheep
for each four members, and this number must be kept up by fresh
purchases as soon as killing is commenced; it being usual for each
member to be apportioned a quarter twice a week. A shepherd has, of
course, to be entertained, and the butcher paid for slaughtering and
preparing the meat, so that the cost seldom falls far short of the best
English meat; but mutton thus fattened can hardly be surpassed, and it
must not be forgotten that wholesome food is no less essential to health
than pure water, so that the plan might with advantage be adopted in
other similarly situated communities.

Neither veal nor lamb are, as a rule, very satisfactory, as the
condition of the parental animals is rarely good enough to enable them
to get their progeny into plump condition, and pork should certainly be
avoided, except in the highly salted and smoked form of imported ham and
bacon. Even in temperate climates pork is very liable to those peculiar
forms of decomposition, barely perceptible to the nose or eye, which
give rise to ptomaine poisoning; and the risk of accidents of this sort
is obviously much greater in hot latitudes.

Poultry, like meat, in the countries with which we have to deal, nearly
always requires to be fed up at home before killing, and there is as a
rule no difficulty in doing so, as space is usually ample, and the birds
require but little attention. It should not be forgotten that scraps
from the table are invaluable for fattening poultry of all sorts--odds
and ends of meat being specially valuable.

It is important that meat should be hung long enough for it to become
tender before cooking, and as the changes that bring about the wholesome
softening of meat are quite distinct from the operations of the bacteria
that are concerned in ordinary decomposition, it is possible to do this
even in the hottest weather provided that means are taken to suspend
bacterial action.

“Wyvern” in his invaluable “Culinary Jottings from Madras,”[1] a book
which should be possessed and carefully studied by every tropical
housewife, concludes with what he terms “The last and most worthy recipe
of all.” “It is not generally known that the fumes of sulphur prevent
the rapid decomposition of animal matter and that tender meat can be
had, in the hottest weather, by exposing the joint to the fumes of
burning pastiles in an air-tight box for two or three hours after being
brought from market. A joint thus treated will keep perfectly for
thirty-six hours, even in Madras, and will be found deliciously tender
the day after it is purchased. Take--sulphur, 2 lbs., powdered charcoal,
1¹⁄₂ oz., saltpetre, 2 oz.[2] Mix, and add just enough gum water to
shape them into pastiles of conical form. A roomy tin-lined packing
case, fitted with hooks to suspend the meat, and with a well-fitting
door, which can be easily made air-tight by means of strips of felt
nailed round the edge, is all that is required. Suspend the meat, place
two or three pastiles below it, light them, close the door securely and
leave well alone.” The writer has personally tested this plan, and can
answer for its excellence; and also that, once the appliance has been
obtained, its use involves, practically speaking, no trouble whatever,
as it is just as easy to store the meat in this way as in an ordinary
safe.

  [1] Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co., 1885.

  [2] These pastiles can be made up by any chemist, and used to be
  stocked by Waldie and Co., of Cawnpore.

Under the debilitating influences of prolonged heat the digestive powers
are never too strong, so that it is taxing them too far to ask of them
to digest the quasi leather that has to pass for meat in tropical
weather, unless measures of this sort be adopted; and health, it must be
remembered, depends largely upon good digestion.

In the countries with which we are concerned, meat should always be
thoroughly cooked, no portion being left showing the red of unaltered
blood, as the persistence of the red colour shows that the meat has not
been raised to a temperature sufficiently high to kill internal worms.
Out of the many hundreds of carcases that I have examined in India and
at the Cape, I cannot recall finding even one absolutely free from the
encysted parasites that develop in man into tapeworms; and it is
well-known that the same is the case in Australia and most other warm
countries; besides which it is very doubtful if meat is really more
nutritious or digestible, when eaten “raw.” All parasites of this class
however, are killed by a temperature of 140° F., and as the blood
contained in the meat turns brown at this heat, no risk is run, provided
it has lost its pink colour.


_Eggs_, whether consumed raw or cooked, are perfectly safe as long as
they remain in good condition; and so may be relied upon greatly where
supplies are of doubtful quality. It is useful to remember that they
keep much longer if the shells be well smeared with oil.


_Fish._--On account of its easy digestibility, fish forms a very
desirable article of food for the tropical resident, but it is almost
needless to say that the greatest care is necessary to secure its being
brought to the table in the freshest condition. On this account fish
transported for long distances in ice in such climates should always be
regarded with suspicion, for most medical men who have practised long
“up country” must recall cases where disagreeable consequences have
resulted from its use. I cannot say that I have always found myself able
to resist the temptations of ice-carried _pomfret_ from Bombay, but
would give this hint that fish so transported should never be eaten in
the form of “made dishes,” but always either plainly boiled or fried;
under which circumstances the first mouthful can hardly fail to make
apparent the least sign of commencing decomposition. It is safer,
however, in inland places to rely on river fish; and in their case the
muddy flavour, which so often renders plainly cooked fish unacceptable,
may often be masked by cooking them with tomatoes or other vegetables,
or by boning them and serving up as a curry, only please consult
“Wyvern,” or some other competent authority, before instructing your
_chef_; for a curry is not mulligatawny soup with scraps of food
floating in it, as so many people who have not lived in India appear to
imagine, and fish curried _a l’Anglais_ is most uninviting.


_Vegetables._--A free supply of these is essential to healthy nutrition
in all climates, and especially so in the Tropics, where it is desirable
to restrict the amount of meat consumed. English folk might with great
advantage take lessons from our neighbours across the channel, by
introducing to their tables _plats_ of vegetables served up alone, and
flavoured with some tasty stock, or with simply a little butter. Well
cooked, and served piping hot, such dishes are most tempting and
wholesome, and may most advantageously take the place of meat dishes at
the mid-day meal in hot climates; besides which it is as great a mistake
to mask the delicate flavour of early peas and French beans by eating
them with meat, as it would be to try to appreciate the flavour of a
vintage claret under like circumstances. Where vegetables are scarce, it
is well to investigate the dietary of the native races amongst whom one
lives, as even in long-settled colonies it is astonishing how often
excellent articles of food are entirely neglected by European residents.
Served up as _haricots verts_, the soy bean (_Glycine soja_) or the
lablab bean (_Dolichos lablab_) cut at the same stage of maturity, as is
customary with the ordinary French bean, are excellent and are specially
valuable, as they come on at a time when little else is obtainable; but
in spite of this, they are very rarely eaten by Europeans. Then too a
great variety of succulent leaf plants form an excellent substitute for
spinach, and a variety of herbs, wild or cultivated, suitable for
serving up in this way, are usually known to the indigenous inhabitants
of any country; the very young tops of gram (_Cicer arietinaum_), for
example, are excellent eating. During the Cgaleka campaign, the troops
were often for long periods quite without vegetables, and one day the
writer, wandering among the kraals near the camp, found some Kaffir
women busily gathering a wild plant with small succulent leaves. On
discovering that they were picking it for food, a basketful was
purchased from them, and when cooked, furnished an excellent dish,
almost indistinguishable from genuine spinach. Arrangements were then
made to supply the entire detachment once or twice a week; and the men
remained throughout the year entirely free from scurvy, a disease which
has nearly always given rise to a certain amount of trouble in prolonged
military operations in that part of the world, and notably in the Boer
concentration camps during the late war.

Many vegetables, too, are excellent when cut very young, which are
scarcely eatable when mature. This is especially the case with the
bhindi, one of the commonest of the few hot weather Indian vegetables;
but your native gardener likes to see them “large and fine,” and will
never cut them young enough unless this is insisted upon by his
customer. Many vegetables such as pumpkins, onions and tomatoes, may be
kept a long time if hung up in an airy place so that they do not come in
contact with each other; and where the plan is not practised by those
who supply the market, it is well to bear this point in mind, so as to
lay by a timely supply against the “rainy day” when vegetables will be
scarce. There can be little doubt that the inclusion of a certain amount
of uncooked vegetable food in the dietary is always desirable, but
salads are too often a dangerous luxury, owing to the very obvious
danger from the fertilisers that may have been used in their
cultivation, and on this account it is better to avoid them, unless one
is absolutely certain as to the conditions under which they are grown;
the more as an adequate supply of vegetable acids and salts can usually
be taken in the form of fruit. Cucumbers and tomatoes, which can be
peeled, need not of course be included in this general law against leaf
salads, but tomatoes should always be peeled, as the skin is extremely
indigestible, and is a frequent cause of diarrhœa. By dipping it for an
instant in boiling water, the skin may be removed with the greatest ease
without crushing the tomato.


_Fruit._--The remarks that have been made as to the avoidance of raw
vegetables that cannot be peeled apply necessarily to fruit, and those
in which this is impossible should always be cooked. Provided the fruit
be sound--neither over nor under ripe--a certain amount may always be
taken by most persons with advantage, but during hot weather, when the
digestive organs are feeble and irritable, it is well to avoid fruit
such as apples, which are naturally rather hard of digestion, even when
in the best condition. For the same reason, the harder portion of a
melon near the skin should be avoided, as hard melons, like any other
indigestible matter, may cause looseness; but it is a mistake to imagine
that they can cause cholera, a superstition which leads many people to
deny themselves the indulgence in this very wholesome and delicious
fruit. The origin of this fallacy is no doubt to be found in the fact
that cholera is usually at its worst during the melon season, but there
is no causal connection between these merely coincident facts.


_Bread._--When manufactured by the unsuperintended native, the
conditions under which this almost indispensable article of food is
prepared are too often unspeakably nasty; but a good deal more might be
done to ameliorate this than is usually attempted, by the occasional
unofficial superintendence of customers, and by the boycotting of such
bakers as refuse to maintain a decent standard of cleanliness. It is
quite possible that the result of such a visit may lead the enquirer to
“cry off” bazaar-made bread for the rest of his life, for it is an
absolute fact that a surprise visit of this sort once revealed the fact
that several lepers were employed in kneading the European bread supply;
but it is surely undesirable that such enormities should be perpetrated
unchecked, and there can be no doubt that at least some improvement
might be secured if people would but interest themselves in the matter.
When good bread cannot be obtained, it should be remembered that it is
quite possible for it to be made at home with baking powder, by the use
of which the trouble and uncertainty involved in the use of yeast may be
avoided.

Investigations conducted under the Food and Drugs Act have, however,
shown that the acid ingredient of many baking powders is alum, which is
injurious, if taken for any time in so large a quantity as is required
to raise bread, so that perhaps it is safer to use cream of tartar and
bicarbonate of soda, mixed separately with the flour in the proportion
of 16 by weight of the former to 7 of the latter; a bare teaspoonful of
the tartar, to an eggspoon of soda, for each nine tablespoons of flour,
is the housewife’s way of getting a sufficiently near approach to
chemical accuracy.


_Other foodstuffs._--Most Oriental nations depend largely for their
supply of nitrogenous or proteid food on pulses of various sorts, and,
weight for weight, many of these are far more nutritious even than
meat. No doubt religious and economical considerations have had much to
say in the development of this preference, but, on the other hand, the
minute regulations to be found in many religious codes are very often
based on really sound sanitary notions that have grown up as the result
of traditional experience, and it is probable that the repugnance of the
Hindu for meat food, though doubtless carried too far, is based on
something more than a mere whim of ritual, and that the introduction of
pulses into our dietary as a partial substitute for meat would be
advantageous, at any rate during the great heats. At such seasons, the
kidneys have all they can do to clear off the waste materials that
naturally result from the work of the body, and as meat always contains
a large amount of these same waste materials that have originated in the
work of the animal that furnished the meat, it is obvious that its
extensive use must throw an additional strain on already over-taxed
organs. Caution in this matter is, of course, doubly necessary in
persons who suffer from either gouty or rheumatic tendencies. The two
most palatable among the commoner pulses are lentils (_Lens esculenta_)
and thur dal. (_Cajanus Indicus_), the latter of which often finds its
way to Anglo-Indian tables, but might be more extensively eaten with
advantage. All pulses require very thorough cooking, and should be
reduced to an absolute pulp by the process; for under other
circumstances, they are apt to prove extremely indigestible, whereas
when properly treated they are absorbed with the greatest facility.

Rice should be so cooked that the grains, though thoroughly softened,
lie quite separate, but it is seldom or never met with cooked to
perfection out of India, and by no means always there. The stodgy,
sticky mass turned out by the ordinary English cook, or French _chef_,
obstinately resists admixture with the gastric juice, and instead of
being the lightest, is converted into a very heavy article of food.

The secret, I understand, consists in putting the well-washed rice into
boiling water to which a crystal of alum has been added, and completing
the cooking in this. The alum water is then washed off with several
changes of cold water, the rice drained, and finally warmed up over a
very gentle fire.


_Tinned provisions._--A good many familiar home luxuries can only reach
our distant possessions in the form of tinned stores, but there is a
tendency to rely too much on them. At their very best they cannot
approach well-cooked fresh food in wholesomeness and palatability; and
frugality in their employment may be always regarded as one of the
distinguishing marks of a good housekeeper, for, speaking generally, the
less tins are used the better.

The various classes of food, however, vary greatly in the extent of
deterioration produced by the process of tinning. Most vegetables and
fruits preserve well in this way, and at any rate I cannot recall any
instance of their having been proved to do harm. Meat and fish that have
been highly smoked or salted, as well as fish preserved in oil, also
appear fairly safe; but tinned fresh meat, and fish of all sorts are
luxuries that should be avoided by prudent persons, unless driven to
their consumption by scarcity. Tinned soups, containing as they usually
do a considerable amount of salt, appear generally safe; and are better
in the case of emergencies than the so-called meat extracts, which at
best merely act as stimulants. Despite all that specious advertisements
and uninformed testimonials may blazon forth to the contrary, it is an
impossible feat to pack a cow in a cup, and, though there is a
considerable concentration of undesirable excrementitious matter, the
actual nutritive value of these preparations is less than that of an
equal bulk of the meat from which they are produced.[3] They, of
course, have their uses, but must not be depended upon for nourishment
in prolonged cases, where they are in every way inferior to properly
made beef tea. In ordinary cookery their use is quite indefensible, on
account of the strain thrown upon the excretory organs in the
elimination of the excrementitious matters of which they are so largely
composed.

  [3] _Vide_ “Patent Foods and Patent Medicines,” by Robert Hutchison,
  M.D. (John Bale, Sons, and Danielsson, price 1s.). Although written
  mainly for the medical profession, this very able little pamphlet
  might be widely read by the too easily gullible general public with
  great advantage. The writer shows that some of the expensive “meat
  juices” are nothing more than diluted white of egg, and that even when
  genuine, their nutritive value is no higher than the fraudulently
  substituted egg albumen. Dr. Hutchison’s recipe for “meat” juice is
  not only amusing, but is well worthy of reproduction for its practical
  value, as it may save people from wasting many of the half crowns
  which they now contribute to enable the manufacturers of puffed
  rubbish to make the hoardings and country-side hideous with their
  advertisements.

  “You can manufacture ‘meat juice’ yourself at a very low cost. Here is
  a bottle of it which I made this morning. Take the white of egg, add
  an equal quantity of water, and strain through muslin, then flavour
  the mixture with any quantity of Liebig’s extract dissolved in a
  little warm water which you think suitable. By that means you get a
  preparation extremely rich in coagulable albumen which you can produce
  at one penny per ounce; and it is one of which the patient can swallow
  a pailful, if he can get it down, without it doing him any harm. So I
  see no necessity to buy any of the juices in the market so long as
  hens exist. That which you make in this way is as good as what you
  buy, for egg albumen is as nutritious as meat albumen, and it is
  vastly inferior to it in price.”


_The Question of Alcohol_ does not, I think, need any special treatment
here, as I doubt if its bearings are in any way altered by a change of
latitude. Equally in the tropics and on polar expeditions, the majority
of persons are, to say the least of it, none the worse for total
abstinence; but excess is neither more nor less fatal in the one than in
the other locality, and you will everywhere find a few to whom alcohol
in strict moderation is useful. One would hesitate to say that this
minority would be actually harmed by abstinence, but I am, on the other
hand, equally sceptical as to the harmfulness of strict moderation; for,
despite the very strong evidence of insurance statistics as to the
superior longevity of total abstainers, it must be remembered that the
so-called moderate drinkers must necessarily include a considerable
number of those who would define moderation as the avoidance of getting
drunk, and that the teetotaller is, _ipso facto_, usually one who is
inclined to take more than usual care of his health.


_Cooking and kitchen management._--In the first place, the rule may be
generally laid down that it is a false economy to be niggardly in the
matter of the cook’s wages. The desirability of good cooking is far
from being a mere matter of the gratification of the tastes, but is
undoubtedly also a matter of the first hygienic importance. Added to
this, a skilful operator can turn a wholesome and appetising dish out of
comparatively inferior materials, while a bad one will turn the best
into indigestible nastiness; and it will be generally found that those
who economise on this detail of expenditure, pay for it over and over
again by an excessive expenditure on ready cooked, and tinned foods.

A second point of at least equal importance is the insistence of
cleanliness in the kitchen, and in all the operations of cookery, but to
secure this adequate appliances must be supplied; for it is useless to
expect either good cookery or decent cleanliness without an adequate
outfit of “pots and pans,” and proper appliances for cleaning them. At
the same time it is a mistake to suppose that the utensils in use among
English people will serve equally well in other hands, so that it is
generally better to purchase locally what is needed. The heavy English
iron saucepan is, _e.g._, quite unsuited for use on charcoal fires, and
an Indian generally lacks the strength of wrist to manipulate it with
its clumsy and ill-contrived handle. Speaking generally, aluminium
cooking vessels will be found most suitable for charcoal or wood fires,
but they should be, if possible, fashioned in the forms to which the
local cook is accustomed. Their great advantages are that they lend
themselves well to cleansing with sand or ashes, which comes natural to
races to whom soap is an unaccustomed luxury; while, unlike copper
utensils, they do not require periodical tinning, and so are free from
the risk of causing metallic poisoning. Most English housekeepers will
probably admit that, even with a home establishment, a certain amount of
superintendence of affairs below-stairs can hardly be dispensed with;
and if this be so, how very much more must such scrutiny be necessary in
places where the workers belong to races to whom cleanliness in such
matters is an exotic curiosity. Too often, however, people are apt to
let these matters drift, and try to comfort themselves with the
reflection that the heart need not imagine what the eye has not seen,
but those who do so expose themselves to the certainty of consuming
unspeakable nastiness.

I remember well how our mess committee decided that each week a couple
of officers in turn should inspect the officers’ kitchen. Being the
first on the roster, the senior major and myself proceeded to make our
first inspection.

As we were expected, a very salutary, and probably much needed, clean up
had been effected, and we found little to criticise till we turned to go
away; when making for the door, the kindly major, who could never resist
the sight of a child, espied sitting behind the door the brown but
cherubic form of the butler’s little boy, dressed in the national
costume for children of his age of a piece of string. So he strolled
towards the child with the intention of gratifying his little friend
with some coppers to purchase sweets, when the urchin respectfully
sprang to his feet and revealed the fact that the stool on which he was
sitting was a huge round of spiced beef, which had figured on the
sideboard at breakfast, and was meant to reappear at lunch. Now we all
know that our food must necessarily be more or less handled, but, on the
whole, most of us would prefer it not to be sat upon; and our visit
resulted in the provision of a proper safe for cold provisions, which,
as a matter of fact, was wanting.

This is hardly the place for any detailed consideration of culinary
matters, but I would commend to the careful consideration of every
tropical housekeeper “Wyvern’s” excellent article on “Our Kitchens in
India,” in his book already quoted. There is only one point on which the
writer would be disposed to disagree with his authority, and that is as
to his recommendation of coal and English kitchen ranges; for whatever
may be the case in Madras, this would, for many reasons, be in most
places impracticable. Charcoal is a fuel which, no doubt, requires a
great deal of attention, but native cooks are quite accustomed to this,
and, trouble apart, its cleanliness and freedom from smoke makes it an
ideal fuel for cooking, and the antiseptic properties of the charcoal
dust in the kitchen are not to be despised.


CHAPTER IV.

The Tropical Day.

There is a southern proverb that, between the hours of two and four in
the afternoon, only Englishmen and dogs are to be found abroad; and
there is doubtless a good deal of truth in this as regards our
countrymen, though the _dictum_ is perhaps rather hard on the dog.

Whether this impeachment be libellous or not, it is undoubtedly the
universal custom of all races inhabiting sunny lands to devote these
hours to rest, and it is hardly likely that the visitor from northern
Europe is wise in refusing to accommodate himself to new conditions.
From “ten to four” may suit the business conditions of the City of
London excellently, but it does not follow this is equally adapted to
Calcutta, and the attempt to do so doubles the strain on nerve and
constitution. Apart from this, work done under such trying conditions
can never be of the same quality as that which would be accomplished at
more suitable hours. Even in busy modern Rome, which is a good deal to
the northward of any portion of India, it is quite common for commercial
establishments to close during these hours; and it is absurd to reply
that this is a mere evidence of sloth and want of business energy, as in
spite of this interval of rest, the shops open so much earlier and close
so much later that the total of working hours is greater than it is in
London. I believe, then, that English folks settled in the Tropics would
be wise to adopt an arrangement of the working hours which is the
outcome of centuries of experience of life under a vertical sun; and
rest when not only our fellow-men, but all animated nature seeks repose;
for in those hours, beside a few vagabond crows and those objectionable
insects, the flies, a sign of life is hardly to be found abroad to
disturb the stillness of the tropical noon.

Unless rest be taken in the afternoon the tropical resident is apt to
suffer from want of sleep, for even if he goes to bed at ten o’clock he
must needs be astir at five a.m., as exercise can only be comfortably
taken in the very early morning and in the dusk of the evening, and
seven hours’ sleep, even assuming it to be sound and restful, is quite
an inadequate allowance under such trying conditions. Too often however,
the night’s sleep is neither sound nor refreshing, and much of the time
is passed in rolling from side to side in the vain effort to find some
portion of one’s anatomy which the pins and needles of “prickly heat”
will cease to trouble. For certain kinds of work, such as travelling, it
is indeed necessary to “turn the night into day,” and get through the
business during the hours of darkness; for neither men nor horses can
perform any work involving muscular exertion, once the sun is well above
the horizon, without rapid exhaustion.

It is usually the custom to commence the day with a very light meal,
consisting of a cup of tea or coffee and a scrap of toast, which is
usually brought to the bedside; but, if one’s work is of a character to
keep one away from home for the greater part of the morning, it is
better to supplement this with something more substantial, such as an
egg, and to eat this after dressing, instead of before. Those whose work
takes them into the open had best go straight to it, and trust for
morning exercise to the riding and walking that are involved in the
superintendence of the work under their charge; but those whose
occupations are of a sedentary character, will come to them all the
fresher for half an hour’s canter, or a spin on the ever useful “bike.”
Exercise at this time of the day should never, however, be carried to
the extent of producing fatigue, or the quality of the work done after
it will be sure to suffer.

At one time it was a very common custom, on coming in from the morning
ride, to have a plunge in the swimming bath, and the writer has pleasant
memories of the _al fresco_ meal of fruit and hot tea beside the big
station bath, in company with most of the assembled male members of the
post. A very pleasant custom it undoubtedly was, but I suspect we did
ourselves more harm than good, for the first feeling of freshness was
very apt to be succeeded by one of increased fatigue; and I believe this
is generally recognised in India; for the fine old swimming baths are
everywhere going to ruin from disuse, and this would hardly be the case
if they were found as beneficial as they undoubtedly are pleasant. If a
plunge bath be taken at all, the best time of the day is probably after
the evening game of racquets or tennis--not immediately, of course, but
after having given oneself time to cool down somewhat.

If practicable, the backbone of the day’s work should be broken by noon,
and this is the time adopted by probably the majority for a meal, which
is generally, but rather inappropriately, called breakfast; after which
it is a very comforting and, the writer believes, healthy custom to make
up for the short, and perhaps disturbed night, by what sailors call a
“dog’s snooze”[4] of a couple of hours, after which and a bath, a couple
of hours more work can be got in before the sun is low enough to admit
of sallying forth, on exercise and recreation bent. After this perhaps
another bath, dinner, and bed.

  [4] The “dog watches” at sea last two hours.

This programme, it will be observed, admits of an eight hours’ working
day, and if anyone is asked to work more than this in a hot climate, the
most appropriate advice that can be given them, of course strictly from
the point of view of hygiene, is--to strike. This arrangement of meal
times is of course very much that obtaining on the Continent, and on
this account many find it difficult to accustom themselves to it, and
retain the nine o’clock English breakfast and early afternoon luncheon,
but this breaks up the morning’s work awkwardly, and makes the number of
substantial meals too large to suit most people under the altered
conditions of life. Comparatively few people find it advisable to
persevere in the use of the cold bath in hot climates, for, strange as
it may appear, but few people find it “agree” with them as well as is
commonly the case in Europe. This is especially so in the case of those
who have suffered much from malarial fever, as most residents of any
standing have; for in such persons any sudden shock is apt to give an
opportunity to the germs of the disease lying latent in the system, and
so to bring about a relapse of fever. Personal experience can of course
alone serve as a guide in such a matter, but those who have recently
suffered from a malarious attack will do well to be cautious.

With regard to the question of light and ventilation of the house; in
places on the coast, where really excessive heat is rarely experienced,
all that is necessary is to get as much air as possible without
admitting the direct rays of the sun. Inland, however, where the
thermometer may stand in or above the nineties for months together, a
certain amount of management is required to keep the heat inside the
house down as much as possible. To effect this, it is above all
essential that every door and opening should be thrown open at night so
that the cooler air may get the best possible chance to reduce the
temperature of the heated walls. Unfortunately, owing to the uniform
peccability of human nature, it is not always practicable to do this, if
one wishes to retain one’s ownership of movable property; as in most
parts of the world, it is scarcely possible to keep all doors and
windows open unless they are protected with bars, a precaution which
lends a very forbidding and prison-like aspect to a house. Fortunately,
as a rule the native burglar is not a very desperate character; and
prefers to work by stealth to attempting to get through any obstacle
that might make a noise in the opening. But for this, and the fact that
a certain awe usually attaches to the person of an European, robberies
could hardly fail to be much more common than they are, for as a rule
the bolts and bars of a tropical villa are contrived with a child-like
simplicity, which would raise a smile on the face of Mr. William Sykes
and his pals.

Here again is another direction in which the adoption of the system of
metallic gauze protection against mosquitoes will tend to make tropical
life more tolerable; for the stuff is much stronger than it looks, and
would form a quite adequate protection against ordinary thieves; besides
which, the gauze, for those troubled with nerves, might be easily
strengthened by supplementing it with a layer of the strong wire netting
used for fowl runs, &c., without making the place look like a jail, or
appreciably diminishing the freedom of ventilation. It would be easy,
too, by attaching to some part of the frames, inaccessible from the
outside, bells hung on springs such as used to be used in houses before
the adoption of the electric mechanism, to render the frames a very
difficult obstacle to open without rousing the inmates, even for
light-fingered gentry much more skilful than those with whom one has
usually to deal. An obstruction that will keep out a mosquito may easily
be modified to exclude men, and only those who have passed a hot weather
in towns where it is dangerous to sleep with open doors, can appreciate
what a benefit it would be to be able to dispense with the use of solid
doors and sashes. Strengthened with wire netting, the gauze would form a
far more formidable obstacle than any ordinary window, for a little
reflection will convince anyone that even the gauze alone would be far
more difficult to dispose of than the simple panes of thin glass on
which we have been accustomed to rely. Usually the house may be kept
open with advantage until eight or nine in the morning; but after this
the thermometer begins to rise rapidly, and it becomes necessary to
close up everything, while in very extreme climates it may be desirable
to supplement the doors by the addition of thick, wadded curtains, but
this should never be carried to the extent of making the rooms difficult
to see in, for a fair amount of light is absolutely essential to health.
Besides this various other expedients may be adopted, a very useful one
being the sprinkling of the verandahs with a watering can as soon as the
heat of the day is over, a process which may be very advantageously
extended to the roof, where this is of the terraced form, always
assuming that cheap labour is available. The coolness produced by the
evaporation of water is also utilised by means of “tatties,” as well as
in a machine known as the thermantidote.

Tatties are thick, loosely-woven mats, made by binding a thatch formed
of short lengths of a scented grass (known as _khaskhas_) to a
frame-work of bamboo, which are constructed to fit the frames of the
windward doors and windows, and are kept constantly wet by a man, who
goes from one to the other throwing water on them. Their efficiency
depends entirely on the amount of wind, and to maintain a good current
it is of course necessary that one or more of the leeward doors should
be also kept open, a fact of which it is often difficult to convince the
ladies, who, in their intense eagerness to shut out the heat at all
costs, not unfrequently succeed in shutting it in instead. Given a
fairly good breeze, and a waterman who does his work well, it is
possible to produce a very marked amelioration of the temperature; and
the free passage of air through the room goes far to neutralise the
dangers of dampness. Of course neither these appliances, nor the
thermantidote, can act except in dry heat, so that their usefulness is
quite confined to the dry months of inland climates.

The thermantidote, in its usual form, is a large wooden drum, within
which revolves a system of fans, one of the upper quadrants of its
circumference being removed and replaced by a horizontal tube, which
projects through an opening in a temporary screen into the room to be
cooled. The sides of the drum, through which the axle projects, are
replaced, in the middle, by small tatties, and the effect of driving the
fans (which work like those of a paddle boat, and not on the principle
of the screw) is to draw air through these small wet mats and drive it
into the room. Some of the more elaborate sort are provided with a
miniature pump, which delivers water on to the mats from a trough below,
the pump being driven from the same multiplying wheel as the fan. In
thoroughly dry weather, it is quite possible to reduce the temperature
of a room by fully ten degrees by means of these machines, but they are
treacherous arrangements, especially for those who allow themselves to
be tempted to sit in the full force of the current, and are responsible
for a great number of chills and rheumatic twinges of all sorts, so that
I believe it is better to endure the heat without them. The labour of
driving them, too, is rather severe, so that relays of strong young
coolies must be entertained if they are to be worked efficiently;
whereas in the case of the punkah a certain knack is required, rather
than mere brute strength and stupidity, so that the work is very
suitable for men who are past their prime. The best punkah wallah I ever
had was an old blind man, and the work seems particularly suitable for
the blind, as sight is in no way required, but, in the East, these
unfortunates generally prefer to resort to their traditional employment
of mendicancy. The little art of pulling a punkah lies in never checking
it as it swings away from you; and in making the pull just as it begins
to lose way on its return; but simple as this may appear, the men often
require a good deal of training before they do it well. The original
punkah is said to have been invented by a bored clerk in a Calcutta
office, over whose head, it happened, the spare leaf of a table had been
hung to keep it out of the way of the white ants. In an idle moment he
began to make the suspended plank swing to and fro, and finding the
resulting breeze very comforting, proceeded to make fast a cord, and set
a coolie to pull it. The contrivance, at any rate, dates only from the
English occupation of India, and the original flat plank has never been
improved on, as the less unsightly pole punkah and frill is in every way
inferior to it. The broad, flat punkah of course is usually also fitted
with a frill, but a light, single cloth, about the substance of a bath
towel, really acts far better than the usual heavy frill, as it gives a
peculiar flick at the top of its stroke which is extremely effectual.

It is a not uncommon misapprehension to imagine that a punkah cools the
air within a room, though this, of course, is an obvious impossibility,
but the current of air produced by it promotes the rapid evaporation of
the moisture of the skin, and the body is thereby cooled, which for
practical purposes is much the same thing.

Ladies who make up their minds to face the hot weather do well to
strive to compass a certain amount of exercise in the open air, for
their occupations tend to keep them in the house more than their worse
halves. It is a great mistake to picture the Anglo-Indian lady as
passing her time in sloth and idleness. Civilisation has not reached the
same pitch in the Tropics that it has in temperate climates, and those
who migrate there must be prepared to live two centuries behind Europe;
with the result that a multitude of the details of household economy
have to be done in the house which, at home, would be managed by the
tradesman. On this account, the _memsahib_ finds herself back in the
days of domestic dairies and still rooms, and must busy herself with the
superintending of a score of details undreamt of in a modern English
housewife’s philosophy. To realise how much she has to do and how well
she does it, one has only to put up for a few days in a bachelor’s
_ménage_, and reflect how much better the “singly blessed” fare west of
Suez.

Whether ladies really suffer more from the strain of hot climates than
persons of the male persuasion, is very difficult to say, as it is
probably mainly the more robust who elect to share the burden and heat
of the day in the plains with the mere man; but it is probably more a
question of will power than of physical strength that determines the
question; for as often as not it is the big Du Maurier type of girl that
leads the rout to the hills, while some fragile-looking piece of bottled
energy remains to be the life of the parching station below. Those who
do stay, as a rule, do not appear to suffer any more than their
husbands; but no one is any the better for a hot weather in the plains,
and whether the strain of such surroundings is well or ill borne, is
probably more a question of individual temperament than of either sex or
physical strength.

The writer has met with ladies who had passed many consecutive years in
the plains of India with apparently no very noticeable bad effects, but
these have been mainly such as, owing either to inclination or the
nature of their occupation, were a good deal out and about, in spite of
the heat, and so got a fair amount of exercise, and did not shut
themselves up for all the daylight hours in stifling and depressing
semi-darkness.


CHAPTER V.

Hints on the Management of Children in Hot Climates.

Owing to the circumstance that it is more convenient to deal with the
subject of the feeding of infants in connection with that of the
prevention of infantile diarrhœa, but little of a nature special to hot
climates remains to be noticed in connection with the management of
young infants, for being concerned with little else than the
assimilation of nourishment, their well-being or otherwise is governed
almost entirely by the state of their digestion.

Putting aside the special danger of infantile diarrhœa, young infants
generally do well in hot climates, which are in many ways suitable to
their low powers of resistance to cold. Some writers, very competent to
speak on the subject, are indeed of opinion that very young infants do
better in India than in cold or temperate climates; and perhaps this may
be the case as regards breast-fed children, for, the air temperature
being but little below that of the body, they are almost entirely
protected from the coughs and colds of all sorts that do so much damage
at home, and lead to the poor children being confined to a stuffy
atmosphere instead of enjoying the enormous advantage of unlimited fresh
air, of which an infant requires proportionately even more than an
adult. On this account never allow a nurse, however experienced she may
be in her own conceit, to cover a child’s face with a handkerchief even
out of doors, as the re-breathing of air already polluted by passing
through the lungs is one of the most frequent causes of illness in human
beings of all ages, and if the air outside be really so cold as to be
harmful, the child will be better indoors, in a well-warmed and
ventilated room, than outside, if half stifled in this silly fashion.

If she has any lingering doubts on the matter, let the mother borrow an
ambulance, and try how much fresh air can be got, lying flat on the
back, with a handkerchief spread over the face, and a fussy old woman in
attendance to replace it should it chance to get disarranged.

The dangers of that abomination, the “baby’s comforter,” are elsewhere
adverted to, but to show that the writer is by no means singular in his
opinion, the following extract from _Science Siftings_ may be read with
advantage:--

“Most expert observers of the infectious nature of consumption have
stated that the bacilli almost invariably enter the system through the
nose or mouth, the respiratory system, in fact. Yet there are others who
state that the milk drunk by infants is a chief cause of infection. But
a new and deeply interesting theory is put forward by Drs. J. O. Symes
and T. Fisher in the _British Medical Journal_. All day long, they
write, babies are sucking an indiarubber comforter, and it no sooner
drops on to the dirty floor than it is hastily picked up and thrust
again into the mouth of the infant. Older children also, as they crawl,
take up every article they can lay hold of and put it into their mouths,
to the danger of which their dirt-begrimed cheeks bear witness. The
moral is obvious.”

Native attendants are especially fond of the contrivance, and hence it
is desirable to emphasise its dangers in a work on the present subject.

It should be needless in these days to warn mothers that all “soothing
syrups” are extremely harmful and even dangerous preparations; but there
is another preparation in almost universal use, which, in a smaller way,
does a great deal of harm. I allude to the abuse of dill water and
similar pungent stomachics. The usual pretext for its administration is
that the baby has got what is popularly termed “wind in the stomach,”
which may mean merely indigestion, due, in all probability, to the use
of some patented abomination in the way of “infants’ foods,” containing
farinaceous material; or that, as evidenced by belching, there really is
gas in stomach produced by fermentation, or by sucking in air from the
use of a “comforter.” Now the dill water will no doubt temporarily
relieve the pain, but it will rather aggravate the malady than cure the
condition that causes it; as the remedy is of exactly the same character
as the nip of gin which Mrs. Gamp found so useful in soothing her
“spasms,” and is probably even less suited for babies than the gin was
to the good lady so inimitably portrayed by Dickens.

It is astonishing how mothers, who would exclaim with horror at a few
wholesome grains of pepper to season the breakfast egg of a child of
five or six, will go on giving a new-born baby dose after dose of what
is much the same thing as a very pungent liqueur. Should the pain be
really due to “wind,” as shown by belching, some unirritating antiseptic
such as a grain or two of resorcin will rapidly check the fermentation
that is producing the gas, and so cure the disease. Though comparatively
little used for this purpose, the writer has found this drug most useful
in these little troubles, and has found that even infants of but a few
days old tolerate it perfectly. If, on the other hand, the pain be due
to indigestion, the trouble is probably caused by the character of the
food, and an effort should be made to find something that agrees better.
Probably the commonest cause of these disorders is the use of the
numerous much-advertised “infants’ foods,” most of which contain
farinaceous material of some sort. Now young infants cannot digest
starchy matter of any kind, and the only proper food for them is milk.
When the milk of the lower animals is used it is of course desirable to
modify it, so that its composition may be made to more closely resemble
that of human milk; and this in the case of cow’s milk is effected by
diluting the milk and adding a little sugar, preferably milk sugar.
Again the tendency of cow’s milk to clot in large mass has to be
neutralised by the addition of some material that will prevent this, and
the general ban against farinaceous materials need not extend to the use
of the deservedly popular barley water for this purpose, as the amount
of starchy matter it contains is too small to be harmful.

When goats’ milk is used, the goat should be kept tied up and its food
gathered for it, as although a clean feeder, it is apt, if left at
freedom, to eat acrid leaves which may affect the milk. Goats’ milk
requires somewhat less dilution than that of the cow, and may agree in
cases where cows’ milk fails.

In proportion as the heat is greater, so should the milk be more freely
diluted, as otherwise thirst may lead to the child taking more food than
is good for it; and if at such times the child craves too frequently for
food, a few teaspoonfuls of plain water should be given; as the craving
is merely an indication that the child, like larger people, is thirsty.
The water can do no harm, but irregular feeding is always injurious. As
the child grows older, the milk can be given less diluted, and after
eight or nine months the yolk of a raw egg beaten up with the milk may
be occasionally given, if the child appears to require more nourishment;
but this should not be overdone, as such food is apt to cause
“biliousness.” In the second year milk puddings and bread and gravy may
be given occasionally, and after the third the child should be
encouraged to eat plenty of well-cooked vegetables, but stewed fruits
should be given with caution.

In the case of older children brought up in hot climates, it must be
remembered that their appetite, like that of their elders, is apt to
suffer at trying times of the year, and hence it is important to
introduce as much variety as possible into the menu. A dish nearly
always much appreciated, and I believe perfectly wholesome, is a
curry;--not too highly spiced of course, but still a curry. The writer
had at one time, as a sole charge, the care of some five hundred
children, varying from four to seventeen years of age, in a large
school. For many years, on two days in the week, a curry had formed the
dinner for the children of all ages in this institution. That of the
“infants” had even less pepper in it than what was supplied to the elder
boys and girls, but was still distinctly appetising. Now no item of the
dietary was as thoroughly relished and finished with as hearty an
appetite as this; and there never appeared the least reason for
suspecting it was anything but useful and wholesome. Children are often
much to be pitied on account of the fads of their parents in the matter
of diet, for the poor little souls are continuously placed in the
position of Sancho Panza, when they made him governor of Barataria, and
the court physician would allow him nothing decent to eat. When children
have passed the stage of early infancy, and nature has furnished them
with teeth, one may be pretty sure that what is bad for them is equally
deleterious to oneself, and it is well, instead of denying them all
sorts of things on mere suspicion, to give a small quantity and notice
if it causes any discomfort. Otherwise, as likely as not you are denying
them things that may suit them excellently, and forcing them to eat
insipid traditional children’s dishes, which very possibly, do not
really suit them. Milk should of course be always given freely to all
growing children, but apart from this too great monotony is sure to be
harmful. There are some children, of course, to whom even small
quantities of usually wholesome articles of food seem to act as absolute
poisons. This is especially the case with sugar, extremely small
quantities of which will, in such peculiarly constituted children, bring
out an attack of nettle-rash. The skin is always abnormally irritable
under great heat; and hence such cases show themselves more commonly in
European children brought up in the Tropics than in those living in
temperate climates.

When, therefore, a child is greatly troubled with nettle-rash it is well
to suspend sugar, and should this fail, experiment with the stopping of
other articles of its dietary.

A very common mistake on the part of anxious mothers is to cut up a
child’s food too small. As soon as a child’s digestive organs have so
far developed as to be capable of digesting solid food at all, as shown
by its having come into the possession of a full set of first teeth, it
is very important that nothing should be swallowed without thorough
mastication; and the mincing of the food not only renders it possible
for the food to be swallowed without chewing, but actually makes it
difficult for the child to do otherwise, as anyone may convince himself
by trying to masticate any minced dish.

Now mincing is in no sense a substitute for chewing, and as it is
disagreeable to swallow a large piece of food without proper
mastication, it is better to err on the side of cutting too large than
too small. Moreover, the cutting up of the food too finely actually
trains the child to bolt its meals, and this causes it to acquire a most
harmful habit, of which it will be very difficult for him to break
himself in after life.

On the other hand, many children take up the almost equally injurious
habit of churning their food about in the mouth for an unreasonable
time. This habit is a very common one with Anglo-Indian children and
should always be checked, as the prolonged mumbling of each mouthful
stimulates an undue flow of saliva, and produces dyspepsia by flooding
the stomach with it. It is really, I believe, due to want of appetite,
and is generally caused by the monotonous and insipid diet to which
children are often confined, while they watch their parents consuming
appetising dishes which they are not allowed to touch. Surely it is hard
to expect the child to swallow a stodgy mass of boiled flour and milk,
with the savour of crisply fried bacon under its nose; and why should a
child whom Nature has already provided with a full set of teeth be less
able to digest a simple wholesome article of food, such as this, than an
adult? No one would suggest the giving of large quantities of such
delicacies, of which, indeed, adults very commonly consume a good deal
more than is good for them; but some bread and butter with a few scraps
of bacon and some bread crisply fried in the fat, eaten with a relish
that stimulates the proper flow of the digestive secretions, is surely
more likely to be properly assimilated than some insipid mess, eaten
under compulsion, with difficulty and loathing.

It is often impossible to find any good reason for popular maternal
notions as to what children should eat, drink and avoid, but the broad
principle underlying it appears to be that anything nice is necessarily
harmful. “Children should be given only simple food.” Doubtless!--but
what is “simple food”? Food, I take it, which it is a simple job to
digest. But it is quite a mistake to imagine that every insipid mess is
easy, and every tasty relish difficult, of digestion. Some insipid foods
are easily digestible and some not, and some tasty foods are
indigestible and some digestible. The taste and savour are in fact no
guide whatever. To pursue our particular example:--bacon fat is an
exceptionally easily assimilated form of fatty matter, rivalling cod
liver oil in that respect; and every whit as useful in the treatment of
malnutrition.

Again, the method of preparation makes all the difference as to
digestibility. Cheese, for instance, of the cheaper varieties, is
proverbially hard to digest, for the obvious reason that it is difficult
for the digestive organs to dissolve its rather leathery substance, but
a crumbling Stilton taken in reasonable quantities is far from being so;
and even less expensive cheeses, if grated and cooked, are quite
harmless, so that a dish of macaroni just flavoured with a little grated
cheese is a far more suitable food for a child than the pasty gruel that
passes under the style of oatmeal porridge southward of the Tweed.

The hardy Italian peasant children are as regularly brought up on the
dish I have just described as the young Scot on oatmeal porridge; and
as, unless given all day and every day, both are perfectly suited to
young digestions, there is no good reason why both should not take their
turn in the nursery cuisine.

A great deal that has been said is no doubt equally applicable to
temperate climates, but in these healthy children rarely suffer from
want of appetite, whereas in the trying time of the year in the Tropics
there is often a strong temptation to eat too little to keep up the
needs of the system, and hence this exhortation to the adoption for
children of a varied and tempting diet is especially applicable to those
brought up in hot countries.

A separate work would be required to deal adequately with the subject of
the present chapter, so that it is impossible to do more than offer a
few general hints on the subject, and it accordingly remains only to
consider the question of the necessity, or otherwise, of children being
sent off to a hill station during the worst part of the tropical year.
To do so is often a terrible tax on the financial resources of the
parents, and there can be no doubt that the advantages of the hill
climates over those of the plains, though no doubt very real, are much
over-rated; for the hills have special dangers of their own. Some years
ago I had occasion to compare the sick rates of a number of the largest
Indian boarding schools, and was much astonished to find that the justly
celebrated “La Martiniere,” at Lucknow, had a somewhat smaller sick rate
than the great Laurence Military Asylum for soldiers’ children, which
was then under my care. Now if the difference in favour of the hill
climate were as great as is popularly supposed, this could hardly be the
case; as Lucknow is by no means an exceptionally healthy plains station,
and the site of the La Martiniere leaves much to be desired. Yet the
hill school would have been counted a healthy one anywhere, for in two
years we had but two deaths among the whole half-thousand boys and
girls. Apart from the mere question of personal comfort, the main
advantage of the hill climates are their freedom from malaria, but this
ought to be guarded against in the plains by proper metallic gauze
protection of the nursery; while, on the other hand, hill climates are
extremely treacherous for children during the rains. Assuming the
adoption of rational precautions against malaria, I believe that
whatever may be the case during the dry, hot season, the majority of
children would be better in the plains than on the hills during rains.
Part of this is perhaps due to the increased sanitary difficulties; for
typhoid fever is endemic in almost all hill stations; but the bulk of it
is due to the raw, clammy chills of a sodden atmosphere, and given an
equal number of children, it is a matter of common experience with
medical officers that the doctor’s visiting book will often show an
enormously larger number of calls in these sanitaria (?) than in the
much maligned stations below.

Hence, while in no way counselling the retention of children in the
plains during the hot, dry season, by those who can well afford to send
them away, I trust that the facts adduced may tend to the comfort of
those whose finances do not admit of such a luxury, and the question
whether great sacrifices should be made to do so should be determined by
the comparative healthiness, or otherwise, of the locality in the plains
where they may be stationed.

The amount of sickness, both of a serious and trifling character, on
most hill stations is perfectly alarming, and there cannot be the least
doubt that there are a great many stations in the plains that are far
less unhealthy for Europeans the whole year round, so what is gained by
resorting to the hills is, in most cases, not health, but personal
comfort.

Another caution:--do not always jump to the conclusion that a child is
necessarily suffering from malaria when it becomes feverish. The
temperature-regulating mechanism of a child is much more delicate than
that of an adult, so that very little suffices to put it out of gear;
and an indiscretion in diet which would show its effects in an adult
merely in the form of a bad head and a worse temper, will perhaps send a
child’s temperature up to 104° F. or over. Such cases are almost as
common in Europe, but unlike the Anglo-tropical matron, the English
mother does not usually go about with a clinical thermometer in her
pocket, and they usually pass undetected, as far as the element of
temperature is concerned, and are ascribed to their true cause of some
upset of the digestive organs, which yields easily to some mild
laxative. More than half the cases of so-called fever are of this
nature, and as the diagnosis of malaria can only be made, even by a
doctor, by a careful examination of the patient’s blood under a powerful
microscope, it is wise in his absence to try the effect of such simple
measures as a dose of “Gregory” or grey powder before needlessly
drugging the child with quinine.

Lastly, and most important of all, do not always go rushing off to your
medicine cupboard because the dear child “looks so pale,” or is
protesting more vociferously than usual at the crumpling of some of the
rose leaves of its couch. Anyway, it is no good emptying drugs down the
interior of the poor child’s neck till you feel pretty sure of your
reason for doing so. It is very natural and excusable that a mother
should be so anxious to “do something”; but unless sure of your reasons
for acting, the something done is too apt to be something wrong. The
amount of needless drugging of children that goes on is cruel, even when
it is not harmful; and I cannot help thinking the little ones would be a
good deal better on the whole if mothers would make a rule of swallowing
a duplicate spoonful of nastiness for every one they are so anxious to
administer to their progeny.


CHAPTER VI.

Hints on the Construction of Tents and on Camp Sanitation.

In many hot countries Europeans of all classes pass a considerable
portion of their time under canvas, and though it is not proposed to
refer in any way to military operations, some reference to the
management of small private camps is desirable.

In pioneering life in the colonies, permanent encampments necessarily
have to serve in place of houses, often for long periods, and in such
colonies as South Africa whole families are often “on the trek” for
months together; whilst in India most officials must pass much of the
cold season under canvas as a part of their routine duty, and it is
quite common for an official to be accompanied on these long tours by
his family and entire establishment.

Now in spite of its apparent inconveniences, tent-life is, if fairly
well managed, extremely healthy, and there can be no doubt that in India
these cold weather tours under canvas form the saving clause in the
description of an official’s life; so that it is extremely desirable
that, wherever practicable, the ladies and children of a family should
share in its advantages. In a well-ordered Indian cold weather tour in
tents, the hardships are indeed so purely nominal that there is no
difficulty whatever in taking even the youngest children, not only
without any increase in the risks of life, but with enormous advantage
to health.

Tents should, as a rule, be obtained on the spot, as those manufactured
in any given country will generally be better planned to meet special
local exigencies than those obtainable elsewhere, and in any case it is
a mistake to obtain an outfit of this description in Europe, as
tent-life is so foreign to the habits of settled countries, that our
manufacturers are utterly ignorant of the proper plan of construction,
or of the most suitable materials to choose. The English service
bell-tent, for example, seems contrived to combine all possible
disadvantages that a tent can possess, every other consideration being
sacrificed to the idea of supporting it by means of a single pole;
though the advantages of this are more than neutralised by the
employment of a spar, better suited to serve as the mizen-mast of a
small cruiser than for the purpose for which it is intended. In India,
on the other hand, the manufacture of tents has been an extensive
industry for centuries, and the intending explorer or colonist who is
likely to have to pass prolonged periods under canvas cannot do better
than obtain what he requires from some of the large manufacturers in
Cawnpore or Lahore.

In the first place, it may be laid down as an absolute rule, that tents
with single “flies” or roofs, are quite unsuitable to any climate, and
should never be used except under the absolute compulsion of restricted
transport. Such tents are insufferably hot in warm climates, bitterly
cold in chilly ones, and damp and unwholesome in rainy weather in
either. On the other hand, the use of waterproofed material is, as a
rule, a mistake, and should at any rate never be adopted for the inner
fly, as to do so would make any tent of moderate dimensions intolerably
“stuffy.” In very rainy climates, there might be no harm in selecting
light milrained canvas as the material for the outer fly; but there is
no real necessity for this, as a tent should be so planned as to throw
off the water by virtue of the slope of the roof, and not by the
character of its materials.

A second point to be remembered, is that two or more layers of
comparatively light material will afford far greater protection against
either heat or cold than the same weight of material woven as a single
heavy cloth, and on this account the canvas universally used in Europe
for work of this sort is absolutely unsuited for the purpose.

Each fly of an Indian tent is usually formed of two or three layers of
cloth, the outer layer being formed of what is generally known as
“American” cotton drill, though it is usually of local manufacture; and
it would be hard to find a material better suited for the purpose. Where
only two layers of cloth are used, the inner layer should be a deep red,
as this colour cuts off the largest proportion of the chemical rays of
the sun, which exercise such a powerful effect on the human economy.
With three layers the middle one should be red, and the undermost deep
indigo. In the case of the inner fly, for the middle layer of cloth,
where there is one, a deep red should also be selected, but the inner
lining should be a pale yellow chintz, as a sombre cloth makes a tent
uncomfortably dark. The poles should be so constructed that a space of
free air, of not less than a foot, should intervene between the two
flies, even in the smallest tents, and if the outer fly be properly
planned, it should be impossible for rain to reach the inner fly, even
under the worst conditions of weather; though this proviso need not
extend to verandahs and bath-rooms, which are not intended for prolonged
occupation, and so may be formed by the outer fly only. When weight is a
serious consideration, as in the case of exploring parties, it would be
difficult to find a better form than that known as the “Kabul tent,”
which, with poles, mallet and pegs, weighs but 80 lbs., while the
somewhat larger “Field Officer’s Kabul,” weighing, with verandah and
bath-room complete, 120 lbs., forms about as comfortable a little
residence as can be desired for such purposes. For Indian family use,
and for permanent encampments, where a tent has to serve in place of a
house, the best form is probably that known as the “Swiss Cottage Tent,”
which, however, weighs, according to size, from 4 to 6 cwt., and is
therefore only useful for a moving camp, where ample wheeled transport
is available.

People unaccustomed to living in tents are apt to think that they are
necessarily draughty and uncomfortable, but this is so far from being
the case that it is quite as necessary to attend to their ventilation as
that of a house; and this is especially true of large tents, the gable
part of which is rarely sufficiently ventilated to allow of the escape
of foul and heated air. All that is provided for this purpose by
manufacturers are a few brass eyelet boles, the total area of which is
far too small to have any appreciable effect whatever. Those who possess
large tents will do well, therefore, to have made in the uppermost part
of the gable of the inner fly of a Swiss Cottage, or near the apex of
the pyramidal single pole tent, a small window measuring some 8 in. or
10 in. square. It is easy to arrange a curtain for this, capable of
being closed with strings from below, but in practice it will be found
that it is never necessary to close the opening, which may merely,
therefore, be filled in with strong twine netting, so as to maintain the
strength of the tent. The gain in coolness effected by this little
modification will be astonishing to those who have not tried it, and it
is equally necessary where a stove is used for heating a tent.

Having mentioned this point of the warming of tents, it may be well to
point out that on no account should the common native plan of using an
open charcoal brazier be adopted, as it is quite a mistake to imagine
that a tent is not quite capable of sufficiently retaining the poisonous
charcoal fumes to cause harmful, and even serious, effects.

The writer has met with attempts to copy the Indian patterns in tents
manufactured in England; but the inveterate attachment of our
tent-makers to flies formed of a single heavy waterproof cloth has
rendered the best of them next door to useless, and though very pretty,
none were fit to be put up anywhere outside a colonial outfitter’s
show-room; so that unless the necessary delay of a couple of months be
an absolute bar to doing so, novices fitting themselves out for camp
life will do well to get what they require from India, or some other
country where camp life is a practical everyday contingency.

When used for a living room during the day a tent can not well be too
lofty, but for sleeping purposes, tents with the ridge of the inner fly
not more than 8 ft. or 10 ft. high present many advantages over larger
ones, as not only are they warmer and snugger, but it is far easier to
keep them free from flies, which if once they gain admission, render
rest during the day impossible.

It is wonderful how free a small tent of this sort can be kept from
these pests, provided the chicks or blinds formed of split bamboo be
kept always closed. Every night when the flies have become sluggish and
sleepy as many as possible should be killed by striking at them with a
towel or duster; and then the lamp should be put outside the tent door
and the chicks and flies raised, while the flies are kept from settling
by flecking and shaking the interior. Attracted by the light, in a very
short time, all insects will be coaxed out of the tent, and the chicks
and curtains being then replaced, one starts the next day with the tent
free from these intruders. The same plan may be also used with large
tents, but cannot so effectually be carried out, as it is difficult to
reach insects that have settled in the uppermost part of the tent, but
vigorous shaking will usually suffice to dislodge most of them.

Mosquito-nets for camp use should be shaped like a miniature tent, with
a ridge and gable-shaped ends, so that they can be easily and quickly
suspended from the tent poles by means of strings fitted to each end of
the ridge, which should be strengthened with a stout piece of tape.

In selecting a site for camp, it is well to keep as far as possible from
native villages, but as a rule one is obliged to pitch tolerably near
them, on account of the difficulty of bringing supplies to a greater
distance. In any case, however, the site chosen should be to the
windward of the village, and sufficiently removed to be clear of the
results of its primitive notions on the subject of conservancy.
Conservancy, indeed, is always a difficulty in camp, and renders the
prolonged occupation of any one camp extremely undesirable. In private
marching camps and even in the tolerably large caravans of exploring
parties, it may be taken for granted that any attempt at the
establishment of regular latrines is doomed to failure; so that the
utmost that can be done is to fix a limit of distance, within which
cleanliness is enforced by punishing any detected infraction of the rule
as sharply as may be practicable. Where, however, tents are pitched in
standing camp, as a temporary substitute for a permanent habitation,
trenches should always be established, and their use insisted upon, as
otherwise it will be absolutely necessary to periodically shift the
camp to a clean site.

In the matter of water supply, it should be needless to point out that
its sources are always necessarily of doubtful purity, and that more
than common care is therefore essential to secure that it is properly
sterilised by boiling. As already remarked, it is a good plan, where
possible, to send on and get the wells in advance disinfected by
treatment with permanganate of potash, and this precaution is, of
course, especially important in the presence of cholera.

In the sort of camp life under consideration, regular camp beds are
assumed to be carried, so that there is no need to burden oneself with
heavy ground sheets, ordinary cotton carpets being, for our purposes,
far more comfortable and sightly; but it is nevertheless well, wherever
the material is available, to lay down, beneath the floorcloth, a good
layer of hay or straw, as this not only serves as a sop to the white
ants, but serves the further sanitary purpose of taking up the damp that
is always arising from the soil even in apparently very dry localities.
As the litter is in no way damaged by its use for this purpose it is
rarely necessary to buy it outright, the owners being usually satisfied
with a trifle for the loan of it, sufficient to remunerate them for the
trouble of bringing the straw and fetching it back. In standing camps
however, litter used for this purpose should always be cleared out and
dried in the sun at frequent intervals, as without this precaution it is
sure to get mildewed and offensive.

There is, of course, no real difference between the rules of personal
hygiene suitable to camp life, and those of dwellers in more settled
habitations, and with due attention to a few special points such as
those that have been touched upon in the present article, camp life, on
account of the constant enjoyment of fresh air which it affords, will
always be found far healthier than that passed within houses.


CHAPTER VII.

On the Prevention of Malaria.

“Fever,” _i.e._, malaria, is responsible for so large a share of the
sickness peculiar to tropical countries that the subject of its
prevention requires especial and separate consideration. Up to a few
years ago the causation of malaria was a complete mystery. We had known
for some score of years or more that the disease was due to the presence
of certain minute animalcules in the blood, but as to how they got
there, or the manner in which they passed from man to man, we had not
the remotest idea. There was a general opinion that the seeds of the
disease were carried by the air in the form of what was pretentiously
spoken of as a miasma--a formidable word which served well enough to
hide from the profane vulgar the fact that no one could define, or in
fact had the vaguest notion as to what a miasma might be. It was also
popularly known in many parts of the world that miasmata found great
difficulty in getting through a mosquito net; but by the majority of the
profession these traditions were looked upon as laic fables, unworthy of
scientific attention, though there were not wanting observant
practitioners of tropical medicine who were willing to admit the
efficacy of the protection afforded by a mosquito net, and who even
attempted to account for the fact by all sorts of lame physical
explanations, barring only the simple one that a mosquito net serves
very fairly the purpose for which it is designed, viz., of keeping out
mosquitoes. The condensed moisture of the dew on the fluff of the meshes
in some way attracting the germs or dissolving some assumedly gaseous
emanation, was a favourite so-called explanation, and was, I believe,
that adopted by the late Prof. Maclean, of Netley, who in his lectures
was always careful to impress upon us the protection afforded by
mosquito nets, as a well-established, though ill-understood, fact.

This was before the date at which the French military surgeon, Laveran,
discovered the fact that malaria was due to the presence in the blood of
certain animal parasites (_Protozoa_), and although this discovery was
made in 1880, it was many years before its truth was accepted by the
general body of the medical profession, who have somehow always
exhibited a curious reluctance to admit the harmfulness of animal
parasites.

Some years later Sir Patrick Manson, F.R.S., then a hard-working doctor
in practice in China, made the remarkable discovery that the blood-worm
disease, which is very common in those parts, was conveyed from man to
man by the agency of mosquitoes; and as the parasitic origin of malarial
fever became more and more firmly established, the idea suggested itself
to him that this disease, too, might very well be transmitted by the
intervention of the same insects.

At this time Sir Patrick had left China, to work harder than ever in
London, so that he was unable to personally test the truth of his
surmise, which he, however, communicated to Major Ronald Ross, I.M.S.,
who after prolonged work, was able to establish the truth of Manson’s
suggestion, which was a remarkable instance of the value of imagination
in science. Almost immediately after Rossi’s work was confirmed and
amplified by Prof. Grassi, of Rome, and by several other naturalists,
and the fact that malarial diseases are communicated by the agency of
mosquitoes, and can be carried from man to man in no other manner, is
now absolutely established. Medical science has commonly to accept, as a
working theory, whatever hypothesis of the causation of disease may
appear most tenable, but in the present case there is no room for doubt,
and, like the protective power of vaccination, the carriage of malaria
by mosquitoes only, may be taken as one of the few absolutely proven
facts of medicine.

In saying as much, it is not implied that the reader may not on his
travels meet with medical men sceptical or hostile to this theory, but
this is because the training required to appreciate the cogency of the
facts adduced in proof is that, not of a medical man, but of a
naturalist, and though the profession of medicine numbers in its ranks
many distinguished naturalists, it is quite possible to gain the highest
qualifications without acquiring any knowledge of zoology sufficient to
render the student capable of really forming an opinion on such a point;
for, as a matter of fact, the five years of medical training are so
overburdened with absolutely necessary medical subjects, that any
critical knowledge of the associated subjects of chemistry, physics, and
biology must needs be left to the after years of those to whom good
fortune affords sufficient leisure to admit of their attacking the
fringe of these great subjects when they are no longer _in statu
pupilaris_. Hence, especially among the older hands, there are numbers
of medical men who would regard the above statements as premature, but
the reader will find it difficult to find any naturalist who entertains
any doubts on the subject. Many details undoubtedly remain to be worked
out, but the broad data may be taken as absolute facts, of a character
that future investigations can only amplify.

These facts may be shortly stated as follows:--

(1) Malarial fevers are caused by the presence in the blood of minute
animal parasites. There are several species of these, corresponding to
the various types of fever; but the life-history of all is broadly the
same.

(2) These animalcules multiply in the blood, and when they have become
sufficiently numerous, determine an attack of fever, but while in this
stage cannot pass from the blood of one human being to another, except
by the somewhat difficult vivisectional experiment of injecting the
living blood of an infected person into the vessels of a healthy
subject, a process which cannot occur in Nature.

(3) Large numbers of the malaria animalcules are destroyed by what may
be called the vital powers of the patient’s blood, and the question
whether an untreated case of malaria dies or recovers, depends on the
outcome of the struggle between the parasites and the vital forces of
their host.

(4) The process of multiplication of the parasites within the human body
is by simple division, or non-sexual breeding of the single cell of
which each parasite consists; but by a well-known law of the
life-history of this class of animalcules this method of multiplication
cannot continue indefinitely without the intervention of a period of
sexual multiplication; and this can not occur within the human subject
under any circumstances, but only in the bodies of certain species of
mosquitoes; so that the disease always tends to wear itself out,
provided the strength of the patient holds out sufficiently long; and
the parasites are unable to find their way into the blood of other human
beings by natural processes, unless mosquitoes of certain special
species be present.

(5) If, however, a human being infected with malaria be bitten by a
mosquito of the appropriate sort, the parasites, sucked into the stomach
of the mosquito along with its meal of blood, undergo further
development into distinct male and female animalcules, whose union gives
birth to myriads of germs which, although incapable of further
multiplication within the organism of the insect, find their way into
its salivary glands, which are the organs in which the irritating poison
of the mosquito is elaborated, and so are necessarily inoculated into
the tissues of any human being whom the mosquito may bite, with the
result that a new victim becomes infected, and the chain of events
commences anew.

(6) The malarial parasites can exist in the mosquito only within certain
limits of temperature, and hence the disease is not found in countries
where the maximum summer temperature is less than 76° F., or in places
so hot that the temperature rises above 86° F. for any length of time,
and the comparative healthiness of many hot continental climates is due
to the fortunate circumstance that a period of excessive dry heat
follows immediately on the cold season.

In considering the measures of prevention detailed below, it must be
remembered that their importance is enhanced by the fact that not only
malaria, but also the blood-worm disease already alluded to, or
filariasis, and yellow fever, have also been shown to require the
intervention of mosquitoes for their transmission from man to man, and
that although not carried by mosquitoes, the germs of sleeping sickness
are also probably conveyed by a winged insect, so that many of the
measures detailed below will have a certain value also in the prevention
of the last-mentioned disease.

Thus for the maintenance of malarial fever the co-existence of three
animal organisms are essential, viz., of man, the mosquito, and the
malarial protozoon; and it is obvious that even the temporary banishment
of either of the three from any given locality will necessarily put an
end to all possibility of the occurrence of fever; for man can be
infected only by the mosquito, and the mosquito by man, and the presence
of both of the others is necessary for the maintenance of the species
for the parasite.

For the proper contrivance, then, of measures of prevention it is
essential that we should be well acquainted with the life-history of our
two partners in this curious cycle of development, and as that of the
parasite has already been sufficiently described for our purposes, it
remains only to describe the leading parts of the life-history of the
mosquito. Mosquitoes, or, as they are called in England, gnats, are
small two-winged insects whose appearance is quite familiar to most
people, though midges so closely resembles them, in general appearance,
that they are commonly confused with them, but mosquitoes may be easily
distinguished by their possessing a long, trunk-like proboscis which is
wanting in the midge, as well as by the fact that, if examined with a
strong magnifier, it will be seen that their wings and the greater part
of their surface are covered with minute, downy scales exactly like
those of butterflies, while midges are quite devoid of any such
covering. The males carry a pair of beautiful plume-like feelers, while
those of the females, though quite as long, show only a few
inconspicuous hairs.

Over five hundred species of mosquito have been described; and, as might
be expected, their habits vary to some extent; but, speaking generally,
they are mainly twilight and nocturnal insects which remain hidden in
sheltered places during the day, and come forth to feed and disport
themselves in the open at dusk. Owing to the peculiar structure of their
mouth-parts, which consist of a long, delicate tube, supported in the
midst of a group of lancets, they are incapable of taking solid food,
and subsist almost entirely on the juices of living plants and animals,
which are sucked up by means of the tube which is introduced into a
puncture made by the lancets. With one or two doubtful exceptions, the
males of all species live entirely upon the juices of plants, but the
females of perhaps the majority of species are not content with so
simple a diet, and attack animals of all sorts, puncturing the skin and
filling themselves with blood till they are scarce able to fly. No
animal is safe from their attacks, and improbable though it may appear,
it is recorded, on the authority of a skilled naturalist, that young
fish are killed in large numbers by the crowds of mosquitoes which
pounce on them as they show their heads and backs at the surface of the
water.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Various forms of Mosquito Eggs. (1) Egg-boat of
_Culex_, seen from above; (2) the same, side view (after Sambon); (3)
separate _Culex_ eggs; (4) eggs of _Panoplites_ (after Daniels); (5)
eggs of _Stegomyia_; (6) the same more highly magnified (after
Theobald); (7) groups of _Anopheles_ eggs as they float on the water
(after Sambon); (8) egg of _Anopheles maculipennis_, showing lateral
floats, seen from above, × 30 diams.; (9) the same, viewed laterally
(after Nuttall).]

With the exception of the fleas and ticks, no insects are so admirably
adapted for the conveyance of disease from one animal to another by
inoculation; and owing to their enormous numbers, and their capability
of flight, their powers of mischief must be far greater than those of
either of these other pests. When biting an animal, the mosquito injects
into its tissues a fluid specially secreted within its body, which being
of an irritating character causes a congestion of blood round the
puncture, whereby the insect is secured a full and ample feed of blood.
The early life of the mosquito is passed in water, on the surface of
which the eggs are laid by the female flying insects. These eggs are of
various forms, but are all provided with some arrangement to secure
their floating on the surface of the water. In many species they are
glued together by their sides so as to form rafts consisting of some
hundreds of eggs, while in others, and notably in the special sorts that
carry malaria, they are laid separately and float on their sides. In a
few rare cases they may be laid on dry surfaces, in situations that
will be flooded during the rains. This is notably the case occasionally
with the form that carries yellow fever; but for practical purposes it
may be considered that the eggs can only be laid on water, and in any
case, when the young insects are hatched out, it must needs be into
water, as at that stage of their existence they are purely aquatic
organisms, and live but a short time if removed from the water. In spite
of this they are air-breathers, and in the anatomy of their arrangements
for obtaining air, present a curious resemblance to the type of
submarine boat that gets its air by means of a small tube reaching just
above the surface of the water. The young mosquitoes, or larvæ, are
small, wormlike animals, which may often be seen wriggling about
vigorously in water, and are especially common, in warm weather, in
water standing in small stagnant pools, broken crockery, old tins, and
so forth.

When full grown they are about a quarter of an inch in length, and vary
in colour from bright green, through brown to black. Two principal forms
may easily be distinguished by the difference between the structure of
their breathing organs. The first and commonest kind, of which the
common English gnat (_Culex pipiens, L._) is a good example, has a long
breathing tube projecting from the back close to the tail, so that it
looks much as if the hinder part of the body were forked.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Larvæ and pupa of Culex mosquitoes, as seen when
viewed from the side of a tumbler or other transparent vessel of water.
Drawn from a photograph of the living insects.]

As will be seen from the above illustration, only the tip of the
breathing tube is kept at the surface of the water, while the body and
head hang down into it in a slanting position, so that the head is the
most deeply immersed portion of the insect. In the other kind there is
practically no breathing tube, the air-vessels opening almost flush with
the surface, though in the same part of the body; and hence, in order to
keep these openings at the surface, the larvæ must needs lie
horizontally at the surface, looking much like a small blackened straw,
and on closer inspection are seen to have an outline not unlike the
ornamental keyhole plates often seen in old-fashioned furniture. They
generally lie with their tails supported against some solid object,
such as the side of the saucer in which they have been placed for
observation.

[Illustration: _PLATE I._

Living _Anopheles_ larvæ. Photographed by Mr. T. H. ROYLE, of Rosa.]

Owing to their being confused with the line of optical contact of air
and water, and the latter being raised by adhesion into curves over
their backs, they do not come out as clearly in the photograph as in a
drawing, but they are, nevertheless, sufficiently clearly shown for easy
recognition, a matter of some importance, as these are the larvæ of the
sub-family _Anophelinæ_, to which belong all the mosquitoes that are
concerned in carrying malaria, besides which they are the commonest
carriers of blood-worms. The mosquito, however, that conveys yellow
fever (_Stegomyia_) belongs to the Culex sub-family.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--(1) Larva commonly found in jhils and tanks
(probably of _Myzorrhynchus sinensis_.); (2) frontal bristles of the
same; (3) abdominal palmate tuft; (4) separate leaflet of palmate tuft.]

For any one possessing a microscope these larvæ form most fascinating
examples of “pond-life,” as many species, especially when young, are
transparent enough to enable one to follow the entire mechanism of their
internal organs; but a great deal of interest can be made out with a
simple hand-lens.

On the back of each of the rings of the abdomen, or hindmost division of
the body, of the Anopheles larvæ may be made out a pair of structures
formed like minute palm leaves, the function of which appears to be that
of keeping the little creature flush with the surface of the water.

One of these larvæ, magnified about twenty times, with these structures
and certain peculiar hairs on the front of the head, which are of value
in distinguishing one species from another, more highly magnified, is
figured on the preceding page. By the aid of these illustrations the
reader should have no difficulty in recognising these organisms when he
meets with them. When disturbed, they dart backwards and seek refuge
among the _débris_ at the bottom, but cannot remain there long, and soon
resume their resting position on the surface.

The larvæ of many species are said to be carnivorous, and even
cannibalistic, though I cannot say I have ever observed this personally,
and in any case their main provision is found in the minute vegetable
organisms which are abundant in the sites where they are common; the
Culicine larvæ confining themselves mainly to those that are found
completely immersed, while the young Anopheles browses on those floating
on the surface, keeping its head screwed round, a full half-turn, so as
to bring the mouth uppermost. The abrupt way in which this action is
performed and reversed is extremely quaint, so that, as a writer
remarks, one is rather surprised at its not being accompanied by an
audible click.

The duration of the period of larval existence depends on the
temperature of the water and on the abundance or scarcity of food. When
first hatched out from the egg, the larvæ are barely visible to the
naked eye, whereas when full grown they contain within themselves the
entire material of the adult flying insect. Once full-grown, the weather
being favourable, they change into “nymphs” or pupæ, not unlike small
tadpoles in form, the head and thorax being enclosed in an almost
spherical envelope, to which is appended a sort of tail, formed by the
abdomen, which is usually kept folded under the body, as shown in the
figure below. In this stage the animal breathes through a pair of horns
springing from the back of the thorax. The mouth is completely closed,
so that the pupa is incapable of feeding, but is in no sense quiescent,
as it is capable of lively movements and tries to elude capture almost
as briskly as the larva. After a sufficient time has elapsed for the
completion of the extraordinary anatomical changes that convert the
larva into the adult insect, the pupa-case bursts along the back, and
the perfect gnat gradually disentangles itself from its temporary home,
and flies away, very shortly to reinitiate the cycle of events by laying
a fresh batch of eggs. As has already been remarked, the time required
to complete these changes varies greatly in different species and under
varying environments, of which climate is the most important factor, but
under moderately favourable conditions the time required is a fortnight
or three weeks, the greater part of which is passed as a larva. In
countries where water freezes during winter for any length of time, all
larvæ that have not completed their metamorphosis by the end of autumn,
must necessarily perish; and the continuity of the species is maintained
entirely by the survival of pregnant females that hide themselves in
warm corners and pass the winter in a truly hybernating or dormant
condition. Further south, both males and females hybernate, and the
dormancy is so much less pronounced that the insects are often tempted
to issue from their hiding places on exceptionally warm days. In such
climates, which include Italy and most of the sub-tropical zone, the
species finds an additional string for its bow in the survival of larvæ,
which, though they cannot be said to hybernate in the strict sense of
the term, being always lively and alert in their movements, are yet
incapable of growing, and appear to remain at whatever size they may
have previously attained until the return of warmer weather. Quite
recently Dr. Bancroft, of Queensland, has discovered that in some
species these wintering larvæ can give birth to small broods of young
larvæ, so that in such cases the bow has no less than three strings.
Further south again, in truly tropical climates, breeding goes on all
the year round.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Larva and Nymph of _Anopheles_, to show habitual
resting position. The head of the larva is shown looking up, as when
feeding.]

No adult mosquito can stand the direct rays of the sun, and hence all of
them have to seek the shelter of houses, trees, or some such protection,
during the heat of the day; moreover, with very few exceptions, they are
nocturnal or twilight insects, so that there is comparatively little
danger of being bitten during the hours of daylight. For the majority of
species too, extreme atmospheric heat has much the same effect as great
cold, so that during periods of intensely hot, dry weather the number of
species to be met with in a state of activity is very small, and
fortunately those that convey malaria are not amongst the number; but on
the other hand, the one or two sorts that possess this tolerance are so
enormously prolific that their numbers far exceed those of all other
species combined.

Another point of importance is that, for practical purposes, mosquitoes
cannot fly far, and hence never wander far from the puddle on which they
were born. Being tolerably long-lived insects, it is of course possible
for them to slowly spread amongst trees or bushes for considerable
distances, a few straying further and further away every night from the
place of their birth, but the number that can travel in this way for any
considerable distance, is so small as to be scarcely worth
consideration; and any considerable expanse of bare, open country is
practically impassable to them.

Mosquitoes are most active during the periods of twilight, and
especially in the evening, at which time they quit the shelter in which
they have dozed away the day, and come out into the open to seek their
food, remaining outside for the most part throughout the night, though
the females of those species that attack man and animals, it is needless
to say, will find their way back into houses in search of their
favourite food. As soon, however, as the sun has got well above the
horizon they may be observed trooping back into the house, and if a
window be closed it is very amusing to watch the numbers that will
alight on the glass at this time of the day, and their efforts to find a
way through the obstruction. The special importance of keeping all means
of entry closed at this particular hour can therefore easily be
understood, though in ordinary tropical practice, it is the very time at
which every door and window is habitually thrown open.

Mosquitoes are found all over the world, it being a great mistake to
imagine that they are confined to tropical climates. Some score of
species are to be found in England, and though in high latitudes they
cease to be dangerous as carriers of disease, there are perhaps no
localities where they are so numerous and troublesome as certain parts
of the North American Continent, and in Scandinavia, close up to the
Frigid Zone.

Almost any collection of water will serve as a nursery for the larvæ,
unless indeed, there be a decidedly strong current; but the situations
taken by preference during the breeding season are small stagnant pools
and domestic collections of water, such as small tanks, broken crockery,
empty tins, &c.; while wintering larvæ prefer the larger ponds and
marshes which are permanent throughout the cold weather, and especially
select those in which there is sufficient vegetation, reaching to the
surface of the water, to afford cover and protection from their numerous
enemies. Practically speaking, wintering larvæ will never be found in
tanks or ponds devoid of fairly robust vegetation, and it may easily be
understood from this fact that the clearing away of reeds, grasses, and
weeds of all sorts during the cold weather from all such collections of
water which may be found near an inhabited site is a most important
sanitary measure. Some species prefer the fairly clean water of marshes
and ponds, while others luxuriate in the dilute sewage of the domestic
waste water, but it would occupy too much space to go into any detail on
this subject, and all that the sanitary amateur need remember in this
connection, is that any and every collection of water, capable of
standing for ten days or a fortnight, should be regarded as dangerous to
health in any country where malaria is known to exist.

For our purposes, it will suffice for the reader to understand the
general characteristics of three sorts of mosquitoes. First, there are
the common _Culex_ mosquitoes, which are, almost everywhere, far more
common than the others. They are usually of a dull grey colour, and with
very few exceptions, their wings are quite plain and free from spots. As
will be seen from the photographs in the accompanying plate, they sit in
rather a humped-up position, and the proboscis is obviously much thinner
than the body, its appendages, or palps, being held apart from it.
Mosquitoes of this sort cannot convey human malaria, though they are
instrumental in conveying a similar disease for certain animals. They
are to be found, in greater or less numbers, throughout the year.

The second sort is the _Stegomyia_, which is the genus concerned in the
conveyance of yellow fever. These mosquitoes are seldom to be seen
except during the rains, and rest in much the same position as the
_Culices_, which they resemble closely in form. Their wings are never
spotted, and almost all are small insects clothed with jetty-black
scales, picked out with an ornamentation of dazzling white lines on the
body and spots on the abdomen and legs.

[Illustration: _PLATE II._

Photographs of living mosquitoes. Above, ♂ and ♀ _Culex_ mosquitoes in
profile; in the middle, ventral aspects of the same; and beneath, ♀ and
♂ _Anopheles_ mosquitoes. About twice natural size.]

The third, or _Anopheles_, sub-family is that concerned in the
transmission of human malaria, and, as may be seen by comparing the two
lower photographs of the plate with the upper ones, can easily be
recognised by their characteristic form and attitude. In these
mosquitoes the feelers are long and thick in both sexes, and as they are
held habitually in contact with the proboscis, these together appear to
the naked eye as a prolongation of the body as thick, or thicker, than
the abdomen. Moreover, except in a few species, their position, when
resting, forms a singular contrast to that of the _Culices_, the whole
body and proboscis being held in one straight line, with the abdomen
raised from, and the proboscis pointed almost vertically at the surface
on which they rest, and almost touching it with its point, as if they
were preparing to drive the latter into it; so that, viewed with the
naked eye, they look much like minute black thorns, stuck into the
surface on which they are sitting. On closer examination, it will be
seen that the wings are not plain, but spotted (the number of
plain-winged species being unimportant).

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Wings of various sorts of _Anopheles_
mosquitoes, much magnified, to show the arrangement of the dark and
light scales which form the characteristic spots.]

The appearance of spotting is usually produced by alternate lengths of
the veins of the wings being coloured in finely contrasted dark brown or
black, and white or yellow, and varies, of course, in detail in
different species, but the above figures of the wings of some of the
commoner Indian forms will give an idea of the general effect, as seen
under a moderate magnification, for though the spots are quite visible
to the naked eye, it requires a fairly powerful hand lens to make out
the details properly.

Like the _Stegomyiæ_, the _Anophelinæ_ are only common during the rains,
but stray specimens will be met with for a month or two afterwards; and
though they practically disappear during cold weather, a few may be
generally met with during the hot dry months of continental hot
climates.

From what has been said, it follows that the prevalence of malaria, like
that of mosquitoes, must necessarily be seasonal. The survival of the
malarial parasite at those times of the year when mosquitoes are scarce
or absent, is maintained by the persistence of considerable numbers in a
latent condition, in the persons of human beings who have been
imperfectly cured of an attack of malaria.

Cases of this sort, which have either been never treated at all, or in
which the administration of quinine has been stopped too soon, are
extremely common in all malaria-stricken communities, and such persons
are always liable to relapses if they are brought below _par_ by any
depressing influence, such as chill, too great exposure to the sun, or
the incidence of injuries, or of other diseases.

During such periods the latent parasites, which have been perhaps for
months lying hidden in the internal organs, will reappear in the blood
in large numbers, and there are always a sufficient number of such cases
of relapse persisting through the naturally malaria-free season, to
suffice to infect the early broods of mosquitoes that come to maturity
with the advent of the rains.

This shows that the curing of all cases of malaria is matter by no means
confined to the interests of the patient himself, but is of great
importance to the entire community of which he is a member; for, despite
the fact that the disease is only indirectly transferable through the
agency of the mosquito, a case of malaria is as great a danger to his
fellow-men as one of any other infectious disease, and should, as far as
possible, be dealt with in the same way; only the problem of isolation
is in this case easier than usual, as it suffices to prevent mosquitoes
getting access to the sick person; and in a properly fitted
mosquito-proof house or hospital, malaria cases may quite safely be
allowed to mix freely with the healthy, as well as with persons affected
with other diseases.

Relapses in persons chronically infected with malaria may occur at any
time of the year, but the fresh infections, which always form the bulk
of the cases met with, can only happen as the result of a tolerably
recent bite by an infected mosquito; and as about a couple of weeks are
required for the maturing of the parasite within the insect, and a
further period of incubation is necessary within the human subject
before the parasites attain sufficient numbers to produce a definite
constitutional reaction, fever does not as a rule commence in earnest
until some three weeks or a month after the break of the wet season.
Once the process is started, infected mosquitoes and malaria-stricken
men increase in numbers rapidly, and as numbers of infected mosquitoes
survive for a considerable period after the cessation of the breeding
season, the prevalence of malaria continues until the advent of cold
weather puts a period to the possibility of the survival of the parasite
within the insect organism. Hence it is generally quite possible to give
a fair idea of the monthly distribution of rainfall in any warm climate
from the returns of sickness and mortality, and _vice versâ_.

The natural history of the living organisms that are concerned in the
propagation of malaria has been described with some detail, as suitable
measures for the prevention of the disease must needs be based on a
fairly competent knowledge of the subject, and is the more necessary as
it is hardly possible to give any “rule of thumb” directions; because
the circumstances on which the prevalence of malaria depends vary so
greatly in different localities that, to ensure success, our operations
must necessarily be modified in each case to meet local conditions.

In the following remarks, however, it is not proposed to deal with the
question of prevention on a large and public scale, but only with such
as can be adopted as measures of individual and personal hygiene, as the
larger question of provincial and municipal anti-malarial sanitation
cannot be adequately dealt with in a short treatise like the present.

Keeping always in view the just described data of the life history of
the malarial parasite and of its temporary host, the mosquito, it is
obvious that our measures of protection must be based on one or more of
the following plans of action, any one of which, could it be carried to
complete success, would suffice to “stamp out” the disease. These
measures are:--

(1) To destroy the mosquitoes.

(2) To prevent mosquitoes biting man.

(3) To prevent mosquitoes from becoming infected, by isolating all cases
of malaria in man.

In practice, however, it is extremely rare that anything like complete
success can be attained on either of the three above indicated lines of
action, especially as concerns the second and third methods, and though
here and there localities may be met with in which the breeding places
for mosquitoes are so circumscribed and easily dealt with as to render
the actual extermination of mosquitoes practicable, in by far the
majority of cases we must be content with a partial success all along
the line, by adopting such measures as may be locally most practicable,
based on any or all three of the above principles of action.

In the case, for example, of habitations placed in the midst of canal
irrigation where ample and efficient subsoil drainage is impossible or
too expensive, the attempt to destroy mosquitoes can be little better
than a waste of time and money; for under such conditions the breeding
places are so numerous, and appear so constantly in new and unexpected
situations, as to defeat the utmost vigilance; and the thorough
protection of all habitations against the invasion of mosquitoes, and
the careful treatment of all cases with quinine, is all that can be
done. On the other hand, in an exceptional case, such as that of the
town of Ismailia in Egypt, where the rainfall is practically _nil_, and
the breeding places all of artificial origin, the practical
extermination of mosquitoes may be so easy a matter as to be effected at
a small expense in a single year, with the immediate result of reducing
the cases of malaria to a tithe of their previous numbers.

Measures of the first class, _i.e._, the extermination or diminution of
the numbers of mosquitoes, can often be undertaken with considerable
success by private individuals, the possibilities of success varying, of
course, with the extent of the area directly or indirectly under his
control.

The resident of a closely inhabited town can, it is needless to say, do
no more than contribute his personal mite to the general welfare in this
matter, with little chance of reaping much benefit unless his neighbours
follow his example; but with the exception of diplomatic officials and
merchants residing in places under oriental rule, where the safety of
life and property are too badly secured to admit of their living outside
town limits, it is rare for any European to be so situated, as in most
of our colonies and dependencies the European quarter of the town
consists of widely separated villas each surrounded with a garden of
some size, with generally a small hamlet of dwellings for native
servants and dependents included within its boundaries. In addition to
this, there are often open spaces, of considerable extent, between the
various “compounds” which, though not directly under one’s control, are
so far “no man’s land” that no one will interfere with any one employing
on them any of the measures required for anti-malarial sanitation, while
the most litigious municipal council is hardly likely to object to the
sprinkling of a little paraffin on the roadside puddles. In this way it
will generally be possible to effect a good deal within a radius of
three or four hundred yards of one’s dwelling, and actual experience has
shown me that if all breeding places within such limits can be rendered
harmless the number of stragglers that will stray across from places
beyond will be too small to be seriously troublesome.

In devising measures for the destruction of mosquitoes it is obvious
that while they may be attacked either in the aquatic or aerial stages
of their existence, the easily localised larvæ and pupæ will be far more
easily dealt with than the elusive flying insect, and it will be
therefore best to devote most attention to the destruction of the
former.

There are two principal methods of dealing with the insects during their
aquatic stage, _i.e._ (1) by doing away with their breeding places; (2)
by poisoning them. Of the two it is clear that the former method is,
where practicable, the more valuable, as in nearly all cases its effects
are more or less permanent. With either object in view, however, the
first step is to seek out the breeding places.

As a preliminary measure, all domestic rubbish capable of holding water,
such as disused flower-pots, empty tins, &c., should be carefully sought
out and destroyed or disposed of by throwing into some depression of the
soil which it is desired to fill in. Next, the entire surface should be
carefully inspected after a brisk shower of rain, and all such puddles
as are of manageable dimensions carefully filled in and levelled.

The amount of labour that can be profitably afforded in work of this
sort will depend a great deal on the probable duration of one’s stay in
a place; as temporary residents, such as government officials, will find
it much cheaper to employ temporary measures, such as the use of
paraffin; while in the case of merchants and other permanent residents,
the expenditure of a considerable sum on permanent measures will be more
remunerative in the long run. The great difficulty often lies in finding
spoil wherewith to fill in the depressions, as unless care be exercised,
the only result will be to shift the site of the puddle. Sometimes,
however, a bank of earth surrounds the compound by way of a hedge; and
as in a level country the existence of such an obstruction to surface
drainage is most objectionable such banks should always, if possible, be
removed and a hedge of wire or bamboo substituted; when the spoil can be
advantageously utilised for filling in hollows. Where no localised
elevations are to be found, the material required should be obtained by
a general very slight removal of the surface. In other cases it may be
possible to drain a depression by cutting a shallow gutter to the
nearest surface drain.

Another and very important class of breeding place consists of the
comparatively large collections of water formed by the various
reservoirs, channels, &c., constructed for obtaining and storing water
for various domestic purposes, such as wells, tanks, &c., and especially
the appliances for watering gardens. Of these the most harmful of all is
canal irrigation, which should undoubtedly be never tolerated near a
dwelling by any one valuing his health, malaria or no malaria; for the
waterlogging of the soil, that is practically inseparable from the
system, is either the exciting or predisposing cause of a variety of
diseases, many of which, such as rheumatism, consumption and cancer, are
perhaps more seriously dangerous than malaria. Sodden and waterlogged
sites are notoriously unhealthy all over the world, and chronic
ill-health is a high price to pay for a few flowers and vegetables; so
that the settler will be well advised to leave irrigated cultivation to
those who are constrained to adopt it for a livelihood, and banish it
from his own premises; as much is gained by living on a comparatively
dry site of however limited extent.

As a matter of fact, indeed, the possession of a garden of any sort is a
more than doubtful benefit in malarious places, for trees and shrubs
necessarily form lurking-places for mosquitoes; and even with the
greatest care, it is difficult to carry out the necessary watering of
the plants without giving rise to puddles; while the various reservoirs,
&c., that are almost indispensable, are a constant source of danger
unless constantly and minutely supervised.

In India, for example, gardens are commonly watered from wells by means
of water lifts of various forms, which are worked either by means of
bullocks or by manual labour. In order to facilitate the distribution
of the water, masonry channels are usually constructed which carry the
water from the well head to all parts of the garden, and as the lift
cannot conveniently be worked continuously, a number of small tanks are
arranged along the line of channels wherein water is stored, so that it
can be dipped out and distributed by means of an ordinary watering can
without the gardener ever having to go far to replenish it. Now these
small tanks are _par excellence_ the main source of supply of mosquitoes
of all species, and therefore of malaria, to the houses to which they
are appended. If, therefore, a garden be considered indispensable, all
such tanks should be carefully emptied and all deposit cleaned out at
least once a week; under which circumstances, though they will probably
swarm with larvæ by the end of the time, it is impossible for any of the
latter to complete their metamorphoses into adult insects. By far the
least objectionable plan of relieving the dust and glare of a bare
situation is the cultivation of a well-kept lawn, a few large trees
being left and the area of flower beds strictly limited, for as flooding
the grass is sure to spoil a lawn, success can only be ensured by
careful and moderate waterings at frequent intervals.

Collections of water that are too large to be done away with by filling
in or by draining, should be dealt with by oiling the water with
paraffin. There are some other agents which may be employed for the
purpose, but none of them are so cheap, efficient, and readily
obtainable. As an additional advantage, though fatal to all kinds of
insects, it is in the quantities employed, not only absolutely harmless
to vegetation, but water so treated is actually a most valuable
application, owing to its power of destroying other injurious insects.
When sprinkled on water paraffin spreads out into an extremely thin
film, so that a very small quantity will cover a considerable area. A
three-gallon tin, for example, contains enough to cover an area of 100
yards each way, though it may be a day or two before the oil reaches all
parts of such a space. It is important to remember that the cheaper and
commoner the oil, the better it is for the purpose, and the addition of
a little of common bazar _ghi_, or clarified butter, is said to make
the oil spread better and render its action more lasting, though the
writer has not personally experimented with the mixture.

In the quantities used there is no possible danger of fire, even though
wooden structures, such as the piles of bridges, be immersed in the
water, as the film is so thin that it is impossible to ignite it; a
matter one would have thought sufficiently obvious, were it not that
objections have been gravely raised to the use of paraffin on this
score.

The method of application must be varied to suit the size and situation
of the piece of water to be dealt with. Small puddles, such as those
left in the course of roadside ditches, may most economically be dealt
with by, as it were, lightly wiping over the surface with a wisp of rags
dipped in the oil; filling in being in such cases out of the question,
as to do so would be equivalent to obstructing the drainage; and it is
quite impossible to maintain an exact and uniform gradient in an
unrevetted channel.

For larger collections of water, by far the best appliance is an
ordinary gardener’s watering-pot. The oil should be applied mainly along
the windward side of the pool by a coolie, who should, if possible, walk
out some distance into the water, and should be trained to sprinkle the
oil by rapid single sweeps of the rose of the can, a few steps being
taken between each sweep, as there is no need to make the loop-shaped
areas of water sprinkled in this way continuous, as the oil will spread
laterally and join each of them together even if separated by several
yards, and no advantage whatever appears to be gained by applying the
oil thickly. In exceptional cases, such as the moats of fortifications,
where the water is enclosed within high vertical walls, a garden syringe
may be required in place of the watering can.

In situations such as the pools in canal beds, ditches, &c., the oiling
must obviously be done after each flow of water through the channel; but
in most ordinary situations, the effects of a careful oiling may be
trusted to last for at least three weeks, as, though larvæ may be
beginning to reappear by the end of that period, none of them will have
had time to complete their metamorphoses. For the destruction of
wintering larvæ, two oilings, one at the commencement, and one towards
the end of the cold season, amply suffice; and in Continental hot
climates it is needless to repeat the process during the dry hot season,
as at that time only artificial breeding places, such as garden tanks,
require attention, and these are better dealt with by periodical
emptying.

At that season indeed, the undried-up breeding places are so few and far
between that people have only themselves to thank if mosquitoes are in
evidence at all; and yet in many places there is no season of the year
when they are so numerous and tormenting. There are no remaining natural
breeding-places, and the pains of a weekly stroll round one’s premises
to ensure the emptying and cleaning out of all garden tanks,
water-vessels, &c., are all that is required to secure complete immunity
at that season of the year, but it is most difficult to induce people to
take even this trifling trouble; and the mosquitoes are likely to
flourish undisturbed until the existence of breeding places within the
premises of any person is treated by the authorities in the same way as
other dangerous nuisances; and yet these very people are the loudest in
their condemnation of the inertia of the native in sanitary matters, and
while they maintain malaria breweries on a scale in which the modest
extent of his premises forbids him to compete, inveigh against him for
starting a cholera factory on the most modest lines. The native who
refuses to avail himself of the protection against plague of a health
camp is, they admit, an impracticable fool for his pains; but the
_sahibs_ of the civil lines, whose gardens supply a large share of the
harmful mosquitoes to the neighbouring city, are merely “common-sense”
people who attach no importance to doctor’s fads and “scientific rot” of
all sorts. The native, however, has at least usually the excuse that he
is unable to read or write; and for the rest, does not pretend to be a
very highly civilised person.

Once they have emerged from the pupa case, our means of attacking
mosquitoes are comparatively feeble, and for those that habitually pass
most of their time in the open air practically _nil_.

In the case however of domestic species, which habitually shelter in
houses, a good deal can be done in this matter; and, just as in the
repression of other troublesome insects, such as fleas and bugs,
scrupulous tidiness and cleanliness is by far the most important of all
agencies. Useless, rarely dusted draperies and curtains, and untidy
collections of clothing hung about on nails and pegs, instead of being
kept in properly closed wardrobes, are the things that are mainly
responsible for attracting and sheltering mosquitoes within houses, for
they will not, if they can avoid it, remain in a well-lighted room, with
freshly colour-washed bare walls.

In the tropics, the Italian villa with its frescoed walls and minimum of
useless furniture, is the ideal that should be aimed at, and not the
elaborate lumber warehouse of an English drawing-room; which, though
comparatively harmless in our own climate, is about as well adapted for
imitation in hot countries as the coat of the Polar bear in the Zoo is
suited to our summer.

Perhaps our most effective agency in dealing with adult mosquitoes
depends on the intense objection all species of these insects entertain
to smoke.

That it is quite possible to effectually protect animals from mosquito
bites by the agency of smoke alone, has recently been conclusively shown
in the course of Mr. Power’s experiments on the prevention of horse
sickness in South Africa; but, though most semi-civilised people seem to
live comfortably enough in a smoky atmosphere, Europeans would find such
a state of things intolerable; and the plan can only be utilised to
drive mosquitoes out of houses, other methods being relied on to prevent
their re-entering. Smoke from almost any source will put mosquitoes to
flight, and if sufficiently intense will stupefy them; but certain
special materials must be burnt if it is desired to kill them outright,
and our _modus operandi_ must be varied according to the means at our
disposal, for if we can only expect to annoy the insects sufficiently to
drive them out of doors, the latter must be left open during the
fumigation; whereas, if it is proposed to kill them, all openings must
be closed as completely as possible, so that the fumes may reach the
insects in as concentrated a form as possible.

For simply driving out mosquitoes, any fuel that produces a dense smoke,
such as damp straw, will serve. Maize cobs are excellent for the
purpose, but probably the least objectionable is the burning of a little
incense (Hindustani, _Lobán_). To actually kill them, on the other hand,
it is necessary to shut up all openings as closely as possible, and to
burn certain special substances, such as sulphur, unopened chrysanthemum
flowers, the leaves of the neem tree, tobacco, &c., and the degree of
success attained will vary a good deal according to the character of the
building in which it is attempted; it being obviously extremely
difficult to secure an adequate concentration of the fumes in a very
pervious structure, like a house with a thatched roof and walls of
bamboo matting, such as is often met with in Burmah and the Malay
Archipelago. Under such circumstances, the rapid burning of a large
amount of the fumigating agent is the only way of meeting the
difficulty; and under any conditions, plain sulphur, simply ignited as a
powdered mass, or placed on the hot coals of a charcoal brazier, burns
so slowly as to be quite useless.

A few instants’ exposure to an atmosphere containing a fairly high
percentage of sulphurous acid will kill any insect, whereas they will be
merely stupefied or unaffected by prolonged exposure to a weaker mixture
of the poison. I am quite aware that sulphur has been decried as almost
useless by several observers, but this is simply because they have not
used it properly; for to secure success, something must be added to the
sulphur which will make it burn quickly, and what is wanted is, in fact,
a weak firework. In well-constructed buildings the sulphur pastiles
prescribed in the second edition of my work on the “Gnats or Mosquitoes”
answer sufficiently well, but subsequent experience has shown that the
proportion of nitre is not enough to secure a sufficiently rapid
combustion to instantly flood the air with sulphurous acid, and that
nothing short of a slow burning firework, such as a Roman candle or
Bengal light, will do this in a building roofed with tiles or thatch.
Possibly it might be advantageous to raise the proportion of sulphur;
and it is undoubtedly better to pack the material as a powder in paper
cases, than to mould it into pastiles. Proper precautions against fire
must of course be taken, but in fireworks of this sort the sparks do not
fly far, and it is quite safe to use them in any ordinary room if the
precaution be taken of placing the cases under a low shield, formed of a
sheet of corrugated iron supported on four piles of bricks.

The occasional fumigation of a dwelling in this way is a useful adjunct
to the destruction of the larvæ; and where combined with proper
wire-gauze protection, after the plan described below, may be relied
upon to secure immunity from the attacks of insects, even where measures
for the destruction of larvæ are impracticable. It has the further
advantage that it is fatal not only to mosquitoes, but also to insect
pests of all sorts, such as flies, hornets, bugs, or fleas, and even to
such more awesome foes as scorpions and centipedes, all of which delight
to share the home of the dweller in tropical climes.

Mosquitoes are always greatly attracted by draperies, especially those
of dark colour, and the fact may be utilised to trap them by means of
deep bags of black gauze (_chiffon_), the mouths of which are held open
by an oval loop of cane, or some such material. Such bags, if hung up
mouth down-wards in tempting dark corners, will usually be found
swarming with mosquitoes each morning, and the insects can easily be
killed by crumpling the bag in the hands and then shaking out the dead
insects.

By working on the above lines, especially where one has the co-operation
of neighbours, it is in all cases quite possible to materially diminish
the nuisance of mosquitoes, and under favourable circumstances to
practically extirpate them; though, in a usual way, complete success
must not be expected. In the exceptional cases where this is possible,
there is, of course, no need for the adoption of any other sort of
measures; but, in the majority of cases, an amelioration only in the
numbers of insects is all that can be attained; and it is necessary to
guard against the risk of some of the survivors becoming infected, by
the adoption of measures of the second and third classes. Of these the
second, _i.e._, the protection of man from mosquito bites, is in most
cases the most easily practicable.

A variety of ointments and applications of various sorts have been from
time to time vaunted as protectives, and the presence of certain plants,
such as the eucalyptus and the castor-oil shrub, have also been stated
to be so obnoxious to mosquitoes of all sorts that they might be trusted
to make themselves scarce wherever these plants might be found. For
these ideas there is doubtless this much foundation in fact, that most
strongly smelling bodies really are obnoxious to mosquitoes; but
unfortunately, whatever objection they may have to strong scent is not
very deeply rooted, and in default of more congenial shelter they will
settle upon either eucalyptus or castor-oil plants, and will brave even
the hated smell of paraffin to secure a good feed on the blood of a
human or animal subject. All these special applications to the skin,
too, have the further disadvantage that, though some of them are fairly
effectual for a few minutes after they have been just applied, and so
enable the user to get sleep, they leave those who are deluded into
depending upon them to fall unresisting victims, as soon as the thick of
the scent has evaporated. So that, though valuable for securing rest,
they are worse than useless from the point of view of the prevention of
malaria. With these untrustworthy exceptions, all available measures are
of a mechanical character, and consist in modifications of our housing
and clothing.

It must be remembered that during the working hours of the day there is
little chance of being attacked, at any rate in the open air, and the
same is the case in well-lighted rooms. Thus men whose work takes them
into the open air for some considerable portion of the day, or are
occupied in well-lighted offices, run much less risk than ladies, who,
when they attempt to face the hot weather at all, are too fond of
shutting themselves up in a darkened room, devoid of light or fresh air,
and filled up with hangings and other superfluities, so as to form a
perfect mosquito paradise in which the insects can fly about and bite
during the day as comfortably as during the night. With such exceptions,
there is therefore no need to modify costume to diminish the chance of
mosquito bites as long as the sun is up, or even during the twilight, as
long as one is in motion. It is when people are resting after the
evening game of golf, racquets, or tennis, that they are most commonly
attacked while awake; but the time of greatest danger is the period
passed in sleep. During the waking hours it is uncommon for a mosquito
to get the chance of an undisturbed meal by attacking the face and
hands, but she often does so by attacking the ankles, and even thick
stockings are no adequate protection. Trousers are therefore more
suitable than knickerbockers for evening wear, and should be made extra
long; so that when turned down after taking one’s evening exercise, they
thoroughly protect this very vulnerable portion of the person. A lady
can generally arrange her dress so as to protect herself, but the
ordinary costume of children is extremely dangerous, and certainly
should be modified to meet this danger during the hours when mosquitoes
are active. In the case of little boys a “sailor suit” with long
voluminous trousers meets the difficulty; and--fashion or no fashion--it
is a clear duty on the part of mothers to devise some cool but adequate
protection for the little girls. The alternative lies between doing so
and wilfully offering them as sacrifices to the god of dress by
needlessly exposing them to the danger of infection.

The low-necked, sleeveless dresses worn by ladies in the evening must,
we can well understand, be very temptingly cool wear in the climates
with which we are dealing, but are obviously extremely dangerous, as
they leave a large surface of the person exposed at the very time when
mosquitoes are most active. A dress covering these parts should be
therefore substituted, which, however, may safely be made of the
lightest materials, provided that it be so puffed or otherwise
“confectioned” as to make it difficult for a mosquito to get within
reach of the skin. Mosquitoes are always fond of collecting under
tables, as they are there sheltered from the glare of the lamps, and on
this account it is advisable for men to wear straps to their trousers
when dressing for dinner; and though the plan is a very old-fashioned
one, I have some hope that the suggestion may meet the approval of our
better halves, as, whatever its real object, the adoption of the plan
certainly gives the wearer the air of having sacrificed comfort to
appearances.

There would, however, be no need of modifying costume for indoor wear in
any way were houses properly protected against the entrance of
mosquitoes by means of suitably planned wire-gauze protection to all
openings.

The plan in question was devised by Professor A. Celli, the Principal of
the Institute of Hygiene in the University of Rome, and in Italy at
least has long passed its experimental stage; though, owing probably to
the small number of Englishmen who are familiar with the Italian
language, it appears to be practically ignored even by our specialists
on the subject.

Within a few miles of the great city of Rome there are large areas where
malaria, far more virulent than the type of disease we usually meet with
in India, is so rife that, during the malarious months, the country is
practically deserted by all but a few necessary railway officials and
caretakers. Amongst the former the mortality and invaliding used to be
so heavy that the working of the lines was a matter of the greatest
difficulty.

The majority of the peasantry, being only temporary inhabitants, live in
grass huts not a whit in advance of those of the savages of Central
Africa, and from the migratory nature of their employment, are among the
most ignorant and backward of the Italian populace, and so about the
last people likely to lend themselves to the adoption of any
“new-fangled” custom. As a matter of fact, however, the object lesson of
the advantages of the system have been so obvious that, after the first
year, there has been no difficulty in securing the eager co-operation of
the simple railway men and scarce civilised farm hands. As the system is
necessarily being very gradually introduced, there are plenty of
unprotected houses for comparison, and after personally conversing with
the inhabitants, the writer found that all who had enjoyed the benefits
of the plan were convinced of its efficacy.

It must be remembered, however, that it has been long a matter of
popular belief in the Campagna that malaria was, in some way, caused by
mosquitoes; and it is the difficulty of convincing those in high
authority of this fundamental fact that is at the root of the
indifference and inertia which oppose all attempts at amelioration in
India and in many of our colonies.

During the first two years’ experiments on the Campagna, out of 25
protected cottages, with a population of 173 persons, only 8 persons
contracted malarial fever; while in 30 unprotected cottages, having a
population of 220, only 17 escaped the disease; although the protected
and unprotected cottages were, as far as possible, paired as regards the
site, and were otherwise of a uniform plan of construction, and all
inhabited by the same class of railway subordinates.

The system is the one above all others most suited for adoption by
private persons, because it secures an almost complete immunity in spite
of the most unfavourable surroundings, and renders the user quite
independent of the sanitary lapses of his neighbours; but in spite of
this, the plan is almost ignored in our English colonies and
dependencies, though the writer has recently received an interesting
communication from a medical man practising in China who has adopted it
with signal success.

Professor Celli’s plan consists in rendering habitations impervious to
the entry of insects by closing all openings with wire gauze (mesh of
about 12 strands to the inch). All windows, as well as such doors as
only serve as such, and are not absolutely required for ingress and
exit, are permanently closed by frames covered with the gauze, and all
indispensable exterior doors are fitted with _double_ spring doors of
the same material, sufficiently separated from each other to secure the
closure of the first door before the second can be opened.

In most Tropical residences, the number of doors is far in excess of
actual needs, it being nothing uncommon to find rooms with four or five
doors, all opening in the exterior. Though desirable and even necessary
for free ventilation, no room can possibly require more than a single
door opening on the outside, and in a well-planned house with suitable
corridors, there is no real necessity for more than one or two exterior
doors to the whole house. All outside doors, then, not absolutely
necessary as such, should be treated as windows and permanently closed
with single frames of wire gauze, so that the number of the more
expensive double spring doors may be reduced to a minimum. In Tropical
climates it is, however, essential that a considerable area of verandah
should be included within the protected area, as a good deal of time is
necessarily most pleasantly spent in the verandah, not only in the
evening, but during the rains throughout the whole day. On this account
a northern verandah should be the one selected for protection in this
way.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Railway servant’s cottage in the Roman
Campagna, protected against the entry of mosquitoes by Professor Celli’s
method.]

The main obstacle to the adoption of the plan is undoubtedly the
expense, which would amount to £20 or £30 for an ordinary Indian
bungalow, and though this may appear by no means prohibitory in the case
of permanent residents, it puts the matter practically out of the reach
of even well-paid officials, as they can never count on enjoying the
benefits of any permanent improvement of this sort for more than a few
months; the wisdom of our rulers almost always leading them to transfer
an officer to another station long before he is likely to have
thoroughly learned his way about the streets of the town he has to
govern.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Ground-plan of an existing up-country Indian
Bungalow, to show method of adapting one (Professor Celli’s plan) of
wire gauze protection. The dotted lines represent the wire gauze
screens. _D.G.D._, double spring doors of wire gauze; _S.G.D._ single
spring door of wire gauze combined with existing ordinary door; _B.R._,
bath-room; _D.R._ dressing-room. Scale, 18′ = 1″.]

On the preceding page is given the ground plan of an actually existing
“up-country” bungalow of a very usual type in which the spaces guarded
by gauze are indicated with dotted lines. The original doors are shown
as complete, and the windows as shaded gaps. As will be seen, the number
of doors for actual traffic is reduced to three, not counting those of
the bath-rooms, which, being but little used during the hours of
mosquito activity, have been left with single spring doors only.

There are many situations, such as houses necessarily placed in the
midst of canal irrigation--Government canal bungalows for example--in
which no other method of protection is in any way practicable, and it is
clearly the duty of Government to protect officers, such as irrigation
and forest officials, whose duties lead them into specially dangerous
places, in this way in all cases where official quarters are provided.
There cannot be the least doubt, too, that the capital so spent would be
found to be a highly remunerative investment, and that this would be
equally the case if steps were taken to protect all barracks in this way
instead of wasting the costly soldier by needless invaliding. In the
case however, of civil and military officers, who have to rent their
houses from landlords, who are generally needy natives, with neither
inclination, nor means, to provide costly improvements, the utmost they
can do is to provide themselves with a sufficiency of portable folding
gauze screens to protect their sleeping chambers. In any given locality
there is generally some approach to a standard size for doors and
windows, so that by the exercise of a little ingenuity it ought to be
possible to adapt a set of folding screens to any room, allowing them
when too large to overlap the sides of the embrasure, and supplementing
deficiencies with sacking or rough planking. In India, for example, door
openings are usually about 7 ft. by 4 ft., and screens opening out to
this size might be utilised in most houses. It is obvious that the set
of frames provided for each room must include one filled with a small
spring door. I believe that a number of screens capable of opening out
to something larger than the dimensions of an average doorway would be
less bulky than any possible portable mosquito-proof room--and at any
rate a complete set for an ordinary family would weigh far less than an
average piano, and would be far more conducive to health. It should be
added that in this, and in all cases where single rooms are placed under
protection, all doors, internal as well as external, must be protected,
and as they would in no way prevent the use of a punkah, they would be
an enormous improvement on the ordinary mosquito net, which, failing
such appliances, is an absolute essential to health during the malarious
season.

Where nothing more permanent is possible, recourse must be had to
mosquito nets, which can with care be made to afford a fairly thorough
protection during the most dangerous portion of the twenty-four hours.
It is a mistake, however, to trust to tucking the net in beneath the
mattress, as this is apt to become disarranged during the night, and it
is further very undesirable that the net should touch any portion of the
mattress at all, as if it does so, the net can be also touched by the
sleeper, who thus readily exposes himself to being bitten through the
net. The top of the frame of the net should, therefore, be made both
longer and wider than the bed and should be long enough to reach easily
to the floor, with which its edge should be kept in contact by means of
a hem weighted with sand or small shot.

I have seen, especially in Calcutta, several attempts at the
construction of curtains so large as to admit of a punkah being swung
inside them, the top of the curtains being carried right up to the
ceiling, and the strap of the punkah being pulled through a sort of
sleeve; but the arrangement is necessarily an expensive one, and the
swing of the punkah is always more or less crippled by the sleeve. A
better plan is, I think, to make the frame supporting the netting very
low, scarcely higher in fact than that of a child’s cot, so that the
punkah swinging outside, but almost in contact with it, still passes
within a foot or two of the sleeper. Such an arrangement is rather
awkward to get in and out of, but this drawback is a very trifling one,
compared with the enormous advantage of combining the protection of the
net with the comforts of a punkah. For this idea I am indebted to Mr.
Symmonds, of Rosa, whose contrivance I presume it is, as I have
certainly never seen beds fitted in this way in anyone else’s house. For
sleeping out of doors in the open, the net must, however, be of the
usual fashion; as if the wind be at all strong, a weighted hem would not
suffice to keep the net closed. It is therefore important when sleeping
out to use a large bed, so that contact with the net may be less likely
to happen; and the top of the net should be formed of ordinary calico,
so as to keep off the dew. Not unfrequently the mesh of the netting sold
for making mosquito nets is too coarse, a point of some importance, as
Anopheles mosquitoes in particular are adepts in creeping through small
openings; and as the writer has found it impossible to confine them in
enclosures formed of the coarser patterns of net, it may be concluded
that such a material is equally inadequate to keep them out.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Bed arranged with a low mosquito-net frame,
with punkah above it.]

References to the protection against malaria afforded by mosquito nets
by observant sportsmen and explorers are to be found in numbers of books
of travel and adventure published long before any explanation of the
fact was possible; and during the malarious season it is nothing better
than culpable rashness to pass the night without this protection, except
in a room properly guarded with wire netting. It is quite common to hear
it asserted that a punkah alone is sufficient protection, but this is an
entire mistake, as I have repeatedly watched a mosquito making a
comfortable feed on my person within a few inches of a spot actually
flicked by the towel which it is usual to pin on to the lower edge of
the punkah. In non-malarious months, such as the hot dry weather
preceding the rains in northern India, there is, of course, no need of a
net except as a matter of protection against the harmless, but very
annoying, Culices that are very common at that season of the year; and
in spite of its inferior protection against being bitten, many will
prefer the freer air current afforded by the punkah. After the
commencement of the rains, however, the fact cannot be too strongly
emphasised that to sleep without the protection of a net is to wilfully
expose oneself to a real and ever-present danger.

In the matter of preventing mosquitoes from becoming infected it is
obvious that comparatively little can be effected by the private
individual. All he can do is to bear in mind that persons suffering from
malaria are as great and real a danger to their neighbours as those
affected with scarlet fever, small-pox or any other communicable malady,
and accordingly to try to limit the number of such cases amongst his
servants and dependents. In the great majority of cases in all
probability, the mosquito that infects the European resident has been
infected by a case amongst his servants; and quite apart from
philanthropic considerations, it is most important to detect all such
cases and have them treated with quinine.

It is a well-known fact that, even where the drug appears to fail to
cure the disease, it is very difficult to find the malarial parasite in
the blood of cases that have been well dosed with the drug, and as there
must be parasites present in the blood itself in order to convey
infection to the mosquito, it is obvious that, apart from its curative
action, quinine may also be said to act as a disinfectant. On this
account, where the removal of a servant “down with fever” cannot be
arranged, it is highly important that he should be liberally dosed with
quinine; and it must be remembered that it is not sufficient to supply
him with the drug, but that it is also necessary to see it taken. In
some countries, the native is so truly a child in intellect, that he has
to be treated like one if a bitter drug is to be administered; while the
Indian, though in no way wanting in intelligence, has often a prejudice
against quinine owing to the active propaganda against the drug preached
by the Baids and Haqims, or practitioners of the indigenous systems of
medicine. As a matter of fact, I believe these men use quinine largely,
but they take care not to let their patients know they are taking a drug
which can be got for a halfpenny a full dose at any post office, and try
to prevent the spoiling of their market by promulgating all sorts of
fables as to its dangerous and harmful character.

According to the queer phraseology in vogue amongst these folks--and it
is not so long ago since it was employed also in Europe--fever is a cold
disease which by an attractive paradox should be treated by cold remedy,
while quinine is made to belong to the opposite category of medicinal
agents. It is as well, then, to be prepared for objections of this sort;
but, as a rule, the personal influence of an European employer will
suffice to secure the taking of the medicine, provided he will take the
trouble to personally see it swallowed.

Liable as all residents in the Tropics are to be attacked with fever at
times and places where skilled medical assistance is not obtainable, it
may be well to conclude this chapter with a few words on the treatment
of the malady. This really resolves itself into the adequate
administration of quinine; for provided a sufficiency of the drug can be
got into the circulation, it will, I believe, always cure malaria; but
it is one thing to make the sick man swallow the drug and another to
secure a sufficiency of it being absorbed into the blood; and unless
this takes place, the remedy can have no more effect than as much
oatmeal or any other inert substance. Anyone who has suffered from a
severe attack of malaria, or had the nursing of a case, must have
noticed that want of power to tolerate or digest even the lightest food,
is one of its most prominent symptoms. In the more virulent type of the
disease, nausea and vomiting is one of its most distressing features,
and are nothing more than the outward manifestations of the fact that
the digestive organs have ceased to perform their functions, and this
may be equally the case, even where these additional evidences of the
fact are not so prominent.

A little reflection will show that it is very unlikely that quinine or
any other drug will be absorbed by a stomach that can no longer deal
with even the lightest food, and hence it is not surprising that the
severer forms of remittent fever will often resist quinine for long
periods. For the same reason that quinine so often fails to do good in
virulent cases, it is equally obvious that it is unlikely to do harm,
and the absurd theory that “blackwater fever” is the outcome of treating
malaria with quinine may now, I think, be said to be abandoned by all,
save perhaps one or two of its original propounders; for though quinine
appears to be of but little value in the treatment of that doubtfully
malarial disease, it has now again and again been shown to occur in
patients who have taken no quinine at all.

It cannot, therefore, be too strongly insisted upon that, in spite of
failure to produce immediate effects, the administration of quinine
should be steadily persisted in, as sooner or later in almost all cases
a sufficiency will be absorbed to check the disease.

From what has been said, it is clearly important to do our best to put
the digestive organs, if possible, in a position to perform their
functions, and as in the majority of cases the sluggish bowels are
loaded with half-digested or undigested food, it is a good general rule,
as a preliminary to the administration of quinine, to administer some
unirritating laxative, for which purpose nothing can be better than our
old friend and bugbear of childhood, castor oil; and the dose should be
repeated whenever constipation becomes a symptom in the course of the
case. Once the laxative has acted, the sooner quinine is administered
the better, and, unless the patient be one of those unfortunately
constituted persons who are unable to take it--and there are some few to
whom quinine seems as poisonous as it is to the malarial parasite--it
should be given in full doses to the extent of 20 or even 30 grains (1
to 2 grammes of metric system) in the twenty-four hours. A dose of 10
grains, followed by others of 5 grains each, will usually be found a
convenient plan of administration; but there are cases which do better
with smaller doses more frequently administered. The best way to give it
is, I think, to stir up the powder in a little milk; and it may be well
here to offer a word of caution as to the employment of the drug in the
form of tabuloids. For some reason, the drug appears difficult of
digestion in this form, for I have repeatedly found fever yield at once
to the ordinary powdered form of the drug, after days of fruitless
treatment with quinine tabuloids obtained from firms of so high a
reputation that the suggestion of the substitution of some less
expensive material for quinine is quite untenable. The indiscriminate
use, too, of antipyrin, phenacetin, &c., is also to be deprecated. They
are all powerful depressants; and though they afford great relief to the
aches and weariness of an attack of fever, undoubtedly have no effect
whatever in curing the disease, even if they do not, as I have often
been inclined to suspect, tend to prolong it. Where the suffering is
very acute, an occasional dose may be of use for securing rest, but
anything like continuous dosing with medicines of this sort should be
carefully avoided. On the other hand, the old-fashioned “fever mixture,”
composed of ten or fifteen drops of nitrous ether with a drachm of
Minderus’ spirits (_liquor ammoniæ acetatis_), every four hours, in a
wineglass of water, is often of great use in favouring perspiration,
besides acting as a useful diuretic; and may be recommended as not only
affording much relief to the patient’s subjective symptoms, but also of
being absolutely safe even in inexperienced hands.

Except in the weakness of very prolonged attacks, stimulants should be
but sparingly given, but they should not be withheld when the patient is
flagging, and obviously falling into what is known as a “typhoid state.”

It is almost needless to remark that care is required in the matter of
diet. During the febrile periods “slops” only should be given, and then
in not too large quantities at a time; but in those cases where there is
a distinct fever-free interval between the paroxysms of the disease, a
great deal of license may be allowed, and solid food of a light
digestible sort is often not only well tolerated, but even beneficial,
while it is almost needless to say that these intervals of returned
digestive power should always be seized upon to get a liberal supply of
quinine into the system. During convalescence the administration of 10
to 15 grs. a day of quinine should be maintained for at least a week
after the disappearance of all febrile symptoms, and some ordinary
tonic, such as Easton’s syrup, is often useful in facilitating the
return to strength.

The least sign of a relapse, as evidenced by a rise of temperature, of
however temporary a character, should be met with a further treatment
with quinine for at least a week or ten days, as it is a clear sign that
the disease is scotched, but not killed, and that some of the parasites
are still lingering, in a latent condition, within the system; for the
patient cannot really be considered as cured till the last of these is
put an end to.

The length to which this chapter has attained may be justified by the
fact that the universality and the extent of the mischief wrought by
malaria in tropical climates renders the subject by far the most
important of all in connection with the preservation of health in the
tropics; and the writer trusts his readers may be moved to do as much as
they possibly may to preserve themselves and their neighbours from the
havoc wrought by this insidious disease, for without an informed and
intelligent public opinion to back them, no possible efforts on the part
of sanitary officials and medical men can be expected to exercise any
great or lasting effects on the prevalence of the disease.


CHAPTER VIII.

On the Prevention and Treatment of Certain of the more Common Tropical
Diseases.

Although the main essentials of domestic sanitation have already been
dealt with at some length, and incidental mention has necessarily been
made of their bearing on the avoidance of particular maladies, it
appears desirable to devote a few pages to the separate consideration of
the avoidance of some of the more common tropical diseases. Some apology
may be necessary for the inclusion in the following remarks of some
brief references to medical treatment, but it is difficult to keep
absolutely distinct the subject of prevention and cure in a popular
work, and while there is no desire to convert this little book into a
treatise on family medicine, it is thought that a few words on the
subject of remedial treatment may not be out of place, especially as
most of the writers that treat of this subject popularly, from the
tropical point of view, are hopelessly out of date.

It must be clearly understood that what little is said on this subject
is in no way intended to supersede the necessity of medical advice,
whenever that may be available; but in these out-lands, the number of
doctors to the square yard is far smaller than it is in Europe, and even
in comparatively settled regions, it is quite easy to place twenty miles
or more between yourself and the nearest medical man.

It must be remembered that in tendering general advice of this sort the
prescriber is considerably hampered by the necessity of recommending
nothing that is likely to do harm should the amateur doctor’s diagnosis
be faulty, and that he is thus debarred from suggesting many measures
that would be perfectly appropriate were the case under competent
supervision.

I do not of course refer merely to the question of poisons, as there are
few drugs that are of any real use that are not capable of causing
dangerous symptoms if administered in adequate doses--and many of the
drugs recommended are as a matter of fact powerful poisons--but rather
to the fact that even assuming reasonable care and intelligence in
weighing and measuring, one must needs direct only such measures as will
not be harmful in the by no means unlikely event of a mistaken
diagnosis. In only too many of the scourges that devastate these
latitudes, there is no time to wait for the arrival of a doctor living a
day’s journey away, as the chances are that the fate of the patient will
be no longer in the balance when at last he arrives; so that for
anything to be of any use it must be done quickly.

This method of treating the subject necessarily involves occasional
repetition, but in view of the importance of the details thus
emphasised, this may not be entirely disadvantageous.


CHOLERA.

When the writer first went to India some quarter of a century ago, there
was still a tendency to invest this disease and its propagation with
certain mysterious attributes, and a certain pompous obscurantist who
was then at the head of affairs invented the awe-inspiring term of
“pandemic waves” to account for, or rather cover, ignorance as to its
method of spread; nor was it altogether safe for his subordinates to
record facts that appeared to indicate a more common-sense explanation.
But even then, the theory that the disease was usually conveyed from man
to man by infected water, was held practically by all whose opinions
were worth having. Still we were very much in the dark as to the methods
whereby it gained access to water, and had no means of distinguishing
infected from harmless water; and our measures of prevention, being thus
based on guess work, were uncertain and often ineffective. At the
present day, thanks in the main to the labours of Koch and Hankin, there
is no disease about which our knowledge is more definite. In dealing
with semicivilised communities it is still, it is true, quite impossible
to prevent or foresee outbreaks of the disease, but when it occurs our
knowledge now enables us to bring an epidemic to a speedy termination,
always provided we are permitted to do so by the population; and
personal prophylaxis may almost be said to amount to security.

We now know that the germs of cholera can exist only in the human
organisation, but that they are capable of living and also _multiplying_
in water. In very impure water, they cannot long survive, as they soon
get crowded out of existence, in such situations, by putrefactive and
other germs that are most at home under such conditions. For their
_multiplication_ the presence of a certain amount of otherwise harmless
organic and mineral matter is of course necessary, but if introduced
into water containing this, they can survive some time in the purest
natural waters, though they ultimately die out in such situations. Owing
to these habits of life on the part of the germ, it follows that the
taste and appearance of water are absolutely valueless as regards its
safety, and that the _chemical_ examination of water is an equally
futile test. The disease is carried about from place to place by
infected human beings; but in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred is
conveyed from man to man not directly, but indirectly through the agency
of drinking water. In the hundredth case the germs may be carried in
food, and of course milk, being often intentionally or accidentally
mixed with water, is a frequent vehicle.

Direct infection from man to man does probably occasionally occur, but
the contingency is too remote an one to be worthy of consideration, as
it implies close personal contact, and in fact is usually traceable to
those in attendance on the sick getting their hands or clothing fouled
with the discharges and neglecting due measures of disinfection before
eating or drinking. Save in this way, there is practically no risk
whatever in the proximity of, or of attendance on, cholera cases, and no
one need shrink from nursing persons stricken down with the disease,
provided they observe a few very obvious precautions.

Fortunately the cholera germ is rather a delicate sort of plant, and
but for its sharing with man a preference for good drinking water it
would be comparatively harmless, as it soon perishes elsewhere, and is
very soon destroyed by drying or too great heat. It is needless to
remark that it cannot stand boiling, for the germs that can stand that
sort of treatment are few and far between; but it is also very sensitive
to the action of most of the ordinary disinfectants, which destroy it in
dilutions far weaker than is the case with the agents of most other
diseases; and it is also killed by a sufficiently long exposure to the
action of carbonic acid, from which fact there outcomes the useful bit
of knowledge that it is quite safe, _qua_ cholera, to drink aerated
waters even of doubtfully careful preparation, provided that they have
been kept a few days in the house before use. Owing to the fact that the
cholera germ cannot only survive, but is also capable of multiplying, in
drinking water of average purity, the amount of fouling of the water
which is required to infect it may be very small indeed, and usually is
infinitesimally small.

A traveller draws water from an infected, but chemically practically
pure well, and marches on, or it may be travels some hundred miles by
train. Arrived at his next halting-place, he lowers his drinking vessel
into the well he finds there. The amount of matter carried from the
infected to the clean well is necessarily far too small to turn the most
delicate balance ever constructed, but that same amount would suffice to
infect not one, but an indefinite number of wells, so infinitely small
are the individual germs concerned carrying the infection. Moreover, the
drinking of infected water does not imply certain infection, as at
certain stages of digestion the germs are destroyed in the stomachs of
healthy people; and hence it is quite possible for the disease to be
introduced by a person who has not himself suffered, though perhaps it
is more common for it to be caused by mild cases; for it is a mistake to
think that cholera is always a fatal or terribly serious disease, as in
every epidemic large numbers of cases occur of slight upset of the
digestive organs, but which we now know by microscopic examination to be
really true cholera. These cases, however, are rarely recognised or
recorded, and the really virulent form of the disease, which kills,
roughly speaking, half of those it attacks, is alone referred to in
ordinary statistics of attacks and deaths.

In India, and I suspect in most other semicivilised countries, the
commonest method by which wells become infected is by the using of a
vessel which has contained infected water to draw water from an
uninfected well. The quantity of material required to start the
fermentation in a still wholesome well is, as already remarked,
infinitesimally minute, and a small drinking vessel and the string used
for lowering it into the water, if carried by a traveller from an
infected to a healthy place, is amply sufficient, and as the, chemically
speaking, still pure water of an infected well is all that is required,
it is obvious that no actual fouling of drinking water with the
discharges from those stricken down by the disease is either necessary
or common. The actual fouling of wells from contiguous latrines or
cesspits does no doubt occasionally occur, but owing to the extremely
primitive character of Oriental plans of conservancy, is rare.

From what has been said, it will be obvious that it is perfectly easy to
suggest measures for the prevention of cholera which may be trusted to
be perfectly effectual. The only difficulty lies in carrying them into
practice. Practically, all that is required is to protect all supplies
of drinking water by covering in wells and fitting them with pumps. But
the mere expense of doing so is often beyond the means of the community,
and when the pumps have been fitted, there is no one available to keep
them in order; so that after a very short period they become useless,
and the old infection-carrying bucket and string must needs be reverted
to. Nor is it by any means easy to protect one’s own supply, as
strangers have a free and easy way of making use of their neighbours’
wells, whether rich or poor. Nor can one’s native servants be trusted
either to prevent this or to employ for drawing water a single vessel
set apart for the purpose, for being unable to comprehend the reasons
for such precautions, they naturally regard them as merely troublesome
fads on the part of their employer, to be observed only when he chances
to be looking on.

On this account the cardinal precaution of personal hygiene is to drink
only water that has been boiled, and to see it boiled oneself. Every
housewife knows that even European servants are often singularly obtuse,
or neglectful, in recognising when water has actually come to the boil;
and that to be certain of the perfection of the domestic cup of tea she
must satisfy herself that the water is actually in a state of ebulition.
Nor are such precautions onerous or troublesome. Orders should be given
that the portable charcoal stove should be brought into the verandah and
that the water should be boiling at the time of some meal, when the
master of the house necessarily passes through on his way to table;
preferably that of late dinner, so that the water may have all night to
cool in, and so be ready for the next day’s consumption. The boiling
water should be poured directly into the vessels, porous or otherwise,
in which it is to stand, and put aside in some place sheltered from
dust. They should not be filled too full, as after they have cooled it
is desirable to shake the water violently so as to re-aerate it, and so
remove the insipid taste which the water has acquired, owing to its
dissolved air having been expelled during the boiling process. The still
boiling water may generally be trusted to sufficiently sterilise the
containers, but it is perhaps well, as an additional precaution, to boil
them occasionally in a large cauldron. Above all, do not filter; but
trust to settlement. Ordinary filters are perfect germ-traps, while all
varieties of the Pasteur filter are slow in action and apt to get out of
order. Added to this, their rubber connections may leak without our
being aware of it, and even when in their most perfect condition, they
afford a protection but little superior to that given by boiling, so
that personally I would far prefer to put up even with a little
turbidity in boiled water than put any trust even in the best of them.
Remember that you can trust no one but oneself to attend to their
cleanliness and efficiency, and that to do so implies the sacrifice of a
good deal of time on a very irksome job. Drinking water that chances to
be impregnated with lime necessarily becomes turbid on boiling, but the
turbidity is perfectly harmless. If the deposit be so fine as to be very
slow in settling, the process may be hastened by stirring it round a few
times with a crystal of alum. These precautions should be, of course,
routine ones at all times, but should be maintained with special
vigilance at times when cholera is present in one’s place of residence.
Aerated waters that have been kept in the house a week may also be
drunk, but care should be taken to avoid any articles of food that are
consumed raw, such as salads and fruits. Tomatoes may be dipped into
boiling water and peeled without detracting from the pleasant, fresh
acidity of their taste, but it is well to specially avoid during such
periods lettuces and melons, as owing to the circumstances under which
they are cultivated they are specially liable to have been wetted with
infected water. Cucumbers may be dealt with in the same way as tomatoes,
as from their shape it is very easy to sterilise their exterior by
dipping them for a few seconds beyond the middle of their length in
boiling water and changing end for end. This and the customary
subsequent peeling really affords a sufficient practical security, and
it must be remembered that the usual dressing of vinegar, “fortified” as
this article of consumption usually is with sulphuric acid, affords an
additional security, and does away with the necessity of submitting to
what would be really a considerable deprivation at the time of the year
when cholera is most common; for cholera and cucumbers flourish most at
the same season of the year, a coincidence which has led to the not
unnatural, but quite erroneous, popular idea that cholera may be caused
by eating this vegetable. Of course, too liberal an indulgence in
cucumber, like too much of any other rather indigestible good thing, may
cause bowel disturbance, and an irritated bowel is especially liable to
infection; but apart from superadded infection, no article of food is
capable of causing the disease.

In dealing with drinking water on a large scale, such as the
disinfection of wells and tanks, we have several available methods, for
one or the other of which the materials are almost everywhere
available. The most valuable of these agents is undoubtedly the
permanganate of potash, and the suggestion of its use for the
disinfection of drinking water from the germs of cholera is undoubtedly
due to Mr. Hankin, our official bacteriologist at Agra. No doubt more
than one medical officer had previously made experiments with this
chemical for the purification of drinking water, but the credit of
definitely proposing its use on a large scale in cholera epidemics, and
of proving that it is lethal to the cholera germ, even when greatly
diluted, is undoubtedly due to him alone.

The enormous practical importance of the discovery has, however, been
but slowly realised, though its capabilities were put to the test of
practical application by the writer immediately after Mr. Hankin
published his suggestion, with the result that a severe epidemic in a
town of over 10,000 inhabitants was brought to an abrupt termination
within three or four days.

The method of disinfection of wells by means of this chemical has
already been described on page 47, _et seq._

The addition of a few ounces of common sulphuric acid increases, I
believe, the lethal effects of the permanganate on the cholera germ, but
is certainly not necessary, and I have no personal experience in its
employment, as the taste imparted is somewhat persistent; and in dealing
with suspicious races such as those inhabiting our Indian possessions,
it is desirable that all obvious change in the taste or appearance of
the water should pass off as soon as possible.

The alternative agents are alum and quicklime, either of which is very
fairly effectual, though by no means as trustworthy as permanganate.
Their great advantage lies in the fact that they are obtainable almost
everywhere, and that being familiar articles of daily life their use is
less likely to give rise to misunderstandings in dealing with ignorant
and suspicious populations, who regard with mistrust the treatment to
their wells with a chemical so strange and striking as permanganate must
appear to them. Nearly all races are, however, familiar with the
cleansing powers of lime, and in the case of Indians, the wonderful
powers of alum in clearing turbid water is a bit of household knowledge
familiar to everyone. A pound or two of alum, or half a hundredweight of
lime, are required for each well. If alum is employed, it should be
roughly powdered.

To further avert all suspicion I find it a good plan to hand the
necessary money to an inhabitant of the place and ask him to fetch me
from the local shop the amount of alum or lime required. I then, if alum
be chosen, tell him to pound it up with a brick and himself to throw it
into the well, myself standing somewhat aloof. As everyone is familiar
with the use of alum in purifying water, and there is obviously no
possibility of the surreptitious introduction of anything else, with
ordinary tact, no objection will ever be made. Of course, the person
thus impressed into the service of sanitation should always be a man of
good caste, preferably a Bhraman.

Both these agents act, I believe, mechanically by coagulating certain
forms of organic matter present in the water, and so carrying to the
bottom, entangled with it, the germs present in the water, in which
situation they perish on account of the free access of water containing
their nourishment being impeded, and on this account at least two days
should be allowed to elapse before the water is again taken into use,
during which all disturbance of the water should be carefully avoided.

Neither of these agents is in any degree as trustworthy as permanganate,
but their employment should not be neglected in cases where the latter
is either unobtainable or objections are raised to its use. Of the two,
lime is probably the better, but alum much the handier.

Whichever agent be adopted, it is well to treat as large a number of
wells as possible. A certain number must needs, of course, be left
untouched, for use during the time the treated wells must be left
undisturbed, and these should be dotted about the town, so that the
minimum of inconvenience may be inflicted on the townsfolk; but always
leave as few as possible, as objections may be raised on your second
visit, a couple of days after, to complete the process by disinfecting
the remaining wells, and it may hence happen that you may have to rest
content with what you have been able to effect on your first visit.
Always, too, commence operations on the well you have reason to suspect
is infected, or, in other words, that used by the people of the house in
which the first local case has occurred.

Permanganate has now had a long trial in India. I have never known it
fail, wherever it has been used in the manner above described, and the
operation has been conducted _by an European officer in person_. The
native medical officer, even when trained after our European methods, is
seldom really convinced of its efficiency, and moreover he lacks the
prestige of prophets hailing from abroad, and so may be really unable to
carry out his instructions. An even commoner mistake is to go to work
piecemeal, disinfecting a few suspected wells and leaving the rest till
fresh cases spring up, as they necessarily must, as buckets infected
from the first infected wells will inevitably be taken to other wells
during the time that the former are unusable, and they can scarcely fail
to infect them, and so start new foci of infection, if sufficient time
be allowed for the germs to increase and multiply to a dangerous extent
in their new location. Reports of failure I have received in plenty, but
on investigation they have always proved to be due to some such cause as
those indicated above. It is, of course, only rarely that a layman will
find himself called upon to conduct such operations on a large scale;
but the knowledge of how to do so may be of such great public benefit to
the readers’ coloured fellow-subjects, that it is most desirable that
every European should know how to proceed, and, at any rate, I would
strongly advise my readers, should cholera appear in their
neighbourhood, never to omit the precaution of disinfecting all wells
under their own control, as it is a great protection to one’s servants
and other native attendants. It is well, too, to repeat the process
occasionally as long as the disease continues near one.

By the simple precautions as to food and drink described above, the
danger of being attacked by cholera may be reduced to a very small
contingency, even when it is raging around one, and there is no reason
whatever for the almost superstitious fear with which the disease used
to be regarded.

It remains to say a few words as to the treatment of cases should they
arise in your household in places where medical aid is unobtainable.

In the first place, it should be remembered that the danger of handling
and nursing patients is but small, for, as already remarked, you cannot
“catch” cholera in the same way as you can small-pox or plague. To
become infected by the germs you must eat or drink them. The discharges
in cholera are, of course, intensely poisonous, and it is impossible to
nurse a case without the hands, and perhaps one’s clothing, becoming
fouled; but the germs are perfectly harmless applied to the skin, and
with due precautions as to cleanliness and disinfection of the hands,
there should be no danger of their gaining access to the nurse’s mouth.
To avoid contamination of clothing, a washable overall should be worn,
such as can be improvised from a sheet, with a hole for the head cut in
the middle, secured round the waist with a cord, and the sleeves should
be turned up well above the elbows. Care should be taken not to touch
the lips or face with the hands while in attendance on the patient. On
leaving him, the overall should be wrung out in sublimate lotion and
spread out in the full blaze of the sun to dry, and the hands and arms
should be thoroughly washed first with warm soap and water and then with
sublimate lotion, care being taken not to eat or drink until these
precautions have been complied with.

Medical science is absolutely at fault in the treatment of cholera, so
that no treatment can be recommended beyond such measures as naturally
suggest themselves to relieve the patient’s sufferings.

The symptoms of the disease consist of violent purging and vomiting, the
discharged matter being watery and almost colourless, with small
particles and shreds of whitish matter floating in it, being, in fact,
to quote the usual simile, very like rice water. Very often the patient
suffers from violent muscular cramps, which cause great suffering. This
active onset is followed by a stage of collapse, in which the skin
becomes cold and livid and the face and hands singularly pinched and
blue. If the patient survive this stage, it will be found that the urine
is suppressed, the functions of the kidneys being, for the time,
absolutely suspended; and the patient can never be considered out of
danger till this function has resumed its natural course.

Now as to treatment. It must be in the first place remembered that it is
absolutely useless to worry the patient with attempts to administer
medicines by the mouth, as the digestive and absorptive functions are
for the time totally stopped, and it is quite as much to the purpose to
put your remedies in the patient’s pocket as to force him to swallow
them. To have any chance of acting, medicines must be administered by
being injected beneath the skin by means of the hypodermic needle; and
so powerless are all known drugs in this disease, that I should hesitate
to recommend such medications to be attempted by amateur physicians. The
only drug which has ever appeared to me to effect any good has been
chloral hydrate dissolved in water and injected under the skin in
5-grain doses every few minutes until 30 or even 40 grains have been
administered. There can be no doubt that this treatment controls the
violence of the symptoms, and usually does away with the horrible
suffering caused by the terrible cramps that are so common in the
disease. I am even inclined to believe that a somewhat better percentage
of cases recover under the treatment, though this is doubtful. Failing
this, massage and frictions with the hands do much to relieve the
cramps, and in the cold stage, every care should be taken to maintain
the heat of the body by covering the patient with blankets and placing
around him bricks heated in the fire and wrapped round with strips of
wet blanket. During the reaction that follows on the cold stage, in
favourable cases, attempts should be made to stimulate the kidneys by
the application of mustard plasters to the loins. To attempt to give
food during the acute stage is obviously worse than useless, but there
is no harm in letting the patient suck small lumps of ice to assuage the
terrible thirst of the disease. In the stage of collapse, stimulants
naturally suggest themselves, but are seldom of any use when given
internally. A few drops of ether inhaled from a handkerchief is, if
available, perhaps the best method of stimulation, but the weakened
kidneys have quite enough to do without having to deal with alcohol, so
that it should be but sparingly resorted to, if at all. When the patient
shows such signs of recovery that it appears likely that food can be
tolerated, small quantities only of easily digestible food, such as
milk, rendered mucilaginous by the addition of a little arrowroot,
Brand’s extract, &c., should be given, but it can easily be understood
that after so severe a shock to the digestive system, the greatest care
will have to be exercised in the feeding of the patient. Finally, it
should not be forgotten that all the discharges of the patient are
virulently infective, and that they and everything soiled by them should
at once be disinfected. When the supply of disinfectants is limited, a
good plan is to place in the bed-pan and basins used a sufficiency of
sawdust, and to at once burn the contents by emptying them on to a brisk
fire.


DYSENTERY.

We cannot claim to know much definitely as to the exact method in which
this disease arises. Four or five vegetable germs and at least two small
parasites belonging to the animal kingdom have been found, but none of
these are present in all cases, and many of them may be quite commonly
discovered in the interior economy of quite healthy persons, so that
either the true germ remains to be discovered, or those we know of have
only a secondary importance, becoming harmful only when they find
themselves in contact with an irritated bowel. As a matter of fact,
there are a good many kinds of dysentery, but to enter into their
various characteristics would only confuse the lay reader.

The common characteristic is the discharge of frequent scanty motions,
with much pain, and an intolerable sensation that more is to come. The
material voided is always extremely offensive, of a mucous consistence,
and wanting in the natural bilious colour. In severer cases, the mucus
becomes streaked with blood, and sometimes little else will be seen, and
the actual loss of blood itself may become a serious element of danger.

The disease does not usually occur as an epidemic, though something very
like one is not unfrequently to be met with among bodies of men
subjected to severe hardships and privations, as for example among
soldiers during an arduous campaign in extreme climates. Some
predisposing cause capable of causing irritation of the intestine seems
to be essential to enable the germs, known or unknown, to take action.
This irritant may be mechanical, such as coarsely ground, ill-cleaned
grain; or chemical, as in the dysentery that is apt to appear among
persons feeding on too newly reaped barley, or from foul or saline
water; but the commonest of all causes appears to be the decomposition
of the contents of the bowel which almost inevitably occurs when, from
any reason, the production of the bile is arrested.

The peculiar yellowish-green secretion of the liver known as the bile
appears not only to assist in the solution and digestion of the food,
but to act as a natural antiseptic, which checks the too great
multiplication of the various germs which are naturally always to be
found in the intestine. It is comparatively rarely that the liver itself
strikes work, but what does very commonly happen is that a chill, or a
mechanical or chemical irritation of the bowel, may extend to the bile
duct, and by causing swelling, or spasmodic action of its muscles,
prevent the contents of the gall bladder, in which the bile secreted by
the liver is stored up, from passing on into the intestine. The chill or
irritant that thus stops the flow of the bile necessarily at the same
time produces a greater or less amount of catarrh and inflammation of
the lower bowel, which, lying as it does next to the wall of the
abdomen, is most easily affected by cold; but stoppage of the flow of
bile into the intestine seems an essential element in the production of
dysentery, as a more or less complete absence of bile from the motions
is a universal symptom of the condition, and to restore the action of
the liver is, practically speaking, in cases taken sufficiently early,
equivalent to curing the disease.

As has been already noticed, dysentery may be caused by a variety of
mechanical and chemical irritants, but by far the commonest cause is
undoubtedly chill to the surface of the abdomen, and the reason the
disease is so common in tropical climates is their peculiarly
treacherous feature of the chill that precedes the dawn. The earlier
part of the night is often intolerably close and sultry, and it is only
with difficulty that the jaded European manages to get off to sleep, and
then naturally with next to no covering of the body. As the hours pass,
the temperature falls somewhat and he sleeps more easily and deeply, and
when the peculiar chill falls that usually precedes a tropical dawn, he
is too far off in the land of dreams to be roused by the cold; and the
abdomen, bared probably by his restless movements during the earlier
part of the night, is left exposed to the treacherous chill.

That there are other ways of getting dysentery I have no doubt, but a
tolerably long experience has convinced me that the above is the history
of nine cases out of every ten that one meets with, and it follows from
this _that the all-important safeguard against dysentery is to protect
the abdomen from chill_. From this it follows that a cardinal measure of
precaution in the preservation of health in hot climates is the adequate
clothing of this part of the body. It is this fact that accounts for the
general consensus of opinion as to the value of the familiar article of
clothing known as the “cholera belt,” though I am by no means inclined
to regard the said garment as the best, or even a good, method of
attaining the object. At best the thickness of material is inadequate,
it is generally made too narrow to include the liver above and much of
the lower part of the abdomen below within its protection, and it
naturally has a strong tendency to “ruck” together so as to form merely
a very uncomfortable sort of belt, quite valueless for the purpose for
which it is intended. For wear during the day a much more comfortable
and efficient garment is the well-known Oriental “kamarband,” a long,
narrow scarf of woollen, cotton, or silk, according to taste, folded
into a broad band and worn twisted round the waist in place of a
waistcoat, over which it possesses the superiority of leaving the upper
part of the body free. The elasticity of the folded scarf gives also a
comfortable feeling of support, without any of the sensation of
constriction inseparable from a belt, and its adaptation to climatic
needs is testified by the fact of its being, in one form or another, in
use by every tropical race, if we except the Negro, who seems to the
manner born, and to want little artificial protection while he keeps
within the limits, to meet the conditions of which he evolved. How the
Negro gets on with no clothing at all, and the really much civilised
Bengali contrives to survive without a hat, are problems which we poor
products of centuries of artifice cannot be expected to solve; but the
bald fact remains that the Northern European, when translated to the
Tropics, must protect his viscera against cold in equatorial climates,
even more carefully than in his native north, if he wants to get back
there alive.

The cholera belt is especially fallacious at night. Unsupported as it
then is by other clothing, it is at no other time so liable to slip down
and leave unprotected the very parts that it is most important to keep
covered. In the dark hours one wants a protection that is unlikely to be
disturbed by forgetfulness, and is more likely to fall back into place
than be cast off. This exigency is met by a folded blanket thrown across
the trunk, within which are massed the delicate viscera essential to
life; the ends of the folds lying on either side on the ground, and
folded so that, without too thoroughly rousing oneself, one can spread
the rug out a bit, above or below, should the chill of the morning
become disagreeable to the chest or the lower limbs.

Provided that the feet, chest and arms are left free, a blanket arranged
in this way gives no feeling of oppression; and after a short period of
habituation, its deprivation conveys a distinct sensation of discomfort.
Lying across the body, with either end on the ground, it is unlikely to
be disturbed by the uneasy movements of the body. The fact of the ends
resting on the ground makes it difficult to shake it off, and it affords
far better protection than any closely-fitting garment, is more
comfortable, and less likely to cause prickly heat. Care in this matter,
especially during the hours of sleep, is second only in importance to
the protection of the head against the sun during the day.

Never let the mildest dysentery, or even diarrhœa, continue unchecked.
Taken early, no disease is more tractable, while if allowed to pass on
to a chronic condition, no malady is more troublesome; while really
severe chronic dysentery is practically incurable. Some knowledge of how
to deal with such cases is therefore of special importance, as without
embarking on the career of an explorer, any one may find himself a day
or two’s distance from competent medical assistance in the countries
with which we have to deal.

Practically speaking, to restart the action of the liver is to cure
dysentery in all recent cases, and hence it is of the greatest
importance not to give opium, or that dangerous abomination
“chlorodyne,” both of which are most efficient in diminishing the flow
of bile. They are doubly dangerous, because they quiet not only the
action of the gall bladder, but also that of the intestines, and this,
it must be remembered, without really curing the disease. The flux from
the bowel is not really the disease, but merely an outward symptom of
mischief going on within, and is further the useful and salutary effort
of Nature to get rid of the irritating matter that is causing the
mischief; and hence to stop the movements of the bowel, before the
peccant matters have been got rid of, is a most dangerous step to take;
so that no drug of the above description should on any account be given
during the earlier stages of an attack of this sort. Next to this the
matter of greatest importance is to give the irritated intestine rest by
at once stopping the ordinary diet of solid food and substituting some
mucilaginous preparation, such as milk thickened with a little arrowroot
and taken _cold_. Where the attack is sharp, a few hours’ fast is by no
means unadvisable, but must not, of course, be continued too long.
Wherever possible, it is best for the patient to rest in bed, and if
there be much abdominal pain a hot-water bottle placed against the pit
of the stomach will afford great relief. In a large proportion of cases
no other treatment than rest and avoidance of opiates is required.
Avoid also alcohol in all forms, at any rate unless extremely diluted.
If, however, the symptoms fail to moderate under this treatment, it is
well to secure the removal of any irritating or poisonous matter that
may remain in the bowel by the administration of a dose of castor oil, a
full ounce for a grown-up person down to a teaspoonful for small
infants. The great advantage of this drug is that besides acting as a
safe and certain laxative, the oil itself forms a most soothing
application to the irritated bowel, just in the same way as it does to
the skin when that structure is scorched or otherwise inflamed. To treat
an intestinal flux by the administration of a laxative may appear
strange to the lay mind, but you need never fear to employ castor oil,
however violent the flux may be, and in children especially, it is a
good routine commencement of treatment for any looseness of the bowels.
A good plan for getting down this remedy, which, it must be admitted, is
usually most obnoxious to adults, is as follows. Select a wide, shallow
drinking vessel, such as a champagne glass, and moisten its interior
thoroughly with a teaspoonful of some strongly-flavoured spirit, such as
gin, turning the glass about until all parts are wetted, then add a
couple of tablespoonsful of water, and into the middle of this pour the
oil, avoiding the sides, so that it floats separately, like the yolk of
an egg surrounded by the white. If now the contents of the glass be
swallowed as nearly as possible at a single gulp, the oil passes through
the mouth and throat so completely surrounded by the spirit and water
that its presence cannot be noticed. A tabloid containing ¹⁄₄₀ grain of
perchloride of mercury should be taken shortly after, and after a lapse
of three or four hours the disinfection of the contents of the intestine
may be completed by taking a 10-grains tabloid of resorcin every four
hours.

As a rule, under this treatment the yellow colour soon reappears in the
motions and all symptoms disappear; but should the liver refuse to act,
as is indicated by the continued absence of the natural yellow colour in
the motions, it will be necessary to give a large dose of
ipecacuanha--to get this drug down without setting up vomiting,
requires a certain amount of preparation--as in smaller doses, it is one
of the safest and most certain of emetics. It is best to give the dose
the last thing at night, when the patient is naturally likely to be
sleepy, and half an hour before it is given, a preparatory dose of a
grain of opium should be administered. The patient should lie as quietly
as possible, and after the dose (30 grains, or half a dozen 5-grain
tabloids of ipecacuanha) all liquids should be withheld. It is also
important to use as little water as possible to wash down the tabloids,
as success in keeping down the drug depends mainly on the absence of any
notable amount of fluid from the stomach; and this abstinence from
fluids, as well as from food, should be continued until the next
morning, when in all probability a copious bile-stained motion will show
that the drug has taken its desired effect. As a rule, after this, two
or three tabloids, containing ¹⁄₄₀ of a grain of perchloride of mercury
_per diem_, for a few days, will suffice to maintain the action of the
liver and to disinfect the bowel, but occasionally the medication with
ipecacuanha may have to be repeated. Remember, however, that no drugs
will be of much service in this disease without the greatest care in
diet.

An Indian medical officer has generally a variety of institutions under
his charge, and usually amongst them a prison, of which he is not only
the medical officer, but also the military governor--a sensible
combination of offices which might well be imitated elsewhere. Now,
although dysentery is a disease which gives much trouble in Indian
prisons, the writer did not lose a single one of his jail-birds from
that cause for several years; and he imputes his success to the practice
he made of at once relegating each case of dysentery to a solitary cell,
where it was utterly impossible for the patient to obtain any other food
than that ordered for him. When left in the general wards they could not
be kept from obtaining more or less of the bread and vegetable curry
that formed the ordinary diet of those not seriously ill.

Soups are rarely well borne in dysentery, and hence the diet must be
restricted to milk foods, the milk being always rendered mucilaginous by
the addition of a little arrowroot or gelatin, cornflour, &c. When there
is much dyspepsia the milk may be given semidigested by combining it
with one of the numerous pancreatised proprietary articles, such as
Benger’s food. Afterwards a raw egg may be given beaten up with the milk
or Benger’s food, and subsequently rice pudding and fish; but great
caution is always required in resuming the ordinary diet, as the bowel
always remains easily irritated for some time after the attack has
subsided. Everything should be given cold (preferably moderately iced),
and in small quantities at a time.


DIARRHŒA.

Diarrhœa in tropical climates arises from much the same causes as
dysentery, and like it, is very apt to be set up by chills to the
abdomen; in fact, these diseases may be regarded, for the practical
purposes of prevention and treatment, as different degrees of the same
condition; the more serious disease being further complicated by
concomitant affection of the liver. Heavy dosing with ipecacuanha will
not, of course, be required in the milder disease, but otherwise its
prevention and treatment may be regarded as the same, especially as in
tropical climates, the mildest access of diarrhœa should always be
respectfully dealt with, as it may easily develop into dysentery if
neglected.

Hill diarrhœa is a peculiar form of chronic looseness of the bowels that
is not uncommon in the Himalayas, and, I believe, in other elevated
regions. Certain people appear specially liable to it, much in the same
way as some are subject to hay fever, while others are never affected;
and the proclivity is so marked in some persons that it is impossible
for them to reside in such localities, and they are hence debarred from
taking refuge from the fierce heat of the plains. We are not very clear
as to its causation, though the disease is traceable in some places to
the presence of finely divided mineral matter (mica) in the drinking
water, and so may be guarded against by careful filtration of all water
used for drinking or cooking. The climate of the hills, again, though
pleasant enough, is during the rains even more treacherous than that of
the plains--damp cold, alternating with warmth; but withal, as has
already been remarked, the disease is mainly one of personal proclivity,
and where the tendency is very marked the only course is to avoid
residing in places where it is apt to occur. Should you, when travelling
in the hills, be attacked with this malady, careful filtration of water
and care in diet should be attended to, and a pill or tabloid containing
one grain each of euonymin, blue pill and ipecacuanha may be taken at
night; but should the trouble persist, no time should be lost in
returning, if possible, to within range of competent medical assistance,
as if neglected, the disease is apt to develop into a most troublesome
condition known as sprue.


_Infantile Diarrhœa_ is terribly common in hot countries, and hence the
least disturbance of this sort should never be neglected in young
children. The rapid rise in the infantile death-rate that coincides with
any approach to a tropical temperature in Europe, shows well how full of
risk is a child’s tenure of life in latitudes where such temperatures
are not the exception, but the rule. The liquid food, which alone is
suitable to the infantile digestion, is perilously liable to
decomposition when the temperature of the air rises much over 70° F.,
and, under such conditions, food which, to the nose and eye, shows no
appreciable change, may yet be virulent with a poison as lethal in its
effects as arsenic, and far more deadly, weight for weight. As a matter
of fact, the poisons which may be generated in food subjected to high
atmospheric temperatures, differ only from the most active of mineral
poisons in their greater virulence, and to commence treatment in such
cases with any agent that checks the action of the bowels ensures an
unfortunate result with even greater certainty than if we were dealing
with antimony or vitriol.

The first _desideratum_ is to get rid of the supply of poison which has
already been generated within the bowels, and the second to stop the
fermentation which alone can generate the poison. To meet the first
indication an unirritating laxative should be at once administered. When
the symptoms are severe, one or two teaspoonfuls, according to the age
of the child, of castor oil is probably the safest remedy, but in less
violent disturbances a drachm of our old friend, Gregory’s powder, will
be more appropriate. The laxative should be promptly followed by the
administration of one of the intestinal antiseptics, amongst which I
have a personal preference for 5-grain doses of resorcin; but β naphthol
grs. ii., salicylate of bismuth grs. v., or perchloride of mercury gr.
¹⁄₆₄, if more readily to hand are equally valuable, and are, I know,
preferred, one or the other, by practitioners according to their
individual favourable experiences; but opiates of all sorts are always
to be avoided as long as active mischief continues, though fifteen or
twenty drops of paregoric or some other preparation of the poppy may
possibly accelerate the cessation of obvious symptoms when the “causing
cause” of the disease has been disposed of.

The germs that produce this intensely poisonous matter are quite
different from those whereby milk “turns sour,” and the fermentation
which produces it may go on some time without giving rise to changes
obvious to the nose or eye. Hence, though it is no doubt possible for
the germs to reach the stomach in other ways, as a rule the changes have
commenced before the food is swallowed.

Diarrhœa is naturally rare in infants fed entirely at the breast, and
from what has been said it will be clear that the surest protection
against this terribly fatal malady lies in the avoidance of bottle
feeding; for to carry out the latter safely in a tropical climate, would
tax the resources of a skilled bacteriologist. It is, however,
unfortunately the fact that European women residing in such climates are
very often really unable to suckle their children, in spite of all the
good will to do so; and when the supply is inadequate and has to be
supplemented by artificial feeding there is little real gain, as the
bottle, with all its dangers, must needs be used several times in the
day. On this account, whenever the mother is unable to fully nourish her
infant, by far the safest course is resort to wet nursing. I have met
with people who have a sentimental objection to entrusting their child
to a woman of another race; and are even capable of believing that the
mental and moral qualities of their offspring may be affected by such a
diet; but it should be needless to say that there is no foundation
whatever for any such idea. Great care is of course necessary in the
selection of the foster-mother, who should be young, healthy, and
vigorous. Her own baby ought not to be much older than the one she is to
nurse, while it is needless to say that she should never be permitted to
nourish both infants together. It is also most important that she should
be examined, and, if possible, selected, by a medical man.

When, however, artificial feeding is unavoidable, the most elaborate
care as to the purity and cleanliness of the milk and all utensils that
come in contact with it are required. In hot climates it is not enough
to merely wash the bottles and jugs which are used. They should be
boiled at least once a day, and in very hot weather, even each time
after using. The simpler the bottle is in its construction the better,
those with long tubes and elaborate screw stoppers being so dangerous
that it is far better to resort to spoon feeding than be tempted to use
one, even as a temporary expedient. The form of bottle which presents
least dangers, because the most easily cleaned, is that in which the
nipple is in one piece, with an elastic cap that is made to fit the
mouth of the bottle, thus doing away with the necessity of any stopper
or cork. Moreover, if the special bottle chance to get broken, it is
generally easy to find some medicine phial, or other small bottle, over
which the cap can be stretched and which serves equally well. Rubber
will not stand repeated boiling, hence, when not in use the nipple
should be always kept immersed in a strongish solution of boracic acid
(10-15 grs. to the ounce) and rinsed before and after using in ordinary
drinking water. In making the boracic solution, a sufficient approach to
chemical accuracy may be made by placing an eggspoonful of boracic acid
in a breakfast cup and filling up with boiling water.

Asses’ milk is probably the best substitute for an infant’s natural
food; and failing this, goats’ milk is to be preferred to that from the
cow. Whichever is employed, it is best to buy the animals and have them
kept in one’s own compound, so that one can ensure, by personal
supervision, their being cleanly kept and carefully fed. Before milking,
the animal’s teats and the hands of the milker should be washed in
boracic solution, which should be kept ready made up in a large earthen
vessel (an Indian gurrah, for example).

A great drawback of cows’ milk as a food for infants in India lies in
the fact that, whereas human milk has a distinct alkalinity, that of the
breeds of kine indigenous to that country is often (in my own
experience, always) rather strongly acid, even when freshly milked from
perfectly sound and well-cared for animals.

Generally speaking, indeed, the acidity is so considerable that the
amount of alkali contained in even twice its bulk of lime water, is
quite insufficient to neutralise it. In place, therefore, of the
conventional lime water, it is better to add about as much as will stand
on a sixpence, of a mixture of equal parts bicarbonate of soda and
citrate of potash, to each bottle. Of course, if you wish to be exact,
you can get from your chemists some books of litmus paper which change
to a redder tint when dipped into an acid fluid and become bluer when
moistened with an alkali; and it is a good plan to test in this way, at
any rate to commence with, in order to ascertain roughly the amount
required for the milk of the particular cow that yields the milk. The
citrate of potash, besides being for practical dietetic purposes an
alkali, has the additional valuable property of preventing the milk,
after it has reached the infant’s stomach, from curdling in large
masses, as cows’ milk is apt to do unless treated in this way. Human
milk, when curdled in the process of digestion, does so in small
flocculi; and the tendency of cows’ milk to curdle in large masses makes
it a frequent cause of dyspepsia as well as of diarrhœa. Whether or no
the peculiarity of possessing a so strongly acid reaction is shared with
the milk yielded by cows in other hot climates I cannot say. Whatever
may be the source of the artificial food, it is needless to remark that
it should be sterilised by means of one of the numerous appliances now
sold everywhere for the purpose, and that care should be exercised to
guard against chill to the abdomen.

The prevention of infantile diarrhœa is in fact purely a question of
guarding against impure and unsuitable food, and though the same is no
doubt also true for more temperate climates, precautions which may be
sufficient in an English summer, break down at once in a moist heat of
90° in the shade.

Should, however, in spite of all precaution, the disease appear, steps
should at once be taken to get rid of the food that is fermenting within
the stomach by administering a teaspoonful of castor oil, and if any
obviously large proportion of the oil be thrown up within half an hour
of taking the oil, give another half teaspoonful. The milk given should
be much more diluted than usual, and if it obviously continues to
disagree, as evidenced by continued sickness after the bottle, it should
be pancreated by means of Benger’s food, which will often be kept down
where the simply sterilised milk is rejected. If, however, milk in any
form prove unsuitable, meat juice may be substituted for a few hours.

Meat juice is made by mincing raw lean meat, sprinkling lightly with
salt, and adding just enough blood-warm water to cover it. Place the
mixture aside in a covered jug in the sun for two hours and then place
the pulpy mixture in a clean cloth and squeeze out the juice into a
basin by wringing the cloth. Before administration, a sufficiency of
sugar to make the mixture palatable should be added.

Another very useful food, as a temporary substitute for milk, when the
latter disagrees, is egg albumen. To prepare this, beat up the white of
a small egg with enough cold water to make a bottle, add just enough
sugar to perceptibly sweeten, and let it stand till the froth produced
in the beating has settled. Should these novel delicacies be refused by
the infant, the addition of even a teaspoonful of milk will often lend
sufficient of the desired flavour to induce the child to take it. The
egg albumen should always be given cold, as even warming the bottle by
placing it in hot water might easily coagulate a little of the albumen
and so convert an exceptionally bland food into a very dangerous and
indigestible material. After the oil has acted, about 5 grains of
Gregory’s powder may be given once or twice a day, and if the natural
yellow of the child’s napkins be not rapidly recovered a grain of grey
powder should be added.

The course of infantile diarrhœa is often appallingly rapid, so that all
may be over with the little sufferer in a few hours, and on this account
there should be no delay in obtaining medical assistance, even on the
appearance of slight symptoms of the kind, wherever such help is at
hand.


PLAGUE.

Strictly speaking, this terrible scourge cannot be said to be in any
sense a disease peculiar to warm climates, for the one climatic
condition that appears to check the course of epidemics of this disease
is extreme heat, which always moderates their virulence as long as it
lasts. In reality, it is a disease of low civilisation; and appears to
be practically incapable of attaining any serious spread amongst people
of European habits. During the terrible recrudescence of this disease,
which, for the last decade, has been ravaging the semicivilised world,
although repeatedly introduced, it has never succeeded in seriously
establishing itself in any European town. Even the admittedly backward
sanitation of Spanish towns appears to be too advanced to admit of the
spread of plague, and, what is more remarkable, the European portion of
the population of plague-stricken Eastern towns has remained practically
unscathed, while the indigenous population have been dying around them
in their thousands. When first the disease invaded India there was
naturally a good deal of alarm amongst the European population of
Bombay, but nowadays the official, commercial, and social life of the
European community goes on unmoved, even at times when the disease is
doing its worst--and is so assured of its own immunity that timid ladies
out for their evening airing will scarcely turn their head as the bodies
of the plague-stricken are carried past them on the way to the burning
ghaut. Perhaps this immunity may be to some small extent a question of
race, but the main determining cause is undoubtedly difference of habits
of life, as natives who have adopted European habits share in it.

The most important conditions favouring the spread of plague appear to
be overcrowding and inadequacy of air space and ventilation in
dwellings; and especially lack of light, as well as the want of domestic
cleanliness, and the treasuring up or neglect to do away with dirty
rags, dust and rubbish. A further reason in India is the sacredness of
animal life, which leads to the unrestricted multiplication of rats and
vermin of all sorts.

The germs of the disease are easily destroyed by moderate heat, strong
light, and most disinfectants, but are apparently capable of
preservation for long periods when protected from such agencies; and
hence the disease is capable of being transported from place to place by
the agency of dirty clothing, infected rags and such like, but the
characteristic which most embarrasses our efforts to deal with the
malady is the fact that plague is a disease not only of man, but also of
many other animals; and that rodents in particular are specially liable
to be affected by it, and are in fact generally seriously involved
before an epidemic has attained any serious spread amongst human beings.
Not infrequently, the first warning of an impending epidemic is the
discovery of dead and dying rats in large numbers; and the best
considered plans of dealing with the disease are necessarily constantly
defeated by the impossibility of extending to these proverbially
secretive and cunning animals the measures of isolation and disinfection
that are indispensable to success. It is obviously to little purpose to
disinfect the room in which a human patient has died, when in hollows in
its walls, roof and floors are hidden whole families of rats in every
stage of the disease; and it can avail little to isolate the
comparatively few human patients, while hundreds of infected rats are
left to wander about at will. Luckily, the infection of plague requires
close contact to secure transmission, and there is practically no danger
of contracting the disease in the ordinary open-air intercourse of life.

From what has been said, it will be seen that for Europeans resident in
plague-stricken towns personal prophylaxis is a comparatively simple
matter, as it is instinctively carried out as a matter of national
habit. There is comparatively little danger in entering infected
buildings during the day, or even in handling the sick, but unless it be
a part of his duty to do so, it is better for the European to avoid
passing through the infected portion of the town; to keep a keen eye on
the health of his servants; and generally to restrict, as far as
possible, association with the native community. The house should be
kept freely open to air and light, avoiding the closing of doors and
windows to exclude the heat, as in doing so we reproduce the domestic
habits which cause the natives to suffer so severely. If the weather
admit of it, it is better to sleep in the open; and should any mortality
among rats be observed within the dwelling, there should be no waiting
for any second hint, but the place should be vacated at once, and
thoroughly disinfected; nor is it well to return to it for at least
three weeks. Among the very small number of cases in which Europeans
have fallen victims to the disease, neglect to take timely warning from
the death of rodents within the house has occurred in more than one
instance directly reported to the writer.

On the personal prophylaxis of plague no more need be said, but in
out-of-the-way places, it not unfrequently devolves on the non-medical
European to have to take measures for the protection of the indigenous
community, in the absence of medical advice. To be effective, the little
that can be done must be done at once, and therefore a few words on the
general or public prophylaxis against the disease may not be out of
place. One of the few redeeming features in the natural history of
plague, is that it at first spreads very slowly. It is doubtful if, in
any case, the bulk of the infections are from man to man, and it appears
on the whole probable that, after the first introduction of the
infection, time is usually required to admit of the thorough
establishment of the disease amongst the rats before it can attain any
formidable spread amongst men. During this early stage there is no great
difficulty in dealing with the disease, and hence it is absolutely of
the most vital importance to obtain information as to the occurrence of
the first cases. In the case of these first attacks, whether imported
or apparently of local origin, no measures of disinfection and isolation
can be too rigorous; but the people should be made to clearly understand
that except at their own express desire and by their own enforcement,
compulsion in such matters will be at once relaxed should the disease
unfortunately gain a firm footing in their midst. As a matter of fact it
is unfortunately too true that there is really very little that can be
done to any purpose, when once the disease has fairly fixed itself on
the susceptible mass of an oriental urban population, and above all
things it is worse than useless to attempt to enforce sanitary measures
by compulsion, as it only leads to the concealment of extent and
localisation of the disease, and to organised obstruction to all
remedial measures attempted by those in authority.

It should be the duty of a civilised government to place at the disposal
of the population every possible means of combating the disease which
our superior knowledge and civilisation enables us to recommend, but it
should be made absolutely clear that these benefits of civilisation are
there to be simply taken or left, as they please. In the cases of
measures particularly liable to be mistrusted, such as inoculation, it
may even be well to charge a small fee for the operation, to be remitted
of course in cases when the patient can show that he is really
impecunious. The joy of getting to windward of the too credulous
official by a pardonable understatement of finances, would be a
temptation hard to resist by the average Oriental, and there is no harm
in writing out such a receipt; for the folks who require Hibernian
driving of this sort cannot read, and it was one of their countrymen who
could not only read, but think very much to the purpose, who suggested
the expedient to the writer.

I believe my good native friend was right, for I have actually seen
ordinary vaccination eagerly sought for by Orientals over whom we had no
shadow of political control, and who would have been up in arms at the
idea of compulsion; through the simple stimulus of the nominal fee
system.

As a matter of fact, there are few things that the Indian cannot be
persuaded to do by a tactful European official who has been allowed to
remain sufficiently long in a locality to become known and trusted by
the people among whom he has to work; but the notion of utilising the
personal factor in administration is, unfortunately, far from the Indian
bureaucracy, and the theory of one man being as good as another for any
purpose has been adopted to such an extent, that combatant magnates were
actually selected to control the operations of the medical experts in
dealing with plague. The attack on the plague bacilli with so tactless a
weapon as the bayonet naturally failed, but we certainly secured a
striking and no doubt valuable demonstration of “how not to do it.”

The opportunities that should be placed at the disposal of the
population may be epitomised as follows:--

(1) _Evacuation._--The truth of the old proverb as to the policy of
“running away,” is illustrated in the case of plague, if possible, even
more forcibly than in that of the late Boer war, and as the population,
like the warlike Boer, should always have a new position ready to fall
back on, a certain number of huts should be set up in the open for the
accommodation of those who are wise enough to take Nature’s hint in good
time, and to leave the germs of infection behind them to “stew in their
own juice” till they die for want of material.

The ruder these structures are made the better, it being essential that
they should cost so little that they can be burned without regret should
they become infected; and hence nothing beyond the provision of shelter
against the sun and rain should be aimed at. In the case of village
communities, complete evacuation of an infected site is generally
possible, but in towns of any size such a plan may be out of the
question. A small camp should, however, be provided for the
accommodation of such as are wise enough to avail themselves of it.
Where, as is the case with tea-garden and mine managers, the European
superintendent for all practical purposes constitutes the government on
the spot for the time being, the policy of instant evacuation of “the
lines” wherever a case of plague has appeared cannot be too strongly
insisted upon. Even when left to themselves, the germs have a strong
tendency to die out in the course of a few weeks; and aided as it can be
by systematic disinfection of the inhabited site, there can be no doubt
that this policy of flight is the sheet anchor of our armament for
meeting the disease.

(2) A hospital constructed of the same temporary materials should be
provided for the reception of travellers and vagrants, as well as for
such cases in which, on account of panic, the friends and relatives
decline to attend to the sick; a contingency which, however, is but
rarely met with in India.

The patients should be left to choose their own medical attendants as
far as possible, but the paid attendants should, if possible, be
subjected to protective inoculation, and the people should be further
encouraged to bring their sick to this hospital for treatment and
nursing by themselves, but no attempt should be made to isolate the
persons employed in nursing, or, indeed, to enforce isolation in any
form, as experience has shown that, however desirable it might be to do
so, such measures cannot practically be carried out.

(3) _Protective Inoculation._--Although there is some doubt as to the
extent and duration of the protection conferred by injection with
Haffkine’s protective emulsion, there can be no doubt that it confers a
considerable power of resistance. The operation is one that can only
safely be undertaken by professional men, but it should certainly be
placed at the disposal of the community wherever practicable. As a
matter of example, it is as well for Europeans to submit to the process,
though in view of the rareness with which they are attacked, it can
hardly be considered necessary, except in the case of those whose duty
brings them into close and constant association with the native
community.

(4) The destruction of rats is a measure of no small importance, and one
which should be undertaken in all towns where there is even a
probability of the introduction of the disease. Most communities possess
professional rat-catchers, and the services of these men should be
enlisted, though where a reward is offered for dead rats, only
full-grown animals should be paid for, as otherwise it may lead to
breeding rats for the sake of the reward.

Quarantine, protective cordons, train inspections, and the like, have
been tried, and found rather worse than useless; as like all other
systems that interfere with personal liberty, they lead to concealment
of cases, and concealment necessarily involves the treatment of the sick
under circumstances that render the spread of the disease to relatives
and attendants almost certain. At the same time, measures of this class
are those that are regarded with most favour by natives, and provided
they are assured that, in case of the discovery of cases, there will be
no forcible interference with their habits and customs, they will
generally adopt and themselves carry out the more useful and practicable
of the measures of this class, such as the watching of new comers by
road and rail, and even the inspection of the dead. It is a mistake to
think they are not as anxious to keep the pestilence out of their towns
as their European rulers can be, and, as a rule, they will make no
objection to the proper disinfection of houses that have become
infected, but they will prefer to run any risk rather than submit to any
interference with their domestic customs.

(5) The means of thorough disinfection should be provided. The best of
all disinfectants is fire, and, as far as possible, all infected
bedding, clothing and rubbish should be burned, and paid for. In order
to secure, to some extent, the destruction of rats and other vermin, as
a preliminary measure, the house should be fumigated by means of sulphur
fumes, and after this has been completed and the house opened, the
floor, walls and furniture should be thoroughly washed down with strong
solution of corrosive sublimate (¹⁄₁₀₀₀) thoroughly acidified with
hydrochloric acid. Phenyl has also proved serviceable. The men employed
in this work should have been, if possible, inoculated. They should
thoroughly grease all exposed parts of the skin before commencing work,
and should be thoroughly clothed, being made to wear nether garments
reaching to the ankles and tucked into boots of European pattern, which
should be kept well greased, so that they may not get hard from contact
with the disinfecting solutions. I cannot recommend the digging up of
earthen floors, as the task is undoubtedly a very dangerous one to the
men employed in the work, and there can be no possible real need for it,
as, of all parts of a dwelling, the floor is that which can most easily
be saturated with powerful disinfectants.

Lastly, after washing down with perchloride do not lime-wash or attempt
in any way to employ these agents in any combination, as to do so shows
a pitiable ignorance, not only of the Board School rudiments of
chemistry, but of the behaviour of the specific germ of plague to
external surroundings. I am perfectly aware that the combination is
ordered in several sets of Indian regulations, but in justice to the
service to which I have had the honour to belong, I hope my readers will
accept my assurance that these ludicrous recommendations are one of the
natural results of the meddling of ignorant amateurs, military and
civilian, who unfortunately have often been allowed to assume the
command of sanitary matters within our great bureaucratic dependency.

If the inhabitants of infected houses can be induced to migrate for a
time into camp, so much the better, as in such cases the enormous
additional disinfecting powers of air and light can be utilised by
removing, for a time, portions of the tiling or thatch, and it must be
remembered also that time alone is also an excellent disinfectant. The
danger they run in immediately returning should be clearly pointed out,
but if return they will, they must be let do so, as compulsion means
opposition, and the benefit of the disinfection to the general community
is only lessened by their return in so far that should they fall victims
to their own rashness they form fresh foci of infection and the process
has to be gone over again. In the case of small compact communities,
such as gangs of coolies working under commercial corporations, a more
autocratic course of action is, of course, practicable, but should never
be carried to such an extent as to bring about organised opposition, and
however stupid and prejudiced they may appear to the ordinary European
mind, no effort should be spared to obtain the co-operation of the
people themselves, and it is in securing this that the personal element
of long association and mutual trust is especially valuable.

In spite of the great advances in our knowledge of the disease that have
been made during the present recrudescence of the disease, we are still
a great deal in the dark on many points, and especially as to the
mechanism of infection in the majority of cases. Each year of the
progress of the epidemic demolishes some one or other of the few
standpoints of certainty that we had imagined as firmly established, and
it is evident that some great discovery remains to be made before plague
will cease to be, from many points of view, an almost complete mystery.


SMALL-POX.

Although in no sense a malady in any way peculiar to hot countries,
Europeans are necessarily much more exposed to infection among
semi-civilised communities, where vaccination is at best only partial,
than in Europe; and hence it is well to impress the necessity of
efficient re-vaccination on all who have to live among people by whom
the blessings of vaccination are, as yet, imperfectly appreciated. Even
a single vaccination affords so great a protection that it is rare to
meet with fatal cases amongst those who are foolish enough to live in
the midst of small-pox without being re-vaccinated, but it is hardly
worth while to risk suffering from so revolting a disease, with the
chances of disfigurement for life, for the sake of avoiding so trifling
an inconvenience as that involved in the little operation. On this
account it is very desirable for the intending emigrant to tropical
parts to be re-vaccinated before starting, as an inflamed arm is much
more troublesome when complicated with prickly heat than it is in
temperate climates. In addition to this, it is always wise to submit to
re-vaccination whenever an epidemic of small-pox is raging around one.
If needless, the virus will not “take,” and you will suffer nothing
worse than the trifling scratch involved in the operation. If, on the
other hand, it “takes,” it shows that a grave risk would have been run
in neglecting the precaution.


SLEEPING SICKNESS.

This peculiar malady has only come into notice of late years, since the
opening up of Central Africa, and though it was at first thought to be
confined to the negro race, has recently been shown to occasionally
attack Europeans. In its early stages, the disease presents many points
of resemblance to ordinary malarial fever, and has usually been confused
with it, both by patient and doctor; but following this, after an
interval of a few weeks or months, certain peculiar nervous symptoms
appear, from which the disease has taken its name, and which are mainly
characterised by hebetude and somnolence. It would be superfluous, in a
work like the present, to enter into any details as to its
peculiarities, especially as our knowledge on the subject is at present
in its infancy. It may, however, be fairly said that we are almost
certain that the disease is caused by certain peculiar parasites
(_Trypanosomes_) that are found in the early feverish stage of the
disease in the blood, and subsequently, when the peculiar sleepiness
appears, in the fluid that bathes the spinal canal. From the analogy of
malaria, as well as from anatomical considerations, it is tolerably
certain that the disease is conveyed from one human being to another by
means of inoculation through the agency of biting insects.

Further, strong suspicion, approaching moral certainty, strongly points
to certain flies, of the class known as horse and cattle flies, as the
species that acts as the intermediary. These flies are much more common
in tropical climates than they are at home, and are characterised by the
peculiar persistency with which they attack an animal, in spite of all
attempts to drive them off; and so much is this the case that nothing
short of pursuing the insect until it is killed is of any use. They do
not, as a rule, invade houses, and it is exceptional for them to attack
man, but they will do so occasionally, and the stab they give is so
sharp that it is hardly likely to be overlooked.

At present the disease appears confined to Africa, but species of the
same flies are to be found in India, and the writer has more than once
been bitten by them, though no danger attaches to the incident, as the
specific germs of the disease do not occur in that country.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Drawing of the fly concerned in the Tsetse, or
Trypanosome, disease of horses.]

They are usually dark grey, flattened insects, with a peculiarly hard
integument, which forms so efficient a protection against injury that,
if merely squeezed between the fingers, they will commonly fly away in a
perfectly unconcerned manner. The easiest way to dispose of them is to
knock the insect down with the whisp of horsehair mounted on a cane,
commonly carried by horsemen when flies are troublesome, and then to
crush it under the boot, giving the foot a good twist, so the wound,
like that of the sergeant-instructor’s bayonet, may be “made incurable.”

The general appearance of these insects may be best gathered from the
above magnified figure.

It is obvious that as far as our knowledge extends, the prevention of
sleeping sickness is purely a matter of avoiding being bitten by insects
of this sort, and it is also clear that as far as indoor life is
concerned, the adoption of metallic gauze protection of the house will
be as effectual as it is in the case of malaria. These flies are,
however, mainly forest insects, and watchfulness, especially when
sitting out of doors, is all that can be suggested. Personally, if
bitten by one of these flies in a country where sleeping sickness
exists, I should be strongly inclined to destroy the bit of tissue
around the bite by means of some powerful caustic, such as pure carbolic
acid dropped into a small cut at the site of the puncture, for as yet no
instance of recovery from the disease has ever been met with, and in all
probability this measure, if done with tolerable promptitude, would
probably suffice to destroy the germs before they gained access to the
general circulation.


SUNSTROKE AND HEAT APOPLEXY.

The disturbances of the nervous system that are grouped under the above
heads vary a good deal, and probably comprise several different
diseases, with as many distinct causations.

It is a curious fact that sunstroke is practically unknown on the high
seas, and in certain countries, notably in South Africa, where the
fierceness of the sun would naturally lead one to expect to commonly
meet with it; and this circumstance, and the fact that something like
epidemics of the disease are occasionally met with, lend a certain
amount of probability to the idea held by certain authorities, that, in
one form at least, the malady belongs to the category of germ-caused
diseases.

The symptoms of the disease are insensibility, combined with a greater
or less elevation of temperature, and a large proportion of the cases
that one hears of are merely instances of fainting, due to fatigue and
exhaustion from heat. Such cases are specially common where large bodies
of men are massed together, and have to undergo great exertion under
unsuitable atmospheric conditions, and where, besides being hot, the air
is foul with dust and the emanations of the closely packed animals and
men, whose sufferings are often aggravated by thirst and the restricted
possibility of evaporation from the surface of the skin that is
inseparable from an inadequate supply of water; while the free play of
the lungs and heart are too often impeded by the unsuitable and
fantastic garments and equipments so dear to the infantile genius of
militarism.

Fainting is due to a sudden weakening in the action of the heart, and in
a certain number of cases of “sunstroke” of this sort, the mischief goes
beyond enfeeblement, the heart stops, and the man is dead. Most of the
cases of sudden death from “sunstroke” that occur on hot “field-days,”
as well as in military operations undertaken in earnest, are probably of
this character; and even when the heart has not absolutely stopped, its
action may be so feeble and fluttering that the insensibility is
prolonged and serious. The temperature of the body is, however, only
moderately raised, and when, under proper treatment, the patient has
regained consciousness, he soon recovers if permitted to rest, and in a
day or two may be little the worse for his adventure. In cases of this
sort all clothing and equipment should at once be loosened or removed,
and the patient should be given the full benefit of what “air” there is
to get. Hence, it is of the first importance to prevent sympathetic
onlookers from crowding round him in a ring. The chest and face should
be freely soused with water, and when the patient is able to swallow, a
little stimulant may be administered.

Some kind of shade should be improvised, at any rate over the head, but
no attempt should be made to move the patient till the pulse can again
be plainly felt, after which he should be placed on some sort of
stretcher and removed as quickly as possible to shade and comfort, where
he will probably speedily recover, for though “sunstroke” of this sort
is a highly dangerous condition while it lasts, it is rare for it to be
followed by any serious after-effects.

Cases of this sort are comparatively rare in civil life, the conditions
which lead to them being usually wanting; for it will be noticed that
even the military officer takes the greatest care not to be “smart” when
he goes out shooting under a tropical sun, his costume, when so engaged,
being generally a model of the way he and his men ought to be equipped
when engaged in the business of their profession.

What may be called true sunstroke is less common, and beyond the bare
fact that the sun’s rays are capable of acting in this way, we are
really quite without any explanation of its causation, as the condition
may be brought about by comparatively short exposure, without any
coincident exhaustion or fatigue; and may occur at times when the
temperature of the atmosphere is by no means excessive. It is probable
that over-stimulation of the nerves of sight by glare may have something
to say in the matter, as it has been found that persons at rest in the
open, in the Tropics, have their temperature less raised if they wear
darkly tinted spectacles than others similarly situated, but having the
eyes unprotected. This cannot, however, be the complete explanation, as
it appears to be exposure, not of the face, but of the skull and
back-bone, to the direct rays of the sun that constitutes the real
danger, and it is not the forehead but the back of the head and temples
that are most sensitive to the influence of “insolation.” So many
unexpected discoveries have been made lately of forms of light whose
very existence was, but a little time ago, unsuspected, that the matter
is less inexplicable than it was before the discovery of the Röntgen
rays made us familiar with light vibrations capable of passing easily
through substances we have been accustomed to regard as quite opaque.
The rays of the sun do not, of course, include vibrations of that
particular description, or none of our ordinary wooden photographic
apparatus would be of any use to us; but they may well have amongst
them other vibrations, as yet not identified, which are capable of
passing through the tissues and affecting the brain and spinal cord
beneath; and no other suggestion appears capable of explaining the
extraordinary way in which a few instants of exposure of the unprotected
head to an Indian sun suffices to cause a sharp headache; as the effect
is utterly inexplicable on any mere assumption of rise of temperature.
It is quite a mistake, for example, to think that it is safe to cross
one’s garden hatless, from the house to one’s stables, in the heat of an
Indian day. One is not of course likely to be stretched out in a state
of insensibility by so short an exposure, but you may easily earn a
splitting headache which will last you the rest of the day; and from the
time the sun is well over the horizon, till it again sinks beneath it,
it is a purposeless imprudence to be found in the open with the head
inadequately protected.

The selection of a suitable headgear for tropical wear is a matter of
the utmost importance, and no material appears to be as effective in
intercepting the peculiar vibrations which cause sunstroke, whatever
they may be, as the pith of the solah, or Indian rush, from which the
well-known tropical sun-hat is made.

Next to this in efficiency, I think, comes felt, and after this cork;
but the latter material, when adequately supported to give sufficient
strength, is really too heavy for comfortable wear; and if any
concession to “smartness” is desired, stiffened felt is to be preferred,
such as, for example, the well-known “Elgin helmet.”

But those who are wise, will abjure such compromises, and stick to pith,
either in the ordinary mushroom form, or in that of the admirable
“Cawnpore tent club” hats. Let it be freely admitted, that either
contrivance is as ugly as well may be, but it is better to keep one’s
brain clear for the appreciation of artistic beauty elsewhere, than to
have them permanently muddled for this and other less æsthetic purposes
in the effort to maintain a becoming exterior. Further, the sun is never
more treacherous than just after it rises, and before it sets; because
just then the nearly horizontal rays can reach the temples and other
parts of the head that are well protected by any ordinary sun hat when
it is higher above the horizon. In fact, as long as the sun is above it,
it is a mistake to go abroad in European head gear, though in the
morning and evening a soft felt hat, which can be bent and manipulated
so as to shield the particular side exposed to the sun, is better than a
solah hat, which of course cannot be adapted in this way. For really
tropical climates, in the heat of the day, no other material but solah
pith is at all adequate; but in South Africa and other sub-tropical
climates a less clumsy and more comfortable covering for the head may be
safely adopted, and for such purposes the broad-leafed Boer felt hat, so
familiar to us of late in the drawings in the _Illustrated London News_,
and _Graphic_, is hard to beat. I do not of course refer to the
melodramatic brigand arrangement that, in feeble imitation of our late
foes, was inflicted on the Imperial Yeomen by the would-be smart
military male milliner, but to the real article, as worn by the real
Boer and, it may be added, by everyone else who has work to do in the
open in that climate, after he has been out there sufficiently long to
have discarded the “helmet,” decked out with a pugaree finished off with
a pair of long tails down the back, with which his London Colonial
outfitter has probably provided him. The true Boer hat is an admirable
example of adaptation of costume to special climatic exigencies; but
though they are, I presume, manufactured somewhere in Europe to suit the
Colonial market, I doubt if such a thing can be purchased in England,
for as is well known the English manufacturer insists on his customers
taking his own designs, and those who would consult their own
requirements must needs deal elsewhere. Hence, if you are bound to “the
Cape” you will be wise to defer providing yourself with a hat till you
land, for the English outfitter’s muslin-bedecked helmet is a natural
object of derision to those who know what is really wanted, and no extra
protection is wanted under the double awning of the big liner that takes
you out to your new home.

The true Boer hat has an ample crown, a very broad brim, and is not
looped up at one side, as anyone but a fool can see that to do so is to
make the hat suitable only for a one-sided world, in which the
inhabitants never require to deviate from a course carefully laid so
that the sun is always kept on the “brimmery” side of the hat. The
Mexican “sombrero,” worn everywhere in sub-tropical America, is
practically identical, and the hat worn by the American “rough riders,”
though not quite so absurd as those of our Yeomen, is another good
example of the mischievous effects of the childish military craving for
“smartness.”

In India and elsewhere in the Tropics, a broad-leafed felt of this sort
is very useful and comfortable for wear in the early morning and
evening, but is quite inadequate for use in the middle of the day during
the hot weather, though at other seasons a less cumbrous head covering
than the big felt hat may be safely adopted; but, however cool the air,
it is at no season safe to go abroad in India in the ordinary small hat
of Europe.

Children are strongly influenced by the sun in two ways: they are in the
first place enormously benefited by getting plenty of his health-giving
light; in the second their little skulls appear to be remarkably easily
penetrated by the _y_ or _z_ rays that cause sunstroke. Hence, even in
the hottest weather, it is a mistake to shut them up in the darkened
rooms so dear to their mother’s hearts. It is as well, of course, to
keep children out of the direct rays of the sun during the day, more
especially as it is difficult to ensure that they will always keep their
hats on; but it is a mistake to curtail their morning and evening walks
on account of the sun being above the horizon, though it must be
admitted that the greatest vigilance is required to insure their keeping
their hats on their heads.

Ladies resident in hot climates as a rule suffer far more from the want
of the sun and light than from serious sunstroke, their greater
sensitiveness to discomfort rendering them more apt to shrink too much
from light and air in hot weather; but on the other hand their desire to
maintain a pleasing appearance not infrequently leads to their suffering
from the earlier and milder symptoms of insolation. Owing to their not
unnatural objection to the admittedly unbecoming forms of head-gear
which alone can insure safety. The singular preference for the unfitness
of things which appears everywhere to characterise the ritual of
Society, and demands that a man must go a-hunting in English winter
weather in a tall silk hat, ordains that in India ladies shall pay their
conventional calls between the hours of noon and two p.m., when to go
abroad in a hat at all in keeping with their costume is hazardous in the
extreme. Unfortunately, out of the larger towns, closed carriages are
possessed by comparatively few, and the result is that an umbrella,
unsteadily held by the native groom behind her, is all that there is to
shield her head from a tropical sun at the meridian.

That severe headache, lassitude and other less easily defined nervous
symptoms should follow such expeditions is not surprising, and
undoubtedly if a closed carriage be unobtainable, for a lady to attempt
a “round of calls” at the conventional hours, is a proceeding involving
such a real risk that it should never be attempted, and calls should be
postponed to the cool of the evening. Moreover, even for occasions when
not equipped in full uniform, a safe head covering for ladies living in
the Tropics has yet to be popularised. Those who are wise enough to
determine to be out of doors daily, and to take a sufficiency of
exercise, will find it best to wear a hat of the same pattern as those
worn by their husbands and children, and to entirely abjure the absurd
constructions of pith, fashioned in imitation of English head gear,
which have of late years appeared on the scene. Some years ago an
admirable pith head gear, shaped somewhat on the lines of the
“Gainsborough hat,” enjoyed a well-deserved popularity, and it is a pity
ladies cannot see their way to adhere to it; as it not only afforded
excellent shade and protection, but when tastefully bemuslined was by no
means unbecoming in its obvious adaptation to its surroundings.
Recently, however, fashion has chosen as its model the “sailor hat,” and
frankly, inartistic as is the European original, the fantastic deformity
of the Anglo-Indian pith imitation requires to be seen to be
appreciated. It may be doubted if human ingenuity could shape the
material to a worse form, and it is wiser for a lady to keep out of the
sun altogether than to trust herself in the open wearing only such an
ill-contrived head covering.

[Illustration: FIG. 15. FIG. 16.

USEFUL AND FUTILE FORMS OF LADIES’ PITH HATS.]

It is, of course, of the first importance to get a person stricken by
the sun at once into the shade, and as the temperature of the body is
rarely excessive in such cases, cold locally applied to the head is of
more importance than a general bath, which, indeed, unless carefully
watched, is apt to make matters worse, by driving the blood from the
surface and so increasing the congestion of the brain and other internal
organs. Hence it is better to apply ice to the head and to confine
oneself to sponging the extremities as a measure for reducing the
general temperature. In climates where insolation is common, there is
little risk in getting wet, and hence if no proper ice bag be obtainable
the ice, roughly crushed, may be applied to the head, simply tied up in
a towel. Anyone who has suffered from even a mild attack of insolation
remains for a long time specially sensitive to the effects of the sun,
and therefore requires, for a long time, to be especially careful in
avoiding exposure. When prolonged exposure to the sun at its fiercest
must be braved, as in big game shooting, it is well to protect the
spinal column by means of a pad worn outside the coat. Some persons are
much more sensitive to the effects of the sun playing on the back than
others, and though the precaution cannot be considered universally
necessary, no one who feels himself inconvenienced by the effects of the
sun on this part of the body should neglect the warning and fail to
provide himself with a suitable protection. The usual plan is to have
made a pad, cut to the shape of the back piece of the coat, of quilted
cotton wool, covered with the same material as that of the coat and
secured by buttons suitably placed.

The third form of “stroke” is that of heat, and appears to be due simply
to the inability of the regulating powers of the system to keep down the
temperature of the body to the normal level.

Unlike true sunstroke, it nearly always occurs at night, when the
resisting powers of the organism are reduced to their minimum, and
mostly under conditions in which the sleeper has inadequate air room,
such, for example, as in crowded barracks and closely-packed railway
compartments. Such cases may possibly occur, but personally I cannot
recall an instance of this accident occurring to persons sleeping in the
open air. Every year one reads in the Indian press of persons being
taken dead out of railway carriages, and perhaps of a number of cases
occurring simultaneously in a single barrack, but with adequate air
space such an occurrence is, to say the least of it, exceptional.

At the same time, it is just in the hot “stuffy weather of a break in
the rains,” when it is always on the cards that it may rain before
morning, that such cases occur, and apart from the traditional danger of
sleeping outside a room during the rains, one is naturally loth to risk
a ducking. Given, however, adequate shelter from rain, there is no
danger whatever from sleeping in the verandah at such times of the year,
always provided, of course, that protection against infected mosquitoes
is assured by a carefully tucked-in mosquito net, and when the
atmospheric conditions are such as to involve risk of heat stroke, I
personally prefer to sleep on the roof, under the shelter of the top of
a tent, or of a special thatch shelter consisting of a roof without
sides, or at most with one lateral wall to windward, when there is a
probability of a driving rain falling during the night. As a matter of
fact, under atmospheric conditions of this sort, one is unlikely to take
much harm even if one does get damp, and the admittedly enhanced danger
of malaria can be entirely obviated by means of mosquito curtains.

Till lately we heard nothing of the danger of anything worse than
itching being connected with mosquito bites, and naturally those who
were callous enough to popular notions of safety to sleep outside the
house in the rains were about the last folks in the world to trouble
themselves about the tickle of a mosquito bite, and became “moral
examples” by contracting fever accordingly. During periods of great
heat, especially if combined with dampness of the air, under which
conditions heat stroke is likely to occur, severe muscular exertion
should be avoided as far as possible; a light, mainly vegetable, diet
adopted, and the amount of stimulants taken should be very limited,
though it is a great mistake to limit fluids of other descriptions, and
tea taken very hot is often useful and refreshing. Care should also be
taken not to allow oneself to become constipated, and speaking generally
it should be recognised that under the extreme climatic conditions that
bring on heat stroke, the European must live cautiously if he wishes to
come out of the ordeal unharmed.

In this form of the disease the temperature of the body is always high,
103° to 107° F., and the stupor deep and prolonged. Should you have to
do with a case in the absence of medical assistance, every effort should
be made to reduce the temperature of the body, the most efficient means
being to place the patient in a full length bath. As a rule, under such
conditions, the temperature of the water obtainable is too near that of
the body to bring down the temperature sufficiently rapidly, and pieces
of ice require to be added to obtain sufficient cooling power. The
patient should be kept in the bath until the temperature (taken in the
mouth) is restored to the normal level of 98°-99° F., after which he may
be removed; but in serious cases the temperature shows an obstinate
tendency to go up again, and it is generally necessary to keep it down
by continuous sponging, applied especially to the extremities. If, in
spite of these measures, it still continues to rise, the bath must be
again resorted to. If ice be unobtainable wherewith to cool down the
bath, the want of it should, as far as possible, be met by dipping out
the water warmed by contact with the patient’s body, and replacing it
with freshly-drawn water as cool as may be obtainable. It is well also
to try to relieve the bowels by placing 5 grains of ordinary powdered
calomel on the tongue, which will ensure its being gradually swallowed,
even in the deepest coma, and every effort should be made to keep down
the temperature of the air of the room, always provided that the freest
possible ventilation be kept up.

It is never prudent for anyone who has survived a warning of this sort
to remain in a climate the severity of which he has proved himself
unable to resist; and it should be the rule for those who have suffered
to take refuge in a cooler climate as soon as they are sufficiently
recovered to travel.

If stationed far inland, it is best to seek refuge in a mountain
sanatorium, and not to attempt to reach Europe, as the long journey in
the train and subsequent passage of the Red Sea would, in all
probability, finish the record of a person so situated before the
desired relief could be gained. On the coast the quickest relief can be
generally obtained by sending the patient to sea, but if the route
necessarily involves passing through the Red Sea, such a course is too
hazardous at the bad time of the year, and the change to Europe should
be postponed till the dreaded stretch of water can be passed in safety,
or a visit to Australia substituted. It must not be imagined that in
practice cases of “stroke” can be as sharply divided into classes as it
is easy to do upon paper. Naturally a large number are of mixed origin,
but the extent to which heat, pure and simple, is concerned, may be
generally judged by the temperature of the body, and whatever may appear
to be the causation of the disease, whenever this is high, no efforts
should be spared to bring it down as soon as possible.


PRICKLY HEAT AND DHOBI’S ITCH.

Among the minor ills which European flesh inherits in the Tropics there
is none that is more distressing than this troublesome malady. The
symptoms and appearance are too well known to require description, and
the disease is, as a rule, rather irritating and distressing than
involving any danger. The process of regulating the temperature of the
body depends, however, almost entirely on the action of the skin, and
where prickly heat is so extensive and severe as to partially
incapacitate it from its functions, it is obvious this usually trifling
disease may be a predisposing cause of more serious maladies. Then,
again, the loss of sleep and nervous irritation kept up by the constant
itching, pricking, and soreness, are powerful helps in pulling down the
already severely tried powers of resistance to the climate, and often
have a great deal to say in determining an ultimate breakdown.

There is a common popular notion that prickly heat is “healthy,” people
saying that “it is a sign of health,” and that it is a mistake to check
it. This, however, except in so far that healthy, full-blooded persons
usually suffer worse than those in an anæmic condition because they
usually perspire more freely, is an entire fallacy; as though good
health may predispose to prickly heat, it cannot but have an influence
in rapidly reducing that factor in its causation. Then, too, the
numerous small abrasions that result from the bursting of the minute
vesicles, and from scratching, are extremely liable to become infected
with the germs of suppuration, and give origin to crops of boils.

Boils are extremely common, and are most painful and debilitating when
present in large numbers, as they often are in hot climates, and I
believe they should be really regarded merely as _sequelæ_ of neglected
prickly heat and not as a distinct condition. For these reasons the
writer is strongly of opinion that prickly heat should always be
treated, especially as it is usually quite possible to keep it within
moderate bounds, by the use of appropriate remedies. At sea the use of
salt water for bathing should be avoided, but frequent bathing in fresh,
and especially in rain water, is not only a great alleviation, but
tends towards cure by removing the irritating accumulation of saline
matter that results from the constant evaporation of the perspiration.
Almost any metallic astringent, such as sulphate of copper or sulphate
of zinc, 4 grains to the ounce, will be found to be extremely useful in
reducing the extent of the irritation, but none of these are nearly as
effectual as a lotion of perchloride of mercury of a strength of one per
thousand.

This agent can be obtained ready measured out into tabloids, which are
always coloured blue to prevent mistakes in handling the solution; which
is a most useful one, not only for this purpose, but as a general
antiseptic. Care should, of course, be taken in the custody of these
tabloids, and also in the handling of the solution; but the latter is
not really more poisonous than the copper solution, or than many other
antiseptics which, like carbolic acid, are nowadays in constant domestic
use. This mercurial solution is undoubtedly by far the best remedy we
have for prickly heat, and I have never seen any harm or signs of
absorption of the mercury result, even from its copious use. The
tabloids should be got of such a size as to make about a quarter of a
pint of the solution, and after the bath and before retiring to bed, all
affected parts of the skin should be dabbed with a bit of lint dipped in
the solution, which should be allowed to dry on to a certain extent
before putting on one’s clothes. A further great advantage over the
other metallic astringents is that, owing to the weakness of the
solution, it does not injure the clothes, and the slight blue aniline
colouration easily washes out. It will be found, too, an almost complete
preventive against boils, if resorted to from the commencement of the
hot season. Powdering with violet powder is also useful in subduing the
irritation, which by the adoption of the above-described plan, may
almost always be kept within moderate bounds.

“Dhobi’s itch” is a troublesome irritation of the skin often met with in
hot climates, which is due to the growth of a minute fungus within the
structure of the scarf-skin. It commonly attacks those parts of the body
where the surfaces of the skin come in contact with each other, as, for
example, between the legs, and in the armpits. The general appearance is
very much that of a “ringworm,” the patches spreading by their edges,
where they are red and irritable and tending to fade in the middle.
There can be little doubt that the disease is generally caught by the
infection of clothing that has been washed in dirty pools along with
that of previous sufferers from the disease, which is very common among
the native races. If neglected, it is apt to spread so as to cover a
large area, under which circumstances it is apt to be troublesome, but
if taken early, there is generally no difficulty in dealing with it. All
that is necessary is to destroy the fungus by means of strong
antiseptics, but in doing so it must be remembered that any solution
strong enough to kill the fungus must necessarily also cause more or
less inflammation and, for the time, increased irritation of the skin.

On this account, if any considerable area be involved, it is a mistake
to attempt to treat the whole of it at once, as such a course may easily
result in producing an amount of soreness and inflammation which may
involve confinement to bed. The patches should be attacked piecemeal, a
couple of separate patches the size of a shilling being quite as much as
is prudent to attack on any one occasion.

Equal parts of tincture of iodine, carbolic acid and glycerine painted
over each patch, to the extent above described, is a safe and efficient
remedy, as also is Goa powder; but the essential point is to be on the
look-out for the contingency, and to at once treat any patch that may
appear before it has time to spread.

The disease is, I believe, common enough in other warm climates, but I
am not acquainted with its popular designation elsewhere than in India,
where it is known by the above name.


ON THE PREVENTION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY INTERNAL WORMS.


_Internal worms_ are extremely common in most hot countries, and
especially in those climates where moisture and heat are combined. Where
they prevail to a serious extent, they often constitute one of the
principal causes of mortality amongst natives, but white residents
rarely suffer, as the habits of the better-class European to a very
great extent protect him from being invaded by these pests.

There are three principal sorts of these parasites: the round-worms,
which usually divide their time between some animal and the outer world,
and the flat-worms and the flukes, both of which must pass through two
or more animal hosts. The life-history of these troublesome guests,
especially those belonging to the two latter classes, include some of
the most wonderful and interesting pages of natural history, but
unfortunately considerations of space prevent our describing these
changes except by the barest allusions.

The commonest round-worms that establish themselves in mankind are the
common thread-worms and round-worms (_Lumbrici_), and that much more
formidable pest of tropical life, the _Ankylostoma_, or hook-worm.

Thread-worms and Lumbrici are common enough everywhere, but are far more
commonly troublesome in hot climates than at home in Europe. The eggs of
both are probably usually carried into the human intestine on food or in
drinking water, and in the case of the Lumbricus this is the only way in
which the numbers of the parasite can be maintained, as its eggs take a
long time to hatch out; but those of the thread-worm, when deposited,
are quite ready to burst at once, and though no individual worm as a
rule resides within the intestine for any great length of time, the
patient infested with them is continually reinfecting himself, so that
their numbers have a tendency to increase. Thread-worms are especially
common in children, on account of the strong tendency of the little
folks to put their fingers in the mouth.

Thread-worms live in the lowest part of the bowel, and so cause much
itching and tickling about its orifice. This prompts the child to
scratch itself, with the result that some of the innumerable eggs laid
by the worms adhere to the fingers, and once there soon find their way,
along with the fingers, into its mouth. The intruders are usually easily
expelled by an injection of salt and water, but it is difficult to get
rid of all of them, and the child is nearly sure to reinfect itself
unless it is made to sleep in drawers. Provided reinfection is prevented
in this way, however, the remaining worms will soon be got rid of, as
this species as a rule does not take up a prolonged residence.

Round-worms can be expelled by the means of a dose of santonin, but as
neither these parasites nor tape-worms usually cause immediate serious
symptoms, and both this drug and most other vermifuges require a certain
amount of care and caution in their administration, it is better to wait
any moderate time until the treatment can be supervised by a medical
man.

The third common round-worm parasite--the hook-worm namely--though but
little known in Europe, is so widely distributed in hot, moist
countries, that in such climates the greater proportion of the
indigenous races are often affected to a greater or less extent. It is
quite a small worm, but fastens on the lining of the bowel in exactly
the same way as leeches attack the outer integuments, and exhibits the
same insatiable appetite for blood. The extent of the mischief wrought
by them depends entirely on the number harboured. When only a few are
present, they may be considered practically harmless, and thousands of
such cases are to be met with in any country where they are common; but
wherever this is so, numbers of subjects will be met with, in whom they
are so numerous as to cause serious symptoms and death; so that there
are many places where they constitute one of the most serious scourges
of the Tropics. The eggs of this parasite, deposited along with the
dejecta of persons infested with them, hatch out in the soil, and
multiply there enormously, so that owing to the insanitary habits of the
populace, the soil round about a native village comes to swarm with this
free stage of the parasite. Now as the population is generally a purely
agricultural one, and none too nice in its habits, it can be easily
understood that persons, eating as they do with unwashed hands, must
constantly carry to their mouths some of the earth containing the minute
embryos which convey the disease, and hence the process of infection is
commonly continuous and progressive. As a matter of fact, out of some
hundreds of specimens of drinking water examined by the writer in Assam,
where the disease is extremely rife, in no one case was there anything
found to show that the malady was commonly conveyed in water, but the
contingency is clearly a possible one; and in any case, it is clear that
very moderate care as to food, water, and personal cleanliness would
suffice to render infection impossible. From what has been said, it is
easy to understand that the disease is practically unknown among
European residents whose habits have reached the most moderate degree of
refinement; but though it may not affect the planter’s health, it reacts
most seriously on his pocket, owing to the disastrous amount of sickness
and mortality it gives rise to among his native labourers. Now it is
perfectly obvious that this disease can be easily prevented by the most
ordinary measures of conservancy, and the question whether the evil can
be obviated or not, is purely one of whether the master has the will and
power to insist on the use of proper latrines. This, however, is by no
means so simple a matter as it looks, where one has to deal with
labourers belonging to a primitive stage of civilisation. Once seen, the
disease is easily recognised by the deadly pallor of the lining membrane
of the eyelids, and of the tongue, especially the latter, which looks
much like a piece of a wet, pipe-clayed buff belt. By treatment with
vermifuges and careful nursing there would be little difficulty in
curing people of European habits; but only those who have had to attempt
it know how impossible it is to get semi-civilised people to adopt, or
even submit to, what to us are the most ordinary sick-room comforts, and
as a matter of fact, there is very little hope for a native who is at
all seriously affected with these parasites.

The best vermifuge we have is thymol; three doses of 30 grains each,
given within six hours, followed up by a dose of castor oil. A certain
amount of caution is required in giving this to cases in a very weak
state, but after all it is the only chance for them. This medication may
have to be repeated once or twice, at intervals of a week, and should
be systematically carried out in all cases that have not gone too far.
The worst of it is, that unless proper sanitary measures can be carried
out, treatment is little better than a waste of drugs, as otherwise the
patients will be sure to reinfect themselves within a few weeks, however
thoroughly the vermifuge may have done its work.

The Guinea-worm is a curious parasite, which is found burrowing under
the skin, and finds an exit through the opening formed by a sort of
boil. It very rarely attacks Europeans, as it may be avoided by the most
ordinary care in the matter of water used for drinking and bathing.

Another curious malady caused by one of the round-worms is the
blood-worm disease, or filariasis. In this the parent worm is found
embedded in the tissues of the host, and periodically discharges into
the blood enormous numbers of its embryonic offspring. As this disease
is undoubtedly communicable through the agency of mosquitoes alone, its
prevention may obviously be secured by the adoption of the same measures
that serve to protect us from malaria.

Tape-worms have a very curious life-history. The long, flat, jointed
strip is really a chain of sexually mature individuals, but when their
eggs are swallowed by an animal there is hatched out from it, not
another tape-worm, but a minute embryo, which has the power of boring
through the tissues of its host till it reaches some favourable
resting-place, where it settles down, protected by a capsule, forming
what is known as a bladder-worm. It may live for years in this
condition, but cannot reach maturity until the capsule has been
swallowed by some carnivorous animal, though some species can multiply
non-sexually and so cause terrible damage to the animal that harbours
it. Both stages of several species of these parasites infest man, but
fortunately their prevention is a very simple matter, at any rate as far
as the adult strings of worms are concerned, as infection is impossible
provided all meat and fish eaten be thoroughly cooked. The mature stage
of the bladder-worm which is found infesting man inhabits the intestine
of the dog, and as it is capable, in this stage, of non-sexual
multiplication, may give rise to large tumours, the effects of which
may be most serious if a vital organ be invaded. Though almost a medical
curiosity in Europe, it constitutes a really serious danger in certain
pastoral colonies, such as Australia, where large numbers of dogs have
to be kept for herding sheep, and are allowed unrestricted access to the
offal of carcases, which is, of course, very abundant where
meat-preserving is an important industry. The disease might be guarded
against by preventing the dogs having access to anything but thoroughly
cooked meat, and by avoiding undue fondling and too close association
with these animals.

The third important class of parasites, the flukes, but rarely infest
man, but in Egypt and, in fact, throughout Africa, a peculiar fluke, the
_Bilharzia_, is found infesting the blood-vessels, especially those of
the kidney, and gives rise to the appearance of blood in the urine. It
is extremely common amongst the natives of Egypt, but it very rarely
attacks Europeans, and though we are quite in the dark as to its
life-history outside the human subject, there is little doubt that
moderate care as to the water used for drinking and bathing is
sufficient to afford complete protection against the disease.



  PART II.

  OUTLINES
  OF
  TROPICAL CLIMATOLOGY


ERRATA.

  p. 9, line 9 from foot, _for_ “Camerun” _read_ “Cameroon”; and line 12
  from foot, _for_ “Shilling” _read_ “Shillong.”

  p. 58, line 11 from foot, _for_ “Sangor” _read_ “Saugor.”

  p. 63, in table, line 11 from top, _for_ “Ayra” _read_ “Agra.”

  p. 84, line 1 in table, and p. 85, line 3 in table, _for_ “Mazattan”
  _read_ “Mazatlan.”


  OUTLINES
  OF
  TROPICAL CLIMATOLOGY.


SECTION I.

General Considerations.

A very broad belt of the earth’s surface is occupied by countries that
may be said to possess hot climates; as they include not only those
within the Tropics, but also the sub-tropical zones. Practically
speaking, the whole of Africa, much of South America, the Southern
States of North America with the West Indian Islands, Asia Minor,
Arabia, Persia, India and the Malay Peninsula, the greater part of
China, Australia and the islands lying between it and the continents of
the northern hemisphere, may be said to be included within this general
term. In so wide an area, it is needless to remark that the widest range
of climatic conditions may be found, the only condition common to all
being that of subjection to a fiercer heat than that to which we
Europeans are accustomed, for some or all the months of the year. It
must be remembered, too, that climate is determined not only by the
relation of a place to the parallels of latitude, or to speak more
exactly, to isothermal lines, but is also affected by the elevation of a
site above the sea. Even under a vertical sun, an ascent of 18,000 feet
will land the climber in an absolutely arctic climate, as far as the
temperature of the air is concerned; but it is only in this one item
that we have any similarity to arctic conditions, as the sun’s rays
blaze down even more fiercely than they can at the sea-level, where
they have been tempered by passage through miles of denser air and
watery vapour.

On the crest of the Wakujrui Pass, at 16,500 feet, while the air
temperature at noon stood at 20° below freezing point, the sun
thermometer registered 165°, in May, 1886, when the writer was crossing
the great divide between India and Central Asia; and yet it was
sufficient to remove one’s hat for a minute to realise that to do so
might result in sunstroke. Moreover, apart from the effects of the
rarification of the air on respiration, radiation was so rapid as to be
painfully apparent; one side of the hand turned to the sun would be
scorched, while the other chilled so rapidly that the sensation conveyed
was that of being in contact with a cold liquid; and one was constrained
to wrap up even the face as closely as possible, though the air was
fortunately well-nigh still, whereas cold of similar severity at the
sea-level is quite tolerable as long as there is no wind. Thus, in the
consideration of a given climate, not only geographical position, but
also elevation above the sea must always be taken into account.

To enter into a detailed account of the climatic conditions of the
enormous area under consideration is, of course, out of the question, as
it is a subject on which a special encyclopædia might well be compiled,
so that only the outlines of the subject can be touched upon in the
present short pamphlet. Roughly speaking, we may say that the climates
under consideration have a mean annual temperature at the sea-level of
not less than 64° F. (18° C), while in the equatorial zone it reaches
80° F. (27° C.); but the difference between the maximum and minimum
temperatures in tropical countries is rarely as marked as in
sub-tropical localities, as the range of temperature in the latter is
usually far greater than in the former, so that in spite of the lower
mean, far higher temperatures are recorded for certain regions well
outside the Tropics than can be anywhere found within them. At
Jacobabad, in Upper Sindh, for example, a place some 500 miles outside
the tropical zone, the enormous shade temperature of 127° F. (52·7° C.)
has been registered, and readings of 115° F. (46·1° C.) are quite
common during the hot season over large areas of subtropical India. With
the exception of certain parts of the Soudan, such temperatures are
hardly to be met with in the truly tropical zone, and even these are but
barely within it.

The tropical zone may be defined as that within which the sun is at some
time of the year vertical at noon; or in other words, comprises a belt
extending about 23¹⁄₂° of latitude on either side of the Equator. To the
north and south of it the sun approaches and recedes from the vertical
once during the year, and there are accordingly but two distinct seasons
of summer and winter; but at the Equator the sun necessarily passes
overhead twice during the twelve months, and there are accordingly four
seasons, none of which, however, owing to their shortness, can be very
sharply differentiated from the other. The northern and southern limits
of the Tropics coincide pretty closely with the isotherm, for the
coldest month, of 68° F. (20° C). On the great oceans the coincidence
may be taken as practically absolute, especially along the northern
isotherm, but both isotherms show a tendency to turn towards the Equator
as they approach the western shores of the great continents; so that the
breadth of the tropical belt is considerably contracted in these
positions, and the same remark applies, though to a lesser extent, to
the mean annual isotherm of 68° which bounds the sub-tropical zone. The
tropical zone on the West Coast of America is contracted to little more
than 30° in place of the normal 47°, while as far as mean temperature is
concerned, the temperate zone extends as far north as 20° S. latitude,
well within the geographical Tropics. On the West Coast of Africa the
contraction is equally marked, but mainly at the expense of the northern
isothermal boundary, while the sub-tropical boundaries, on the contrary,
spread out, so as to leave only the extreme northern and southern points
of the continent outside their limits. A third narrowing is to be found
at the western side of the irregular land mass formed by Australia, the
Malay Peninsula, and the intervening islands, but is much less marked,
amounting to a few degrees only. The comparative coolness of the western
sides of the great continental masses is due to the existence of
northerly currents of cold water coming from the frozen seas of the
south pole, which wash the western coasts, while along the east coast
there sets a current of warm water coming from the Equator.

The principal factor in the determination of climatic characteristics is
the fact that while the land heats and cools with great rapidity, the
sea does so more slowly, but holds the heat better. This is due to two
circumstances. In the first place, it requires more heat to warm a given
weight of water than an equivalent mass of the various substances which
constitute the land. In the second place, while both are alike bad
conductors of heat; water, being a fluid, is mobile, and in the colder
parts of the globe where the surface is colder than the intermediate
depths, convection comes into play, apart from which the least movement
at the surface is sufficient to distribute the heat gained from the sun
to a greater depth than is possible in the case of the solid
constituents of the earth’s crust.

The second great determinant of climate is the fact that the temperature
of the air is determined for the most part by that of the surfaces with
which it is brought into contact, rather than by the passage of the
sun’s rays through it, as is well shown in the arctic air temperatures
of great elevations in tropical latitudes. From this it follows that the
atmosphere is mainly heated by the sun’s rays indirectly, from below
where it is in contact with the directly heated, solid and liquid
surface of the globe.

In becoming heated it necessarily expands, and becoming lighter that the
stratum immediately above it, ascends, drawing in, to take its place,
the cooler air that has been in contact with surfaces of air or water
less strongly heated. Now because, as we have seen, water heats and
cools more slowly than land surfaces, along a coast there is always a
tendency to the production of a sea wind from the cooler sea to the
hotter land during the latter part of the day, and inversely of a land
breeze from the more rapidly cooled land to the slowly cooling sea in
the early morning; and in the Tropics, where the sun’s rays are
sufficiently near the vertical to produce a rapid and marked effect,
these diurnal land and sea breezes form a characteristic feature of
littoral climates, and go far to render life tolerable in them. Hence
also it follows that everywhere littoral and marine climates tend to
uniformity, not only as to diurnal but also as to annual variations,
while continental climates tend to wide variations of temperature, and
the seasons differ to a degree never experienced in places on or near
the sea. As an example may be contrasted the climates of Madeira and
Peshawar, in the former of which the difference between the mean
temperatures of the coldest months is under 13° F. (7·2 C), while in the
latter the difference amounts to 40° F. (22·2 C), or three times as
great in the continental climate.

It is further noteworthy that while, in the continental climate, the
hottest and coldest months coincide with the summer and winter
solstices, in the marine climate they lag a month or two after; the
coldest month being February and the hottest August in Madeira, owing to
the slowness with which the water surrounding the island gains and parts
with its heat.

Just as the alternating heat of day and coolness of night produce, in
littoral regions, the daily land and sea breezes, so the greater heating
of the world’s surface over the Tropics produces, throughout the year, a
steady flow of air from the north and south, to take the place of the
air that has become rarified, and so floated to a higher level. These
winds--“the trades”--are not, however, directly from the north and south
respectively, but have also a great deal of easting in their direction,
a circumstance which is explained by the fact that the air, coming as it
does from latitudes where the circumference of the earth is much smaller
than at the Equator, is moving from west to east, only at the
comparatively slower pace of the rest of the earth’s surface at that
latitude; and as they do not at once acquire the quicker motion of the
latitudes to which they have travelled, they lag behind the points of
the earth moving beneath, and so give the effect of an easterly breeze,
just as would be the case with a vehicle driving rapidly eastward
through still air.

Between the two belts influenced by the trade-winds there is naturally a
broad zone, known as “the doldrums,” where the opposing air currents
tend to neutralise each other, and which is naturally characterised by
periods of prolonged calm, alternating with light and variable airs. The
middle line of this zone will obviously be that in which the sun is
vertical at noon, and will consequently lie north or south of the
Equator according to the season of the year. For the typical development
of the “trades” the absolutely uniform surface conditions of the ocean
are indispensable, the variable conditions of soil and vegetation on
land areas impeding their full establishment, by introducing local
variations of capability of heat absorption and radiation; but in spite
of this, though less definite in force and direction, winds of the same
general direction are dominant over the comparatively uniform surface of
the South American continent. When, however, we find a sufficiently
large land area more or less surrounded by sea, the different
heat-absorbing capacity of solid and liquid surfaces may suffice not
merely to neutralise, but to reverse the normal direction of the
tropical and sub-tropical air-currents. Under such conditions, where the
land surface is sufficiently large, the much more rapid heating of the
land surface during summer brings the air in contact with it up to a
much higher temperature than that of the neighbouring seas, and
accordingly over India and Southern China we find that about May or
June, by which month the land has had time to become sufficiently
heated, a strong south-west current--the monsoon[5]--is established,
which, carrying with it air saturated with moisture by its contact with
the sea, determines the rainy season, and by the gradual cooling of the
surface thereby produced, brings about its own termination. In the
winter, on the contrary, over these regions, the prevailing wind resumes
the general direction of the trades.

  [5] This is simply a seaman’s corruption of the Arabic word for
  season.

Another effect of rapid local heating of the air, the cause of which,
however, is ill understood, is the occurrence of the revolving storms
which are met with during the summer months in low latitudes, and are
generally spoken of as “cyclones” in the Indian Ocean, as typhoons in
the China seas, and as hurricanes in the West Indies. These storms are
determined by the formation of areas of low barometric pressure, to meet
which the air, converging from all sides, takes on a circular motion, or
vortex, round its centre. Nearly all such storms have a double motion,
the vortex itself being not stationary, but travelling over the surface
of the globe in a definite direction. However obscure their origin, the
laws of these storms are now well understood and are as follows: In the
Northern Hemisphere, the vortex revolves in the opposite direction to
that of the hands of a watch, and in the southern in the same direction
as they do; while in both the motion is not truly circular but spiral,
in such manner that a particle carried by the wind, after circling round
the centre several times, ultimately finds itself carried to the centre
of low pressure. In the same way the centre of low pressure, with its
accompanying vortex, always travels at first from east to west, and then
curves away from the Equator, to ultimately take an easterly direction
as it dies out. The dimensions of the vortex, and the area influenced by
such storms, may vary from a few yards to several hundred miles, but in
all cases their force, within the vortex, is very considerable.

Small atmospheric disturbances of this sort, often of no more than 50 or
100 yards in diameter, are very common on the hot, dusty plains of
Rajputana and the Punjab, and are most instructive to watch, as they are
exact reproductions, on a small scale, of the awful visitations that
from time to time devastate huge areas of the earth’s surface.

After a period of exceptional heat and stifling stillness, the still
leaves of the dried-up trees are agitated by light puffs of air of
irregular direction, then away in the east is seen a column of dust, and
this steadily advances till one finds one’s self for a few minutes
buffeted by a violent, fiery wind and choked with dust. When it has
passed and the air has again cleared, this is succeeded by a refreshing
relief of the previously intense heat. When of very small dimensions
these miniature cyclones are locally known as “devils,” and their form,
narrow below and spreading out like a funnel above, can be studied at
leisure. The boundaries of the expanded upper part are indistinct and
fade gradually into the steel-grey of the surrounding glare, but below
the contour of the column is well-nigh as sharp as if it were composed
of solid materials, and may sweep along close by the observer without
involving him.

When of larger dimensions, so that the boundaries of the revolving
column of dust and air are beyond the range of vision, they are known as
“dust storms,” and in spite of the temporary discomforts they cause, are
gladly welcomed, on account of the relief they bring from the
suffocating heat that originated them. When on the larger scale that is
met with in the equatorial zone their violence is well-nigh
incredible--trees are torn up, houses levelled, crops destroyed, and
massive bodies, such, for example, as large anchors lying on the quays
of a dockyard, trundled along as if they were straw hats in an ordinary
gust of wind.

From a sanitary point of view these storms are usually beneficial by
their effect in clearing and cooling the air; but this is unfortunately
only small and temporary, so that they are of little interest to the
hygienist. In any case the prophylaxis against their effects is purely
mechanical, and consists in crawling, if possible, into the nearest cave
or cellar.

Over the great Asiatic continent, especially north of the Himalayas, a
strong northerly current is produced about mid-summer by the area of low
pressure caused by the intense heating of the Siberian steppes, which,
owing to the length of the days at these high latitudes, are exposed to
the sun’s rays for practically the whole twenty-four hours, and the
current thus initiated makes its influence felt for hundreds of miles to
the south of its point of origin, and no doubt reacts upon and modifies
other periodical forces of the same character. A useful law to remember
is that discovered by Professor Buys Ballot, which is to the effect
that, if you stand with your back to the wind, the barometer will be
lower in your left hand than in your right, in the Northern Hemisphere,
and _vice versâ_ south of the Equator.

The effect of ocean currents bringing with them masses of hot or cold
water from other latitudes has already been alluded to, a familiar
example being the mildness of our own climate under the influence of the
Gulf Stream.

In the Southern Hemisphere currents of cold water sweep up from the
Antarctic regions along the western shores of the great masses of land,
counter-currents of warm water flowing down from the Equator along their
eastern sides. In the Northern Hemisphere the reverse is the case, the
cold Arctic currents clinging to the eastern, and the warm equatorial to
the western shores of the continents. The more detailed distribution of
these currents, however, can be better gathered by a little study of the
current chart found in any good atlas, than from any description,
however elaborate.

Climate may also be profoundly modified by the distribution of mountain
chains, the cold summits of which determine the precipitation of the
moisture brought up from the sea, so that while their seaward slopes may
be inordinately rainy, the country beyond may be completely parched; and
apart from such marked contrasts as are produced by the interposition of
great ranges of hills, large differences of rainfall may often be found
in stations a few miles apart. Cherapunji, in Assam, which is said to
hold the world’s record for heavy rainfall, is but 40 miles from
Shillong, the rainfall of which is by no means excessive; and again,
Debunja, in the Cameroons, which is said to hold the second place with a
rainfall of 897 cm., is close to Cameroon, where the rainfall is less
than half that figure.

Another climatic factor of great importance is the amount and character
of the vegetation, for it is a well-ascertained fact that not only does
a heavy rainfall determine luxuriant vegetation, but the converse is
also true, and it is probable that the barrenness of certain regions is
due rather to improvident deforestation than to original natural
dryness. Certain experiments, indeed, go far to show that it is
possible to materially alter the climate of even comparatively small
areas by judicious tree-planting; and it is also certain that the
presence of even small patches of verdure may make a marked difference
in the temperature curves of places within but a few hundred yards of
each other. In the Upper Nile valley, for instance, astounding
differences in the temperature and humidity of the air have been found
to exist in places, respectively barren and cultivated, quite close to
each other, and there is little doubt that local differences of this
sort are worthy of more detailed study than they have as yet received,
and would often be of value in determining the most suitable sites for
habitations and stations.

From a sanitary point of view the variations of the barometer are of
little interest, as at any given level they are never sufficiently great
to have any physiological effect on the human organisation, and hence
the elements of climate that interest us most are temperature and
moisture, for the determination of which all that is required are a
maximum and minimum thermometer, a pair of ordinary wet and dry bulb
instruments and a rain gauge.

In forming an opinion of the characters of any given climate the
temperature of the air is alone of any great importance, the data
afforded by the sun thermometer and that used for determining radiation
being of comparatively little interest, so that the following data are
the most important:--

(1) The mean temperature of each month. This can only be given
accurately by self-registering instruments, but in the absence of these
is usually taken as

  max. t. + min. t. + t. at 9 hours + t. at 21 hours
  --------------------------------------------------
                           4

(2) The mean monthly daily range of temperature, or what is practically
as valuable, the mean maxima and minima.

(3) The “relative humidity” of the air, or the proportion of moisture
actually present to the amount that would suffice to produce saturation,
for each month of the year.

(4) The monthly rainfall.

(5) The number of rainy days in each month.

(6) The average condition of the sky, whether clear or overcast, in each
month.

(7) The amount and daily distribution of wind, its direction being for
us of little moment.

In speaking of air temperatures it must always be understood that
temperatures _in the shade_ are referred to, and in systematic
scientific observations the greatest care must be taken that not only
shall the instruments be thoroughly protected from the direct, but also
from the reflected rays of the sun; and that means are also taken to
secure a free current of air over them.

If an absolutely exact determination of the temperature of the air in
any given situation be required, the observation should be taken by
swinging the instrument, attached to a short cord, rapidly round the
head, and by this method it is possible to secure a close approximation
to the actual air temperature, even in the open and under the direct
rays of the sun.

In considering the effects of climate on human beings it will be well to
commence with a short consideration of the way in which they are
affected by each of these elements of climate.


_Temperature._--In health the temperature of the human blood varies but
little, whatever may be the climatic conditions to which we are
submitted, the normal point being generally taken as 98·4° F. (37° C),
though it may range half a degree or so above or below this level
without prejudice to health or comfort. The mechanism by which this
uniformity of internal temperature is maintained, in spite of the widest
differences in the temperature of our environment, depends upon an
automatic regulation of the nutritive processes going on within the
system.

The various muscular and nervous actions, going on constantly throughout
life, derive the force necessary for their production from the oxidation
of the various articles contained in our food, and as the oxidation of
all its digestible constituents is really nearly as complete as if they
had been subjected to combustion, the body gains nearly as much heat
from the consumption of its food as if the latter were actually burned.
In climates where the temperature of the air is less than that of the
blood, a good deal of heat is conducted away from the body by its
contact with the air; but where, as in hot climates, the difference is
but small, or the temperature of the air may even exceed that of the
blood, it is obvious that some further mechanism is required if the
temperature of the body is to be kept at the normal level of health.
This requirement is met by evaporation from the surface of the body, the
amount of which is regulated automatically by a special set of nerves
which are known as the vaso-motor system, whose function it is to
regulate the calibre of the blood-vessels throughout the body, according
to the varying nutritive necessities of the several organs to which they
are distributed.

We are all familiar with the fact that either extreme heat or violent
exertion will alike bring about free perspiration, and in both cases the
object is the same, viz., to cool down the body which tends to become
overheated; in the one case by the warmth of the surroundings, and in
the other by the activity of the chemical changes going on within the
body to provide the force required for the various muscular and nervous
actions involved in the work performed. On the other hand, under the
influence of cold the skin becomes bloodless and dry, very little blood
being allowed to circulate at the actual surface, the bulk of it being
kept to the deeper parts of the body, well beneath the protective
coating of fat which lies immediately below the skin. Buried in this
fat, and opening by delicate tubes on the surface, are enormous numbers
of small glandular bodies--the sweat-glands--each of which, when
sufficiently freely supplied with blood, pours out a fluid consisting
mainly of water, but containing also a little common salt and minute
quantities of other mineral constituents, as well as a trifling amount
of organic or animal matter, which has served its purpose in the
organism and is thrown off in this way as being of no further value.

In the conversion of water into vapour a large amount of heat is
absorbed, and it is thus equally possible for the body to be kept at a
temperature lower than that of the surrounding air as it is, under more
ordinary conditions, to maintain it at a higher; but the endurance of
intense heat throws an even greater strain on the organism than that of
severe cold, as it cannot be combated in the same way by covering the
body with non-conducting clothing, and under such circumstances
exertion, involving as it does a further production of heat within the
body, becomes well-nigh insupportable. The evil effects of intense heat
become all the more marked in proportion as they are prolonged, and the
effects of air temperatures approaching or exceeding that of the normal
blood continuously, for many days or weeks, without any relief at night,
are most debilitating, and render any considerable amount of muscular
exertion not only painful but dangerous, even to natives of the country,
who, indeed, thoroughly recognise the fact and abstain during such
periods from any laborious tasks not absolutely necessary. The
exhaustion and incapacity produced by extreme heat are naturally
specially marked in persons in whom the sudorific system is ill
developed, and there is no doubt that those who suffer from this defect
in any marked degree should avoid subjecting themselves to such
conditions and be content to remain in more temperate climes. It is
obvious that under such conditions a failure in the action of the sweat
glands must necessarily result in a rise of the body temperature, and
there can be little doubt that this is what takes place in certain cases
of simple “heat apoplexy.” This failure of the sudorific system appears
to be specially favoured by the overcrowding of too many persons within
a limited space. It is only, however, when the temperature stands for
long periods above 90° or 95° F. (33° C.) that these distressing effects
of heat are at all commonly experienced; most Europeans bearing heat up
to this limit even for prolonged periods, if not with comfort, at least
without serious detriment to health, and much higher temperatures are
well borne during the day, provided that the daily range of temperature
is sufficient to secure a definite relief during the night. It will thus
be seen that a wide diurnal range of temperature will go far to
neutralise the bad effects of a high mean temperature, and the
importance of securing information on this point in estimating the
possible effects of a given climate on health is therefore obvious.

The proportion of moisture present in the air has at least as important
a bearing on health as its temperature. It is obvious that when the air
is actually saturated with watery vapour evaporation from the surface of
the body must necessarily be stopped, and with it the natural provision
for preventing an undue rise of the temperature of the body. Actual
saturation combined with high temperature is, however, fortunately rare
for anything but short periods, as the absolute amount of water
requisite to saturation increases rapidly as temperature rises; and
hence warm air, but partially saturated, and therefore still active as
an absorbent of evaporation from moist surfaces, may contain a far
larger absolute amount of water than saturated air at a lower
temperature. In practice, saturated air is only to be found in
situations where it is brought into contact with colder surfaces, such
as that of the earth, cooled by radiation during the night, as is seen
in the production of dew; the dew point being, in fact, the temperature
at which the amount of water present in the air suffices to saturate it.
Apart from its diminution by the formation of dew, the absolute amount
of moisture present in the air, depending as it does on but slowly
changing conditions, can naturally also change but slowly, but the
relative moisture, or the percentage of the amount required to produce
saturation, which is actually present always varies greatly during the
twenty-four hours in all places where the diurnal range of temperature
is at all considerable; so that relative moisture, when given for any
day or other period, always refers to an average. As a rule it is only
the stratum of air of a few yards in thickness that is cooled by contact
with the soil during the night and is hence concerned in the formation
of dew, a fact which is prettily illustrated by the low-lying bands of
vapour which hang over the landscape after a clear night on any fine
morning in the Tropics, and which clear off as if by magic as the
returning sun once more warms up the soil and air. Wherever radiation
is impeded by the shelter of trees, by artificial shelter, or by
sufficiently dense masses of cloud, the temperature of the soil and air
falls but little, and hence, under such circumstances, dew does not
fall.

For practical purposes there are no better hygrometers than those that
depend on the hygroscopic properties of certain organic substances, such
as hair and catgut, and it has been shown by Sresnewsky that the
alteration in length of a hair caused by its absorption of moisture is
directly proportional to the natural logarithm of the degree of relative
humidity, so that such instruments can be graduated for use as
scientific instruments. Rapidity of evaporation is, however,
proportional not to the relative humidity, but to the difference of the
tension of watery vapour present in the air with that of its tension
when saturated--in other words, the difference of tension of watery
vapour at the temperatures of the dry and wet bulb thermometers, a form
of expression which admits of degrees of humidity at different
temperatures to be directly compared. In practice, however, this datum
is rarely to be found in climatic tables, which is of the less
importance, as in its effects on our organisation a difference of 2 or 3
mm. of mercury, from the pressure of saturation at a low temperature,
will give a pleasant sensation of dryness, while at a high temperature
the same deficit of pressure would be felt intolerably close and sultry.
Extreme conditions of either humidity or dryness are, of course, alike
unhealthy, though much of the respiratory irritation ascribed to too dry
air is, I believe, more truly referable to the dust which usually
accompanies such atmospheric conditions; but in any case, there can be
no doubt that alike in hot and cold climates it is far healthier for the
air to be too dry than too moist. With the effects of damp cold we are
all of us only too well acquainted in England, and those who have
experienced the effects of damp heat will never need being reminded of
its debilitating effects. Fortunately, however, relative humidities
exceeding 80 per cent. are but rarely to be found accompanied with
really high air temperatures, and are seldom met with except in
localities blessed with a copious rainfall, which by cooling the air
goes far to render matters tolerable.

The most trying of all climates, however, are those where high
temperatures and relative humidity are combined with an absence of rain,
and under such circumstances a relative humidity of far less than 80 per
cent. gives rise to intolerable closeness and oppression, especially
when combined with stillness of air. Typical examples are the autumnal
climates of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the unbearable character of
which is notorious. At Abusher, in the Gulf, for example, in the month
of August rain never falls, there is little or no breeze, and the mean
maximum temperature is 96·5° F. (35·7° C.), while the relative humidity
averages 65 per cent., and though neither figure separately is
remarkably high as compared with what may be met with elsewhere, the
entire combination of conditions is generally admitted to constitute one
of the most unendurable climates in the world. On the other hand, in the
Algerian Sahara in the summer months the relative humidity may fall as
low as 16 per cent., but provided that an unstinted supply of water, to
supply the loss by evaporation, be obtainable, most people find crisp,
dry heat of this sort rather stimulating than otherwise, and even where
the temperature is so high as to become most trying to endurance, the
mortality returns of such situations show that dry heat is really
favourable to health. The reason of this is obviously found in the fact
that a few hours’ exposure to the sun’s rays in such climates suffices
to kill the germs of nearly all specific contagious diseases, and that
the breeding of mosquitoes, which are now known to be the carriers of
several of the most important and deadly of tropical diseases, is
further summarily stopped. A further contributory reason is also found
in the fact, that the population is driven to sleep in the open air
instead of within more or less ill-ventilated houses, and hence obtains
the inestimable benefit of the freest possible ventilation during a
large portion of the twenty-four hours, besides reducing the chances of
the direct infection of the healthy by the sick to a minimum. As a
degree of relative humidity of the air so low as to be in itself
irritating to the respiratory mucous membranes is almost unknown, we may
practically consider that dryness of climate is everywhere synonymous
with healthiness.


_Effects of Amount and Distribution of Rainfall._--As already remarked,
it is quite possible for a climate to be damp and yet have little or no
rainfall, but such instances are rare, and on the other hand, a heavy
rainfall necessarily brings about a coincident increase of relative
humidity. Rain is, moreover, necessarily combined with a cloudy sky,
whereby the heating of the soil during the day and its cooling by
radiation during the night are alike impeded. The immediate effect of a
shower of rain is to cool the air, and this for a double reason: first,
coming as they do from the higher strata of the atmosphere, the
temperature of the raindrops is necessarily much lower than that of the
earth’s surface; and secondly, from the multiplied surfaces of the
descending drops and from the wetted earth there necessarily occurs a
rapid evaporation, whereby a further large amount of heat is absorbed,
but unless showers recur at sufficient intervals to continuously
diminish air temperature, the temporary remission is apt to be dearly
paid for by a period of heat combined with high relative humidity, with
its attendant discomforts of reduced evaporation from the surface of the
body, prickly heat, and the other discomforts inseparable from tropical
damp.

The influence of rainfall on health necessarily depends to a great
extent on the configuration of the land, but assuming that the latter
admits of adequate drainage, more depends upon its distribution than
upon its amount; for the sanitary influences of rain are, in the main,
mechanical, and depend on the “laying” of the dust and the washing away
of infective and otherwise deleterious material. A heavy shower of
sufficient duration will carry away, _viâ_ the river to the sea, the
deleterious products of human occupation during a preceding drought; but
to do this the rain must be heavy while it lasts, for a prolonged
drizzle in a warm climate simply turns the soil into a particularly
efficient cultivation ground for the germs of infective diseases, and
the attendant gloom of the sky stops entirely the beneficent
germ-killing power of the sun’s direct rays. A prolonged drizzle, never
exceeding the absorbtive and drainage capacities of a given site, marks
the maximum of unhealthiness in all climates, and is possibly even more
obnoxious when associated with heat than with cold: so that the most
pleasant tropical climates are those that combine frequent short but
heavy showers with intervals of bright sunlight, a continuously overcast
sky being everywhere unfavourable to health.

To judge, then, the influence of rainfall on health, we require three
data--the total rainfall, the number of rainy days, and the aspect of
the sky in any given season of the year; for the beneficent influence of
light on the animal organisation is at least as marked as it is on
plants, though while the latter fact is a matter of common observation,
the former does not meet with the recognition which it deserves. We
bleach our celery by protecting it from the light, but are apt to forget
that, while the consequent reduction in the amount of its characteristic
essential oil makes its eatable, the plant could hardly survive but for
the application of lime and other artificial antiseptics, which we are
obliged to apply to make up for the lack of the natural protection.
Whether the process of “earthing up” be soothing to a celery plant or
otherwise is a question of which we have no means of judging, but there
can be no doubt that in such matters man is far more practical in the
treatment of plants than of himself, and that in tropical climates he
often suffers by shrinking too much from the immediate effects of the
sun’s rays. In this as in all other affairs, moderation is, of course,
desirable, but the commoner mistake is undoubtedly to shirk too much all
exposure to the sun, whereas those whose avocations take them most into
the open are generally the healthiest in the Tropics as elsewhere.
Contrast the ardent sportsman who spends the broiling days of May and
June in the pursuit of large game, with the lady who spends her days in
a darkened bungalow, and there can be no question as to which suffers
the most from “the effects of climate”; nor is the difference, as is
often suggested, purely one of sex, for it will be noticed that female
medical practitioners and missionaries and other ladies whose
occupations involve their being much in the open are commonly at least
as healthy as men similarly situated.

In all hot countries the period of the rains is the sickly season, but
this is due not so much to any direct evil effects of damp on the human
system as to the fact that the agents and carriers of disease, i.e., low
plant organisms and mosquitoes and other suctorial insects, find in heat
moisture and puddles the conditions that best favour their growth and
multiplication; in other words, the unhealthiness of this season can be
largely obviated by suitable measures of sanitation, so designed as to
impede this growth and multiplication of noxious agencies in the
immediate vicinity of human habitations.


_Effect of Winds on Health._--Save only in so far as it necessarily
raises and transports dust, and that the latter may consist not only of
mineral particles but may contain also deleterious organic matter and
the germs of certain diseases, the action of wind, being equivalent to
so much the freer ventilation, may always be considered desirable in hot
climates. Given a free current of air, the highest air temperatures are
borne with comparative comfort, whereas in stagnant air the sense of
oppression is unbearable. The existence of a steady breeze from a known
direction also makes it possible to artificially cool houses by placing
in the doorway facing the direction of the wind wetted mats, which cool
the air passing through them by the agency of evaporation. It further
makes it possible to live in comfort without the use of punkahs and
other artificial means of keeping up a free current of air; indeed, as a
matter of fact, the habitability of places situated in the Tropics
depends largely on the amount and continuity of the breeze.

As has already been remarked, the amount of dust present in the
atmosphere depends mainly, in the first place, on dryness of the air,
and in the second on the force of wind; but it is also a fact that under
certain conditions, dependent probably on electrical manifestations, a
very still atmosphere may yet carry in suspension a large amount of
dust, and its presence may become inimical to health by causing
irritation to the respiratory organs as well as to the eyes and lining
membrane of the nostrils. This is specially liable to be the case when
the suspended particles are sharp and angular, as in the case of the
micaceous dust, with which, during the dry, hot weather, the air is
often loaded in certain sub-Himalayan stations, producing in many
persons soreness of the eyes and troublesome, dry cough.

Systematic observations on the amount of solid matter suspended in the
air are as yet entirely wanting, but there can be little doubt that they
would, if available, be valuable to the student of public health; for
the high mortality among tradesfolk whose occupations involve the
respiration of a constantly dusty atmosphere is thoroughly well known,
and it is most improbable that what is true of dusty trades is not also
true of dusty places.

Although generally admitted, especially as an article of popular belief,
the influence of the varying electrical states of the atmosphere is as
yet so ill-understood that nothing definite can be stated on the
subject.


SECTION II.

On the Special Characteristics of the Climates of Certain Hot Countries.

There is perhaps no one topic of human conversation that comes in for
more discussion than that of the weather, and yet it is no exaggeration
to say that there is no other as to which exact information is so scanty
or so little accessible, and it is believed that even the following
scanty notes are more complete than can be found in any one work in the
English language.

If the intending emigrant to foreign parts desires to find out something
of the conditions under which he will find himself, he may perhaps,
after much trouble, unearth some undigested data on the subject from the
Agents-General of Colonies, &c.; but he will find it far easier to
ascertain the amount of piece goods bought by the “Borrioula Gah” tribe
than the mean temperature of their capital; and, practically speaking,
the only library containing anything approaching an adequate collection
of the literature of the subject is that of the Royal Meteorological
Society, to whom and to their courteous librarian, Mr. W. Marriott, my
best thanks are due for their ready assistance in the compilation of the
present chapter. Owing to the very varied sources from which the
information has been drawn, any attempt at close uniformity of treatment
is out of the question, but wherever possible the data given comprise
the average mean, mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures, the
rainfall, number of rainy days, and average relative humidity for each
month of the year.

When possible, the figures given are the averages of several years, but
in many cases they refer to a single year only, being derived from
isolated observations or from series which have not as yet been
collated by a meteorological expert. No barometric data have been
included, as they have little interest for any but specialists, and a
study of those given will be found quite sufficient to enable anyone to
judge with what sort of an outfit he should provide himself. It will be,
for example, quite obvious that it is quite useless to take a mackintosh
coat to Wadi Halfa, if anyone will glance at the table given for that
favoured (?) locality. In some cases the maximum and minimum
temperatures tabulated are not the mean, but the absolute maxima and
minima, and therefore represent only exceptional experiences and not
what one may fairly expect. It must be clearly understood, too, that
absolute and mean data are in no sense comparable, as the latter will
always lie several degrees within the former; but in the present state
of meteorological science one has to be thankful for what one can get,
and this, in the case of most of the less advanced countries, is
remarkably little.

The plan of the following notes is to make a sort of climatic tour round
the globe, but it is obvious that it is impossible within the scope of a
work like the present to describe more than a few widely distant
examples, so that it is not even possible to include all our tropical
colonies; but it is hoped that those given will suffice to give a
general idea of what may be expected in most parts of the world. With
few exceptions all data are given both in the English and in the metric
systems.


_THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN._--None of the countries comprising the
European shores of this basin can be said to come well under the heading
of “hot countries,” and those on the African shore are of interest
rather as winter health resorts than as tropical places of residence.
The first of these that requires notice is--


_Algeria._--Situated in lat. 37° N., within a couple of days’ steaming
from Marseilles, this pleasant French colony is much the most easily
accessible sub-tropical health station for the whole of western Europe,
and forms an excellent resort for persons who find themselves unable to
withstand the rigours of a northern winter. Thanks to the French talent
in municipal organisation, the traveller finds himself at once among the
novel sights and sounds of civilisation of the Oriental type, and yet
surrounded with all the comforts and amenities of a fine European town.
Few health-seekers venture far from the coast, though there must be many
places in the interior that would be well suited for early cases of
consumption, as the air of the coast is perhaps too “relaxing” for some
cases of the sort. For the north coast of Africa, the rainfall is
considerable, but in spite of this, on the average, the air is generally
dry, as evidenced by the low average relative humidity.

The country may be divided into four zones, which present great
differences of climate.

(1) A narrow littoral zone of low ground, often only a few miles wide.
Most of the ports face eastward and are well sheltered by the
neighbouring hills.

(2) The Tel, composed of plains and elevated mountain masses cut up by
deep valleys, at the bottom of which are torrents which are dry for the
greater part of the year.

(3) A high plateau of triangular form about 140 miles wide; intensely
dry, but with scattered salt marshes which dry up during the summer.

(4) The Sahara, an immense sandy basin absolutely devoid of
water-courses except quite to the north.

The following table of mean temperatures will give some idea of the
degree of heat that is met with throughout the year in these different
regions:--

MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE OF ALGERIAN STATIONS SITUATED IN THE FOUR
ABOVE-MENTIONED ZONES.

  ======================+=====+=====+===========+===========+===========
        Station         | E.F.| E.M.|  January  | February  |   March
                        |     |     |----+------+----+------+----+------
                        |     |     | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ----------------------+-----+-----+----+------+----+------+----+------
  Algiers (on the coast)|   68|   22|53·8|~12·1~|54·6|~12·6~|57·0|~13·9~
  Orleansville (on the  |  390|  119|48·3| ~9·1~|50·2|~10·1~|54·2|~12·3~
  low “Tel”)            |     |     |    |      |    |      |    |
  Térriet el Haad (on   |3,700|1,125|41·0| ~5·0~|43·0| ~6·1~|47·5| ~8·6~
  the high “Tel”)       |     |     |    |      |    |      |    |
  Géryville (on the high|4,300|1,310|37·5| ~3·1~|40·2| ~4·5~|45·5| ~7·5~
  plateau)              |     |     |    |      |    |      |    |
  Biskra (Sahara)       |  410|  125|50·2|~10·1~|54·3|~12·4~|57·0|~13·9~
  ======================+=====+=====+====+======+====+======+====+======

  ======================+===========+===========+===========+===========
        Station         |   April   |    May    |   June    |   July
                        |----+------+----+------+----+------+----+------
                        | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ----------------------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+------
  Algiers (on the coast)|61·4|~16·3~|66·1|~19·0~|72·2|~22·3~|76·0|~24·4~
  Orleansville (on the  |61·7|~16·3~|68·4|~20·2~|77·9|~25·5~|85·0|~29·4~
  low “Tel”)            |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Térriet el Haad (on   |52·3|~11·2~|59·6|~15·4~|69·8|~21·0~|77·4|~25·2~
  the high “Tel”)       |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Géryville (on the high|52·8|~11·6~|63·8|~17·7~|74·0|~22·2~|79·7|~26·5~
  plateau)              |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Biskra (Sahara)       |66·0|~18·9~|76·0|~24·4~|84·4|~29·1~|90·0|~32·2~
  ======================+====+======+====+======+====+======+====+======

  ======================+===========+===========+===========+===========
        Station         |  August   | September |  October  |  November
                        |----+------+----+------+----+------+----+------
                        | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ----------------------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+------
  Algiers (on the coast)|77·0|~25·0~|74·2|~23·4~|67·5|~19·7~|60·5|~15·8~
  Orleansville (on the  |85·7|~29·8~|77·2|~25·1~|66·7|~19·3~|56·7|~13·7~
  low “Tel”)            |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Térriet el Haad (on   |78·7|~25·9~|68·0|~20·0~|58·3|~14·6~|49·9| ~9·9~
  the high “Tel”)       |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Géryville (on the high|79·7|~26·5~|68·5|~20·3~|56·7|~13·7~|46·5| ~8·1~
  plateau)              |    |      |    |      |    |      |    |
  Biskra (Sahara)       |90·0|~32·2~|80·2|~26·8~|68·0|~20·0~|57·7|~14·3~
  ======================+====+======+====+======+====+======+====+======

  ======================+===========+===========
        Station         |  December |   Year
                        |----+------+----+------
                        | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ----------------------+----+------+----+------
  Algiers (on the coast)|54·9|~12·7~|64·5|~18·1~
  Orleansville (on the  |49·9| ~9·9~|65·2|~18·4~
  low “Tel”)            |    |      |    |
  Térriet el Haad (on   |43·5| ~6·4~|57·3|~14·1~
  the high “Tel”)       |    |      |    |
  Géryville (on the high|39·8| ~4·3~|56·7|~13·7~
  plateau)              |    |      |    |
  Biskra (Sahara)       |51·5|~10·8~|68·5|~20·3~
  ======================+====+======+====+======

  NOTE.--In this and all following tables, F. stands for degrees
  Fahrenheit; C. for degrees Centigrade; E.F., elevation above the sea
  in feet; E.M., the same expressed in metres; Ins., inches, English;
  Mm., millimetres.

The character of the climate of the capital, which may be considered
typical of the coast health resorts, may be gathered from the following
table:--

ALGIERS. LAT. 33° 47′ N.; LONG. 0° 44′ E. E.F. 105; E.M. 33·5.

  ========+===========+===========+===========+=====+=============+=====
    Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall  | Num-
          |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|             | ber
          |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |             | of
          +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+-------+Rainy
          | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Days
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  January |56·0|~13·3~|62·7|~17·0~|50·2|~10·1~| 60  | 3·25| ~82·5~|  16
  February|61·3|~16·3~|70·2|~21·2~|54·8|~12·7~| 61  | 3·17| ~80·6~|   9
  March   |57·2|~14·0~|64·5|~18·1~|51·5|~10·8~| 62  | 3·14| ~79·1~|  15
  April   |60·5|~15·8~|67·8|~19·9~|54·2|~12·3~| 65  | 3·46| ~88·4~|  10
  May     |66·7|~19·3~|74·7|~23·7~|60·2|~15·7~| 62  | 3·53| ~89·2~|   6
  June    |72·5|~22·5~|79·7|~26·5~|66·7|~19·3~| 71  | 0·75| ~19·1~|   6
  July    |75·8|~24·1~|83·0|~28·3~|68·5|~20·3~| 68  | 0·70| ~17·2~|   2
  August  |77·0|~25·0~|84·3|~29·1~|70·0|~21·1~| 67  | 0·20|  ~4·9~|   4
  Septem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber     |75·5|~24·2~|83·2|~28·4~|70·3|~21·3~| 73  | 0·28|  ~7·1~|   9
  October |71·2|~21·8~|79·2|~26·2~|66·0|~18·9~| 72  | 1·52| ~38·6~|  11
  November|59·8|~15·5~|67·3|~19·6~|55·7|~13·2~| 70  | 9·0 |~228·3~|  22
  December|56·8|~13·8~|67·5|~19·7~|51·7|~10·9~| 69  | 1·65| ~42·0~|   7
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  Year    |65·8|~18·8~|73·2|~22·9~|59·8|~15·5~| 66·7|30·5 |~777·0~| 117
  ========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======+=====

From this it may be seen that Algiers possesses a very desirable climate
all the year round, though a trifle too rainy in late autumn.

The figures are those of the year 1901, as the French Government does
not appear to have furnished the library with mean normal results.


_Malta._--Owing to the large number of our officers and men serving
there, the climate of this small island, which is delightful during the
winter, is of interest to many, but it perhaps barely merits the name of
a hot climate. While resembling in some respects the climate of southern
Italy, it approximates more closely to that of northern Africa, the
rainfall being very scanty.

The following are the principal climatic data:--

VALETTA. LAT. 35° 54′ N.; LONG. 14° 30′ E.; NEAR SEA LEVEL.

  =========+===========+===========+=====+=============+==============
    Month  |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall  |   Remarks
           |  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|             |
           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |             |
           +----+------+----+------+ mid +-----+-------+
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ity | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+--------------
  January  |60·2|~15·7~|50·1|~10·0~|  78 | 5·51|~139·7~|Total Annual
  February |63·0|~17·2~|50·3|~10·2~|  79 | 1·04| ~26·2~|Rainfall, 17·1
  March    |63·4|~16·8~|49·8|~9·9~ |  73 | 1·04| ~26·2~|ins., or 40·3
  April    |65·6|~18·5~|52·4|~11·3~|  78 | 2·18| ~55·2~|cm.
  May      |72·3|~22·4~|59·1|~15·0~|  78 | 0·55| ~14·0~|
  June     |80·7|~27·0~|64·9|~18·3~|  72 | 0·38| ~10·0~|
  July     |88·0|~31·1~|70·6|~21·3~|  70 | 0·00|  ~0·0~|
  August   |84·9|~29·4~|70·7|~21·4~|  77 | 0·02|  ~0·1~|
  September|83·3|~28·5~|68·7|~20·4~|  77 | 0·10|  ~2·5~|
  October  |81·7|~27·5~|67·3|~19·8~|  78 | 0·60| ~15·2~|
  November |71·1|~21·7~|59·0|~15·0~|  83 | 3·64| ~92·5~|
  December |62·6|~16·8~|52·2|~11·2~|  85 | 1·04| ~26·2~|
  =========+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======+==============

During the summer, periods of hot dry winds blowing from the burning
African deserts are somewhat trying, but these do not, as a rule, last
for many consecutive days, and on the whole the climate is not
unhealthy.

A peculiar infective fever, commonly known as “Malta fever,” but also
met with in other parts of the Mediterranean littoral, as well as in
India, and very troublesome on account of its obstinate tendency to
relapse, is the most serious drawback in the matter of disease, but
under improving modern sanitation the disease is yearly becoming less
common.

The climate of the Syrian coast is very similar, but somewhat warmer,
with a heavier rainfall; so also is that of Algiers and the North
African coast generally, there being, however, mostly a wider range
between the hottest and coldest months than in the purely insular Malta.
Malaria, dysentery, and other tropical diseases are not uncommon, but
seldom either widely spread or particularly virulent. As we leave the
coast, the range of temperature, both annual and diurnal, rapidly
increases, and is especially marked in the highlands of Asia Minor, as,
for example, at Erzerum, where the temperature in January falls as low
as -20° F. (-29° C.), and in summer may exceed 90° F. (31° C.).


_Cyprus._--Long. 32° 20′ to 34° 35′ E; lat. 34° 33′ to 35° 41′ N. Our
administrative connection with this island, and the circumstance that it
has of late been strongly recommended as a fairly stimulating winter
health resort for delicate people, and especially for cases of chest
diseases and others, make it desirable to include an account of it
within our list.

The following are the principal climatic data:--

NIKOSIA, ON CENTRAL PLAIN.

  =========+============+===========+======+===========+======
    Month  |     Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|  Rainfall |Number
           |   Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive |           |of
           | Temperature|Temperature|Humid-|           |Rainy
           |            |           | ity  |           |Days
           +-----+------+----+------+------+-----+-----+
           |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |   %  | Ins.|~Mm.~|
  ---------+-----+------+----+------+------+-----+-----+------
  January  | 73·4|~23·0~|32·3| ~0·2~|  84  | 4·0 |~101~| 11·8
  February | 70·7|~21·5~|31·8| ~0·1~|  84  | 3·70| ~94~| 11·8
  March    | 76·5|~24·7~|36·4| ~2·4~|  81  | 1·23| ~31~|  7·4
  April    | 84·5|~29·2~|38·8| ~3·8~|  78  | 1·14| ~29~|  4·5
  May      | 90·4|~32·4~|46·2| ~7·9~|  74  | 0·63| ~16~|  4·3
  June     |100·0|~37·8~|52·4|~11·3~|  67  | 0·39| ~10~|  1·4
  July     |100·7|~38·3~|55·5|~13·1~|  68  | 0·13|  ~3~|  0·3
  August   |103·0|~39·4~|57·2|~14·0~|  66  | 0·8 | ~20~|  0·5
  September|100·5|~38·1~|54·4|~12·3~|  73  | 0·04|  ~1~|  0·6
  October  | 93·5|~34·2~|47·7| ~8·7~|  76  | 0·36|  ~9~|  2·3
  November | 84·5|~29·0~|39·3| ~4·1~|  82  | 1·97| ~50~|  6·5
  December | 77·5|~25·3~|34·0| ~1·1~|  85  | 2·31| ~59~|  7·8
  =========+=====+======+====+======+======+=====+=====+======

The climate is somewhat cooler in summer on the coast, and the rainfall
slightly higher, but with a smaller number of rainy days.

The island is mountainous; a great mass of hills occupying the greater
part of the southern half, and reaching an elevation of over 6,400 feet
at Mount Troödos, where a summer sanatorium has been established. A
lower range of hills fringes the entire northern shore, and between the
two is a central plain, on the highest part of which, at an elevation of
about 500 feet, is situated the capital, Nikosia. These hills shelter
the central plain from the bitter winds of the Taurus range in Asia
Minor during winter, but, on the other hand, cut off the cooling
sea-breezes in summer. For eight months in the year the rainfall is
inappreciable, and the summer appearance of the plains arid in the
extreme, but the advent of the winter rains in October changes the scene
to one of the greatest fertility. The hill country, on the other hand,
is generally well-clothed with pine-forests, and enjoys, during the
summer, a very pleasant climate. At Nikosia the mean temperature of the
year is 67·2°, the extreme maximum being 108°, and the minimum 28°,
showing the large range of 80°.

At the hill station on Mount Troödos, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the
excessive heat of the plains is entirely avoided. The season there opens
in June and closes in October, the temperature never exceeding 85° F. in
1901. The following table shows the great gain in coolness:--

MEAN TEMPERATURES, FAHRENHEIT.

    1901       Nikosia     Troödos     Difference
  June          77·2°        61·7°        15·5°
  July          83·7°        71·7°        12·0°
  August        83·3°        68·2°        15·1°
  September     78·8°        61·6°        17·2°

During the greater part of the year the wind is usually from the
north-west, but during the coldest part of the winter is usually from
the east. It will be noticed that the general characters of the climate
are rather those of a Continental than of an insular situation. The air
is almost always highly charged with electricity, and there is
comparatively little malaria or other specially tropical diseases.


_Egypt._--The climate of this country is, even from the
all-the-year-round point of view, one of the finest in the world, and
hence its well-deserved popularity as a winter health resort. Apart from
the “Khamseen,” which those used to Indian hot weather might esteem a
change for the better, its one drawback is what may be termed the
co-efficient of rapacity of its hotel-keepers; as for the casual
visitor, it is certainly an expensive country.

With endless sights of antiquarian interest, and a gay cosmopolitan
society, there is little chance of boredom for either the studious or
frivolous, and with the possible exception of California, no climate
affords a better combination of warmth and sunlight, with a clean,
stimulating atmosphere. It owes this to its peculiar geographical
characters, for although it includes on the map a large area, the
actually inhabited portion consists of only a narrow strip, a few miles
wide, on either side of the Nile; as all the land beyond the reach of
the annual overflow of the river, which is at its maximum in September,
and lowest in June, is absolute desert, the intense dryness of which is
necessarily fatal to all forms of vegetable life, including the organic
germs of disease. On this account, even in the middle of the cultivated
strip, the air has never been fouled by passing over any considerable
extent of habitations and cultivation, with their inevitable emanations,
but must always come, almost fresh and germ-free, from the illimitable
expanse of sand and rock that immediately succeeds the narrow band of
river alluvium.

Dr. Dalrymple, one of the earliest writers on the subject, remarks, “It
is scarcely possible to imagine anything more invigorating and
life-giving than the air of the desert; there is a dryness and
elasticity about it like nothing else, and the sense of renovation when
breathing it is, to the languid invalid, like a new lease of life.”

Both he and Dr. Sandwith, from whose excellent “Egypt as a Winter
Resort” the following tables are taken, seem agreed as to its
suitability for all cases of chest disease that have not gone too far to
be amendable to climatic treatment of any sort, and Dr. Sandwith finds
it also suitable for such cases of heart and kidney affections as are
unfavourably affected by cold; while the sulphur baths of Helouan have
been found remarkably useful in the chronic forms of rheumatoid
arthritis, rheumatism and gout.

The main characteristic of the climate is its intense dryness. Even on
the coast at Alexandria, the rainfall is but trifling, and above Cairo
it may almost be neglected; but in spite of this even during the hottest
months the climate is quite bearable. “Northern rooms, if closed in good
time, need never exceed 83° in the hot weather, or fall below 52° in the
cold season, provided the sun-warmed air be allowed free entry.” The
prevailing wind is a gentle breeze from the north, but both at Cairo and
Alexandria, during the fifty days about Easter-time, a peculiar
dust-laden wind, highly charged with electricity, and known as “the
Khamseen,” blows at intervals. It is very disagreeable while it lasts,
the dust sometimes obscuring the sun almost as completely as a London
fog, but it rarely persists more than two days at a time, and does not
usually occur more than three or four times in a season. The following
tables will give a good general idea of the climate:--

ALEXANDRIA. LAT. 31° 13′ N.; LONG. 26° 53′ E. E.F., 66 ft.

  =========+==================+======+======+=======+=============
    Month  |  Temperature, F. | Rela-| Rain |Clouds,|    Winds
           +----+------+------+ tive |  in  | 0-10  +------+------
           |Mean| Mean | Mean |Humid-|Inches|       |Direc-|Force,
           |    | Maxi-| Mini-| ity  |      |       | tion |0-10
           |    |  ma  |  ma  |  %   |      |       |      |
  ---------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+------+------
  January  |58·1| 64·0 | 53·2 | 67   | 2·33 |   4   |  N.  |  2·5
  February |58·6| 64·2 | 54·0 | 65   | 1·43 |   4   | N.W. |  2·5
  March    |61·6| 68·0 | 56·0 | 65   |  ·78 |   3   | N.W. |  2·7
  April    |66·0| 73·0 | 60·6 | 66   |  ·12 |   2   |  N.  |  2·5
  May      |70·0| 75·4 | 65·6 | 70   |  ·03 |   2   |  N.  |  2·2
  June     |75·0| 79·6 | 71·2 | 72   |  --  |   1   |  N.  |  2·3
  July     |77·6| 81·2 | 74·8 | 75   |  --  |   1   |N.N.W.|  2·4
  August   |79·0| 82·4 | 76·1 | 73   |  --  |   1   |  N.  |  2·0
  September|77·4| 81·2 | 74·3 | 69   |  ·11 |   2   |  N.  |  2·3
  October  |74·6| 79·2 | 70·6 | 68   |  ·33 |   2   |  N.  |  2·1
  November |68·2| 73·4 | 64·0 | 67   | 1·32 |   3   |  N.  |  2·2
  December |62·0| 67·8 | 57·0 | 67   | 1·79 |   4   |  N.  |  2·4
  ---------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+------+------
  Annual   |69·0| 74·1 | 64·8 | 68·6 | 8·24 |   2·4 |  N.  |  2·3
  =========+====+======+======+======+======+=======+======+======

CAIRO. LAT. 30° 4′ N.; LONG. 31° 15′ E. E.F., 108.

  =========+==================+======+======+=======+=============
    Month  |  Temperature, F. | Rela-| Rain |Clouds,|    Winds
           +----+------+------+ tive |  in  | 0-10  +------+------
           |Mean| Mean | Mean |Humid-|Inches|       |Direc-|Force,
           |    | Maxi-| Mini-| ity  |      |       | tion |0-10
           |    |  ma  |  ma  |  %   |      |       |      |
  ---------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+------+------
  January  |53·6| 61·4 | 46·6 | 69·7 |  ·19 |  4·1  | S.W. |  2·2
  February |57·0| 65·3 | 48·8 | 66·2 |  ·24 |  4·2  |  N.  |  1·4
  March    |62·8| 73·2 | 53·0 | 56·2 |  ·03 |  3·4  |  N.  |  2·5
  April    |70·4| 81·2 | 59·9 | 47·8 |  ·12 |  3·4  |  N.  |  2·6
  May      |75·2| 86·8 | 63·4 | 48·4 |  ·22 |  2·3  |  N.  |  2·8
  June     |82·6| 94·7 | 70·2 | 44·0 |  ·02 |  1·0  |  N.  |  3·0
  July     |83·8| 93·0 | 72·2 | 49·0 |  --  |  1·2  |  N.  |  4·3
  August   |82·2| 92·9 | 71·4 | 55·3 |  --  |  1·6  |  N.  |  4·1
  September|77·8| 87·5 | 68·0 | 62·1 |  --  |  1·8  |  N.  |  4·3
  October  |74·3| 84·0 | 64·8 | 65·8 |  --  |  2·5  |  N.  |  3·2
  November |64·4| 74·2 | 56·3 | 67·5 |  ·21 |  3·0  |  N.  |  2·1
  December |58·4| 67·7 | 50·4 | 69·6 |  ·19 |  3·7  |  N.  |  2·2
  ---------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+------+--------
  Year     |70·2| 80·1 | 60·4 | 58·46| 1·22 |  2·6  |  N.  |  2·9
  =========+====+======+======+======+======+=======+======+========

LUXOR. LAT. 25° 40′ N.; LONG. 32° 35′ E. E.F., 292.

Winter Climate.

  =========+==================+======+======+=======+=============
    Month  |  Temperature, F. | Rela-| Rain |Clouds,|    Winds
           +----+------+------+ tive |  in  | 0-10  +------+------
           |Mean| Mean | Mean |Humid-|Inches|       |Direc-|Force,
           |    | Maxi-| Mini-| ity  |      |       | tion |0-10
           |    |  ma  |  ma  |  %   |      |       |      |
  ---------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+------+------
  November | -- | 78·99| 62·1 |  --  |      |  --   |  S.W.|  1·0
  December | -- | 70·0 | 53·6 |  --  |  _N  |  --   |  N.E.|  1·8
  January  |56·7| 65·1 | 41·3 | 53·2 |   i  |  2·9  |  N.W.|  1·0
  February |62·6| 70·6 | 42·4 | 51·0 |   l  |  1·9  |  N.W.|  1·1
  March    |66·9| 80·1 | 47·6 | 45·0 |   ._ |  2·1  | {N.W.|} 0·7
           |    |      |      |      |      |       | {N.E.|}
  =========+====+======+======+======+======+=======+======+======


_Assouan_, 133 miles further up the Nile, has a winter climate which is
said to be almost 5° F. higher than Luxor, and to be freer from
dust-storms. The building of the great dam and the large artificial lake
which has been thus formed can hardly fail to modify the climate, so
that it is hardly worth while reproducing Dr. Sandwith’s table.

For the rest, the whole of Egypt up to this latitude may be said to be
very healthy for Europeans, there being much less malaria than one would
be inclined to expect as a consequence of the annual overflowing of the
Nile; a circumstance which may, I believe, be attributed to the
generally neat character of the cultivation, and the care with which
every square yard of cultivable soil is utilised. Internal worms are,
however, extremely common amongst the natives, but care in the matter of
drinking water will render the risk run by the European very trifling.

Another terribly common disease amongst the natives is granular
ophthalmia, a disease easily acquired by contact, or indirectly through
the agency of flies, but Dr. Sandwith finds that it is extremely rarely
taken by Europeans, though soreness of the eyes from dust and glare is
not uncommon, for which he recommends the daily use of a little boracic
solution as a toilet wash. It might, however, be perhaps advisable to
protect young children by means of a veil when abroad, especially when
entrusted to the care of a native attendant.


_THE REMAINDER OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT._--Our knowledge of African
meteorology is necessarily in its infancy, and it is only possible to
furnish a few tables of widely distant parts of this immense area, which
may give some idea of its climatic characters. The whole of the northern
part of the continent is extremely dry, much of it being quite rainless,
especially towards its eastern side. Following on this is the equatorial
belt, a great portion of which is barely, if at all, explored, but which
seems to usually present the general characters of such latitudes and to
be usually blessed with an ample rainfall across the entire width of the
continent. Southward of the equatorial zone we again meet with immense
dry and desert areas, such as the Karoo, but here it is the western side
that is the more arid, none of the south-eastern coast being in any
sense rainless.

Malaria is extremely rife in almost all parts of the huge peninsula, and
in addition to this we have in “Blackwater fever” and sleeping sickness,
diseases which seem to be at present its own peculiar privilege, though,
fortunately, yellow fever is not as yet included in its list of dangers.
The low-lying country along the coast and of the great rivers is
notoriously unhealthy, such as the Bight of Benin, where, according to
the sailor’s proverb,

    “There’s two comes out
    Where three goes in.”

But inland there are considerable tracts of elevated country which
present climates by no means to be despised, and which will no doubt in
time, with the advance of civilisation, become eligible and healthy
sites for European occupation, and more than one example of climatic
conditions that appear decidedly inviting will be found amongst the
tables furnished below.

An example of the climate of the Sahara has already been furnished in
the notice of Algeria, and in the northern part of the continent the
only other at all well-known climate (apart from Egypt) is the _Soudan_.

Practically rainless in parts, the climate is intensely hot and dry, the
relative humidity showing one of the lowest records in our collection;
but as the equatorial zone is approached a moderate rainfall develops,
and throughout the region the large daily range of temperature results
in the nights being comparatively cool, and therefore less trying than
many parts of India. The northern portion is too dry to be very
unhealthy, apart from the danger of abdominal chills, but as we ascend
the Nile it expands into the immense marshes described by Baker and
others, which are necessarily intensely malarious, while round the great
lakes the sleeping sickness, previously rare or unknown there, is
spreading rapidly.

Commencing with the dry Soudanese region, climatic tables of three
stations will be found below, the first and most northern of which, it
will be seen, is practically rainless. The figures of the first table
are averages of ten years’ observations.

WADI HALFA. LAT. 21° 55′ N.; LONG. 31° 19′ E. E.F., 590; E.M., 128.

  =========+===========+============+===========+===========+===========
    Month  |    Mean   |     Mean   |    Mean   |  Relative |  Rainfall
           |Temperature|   Maximum  |  Minimum  |  Humidity |
           |           | Temperature|Temperature|           |
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+-----+
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | At  | At  |
           |    |      |     |      |    |      | 9 h.|21 h.|
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-----------
  January  |59·4|~15·2~|73.7 |~23·2~|47·5| ~8·6~|  42 |  44 |
  February |62·6|~17·0~| 77·2|~25·1~|48·4| ~9·1~|  39 |  36 |
  March    |71·5|~21·9~| 87·5|~30·8~|56·5|~13·6~|  30 |  30 |
  April    |80·5|~26·9~| 95·8|~35·5~|63·7|~17·6~|  23 |  24 |
  May      |87·8|~31·0~|104·3|~40·2~|70·5|~21·4~|  17 |  19 |Practically
  June     |90·7|~32·6~|106·7|~41·6~|74·4|~23·5~|  20 |  22 |_nil_.
  July     |90·5|~32·5~|105·7|~40·9~|74·5|~23·6~|  23 |  30 |Drops
  August   |90·0|~32·2~|103·5|~39·7~|75·0|~23·9~|  31 |  34 |recorded
  September|88·7|~31·4~| 99·6|~37·6~|73·5|~23·1~|  35 |  38 |15 times
  October  |82·5|~28·1~| 97·2|~36·2~|69·0|~20·6~|  37 |  10 |in 10 years
  November |70·7|~21·8~| 85·0|~29·4~|58·7|~14·8~|  41 |  43 |
  December |63·0|~17·2~| 76·6|~24·7~|51·0|~10·6~|  45 |  45 |
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+-----+
  Year     |78·0|~25·6~| 92·9|~33·8~|63·5|~17·8~|  -- |  -- |
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+=====+=====+===========

The two remaining tables are for the year 1901, and are not even
complete in places. Kassala is, of course, much nearer the sea than
Omdurman, and hence its better rainfall.

OMDURMAN. LAT. 15° 38′; LONG. 32° 29′. E.F., 1,250; E.M., 376.

  =========+===========+============+===========+======+============
    Month  |    Mean   |     Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|  Rainfall
           |Temperature|   Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive |
           |           | Temperature|Temperature|Humid-|
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+ ity  +----+-------
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |      |Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+------+----+-------
  January  |72·9|~22·7~| 88·5|~31·4~|62·6|~17·0~|  24  | -- |   --
  February |79·9|~26·3~| 94·5|~34·7~|70·2|~21·2~|  28  | -- |   --
  March    |82·7|~28·2~| 99·7|~37·6~| -- |  --  |  19  | -- |   --
  April    |87·5|~30·8~|103·7|~39·8~|72·5|~22·5~|  14  | -- |   --
  May      |93·0|~33·9~|112·0|~42·4~|79·0|~26·1~|  20  | -- |   --
  June     |89·9|~32·1~|106·2|~41·2~|77·4|~25·2~|  46  |0·63| ~16·1~
  July     |90·4|~32·4~|103·9|~39·9~|79·3|~26·3~|  48  |0·50| ~12·8~
  August   |87·0|~30·6~| 99·0|~37·2~|77·7|~25·5~|  58  |0·13|  ~3·3~
  September|90·4|~32·4~|104·5|~40·3~|81·0|~27·2~|  40  | -- |   --
  October  |89·9|~32·1~|103·2|~39·5~|79·5|~26·4~|  30  |0·32|  ~8·0~
  November |82·4|~28·0~| 96·7|~35·9~|72·4|~22·4~|  24  | -- |   --
  December |76·2|~24·5~| 91·2|~32·9~|65·5|~18·6~|  28  | -- |   --
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+------+----+-------
  Year     |85·2|~29·5~| 99·9|~37·7~|74·4|~23·5~|  32  |1·58| ~40·2~
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+======+====+=======

KASSALA. LAT. 15° 28′ N.; LONG. 36° 24′ E.

  =========+===========+============+===========+======+===========
    Month  |    Mean   |     Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|  Rainfall
           |Temperature|   Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive |
           |           | Temperature|Temperature|Humid-|
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+ ity  +----+-------
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |      |Ins.|  ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+------+----+-------
  January  |72·6|~22·6~| 86·4|~30·2~|58·9|~14·9~|  --  |   Drops
  February | -- |  --  | 95·6|~35·4~| -- | --   |  --  | -- |   --
  March    |82·0|~27·8~|100·5|~38·1~|68·1|~20·1~|  51  | -- |   --
  April    |86·4|~30·2~|103·3|~39·6~|73·0|~22·8~|  32  |0·08|  ~2·0~
  May      |89·6|~32·0~|106·2|~41·2~|76·9|~24·9~|  25  |0·25|  ~6·4~
  June     |86·0|~30·0~|101·2|~38·4~|75·5|~24·2~|  40  |2·85| ~72·4~
  July     |83·7|~28·7~| 96·9|~36·0~|74·2|~23·4~|  59  |1·48| ~37·4~
  August   |79·8|~26·6~| 92·5|~33·6~|81·8|~27·7~|  64  |3·96|~100·6~
  September| -- |  --  | 99·8|~37·7~|75·4|~24·1~|  --  |1·24| ~31·3~
  October  | -- |  --  |101·4|~38·5~|76·5|~24·7~|  --  | -- |   --
  November | -- |  --  | 99·2|~37·3~|73·5|~23·1~|  --  | -- |   --
  December | -- |  --  |  -- |  --  | -- |  --  |  --  | -- |   --
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+------+----+-------
  Year     |83·0|~28·3~| 98·5|~36·9~| -- |  --  |  40  |9·84|~250·1~
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+======+====+=======


_Abyssinia._--The greater part of the Ethiopian empire is high ground,
and in many parts of the country the climate may almost be described as
temperate, as may be judged from the following statement (derived from a
French official source) of the climatic factors of the capital during
the year 1901.

ADIS-ABABA. LAT. 9° 1′ N.; LONG. 38° 43′ E. E.F., ABOUT 7,000.

  ========+====+======+===========+===========+=====+==============+=====
    Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall   | Num-
          |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|              | ber
          |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |              | of
          +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+--------+Rainy
          | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty  | Ins.|  ~Mm.~ | Days
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  January | -- |  --  | -- | --   | -- |  --  |  -- |  -- |    --  |  --
  February|55·4|~18·0~|73·4|~23·0~|47·9| ~8·8~|  81 | 2·15|  ~54·6~|   8
  March   |58·0|~14·4~|75·7|~24·3~|50·4|~10·2~|  83 | 5·23| ~132·7~|  10
  April   |58·4|~14·6~|74·2|~23·3~|51·4|~10·7~|  86 | 4·39| ~111·1~|  11
  May     |60·9|~16·0~|78·5|~25·8~|52·7|~11·5~|  74 | 1·36|  ~34·7~|   4
  June    |57·5|~14·2~|72·3|~22·4~|49·7| ~9·8~|  72 | 8·36| ~212·3~|  30
  July    |56·0|~13·3~|69·0|~20·6~|49·7| ~9·8~|  80 |10·10| ~256·5~|  30
  August  |60·2|~15·7~|69·0|~20·6~|50·0|~10·0~|  79 | 9·46| ~240·1~|  28
  Septem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber     |63·0|~17·2~|73·5|~23·1~|49·8| ~9·9~|  66 | 5·48| ~139·2~|  14
  October |61·5|~16·4~|77·2|~25·1~|46·5| ~8·1~|  37 | 0·60|  ~15·2~|   3
  November|60·0|~15·6~|77·0|~25·0~|44·5| ~6·9~|  28 |  -- |    --  |  --
  December|57·2|~14·0~|74·4|~23·5~|44·3| ~6·7~|  39 | 0·54|  ~13·5~|   3
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  Year    |58·4|~14·6~|72·2|~23·6~|48·7| ~9·3~|  66 |49·11|~1247·5~| 141
  ========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+========+=====


_The Region of the Great Lakes._--Turning now to the great lakes of
Central Africa, the following data from Hann’s “Klimatologie” may give
some notion of the conditions prevailing.

In the Victoria Nyanza region (at E.F., 3,900; E.M., 1,200), according
to E. G. Rauenstein, the mean annual temperature is 71·2° F. (21·8° C.),
March 73·7° F. (23·2° C.), July 67·7° F. (19·8° C.), October 75·2° F.
(24·0° C.), December 71·7° F. (22·0° C.). The extreme mean monthly
maxima and minima (of January and February), 94° to 54° F. (34·4° to
12·2° C.), and the absolute maximum and minimum, 99·7° and 50·2° F.
(37·7° and 10·1° C.).

The average rainfall for nine years was as follows:--

  ====+====+====+====+====+===+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====+=====
      |Jan.|Feb.|Mar.|Apl.|May|June|July|Aug.|Sept.|Oct.|Nov.|Dec.|Year
  ----+----+----+----+----+---+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+-----
  Ins.|2·5 |3·3 |3·7 |4·8 |4·2|3·4 |2·5 |3·3 | 4·8 |4·8 |5·3 |3·2 | 40·6
  Mm. | 63 | 84 | 94 |122 |106| 87 | 63 | 83 | 122 |122 |136 | 80 |1,160
  ====+====+====+====+====+===+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====+=====

In the north (Uganda) the climate is warm and moist, though without
excessive rainfall, but the air is a good deal drier along the southern
coast.

In Tanganyika, in lat. 4° S., long. 29° E. (E.F., 2,670, E.M., 813), the
mean annual temperature is 76·7° F. (24·8° C.), the mean of the hottest
month (of October) being 81·7° F. (27·6° C.), and of the coolest, in
December, 74·2° F. (23·4° C.), the extremes being 90·7° and 64·4° F.
(32·6° and 18° C.). The rains occur in April and May and November and
December, while from June to September is dry, the annual rainfall being
50 ins. (1,270 mm.).

Further south, Zoruba, in Nyassaland, has a total rainfall of 62·23 ins.
(1,581 mm.), falling on 144 days in the year, but should otherwise be a
pleasant climate, as the relative humidity is usually low.

ZORUBA. LAT. 16° S. E.F., 1800. E.M., 548.

  ========+====+======+===========+===========+=====+=============+=====
    Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall  | Num-
          |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|             | ber
          |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |             | of
          +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+-------+Rainy
          | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty  | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Days
          |    |      |    |      |    |      | at 2|     |       |
          |    |      |    |      |    |      | p.m.|     |       |
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  January |69·8|~21~  |81·2|~27·3~|65·9|~18·9~|  78 |11·62|~295~  |  27
  February|66·7|~19·3~|77·6|~25·3~|63·7|~17·6~|  74 |15·42|~391~  |  20
  March   |66·7|~19·3~|78·9|~26·1~|64·7|~18·2~|  90 | 7·60|~193~  |  23
  April   |64·4|~18·1~|75·4|~24·2~|61·7|~16·5~|  76 |11·74|~298·5~|  14
  May     |61·1|~16·1~|76·9|~25·0~|58·0|~14·4~|  65 | 0·37|  ~9·0~|   7
  June    |57·1|~13·9~|68·4|~20·3~|54·4|~12·5~|  66 | 2·55| ~64·8~|  12
  July    |55·0|~12·8~|68·8|~20·5~|52·9|~11·7~|  65 | 0·87| ~21·8~|   6
  August  |55·4|~13·1~|71·4|~21·9~|52·3|~11·3~|  51 | 0·15|  ~3·8~|   4
  Septem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber     |62·7|~17·0~|79·0|~26·1~|58·1|~14·4~|  48 | 1·80| ~45·7~|   4
  October |68·5|~20·3~|85·4|~29·7~|62·6|~16·9~|  53 |  ·95| ~24·1~|   4
  November|72·0|~22·2~|88·3|~31·3~|67·1|~19·4~|  53 |  ·35|  ~8·9~|   4
  December|73·2|~23·0~|83·6|~28·6~|65·6|~18·6~|  66 | 8·81|~223·8~|  19
  ========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======+=====

The capital, Blantyre, at E.F., 3,280, E.M., 1,000, is naturally even
cooler, but has a heavier rainfall, distributed as below:--

  ====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+====+
      | Jan.| Feb.| Mar.| Apl.| May |June|
  ----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+
  Ins.|19·51|17·60|14·48|13·77| 4·05|3·28|
  Mm. |484·6| 447 | 368 |349·5|102·9|83·7|
  ====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+====+

  ====+====+====+=====+=====+=====+=====
      |July|Aug.|Sept.| Oct.| Nov.| Dec.
  ----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Ins.|3·34|1·56| 1·83| 4·13| 5·54|15·35
  Mm. |85·1|39·5| 46·8|105·3|  140| 390
  ====+====+====+=====+=====+=====+=====


_The Congo Basin._--The climate of the basin of the Congo is notoriously
unhealthy, especially as the portion as yet opened up seldom extends far
beyond the low malarious banks of the great river and its tributaries.
The warmest month is February or March, and the coldest July or August.

Hann gives the following table of the temperatures of the following
stations:--

  ===============+========+===========+============+============
     Station     |Latitude|Mean Annual|Mean Temper-|Mean Temper-
                 |        |Temperature|  ature of  |  ature of
                 |        |           |   Warmest  |   Coldest
                 |        |           |    Month   |    Month
                 |        |----+------+-----+------+-----+------
                 |        | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~
  ---------------+--------+----+------+-----+------+-----+------
  Luluaberg      |5·9° S. |81·3|~27·4~| 81·7|~27·6~| 80·8|~27·1~
  Congo, mouth of|6·0° S. |76·8|~24·9~| 80·5|~26·9~| 70·9|~21·6~
  Vivi           |5·7° S. |77·2|~25·1~| 80·5|~26·9~| 71·7|~22·0~
  San Salvador   |6·3° S. |77·9|~25·5~| 81·0|~27·2~| 72·8|~22·7~
  Brazzaville    |4·3° S. |81·2|~27·3~| 84·7|~29·3~| 75·2|~24·0~
  Bolobo         |2·2° S. |80·5|~26·9~| 81·5|~27·5~| 79·4|~26·3~
  Equatorville   |0·0     |79·1|~26·2~| 80·6|~27·0~| 78·2|~25·7~
  Bangala        |1·5° N. |78·9|~26·0~| 80·8|~27·1~| 77·7|~25·4~
  ===============+========+====+======+=====+======+=====+======

These are typical equatorial climates, the greatest range between the
means of the coldest and hottest months being at most 9·5° F. (5·3° C.),
while in one case the range is less than one degree of the Fahrenheit
scale, and though the temperatures are in no case excessive, the
dampness of the atmosphere makes the heat of a very trying character,
especially in certain localities, as at Stanley’s Pool, where during
August and September there are certain peculiar night-winds which, not
unfrequently, are the cause of cases of heat apoplexy, and this although
the highest temperature recorded is but 97°, at Brazzaville.

There are two rainy seasons, in April and November. The dry period falls
in June and July, but is not very marked in the interior.

The table on next page will give an idea of the amount and distribution
of the rainfall.


_On the West Coast_, at Bathurst, the highest temperature occurs in
October, during the period of the greater rains, the annual extremes
being 98·8° F. (37·1° C.) and 57·4° F. (14·1° C.); the greatest daily
variation of temperature being met with during the dry season, January
to April, when it amounts to about 20° F. (11·5° C.). The rainfall
varied during eleven years from about 32 ins. (813 mm.) to 78 ins.
(1,980 mm.). In December, a cool morning breeze known as the Harmattan
sets in, and continues till February or March. The rains begin in June
and end in September.

MONTHLY RAINFALL IN THE CONGO BASIN.

  =========+=======================================
    Month  |              STATION.
           +-----------+-------------+-------------
           |   Congo,  | Lower Congo |   Bolobo
           |  Mouth of |             |
           +-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------
           | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------
  January  | 3·70| ~94~| 2·93|   ~74~| 5·0 |  ~127~
  February | 3·12| ~79~| 3·87|   ~98~| 6·97|  ~177~
  March    | 4·09|~104~| 4·73|  ~120~| 4·61|  ~117~
  April    | 3·86| ~98~| 8·87|  ~225~| 7·17|  ~182~
  May      | 2·98| ~76~| 2·84|   ~72~| 5·64|  ~143~
  June     | 0·23|  ~6~| 0·19|    ~5~| 0·39|   ~10~
  July     | 0   |  ~0~| 0   |    ~0~| 0·04|    ~1~
  August   | 0·08|  ~2~| 0   |    ~0~| 2·60|   ~66~
  September| 0·16|  ~4~| 0   |    ~0~| 3·98|  ~101~
  October  | 0·48| ~12~| 2·17|   ~55~| 6·54|  ~166~
  November | 3·95|~100~| 8·31|  ~211~| 9·58|  ~243~
  December | 2·28| ~58~| 4·64|  ~118~|10·80|  ~260~
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------
  Year     |24·95|~633~|39·85|~1,008~|62·7 |~1,593~
  =========+=====+=====+=====+=======+=====+=======


_At Sierra Leone_, in spite of its lying north of the equator, the
distribution of the monthly temperature resembles that of the Southern
Hemisphere, the minimum falling in August, while the hot season lasts
from February to May. The mean annual temperature is 77·6° F. (25·4°
C.), and the average annual extreme temperatures 97·5° F. (36·4° C.) and
64·8° F. (18·2° C.). No month is absolutely rainless, and the annual
rainfall is very heavy, ranging from 100 ins. (2,540 mm.) to 204·5 ins.
(5,230 mm.).

Curiously enough, the Cape Verd Islands are very dry, although they
agree generally as to temperature with the coast, tempered by their
insular position and the influence of the trade wind, having a rainfall
of only about 10 ins. (260 mm.), the most rainy month being September.


_Gulf of Guinea._--Along this coast there is a double rainy season; the
greater from March to the end of July, and the lesser in October and
November; with the dry season in August and September, and the cool
Harmattan blowing between November and March. In speaking of the
Harmattan as a cool breeze, it must be remembered that one refers only
to the sensations produced by it; for as a matter of fact, it has no
appreciable effect on the mean temperature, and feels cool only by
virtue of the accelerated evaporation from the skin caused by its
intense dryness. On the coast it really raises the mid-day temperatures,
although it renders the mornings and evenings cooler. In the interior
the Harmattan may figure indeed as a hot wind, and may be additionally
disagreeable on account of the red dust it carries.

The rainfall is everywhere very heavy, that of the Cameroon district
reaching the enormous figure of 350 ins. (8,970 mm.), the second
greatest in the world.

The mean annual temperature is about 77° F. (25° C.), with annual
extremes of 89·6° F. (32° C.) and 68° F. (20° C).

The following table of the climatic data for the coast of British
Nigeria will give a fair idea of the conditions that will be met with in
the coast towns of the group of colonies in this region:--

OLD CALABAR. LAT. 4° 58′ N.; LONG. 8° 17′ E.

  =========+===========+===========+===========+======+
    Month  |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|
           |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |  Monthly  | tive |
           |Temperature|   Maxima  |   Minima  |Humid-|
           |           |           |           | ity  |
           +----+------+----+------+----+------+ Per  +
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | Cent.|
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+------+
  January  |83·4|~28·6~| 90 |~32·2~| 68 |~20·0~| 78·8 |
  February |86·5|~30·3~| 94 |~34·4~| 72 |~22·2~| 78·1 |
  March    |84·8|~29·2~| 94 |~34·4~| 71 |~21·7~| 81·6 |
  April    |85·5|~29·7~| 93 |~33·9~| 71 |~21·7~| 75·8 |
  May      |81·9|~27·8~| 94 |~34·4~| 75 |~23·9~| 77·6 |
  June     |80·8|~27·0~| 92 |~33·3~| 71 |~21·7~| 84·4 |
  July     |77·9|~25·5~| 90 |~32·2~| 70 |~21·1~| 85·8 |
  August   |77·1|~25·0~| 86 |~30·0~| 70 |~21·1~| 88·2 |
  September|80·8|~27·0~| 92 |~33·3~| 70 |~21·1~| 85·7 |
  October  |82·3|~28·0~| 91 |~32·8~| 70 |~21·1~| 83·6 |
  November |82·3|~28·0~| 91 |~32·8~| 71 |~21·7~| 83·9 |
  December |81·9|~27·8~| 89 |~31·7~| 70 |~21·1~| 83·6 |
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+------+
  Year     |82·2|~28·0~| 94 |~34·4~| 68 |~20·0~| 82·1 |
  =========+====+======+====+======+====+======+======+

  =========+==============+=====
    Month  |   Rainfall   | Num-
           |              | ber
           |              | of
           |              |Rainy
           +------+-------+Days
           | Ins. | ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+------+-------+-----
  January  |  2·68| ~68·1~|   1
  February |  6·69|~170·0~|   5
  March    |  7·70|~195·6~|   8
  April    | 11·01|~279·5~|  10
  May      | 10·95|~279·0~|  19
  June     | 32·59|~827·0~|  22
  July     | 13·61|~345·4~|  25
  August   |  6·39|~162·4~|  15
  September| 11·84|~300·0~|  25
  October  |  9·38|~238·0~|  17
  November | 11·34|~288·3~|  12
  December |  1·32| ~33·6~|   1
  ---------+------+-------+-----
  Year     |119·50|~303·6~| 150
  =========+======+=======+=====

The remarkable uniformity of the temperature data is very striking. In
the interior of Nigeria, however, much higher temperatures are
experienced, especially at the times when the hot Harmattan is blowing
off the northern deserts, the noon temperature at such times being
rarely under 100° F. (37·8° C).

As we get farther south the temperature moderates and the rainfall
rapidly diminishes; the mean temperature in Angola being no more than
68° F. (20° C.), while in the elevated interior the climate is neither
disagreeable nor unhealthy.

Dr. Yale Massey sends me the following information from his Mission
station in the Benguela district, at 4,700 feet, lat. _circa_ 12° S.;
and long. 17° E. “The distinctly wet months are from October to April
inclusive, and this is also the hot season. There are usually a few
showers in September, and rarely some in May, and during the dry season
there is usually a strong breeze. In the wet season the mid-day
temperature ranges from 80° to 100° F., at night from 45° to 60° F.;
while during the dry weather the mid-day temperature is from 70° to 90°
F., and at night even slight frost may occur. As might be expected from
the elevation and climate, this is a generally healthy locality, but
there is a certain amount of fever, most of the cases occurring in April
and May.”


_East Coast._--The reputation borne by the east coast is scarcely more
enviable than that of the western, the accounts of travellers voyaging
on the Zambesi being generally alternate wails on attacks of mosquitoes
and upsets from hippopotami. The rainfall is, however, much lighter, and
at corresponding latitudes the temperatures generally seem somewhat
lower.

Owing to the presence of a considerable Arab element, the population
have attained, in some places, a larger grade of civilisation than is
the case on the west coast, so that the introduction of hygienic
measures might be somewhat more practicable, albeit that Arab
civilisation, _per se_, has hardly reached the stage of promoting
sanitation.

The two following tables of a tropical and subtropical station, each on
this coast, will give some general conception of the conditions
prevailing.

ZANZIBAR ISLAND. LAT. _circa_ 7° 30′ S.

  =========+=============+=============+================
    Month  | Mean Maximum| Mean Minimum|   Rainfall
           | Temperature | Temperature |
  ---------+------+------+------+------+-----+----------
           |  F.  | ~C.~ |  F.  | ~C.~ |Ins. |   ~Mm.~
  ---------+------+------+------+------+-----+----------
  January  | 86·1 |~30·0~| 79·6 |~26·5~| 3·26|   ~82·6~
  February | 87·0 |~30·6~| 80·3 |~26·8~| 1·51|   ~38·3~
  March    | 86·3 |~30·2~| 79·3 |~26·3~| 6·24|  ~159·1~
  April    | 84·7 |~29·3~| 77·6 |~25·4~|11·94|  ~303·3~
  May      | 82·4 |~28·0~| 75·6 |~24·3~|10·23|  ~250·2~
  June     | 81·5 |~27·5~| 74·2 |~23·5~| 1·36|   ~34·7~
  July     | 80·2 |~26·8~| 72·7 |~22·6~| 2·75|   ~69·8~
  August   | 81·8 |~27·0~| 72·7 |~22·6~| 1·68|   ~43·0~
  September| 82·0 |~27·8~| 73·4 |~23·0~| 2·10|   ~53·3~
  October  | 83·2 |~28·1~| 75·3 |~24·0~| 3·74|   ~95·1~
  November | 83·7 |~28·7~| 77·1 |~25·1~| 8·23|  ~209·1~
  December | 85·8 |~29·8~| 79·5 |~26·4~| 4·18|  ~106·3~
  ---------+------+------+------+------+-----+----------
  Year     | 83·6 |~28·7~| 76·4 |~24·6~|57·25|~1,454·2~
  =========+======+======+======+======+=====+==========

NATAL, DURBAN. LAT. 29° 50′ S.; NEAR SEA-LEVEL. (1902.)

  =========+===========+============+===========+===============+=======
           |Temperature|   Monthly  | Monthly   |   Rainfall    |Number
    Month  | at 9 a.m. |    Maxima  |  Minima   |               |  of
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+---------+ Rainy
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |Ins. |  ~Mm.~  | Days
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+---------+-------
  January  |74·0|~23·3~| 92·1|~33·4~|56·4|~13·6~| 6·53|  ~166·2~|  23
  February |78·2|~25·7~| 95·2|~35·1~|60·5|~15·8~| 2·09|   ~53·2~|  12
  March    |74·5|~23·6~| 93·8|~34·3~|59·2|~15·1~|10·23|  ~256·5~|  20
  April    |70·1|~21·1~| 86·2|~30·1~|56·9|~13·8~| 2·52|   ~64·0~|   9
  May      |66·5|~19·2~| 83·5|~28·6~|52·0|~11·1~| 1·21|   ~30·6~|  10
  June     |61·6|~16·5~| 78·3|~25·7~|47·4| ~8·6~| 0·73|   ~18·0~|   3
  July     |62·0|~16·7~| 88·0|~31·1~|49·5| ~9·7~| 0·27|    ~7·0~|   4
  August   |63·5|~17·5~| 79·0|~26·1~|48·4| ~9·2~| 3·90|   ~99·1~|  12
  September|67·1|~19·5~|105·6|~40·9~|51·5|~10·8~| 2·54|   ~64·7~|  13
  October  |69·6|~20·8~| 91·2|~32·9~|51·3|~10·7~| 2·23|   ~56·6~|  17
  November |70·9|~21·6~| 92·3|~33·5~|57·1|~13·9~| 5·15|  ~130·8~|  19
  December |75·2|~24·0~| 91·4|~33·1~|58·2|~14·5~| 3·96|  ~100·4~|  18
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+---------+-------
  Year     |69·4|~20·8~|105·6|~40·9~|47·4| ~8·6~|41·18|~1,047·0~| 160
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+=====+=========+=======


_Madagascar._--With the exception of the littoral, which is rather warm
and extremely malarious, the greater part of this island is too elevated
to present a really hot climate, but the rainfall in the interior is
rather heavier than on the mainland, that of the capital, Antananarivo,
being 52·4 ins. (1,331 mm.), which is distributed as follows:--

MONTHLY RAINFALL OF ANTANANARIVO. E.F., 4,850; E.M., 1,478.

  ====+=====+====+=====+=====+====+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====
      | Jan.|Feb.|March|April| May|June|July|Aug.|Sept.|Oct.|Nov.|Dec.
  ----+-----+----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----
  Ins.|11·54|9·28|7·36 | 2·00|0·71|0·33|0·20|0·28| 3·18|3·51|5·25|11·0
  Mm. | 294 | 236| 187 |  51 | 18 |  8 |  5 |  7 |  17 | 89 | 133| 280
  ====+=====+====+=====+=====+====+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====


_The Island of Mauritius._--Latitude _circa_ 20° 20′ S. The mean annual
temperature of Port Louis is 77·2° F. (25·1° C.), the absolute extremes
of temperature in nineteen years being 89° and 53·5° F. (31·6° and 11·9°
C.), and the mean relative humidity 74 per cent., so that in the matter
of heat there is nothing to be feared; but unfortunately malaria, which
was quite unknown in the earlier days of its colonisation, is now very
rife and of a very obstinate type. The rainfall amounts to 74·5 ins.
(1,892 mm.), which is rather heavier than that of Madagascar, and is
distributed as below:--

MONTHLY RAINFALL OF PORT LOUIS, MAURITIUS; NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  ====+=====+====+=====+=====+====+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====
      |Jan. |Feb.|March|April|May |June|July|Aug.|Sept.|Oct.|Nov.|Dec.
  ----+-----+----+-----+-----+----+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----
  Ins.|11·55|8·18|11·35|9·14 |5·73|4·65|4·25|3·86|2·71 |2·64|3·24|6·98
  Mm. | 293 |208 |  288|232  |145 |118 |108 | 98 | 69  | 67 | 82 |177
  ====+=====+====+=====+=====+====+====+====+====+=====+====+====+====

The southernmost portions of Africa, Cape Colony, &c., do not belong to
the category of hot climates, either in climate or in their diseases,
and so need not be considered here.


_Red Sea and its Coasts, including Somaliland._--The horrors of the
climate of the Red Sea are too well known to need comment. The whole
region is almost rainless, subject to suffocating calms, and the
presence of the large, but completely land-locked, sheet of water
renders the relative humidity constantly high. Moreover, the whole basin
is comparatively shallow, so that it becomes highly warmed even in its
depths. At its southern end the temperature of the water at the surface
may reach 95° F. (35° C.), and 90° F. (32·2° C.) has been registered at
a depth of 5 fathoms. In the Gulf of Suez, pleasantly fresh days may be
met with during winter, but in the south the mean temperature of a day
seldom falls below 80° F. (26·7° C.), and in July the mean maximum
temperature exceeds 108° F. (42° C.) July is the hottest month, but
there is little to choose between the discomforts of any of the four
months, June to September. The least hot month is January, but the
climate is a singularly uniform one, the night bringing comparatively
little relief, and when followed by a breeze of about the same speed as
the ship, cases have occurred in which steamers have actually been
obliged to put about and steam against the wind, in order to prevent the
crew from falling victims to heat apoplexy.

North of lat. 19°, the prevailing winds are from the north or
north-west, while in the south the predominating winds are from the
south and south-east, between the two lying a belt of variable winds.
From June to August north-west winds prevail over the whole Red Sea.
This is known as the “Kamsin,” or fifty days’ wind, the word being
derived from the Arabic root of that numeral, which, originally,
intensely hot and dry, rapidly takes up moisture from the water, and is
hence particularly insupportable on the Arabian side of the sea; though
the fine sand with which it is loaded makes it equally objectionable
from another point of view on the African side. Its velocity is often
considerable, and under such circumstances may be even dangerous to the
lives of those who are so unfortunate as to be exposed to its fury in
the open desert. The extremely fine dust penetrates everywhere in spite
of closed doors and windows, reaching even ships far out at sea.
Fortunately, on the coast it is generally a good deal modified by
sea-breezes springing up in the afternoon, but there is also a tendency
to fall dead calm at night, under which circumstances the dark hours are
even more intolerable than those of the day.

The following table of the principal climatic data of Massawa in the
Italian colony of Erythrea, compiled from data contained in a pamphlet
by Dr. Giovani Petella, of the Royal Italian Navy, gives a good idea of
the character of the climate of the Red Sea littoral.

MASSAWA. LAT. 16° N.; NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =========+===========+============+===========+=====+===========+=====
    Month  |    Mean   |     Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|  Rainfall | Num-
           |Temperature|   Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|           | ber
           |           | Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |           | of
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+midi-+----+------+Rainy
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty  |Ins.| ~Mm.~| Days
           |    |      |     |      |    |      |  %  |    |      |
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+----+------+-----
  January  |78·0|~25·6~| 90·4|~32·4~|68·0|~20·0~|  75 |2·05|~52·1~| 5·2
  February |78·9|~26·0~| 92·2|~33·4~|68·4|~20·2~|  76 |0·63|~16·2~| 1·6
  March    |81·0|~27·2~| 94·8|~34·9~|70·1|~21·2~|  74 |0·68|~17·5~| 1·7
  April    |84·3|~29·0~| 98·2|~36·8~|72·8|~22·6~|  69 |0·11| ~2·5~|  ·2
  May      |88·5|~31·3~|101·7|~38·7~|76·6|~24·7~|  66 |0·56|~14·1~| 1·4
  June     |92·4|~33·5~|105·9|~41·0~|80·7|~27·0~|  51 | -- |  --  | --
  July     |94·7|~34·8~|108·5|~42·5~|84·5|~29·2~|  56 |0·13| ~3·3~| 1·3
  August   |94·6|~34·7~|106·7|~41·5~|83·4|~28·5~|  57 |0·26| ~5·7~| 1·7
  September|92·0|~33·3~|103·0|~39·4~|78·2|~25·7~|  60 |0·17| ~4·0~| 1·0
  October  |89·0|~31·7~| 98·7|~37·0~|77·2|~25·1~|  60 |0·35| ~9·0~| 1·0
  November |84·3|~29·0~| 95·2|~35·1~|75·0|~23·8~|  65 |0·78|~20·0~| 2·1
  December |80·7|~27·0~| 92·0|~33·3~|69·5|~20·8~|  70 |2·27|~57·6~| 3·7
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+=====+====+======+=====

The total rainfall amounts only to 7·86 ins. (198 mm.), falling on 29·2
days in the year, but the amount and distribution is very capricious,
varying greatly in different years. In so far, however, as Massawa can
be said to possess a rainy season at all, the wet weather comes in the
winter, instead of about August, as is normally the case in the Tropics
of the Northern Hemisphere.

Sometimes a whole year may be practically rainless, as for example 1885,
in which only 41·2 mm. (about 1¹⁄₂ ins.) was collected, whereas 1891 had
the respectable rainfall of 500 mm. (or 19¹⁄₂ ins.). Apparently,
however, it never rains in June.

Owing to the antiseptic powers of the intense light and heat, the place
is singularly free from zymotic diseases, the cases of fever being
usually not malarial, but truly climatic.

For the greater part of the year the skin is kept in a continuous bath
of perspiration, and accordingly prickly heat in its most acute form,
with the usual sequel of boils, is very common; as also, of course, are
heatstroke and less acute forms of nervous prostration. During the
continuance of the Kamsin Dr. Petella finds that the temperature of even
strong and healthy individuals is raised distinctly above the normal.

The extreme character of the climate of Suakim, the frequent scene of
British military activity, may be gathered from the following nearly
complete table for portions of the years 1902-1903.

SUAKIM. LAT. 19° 5′ N. NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =====+============+===========+============+===+=====+================
  Month|  Absolute  |  Absolute |  Rainfall  | C |Rela-|     Wind
       |   Maximum  |  Minimum  |            | l | tive|
       | Temperature|Temperature|            | o | Hu- |
       +-----+------+----+------+----+-------+ u |midi-|
       |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |Ins.| ~Mm.~ | d | ty  |
       |     |      |    |      |    |       | s |     |
  -----+-----+------+----+------+----+-------+---+-----+----------------
  Jan. | 78·5|~25·8~|68·4|~20·2~|1·17| ~29·7~|4·5|  71 |N.N.W., occasio-
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |nally N. and E.
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |in afternoon
  Feb. | 79·0|~26·7~|70·4|~21·3~|0·68| ~17·0~|4·8|  78 |N.W., shifting
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |to N.E. or N.
  Mar. | 82·5|~28·1~|71·9|~22·1~|0   |  ~0~  |2·1|  90 |Ditto, ditto
  April|      Wanting    |      |    |       |   |     |
  May  | 95·0|~35·0~|76·1|~24·5~|0   |  ~0~  |0·5|  78 |Ditto, ditto
  June |100·2|~37·9~|78·0|~25·6~|0·13|  ~3·0~|1·2|  69 |Variable, but
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |generally N.E.
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |in afternoon
  July |107·8|~42·1~|82·0|~27·8~|0·36|  ~9·3~|1·5|  48 |S.W. to S.,
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |shifting to E.
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |or N.E. in
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |afternoon
  Aug. |112·0|~44·4~|84·4|~29·1~|0   |  ~0~  |1·3|  68 |Ditto, ditto
  Sept.|      Wanting    |      |    |       |   |     |
  Oct. | 92·0|~33·3~|78·0|~25·6~|4·80|~122·0~|3·5|  75 |N.W. to W.,
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |shifting to N.E.
       |     |      |    |      |    |       |   |     |in afternoon
  Nov. | 86·5|~30·3~|75·9|~24·3~|6·10|~154·9~|5·6|  78 |Ditto, ditto
  Dec. | 81·0|~27·2~|69·5|~20·8~|2·02| ~51·5~|4·5|  78 |Ditto, ditto
  =====+=====+======+====+======+====+=======+===+=====+================

No European constitution could, however, endure such climates for any
considerable time with impunity without periods of relief in a more
moderate climate, and it is therefore fortunate that, owing to
configuration of the Colony of Erythrea, the inland portion of which for
the most part consists of elevated plateaux and mountains; these extreme
conditions of heat and moisture are limited to a comparatively narrow
belt of country, consisting of plains formed of slightly elevated coral
formation, and the foothills which gradually rise to elevations at which
the climate is necessarily temperate, some of the peaks reaching over
7,000 feet above the sea.

The progressive improvement of climate as one gains increasing
elevations, even where that at the sea-level is of the most extreme
character, is instructively shown in the table on next page, taken from
Dr. Petella’s pamphlet.

TABLE SHOWING THE MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE OF FOUR STATIONS IN ERYTHREA
AT VARIOUS ELEVATIONS, THE DIMINUTION OF TEMPERATURE BEING EQUIVALENT TO
ABOUT 1° F. FOR EVERY 300 FEET OF ELEVATION, OR 1° C. TO EACH 150
METRES.

  ============+===========+===========+===========+============
      Month   |  Massawa, |  Ghenda,  |   Cheren, |  Asmara,
              |   6 m.    |   962 m.  |  1,460 m. |  2,327 m.
              | elevation | elevation | elevation | elevation
              |  = 18 ft. |= 3,165 ft.|= 4,790 ft.|= 7,533 ft.
              +----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
              | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ------------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
  January     |78·0|~25·6~|65·2|~18·4~|63·3|~17·3~|68·8|~14·9~
  February    |78·9|~26·0~|69·4|~20·8~|67·0|~19·4~|61·4|~16·3~
  March       |79·4|~26·3~|73·3|~22·9~|72·0|~22·2~|61·5|~16·4~
  April       |84·3|~29·0~|78·6|~25·8~|77·0|~24·9~|62·8|~17·1~
  May         |88·5|~31·3~|79·6|~26·3~|75·8|~24·3~|63·5|~17·5~
  June        |92·4|~33·3~|84·1|~28·9~|76·5|~24·7~|63·5|~17·5~
  July        |94·7|~34·8~|87·2|~30·7~|72·7|~22·6~|61·5|~16·4~
  August      |94·5|~34·7~|83·4|~28·5~|68·0|~20·0~|61·4|~16·3~
  September   |92·9|~33·8~|84·5|~29·2~|68·4|~20·2~|62·5|~16·9~
  October     |89·2|~31·8~|76·8|~24·9~|67·4|~19·6~|56·5|~13·6~
  November    |84·3|~29·0~|72·3|~22·4~|65·2|~18·4~|58·4|~14·6~
  December    |80·7|~27·0~|65·8|~18·7~|63·3|~17·3~|58·8|~14·9~
  ------------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
  Annual Means|86·5|~30·3~|76·7|~24·8~|69·7|~20·9~|60·0|~16·5~
  ============+====+======+====+======+====+======+====+=======

In these elevated regions, a little away from the coast, there is a
definite, though not very abundant, rainy season, and the direction of
the prevailing winds is normal for these latitudes, _i.e._, north-east
during the winter and south-west during the monsoon, which, however,
breaks a good deal later here than at corresponding latitudes on the
eastern side of the Arabian sea. More complete data of Addi Ugri, an
Italian sanatorium on one of these Erythrean hill-stations, are
extracted below from a pamphlet by Captain Tancredi, an Engineer
officer.

The hottest time of the year is, it will be noticed, in the spring, and
the rainy season takes place at the normal time in July and August,
after the setting in of the south-west monsoon. There is also a
secondary period of rainfall about February and March, corresponding to
our “chota bursat” in India.

From the inspection of the table on next page it will be seen that the
climate must be an exceptionally pleasant one, the mean temperature of
the year corresponding to that of Southern Italy, though the range of
temperature is less than a third of that of Palermo and other
Mediterranean ports. The climate is also said to be very healthy,
though there is generally a certain amount of malaria to be met with
about the drying up of the rains. Its uniformity and mildness, coupled
as it is with great dryness, suggests that the site might well be
utilised for certain forms of chest disease.

CLIMATE OF ADDI-UGRI, ERYTHREA (SERAHÈ). LAT. 14° 53′ N.; LONG. 38° 48′
40″ E. ELEVATION 6,633 FEET.

  ========+===========+===========+===========+=====+=============+=====
    Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall  | Num-
          |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|             | ber
          |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |             | of
          +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+-------+Rainy
          | F. | ~C.~ |  F.| ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty  | Ins.| ~Mm. ~| Days
          |    |      |    |      |    |      |  %  |     |       |
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  January |64·9|~18·2~|79·0|~26·0~|51·6|~10·9~| 39·6| 0·02|  ~0·3~|  2
  February|66·3|~19·0~|81·2|~27·4~|51·9|~11·0~| 28·6| 0·11|  ~2·7~|  1·6
  March   |70·6|~21·4~|87·0|~30·6~|55·5|~13·1~| 30·0| 0·62| ~15·4~|  6·6
  April   |70·4|~21·3~|85·5|~29·7~|56·5|~13·6~| 35·3| 0·91| ~22·8~|  9·3
  May     |70·6|~21·4~|84·5|~29·1~|58·2|~14·5~| 36·6| 1·85| ~46·2~| 10·3
  June    |69·5|~20·8~|82·3|~27·9~|60·4|~15·7~| 39·1| 2·41| ~60·6~| 15·3
  July    |64·3|~17·9~|73·6|~23·2~|54·6|~12·6~| 71·9| 5·30|~134·9~| 25·0
  August  |63·8|~17·6~|73·4|~22·9~|54·6|~12·5~| 74·1| 7·05|~179·1~| 24·3
  Septem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber     |67·5|~19·7~|78·6|~25·9~|56·2|~13·3~| 53·4| 1·45| ~36·8~|  6·6
  October |67·6|~19·7~|80·3|~26·8~|54·4|~12·4~| 53·0| 0·65| ~16·5~|  3
  November|65·4|~18·5~|78·6|~25·8~|52·5|~11·3~| 43·6| 0·19|  ~4·2~|  1·6
  December|63·5|~17·4~|78·0|~25·5~|50·0| ~9·9~| 42·3| 0·32|  ~8·3~|  1·6
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  Year    |66·9|~19·4~|80·2|~26·8~|54·7|~12·6~| 45·6|20·2 |~513·0~|107·2
  ========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======+=====

Travelling, however, in Somaliland is necessarily arduous, as the
country is nearly impassable during the short rainy season, and intense
heat and great suffering have to be encountered in the low-lying
valleys, owing to the waterless character of the country and the
intensely desiccating effects of the air, which, elsewhere than on the
coast, is intensely dry. The frequent dust storms are also a source of
much discomfort and even of danger.

Once issued from the Red Sea and arrived in the Gulf of Aden, things
begin to improve, as although the thermometer may show but little
difference from the conditions left behind in the Red Sea, it is at once
felt that the heat is of quite a different kind, and that it is not, as
Gilbert’s heroine would describe it, “such a stuffy class of death.”
There is nearly always a fresh sea breeze, and for several months of the
year the climate is much less oppressive than that of Bombay, especially
in the spring. Strange as it may appear to those who have only seen the
grim fortress from the sea, Aden seems to have a queer fascination about
it, and is generally rather liked than otherwise, many preferring to
serve there to remaining in Bombay.


_THE ASIATIC CONTINENT._--Owing to the fact that the distinction between
Europe and Asia is a purely geographical convention, and that the area
of the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean is of too small an area to
exercise any marked influence, we find that once the Syrian shore is
left behind we are at once under typical intra-continental weather
conditions, with a wide range of temperature, and a rainfall either
small or almost non-existent. Speaking generally, these arid conditions
prevail over the whole of south-western Asia, from the coast of
Palestine till we have crossed the five waters of the Punjab, and within
these limits there are many places that can put the maximum thermometers
of even Omdurman and Suakim to shame.

The scanty rainfall is almost confined to the hills, so that cultivation
in the lower lands depends more or less completely on irrigation from
the rivers that have their origin in the mountain masses, which attract
to their peaks the lion’s share of the little moisture obtainable. On
this account the greater part of western tropical Asia is desert, but in
spite of this under-irrigation, Mesopotamia was once the granary of the
world, and might still, under a more enlightened government, soon regain
her position.


_Palestine._--On account of its petty area, the whole of Palestine must
be considered as a part of the Mediterranean littoral, and hence enjoys
a moderate rainfall, which, combined with almost continuous sunshine,
without really excessive heat at any period of the year, renders the
enthusiasm with which this little land is described by the sacred
writers easily understood.

The following table will give some idea of the amount and distribution
of the rainfall:--

  =========+===========+===========+===========+===========+===========
  Place    | Jerusalem |   Smyrna  |   Jaffa   |   Beirut  |   Mosul
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Latitude | 31° 47′ N.| 26° 38′ N.| 32° 4′ N. | 33° 54′ N.| 37° 20′ N.
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Scale    | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  January  | 6·30|~160~| 4·14|~105~| 5·71|~145~| 7·40|~188~| 3·47| ~88~
  February | 5·75|~146~| 2·95| ~75~| 3·63| ~92~| 6·03|~153~| 3·08| ~78~
  March    | 3·58| ~91~| 3·35| ~85~| 1·46| ~37~| 3·89| ~98~| 0·93| ~24~
  April    | 1·73| ~44~| 1·78| ~45~| 1·08| ~27~| 2·32| ~59~| 0·78| ~20~
  May      | 0·29|  ~7~| 1·26| ~32~| 0·28|  ~7~| 0·55| ~14~| 0   |  ~0~
  June     | 0   |  ~0~| 0·49| ~12~| 0·18|  ~2~| 0·28|  ~7~| 0   |  ~0~
  July     | 0   |  ~0~| 0·19|  ~5~| 0   |  ~0~| 0·03|  ~1~| 0   |  ~0~
  August   | 0   |  ~0~| 0·12|  ~3~| 0·04|  ~1~| 0·03|  ~1~| 0   |  ~0~
  September| 0·04|  ~1~| 0·90| ~23~| 0·04|  ~1~| 0·28|  ~7~| 0   |  ~0~
  October  | 0·39| ~10~| 1·79| ~43~| 0·68| ~17~| 1·93| ~49~| 0   |  ~0~
  November | 2·04| ~52~| 4·25|~108~| 3·32| ~84~| 5·39|~137~| 1·03| ~26~
  December | 5·35|~136~| 4·41|~112~| 5·39|~137~| 7·40|~188~| 3·70| ~94~
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Year     |25·48|~647~|25·59|~650~|21·66|~550~|35·59|~904~|11·2 |~283~
  =========+===========+===========+===========+===========+===========

At Jerusalem the annual extremes of temperature are from 101·7° F.
(38·7° C.) to just above freezing point, while on the sea-coast the
range of climate is rather less marked.

The following table, adapted, like the preceding, from Hann, epitomises
most of the necessary temperature data:--

  =========+===========+============+===========+===========+
           |           |            |           |           |
           | Elevation |  January   |   April   |    June   |
  Place    | above Sea |    Mean    |   Mean    |    Mean   |
           +-----+-----+-----+------+----+------+----+------+
           | Ft. | ~M.~|  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+------+----+------+----+------+
  Jerusalem|2,510|~765~|47·3 | ~8·4~|59·9|~15·5~|75·7|~24·3~|
  Smyrna   |  -- |  -- |45·5 | ~7·5~|56·8|~13·8~|79·5|~26·4~|
  Jaffa    |   50| ~15~|54·0 |~12·2~|68·4|~20·2~|83·5|~28·6~|
  Beirut   |  115| ~35~|55·5 |~13·0~|65·2|~18·4~|81·5|~27·5~|
  Damascus |2,380|~725~|45·0 | ~7·2~|58·7|~14·8~|80.0|~26·7~|
  Mosul    |  400|~120~|44·7 | ~7·0~|59·7|~15·4~|93.5|~34·2~|
  =========+=====+=====+=====+======+====+======+====+======+

  =========+===========+===========+===========+===========
           |           |           |           |  Annual
           | Elevation |  October  |  Annual   | Range of
  Place    | above Sea |   Mean    |   Mean    |Temperature
           +-----+-----+----+------+----+------+----+------
           | Ft. | ~M.~| F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ---------+-----+-----+----+------+----+------+----+------
  Jerusalem|2,510|~765~|68·7|~20·5~|62·9|~17·1~|67·3|~38·5~
  Smyrna   |  -- |  -- |65·4|~18·5~|61·7|~16·5~|79·2|~44·0~
  Jaffa    |   50| ~15~|78·8|~26·0~|70·2|~21·2~| -- | --
  Beirut   |  115| ~35~|75·2|~24·0~|68·7|~20·4~|56·1|~31·2~
  Damascus |2,380|~725~|67·0|~19·4~|63·4|~17·4~| -- | --
  Mosul    |  400|~120~|72·3|~22·4~|68·2|~20·1~| -- | --
  =========+=====+=====+====+======+====+======+====+======

Between the cultivations of Syria and Mesopotamia there stretches a wide
extent of desert country of which, as yet, but little is known, as it is
even now, not altogether too safe a land to travel in.

In the upper part of the Euphrates valley, at Mosul, which, to save
space, is included in the two above tables, the climate, though hotter
in summer, does not differ to any great extent from that of Palestine.
The rainfall is, however, very much smaller and absolutely confined to
the winter.

Of the lower and better known part of the valley; once the granary of
the world, and even now a rich country; the climate of Bagdad, lat.
_circa_ 33° 30′ N., in Turkish Arabia, may serve as a specimen.

  =========+============+===========+======+============
    Month  |     Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|  Rainfall
           |   Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive |
           | Temperature|Temperature|Humid-|
           +-----+------+----+------+  ity +----+-------
           |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |   %  |Ins.|~Mm.~
  ---------+-----+------+----+------+------+----+-------
  January  | 63·3|~17·3~|39·9| ~4·4~|  84  |1·59|~40·5~
  February | 65·6|~18·6~|40·3| ~4·6~|  76  |2·49|~63·0~
  March    | 74·7|~23·8~|47·1| ~8·4~|  62  |1·93|~49·3~
  April    | 80·9|~27·0~|54·4|~12·4~|  52  |1·19|~30·3~
  May      | 90·6|~32·5~|67·3|~19·6~|  42  |0·21| ~5·2~
  June     |103·2|~39·5~|76·3|~24·6~|  35  |0   | ~0~
  July     |106·8|~41·6~|78·8|~25·9~|  33  |0   | ~0~
  August   |107·8|~42·1~|78·2|~25·7~|  32  |0·13| ~3·2~
  September|100·8|~38·2~|71·1|~21·8~|  37  |0   | ~0~
  October  | 91·3|~33·0~|62·2|~16·8~|  52  |0·10| ~2·5~
  November | 76·6|~24·7~|50·0|~10·0~|  74  |1·03|~26·6~
  December | 64·3|~17·9~|43·0| ~6·1~|  81  |1·16|~29·5~
  =========+=====+======+====+======+======+====+=======

The intense heat and dryness of the summer months are very noticeable,
but the locality does not suffer from hot nights to the same extent as
parts of Northern India.


_Persian Gulf._--The delights of service in this inland sea are only too
well known to most of H.M.’s Indian Marine, and to many naval officers,
but it must be remembered that although the climate presents much
resemblance to that of the Red Sea, the Gulf corresponds to the northern
end of those unpleasant waters, and that in winter the climate is
further tempered by breezes from the high Persian plateau, so that in
the cold weather it would be difficult to choose a more pleasant scene
for a yachting cruise, coral reefs and Arabs permitting, and it is only
from the middle of June to that of October that anything like the
stew-pan of the southern Red Sea is met with. This, combined with the
circumstance that the passage of the Gulf should only last half as long
as that of the Red Sea, is one of the strongest arguments in favour of
the adoption of the Euphrates valley as a rapid route of communication
with the East. The climate may best be realised by an inspection of the
climatic table for Bushire, which is included in the following brief
note on the climate of Persia.

Persia is continental and sub-tropical in geographical position, but
does not, as a matter of fact, for the most part, properly come under
the category of hot climates, as, with the exception of “the
Dashtistan,” or narrow belt of recently upheaved coral forming the
northern shore of the Gulf, the whole country is a mountainous mass, the
lowest portions of which are sufficiently elevated to bring them, from
the point of view of climate, within the temperate zone. For practical
purposes the country is absolutely without roads, the tracks that
connect the various towns being merely made by the constant passage of
travellers without any assistance whatever from art, and was probably a
good deal more “advanced” two thousand years ago than it is now. On this
account travelling is a very slow business, and any one proposing to
visit the country must necessarily be prepared for a somewhat extended
stay. As all routes cross over a succession of passes which often
closely approach the snow-line, intending visitors should bring not
merely clothes suitable for an English winter, but some fur-lined
garment, such as is used by an automobilist, only slit behind so as to
be wearable when mounted, as any one unprovided with a semi-arctic
outfit may have to endure a good deal of suffering in surmounting the
passes even during the summer.

Properly provided, however, travel in Persia offers many attractions, as
the people are a pleasant, intelligent race, who make excellent camp
servants in any capacity but as cooks, for which an Indian servant is
better suited if obtainable. They are often spoken of as “the French of
the East,” and there is no doubt a good deal of justification for the
parallel, but, however this may be, they are not at present likely to
produce an Oriental Soyer.

The Dashtistan is simply an emerged portion of the coral bed of the
Persian Gulf, and the abominable character of its climate goes far to
counterpoise the bright, temperate weather of the rest of the country.
It is often no more than 20 miles or less wide, and is badly off for
fresh water, most of the wells being brackish. Even here, the cold
weather is extremely pleasant, so that one is glad to sit over a big
coal fire in February in rooms not directly warmed by the sun, and there
is nothing much to complain of till early June--the earlier hot months
being rendered quite endurable by strong breezes which make punkahs
quite needless. This, however, is succeeded by a period of intense,
damp, breathless heat, entirely unassuaged by a drop of rain, which
requires to be endured to be thoroughly appreciated.

The climax of discomfort is attained somewhere about the middle of
August, but it is well on in October before any very decided improvement
sets in, the hot weather being thus prolonged far on into the autumn.
Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that cases of heat
apoplexy are far from uncommon, but fortunately there is comparatively
little malaria, though digestive disturbances arising from the
brackishness of drinking water are naturally rather common. There is
nothing like the proportion of cases of eye diseases that is to be met
with in Egypt, but the intense glare and the sparseness of the
vegetation make the use of neutral-tinted spectacles very advisable.

The following table of the temperature and rainfall of Bushire (Abusher)
will serve as a sufficient example of the climate of the Dashtistan
generally:--

  =========+===========+===========+======+=============
    Month  |   Mean    |   Mean    | Rela-|  Rainfall
           |  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive |
           |Temperature|Temperature|Humid-|
           +----+------+----+------+  ity +----+--------
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |   %  |Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+----+------+------+----+--------
  January  |65·2|~18·4~|52·0|~11·1~|  79  |3·39| ~86·2~
  February |66·0|~18·9~|52·5|~11·4~|  80  |2·51| ~63·7~
  March    |72·6|~22·5~|58·2|~14·5~|  72  |0·87| ~21·7~
  April    |84·6|~29·3~|66·1|~18·9~|  61  |0·58| ~15·1~
  May      |89·8|~32·0~|75·3|~24·1~|  60  |0·02|  ~0·5~
  June     |92·2|~33·4~|80·3|~26·8~|  61  |0   |  ~0~
  July     |95·5|~35·3~|84·0|~28·9~|  65  |0   |  ~0~
  August   |96·5|~35·8~|83·6|~28·7~|  64  |0   |  ~0~
  September|94·2|~34·5~|78·8|~26·0~|  65  |0   |  ~0~
  October  |87·9|~31·0~|70·7|~21·5~|  65  |0   |  ~0~
  November |78·0|~25·6~|62·1|~16·8~|  74  |2·16| ~54·7~
  December |69·7|~20·9~|55·5|~13·1~|  73  |3·98|~101·3~
  =========+====+======+====+======+======+====+========

The Dashtistan forms, however, a very small percentage of the area of
Persia, as its level plain is abruptly succeeded by the mountains,
which rise, terrace over terrace, to a height of 5,000 to 6,000 feet,
and once the plateau of Fars is reached the traveller finds himself in
surroundings which, although suffering a good deal from the scarcity of
water, have much to recommend them in the purity and dryness of the air,
and which would no doubt be thoroughly healthy under a decently sanitary
_régime_. At present the country is out of the question for purposes of
health, as one requires to be pretty “hard bitten” to get about it at
all; but assuming the introduction of the amenities of civilisation
there can be little doubt as to its suitability for the treatment of
pulmonary disorders; and even as matters stand, I cannot recall meeting
with cases of tuberculous disease amongst the natives of the country.

Owing to the very different levels, it is difficult to give any general
idea of the climate, but the climate of two of the principal towns given
below must suffice as a sufficient example.

  =========++====================================++
    Month  ||                 TEHERAN.           ||
           ||  Lat. 85° 41′ N.; Long. 57° 25′ E. ||
           ||      E.F., 3,700; E.M., 1,130.     ||
           ++===========+===========+============++
           ||   Mean    |   Mean    |  Rainfall  ||
           ||  Maximum  |  Minimum  |            ||
           ||Temperature|Temperature|            ||
           ++----+------+----+------+----+-------++
           || F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |Ins.| ~Mm.~ ||
  ---------++----+------+----+------+----+-------++
  January  ||42·3| ~5·7~|26·2|~-3·2~|1·17| ~29·6~||
  February ||52·1|~11·2~|32·9|~-0·5~|0·85| ~21·6~||
  March    ||57·2|~14·0~|38·4| ~3·5~|2·44| ~62·1~||
  April    ||71·4|~21·8~|49·9| ~9·9~|0·87| ~21·7~||
  May      ||82·9|~28·2~|59·4|~15·2~|0·41| ~10·3~||
  June     ||94·4|~34·6~|67·1|~19·5~|0·04|  ~1·2~||
  July     ||98·4|~36·8~|72·1|~22·3~|0·35|  ~8·9~||
  August   ||96·7|~35·9~|70·7|~21·5~|0·04|  ~1·2~||
  September||90·7|~32·6~|64·9|~18·2~|0·11|  ~2·6~||
  October  ||77·5|~25·3~|54·0|~12·2~|0·14|  ~3·7~||
  November ||61·4|~16·3~|42·2| ~5·7~|1·17| ~29·6~||
  December ||57·3|~14·1~|33·9| ~0·5~|1·33| ~34·0~||
  ---------++----+------+----+------+----+-------++
  Year     ||73·0|~22·8~|57·0|~10·6~|8·92|~227·0~||
  =========++====+======+====+======+====+=======++

  =========++====================================
    Month  ||              ISPAHAN.
           ||  Lat. 32° 38′ N.; Long. 57° 40′ E.
           ||     E.F., 5,000; E.M., 1,530.
           ++===========+===========+============
           ||   Mean    |   Mean    |  Rainfall
           ||  Maximum  |  Minimum  |
           ||Temperature|Temperature|
           ++----+------+----+------+----+-------
           || F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------++----+------+----+------+----+-------
  January  ||46·5| ~8·1~|23·1|~-5~  |0·21| ~5.2~
  February ||54·3|~12·3~|29·2|~-1·6~|0·21| ~5·2~
  March    ||61·0|~16·1~|36·2| ~2·3~|0·83|~20·8~
  April    ||73·1|~22·9~|45·7| ~7·6~|0·60|~15·2~
  May      ||84·1|~29·0~|54·1|~12·3~|0·10| ~2·5~
  June     ||94·4|~34·6~|61·9|~16·6~|0   | ~0~
  July     ||98·4|~36·8~|66·3|~19·1~|0·05| ~1·3~
  August   ||95·5|~35·3~|61·5|~16·4~|0   | ~0~
  September||90·4|~32·4~|55·1|~12·9~|0   | ~0~
  October  ||77·4|~25·2~|44·4| ~6·9~|0·27| ~6·5~
  November ||61·9|~16·6~|35·9| ~2·1~|0·84|~21·5~
  December ||52·3|~11·3~|29·2|~-1·7~|0·47|~12·0~
  ---------++----+------+----+------+----+-------
  Year     ||74·1|~23·4~|45·2| ~7·3~|3·58|~90·3~
  =========++====+======+====+======+====+=======

The better rainfall of Teheran is no doubt due to its proximity to the
Caspian, but in both places the climate is typically continental, both
the daily and annual ranges of temperature being very considerable.

The climate of Beluchistan resembles closely that of Persia in its
general characters, but owing to the generally lower level of the
country the temperature is necessarily higher, approaching that of the
Dashtistan.


_Arabian Peninsula._--With the exception of Muskat, which does not
differ very markedly from the other Gulf ports, we have no reliable
information as to the climate of Arabia proper, beyond the fact that it
is a hot and arid land. The climate of the southern coast is, however,
much more tolerable than that of the Persian Gulf, owing to the
influence of the south-western monsoon, during the worst months.


_India and Ceylon._--If we draw a line from Karachi, at the mouth of the
Indus, to those of the Hughli, a little south of Calcutta, it will be
found that we have divided the irregular diamond-formed outline of the
country into two triangles, the upper or northern of which may be called
the continental, and the lower the peninsular triangle. We also find
that the dividing line coincides pretty accurately with the Tropic of
Cancer, and that, therefore, all to the north of it is sub-tropical,
while in the southern triangle there is, as one travels south, an
increasingly marked tendency to a duplication of the rainy season and of
weather conditions generally, with a resulting general uniformity of
climate throughout the year, while the proximity of the sea ensures that
the daily range of temperature will be also small. North of this,
therefore, there is a distinct “cold weather,” while to the south this
pleasant climatic interlude can scarcely be said to exist. One of my
predecessors, writing at the end of the eighteenth century, in the
course of some 300 very sober pages devoted to life and habits in India,
perpetrated “with deeficulty” a single joke. He devotes a table of some
six lines to the elucidation of the subject of climate, the columns
being headed, Hot--Cold--Rainy Seasons. Opposite Madras the first column
stated, “Begins January 1, ends December 31.” From his ill-concealed
contempt of Madras and Bombay “presidencies” I am sure this old “Qui
hai” hailed from “the Bengal side,” but, prejudice apart, there is a
good deal of truth in the impeachment.

Taking first the northern or sub-tropical triangle, we find that it
presents a much greater variety of climate than can be found to the
south, for while its north-western side is intensely dry and arid, the
eastern angle of the triangle contains the wettest spot in the world.
This triangle includes, too, within its boundaries another “record,”
viz., that for extreme heat. The man who “sent back for his blankets”
resided, I believe during life, somewhere in the United States; but I
fear he must have been a person of comparatively small endurance, as in
the entire American continent there is no spot that in the matter of
heat is in the same field with Jacobabad, where 127° F. (52·8° C.) in
the shade has actually been registered, and, in fact, the whole of Scind
easily “licks creation” in this unenviable detail.

The northern triangle may be divided into three distinct climatic
regions, viz.:--

(1) The Persian frontier zone, including the Punjab, Scind and
Rajputana.

(2) The _Old_ North-west zone, containing Oudh, Rohilkhand, Benares,
&c., Behar, and a good deal of Central India.

(3) Lower Bengal, including Assam.

It must not, of course, be imagined that there is any distinct line of
demarcation between these “zones,” as each climate, of course, shades
off gradually into the next, but this division greatly facilitates
description.

The Persian frontier zone, especially in its western portion, closely
resembles Persia in climate, and gives one a very good notion of what
that country would be, were it not an elevated plateau. Excluding, of
course, from consideration the Himalayas and Suleiman Range, its highest
part, near Rawal Pindi, is only about 1,700 feet above the sea (E.M.,
530), which is too little to sensibly modify the temperature.

Along the actual north-west frontier, the rainfall is very small and the
summer heat intense. The daily range is very small at the worst time of
the year, as the arid soil gets so baked during the day that it is able
to give out an ample supply of heat to make the short night intolerable,
without having time to cool down to any appreciable extent. The few
scanty showers that occur relieve matters for a few hours only, after
which the only trace of their passage is an increased dampness of the
air, with the concomitant exacerbation of “prickly heat.” In certain
places situated in some of the confined valleys that are to be found at
the foot of the Suleiman Range, the heat, day and night, is perfectly
appalling. Unfortunately, some of these choice localities are of
administrative importance, as affording the best alignment for our
railways, and their continuous occupation by a number of unfortunate
European officials and by a native staff little better able to bear it,
is an unfortunate necessity.

In one of these pleasant spots the Anglo-Indian community are said to
save themselves from the sun during the day by sitting beneath the Club
billiard table, still wearing their solar hats, to cut off certain of
the rays that have found their way through the slate bed of the table,
and there is a good deal of foundation in fact for the “yarn,” as one
requires to have lived there to have any adequate conception of what it
is like. For seven months in the year indeed the climate is extremely
trying, but as some compensation the cold weather, which lasts a full
five months, at Peshawar in the north is most enjoyable and goes far to
brace up residents to bear the horrors of the hot season.

At Peshawar I have been glad to sit over a blazing fire all day at the
end of February, and even in Scind there are some three months of very
pleasant weather. In the Eastern Punjab there is, however, a much more
respectable rainfall, and the climate closely approaches that of the
next zone. During the cold weather the daily range of temperature is
considerable, so that if chills are to be avoided it is necessary to put
on additional clothing after sunset.

The Old North-west, so called because up to “the forties” it formed our
actual frontier, has in many ways the best climate to be found in the
plains of India, the best part of the area being undoubtedly the
Rohilkhand division. During the hot weather, it is true, the heat rivals
that of the Punjab, and one may at times have a long succession of hot
nights, but the worst is over by the middle of June, as with the
“bursting of the monsoon” comes a great and welcome relief, which in
good years is kept up through the rest of the warm weather. When,
however, a “break in the rains” of any duration occurs, the climate for
the time becomes, if anything, more trying than the contemporaneous
conditions in the Punjab. The cold weather, however, goes on for four
months, and affords one of the finest climates in the world for those
who are not enthusiasts for the miseries of ice and snow.

TABLE SHOWING THE MONTHLY RAINFALL AND MEAN TEMPERATURE OF THIRTY-ONE
INDIAN STATIONS.

  ===+=============+=+===========+===========+===========+===========+
  No.|   Station   | |  January  |  February |   March   |   April   |
     |             | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
     |             | |Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|
     |             | |fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|
     |             | |     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|
     |             | |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |
     |             | |     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    1|Simla        | | 2·35|41·5°| 2·68|41·5°| 2·24|50·7°| 1·90|59·7°|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    2|Peshawar (N.)| | 1·77|51·7 | 0·98|53·6 | 1·70|64·2 | 1·84|73·7 |
     |Lahore (Mid.)|S| 1·06|54·4 | 1·10|57·1 | 0·73|69·2 | 0·46|80·7 |
     |Multan (S.)  |u| 0·48|56·3 | 0·38|59·5 | 0·38|72·1 | 0·07|82·7 |
  ---+-------------+b+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    3|Meerut       |-| 1·27|57·4 | 0·79|61·0 | 0·77|72·4 | 0·24|83·2 |
     |Agra         |T| 0·53|61·0 | 0·21|65·0 | 0·31|77·2 | 0·14|88·2 |
     |Allahabad    |r| 0·85|60·8 | 0·28|65·3 | 0·32|77·8 | 0·11|88·1 |
     |Benares      |o| 0·79|61·2 | 0·37|65·9 | 0·28|77·8 | 0·08|87·9 |
     |Jhansi       |p| 0·59|63·3 | 0·33|67·3 | 0·35|79·3 | 0·13|89·9 |
  ---+-------------+i+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    4|Patna        |c| 0·65|61·3 | 0·53|65·3 | 0·38|77·4 | 0·26|87·0 |
     |Hazaribagh   |a| 0·56|61·7 | 0·82|65·8 | 0·75|76·3 | 0·41|85·2 |
  ---+-------------+l+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    5|Calcutta     | | 0·60|66·2 | 1·38|70·7 | 1·57|80·0 | 1·74|85·5 |
     |Dhubri       |I| 0·40|62·5 | 0·53|66·0 | 1·93|75·6 | 4·83|79·4 |
     |Sibsagar     |n| 1·47|59·9 | 1·96|62·9 | 5·07|69·7 | 9·37|74·6 |
  ---+-------------+d+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    6|Jaipur       |i| 0·69|61·1 | 0·19|63·0 | 0·39|75·4 | 0·09|84·9 |
  ---+-------------+a+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    7|Kurrachi     |.| 0·72|66·8 | 0·31|69·4 | 0·23|76·8 | 0·33|82·2 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    8|Deesa        | | 0·17|67·1 | 0·10|70·2 | 0·05|79·9 | 0·01|86·9 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
    9|Khandwa      | | 0·31|67·6 | 0·06|71·7 | 0·13|81·3 | 0·17|89·3 |
     |Jubulpur     | | 0·76|62·8 | 0·47|66·8 | 0·51|77·2 | 0·18|86·2 |
     |Nagpur       | | 0·55|69·2 | 0·27|74·2 | 0·61|83·1 | 0·34|90·8 |
  ---+-------------+T+-----+-----+----+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   10|Bombay       |r| 0·13|75·1 | 0·01|75·5 | 0·03|79·6 | 0·01|82·7 |
  ---+-------------+o+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   11|Hyderabad    |p| 0·09|71·0 | 0·04|76·8 | 0·75|83·6 | 0·67|88·7 |
     |Poona        |i| 0·06|70·0 | 0·04|74·2 | 0·05|80·7 | 0·54|85·5 |
     |Belgaum      |c| 0·06|70·3 | 0·02|74·0 | 0·35|78·9 | 1·72|81·8 |
     |Bellary      |a| 0·13|76·0 | 0·04|79·5 | 0·22|86·1 | 0·58|90·4 |
     |Bangalore    |l| 0·19|67·9 | 0·11|72·0 | 0·54|77·3 | 1·15|81·2 |
     |Trichinopoly | | 0·26|77·0 | 0·90|80·0 | 0·55|85·1 | 1·53|89·2 |
  ---+-------------+I+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   12|Cochin       |n| 0·59|80·0 | 0·62|81·2 | 2·44|83·7 | 4·37|84·7 |
     |(West Coast) |d|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     |Madras       |i| 0·89|76·0 | 0·28|77·2 | 0·39|80·6 | 0·62|85·1 |
     |(East Coast) |a|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  ---+-------------+.+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   13|Rangoon      | | 0·17|76·3 | 0·34|78·9 | 0·28|83·6 | 1·83|87·0 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   14|Mandalay     | | 0·08|69·7 | 0·07|74·8 | 0·21|82·4 | 1·37|89·4 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+

  ===+=============+=+===========+===========+===========+===========+
  No.|   Station   | |    May    |   June    |    July   |   August  |
     |             | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
     |             | |Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|
     |             | |fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|
     |             | |     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|
     |             | |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |
     |             | |     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    1|Simla        | | 3·64|64·5°| 6·79|68·0°|17·55|65·0°|17·98|63·5°|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    2|Peshawar (N.)| | 0·75|83·6 | 0·35|91·0 | 1·79|99·0 | 2·70|88·4 |
     |Lahore (Mid.)|S| 1·03|87·4 | 1·84|92·7 | 6·67|89·5 | 5·83|87·4 |
     |Multan (S.)  |u| 0·42|90·3 | 0·59|94·5 | 2·94|93·1 | 1·58|91·1 |
  ---+-------------+b+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    3|Meerut       |-| 0·69|88·5 | 2·44|91·1 | 9·54|86·3 |10·59|84·5 |
     |Agra         |T| 0·60|93·7 | 2·54|94·8 |11·50|86·6 | 7·67|84·5 |
     |Allahabad    |r| 0·39|22·4 | 5·69|92·6 |12·33|85·4 |11·10|84·1 |
     |Benares      |o| 0·72|91·6 | 5·13|91·6 |10·74|85·5 |11·83|84·3 |
     |Jhansi       |p| 0·49|94·9 | 4·89|93·5 |12·60|84·5 |12·50|82·6 |
  ---+-------------+i+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    4|Patna        |c| 1·97|88·6 | 7·34|88·4 |11·75|85·1 |11·30|84·4 |
     |Hazaribagh   |a| 2·26|86·3 | 7·63|84·2 |14·16|79·0 |13·11|78·3 |
  ---+-------------+l+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    5|Calcutta     | | 7·62|85·2 |10·74|85·0 |12·46|83·2 |12·95|82·6 |
     |Dhubri       |I|13·97|79·4 |24·53|81·0 |16·17|83·1 |13·76|82·3 |
     |Sibsagar     |n|12·63|78·9 |13·69|83·2 |17·10|84·5 |16·19|83·8 |
  ---+-------------+d+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    6|Jaipur       |i| 0·45|90·9 | 2·49|91·4 | 9·37|84·4 |10·07|85·0 |
  ---+-------------+a+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    7|Kurrachi     |.| 0·00|86·3 | 0·52|88·5 | 3·47|86·1 | 1·55|83·8 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    8|Deesa        | | 0·25|91·8 | 2·62|91·1 |10·99|84·4 | 7·60|81·8 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
    9|Khandwa      | | 0·45|93·1 | 6·05|87·7 | 8·82|81·0 | 7·14|79·8 |
     |Jubulpur     | | 0·71|91·6 | 9·10|87·4 |20·80|80·1 |16·12|79·3 |
     |Nagpur       | | 0·80|94·9 | 8·74|87·9 |14·73|80·9 |10·25|81·0 |
  ---+-------------+T+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   10|Bombay       |r| 0·94|85·2 |19·37|83·3 |27·17|80·7 |11·43|80·3 |
  ---+-------------+o+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   11|Hyderabad    |p| 1·15|90·4 | 4·85|83·7 | 6·90|78·6 | 8·17|78·4 |
     |Poona        |i| 1·65|85·3 | 4·73|80·6 | 6·87|76·3 | 3·22|75·7 |
     |Belgaum      |c| 2·62|80·5 | 6·59|74·3 |15·37|71·2 | 8·74|71·2 |
     |Bellary      |a| 1·70|89·8 | 1·85|85·1 | 1·93|82·6 | 2·58|82·1 |
     |Bangalore    |l| 4·02|80·1 | 3·45|75·6 | 4·59|73·7 | 5·80|73·6 |
     |Trichinopoly | | 3·04|89·7 | 1·62|88·3 | 1·50|87·1 | 4·67|86·2 |
  ---+-------------+I+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   12|Cochin       |n|13·30|83·2 |28·41|79·5 |21·51|78·6 |13·31|78·7 |
     |(West Coast) |d|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     |Madras       |i| 2·12|89·3 | 2·11|89·3 | 3·87|87·0 | 4·56|85·5 |
     |(East Coast) |a|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  ---+-------------+.+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   13|Rangoon      | | 9·42|84·9 |17·51|81·3 |21·68|80·3 |18·19|80·3 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   14|Mandalay     | | 5·56|89·0 | 6·21|86·5 | 3·17|86·1 | 3·88|85·3 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+

  ===+=============+=+===========+===========+===========+===========+
  No.|   Station   | | September |  October  |  November | December  |
     |             | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
     |             | |Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|Rain-| Mean|
     |             | |fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|fall | Tem-|
     |             | |     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|     | per-|
     |             | |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |     |  a- |
     |             | |     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|     | ture|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    1|Simla        | | 6·56|62·4°| 1·22|56·8°| 0·54|49·7°| 0·74|45·8°|
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    2|Peshawar (N.)| | 0·64|82·8 | 0·11|72·9 | 0·57|60·6 | 0·34|53·0 |
     |Lahore (Mid.)|S| 2·49|84·9 | 0·26|76·6 | 0·10|63·7 | 0·38|56·1 |
     |Multan (S.)  |u| 0·42|88·5 | 0·00|70·9 | 0·10|67·8 | 0·20|58·6 |
  ---+-------------+b+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    3|Meerut       |-| 5·74|83·2 | 0·42|76·4 | 0·08|65·3 | 0·32|58·6 |
     |Agra         |T| 4·91|84·3 | 0·47|80·4 | 0·05|60·5 | 0·19|62·1 |
     |Allahabad    |r| 6·05|83·8 | 1·83|78·8 | 0·17|68·2 | 0·32|61·2 |
     |Benares      |o| 6·59|84·2 | 2·30|79·3 | 0·36|68·7 | 0·24|61·4 |
     |Jhansi       |p| 6·80|83·1 | 0·70|80·5 | 0·12|70·4 | 0·13|64·3 |
  ---+-------------+i+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    4|Patna        |c| 7·40|84·7 | 3·25|80·5 | 0·17|70·7 | 0·13|62·6 |
     |Hazaribagh   |a| 8·76|78·3 | 3·41|75·0 | 0·20|67·2 | 0·22|66·9 |
  ---+-------------+l+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    5|Calcutta     | | 9·33|82·6 | 4·39|80·5 | 0·66|72·9 | 0·24|66·1 |
     |Dhubri       |I|13·35|81·4 | 3·50|79·0 | 0·26|71·8 | 0·10|65·3 |
     |Sibsagar     |n|12·22|82·6 | 4·84|78·0 | 0·98|69·1 | 0·57|61·1 |
  ---+-------------+d+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    6|Jaipur       |i| 4·40|82·7 | 0·30|78·9 | 0·24|68·8 | 0·08|62·8 |
  ---+-------------+a+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    7|Kurrachi     |.| 0·54|83·6 | 0·00|82·2 | 0·09|75·0 | 0·16|69·0 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    8|Deesa        | | 4·83|83·1 | 0·35|81·5 | 0·16|75·6 | 0·06|68·6 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
    9|Khandwa      | | 7·56|80·2 | 1·73|78·0 | 0·31|70·4 | 0·56|65·3 |
     |Jubulpur     | | 8·77|79·9 | 2·07|75·6 | 0·50|66·6 | 0·38|60·6 |
     |Nagpur       | |10·13|81·2 | 2·95|78·9 | 0·90|71·8 | 0·64|66·8 |
  ---+-------------+T+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   10|Bombay       |r|11·81|80·2 | 2·47|81·8 | 0·66|79·7 | 0·09|76·8 |
  ---+-------------+o+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   11|Hyderabad    |p| 5·99|78·4 | 3·08|77·3 | 1·76|72·5 | 0·27|69·1 |
     |Poona        |i| 5·21|76·3 | 4·80|77·5 | 1·31|72·4 | 0·26|68·6 |
     |Belgaum      |c| 4·64|71·9 | 6·39|73·7 | 2·11|71·6 | 0·13|69·6 |
     |Bellary      |a| 4·09|81·7 | 4·29|80·1 | 2·13|76·0 | 0·14|73·0 |
     |Bangalore    |l| 4·72|73·5 | 7·15|72·9 | 3·59|70·3 | 0·55|68·1 |
     |Trichinopoly | | 3·21|85·4 | 7·49|82·4 | 5·37|79·1 | 2·55|76·7 |
  ---+-------------+I+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   12|Cochin       |n| 9·38|79·2 |14·01|80·1 | 6·77|80·6 | 1·81|80·3 |
     |(West Coast) |d|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     |Madras       |i| 4·69|85·2 |11·00|82·1 |13·21|78·7 | 5·28|76·7 |
     |(East Coast) |a|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  ---+-------------+.+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   13|Rangoon      | |16·04|80·7 | 6·74|81·4 | 2·98|80·1 | 0·09|77·5 |
  ---+-------------+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   14|Mandalay     | | 6·54|84·8 | 5·08|83·1 | 1·28|76·9 | 0·28|70·5 |
  ===+=============+=+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+

  ===+=============+=+==================================================
  No.|   Station   | |Remarks
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
    1|Simla        | |Hill station, with practically temperate climate.
     |             | |Not malarious.
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
    2|Peshawar (N.)| |Punjab Stations.--Intensely hot in summer, quite
     |Lahore (Mid.)| |cold in winter; rainfall scanty. Malaria rife from
     |Multan (S.)  | |August to November; sometimes of a very virulent
     |             | |type.
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
    3|Meerut       |S|North-West Provinces.--Hot and dry from April to
     |Agra         |u|mid-June; then to September moderate rain; cool
     |Allahabad    |b|with bright sun, November to March. Malarious from
     |Benares      |-|August to November, but seldom of a severe type.
     |Jhansi       |T|
  ---+-------------+r+--------------------------------------------------
    4|Patna        |o|Upper Bengal.--Intermediate in climate and
     |Hazaribagh   |p|salubrity between N.W.P. and Lower Bengal.
  ---+-------------+i+--------------------------------------------------
    5|Calcutta     |c|Lower Bengal and Assam.--Moist, except for a few
     |Dhubri       |a|weeks in March and April; heavy and prolonged
     |Sibsagar     |l|rains, but seldom with intense heat. Malaria
     |             | |prolonged, and often of a severe type.
  ---+-------------+I+--------------------------------------------------
    6|Jaipur       |n|Rajputana.--Closely resembles the Southern Punjab.
  ---+-------------+d+--------------------------------------------------
    7|Kurrachi     |i|Seaport of Sind.--Waterless and desert; but
     |             |a|climate modified by proximity to sea.
     |             |.|Exceptionally little malaria previously to the
     |             | |introduction of a regular water supply.
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
    8|Deesa        | |Gujarat.--Scanty rainfall, July, August; heat of
     |             | |prolonged drought modified by proximity to sea.
     |             | |Malaria moderate, more or less throughout the
     |             | |year, with two maxima--in February and October
     |             | |respectively.
  ===+=============+=+==================================================
    9|Khandwa      | |Central India.--Prolonged dry season, intensely
     |Jubulpur     | |hot in May and June; rainfall moderate. Malaria
     |Nagpur       | |autumnal, prolonged far into cold weather, but
     |             | |seldom particularly virulent.
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
   10|Bombay       |T|Considerable rainfall, almost confined to three
     |             |r|months. Not very malarious.
  ---+-------------+o+--------------------------------------------------
   11|Hyderabad    |p|Southern plateau.--Scanty rainfall, but no great
     |Poona        |i|annual variation of temperature; intense heat of
     |Belgaum      |c|central region modified by sea breeze as ghauts
     |Bellary      |a|are approached. Malaria worst in August, prolonged
     |Bangalore    |l|far into cool season, but rarely of virulent type.
     |Trichinopoly | |
  ---+-------------+I+--------------------------------------------------
   12|Cochin       |n|Southern littoral.--Climate uniform and moist. No
     |(West Coast) |d|marked malaria-free season, but disease seldom
     |Madras       |i|specially severe.
     |(East Coast) |a|
  ---+-------------+.+--------------------------------------------------
   13|Rangoon      | |Lower Burmah.--Resembles Indian Southern littoral
     |             | |in climate, but disease often of severe type.
  ---+-------------+ +--------------------------------------------------
   14|Mandalay     | |Climate resembles that of Southern Indian plateau.
     |             | |Malaria from June to December, worst in August;
     |             | |disease often of virulent type.
  ===+=============+=+==================================================

In the third zone, that of Bengal, the cold weather is short, but even
in Calcutta there are two months during which ordinary European clothing
becomes desirable. There is a short hot weather, relieved by a rainy
period, the “chota barsât,” about Easter, but the heat never approaches
that of the western part of the continental triangle. The rainfall is
extremely heavy towards the east, as in Assam, so that extensive floods
are common, and malaria necessarily very common and often serious.

In the northern part of the peninsular triangle we find the same
tendency to dryness in the west and moisture in the east, Khathiawar and
Surat having but moderate rainfalls, while that of Orissa is very heavy;
but in neither is either the fierce heat or bracing cold weather of the
northern triangle to be met with.

Between the two lie the “Central” Provinces, which, apart from some
favoured spots, such as Saugor and Chindwara, which have an elevation of
over 2,000 feet, undoubtedly possess one of the vilest climates in
India, or in the world. The hot, dry weather is severe and prolonged,
and towards the burst of the monsoon is combined with a moist atmosphere
without any alleviation of the heat. The writer has personally verified
in the Nerbudah valley a temperature of 105° F. (40·6° C.) at 4.30 a.m.
in the open, the observation being taken carefully with a swung Kew
thermometer.

The so-called cold weather lasts barely two months, and the only time of
the year that by any stretch of politeness can be said to be pleasant,
is that of the rains, which probably rather by force of contrast than by
virtue of any real superiority to the same season elsewhere, includes
days when the air seems really refreshing.

The entire coast and the greater part of the surface of the southern
portion of the peninsula have a warm, equable climate with a
considerable rainfall. Portions of Haidrababad and Mysore, in the
plateau of the Deccan, approach continental conditions, being somewhat
dry and arid, and occasionally visited by droughts, but the climate of
the greater part of the country is profoundly influenced by its
proximity to the great oceans that wash its coasts. In this inland
plateau the distribution of the rainfall has the further peculiarity of
being much later than elsewhere, the rainiest month in Mysore being not
July, as in most other localities throughout India, but November: this
corresponds to the second rainy season, the first rainy season being
represented by a somewhat smaller maximum in August. There is no very
marked difference between the climates of the eastern and western
coasts, though as will be seen on comparing the figures for Chochin and
Madras in the subjoined table, the monthly rainfall is somewhat
differently distributed.

COLOMBO. LAT. 6° 50′ N.; LONG. 80° 0′ E. OBSERVATORY A FEW FEET ABOVE
SEA-LEVEL.

  =========+===========+===========+======+==============
    Month  |    Mean   |    Mean   | Rela-|   Rainfall
           |  Monthly  |  Monthly  | tive |
           |   Maxima  |   Minima  |Humid-|
           +----+------+----+------+  ity +-----+--------
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |      | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+----+------+------+-----+--------
  January  |89·8|~32·1~|72·6|~22·6~|  80  | 3·72| ~94·6~
  February |91·9|~33·2~|74·4|~23·5~|  75  | 0·63| ~16·0~
  March    |94·0|34·4~ |75·7|~24·3~|  73  | 3·71| ~94·1~
  April    |90·0|~33·2~|76·2|~24·5~|  83  | 9·73|~247·5~
  May      |89·8|~32·1~|78·7|~25·9~|  86  |16·0 |~406·4~
  June     |87·4|~30·7~|78·5|~25·8~|  84  | 7·83|~199·3~
  July     |86·3|~30·2~|76·5|~24·7~|  84  | 6·77|~171·5~
  August   |87·2|~30·7~|77·3|~25·2~|  83  | 7·35|~186·7~
  September|86·9|~30·5~|76·5|~24·7~|  83  | 4·00|~101·6~
  October  |89·1|~31·8~|75·4|~24·1~|  82  | 9·47|~241·0~
  November |88·4|~31·3~|74·3|~23·4~|  80  | 9·25|~234·9~
  December |85·5|~29·7~|73·1|~22·9~|  82  | 5·20|~132·1~
  =========+====+======+====+======+======+=====+========

These climatic conditions are naturally found in their most typical form
on the island of Ceylon, the climatic data of which are epitomised in
the above table for the capital of the island, Colombo, which is
situated on the western coast.

The total rainfall is about 88 ins. (2,237 mm.), and the mean annual
temperature 80° F. (26·7 C.).

The bursting of the south-west monsoon, which is one of the main factors
in determining the sequence of seasons in India, takes place in Ceylon
in the latter half of May, and gradually creeps northward, reaching
Bombay early in June, and finding its way inland in the latter half of
that month. Traditionally, the 15th June is the date for the advent of
the rains in Northern India, but it is rarely that the hopes of the
anxious denizens of the broiling plains are fulfilled by its appearance
at so early a date, and the end of the month probably more nearly
approaches the average. On rare occasions the rain may not come till the
15th July, and the last month of waiting in such years is always a time
of much tedium and suffering, as the absence of precipitation does not
prevent the air from becoming saturated with moisture, which, combined
with unabated high temperature, renders the lives of all subjected to it
barely tolerable.

India is fortunately well provided with hill-stations, Bombay being the
only presidency which is badly off in this respect. There the two or
three health resorts reach an elevation of no more than from 4,000 to
5,000 ft., and are practically utilised only during the hot, dry season
preceding the burst of the monsoon. Once the rains are established the
health-seeker has to leave these stations for Poona, a large station on
the summit of the western ghauts, where, thanks to the pleasant
sea-breeze, the climate during the rains, if rather too warm for choice,
is on the whole very pleasant.

Madras possesses excellent sanatoria in the Nihilgerris, the principal
hill-station of Ootacamand, at an elevation of over 6,000 ft., being in
many respects the best of the Indian hill-stations. Owing to its
southerly position it enjoys an admirable climate all the year round,
and unlike the Himalayan stations, which are perched on steep spurs and
peaks, is situated on a wide, rolling table-land, so that it is possible
to drive about in ordinary carriages, and even to follow the hounds,
though, it must be confessed, the hunting is much more like that to be
got with the Dartmoor hounds than in “the Shires.”

TEMPERATURE TABLE OF INDIAN STATIONS EXPRESSED IN METRIC SYSTEM.

  ==========================+======+=====+==============+=============
            Place           |Eleva-| Mean| Coldest Month|Warmest Month
                            | tion,| An- +---------+----+--------+----
                            |Metres| nual|   Name  |Tem-|  Name  |Tem-
                            |      | Tem-|         |per-|        |per-
                            |      |pera-|         | a- |        | a-
                            |      | ture|         |ture|        |ture
  --------------------------+------+-----+---------+----+--------+----
            { Darjeeling    | 2,107| 12·2|  Jan.   | 5·0|  July  |17·2
            { Calcutta      |     6| 25·4|Dec.-Jan.|18·4|   May  |29·5
     BENGAL { Saugor Dl     |     7| 25·7|  Dec.   |19·2|   May  |29·5
            { Dacca         |     6| 25·4|  Jan.   |18·9|  July  |28·4
            { Chittagong    |    26| 24·9|  Jan.   |19·1|   May  |27·8
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
            { Sibsagar      |   101| 19·1|  Jan.   |14·3|  July  |28·3
     ASSAM  { Goalpara      |   118| 23·6|  Jan.   |17·2|  July  |27·2
            { Silchar       |    31| 22·4|  Jan.   |14·3|  July  |28·4
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
            { False Point   |     4| 25·4|  Dec.   |19·2|  June  |28·9
   OUSSA AND{ Kutták        |    24| 26·7|  Dec.   |20·4|   May  |30·9
    CENTRAL { Jubulpur      |   404| 24·1|  Dec.   |15·7|   May  |32·7
   PROVINCES{ Pachmari      | 1,070| 20·9|  Dec.   |13·7|   May  |29·3
            { Nagpur        |   312| 26·2|  Dec.   |19·3|   May  |34·4
            { Sironcha      |   122| 27·6|  Dec.   |20·6|   May  |35·0
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
            { Peshawar      |   420| 21·7|  Jan.   |10·8|  June  |32·8
    PUNJAB  { Lahore        |   150| 22·8|  Jan.   |12·2|  June  |33·3
            { Multán        |   130| 23·9|  Jan.   |13·3|  June  |34·7
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
    UNITED  { Meerut        |   100| 22·8|  Jan.   |57·4|  June  |32·8
  PROVINCES { Jhánsi        |   200| 23·3|  Jan.   |63·3|  June  |34·2
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
            { Bombay        |    11| 26·4|  Jan.   |22·8|   May  |29·3
   WESTERN  { Poona         |   561| 24·3|  Jan.   |20·2|  April |29·2
  PRESIDENCY{ Sholapur      |   485| 26·1|  Jan.   |21·4|   May  |31·8
            { Secunderabád  |   544| 25·7|  Jan.   |20·8|   May  |31·8
                            |      |     |         |    |        |
            { Vizagapatám   |     9| 28·2|  Jan.   |24·0|   May  |31·1
            { Belgaum       |   769| 22·4|  Jan.   |20·6|  April |35·9
            { Bellary       |   450| 26·9|  Jan.   |22·5|  April |31·8
            { Madras        |     7| 27·7|  Jan.   |24·2|May-June|30·7
   EASTERN  { Trichinopoly  |    78| 28·1|  Jan.   |24·6|  April |31·2
  PRESIDENCY{ Mercára       | 1,152| 19·8|  Jan.   |18·4|  April |22·7
            { Wellington    | 1,890| 16·2|  Jan.   |12·8|   May  |18·8
            { Dodabetta Peak| 2,633| 11·2|  Jan.   | 9·7|   May  |13·8
            { Agustia Peak  | 1,890| 14·3|  Jan.   |12·2|  April |16·3
            { Tevandrum     |     4| 25·5|  Jan.   |24·5|  April |27·0
  ==========================+======+=====+==============+========+====

The Northern, or sub-tropical, triangle possesses a large number of
elevated health stations, varying from 5,000 to 9,000 ft., from
Darjeeling, north of Calcutta, to Thandiani, near Peshawar. All of these
afford an excellent refuge from the extreme heat of the plains, but the
eastern stations have so heavy a rainfall as to make them barely tenable
during the rains, although Assam possesses, in Shillong, a delightful
health resort, not unlike Ootacamand in miniature, where the rainfall is
comparatively moderate and it is possible to drive about the station, if
one is not too particular as to the size and magnificence of one’s
equipage. With this exception, however, it is better, provided the
choice be an open one, to resort to one of the western Himalayan
stations, as in the others the period of the rains is somewhat trying
even to adults, and is especially badly borne by children.

The principal data of the climates of the regions described above may be
gathered in detail from an inspection of the table on pages 56, 57, as
the places therein mentioned include one or more towns in each of the
regions into which we have, for purposes of description, divided the
Indian peninsula. Owing to the size of page it is impossible to adhere
to our general plan of tabulating the facts in both the English and
Continental scales, and in place of duplicating the table according to
the metric nomenclature, it has been thought better to reproduce a table
of the same character from Hann’s “Klimatologie,” as by this course the
facts are expressed from a different point of view, and it enables us to
some extent to supplement the original list with the data of a number of
additional places.

Lastly, the table on next page, from Blanford, is reproduced, as it
illustrates well the remarkable differences of climate in the matter of
annual ranges of temperature that are to be found within the confines of
the Indian peninsula.

The Bay of Bengal naturally has a climate which generally resembles that
of the surrounding coasts. During the south-west monsoon the winds are
strong, and there is generally a heavy sea running, but throughout the
period of north-easterly winds, from October to May, a calm sea with
moderate breezes will as a rule be met with, the pleasant weather being
interrupted only by occasional cyclonic storms during the first half of
the period. Short spells of rather bad weather due to disturbances of
this sort will be met with in every year, and it is rare for a season
to pass without rather heavy weather, but the really serious storms,
which meet the popular notions of what a “cyclone” should be, are
fortunately rather rare. Of these dangerous disturbances, the greatest
number occur in October, but they are not unknown even in the period of
the south-west monsoon. Out of 111 noticeable revolving storms “in the
Bay” that have occurred in 139 years, Blanford states that the monthly
distribution has been as follows:--

  Jan. Feb. Mar. Apl. May  June  July Aug. Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
   2    0    2    9    21   10     3   4     6    31    18    9

TABLE OF MEAN AND ABSOLUTE EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN CERTAIN INDIAN
STATIONS.

  ===========+=========+==========+==========+============+=============
     Place   |  Annual |   Mean   |   Mean   |  Absolute  |   Absolute
             | Range of| Maximum  |  Minimum |  Maximum   |   Minimum
             | Tempera-| Tempera- | Tempera- |  Tempera-  |   Tempera-
             |   ture  |   ture   |   ture   |    ture    |     ture
             +--+------+---+------+--+-------+-----+------+-----+-------
             |F.| ~C.~ | F.| ~C.~ |F.|  ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ |  F. |  ~C.~
  -----------+--+------+---+------+--+-------+-----+------+-----+-------
  Leh        |94|~52·2~| 90|~32·2~|-4|~-20·0~| 93  |~33·9~|-17  |~-27·2~
  Quetta     |84|~46·6~| 99|~37·2~|15| ~-9·4~|103  |~39·4~| 11  |~-11·8~
  Simla      |63|~35·0~| 88|~31·1~|25| ~-3·9~| 94·5|~34·7~| 20  | ~-6·8~
  Peshawar   |86|~47·8~|115|~46·1~|29| ~-1·7~|119  |~48·3~| 24·5| ~-4·1~
  Multan     |80|~44·5~|114|~45·6~|30|  ~1·1~|118  |~47·8~| 29·1| ~-1·7~
  Lahore     |83|~46·1~|117|~47·2~|30|  ~1·1~|120  |~49·0~| 30  | ~-1·2~
  Jacobabad  |86|~47·8~|118|~47·8~|32|  ~0·0~|121  |~49·4~| 29  | ~-1·6~
  Kurrachi   |62|~34·5~|107|~41·7~|45|  ~7·2~|117·5|~47·5~| 41  |  ~5·0~
  Mount Abu  |57|~31·7~| 96|~35·6~|39|  ~3·9~|101  |~38·3~| 32·6|  ~0·4~
  Deesa      |72|~40·0~|112|~44·4~|40|  ~4·4~|118·5|~48·1~| 34·2|  ~1·2~
  Agra       |76|~42·3~|116|~46·7~|40|  ~4·4~|120·5|~49·2~| 36·4|  ~2·4~
  Calcutta   |54|~30·0~|102|~38·9~|48|  ~8·9~|105·5|~40·8~| 45  |  ~7·2~
  Sibsagar   |57|~31·6~| 99|~37·2~|42|  ~5·6~|102  |~38·9~| 40  |  ~4·4~
  Nagpur     |69|~38·3~|115|~46·1~|46|  ~7·8~|117·5|~47·5~| 43·2|  ~6·2~
  Bombay     |34|~18·9~| 95|~35·0~|61| ~16·1~|100  |~37·9~| 53·2| ~11·8~
  Sholapur   |63|~35·0~|110|~43·3~|47|  ~8·3~|112  |~44·4~| 42·9|  ~6·0~
  Darjeeling |48|~26·7~| 78|~25·6~|30| ~-1·1~| 84  |~29·0~| 26·0| ~-3·3~
  Madras     |48|~26·6~|108|~42·2~|60| ~15·6~|113  |~45·0~| 57·5| ~14·2~
  Wellington |43|~23·9~| 80|~26·7~|37|  ~2·8~| 81  |~27·2~| 34·2|  ~1·2~
  Colombo    |25|~13·9~| 93|~33·9~|68| ~20·0~| 95·5|~35·4~| 65·8| ~18·8~
  Newera     |  |      |   |      |  |       |     |      |     |
  Eliya      |42|~23·3~| 77|~25·0~|35|  ~1·7~| 79  |~26·1~|  0·0|  ~0·0~
  Akyab      |45|~25·0~| 96|~35·6~|51| ~10·6~| 99  |~37·3~| 47·4|  ~8·5~
  Rangoon    |46|~25·6~|104|~40·0~|58| ~14·4~|106·5|~41·5~| 55·8| ~13·2~
  Port Blair |26|~14·4~| 95|~35·0~|69| ~20·6~| 96·5|~35·8~| 65·8| ~18·8~
  ===========+==+======+===+======+==+=======+=====+======+=====+=======

It will be noted that there is a second maximum in May, so that one of
the most important factors in determining these storms is obviously the
change of the monsoon. Their influence rarely reaches far inland, so
that one rarely hears of serious damage being inflicted much further
inland than Calcutta, and even there, the havoc seldom goes beyond the
uprooting of a few trees and the unroofing of crazy native huts. At sea
these storms are no light danger, but it is to be doubted if they ever
approach the terrific visitations that are to be met with in the West
Indies.


_The Indo-Malay Peninsula._--The climate of the coast of Arakan and
Lower Burmah generally resembles that of the other side of the Bay of
Bengal, but has a much heavier rainfall, as may be seen from an
inspection of the following table of four ports situated on the west
coast of the peninsula with that of Madras.

TABLE SHOWING COMPARISON OF RAINFALL ON WEST AND EAST COASTS, BAY OF
BENGAL.

  =========+=============+==============+==============+
           |    MADRAS   |PORT BLAIR IS-|    AKYAB     |
           | (West Coast | LAND (nearer |(East Coast of|
           |   of Bay)   |    Burmah)   | Bay to North)|
           +-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
           | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins. |  Mm.  |
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
  January  | 0·98|   ~28~|  0·91|   ~23~|  0·13|    ~3~|
  February | 0·33|    ~8~|  1·30|   ~33~|  0·19|    ~5~|
  March    | 0·39|   ~10~|  0·39|   ~10~|  0·54|   ~13~|
  April    | 0·59|   ~15~|  2·40|   ~61~|  1·63|   ~41~|
  May      | 2·20|   ~56~| 15·08|  ~404~| 12·21|  ~310~|
  June     | 2·09|   ~53~| 17·08|  ~455~| 51·63|~1,311~|
  July     | 3·78|   ~96~| 16·54|  ~419~| 50·98|~1,295~|
  August   | 4·42|  ~112~| 15·20|  ~386~| 38·57|  ~980~|
  September| 4·68|  ~119~| 19·65|  ~498~| 22·98|  ~584~|
  October  |10·08|  ~274~| 11·80|  ~300~| 12·40|  ~315~|
  November |13·70|  ~348~|  9·49|  ~241~|  3·89|   ~99~|
  December | 5·13|  ~130~|  5·33|  ~135~|  6·59|   ~15~|
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
  Year     |49·12|~1,246~|116·73|~2,965~|195·72|~4,971~|
  =========+=====+=======+======+=======+======+=======+

  =========+==============+==============
           |  MOULMEIN    |  SELANGOR
           |(East Coast of|(East Coast of
           | Bay, middle) |Bay to South)
           +------+-------+------+-------
           | Ins. |  Mm.  | Ins. | ~Mm.~
  ---------+------+-------+------+-------
  January  |  0   |    ~0~|  7·37|  ~187~
  February |  0·08|    ~2~|  6·03|  ~153~
  March    |  0·13|    ~3~|  7·84|  ~199~
  April    |  2·76|   ~70~| 10·04|  ~255~
  May      | 19·68|  ~500~| 10·72|  ~272~
  June     | 38·38|  ~975~|  3·04|   ~77~
  July     | 43·98|~1,115~|  3·98|  ~101~
  August   | 43·0 |~1,092~|  7·68|  ~195~
  September| 30·32|  ~770~|  7·18|  ~182~
  October  |  8·39|  ~218~| 11·17|  ~283~
  November |  1·49|   ~38~| 11·01|  ~280~
  December |  0·13|    ~3~|  9·77|  ~248~
  ---------+------+-------+------+-------
  Year     |188·32|~4,781~|101·30|~2,573~
  =========+======+=======+======+=======

The more even distribution and the appearance of two maxima as the
Equator is approached are also well shown in this table, which further
shows that the north-east coast of the Bay of Bengal includes some of
the rainiest places on the face of the globe.

Although the Burmese coast has so moist a climate, the greater part of
the moisture pouring in from the sea is precipitated on the rather high
range of hills that extends along the entire length of this peninsula,
at no great distance from the coast; so that as we ascend the Irrawaddy,
the rainfall steadily diminishes, until in the far inland regions of
Upper Burmah we get a climate reproducing, in many respects, that of
north-western India, though of course to a much less marked degree. This
change from extreme moisture to moderate dryness may be followed by
comparing the three following climatic tables of stations in Burmah.

CLIMATIC TABLE OF BURMESE STATIONS.

  =========+========================+========================+
    Month  |  RANGOON, near Coast.  |    MANDALAY, Inland.   |
           |     Lat. 16° 30′ N.    |        Lat. 22° N.     |
           +------------------------+------------------------+
           |  Mean |  Mean |  Mean  |  Mean |  Mean |  Mean  |
           |Monthly|Monthly| Monthly|Monthly|Monthly|Monthly |
           |Maxima |Minima |Rainfall|Maxima |Minima |Rainfall|
  ---------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------+
  January  |  89·1 |  64·2 |   0·11 |  84·1 |  56·0 |   0·06 |
  February |  92·8 |  65·9 |   0·23 |  89·9 |  60·1 |   0·08 |
  March    |  96·6 |  71·1 |   0·16 |  97·7 |  67·9 |   0·21 |
  April    |  98·6 |  76·2 |   1·74 | 102·3 |  77·8 |   1·19 |
  May      |  91·9 |  77·3 |  11·73 |  99·0 |  79·0 |   5·26 |
  June     |  86·5 |  76·5 |  18·30 |  95·0 |  78·5 |   5·71 |
  July     |  85·3 |  75·8 |  21·37 |  94·2 |  78·4 |   3·26 |
  August   |  85·1 |  75·7 |  19·65 |  93·3 |  77·6 |   4·16 |
  September|  85·7 |  75·9 |  15·89 |  92·8 |  76·9 |   6·21 |
  October  |  87·7 |  75·6 |   7·12 |  91·8 |  74·8 |   4·54 |
  November |  87·6 |  72·3 |   2·52 |  86·7 |  67·2 |   1·67 |
  December |  87·3 |  67·3 |   0·07 |  82·3 |  59·3 |   0·28 |
  ---------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------+
  Year     |  89·5 |  72·8 |  98·89 |  92·4 |  71·1 |  32·63 |
  =========+=======+=======+========+=======+=======+========+

  =========+========================
    Month  |BHAMO, Chinese Frontier.
           |   Lat. 24° 20′ N.
           +------------------------
           |  Mean |  Mean |  Mean
           |Monthly|Monthly|Monthly
           |Maxima |Minima |Rainfall
  ---------+-------+-------+--------
  January  |  77·2 |  48·5 |  0·71
  February |  82·2 |  53·1 |  0·39
  March    |  89·0 |  60·1 |  0·69
  April    |  93·9 |  67·6 |  1·65
  May      |  93·7 |  72·7 |  6·15
  June     |  90·5 |  74·9 | 13·35
  July     |  87·8 |  75·1 | 19·17
  August   |  88·1 |  75·4 | 16·40
  September|  90·1 |  74·5 |  8·79
  October  |  88·5 |  69·6 |  3·47
  November |  81·8 |  59·2 |  0·93
  December |  76·3 |  50·7 |  0·44
  ---------+-------+-------+--------
  Year     |  82·6 |  65·1 | 72·14
  =========+=======+=======+========

Conditions of space make it difficult here to express the data in both
scales, accordingly the English scale only is given. The higher rainfall
of Bhamo as compared with Mandalay is attributable to its proximity to
the great range of hills which divide Burmah from China.


_Straits Settlements._--Singapore has, or had, a yacht club, “The
Equatorial,” the course for whose regattas was supposed to be “the
Line,” so that the climate of this colony is necessarily of the
equatorial type. There is practically no seasonal change, as although
the maxima of rainfall occur in March-April and December, the other
months have also an amount of precipitation not far short of these
specially rainy months. The annual range of temperature is under 18° F.
(10° C), and though the climate is rather moist, excessive heat is never
met with; the mean maximum of April, the warmest month, being but 89° F.
The main climatic facts may be gathered from the subjoined table:--

SINGAPORE. LAT. 1° 16′ N.; LONG. 103° 53′ E. OBSERVATORY A FEW FEET
ABOVE THE SEA.

  ========+===========+===========+===========+=====+==============+=====
    Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall   | Num-
          |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|              | ber
          |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |              | of
          +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+--------+Rainy
          | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty %| Ins.|  ~Mm.~ | Days
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  January |78·2|~25·7~|85·6|~29·8~|71·7|~22·0~|  79 |10·30| ~261·6~|  16
  February|79·0|~26·1~|87·1|~30·6~|71·6|~21·9~|  79 | 6·18| ~156·3~|   9
  March   |79·9|~26·6~|88·0|~31·1~|73·3|~23·0~|  80 | 8·41| ~213·7~|  14
  April   |81·2|~27·3~|89·0|~31·7~|74·8|~23·7~|  79 | 8·39| ~213·5~|  15
  May     |82·7|~28·2~|88·9|~31·6~|76·4|~24·6~|  79 | 5·58| ~141·3~|  13
  June    |80·9|~27·1~|86·7|~30·4~|75·6|~24·3~|  81 | 6·37| ~161·7~|  16
  July    |81·7|~27·6~|87·5|~30·8~|75·4|~24·1~|  76 | 7·74| ~196·6~|  13
  August  |80·8|~27·0~|86·3|~30·2~|74·9|~23·8~|  78 | 6·83| ~173·0~|  14
  Septem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber     |80·5|~26·9~|86·9|~30·5~|74·2|~23·5~|  77 | 5·83| ~148·2~|  12
  October |80·4|~26·8~|87·1|~30·7~|74·1|~23·4~|  79 | 8·61| ~218·8~|  17
  November|79·3|~26·3~|86·1|~30·1~|73·6|~23·2~|  82 | 9·24| ~234·5~|  18
  December|77·4|~25·2~|83·2|~28·5~|73·5|~23·1~|  89 |10·84| ~275·5~|  17
  Year    |80·1|~26·7~|86·9|~30·5~|74·0|~26·7~|  80 |93·99|~2387~  | 174
  --------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+----
          |             Figures for 1896            |   Averages of 10
          |                                         |        years
  ========+=========================================+===================

During January and February the wind is mainly from the north-east, but
varies greatly, often veering round to the north-west. The south-west
monsoon, known here as the “Java winds,” comes on about April and
continues only to July, after which month, till November, the winds are
again very variable, the most common directions being south-south-west,
south-east, and west.

Considering its proximity to the Equator the climate is wonderfully
pleasant, the nights being always cool enough to sleep at ease, and
though there is generally a pleasant breeze, the island enjoys an almost
complete immunity from storms.


_Siam_, owing to its geographical position, is to some extent preserved
from the heat, rain, and devastating cyclones common in adjoining
countries, the high mountains with which it is almost completely
surrounded, cutting it off from most of their effects. The coolest month
is December, though the absolute minimum may occur at any time from
November to February; and the hottest, April.

The lowest temperature recorded during ten years by Staff-Surg. J.
Campbell, R.N., from whose observations these notes are compiled, was
57° F. (13·9° C), and the highest 97·5° F. (36·4° C). December is the
driest, and September the moistest month of the year, and hail fell once
in fifteen years. Droughts are rare. The south-west monsoon becomes weak
in September. Early in October northerly breezes set in, varying at
first to east and west of north, and by November the north-east monsoon
is established, to reach its strongest in December, and then gradually
failing till early in March, when the “Kiti” breezes--south to
south-south-west--usher in the monsoon. From May to August the winds are
sometimes boisterous. The above remarks apply to Lower Siam and to
Bangkok in particular, for which the table below, compiled from
Campbell’s figures, gives the main climatic data.

BANGKOK. LAT. 13° 58′ N.; LONG. 100° 34′ W. NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =======+===========+===========+===========+=====+==============+=====
   Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|   Rainfall   | Num-
         |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|              | ber
         |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |              | of
         +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+--------+Rainy
         | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.|  ~Mm.~ | Days
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  January|76·1|~24·5~|87·7|~30·9~|69·4|~20·7~|  75 | 0·09|   ~2·4~|   2
  Februa-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ry     |79·1|~26·2~|88·6|~31·5~|74·1|~23·4~|  78 | 0·56|  ~14·2~|   7
  March  |82·5|~28·1~|93·0|~33·9~|74·5|~23·6~|  74 | 0·83|  ~21·4~|   1
  April  |83·4|~28·5~|94·1|~34·5~|79·0|~26·1~|  75 | 2·42|  ~51·1~|  10
  May    |82·3|~27·9~|89·7|~32·0~|76·8|~24·8~|  78 |10·54| ~268·0~|  20
  June   |82·3|~27·9~|89·4|~31·8~|78·1|~25·7~|  78 | 7·72| ~195·7~|  16
  July   |81·4|~27·4~|88·1|~31·2~|76·2|~24·5~|  78 | 8·02| ~204·0~|  26
  August |81·4|~27·4~|89·0|~31·7~|76·2|~24·5~|  79 | 5·65| ~143·5~|  17
  Septem-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |80·3|~26·8~|88·6|~31·5~|76·7|~24·8~|  82 |11·30| ~287·0~|  22
  October|80·1|~26·7~|87·3|~30·7~|75·1|~24·0~|  82 | 7·46| ~189·3~|  14
  Novem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |76·8|~24·9~|83·7|~28·8~|70·3|~21·3~|  77 | 2·36|  ~59·8~|   6
  Decem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |74·8|~23·8~|81·6|~27·6~|63·3|~17·4~|  74 | 0·09|   ~2·4~|   2
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  Year   |80·1|~26·6~|88·4|~31·3~|74·1|~23·4~|  77 |67·04|~1703~  | 143
  =======+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+========+=====

Some authorities make the rainfall of Bangkok considerably less, but
Campbell’s observations extended over several years and may perhaps be
preferred. The delta of the Menam River is annually flooded between June
and November, and the spring levels are close to the surface all the
year round. North of the delta of the Menam is the Korat Plateau, some
700 feet above the sea-level, a wilderness of shadeless bush,
interspersed with salt marshes. One of the main drawbacks of the country
is the scarcity of potable water, the supplies both in the Menam delta
and on the Korat being almost always brackish and a nearly certain cause
of digestive disturbance for Europeans, who thus have to rely greatly on
aerated waters imported from the Straits.

Upper Siam, on the other hand, enjoys a dry climate with cool nights,
but speaking generally the climate is an exceptionally trying one for
European residents.


_Cochin China_ has a moist, hot climate. During the dry season, which
lasts from November to April, the temperature varies from 95° F. during
the day to 63° F. at night (35° to 17° C.), whereas during the rains,
which last from May to October, the range of variation is only between
86° and 68° F. (30° to 20° C.); the relative humidity at this season
reaching 89 per cent. Further north, in Tongking, the range of
temperature is wider, from 99° to 18° F. (36° to -7° C.). The rainfall
is much heavier than in Siam; Saigon, lat. 10° 47′ N., receiving its
maximum of 17·7 ins. (423 mm.) in September and a total rainfall of 74
ins. (1,873 mm.); while at Hue, lat. 16° 33′ N., the wettest month is
October, with 26·15 ins. (664 mm.), and a total of 102 ins. (2,592 mm.).
Further north, at Hai-fong, in lat. 20° 57′ N., the most rainy month is
August, with 14·8 ins. (374 mm.). July falls but little short of this,
but the total is less than that of the other two stations, amounting to
no more than 64 ins. (1,627 mm.).

The change to the north-east monsoon in November is not unfrequently
marked by sudden and devastating storms. The climate has a very bad
reputation, malaria, dysentery of a peculiarly deadly type, and diseases
due to internal worms, being very common, especially during the rainy
season.


_China._--Owing to the backward state of the country, there is
singularly little information of a definite character available with
respect to the enormous Chinese Empire, the entire southern half of
which comes within the scope of the tropical climatologist. In the
south, regular observations are carried on in the British colony of Hong
Kong, and in the north at Zi-ka-Wei, near Shanghai, an admirably
conducted observatory is conducted by the Jesuit missionaries, who so
often enrol themselves as the pioneers of science.

Speaking generally, however, whether in the case of littoral or
continental climates, those of China appear to compare favourably with
localities of the same latitude in India and the Indo-Malay peninsula.

The following are the figures for the island of Hong Kong for the year
1901, as I am unable to discover any collated statistics.

HONG KONG. LAT. 22° 12′ N., LONG. 114° 13′ E. NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =========+===========+===========+=====+=============
    Month  |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |Rela-|   Monthly
           |  Maxima   |  Minima   | tive|   Rainfall
           |           |           | Hu- |
           +----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+-------
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------
  January  |68·5|~20·3~|62·5|~16·9~|  83 | 0·68| ~17·4~
  February |59·5|~13·3~|50·5|~10·3~|  48 | 0·76| ~19·3~
  March    |67·9|~19·9~|60·4|~15·7~|  77 | 1·27| ~32·1~
  April    |75·4|~24·1~|69·1|~20·7~|  89 | 9·03|~229·9~
  May      |81·8|~27·7~|73·7|~23·2~|  85 |14·10|~358·1~
  June     |85·9|~29·9~|78·2|~25·7~|  80 | 2·33| ~59·7~
  July     |87·0|~30·6~|78·5|~25·8~|  81 | 5·58|~141·0~
  August   |85·7|~29·8~|76·9|~24·9~|  84 |14·00|~355·6~
  September|86·0|~30·0~|76·4|~24·6~|  76 | 3·89| ~99·1~
  October  |82·6|~28·2~|73·6|~23·2~|  68 | 2·50| ~63·5~
  November |75·4|~24·1~|64·9|~18·2~|  64 | 0·77| ~19·5~
  December |66·9|~19·3~|57·5|~14·2~|  66 | 0·83| ~21·2~
  =========+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======

In the _Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps_, vol. i., No. 1, Major
S. F. Clark writes: “The climate of Hong Kong varies in the different
places. At the Peak, 1,500 feet above the sea, it is always bearable in
summer, and is quite crisp in winter, an occasional film of ice being
sometimes visible in the mornings. In fact, if one had not to descend to
the lower levels for work, it would be no hardship to live at the Peak,
where the fog is really the main trouble. Children do well up there, but
get very white down below.

“In the city the summer is very trying. From May to September, both
inclusive, the sun is strong--reaching 94° or so in July and August--and
the humidity of the air is practically at saturation point. With the
breeze cut off by the Peak the situation is thus by no means pleasant,
and cases of heat apoplexy always occur at this time. The temperature
averages 86° to 88° during these months, and the nights also are
stiflingly hot. By the help of punkahs, electric fans, rickshaws and
chairs, the work of the colony goes on. The summer is also the rainy and
typhoon season, and these visitations luckily cool the air for some
days. The rain is very heavy at times, but of late years droughts have
prevailed. For the other seven months the climate is not unpleasant, and
in December, January and February, is quite cold, without reaching
freezing point. The humidity of the air, however, is always
considerable. This dampness of the air, especially foggy weather at the
Peak, is very destructive to clothing, books, &c., and tin-lined boxes
are essential. Ladies’ garments require much care to preserve them from
destruction.”

It is, however, fortunately possible for most people to live at “the
Peak,” between which and the town there is frequent communication by
means of cable tram.

Considering that Hong Kong lies well to the south of Calcutta, it must
be confessed that the climate is wonderfully good, and one cannot but
think that Major Clark would wish himself back in Hong Kong were he to
negotiate an exchange to almost any station in the plains of India.

On the mainland, at Canton, the climate is much less uniform, the
north-east wind of the cold season rendering the nights singularly cold
for so southerly a position.

The China seas are visited by revolving storms of a most violent
character, known locally as typhoons, but as in those of the Bay of
Bengal, their more serious effects do not appear to extend far inland.

The Island of Formosa, with a mean annual temperature of 74·6° F. (23·7°
C.), has a typically marine climate, the difference between the coldest
and hottest months, February and June, being but from 67·7° F. (19·8°
C.) to 81° F. (27·1° C.), or only 13·5° F. (7·3° C.). The south-west
monsoon bursts towards the end of May, and the rainfall, especially in
the north of the island, is very heavy and evenly distributed, though
there is a distinct dry, winter season in the south, as may be seen by
the contrast of the rainfall of the following two Formosan
stations--Kilung, in lat. 25° 8′ N., and Takao Anping, in 22° 47′ N.
(Hann).

RAINFALL IN THE ISLAND OF FORMOSA.

  ===========+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
             | Jan.| Feb.| Mar.|April| May | June|
  -----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Kilung{Ins.|17·53|14·98|14·98| 8·68|10·74| 9·33|
        {Mm. | 445 | 379 | 379 | 220 | 273 | 237 |
             |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  Takao {Ins.| 6·67| 0·58| 1·64| 2·48| 9·45|13·58|
        {Mm. |  17 |  13 |  41 |  63 | 240 | 345 |
  ===========+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+

  ===========+=====+=====+=====+====+=====+=====
             | July| Aug.|Sept.|Oct.| Nov.| Dec.
  -----------+-----+-----+-----+----+-----+-----
  Kilung{Ins.| 7·72| 7·53|16·53|9·84|11·61|11·63
        {Mm. | 196 | 191 | 420 | 249| 294 | 294
             |     |     |     |    |     |
  Takao {Ins.|14·65|14·63| 4·69|1·54| 0·49| 1·08
        {Mm. | 372 | 370 | 119 |  39|  12 |  27
  ===========+=====+=====+=====+====+=====+=====

The total annual rainfall is 122 ins. (3,581 mm.) for Kilung, and 65·25
ins. (1,658 mm.) for Takao Anping.

Further north, the monsoon bursts somewhat later, very much in the same
way as it does in India; but here, again, the climate is much cooler
than would be met with west of the Malay Peninsula in the same
latitudes.

ZI-KA-WEI. LAT. 31° 12′ N.; TIME 8 HRS. 5 MINS. 43 SECS. EAST OF
GREENWICH. ELEVATION OF OBSERVATORY, 22 FEET ABOVE THE SEA.

  =======+===========+===========+===========+=====+==============+=====
   Month |   Mean    |   Maximum |  Minimum  |Rela-|   Rainfall   |Num-
         |  Monthly  |  Tempera- | Tempera-  | tive|              | ber
         |Temperature|   tures   |   tures   | Hu- |              | of
         +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+--------+Rainy
         | F. |  C.  | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.|  ~Mm.~ |days
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  January|37·0| ~2·8~|60·0|~15·6~|20·0|~-6·7~|  78 | 2·03|  ~51·8~|  10
  Februa-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ry     |39·4| ~4·0~|61·9|~16·6~|23·8|~-4·9~|  79 | 2·44|  ~62·0~|  11
  March  |46·0| ~7·8~|74·1|~23·4~|29·0|~-1·7~|  77 | 3·29|  ~83·6~|  13
  April  |56·5|~13·6~|84·0|~28·9~|36·9| ~2·7~|  77 | 3·49|  ~88·8~|  13
  May    |65·5|~18·6~|88·5|~31·4~|46·4| ~8·0~|  76 | 3·64|  ~92·0~|  13
  June   |73·4|~23·0~|95·0|~34·9~|57·3|~14·1~|  79 | 6·78| ~172·0~|  14
  July   |80·6|~27·0~|98·5|~36·9~|67·5|~19·7~|  80 | 4·74| ~120·1~|  11
  August |80·1|~26·8~|97·4|~36·3~|67·0|~19·4~|  80 | 6·08| ~154·6~|  11
  Septem-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |72·8|~22·7~|92·0|~33·3~|56·6|~13·7~|  79 | 4·89| ~124·3~|  12
  October|63·2|~17·3~|83·5|~28·6~|41·4| ~5·2~|  76 | 3·23|  ~82·0~|  10
  Novem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |52·0|~11·1~|73·4|~23·0~|29·9|~-1·2~|  76 | 1·94|  ~49·2~|   8
  Decem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |        |
  ber    |41·7| ~5·5~|65·0|~18·3~|21·8|~-5·7~|  76 | 1·15|  ~29·2~|   7
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+--------+-----
  Year   |59·0|~15·0~|99·4|~27·3~|20·0|~-6·7~|  78 |43·68|~1109·1~| 131
  =======+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+========+=====

The above table, which is drawn up from the observations of several
years, shows, apart from the remarkably low temperatures, an amount of
both diurnal and annual variation that is very remarkable in a place so
close to the sea. Strictly speaking, indeed, it should not come in the
category of hot climates at all, but in the absence of other accurate
material it is valuable for the purpose of showing how soon tropical
temperatures are left behind as we proceed northward along the Pacific
coast of Asia.


_The Malay Archipelago._--Consists of a number of large islands situated
on either side of the Equator, and generally too close to it to enjoy
the benefits of a well-developed monsoon.

BATAVIA. LAT. 6° 11′ S.; LONG. 106° 53′ E.

  =======+===========+===========+===========+=====+=============+=====
   Month |   Mean    |  Absolute |  Absolute |Rela-|    Mean     |Num-
         |Temperature|   Maxima  |  Minima   | tive|   Monthly   | ber
         |           |           |           | Hu- |  Rainfall   | of
         +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+-------+Rainy
         | F. |  C.  | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |days
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  January|77·6|~25·4~|91·5|~33·1~|68·4|~20·4~| 87·1|13·75|  ~350~| 22·5
  Februa-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ry     |77·6|~25·4~|90·5|~32·5~|69·1|~20·7~| 87·5|12·56|  ~319~| 20·7
  March  |78·5|~25·8~|90·6|~32·6~|70·3|~21·2~| 85·9| 7·53|  ~191~| 17·4
  April  |79·4|~26·3~|90·5|~32·5~|70·3|~21·2~| 85  | 4·78|  ~121~| 14·1
  May    |79·5|~26·4~|91·1|~32·9~|70·3|~21·2~| 83·0| 3·48|   ~88~|  9·2
  June   |79·4|~26·3~|90·5|~32·5~|68·6|~20·4~| 83·1| 3·64|   ~92~|  9·1
  July   |78·5|~25·8~|90·0|~32·2~|67·0|~19·4~| 80·8| 2·53|   ~64~|  6·9
  August |78·9|~26·0~|92·4|~33·4~|67·0|~19·4~| 77·7| 1·49|   ~38~|  8·0
  Septem-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber    |79·5|~26·4~|94·0|~34·4~|66·0|~18·9~| 77·5| 2·74|   ~69~|  7·3
  October|79·7|~26·8~|95·0|~35·0~|69·0|~20·6~| 79·0| 4·19|  ~106~| 10·0
  Novem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber    |79·1|~26·2~|96·0|~35·6~|68·2|~20·2~| 82·0| 5·08|  ~127~| 13·7
  Decem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |     |       |
  ber    |78·2|~25·7~|92·5|~33·6~|70·0|~21·1~| 84·8| 9·03|  ~229~| 19·0
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+-------+-----
  Year   |78·9|~26·0~|96·0|~35·6~|68·2|~20·2~| 82·8|70·71|~1,796~|154·9
  =======+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=======+=====

South of lat. 10°-12°, a north-west monsoon, developing in October or
November, takes the place of the south-west monsoon appearing in May in
northern latitudes, and when we are sufficiently far from the Equator to
be clear of the zone of calms and variable winds, it is the development
of this wind that determines the appearance of the rainy season.

This, however, does not so much affect the Malay Archipelago, as nearly
the whole of it is within the zone of double annual rainy seasons, and
the winds on which they depend to temper the tropical heat are mainly
land and sea breezes of necessarily very variable direction.

The Dutch have long had a first-class observatory established at
Batavia, the capital of Java, and their results being thus of the first
value may be very well taken as a type of the weather conditions of the
islands to the south of the Equator, while the table already furnished
of Singapore will serve sufficiently to illustrate the northern portion
of the Archipelago.

A mild, equable, damp climate, not so hot as would be met with at a
corresponding distance north of the line, never cool, and equally free
from excessive heat, but very enervating; and unfortunately the health
records of these islands are by no means satisfactory.

From January to early April the winds are usually from the north-west,
and from May to October north-east, the remaining two months of the year
being characterised by winds of very variable direction.

The two following tables will give some idea of the temperature and
rainfall of a few sites in this Archipelago, arranged progressively in
their order north and south of the Equator.

As examples of places in this archipelago which chance to have a special
interest for English-speaking people on both sides of the Atlantic, I
give below fuller data of the climates of Manila in America’s new
acquisition of the Philippines, based on from 16 to 34 years of Spanish
records; and of Port Moresley, in the newly established British colony
in New Guinea, which naturally cannot as yet do more than furnish a
single year’s experience:--

MANILA. LAT. 14° 36′ N.; LONG. 120° 58′ E. NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =========+===========+============+===========+=====+===============
    Month  |    Mean   |  Absolute  |  Absolute |Rela-|     Mean
           |  Monthly  |  Monthly   |  Monthly  | tive|    Monthly
           |Temperature|   Maxima   |   Minima  | Hu- |   Rainfall
           +----+------+-----+------+----+------+midi-+-----+---------
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.|  ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+-----+---------
  January  |77·0|~25·0~| 93·0|~33·9~|62·1|~16·7~| 77·7| 1·19|   ~29·4~
  February |77·7|~25·4~| 95·7|~35·4~|61·0|~16·1~| 74·1| 0·41|   ~10·3~
  March    |80·4|~26·8~| 95·9|~35·5~|63·3|~17·4~| 71·7| 0·74|   ~18·8~
  April    |82·9|~28·2~| 99·0|~37·2~|66·0|~18·9~| 70·9| 1·14|   ~29·1~
  May      |83·3|~28·5~|100·0|~37·8~|71·1|~21·7~| 76·9| 4·20|  ~106·7~
  June     |82·0|~27·8~| 97·0|~36·1~|70·9|~21·6~| 81·5| 9·62|  ~244·1~
  July     |80·8|~27·1~| 94·8|~34·9~|70·0|~21·1~| 84·9|14·57|  ~369·3~
  August   |80·8|~27·1~| 94·3|~34·5~|69·1|~20·6~| 84·4|13·87|  ~351·8~
  September|80·4|~26·8~| 93·7|~34·3~|70·5|~21·4~| 85·6|14·93|  ~378·9~
  October  |80·4|~26·8~| 94·8|~34·8~|68·7|~20·4~| 82·6| 7·54|  ~191·6~
  November |79·0|~26·1~| 92·1|~33·4~|64·9|~18·2~| 81·6| 5·13|  ~129·7~
  December |77·4|~25·2~| 91·9|~33·2~|60·3|~15·7~| 80·7| 2·13|   ~53·5~
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+-----+-----+---------
  Year     |77·0|~26·8~|100  |~37·8~|60·3|~15·7~| 97·4|75·46|~1,916·6~
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+=====+=====+=========

TABLE OF TEMPERATURES IN MALAY ARCHIPELAGO.

  =============+==========+==========+===========+=====================+
      Place    |  Island  | Latitude |Mean Annual|    Coldest Month    |
               |          |          |Temperature+---------+-----------+
               |          |          |           |  Name   |Temperature|
               |          |          +----+------+         +-----+-----+
               |          |          | F. | ~C.~ |         | F. | ~C.~ |
  -------------+----------+----------+----+------+---------+----+------+
  Bayombong    |  Lugon   |16° 29′ N.|76·1|~24·8~|December |70·8|~21·6~|
  C. Boliano   |    „     |16° 23′ N.|77·5|~25·3~|    „    |73·6|~23·2~|
  Manila       |    „     |14° 35′ N.|79·5|~26·4~| January |76·1|~24·5~|
  Malion       |    „     |18°  9′ N.|77·6|~25·4~|    „    |74·2|~23·4~|
  Iloilo       |  Sebu    |10° 42′ N.|79·8|~26·6~|    „    |77·1|~25·1~|
  Carlotta     | Negros   |10° 25′ N.|77·5|~25·3~|December |75·5|~24·2~|
  Bohol        |  Bohol   | 9° 30′ N.|78·6|~25·9~|February |76·2|~24·5~|
  Sandakan     | Borneo   | 5° 49′ N.|80·5|~26·9~|Dec.-Jan.|79·0|~26·1~|
  Papar        |    „     | 6° 49′ N.|77·6|~25·4~| „    „  |76·1|~24·5~|
  Padang       | Sumatra  | 0° 56′ S.|79·8|~26·6~|November |79·1|~26·2~|
  Palembang    |    „     | 2° 50′ S.|80·6|~27·0~| January |79·8|~26·6~|
  Baryermassing|    „     | 3° 34′ S.|79·9|~27·1~|December |80·0|~26·7~|
  Amboina      |  Seram   | 3° 41′ S.|79·3|~26·3~|  July   |77·4|~25·2~|
  Lahat        | Sumatra  | 3° 48′ S.|78·9|~26·0~| January |79·1|~26·2~|
  North Coast  |New Guinea| 4° 54′ S.|79·0|~26·1~| August  |77·5|~25·3~|
  Batavia      |   Java   | 6° 11′ S.|78·6|~25·9~| January |77·5|~25·3~|
  Buitenzorg   |    „     | 6° 37′ S.|77·0|~25·0~|February |78·0|~25·5~|
  Banjoewangie |    „     | 8° 17′ S.|79·9|~26·7~|  July   |78·9|~26·0~|
  South coast  |New Guinea| 9° 28′ S.|80·5|~26·9~| August  |77·5|~25·3~|
  =============+==========+==========+====+======+=========+====+======+

  =============+====================+=========
      Place    |   Hottest Month    | Diffe-
               |--------+-----------+  rence
               |  Name  |Temperature|
               |        +----+------+---+-----
               |        | F. | ~C.~ | F.| ~C.~
  -------------+--------+----+------+---+-----
  Bayombong    |  May   |80·0|~26·7~|9·2|~5·1~
  C. Boliano   |   „    |81·3|~27·4~|7·5|~4·2~
  Manila       |   „    |82·9|~28·2~|6·6|~3·7~
  Malion       |   „    |81·6|~27·6~|7·5|~4·2~
  Iloilo       |   „    |82·4|~28·0~|5·2|~2·9~
  Carlotta     |   „    |80·6|~27·0~|5·1|~2·8~
  Bohol        | June   |80·6|~27·0~|4·5|~2·5~
  Sandakan     |Apl.-May|81·9|~27·7~|2·9|~1·6~
  Papar        | June   |79·3|~26·3~|3·2|~1·8~
  Padang       |  May   |81·0|~27·2~|1·8|~1·0~
  Palembang    |   „    |81·4|~27·4~|1·4|~0·8~
  Baryermassing|   „    |81·9|~27·7~|1·8|~1·0~
  Amboina      |February|81·0|~27·2~|3·6|~2·0~
  Lahat        | April  |81·2|~27·3~|2·3|~1·3~
  North Coast  | March  |79·8|~26·6~|2·8|~1·3~
  Batavia      |May-Oct.|79·5|~26·4~|1·9|~1·1~
  Buitenzorg   | Sept.  |77·7|~25·5~|1·8|~1·0~
  Banjoewangie | April  |81·2|~27·3~|2·3|~1·3~
  South coast  |December|82·6|~28·2~|5·2|~2·9~
  =============+========+====+======+===+=====

The remarkable uniformity of these climates, albeit with a slightly more
distinct tendency to variation as one recedes from the Equator, are well
illustrated in these tables, as also is the dependence of season on
purely local conditions in these latitudes.

TABLE SHOWING MONTHLY RAINFALL OF LOCALITIES IN THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO.

  =========+==============+=============+==============+
  Place    |   SINGKEL,   |  KOTA RAJA, |   SARAWAK,   |
           | S. W. coast, |  N. coast,  |   N. coast,  |
           |   Sumatra    |   Sumatra   |    Borneo    |
  ---------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  Latitude |   2° 11′ N.  |   5° 32′ N. |   1° 28′ N.  |
  ---------+--------------+-------------+--------------+
  Longitude|  97° 45′ E.  |  95° 20′ E. |   110° 8′ E. |
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+-------+
  Month    | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+-------+
  January  | 11·23|  ~285~| 5·98|  ~151~| 27·17|  ~690~|
  February | 10·68|  ~271~| 3·13|   ~79~| 23·67|  ~601~|
  March    | 14·64|  ~372~| 3·32|   ~84~| 10·14|  ~257~|
  April    | 15·97|  ~406~| 4·58|  ~116~| 10·04|  ~255~|
  May      | 14·45|  ~367~| 5·55|  ~141~|  9·09|  ~231~|
  June     | 13·18|  ~335~| 3·28|   ~82~|  8·73|  ~222~|
  July     | 11·46|  ~291~| 4·38|  ~111~|  4·78|  ~121~|
  August   | 15·28|  ~388~| 4·84|  ~123~|  8·86|  ~225~|
  September| 16·75|  ~426~| 7·29|  ~185~|  7·78|  ~198~|
  October  | 20·16|  ~512~| 7·48|  ~190~|  9·92|  ~252~|
  November | 19·64|  ~499~| 8·24|  ~209~| 13·56|  ~345~|
  December | 16·37|  ~416~| 9·17|  ~233~| 25·12|  ~663~|
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+-------+
  Year     |179·62|~4,562~|67·08|~1,704~|159·45|~4,050~|
  =========+======+=======+=====+=======+======+=======+

  =========+==============+==============+=============+
  Place    |   SANDAKAN,  |   MENADO,    |   TERNATA,  |
           |    British   | N. Peninsula,| Small Island|
           |   N. Borneo  |   Celebes    |  off Jilolo |
  ---------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
  Latitude |   5° 49′ N.  |   1° 30′ N.  |   0° 47′ N. |
  ---------+--------------+--------------+-------------+
  Longitude|  118° 12′ E. |  124° 50′ E. | 127° 23′ E. |
  ---------+------+-------+------+-------+-----+-------+
  Month    | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+------+-------+------+-------+-----+-------+
  January  | 21·43|  ~544~| 18·78|  ~478~| 7·83|  ~199~|
  February | 10·33|  ~262~| 13·27|  ~337~| 7·98|  ~201~|
  March    |  7·53|  ~192~| 10·67|  ~271~| 6·30|  ~160~|
  April    |  4·37|  ~111~|  8·08|  ~205~|10·33|  ~262~|
  May      |  5·32|  ~135~|  6·58|  ~167~| 8·89|  ~226~|
  June     |  8·32|  ~211~|  7·08|  ~179~| 8·89|  ~226~|
  July     |  9·62|  ~244~|  4·93|  ~125~| 5·38|  ~137~|
  August   |  6·98|  ~176~|  4·78|  ~121~| 4·73|  ~120~|
  September| 10·08|  ~256~|  3·24|   ~82~| 4·07|  ~103~|
  October  | 10·07|  ~255~|  4·93|  ~125~| 6·58|  ~167~|
  November | 16·45|  ~418~|  8·08|  ~205~| 8·32|  ~211~|
  December | 19·14|  ~486~| 16·45|  ~418~| 9·28|  ~236~|
  ---------+------+-------+------+-------+-----+-------+
  Year     |129·73|~3,296~|106·82|~2,713~|88·51|~2,248~|
  =========+======+=======+======+=======+=====+=======+

  =========+==============+=============+=============
  Place    |  BENKULEN,   | BANGAWANJI, |   KUPANG,
           | S. W. coast, |    Java     | N. coast of
           |   Sumatra    |             |   Timor
  ---------+--------------+-------------+-------------
  Latitude |    3° 47′ S. |  8° 13′ S.  | 10° 10′ S.
  ---------+--------------+-------------+-------------
  Longitude|  102° 15′ E. | 114° 23′ E. | 123° 34′ E.
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
  Month    | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
  January  | 12·40|  ~315~| 7·57|  ~192~|16·15|  ~423~
  February |  9·83|  ~249~| 7·57|  ~192~|15·03|  ~404~
  March    | 11·34|  ~288~| 5·38|  ~138~| 7·60|  ~193~
  April    | 10·35|  ~263~| 4·08|  ~104~| 2·38|   ~60~
  May      | 10·33|  ~262~| 4·97|  ~126~| 1·85|   ~47~
  June     |  9·15|  ~233~| 4·62|  ~117~| 0·38|   ~10~
  July     |  7·13|  ~181~| 3·03|   ~77~| 0·17|    ~4~
  August   |  9·48|  ~241~| 2·48|   ~63~| 0·13|    ~3~
  September|  9·82|  ~249~| 2·67|   ~68~| 0·04|    ~1~
  October  | 14·22|  ~361~| 2·60|   ~66~| 0·47|   ~12~
  November | 13·53|  ~344~| 2·77|   ~70~| 3·34|   ~85~
  December | 13·60|  ~349~| 7·97|  ~202~|10·44|  ~265~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
  Year     |131·30|~3,335~|55·12|~1,415~|59·34|~1,507~
  =========+======+=======+=====+=======+=====+=======

The gradual development of a dry season as one proceeds southward from
the Equator, as well as the gradual diminution of the rainfall that
accompanies it, is very instructive.

PORT MORESLEY, BRITISH NEW GUINEA. S.E. COAST.

  =========+=========+=========+===========+=============+===========
    Month  |   Mean  |   Mean  |    Mean   |   Monthly   | Direction
           | Monthly | Maximum |  Minimum  |   Rainfall  |    of
           | Tempera-| Tempera-|  Tempera- |             |   Wind
           |   ture  |   ture  |    ture   |             |
           +--+------+--+------+----+------+-----+-------+
           |F.| ~C.~ |F.| ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+--+------+--+------+----+------+-----+-------+-----------
  January  |89|~31·7~|91|~32·8~|75  |~23·9~|11·68|~296·7~|   N.W.
  February |86|~30·0~|90|~32·2~|72  |~22·2~|11·88|~301·2~|   N.W.
  March    |86|~30·0~|90|~32·2~|74  |~23·3~|10·15|~257·8~|   N.W.
  April    |86|~30·0~|88|~31·1~|74  |~23·3~| 2·40| ~61·0~|N.W. & S.E.
  May      |86|~30·0~|87|~30·6~|72  |~22·2~| 2·96| ~73·0~|   S.E.
  June     |83|~28·3~|87|~30·6~|71  |~21·7~|   Wanting   |   S.E.
  July     |82|~27·8~|83|~28·3~|68·5|~20·3~| 5·94|~151·0~|   S.E.
  August   |84|~28·9~|82|~27·8~|68  |~20·0~| 1·45| ~36·8~|   S.E.
  September|85|~29·4~|86|~30·0~|71  |~21·7~| 0·12|  ~2·7~|   S.E.
  October  |84|~28·9~|87|~30·6~|71  |~21·7~| 0·16|  ~4·0~|   S.E.
  November |88|~31·1~|88|~31·1~|71  |~21·7~| 0·60| ~15·2~|   S.E.
  December |88|~31·1~|91|~32·8~|73  |~22·8~| 6·88|~174·8~|   N.W.
  =========+==+======+==+======+====+======+=====+=======+===========

The rainfall, therefore, appears to be from 56-60 ins., and the reporter
remarks:--

“On the sea coast, the experience so far gained seems to prove that the
climate of the western portion (of the island) is rainy. Port Moresley
is apparently near the centre of a dry belt that extends 100-150 miles
along the coast. Eastward of this the climate becomes more rainy as far
as the East Cape. The north-east coast, as far as Cape Nelson, is drier,
and beyond this again, more rainy--Mamlaro is a wet district. As far as
known, the mountain region is more rainy. Thunder storms are more
frequent and mist and drizzle also prevail on the high lands.”

Exploration in New Guinea is, however, a pursuit which requires the
traveller to brave to an exceptional extent the dangers of poisonous
snakes and other venomous vermin.

Capt. I. A. Lawson (“Wanderings in the Interior of New Guinea,” Chapman
and Hall, London, 1875) describes an apparently undoubted case of death
from scorpion sting in an adult, and states that large numbers of
Papuans are killed by them. He saw several scorpions ten inches long.
The patient became comatose. After about three hours, thin watery,
almost colourless, blood began to flow from his ears, eyes and nose,
which exhaled a horrible stench, and the man died. He measured one
scorpion thirteen inches long, and a second exceeded ten inches.


_Australia._--The greater part, fortunately, of the island continent is
typically “a white man’s country,” the temperature of latitudes south of
the line being so much lower than those of the northern hemisphere that
only the extreme northern part of the country comes within our limits.

One would expect, for example, Brisbane, lying in 27° 28′ S., to be very
hot, but an inspection of the table below shows that it is only in the
north of Queensland that one may expect to meet anything approaching a
tropical climate.

Unfortunately the Queensland official statistics do not appear to have
been collated, but the year chosen seems to be a fairly representative
one. This deficiency is the more surprising as, in a country so often
affected with destructive droughts, one would have expected that every
effort would have been made to elucidate, by carefully drawn-up normal
tables, the usual sequence of good and bad seasons.

BRISBANE, QUEENSLAND.

  =========+===========+===========+===========+=====+===========+=====
    Month  |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|  Rainfall | Num-
           |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  | tive|           | ber
           |           |Temperature|Temperature| Hu- |           | of
           +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+----+------+Rainy
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | ty  |Ins.| ~Mm.~| Days
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+----+------+-----
  January  |72·2|~22·3~|80·9|~27·1~|63·4|~17·4~|  66 |1·40|~35·6~|  10
  February |76·7|~24·8~|86·2|~30·1~|67·2|~19·5~|  64 |0·75|~19·1~|   4
  March    |79·7|~26·5~|88·9|~31·6~|70·4|~21·3~|  62 |1·38|~35·0~|  10
  April    |78·4|~25·7~|87·0|~30·6~|69·8|~21·0~|  66 |2·67|~67·4~|   7
  May      |74·3|~23·5~|84·2|~29·0~|64·4|~18·0~|  61 |0·63|~16·0~|   2
  June     |69·7|~20·9~|80·5|~26·9~|58·9|~14·9~|  64 |0·17| ~4·3~|   7
  July     |64·7|~18·2~|75·9|~24·3~|53·5|~11·9~|  68 |0·47|~11·9~|   3
  August   |63·0|~17·2~|75·1|~24·0~|50·8|~10·4~|  69 |0·06| ~1·5~|   2
  September|60·4|~15·7~|71·1|~21·8~|49·7| ~9·8~|  70 |0·55|~14·0~|   9
  October  |60·4|~15·7~|71·5|~21·9~|49·3| ~9·6~|  67 |0·98|~24·9~|  10
  November |67·0|~19·4~|76·9|~24·9~|57·1|~14·0~|  71 |1·30|~33·0~|   7
  December |68·9|~20·5~|78·6|~25·9~|59·2|~15·1~|  64 |3·25|~82·5~|   9
  =========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+====+======+=====

Unfortunately, the greater part of the interior of the country is an
almost waterless desert, the development of which, unless subterranean
sources of water can be tapped, seems almost hopeless, and almost the
whole west coast shares in this terrible disability, and would probably
have remained as deserted as the interior but for the recent discoveries
of its richness in gold. Even in the extreme north, at Port Darwin, the
climate is by no means unendurable for a place within 12¹⁄₂ degrees of
the line, and the mean rainfall, 63·21 ins., is very moderate for a
place so situated.

PORT DARWIN, NORTHERN TERRITORY.

  =========+===========+===========+===========+=============+======
           |   Mean    |  Absolute |  Absolute |   Rainfall  |Number
           |Temperature|  Maximum  |  Minimum  |             |  of
     Month +----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-------+ Rainy
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |Days
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+-------+------
  January  |84·4|~29·1~|93·6|~34·3~|73·0|~22·8~|15·85|~402·6~|  23
  February |83·5|~28·6~|93·9|~34·3~|73·4|~23·0~|13·77|~374·8~|  14
  March    |84·6|~29·3~|91·4|~33·0~|71·0|~21·7~|10·10|~258·5~|  26
  April    |84·4|~29·1~|97·8|~36·5~|69·2|~20·7~| 4·36|~110·6~|   6
  May      |81·5|~27·5~|95·2|~35·1~|66·6|~19·2~| 1·04| ~26·6~|  --
  June     |78·7|~25·9~|92·4|~33·5~|59·9|~15·5~| 0·08|  ~1·7~|   3
  July     |76·8|~24·9~|88·1|~31·2~|58·6|~14·8~| 0·01|  ~0·3~|  --
  August   |79·3|~26·3~|92·0|~33·3~|63·7|~17·6~| 0·12|  ~3·0~|  --
  September|82·8|~28·2~|94·1|~34·5~|67·9|~19·9~| 0·43| ~10·9~|   1
  October  |85·7|~29·8~|96·7|~35·9~|72·4|~22·4~| 2·19| ~54·5~|   8
  November |86·0|~30·0~|97·0|~36·1~|72·4|~22·4~| 5·21|~132·2~|   4
  December |85·5|~29·7~|95·4|~35·2~|73·7|~23·2~|10·27|~260·4~|  16
  =========+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+=======+======

The climate of the tropical portion of Western Australia will be
sufficiently indicated by the following table for Wyndham, in lat. 15°
27′ S.

  =========+============+============+=============
    Month  |Mean Monthly|Mean Monthly|Mean Rainfall
           |   Maxima   |   Minima   |  Monthly
           +-----+------+-----+------+----+--------
           |  F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ |Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+-----+------+-----+------+----+--------
  January  | 98·0|~36·7~| 78·8|~26·0~|5·32|~134·7~
  February | 98·7|~37·0~| 78·7|~25·9~|4·24|~106·8~
  March    | 98·2|~36·8~| 79·4|~26·3~|4·02|~102·8~
  April    | 98·1|~36·7~| 76·8|~24·9~|    Nil
  May      | 93·1|~34·0~| 71·2|~21·8~|    Nil
  June     | 89·1|~31·8~| 67·7|~19·8~|0·15|  ~3·8~
  July     | 88·7|~31·5~| 62·8|~17·0~|    Nil
  August   | 91·8|~33·2~| 66·8|~19·3~|    Nil
  September| 97·0|~36·1~| 74·0|~23·3~|0·04|  ~1·2~
  October  |100·3|~37·9~| 78·9|~26·0~|    Nil
  November |101·3|~38·5~| 80·3|~26·8~|4·32|~109·4~
  December |100·1|~37·8~| 80·4|~26·9~|2·47| ~62·3~
  =========+=====+======+=====+======+====+========

The total annual rainfall here only amounts to 20·54 ins. (521·8 mm.);
and Freemantle, in lat. 32° S., on the coast, only receives 28·15 ins.
(715 mm.); and Coolgardie, far in the interior, but 7·18 ins. (181·7
mm.); but the temperature records of neither of the two last-mentioned
places quite entitles them to be considered in the light of hot
countries.

From 20° to 25° south latitude the coast is even drier; Cossach, in
latitude 20° 40′ S., receiving but 9·3 ins. (247 mm.), and Carnarvon,
in latitude 24° 52′ S., but 7·83 ins. (199 mm.). In these localities the
perceptible rainfall occurs in June and July. In the summer (January,
February) some of these places are no doubt very hot, but the nights are
nearly always fairly cool. In many of these places water is so scarce
that a bath is a luxury scarcely attainable by any but the very rich,
the precious fluid having to be eked out at what seems to us a fabulous
price per gallon, or even pint. This difficulty is, however, being met
in some places by enormous engineering works, and colonists may be met
with who have a good deal to say in favour of these apparently
inhospitable shores.


_Pacific Islands._--The pages of Stevenson and Ralf Bolderwood have so
familiarised us with the delights of these favoured spots--where it is
always summer, but rarely oppressively hot--that it is probable that the
general public have a better idea of their climates than is the case
with almost any other tropical region. Owing to their comparatively
small economic importance, it is, however, impossible to do more than
supply a pair of tables illustrative of the climate of a few of the
better-known spots.

TABLE OF TEMPERATURE OF PACIFIC ISLANDS.

  ==========+==========+======================+
   Island or| Latitude |    Warmest Month     |
     Place  |          +----------+-----------+
            |          |   Name   |    Mean   |
            |          |          |Temperature|
            |          |          +-----+-----+
            |          |          | F. | ~C.~ |
  ----------+----------+----------+----+------+
  Kauai     |22° 15′ N.|  August  |76·4|~24·6~|
  Honolulu  |21° 18′ N.|  August  |77·5|~25·3~|
  Hilo      |19° 40′ N.|Aug.-Sept.|74·4|~23·5~|
  Jaluit    | 5° 55′ N.|Jan.-Feb. |81·0|~27·2~|
  Apia      |13° 49′ S.|Feb.-Mar. |78·6|~25·9~|
  Papiti    |17° 32′ S.|  March   |78·5|~25·8~|
  Vanua Levu|16° 38′ S.| December |80·5|~26·9~|
  Levuka    |17°  4′ S.| December |79·5|~26·4~|
  Tana      |19° 28′ S.|  March   |79·7|~26·6~|
  Tongatabu |21°  8′ S.| February |79·0|~26·1~|
  Noumea    |22° 16′ S.| February |80·0|~26·7~|
  Oparu     |27° 36′ S.|  March   |72·5|~22·3~|
  ==========+==========+==========+====+======+

  ==========+=====================+==========
   Island or|    Coldest Month    |Difference
     Place  +---------+-----------+
            |  Name   |    Mean   |
            |         |Temperature|
            |         +----+------+----+-----
            |         | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~
  ----------+---------+----+------+----+-----
  Kauai     | January |66·5|~19·2~| 9·9|~5·5~
  Honolulu  | January |69·5|~20·8~| 7·5|~4·4~
  Hilo      | January |71·5|~21·9~| 2·9|~1·6~
  Jaluit    |   June  |80·5|~26·9~| 0·7|~0·4~
  Apia      |   July  |75·5|~24·2~| 3·2|~1·8~
  Papiti    |   July  |73·5|~23·1~| 4·8|~2·7~
  Vanua Levu|July-Aug.|76·0|~24·4~| 4·3|~2·4~
  Levuka    |   July  |74·5|~23·6~| 5·2|~2·9~
  Tana      |   July  |69·0|~20·6~|10·8|~6·0~
  Tongatabu |  August |68·5|~20·3~|10·4|~5·8~
  Noumea    |  August |68·0|~20·0~|11·4|~6·7~
  Oparu     |September|65·3|~18·5~| 7·2|~4·0~
  ==========+=========+====+======+====+=====

The places have also been selected so as to illustrate the changes in
season we met with in passing from North to South, and indicate much the
same sequence that has already been noticed in the case of the Malay
Archipelago, but the temperatures are several degrees lower in the case
of each corresponding latitude, so that, while the Malay Islands are
stormy and trying, the Polynesian groups are amongst the most pleasant
of the warm climates of the world. Except in the Marshall groups, and in
some of the Fijis, the rainfall is moderate for localities situated so
near the equator.

TABLE OF RAINFALL OF PACIFIC ISLANDS.

  =========+=============+==============+==============+
     Month |  Honolulu,  |   Marshall   |     Apia,    |
           |   Hawaii    |     Group    |     Samoa    |
           |             |              |              |
           +-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
           | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
  January  | 4·03|  ~102~| 11·46|  ~291~| 16·42|  ~417~|
  February | 4·58|  ~116~| 11·90|  ~300~| 20·23|  ~514~|
  March    | 3·77|   ~96~| 17·92|  ~455~| 12·68|  ~321~|
  April    | 3·14|   ~79~| 14·15|  ~359~|  8·66|  ~220~|
  May      | 3·15|   ~80~| 20·20|  ~513~|  6·97|  ~177~|
  June     | 1·82|   ~46~| 15·58|  ~396~|  5·39|  ~137~|
  July     | 2·53|   ~64~| 15·44|  ~392~|  3·32|   ~84~|
  August   | 2·28|   ~58~| 13·58|  ~345~|  6·18|  ~157~|
  September| 1·85|   ~47~| 13·45|  ~342~|  8·54|  ~217~|
  October  | 2·28|   ~58~| 15·47|  ~293~|  6·97|  ~177~|
  November | 5·16|  ~131~| 11·30|  ~387~| 12·20|  ~310~|
  December | 4·93|  ~125~| 17·48|  ~444~| 17·63|  ~447~|
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------+
  Year     |39·45|~1,002~|177·87|~4,517~|125·15|~3,178~|
  =========+=====+=======+======+=======+======+=======+

  =========+==============+=============+=============
     Month |     Fiji,    |     New     |     New
           |   Qara Valu  |  Hebrides,  |  Caledonia,
           |              |  Tongatabu  |    Noumea
           +------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
           | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
  January  | 22·48|  ~571~| 9·18|  ~233~| 3·98|  ~101~
  February | 17·48|  ~450~| 6·83|  ~173~| 4·38|  ~110~
  March    | 36·97|  ~932~| 6·37|  ~162~| 4·58|  ~116~
  April    | 31·26|  ~794~|10·35|  ~263~| 5·20|  ~132~
  May      | 10·95|  ~276~| 8·19|  ~208~| 5·18|  ~130~
  June     | 24·10|  ~612~| 8·12|  ~206~| 4·18|  ~106~
  July     | 12·76|  ~324~| 1·66|   ~42~| 3·32|   ~84~
  August   | 32·95|  ~835~| 3·68|   ~93~| 2·38|   ~60~
  September| 14·65|  ~372~| 7·08|  ~180~| 2·83|   ~72~
  October  | 19·28|  ~490~| 7·18|  ~182~| 2·56|   ~65~
  November |  7·14|  ~181~| 3·58|   ~91~| 3·03|   ~77~
  December | 17·48|  ~444~| 4·45|  ~113~| 3·23|   ~82~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------
  Year     |247·85|~6,281~|76·62|~1,946~|44·68|~1,135~
  =========+======+=======+=====+=======+=====+=======

Qara Valu has been selected as having the heaviest rainfall recorded in
this part of the world, and it must not be imagined that such a chronic
downpour is in any way typical of the Fiji Islands, most of which have a
comparatively moderate rainfall; Bua with 98·35 ins. (2,497 mm.), and
Lesuha with 97·15 ins. (2,465 mm.), being fairer examples; but there is
the same tendency to a comparatively even distribution throughout the
year.

These islands are, it is almost needless to remark, occasionally visited
by terrible tornadoes, but are normally continuously under the influence
of the trade winds, which here do not suffer from interruption, during
the summer solstice, from disturbance due to the area of low pressure
that originates from the superheating of land and water over Australia
and the islands and confined seas that intervene between it and the
Asiatic continent.


_THE AMERICAN CONTINENT._--Like the islands of the Pacific, climatic
data in America are characterised by lower levels than are met with in
the great land masses of Europe, Asia, and Africa. As a result of this
we find that, although we know that New York can produce a most
discreditable array of cases of sunstroke in the height of summer, it is
only the extreme southern portion of the United States that really
merits the title to belong to the category of hot climates. There are
doubtless to be met with fiercely hot places in Mexico, and malarious
foci in the isthmus of Darien, which may rival anything to be met with
in the old world, but speaking generally, climates are generally milder
than those of corresponding places on this side of the “herring pond.”

Commencing with the Southern United States, all that need be described
in the present work is the belt extending from California in the west to
Florida in the east.

The climate of California is undoubtedly one of the finest in the world.
Like the rest of the western seaboard of America, the rainfall is small,
but there is always sufficient water for cultivation by the agency of
irrigation; and the clearness of the atmosphere and genial temperature
renders this State the ideal of the physician in search for health
resorts. Apart, indeed, from the excitements of “euchre” and the germs
introduced by the Chinese settler, it seems difficult to understand why
anyone should suffer illness in such a climate as that of Los Angeles,
whose principal characteristics are epitomised in the above table. Let
us hope, however, that “Ah Sin” has not driven the angels too far away
for recall by the rapidly advancing sanitation of American civilisation.

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.

  =========+=========+==========+=========+=====+===========+======
     Month | Monthly | Absolute | Absolute|Rela-|  Monthly  |Number
           |  Means  |  Maxima  |  Minima |tive |  Rainfall |  of
           |         |          |         | Hu- |           | Rainy
           +--+------+---+------+--+------+midi-+----+------+ Days
           |F.| ~C.~ | F.| ~C.~ |F.| ~C.~ | ty %|Ins.| ~Mm.~|
  ---------+--+------+---+------+--+------+-----+----+------+------
  January  |54|~12·2~| 87|~30·6~|30|~-1·1~|  66 |2·80|~71·1~|   6
  February |55|~12·8~| 88|~31·1~|28|~-2·2~|  69 |2·82|~71·3~|   6
  March    |57|~13·9~| 99|~37·2~|31|~-0·6~|  73 |2·72|~68·7~|   7
  April    |60|~15·6~| 99|~37·2~|38| ~3·3~|  73 |1·10|~27·9~|   4
  May      |63|~17·2~|103|~39·4~|41| ~5·0~|  74 |0·51|~12·7~|   3
  June     |67|~19·4~|100|~37·8~|46| ~7·8~|  73 |0·10| ~2·5~|   1
  July     |71|~21·7~|109|~42·8~|50|~10·0~|  74 |0·02| ~0·0~|   0
  August   |72|~22·2~|106|~41·1~|51|~10·6~|  74 |0·04| ~0·1~|   0
  September|70|~21·1~|108|~42·2~|44| ~6·7~|  72 |0·04| ~0·1~|   0
  October  |64|~17·8~| 96|~35·6~|40| ~4·4~|  71 |0·81|~20·4~|   3
  November |60|~15·6~| 96|~35·6~|34| ~1·1~|  64 |1·47|~36·9~|   3
  December |56|~13·3~| 88|~31·1~|30|~-1·1~|  65 |3·28|~82·7~|   6
  =========+==+======+===+======+==+======+=====+====+======+======

With a total rainfall of only 15·43 ins. (392 mm.), and a remarkably
high percentage of hours of sunshine, even during the rainy months, one
begins to understand how it is that a Californian fellow-member of the
Golf Club of Rome used to complain of the “gloom” of a Roman winter. The
one drawback is the enormous daily range of over 50° F., which must be
necessarily trying to delicate subjects who neglect obvious precautions;
but avoidance of the fierce heat out of doors of the afternoon, and the
chill that follows sunset, should suffice to neutralise this defect.
Across the sierras, in Texas the rainfall remains very scanty, amounting
to no more than 9·8 ins. (250 mm.) in the district of El Paso, but
improves steadily as we approach the eastern frontier, where it reaches
52 ins. (1,320 mm.) at Galveston, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
This place is regarded as a health resort for the Southern States; Dr.
Solly, the American authority on medical climatology, writes:--

“The climate of Galveston, in the Gulf of Mexico, is warm, mild and
humid. Occasionally, there are winters when the temperature does not
fall below 32°. During the past twenty years there have been thirteen
years in which the temperature has not fallen below 24°, and but two
years below 20°. The seasonal mean temperatures are: Winter, 55°;
Spring, 69°; Summer, 83°; Autumn, 71°. The annual mean is 70°. Monthly
mean for January, 53°; for July, 84°. The extreme temperature record is
98°, and the minimum 20°. The mean rainfall is 51 inches, distributed as
follows: Winter, 11·5 inches; Spring, 10·2 inches; Summer, 13·3 inches;
Autumn, 16·6 inches. The heaviest rain takes place in September, and the
least in February and July. The mean annual relative humidity is 77 per
cent.; for Winter, 81 per cent. Wind movement averages 11·1 miles, the
prevailing winds being from S. and S.E. The highest winds occur in
winter and blow from the N., but the average ‘northers’ of upper Texas
are but little felt in the Gulf of Mexico.”

Proceeding westward along the Mexican Gulf we find the climate grows
steadily moister, New Orleans, which is placed very nearly in the middle
of its northern coast, presenting the following climatic factors.

NEW ORLEANS. LAT. 29° 58′ N. LONG. 90° 11′ W.

  =========+===========+=========+=========+=====+=============+======
     Month |  Monthly  |  Monthly|  Monthly|Rela-|     Mean    |Number
           |   Mean    | Absolute| Absolute| tive|   Monthly   |  of
           |Temperature|  Maxima |  Minima |  Hu-|   Rainfall  | Rainy
           +-----+-----+---+-----+---+-----+midi-+-----+-------+ Days
           | F. | ~C.~ |F.| ~C.~ |F.| ~C.~ |  ty | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+----+------+--+------+--+------+-----+-----+-------+------
  January  |58·8|~14·8~|82|~27·8~|15|~-9·4~|  79 | 5·17|~130·9~|  11
  February |58·1|~14·4~|82|~27·8~|25|~-3·9~|  81 | 4·56|~115·7~|  10
  March    |62·0|~16·7~|84|~28·9~|30|~-1·1~|  76 | 5·35|~135·9~|   9
  April    |69·0|~20·6~|88|~31·1~|38| ~3·3~|  76 | 5·28|~133·5~|   8
  May      |74·6|~23·7~|92|~33·3~|53|~11·7~|  74 | 4·76|~120·7~|   9
  June     |80·3|~26·8~|97|~36·1~|58|~14·4~|  78 | 6·49|~165·0~|  14
  July     |82·2|~27·9~|99|~37·2~|67|~19·4~|  78 | 6·50|~165·1~|  16
  August   |81·5|~27·5~|96|~35·6~|63|~17·2~|  79 | 6·02|~153·6~|  14
  September|78·3|~25·7~|95|~35·0~|56|~13·3~|  77 | 4·70|~119·4~|  11
  October  |69·8|~21·0~|90|~32·2~|40| ~4·4~|  74 | 3·25| ~82·5~|   7
  November |60·7|~15·9~|85|~29·4~|30|~-1·1~|  79 | 4·30|~109·2~|   9
  December |55·5|~13·1~|81|~27·2~|20|~-6·7~|  80 | 4·38|~111·7~|   4
  ---------+----+------+--+------+--+------+-----+-----+-------+------
  Year     |68·8|~20·4~|99|~37·2~|15|~-9·4~|  78 |60·52|~153·7~| 128
  =========+====+======+==+======+==+======+=====+=====+=======+======

The amenity of the climate of Florida is proverbial, as the maxima
rarely run so high, and the annual and daily range is much smaller than
is the case further west, owing to the effect of the Gulf Stream, which
sweeps out past its projecting shore. On this account there is an almost
entire absence of frost, and the State has become celebrated for its
cultivation of oranges, a fruit which is at once nipped by any approach
to freezing point. Dr. Solly describes it as follows:--

“The climate is marine in character, and is very equable and temperate
for its latitude. The mean annual temperature runs from 69° at Sanford
to 79·8° at Jacksonville; for the winter, the variation is from 54·6° at
Pensacola to 66·5°, at Jupiter. Frost, snow and ice are very rare.
Annual rainfall varies from 53·19 inches at Pensacola to 57·16 at Cedar
Keys; of this, one half usually occurs in the summer. The mean relative
humidity varies from 76 per cent. at Pensacola to 80 at Cedar Keys. In
the winter months it is from 76 to 87 per cent. The total number of
rainy days ranged from 103·8 at Cedar Keys to 124·1 at Pensacola, and
the number of cloudy days in the same places was 66.8 and 84·5. Dr.
Hall, while admitting the prevalence of malaria, states that there are
many places quite free from it, and that it is generally diminishing.”


_Mexico._--Extending, as it does, completely across the southern portion
of the North American Continent, the climate of Mexico presents the same
sequence from the drought of the eastern to the moderately ample
rainfall of the western coasts; and here too, there are places in the
central highlands that are much drier than any to be found on either
coast. These points are illustrated in the table on following page.

The corresponding data as to temperature are given below.

TABLE OF TEMPERATURES OF MEXICAN STATIONS.

  =========+===========+====================+==================
    Place  |Mean Annual|    Coldest Month   |   Warmest Month
           |Temperature+--------+-----------+------+-----------
           |           |  Name  |   Mean    | Name |    Mean
           |           |        |Temperature|      |Temperature
           +----+------+        +----+------+      +----+------
           | F. | ~C.~ |        | F. | ~C.~ |      | F. | ~C.~
  ---------+----+------+--------+----+------+------+----+------
  Mazatlan |74·5|~23·6~|January |66·1|~19~  | July |81·6|~27·6~
  Culiacan |76·5|~24·8~|January |65·0|~18·3~| July |84·5|~29·2~
  Leon     |65·5|~18·5~|December|56·4|~13·5~| May  |73·6|~23·2~
  Mexico   |59·5|~15·4~|December|53·6|~12·0~| May  |64·5|~18·1~
  Puebla   |60·0|~15·6~|January |53·1|~11·8~| May  |64·5|~18·2~
  Matamoros|73·5|~23·2~|January |62·6|~17·0~| July |84·2|~29·0~
  Montery  |70·4|~21·3~|January |54·6|~12·6~| June |82·0|~27·8~
  Vera Cruz|76·6|~24·8~|December|70·5|~21·4~|August|81·3|~27·4~
  Cordoba  |69·0|~20·6~|January |64·4|~18·0~| May  |73·5|~23·1~
  =========+====+======+========+====+======+======+====+======


_Central America and the Isthmus of Panama._--This portion of the
American continent is notoriously unhealthy, especially along the only
routes practicable for an inter-oceanic canal.

It is said that the construction of the railway across Panama cost a
human life for every sleeper that was laid.

Much of this is due to malaria, but yellow fever also frequently
attacked the workers, and it is to be hoped that as both these diseases
are known to be capable of transmission only by the agency of
mosquitoes, that a rational prophylaxis against the bites of these
insects will form part of the sanitary programme of the huge work that
is now being proceeded with. In any case, when the new canal comes to be
finished it will behove passengers by the mail boats to provide
themselves with mosquito nets for this portion of the voyage.

RAINFALL TABLE OF MEXICAN STATIONS.

  =============+===========+===================================+
  Place        |  PACIFIC  |              CENTRAL              |
               |   COAST   |              PLATEAU              |
               +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
               |  Mazatlan | Chihuahua |   Leon    |  Mexico   |
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  Latitude, N. |   23° 11′ |   28° 38′ |   21°  7′ |  19° 26′  |
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  Longitude, W.|  106° 24′ |  106° 30′ |  101° 40′ |  99°  8′  |
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  Elevation    |   30 ft.  | 4,650 ft. | 5,850 ft. | 7,400 ft .|
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Scale        | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~|
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  January      | 1·34| ~34~| 1·49| ~38~| 0·36|  ~9~| 0·16|  ~4~|
  February     | 0·24|  ~6~| 0·28|  ~7~| 0·34|  ~8~| 0·24|  ~6~|
  March        | 0·24|  ~6~| 0·0 |  ~0~| 0·36|  ~9~| 0·59| ~15~|
  April        | 0·04|  ~1~| 0·24|  ~6~| 0·28|  ~7~| 0·59| ~15~|
  May          | 0·28|  ~7~| 1·38| ~35~| 1·14| ~29~| 2·02| ~51~|
  June         | 1·85| ~47~| 8·51|~216~| 4·88|~124~| 4·09|~104~|
  July         | 6·54|~166~| 6·04|~153~| 5·68|~144~| 4·09|~104~|
  August       |10·35|~257~| 5·24|~133~| 5·91|~150~| 4·83|~123~|
  September    | 8·63|~219~| 1·08| ~27~| 5·07|~129~| 3·97|~101~|
  October      | 3·15| ~80~| 1·14| ~29~| 1·69| ~43~| 1·68| ~43~|
  November     | 0·48| ~12~| 0·0 |  ~0~| 0·39| ~10~| 0·43| ~11~|
  December     | 0·91| ~23~| 0·08|  ~2~| 0·36|  ~9~| 0·16|  ~4~|
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Year         |33·92|~863~|25·44|~646~|26·39|~671~|22·97|~581~|
  =============+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+

  =============+=====================================
  Place        |              ATLANTIC
               |                COAST
               +-----------+-----------+-------------
               |   Oxaca   | Matamoros | Vera Cruz
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-------------
  Latitude, N. |   16° 57′ |   25° 49′ |  19° 12′
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-------------
  Longitude, W.|   94° 42′ |   97° 38′ |  96°  8′
  -------------+-----------+-----------+-------------
  Elevation    | 5,150 ft. |   63 ft.  |  48 ft.
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------
  Scale        | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.| ~Mm.~
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------
  January      | 0·13|  ~3~| 1·58| ~40~| 0·39|   ~10~
  February     | 0·55| ~14~| 2·34| ~59~| 0·55|   ~14~
  March        | 0·59| ~15~| 2·44| ~62~| 0·60|   ~18~
  April        | 1·77| ~45~| 2·24| ~57~| 0·13|    ~3~
  May          | 3·94|~100~| 2·22| ~56~| 4·26|  ~108~
  June         | 8·64|~219~| 3·63| ~92~|12·48|  ~317~
  July         | 4·09|~104~| 2·37| ~60~|14·81|  ~376~
  August       | 4·26|~108~| 1·66| ~42~| 8·74|  ~222~
  September    | 5·94|~151~| 7·04|~179~|11·62|  ~295~
  October      | 2·92| ~74~| 4·45|~113~| 9·03|  ~229~
  November     | 0·39| ~10~| 4·47|~114~| 3·24|   ~82~
  December     | 0·03|  ~1~| 2·24| ~57~| 2·03|   ~51~
  -------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------
  Year         |33·21|~844~|36·66|~931~|67·92|~1,728~
  =============+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=======

The north-east Trades dominate the Atlantic coast of these regions
throughout the year, but on the Pacific side, during the summer months,
a southerly breeze takes its place.

The rainfall is very heavy, but even here, in spite of the narrowness of
the dividing belt of land, the comparative dryness of the Southern or
Pacific coast is quite obvious, as may be seen from a glance at the
table on the following page.

The rainfall, it will be noted, varies greatly owing to small local
differences of environment, and includes at least one place far up on
the world’s list of the wettest spots.

The stifling heat and damp of Greytown used to be well known to naval
officers of the last generation, and it is probably a fortunate
circumstance for their successors that the harbour has now so silted up
as to be useless, for at one time it was frequently visited by our
men-of-war.

The corresponding temperature records, given below, do not run very
high, but the places on the Atlantic shore are extremely enervating on
account of the extreme dampness of the air.

TABLE OF TEMPERATURES IN LOCALITIES IN CENTRAL AMERICA.

  =============+===========+===========+====================+
      Place    |  Absolute |  Absolute |    Coldest Month   |
               |    Mean   |    Mean   +--------+-----------+
               |   Annual  |   Annual  |  Name  |    Mean   |
               |   Maxima  |   Minima  |        |Temperature|
               +----+------+----+------+        +-----+-----+
               | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |        | F. | ~C.~ |
  -------------+----+------+----+------+--------+----+------+
  San Salvador |93·4|~34·1~|56  |~13·3~|December|70·2|~21·2~|
  Taboga Island|96·5|~35·8~|66·4|~19·1~|February|77·2|~25·1~|
  San José     |88·5|~31·4~|50·2|~10·1~|December|65·6|~18·7~|
  Coban        |88·3|~31·3~|40·2| ~4·5~|December|62·3|~16·8~|
  Guatemala    |87·5|~30·8~|45·6| ~7·6~|January |62·0|~16·7~|
  Quezaltenango|76·4|~24·6~|26·7|~-3·0~|January |50·2|~10·1~|
  Belize       |91·2|~32·9~|59·6|~15·4~|December|74·5|~23·6~|
  Colon        |94·3|~34·5~|66·0|~18·9~|November|78·5|~25·8~|
  Gamboa       |96·6|~35·9~|57·2|~14·0~|February|76·8|~24·9~|
  =============+====+======+====+======+========+===========+

  =============+==================
      Place    |   Warmest Month
               |------+-----------
               | Name |  Mean
               |      |Temperature
               +      +----+------
               |      | F. | ~C.~
  -------------+------+----+------
  San Salvador | April|75·2|~24~
  Taboga Island| June |80·2|~26·8~
  San José     |  May |68·7|~20·4~
  Coban        |  May |68·8|~20·5~
  Guatemala    |  May |68·5|~20·3~
  Quezaltenango|  May |62·0|~16·7~
  Belize       |August|82·5|~28·1~
  Colon        | June |79·8|~26·6~
  Gamboa       | June |80·4|~26·8~
  =============+==================

RAINFALL TABLE FOR CENTRAL AMERICA.

  =============+=============+=============+=============+
  Place        | SAN SALVADOR|TABOGA ISLAND|     RIVAS   |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Situation    |Pacific Coast|   Pacific,  | Costa Rica, |
               | of Salvador | off Panama  |     near    |
               |             |             |Pacific Coast|
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Latitude, N. |   13° 39′   |    8° 52′   |    11° 30′  |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Longitude, W.|   89° 13′   |   79° 31′   |    85° 47′  |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Elevation    |    2,970    |  near sea-  |    1,500    |
  (feet)       |             |    level    |             |
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Scale        | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.|  ~Mm.~|
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  January      | 0·07|    ~2~| 0·48|   ~12~| 0·38|   ~10~|
  February     | 0·07|    ~2~| 0·03|    ~1~| 0·01|    ~2~|
  March        | 0·59|   ~15~| 0·16|    ~4~| 0·19|    ~5~|
  April        | 1·54|   ~39~| 0·87|   ~22~| 0·33|    ~8~|
  May          | 7·83|  ~199~| 5·27|  ~134~| 7·53|  ~191~|
  June         |10·01|  ~255~| 5·17|  ~131~|11·11|  ~282~|
  July         |13·22|  ~336~| 4·43|  ~112~| 7·47|  ~190~|
  August       |11·58|  ~293~| 5·67|  ~144~| 8·13|  ~206~|
  September    |11·34|  ~288~| 7·22|  ~183~| 9·42|  ~239~|
  October      | 6·66|  ~169~| 6·83|  ~173~|16·88|  ~429~|
  November     | 2·60|   ~66~| 5·54|  ~140~| 3·88|   ~99~|
  December     | 0·48|   ~12~| 4·73|  ~120~| 1·48|   ~38~|
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Year         |65·97|~1,676~|46·37|~1,178~|66·88|~1,699~|
  =============+=====+=======+=====+=======+=====+=======+

  =============+=============+=============+=============+
  Place        |  SAN JOSÉ   |  GUATEMALA  |    COBAN    |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Situation    | Costa Rica, |  Guatemala, |  Guatemala, |
               |     near    |    Inland   |    Inland   |
               |Pacific Coast|             |             |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Latitude, N. |    90° 56′  |   14° 38′   |   15° 30′   |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Longitude, W.|    84° 8′   |   90° 31′   |   90° 25′   |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  Elevation    |    3,600    |    4,810    |    2,500    |
  (feet)       |             |             |             |
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Scale        | Ins.|  ~Mm.~| Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  January      | 0·38|   ~10~| 0·42|   ~11~| 5·36|  ~136~|
  February     | 0·13|    ~3~| 0·13|    ~3~| 4·58|  ~116~|
  March        | 0·83|   ~22~| 0·88|   ~20~| 3·67|   ~93~|
  April        | 1·17|   ~30~| 2·38|   ~60~| 2·44|   ~62~|
  May          | 7·98|  ~203~| 4·97|  ~126~| 7·22|  ~183~|
  June         |10·16|  ~258~|10·36|  ~263~|12·47|  ~317~|
  July         | 7·98|  ~203~| 9·18|  ~232~|12·22|  ~310~|
  August       | 9·81|  ~249~| 9·28|  ~236~| 8·28|  ~210~|
  September    |12·13|  ~308~| 9·73|  ~247~| 9·53|  ~242~|
  October      |12·68|  ~322~| 7·38|  ~187~| 9·82|  ~249~|
  November     | 4·57|  ~116~| 0.78|   ~20~| 8·90|  ~226~|
  December     | 2·10|   ~53~| 0·24|    ~6~| 6·66|  ~169~|
  -------------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Year         |70·97|~1,777~|55·55|~1,411~|98·94|~2,313~|
  =============+=====+=======+=====+=======+=====+=======+

  =============+=============+==============+==============
  Place        |    BELIZE   |   GREYTOWN   |     COLON
  -------------+-------------+--------------+--------------
  Situation    |   Atlantic  |   Atlantic   |   Atlantic
               | Coast, Brit-|    Coast,    |     Coast,
               | ish Honduras|  Costa Rica  |    Panama
  -------------+-------------+--------------+--------------
  Latitude, N. |   17° 32′   |    10° 30′   |     9° 22′
  -------------+-------------+--------------+--------------
  Longitude, W.|   88° 10′   |    83° 22′   |    79° 55′
  -------------+-------------+--------------+--------------
  Elevation    |  near sea-  |   near sea-  |   near sea-
  (feet)       |    level    |     level    |     level
  -------------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------
  Scale        |Ins. |  ~Mm.~| Ins. | ~Mm.~ |  Ins.| ~Mm.~
  -------------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------
  January      | 5·78|  ~147~| 21·39|  ~543~|  1·88|   ~48~
  February     | 3·08|   ~78~|  5·78|  ~147~|  1·49|   ~38~
  March        | 1·54|   ~39~|  4·75|  ~120~|  1·30|   ~33~
  April        | 1·54|   ~39~| 10·39|  ~264~|  2·65|   ~68~
  May          | 3·24|   ~83~| 12·73|  ~328~| 11·40|  ~290~
  June         | 8·18|  ~208~| 16·63|  ~422~| 13·67|  ~347~
  July         | 9·09|  ~231~| 29·87|  ~760~| 14·14|  ~359~
  August       | 8·18|  ~208~| 20·03|  ~509~| 14·64|  ~372~
  September    | 8·63|  ~219~|  9·29|  ~236~| 12·40|  ~315~
  October      |12·68|  ~322~| 14·42|  ~366~| 13·54|  ~345~
  November     | 9·14|  ~232~| 20·96|  ~530~| 23·18|  ~589~
  December     | 7·08|  ~180~| 26·57|  ~675~| 11·98|  ~304~
  -------------+-----+-------+------+-------+------+-------
  Year         |78·18|~1,986~|192·67|~4,895~|122·37|~3,108~
  =============+=====+=======+======+=======+======+=======


_The West Indies._--These islands are all under the influence of the
north-east Trades, and enjoy a mild but rather moist climate, with
comparatively little variation through the year. Nearly all of them are
extremely healthy for places in the Tropics, although they are
occasionally visited by devastating outbreaks of yellow fever.

The Americans have, however, proved in the case of Havana that it is
quite possible to reduce the risk of this disease to a minimum by the
adoption of appropriate measures against the mosquitoes that carry the
disease, and it ought to be possible for any one, who takes the matter
in earnest, to insure himself almost completely against this danger.

In the north, among the lesser Antilles, the Trade wind has an almost
purely easterly direction. During the months from June to November
terrific revolving storms, known as hurricanes, are of not uncommon
occurrence and constitute one of the gravest drawbacks to cultivation,
besides often causing much injury to life. So enormous is the force of
the wind during these visitations that even objects of great weight and
small surface are set in motion, it being an absolute fact that huge
Admiralty anchors have been shifted from the position in which they lay
in the dockyard at Port Royal in Jamaica.

HAVANA, CUBA. LAT. 23° 9′ N.; LONG. 82° 23′ W. NEAR SEA-LEVEL.

  =========+===========+============+===========+
    Month  |    Mean   |  Absolute  |  Absolute |
           |Temperature|   Maxima   |   Minima  |
           +-----+-----+-----+------+----+------+
           | F. | ~C.~ |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+
  January  |70·3|~21·3~| 84·4|~29·1~|52·3|~11·3~|
  February |72·0|~22·2~| 87·6|~30·9~|51·4|~10·7~|
  March    |73·2|~22·9~| 91·4|~33·0~|55  |~12·8~|
  April    |76·1|~24·5~| 93·6|~34·3~|52·9|~11·6~|
  May      |78·8|~26·0~| 99·0|~37·2~|64·4|~18·0~|
  June     |81·5|~27·5~| 97·7|~36·5~|69·1|~20·6~|
  July     |82·4|~28·0~|100·6|~38·2~|71·2|~21·8~|
  August   |82·2|~27·9~| 98·6|~37·0~|69·8|~21·0~|
  September|80·7|~27·0~| 96·1|~35·6~|70·9|~21·6~|
  October  |78·1|~25·7~| 91·9|~33·2~|61·9|~16·6~|
  November |75·3|~24·0~| 88·7|~31·5~|56·5|~13·6~|
  December |71·4|~21·8~| 86·0|~30·0~|51·8|~11·0~|
  ---------+----+------+-----+------+----+------+
  Year     |76·3|~24·8~|100·6|~38·2~|51·4|~10·8~|
  =========+====+======+=====+======+====+======+

  =========+=====+===============+======
    Month  |Rela-|    Rainfall   |Number
           | tive|               |  of
           +humi-+------+--------+ Rainy
           | dity| Ins. |  ~Mm.~ | Days
  ---------+-----+------+--------+------
  January  |  75 | 2·71 |  ~68·7~|  7·5
  February |  73 | 2·27 |  ~57·2~|  5·7
  March    |  70 | 1·83 |  ~46·0~|  5·5
  April    |  69 | 2·83 |  ~72·0~|  4·6
  May      |  71 | 4·47 | ~113·2~|  9·3
  June     |  76 | 7·16 | ~181·7~| 12·8
  July     |  74 | 5·06 | ~128·5~| 12·7
  August   |  75 | 6·02 | ~153·1~| 12·6
  September|  79 | 6·71 | ~171·0~| 15·4
  October  |  78 | 7·42 | ~188·5~| 15·1
  November |  77 | 3·08 |  ~78·3~| 10·2
  December |  74 | 2·15 |  ~54·6~|  8·5
  ---------+-----+------+--------+------
  Year     |  74 |51·73 |~1313·5~|119·9
  =========+=====+======+========+======

It is unfortunately impossible, from considerations of space, to do more
than give a few examples of the climatic conditions to be met with, but
those selected may suffice to give a general idea of what may be
expected, as no very great differences will be found, in spite of the
large area over which these islands are scattered.

Jamaica, a table for which is given below, has a rather heavier rainfall
of 70 ins. (1,778 mm.), but not so high as that of Martinique, 94·5 ins.
(2,399 mm.), though even this cannot be considered high for a tropical
climate. Of the other islands, Nassau in the Bahamas has 54·41 ins.
(1,382 mm.); Port Au Prince, Haiti, 55 ins. (1,397 mm.); St. Croix,
46·56 ins. (1,183 mm.); St. Kitts, 51 ins. (1,295 mm.); Guadeloupe, 64·4
ins. (1,635 mm.); and Barbados, 57·74 ins. (1,467 mm.)--figures which
serve well to indicate the general uniformity of climate throughout the
group.

The table for Jamaica is as follows, but it must be remembered that most
of the troops are now quartered at camps at a moderate elevation above
the town, where it is considerably cooler than at the sea level.

KINGSTON, JAMAICA. LAT. 17° 50′ N.; LONG. 76° 42′ W.

  =========+===========+===========+===========+==============
    Month  |   Mean    |   Mean    |   Mean    |   Mean
           |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |  Relative |  Monthly
           |  Maxima   |  Minima   | Humidity %|  Rainfall
           +----+------+----+------+-----+-----+------+-------
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  7  |  4  | Ins. | ~Mm.~
           |    |      |    |      | a.m.| p.m.|      |
  ---------+----+------+----+------+-----+-----+------+-------
  January  |86·2|~30·1~|66·7|~19·3~|  84 |  63 | 3·79 | ~96·4~
  February |85·3|~29·5~|67·0|~19·4~|  81 |  65 | 2·62 | ~66·5~
  March    |85·4|~29·6~|67·8|~19·9~|  84 |  65 | 2·86 | ~73·0~
  April    |86·5|~30·3~|71·1|~21·8~|  83 |  66 | 4·50 |~114·3~
  May      |87·8|~31·0~|73·2|~22·9~|  73 |  70 | 9·56 |~243·0~
  June     |89·0|~31·7~|73·4|~23·0~|  72 |  66 | 4·77 |~121·1~
  July     |89·8|~32·0~|73·3|~22·9~|  73 |  60 | 6·51 |~165·6~
  August   |89·9|~32·1~|73·3|~22·9~|  80 |  63 | 7·12 |~181·0~
  September|89·3|~31·8~|74·1|~23·4~|  83 |  68 |10·37 |~263·0~
  October  |88·0|~31·1~|73·5|~23·1~|  88 |  69 | 6·50 |~165·1~
  November |87·3|~30·7~|70·9|~22·2~|  85 |  68 | 6·53 |~176·0~
  December |85·6|~29·8~|68·2|~20·2~|  83 |  58 | 5·53 |~140·0~
  =========+====+======+====+======+=====+=====+======+=======

Even Trinidad, the most southerly of all the islands in no way rivals
the East Indies either in temperature or rainfall, the total of the
latter being 65·5 ins. (1,663 mm.). Its hottest months, March and
September, have a mean temperature of 78·5° F. (25·8° C.), and its
coldest, February, of 75·4° F. (24° C.); the absolute extreme
temperature of the year being 89·5° F. (31·9° C.) and 64° F. (17·9° C.).
The highest temperature for any island is 100° F. (37·8° C.) at Havana,
but from its landlocked position this place appertains more to the
climatic conditions of the mainland than to the islands in general.


SOUTH AMERICA.--The greater part of the tropical portion of the southern
division of the western continent comes within the influence of the
north-east Trades, which sweep up from the sea an enormous volume of
watery vapour, which is precipitated gradually as the air current passes
across the land. The second great factor in the determination of its
climate is the position of the enormous mountain range of the Andes,
quite close to the western coast, and of such a height as to cut off
practically the last drops of moisture brought by the Trades, so as to
leave the narrow belt of country between the Andes and the Pacific with
a rainfall so scanty as to be in some instances almost negligible, as is
the case with Lima, amounting to little more than an inch and a half in
the year. So vast, however, is the amount of moisture imported by the
Trades that the supply lasts out well, quite to the foot of the Andes,
the rainfall of Manaos, half-way across, being rather greater than that
of the east coast; but once the mountains are passed the change is
abrupt and enormous. Unfortunately, however, when one sets one’s self to
plot out the change as represented by a line of observations carried
across the continent, one finds one’s self at once met by the difficulty
that there is very little exact information to be obtained, as the
all-absorbing interests of the ever-changing political barometer leaves
the population little time to study the mercurial instrument, and they
appear to be much fonder of playing with repeating rifles than with
aneroids. Practically speaking, there is little exact information to be
obtained for places at any distance from the coast, and on this account
the tables given below refer almost exclusively to the littoral regions,
and any attempt at anything beyond remarks of the most general character
is out of the question.

Quite at the southern boundary of our limits we have the first-class
observatory of San Paolo, which although but little outside the
geographical, tropical zone, enjoys a temperature which shows that we
are rapidly leaving warm climates behind, for the climate is already
milder than most localities in the subtropical zone of the old world.

SAN PAOLO. 23° 33′ S.; 46° 38′ W. E.F., 2,400.

  =======+===========+===========+===========+=====+============+======
   Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |Rela-|    Mean    |Number
         |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |  Monthly  | tive|  Monthly   |  of
         |Temperature|   Maxima  |   Minima  | Hu- |  Rainfall  |Rainy
         +----+------+----+------+----+------+midi-+----+-------+ Days
         | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |  ty |Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  -------+----+------+----+------+----+------+-----+----+-------+------
  January|68·2|~20·1~|77·2|~25·1~|61·7|~16·5~|  86 |7·08|~180~  |  18
  Februa-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |    |       |
  ry     |68·9|~20·5~|78·8|~26·0~|62·7|~17·0~|  86 |8·23|~208~  |  12
  March  |67·4|~19·6~|77·2|~25·1~|61·8|~16·6~|  87 |5·96|~152~  |  19
  April  |63·5|~17·5~|73·4|~23·0~|57·5|~14·2~|  87 |2·84| ~72~  |  14
  May    |61·0|~16·1~|72·0|~22·2~|52·3|~11·2~|  80 |1·90| ~48·3~|   6
  June   |56·8|~13·8~|69·7|~20·9~|47·5| ~8·6~|  80 |0·48| ~12·3~|   4
  July   |61·0|~16·1~|71·0|~21·7~|52·8|~11·6~|  78 |1·93| ~48·9~|  10
  August |61·0|~16·1~|69·7|~20·9~|55·2|~12·9~|  83 |2·30| ~58·4~|  17
  Septem-|    |      |    |      |    |      |     |    |       |
  ber    |62·0|~16·7~|72·8|~22·7~|55·0|~12·8~|  81 |1·02| ~26·2~|   7
  October|65·8|~18·8~|78·0|~28·6~|58·5|~14·7~|  79 |0·77| ~20·0~|   5
  Novem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |    |       |
  ber    |64·4|~18·0~|76·0|~24·4~|57·2|~14·0~|  79 |3·57| ~89·5~|  14
  Decem- |    |      |    |      |    |      |     |    |       |
  ber    |80·5|~26·9~|79·0|~26·1~|63·5|~17·5~|  84 |8·74|~222~  |  23
  =======+====+======+====+======+====+======+=====+====+=======+======

With a total rainfall of 44·77 ins. (1,137 mm.) and absolute extremes of
temperature of 98° F. (36·5° C.) and 55° F. (12·9° C), the climate,
though perhaps not bracing, can never be unpleasant. The shore is here
washed by a warm southerly current from the equatorial regions, whereas
on the west coast the inshore current is a northerly one from the
antarctic regions. On this account it is necessary to go a good deal to
the geographical north to select a place on the west coast for
comparison of the rainfall in the same isotherm.

MOLENDO. LAT. 17° 5′ S.; LONG. 72° 0′ W. (THE PORT OF AREQUIPA IN SOUTH
OF PERU.)

  =========+===========+===========+===========+============
     Month |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean   |    Mean
           |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |  Monthly  |  Monthly
           |Temperature|   Maxima  |   Minima  |  Rainfall
           +----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
           | F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ | F. \ ~C.~ |Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
  January  |72·3|~22·4~|79·4|~26·3~|66·7|~19·3~|0   |  ~0~
  February |72·8|~22·7~|79·5|~26·4~|67·5|~19·7~|0·08|  ~2~
  March    |71·5|~21·9~|78·0|~25·6~|66·0|~18·9~|0   |  ~0~
  April    |68·2|~20·1~|74·8|~23·8~|63·4|~17·4~|0·08|  ~2~
  May      |65·8|~18·8~|72·7|~22·7~|62·8|~17·1~|0·17|  ~4~
  June     |63·0|~17·2~|68·5|~20·3~|57·8|~14·3~|0·6 |  ~1~
  July     |60·9|~16·0~|66·0|~18·9~|55·7|~13·2~|0   |  ~0~
  August   |59·5|~15·3~|65·0|~18·3~|54·7|~12·6~|0·23|  ~6~
  September|61·2|~16·2~|67·0|~19·4~|56·0|~13·3~|0·06|  ~1~
  October  |63·3|~17·4~|70·0|~21·1~|57·3|~14·1~|0·08|  ~2~
  November |66·3|~19·1~|73·0|~22·8~|60·2|~15·7~|0·08|  ~2~
  December |70·8|~21·6~|78·2|~25·7~|64·7|~18·2~|0·06|  ~1~
  ---------+----+------+----+------+----+------+----+-------
  Year     |60·4|~19·1~|72·7|~22·6~|61·0|~16·1~|0·83| ~21~
  =========+====+======+====+======+====+======+====+=======

TABLE OF TEMPERATURE DATA OF PLACES IN SOUTH AMERICA.

  ==================+==========+==========+=====+===========+
  Place             | Latitude | Longitude| Ele-|    Mean   |
                    |          |          | va- |Temperature|
                    |          |          | tion|  of Year  |
                    |          |          |  in +----+------+
                    |          |          | Feet| F. | ~C.~ |
                    |          |          |     |    |      |
  ------------------+----------+----------+-----+----+------+
           _Northern Coast, on Atlantic Seaboard._
  Caracas, Venezuela|10° 30′ N.|66° 55′ W.|3,000|71·2|~21·8~|
  La Guayra, port   |10° 37′ N.|67°  0′ W.| --  |78·2|~25·7~|
  Tovar             |10° 26′ N.|67° 20′ W.|6,000|58.0|~14·4~|
        _Western Littoral--Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru._
  Medellin          | 6° 10′ N.|75° 45′ W.|4,676|70·0|~21·1~|
  Bogota            | 4° 35′ N.|71° 14′ W.|8,650|58·0|~14·4~|
  Quito             | 0° 14′ S.|78° 32′ W.|9,300|56·3|~13·5~|
  Antisana          | 0° 21′ S.|78°  6′ W.|3,200|40·8| ~4·9~|
  Guayaquil         | 2° 10′ S.|79° 56′ W.| --  |80·7|~27·0~|
  Lima              |12°  4′ S.|79° 21′ W.|  530|66·2|~19·0~|
  Anca              |18° 25′ S.|70° 22′ W.| --  |67·5|~19·7~|
  Salta             |24° 46′ S.|65° 24′ W.|4,000|63·2|~17·3~|
  Copiapo           |27° 22′ S.|70° 23′ W.|1,200|61·5|~16·4~|
             _North-East Coast--British Guiana._
  Georgetown        | 6° 50′ N.|58°  8′ W.| --  |79·0|~26·1~|
                          _Dutch Guiana._
  Burnside          | 5° 53′ N.|50° 23′ W.| --  |78·7|~25·9~|
  Paramaribo        | 5° 44′ N.|50° 13′ W.| --  |78·7|~25·9~|
                         _French Guiana._
  Cayenne           | 4° 56′ N.|52° 18′ W.| --  |79·5|~26·4~|
                     _Brazil, Amazon Coast._
  Para              | 1° 30′ S.|48° 24′ W.| --  |78·5|~25·8~|
                      _Interior of Brazil._
  Manaos            | 3°  8′ S.|60°  0′ W.|  150|79·0|~26·0~|
  San Antonio       | 9°  5′ S.|64°  0′ W.| --  |78·0|~25·6~|
  Peruvian frontier |11° 30′ S.|68° 30′ W.|  650|77·4|~25·2~|
  Cuyaba            |15° 86′ S.|56°  7′ W.|  700|77·5|~25·3~|
  Uberaba           |19° 44′ S.|47° 45′ W.|2,600|70·3|~21·3~|
                     _Western Central Brazil._
  Pernambuco        | 8°  4′ S.|34° 51′ W.| --  |78·5|~25·8~|
  Victoria          | 8°  9′ S.|35° 27′ W.|  550|76·7|~24·8~|
  Colony of Isabella| 8° 45′ S.|35° 42′ W.|  750|74·2|~23·4~|
  Bahia             |12° 59′ S.|38° 36′ W.|  200|77·8|~25·5~|
  Rio Janeiro       |22° 54′ S.|43° 10′ W.|  200|72·5|~22·3~|
  Joinville         |26° 19′ S.|49° 43′ W.| --  |68·0|~20·0~|
  Villa Formosa     |26° 13′ S.|58°  5′ W.|  250|70·2|~21·2~|
  ==================+==========+==========+=====+====+======+

  ==================+============+===========+
  Place             |   Maximum  |  Minimum  |
                    | Temperature|Temperature+
                    |   of Year  |  of Year  |
                    |-----+------+----+------+
                    |  F. | ~C.~ | F. | ~C.~ |
                    |     |      |    |      |
  ------------------+-----+------+----+------+
    _Northern Coast, on Atlantic Seaboard._
  Caracas, Venezuela| 79·7|~26·5~|57·8|~14·3~|
  La Guayra, port   |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
  Tovar             |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
   _Western Littoral--Colombia, Ecuador, and
                        Peru._
  Medellin          | 85·0|~29·4~|56·5|~13·6~|
  Bogota            | 72·0|~22·2~|45·8| ~7·7~|
  Quito             | 73·5|~23·1~|38·2| ~3·4~|
  Antisana          | 52·0|~11·0~|21·0|~-6·2~|
  Guayaquil         | 95·0|~35·0~|66·2|~19·0~|
  Lima              | 88·2|~31·2~|48·5| ~9·2~|
  Anca              | 82·4|~28·0~|56·0|~13·3~|
  Salta             |109·4|~43·0~|23·0|~-5·0~|
  Copiapo           | 87·3|~30·7~|37·4| ~3·0~|
      _North-East Coast--British Guiana._
  Georgetown        | 90·0|~32·2~|70·0|~21·1~|
                  _Dutch Guiana._
  Burnside          | 92·8|~33·8~|68·7|~20·4~|
  Paramaribo        | 94·4|~34·6~|67·8|~19·9~|
                  _French Guiana._
  Cayenne           | 94·4|~34·6~|68·0|~20·0~|
               _Brazil, Amazon Coast._
  Para              |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
                _Interior of Brazil._
  Manaos            |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
  San Antonio       |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
  Peruvian frontier |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
  Cuyaba            |105·8|~41·0~|48·2| ~9·0~|
  Uberaba           | 96·8|~36·0~|36·5| ~2·5~|
               _Western Central Brazil._
  Pernambuco        | 97·5|~36·4~|64·5|~18·1~|
  Victoria          | 99·4|~37·4~|57·3|~14·1~|
  Colony of Isabella| 91·2|~32·9~|56·2|~13·4~|
  Bahia             | 89·0|~31·7~|70·7|~21·5~|
  Rio Janeiro       | 97·7|~36·6~|55·2|~12·9~|
  Joinville         |  -- |   -- | -- |   -- |
  Villa Formosa     |100·3|~38·0~|37·7| ~3·2~|
  ==================+=====+======+====+======+

  ==================+======================+======================
  Place             |    Hottest Month     |    Coldest Month
                    |----------+-----------+----------+-----------
                    |   Name   |   Mean    |   Name   |   Mean
                    |          |Temperature|          |Temperature
                    |          +----+------+          +----+------
                    |          | F. | ~C.~ |          | F. | ~C.~
  ------------------+----------+----+------+----------+----+------
                _Northern Coast, on Atlantic Seaboard._
  Caracas, Venezuela|   May    |74·0|~23·3~| January  |68·5|~20·3~
  La Guayra, port   |September |80·7|~27·0~|Feb.-Mar. |75·7|~24·3~
  Tovar             |  April   |59·6|~15·3~| January  |54·5|~12·5~
           _Western Littoral--Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru._
  Medellin          | February |71·0|~21·7~|November  |68·5|~20·3~
  Bogota            |Mar.-April|58·7|~14·8~|  July    |56·8|~13·8~
  Quito             | Dec.-Jan.|56·7|~13·7~|Sept.-Oct.|56·2|~13·4~
  Antisana          |  January |43·2| ~6·2~|July-Aug. |37·3| ~3·0~
  Guayaquil         |  January |83·4|~28·5~|  July    |77·8|~25·5~
  Lima              | February |73·7|~23·2~|  July    |59·0|~15·0~
  Anca              | Dec.-Jan.|71·7|~22·0~| August   |63·2|~17·3~
  Salta             | December |72·2|~22·3~|  June    |50·8|~10·5~
  Copiapo           |  January |69·8|~21·0~|  July    |53·2|~11·8~
                  _North-East Coast--British Guiana._
  Georgetown        |Sept.-Oct.|80·7|~27·0~|Jan.-Feb. |77·5|~25·3~
                                _Dutch Guiana._
  Burnside          |  October |80·0|~26·7~| February |77·3|~25·2~
  Paramaribo        | September|80·8|~27·1~| January  |77·2|~25·1~
                              _French Guiana._
  Cayenne           |Sept.-Oct.|81·4|~27·4~| January  |77·5|~25·3~
                          _Brazil, Amazon Coast._
  Para              |   June   |79·5|~26·4~|  January |77·7|~25·4~
                           _Interior of Brazil._
  Manaos            | November |79·8|~26·6~|  April   |77·0|~25·0~
  San Antonio       |  October |79·4|~26·3~|  June    |76·8|~24·9~
  Peruvian frontier | December |80·0|~26·7~|  June    |72·2|~22·3~
  Cuyaba            |Sept.-Oct.|80·7|~27·0~|  June    |69·5|~20·8~
  Uberaba           | February |74·2|~23·4~|  July    |64·0|~17·8~
                        _Western Central Brazil._
  Pernambuco        | February |81·7|~27·6~|  July    |73·7|~23·2~
  Victoria          | February |79·5|~26·4~|  July    |72·8|~22·7~
  Colony of Isabella| February |76·6|~24·7~|  July    |70·0|~21·1~
  Bahia             | February |80·8|~27·1~|  July    |73·7|~23·2~
  Rio Janeiro       | February |77·2|~25·1~|  July    |67·5|~19·7~
  Joinville         | February |75·5|~24·2~|  July    |61·5|~16·4~
  Villa Formosa     |  January |79·2|~26·2~|  July    |61·3|~16·3~
  ==================+==========+====+======+==========+====+======

In contrast with the fairly liberal rainfall of the east coast we find
places almost as rainless as Waddy Halfa in the Soudan.

Arequipa, _e.g._, though situated high up on the Andes, is nearly as dry
as Lima, but receives a few trifling showers during the height of summer
and autumn (January to March).

AREQUIPA. LAT. 16° 24′ S.; LONG. 71° 30′ W. E.F., 7,680.

  =========+===========+========+==========
    Month  |    Mean   |Relative| Monthly
           |  Monthly  |Humidity| Rainfall
           |Temperature|        |
           +----+------+        +----+-----
           | F. | ~C.~ |        |Ins.|~Mm.~
  ---------+----+------+--------+----+-----
  January  |56·5|~13·6~|   65   |1·08| ~27~
  February |55·4|~13·0~|   69   |5·28|~134~
  March    |56·0|~13·3~|   --   |0·84| ~21~
  April    |53·2|~11·8~|   71   |0   |  ~0~
  May      |49·0| ~9·4~|   --   |0   |  ~0~
  June     |47·5| ~8·6~|   44   |0   |  ~0~
  July     |51·0|~10·6~|   45   |0   |  ~0~
  August   |53·0|~11·7~|   52   |0   |  ~0~
  September|56·0|~13·3~|   55   |0·03|  ~1~
  October  |56·7|~13·7~|   59   |0   |  ~0~
  November |57·2|~14·0~|   --   |0   |  ~0~
  December |56·8|~13·8~|   65   |0·03|  ~1~
  Year     |54·2|~12·3~|   59   |7·28|~185~
  =========+====+======+========+====+=====

These Western figures must serve as a specimen, though only for a single
year; for as already remarked, meteorology is but fitfully studied in
South America.

Many towns and districts, especially on the northern and eastern coasts,
are at a considerable elevation above the sea, and in estimating the
probable climate of such localities the following scale of diminution of
mean temperature for height in the equatorial Andes may be of service:--

  Elevation   } Sea-level 1,500 4,500 7,000 10,000 13,000 17,000 20,000
  in Feet     }
  Temperature }    80°      77°   68°   59°    50°    40°    32°    20°
  F.          }

Or expressed in the metric system:--

  Elevation   } Sea-level   490 1,420 2,320  3,270  4,190  5,120  6,040
  in Metres   }
  Temperature }    27°      25°   20°   15°    10°     5°     0°    -5°
  C.          }

The tables given on pages 92, 93, compiled from Hann’s “Klimatologie”
include some of the better-known sites in South America, but it will be
observed that we are wofully wanting in detailed information as to
places in the interior, by far the majority being places on the coast.

The small variation and remarkable uniformity of temperature in places
spread over so large an area, when situated at all near the same level
above the sea, is very remarkable, as also is the fact that nothing
approaching the excessive temperature of Africa, the other great
Southern Peninsula, is to be met with here.

Guiana, Venezuela, and the other countries of the north and
north-eastern coasts, are no doubt steamy and unhealthy, but the greater
part of Brazil seems to possess a climate by no means prohibitive of
European energy, though doubtless the deltas of the great rivers, like
similar situations elsewhere, are best avoided from the point of view of
health.

Tables of the rainfall of a few places in each of the regions included
in the preceding table will be found below:--

RAINFALL IN PLACES ON N. AND N.E. COAST, SOUTH AMERICA.

  =========+=============+===========+=============+
    Place  |  Cartagena, |  Caracas, | George Town,|
           |   Colombia  | Venezuela | Brit. Guiana|
           |             |(3,000 ft.)|             |
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+
  Month    | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+
  January  | 0   |    ~0~| 0·37|  ~9~| 6·92|  ~176~|
  February | 0   |    ~0~| 0·33|  ~8~| 4·88|  ~124~|
  March    | 0·19|    ~5~| 0·28|  ~7~| 5·42|  ~138~|
  April    | 0·13|    ~3~| 1·03| ~26~| 6·43|  ~163~|
  May      | 5·18|  ~132~| 2·17| ~55~|10·95|  ~279~|
  June     | 4·83|  ~124~| 4·57|~116~|11·96|  ~303~|
  July     | 3·12|   ~79~| 4·82|~122~| 9·07|  ~230~|
  August   | 5·0 |  ~127~| 3·63| ~92~| 7·02|  ~178~|
  September| 7·23|  ~184~| 5·37|~136~| 2·60|   ~66~|
  October  |10·95|  ~279~| 5·02|~128~| 2·38|   ~60~|
  November | 5·37|  ~136~| 2·60| ~66~| 5·68|  ~144~|
  December | 0·98|   ~25~| 1·03| ~26~|10·92|  ~277~|
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-----+-----+-------+
  Year     |43·67|~1,094~|31·14|~791~|84·23|~2,138~|
  =========+=====+=======+=====+=====+=====+=======+

  =========+=============+==============+=============
    Place  |  Paramaribo,|    Cayenne,  |   Para,
           | Dutch Guiana| French Guiana|   Brazil
           |             |              |
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+-----+-------
  Month    | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |  Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+-----+-------
  January  | 9·93|  ~252~| 14·23|  ~361~|11·97|  ~303~
  February | 6·12|  ~155~| 12·43|  ~316~|11·02|  ~280~
  March    | 7·48|  ~190~| 15·53|  ~394~|12·98|  ~329~
  April    | 9·82|  ~249~| 15·16|  ~385~|13·37|  ~340~
  May      |11·97|  ~304~| 19·25|  ~489~| 7·64|  ~194~
  June     |11·88|  ~300~| 14·84|  ~377~| 4·18|  ~106~
  July     | 9·27|  ~235~|  6·64|  ~169~| 2·78|   ~71~
  August   | 7·08|  ~180~|  2·68|   ~68~| 2·04|   ~52~
  September| 2·68|   ~68~|  1·12|   ~28~| 2·63|   ~67~
  October  | 2·83|   ~72~|  1·33|   ~34~| 2·44|   ~62~
  November | 4·03|  ~102~|  4·72|  ~120~| 3·52|   ~90~
  December | 9·48|  ~241~| 10·64|  ~270~| 5·08|  ~129~
  ---------+-----+-------+------+-------+-----+-------
  Year     |92·43|~2,348~|118·53|~3,011~|79·64|~2,023~
  =========+=====+=======+======+=======+=====+=======

RAINFALL, WESTERN LITTORAL-COLOMBIA, ECUADOR AND PERU.

  =========+=============+=============+==========+
    Place  |  Medellin,  |    Quito,   |   Lima,  |
           |  Colombia   |   Ecuador   |   Peru   |
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-------+----+-----+
  Month    | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |Ins.|~Mm.~|
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-------+----+-----+
  January  | 2·18|   ~55~| 3·24|   ~82~|0·07|  ~1~|
  February | 2·52|   ~64~| 3·88|   ~99~|0   |  ~0~|
  March    | 5·28|  ~134~| 4·84|  ~123~|0   |  ~0~|
  April    | 6·93|  ~176~| 6·95|  ~177~|0   |  ~0~|
  May      | 7·77|  ~197~| 4·62|  ~117~|0·13|  ~3~|
  June     | 6·62|  ~168~| 1·33|   ~34~|0·37|  ~9~|
  July     | 4·13|  ~105~| 1·08|   ~27~|0·39| ~10~|
  August   | 5·13|  ~130~| 2·22|   ~56~|0·33|  ~8~|
  September| 6·42|  ~163~| 2·57|   ~65~|0·27|  ~7~|
  October  | 7·37|  ~187~| 3·87|   ~98~|0·13|  ~3~|
  November | 5·87|  ~149~| 3·97|  ~101~|0   |  ~0~|
  December | 2·67|   ~68~| 3·57|   ~91~|0   |  ~0~|
  ---------+-----+-------+-----+-------+----+-----+
  Year     |62·88|~1,596~|42·13|~1,070~|1·64| ~41~|
  =========+=====+=======+=====+=======+====+=====+

  =========+==============+===========+===========
    Place  |Iquitos, East |   Salta,  | Tucuman,
           |Slope of Andes|    Peru   |   Peru
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Month    | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.|~Mm.~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----
  January  | 10·24|  ~260~| 5·68|~144~| 7·38|~187~
  February |  9·83|  ~250~| 5·44|~138~| 6·63|~168~
  March    | 12·24|  ~311~| 4·64|~118~| 6·27|~159~
  April    |  6·48|  ~165~| 0·92| ~23~| 1·78| ~45~
  May      | 10·00|  ~254~| 0·37|  ~9~| 1·14| ~29~
  June     |  7·43|  ~189~| 0·03|  ~1~| 0·52| ~13~
  July     |  6·53|  ~167~| 0   |  ~0~| 0·52| ~13~
  August   |  4·62|  ~117~| 0·07|  ~2~| 0·23|  ~6~
  September|  8·70|  ~221~| 0·27|  ~7~| 0·63| ~16~
  October  |  7·24|  ~184~| 0·48| ~12~| 3·14| ~79~
  November |  8·52|  ~216~| 1·88| ~48~| 4·33|~110~
  December | 11·47|  ~291~| 2·93| ~74~| 5·75|~146~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Year     |103·33|~2,625~|22·64|~575~|38·23|~971~
  =========+======+=======+=====+=====+=====+=====

RAINFALL, INTERIOR AND EAST COAST.

  =========+===========+=============+=============+
           |  Merida,  |   Manaos,   |   Cuyaba,   |
  Place    | Yucatan-- |  Brazil--   |   Brazil--  |
           | Interior  |  Interior   |   Interior  |
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Month    | Ins.|~Mm.~| Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ |
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  January  | 1·02| ~26~| 9·37|  ~238~|10·03|  ~255~|
  February | 0·53| ~13~| 9·84|  ~250~| 8·58|  ~218~|
  March    | 0·70|  ~1~|11·88|  ~301~| 8·70|  ~221~|
  April    | 0·17|  ~4~|13·08|  ~332~| 3·52|   ~90~|
  May      | 0·96| ~24~| 7·33|  ~186~| 2·14|   ~54~|
  June     | 5·88|~149~| 6·02|  ~153~| 0·72|   ~18~|
  July     | 3·86| ~98~| 2·88|   ~72~| 0·34|    ~8~|
  August   | 7·76|~197~| 2·40|   ~61~| 0·37|    ~9~|
  September| 4·50|~114~| 1·74|   ~44~| 3·63|   ~92~|
  October  | 2·95| ~75~| 4·13|  ~105~| 4·27|  ~108~|
  November | 4·12|~104~| 7·65|  ~194~| 7·68|  ~195~|
  December | 1·24| ~31~|10·48|  ~266~| 8·67|  ~220~|
  ---------+-----+-----+-----+-------+-----+-------+
  Year     |33·86|~860~|85·12|~2,202~|59·00|~1,498~|
  =========+=====+=====+=====+=======+=====+=======+

  =========+==============+=============+=============
           |  Pernambuco, |    Bahia,   |Rio Janeiro,
  Place    |    Coast,    |    Coast,   |   Coast,
           |    Brazil    |    Brazil   |   Brazil
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+------
  Month    | Ins. | ~Mm.~ | Ins.| ~Mm.~ | Ins. | ~Mm.~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+------
  January  |  4·34|  ~110~| 3·58|   ~91~| 4·68|  ~119~
  February |  5·98|  ~152~| 3·43|   ~87~| 4·34|  ~110~
  March    |  5·92|  ~150~| 7·87|  ~200~| 5·38|  ~137~
  April    | 10·96|  ~277~|14·34|  ~364~| 4·57|  ~116~
  May      | 14·81|  ~378~|12·28|  ~312~| 3·63|   ~92~
  June     | 15·18|  ~386~|11·54|  ~293~| 1·85|   ~47~
  July     | 28·27|  ~718~| 8·98|  ~228~| 1·64|   ~41~
  August   | 12·60|  ~320~| 4·93|  ~125~| 1·85|   ~47~
  September|  6·83|  ~173~| 3·15|   ~80~| 2·28|   ~58~
  October  |  1·03|   ~26~| 4·88|  ~124~| 3·08|   ~78~
  November |  1·14|   ~29~| 6·83|  ~173~| 4·28|  ~109~
  December |  2·04|   ~52~| 3·63|   ~92~| 5·43|  ~138~
  ---------+------+-------+-----+-------+------+------
  Year     |117·00|~2,971~|85·39|~2,169~|43·00|~1,091~
  =========+======+=======+=====+=======+=====+=======


_Bermuda_ (St. George), lat. 32° 22′ N., long. 64° 30′ W.--This group of
Islands is becoming a favourite health resort with Americans, who are
able in a couple of days (600 sea miles) to exchange the turmoil of Wall
Street for the holy calm of the Atlantic. The climate is extremely
pleasant, without being too relaxing, the mean temperature of the year
being 69·4° F. (20·7° C).

     Jan.       April       August     October
    62° F.      64° F.      79° F.     69·5° F.
  (16·6° C.)  (17·8° C.)  (26·2° C.)  (20·7° C.)

The month of March, with a mean of 61° F. (16° C.), is cooler than
February, and the absolute annual extremes of temperature are 91·5° F.
(33° C.), and 43° F. (6° C.). The relative humidity stands very
constantly about 70 per cent., and the cloudiness of the sky rather
higher. The general direction of the wind is S.W., bearing more to the
north in winter, and southerly in summer and autumn. There are on the
average 159 days on which rain falls during the year, producing a total
of 45·28 ins. (1,150 mm.) of rain; the most rainy month being October,
and the least so April and June. There is very little variation during
the twenty-four hours, so that the climate is well suited for delicate
chests.

These islands depend for water almost entirely on rain caught and stored
in tanks, so that the amount obtained during the last shower is said to
be one of the main subjects of conversation and interest among the
islanders.


_Madeira_ (Funchal). Lat. 32° 37′, Long. 16° 55′ W.--Situated off the
coast of Africa, in nearly the same latitude as the preceding, this
well-known health resort has a slightly lower mean annual temperature of
65·5° F. (18·6° C.); the mean of the coldest month, February, being
59·6° F. (15·4° C.), and of the hottest, August, 72·7° F. (22·6° C.)

During twenty-five years the absolute extremes of temperature were 90·7°
F. (32·7° C.) and 43·6° F. (6·5° C.). The air is drier than that of
Bermuda, the relative humidity averaging 68 per cent.; March, with 65
per cent., being the driest, and July, with 70 per cent., the moistest
month.

The amount and distribution of the rainfall is as below:--

  =================+====+====+====+====+====+====+
                   |Jan.|Feb.|Mar.|Apl.|May |June|
  -----------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  Rainfall {Ins.   |4·18|3·18|2·87|2·13|0·92|0·53|
           {Mm.    | 106|  81|  73|  54|  23|  13|
  No. of rainy days|10·7| 8·6| 9·4| 7·3| 5·3| 2·3|
  =================+====+====+====+====+====+====+

  =================+====+====+=====+====+====+====
                   |July|Aug.|Sept.|Oct.|Nov.|Dec.
  -----------------+----+----+-----+----+----+----
  Rainfall {Ins.   |0·03|0·08| 0·67|2·38|5·28|4·67
           {Mm.    |   1|   2|   17|  60| 134| 119
  No. of rainy days| 0·8| 1·0|  3·3| 7·9|10·5|11·6
  =================+====+====+=====+====+====+====

The total rainfall is thus under 27 inches, and owing to the occurrence
of east winds coming from the African desert, the air often becomes
very dry during its continuance. Madeira has earned a high reputation
for the treatment of cases of consumption, but has been less recommended
for such cases since the introduction of the open-air treatment; and it
should be recognised that neither this nor any other climate can do more
than retard the progress of advanced cases. It is an excellent country,
however, in which to live in the open air, and cases that find Funchal
too relaxing can obtain a somewhat more bracing climate on the higher
ground of the interior of the island.

In any case Madeira forms an excellent resort for those who, without
being actually ailing, find themselves unable to withstand the damp and
cold of our English winters.


NOTES ON THE OBSERVATION OF METEOROLOGICAL DATA.

Few houses will now be found without a thermometer and barometer, and
many people are fond of keeping a register of their observations.
Moreover, where the observer chances to be stationed in an
out-of-the-way place, even a casual domestic register of this sort may
be of considerable value. . . . The instruments required are the wet and
dry bulb thermometers, a rain gauge, and a barometer.

Those who have to move about in the backwaters of civilisation, will
probably find the mercurial barometer rather a “white elephant,” as it
requires great care and attention whenever it is necessary to move it;
and for such, a good aneroid is a more desirable possession. It is, of
course, important that the instrument should be compared, whenever
opportunity occurs, with a standard mercurial instrument; but for merely
observing extent of fluctuation an aneroid is quite accurate enough for
all practical purposes. The rain gauge must of course be set up in some
open and unsheltered position near the ground level, and the
thermometers should be hung in a north verandah (for the northern
hemisphere) against a piece of felt which will help to protect them
from the heat radiated from the wall. The aneroid, on the other hand,
may be hung in any position where it is well protected from the
weather--on the ground-floor. The direction of the wind can easily be
observed by means of a small triangular flag or burgee hoisted to a
pole, which, unless the neighbourhood be a very open one, is best lashed
up in a tree so as to project above its branches.

Those, however, who desire to take up the study of their local
meteorology seriously, will do well to obtain a little pamphlet,
entitled “Hints to Meteorological Observers,” by W. Marriott, published
at 1s. 6d., under the auspices of the Royal Meteorological Society, by
E. Stanford, 12, Long Acre, W.C., which contains complete instructions
on the subject.

From the point of view of the tropical resident, it is unfortunate that
some of the tables in this publication are hardly carried high enough,
but the instructions will enable anyone to amplify them. On this
account, I append a table for calculating relative humidity of a less
elaborate sort, but more extended than that furnished in the pamphlet,
as this is one of the most important of all climatic factors from a
sanitary point of view.

The table is only worked out to half degrees of difference between the
wet and dry bulb instruments, and for the most part to 4° intervals of
the dry thermometer, but it is easy, by reading between the lines, to
fill up the gaps, where any marked interval exists; and it will be
observed that at the lower right-hand corner of the second table, the
numbers progress in regular arithmetical progression, so that it is not
difficult to infer the percentages in cases of somewhat higher degrees
of temperature and dryness.

TABLE FOR CALCULATING THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE % BY THE
DRY AND WET BULB THERMOMETER.

  ==========+========================================
  Difference|  READING OF THE DRY BULB THERMOMETER.
    of Wet  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   and Dry  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
    Bulbs   |32°|34°|36°|38°|40°|44°|48°|52°|56°|60°|
  ----------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
     0·5    | 92| 94| 95| 95| 96| 96| 96| 96| 97| 97|
     1      | 87| 89| 91| 91| 92| 92| 92| 93| 93| 93|
     1·5    | 81| 84| 86| 87| 88| 88| 88| 89| 89| 90|
     2      | 76| 80| 82| 83| 84| 84| 85| 86| 87| 88|
     2·5    | 70| 75| 78| 79| 80| 81| 82| 83| 83| 84|
     3      | 65| 71| 74| 76| 76| 78| 79| 80| 81| 82|
     3·5    | 60| 66| 70| 72| 73| 75| 76| 77| 78| 79|
     4      | 56| 62| 66| 69| 70| 72| 73| 74| 75| 76|
     4·5    | 52| 58| 62| 65| 66| 69| 70| 71| 72| 74|
     5      | 48| 55| 59| 62| 63| 65| 67| 69| 70| 71|
     5·5    | 45| 52| 56| 59| 61| 62| 64| 65| 67| 69|
     6      | 41| 49| 53| 56| 58| 60| 62| 63| 65| 66|
     6·5    | 38| 46| 50| 53| 55| 57| 59| 61| 62| 64|
     7      | 35| 43| 47| 50| 52| 55| 57| 59| 60| 62|
     7·5    | 32| 40| 44| 48| 49| 52| 54| 56| 58| 60|
     8      | 30| 37| 42| 45| 47| 50| 52| 54| 56| 58|
     8·5    | 29| 35| 40| 42| 44| 48| 50| 52| 54| 56|
     9      | 27| 33| 38| 41| 42| 46| 48| 50| 52| 54|
     9·5    | 25| 31| 36| 38| 40| 43| 46| 48| 50| 52|
    10      | 23| 30| 34| 36| 38| 41| 44| 46| 48| 50|
    10·5    | 21| 28| 32| 34| 36| 40| 42| 44| 46| 48|
    11      | 19| 26| 30| 32| 34| 38| 40| 43| 45| 46|
    11·5    | 17| 24| 28| 30| 32| 36| 38| 41| 43| 45|
    12      | 16| 23| 27| 29| 31| 34| 36| 39| 41| 43|
    12·5    | 15| 21| 28| 27| 29| 32| 34| 37| 39| 42|
    13      | 14| 20| 24| 26| 28| 31| 33| 36| 38| 40|
    13·5    | 13| 18| 23| 25| 27| 30| 32| 35| 36| 38|
    14      | 12| 17| 22| 24| 25| 28| 30| 33| 35| 37|
    14·5    | 11| 16| 21| 22| 24| 26| 29| 31| 34| 36|
    15      | 10| 15| 20| 21| 23| 25| 28| 30| 33| 35|
    15·5    | 10| 14| 18| 20| 22| 24| 26| 28| 31| 33|
    16      |  9| 13| 17| 19| 21| 23| 25| 27| 30| 32|
    16·5    |  8| 12| 16| 18| 20| 22| 23| 26| 29| 31|
    17      |  7| 12| 15| 17| 19| 21| 22| 25| 27| 30|
    17·5    |  7| 11| 14| 16| 18| 20| 21| 24| 26| 28|
    18      |  6| 10| 13| 15| 17| 19| 20| 23| 25| 27|
    18·5    | --| --| --| --| --| --| 19| 22| 24| 26|
    19      | --| --| --| --| --| --| 18| 20| 23| 25|
    19·5    | --| --| --| --| --| --| 17| 19| 21| 24|
    20      | --| --| --| --| --| --| 17| 18| 20| 23|
  ==========+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+

  ==========+========================================
  Difference|  READING OF THE DRY BULB THERMOMETER.
    of Wet  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----
   and Dry  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
    Bulbs   |64°|68°|72°|76°|80°|84°|88°|92°|96°|100°
  ----------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----
     0·5    | 97| 97| 97| 97| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98
     1      | 94| 94| 94| 95| 95| 95| 95| 95| 95| 95
     1·5    | 91| 91| 92| 93| 93| 93| 93| 93| 93| 93
     2      | 88| 89| 89| 89| 90| 90| 91| 91| 91| 91
     2·5    | 85| 85| 86| 87| 87| 87| 88| 88| 88| 89
     3      | 82| 83| 83| 84| 85| 85| 85| 85| 86| 87
     3·5    | 80| 81| 82| 82| 83| 83| 83| 83| 84| 85
     4      | 77| 78| 79| 80| 80| 81| 81| 81| 82| 83
     4·5    | 75| 75| 76| 79| 78| 78| 79| 79| 80| 81
     5      | 72| 73| 74| 75| 76| 76| 77| 77| 78| 79
     5·5    | 70| 71| 72| 73| 74| 74| 75| 75| 76| 77
     6      | 68| 69| 70| 71| 72| 72| 73| 73| 74| 75
     6·5    | 65| 67| 68| 68| 69| 70| 70| 71| 72| 73
     7      | 63| 65| 65| 66| 67| 68| 68| 69| 69| 70
     7·5    | 61| 62| 63| 64| 65| 66| 66| 67| 68| 69
     8      | 59| 60| 61| 63| 64| 64| 65| 66| 67| 68
     8·5    | 57| 58| 60| 61| 62| 63| 63| 64| 65| 66
     9      | 55| 56| 58| 59| 60| 61| 61| 62| 63| 64
     9·5    | 53| 54| 55| 57| 58| 59| 60| 61| 62| 63
    10      | 52| 53| 54| 56| 57| 57| 58| 59| 60| 61
    10·5    | 50| 51| 52| 54| 55| 56| 57| 58| 59| 60
    11      | 48| 50| 51| 52| 53| 54| 55| 56| 57| 58
    11·5    | 46| 48| 49| 50| 52| 53| 54| 55| 56| 57
    12      | 45| 46| 48| 49| 50| 51| 52| 53| 54| 55
    12·5    | 43| 45| 46| 47| 48| 49| 51| 50| 53| 54
    13      | 42| 43| 45| 46| 47| 48| 50| 51| 52| 53
    13·5    | 40| 41| 43| 45| 46| 47| 48| 49| 50| 51
    14      | 39| 40| 42| 43| 45| 46| 47| 48| 49| 50
    14·5    | 37| 39| 40| 42| 43| 45| 46| 47| 48| 49
    15      | 36| 38| 39| 41| 42| 43| 44| 45| 46| 47
    15·5    | 35| 37| 38| 39| 41| 42| 43| 44| 45| 46
    16      | 34| 35| 37| 38| 39| 40| 42| 43| 44| 45
    16·5    | 33| 34| 36| 37| 38| 39| 41| 42| 43| 44
    17      | 31| 33| 34| 36| 37| 38| 39| 41| 42| 43
    17·5    | 30| 32| 33| 35| 36| 37| 38| 39| 40| 41
    18      | 29| 31| 32| 34| 35| 36| 37| 38| 39| 40
    18·5    | 28| 30| 31| 33| 34| 35| 36| 37| 38| 39
    19      | 27| 29| 30| 32| 33| 34| 35| 36| 37| 38
    19·5    | 26| 28| 29| 31| 32| 33| 34| 35| 36| 37
    20      | 25| 27| 28| 30| 31| 32| 33| 34| 35| 35
  ==========+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+====



INDEX.


  Abdominal chills, 32
  Abusher, August climate of, 16
  Abyssinia, climate of, 33-34
  Addi Ugri, climate of, 45-47; table, 46
  Aden, Gulf of, climate of, 46-47
  Adis-Ababa, climatic table, 34
  Africa, climatic characters of, 22 _et seq._
    Central, Lake region, climate of, 34-35
    East Coast, climate of, 39-40
    North, 23, 25
    West Coast--
      Climate of, 36-39
      Contraction of tropical zone on, 3
  Agra, climatic table, 56-57, 63
  Agustia Peak, temperature table of, 61
  Air--
    Heating of:--an indirect process, 4; effects of rapid local, 6-7
    Temperature of, observation of, 11
  Akyab, climatic data for, 63, 64
  Alexandria, climate of, 28, 29
  Algeria, climate of, 22-24
  Algerian Sahara, summer climate in, 16
  Algiers--
    Climatic table, 24
    Monthly mean temperatures, table of, 23, 24
    mentioned, 25
  Allahabad, climatic table for, 56-57
  Amboina (Seram), temperature chart for, 74
  America, climate of, 81 _et seq._
    Central, climate of, 84-87
    South--
      Climate of, 90-96
      Winds prevalent in, 6
    West Coast, contraction of tropical zone on, 3
  Andes--
    Influence of, on South American climate, 90
    Scale of diminution of mean temperatures for height above sea in, 94
  Aneroid barometers, 98-99
  Angola, mean temperature in, 39
  Antananarivo, rainfall in, 40-41
  Antilles, lesser, 88
  Antisana, temperature table for, 92
  Apia, Samoa, climatic data for, 79, 80
  Arab civilisation, 39
  Arabia, climate of, 53
  Arakan, coast climate of, 64
  Arequipa, 91; climatic table, 94
  Asia--
    Climate of, 47 _et seq._
    Northerly current over, 8
  Asia Minor, 26
  Asmara, mean monthly temperatures, 45
  Assam--
    Rainfall in, 58
    Temperature tables for stations in, 61
    mentioned, 54, 62
  Assouan, winter climate of, 30
  Australia--
    Climate of, 77-79
    Contraction of tropical zone on West Coast of, 3

  Bagdad, climatic table for, 49
  Bahia Coast, Brazil--
    Rainfall, 96
    Temperature table, 93
  Baker (explorer), 32
  Ballot, Prof. Buys, law of winds as related to barometric pressures,
  8-9
  Bangala, temperature data, 36
  Bangalore, climatic table, 56-57
  Bangawanji (Java), rainfall at, 75
  Bangkok, climatic table for, 67
  Banjoewangie, temperature chart for, 74
  Barbados, rainfall at, 89
  Baryermassing (Sumatra), temperature chart for, 74
  Batavia--
    Climatic tables for, 72, 74
    Observatory at, 72
  Bathurst, climate of, 36-37
  Bayombong (Lugon), temperature chart for, 74
  Behar, 54
  Beirut, climatic table for, 48
  Belgaum, climatic tables for, 56-57, 61
  Belize, climatic tables for, 86, 87
  Bellary, climatic tables for, 56-57, 61
  Beluchistan, climate of, 53
  Benares, 54; climatic table for, 56-57
  Bengal, climate in Bay of, 62-64
    Lower, 54
  Benguela district, climate of, 39
  Benkulen (Sumatra), rainfall at, 75
  Bermuda, climate of, 96-97
  Bhamo, climatic table for, 65
  Bight of Benin, 31
  Biskra, temperature table for, 23, 24
  Blackwater fever, 31
  Blanford, 62, 63
  Blantyre, rainfall of, 35
  Bogota, temperature table for, 92
  Bohol, temperature chart for, 74
  Boliano, C. (Lugon), temperature chart for, 74
  Bolobo, climatic data for, 36, 37
  Bombay--
    Climatic tables for, 56-57, 61, 63
    Hill stations, 60
    otherwise mentioned, 46, 47
  Brazil, climatic tables, 93, 95
  Brazzaville, temperature data for, 36
  Brisbane, climatic table for, 77
  Bua (Fiji), rainfall at, 80
  Buitenzorg (Java), temperature chart for, 74
  Burmah, climate of--lower, 64; upper, 65
  Burnside, temperature table for, 92
  Bushire, 50; climatic table for, 51

  Cairo, 28, 29
  Calcutta, 61, 64; climatic tables, 56-57, 58, 61, 63
  California, climate of, 28, 81-82
  Cameroon district, rainfall of, 38
  Cameroon, rainfall of, 9
  Campbell, Staff-Surg. J., (R.N.), 67
  Canton, climate of, 70
  Cape Colony, 41
  Cape Verd Islands, climate of, 37
  Caracas, Venezuela, climatic tables for, 92, 95
  Carlotta (Negros), temperature chart for, 74
  Carnarvon (Australia), rainfall at, 79
  Cartagena (Colombia), rainfall at, 95
  Catgut, hygroscopic properties of, 15
  Cayenne, climatic tables, 93, 95
  Cedar Keys, 84
  Ceylon, climate of, 59-60
  Cherapunji, Assam, rainfall of, 9
  Cheren, mean monthly temperatures of, 45
  Chest disease, localities favouring treatment of--
    Algeria, 23
    Cyprus, 26
    Egypt, 28
    Fars, plateau of, 52
    Madeira, 98
    Somaliland, 46
  Chihuahua, rainfall at, 85
  China--
    Climate of 68-72
    Seas, typhoons in 7, 70
    Southern, 6
  Chindwara, 58
  Chittagong, temperature table, 61
  Chochin, rainfall at, 59
  Clark, Major S. F., _quoted_, 69-70
  Climate--
    Artificial alterations in, 10
    Factors determining, 1-11
  Coban, temperature table, 86
  Cochin China, climatic data, 56-57, 68
  Cold, effect on the skin, 12
  Colombo, climatic tables, 59, 63
  Columbia, climate of, 92, 96
  Colon, climatic table of, 86, 87
  Congo basin, climate of, 35-37
    Mouth of, temperature data, 36
  Consumption, localities favouring treatment of, _see_ chest disease
  Continental climates, variations in temperature in, cause of, 5
  Convection, 4
  Coolgardie, rainfall at, 78
  Copiapo, temperature table of, 92
  Cordoba, temperature table of, 84
  Cossach, rainfall, 78-79
  Costa Rica, rainfall, 87
  Culiacan, temperature table of, 84
  Cuyaba, Brazil, climatic tables, 93, 96
  Cyclones, 7, 63-64
  Cyprus, climate of, 26-27

  Dacca, temperature table of, 61
  Dalrymple, Dr., _quoted_, 28
  Damascus, temperature table, 48
  Darien, Isthmus of, 81
  Darjeeling, temperature tables, 61, 63
  Dashtistan, rainfall of, 50-51, 53
  Debunja, rainfall of, 9
  Deccan, plateau of, climate of, 59
  Deesa, climatic tables of, 56-57, 63
  Deforestation, influence of, on rainfall, 9
  Dew, formation of, 14-15
  Dew point, definition of, 14
  Dhubri, climatic tables for, 56-57
  Dodabetta Peak, temperature table of, 61
  Doldrums, the, 6
  Drizzle, unhealthiness of, 17-18
  Durban, climatic table of, 40
  Dust in the atmosphere, deleterious influence of, 19-20
  Dust storms, 7-8, 46
  Dutch, observatory of, at Batavia, 72
  Dysentery, 25, 68

  East Cape, New Guinea, 76
  East Indies, 89
  Ecuador, climatic data for, 92, 96
  Egypt, climate of, 27-30
  “Egypt as a Winter Resort,” 28
  El Paso, rainfall of, 82
  England, climate of, mentioned, 9
  Equator, seasons at, 3
  Equatorville, temperature data of, 36
  Erythrea, colony of, climate of, 42-46
  Erzerum, temperature variations in, 26
  Euphrates Valley, climate in, 48-49
  Evaporation from the body, 12

  False Point, temperature table of, 61
  Fars Plateau, 52
  Fiji Islands, rainfall in, 80
  Florida, climate of, 83-84
  Formosa, Island of, climate of, 70-72
  Freemantle, rainfall of, 78

  Galveston, climate of, 82-83
  Gamboa, temperature table, 86
  Georgetown, climatic tables, 92, 95
  Géryville, temperature table of, 23, 24
  Ghenda, temperature of, 45
  Goalpara, temperature table, 61
  Gout, 28
  Granular ophthalmia, 30
  Greytown, climatic tables, 86, 87
  Guadeloupe, rainfall of, 89
  Guatemala, climatic tables of, 86, 87
  Guayaquil, temperature table of, 92
  Guiana, British, temperature tables, 92, 95
    Dutch, temperature tables, 92, 95
    French, temperature tables, 93, 95
  Guinea, Gulf of, climate of, 37-39
    New, British, climate of, 74, 76
  Gujarat, 57
  Gulf stream, 9, 83

  Hai-Fong, rainfall at, 68
  Haidrababad, climate of, 59
  Hair, hygroscopic properties of, 15
  Hall, Dr., 84
  Hann’s “Klimatologie,” _cited_, iii.-iv., 34, 36, 48, 62, 71, 95
  Harmattan, 36, 37, 38
  Havana, 90; climatic table, 88
  Hazaribagh, climatic tables, 56-57
  Health, effect of temperature on, 11-14
  Heart affections, Egypt as a resort for, 28
  Heat apoplexy, 13, 36, 42, 51, 70
  Heatstroke, 43
  Helouan, sulphur baths at, 28
  Hilo, temperature chart of, 79
  Himalayas, 54
  “Hints to Meteorological Observers,” 99
  Hong Kong--
    Climate of, 69-70
    Meteorological observations at, 69
  Honolulu, Hawaii, climatic tables, 79, 80
  Hue, rainfall at, 68
  Humidity, relative, of air at--
      Addi-Ugri, 46; Adis-Ababa, 34; Alexandria, 29; Algiers, 24;
      Arequipa, 94; Bagdad, 49; Bangkok, 67; Batavia, 72; Brisbane, 77;
      Bushire, 51; Cairo, 29; Cochin China, 68; Colombo, 59; Galveston,
      82; Havana, 88; Hong-Kong, 69, 70; Kassala, 33; Kingston, Jamaica,
      89; Los Angeles, 81; Luxor, 30; Manila, 73; Massawa, 43;
      New Orleans, 83; Nikosia, Cyprus, 26; Old Calabar, 38; Omdurman,
      33; Port Louis, Mauritius, 41; Red Sea Basin, 41; Sahara, 31; San
      Paolo, 91; Singapore, 66; Suakim, 44; Valetta, 25; Wadi Halfa, 32;
      Zi-ka-Wei, 71; Zoruba, 35
    Tables for calculating, 100-101
  Hurricanes, West Indian, 7
  Hyderabad, climatic table of, 56-57
  Hygrometers, 15

  Iloilo (Sebu), temperature table of, 74
  India--
    Bengal zone, climate of, 58
    Central Provinces, climate of, 58-59
    Climate of, 53 et seq.
    Climatic divisions of, 53-54
    Coast climate, 59
    Hill stations, climatic chart of, 60 _et seq._
    “Malta fever” in, 25
    North-West Frontier, climate of, 54, 55-58
    Northern, 49, 60
    Persian frontier zone, climate of, 54-55
    Rainy season, cause of, 6
    Sub-tropical, maximum temperatures in, 3
    Winds in, 6
  Indian Ocean, cyclones in, 7
  Indo-Malay Peninsula, 64-65, 69
  Iquitos, East, rainfall of, 96
  Irrawaddy, 65
  Irrigation in California, 81
  Isabella Colony, Brazil, temperature table of, 93
  Isothermal lines, 1
  Isotherms, tropical and sub-tropical zones bounding, 3
  Ispahan, climatic table of, 52
  Italy, South, 25

  Jacobabad, temperature in, 2, 54, 63
  Jacksonville, 83
  Jaffa, climatic data, 48
  Jaipur, climatic table, 56-57
  Jaluit, temperature chart of, 79
  Jamaica, 88; climate of, 89
  Java, 72
  “Java winds,” 66
  Jerusalem, climatic table of, 48
  Jhánsi, climatic tables of, 56-57, 61
  Joinville, temperature table of, 93
  Jubulpur, climatic tables of, 56-57, 61
  Jupiter, American Town, 83

  Kamsin, 42
  Kanai, temperature table of, 79
  Karachi, 53
  Karoo, 31
  Kassala, climatic data for, 33
  Khandwa, climatic table of, 56-57
  “Khamseen,” 27, 29
  Khathiawar, rainfall at, 58
  Kidney affections, Egypt as a resort for, 28
  Kilung, rainfall at, 71
  Kingston, Jamaica, climatic table of, 89
  “Kiti” breezes, 67
  “Klimatologie,” _see_ Hann’s “Klimatologie”
  Korat plateau, 68
  Kota Raja (Sumatra), rainfall at, 75
  Kupang (Timor), rainfall at, 75
  Kurrachi, climatic tables for, 56-57, 63
  Kuttak, temperature table of, 61

  La Guayra, temperature table of, 92
  Lahat (Sumatra) temperature table of, 74
  Lahore, climatic tables of, 56-57, 61, 63
  Land, thermal capacity as compared with that of sea, 4
  Lawson, Capt. I. A., “Wanderings in Interior of New Guinea,” _cited_,
  76
  Leh, temperature table of, 63
  Leon, climatic data for, 84, 85
  Lesuha, (Fiji), rainfall at, 80
  Levuka, temperature table of, 79
  Light, influence of, 18
  Lima, 94; climatic data, 90, 92, 96
  Los Angeles, climatic table of, 81
  Luluaberg, temperature data of, 36
  Luxor, winter climate of, 30

  Madagascar, climate of, 40-41
  Madeira, climate of, 5, 97, 98
  Madras, 53--
    Climatic data, 56-57, 61, 63, 64
    Health resorts in, 60-61
  Malaria in--
    Africa, 31, 32
    America, 81
    Bengal, 58
    Cochin China, 68
    Cyprus, absence in, 27
    Egypt, comparative absence in, 30
    Florida, in, 84
    Indian stations, 57
    Malta, 25
    Mauritius, 41
    Panama, in, 84
    Persia, scarcity in, 51
  Malay Archipelago--
    Climate on, 72-76, 80
    Contraction of tropical zone on coast of, 3
  Malion (Lugon), temperature chart for, 74
  Malta, climate of, 24-26
  “Malta fever,” 25
  Mamlaro, 76
  Manaos, climatic data of, 90, 93, 96
  Mandalay, climatic table, 56-57, 65
  Manila (Lugon) climatic tables, 73-74
  Marine climates, uniformity of, 5
  Marriott, Mr. W., 21
  Martinique rainfall, 89
  Marseilles, 22
  Marshall Islands, rainfall at, 80
  Massawa, climatic data for, 42, 43, 45
  Massey, Dr. Yale, _quoted_, 39
  Matamoros, climatic data, 84, 85
  Mauritius, climate of, 41
  Maximum and minimum thermometers, 10
  Mazatlan, climatic data, 84, 85
  Medellin, climatic data, 92, 96
  Mediterranean Basin, climate of shores of, 22-30
  Meerut, climatic tables, 56-57, 61
  Menado (Celebes), rainfall, 75
  Menam, R., flooding of delta, 67-68
  Mercara, temperature of, 61
  Mercurial thermometers, 98
  Merida (Yucatan), rainfall at, 96
  Mesopotamia, 47
  Meteorological data, observations of, 98-99
  Mexico, 81; climatic data, 84, 85
  Moisture in the atmosphere, 10, 14-16
  Molendo, climatic table for, 91
  Monsoon, 6 and n.; S.W. monsoon, 60, 66, 67, 70-71; N.E. monsoon, 67,
  68; N.W. monsoon, 72
  Montery, temperature of 84
  Mosquitoes, disease carried by, 16, 19, 86, 88
  Mosul, climatic data for, 48
  Moulmein, rainfall at, 64
  Mountain chains, influence of distribution of, on climate, 9
  Multan, climatic tables, 56, 57, 61, 63
  Muskat, 53
  Mysore, climate of, 59

  Nagpur, climatic tables, 56-57, 61, 63
  Nassau, rainfall at, 89
  Natal, climatic table of, 40
  Nelson, Cape, 76
  Nerbudah Valley, temperature in, 58
  New Caledonia, rainfall in, 80
    Guinea, 74, 76
    Hebrides, rainfall in, 80
    Orleans, climatic table of, 83
    York, 81
  Newera Eliya, temperature table of, 63
  Nigeria, British, climatic data for, 38
  Nihilgerris, hill stations in, 60
  Nikosia, Cyprus, climatic tables of, 26, 27
  Nile--
    Annual overflow of, 30
    Upper, valley of, climate of, 10
  Northern hemisphere, 9
  Noumea, climatic tables, 79, 80
  Nyassaland, 35

  Old Calabar, climatic table of, 38
  Omdurman, 33, 47
  Ootacamand, climate of, 60-61, 62
  Oparu, temperature table of, 79
  Orissa, rainfall at, and Central Provinces, India, temperature table
  for stations, in 58, 61
  Orleansville, temperature table of, 23, 24
  Oudh, 54

  Pachmari, temperature table of, 61
  Pacific Islands, climate of, 79-80
  Padang (Sumatra), temperature chart for, 74
  Palembang (Sumatra), temperature chart for, 74
  Palermo, 45
  Palestine, climate of, 47-49
  Panama, Isthmus of, climate of, 84-86
  Papar (Borneo), temperature chart for, 74
  Papiti, temperature chart of, 79
  Para, climate of, 93, 95
  Parallels of latitude, 1
  Paramaribo, temperature data, 92, 95
  Patna, climatic table of, 56-57
  Peak, the, Hong Kong, climate at, 69-70
  Pensacola, 83, 84
  Pernambuco, climatic data, 93, 96
  Persia--
    Climate, 50-52
    People, 50
  Persian Gulf, climate in, 16, 49, 53
  Perspiration, function of, 12
  Peru, climatic data, 91, 92, 96
  Peruvian frontier, temperature table of, 93
  Peshawar, climate of, 5, 55, 56-57, 61, 63
  Petella, Dr. Giovani, 42, 43, 44-45
  Polynesian Islands, 80
  Poona, climatic data of, 56-57, 60, 61
  Port Au Prince, Haiti, rainfall at, 89
    Blair, climatic tables, 63, 64
    Darwin, climatic table of, 78
    Louis, climatic data of, 41
    Moresley, climatic table of, 76
  Prickly heat, 43, 55
  Puebla, temperature table of, 84
  Punjab, the, 7, 54, 55, 58, 61

  Qara Valu (Fiji), rainfall at, 80
  Queensland, 77
  Quetta, temperature table for, 63
  Quezaltenango, temperature table of, 86
  Quito, climatic data, 92, 96

  Radiation, 2
  Rain, scarcity of, in Red Sea district, 41
    Gauge, 10, 98
  Rainfall, _see_ names of places
  Rainy seasons in:
    Congo basin, 36; Erythrea, 45; Gulf of Guinea, 37; India, 53, 60;
    double rainy seasons, 36, 37, 72
  Rajputana, 7, 54, 57
  Rangoon, climatic tables, 56-57, 63, 65
  Rauenstein, E. G., _cited_, 34
  Rawal Pindi, 54
  Red Sea region, climate of, 16, 41-47, 49
  Revolving storms, _see_ typhoons
  Rheumatism, 28
  Rheumatoid arthritis, 28
  Rio Janeiro, temperature table of, 93
  Rivas, rainfall at, 87
  Rohilkhand, 54, 55
  Royal Army Medical Corps Journal, _quoted_, 69-70
  Royal Meteorological Society Library, 21

  St. Croix, rainfall at, 89
  St. Kitts, rainfall at, 89
  Sahara, 23, 31
  Saigon, rainfall at, 68
  Salta, climatic data for, 92, 96
  San Antonio, temperature table of, 93
    José, temperature table of, 86
    Paolo, observatory at, 90; climatic table, 91
    Salvador, climatic tables, 36, 86, 87
  Sanatorium on Mount Troödos, 26
  Sandakan, climate of, 74
  Sandwith, Dr., 28, 30
  Sanford, 83
  Saugor, 58, 61
  Sarawak, rainfall at, 75
  Scind, climate of, 54, 55
  Scorpions, 76
  Sea, thermal capacity compared to that of land, 4
  Sea-level, elevation above, influence of, on climate, 1-2
  Secunderabad, temperature table of, 61
  Selangor, rainfall at, 64
  Sex, relation to health in the tropics, 18
  Shanghai, 69
  Shillong, 9, 62
  Sholapur, temperature tables, 61, 63
  Siam, climate of, 66-68
  Siberian Steppes, 8
  Sibsagar, climatic tables, 56-7, 61, 63
  Sierra Leone, climate of, 37
  Silchar, temperature table, 61
  Simla, climatic tables, 56-57, 63
  Sind, 57
  Singapore, climate of, 65-66, 73
  Singkel (Sumatra), rainfall at, 75
  Sironcha, temperature table of, 61
  Skin, influence of temperature on, 12
  Sleeping sickness, 31, 32
  Smyrna, climatic data for, 48
  Snakes, poisonous, 76
  Solly, Dr., _quoted_, 82, 83-84
  Somaliland, climate of, 46
  Soudan, climate of, 3, 31-33
  Southern Hemisphere, currents of, 9
  Sresnewsky, 15
  Stanley’s Pool, 36
  Stevenson, R. L., 79
  Straits Settlements, climate of, 65-66
  Suakim, climate of, 43-44, 47
  Sub-tropical zone, isotherm bounding, 3
  Suez, Gulf of, 42
  Suleiman Range, 54, 55
  Sunstroke in New York, 81
  Surat, rainfall at, 58
  Sweat glands, working of, 12, 13
  Syrian Coast, climate of, 25

  Taboga Island, climatic data, 86, 87
  Takao Anping, rainfall in, 71
  Tana, temperature table of, 79
  Tancredi, Capt., 45
  Tanganyika, climatic data, 34-35
  Taurus Mountain range, 26
  Teheran, climatic table of, 52
  Tel, The, 23
  Temperature (for temperatures of places _see_ place names)
    Air of, effect on body temperature and health, 11-13
    Determination of, 10
    Diurnal range of, influence on health, 13-14
    Sub-tropical, 2-3
    Tropical, 2-3
  Ternata (Jilolo), rainfall, 75
  Tevandrum, temperature table, 61
  Texas, rainfall at, 82
  Thandiani, 61
  Thermometers--
    Maximum and minimum, 10
    Wet and dry bulb, 98; calculation of relative humidity by, 100-101
  Tongatabu, climatic data, 79, 80
  Tongking, range of temperature of, 68
  Tovar, temperature table, 92
  Trade winds, 5-6, 80, 86, 88, 90
  Trichinopoly, climatic tables, 56-57, 61
  Trinidad, temperature of, 89-90
  Troödos, Mount, climate of hill station on, 26, 27
  Tropic of Cancer, 53
  Tropical climates, uniformity of, 5
    Zone--
      Definition of, 3
      Isotherms bounding, 3
      Maximum and minimum temperatures of, 2-3
      Narrowing of, through influence of sea currents, 3-4
  Tucuman, rainfall at, 96
  Typhoons, 7, 70

  Uberaba, temperature table of, 93
  Uganda, climate of, 34

  Valetta, climatic table, 25
  Vanua Levu, temperature table of, 79
  Vaso-motor nerve system, function of, 12
  Vegetation, connection with rainfall, 9-10
  Venezuela, 95
  Vera Cruz, climatic data, 84, 85
  Victoria (Brazil), temperature table, 93
  Victoria Nyanza, climate of region of, 34
  Villa Formosa, temperature table, 93
  Vivi, temperature of, 36
  Vizagapatam, temperature table of, 61

  Wadi Halfa, climate of, 22, 32, 94
  Wakujrui Pass, climatic conditions on, 2
  “Wanderings in the Interior of New Guinea” (Lawson), _cited_, 76
  Water, scarcity of, in Siam, 68; Australia, 77, 79
  Wellington, temperature tables, 61, 63
  West Indies, climate of, 64, 88-90; hurricanes in, 7
  Wet and dry bulb instruments, 10
  Winds--
    Direction and force of, at
      Alexandria, 29
      Cairo, 29
      Galveston, 83
      Luxor, 30
      Malay Archipelago, in, 73
      Panama, 86
      Port Moresley, 76
      Red Sea region, 42
      Siam, 67
      Singapore, 66
      Suakim, 44
      West Indies, 88
    Harmattan, 36, 37, 38
    Health, influence on, 19-20
    Kamsin, 42
    Land and sea breezes, 4-5
    Monsoons, _see that title_
    Trades, _see_ Trade winds
  Worms, internal, 30, 68
  Wyndham, climatic table for, 78

  Yellow fever, 31, 84, 88

  Zambesi, climate in, 39
  Zanzibar Island, climatic data for, 40
  Zi-ka-Wei, climatic chart, 71; observatory at, 69
  Zoruba, climatic data for, 35
  Zymotic diseases, freedom of Massawa from, 43



  Transcriber’s Notes


  Some tables and illustrations have been moved; some tables have been
  re-arranged. Due to their width, several of the tables are best viewed
  in a wide window.

  Unusual or archaic spelling and inconsistencies in spelling (including
  between text and indexes), use of diacriticals, lay-out, hyphenation,
  etc. have been retained, except as mentioned below. Non-English words
  (including geographical names) have not been corrected, except as
  mentioned below.

  Depending on the hard- and software used, not all elements may display
  as intended.

  The geographic and climatological data in Part II are given here as
  printed in the source document. In general they do not appear to be
  very reliable (see also the first paragraphs of Part II, Section II
  and the author’s remarks with some of the individual tables). There
  are inconsistencies in the data, and the conversion from degrees
  Fahrenheit to Celsius (or vice versa) and from inches to millimetres
  (or vice versa) has apparently not always been done with the same
  conversion factors or accuracy. Only obvious typographical errors in
  the data (where the location of the error could be identified) have
  been changed; see below under Changes. Similarly, the results of
  calculations (such as sums and means) do not always agree with the
  data on which they are supposed to be based; here, too, corrections
  have only been made in case of obvious typographical errors where the
  location of the error could be identified. A good deal of caution in
  using the data is advisable.

  Figures 3 and 12 are (apart from the caption) identical in the source
  document.

  Page I-57 and index: Cgaleka is possibly a typographical error for
  Chaleka or Chalekah

  Part II, Errata: the errata have already been corrected in the text.

  Page II-74 and index, C. Boliano: probably Cape Bolinao; Baryermassing
  possibly Banyermassing (Banjarmasin, although that is on Borneo rather
  than on Sumatra).

  Page II-91, table Molendo, monthly rainfall for June should probable
  read 0·06 Ins.

  Page II-100 and 101: data have not been corrected.

  Page II-103, entry Hann’s Klimatologie: there are no pages iii. or iv.
  in the second part.


  Changes made

  Some obvious minor typographical errors have been corrected silently.

  Page I-xvi: Spinnach changed to Spinach
  Page I-9: Antypyrin changed to Antipyrin
  Page I-108: the illusive flying insect changed to the elusive flying
  insect
  Page I-151: napthol changed to naphthol
  Page II-11: (1) deleted from before section header Temperature (cf.
  other section headers)
  Page II-25, table Valetta, row June: 1·0 Mm. changed to 10·0 Mm.
  Page II-32, latitude Wadi Halfa: N. added
  Page II-40, table Natal, yearly total rainfall: 104·7 changed to
  1,047·0
  Page II-44, table Suakim, February rainfall: 0·17 Mm. changed to 17·0
  Mm.
  Page II-53 and index: Dashstistan changed to Dashtistan
  Page II-54 and II-63: Jachobabad changed to Jacobabad
  Page II-61: Jubbulpur changed to Jubulpur; Trichinopoli changed to
  Trichinopoly
  Page II-71, table Formosa rainfall, Kilung February, 397 Mm. changed
  to 379 Mm.; April, 22·0 Mm. changed to 220 Mm.; May 237 Mm. changed to
  273 Mm.; 65·25 ins. (16·58 mm.) changed to 65·25 ins. (1,658 mm.);
  Table Zi-ka-Wei, yearly average maximum temperature 37·3 C. changed to
  27·3 C.
  Page II-72, table Batavia, mean temperature February: 23·4 C. changed
  to 25·4 C.
  Page II-77, table Brisbane, header M. changed to Mm.
  Page II-78, second table, column Mean Monthly Minima temperatures in
  C.: marked up as bold face for consistency
  Page II-80, Marshall Group. October: 11·47 Ins. changed to 15·47; Ins.
  Page II-85: Matumoras changed to Matamoros
  Page II-92: Columbia changed to Colombia
  Page II-96: Medelin changed to Medellin
  Page II-103: Barbadoes changed to Barbados; Bogoba changed to Bogota
  Page II-104: Gujerat changed to Gujarat
  Page II-106: Massowa changed to Massawa; Mazattan changed to Mazatlan;
  Musket changed to Muskat; Trinchinopoly changed to Trichinopoly;
  Yucaban changed to Yucatan
  Page II-108: Wakuyrui changed to Wakujrui.





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